Sample records for earth probe toms

  1. Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) Derived Data, Global Earth Coverage (GEC) from NASA's Earth Probe Satellite

    DOE Data Explorer

    This is data from an external datastream processed through the ARM External Data Center (XDC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The XDC identifies sources and acquires data, called "external data", to augment the data being generated within the ARM program. The external data acquired are usually converted from native format to either netCDF or HDF formats. The GEC collection contains global data derived from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) instrument on the Earth Probe satellite, consisting of daily values of aerosol index, ozone and reflectivity remapped into a regular 1x1.25 deg grid. Data are available from July 25, 1996 - December 31, 2005, but have been updated or replaced as of September 2007. See the explanation on the ARM web site at http://www.arm.gov/xds/static/toms.stm and the information at the NASA/TOMS web site: http://toms.gsfc.nasa.gov/ (Registration required)

  2. Fire at Iraqi sulfur plant emits SO2 clouds detected by Earth Probe TOMS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. A. Carn; A. J. Krueger; N. A. Krotkov; M. A. Gray

    2004-01-01

    A fire started at the Al-Mishraq State Sulfur plant near Mosul, Iraq on 24 June 2003 and burned for almost a month. Combustion of elemental sulfur in the fire produced dense clouds of sulfur dioxide (SO2) that were detected from space by the Earth Probe Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (EP TOMS) on 18 days. Estimated daily SO2 production from the

  3. TOMS Data Products at the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences DAAC

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. P. Ahmad; J. E. Johnson; G. N. Serafino; R. D. McPeters

    2002-01-01

    The current Total Mapping Ozone Spectrometer (TOMS) was launched aboard the NASA Earth Probe (EP) satellite in July1996 to provide global monitoring of total column atmospheric ozone derived from measurements of backscattered solar ultraviolet radiation. TOMS is a second-generation, ozone-sounding instrument based on the Backscatter Ultraviolet (BUV) Spectrometer flown aboard NASA's Nimbus-4 satellite in 1970. The first TOMS instrument was

  4. Tropical Tropospheric Ozone (TTO) Maps from Nimbus 7 and Earth-Probe TOMS by the Modified-Residual Method. 1; Validation, Evaluation and Trends based on Atlantic Regional Time Series

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Anne M.; Hudson, Robert D.

    1998-01-01

    The well-known wave-one pattern seen in tropical total ozone [Shiotani, 1992; Ziemke et al., 1996, 1998] has been used to develop a modified-residual (MR) method for retrieving time-averaged stratospheric ozone and tropospheric ozone column amount from TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) over the 14 complete calendar years of Nimbus 7 observations (1979-1992) and from TOMS on the Earth-Probe (1996-present) and ADEOS platforms (1996- 1997). Nine- to sixteen-day averaged tropical tropospheric ozone (TTO) maps, validated with ozonesondes, show a seasonality expected from dynamical and chemical influences. The maps may be viewed on a homepage: http://metosrv2.umd.edu/tropo. Stratospheric column ozone, which is also derived by the modified-residual method, compares well with sondes (to within 6-7 DU) and with stratospheric ozone column derived from other satellites (within 8-10 DU). Validation of the TTO time-series is presently limited to ozonesonde comparisons with Atlantic stations and sites on the adjacent continents (Ascension Island, Natal, Brazil; Brazzaville); for the sounding periods, TTO at all locations agrees with the sonde record to +/-7 DU. TTO time-series and the magnitude of the wave-one pattern show ENSO signals in the strongest El Nifio periods from 1979-1998. From 12degN and 12degS, zonally averaged tropospheric ozone shows no significant trend from 1980-1990. Trends are also not significant during this period in localized regions, e.g. from just west of South America across to southern Africa. This is consistent with the ozonesonde record at Natal, Brazil (the only tropical ozone data publicly available for the 1980's), which shows a not statistically significant increase. The lack of trend in tropospheric ozone agrees with a statistical analysis based on another method for deriving TTO from TOMS, the so-called Convective-Cloud-Differential approach of Ziemke et al. [1998].

  5. Contribution of TOMS to Earth Science- An Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhartia, P. K.

    2004-01-01

    The TOMS instrument was launched on the Nimbus-7 satellite in Oct 1978 with the goal of understanding the meteorological influences on the ozone column. The nominal lifetime of the instrument was 1 year. However, in response to the concern over possible man-made influences on the ozone layer NASA continued to nurse the instrument for 13.5 years and launched a major program to produce accurate trend quality dataset of ozone. Despite severe optical degradation and other significant anomalies that developed in the instrument over its lifetime, the effort turned out to be a tremendous success. In 1984, TOMS took center stage as the primary provider of Antarctic ozone hole maps to the world community; it continues to play that role until today. An unexpected benefit of the close attention paid to improving the TOMS data quality was that several atmospheric constituents that interfere with ozone measurement were also identified and meticulously converted into long-term datasets of their own. These constituents include clouds, volcanic S02, aerosols, and ocean phytoplankton. In addition, the high quality of the basic datasets made it possible to produce global maps of surface UV and tropospheric ozone. In most cases there are no other sources of these data sets. Advanced UV instruments currently under development in the US and Europe will continue to exploit the TOMS-developed techniques for several decades.

  6. Contribution of TOMS to Earth Science - An Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhartia, P. K.

    2003-12-01

    The TOMS instrument was launched on the Nimbus-7 satellite in Oct 1978 with the goal of understanding the meteorological influences on the ozone column. The nominal lifetime of the instrument was 1 year. However, in response to the concern over possible man-made influences on the ozone layer NASA continued to nurse the instrument for 13.5 years and launched a major program to produce accurate trend quality dataset of ozone. Despite severe optical degradation and other significant anomalies that developed in the instrument over its lifetime, the effort turned out to be a tremendous success. In 1984, TOMS took center stage as the primary provider of Antarctic ozone hole maps to the world community; it continues to play that role until today. An unexpected benefit of the close attention paid to improving the TOMS data quality was that several atmospheric constituents that interfere with ozone measurement were also identified and meticulously converted into long-term datasets of their own. These constituents include clouds, volcanic SO2, aerosols, and ocean phytoplankton. In addition, the high quality of the basic datasets made it possible to produce global maps of surface UV and tropospheric ozone. In most cases there are no other sources of these data sets. Advanced UV instruments currently under development in the US and Europe will continue to exploit the TOMS-developed techniques for several decades.

  7. Distribution of UV radiation at the Earth's surface from TOMS-measured UV-backscattered radiances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herman, J. R.; Krotkov, N.; Celarier, E.; Larko, D.; Labow, G.

    1999-05-01

    Daily global maps of monthly integrated UV-erythemal irradiance (290-400 nm) at the Earth's surface are estimated using the ozone amount, cloud transmittance, aerosol amounts, and surface reflectivity from the solar UV radiation backscattered from the Earth's atmosphere as measured by the total ozone mapping spectrometer (TOMS) and independently measured values of the extraterrestrial solar irradiance. The daily irradiance values at a given location show that short-term variability (daily to annual) in the amount of UV radiation, 290-400 nm, reaching the Earth's surface is caused by (1) partially reflecting cloud cover, (2) haze and absorbing aerosols (dust and smoke), and (3) ozone. The reductions of UV irradiance estimated from TOMS data can exceed 50 ± 12% underneath the absorbing aerosol plumes in Africa and South America (desert dust and smoke from biomass burning) and exceeded 70 ± 12% during the Indonesian fires in September 1997 and again during March 1998. Recent biomass burning in Mexico and Guatemala have caused large smoke plumes extending into Canada with UV reductions of 50% in Mexico and 20% in Florida, Louisiana, and Texas. Where available, ground-based Sun photometer data show similar UV irradiance reductions caused by absorbing aerosol plumes of dust and smoke. Even though terrain height is a major factor in increasing the amount of UV exposure compared to sea level, the presence of prolonged clear-sky conditions can lead to UV exposures at sea level rivaling those at cloudier higher altitudes. In the equatorial regions, ±20°, the UV exposures during the March equinox are larger than during the September equinox because of increased cloudiness during September. Extended land areas with the largest erythemal exposure are in Australia and South Africa where there is a larger proportion of clear-sky days. The large short-term variations in ozone amount which occur at high latitudes in the range ±65° cause changes in UV irradiance comparable to clouds and aerosols for wavelengths between 280 nm and 300 nm that are strongly absorbed by ozone. The absolute accuracy of the TOMS monthly erythemal exposure estimates over a TOMS field of view is within ±6%, except under UV-absorbing aerosol plumes (dust and smoke) where the accuracy is within ±12%. The error caused by aerosols can be reduced if the height of the aerosol plume is more accurately known. The TOMS estimated irradiances are compared with ground-based Brewer spectroradiometer data obtained at Toronto, Canada. The Brewer irradiances are systematically 20% smaller than TOMS irradiance estimates during the summer months. An accounting of systematic errors brings the Brewer and TOMS irradiances into approximate agreement within the estimated instrumental uncertainties for both instruments.

  8. CORRELATION BETWEEN TOMS AEROSOL INDEX AND THE ASTRONOMICAL EXTINCTION

    E-print Network

    Liske, Jochen

    CORRELATION BETWEEN TOMS AEROSOL INDEX AND THE ASTRONOMICAL EXTINCTION El Arbi Siher a,d , Sergio and Earth Probe observations with CAMC visual extinction over La Palma from 1984 to 1997, to investigate the possibility to calibrate TOMS data in terms of astronomical extinction. The results show that the correlation

  9. Structure of the Earth: Probing Anomalous Balls

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This activity has students investigate plasticine spheres in a nondestructive manner. Some of the spheres have steel ball bearings inside of them while others are solid plasticine. Students determine density by probing with a pin or any other method that does not involve cutting into the sphere. The activity demonstrates how information can be obtained about the interior of the Earth without seeing it.

  10. Probing Earth and Mars: What Should We Pack?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In this lesson students explore the idea of using probes to gain scientific information on both Mars and Earth. The students also attempt to determine the likely surface temperature at landing sites on Earth that are comparable to Pathfinder and Viking sites on Mars. This is the fifth in a series of interactive student lessons from the Martian Sun Times.

  11. An earth-isolated optically coupled wideband high voltage probe powered by ambient light

    E-print Network

    Bellan, Paul M.

    An earth-isolated optically coupled wideband high voltage probe powered by ambient light Xiang Zhai) An earth-isolated optically coupled wideband high voltage probe powered by ambient light Xiang Zhaia online 9 October 2012) An earth-isolated optically-coupled wideband high voltage probe has been developed

  12. Probing the Kondo Lattice Model with Alkaline Earth Atoms

    E-print Network

    Foss-Feig, Michael; Rey, Ana Maria

    2010-01-01

    We study transport properties of alkaline-earth atoms governed by the Kondo Lattice Hamiltonian plus a harmonic confining potential, and suggest simple dynamical probes of several different regimes of the phase diagram that can be implemented with current experimental techniques. In particular, we show how Kondo physics at strong coupling, low density, and in the heavy fermion phase is manifest in the dipole oscillations of the conduction band upon displacement of the trap center.

  13. Earth-Based Observations of the Galileo Probe Entry Site

    PubMed

    Orton; Ortiz; Baines; Bjoraker; Carsenty; Colas; Dayal; Deming; Drossart; Frappa; Friedson; Goguen; Golisch; Griep; Hernandez; Hoffmann; Jennings; Kaminski; Kuhn; Laques; Limaye; Lin; Lecacheux; Martin; McCabe; Momary; Parker; Puetter; Ressler; Reyes; Sada; Spencer; Spitale; Stewart; Varsik; Warell; Wild; Yanamandra-Fisher; Fazio; Hora; Deutsch

    1996-05-10

    Earth-based observations of Jupiter indicate that the Galileo probe probably entered Jupiter's atmosphere just inside a region that has less cloud cover and drier conditions than more than 99 percent of the rest of the planet. The visual appearance of the clouds at the site was generally dark at longer wavelengths. The tropospheric and stratospheric temperature fields have a strong longitudinal wave structure that is expected to manifest itself in the vertical temperature profile. PMID:8662571

  14. Early calibration problems detected in TOMS Earth-Probe aerosol signal

    E-print Network

    Jánosi, Imre M.

    depending on location and time. We have found that the annual mean and standard deviation of single scattering albedo, asymmetry parameter, real refractive in- dex, and imaginary refractive index for Saharan

  15. Trends in Southern Hemisphere Albedo using a 27-yr Composite TOMS\\/SBUV(\\/2)\\/OMI Dataset of UV Lambertian Equivalent Reflectivity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. A. Lloyd

    2006-01-01

    This study uses eight NASA and NOAA satellite datasets of ultraviolet Lambertian Equivalent Reflectivity (LER): Nimbus 7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS), Nimbus 7 Solar Backscatter UltraViolet (SBUV), NOAA-11, -14, -16 and -17 SBUV\\/2, Earth Probe TOMS and Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI). The principal data product presented here is monthly mean LER, zonally averaged over 5-degree latitude bands over

  16. Trends in Southern Hemisphere Albedo using a 27-yr Composite TOMS\\/SBUV(\\/2)\\/OMI Dataset of UV Lambertian Equivalent Reflectivity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Wang; S. Moorthi; H. Pan; A. Kumar

    2005-01-01

    This study uses eight NASA and NOAA satellite datasets of ultraviolet Lambertian Equivalent Reflectivity (LER): Nimbus 7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS), Nimbus 7 Solar Backscatter UltraViolet (SBUV), NOAA-11, -14, -16 and -17 SBUV\\/2, Earth Probe TOMS and Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI). The principal data product presented here is monthly mean LER, zonally averaged over 5-degree latitude bands over

  17. TOMS Tropical Tropospheric Ozone Data Sets at the University of Maryland Website

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kochhar, A. K.; Thompson, A. M.; Hudson, R. D.; Frolov, A. D.; Witte, J. C.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Since 1997, shortly after the launch of the Earth-Probe TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) satellite instrument, we have been processing data in near-real time to post maps of tropical tropospheric ozone at a website: metosrv2.umd.edu/-tropo. Daily, 3-day and 9-day averages of tropical tropospheric ozone column depth (TTO) are viewable from 10N to 10S. Data can be downloaded (running 9-day means) from 20N-30S. Pollution events are trackable along with dynamically-induced variations in tropospheric ozone column. TOMS smoke aerosol (toms.gsfc.nasa.gov) can be used to interpret biomass burning ozone, as for example, during the extreme ozone and smoke pollution period during the ENSO-related fires of August November 1997. During that time plumes of ozone and smoke were frequently decoupled and ozone from Indonesian fires and from Africa merged in one large feature by late October 1997. In addition to the Earth-Probe TOMS record, data as half-month averages and as daily 9-day means from the Nimbus 7 TOMS instrument are at the metosrv2.umd.edu/-tropo website. A guide to the website and examples of ozone time-series and maps will be shown.

  18. Tom Finery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverstein, Barbara

    2004-01-01

    It is always interesting to observe a wide range of creative results when students begin a project with the same subject and materials. The lesson described in this article on stitching challenges students to design a turkey on burlap using colorful yarns and a small variety of materials. Each feathered Tom emerges with a unique personality, which…

  19. A Rare Earth-DOTA-Binding Antibody: Probe Properties and Binding Affinity across the Lanthanide Series

    E-print Network

    Fisher, Andrew J.

    1) binds transition metals and rare earths with extreme stability under physiological conditionsA Rare Earth-DOTA-Binding Antibody: Probe Properties and Binding Affinity across the Lanthanide affinity and exquisite specificity.1 An antibody that binds rare earth complexes selectively could be used

  20. Earth's Plasmasphere Seen by the Mutual Impedance Probe Onboard the Rosetta Spacecraft During its Third Earth fly-by

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trotignon, Jean Gabriel

    To reach Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko in 2014, the European Space Agency's Rosetta spacecraft must undergo four planet gravity assistances. The fourth one, an Earth fly-by, occurred in mid-November 2009. At closest approach, on 13 November at 07:45 U.T., Rosetta passed at about 2500 km over a point off the south coast of the Indonesian island of Java, at about 109E and 8S. The mutual impedance probe, MIP, and the 4 other instruments of the Rosetta Plasma Consortium, RPC, were switched on during the event. Calibration and general testing were the main objectives, nevertheless valuable observations of the Earth's space environment have actually been made, in particular by the MIP in the plasmasphere, the high electron-density region dominated by the Earth's magnetic field. An alternating current, I, with a frequency lying in the frequency range that contains the plasma frequency resonance, is driven through a transmitting electrode. The induced difference in voltage, V, measured on open circuit between two receiving electrodes is fed into a high input impedance amplifier. The mutual impedance, Z, which is computed onboard, is equal to the ratio of V to I. As Z depends essentially on the properties of the surrounding plasma, the frequency response of the mutual impedance probe may then be used for plasma diagnosis. As the CLUSTER/WHISPER relaxation sounder probed the Earth's plasmasphere just before and after the ROSETTA visit, the WHISPER observations are also presented.

  1. Probing single ion luminescence in rare-earth doped nanocrystals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael D. Barnes; Adosh Mehta; Thomas Thundat; Ramesh Bhargava

    2001-01-01

    Recently there has been a great deal of attention focused on rare-earth doped nanocrystals (DNCs) as a new class of luminescent nanomaterials with novel and tunable optical properties. Such species have properties that make them attractive candidates for biological tags such as narrow spectral width and very high photochemical stability. However, the transitions that give rise to visible luminescence of

  2. Does OPERA probe that the Earth is moving ?

    E-print Network

    Dominique Monderen

    2011-10-17

    The OPERA experiment reported recently a puzzling result. The time of flight of a neutrino beam between the CERN and the Gran Sasso Laboratory has been measured to be slightly shorter than expected. More precisely, an early arrival time of the neutrino with respect to the one computed assuming the speed of light in vacuum of 60.7 ns was measured, with a quite high confidence level. Alternatively, one can conclude that the neutrinos travelled 18.2 m more than light would do in vacuum. In this short paper, we suggest a possible systematic effect that does not appear in the analysis and which can easily been probed to be confirmed.

  3. Probing Geomagnetic Jerks combining Geomagnetic and Earth Rotation Observations (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holme, R. T.; de Viron, O.

    2013-12-01

    Geomagnetic jerks, first observed in the late 1970s, are the most rapid variations in the observed geomagnetic field that are believed to be of internal origin. Their occurence has been correlated with a number of different geophysical phenomena. Here we consider simultaneous features in variations in Earth's length of day. Recently, we have provided a simple description of non-atmospheric variations in length of day (LOD), consisting of 3 components: a slowly varying decadal trend, a 5.9-year oscillation, and occasional sudden jumps. Both of the shorter period parts of this correlate with geomagnetic jerks, with peaks in the LOD oscillation being contemporaneous with well-known jerk occurances (for example in 1969, 1972, 1978 and 1982), and jumps in the LOD fitting a jerk observed in satellite data in 2003.5. The simultaneous observation of these two features constrains Earth structure, in particular limiting the electric conductivity of the deep mantle. However, the nature of the LOD changes also may change the paradigm for the study of jerk timings. it is customarily assumed that the jerks represent features in the geomagnetic field that are continuous in the secular variation, but discontinuous in its derivative, the secular acceleration. However, a jump in LOD suggested by the modelling of the data would correspond also to a jump in SV, thus invalidating standard methods for temporal location of a jerk (which will consider the intersection of best-fit straight lines to the secular variation before and after). Olsen and Mandea have localised a jerk in satellite virtual observatory data using flow modelling; this seems the most promising method to investigate whether jerks could have discontinuous secular variation. We apply similar methods to time series of virtual geomagnetic obseratories from satellite data to further explore geomagnetic jerks and their rotational links in the geomagnetic satellite era.

  4. The Recovery of TOMS-EP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, Brent; Sabelhaus, Phil; Mendenhall, Todd; Fesq, Lorraine

    1998-01-01

    On December 13th 1998, the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer - Earth Probe (TOMS-EP) spacecraft experienced a Single Event Upset which caused the system to reconfigure and enter a Safe Mode. This incident occurred two and a half years after the launch of the spacecraft which was designed for a two year life. A combination of factors, including changes in component behavior due to age and extended use, very unfortunate initial conditions and the safe mode processing logic prevented the spacecraft from entering its nominal long term storage mode. The spacecraft remained in a high fuel consumption mode designed for temporary use. By the time the onboard fuel was exhausted, the spacecraft was Sun pointing in a high rate flat spin. Although the uncontrolled spacecraft was initially in a power and thermal safe orientation, it would not stay in this state indefinitely due to a slow precession of its momentum vector. A recovery team was immediately assembled to determine if there was time to develop a method of despinning the vehicle and return it to normal science data collection. A three stage plan was developed that used the onboard magnetic torque rods as actuators. The first stage was designed to reduce the high spin rate to within the linear range of the gyros. The second stage transitioned the spacecraft from sun pointing to orbit reference pointing. The final stage returned the spacecraft to normal science operation. The entire recovery scenario was simulated with a wide range of initial conditions to establish the expected behavior. The recovery sequence was started on December 28th 1998 and completed by December 31st. TOMS-EP was successfully returned to science operations by the beginning of 1999. This paper describes the TOMS-EP Safe Mode design and the factors which led to the spacecraft anomaly and loss of fuel. The recovery and simulation efforts are described. Flight data are presented which show the performance of the spacecraft during its return to science. Finally, lessons learned are presented.

  5. Tropical Tropospheric Ozone: A Multi-Satellite View From TOMS and Other Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Anne M.; Hudson, Robert D.; Guo, Hua; Witte, Jacquelyn C.; Kucsera, Tom L.; Seybold, Matthew G.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    New tropospheric ozone and aerosol products from the TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) satellite instrument can resolve episodic pollution events in the tropics and interannual and seasonal variability. Modified-residual (MR) Nimbus 7 tropical tropospheric ozone (TTO), two maps/month (1979-1992, 1-deg latitude by 2-deg longitude) within the region in which total ozone displays a tropical wave-one pattern (maximum 20S to 20N), are available in digital form at http://metosrv2.umd.edu/tropo. Also available are preliminary 1996-1999 MR-TTO maps based on real-time Earth-Probe (EP)/TOMS observations. Examples of applications are given.

  6. Probing the Kondo lattice model with alkaline-earth-metal atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Foss-Feig, Michael [Department of Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States); JILA, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States); Hermele, Michael [Department of Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States); Rey, Ana Maria [Department of Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States); JILA, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States); NIST, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States)

    2010-05-15

    We study transport properties of alkaline-earth-metal atoms governed by the Kondo lattice Hamiltonian plus a harmonic confining potential, and suggest simple dynamical probes of several different regimes of the phase diagram that can be implemented with current experimental techniques. In particular, we show how Kondo physics at strong coupling, at low density, and in the heavy fermion phase is manifest in the dipole oscillations of the conduction band upon displacement of the trap center.

  7. Tom Houlton [My face is old now

    E-print Network

    Robertson, Stephen

    Tom Houlton [My face is old now] My face is old now, frost and snow Crustate my hairs and eyebrows, a great flow Of white from top-to-toe. Each day I feel My bones grow old with waiting for the feel Of earth against their sides instead of flesh, That time when all that I am will slide through the mesh

  8. Comparison of ground-based Dobson and satellite EP-TOMS total ozone measurements over Vernadsky station, Antarctica, 1996-2005

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. Evtushevsky; G. Milinevsky; A. Grytsai; V. Kravchenko; Z. Grytsai; M. Leonov

    2008-01-01

    Total ozone content derived from version 8 of the Earth Probe Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (EP?TOMS) satellite data was compared with that from ground?based data obtained with the Dobson spectrophotometer no. 031 at the Ukrainian Antarctic Vernadsky station. The period of comparison is 1996–2005. The statistics for cloudy and clear sky observations are presented separately, in order to assess the

  9. Global validation of empirically corrected EP-Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) total ozone columns using Brewer and Dobson ground-based measurements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Antón; M. E. Koukouli; M. Kroon; R. D. McPeters; G. J. Labow; D. Balis; A. Serrano

    2010-01-01

    This article focuses on the global-scale validation of the empirically corrected Version 8 total ozone column data set acquired by the NASA Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) during the period 1996–2004 when this instrument was flying aboard the Earth Probe (EP) satellite platform. This analysis is based on the use of spatially co-located, ground-based measurements from Dobson and Brewer spectrophotometers.

  10. An earth-isolated optically coupled wideband high voltage probe powered by ambient light.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Xiang; Bellan, Paul M

    2012-10-01

    An earth-isolated optically-coupled wideband high voltage probe has been developed for pulsed power applications. The probe uses a capacitive voltage divider coupled to a fast light-emitting diode that converts high voltage into an amplitude-modulated optical signal, which is then conveyed to a receiver via an optical fiber. A solar cell array, powered by ambient laboratory lighting, charges a capacitor that, when triggered, acts as a short-duration power supply for an on-board amplifier in the probe. The entire system has a noise level ?0.03 kV, a DC-5 MHz bandwidth, and a measurement range from -6 to 2 kV; this range can be conveniently adjusted. PMID:23126786

  11. The Pilot Warm Spitzer Near Earth Object Survey: Probing the size distribution of the most abundant Near Earth Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trilling, David; Delbo, Marco; Emery, Joshua; Fazio, Giovanni; Fuentes, Cesar; Harris, Alan; Hora, Joseph; Mommert, Michael; Mueller, Michael; Smith, Howard

    2012-12-01

    We propose a Warm Spitzer search for Near Earth Objects (NEOs), bodies whose orbits bring them close to the Earth's orbit. Previous work has measured the properties of larger NEOs, but the physical properties of the smallest and most numerous NEOs are poorly constrained. We will capitalize on Spitzer's unparalleled sensitivity and unique geometry to measure the size distribution of NEOs down to 100 meters, where completeness from previous surveys is poor. This allows us to probe the dynamical history of near-Earth space and meet the Congressional mandate to determine the impact threat from objects >140 m. This project will also serve as a scientific and technical pathfinder for a future large Spitzer proposal that will increase our knowledge of the small NEO size distribution by another order of magnitude. Both projects will also be sensitive to previously unseen NEO populations. This proposed work significantly surpasses recent results from both our ExploreNEOS program and NEOWISE. Future ground- and space-based missions have been proposed to carry out similar work at costs of $500M or more, but this fundamental work can be done now, with Spitzer, for far less money. Our team has unmatched scientific and technical expertise in observations and modeling of Spitzer-observed NEOs.

  12. Implications of Version 8 TOMS and SBUV Data for Long-Term Trend Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frith, Stacey M.

    2004-01-01

    Total ozone data from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) and profile/total ozone data from the Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet (SBUV; SBW/2) series of instruments have recently been reprocessed using new retrieval algorithms (referred to as Version 8 for both) and updated calibrations. In this paper, we incorporate the Version 8 data into a TOMS/SBW merged total ozone data set and an S B W merged profile ozone data set. The Total Merged Ozone Data (Total MOD) combines data from multiple TOMS and SBW instruments to form an internally consistent global data set with virtually complete time coverage from October 1978 through December 2003. Calibration differences between instruments are accounted for using external adjustments based on instrument intercomparisons during overlap periods. Previous results showed errors due to aerosol loading and sea glint are significantly reduced in the V8 TOMS retrievals. Using SBW as a transfer standard, calibration differences between V8 Nimbus 7 and Earth Probe TOMS data are approx. 1.3%, suggesting small errors in calibration remain. We will present updated total ozone long-term trends based on the Version 8 data. The Profile Merged Ozone Data (Profile MOD) data set is constructed using data from the SBUV series of instruments. In previous versions, SAGE data were used to establish the long-term external calibration of the combined data set. The SBW Version 8 we assess the V8 profile data through comparisons with SAGE and between SBW instruments in overlap periods. We then construct a consistently-calibrated long term time series. Updated zonal mean trends as a function of altitude and season from the new profile data set will be shown, and uncertainties in determining the best long-term calibration will be discussed.

  13. Fluorescent probes and bioimaging: alkali metals, alkaline earth metals and pH.

    PubMed

    Yin, Jun; Hu, Ying; Yoon, Juyoung

    2015-07-01

    All living species and life forms have an absolute requirement for bio-functional metals and acid-base equilibrium chemistry owing to the critical roles they play in biological processes. Hence, a great need exists for efficient methods to detect and monitor biometals and acids. In the last few years, great attention has been paid to the development of organic molecule based fluorescent chemosensors. The availability of new synthetic fluorescent probes has made fluorescence microscopy an indispensable tool for tracing biologically important molecules and in the area of clinical diagnostics. This review highlights the recent advances that have been made in the design and bioimaging applications of fluorescent probes for alkali metals and alkaline earth metal cations, including lithium, sodium and potassium, magnesium and calcium, and for pH determination within biological systems. PMID:25317749

  14. Long-Term Variability of Airborne Asian Dust Observed from TOMS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herman, J. R.; Hsu, N. C.; Seftor, C. J.; Holben, B. N.; Holben, B. N.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that airborne Asian dust may not only play an important role in the regional radiation budget, but also influence the air quality over North America through long-range transport. In this paper, we use satellite data to investigate the long-term variability of airborne Asian dust as well as the daily variation of the dust aerosol distribution. By combining the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) aerosol index with National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) wind data, our analysis shows a strong correlation between the generation of dust storms in the region and the passage of springtime weather fronts. This is consistent with earlier studies performed by other researchers. According to both the Nimbus-7 and Earth-Probe TOMS data the Takla Makan desert, the Gobi desert, and the and region of Inner Mongolia are major sources of the eastward-flowing airborne Asian dust. Heavily populated areas in eastern China (e.g., Beijing) are often on the primary path of the dust storms originating in these desert regions. The increasing desertification north of the Beijing region has served to exacerbate problems stemming from these storms. The time series derived from 20 years of TOMS aerosol index data shows the first significant satellite evidence of the atmospheric effect of increasing desertification, indicating that the amount of dust blown eastward has increased strongly during the past few years including the year 2000.

  15. Tom's Hardware Guide

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Tom's Hardware Guide, by Thomas Pabst, is an excellent compendium of news, reviews, and technical guides pertaining to PC hardware. The hardware news includes product releases, roadmaps, and computer conference news. The reviews focus on motherboards, CPUs, and graphics cards, all of which are thoroughly tested by Tom and his staff. Testing results are graphed, evaluated, and compared. For the PC-users who want to tweak every bit of performance out of their system, there are guides for the system bios and CPU overclocking. This site is a must-visit for almost anyone looking to build or upgrade a computer.

  16. Precise interferometric tracking of spacecraft at low sun-earth-probe angles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahn, Robert D.; Border, James S.

    1988-01-01

    When a spacecraft is at low sun-earth-probe (SEP) angle, phase perturbations induced in the spacecraft's signal by the solar plasma can impede the acquisition of meaningful spacecraft Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) measurements. This phenomenon imposes limitations on our ability to successfully acquire the spacecraft signal, and also introduces unmodeled errors into data that are successfully acquired. In this paper, an analysis of the solar plasma induced error on interferometric delay rate as a function of SEP angle is performed. In addition, the probability of correct signal phase connection as a function of SEP angle and plasma variability is calculated for 2.3 GHz and 8.4 GHz signals. In December 1986, an experiment was conducted to demonstrate VLBI navigation at low SEP angles, using the Voyager 2 spacecraft. The results of this experiment are consistent with the conclusions reached in the low SEP analysis and are also consistent with a theoretical error model for water vapor fluctuations in the earth's troposphere.

  17. A TOMS-Based View of Tropical Tropospheric Ozone (OTTO) From Large Fires Associated with the 1997-1998 El Nino

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Anne M.; Guo, H.; Hudson, R. D.

    1998-01-01

    Since the launch of Earth-Probe TOMS in July 1 996, we have been producing tropical tropospheric ozone (TTO) maps (10S - 10N), in gridded format, l x 2 degrees, in near-real time. These images, along with images from the full ADEOS-TOMS record of TTO (Sept. 1996 - May 1997) can be viewed on a homepage: http://metosrv2.umd,edu/-tropo). The TTO maps, based on the modified-residual method of Hudson and Thompson [1998], have been validated using ozonesondes from Ascension (8S, 15W), Nairobi (2S, 36E) and American Samoa (14S, 171W). The fires associated with El Nino-induced dryness are exhibited regionally as high tropospheric ozone column (> 60 Dobson Units) with high absorbing aerosol (smoke) signal in TOMS [J. R. Herman, personal communication, 1998]. Episodes of high TTO in 1997-98 will be shown. Regional TTO over Indonesia during the 1997-98 period will be highlighted and comparisons will be made with TTO in that region taken from the 1979-92 Nimbus/TOMS TTO record.

  18. Van Allen Probes Mission Space Academy: Educating middle school students about Earth's mysterious radiation belts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, L.; Turney, D.; Matiella Novak, A.; Smith, D.; Simon, M.

    2013-12-01

    How's the weather in space? Why on Earth did NASA send two satellites above Earth to study radiation belts and space weather? To learn the answer to questions about NASA's Van Allen Probes mission, 450 students and their teachers from Maryland middle schools attended Space Academy events highlighting the Van Allen Probes mission. Sponsored by the Applied Physics Laboratory (APL) and Discovery Education, the events are held at the APL campus in Laurel, MD. Space Academies take students and teachers on behind-the-scenes exploration of how spacecraft are built, what they are designed to study, and introduces them to the many professionals that work together to create some of NASA's most exciting projects. Moderated by a public relations representative in the format of an official NASA press conference, the daylong event includes a student press conference with students as reporters and mission experts as panelists. Lunch with mission team members gives students a chance to ask more questions. After lunch, students don souvenir clean room suits, enjoy interactive science demonstrations, and tour APL facilities where the Van Allen Probes were built and tested before launch. Students may even have an opportunity to peek inside a clean room to view spacecraft being assembled. Prior to the event, teachers are provided with classroom activities, lesson plans, and videos developed by APL and Discovery Education to help prepare students for the featured mission. The activities are aligned to National Science Education Standards and appropriate for use in the classroom. Following their visit, student journalists are encouraged to write a short article about their field trip; selections are posted on the Space Academy web site. Designed to engage, inspire, and influence attitudes about space science and STEM careers, Space Academies provide an opportunity to attract underserved populations and emphasize that space science is for everyone. Exposing students to a diverse group of scientists and engineers may alleviate some common stereotypes about these careers. When students engage with the scientists and engineers at APL, they see first-hand that successful science and engineering requires a diverse team with multi-disciplinary backgrounds. Activities throughout the day develop student understanding about science and technology, and address the fundamental concepts that fall under the National Science Education Content Standards. Students are immersed in a hands-on experience designed to facilitate understanding of the History and Nature of Science. Throughout the day students interact with people of diverse backgrounds and interests while hearing about the specific ways various individuals and teams of people contribute to the science and technology of the mission, addressing the concepts which fall under the headings of Science as a Human Endeavor, Nature of Science, and History of Science. Getting students outside the classroom to visit APL is an exclusive opportunity; evaluations have indicated that students became interested in learning more about space science and STEM careers after attending a Space Academy event.

  19. Impact of Atmospheric Refraction: How Deeply can We Probe Exo-Earth's Atmospheres during Primary Eclipse Observations?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bétrémieux, Yan; Kaltenegger, Lisa

    2014-08-01

    Most models used to predict or fit exoplanet transmission spectra do not include all the effects of atmospheric refraction. Namely, the angular size of the star with respect to the planet can limit the lowest altitude, or highest density and pressure, probed during primary eclipses as no rays passing below this critical altitude can reach the observer. We discuss this geometrical effect of refraction for all exoplanets and tabulate the critical altitude, density, and pressure for an exoplanet identical to Earth with a 1 bar N2/O2 atmosphere as a function of both the incident stellar flux (Venus, Earth, and Mars-like) at the top of the atmosphere and the spectral type (O5-M9) of the host star. We show that such a habitable exo-Earth can be probed to a surface pressure of 1 bar only around the coolest stars. We present 0.4-5.0 ?m model transmission spectra of Earth's atmosphere viewed as a transiting exoplanet, and show how atmospheric refraction modifies the transmission spectrum depending on the spectral type of the host star. We demonstrate that refraction is another phenomenon that can potentially explain flat transmission spectra over some spectral regions.

  20. Tom40, the PoreForming Component of the Protein-Conducting Tom Channel in the Outer Membrane of Mitochondria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Uwe Ahting; Michel Thieffry; Harald Engelhardt; Reiner Hegerl; Walter Neupert; Stephan Nussberger

    2001-01-01

    Tom40 is the main component of the prepro- tein translocase of the outer membrane of mitochondria (TOM complex). We have isolated Tom40 of Neuro- spora crassa by removing the receptor Tom22 and the small Tom components Tom6 and Tom7 from the puri- fied TOM core complex. Tom40 is organized in a high molecular mass complex of ? 350 kD. It

  1. Probing the coupling of heavy dark matter to nucleons by detecting neutrino signature from the Earth's core

    E-print Network

    Guey-Lin Lin; Yen-Hsun Lin; Fei-Fan Lee

    2014-09-10

    We argue that the detection of neutrino signature from the Earth's core can effectively probe the coupling of heavy dark matter ($m_{\\chi}>10^{4}$ GeV) to nucleons. We first note that direct searches for dark matter (DM) in such a mass range provide much less stringent constraint than the constraint provided by such searches for $m_{\\chi}\\sim 100$ GeV. Furthermore the energies of neutrinos arising from DM annihilation inside the Sun cannot exceed a few TeVs at the Sun surface due to the attenuation effect. Therefore the sensitivity to the heavy DM coupling is lost. Finally, the detection of neutrino signature from galactic halo can only probe DM annihilation cross sections. We present neutrino event rates in IceCube and KM3NeT arising from the neutrino flux produced by annihilation of Earth-captured DM heavier than $10^{4}$ GeV. The IceCube and KM3NeT sensitivities to spin independent DM-proton scattering cross section $\\sigma_{\\chi p}$ in this mass range are presented for both isospin symmetric and isospin violating cases.

  2. Probing the coupling of heavy dark matter to nucleons by detecting neutrino signature from the Earth's core

    E-print Network

    Lin, Guey-Lin; Lee, Fei-Fan

    2014-01-01

    We argue that the detection of neutrino signature from the Earth's core can effectively probe the coupling of heavy dark matter ($m_{\\chi}>10^{4}$ GeV) to nucleons. We first note that direct searches for dark matter (DM) in such a mass range provide much less stringent constraint than the constraint provided by such searches for $m_{\\chi}\\sim 100$ GeV. Furthermore the energies of neutrinos arising from DM annihilation inside the Sun cannot exceed a few TeVs at the Sun surface due to the attenuation effect. Therefore the sensitivity to the heavy DM coupling is lost. Finally, the detection of neutrino signature from galactic halo can only probe DM annihilation cross sections. We present neutrino event rates in IceCube and KM3NeT arising from the neutrino flux produced by annihilation of Earth-captured DM heavier than $10^{4}$ GeV. The IceCube and KM3NeT sensitivities to spin independent DM-proton scattering cross section $\\sigma_{\\chi p}$ in this mass range are presented for both isospin symmetric and isospin v...

  3. Earth

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This lithograph depicts a view of Earth taken from Apollo 10 during its journey to the Moon in May 1969. False-color satellite images showing chlorophyll concentration, sea surface temperature, topography, and ozone concentration are also featured. The images are accompanied by a brief description, some statistical facts, and a list of important dates in the history of Earth exploration.

  4. Laser probe noble gas studies of individual interplanetary dust particles collected in the Earth's stratosphere

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karl Kehm IV

    2000-01-01

    Combined noble gas and trace element measurements were performed on 32 chondritic interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) collected in the Earth's stratosphere. The motivations for these analyses were to identify atmospheric entry heating trends and to delineate IDP space exposure lifetimes in an effort to determine their sources. Trace element compositions were determined non- destructively by synchrotron X-ray fluorescence using the

  5. Optical probes for the detection of protons, and alkali and alkaline earth metal cations.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Graham R C; Sahoo, Suban K; Kamila, Sukanta; Singh, Narinder; Kaur, Navneet; Hyland, Barry W; Callan, John F

    2015-07-01

    Luminescent sensors and switches continue to play a key role in shaping our understanding of key biochemical processes, assist in the diagnosis of disease and contribute to the design of new drugs and therapies. Similarly, their contribution to the environment cannot be understated as they offer a portable means to undertake field testing for hazardous chemicals and pollutants such as heavy metals. From a physiological perspective, the Group I and II metal ions are among the most important in the periodic table with blood plasma levels of H(+), Na(+) and Ca(2+) being indicators of several possible disease states. In this review, we examine the progress that has been made in the development of luminescent probes for Group I and Group II ions as well as protons. The potential applications of these probes and the mechanism involved in controlling their luminescent response upon analyte binding will also be discussed. PMID:25742963

  6. Rook Schur-Weyl Duality Tom Halverson

    E-print Network

    Halverson, Tom

    Rook Schur-Weyl Duality Tom Halverson Department of Mathematics, Statistics, and Computer Science MACALESTER COLLEGE October 14, 2012 AMS Fall Southeastern Section Meeting Tulane University Tom Halverson-Brauer algebra delMas,H, 2012 Martin-Mazorchuk Tom Halverson (Macalester College) Rook SW Duality 10

  7. Groups and their Representation Graphs Tom Halverson

    E-print Network

    Halverson, Tom

    Groups and their Representation Graphs Tom Halverson Department of Mathematics, Statistics, and Computer Science Macalester College January 19, 2012 Dartmouth Math Colloquium Tom Halverson (Macalester), G SU(2) (finite) Tom Halverson (Macalester) Groups and Graphs 1/19/2012 Dartmouth 1 / 26 #12;The

  8. Biogenesis of the mitochondrial TOM complex

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Doron Rapaport

    2002-01-01

    The translocase at the outer membrane of mitochondria (TOM complex) mediates the initial steps of the import of preproteins into the organelle, which are essential for mitochondrial biogenesis and, therefore, for eukaryotic cell viability. The TOM complex is a multisubunit molecular machine with a dynamic structure. The biogenesis of TOM is of special interest because the complex is required for

  9. Use of luminescence probing for the study of the interaction of polytitanasiloxane with trivalent rare earth ions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ling; Yao, Yingzheng; Ye, Xiufang; Wu, Qing

    2007-01-18

    Luminescent probing methods were employed to investigate the interaction of the Ti-O chains of polytitanasiloxane with europium ions in the mixture of ethanol and water. The UV-vis absorption, the luminescence intensity, and the luminescence lifetimes of the Eu3+ ions in PTS solutions were all found to increase with the increase of TBT/TEOS molar ratio. The results indicated that the incorporation of TBT can result in the increase of absorption energy of the Ti-O group by near-UV excitation and in the increase of energy transfer to the metal ion, and that the Ti-O chains due to the site binding of Eu3+ ions can expel six to nine solvent molecules from the first coordination solvation shell of the ion. The investigation of the energy transfer from europium to neodymium ions in polytitanasiloxane solutions revealed the formation of aggregates consisting of seven rare earth ions (together with the polytitanasiloxane countercharges). PMID:17214482

  10. Probing the absolute density of the Earth's core using a vertical neutrino beam

    E-print Network

    Walter Winter

    2011-05-19

    We demonstrate that one could measure the absolute matter density of the Earth's core with a vertical neutrino factory baseline at the per cent level for $\\sin^2 2 \\theta_{13} \\gtrsim 0.01$, where we include all correlations with the oscillation parameters in the analysis. We discuss the geographical feasibility of such an approach, and illustrate how the results change as a function of the detector location. We point out the complementarity to geophysics.

  11. Earth

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2008-10-03

    With three levels to choose from on each page - beginner, intermediate or advanced - this site provides information on our plant Earth. There is a section about water on earth and its many different varities, like freshwater, groundwater, and frozen water. There is information about the chemical make-up of water and many images showing the different water anvironments. There is a section about life in water, such as animals, plants, and plankton.

  12. Tom Houlton [The sun flattened

    E-print Network

    Robertson, Stephen

    Tom Houlton [The sun flattened] The sun flattened Outside her window, Hardly touched the panes and grey when It appeared, the sun jumping From cloud to cloud. The world went waterwards again. Her right://poetry.girton.cam.ac.uk #12;A cloud steps aside for a second. The sun hits. 2 #12;

  13. Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This site provides information about the TOMS instrument, its mission, space craft, and data products. Visitors can access same-day or archived data on aerosols, ozone, reflectivity, ultraviolet radiation, or volcanic gases. Teachers can choose from a selection of links to activities and lesson plans. Other materials include news articles, movies, and links to related sites.

  14. A comprehensive mission to planet Earth: Woods Hole Space Science and Applications Advisory Committee Planning Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The NASA program Mission to Planet Earth (MTPE) is described in this set of visuals presented in Massachusetts on July 29, 1991. The problem presented in this document is that the earth system is changing and that human activity accelerates the rate of change resulting in increased greenhouse gases, decreasing levels of stratospheric ozone, acid rain, deforestation, decreasing biodiversity, and overpopulation. Various national and international organizations are coordinating global change research. The complementary space observations for this activity are sun-synchronous polar orbits, low-inclination, low altitude orbits, geostationary orbits, and ground measurements. The Geostationary Earth Observatory is the major proposed mission of MTPE. Other proposed missions are EOS Synthetic Aperture Radar, ARISTOTELES Magnetic Field Experiment, and the Global Topography Mission. Use of the NASA DC-8 aircraft is outlined as carrying out the Airborne Science and Applications Program. Approved Earth Probes Program include the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS). Other packages for earth observation are described.

  15. Earth

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) planet profile provides data and images of the planet Earth. These data include planet size, orbit facts, distance from the Sun, rotation and revolution times, temperature, atmospheric composition, density, surface materials and albedo. Images with descriptions show Earth features such as the Ross Ice Shelf in Antarctica, Simpson Desert in Australia, Mt. Etna in Sicily, the Cassiar Mountains in Canada, the Strait of Gibraltar, Mississippi River, Grand Canyon, Wadi Kufra Oasis in Libya, and Moon images such as Hadley Rille, Plum Crater, massifs and Moon rocks. These images were taken with the Galileo Spacecraft and by the Apollo missions.

  16. Using yeast RNA as a probe for generation of hydroxyl radicals by earth materials.

    PubMed

    Cohn, Corey A; Laffers, Richard; Schoonen, Martin A A

    2006-04-15

    Inhalation of certain types of particulate matter can lead to lung disease. The reactivity of these particles and, in part, the pathologic responses that result are dictated by their physicochemical properties. The ability of particles to induce the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), especially hydroxyl radicals in vivo, is one property that has been correlated to the development of lung disease. Several minerals, such as quartz and asbestos, are known to generate hydroxyl radicals and cause lung disease, but many other minerals have never been tested. Here, we describe a technique employing yeast RNA as a probe to screen for mineral-generated hydroxyl radicals. The stability of RNA in the presence of hydrogen peroxide, ferrous iron, hydroxyl radicals, and several common minerals (quartz, albite, forsterite, fayalite, hematite, magnetite, coal, and pyrite) was examined. 3'-(p-Aminophenyl) fluorescein (APF) was used to verify mineral generation of ROS. RNA is stable in the presence of hydrogen peroxide, quartz, and albite; while it degrades in the presence of ferrous iron, hydroxyl radicals, and the other minerals. Coal and pyrite are the most reactive both in RNA degradation and hydroxyl radical generation. This noncellular technique provides a straightforward way to compare many different particles simultaneously. Those particles showing reactivity toward RNA using this method are high-priority candidates for further in vitro and possibly in vivo tests. PMID:16683632

  17. Uncle Tom's Cabin & American Culture

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    While it is fairly easy to find electronic full-text versions of Harriet Beecher Stowe's tremendously important work "Uncle Tom's Cabin" online, visitors will want to first take a look at this very thorough exploration not only of the book itself, but also of American culture in the 19th century. Created and maintained by Professor Stephen Railton of the University of Virginia (with funding from the National Endowment for the Humanities), the site allows users to browse through such materials as editorials from the period that respond to the book along with information about how the book has been transformed into a children's book and various plays. Beyond this helpful information, visitors can also look at the covers of different editions of Uncle Tom's Cabin through the years, including one that was published in Yiddish in 1911. For students of American literature or culture, this site could prove to be quite an invaluable resource.

  18. Van Allen Probe Observations: Near-Earth injections of Mev Electrons Associated with Intense Substorm Electric Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, L.; Wygant, J. R.; Bonnell, J. W.; Cattell, C. A.; Kletzing, C.; Baker, D. N.; Li, X.; Malaspina, D.; Blake, J. B.; Fennell, J.; Claudepierre, S. G.; Takahashi, K.; Funsten, H. O.; Reeves, G. D.; Spence, H. E.; Angelopoulos, V.; Glassmeier, K. H.; Turner, D. L.; Thaller, S. A.; Breneman, A. W.; Kersten, K.; Tang, X.; Tao, X.

    2014-12-01

    With their unique orbit, the Van Allen Probes (RBSP) spacecraft are well suited to investigate near-Earth substorm injections that penetrate into the heart of outer radiation belts. Substorms are generally conceived to inject 10s-100s keV electrons but intense substorm electric fields have been shown capable of injecting ~MeV electrons as well at the geosynchronous altitude. An intriguing question is whether such MeV electron injections can penetrate to lower L shells and directly contribute to the relativistic electron population of the outer radiation belt. In this talk, we present RBSP observations of near-Earth substorm injection of MeV relativistic particles and associated intense dipolarization electric field at L ~5.5. The substorm injection occurred during a moderate storm (DST~-30 to -20) with steady solar wind conditions. RBSP-A observed dispersionless injection of electrons from 10s keV up to 3 MeV in the pre-mid night sector (MLT=22UT). The injection was associated with unusually large (60mV/m) dipolarization electric fields that lasted 1 minute. At about the same time, THEMIS-D observed energy-dispersive injection of electrons at energies as high as at least 720keV at L~6.8 in the pre-dawn sector. Injection of energetic protons (~1MeV) and proton drift echos were observed at RBSP-A as well. RBSP-A observed a broad spectrum of nonlinear electric field structures but no whistler waves at the injection. The properties of the observed dipolarization electric field constrain the acceleration mechanism responsible for the MeV electron injection. We will discuss the implications of these observations on the direct impact of substorms on the outer radiation belt.

  19. Changes in Cloud and Aerosol Cover (1980-2006) from Reflectivity Time Series Using SeaWiFS, N7-TOMS, EP-TOMS, SBUV-2, and OMI Radiance Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herman, J. R.; Labow, G.; Hsu, N. C.; Larko, D.

    2009-01-01

    The amount of solar radiation reflected back to space or reaching the Earth's surface is primarily governed by the amount of cloud cover and, to a much lesser extent, by Rayleigh scatteri ng, aerosols, and various absorbing gases (e.g., O3, NO2, H2O). A useful measure of the effect of cloud plus aerosol cover is given by the amount that the 331 run Lambert Equivalent Reflectivity (LER) ofa scene exceeds the surfuce reflectivity for snow/ice-free scenes after Rayleigh scattering has been removed. Twenty-eight years of reflectivity data are available by overlapping data from several satellites: N7 (Nimbus 7, TOMS; 331 nm) from 1979 to 1992, SBUV-2 series (Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet, NOAA; 331 nm) 1985 to 2007, EP (Earth-Probe, TOMS; 331 nm) 1997 to 2006, SW (SeaWiFS; 412 nm) 1998 to 2006, and OMI (Ozone Measuring Instrument; 331 nm) 2004-2007. Only N7 and SW have a sufficiently long data record, Sun-synchronous orbits, and are adequately calibrated for long-term reflectivity trend estimation. Reflectivity data derived from these instruments and the SBUV-2 series are compared during the overlapping years. Key issues in determining long-term reflecti vity changes that have occurred during the N7 and SW operating periods are discussed. The largest reflectivity changes in the 412 nm SW LER and 331 nm EP LER are found to occur near the equator and are associated with a large EI Nino-Southern Oscillation event. Most other changes that have occurred are regional, such as the apparent cloud decrease over northern Europe since 1998. The fractional occurrence (fraction of days) of high reflectivity values over Hudson Bay, Canada (snow/ice and clouds) appears to have decreased when comparing reflectivity data from 1980 to 1992 to 1997-2006, suggesting shorter duration of ice in Hudson Bay since 1980.

  20. Ahrens Receives the Tom Ahrens was awarded the Harry H. Hess

    E-print Network

    Stewart, Sarah T.

    Ahrens Receives the Hess Medal Tom Ahrens was awarded the Harry H. Hess Medal at the AGU Fall Meeting Honor Ceremony on December 17, 1996, in San Francisco. The Hess Medal recognizes outstanding of the origin and evolution of Mars, Moon, Jupi- ter, Venus, and Earth. Since the Hess medal is given

  1. X-ray magnetic circular dichroism at the iron K edge in rare-earth-transition-metal intermetallics: Experimental probe of the rare-earth magnetic moment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Chaboy; H. Maruyama; L. M. García; J. Bartolomé; K. Kobayashi; N. Kawamura; A. Marcelli; L. Bozukov

    1996-01-01

    We present a systematic x-ray magnetic-circular-dichroism (XMCD) study performed at the Fe K edge on the R2Fe14B series (R=rare earth and Y). The magnetic XMCD signal has been identified as due to the addition of two components associated with the magnetic contributions from the iron and the rare-earth sublattices. The contribution of the rare-earth sublattice has been extracted from the

  2. 3, 187223, 2003 TOMS cloudy ozone

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    in TOMS data. Large ozone/reflectivity slopes for mid-latitude POAs show seasonal variation consistent/reflectivity slopes of these POAs show seasonal variations consis- tent with that in the tropospheric ozone. About such as tropospheric ozone derivation and analysis of ozone seasonal variation. 188 #12;ACPD 3, 187­223, 2003 TOMS

  3. A New Long Term Data Set Of SO2 Column Amount From Volcanic Eruptions Using TOMS Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, B. L.; Krotkov, N. A.; Bhartia, P. K.; Haffner, D. P.

    2014-12-01

    Volcanic SO2 is an important trace gas in the atmosphere that affects air quality and which is also a precursor to the production of sulfate aerosols. The Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) was the first NASA UV instrument to measure daily maps of ozone and volcanic sulfur dioxide globally. It has been flown on four different satellites since its first launch aboard Nimbus 7 in 1978. The instrument provides a unique global long-term record of volcanic SO2, which have been invaluable to study the response of earth's climate system to volcanic eruptions. However, complete TOMS SO2 L2 data has not yet been previously processed and properly archived. As part of the NASA MEaSUREs SO2 Program we updated heritage TOMS SO2 algorithm in preparation to re-processing and archiving TOMS data. We have also applied our TOMS algorithm to the L1B measurements of the hyperspectral UV Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) that has been flown on NASA Aura EOS spacecraft since 2004. Due to its hyperspectral capability and smaller field of view OMI SO2 sensitivity is more than hundred times larger than TOMS. The unique challenge is combining TOMS and OMI SO2 records to create a continuous long-term Climate Data record (CDR) to be released to the research community. This data set will provide researchers with continuous Level 2 estimates of SO2 and will help to validate and expand the current catalog of volcanic activity.

  4. Probes to the Inferior Planets - A New Dawn for NEO and IEO Detection Technology Demonstration from Heliocentric Orbits Interior to the Earth's?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grundmann, J. T.; Mottola, S.; Drentschew, M.; Drobczyk, M.; Kahle, R.; Maiwald, V.; Quantius, D.; Zabel, P.; Van Zoest, T.

    2011-11-01

    With the launch of MESSENGER and VENUS EXPRESS, a new wave of exploration of the inner solar system has begun. Noting the growing number of probes to the inner solar system, it is proposed to connect the expertise of the respective spacecraft teams and the NEO and IEO survey community to best utilize the extended cruise phases and to provide additional data return in support of pure science as well as planetary defence. Several missions to Venus and Mercury are planned to follow in this decade. Increased interest in the inferior planets is accompanied by several missions designed to study the Sun and the interplanetary medium (IPM) from a position near or in Earth orbit, such as the STEREO probes and SDO. These augment established solar observation capabilities at the Sun-Earth L1 Lagrangian point such as the SOHO spacecraft. Thus, three distinct classes of spacecraft operate or observe interior to Earth's orbit. All these spacecraft carry powerful multispectral cameras optimized for their respective primary targets. MESSENGER is scheduled to end its six-year interplanetary cruise in March 2011 to enter Mercury orbit, but a similarly extended cruise with several gravity-assists awaits the European Mercury mission BEPICOLOMBO. Unfortunately, the automatic abort of the orbit insertion manoeuvre has also left AKATSUKI (a.k.a. Venus Climate Orbiter (VCO), Planet-C) stranded in heliocentric orbit. After an unintended fly-by, the probe will catch up with Venus in approximately six years. Meanwhile, it stays mostly interior to Venus in a planet-leading orbit. In addition to the study of comets and their interaction with the IPM, observations of small bodies akin to those carried out by outer solar system probes are occasionally attempted with the equipment available. The study of structures in the interplanetary dust (IPD) cloud has been a science objective during the cruise phase of the Japanese Venus probe AKATSUKI from Earth to Venus. IPD observations in the astronomical H-band (1.65 ?m) are supported by its IR2 camera down to 1.5 ?W/m2sr in single 2 minute exposures. In the same setting, point sources of 13 mag can be detected. Obviously, a number of large asteroids exceed this threshold. The EARTHGUARD-I study, completed in 2003 by the DLR Institute of Planetary Research and Kayser-Threde under ESA contract, proposed a dedicated steerable 020...35 cm telescope and CCD camera payload on a probe to the inner solar system, to detect Near-Earth and Inner-Earth Objects (NEOs, IEOs) in favourable opposition geometry. A ride- share on a Mercury orbiter and a dedicated low-thrust propulsion spacecraft to a heliocentric 0.5 AU orbit were studied. A similar-sized telescope is presently being developed for the ASTEROIDFINDER satellite of DLR. Therefore, the technical feasibility of a number of asteroid observation scenarios involving spacecraft and targets interior to Earth's orbit is assessed based on the latest available spacecraft information and asteroid population models. A rough estimate of the required effort in terms of ground-based spacecraft operations and on-board resources is given for selected representative scenarios.

  5. Observation guidelines for a Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) in geosynchronous orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shenk, William E.

    1987-01-01

    The successful utilization of Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) measurements in low Earth orbit for the analysis of rapidly changing events has led to the consideration of a TOMS in geosynchronous orbit. This orbit should allow for the selection of temporal and spatial resolutions that are specifically designed for these events, plus the flexibility of selecting different sized areas and pointing the sensor to focus on the most interesting events. Separate temporal and spatial resolution guidelines plus recommended areal coverage have been developed for tropical cyclones, jet streams, the interaction between strong convection and the environment, and the surveillance of volcanoes. It is also suggested that the most effective use of TOMS would be simultaneous flights with microwave and high spatial resolution infrared temperature profiles.

  6. What on Earth?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This quiz game from the NASA Earth Science Enterprise features air, water and land categories in round one; and natural hazards, people, and Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) categories in round two. The questions involve the Terra satellite mission, its measurement of aerosols, and what causes aerosols; the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission; movement of the island of Maui, satellite laser ranging, and the Tethys or Mediterranean Sea; TOMS and false-color images; the effect of people on the environment; and tornadoes, hurricanes, earthquakes and volcanoes.

  7. Inhibition of TMV multiplication by siRNA constructs against TOM1 and TOM3 genes of Capsicum annuum.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sunil; Dubey, Ashvini Kumar; Karmakar, Ruma; Kini, Kukkundoor Ramachandra; Mathew, Mathew Kuriyan; Prakash, Harischandra Sripathy

    2012-12-01

    The host proteins TOM1 and TOM3 associated with tonoplast membrane are shown to be required for efficient multiplication of Tobamoviruses. In this study, homologous of TOM1 and TOM3 genes were identified in pepper (Capsicum annuum) using specific primers. Their gene sequences have similarity to Nicotiana tabacum NtTOM1 and NtTOM3. Sequence alignment showed that CaTOM1 and CaTOM3 are closely related to TOM1 and TOM3 of N. tabacum and Solanum lycopersicum with 90% and 70% nucleotide sequence identities, respectively. RNA interference approach was used to suppress the TOM1 and TOM3 gene expression which in turn prevented Tobacco mosaic virus replication in tobacco. Nicotiana plants agro-infiltrated with siRNA constructs of TOM1 or TOM3 showed no mosaic or necrotic infection symptoms upon inoculation with TMV. The results indicated that silencing of TOM1 and TOM3 of pepper using the siRNA constructs is an efficient method for generating TMV-resistant plants. PMID:22814091

  8. Feasibility study of a swept frequency electromagnetic probe (SWEEP) using inductive coupling for the determination of subsurface conductivity of the earth and water prospecting in arid regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Latorraca, G. A.; Bannister, L. H.

    1974-01-01

    Techniques developed for electromagnetic probing of the lunar interior, and techniques developed for the generation of high power audio frequencies were combined to make practical a magnetic inductive coupling system for the rapid measurement of ground conductivity profiles which are helpful when prospecting for the presence and quality of subsurface water. A system which involves the measurement of the direction, intensity, and time phase of the magnetic field observed near the surface of the earth at a distance from a horizontal coil energized so as to create a field that penetrates the earth was designed and studied to deduce the conductivity and stratification of the subsurface. Theoretical studies and a rudimentary experiment in an arid region showed that the approach is conceptually valid and that this geophysical prospecting technique can be developed for the economical exploration of subterranean water resources.

  9. Test, Construction, and Calibration of a Fast Valve Driver Unit (FVDU) and an Earth-isolated High Voltage Probe (HV probe) for a pulsed plasma experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamikawa, Yu; von der Linden, Jens; You, Setthivoine

    2013-10-01

    A fast valve driver unit (FVDU) and an optically isolated high voltage probe (HV probe) were built for an experiment to generate laboratory astrophysical jets with a triple electrode plasma gun. The FVDU controls fast pulse gas valves (Parker P/N: 9S4-A1-P2-9B13, 090-0270-090) by converting an optical trigger input into a square 6 V pulse output of a desired duration (100 ?s to 1ms) with an initial 250 V shot pulse. A potentiometer controls the duration of the square pulse, corresponding to the open time of the valve. The solar cell powered HV probe measures, once triggered by an optical pulse, the voltage across the electrodes without exposing sensitive data acquisition instruments to high voltage. A custom made capacitive voltage divider couples the signal to a solar powered LED, which optically transmit the signal to a receiver circuit. The voltage across the electrodes controls the current driven across the jet and the azimuthal rotation of the jet. A fast valve driver unit (FVDU) and an optically isolated high voltage probe (HV probe) were built for an experiment to generate laboratory astrophysical jets with a triple electrode plasma gun. The FVDU controls fast pulse gas valves (Parker P/N: 9S4-A1-P2-9B13, 090-0270-090) by converting an optical trigger input into a square 6 V pulse output of a desired duration (100 ?s to 1ms) with an initial 250 V shot pulse. A potentiometer controls the duration of the square pulse, corresponding to the open time of the valve. The solar cell powered HV probe measures, once triggered by an optical pulse, the voltage across the electrodes without exposing sensitive data acquisition instruments to high voltage. A custom made capacitive voltage divider couples the signal to a solar powered LED, which optically transmit the signal to a receiver circuit. The voltage across the electrodes controls the current driven across the jet and the azimuthal rotation of the jet. This work was sponsored in part by the US DOE Grant DE-SC0010340.

  10. Tom Berlijn Eugene P. Wigner Fellow

    E-print Network

    Pennycook, Steve

    Tom Berlijn Eugene P. Wigner Fellow Nanomaterials Theory Institute Center For Nanophase Materials University Condensed Matter Physics Ph.D. 2011 Professional Experience 2013-present, Eugene P. Wigner Fellow

  11. Climatology of the Earth's inner magnetosphere as observed by the Radiation Belt Storm Probes Ion Composition Experiment (RBSPICE) instrument on the Van Allen Probes spacecraft.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manweiler, J. W.; Patterson, J. D.; Manweiler, R. M.; Gerrard, A. J.; Mitchell, D. G.; Lanzerotti, L. J.

    2014-12-01

    The Radiation Belt Storm Probes Ion Composition Experiment (RBSPICE) instrument on the Van Allen Probes spacecraft measures energetic ion and electron particle populations in a species dependent energy range of 10's of KeV up to an MeV. The instrument separates the ion population into component species of protons, helium, and oxygen. This paper presents a climatological survey of RBSPICE measurements over the life of the mission to date. A comparison of spectrographs of the energetic particle populations (e, p, He, and O) is shown against key standard geomagnetic indices. Also shown is a summary of key electron and ion lower energy events based upon a systematic characterization of the type of event. The analyses of these events provide verification of the difference between electron and ion drift orbits and, based upon characterization schemes, show how the different event categories can vary as a function of L and MLT.

  12. TOMS UV Algorithm: Problems and Enhancements. 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krotkov, Nickolay; Herman, Jay; Bhartia, P. K.; Seftor, Colin; Arola, Antti; Kaurola, Jussi; Kroskinen, Lasse; Kalliskota, S.; Taalas, Petteri; Geogdzhaev, I.

    2002-01-01

    Satellite instruments provide global maps of surface ultraviolet (UV) irradiance by combining backscattered radiance measurements with radiative transfer models. The models are limited by uncertainties in input parameters of the atmosphere and the surface. We evaluate the effects of possible enhancements of the current Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) surface UV irradiance algorithm focusing on effects of diurnal variation of cloudiness and improved treatment of snow/ice. The emphasis is on comparison between the results of the current (version 1) TOMS UV algorithm and each of the changes proposed. We evaluate different approaches for improved treatment of pixel average cloud attenuation, with and without snow/ice on the ground. In addition to treating clouds based only on the measurements at the local time of the TOMS observations, the results from other satellites and weather assimilation models can be used to estimate attenuation of the incident UV irradiance throughout the day. A new method is proposed to obtain a more realistic treatment of snow covered terrain. The method is based on a statistical relation between UV reflectivity and snow depth. The new method reduced the bias between the TOMS UV estimations and ground-based UV measurements for snow periods. The improved (version 2) algorithm will be applied to re-process the existing TOMS UV data record (since 1978) and to the future satellite sensors (e.g., Quik/TOMS, GOME, OMI on EOS/Aura and Triana/EPIC).

  13. Interaction between the Human Mitochondrial Import Receptors Tom20 and Tom70 in Vitro Suggests a Chaperone Displacement Mechanism*

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Anna C. Y.; Kozlov, Guennadi; Hoegl, Annabelle; Marcellus, Richard C.; Wong, Michael J. H.; Gehring, Kalle; Young, Jason C.

    2011-01-01

    The mitochondrial import receptor Tom70 contains a tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) clamp domain, which allows the receptor to interact with the molecular chaperones, Hsc70/Hsp70 and Hsp90. Preprotein recognition by Tom70, a critical step to initiate import, is dependent on these cytosolic chaperones. Preproteins are subsequently released from the receptor for translocation across the outer membrane, yet the mechanism of this step is unknown. Here, we report that Tom20 interacts with the TPR clamp domain of Tom70 via a conserved C-terminal DDVE motif. This interaction was observed by cross-linking endogenous proteins on the outer membrane of mitochondria from HeLa cells and in co-precipitation and NMR titrations with purified proteins. Upon mutation of the TPR clamp domain or deletion of the DDVE motif, the interaction was impaired. In co-precipitation experiments, the Tom20-Tom70 interaction was inhibited by C-terminal peptides from Tom20, as well as from Hsc70 and Hsp90. The Hsp90-Tom70 interaction was measured with surface plasmon resonance, and the same peptides inhibited the interaction. Thus, Tom20 competes with the chaperones for Tom70 binding. Interestingly, antibody blocking of Tom20 did not increase the efficiency of Tom70-dependent preprotein import; instead, it impaired the Tom70 import pathway in addition to the Tom20 pathway. The functional interaction between Tom20 and Tom70 may be required at a later step of the Tom70-mediated import, after chaperone docking. We suggest a novel model in which Tom20 binds Tom70 to facilitate preprotein release from the chaperones by competition. PMID:21771790

  14. Video Enhancement Using Reference Photographs Cosmin Ancuti Tom Haber Tom Mertens Philippe Bekaert

    E-print Network

    Mertens, Tom

    Video Enhancement Using Reference Photographs Cosmin Ancuti Tom Haber Tom Mertens Philippe Bekaert to process a video into a more aesthetically pleasing version, by borrowing information from high quality reference photographs of the same scene. Since the process of taking a photograph is not time-critical, we

  15. Editor, Times Union Tom Friedman in his October 21 article, speaks of getting green starting at the top, with

    E-print Network

    Columbia University

    Editor, Times Union Albany NY Tom Friedman in his October 21 article, speaks of getting green day, and uses over 5 million gallons of fuel oil a year for long range waste transport, wasting over with the NYS Dept. of Environmental Conservation, and is a Research Associate with Columbia University's Earth

  16. 78 FR 12307 - Taylor, G. Tom; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-22

    ...ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ID-5705-001] Taylor, G. Tom; Notice of Filing Take notice that on February 14, 2013, G. Tom Taylor filed an application to hold interlocking positions pursuant to section...

  17. Nimbus/TOMS Science Data Operations Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Projected goals include the following: (1) Participate in and provide analysis of laboratory and in-flight calibration of LTV sensors used for space observations of backscattered LTV radiation; (2) Provide support to the TOMS Science Operations Center, including generating instrument command lists and analysis of TOMS health and safety data; (3) Develop and maintain software and algorithms designed to capture and process raw spacecraft and instrument data, convert the instrument output into measured radiance and irradiances, and produce scientifically valid products; (4) Process the TOMS data into Level 1, Level 2, and Level 3 data products; (5) Provide analysis of the science data products in support of NASA GSFC Code 916's research.

  18. Nimbus-7 TOMS Version 7 Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wellemeyer, C. G.; Taylor, S. L.; Jaross, G.; DeLand, M. T.; Seftor, C. J.; Labow, G.; Swissler, T. J.; Cebula, R. P.

    1996-01-01

    This report describes an improved instrument characterization used for the Version 7 processing of the Nimbus-7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) data record. An improved internal calibration technique referred to as spectral discrimination is used to provide long-term calibration precision of +/- 1%/decade in total column ozone amount. A revised wavelength scale results in a day one calibration that agrees with other satellite and ground-based measurements of total ozone, while a wavelength independent adjustment of the initial radiometric calibration constants provides good agreement with surface reflectivity measured by other satellite-borne ultraviolet measurements. The impact of other aspects of the Nimbus-7 TOMS instrument performance are also discussed. The Version 7 data should be used in all future studies involving the Nimbus-7 TOMS measurements of ozone. The data are available through the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's Distributive Active Archive Center (DAAC).

  19. TOMS Near Realtime System design document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Puccinelli, E. F.

    1981-01-01

    The System Design Document for the TOMS (Total Mapping Spectrometer) Near Realtime System provides detailed definition of the system functions and records the system history from a data processing and development point-of-view. The system was designed to produce map products displaying ozone concentrations over the United States as measured by the TOMS flown on the NIMBUS 7 satellite. The maps were produced and delivered to the user within six hours of round receipt of the satellite data for the period March 1, 1981 through May 15, 1981 on a daily basis. Sample system products are shown and data archival locations are listed.

  20. GRUNDMANN Tom BEES1, Les P'tites Bulles

    E-print Network

    Jacquet, Stéphan

    GRUNDMANN Tom BEES1, Les P'tites Bulles DETENDEURS N4DETENDEURS N4DETENDEURS N4DETENDEURS N4DETENDEURS N4DETENDEURS N4DETENDEURS N4DETENDEURS N4 #12;GRUNDMANN Tom BEES1, Les P'tites Bulles DETENDEURS N ou débit continu? Principes d'étanchéité #12;GRUNDMANN Tom BEES1, Les P'tites Bulles Principes d

  1. Nimbus-7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) data products user's guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcpeters, Richard D.; Krueger, Arlin J.; Bhartia, P. K.; Herman, Jay R.; Oaks, Arnold; Ahmad, Ziuddin; Cebula, Richard P.; Schlesinger, Barry M.; Swissler, Tom; Taylor, Steven L.

    1993-01-01

    Two tape products from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) aboard the Nimbus-7 have been archived at the National Space Science Data Center. The instrument measures backscattered Earth radiance and incoming solar irradiance; their ratio -- the albedo -- is used in ozone retrievals. In-flight measurements are used to monitor changes in the instrument sensitivity. The algorithm to retrieve total column ozone compares the observed ratios of albedos at pairs of wavelengths with pair ratios calculated for different ozone values, solar zenith angles, and optical paths. The initial error in the absolute scale for TOMS total ozone is 3 percent, the one standard-deviation random error is 2 percent, and the drift is +/- 1.5 percent over 14.5 years. The High Density TOMS (HDTOMS) tape contains the measured albedos, the derived total ozone amount, reflectivity, and cloud-height information for each scan position. It also contains an index of SO2 contamination for each position. The Gridded TOMS (GRIDTOMS) tape contains daily total ozone and reflectivity in roughly equal area grids (110 km in latitude by about 100-150 km in longitude). Detailed descriptions of the tape structure and record formats are provided.

  2. The role of small-scale ion injections in the buildup of Earth's ring current pressure: Van Allen Probes observations of the 17 March 2013 storm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gkioulidou, Matina; Ukhorskiy, A. Y.; Mitchell, D. G.; Sotirelis, T.; Mauk, B. H.; Lanzerotti, L. J.

    2014-09-01

    Energetic particle transport into the inner magnetosphere during geomagnetic storms is responsible for significant plasma pressure enhancement, which is the driver of large-scale currents that control the global electrodynamics within the magnetosphere-ionosphere system. Therefore, understanding the transport of plasma from the tail deep into the near-Earth magnetosphere, as well as the energization processes associated with this transport, is essential for a comprehensive knowledge of the near-Earth space environment. During the main phase of a geomagnetic storm on 17 March 2013 (minimum Dst ~ -137 nT), the Radiation Belt Storm Probes Ion Composition Experiment (RBSPICE) instrument on the Van Allen Probes observed frequent, small-scale proton injections deep into the inner nightside magnetosphere in the region L ~ 4 - 6. Although isolated injections have been previously reported inside geosynchronous orbit, the large number of small-scale injections observed in this event suggests that, during geomagnetic storms injections provide a robust mechanism for transporting energetic ions deep into the inner magnetosphere. In order to understand the role that these injections play in the ring current dynamics, we determine the following properties for each injection: (i) associated pressure enhancement, (ii) the time duration of this enhancement, and (iii) the lowest and highest energy channels exhibiting a sharp increase in their intensities. Based on these properties, we estimate the effect of these small-scale injections on the pressure buildup during the storm. We find that this mode of transport could make a substantial contribution to the total energy gain in the storm time inner magnetosphere.

  3. Probing the maximally deformed light rare-earth region around the drip-line nucleus 130Sm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Petri; E. S. Paul; P. J. Nolan; A. J. Boston; R. J. Cooper; M. R. Dimmock; S. Gros; B. M. McGuirk; H. C. Scraggs; G. Turk; B. Rossé; M. Meyer; N. Redon; Ch Schmitt; O. Stézowski; D. Guinet; Ph Lautesse; G. DeFrance; S. Bhattachasyya; G. Mukherjee; F. Rejmund; M. Rejmund; H. Savajols; J. N. Scheurer; A. Astier; I. Deloncle; A. Prévost; B. M. Nyakó; J. Gál; J. Molnár; J. Timár; L. Zolnai; K. Juhász; V. F. E. Pucknell; R. Wadsworth; P. Joshi; G. La Rana; R. Moro; M. Trotta; E. Vardaci; G. Hackman; G. Ball

    2006-01-01

    The neutron deficient rare-earth nuclei of the A~130 region are of particular interest since highly deformed prolate ground states are expected. Indeed these nuclei are predicted to show maximal ground-state deformations of beta2 ~ 0.40 (axis ratio of 3:2), comparable to the deformation deduced for superdeformed cerium isotopes at high spin. A fusion-evaporation experiment was performed with radioactive ion beams

  4. Dust storms and their impact on ocean and human health: dust in Earth's atmosphere

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Griffin, Dale W.; Kellog, Christina A.

    2004-01-01

    Satellite imagery has greatly influenced our understanding of dust activity on a global scale. A number of different satellites such as NASA's Earth-Probe Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) and Se-viewing Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) acquire daily global-scale data used to produce imagery for monitoring dust storm formation and movement. This global-scale imagery has documented the frequent transmission of dust storm-derived soils through Earth's atmosphere and the magnitude of many of these events. While various research projects have been undertaken to understand this normal planetary process, little has been done to address its impact on ocean and human health. This review will address the ability of dust storms to influence marine microbial population densities and transport of soil-associated toxins and pathogenic microorganisms to marine environments. The implications of dust on ocean and human health in this emerging scientific field will be discussed.

  5. NUAP Concerns Tom Hartquist and Michele

    E-print Network

    Crowther, Paul

    priority questions identified · They form backbone of a coherent science strategy · Resources priority for 1 high priority question ­ STFC: funds #12;Grant Awards Science-Based · From NUAP documentNUAP Concerns Tom Hartquist and Michele Dougherty (Chair) #12;NUAP Exercise Science-Driven · 7 high

  6. STS-98 Crew Interview: Tom Jones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The STS-98 Mission Specialist Tom Jones is seen being interviewed. He answers questions about his inspiration to become an astronaut, his career path, and his training. He gives details on the mission's goals and significance, and the payload and hardware it brings to the International Space Station (ISS). Mr. Jones discusses his role in the mission's spacewalks and activities.

  7. q-Partition Algebra Combinatorics Tom Halverson

    E-print Network

    Halverson, Tom

    q-Partition Algebra Combinatorics Tom Halverson Department of Mathematics Macalester College Saint Paul, MN 55105 halverson@macalester.edu Nathaniel Thiem Department of Mathematics University. Halverson and A. Ram and is motivated by the analogous construction of the partition algebra through

  8. q-Partition Algebra Combinatorics Tom Halverson

    E-print Network

    Thiem, Nathaniel

    q-Partition Algebra Combinatorics Tom Halverson Department of Mathematics Macalester College Saint Paul, MN 55105 halverson@macalester.edu Nathaniel Thiem Department of Mathematics University algebra was first defined in unpublished work of T. Halverson and A. Ram (see for example the abstract [HR

  9. A Crash Course in Computer Tom Chothia

    E-print Network

    Chothia, Tom

    .. Protection methods Locks, walls, armed guards, ... Crypto, Protocols, Security Audits,... #12;Today's LectureA Crash Course in Computer Security Tom Chothia Introduction Lecture 1 #12;Today's Lecture · An introduction to the module · Lecture schedule. · Module details. #12;A Crash Course in Computer Security

  10. Scalable Monocular SLAM Ethan Eade Tom Drummond

    E-print Network

    Cambridge, University of

    of perspective-projection cameras as primary SLAM sensors introduces new difficulties to the problem. A singleScalable Monocular SLAM Ethan Eade Tom Drummond Cambridge University {ee231, twd20}@cam.ac.uk Abstract Localization and mapping in unknown environments be- comes more difficult as the complexity

  11. Changes in Earth 360 380 nm Reflectivity: 1980-2000

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herman, J. R.; Weatherhead, B.; Chubarova, N.; Ziemke, G.; Hsu, C.; Larki, D.; Bhartia, P. K. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) reflectively time series 1980 to 1992 and 1997 to 2000 have been combined to estimate change that have occurred over a 21 year period. The relative calibration of the two TOMS (Nimbus-7, N7 and Earth-Probe, EP) has been validated using the measured reflectivity R over Hudson Bay, Canada and found to be within 1 RU (R=0.01). Some of the local trend features seen in the N7 time series (1980 to 1992) have been continued in the combined time series, but the overall zonal average and global trends have changed. The UV (ultraviolet) reflectivity data are compared with changes in the AVHRR outgoing long-wavelength radiation (OLR) and show an expected anti-correlation with cloud-cover changes over the same period for many, but not all, features. The key results include a continuing decrease in cloud cover over Europe and North America and an increase in reflectivity near Antarctica.

  12. Impact Earth

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This 24 minute planetarium show teaches about meteors, meteorites, asteroids, and comets. The show was created for fulldome theaters, but is also available on DVD to be shown in flat version for TVs and computer monitors, and can be freely viewed online. It shows the effects of the Chixulub and Tungusta events, plus the Pallasite impact that resulted in the Brenham meteorite fall, and describes ways that asteroid hunters seek new objects in the solar system, and how ground penetrating radar is used to find meteorites that have survived to the Earth's surface. Narrated by astronaut Tom Jones, it also discusses ways that humans might try to deflect an asteroid or comet that is on a collision course with Earth. The show was created for informal science venues (digital planetariums); it is also useful as supplemental material for middle school science. Impact Earth is available for free if presented directly from the Space Update site (widescreen or fisheye views linked from YouTube). Otherwise, a DVD of the show can be purchased for $10.

  13. Magneto-Seebeck effect in R FeAsO (R =rare earth) compounds: Probing the magnon drag scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caglieris, F.; Braggio, A.; Pallecchi, I.; Provino, A.; Pani, M.; Lamura, G.; Jost, A.; Zeitler, U.; Galleani D'Agliano, E.; Manfrinetti, P.; Putti, M.

    2014-10-01

    We investigate the Seebeck effect in R FeAsO (R =rare earth) compounds as a function of temperature and magnetic field up to 30 T. The Seebeck curves are characterized by a broad negative bump around 50 K, which is sample dependent and strongly enhanced by the application of a magnetic field. A model for the temperature and field dependence of the magnon drag contribution to the Seebeck effect by antiferromagnetic (AFM) spin fluctuation is developed. It accounts for the magnitude and scaling properties of such bump feature in our experimental data in LaFeAsO. This analysis accounts for the apparent inconsistency of literature Seebeck effect data on these compounds and has the potential to extract precious information on the coupling between electrons and AFM spin fluctuations in these parent compound systems, with implications on the pairing mechanism of the related superconducting compounds.

  14. The formation and evolution of earth-mass dark matter microhalos and their impact on indirect probes of dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishiyama, Tomoaki

    2013-07-01

    Earth-mass dark matter microhalos with a size of ~100 AU are the first structures formed in the universe, if the dark matter of the universe is made of neutralinos. We report the results of ultra-high-resolution cosmological N-body simulations of the formation and evolution of these microhalos. We found that microhalos have the central density cusps of the form ? ? r-1.5, much steeper than the cusps of larger dark halos. The central regions of these microhalos survive the encounters with stars except in the very inner region of the galaxy down to the radius of a few hundreds parsecs from the galactic center. The annihilation signals from the nearest microhalos are observed as gamma-ray point sources (radius less than 1'), with unusually large proper motions of ~0.2 deg per year. Their surface brightnesses are ~10% of that of the galactic center. Their signal-to-noise ratios might be better if they are far from the galactic plane.

  15. Investigation of the Structure of Yeast tRNAPhe by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance: Paramagnetic Rare Earth Ion Probes of Structure

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Claude R.; Kearns, David R.

    1974-01-01

    The binding of paramagnetic rare earth ions to yeast tRNAPhe shifts some resonances in the low-field nuclear magnetic resonance spectrum that have been assigned to ring nitrogen protons of specific Watson-Crick base pairs. The changes in the nuclear magnetic resonance spectrum as the tRNA is titrated with Eu3+ indicate that 4 (or 5) Eu3+ ions are tightly bound, that the metal binding is in the fast exchange limit, and that the binding to different sites in the molecule is sequential rather than cooperative. The first metal bound simultaneously shifts resonances associated with the dihydrouridine and the -C-C-A stem. This permits us to conclude that the folding of the tRNAPhe in solution brings the phosphate backbone of the -C-C-A and the dihydrouridine stems into close proximity. A model of the three-dimensional structure of tRNAPhe incorporating this new information appears to be compatible with the results obtained from x-ray diffraction. PMID:4610573

  16. Modeling Loss and Rebuilding of the Earth's Outer Zone Electrons and Comparison with Van Allen Probes Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudson, M. K.; Kress, B. T.; Li, Z.; Paral, J.; Wiltberger, M. J.

    2014-12-01

    Quantifying the competition between radiation belt electron energization due to radial transport and loss to the magnetopause and to the atmosphere is critical to understanding the dynamic changes in outer zone radiation belt electron flux response to solar wind drivers. Plasmasheet electron injection, both due to enhanced convection and substorm dipolarization, provides a source population for generation of whistler mode chorus and seed population for local acceleration. We now have available ~22 months of unprecedented measurements in energy and pitch angle resolution of electrons spanning the energy range from injected plasmasheet to multi-MeV electrons from the twin Van Allen Probes spacecraft in near-equatorial plane elliptical orbits, with apogee at 5.8 Re; and two Balloon Array for Relativistic Radiation Belt Electron Losses (BARREL) campaigns during January-February 2013 and 2014, each establishing a longitudinal array of precipitation measurements extending to relativistic energies via measured Bremsstrahlung x-rays. In addition to this arsenal of data, a set of modeling tools has been developed to examine dynamics of electrons in the magnetosphere. These tools calculate electron trajectories in time-dependent magnetohydrodyanmic (MHD) fields using the Lyon-Fedder-Mobarry global MHD model coupled with the Rice Convection Model to determine the E and B field response to solar wind drivers. With these tools we can follow electron dynamics including response to Ultra Low Frequency (ULF) waves which cause radial transport and energization for inward radial gradient as well as enhanced loss to the magnetopause for outward gradient. These tools have been applied to date to the large equinoctial storms of fall 2012, spring and fall 2013, in addition to moderate storms during BARREL balloon campaigns in both winters 2013 and 2014. Isolated substorm response can clearly be identified for the latter, while plasmasheet injection of electrons during periods of strong convection sets the stage for local acceleration by whistler mode chorus during the equinoctial storm event studies.

  17. Rare Earth Elemental Signatures in Fungal Fruiting Bodies as Probes into Mineral Breakdown Reactions in Post-glacial Landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryce, J. G.; Hobbie, E. A.

    2008-12-01

    The application of rare earth element (REE) abundances in low temperature geochemistry and biogeochemistry has improved our understanding of the cycling of various micro- and macronutrients from the bedrock into terrestrial ecosystems. In many continental rocks, REEs are concentrated in accessory phases such as apatite and monazite. These phosphate mineral phases break down readily and may be especially important nutrient sources, particularly for P and Ca, in recently glaciated terrains. Several studies (e.g., 1-3) have suggested that the presence of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi, due to the organic acids they secrete, may play an especially important role in this weathering process. A field-based experiment implementing mesh bags doped with specific mineral compositions confirmed that ECM fungal tissues do record the REE signatures of the minerals they break down (4). In an effort to understand the relative role different ECM fungi may play in mineral breakdown reactions, we have measured REE abundances in tissues of several ECM fruiting bodies. Our preliminary data include Russula, Suillus Americana, Leccinum and Lactarius ECM fungi from three postglacial landscapes. At a given site, the relative abundance of REEs varies between the different ECM fungi. Interestingly, we found distinctions in tissue La/Ce values at two of the sites. Leccinum, a deep rooter, shows much lower La/Ce than the companion Russula and Lactarius samples from the same site. Similarly Suillus tissues demonstrated lower La/Ce when compared to Russula growing nearby. Lower La/Ce is consistent with enhanced dissolution of the mineral apatite, a common accessory phase. While the influence of symbiotic host (beech vs. oak vs. pine) may play some role in the distinctive REE signatures recorded by the fruiting bodies, we attribute the observed differences to organic acid production and tendency to colonize in different horizons of the soil profile. (1) Wallander, Plant and Soil, 2000; (2) Blum et al., Nature, 2002; (3) Hoffland et al., Front Ecol Environ., 2003; (4) Hagerburg et al., Plant and Soil, 2003.

  18. Earth Sciences Earth Sciences

    E-print Network

    Royal Holloway, University of London

    Earth Sciences Earth Sciences Undergraduate Studies #12;Department of Earth Sciences2 Royal;3Department of Earth Sciences Earth Sciences The Department of Earth Sciences at Royal Holloway.ac.uk/studyhere Contents Why study Earth Sciences? 4 Earth Sciences at Royal Holloway 5 Admissions and entry requirements 6

  19. Synergic use of TOMS and Aeronet Observations for Characterization of Aerosol Absorption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torres, O.; Bhartia, P. K.; Dubovik, O.; Holben, B.; Siniuk, A.

    2003-01-01

    The role of aerosol absorption on the radiative transfer balance of the earth-atmosphere system is one of the largest sources of uncertainty in the analysis of global climate change. Global measurements of aerosol single scattering albedo are, therefore, necessary to properly assess the radiative forcing effect of aerosols. Remote sensing of aerosol absorption is currently carried out using both ground (Aerosol Robotic Network) and space (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) based observations. The satellite technique uses measurements of backscattered near ultraviolet radiation. Carbonaceous aerosols, resulting from the combustion of biomass, are one of the most predominant absorbing aerosol types in the atmosphere. In this presentation, TOMS and AERONET retrievals of single scattering albedo of carbonaceous aerosols, are compared for different environmental conditions: agriculture related biomass burning in South America and Africa and peat fires in Eastern Europe. The AERONET and TOMS derived aerosol absorption information are in good quantitative agreement. The most absorbing smoke is detected over the African Savanna. Aerosol absorption over the Brazilian rain forest is less absorbing. Absorption by aerosol particles resulting from peat fires in Eastern Europe is weaker than the absorption measured in Africa and South America. This analysis shows that the near UV satellite method of aerosol absorption characterization has the sensitivity to distinguish different levels of aerosol absorption. The analysis of the combined AERONET-TOMS observations shows a high degree of synergy between satellite and ground based observations.

  20. Tom Clothier's Garden Walk and Talk

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Clothier, Tom

    2007-08-01

    This impressive website was created by long-time gardener Tom Clothier as an archive for numerous gardening articles, germination databases, and photos. The 314 pages in this online archive were "developed as a public service in the spirit of cooperative extension." The site is free of advertisements and was designed to accommodate children researchers as well. The website provides information on seed starting, garden design, aphids, native pollinators, and much more. The site also offers an extensive photo album of Mr. Clothier's flowers which are listed by Scientific Name, Common Name, and Variety / Color.

  1. Tom-cat odour and other pheromones in feline reproduction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. P. Bland

    1979-01-01

    The function and suppression of urine spraying by cats is discussed as also is the source of tom-cat odour. It seems unlikely that tom-cat odour is derived from the lipid in the proximal convoluted tubule of the kidney, however its production by the anal glands has not yet been proven. Although male cats show a flehmen response when sniffing urine,

  2. Version 2 TOMS UV algorithm: problems and enhancements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krotkov, Nickolay A.; Herman, Jay R.; Bhartia, Pawan K.; Seftor, Colin J.; Arola, Antti; Kaurola, Jussi; Koskinen, Lasse; Kalliskota, S.; Taalas, Petteri; Geogdzhaev, Igor V.

    2002-01-01

    We evaluate the effects of possible enhancements of the current (version 1) TOMS surface UV irradiance algorithm. The major enhancements include more detailed treatment of tropospheric aerosols, effects of diurnal variation of cloudiness and improved treatment of snow/ice. The emphasis is on the comparison between the results of the version 1 TOMS UV algorithm and each of the changes proposed. TOMS UV algorithm does not discriminate between nonabsorbing aerosols and clouds. Absorbing aerosols are corrected by using the TOMS aerosol index data. The treatment of aerosol attenuation might have been improved by using newly derived TOMS products: optical depths and the single-scattering albedo for dust, smoke, and sulfate aerosols. We evaluate different approaches for improved treatment of pixel average cloud attenuation, with and without snow/ice on the ground. In addition to treating clouds based only on the measurements at the local time of the TOMS observations, the results from other satellites and weather assimilation models can be used to estimate attenuation of the UV irradiance throughout the day. The improved (version 2) algorithm will be applied to reprocess the existing TOMS UV data record (since 1978) and to the future satellite sensors (e.g., Quik/TOMS, GOME, OMI on EOS/Aura and Triana/EPIC).

  3. The Discipline of Machine Learning Tom M. Mitchell

    E-print Network

    , to a broad discipline that has produced fundamental statistical-computational theories of learning processesThe Discipline of Machine Learning Tom M. Mitchell July 2006 CMU-ML-06-108 #12;#12;The Discipline of Machine Learning Tom M. Mitchell July 2006 CMU-ML-06-108 Machine Learning Department School of Computer

  4. Data Update for Mt. Tom, Holyoke, MA January 2008

    E-print Network

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    Data Update for Mt. Tom, Holyoke, MA January 2008 Prepared for Massachusetts Technology Collaborative 75 North Drive, Westborough, MA 01581 By Puneet Malhotra Monthly Data Summary for January 2008 This update summarizes the monthly data results for the Mt. Tom monitoring site in Holyoke, MA, at 42° 14' 59

  5. Data Update for Mt. Tom, Holyoke, MA October 2007

    E-print Network

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    Data Update for Mt. Tom, Holyoke, MA October 2007 Prepared for Massachusetts Technology Collaborative 75 North Drive, Westborough, MA 01581 By Puneet Malhotra Monthly Data Summary for October 2007 This update summarizes the monthly data results for the Mt. Tom monitoring site in Holyoke, MA, at 42° 14' 59

  6. Data Update for Mt. Tom, Holyoke, MA August 2006

    E-print Network

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    Data Update for Mt. Tom, Holyoke, MA August 2006 Prepared for Massachusetts Technology Collaborative 75 North Drive, Westborough, MA 01581 By Melissa Elkinton Monthly Data Summary for August 2006 This update summarizes the monthly data results for the Mt. Tom monitoring site in Holyoke, MA, at 42° 14' 59

  7. Data Update for Mt. Tom, Holyoke, MA Prepared for

    E-print Network

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    Data Update for Mt. Tom, Holyoke, MA May 2007 Prepared for Massachusetts Technology Collaborative 75 North Drive, Westborough, MA 01581 By Puneet Malhotra Monthly Data Summary for May 2007 This update summarizes the monthly data results for the Mt. Tom monitoring site in Holyoke, MA, at 42° 14' 59

  8. Data Update for Mt. Tom, Holyoke, MA Prepared for

    E-print Network

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    Data Update for Mt. Tom, Holyoke, MA July 2006 Prepared for Massachusetts Technology Collaborative 75 North Drive, Westborough, MA 01581 By Melissa Elkinton Monthly Data Summary for July 2006 This update summarizes the monthly data results for the Mt. Tom monitoring site in Holyoke, MA, at 42° 14' 59

  9. Data Update for Mt. Tom, Holyoke, MA August 2007

    E-print Network

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    Data Update for Mt. Tom, Holyoke, MA August 2007 Prepared for Massachusetts Technology Collaborative 75 North Drive, Westborough, MA 01581 By Puneet Malhotra Monthly Data Summary for August 2007 This update summarizes the monthly data results for the Mt. Tom monitoring site in Holyoke, MA, at 42° 14' 59

  10. Data Update for Mt. Tom, Holyoke, MA Prepared for

    E-print Network

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    Data Update for Mt. Tom, Holyoke, MA March 2008 Prepared for Massachusetts Technology Collaborative 75 North Drive, Westborough, MA 01581 By Puneet Malhotra Monthly Data Summary for March 2008 This update summarizes the monthly data results for the Mt. Tom monitoring site in Holyoke, MA, at 42° 14' 59

  11. Data Update for Mt. Tom, Holyoke, MA Prepared for

    E-print Network

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    Data Update for Mt. Tom, Holyoke, MA May 2006 Prepared for Massachusetts Technology Collaborative 75 North Drive, Westborough, MA 01581 By Melissa Ray Monthly Data Summary for May 2006 This update summarizes the monthly data results for the Mt. Tom monitoring site in Holyoke, MA, at 42° 14' 59.2" N, 72

  12. Data Update for Mt. Tom, Holyoke, MA Prepared for

    E-print Network

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    Data Update for Mt. Tom, Holyoke, MA June 2005 Prepared for Massachusetts Technology Collaborative 75 North Drive, Westborough, MA 01581 By Melissa Ray Monthly Data Summary for June 2005 This update summarizes the monthly data results for the Mt. Tom monitoring site in Holyoke, MA, at 42° 14' 59.2" N, 72

  13. Data Update for Mt. Tom, Holyoke, MA Prepared for

    E-print Network

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    Data Update for Mt. Tom, Holyoke, MA June 2006 Prepared for Massachusetts Technology Collaborative 75 North Drive, Westborough, MA 01581 By Melissa Elkinton Monthly Data Summary for June 2006 This update summarizes the monthly data results for the Mt. Tom monitoring site in Holyoke, MA, at 42° 14' 59

  14. Data Update for Mt. Tom, Holyoke, MA Prepared for

    E-print Network

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    Data Update for Mt. Tom, Holyoke, MA June 2007 Prepared for Massachusetts Technology Collaborative 75 North Drive, Westborough, MA 01581 By Puneet Malhotra Monthly Data Summary for June 2007 This update summarizes the monthly data results for the Mt. Tom monitoring site in Holyoke, MA, at 42° 14' 59

  15. Data Update for Mt. Tom, Holyoke, MA August 2005

    E-print Network

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    Data Update for Mt. Tom, Holyoke, MA August 2005 Prepared for Massachusetts Technology Collaborative 75 North Drive, Westborough, MA 01581 By Melissa Ray Monthly Data Summary for August 2005 This update summarizes the monthly data results for the Mt. Tom monitoring site in Holyoke, MA, at 42° 14' 59

  16. Data Update for Mt. Tom, Holyoke, MA Prepared for

    E-print Network

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    Data Update for Mt. Tom, Holyoke, MA July 2007 Prepared for Massachusetts Technology Collaborative 75 North Drive, Westborough, MA 01581 By Puneet Malhotra Monthly Data Summary for July 2007 This update summarizes the monthly data results for the Mt. Tom monitoring site in Holyoke, MA, at 42° 14' 59

  17. Data Update for Mt. Tom, Holyoke, MA January 2006

    E-print Network

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    Data Update for Mt. Tom, Holyoke, MA January 2006 Prepared for Massachusetts Technology Collaborative 75 North Drive, Westborough, MA 01581 By Melissa Ray Monthly Data Summary for December 2005 This update summarizes the monthly data results for the Mt. Tom monitoring site in Holyoke, MA, at 42° 14' 59

  18. Data Update for Mt. Tom, Holyoke, MA October 2006

    E-print Network

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    Data Update for Mt. Tom, Holyoke, MA October 2006 Prepared for Massachusetts Technology Collaborative 75 North Drive, Westborough, MA 01581 By Melissa Elkinton Monthly Data Summary for October 2006 This update summarizes the monthly data results for the Mt. Tom monitoring site in Holyoke, MA, at 42° 14' 59

  19. Data Update for Mt. Tom, Holyoke, MA October 2005

    E-print Network

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    Data Update for Mt. Tom, Holyoke, MA October 2005 Prepared for Massachusetts Technology Collaborative 75 North Drive, Westborough, MA 01581 By Melissa Ray Monthly Data Summary for October 2005 This update summarizes the monthly data results for the Mt. Tom monitoring site in Holyoke, MA, at 42° 14' 59

  20. Data Update for Mt. Tom, Holyoke, MA Prepared for

    E-print Network

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    Data Update for Mt. Tom, Holyoke, MA April 2008 Prepared for Massachusetts Technology Collaborative 75 North Drive, Westborough, MA 01581 By Puneet Malhotra Monthly Data Summary for April 2008 This update summarizes the monthly data results for the Mt. Tom monitoring site in Holyoke, MA, at 42° 14' 59

  1. Data Update for Mt. Tom, Holyoke, MA Prepared for

    E-print Network

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    Data Update for Mt. Tom, Holyoke, MA July 2005 Prepared for Massachusetts Technology Collaborative 75 North Drive, Westborough, MA 01581 By Melissa Ray Monthly Data Summary for July 2005 This update summarizes the monthly data results for the Mt. Tom monitoring site in Holyoke, MA, at 42° 14' 59.2" N, 72

  2. Data Update for Mt. Tom, Holyoke, MA Prepared for

    E-print Network

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    Data Update for Mt. Tom, Holyoke, MA March 2006 Prepared for Massachusetts Technology Collaborative 75 North Drive, Westborough, MA 01581 By Melissa Ray Monthly Data Summary for March 2006 This update summarizes the monthly data results for the Mt. Tom monitoring site in Holyoke, MA, at 42° 14' 59.2" N, 72

  3. Data Update for Mt. Tom, Holyoke, MA January 2007

    E-print Network

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    Data Update for Mt. Tom, Holyoke, MA January 2007 Prepared for Massachusetts Technology Collaborative 75 North Drive, Westborough, MA 01581 By Puneet Malhotra Monthly Data Summary for January 2007 This update summarizes the monthly data results for the Mt. Tom monitoring site in Holyoke, MA, at 42° 14' 59

  4. Data Update for Mt. Tom, Holyoke, MA Prepared for

    E-print Network

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    Data Update for Mt. Tom, Holyoke, MA April 2007 Prepared for Massachusetts Technology Collaborative 75 North Drive, Westborough, MA 01581 By Puneet Malhotra Monthly Data Summary for April 2007 This update summarizes the monthly data results for the Mt. Tom monitoring site in Holyoke, MA, at 42° 14' 59

  5. Data Update for Mt. Tom, Holyoke, MA Prepared for

    E-print Network

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    Data Update for Mt. Tom, Holyoke, MA May 2008 Prepared for Massachusetts Technology Collaborative 75 North Drive, Westborough, MA 01581 By Puneet Malhotra Monthly Data Summary for May 2008 This update summarizes the monthly data results for the Mt. Tom monitoring site in Holyoke, MA, at 42° 14' 59

  6. Data Update for Mt. Tom, Holyoke, MA Prepared for

    E-print Network

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    Data Update for Mt. Tom, Holyoke, MA April 2006 Prepared for Massachusetts Technology Collaborative 75 North Drive, Westborough, MA 01581 By Melissa Ray Monthly Data Summary for April 2006 This update summarizes the monthly data results for the Mt. Tom monitoring site in Holyoke, MA, at 42° 14' 59.2" N, 72

  7. Uncle Tom's Cabin and American Culture

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This site from the Institute for Advanced Technologies in the Humanities at the University of Virginia contains a plethora of materials concerning Harriet Beecher Stowe's Uncle Tom's Cabin and the nation's response to it. The site features a complete electronic edition of the first published version of the novel along with the various prefaces Stowe wrote for different editions as well as audio versions of most of the Christian hymns presented in the text. Users can also examine and compare different published editions of the text using 3-D applications as well as view selected manuscript pages and sheets from the novel's original newspaper serialization side-by-side. The site's unique value, though, lies in the documents it presents that elucidate the novel's historical and cultural context. Included here are anti-slavery and Christian abolitionist texts, materials on Sentimental Culture in the nineteenth century, newspaper reviews of the text, articles and notices, and both African-American and Pro-Slavery responses to it. The subsequent media history of the novel's adaptations in songs, children's books, plays, and films is also represented here. As if that isn't enough, the site offers "an interactive timeline, virtual exhibits to accompany the primary material, and lesson plans for teachers and student projects." The entire site -- including the individual text of Uncle Tom's Cabin -- can be easily searched or browsed.

  8. The Quantized kd-Tree: Efficient Ray Tracing of Compressed Point Clouds Erik Hubo Tom Mertens Tom Haber Philippe Bekaert

    E-print Network

    Mertens, Tom

    The Quantized kd-Tree: Efficient Ray Tracing of Compressed Point Clouds Erik Hubo Tom Mertens Tom storage in the form of compression becomes necessary in order to avoid costly disk access. However, as ray tracing requires neighborhood queries, existing compression schemes cannot be applied because

  9. The Papers of Justice Tom C. Clark

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    While several Texans have served as President of the United States, so far only one has served on the Supreme Court. Tom C. Clark was appointed to the position of Associate Justice in 1949 by President Truman and served in that capacity until 1967 when he stepped down. Clark is perhaps best known for his support of anticommunist policies during the Cold War and his unwavering support of civil rights. Recently, the staff of the University of Texas School of Law created this fine online collection, which contains a sampling of Clark's papers and legal documents. Visitors can browse the collection at their leisure, or they may also elect to look through a series of topical sections (such as those that address school prayer or desegregation) of related documents. Visitors will also appreciate the glossary that is contained on the site, as it offers some brief explanations of germane legal terms.

  10. Direct measurements of tropospheric ozone using TOMS data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudson, Robert D.; Kim, Jae-Hwan

    1994-01-01

    Fishman and Larsen have proposed a new algorithm, called 'tropospheric residual method,' which retrieves the climatological tropospheric ozone by using SAGE (Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment) and TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) data. In this paper, we will examine the feasibility of detection for tropospheric ozone using only TOMS data. From a case study over the Atlantic Ocean off the coast of west Africa, it has been found that total ozone in the archived TOMS data has been overestimated over a region of marine-stratocumulus clouds.

  11. Estimations of the Global Distribution and Time Series of UV Noontime Irradiance (305, 310, 324, 380 nm, and Erythemal) from TOMS and SeaWiFS Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herman, J.

    2004-01-01

    The amount of UV irradiance reaching the Earth's surface is estimated from the measured cloud reflectivity, ozone, aerosol amounts, and surface reflectivity time series from 1980 to 1992 and 1997 to 2000 to estimate changes that have occurred over a 21-year period. Recent analysis of the TOMS data shows that there has been an apparent increase in reflectivity (decrease in W) in the Southern Hemisphere that is related to a calibration error in EP-TOMS. Data from the well-calibrated SeaWiFS satellite instrument have been used to correct the EP-TOMS reflectivity and UV time series. After correction, some of the local trend features seen in the N7 time series (1980 to 1992) have been continued in the combined time series, but the overall zonal average and global trends have changed. In addition to correcting the EP-TOMS radiance calibration, the use of SeaWiFS cloud data permits estimation of UV irradiance at higher spatial resolution (1 to 4 km) than is available from TOMS (100 km) under the assumption that ozone is slowly varying over a scale of 100 km. The key results include a continuing decrease in cloud cover over Europe and North America with a corresponding increase in UV and a decrease in UV irradiance near Antarctica.

  12. Analysis of error in TOMS total ozone as a function of orbit and attitude parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregg, W. W.; Ardanuy, P. E.; Braun, W. C.; Vallette, B. J.; Bhartia, P. K.; Ray, S. N.

    1991-01-01

    Computer simulations of orbital scenarios were performed to examine the effects of orbital altitude, equator crossing time, attitude uncertainty, and orbital eccentricity on ozone observations by future satellites. These effects were assessed by determining changes in solar and viewing geometry and earth daytime coverage loss. The importance of these changes on ozone retrieval was determined by simulating uncertainties in the TOMS ozone retrieval algorithm. The major findings are as follows: (1) Drift of equator crossing time from local noon would have the largest effect on the quality of ozone derived from TOMS. The most significant effect of this drift is the loss of earth daytime coverage in the winter hemisphere. The loss in coverage increases from 1 degree latitude for + or - 1 hour from noon, 6 degrees for + or - 3 hours from noon, to 53 degrees for + or - 6 hours from noon. An additional effect is the increase in ozone retrieval errors due to high solar zenith angles. (2) To maintain contiguous earth coverage, the maximum scan angle of the sensor must be increased with decreasing orbital altitude. The maximum scan angle required for full coverage at the equator varies from 60 degrees at 600 km altitude to 45 degrees at 1200 km. This produces an increase in spacecraft zenith angle, theta, which decreases the ozone retrieval accuracy. The range in theta was approximately 72 degrees for 600 km to approximately 57 degrees at 1200 km. (3) The effect of elliptical orbits is to create gaps in coverage along the subsatellite track. An elliptical orbit with a 200 km perigee and 1200 km apogee produced a maximum earth coverage gap of about 45 km at the perigee at nadir. (4) An attitude uncertainty of 0.1 degree in each axis (pitch, roll, yaw) produced a maximum scan angle to view the pole, and maximum solar zenith angle).

  13. Towards a prokaryotic genomic taxonomy q Tom Coenye a,*,1

    E-print Network

    Gent, Universiteit

    Towards a prokaryotic genomic taxonomy q Tom Coenye a,*,1 , Dirk Gevers a,b,1 , Yves Van de Peer b genomics; Microarrays; Multilocus sequence typing; Prokaryotic species concept Contents 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148 3. Shaping the prokaryotic genome

  14. Selforganization and nonparametric regression Tom Heskes and Bert Kappen

    E-print Network

    Heskes, Tom

    1 Self­organization and nonparametric regression Tom Heskes and Bert Kappen RWCP 1 Novel Functions and Bert Kappen The formation of topological maps can be studied by choosing local errors e i (W; ~z) = 1 2

  15. 2. General view of Morrison Bridge, looking northeast, with Tom ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. General view of Morrison Bridge, looking northeast, with Tom McCall Riverfront Park in foreground. - Morrison Bridge, Spanning Willamette River on Morrison & Alder Streets, Portland, Multnomah County, OR

  16. Gravity Probe B

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This broadcast reports on Gravity Probe B, a satellite designed to test the frame dragging prediction of Einstein's theory of general relativity, where a spinning object such as the Earth will push spacetime in front of it. Gravity Probe B uses gyroscopes which will shift direction while orbiting the Earth (if general relativity is correct). The broadcast contains comments from a scientist who has worked on the Gravity Probe B mission for over 44 years. There is a brief explanation of the difference between the behavior of gravity in Newtonian physics and general relativity. The broadcast also discusses why it took so long to build the satellite (a dozen technologies had to be invented first), the cost involved, and whether the plug would be pulled on the mission; however, Gravity Probe B was finally launched on April 20, 2004. The broadcast is 30 minutes in length.

  17. A presequence-binding groove in Tom70 supports import of Mdl1 into mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Melin, Jonathan; Kilisch, Markus; Neumann, Piotr; Lytovchenko, Oleksandr; Gomkale, Ridhima; Schendzielorz, Alexander; Schmidt, Bernhard; Liepold, Thomas; Ficner, Ralf; Jahn, Olaf; Rehling, Peter; Schulz, Christian

    2015-08-01

    The translocase of the outer mitochondrial membrane (TOM complex) is the general entry gate into mitochondria for almost all imported proteins. A variety of specific receptors allow the TOM complex to recognize targeting signals of various precursor proteins that are transported along different import pathways. Aside from the well-characterized presequence receptors Tom20 and Tom22 a third TOM receptor, Tom70, binds proteins of the carrier family containing multiple transmembrane segments. Here we demonstrate that Tom70 directly binds to presequence peptides using a dedicated groove. A single point mutation in the cavity of this pocket (M551R) reduces the presequence binding affinity of Tom70 ten-fold and selectively impairs import of the presequence-containing precursor Mdl1 but not the ADP/ATP carrier (AAC). Hence Tom70 contributes to the presequence import pathway by recognition of the targeting signal of the Mdl1 precursor. PMID:25958336

  18. Single molecule tracking fluorescence microscopy in mitochondria reveals highly dynamic but confined movement of Tom40

    PubMed Central

    Kuzmenko, Anton; Tankov, Stoyan; English, Brian P.; Tarassov, Ivan; Tenson, Tanel; Kamenski, Piotr; Elf, Johan; Hauryliuk, Vasili

    2011-01-01

    Tom40 is an integral protein of the mitochondrial outer membrane, which as the central component of the Translocase of the Outer Membrane (TOM) complex forms a channel for protein import. We characterize the diffusion properties of individual Tom40 molecules fused to the photoconvertable fluorescent protein Dendra2 with millisecond temporal resolution. By imaging individual Tom40 molecules in intact isolated yeast mitochondria using photoactivated localization microscopy with sub-diffraction limited spatial precision, we demonstrate that Tom40 movement in the outer mitochondrial membrane is highly dynamic but confined in nature, suggesting anchoring of the TOM complex as a whole. PMID:22355710

  19. Electromagnetic deep-probing (100-1000 KMS) of the Earth's interior from artificial satellites: Constraints on the regional emplacement of crustal resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hermance, J. F. (principal investigator)

    1981-01-01

    An algorithm was developed to address the problem of electromagnetic coupling of ionospheric current systems to both a homogeneous Earth having finite conductivity, and to an Earth having gross lateral variations in its conductivity structure, e.g., the ocean-land interface. Typical results from the model simulation for ionospheric currents flowing parallel to a representative geologic discontinuity are shown. Although the total magnetic field component at the satellite altitude is an order of magnitude smaller than at the Earth's surface (because of cancellation effects from the source current), the anomalous behavior of the satellite observations as the vehicle passes over the geologic contact is relatively more important pronounced. The results discriminate among gross lithospheric structures because of difference in electrical conductivity.

  20. Detection of biomass burning smoke from TOMS measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, N.C.; Seftor, C.J.; Torres, O.; Eck, T.F. [Hughes STX, Greenbelt, MD (United States)] [and others] [Hughes STX, Greenbelt, MD (United States); and others

    1996-04-01

    A 14.5 year gridded data set of tropospheric absorbing aerosol index was derived from the Nimbus-7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) reflectivity difference between 340 and 380 nm channels. Based upon radiative transfer calculations, the reflectivity anomaly between these two UV wavelength channels is very sensitive to smoke and soot aerosols from biomass burning and forest fires, volcanic ash clouds as well as desert mineral dust. The authors demonstrate the ability of the TOMS instrument to detect and track smoke and soot aerosols generated by biomass burning in South America. TOMS data can clearly distinguish between absorbing particles (smoke and dust) and non-absorbing aerosols (clouds and haze). For South American fires, comparisons of TOMS data are consistent with the limited amount of ground-based observations (Porto Nacional, Brazil) and show generally good agreement with other satellite imagery. TOMS data shows large-scale transport of smoke particulates generated by the burning fires in the South America, which subsequentially advects smoke aerosols as far as the Atlantic Ocean east of Uruguay. 15 refs., 4 fig.

  1. VARIATION OF IWASAWA INVARIANTS IN HIDA FAMILIES MATTHEW EMERTON, ROBERT POLLACK AND TOM WESTON

    E-print Network

    Emerton, Matthew

    VARIATION OF IWASAWA INVARIANTS IN HIDA FAMILIES MATTHEW EMERTON, ROBERT POLLACK AND TOM WESTON 1(¯), then it holds for all f H(¯). 1 #12;2 MATTHEW EMERTON, ROBERT POLLACK AND TOM WESTON The corollary

  2. Probing the Solar System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, John

    2013-01-01

    Humans have always had the vision to one day live on other planets. This vision existed even before the first person was put into orbit. Since the early space missions of putting humans into orbit around Earth, many advances have been made in space technology. We have now sent many space probes deep into the Solar system to explore the planets and…

  3. Electromagnetic deep-probing (100-1000 KMS) of the Earth's interior from artificial satellites: Constraints on the regional emplacement of crustal resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hermance, J. F. (principal investigator)

    1980-01-01

    The applicability of electromagnetic deep sounding experiments using natural sources in the magnetosphere by incorporating Magsat data with other geophysical data was evaluated. Magsat satellite data, ground based magnetic observations, appropriate reference field models, and other satellite data was analyzed. The optimal combination of observations which lead first to a global and then to a regional characterization of the conductivity of the Earth's upper mantle is sought.

  4. Earth Sciences Environmental Earth Sciences,

    E-print Network

    Brierley, Andrew

    94 Earth Sciences­ Environmental Earth Sciences, Geology Degree options MGeol (Single Honours Degrees) Earth Sciences BSc (Single Honours Degrees) Environmental Earth Sciences Geology BSc (Joint placement. * The Geology and Environmental Earth Sciences degrees are accredited by the Geological Society

  5. Remote Hyperspectral Imaging of Endolithic Biofilms Using a Robotic Probe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amanda E. Lowell; Kah-Siew Ho; Robert A. Lodder

    Many scientists on Earth have concentrated their searches for extraterrestrial life on robotic probes sent to nearby planets and moons. These robotic probes are able to analyze conditions on the planets and transmit data back to Earth. One branch of astrobiology is devoted to duplicating the specified conditions of remote planets and moons on Earth, and identifying the life that

  6. Open Sensor Web Architecture: Stateful Web Tom Kobialka 1

    E-print Network

    Melbourne, University of

    Open Sensor Web Architecture: Stateful Web Services Tom Kobialka 1 , Rajkumar Buyya 2 , Christopher As sensor networks become more pervasive there emerges a need for interfacing applications to perform common operations and transformations on sensor data. Web Services provide an interoperable and platform independent

  7. TOM: Teaching flow over Mountains Worksheet at the radar site

    E-print Network

    1 TOM: Teaching flow over Mountains Worksheet at the radar site Exercise 1: Sign in Names on the radar? Briefly describe the differences between the three configurations. What is the maximum range between the closest part of the Foothills and the radar location. Write down the distance in kilometers: b

  8. Magnitude of Metric Spaces II Tom Leinster & Simon Willerton

    E-print Network

    Willerton, Simon

    Magnitude of Metric Spaces II Tom Leinster & Simon Willerton Universities of Glasgow & Sheffield Integral Geometry and Valuation Theory, CRM Barcelona 8th September 2010 #12;Weighting and magnitude Recall: Suppose A is a finite metric space. 1/12 #12;Weighting and magnitude Recall: Suppose A is a finite metric

  9. The Bostonian: Tom Payzant's Focused Approach to School Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russo, Alexander

    2006-01-01

    This article features Boston superintendent Tom Payzant. In a national landscape dotted with dysfunctional urban systems and short-lived superintendents, Payzant stands out. With over a decade at the helm, Payzant is arguably the best big-city school leader in the nation and Boston the most improved urban district. The success side of the Payzant…

  10. The Microsoft TerraServerTM Tom Barclay, Robert Eberl,

    E-print Network

    Narasayya, Vivek

    The Microsoft TerraServerTM Tom Barclay, Robert Eberl, Jim Gray, John Nordlinger, Guru Raghavendran, Don Slutz, Greg Smith, Phil Smoot Microsoft Research and Development John Hoffman, Natt Robb III-TR-98-17 Microsoft Research Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way Redmond, WA 98052 #12;The Microsoft

  11. Wireless Network Security Partha Dasgupta and Tom Boyd

    E-print Network

    Dasgupta, Partha

    Wireless Network Security Partha Dasgupta and Tom Boyd Dept. of Computer Science and Engineering Fulton School of Engineering Arizona State University partha@asu.edu, tboyd@asu.edu Abstract Wireless, there are a variety of attack methods that can be used against the users of wireless networks. Modern wireless data

  12. Characters of the Partition Algebras Tom Halverson1

    E-print Network

    Halverson, Tom

    Characters of the Partition Algebras Tom Halverson1 Department of Mathematics and Computer Science Macalester College, Saint Paul, Minnesota, 55105 E-mail: halverson@macalester.edu Frobenius [Fr] determined-29992. 1 #12;2 T. HALVERSON general partition algebra Pn(), with parameter C. They show that Pn

  13. Procedural Modeling of Urban Land Use Tom Lechner1

    E-print Network

    Wilensky, Uri

    1 Procedural Modeling of Urban Land Use Tom Lechner1 , Benjamin Watson2 Dept. EECS, Dept. CS Dept. CS, Prog. LS Northwestern Univ. Abstract Cities are widely used as content in digital productions not model land use, meaning artists must arrange the buildings in the cities they create manually. We

  14. A Genetic Algorithm for Simultaneous Localization and Mapping Tom Duckett

    E-print Network

    Duckett, Tom

    A Genetic Algorithm for Simultaneous Localization and Mapping Tom Duckett Centre for Applied. The fitness values in the genetic algorithm are obtained with a heuristic function that measures of the maps produced, and the search proceeds using a genetic algorithm (GA). GAs are a well-known search

  15. A Genetic Algorithm for Simultaneous Localization and Mapping Tom Duckett

    E-print Network

    Duckett, Tom

    A Genetic Algorithm for Simultaneous Localization and Mapping Tom Duckett Centre for Applied. The fitness values in the genetic algorithm are obtained with a heuristic function that measures of the maps produced, and the search proceeds using a genetic algorithm (GA). GAs are a well­known search

  16. Presentation order and online learning Tom Heskes and Wim Wiegerinck

    E-print Network

    Heskes, Tom

    1 Presentation order and on­line learning Tom Heskes and Wim Wiegerinck RWCP 1 Novel Functions SNN of the presentation order of training patterns on the performance of on­line learning neural networks. In the context to a finite number of examples from this environment: the training set. A popular learning strategy is on­line

  17. Towards a Taxonomy of Software Evolution Tom Mens Jim Buckley

    E-print Network

    Zenger, Matthias

    Towards a Taxonomy of Software Evolution Tom Mens Jim Buckley Vrije Universiteit Brussel Pleinlaan taxonomies of software evolution have focused on the purpose of the change (i.e., the why) rather than the underlying mechanisms. This paper proposes a taxonomy of software evolution based on the characterizing

  18. A hypothesis for delayed dynamic earthquake triggering Tom Parsons

    E-print Network

    component of earthquake probability forecasts [e.g., Working Group on California Earthquake ProbabilitiesA hypothesis for delayed dynamic earthquake triggering Tom Parsons U.S. Geological Survey, Menlo; published 16 February 2005. [1] It's uncertain whether more near-field earthquakes are triggered by static

  19. The Laws of Large Numbers Compared Tom Verhoeff

    E-print Network

    Verhoeff, Tom

    The Laws of Large Numbers Compared Tom Verhoeff July 1993 1 Introduction Probability Theory there are numer- ous subtle variants of differing generality. Also the Central Limit Theorems are often brought up a concise formal exposition all in one place. The material presented here is certainly not new

  20. Total ozone trends deduced from Nimbus 7 TOMS data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard S. Stolarski; R. D. McPeters; J. R. Herman; P. Bloomfield

    1991-01-01

    The Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) on the Nimbus 7 satellite has been measuring the total column amount of ozone over the globe for more than 11 years. Recent improvements in the data analysis have led to a technique for determining and removing drift in the calibration such that the data at the end of the record are precise to

  1. Challenge without Threat: An Interview with Tom Dewell

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stork, Steve

    2005-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Tom Dewell, a professional physical educator with 28 years of experience and a fixture in Dallas physical education. Dewell has melded a background in movement education and adapted physical education with early childhood theory, including Montessori. The bulk of his experience has been in private, parochial…

  2. Genetic and Functional Interactions between the Mitochondrial Outer Membrane Proteins Tom6 and Sam37?

    PubMed Central

    Dukanovic, Jovana; Dimmer, Kai S.; Bonnefoy, Nathalie; Krumpe, Katrin; Rapaport, Doron

    2009-01-01

    The TOM complex is the general mitochondrial entry site for newly synthesized proteins. Precursors of ?-barrel proteins initially follow this common pathway and are then relayed to the SAM/TOB complex, which mediates their integration into the outer membrane. Three proteins, Sam50 (Tob55), Sam35 (Tob38/Tom38), and Sam37 (Mas37), have been identified as the core constituents of the latter complex. Sam37 is essential for growth at elevated temperatures, but the function of the protein is currently unresolved. To identify interacting partners of Sam37 and thus shed light on its function, we screened for multicopy suppressors of sam37?. We identified the small subunit of the TOM complex, Tom6, as such a suppressor and found a tight genetic interaction between the two proteins. Overexpression of SAM37 suppresses the growth phenotype of tom6?, and cells lacking both genes are not viable. The ability of large amounts of Tom6 to suppress the sam37? phenotype can be linked to the capacity of Tom6 to stabilize Tom40, an essential ?-barrel protein which is the central component of the TOM complex. Our results suggest that Sam37 is required for growth at higher temperatures, since it enhances the biogenesis of Tom40, and this requirement can be overruled by improved stability of newly synthesized Tom40 molecules. PMID:19797086

  3. Coordination and ion-ion interactions of chromium centers in alkaline earth zinc borate glasses probed by electron paramagnetic resonance and optical spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumalatha, B.; Omkaram, I.; Rajavardana Rao, T.; Linga Raju, Ch

    2013-05-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), optical absorption and FT-IR studies have been carried out on chromium ions incorporated in alkaline earth zinc borate glasses. The EPR spectra exhibit two resonance signals with effective g values at g ? 1.99 and ?1.97. The resonance signal at g ? 1.99 is attributed to the contribution from both the exchange coupled Cr3+-Cr3+ ion pairs and the isolated Cr3+ ions and the resonance signal at g ? 1.97 is due to Cr5+ ions. The paramagnetic susceptibility (?) was calculated from the EPR data at various (123-303 K) temperatures and the Curie temperature (?p) was calculated from the 1/?-T graph. The optical absorption spectra exhibit three bands at ˜360 nm, ˜440 nm and a broad band at ˜615 nm characteristic of Cr3+ ions in an octahedral symmetry. From the observed band positions, the crystal-field splitting parameter Dq and the Racah parameters (B and C) have been evaluated. From the ultraviolet edges, the optical band gap energies (Eopt) and Urbach energy (?E) are calculated. The theoretical optical basicity (?th) of these glasses has also been evaluated. Chromium ions doped alkaline earth zinc borate glasses show BO3 and BO4 structural units in the FT-IR studies.

  4. Extragenic suppressors that rescue defects in the heat stress response of the budding yeast mutant tom1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Sasaki; A. Toh-e; Y. Kikuchi

    2000-01-01

    The TOM1 gene codes for a so-called HECT protein, a putative ubiquitin ligase, in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Deletion of the entire gene (tom1-10) or the sequence encoding the HECT domain (tom1-2) causes temperature sensitivity for growth. Here we report the isolation of extragenic, recessive suppressors of tom1-2, which were designated tmr (for tom1 revertant) mutations. These were classified into eight complementation

  5. Nimbus-7 TOMS Antarctic ozone atlas: August through November, 1989

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krueger, Arlin J.; Penn, Lanning M.; Larko, David E.; Doiron, Scott D.; Guimaraes, Patricia T.

    1990-01-01

    Because of the great environmental significance of ozone and to support continuing research at the Antarctic and other Southern Hemisphere stations, the development of the 1989 ozone hole was monitored using data from the Nimbus-7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) instrument, produced in near-real-time. This Atlas provides a complete set of daily polar orthographic projections of the TOMS total ozone measurements over the Southern Hemisphere for the period August 1 through November 30, 1989. The 1989 ozone hole developed in a manner similar to that of 1987, reaching a comparable depth in early October. This was in sharp contrast to the much weaker hole of 1988. The 1989 ozone hole remained at polar latitudes as it filled in November, in contrast to other recent years when the hole drifted to mid-latitudes before disappearing. Daily ozone values above selected Southern Hemisphere stations are presented, along with comparisons of the 1989 ozone distribution to that of other years.

  6. Assignment C 10 Tom was a piper's son.

    E-print Network

    Ward, Nigel

    Assignment C 10 Tom was a piper's son. He learned to play when he was young. He pleased both C 9 They've all gone away. Pussy­cat, where have you been? I've been to London to visit the queen. Pussy­cat, what did you do there? I frightened a little mouse under her chair. Rain, go away. Come again

  7. Spectrophotometric probe

    DOEpatents

    Prather, William S. (Augusta, GA); O'Rourke, Patrick E. (Martinez, GA)

    1994-01-01

    A support structure bearing at least one probe for making spectrophotometric measurements of a fluid using a source of light and a spectrophotometer. The probe includes a housing with two optical fibers and a planoconvex lens. A sleeve bearing a mirror surrounds the housing. The lens is separated from the mirror by a fixed distance, defining an interior space for receiving a volume of the fluid sample. A plurality of throughholes extending through the sleeve communicate between the sample volume and the exterior of the probe, all but one hole bearing a screen. A protective jacket surrounds the probe. A hollow conduit bearing a tube is formed in the wall of the probe for venting any air in the interior space when fluid enters. The probe is held at an acute angle so the optic fibers carrying the light to and from the probe are not bent severely on emergence from the probe.

  8. Molecular Chaperone Hsp70/Hsp90 Prepares the Mitochondrial Outer Membrane Translocon Receptor Tom71 for Preprotein Loading

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Jingzhi; Qian, Xinguo; Hu, Junbin; Sha, Bingdong; (UAB)

    2010-11-03

    The preproteins targeted to the mitochondria are transported through the translocase of the outer membrane complex. Tom70/Tom71 is a major surface receptor of the translocase of the outer membrane complex for mitochondrial preproteins. The preproteins are escorted to Tom70/Tom71 by molecular chaperones Hsp70 and Hsp90. Here we present the high resolution crystal structures of Tom71 and the protein complexes between Tom71 and the Hsp70/Hsp90 C terminus. The crystal structures indicate that Tom70/Tom71 may exhibit two distinct states. In the closed state, the N-terminal domain of Tom70/Tom71 partially blocks the preprotein-binding pocket. In the open state, the N-terminal domain moves away, and the preprotein-binding pocket is fully exposed. The complex formation between the C-terminal EEVD motif of Hsp70/Hsp90 and Tom71 could lock Tom71 in the open state where the preprotein-binding pocket of Tom71 is ready to receive preproteins. The interactions between Hsp70/Hsp90 and Tom71 N-terminal domain generate conformational changes that may increase the volume of the preprotein-binding pocket. The complex formation of Hsp70/Hsp90 and Tom71 also generates significant domain rearrangement within Tom71, which may position the preprotein-binding pocket closer to Hsp70/Hsp90 to facilitate the preprotein transfer from the molecular chaperone to Tom71. Therefore, molecular chaperone Hsp70/Hsp90 may function to prepare the mitochondrial outer membrane receptor Tom71 for preprotein loading.

  9. Catalog of Micro-Tom tomato responses to common fungal, bacterial, and viral pathogens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hideki Takahashi; Ayano Shimizu; Tsutomu Arie; Syofi Rosmalawati; Sumire Fukushima; Mari Kikuchi; Yasufumi Hikichi; Ayami Kanda; Akiko Takahashi; Akinori Kiba; Kohei Ohnishi; Yuki Ichinose; Fumiko Taguchi; Chihiro Yasuda; Motoichiro Kodama; Mayumi Egusa; Chikara Masuta; Hiroyuki Sawada; Daisuke Shibata; Koichi Hori; Yuichiro Watanabe

    2005-01-01

    Lycopersicon esculentum cultivar Micro-Tom is a miniature tomato with many advantages for studies of the molecular biology and physiology of plants. To evaluate the suitability of Micro-Tom as a host plant for the study of pathogenesis, Micro-Tom plants were inoculated with 16 well-known fungal, bacterial, and viral pathogens of tomato. Athelia rolfsii, Botryotinia fuckeliana, Oidium sp., Phytophthora infestans, and Sclerotinia

  10. Retrovirus-like features and site specific insertions of a transposable element, tom, in Drosophila ananassae.

    PubMed

    Tanda, S; Shrimpton, A E; Chueh, L L; Itayama, H; Matsubayashi, H; Saigo, K; Tobari, Y N; Langley, C H

    1988-11-01

    The tom element, putatively associated with optic morphology (Om) mutations in Drosophila ananassae, was identified as a retrovirus-like transposable element. The tom element was found to terminate with 475 (or 474) base pair direct repeats which are identical in sequence to each other. Southern blot and heteroduplex analyses showed the tom element to have high homology to 297 and 17.6, two retrotransposons found in D. melanogaster. As in the cases of 297 and 17.6, tom includes nucleotide sequences coding for a presumptive protease and reverse transcriptase, similar in amino acid sequence to those of the Moloney murine leukaemia virus. At the tom insertion site of the sn9g locus, a host DNA sequence (T)ATAT was found to be duplicated on each side of the tom insertion and all other tom elements examined were also flanked by (T)ATAT. In each of six cases, the 5' flanking host sequence was TATAT. These results indicate that the target sequence of the tom element may be TATAT and that the entire region or a part of this sequence was duplicated on insertion of the tom element. PMID:2851093

  11. Presequence Recognition by the Tom40 Channel Contributes to Precursor Translocation into the Mitochondrial Matrix

    PubMed Central

    Melin, Jonathan; Schulz, Christian; Wrobel, Lidia; Bernhard, Olaf; Chacinska, Agnieszka; Jahn, Olaf; Schmidt, Bernhard

    2014-01-01

    More than 70% of mitochondrial proteins utilize N-terminal presequences as targeting signals. Presequence interactions with redundant cytosolic receptor domains of the translocase of the outer mitochondrial membrane (TOM) are well established. However, after the presequence enters the protein-conducting Tom40 channel, the recognition events that occur at the trans side leading up to the engagement of the presequence with inner membrane-bound receptors are less well defined. Using a photoaffinity-labeling approach with modified presequence peptides, we identified Tom40 as a presequence interactor of the TOM complex. Utilizing mass spectrometry, we mapped Tom40's presequence-interacting regions to both sides of the ?-barrel. Analysis of a phosphorylation site within one of the presequence-interacting regions revealed altered translocation kinetics along the presequence pathway. Our analyses assess the relation between the identified presequence-binding region of Tom40 and the intermembrane space domain of Tom22. The identified presequence-interacting region of Tom40 is capable of functioning independently of the established trans-acting TOM presequence-binding domain during matrix import. PMID:25002531

  12. In Their Own Words: Tom Simon - Duration: 4 minutes, 21 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    Tom Simon, a contracting officer's representative for NASA's Commercial Crew Program, discusses the importance of certifying commercial transportation systems are safe to carry NASA astronauts to t...

  13. Earth's Three

    E-print Network

    Hacker, Randi

    2010-11-17

    Broadcast Transcript: From Mongolia, land of fermented mare's milk, comes this beguiling morsel of nomadic oral tradition. It's called yertonciin gorav or Earth's Three. Earth's three what? Well, Earth's three top things in a number of categories...

  14. Earth's Atmosphere

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-08-03

    This problem set is about the methods scientists use to compare the abundance of the different elements in Earth's atmosphere. Answer key is provided. This is part of Earth Math: A Brief Mathematical Guide to Earth Science and Climate Change.

  15. Situ Discovery Electrostatic Potential, Trapping Electrons and Mediating Fast Reconnection Earth's Magnetotail

    E-print Network

    Egedal, Jan

    Situ Discovery Electrostatic Potential, Trapping Electrons and Mediating Fast Reconnection Earth phase distributions, measured Wind spacecraft a rare crossing diffusion region in Earth's magnetotail (60 Earth radii), analyzed. measured probe electrostatic magnetic geometry diffusion region. time

  16. Earth Sciences Environmental Earth Sciences,

    E-print Network

    Brierley, Andrew

    84 Earth Sciences­ Environmental Earth Sciences, Geology MGeol (Single Honours Degrees) Earth Sciences BSc (Single Honours Degrees) Environmental Earth Sciences Geology BSc (Joint Honours Degrees) and among the most research-intensive in Europe. Features * The Department of Earth and Environmental

  17. On the Study of Richard Tom Robert Identity

    E-print Network

    Yeong-Shyeong Tsai

    2008-11-05

    In order to estimate the average speed of mosquitoes, a simple experiment was designed by Richard (Lu-Hsing Tsai), Tom (Po-Yu Tsai) and Robert (Hung-Ming Tsai). The result of the experiment was posted in the science exhibitions Taichung Taiwan 1993. The average speed of mosquitoes is inferred by the simple relation that is obtained easily. In this paper, we will show how the data generated by computer. Though the rigorous proof is not shown, a sketch proof will be shown in this paper. There are five figures one table and one fortran computer source program in the end of the paper.

  18. External comparisons of reprocessed SBUV/TOMS ozone data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wellemeyer, C. G.; Taylor, S. L.; Singh, R. R.; Mcpeters, R. D.

    1994-01-01

    Ozone Retrievals from the Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet (SBUV) Instrument on-board the Nimbus-7 Satellite have been reprocessed using an improved internal calibration. The resulting data set covering November, 1978 through January, 1987 has been archived at the National Space Science Data Center in Greenbelt, Maryland. The reprocessed SBUV total ozone data as well as recalibrated Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) data are compared with total ozone measurements from a network of ground based Dobson spectrophotometers. The SBUV also measures the vertical distribution of ozone, and these measurements are compared with external measurements made by SAGE II, Umkehr, and Ozonesondes. Special attention is paid to long-term changes in ozone bias.

  19. Logic Probes

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Bartelt, Terry L. M.

    This brief interactive activity, by the Electromechanical Digital Library and Wisconsin Technical College System faculty, introduces Logic Probes. There is an overview which illustrates the probe's application and operation and how to operate a logic probe in multifamily use, steady states, and changing states. There is also a set of three review questions for students to answer at the end. This is an excellent resource, as are the others in this digital library, for reviewing fundamental concepts for electromechanical devices, systems, and applications.

  20. Has Tom Peters lost the plot? A timely review of a celebrated management guru

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Collins

    2008-01-01

    Purpose – This paper has been timed to coincide with the 25th anniversary of the publication of In Search of Excellence. Observing this anniversary, the paper aims to offer a critical review of the works of Tom Peters – a man vaunted as the guru of management. Reviewers have observed that Tom Peters' narratives of business build and depend upon

  1. The Toms River Childhood Cancer Cluster: Coupled Groundwater and Water Distribution System Modeling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. F. Sykes; S. D. Normani

    2003-01-01

    Toms River, New Jersey is the location of a statistically significant childhood cancer cluster. A 1995 cancer investigation indicated that relative to the state, the Toms River section of Dover Township had excess childhood cancer incidence for all malignant cancers combined, brain and central nervous system (CNS) cancers, and leukemia. Children under the age of five were found to have

  2. 77 FR 51912 - Safety Zone; Tom Lyons Productions Fireworks, Long Island Sound, Sands Point, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-28

    ...Safety Zone; Tom Lyons Productions Fireworks...effective from 10:30 p.m. on October...S.C. 553(b)). This provision...3(a) and 3(b)(2) of Executive...Safety Zone; Tom Lyons Productions Fireworks...Sands Point. (b) Effective Dates...effective from 10:30 p.m. on...

  3. Tom Stewart Interview (Part II): A Little Bit About the Man Behind SPEEDE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winarski, Kathy

    2004-01-01

    Although admittedly shy and more comfortable as an attentive listener, Tom Stewart is also friendly and accommodating. He graciously agreed to share his thoughts about some of the important experiences in his life. Tom is that rare bird, a native Floridian, from West Palm Beach, 68 miles north of his Miami home. He received a Bachelor of Chemical…

  4. Ozone depletion over Greece as deduced from Nimbus7 TOMS measurements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. A. VAROTSOS; A. P. CRACKNELL

    1993-01-01

    The Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) on the Nimbus-7 satellite has been measuring the total column amount of ozone over the globe for more than 13 years. Recent findings from TOMS data suggest that just north of 40° N the winter trend shows an annual ozone depletion rate of just over —0-8 per cent per year. This paper reports trends

  5. Mim1, a protein required for the assembly of the TOM complex of mitochondria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Waizenegger; Simone Schmitt; Jelena Zivkovic; Walter Neupert; Doron Rapaport

    2004-01-01

    The translocase of the outer mitochondrial membrane (TOM complex) is the general entry site for newly synthesized proteins into mitochondria. This complex is essential for the formation and maintenance of mitochondria. Here, we report on the role of the integral outer membrane protein, Mim1 (mitochondrial import), in the biogenesis of mitochondria. Depletion of Mim1 abrogates assembly of the TOM complex

  6. Software Agents for Dynamic Supply Chain Management Tom Wagner and Valerie Guralnik Honeywell Laboratories

    E-print Network

    Wagner, Thomas

    Software Agents for Dynamic Supply Chain Management Tom Wagner and Valerie Guralnik Honeywell Laboratories 3660 Technology Drive, MN65-2600 Minneapolis, MN 55418¡ wagner tom, guralnik valerie, phelps john on coordinating the activities of loosely coupled distributed entities, e.g., raw material suppliers, shippers

  7. Indonesia 82 (October 2006) Tom Boellstorff. The Gay Archipelago: Sexuality and Nation in Indonesia.

    E-print Network

    Brody, James P.

    Indonesia 82 (October 2006) Tom Boellstorff. The Gay Archipelago: Sexuality and Nation in Indonesia to underwrite what they instinctively know to be the case. In The Gay Archipelago, Tom Boellstorff describes his own response to this challenge, as he negotiated a way of conceptualizing the lives of the gay

  8. Spin of Planetary Probes in Atmospheric Flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz, R. D.

    Probes that enter planetary atmospheres are often spun during entry or descent for a variety of reasons. Their spin rate histories are influenced by often subtle effects. The spin requirements, control methods and flight experience from planetary and earth entry missions are reviewed. An interaction of the probe aerodynamic wake with a drogue parachute, observed in Gemini wind tunnel tests, is discussed in connection with the anomalous spin behaviour of the Huygens probe.

  9. An EOF study of the Earth's ozone field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manin, D.; Everson, R.; Sirovich, L.

    1996-06-01

    In a previous paper we discussed the spectral properties of the Earth's ozone layer, obtained using Empirical Orthogonal Function decomposition of the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) database. Here we present other aspects of the analysis, including the EOF method adapted for incomplete datasets, analysis of spatial structure and temporal variation of first several eigenfunctions, and an extended study of small-scale properties of ozone concentration fields.

  10. 77 FR 57477 - Delegation of Certain Functions and Authority Under Section 5(a) of the Tom Lantos Block Burmese...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-17

    ...Under Section 5(a) of the Tom Lantos Block Burmese Junta's Anti-Democratic Efforts...Under Section 5(a) of the Tom Lantos Block Burmese Junta's Anti-Democratic Efforts...section 5(a)(2) of the Tom Lantos Block Burmese Junta's Anti- Democratic...

  11. Tom, a new aromatic degradative plasmid from Burkholderia (Pseudomonas) cepacia G4

    SciTech Connect

    Shields, M.S.; Reagin, J.J.; Campbell, R. [Univ. of West Florida, Pensacola, FL (United States)] [and others

    1995-04-01

    Burkholderia (Pseudomonas) cepacia PR1{sub 23} has been shown to constitutively express a toluene catabolic pathway distinguished by a unique toluene ortho-monooxygenase (Tom). This strain has also been shown to contain two extrachromosomal elements of <70 and> 100 kb. A derivative strain cured of the largest plasmid, PR1{sub 23} Cure, was unable to grow on phenol or toluene as the sole source of carbon and energy, which requires expression of the Tom pathway. Transfer of the larger plasmid from strain G4 J(the parent strain inducible for Tom) enabled PR1{sub 23} Cure to grow on toluene or phenol via inducible Tom pathway expression. Conjugal transfer of TOM{sub 23c} from PR1{sub 23} to an antibiotic-resistant derivative of PR1{sub 23} Cure enabled the transconjugant to grow with either phenol or toluene as the sole source of carbon and energy through constitutive expression of the Tom pathway. A cloned 11.2-kb EcoRI restriction fragment of Tom{sub 23c} resulted in the expression of both Tom and catechol 2,3-dioxygenase in Escherichia coli, as evidenced by its ability to oxidize trichloroethylene, toluene, m-cresol, o-cresol, phenol, and catechol. The largest resident plasmid of PR1 was identified as the source of these genes by DNA hybridization. These results indicate that the genes which encode Tom and catechol 2,3-dioxygenase are located on TOM, an approximately 108-kb degradative plasmid of B. cepacia G4. 35 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. TOM, a new aromatic degradative plasmid from Burkholderia (Pseudomonas) cepacia G4.

    PubMed Central

    Shields, M S; Reagin, M J; Gerger, R R; Campbell, R; Somerville, C

    1995-01-01

    Burkholderia (Pseudomonas) cepacia PR1(23) has been shown to constitutively express to toluene catabolic pathway distinguished by a unique toluene ortho-monooxygenase (Tom). This strain has also been shown to contain two extrachromosomal elements of < 70 and > 100 kb. A derivative strain cured of the largest plasmid, PR1(23) Cure, was unable to grow on phenol or toluene as the sole source of carbon and energy, which requires expression of the Tom pathway. Transfer of the larger plasmid from strain G4 (the parent strain inducible for Tom) enabled PR1(23) Cure to grow on toluene or phenol via inducible Tom pathway expression. Conjugal transfer of TOM23c from PR1(23) to an antibiotic-resistant derivative of PR1(23) Cure enabled the transconjugant to grow with either phenol or toluene as the sole source of carbon and energy through constitutive expression of the Tom pathway. A cloned 11.2-kb EcoRI restriction fragment of TOM23c resulted in the expression of both Tom and catechol 2,3-dioxygenase in Escherichia coli, as evidenced by its ability to oxidize trichloroethylene, toluene, m-cresol, o-cresol, phenol, and catechol. The largest resident plasmid of PR1 was identified as the source of these genes by DNA hybridization. These results indicate that the genes which encode Tom and catechol 2,3-dioxygenase are located on TOM, an approximately 108-kb degradative plasmid of B. cepacia G4. PMID:7538275

  13. Global and Seasonal Aerosol Optical Depths Derived From Ultraviolet Observations by Satellites (TOMS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herman, J. R.; Torres, O.

    1999-01-01

    It has been shown that absorbing aerosols (dust, smoke, volcanic ash) can be detected in the ultraviolet wavelengths (331 nm to 380 nm) from satellite observations (TOMS, Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) over both land and water. The theoretical basis for these observations and their conversions to optical depths is discussed in terms of an aerosol index AI or N-value residue (assigned positive for absorbing aerosols). The theoretical considerations show that negative values of the AI frequently represent the presence of non-absorbing aerosols (NA) in the troposphere (mostly pollution in the form of sulfates, hydrocarbons, etc., and some natural sulfate aerosols) with particle sizes near 0.1 to 0.2 microns or less. The detection of small-particle non-absorbing aerosols from the measured backscattered radiances is based on the observed wavelength dependence from Mie scattering after the background Rayleigh scattering is subtracted. The Mie scattering from larger particles, 1 micron or more (e.g., cloud water droplets) has too small a wavelength dependence to be detected by this method. In regions that are mostly cloud free, aerosols of all sizes can be seen in the single channel 380 nm or 360 nm radiance data. The most prominent Al feature observed is the strong asymmetry in aerosol amount between the Northern and Southern Hemispheres, with the large majority of NA occurring above 20degN latitude. The maximum values of non-absorbing aerosols are observed over the eastern U.S. and most of western Europe corresponding to the areas of highest industrial pollution. Annual cycles in the amount of NA are observed over Europe and North America with maxima occurring in the summer corresponding to times of minimum wind transport. Similarly, the maxima in the winter over the Atlantic Ocean occurs because of wind borne transport from the land. Most regions of the world have the maximum amount of non-absorbing aerosol in the December to January period except for the eastern North America and Europe. Comparisons of the estimated TOMS aerosol optical depths show good agreement in magnitude and seasonal dependence with sun-photometer optical depths obtained at Goddard Space Flight Center (39degN 76.88degW) in the U.S. and in Lille (50.63degN 3.07degE) in France. The study of these aerosols is important for detecting the sources of industrial pollution and its redistribution by winds on a global basis, as well as its effect on reducing the UV irradiance at the Earth's surface.

  14. Probing the Proteome on Earth and Beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostrom, P.

    2008-12-01

    Less than a decade ago, protein sequencing was the bane of paleobiology. Since that time researchers have completely sequenced proteins in >50 Ka fossils, been dazzled by reports of collagen peptides in dinosaur bones, and witnessed the development of phylogenetic trees from ancient protein sequences. Enlisting proteomics as biosignature is now in our grasp. In this talk the pitfalls and challenges of mass spectrometric approaches to protein sequencing will be illustrated and phylogenetic applications will be discussed. Work on extinct organisms at Michigan State University, University of Michigan and York University will provide a vantage point to assess methodologies, explore diagenetic alterations, evaluate mass spectra and illustrate issues associated with data base searching. Challenges encountered in the study of paleoproteomics, such as the absence of sequences for extinct organisms in commercially available databases, protein diagenesis and low concentrations of target are parallel to those that will be encountered when protein sequencing is extended to extreme and extraterrestrial environments. Thus, lessons learned from interrogating the ancient proteome are important and necessary step in developing proteomics as a biosignature tools.

  15. Jetsam: Exposing our Everyday Discarded Objects Eric Paulos Tom Jenkins

    E-print Network

    Paulos, Eric

    location systems, restaurant recommendations, and familiar desktop applications redeployed mobile phones than present "killer apps" or final solutions. Jetsam: An Urban Probe Inspired by a series of Urban

  16. Contributions of Nimbus 7 TOMS Data to Volcanic Study and Hazard Mitigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krueger, Arlin J.; Bluth, G. J. S.; Schaefer, S. A.

    1998-01-01

    Nimbus TOMS data have led to advancements among many volcano-related scientific disciplines, from the initial ability to quantify SO2 clouds leading to derivations of eruptive S budgets and fluxes, to tracking of individual clouds, assessing global volcanism and atmospheric impacts. Some of the major aspects of TOMS-related research, listed below, will be reviewed and updated: (1) Measurement of volcanic SO2 clouds: Nimbus TOMS observed over 100 individual SO2 clouds during its mission lifetime; large explosive eruptions are now routinely and reliably measured by satellite. (2) Eruption processes: quantification of SO2 emissions have allowed assessments of eruption sulfur budgets, the evaluation of "excess" sulfur, and inferences of H2S emissions. (3) Detection of ash: TOMS data are now used to detect volcanic particulates in the atmosphere, providing complementary analyses to infrared methods of detection. Paired TOMS and AVHRR studies have provided invaluable information on volcanic cloud compositions and processes. (4) Cloud tracking and hazard mitigation: volcanic clouds can be considered gigantic tracers in the atmosphere, and studies of the fates of these clouds have led to new knowledge of their physical and chemical dispersion in the atmosphere for predictive models. (5) Global trends: the long term data set has provided researchers an unparalleled record of explosive volcanism, and forms a key component in assessing annual to decadal trends in global S emissions. (6) Atmospheric impacts: TOMS data have been linked to independent records of atmospheric change, in order to compare cause and effect processes following a massive injection of SO2 into the atmosphere. (7) Future TOMS instruments and applications: Nimbus TOMS has given way to new satellite platforms, with several wavelength and resolution modifications. New efforts to launch a geostationary TOMS could provide unprecedented observations of volcanic activity.

  17. The Broad Impact of TOM40 on Neurodegenerative Diseases in Aging

    PubMed Central

    Gottschalk, William K.; Lutz, Michael W.; He, Yu Ting; Saunders, Ann M.; Burns, Daniel K.; Roses, Allen D.; Chiba-Falek, Ornit

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction is an important factor in the pathogenesis of age-related diseases, including neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s spectrum disorders. A polymorphism in Translocase of the Outer Mitochondrial Membrane – 40 kD (TOMM40) is associated with risk and age-of onset of late-onset AD, and is the only nuclear- encoded gene identified in genetic studies to date that presumably contributes to LOAD-related mitochondria dysfunction. In this review, we describe the TOM40-mediated mitochondrial protein import mechanism, and discuss the evidence linking TOM40 with Alzheimer’s (AD) and Parkinson’s (PD) diseases. All but 36 of the >~1,500 mitochondrial proteins are encoded by the nucleus and are synthesized on cytoplasmic ribosomes, and most of these are imported into mitochondria through the TOM complex, of which TOM40 is the central pore, mediating communication between the cytoplasm and the mitochondrial interior. APP enters and obstructs the TOM40 pore, inhibiting import of OXPHOS-related proteins and disrupting the mitochondrial redox balance. Other pathogenic proteins, such as A? and alpha-synuclein, readily pass through the pore and cause toxic effects by directly inhibiting mitochondrial enzymes. Healthy mitochondria normally import and degrade the PD-related protein Pink1, but Pink1 exits mitochondria if the membrane potential collapses and initiates Parkin-mediated mitophagy. Under normal circumstances, this process helps clear dysfunctional mitochondria and contributes to cellular health, but PINK1 mutations associated with PD exit mitochondria with intact membrane potentials, disrupting mitochondrial dynamics, leading to pathology. Thus, TOM40 plays a central role in the mitochondrial dysfunction that underlies age-related neurodegenerative diseases. Learning about the factors that control TOM40 levels and activity, and how TOM40, specifically, and the TOM complex, generally, interacts with potentially pathogenic proteins, will provide deeper insights to AD and PD pathogenesis, and possibly new targets for preventative and/or therapeutic treatments. PMID:25745640

  18. Google Earth

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2009-01-01

    Google Earth has gone underwater with this latest iteration of their popular Earth-roaming application. Along with traveling the usual roads provided by previous versions of Google Earth, visitors can now visit the bottom of the Mariana Trench, learn about ocean observations, and even discover new places to surf and dive. On the Google Earth homepage, visitors can take a guided tour of all these new features. This version is compatible with all operating systems.

  19. Nuclear magnetic resonance in rare earth metals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. H. McCausland; I. S. Mackenzie

    1979-01-01

    This article describes the study, by nuclear magnetic resonance, of both static and dynamical aspects of the hyperfine interaction in rare earth metals, and illustrates the categories of information that can be obtained by using nuclei as microscopic probes in metallic media. The systems discussed include not only the pure rare earth metals but also their alloys and their metallic

  20. Traffic dynamics in empirical probe vehicle data studied with three-phase theory: Spatiotemporal reconstruction of traffic phases and generation of jam warning messages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerner, Boris S.; Rehborn, Hubert; Schäfer, Ralf-Peter; Klenov, Sergey L.; Palmer, Jochen; Lorkowski, Stefan; Witte, Nikolaus

    2013-01-01

    Empirical and theoretical analyses of the spatiotemporal dynamics of traffic flow reconstructed from randomly distributed probe vehicle data are presented. For the empirical analysis, probe vehicle data generated by TomTom’s navigation devices in the commercial TomTom’s HD-traffic service as well as road detector data measured at the same road section are used. A stochastic microscopic (car-following) three-phase model is further developed for simulations of a real empirical complex spatiotemporal traffic dynamics measured over a three-lane long road stretch with several different bottlenecks. Physical features and limitations of simulations of real spatiotemporal traffic dynamics are revealed. Phase transition points between free flow (F), synchronized flow (S), and wide moving jam (J) are identified along trajectories of empirical and simulated probe vehicles randomly distributed in traffic flow. As predicted by three-phase theory, the empirical probe vehicle data shows that traffic breakdown is an F?S transition and wide moving jams emerge only in synchronized flow, i.e., due to S?J transitions. Through the use of the simulations, it has been found that already about 2% of probe vehicle data allows us to reconstruct traffic dynamics in space and time with an accuracy that is high enough for most applications like the generation of jam warning messages studied in the article.

  1. Earth Calendar

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Jeffrey Barker

    This handout lists major events in Earth history with approximate ages (in millions of years before present). The calendar date is determined by setting midnight, January 1, to correspond with the formation of the Earth, and setting the following midnight, December 31, to correspond to the present. Thus, the entire history of the Earth is displayed as a single calendar year.

  2. Edible Earth

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2011-08-20

    In this activity, learners make a model of the solid Earth's layers that's good enough to eat! Learners use tasty foodstuffs to simulate Earth's inner core, outer core, mantle, and crust. The recipe includes ingredients for one edible Earth, but can be doubled or tripled to accommodate groups of learners. This activity requires adult supervision.

  3. Earth's Layers

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mrs. Walls

    2011-01-30

    Complete a poster all about Earth's Layers! Directions: Make a poster about Earth's Layers. (20 points) Include at least (1) large picture (15 points) on your poster complete with labels of every part (10 points). (15 points) Include at least three (3) facts about Earth's Layers. (5 points each) (15 points) Write at least a three sentence summary of your poster ...

  4. Earth Flow

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Wiley

    This Flash animation with accompanying audio exhibits the different stages involved in the formation of an earth flow. A step-like scarp forms along with a flowage zone at the toe of the earth flow. The sequence concludes with the stabilization of the earth flow with vegetation. Expect long loading times.

  5. Global Scheme of Lunar-Earth Information Network LI Teng, XU Min and YANG Wei

    E-print Network

    Li, Teng

    , through which an information collection and communication network is formed. Moreover, the triune-Earth Information Network is composed of a lunar-earth Messenger, a lunar Orbiter and a Lunar Probe net on the moon and communication network is formed. 2.2 Contents 1. Moonscape Lunar Probe Net: The lunar probe net may

  6. Version 8 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) Algorithm Charles G. Wellemeyer1

    E-print Network

    things, the Version 8 enhancements have reduced latitudinal dependence seen previously in the TOMS Dobson, inter-annual variability and long-term trends are minimally influenced by the algorithm, thus any

  7. Dr. Robert Harmon Dr. Tom Gillpatrick International marketing/business, decision

    E-print Network

    Dr. Robert Harmon Dr. Tom Gillpatrick International marketing/business, decision making, marketing research + market analysis, marketing education, online marketing, pricing Dr. Douglas Tseng academic ­ various levels of government in several countries International business, marketing research Quantitative

  8. Variations of total ozone in the north polar region as seen by TOMS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stolarski, Richard S.; Krueger, Arlin J.

    1988-01-01

    Data from the TOMS instrument has been used to follow the course of development of the Antarctic ozone springtime minimum since 1979. Addressed is the question of possible north polar region changes which might be deduced from the nine years of TOMS measurements of total ozone. Total ozone is a much more variable quantity in the Northern Hemisphere than in the Southern Hemisphere. This makes the search for trends more difficult and the interpretation of results more uncertain. The 9-yr time series of TOMS data at high latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere is examined. Because the TOMS measurements have drifted by 3 to 4 percent with respect to closely collocated Dobson measurements, it was chosen in this study to adopt the Dobson normalization and adjust the TOMS measurements accordingly. The difference between the last two years (1986 and 1987) of the TOMS record, and the first two years of the record (1979 and 1980) are shown. The difference in percent is given as a function of latitude and time of year. The Antarctic springtime decrease is clearly seen as well as a smaller change which extends to about 50 degrees south latitude at all seasons. Changes in the Northern Hemisphere are less dramatic and are concentrated near the polar night where solar zenith angles are very large. These data are now being examined in more detail and updated results will be presented at the Workshop.

  9. Visible Earth

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    NASA's Visible Earth is a searchable directory of images, visualizations, and animations of the Earth. The images are also listed under the following categories: agriculture, atmosphere, biosphere, cryosphere, human dimensions, hydrosphere, land surface, oceans, radiance or imagery, solid earth, locations, and satellites. Accompanying each image are credits, data about the image, the satellite it was taken from, a description of what is shown, and a high-resolution viewable image.

  10. Earth's Interior

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    John Louie

    This website contains class notes from a Geology 101 (physical geology) course. It discusses the composition and structure of the Earth's interior. Each layer, the inner core, outer core, mantle, and crust, is covered. Details about each layer explain their composition, temperature, depth, and state. Also covered is how scientists discovered what the interior of the Earth is made of through the use of seismic waves, plate tectonics, and the Earth's magnetic field.

  11. Wheel probes

    SciTech Connect

    Bull, R.B.

    1981-12-01

    By employing a flexible diaphragm in the wall of the fluid chamber, an improved ultrasonic wheel probe for internal pipe inspection avoids the loss of the liquid acoustic coupling medium that can occur in high-pressure environments. This diaphragm deflects in response to pressure changes thus balancing the liquid pressure with the pressure of the gas in the pipe.

  12. Pollution Probe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chant, Donald A.

    This book is written as a statement of concern about pollution by members of Pollution Probe, a citizens' anti-pollution group in Canada. Its purpose is to create public awareness and pressure for the eventual solution to pollution problems. The need for effective government policies to control the population explosion, conserve natural resources,…

  13. Earth Island

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Earth Island Web site is maintained by the Earth Island Institute (EII). EII also publishes the Earth Island Journal quarterly. The current issue of the journal can be browsed by section or by subject, and offers current news, world reports, and feature articles on a wide range of environmental subject areas. Earth Island also undertakes a number of projects that are discussed at the site as well as in a portion of the journal. The entire site is searchable. This is an excellent site for those interested in keeping up on environmental issues.

  14. Training preschoolers on first-order false belief understanding: transfer on advanced ToM skills and metamemory.

    PubMed

    Lecce, Serena; Bianco, Federica; Demicheli, Patrizia; Cavallini, Elena

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the relation between theory of mind (ToM) and metamemory knowledge using a training methodology. Sixty-two 4- to 5-year-old children were recruited and randomly assigned to one of two training conditions: A first-order false belief (ToM) and a control condition. Intervention and control groups were equivalent at pretest for age, parents' education, verbal ability, inhibition, and ToM. Results showed that after the intervention children in the ToM group improved in their first-order false belief understanding significantly more than children in the control condition. Crucially, the positive effect of the ToM intervention was stable over 2 months and generalized to more complex ToM tasks and metamemory. PMID:25040788

  15. Earth Day

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    On April 22, 2005, people around the world will celebrate the 35th anniversary of Earth Day. This Topic in Depth focuses on the past and present of this significant day. From the Wisconsin Historical Society, the first two sites contain historical documents pertaining to Earth Day. The first (1) document features a May 1970 issue of The Gaylord Nelson Newsletter reporting on the first Earth Day. The second (2) document is a speech by Nelson entitled "An Environmental Agenda for the 70's." Housed in the archives of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) website, the next two sites also contain historical documents. The first (3) site contains an article written by Nelson for the EPA Journal in April of 1980, entitled "Earth Day '70: What It Meant." The second (4) site contains an article written by John C. Whitaker (former Interior undersecretary in the Nixon administration) for the EPA Journal in the summer of 1998. The article is entitled "Earth Day Recollections: What It Was Like When the Movement Took Off." The (5) Earth Day Network (first mentioned in the April 4, 2003, Scout Report for Life Sciences) works "to broaden the environmental movement worldwide and to educate and mobilize people, governments, and corporations to take responsibility for a clean and healthy environment." In addition to information sections about Ongoing Programs, Current Campaigns, and News, the Earth Day Network website contains Earth Day 2005 Materials for organizers. From EarthDay.gov, Take Action In Your Classroom (6) offers links to a variety of environmental education resources. The next website, from the U.S. Army Environmental Center, presents (7) Army Earth Day; and links to information about the Army's environmental activities. The final (8) site is an Earth Day-inspired educational website (first reported on in the April 14, 1999 Scout Report for Science & Engineering) from the Wilderness Society. The site offers a collection of environmental education resources for teachers and students. [NL

  16. Earth\\'s Mass Variability

    E-print Network

    Mawad, Ramy

    2014-01-01

    The perturbation of the Earth caused by variability of mass of Earth as additional reason with gravity of celestial bodies and shape of the Earth. The Earth eating and collecting matters from space and loss or eject matters to space through its flying in the space around the Sun. The source of the rising in the global sea level is not closed in global warming and icebergs, but the outer space is the additional important source for this rising. The Earth eats waters from space in unknown mechanism. The mass of the Earth become greater in November i.e. before transit apoapsis two months, and become latter in February i.e. after transit apoapsis to two months.

  17. The pro-apoptotic BH3-only protein Bim interacts with components of the translocase of the outer mitochondrial membrane (TOM).

    PubMed

    Frank, Daniel O; Dengjel, Jörn; Wilfling, Florian; Kozjak-Pavlovic, Vera; Häcker, Georg; Weber, Arnim

    2015-01-01

    The pro-apoptotic Bcl-2-family protein Bim belongs to the BH3-only proteins known as initiators of apoptosis. Recent data show that Bim is constitutively inserted in the outer mitochondrial membrane via a C-terminal transmembrane anchor from where it can activate the effector of cytochrome c-release, Bax. To identify regulators of Bim-activity, we conducted a search for proteins interacting with Bim at mitochondria. We found an interaction of Bim with Tom70, Tom20 and more weakly with Tom40, all components of the Translocase of the Outer Membrane (TOM). In vitro import assays performed on tryptically digested yeast mitochondria showed reduced Bim insertion into the outer mitochondrial membrane (OMM) indicating that protein receptors may be involved in the import process. However, RNAi against components of TOM (Tom40, Tom70, Tom22 or Tom20) by siRNA, individually or in combination, did not consistently change the amount of Bim on HeLa mitochondria, either at steady state or upon de novo-induction. In support of this, the individual or combined knock-downs of TOM receptors also failed to alter the susceptibility of HeLa cells to Bim-induced apoptosis. In isolated yeast mitochondria, lack of Tom70 or the TOM-components Tom20 or Tom22 alone did not affect the import of Bim into the outer mitochondrial membrane. In yeast, expression of Bim can sensitize the cells to Bax-dependent killing. This sensitization was unaffected by the absence of Tom70 or by an experimental reduction in Tom40. Although thus the physiological role of the Bim-TOM-interaction remains unclear, TOM complex components do not seem to be essential for Bim insertion into the OMM. Nevertheless, this association should be noted and considered when the regulation of Bim in other cells and situations is investigated. PMID:25875815

  18. The Pro-Apoptotic BH3-Only Protein Bim Interacts with Components of the Translocase of the Outer Mitochondrial Membrane (TOM)

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Daniel O.; Dengjel, Jörn; Wilfling, Florian; Kozjak-Pavlovic, Vera; Häcker, Georg; Weber, Arnim

    2015-01-01

    The pro-apoptotic Bcl-2-family protein Bim belongs to the BH3-only proteins known as initiators of apoptosis. Recent data show that Bim is constitutively inserted in the outer mitochondrial membrane via a C-terminal transmembrane anchor from where it can activate the effector of cytochrome c-release, Bax. To identify regulators of Bim-activity, we conducted a search for proteins interacting with Bim at mitochondria. We found an interaction of Bim with Tom70, Tom20 and more weakly with Tom40, all components of the Translocase of the Outer Membrane (TOM). In vitro import assays performed on tryptically digested yeast mitochondria showed reduced Bim insertion into the outer mitochondrial membrane (OMM) indicating that protein receptors may be involved in the import process. However, RNAi against components of TOM (Tom40, Tom70, Tom22 or Tom20) by siRNA, individually or in combination, did not consistently change the amount of Bim on HeLa mitochondria, either at steady state or upon de novo-induction. In support of this, the individual or combined knock-downs of TOM receptors also failed to alter the susceptibility of HeLa cells to Bim-induced apoptosis. In isolated yeast mitochondria, lack of Tom70 or the TOM-components Tom20 or Tom22 alone did not affect the import of Bim into the outer mitochondrial membrane. In yeast, expression of Bim can sensitize the cells to Bax-dependent killing. This sensitization was unaffected by the absence of Tom70 or by an experimental reduction in Tom40. Although thus the physiological role of the Bim-TOM-interaction remains unclear, TOM complex components do not seem to be essential for Bim insertion into the OMM. Nevertheless, this association should be noted and considered when the regulation of Bim in other cells and situations is investigated. PMID:25875815

  19. 146 Earth Science 147 Earth Science

    E-print Network

    Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

    146 Earth Science 147 Earth Science ESCI 101 The Earth or ESCI 102 Evolution of the Earth or ESCI 107 Oceans and Global Change or ESCI 108 Crises of the Earth ESCI 105 Introductory Lab for Earth Geophysics I ESCI 444 Exploration Geophysics II or ESCI 446 Solid Earth Geophysics Math and Other Sciences

  20. Galileo Probe battery system [space power

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. P. Dagarin; R. K. Taenaka; E. J. Stofel

    1996-01-01

    This past year, the Galileo Probe successfully completed its ambitious mission-descending into Jupiter's atmosphere to measure its gaseous properties. This brought to fruition work that had been in progress for 18 years, the last 6 of which were required just for the long transit from Earth to Jupiter. The Probe's electrical source was a primary Li-SO2 battery, supplemented with thermally

  1. Rainbow Earth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona State Dept. of Library and Archives, Phoenix.

    The environment is a great concern in the 1990s, and everyone needs to work at maintaining our planet. The 1992 Arizona State Library Reading Program, "Rainbow Earth," provides children with many techniques they can use to help the Earth. This reading program guide provides information on the following: goals, objectives, and evaluation; getting…

  2. Earth Tremors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. L. Dallas

    1896-01-01

    IN Prof. Milne's article in NATURE of December 26, he states that earth tremors are more frequent during the winter than during the summer, that they are frequent with a low barometer, and still more frequent when the locality of observation is crossed by steep barometrical gradients. In the North-West Himalayas, throughout the winter months, slight earth tremors are exceedingly

  3. Earth tides

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, J.C.

    1984-01-01

    Nineteen papers on gravity, tilt, and strain tides are compiled into this volume. Detailed chapters cover the calculation of the tidal forces and of the Earth's response to them, as well as actual observations of earth tides. Partial Contents: On Earth tides. The tidal forces: Tidal Forces. New Computations of the Tide-Generating Potential. Corrected Tables of Tidal Harmonics. The Theory of Tidal Deformations. Body Tides on an Elliptical, Rotating, Elastic and Oceanless Earth, Deformation of the Earth by Surface Loads. Gravimetric Tidal Loading Computed from Integrated Green's Functions. Tidal Friction in the Solid Earth. Loading Tides Versus Body Tides. Lunar Tidal Acceleration from Earth Satellite Orbit Analysis. Observations: gravity. Tidal Gravity in Britain: Tidal Loading and the Spatial Distribution of the Marine Tide. Tidal Loading along a Profile Europe-East Africa-South Asia-Australia and the Pacific Ocean. Detailed Gravity-Tide Spectrum between One and Four Cycles per Day. Observations: tilt and strain. Cavity and Topographic Effects in Tilt and Strain Measurement. Observations of Local Elastic Effects on Earth Tide Tilts and Strains.

  4. CREATION OF PATHOGEN MIMETICS AS NOVEL DRUG DELIVERY PLATFORMS Tom Bongiorno, University of Notre Dame, SURF 2010 Fellow

    E-print Network

    Li, Mo

    CREATION OF PATHOGEN MIMETICS AS NOVEL DRUG DELIVERY PLATFORMS Tom Bongiorno, University of Notre phagocytosis of antibody-coated polystyrene microspheres, which served as pathogen mimetics. Although part

  5. The 1987 Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment: the Nimbus-7 TOMS Data Atlas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krueger, Arlin J.; Ardanuy, Philip E.; Sechrist, Frank S.; Penn, Lanning M.; Larko, David E.; Doiron, Scott D.; Galimore, Reginald N.

    1988-01-01

    Total ozone data taken by the Nimbus-7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) played a central role in the successful outcome of the 1987 Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment. The near-real-time TOMS total ozone observations were suppled within hours of real time to the operations center in Punta Arenas, Chile, over a telecommunications network designed specifically for this purpose. The TOMS data preparation and method of transfer over the telecommunications links are reviewed. This atlas includes a complete set of the near-real-time TOMS orbital overpass data over regions around the Palmer Peninsula of Antarctica for the period of August 8 through September 29, 1987. Also provided are daily polar orthographic projections of TOMS total ozone measurements over the Southern Hemisphere from August through November 1987. In addition, a chronology of the salient points of the experiment, along with some latitudinal cross sections and time series at locations of interest of the TOMS total ozone observations are presented. The TOMS total ozone measurements are evaluated along the flight tracks of each of the ER-2 and DC-8 missions during the experiment. The ozone hole is shown here to develop in a monotonic progression throughout late August and September. The minimum total ozone amount was found on 5 October, when its all-time lowest value of 109 DU is recorded. The hole remains well defined, but fills gradually from mid-October through mid-November. The hole's dissolution is observed here to begin in mid-November, when it elongates and begins to rotate. By the end of November, the south pole is no longer located within the ozone hole.

  6. Probing recursion.

    PubMed

    Lobina, David J

    2014-11-01

    The experimental probing of recursion in human performance is faced with non-trivial problems. Here, I analyse three case studies from the literature and argue that they tell us little about the underlying mental processes at play within each of these domains: (a) the question of whether experimental participants employ recursive rules in parsing artificial strings of nonsense syllables; (b) the role of self-embedded structures in reasoning and general cognition; and (c) the reputed connection between structural features of a given object and the corresponding, recursive rules needed to represent/generate it. I then outline what a recursive process would actually look like and how one could go about probing its presence in human behaviour, concluding, however, that recursive processes in performance are very unlikely, at least as far as fast, mandatory, and automatic modular processes are concerned. PMID:24817314

  7. MODIS and TOMS Retrievals of Volcanic Sulfur and Ash Emissions from Nyamuragira Volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bluth, G. J.; Watson, I. M.; Rose, W. I.; Realmuto, V. J.; Carn, S.; Krueger, A. J.; Lait, L. R.

    2001-12-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) on board the Terra platform has the ability to retrieve sulfur dioxide, sulfate and ash burdens (using 4 bands in the IR spectrum). MODIS images are available at least once per day, with a nadir resolution of 1 km. NASA's Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) uses 6 ultraviolet wavelengths to retrieve sulfur dioxide quantitatively and map ash and aerosols. TOMS images are available once per day, with a nadir resolution of 39 km. Thus retrievals using the two instruments have the capability for fairly robust cross-validation. Nyamuragira volcano, in the Democratic Republic of Congo, has produced 12 distinct periods of activity over the past 20 years, most recently in February-March of 2001. TOMS data include daily images from Feb. 6 - 21, typically observed 0900 - 1100 GMT. SO2 emissions were observed on 9 days following the initial eruption; on several other days there were traces of sulfur dioxide signals which will continue to be investigated. Archived MODIS data have been analyzed during the morning overpass (about 0900 GMT) for the first two post-eruption days, with more analyses planned to coincide with the TOMS retrievals. To help constrain cloud altitudes and sulfur emissions derived from the satellite data, we use the Goddard isentropic trajectory model to track parcel trajectories over short periods of time. Gridded meteorological fields from the Goddard Data Assimilation Office's GEOS-3 product are used as input. Comparisons of gas, ash and aerosol retrievals from the TOMS and MODIS sensors will provide a good test under tropical (wet) atmosphere conditions. TOMS-measured SO2 emissions for the first 5 days ranged from 50-500 kt, followed by 6 days of generally lesser emissions (20-100 kt). TOMS detected sulfate aerosols on six days, but detection was not directly correlated to SO2 amounts. MODIS retrievals show a NW-drifting sulfur dioxide cloudmass coincident with clouds mapped by TOMS, and consistent with tropospheric wind trajectories, but also ash plumes following distinctly different SW trajectories which TOMS did not detect.

  8. Tom goodey: the father of nematology in britain.

    PubMed

    Hooper, D J

    1994-01-01

    Tom Goodey O.B.E., D.Sc., F.R.S. is generally recognized as the Father of Nematology in Britain. Although his early postgraduate work was on soil protozoa, from 1920 he worked exclusively on nematodes. His first text book, Plant Parasitic Nematodes and the Diseases They Cause, published in 1933, was a notable landmark in the development of nematology (48). His second book Soil and Freshwater Nematodes (80) indicated his breadth of understanding of this vast group of animals. From 1921 until 1946 he was a member of the team working under Professor R.T. Leiper based for most of that time at the Institute of Agricultural Parasitology, Winches Farm, St. Albans, England. He was author, or coauthor, of 125 publications, which included the proposal of 9 new genera, 37 new species and 49 detailed redescriptions of nematodes. In 1947 he was made head of the newly formed Nematology Department at Rothamsted Experimental Station, where he stayed until his retirement in 1952. In his later years he struck up a very close friendship with Gerald Thorne, the American nematologist, with whom he exchanged ideas on techniques in hematology. In 1951, he was responsible for the very successful nematology symposium held in Harpenden, which marked the beginning of the biennial nematology symposia in Europe. As well as a very full and successful scientific career, he was also a professional singer with a fine tenor voice and he frequently performed for the theater, concert hall, and radio broadcasts under his stage name of Roger Clayson. PMID:19025384

  9. Results from SIM's Thermo-Opto-Mechanical (TOM3) Testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goullioud, Renaud; Lindensmith, C. A.; Hahn, I.

    2006-01-01

    Future space-based optical interferometers, such as the Space Interferometer Mission Planet Quest (SIM), require thermal stability of the optical wavefront to the level of picometers in order to produce astrometric data at the micro-arc-second level. In SIM, the internal path of the interferometer will be measured with a small metrology beam whereas the starlight fringe position is estimated from a large concentric annular beam. To achieve the micro-arc-second observation goal for SIM, it is necessary to maintain the optical path difference between the central and the outer annulus portions of the wavefront of the front-end telescope optics to a few tens of picometers. The Thermo-Opto-Mecha nical testbed (TOM3) was developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory to measure thermally induced optical deformations of a full-size flight-like beam compressor and siderostat, the two largest optics on SIM, in flight-like thermal environments. A Common Path Heterodyne Interferometer (COPHI) developed at JPL was used for the fine optical path difference measurement as the metrology sensor. The system was integrated inside a large vacuum chamber in order to mitigate the atmospheric and thermal disturbances. The siderostat was installed in a temperature-controlled thermal shroud inside the vacuum chamber, creating a flight-like thermal environment. Detailed thermal and structural models of the test articles (siderostat and compressor) were also developed for model prediction and correlation of the thermal deformations. Experimental data shows SIM required thermal stability of the test articles and good agreement with the model predictions.

  10. An Expanded UV Irradiance Database from TOMS Including the Effects of Ozone, Clouds, and Aerosol Attenuation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herman, J.; Krotkov, N.

    2003-01-01

    The TOMS UV irradiance database (1978 to 2003) has been expanded to include five new products (noon irradiance at 305,310,324, and 380 nm, and noon erythemal-weighted irradiance), in addition to the existing erythemal daily exposure, that permit direct comparisons with ground-based measurements from spectrometers and broadband instruments. The new data are available on http://toms.gsfc.nasa.gov/>http://toms.gsfc.nasa.gov. Comparisons of the TOMS estimated irradiances with ground-based instruments are given along with a review of the sources of known errors, especially the recent improvements in accounting for aerosol attenuation. Trend estimations from the new TOMS irradiances permit the clear separation of changes caused by ozone and those caused by aerosols and clouds. Systematic differences in cloud cover are shown to be the most important factor in determining regional differences in UV radiation reaching the ground for locations at the same latitude (e.g., the summertime differences between Australia and the US southwest).

  11. Comparing Earth to Other Planets

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    University of Utah. Astrophysics Science Project Integrating Research and Education (ASPIRE)

    2003-01-01

    How do the atmospheres of Mars, Earth, and Venus compare? This activity, part of an interactive laboratory series for grades 8-12, provides students opportunities to collect atmospheric data from Mars and Venus. Students launch animated data-collecting probes and view two sets of data that compare temperature and pressure from Mars and Venus with that of Earth. Colorful plots of the data are available. Using the information from the data tables and plots, students then answer multiple-choice questions to assess their learning.

  12. The Earth

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This lesson covers the interior of the Earth, geological differentiation, plate tectonics, composition and layers of the atmosphere, weather and climate, consequences of rotation for weather, the magnetic field, magnetosphere and Van Allen Radiation Belts of Earth, auroras (Northern and Southern Lights, and imaging the Earth. There is information on seismic waves, and convection currents; an animation of continental drift; evidence for plate tectonics, including maps of crustal plate boundaries and the age of the sea floor crustal plates; and explanations of solar heating, Coriolis forces, cyclones and anticyclones.

  13. Human Probe "HumanProbe"

    E-print Network

    Fonseca, Rodrigo

    Probe WIC_DataControl WIC_Access Control Local_Interface RF_Interface WINFO++_SERVER (WIS) WIS_Access Control WIS_DataControl MappingDataBase RF_Interface Buffer WINFO++_CLIENT (WIC) GPSSensors WIC_LocControl WIC_DataControlWIC_DataControl WIC_Access Control Local_Interface RF_Interface WINFO++_SERVER (WIS

  14. Discover Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Discover Earth is a NASA-funded project for teachers of grades 5-12 who want to expand their knowledge of the Earth system, and prepare to become master teachers who promote Earth system science in their own schools, counties, and throughout their state. Participants from the following states are invited to apply: Connecticut, Delaware, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont, and Washington, DC. Teachers selected for the project participate in a two-week summer workshop conducted at the University of Maryland, College Park; develop classroom-ready materials during the workshop for broad dissemination; conduct a minimum of two peer training activities during the coming school year; and participate in other enrichment/education opportunities as available and desired. Discover Earth is a team effort that utilizes expertise from a range of contributors, and balances science content with hands-on classroom applications.

  15. Earth's Surface

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Houghton Mifflin Science

    This self-contained module on Earth's crust includes a range of fun activities that students can perform in the classroom and at home with family members. They impart important concepts such as observation, identification, measurement, and differentiation.

  16. Earth Systems

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Houghton Mifflin Science

    This self-contained module on Earth systems includes a range of fun activities that students can perform in the classroom and at home with family members. They impart important concepts such as observation, identification, measurement, and differentiation.

  17. Earth materials and earth dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, K; Shankland, T. [and others

    2000-11-01

    In the project ''Earth Materials and Earth Dynamics'' we linked fundamental and exploratory, experimental, theoretical, and computational research programs to shed light on the current and past states of the dynamic Earth. Our objective was to combine different geological, geochemical, geophysical, and materials science analyses with numerical techniques to illuminate active processes in the Earth. These processes include fluid-rock interactions that form and modify the lithosphere, non-linear wave attenuations in rocks that drive plate tectonics and perturb the earth's surface, dynamic recrystallization of olivine that deforms the upper mantle, development of texture in high-pressure olivine polymorphs that create anisotropic velocity regions in the convecting upper mantle and transition zone, and the intense chemical reactions between the mantle and core. We measured physical properties such as texture and nonlinear elasticity, equation of states at simultaneous pressures and temperatures, magnetic spins and bonding, chemical permeability, and thermal-chemical feedback to better characterize earth materials. We artificially generated seismic waves, numerically modeled fluid flow and transport in rock systems and modified polycrystal plasticity theory to interpret measured physical properties and integrate them into our understanding of the Earth. This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL).

  18. Earth Viewers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mathias Lemmens

    \\u000a One of the most influential developments boosting the application of geo-information technologies in a wide variety of scientific\\u000a and professional disciplines has its origin outside the geomatics field although the establishment of the technology heavily\\u000a relies on recent accomplishments in geo-information technology. The developments referred to concern the emergence of Earth\\u000a viewers such as Google Earth or Bing Maps accessible

  19. Earth’s Earliest Atmospheres

    PubMed Central

    Zahnle, Kevin; Schaefer, Laura; Fegley, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    Earth is the one known example of an inhabited planet and to current knowledge the likeliest site of the one known origin of life. Here we discuss the origin of Earth’s atmosphere and ocean and some of the environmental conditions of the early Earth as they may relate to the origin of life. A key punctuating event in the narrative is the Moon-forming impact, partly because it made Earth for a short time absolutely uninhabitable, and partly because it sets the boundary conditions for Earth’s subsequent evolution. If life began on Earth, as opposed to having migrated here, it would have done so after the Moon-forming impact. What took place before the Moon formed determined the bulk properties of the Earth and probably determined the overall compositions and sizes of its atmospheres and oceans. What took place afterward animated these materials. One interesting consequence of the Moon-forming impact is that the mantle is devolatized, so that the volatiles subsequently fell out in a kind of condensation sequence. This ensures that the volatiles were concentrated toward the surface so that, for example, the oceans were likely salty from the start. We also point out that an atmosphere generated by impact degassing would tend to have a composition reflective of the impacting bodies (rather than the mantle), and these are almost without exception strongly reducing and volatile-rich. A consequence is that, although CO- or methane-rich atmospheres are not necessarily stable as steady states, they are quite likely to have existed as long-lived transients, many times. With CO comes abundant chemical energy in a metastable package, and with methane comes hydrogen cyanide and ammonia as important albeit less abundant gases. PMID:20573713

  20. The 1989 Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition Nimbus-7 TOMS data atlas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krueger, Arlin J.; Penn, Lanning M.; Larko, David E.; Doiron, Scott D.; Guimaraes, Patricia T.

    1989-01-01

    Over the past several years, world scientific attention was focused on the rapid and unanticipated decrease in the abundance of ozone over Antarctica during the Austral spring. A major aircraft campaign was conducted from December 1988 to February 1989 in response to the recently published Ozone Trends Panel Report which found that the largest decreases in Arctic ozone occurred during January to February at latitudes near the edge of the Arctic vortex. This atlas provides a complete set of TOMS ozone measurements over Europe and the North Atlantic for the duration of the experiment. These were the orbital TOMS measurements provided to the experimenters in near-real-time. In addition, a set of Northern Hemisphere TOMS ozone measurements for the period December 26, 1988 to March 20, 1989 is presented. A comparison of January and February 1989 mean ozone values to prior years is also presented.

  1. The TOM Test: A New Instrument for Assessing Theory of Mind in Normal Children and Children with Pervasive Development Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muris, Peter; Steerneman, Pim; Meesters, Cor; Merckelbach, Harald; Horselenberg, Robert; van den Hogen, Tanja; van Dongen, Lieke

    1999-01-01

    Four studies investigated reliability and validity of the Theory of Mind (TOM) test, an instrument for assessing theory-of-mind ability in typical children and children with pervasive developmental disorders. The TOM test was found to be a reliable and valid instrument for measuring various aspects of theory of mind. (Author/CR)

  2. Venus Transit Live on June 5 Experts, Karen Kinemuchi, Tom Barclay, Jonathan Cirtain, Renee Weber, Melissa McGrath and

    E-print Network

    Venus Transit Live on June 5 Experts, Karen Kinemuchi, Tom Barclay, Jonathan Cirtain, Renee Weber _____________________________________________________________________________________ Moderator_Brooke: Welcome to the Venus Transit chat. The first portion of our chat focuses on the KeplerHunters group. Timothyjav: why will Venus seem to be so small? Tom: It's because relative to the Sun, Venus

  3. Biogenesis of Mitochondria: Dual Role of Tom7 in Modulating Assembly of the Preprotein Translocase of the Outer Membrane

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Becker; Lena-Sophie Wenz; Nicolas Thornton; David Stroud; Chris Meisinger; Nils Wiedemann; Nikolaus Pfanner

    2011-01-01

    Biogenesis of the translocase of the outer mitochondrial membrane (TOM complex) involves the assembly of the central ?-barrel forming protein Tom40 with six different subunits that are embedded in the membrane via ?-helical transmembrane segments. The sorting and assembly machinery (SAM complex) of the outer membrane plays a central role in this process. The SAM complex mediates the membrane integration

  4. The effect of toe trimming on production characteristics of heavy turkey toms.

    PubMed

    Fournier, J; Schwean-Lardner, K; Knezacek, T D; Gomis, S; Classen, H L

    2014-09-01

    Trimming the 3 anterior toes on both feet at day of hatch to remove the claws, reduce bird scratching, and improve carcass grades is a common practice in the turkey industry. Changes in the method of trimming and the growth potential of turkeys since the majority of research on this topic was completed motivated this study with the objective of establishing the effects of microwave toe treatment on production characteristics of tom turkeys. Turkey toms (306 in total) were either toe trimmed at the hatchery using a microwave claw processor (T) or were sham treated only (NT). Poults were randomly assigned to 1 of 9 replicate pens for each treatment. Average BW, feed consumption, and feed efficiency were determined from BW and feed intake measured by pen on d 0, 7, 21, 42, 56, 70, 91, 126, and 140. On d 140, toms were sent to a commercial processing facility where 5 carcasses from each pen were examined for scratching and other externally visible damage. Average BW was higher for NT toms on d 91, 126, and 140, with final weights of 21.70 and 21.15 kg for NT and T birds, respectively. The T birds had lower feed consumption than their NT counterparts during the first and last week of production, but feed efficiency was unaffected. Carcass scratching (T, 13.33% of carcasses scratched vs. NT, 15.56%) and other carcass damages were not affected by treatment. Although overall mortality was not affected by treatment, the incidence of mortality due to skeletal causes, especially rotated tibia, was increased in T toms. Negative effects on performance and no effect on carcass quality suggest that toe trimming may not be required or recommended for heavy tom turkeys. PMID:25002552

  5. An EOF study of the Earth{close_quote}s ozone field

    SciTech Connect

    Manin, D.; Everson, R.; Sirovich, L. [The Rockefeller University, New York City, New York 10021 (United States)

    1996-06-01

    In a previous paper we discussed the spectral properties of the Earth{close_quote}s ozone layer, obtained using Empirical Orthogonal Function decomposition of the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) database. Here we present other aspects of the analysis, including the EOF method adapted for incomplete datasets, analysis of spatial structure and temporal variation of first several eigenfunctions, and an extended study of small-scale properties of ozone concentration fields. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  6. Earth: Earth Science and Health

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maynard, Nancy G.

    2001-01-01

    A major new NASA initiative on environmental change and health has been established to promote the application of Earth science remote sensing data, information, observations, and technologies to issues of human health. NASA's Earth Sciences suite of Earth observing instruments are now providing improved observations science, data, and advanced technologies about the Earth's land, atmosphere, and oceans. These new space-based resources are being combined with other agency and university resources, data integration and fusion technologies, geographic information systems (GIS), and the spectrum of tools available from the public health community, making it possible to better understand how the environment and climate are linked to specific diseases, to improve outbreak prediction, and to minimize disease risk. This presentation is an overview of NASA's tools, capabilities, and research advances in this initiative.

  7. Multiple seismic reflectors in Earth’s lowermost mantle

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Xuefeng; Shim, Sang-Heon; de Hoop, Maarten; van der Hilst, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The modern view of Earth’s lowermost mantle considers a D? region of enhanced (seismologically inferred) heterogeneity bounded by the core–mantle boundary and an interface some 150–300 km above it, with the latter often attributed to the postperovskite phase transition (in MgSiO3). Seismic exploration of Earth’s deep interior suggests, however, that this view needs modification. So-called ScS and SKKS waves, which probe the lowermost mantle from above and below, respectively, reveal multiple reflectors beneath Central America and East Asia, two areas known for subduction of oceanic plates deep into Earth’s mantle. This observation is inconsistent with expectations from a thermal response of a single isochemical postperovskite transition, but some of the newly observed structures can be explained with postperovskite transitions in differentiated slab materials. Our results imply that the lowermost mantle is more complex than hitherto thought and that interfaces and compositional heterogeneity occur beyond the D? region sensu stricto. PMID:24550266

  8. Evidence through Mössbauer spectroscopy of two different states for 57Fe probe atoms in RNiO3 perovskites with intermediate-size rare earths, R = Sm,Eu,Gd,Dy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Presniakov; A. Baranov; G. Demazeau; V. Rusakov; A. Sobolev; J. A. Alonso; M. J. Martínez-Lope; K. Pokholok

    2007-01-01

    In the present work, 57Fe probe Mössbauer spectroscopy was developed to study the nickelates RNi0.98Fe0.02O3 (R = Sm,Eu,Gd,Dy) with the perovskite-like structure. The restoration method for a distribution function P(v) of the positions (v) involving individual Lorentzian lines has been used for processing and analysing the Mössbauer spectra. The P(v) profile for the nickelates, at T

  9. Confronting Challenges in Theoretical Physics A Symposium in Honor of Tom Banks and Willy Fischler on the Occasion of their 60th Birthdays

    E-print Network

    California at Santa Cruz, University of

    Confronting Challenges in Theoretical Physics A Symposium in Honor of Tom Banks and Willy Fischler A. Seiden UCSC #12;Confronting Challenges in Theoretical Physics A Symposium in Honor of Tom Banks Challenges in Theoretical Physics A Symposium in Honor of Tom Banks and Willy Fischler on the Occasion

  10. Earth's Viscosity.

    PubMed

    Anderson, D L

    1966-01-21

    Seismic methods are now being used to determine not only Earth's elastic properties, but also by how much it departs from a perfectlyelastic body. The seismic anelasticity (Q) varies by several orders of magnitude throughout the mantle, the main feature being an extremely dissipative zone in the upper mantle above 400 kilometers. Recent determinations of viscosity by McConnell show a similar trend. The two sets of data indicate that the ratio of viscosity to Q is roughly a constant, at least in the upper mantle of Earth. On the assumption that this relation is valid for the rest of Earth, viscosities are estimated in regions that are inaccessible for direct measurement. The implied presence of a low-viscosity zone in the upper mantle, overlying a more viscous, less deformable, lower mantle, reconciles viscosites calculated from the shape of Earth and from postglacial uplift. The mismatch of the deformational characteristics at various levels in Earth, coupled with the changing rate of rotation, may be pertinent to the rate of release of seismic energy as a function of depth. PMID:17799980

  11. The early Earth Observing System reference handbook: Earth Science and Applications Division missions, 1990-1997

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Prior to the launch of the Earth Observing System (EOS) series, NASA will launch and operate a wide variety of new earth science satellites and instruments, as well as undertake several efforts collecting and using the data from existing and planned satellites from other agencies and nations. These initiatives will augment the knowledge base gained from ongoing Earth Science and Applications Division (ESAD) programs. This volume describes three sets of ESAD activities -- ongoing exploitation of operational satellite data, research missions with upcoming launches between now and the first launch of EOS, and candidate earth probes.

  12. Destination Earth

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    NASA has a number of sites devoted to disseminating material about its various scientific expeditions and discoveries, and the Destination Earth is one of the clearinghouse-style sites that will be of great interest to the general public. From the site's homepage, visitors can choose overviews of the different epochs of NASA discovery (ranging from 1958 to 1997) or by looking through the "Today in Earth Science" section, which contains important news updates on various topics related to the earth sciences such as the discovery of new fault lines. In the "Vision For the Future" area, users can learn about upcoming NASA expeditions and also about the potential benefits of such missions. Of course, no such website would be complete without a section for young people, and the "For Kids Only", provides access to a number of educational resources designed to help them learn about the solar system and the universe.

  13. Earth Revealed

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1992-01-01

    What goes on during an earthquake? Who came up with the theory of plate tectonics? What can the fossil record tell us about the evolution of life on Earth? These are all fine questions, and students and educators with a thirst for geological knowledge will find the answers to these (and many more) questions in the "Earth Revealed" television series. Offered as part of the Annenberg Media website, the 26-part series includes such episodes as "Geologic Time", "Mountain Building", and "The Birth of a Theory". As with many of the Annenberg Media offerings, visitors can view entire episodes here, and they can also take a look at a list of additional resources.

  14. Down to Earth Down to Earth

    E-print Network

    Johnson, Cari

    Down to Earth 1 Down to Earth Newsletter of the Geology and Geophysics Department University In January, the College of Mines and Earth Sciences received a pledge of an additional $5 million from's facilities is vital in an era when the earth sciences continue to take on more importance. As earth

  15. Sensor Relocation in Mobile Sensor Networks Guiling Wang, Guohong Cao, Tom La Porta, and Wensheng Zhang

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Wensheng

    Sensor Relocation in Mobile Sensor Networks Guiling Wang, Guohong Cao, Tom La Porta, and Wensheng of research on using mobility in sensor networks to assist in the initial deployment of nodes. Mobile sensors. This paper explores the motion capability to relocate sensors to deal with sensor failure or respond to new

  16. nr 1/2012 tom 66 7 One more function for microbial fuel cells in treating

    E-print Network

    science nr 1/2012 · tom 66 · 7 One more function for microbial fuel cells in treating wastewater production, and water recovery. Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) have gained significant attention because and lab-prototype of microbial fuel cells In general, MFC research focuses on reactor architecture

  17. SIM PlanetQuest: The TOM-3 (Thermo-Optical-Mechanical) Siderostat Mirror Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, Charles J.

    2006-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the Space Interferometry Mission (SIM) PlanetQuest mission. It describes the mission, shows diagrams of the instrument, the collector bays, the Siderostat mirrors, the COL bay thermal environment, the TOM-3 replicating COL Bay Environment, the thermal hardware for the SID heater control, and the results of the test are shown

  18. DDOS: Taming Nondeterminism in Distributed Systems Nicholas Hunt, Tom Bergan, Luis Ceze, Steven D. Gribble

    E-print Network

    Gribble, Steve

    DDOS: Taming Nondeterminism in Distributed Systems Nicholas Hunt, Tom Bergan, Luis Ceze, Steven D,tbergan,luisceze,gribble}@cs.washington.edu Abstract Nondeterminism complicates the development and management of distributed systems, and arises from-efficient record/replay of distributed systems; and 2) fully deterministic dis- tributed behavior. Leveraging

  19. Leaving an Unknown Maze Using an Error-Prone Tom Kamphans, Elmar Langetepe

    E-print Network

    Klein, Rolf

    Leaving an Unknown Maze Using an Error-Prone Compass Tom Kamphans, Elmar Langetepe University,langetep}@cs.uni-bonn.de Abstract Imagine you are trapped in a maze of caves. All you have is an old rusty compass and barely enough light to read it. How much inaccuracy can you allow to ensure that you can leave the maze? Or you

  20. Algebraic geometry codes Tom Hholdt, Jacobus H. van Lint and Ruud Pellikaan

    E-print Network

    Pellikaan, Ruud

    Algebraic geometry codes Tom Høholdt, Jacobus H. van Lint and Ruud Pellikaan In the Handbook Eindhoven, The Netherlands. 1 #12;Contents 1 Introduction 2 2 Codes from curves 5 2.1 Algebraic curves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 2.7 Codes from algebraic curves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 2.8 Some algebraic

  1. Building Rm Last Name First Name Department Extension Armington (PEC) 135 Love Tom Athletic Trainer 2184

    E-print Network

    Wilson, Mark A.

    Nancy Director of TheCenter for Diversity and Global Engagement 2472 KaukeHall 1 Forbes Michael Africana Santha AdministrativeCoordinator 2129 11 Tierney Tom Sociology and Anthropology 2153 12 Nurse Anne Spanish 1971 204 Baxstrom Jerri Lynn French 1903 203 Lee Susan Special Asst. to thePresident for Diversity

  2. Passive Microwave Radiometry of Land:Contributions of Tom Schmugge and Anatoli Shutko

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent advances and the state of the art of land surface remote sensing using passive microwave techniques owes its heritage to the contributions of Tom Schmugge and Anatolij Shutko over the last 30 years. These contributions cover a range of activities including fundamental theory, controlled condi...

  3. Issues in Comparative Fungal Genomics Tom Hsiang1 and David L. Baillie2

    E-print Network

    Hsiang, Tom

    Issues in Comparative Fungal Genomics Tom Hsiang1 and David L. Baillie2 1 Department. By the middle of 2005, there were almost 300 complete genomes that were publicly accessible. Most of these were archeal or bacterial since prokaryotic genomes are much smaller than eukaryotic genomes. Among eukaryotes

  4. Sensitivity of TOMS aerosol index to boundary layer height: Implications for detection of mineral aerosol sources

    E-print Network

    Mahowald, Natalie

    Sensitivity of TOMS aerosol index to boundary layer height: Implications for detection of mineral) is proposed as a powerful tool in determining the sources of mineral aerosols. The sensitivity of the AI to the height of the aerosol layer has been noted previously, but the implications of this sensitivity

  5. Results from the TOM3 testbed: thermal deformation of optics at the picometer Level

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goullioud, Renaud; Lindensmith, C. A.; Hahn, I.

    2006-01-01

    We have discussed the TOM3 testbed developed to assess the thermo-opto-mechanical stability of optical assembly such as SIM's siderostat and telescope in flight-like thermal conditions. Although limited by the metrology sensor noise, test results show that optical wavefront stability of SIM's optical assembly is compatible with single micro-arcsecond astrometry.

  6. Collateral Damage: Veterans and Domestic Violence in Mari Sandoz's "The Tom-Walker"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahr, Kathy

    2010-01-01

    "The Tom-Walker" combines the best of Sandoz's realism with her worst attempts at moralizing. Unable to divine exactly what political configuration right-wing post-World War II sentiments might take, Sandoz nevertheless feared a fascist uprising in this country. Perhaps because these concerns dominated her thoughts at the time, she allowed her…

  7. Anonymous Identity and Trust for Peer-to-Peer Networks Tom Murphy VII, Amit K. Manjhi

    E-print Network

    Budiu, Mihai

    Anonymous Identity and Trust for Peer-to-Peer Networks Tom Murphy VII, Amit K. Manjhi April 29, 2002 Abstract In this paper, we present a new way of establish- ing independently-verifiable identities framework where these identities can be used to assign blame and to construct auditable blacklists

  8. THE PLANAR ROOK ALGEBRA AND PASCAL'S TRIANGLE by Daniel Flath, Tom Halverson, and Kathryn Herbig

    E-print Network

    Halverson, Tom

    THE PLANAR ROOK ALGEBRA AND PASCAL'S TRIANGLE by Daniel Flath, Tom Halverson, and Kathryn Herbig refined definition of planarity than what we give here. ) Halverson and Herbig were supported in part by National Science Foundation Grant DMS-0100975. #12;2 FLATH, HALVERSON, HERBIG The main goal of this paper

  9. q-rook monoid algebras, Hecke algebras, and Schur-Weyl duality Tom Halverson

    E-print Network

    Halverson, Tom

    q-rook monoid algebras, Hecke algebras, and Schur-Weyl duality Tom Halverson Department of Mathematics and Computer Science Macalester College St. Paul, MN 55105 halverson@macalester.edu and Arun Ram construction of the irreducible representations of Rk(q) by Halverson [Ha] turns out to be a special case

  10. The Future of the Digital Library: An Interview with Tom Peters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, James L.; Peters, Tom

    2005-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Tom Peters, an academic librarian and founder of TAP Information Services, a firm that provides consulting services to libraries and other organizations in the information industry. Peters also serves as a consultant to LibraryCity, an ambitious project that seeks to make thousands of e-books in easy-to-use…

  11. Piecewise Smooth Surface Reconstruction Hugues Hoppe Tony DeRose Tom Duchampy Mark Halsteadz

    E-print Network

    Stuetzle, Werner

    Piecewise Smooth Surface Reconstruction Hugues Hoppe Tony DeRose Tom Duchampy Mark Halsteadz Hubert. applications such as reverse engineering-- the automatic generation of CAD models from laser range data geometric fit, as illustrated in Color Plate 1m. Additionally, the surface representation should be capable

  12. Piecewise Smooth Surface Reconstruction Hugues Hoppe Tony DeRose Tom Duchampy Mark Halsteadz

    E-print Network

    Cohen, Michael

    Piecewise Smooth Surface Reconstruction Hugues Hoppe Tony DeRose Tom Duchampy Mark Halsteadz Hubert. applications such as reverse engineering -- the automatic generation of CAD models from laser range data geometric fit, as illustrated in Color Plate 1m. Additionally, the surface representation should be capable

  13. TomAS Tomographic Algorithms and Ultrasound Simulation D. Zerfowski a

    E-print Network

    Zerfowski, Detlef

    tool to simulate medical imaging techniques such as computer tomog- raphy (CT) and ultrasound (USTomAS ­ Tomographic Algorithms and Ultrasound Simulation D. Zerfowski a , T. Rohlfing a , U. Mende) imaging. The main goal of TomAS is to support the development and evaluation of algorithms in medical

  14. Software Documents: Comparison and Measurement Tom Arbuckle, Adam Balaban, Dennis K. Peters and Mark Lawford

    E-print Network

    Lawford, Mark

    Software Documents: Comparison and Measurement Tom Arbuckle, Adam Balaban, Dennis K. Peters of Newfoundland, St. John's NL, Canada A1B 3X5. Email: dpeters@engr.mun.ca §Department of Computing and Software@mcmaster.ca Abstract-- For some time now, researchers have been seeking to place software measurement on a more firmly

  15. Controlled Dicke Subradiance from a Large Cloud of Two-Level Systems Tom Bienaime,1

    E-print Network

    Controlled Dicke Subradiance from a Large Cloud of Two-Level Systems Tom Bienaime´,1 Nicola Celoria 16, I-20133 Milano, Italy (Received 28 July 2011; published 23 March 2012) Dicke superradiance has on the pioneering work by Dicke, who studied collective decay rates in small and large samples [7]. Dicke states

  16. UC Davis Weed Science 1 Brad Hanson, Tom Lanini, and Lynn Sosnoskie, UC Davis Weed Science

    E-print Network

    Hanson, Brad

    2/21/2012 2012 CWSS UC Davis Weed Science 1 Brad Hanson, Tom Lanini, and Lynn Sosnoskie, UC Davis Weed Science bhanson@ucdavis.edu Cuttings first brought to North America from France in 1856 floors are managed for a number of reasons Facilitate crop production and harvest practices Weed

  17. Multiresolution Analysis of Arbitrary Meshes Matthias Eck \\Lambda Tony DeRose \\Lambda Tom Duchamp \\Lambda

    E-print Network

    Stuetzle, Werner

    Multiresolution Analysis of Arbitrary Meshes Matthias Eck \\Lambda Tony DeRose \\Lambda Tom Duchamp expensive to store, transmit, render, and are awkward to edit. Multiresolution analysis offers a simple developed a technique for creating multiresolution representations for a restricted class of meshes

  18. Multiresolution Analysis of Arbitrary Meshes Matthias Eck Tony DeRose Tom Duchamp

    E-print Network

    Stuetzle, Werner

    Multiresolution Analysis of Arbitrary Meshes Matthias Eck Tony DeRose Tom Duchamp Hugues Hoppey, and are awkward to edit. Multiresolution analysis offers a simple, unified, and theoretically sound approach multiresolution representations for a restricted class of meshes with subdivision connectivity. Unfortunately

  19. A Middleware for Dependable Distributed Real-Time Systems Tom Bracewell Priya Narasimhan

    E-print Network

    Narasimhan, Priya

    A Middleware for Dependable Distributed Real-Time Systems Tom Bracewell Priya Narasimhan Raytheon is proposed to support the development of dependable distributed real-time systems for avionics, sensor approach to achieving fault tolerance in distributed real-time systems is proposed in MEAD, a Middleware

  20. Gibbs Construction in Steganography Toms Filler, Student Member, IEEE and Jessica Fridrich, Member, IEEE

    E-print Network

    Fridrich, Jessica

    1 Gibbs Construction in Steganography Tomás Filler, Student Member, IEEE and Jessica Fridrich, Member, IEEE Abstract--We make a connection between steganography de- sign by minimizing embedding- duces the design of secure steganography in empirical covers to the problem of finding local potentials

  1. Commentary to "Multiple Grammars and Second Language Representation," by Luiz Amaral and Tom Roeper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pérez-Leroux, Ana T.

    2014-01-01

    In this commentary, the author defends the Multiple Grammars (MG) theory proposed by Luiz Amaral and Tom Roepe (A&R) in the present issue. Topics discussed include second language acquisition, the concept of developmental optionality, and the idea that structural decisions involve the lexical dimension. The author states that A&R's…

  2. SIZING OF PROCESSING ARRAYS FOR FPGA-BASED COMPUTATION* Tom VanCourt and Martin Herbordt

    E-print Network

    Herbordt, Martin

    SIZING OF PROCESSING ARRAYS FOR FPGA-BASED COMPUTATION* Tom VanCourt and Martin Herbordt Boston of parallelism ­ ideally, the most that will fit into the fabric of the FPGA being used. Several factors complicate determination of the largest structure that will fit the FPGA: arrays that grow polynomially

  3. Cryptography as a Network Service Tom Berson Drew Dean Matt Franklin

    E-print Network

    Dean, Drew

    Cryptography as a Network Service Tom Berson Drew Dean Matt Franklin Diana Smetters Michael@parc.xerox.com franklin@cs.ucdavis.edu smetters@parc.xerox.com mspreitz@us.ibm.com Abstract Cryptography is a powerful. This is especially true for public key cryptography. Con- ventional wisdom dictates that cryptography must be done

  4. Social Phishing Tom Jagatic, Nathaniel Johnson, Markus Jakobsson, and Filippo Menczer

    E-print Network

    Menczer, Filippo

    Social Phishing Tom Jagatic, Nathaniel Johnson, Markus Jakobsson, and Filippo Menczer School of Informatics Indiana University, Bloomington December 12, 2005 Phishing is a form of social engineering a trustworthy third party. Phishing attacks today typically employ generalized "lures." For instance, a phisher

  5. Crowdsourcing Semantics for Big Data in Geoscience Applications Tom Narock1

    E-print Network

    Hitzler, Pascal

    Crowdsourcing Semantics for Big Data in Geoscience Applications Tom Narock1 and Pascal Hitzler 1 the potential to overcome some of the issues currently surrounding Big Data. Semantic technologies, and complexity of data sources ­ the very definition of Big Data. Yet, for some tasks, semantic algorithms do

  6. The Art of Succession: Reading, Writing, and Watching Comics Author(s): Tom Gunning

    E-print Network

    Saldin, Dilano

    The Art of Succession: Reading, Writing, and Watching Comics Author(s): Tom Gunning Source: Critical Inquiry, Vol. 40, No. 3, Comics & Media, edited by Hillary Chute and Patrick Jagoda (Spring 2014 All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions #12;36 A t the recent conference on comics

  7. Environmental Impact of Wastewater Disposal in the Florida Keys, Monroe County Tom Higginbotham

    E-print Network

    Ma, Lena

    Environmental Impact of Wastewater Disposal in the Florida Keys, Monroe County Tom Higginbotham University of Florida Soil and Water Science #12;Environmental Impact of Wastewater Disposal in the Florida affecting the normally oligotrophic marine waters. Typical methods of wastewater disposal include large

  8. Managing a Large Database of Camera Fingerprints Miroslav Goljan, Jessica Fridrich, Toms Filler

    E-print Network

    Fridrich, Jessica

    Managing a Large Database of Camera Fingerprints Miroslav Goljan, Jessica Fridrich, Tomás Filler-6000 {mgoljan,fridrich,tfiller}@binghamton.edu ABSTRACT Sensor fingerprint is a unique noise-like pattern caused. The fingerprint can be used to prove that an image came from a specific digital camera. The presence of a camera

  9. DISTRIBUTED SYSTEMS MANAGEMENT AS A GROUP ACTIVITY Graham Dean, Tom Rodden, Ian Sommerville and David Hutchison

    E-print Network

    Sommerville, Ian

    and leads us to believe that a comprehensive and flexible management framework is needed. We stress the wordDISTRIBUTED SYSTEMS MANAGEMENT AS A GROUP ACTIVITY Graham Dean, Tom Rodden, Ian Sommerville@comp.lancs.ac.uk It is important to consider systems management as part of a whole organisational management strategy and, as such

  10. A single-frame visual gyroscope Georg Klein and Tom Drummond

    E-print Network

    Drummond, Tom

    A single-frame visual gyroscope Georg Klein and Tom Drummond {gswk2|twd20}@eng.cam.ac.uk Department employ additional sensors to provide robustness to rapid #12;rotations. Rate gyroscopes, which provide-based alternative to the use of rate gyroscopes. We describe a novel algorithm which can compute rotational velocity

  11. Simulating dimethylsulphide seasonality with the Dynamic Green Ocean Model PlankTOM5

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Vogt; S. M. Vallina; E. T. Buitenhuis; L. Bopp; C. Le Quéré

    2010-01-01

    We study the dynamics of dimethylsulphide (DMS) and dimethylsulphoniopropionate (DMSP) using the global ocean biogeochemistry model PlankTOM5, which includes three phytoplankton and two zooplankton functional types (PFTs). We present a fully prognostic DMS module describing intracellular particulate DMSP (DMSPp) production, concentrations of dissolved DMSP (DMSPd), and DMS production and consumption. The model produces DMS fields that compare reasonably well with

  12. How to Teach for Social Justice: Lessons from "Uncle Tom's Cabin" and Cognitive Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracher, Mark

    2009-01-01

    The author explains how principles of cognitive science can help teachers of literature use texts as a means of increasing students' commitment to social justice. Applying these principles to a particular work, Uncle Tom's Cabin, he calls particular attention to the relationship between cognitive science and literary schemes for building reader…

  13. Spaceship Earth

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Science Netlinks

    2002-09-10

    In this lesson, from Science NetLinks, students will develop an understanding of our planet as a system by designing a very-long-duration space mission in which the life-support system is patterned after that of earth.

  14. Earth's Water

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This resource provides an overview of the distribution and occurence of water on Earth. Topics include where and how much water there is, the water cycle, and how water is measured. There is also discussion of characteristics and distribution of surface water, groundwater, glaciers, and icecaps.

  15. Rare earths

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gambogi, J.

    2013-01-01

    Global mine production of rare earths was estimated to have declined slightly in 2012 relative to 2011 (Fig. 1). Production in China was estimated to have decreased to 95 from 105 kt (104,700 from 115,700 st) in 2011, while new mine production in the United States and Australia increased.

  16. Earth Movers

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This lesson explores plate tectonics and helps students understand how mountains, earthquakes, and volcanoes are related to the movements of plates. Students will learn about the idea of continental drift and the theory of plate tectonics to ascertain a fuller picture of how land formations on the surface of the Earth are shaped by plates moving below the surface.

  17. Visible Earth

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2001-01-01

    This Web site provides a searchable directory of NASA Earth science images, animations and data visualizations. Most resources are available digitally at multiple resolutions, with captions and metadata. Users can search the database using full text and advanced searches by topic, keyword, sensor, location, parameter, and dates.

  18. Earth meandering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asadiyan, H.; Zamani, A.

    2009-04-01

    In this paper we try to put away current Global Tectonic Model to look the tectonic evolution of the earth from new point of view. Our new dynamic model is based on study of river meandering (RM) which infer new concept as Earth meandering(EM). In a universal gravitational field if we consider a clockwise spiral galaxy model rotate above Ninety East Ridge (geotectonic axis GA), this system with applying torsion field (likes geomagnetic field) in side direction from Rocky Mt. (west geotectonic pole WGP) to Tibetan plateau TP (east geotectonic pole EGP),it seems that pulled mass from WGP and pushed it in EGP due to it's rolling dynamics. According to this idea we see in topographic map that North America and Green land like a tongue pulled from Pacific mouth toward TP. Actually this system rolled or meander the earth over itself fractaly from small scale to big scale and what we see in the river meandering and Earth meandering are two faces of one coin. River transport water and sediments from high elevation to lower elevation and also in EM, mass transport from high altitude-Rocky Mt. to lower altitude Himalaya Mt. along 'S' shape geodetic line-optimum path which connect points from high altitude to lower altitude as kind of Euler Elastica(EE). These curves are responsible for mass spreading (source) and mass concentration (sink). In this regard, tiltness of earth spin axis plays an important role, 'S' are part of sigmoidal shape which formed due to intersection of Earth rolling with the Earth glob and actual feature of transform fault and river meandering. Longitudinal profile in mature rivers as a part of 'S' curve also is a kind of EE. 'S' which bound the whole earth is named S-1(S order 1) and cube corresponding to this which represent Earth fracturing in global scale named C-1(cube order 1 or side vergence cube SVC), C-1 is a biggest cycle of spiral polygon, so it is not completely closed and it has separation about diameter of C-7. Inside SVC we introduce cone vergence cube (CVC or geotectonic equator GE) which rotate 45 degree counterclockwise with respect to SVC. Every cube from big scale to small scale fractalize in order of 23 and every '8' shape from big scale to small scale also fractalize in the same order. Three dimensional and fractoscopic imagination about understanding the changing on earth is very important so we should imagine '8' as curved surface, sea floor spreading happened in maximum curvature of these surfaces. '8' formed from pair 'S' string with opposite direction. '8' oscillate in Pole-Pole and Side-Side direction and have saddle geometry with two 'U' path along perpendicular saddle (e.g. Lut/Jazmurian and Helmand/Mashkal basin in Iran actually intersection of this saddle shape with the earth surface and Iceland /Black Sea and CapeVerde/Victoria Lake are also In/Out (small scale polygon) of 'U' shape conduit which followed axial saddle of Side-'S-2' and Okhotsk Sea /Balkhash Lake followed axial saddle conduit of Pole-'S-2' actually intersection of this perpendicular conduit with surface make spot-like-lakes/volcanoes or basin. Global EM in Side-S-1 bounded compression region-TP inside and tension region-East African Rift offside).This is a interesting competing between two kinematic geometry - spherical and isometrical geometry by using the interaction of them we can analyze the earth face in past, present and future apart of the forces that cause this face. C-1 in two dimensional look like six sided big tent which speared over Tibet and main rod driven along GA. Pair S-1 curve. have seven component(fold) and six segment in between,S-7 exactly located on TP(center of S-1). Between two successive fold we have complex geology(e.g. eastern Iran and Afghanistan)mass dragged from North America and Siberian and accumulated gradually during six step in Earth Foundation(Tibet),S-7 bounded Takla Makan Desert (in smaller loop) and TP (in bigger loop) S-7 alter the earth balance and responsible for earth disturbing, another sample of 'S' curve we see around Australia and Kermadec/Tonga Trench, Aleutian ri

  19. Studies in applying Pseudomonas cepacia PR1-(pTOM{sub 31C}) to a TCE bioreactor

    SciTech Connect

    Sharp, R.; Jones, W. [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States). Center for Biofilm Engineering; Shields, M.; Moody, T. [Univ. of West Florida, Pensacola, FL (United States). Center for Diagnostics and Bioremediation

    1994-12-31

    The pTOM{sub 31C} plasmid was derived from the large plasmid of Pseudomonas cepacia G4. Strain G4 is an environmental isolate that is capable of cometabolic mineralization of trichloroethylene (TCE). The degradation of TCE by strain G4 is a result of the induction of enzymes in a non-constitutive aromatic degradative pathway that is present on the large plasmid of G4. A Tn5 insertion into the large plasmid of G4 resulted in a TCE constitutive plasmid designated as pTOM{sub 31C}. A number of laboratory and field studies have been performed to determine the feasibility of applying pTOM{sub 31C}, via a host microbe designated Ps. cepacia PR1-(pTOM{sub 31C}), into vapor phase TCE bioreactors. Results from degradation studies show a linear degradation rate of TCE by PR1-(pTOM{sub 31C}). The growth kinetics of PR1-(pTOM{sub 31C}) on phthalate followed the Monod kinetics model. However, bench scale studies showed that PR1-(pTOM{sub 31C}) growing on phthalate was incapable of developing a substantial biofilm. The results from a number of bench scale and field scale reactor studies showed that PR1-(pTOM{sub 31}) could not compete with invading microorganisms, even when selective pressures for PR1 were applied to the systems. In the field scale reactors, PR1-(pTOM{sub 31C}) was able to colonize only the top fraction of the oyster shell support media.

  20. Theory of mind broad and narrow: reasoning about social exchange engages ToM areas, precautionary reasoning does not.

    PubMed

    Ermer, Elsa; Guerin, Scott A; Cosmides, Leda; Tooby, John; Miller, Michael B

    2006-01-01

    Baron-Cohen (1995) proposed that the theory of mind (ToM) inference system evolved to promote strategic social interaction. Social exchange--a form of co-operation for mutual benefit--involves strategic social interaction and requires ToM inferences about the contents of other individuals' mental states, especially their desires, goals, and intentions. There are behavioral and neuropsychological dissociations between reasoning about social exchange and reasoning about equivalent problems tapping other, more general content domains. It has therefore been proposed that social exchange behavior is regulated by social contract algorithms: a domain-specific inference system that is functionally specialized for reasoning about social exchange. We report an fMRI study using the Wason selection task that provides further support for this hypothesis. Precautionary rules share so many properties with social exchange rules--they are conditional, deontic, and involve subjective utilities--that most reasoning theories claim they are processed by the same neurocomputational machinery. Nevertheless, neuroimaging shows that reasoning about social exchange activates brain areas not activated by reasoning about precautionary rules, and vice versa. As predicted, neural correlates of ToM (anterior and posterior temporal cortex) were activated when subjects interpreted social exchange rules, but not precautionary rules (where ToM inferences are unnecessary). We argue that the interaction between ToM and social contract algorithms can be reciprocal: social contract algorithms requires ToM inferences, but their functional logic also allows ToM inferences to be made. By considering interactions between ToM in the narrower sense (belief-desire reasoning) and all the social inference systems that create the logic of human social interaction--ones that enable as well as use inferences about the content of mental states--a broader conception of ToM may emerge: a computational model embodying a Theory of Human Nature (ToHN). PMID:18633788

  1. Earth Sciences Geography Option

    E-print Network

    Kurapov, Alexander

    Earth Sciences with Geography Option Geography is the study of Earth's environments, landscapes, international development, diplomacy, military service; · Teaching and research. #12;Earth Sciences with Geography Option What to know about Oregon State University Student Services & Advising College of Earth

  2. Earth plasmas

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Space Science Institute

    2005-01-01

    Fusion is the focus of this section of a tutorial about plasma, one of the four states of matter. This section deals with plasmas on Earth. There is little naturally-occurring plasma here because of the Earth's relatively cool (by universe standards) temperature, but human-made plasma is produced for industry and research purposes. The section explores the use of plasmas in experimental fusion reactors, pointing out three categories of significant unresolved issues that stand in the way of fusion becoming a viable energy source. The use of electromagnets to confine plasmas is discussed. Enlargeable images of fusion reactors are provided, and an explanation of the difference between fission and fusion is supplemented by animations of the two reaction types. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

  3. Breathing Earth

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Bleja, David

    Visual simulation and representation programs and applications have been popping up online in greater numbers, and this recent find is one that will pique the interest of scientists, policy makers, and others who are concerned about carbon dioxide emission rates across the Earth. The Breathing Earth site was created by David Bleja, and he draws on a number of resources (such as the World Factbook and the United Nations) for the data that is utilized to create this site. Visitors can scroll over different countries to learn about their population, their emissions, and their birth and death rate. This interactive map and educational resource also contains a legend in the right-hand corner which explains the various symbols in use here.

  4. Earth Observatory

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2011-01-01

    This Web site includes shares the images, stories and discoveries that emerge from NASA Earth science research, including its satellite missions, in-the-field research and climate models. View global maps of NASA data, check out the Image of the Day and images of current events, and read feature articles and blogs. Also includes special collections of NASA images, including the World of Change series, which documents how our planet’s land, oceans, atmosphere and Sun are changing over time.

  5. Earth Rocks!

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Integrated Teaching and Learning Program,

    The purpose of this lesson is to introduce students to the basic elements of our Earth's crust: rocks, soils and minerals. They learn how we categorize rocks, soils and minerals and how they are literally the foundation for our civilization. Students also explore how engineers use rocks, soils and minerals to create the buildings, roads, vehicles, electronics, chemicals, and other objects we use to enhance our lives.

  6. Earth Lab

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Earth Lab is a database of fossils, minerals and rocks from the UK. A photograph is displayed for each specimen selected, as well as the scientific name, location and properties or age of the specimen. The fossils can be searched by area, age, and group; minerals by area, element, group, and property; and rocks by area, geological age, and type of rock. A series of questions allows users to identify their own specimens.

  7. Earth Rocks!

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Miss Ramirez

    2008-09-13

    You are Miss Ramirez\\'s scientist on a mission to identify the three types of rocks found on Earth! By the end of this web journey, you will be able to: define what a rock is and where they are found. identify the three types of rocks. recognize the three types of rock based on their characteristics. Here are the materials you will need: Box of rocks (provided by Miss Ramirez) Identification Worksheet (provided by ...

  8. Probes Measure Slots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maslakowski, John E.; Gilbert, Jeffrey L.

    1995-01-01

    Contact probes devised for measuring depths and widths of slots. Configured in conical or wedge shapes, depending on specific applications. Conical or wedge surface of probe centers probe in slot, while two thin probe rods made to protrude from cone or wedge until their tips simultaneously make contact with outer surface and bottom of slot.

  9. Interpretation of TOMS Observations of Tropical Tropospheric Ozone with a Global Model and In Situ Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Randall V.; Jacob, Daniel J.; Logan, Jennifer A.; Bey, Isabelle; Yantosca, Robert M.; Staudt, Amanda C.; Fiore, Arlene M.; Duncan, Bryan N.; Liu, Hongyu; Ginoux, Paul

    2004-01-01

    We interpret the distribution of tropical tropospheric ozone columns (TTOCs) from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) by using a global three-dimensional model of tropospheric chemistry (GEOS-CHEM) and additional information from in situ observations. The GEOS-CHEM TTOCs capture 44% of the variance of monthly mean TOMS TTOCs from the convective cloud differential method (CCD) with no global bias. Major discrepancies are found over northern Africa and south Asia where the TOMS TTOCs do not capture the seasonal enhancements from biomass burning found in the model and in aircraft observations. A characteristic feature of these northern topical enhancements, in contrast to southern tropical enhancements, is that they are driven by the lower troposphere where the sensitivity of TOMS is poor due to Rayleigh scattering. We develop an efficiency correction to the TOMS retrieval algorithm that accounts for the variability of ozone in the lower troposphere. This efficiency correction increases TTOC's over biomass burning regions by 3-5 Dobson units (DU) and decreases them by 2-5 DU over oceanic regions, improving the agreement between CCD TTOCs and in situ observations. Applying the correction to CCD TTOCs reduces by approximately DU the magnitude of the "tropical Atlantic paradox" [Thompson et al, 2000], i.e. the presence of a TTOC enhancement over the southern tropical Atlantic during the northern African biomass burning season in December-February. We reproduce the remainder of the paradox in the model and explain it by the combination of upper tropospheric ozone production from lightning NOx, peristent subsidence over the southern tropical Atlantic as part of the Walker circulation, and cross-equatorial transport of upper tropospheric ozone from northern midlatitudes in the African "westerly duct." These processes in the model can also account for the observed 13-17 DU persistent wave-1 pattern in TTOCs with a maximum above the tropical Atlantic and a minimum over the tropical Pacific during all seasons. The photochemical effects of mineral dust have only a minor role on the modeled distribution of TTOCs, including over northern Africa, due to multiple competing effects. The photochemical effects of mineral dust globally decease annual mean OH concentrations by 9%. A global lightning NOx source of 6 Tg N yr(sup -1) in the model produces a simulation that is most consistent with TOMS and in situ observations.

  10. A Qualitative Comparison of Power Law Generators Javier Martin Hernandez, Tom Kleiberg, Huijuan Wang and Piet Van Mieghem

    E-print Network

    Van Mieghem, Piet

    A Qualitative Comparison of Power Law Generators Javier Martin Hernandez, Tom Kleiberg, Huijuan & Informatics (EWI) Mekelweg 4, 2628 CD Delft The Netherlands Email: {J.M.Hernandez, T.Kleiberg, H.Wang, P

  11. Footloose: A Case for Physical Eventual Consistency and Selective Conflict Justin Mazzola Paluska David Saff Tom Yeh Kathryn Chen

    E-print Network

    Mazzola Paluska David Saff Tom Yeh Kathryn Chen MIT Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory {jmp,saff,tomyeh,kchen25}@mit.edu Abstract Users are increasingly inundated with small devices

  12. Frederick C. Williams (1938 2006) Dear Rosemary and Charlie, Dear Pat, Fred's siblings, Bob and Tom and Liz, Dear Andrea,

    E-print Network

    Maryland at College Park, University of

    and Tom and Liz, Dear Andrea, and all of Fred's family and friends, I cannot believe that Fred is dead. 1 and broadened through the years ­ almost 49 years! Fred was dazzlingly brilliant in mathematics and physics

  13. Earth Structure: Layers of the Earth

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Smoothstone

    This interactive Flash allows users to explore Earth's structure and processes that occur on Earth such as earthquakes and plate tectonics and how scientists know the composition and state of the Earth's layers. Interactive diagrams and animations with supplementary information make this a helpful overview or review for high school and undergraduate introductory-level courses in physical geology and Earth sciences.

  14. Life on Earth. II The Hadean Earth

    E-print Network

    Walter, Frederick M.

    Life on Earth. II #12;The Hadean Earth 4.5 - 3.9 Gyr Impacts melt the surface. Volatiles escape this dating #12;#12;The Hadean Earth Details: ·Large imacts (200+ km) occurred ~ every 100 million years stabilized 3.9 Gya - 2.5 Gya #12;First Life What was the first life on Earth? ·The first living things must

  15. Investigating the Genetic Basis of Theory of Mind (ToM): The Role of Catechol-O-Methyltransferase (COMT) Gene Polymorphisms

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Haiwei; Wu, Nan; Su, Yanjie

    2012-01-01

    The ability to deduce other persons' mental states and emotions which has been termed ‘theory of mind (ToM)’ is highly heritable. First molecular genetic studies focused on some dopamine-related genes, while the genetic basis underlying different components of ToM (affective ToM and cognitive ToM) remain unknown. The current study tested 7 candidate polymorphisms (rs4680, rs4633, rs2020917, rs2239393, rs737865, rs174699 and rs59938883) on the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene. We investigated how these polymorphisms relate to different components of ToM. 101 adults participated in our study; all were genetically unrelated, non-clinical and healthy Chinese subjects. Different ToM tasks were applied to detect their theory of mind ability. The results showed that the COMT gene rs2020917 and rs737865 SNPs were associated with cognitive ToM performance, while the COMT gene rs5993883 SNP was related to affective ToM, in which a significant gender-genotype interaction was found (p?=?0.039). Our results highlighted the contribution of DA-related COMT gene on ToM performance. Moreover, we found out that the different SNP at the same gene relates to the discriminative aspect of ToM. Our research provides some preliminary evidence to the genetic basis of theory of mind which still awaits further studies. PMID:23209597

  16. Not sell outs, Uncle Tom's, or Aunt Jemima's: African American Republicans and their reasons for affliating with the GOP

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shavonne Renee Shorter

    2010-01-01

    Previous work on identification informed us that people desire to join groups that are perceived favorably by others and that enhance a person’s self esteem (Tajfel & Turner, 1986). However for one group, African American Republicans, this is not the case. African American Republicans often are called racial epithets such as Uncle Tom’s, Aunt Jemima’s and Sell Outs because of

  17. Environmental Characterization of Global Sources of Atmospheric Soil Dust Identified with the NIMBUS7 TOMS Absorbing Aerosol Product

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. Torres; J. M. Prospero; P. Ginoux; S. E. Nicholson; T. E. Gill

    2001-01-01

    The Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) sensor provides information on the global distribution of absorbing aerosol, i.e., mineral dust and smoke. We use the TOMS absorbing aerosol data obtained on the NIMBUS-7 satellite over the period 1980-1992 to map the global distribution of major atmospheric dust sources with the goal of identifying common environmental characteristics. The largest and most persistent

  18. Solar System: The Earth in Space

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

    2006-11-01

    This Science Object is the first of four Science Objects in the Solar System SciPack. It provides an understanding of where Earth is located in space and explores evidence used by astronomers to place Earth at this location. Earth is a relatively small planet and the third from the Sun in our solar system. The Sun is the central and largest body in the solar system. Our still-growing knowledge of the solar system comes to us in part by direct observation from Earth, including the use of optical, radio, and x-ray telescopes that are sensitive to a broad spectrum of information coming to us from space; computers that can undertake increasingly complicated calculations, find patterns in data, and support or reject theories about the origins of the solar system; and space probes that send back detailed pictures and other data from distant planets. Learning Outcomes:? Explain that we discovered and learn about the other planets through the use of various kinds of telescopes, space probes, and other technologies.? Relate observations of the motion of objects in the sky to a Sun-centric model of the solar system, including observations of the "wandering" stars (planets) from Earth's frame of reference.? Recognize that Earth is one of the planets in the solar system, that it orbits the Sun just as the other planets do.

  19. Atlas of TOMS ozone data collected during the Genesis of Atlantic Lows Experiment (GALE), 1986

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larko, David E.; Uccellini, Louis W.; Krueger, Arlin J.

    1986-01-01

    Data from the TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) instrument aboard the Nimbus-7 satellite were collected daily in real time during the GALE (Genesis of Atlantic Lows Experiment) from January 15 through March 15, l986. The TOMS ozone data values were processed into GEMPAK format and transferred from the Goddard Space Flight Center to GALE operations in Raleigh-Durham, NC, in as little as three hours for use, in part, to direct aircraft research flights recording in situ measurements of ozone and water vapor in areas of interest. Once in GEMPAK format, the ozone values were processed into gridded form using the Barnes objective analysis scheme and contour plots of the ozone created. This atlas provides objectively analyzed contour plots of the ozone for each of the sixty days of GALE as well as four-panel presentations of the ozone analysis combined on the basis of GALE Intensive Observing Periods (IOP's).

  20. Saturn Science from Entry Probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkinson, David H.; Coustenis, Athena; Lunine, Jonathan; Simon-Miller, Amy; Atreya, Sushil; Brinckerhoff, William; Colaprete, Anthony; Guillot, Tristan; Mahaffy, Paul; Reh, Kim; Spilker, Linda; Spilker, Tom; Webster, Chris

    2013-04-01

    Data from atmospheric entry probe missions at the giant planets could uniquely discriminate between competing theories of solar system formation and the origin and evolution of the giant planets and their atmospheres, providing for valuable comparative studies of giant planets as well as providing a laboratory for studying the atmospheric chemistries, dynamics, and interiors of all the planets including Earth. The giant planets also represent a valuable link to extrasolar planetary systems. For these reasons, a Saturn Probe mission with a shallow probe is ranked by the recent U.S. Planetary Science Decadal Survey as a high priority for a New Frontiers class mission. Atmospheric constituents needed to constrain theories of solar system formation and the origin and evolution of the giant planets could be accessed and sampled by shallow entry probes. Many important constituents are either spectrally inactive or are beneath an atmospheric overburden that is optically thick at useful wavelengths and are therefore not remotely accessible by flyby or orbiting spacecraft. A small, scientifically focused shallow entry probe mission could make critical abundance measurements of key constituents, and could measure profiles of atmospheric structure and dynamics at a vertical resolution that is significantly higher than could be achieved by remote sensing techniques. The Galileo mission began the detailed study of the solar system's two gas giants by dropping an entry probe into the atmosphere of Jupiter and deploying an orbiter around Jupiter. In 2016-2017 the Juno mission will make measurements of Jupiter's deep oxygen abundance, and gravitational and magnetic fields. In the same epoch, the Cassini orbiter is planned to pursue a set of Juno-like orbits to make comparable gravitational and magnetic field measurements of Saturn. A Saturn atmospheric entry probe would complete the quartet of missions needed for a comparative study of the two gas giants, leading to improved models of solar system formation. A highly focused entry probe mission at Saturn carrying a minimal science payload could address unique and critical science while fitting within existing program budget caps. Fundamental measurements include abundances of the noble gases He, Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe and, abundances of key isotopic ratios 4He/3He, D/H, 15N/14N, 18O/16O, and 13C/12C. Detection of disequilibrium species CO, PH3, AsH3, and GeH4 is diagnostic of deeper internal processes and dynamics of the atmosphere along the probe descent. Abundances of these key constituents, as well as carbon which does not condense at Saturn, sulfur which is expected to be well-mixed below the 4 to 5-bar ammonium hydrosulfide (NH4SH) cloud, and gradients of nitrogen below the NH4SH cloud and oxygen in the upper layers of the H2O and H2O-NH4 solution cloud, could be measured by an entry probe descending through 10 bars. In concert with the results from Galileo, Cassini, and Juno, a shallow Saturn probe capable of measuring abundances of key constituents not accessible by a remote sensing mission would provide critical measurements enabling a comparison of composition and dynamical processes on the giant planets while also providing an improved context for understanding exoplanets.

  1. GOOGLE EARTH QUICK GUIDE (1)Google Earth Features

    E-print Network

    Smith-Konter, Bridget

    GOOGLE EARTH QUICK GUIDE (1)Google Earth Features The Google Earth of the Google Earth window. Often when opening up the Google Earth program, the view screen will be a view of the entire Earth from space. Navigation bar

  2. Highlights from a Decade of OMI-TOMS Total Ozone Observations on EOS Aura

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haffner, David P.; Bhartia, Pawan K.; McPeters, Richard D.; Joiner, Joanna; Ziemke, Jerald R.; Vassilkov, Alexander; Labow, Gordon J.; Chiou, Er-Woon

    2014-01-01

    Total ozone measurements from OMI have been instrumental in meeting Aura science objectives. In the last decade, OMI has extended the length of the TOMS total ozone record to over 35 years to monitor stratospheric ozone recovery. OMI-TOMS total ozone measurements have also been combined synergistically with measurements from other Aura instruments and MLS in particular, which provides vertically resolved information that complements the total O3 mapping capability of OMI. With this combined approach, the EOS Aura platform has produced more accurate and detailed measurements of tropospheric ozone. This has led in turn to greater understanding of the sources and transport of tropospheric ozone as well as its radiative forcing effect. The combined use of OMI and MLS data was also vital to the analysis of the severe Arctic ozone depletion event of 2011. The quality of OMI-TOMS total O3 data used in these studies is the result of several factors: a mature and well-validated algorithm, the striking stability of the OMI instrument, and OMI's hyperspectral capabilities used to derive cloud pressures. The latter has changed how we think about the effects of clouds on total ozone retrievals. We will discuss the evolution of the operational V8.5 algorithm and provide an overview and motivation for V9. After reviewing results and developments of the past decade, we finally highlight how ozone observations from EOS Aura are playing an important role in new ozone mapping missions.

  3. SUMMARY REPORT ON LUNAR SURVEY PROBE UTILIZATION

    E-print Network

    Rathbun, Julie A.

    in No mobility after landing 0 0 In-situ analysis only; i. e., no return of lunar material to Earth Landing760- 12 SUMMARY REPORT ON LUNAR SURVEY PROBE UTILIZATION STUDY APPROVED BY: W James D. Burke Advanced Lunar Study Leader - Future Project Office J E T P R O P U L S I O N L A B O R A T O R Y C A L I F

  4. Earth System History Announcements

    E-print Network

    Mojzsis, Stephen J.

    Earth System History GEOL 1020 [14] Announcements Global geochemical cycles ­ first conceptsClicker question If Earth did NOT have plate tectonics, what would be the consequences? · A. Earth would be like Mars: A frozen desert. · B. Earth would be like the Moon: A frozen vacuum. · C. Earth would be like

  5. Earth-Sun Geometry - Earth Revolution Animation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Dr. Michael Pidwirny

    The representation is an animation of the Earth revolving around the sun. The Earth is shown as a solid green sphere with the equator and arctic circle marked with black lines and the dark side of the Earth shaded. The Earth's axis is shown with a red line. As the Earth revolves around the sun, the axis is shown to always be pointing in the same direction. The positions of Earth at the winter solstice, vernal equinox, summer solstice, and autumnal equinox are labeled.

  6. Detecting solar axions using Earth's magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Davoudiasl, Hooman; Huber, Patrick

    2006-10-01

    We show that solar axion conversion to photons in the Earth's magnetosphere can produce an x-ray flux, with average energy omega approximately 4 keV, which is measurable on the dark side of the Earth. The smallness of the Earth's magnetic field is compensated by a large magnetized volume. For axion masses m(a) less, similar10(-4) eV, a low-Earth-orbit x-ray detector with an effective area of 10(4) cm(2), pointed at the solar core, can probe the photon-axion coupling down to 10(-11) GeV-1, in 1 yr. Thus, the sensitivity of this new approach will be an order of magnitude beyond current laboratory limits. PMID:17155238

  7. Earth and Space

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-09-18

    In earth and space science, students study the origin, structure, and physical phenomena of the earth and the universe. Earth and space science studies include concepts in geology, meteorology, oceanography, and astronomy.

  8. The Lifeworld Earth and a Modelled Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juuti, Kalle

    2014-08-01

    The goal of this paper is to study the question of whether a phenomenological view of the Earth could be empirically endorsed. The phenomenological way of thinking considers the Earth as a material entity, but not as an object as viewed in science. In the learning science tradition, tracking the process of the conceptual change of the shape of the Earth, science's view of the Earth as an object—a celestial body—has been applied. I reanalysed data published in Vosniadou and Brewer's (Cognit psychol 24:535-585, 1992) seminal paper. According to my reanalysis of their interview material, it is plausible to conclude that the Earth as an infinite surface is the way to experience the Earth. Further, the `dual Earth model' is the first model of the Earth as an object. I conclude that experiences in the lifeworld need to be taken into consideration more seriously in science education research.

  9. Gravity Probe B: The Relativity Mission

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Physicists and Engineers from Stanford University and NASA have combined efforts to create "a relativity gyroscope experiment...to test two extraordinary, unverified predictions of Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity." The Gravity Probe B Experiment uses four gyroscopes orbiting over the earth's poles. The satellites are largely free from disturbance and thus provide "an almost perfect space-time reference system." They hope to measure the warping effects of earth on space and time, and the drag created by the earth's rotation on space and time. The site offers a general interest section with press clips, educational materials, FAQs, and an image library. Along with weekly highlights, a technical interest section supplies information on technology spinoffs, scientific papers, contacts, an orbit timeline, and a link to the ground station.

  10. Exploring Magnetism on Earth

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2005-01-01

    This teacher's guide contains four lessons that provide a way for teachers to introduce students to and elaborate on Earth's changing magnetic field. It covers learning to navigate using Earth's magnetic field and compass, Earth's magnetic pole and its motion across Earth's surface, magnetic reversals on Earth, and Earth's currently declining magnetic field. These lessons have been taught primarily in math, geology, and astronomy classes.

  11. Ultrafast scanning probe microscopy

    DOEpatents

    Weiss, Shimon (El Cerrito, CA); Chemla, Daniel S. (Kensington, CA); Ogletree, D. Frank (El Cerrito, CA); Botkin, David (San Francisco, CA)

    1995-01-01

    An ultrafast scanning probe microscopy method for achieving subpicosecond-temporal resolution and submicron-spatial resolution of an observation sample. In one embodiment of the present claimed invention, a single short optical pulse is generated and is split into first and second pulses. One of the pulses is delayed using variable time delay means. The first pulse is then directed at an observation sample located proximate to the probe of a scanning probe microscope. The scanning probe microscope produces probe-sample signals indicative of the response of the probe to characteristics of the sample. The second pulse is used to modulate the probe of the scanning probe microscope. The time delay between the first and second pulses is then varied. The probe-sample response signal is recorded at each of the various time delays created between the first and second pulses. The probe-sample response signal is then plotted as a function of time delay to produce a cross-correlation of the probe sample response. In so doing, the present invention provides simultaneous subpicosecond-temporal resolution and submicron-spatial resolution of the sample.

  12. Ultrafast scanning probe microscopy

    DOEpatents

    Weiss, S.; Chemla, D.S.; Ogletree, D.F.; Botkin, D.

    1995-05-16

    An ultrafast scanning probe microscopy method is described for achieving subpicosecond-temporal resolution and submicron-spatial resolution of an observation sample. In one embodiment of the present claimed invention, a single short optical pulse is generated and is split into first and second pulses. One of the pulses is delayed using variable time delay means. The first pulse is then directed at an observation sample located proximate to the probe of a scanning probe microscope. The scanning probe microscope produces probe-sample signals indicative of the response of the probe to characteristics of the sample. The second pulse is used to modulate the probe of the scanning probe microscope. The time delay between the first and second pulses is then varied. The probe-sample response signal is recorded at each of the various time delays created between the first and second pulses. The probe-sample response signal is then plotted as a function of time delay to produce a cross-correlation of the probe sample response. In so doing, the present invention provides simultaneous subpicosecond-temporal resolution and submicron-spatial resolution of the sample. 6 Figs.

  13. Reinterpreting funerals and pastoral care: a pastoral theology response to Tom Long's Accompany Them with Singing.

    PubMed

    Fowler, Gene

    2012-03-01

    This article addresses Tom Long's (2009) criticism that a traditional pastoral care approach to funerals is responsible for significant distortions in contemporary Christian funeral practices in the United States. The article will show that his criticism should be affirmed but that his solution for a contemporary understanding of pastoral care and funerals is not adequate. A critique and reinterpretation of pastoral care and funerals will show that Long's reform of Christian funerals needs to incorporate a contemporary understanding of caring for the bereaved in funerals. PMID:23045757

  14. Earth Structure Introduction

    E-print Network

    Earth Structure Introduction Earth Structure (2nd Edition), 2004 W.W. Norton & Co, New York Slide show by Ben van der Pluijm © WW Norton, unless noted otherwise #12;© EarthStructure (2nd ed) 210/4/2010 Aerial views #12;© EarthStructure (2nd ed) 310/4/2010 http://www.globalchange.umich.edu/Ben/ES/ #12

  15. Earth from Above

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stahley, Tom

    2006-01-01

    Google Earth is a free online software that provides a virtual view of Earth. Using Google Earth, students can view Earth by hovering over features and locations they preselect or by serendipitously exploring locations that catch their fascination. Going beyond hovering, they can swoop forward and even tilt images to make more detailed…

  16. OFTHE EARTH ~ ANDPLANETARY

    E-print Network

    PHYSiCS OFTHE EARTH ~ ANDPLANETARY _________ INTERIORS ELSEVIER Physics of the Earth and Planetary Earth owing to the P to SV conversion at the free surface. If we choose stations with weak SKS splitting 003 1-9201(94)02949-c #12;264 L. Su, J. Park /Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors 86 (1994

  17. Earth Sciences Geology Option

    E-print Network

    Kurapov, Alexander

    Earth Sciences with Geology Option Geological sciences focus on understanding the Earth, from its, mountain building, land surface evolution, and mineral resource creation over the Earth's 4.6 billion-year history. A geologist contributes to society through the discovery of earth resources, such as metals

  18. Earth System History Announcements

    E-print Network

    Mojzsis, Stephen J.

    WELCOME #12;Earth System History GEOL 1020 [7] Announcements D/N, radioactivity, cross-section problems Get ready for the Earth's structure September 9, 2013 #12;Announcements for you! · Homework #2 evidence for oceans on Earth When we do this for the oldest rocks on Earth, we find that they are truly

  19. SYNTHESIS & INTEGRATION Earth Stewardship

    E-print Network

    Jackson, Robert B.

    SYNTHESIS & INTEGRATION Earth Stewardship: science for action to sustain the human-earth system F, A. G. Power, and A. Bartuska. 2011. Earth Stewardship: science for action to sustain the human. This paper describes Earth Stewardship, an initiative of the Ecological Society of America to provide

  20. Earth's Mineral Evolution

    E-print Network

    Downs, Robert T.

    minerals in ancient interstellar dust grains to the thousands of mineral species on the present-day EarthEarth's Mineral Evolution :: Astrobiology Magazine - earth science - evol...rth science evolution Extreme Life Mars Life Outer Planets Earth's Mineral Evolution Summary (Nov 14, 2008): New research

  1. An eye imaginal disc-specific transcriptional enhancer in the long terminal repeat of the tom retrotransposon is responsible for eye morphology mutations of Drosophila ananassae.

    PubMed

    Awasaki, T; Juni, N; Yoshida, K M

    1996-05-23

    Optic morphology (Om) mutations of Drosophila ananassae are semidominant, neomorphic and nonpleiotropic, map to at least 22 loci scattered throughout the genome, and are associated with the insertion of the tom retrotransposon. Molecular and genetic analyses have revealed that eye morphology defects of Om mutants are caused by the ectopic or excessive expression of Om genes in the eye imaginal discs of third instar larvae. It is therefore assumed that the tom element carries tissue-specific gene regulatory sequences which enhance expression of the Om genes. In the present study, we examined whether or not the long terminal repeats (LTR) of the tom element contain such an eye imaginal disc-specific enhancer, using D. melanogaster transformants containing a lacZ gene ligated to the tom LTR. Analyses of lacZ gene expression in the eye imaginal discs of third instar larvae of 18 independently established transformant lines showed that the tom LTR was capable of enhancing lacZ expression in all the transformant lines, but the degree of enhancement varied between lines. In addition, the effect of the tom LTR lacZ gene evidently changed when the tom LTR construct was relocated to different chromosomal positions. On the basis of these findings, it is hypothesized that ectopic and excessive expression of the Om genes in the eye imaginal discs is induced by an eye imaginal disc-specific enhancer present in the tom LTR, the effect of which may be subject to chromosomal position effects. PMID:8668126

  2. UCSD Shipping Rate Quote Please fill out this form completely. Print and Fax to: Tom Pugh, Shipping Coordinator, (858) 693-0864.

    E-print Network

    Russell, Lynn

    UCSD Shipping Rate Quote Please fill out this form completely. Print and Fax to: Tom Pugh, Shipping Coordinator, (858) 693-0864. Please Note: This is not a Shipping Memo; it is only a quote request. Shipper: ________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________ Questions? Please contact Tom Pugh, Shipping Coordinator, (858) 536-3225 x244. Print Form #12;

  3. Galileo Probe Mass Spectrometer Measurements of the Chemical Composition of the Atmosphere of Jupiter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. B. Niemann; J. A. Haberman; D. N. Harpold; R. E. Hartle; W. T. Kasprzak; P. R. Mahaffy; S. K. Atreya; G. R. Carignan; T. M. Donahue; D. M. Hunten; T. C. Owen; N. W. Spencer

    1996-01-01

    The chemical and isotopic composition of the Jovian atmosphere was measured by the Galileo Probe Mass Spectrometer (GPMS). This data was obtained on December 7, 1995 over a time period of approximately 1 hour during the probe descent in the 0.5 to 20 bar pressure region and transmitted to Earth over a period of several weeks. The sampling was either

  4. Scanning probe metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigg, David A.; Griffith, Joseph E.; Kochanski, G. P.; Vasile, Michael J.; Russell, Phillip E.

    1992-06-01

    The design of a scanning probe microscope suitable for metrology applications must include solutions to several problems. Actuator errors can be large because of their nonlinear behavior, but this can be solved by independently monitoring the actuator's motion. The probe must be shaped properly for a given measurement, and it must be characterized to allow interpretation of the measurement. We have studied the effects of interaction forces and probe shape with emphasis on surface roughness measurements.

  5. Earth and Moon Viewer

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Walker, John.

    Developed by John Walker, the Earth and Moon Viewer supplies updated, interactive maps for the World. Visitors can observe the Earth's Cloud cover, topography, Water Vapor, land and sea temperatures, and more. These maps can simulate views of Earth from the Sun, Moon, and satellites in Earth's orbit. Visitors will also find maps presenting the day and night regions at the moment. Anyone looking for visual interpretations of the earth and its atmosphere should visit this fascinating Web site.

  6. Toms Creek Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle Demonstration Project. Final quarterly technical progress report for the period ending March 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Feher, G.

    1993-05-24

    This Quarterly Technical Progress Report for the period ending March 31, 1993 summarizes the work done to data by Tampella Power Corporation and Enviropower, Inc. on the integrated combined-cycle power plant project. Efforts were concentrated on the Toms Creek PDS (Preliminary Design and Studies). Tampella Power Corporation`s efforts were concentrated on the Toms Creek Preliminary Process Flow Diagram (PFD) and Piping and Instrument Diagrams (P&IDs). Tampella Power Corporation also prepared Heat and Material Balances (H&MBs) for different site-specific cases.

  7. Determination of the UV solar risk in Argentina with high-resolution maps calculated using TOMS ozone climatology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piacentini, Rubén D.; Cede, Alexander; Luccini, Eduardo; Stengel, Fernando

    2004-01-01

    The connection between ultraviolet (UV) radiation and various skin diseases is well known. In this work, we present the computer program "UVARG", developed in order to prevent the risk of getting sunburn for persons exposed to solar UV radiation in Argentina, a country that extends from low (tropical) to high southern hemisphere latitudes. The software calculates the so-called "erythemal irradiance", i.e., the spectral irradiance weighted by the McKinlay and Diffey action spectrum for erythema and integrated in wavelength. The erythemal irradiance depends mainly on the following geophysical parameters: solar elevation, total ozone column, surface altitude, surface albedo, total aerosol optical depth and Sun-Earth distance. Minor corrections are due to the variability in the vertical ozone, aerosol, pressure, humidity and temperature profiles and the extraterrestrial spectral solar UV irradiance. Key parameter in the software is a total ozone column climatology incorporating monthly averages, standard deviations and tendencies for the particular geographical situation of Argentina that was obtained from TOMS/NASA satellite data from 1978 to 2000. Different skin types are considered in order to determine the sunburn risk at any time of the day and any day of the year, with and without sunscreen protection. We present examples of the software for three different regions: the high altitude tropical Puna of Atacama desert in the North-West, Tierra del Fuego in the South when the ozone hole event overpasses and low summertime ozone conditions over Buenos Aires, the largest populated city in the country. In particular, we analyzed the maximum time for persons having different skin types during representative days of the year (southern hemisphere equinoxes and solstices). This work was made possible by the collaboration between the Argentine Skin Cancer Foundation, the Institute of Physics Rosario (CONICET-National University of Rosario, Argentina) and the Institute of Medical Physics, University of Innsbruck, Austria. With the teamwork of physicians and physicists, a scientifically reliable and easy-to-handle tool was developed to predict the risk of solar exposure in Argentina. It can be used by dermatologists as well as health authorities and educators in order to prevent health problems induced by solar UV radiation.

  8. Multiphonon relaxation of rare-earth ions in oxide glasses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. B. Layne; W. H. Lowdermilk; M. J. Weber

    1977-01-01

    Nonradiative decay of excited rare-earth ions by multiphonon emission has been investigated in a series of oxide glasses. Various rare-earth electronic levels were selectively excited by short-duration laser pulses and multiphonon relaxation rates were determined from measurements of fluorescence rise and decay times. Time resolution for fluorescence measurements was 3 nsec, so excited states were probed for which the decay

  9. The observation of atmospheric structure with TOMS and some potential advancements. [Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krueger, A. J.

    1985-01-01

    An overview is given of the Nimbus 7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) which was designed to observe the spatial characteristics of total ozone that were not resolved by the nadir-viewing Nimbus BUV and SBUV instruments. At the wavelengths suitable for total ozone measurements, the radiance is large enough that the entire daytime atmosphere could be surveyed with about 50-km resolution from a polar orbiting satellite. The resulting high spatial resolution TOMS ozone images are found to reflect the internal dynamic structure of the lower atmosphere. Features which can be identified and tracked include: planetary wave scale troughs and ridges, mesoscale cutoff lows and rapidly moving troughs, jet stream confluence and difluence areas, hurricanes, and polar night lows. These features control the ozone above any given location and account for nearly all the variance in the total ozone. The instrument has been used to track the volcanic eruption clouds from El Chichon, Mount St. Helens, Alaid, and smaller eruptions such as Galunggung. It would be feasible to use a similar instrument on a geostationary platform to obtain half-hourly maps. Determination of the vertical ozone distribution in the lower stratosphere using Radon transform principles would be of importance in measuring jet stream folds and the related troposphere-stratosphere exchange.

  10. Thin layer modeling of tom yum herbs in vacuum heat pump dryer.

    PubMed

    Artnaseaw, A; Theerakulpisut, S; Benjapiyaporn, C

    2010-04-01

    Thin layer vacuum heat pump drying experiments were conducted to determine drying models for Tom Yum herbs (chili, lemon grass, kaffir lime leaf and galangal slice). The drying experiments were conducted in a vacuum heat pump dryer at a constant drying pressure of 0.2 bars and drying temperatures ranging from 50 °C to 65 °C. The experimental results were fitted to a number of well-known thin layer drying models and it was found, for the range of drying temperature tested, that the Midilli model is the best model for all Tom Yum herbs. To account for the influence of drying temperature, the constants and coefficients of model were formulated as functions of the drying temperature. Statistical tests of agreement between the model and experimental results were performed by determining the coefficient of determination (R²) , reduced chi-square (?²) and root mean square error (RMSE). It was found that the model is in very good agreement with the experimental results. PMID:21339129

  11. Computer controlled cryo-electron microscopy--TOM² a software package for high-throughput applications.

    PubMed

    Korinek, Andreas; Beck, Florian; Baumeister, Wolfgang; Nickell, Stephan; Plitzko, Jürgen M

    2011-09-01

    Automated data acquisition expedites structural studies by electron microscopy and it allows to collect data sets of unprecedented size and consistent quality. In electron tomography it greatly facilitates the systematic exploration of large cellular landscapes and in single particle analysis it allows to generate data sets for an exhaustive classification of coexisting molecular states. Here we describe a novel software philosophy and architecture that can be used for a great variety of automated data acquisition scenarios. Based on our original software package TOM, the new TOM(2) package has been designed in an object-oriented way. The whole program can be seen as a collection of self-sufficient modules with defined relationships acting in a concerted manner. It subdivides data acquisition into a set of hierarchical tasks, bonding data structure and the operations to be performed tightly together. To demonstrate its capacity for high-throughput data acquisition it has been used in conjunction with instrumentation combining the latest technological achievements in electron optics, cryogenics and robotics. Its performance is demonstrated with a single particle analysis case study and with a batch tomography application. PMID:21704708

  12. Comparisons Between Ground Measurements of Broadband UV Irradiance (300-380 nm) and TOMS UV Estimates at Moscow for 1979-2000

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yurova, Alla Y.; Krotkov, Nicholay A.; Herman, Jay R.; Bhartia, P. K. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We show the comparisons between ground-based measurements of spectrally integrated (300 nm to 380 nm) ultraviolet (UV) irradiance with satellite estimates from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) total ozone and reflectivity data for the whole period of TOMS measurements (1979-2000) over the Meteorological Observatory of Moscow State University (MO MSU), Moscow, Russia. Several aspects of the comparisons are analyzed, including effects of cloudiness, aerosol, and snow cover. Special emphasis is given to the effect of different spatial and temporal averaging of ground-based data when comparing with low-resolution satellite measurements (TOMS footprint area 50-200 sq km). The comparisons in cloudless scenes with different aerosol loading have revealed TOMS irradiance overestimates from +5% to +20%. A-posteriori correction of the TOMS data accounting for boundary layer aerosol absorption (single scattering albedo of 0.92) eliminates the bias for cloud-free conditions. The single scattering albedo was independently verified using CIMEL sun and sky-radiance measurements at MO MSU in September 2001. The mean relative difference between TOMS UV estimates and ground UV measurements mainly lies within 1 10% for both snow-free and snow period with a tendency to TOMS overestimation in snow-free period especially at overcast conditions when the positive bias reaches 15-17%. The analysis of interannual UV variations shows quite similar behavior for both TOMS and ground measurements (correlation coefficient r=0.8). No long-term trend in the annual mean bias was found for both clear-sky and all-sky conditions with snow and without snow. Both TOMS and ground data show positive trend in UV irradiance between 1979 and 2000. The UV trend is attributed to decreases in both cloudiness and aerosol optical thickness during the late 1990's over Moscow region. However, if the analyzed period is extended to include pre-TOMS era (1968-2000 period), no trend in ground UV irradiance is detected.

  13. The Toms River Childhood Cancer Cluster: Coupled Groundwater and Water Distribution System Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sykes, J. F.; Normani, S. D.

    2003-12-01

    Toms River, New Jersey is the location of a statistically significant childhood cancer cluster. A 1995 cancer investigation indicated that relative to the state, the Toms River section of Dover Township had excess childhood cancer incidence for all malignant cancers combined, brain and central nervous system (CNS) cancers, and leukemia. Children under the age of five were found to have a seven-fold increase in brain and CNS cancer. The community's concern focused on the possibility that exposure to environmental contaminants may be related to the incidence of these childhood cancers. Two Superfund sites in Dover Township were implicated as having a possible impact on the local water supply. One of these, the Reich Farm site, is a source of contaminants to the aquifer that serves a major well field for Toms River. Contaminants in the aquifer include TCE, PCE and styrene-acrylonitrile (SAN) trimer. In 1997, the New Jersey Department of Health and Senior Services and the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry began an epidemiology study to evaluate the relationship between the environmental exposure pathways and the elevated childhood cancer incidence. Toxicity studies for the SAN trimer were also initiated. Groundwater modeling was undertaken to establish the historical relationship between the Reich Farm site and the municipal well field and to aid in the management and protection of the aquifer and well field to ensure both water quality and quantity. The modeling of the water distribution system for Toms River was also part of the study. Groundwater flow from the Reich Farm Superfund site to the municipal well field for Toms River was modeled for a thirty-year time period using MODFLOW. To account for the growth and development of the well field within the modeling domain, a transient model was constructed. The use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and databases to manage, maintain, and compile field observations for model input and calibration was an important part of the work. GIS and databases were important tools in assessing the quality of the data, discovering and correcting errors in the field data (including surveying inconsistencies), as well as providing an efficient and automated means to visualize the data. Model calibration exercises indicated that a more physically based spatial and temporally variable recharge was necessary to account for dramatic fluctuations in water levels due to seasonal variations. The accurate simulation of the transient groundwater flow system was essential for the subsequent prediction of contaminant migration from the superfund site to the municipal wells and then subsequently into the modeled water distribution system. The independent estimation of the adsorption parameters of the SAN trimer on the porous media of the aquifer was an important aspect of the determination of both the average travel time and the breakthrough of the chemical at the municipal well field. The modeling methodology included an uncertainty analysis of the estimated exposure concentration in the water distribution system given uncertain groundwater parameters. Distributed computing with a Monte Carlo analysis was used for this work. The results of the modeling study were used to assist in the definition of the temporal integration periods in the epidemiology study. The predicted historical breakthrough curve of the SAN trimer in the municipal wells correlates with the period with the excess childhood cancer incidence.

  14. Comparing Earth's atmosphere with other planets

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    University of Utah. Astrophysics Science Project Integrating Research and Education (ASPIRE)

    2003-01-01

    How does Earth's atmosphere differ from that of Mars and Venus? In this informational piece, part of an interactive laboratory series for grades 8-12, students read how small changes in Earth's atmosphere can change the planet's temperatures and rainfall. In an interactive activity, students launch a probe to collect atmospheric data about temperature and pressure on both Mars and Venus. Students can see graphs of altitude plotted versus temperature or pressure. Multiple-choice questions reinforce the student readings. A second activity provides students additional information and questions on the atmospheres of Mars, Venus, and Earth. As a final review, students respond to questions with written answers, which may be printed. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

  15. Goddard earth models (5 and 6)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lerch, F. J.; Wagner, C. A.; Richardson, J. A.; Brownd, J. E.

    1974-01-01

    A comprehensive earth model has been developed that consists of two complementary gravitational fields and center-of-mass locations for 134 tracking stations on the earth's surface. One gravitational field is derived solely from satellite tracking data. This data on 27 satellite orbits is the most extensive used for such a solution. A second solution uses this data with 13,400 simultaneous events from satellite camera observations and surface gravimetric anomalies. The satellite-only solution as a whole is accurate to about 4.5 milligals as judged by the surface gravity data. The majority of the station coordinates are accurate to better than 10 meters as judged by independent results from geodetic surveys and by Doppler tracking of both distant space probes and near earth orbits.

  16. Magnetically driven filament probe

    SciTech Connect

    Schmid, A.; Herrmann, A.; Rohde, V.; Maraschek, M.; Mueller, H. W. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Boltzmannstr. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2007-05-15

    A radially movable probe has been developed for studies of filamentary transport in ASDEX Upgrade during edge localized modes (ELMs) by means of Langmuir tips and magnetic pickup coils. The probe is permanently installed at the low field side in the ASDEX Upgrade vacuum vessel and is not subject to limitations in probe size, as, for example, probes on a shared manipulator are. The probe is moved by a magnetic drive, which allows for easy installation in the vessel, and has moderate machine requirements, as it will only require an electric feedthrough and an external power supply. The drive gives a linear motion with a radial range of 5 cm within 50 ms, where range and velocity can be largely scaled according to experimental requirements. The probe has been installed in the outer midplane of the ASDEX Upgrade vessel, where ELM filaments are expected to have their maximum amplitude. Filaments are coherent substructures within an ELM, carrying a fraction of the ELM released energy towards the wall. The new probe allows to measure the structure of these filaments, in particular, parameters such as filament rotation (by time delay measurements) and size (by peak width analysis). Activating the drive moves the probe from a safe position behind the limiter to a position in front of the limiters, i.e., exposes the Langmuir pins to the scrape-off layer plasma.

  17. Formative Assessment Probes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eberle, Francis; Keeley, Page

    2008-01-01

    Formative assessment probes can be effective tools to help teachers build a bridge between students' initial ideas and scientific ones. In this article, the authors describe how using two formative assessment probes can help teachers determine the extent to which students make similar connections between developing a concept of matter and a…

  18. Galileo probe battery system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. P. Dagarin; R. K. Taenaka; E. J. Stofel

    1996-01-01

    NASA's pair of Galileo spacecraft arrived at Jupiter on 7 December 1995. The Probe descended into the upper Jovian atmosphere, performing its planned sequence of scientific measurements of the properties of that medium for about an hour. This Probe has been the most ambitious planetary entry vehicle to date. It evolved over several years of planning and construction, its launch

  19. Geology of Earth's Moon

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    First, researchers at the University of California, San Diego discuss the importance of studying earthquakes on the moon, also known as moonquakes, and the Apollo Lunar Seismic Experiment (1). Users can discover the problems scientists must deal with when collecting the moon's seismic data. The students at Case Western Reserve University created the second website to address three missions the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS) has planned between now and 2010, including a mission to the moon (2). Visitors can learn about the Lunar-A probe that will be used to photograph the surface of the moon, "monitor moonquakes, measure temperature, and study the internal structure." Next, the Planetary Data Service (PDS) at the USGS offers users four datasets that they can use to create an image of a chosen area of the moon (3). Each dataset can be viewed as a basic clickable map; a clickable map where users can specify size, resolution, and projection; or an advanced version where visitors can select areas by center latitude and longitude. The fourth site, produced by Robert Wickman at the University of North Dakota, presents a map of the volcanoes on the moon and compares their characteristics with those on earth (4). Students can learn how the gravitational forces on the Moon affect the lava flows. Next, Professor Jeff Ryan at the University of South Florida at Tampa supplies fantastic images and descriptive text of the lunar rocks obtained by the Apollo missions (5). Visitors can find links to images of meteorites, terrestrial rocks, and Apollo landings as well. At the Science Channel website, students and educators can find a video clip discussing the geologic studies on the moon along with videos about planets (6). Users can learn about how studying moon rocks help scientists better understand the formation of the earth. Next, the Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum presents its research of "lunar topography, cratering and impacts basins, tectonics, lava flows, and regolith properties" (7). Visitors can find summaries of the characteristics of the moon and the main findings since the 1950s. Lastly, the USGS Astrogeology Research Program provides archived lunar images and data collected between 1965 and 1992 by Apollo, Lunar Orbiter, Galileo, and Zond 8 missions (8). While the data is a little old, students and educators can still find valuable materials about the moon's topography, chemical composition, and geology.

  20. Profiles in Online Learning: A Series on Leadership--Tom Layton: Judo and the Art of Technology Innovation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danielson, Larry

    1998-01-01

    Profiles a high school technology teacher and creator of CyberSchool, a distance learning program of the Eugene (Oregon) School District. Discusses Tom Layton's education, early work experience, establishment of a high school English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) program, integration of computers into the classroom, reputation as a technology leader,…

  1. Temporal and spatial variability of total ozone column using TOMS satellite observations and comparison with measurements from the Dobson network

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. O. Ogunjobi

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a detailed analysis of seasonal and interannual variability of total ozone content (TOC) at 16 different stations in Africa using Nimbus-7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) data for a period of 14 years (January 1979–December 1992). The analysis provides not only an estimate of the long-term annual and seasonal trends but also statistics of means and variability

  2. Statistical interpolation of ozone measurements from satellite data (TOMS, SBUV and SAGE II) using the kriging method

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Statistical interpolation of ozone measurements from satellite data (TOMS, SBUV and SAGE II) using Backscattered UltraViolet (SBUV), and the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE II) ozone pro orbits of the satellite. SAGE II is a limb-viewing solar occultation instrument, and mea- surements have

  3. Correlation between ground-based aerosol optical depth and TOMS aerosol index: a comparison between measurements and MODTRAN simulations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Giulia Pavese; Francesco Esposito; Carmine Serio

    2002-01-01

    A comparison between simulated data and measurements performed by means of a spectroradiometer has been done. We searched a correlation between Aerosol Optical Depth, measured the over a wide spectral range, and TOMS Aerosol Index, which is satellite retrieved. This comparison has been done for both desertic aerosol (measurements taken in Namibia, 1998) and rural aerosol (measurements realized in Southern

  4. Language and ToM Development in Autism versus Asperger Syndrome: Contrasting Influences of Syntactic versus Lexical/Semantic Maturity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paynter, Jessica; Peterson, Candida

    2010-01-01

    Theory of mind (ToM) development by a sample of 63 children aged 5-12 years (24 with Asperger syndrome, 19 with high-functioning autism, and 20 age-matched typical developers) was assessed with a five-task false-belief battery in relation to both lexical (vocabulary) and syntactic (grammar) language skills. Contrary to some previous research, no…

  5. Piecewise Smooth Surface Reconstruction Hugues Hoppe \\Lambda Tony DeRose \\Lambda Tom Duchamp y Mark Halstead z

    E-print Network

    Stuetzle, Werner

    Piecewise Smooth Surface Reconstruction Hugues Hoppe \\Lambda Tony DeRose \\Lambda Tom Duchamp y Mark models from laser range data. In previous work [4, 10, 11], we developed a method for fit­ ting compact of surface elements, or in a poor geometric fit, as illustrated in Color Plate 1m. Additionally, the surface

  6. Factorial structure of the 'ToM Storybooks': A test evaluating multiple components of Theory of Mind.

    PubMed

    Bulgarelli, Daniela; Testa, Silvia; Molina, Paola

    2015-06-01

    This study examined the factorial structure of the Theory of Mind (ToM) Storybooks, a comprehensive 93-item instrument tapping the five components in Wellman's model of ToM (emotion recognition, understanding of desire and beliefs, ability to distinguish between physical and mental entities, and awareness of the link between perception and knowledge). A sample of 681 three- to eight-year-old Italian children was divided into three age groups to assess whether factorial structure varied across different age ranges. Partial credit model analysis was applied to the data, leading to the empirical identification of 23 composite variables aggregating the ToM Storybooks items. Confirmatory factor analysis was then conducted on the composite variables, providing support for the theoretical model. There were partial differences in the specific composite variables making up the dimensions for each of the three age groups. A single test evaluating distinct dimensions of ToM is a valuable resource for clinical practice which may be used to define differential profiles for specific populations. PMID:25203522

  7. FROM: Tom Chapel, Chief Eval Officer, CDC RE: Seeking Applicants: Evaluation Fellows Program: 2012-13-Centers for

    E-print Network

    FROM: Tom Chapel, Chief Eval Officer, CDC RE: Seeking Applicants: Evaluation Fellows Program: 2012-13-Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA CDC seeks applicants for the 2012-13 class of the CDC Evaluation Fellows Program. This is the second year of this initiative, and represents a major

  8. Toward the problem of oil and gas bearing capacity of the East Tom-Kolyvan structural zone (Western Siberia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stolbova, N. F.; Maerkov, P. O.

    2014-08-01

    The vast depression in the east Tom-Kolyvan folded zone (West Siberia) has been identified by the geophysical data. The well which uncovered 4000 m deep profile of the Jurassic and Paleozoic deposits has been drilled. The relevance of the research is the oil\\gas-bearing capacity evaluation of the discovered depression in this West Siberia area.

  9. Expunging Father Time: The Search for Temporal Transcendence in the Novels of Aldous Huxley and Tom Robbins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephanie Abigail Taylor

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the connection between the time concepts of Aldous Huxley and Tom Robbins. For both authors, time imprisons man on two fronts, or in two cages, if you will. The smaller of these cages is society's concept of time, clock time, which constrains the activities of man, forcing him to submit to his fate as a mere drone

  10. SECURE SPREAD SPECTRUM WATERMARKING FOR IMAGES, AUDIO Ingemar J. Cox-t, Joe Kiliant, Tom Leightont, and Tala1 Shamoont

    E-print Network

    Salvaggio, Carl

    SECURE SPREAD SPECTRUM WATERMARKING FOR IMAGES, AUDIO AND VIDEO Ingemar J. Cox-t, Joe Kiliant, Tom, Cambridge, MA 02139. Email: f tlc9math. m i t .edu ABSTRACT We describe a digital watermarking method for use in au- dio, image, video and multimedia data. We argue that a watermark must be placed

  11. Constraint-based Vehicle Assembly Line Michael E. Bergen1, Peter van Beek1, and Tom Carchrae2

    E-print Network

    van Beek, Peter

    Constraint-based Vehicle Assembly Line Sequencing Michael E. Bergen1, Peter van Beek1, and Tom@tigrsoft.com Abstract In this paper, we consider the optimal sequencing of vehicles along multiple assembly lines. We The vehicle assembly line sequencing problem is to determine the order in which a given list of vehicles

  12. Reproductive performance of medium white breeder toms fed diets with varying metabolizable energy levels and 7% crude protein.

    PubMed

    Nilipour, A H; Savage, T F; Nakaue, H S

    1988-11-01

    An experiment was conducted to study the effects of feeding diets composed of triticale (var: Flora) with varying ME levels and 7% CP on fertilizing capacity and semen quality of Medium White breeder toms. Thirty-nine breeder toms were fed ad libitum from 30 to 54 wk of age one of four dietary treatments: 14% CP with 2,892 kcal ME/kg; 7% CP with 2,919 kcal ME/kg; 7% CP with 2,719 kcal ME/kg; and 7% CP with 2,539 kcal ME/kg. Semen volume (SV), packed spermatozoa volume (PSCV), BW, testicular weight (TW), and fertilizing capacity of semen were measured. No differences for SV, PSCV, TW, calculated daily feed, and estimated energy consumption were observed among the dietary energy levels fed. The estimated daily protein intake was higher (P less than .05) for toms fed the 14% 2,892-ME diet than 2,539, 2,719, and 2,919-ME diets containing 7% CP. The 7% 2,919-ME diet reduced (P less than .05) the fertilizing capacity of spermatozoa, whereas the 7% 2,539-ME diet decreased the percentage of fertile eggs hatched. Under the conditions of this experiment, Medium White breeder toms maintained fertilizing capacity and semen quality when provided a diet containing 7% CP with 2,719 kcal ME/kg. PMID:3237580

  13. A unique gun application for both high velocity and low velocity projectiles in a standard 155mm long tom gun

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1990-01-01

    The Terminal Ballistics Facility at Sandia National Laboratores in Albuquerque, New Mexico has developed an inexpensive and reliable capability for environmental testing of nuclear and kinetic energy weapon systems using the standard military 155 mm long tom gun. An unusual priming technique and charge configuration developed by Sandia National laboratories provides repeatable results such that payloads may be launched outside

  14. Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) observations of increases in Asian aerosol in winter from 1979 to 2000

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven T. Massie; Omar Torres; Steven J. Smith

    2004-01-01

    Emission inventories indicate that the largest increases in SO emissions have occurred in Asia during the last 20 years. By inference, largest increases in aerosol, produced primarily by the conversion of SO to sulfate, should have occurred in Asia during the same time period. Decadal changes in regional aerosol optical depths are calculated by analyzing Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS)

  15. Economic Impacts of the Aquaculture Industry in Alabama in 2005 Tom Stevens, Alan Hodges, and David Mulkey

    E-print Network

    Florida, University of

    Economic Impacts of the Aquaculture Industry in Alabama in 2005 by Tom Stevens, Alan Hodges of Agriculture Economics and Rural Sociology. #12;i Economic Impacts of the Aquaculture Industry in Alabama, 2005. Executive Summary The positive economic impacts of aquaculture on the State of Alabama in 2005 were

  16. In Defense of Reading Badly: The Politics of Identification in "Benito Cereno," "Uncle Tom's Cabin," and Our Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halpern, Faye

    2008-01-01

    Traditionally, we English faculty have warned our students against simply identifying with a literary work's characters. For us, such attachments constitute "reading badly." But we engage in identifications, too, including ones with the work's author. A consideration of critical responses to "Benito Cereno" and "Uncle Tom's Cabin" enables us to…

  17. EARTH SCIENCE Geography 1710

    E-print Network

    Pan, Feifei

    EARTH SCIENCE Geography 1710 TTH 3:30pm-4:50pm ENV125 Fall 2011 Instructor: Feifei Pan Office: ENV. Geosystems, An Introduction to Physical Geography, 8th , Ed, Prentice Hall. Earth Science Laboratory Manual

  18. Earth System History Announcements

    E-print Network

    Mojzsis, Stephen J.

    Earth System History GEOL 1020 [28] Announcements The Proterozoic World November 4, 2013 Univ Pollution ­ O2 The first "pollution crisis" hit the Earth about 2.4 Ga. Evidence: (1) the presence of iron

  19. Earth System History Announcements

    E-print Network

    Mojzsis, Stephen J.

    Earth System History GEOL 1020 [29] Announcements End of the Proterozoic World November 6, 2012 chemistry and biological evolution are linked. · An Example from the "Snowball Earth" #12;#12;After the BIG

  20. PLANET EARTH STRANGE NEWS

    E-print Network

    Wenseleers, Tom

    TECH HEALTH PLANET EARTH SPACE STRANGE NEWS ANIMALS HISTORY HUMAN NATURE SHOP 504kLikeLike +24142 Follow TECH HEALTH PLANET EARTH SPACE STRANGE NEWS ANIMALS HISTORY HUMAN NATURE SHOP TRENDING: Military

  1. Earth on the Move.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naturescope, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Provides background information on the layers of the earth, the relationship between changes on the surface of the earth and its insides, and plate tectonics. Teaching activities are included, with some containing reproducible worksheets and handouts to accompany them. (TW)

  2. A Shallow Entry Probe Mission to Saturn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkinson, D. H.; Spilker, T. R.; Lunine, J.; Simon-Miller, A.; Atreya, S. K.; Brinckerhoff, W.; Colaprete, A.; Coustenis, A.; Guillot, T.; Mahaffy, P.; Reh, K.; Spilker, L.

    2012-04-01

    Entry probe missions to the giant planets are needed to discriminate among competing theories of solar system formation and the origin and evolution of the giant planets and their atmospheres, to provide for important comparative studies of the gas and ice giants, and to provide a valuable link to exoplanetary system studies. Within the well-mixed upper tropospheres of the giant planets material from the epoch of solar system formation can be found, providing clues to the local chemical and physical conditions existing at the time and location at which each planet formed. The giant planets therefore represent a laboratory for studying the atmospheric chemistries, dynamics, and interiors of all planets, including Earth and exoplanets. In situ measurements at Jupiter by the Galileo entry probe, remote sensing and interior structure of Jupiter from the Galileo orbiter and Juno missions, and interior structure of Saturn during the upcoming Cassini Solstice Mission's proximal orbits provide three of the four required components of the data set needed for meaningful comparison of Jupiter and Saturn. In situ studies of the composition, structure, and dynamics of Saturn's upper troposphere with a Saturn entry probe would fill the remaining gap. Recognizing the importance of giant planet research, the National Research Council's 2012 Planetary Science Decadal Survey lists Saturn entry probes as a mission concept of exceptional scientific value. The Survey's highest priority science goals for Saturn are tightly focused: noble gas and key isotopic abundances, and the thermal structure of Saturn's atmosphere. Lower priority objectives include the dynamics of Saturn's atmosphere and precision measurement of key disequilibrium species and specific isotopes within the atmosphere. All of the high priority and most of the lower priority objectives can be met with a mission comprising one or more small, shallow (<10 bar) entry probes carrying instruments to measure the atmospheric composition and structure of Saturn's upper troposphere, and ultrastable oscillators on the probe and carrier relay spacecraft to provide measurements of Saturn's atmospheric dynamics by Doppler tracking of the probe. No new technologies are needed to conduct a Saturn entry probe mission. Although significantly less demanding than the Galileo Jupiter entry environment, Saturn entry requires a Thermal Protection System similar to that used for the Galileo probe. The pressure, temperature, and radiation environments at the locations of interest at Saturn are relatively benign and require no extreme environment technology development. Since Saturn does not have a Jupiter-like synchrotron noise environment, and the microwave opacity of Saturn's atmosphere increases approximately as frequency squared, a Saturn probe mission can use lower telecom frequencies to reduce attenuation with data rates that surpass the Galileo probe data rate. Additionally, the Decadal Survey noted significant flexibility in Saturn probe delivery trajectories. Maintaining a disciplined approach to the payload could enable a probe equal to or smaller than the Galileo Probe. This research was carried out in part at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with NASA. Copyright 2012 California Institute of Technology. Government sponsorship acknowledged.

  3. Carbon nanotube based electromechanical probes

    E-print Network

    Yaglioglu, Onnik, 1976-

    2007-01-01

    Electromechanical probing applications continuously require smaller pitches, faster manufacturing and lower electrical resistance. Conventional techniques, such as MEMS based cantilever probes have their shortcomings in ...

  4. A silicon PET probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Studen, A.; Chesi, E.; Cindro, V.; Clinthorne, N. H.; Cochran, E.; Groši?ar, B.; Honscheid, K.; Kagan, H.; Lacasta, C.; Llosa, G.; Linhart, V.; Mikuž, M.; Stankova, V.; Weilhammer, P.; Žontar, D.

    2011-08-01

    PET scanners with high spatial resolution offer a great potential in improving diagnosis, therapy monitoring and treatment validation for several severe diseases. One way to improve resolution of a PET scanner is to extend a conventional PET ring with a small probe with excellent spatial resolution. The probe is intended to be placed close to the area of interest. The coincidences of interactions within the probe and the external ring provide a subset of data which combined with data from external ring, greatly improve resolution in the area viewed by the probe.Our collaboration is developing a prototype of a PET probe, composed of high-resolution silicon pad detectors. The detectors are 1 mm thick, measuring 40 by 26 mm2, and several such sensors are envisaged to either compensate for low stopping power of silicon or increase the area covered by the probe. The sensors are segmented into 1 mm3 cubic voxels, giving 1040 readout pads per sensor. A module is composed of two sensors placed in a back-to-back configuration, allowing for stacking fraction of up to 70% within a module. The pads are coupled to a set of 16 ASICs (VaTaGP7.1 by IDEAS) per module and read out through a custom designed data acquisition board, allowing for trigger and data interfacing with the external ring.This paper presents an overview of probe requirements and expected performance parameters. It will focus on the characteristics of the silicon modules and their impact on overall probe performance, including spatial resolution, energy resolution and timing resolution. We will show that 1 mm3 voxels will significantly extend the spatial resolution of conventional PET rings, and that broadening of timing resolution related to varying depth of photon interactions can be compensated to match the timing resolution of the external ring. The initial test results of the probe will also be presented.

  5. Optimum design of substation grounding in a two layer earth structure: Part I?Analytical study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Dawalibi; D. Mukhedkar

    1975-01-01

    The authors have developed a computer program which calculates the potential in earth, the resistance and the required potential probe position in field resistance measurements [1], for any complex electrode in a two layer earth structure. The first part of the study describes the theoretical basis of the programs and compares the two analytical methods of potential calculations, the summation

  6. Mass of the Earth

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-07-11

    In this activity, learners use basic measurements of the Earth and pieces of rock and iron to estimate the mass of the Earth. Learners will calculate mass, volume, and density, convert units, and employ the water displacement method. To calculate an even more accurate estimate of the mass of the Earth, this resource includes optional instructions on how to measure the iron core mass.

  7. The Earth's Interior

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Timothy Heaton

    This site contains 22 questions on the topic of the Earth's interior, which covers layers and composition of the Earth. This is part of the Principles of Earth Science course at the University of South Dakota. Users submit their answers and are provided immediate verification.

  8. Models of Earth

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Nicole LaDue

    In this activity, candy models are used to demonstrate the features of the Earth, including its internal structure and layers. Students learn why models are essential in Earth science and answer questions about how their candy models do and do not compare with the actual Earth.

  9. Flat earth upward continuation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John V. Shebalin

    1979-01-01

    For a thorough understanding of flat earth upward continuation, Poisson's integral equation is transformed from a coordinate system with spherical symmetry to one with planar symmetry. The two separate cases of infinite and finite flat earths are considered. In resulting exact forms a functional factor in the integrands is isolated, a factor which allows the translation of a spherical earth

  10. Earth's Earliest Atmospheres

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kevin Zahnle; Laura Schaefer; Bruce Fegley

    2010-01-01

    Earth is the one known example of an inhabited planet and to current knowledge the likeliest site of the one known origin of life. Here we discuss the origin of Earth's atmosphere and ocean and some of the environmental conditions of the early Earth as they may relate to the origin of life. A key punctuating event in the narrative

  11. Earth System History Announcements

    E-print Network

    Mojzsis, Stephen J.

    Earth System History GEOL 1020 [23] Announcements Eukaryotes (things with cell nuclei) Then we Phylogenetic Tree of all life on Earth Clostridium Pace, 1997 Organisms with cells like ours!! #12;Introduction... · We will talk about the ORIGINS of all of this around us. · Physical and chemical origins of the Earth

  12. Earth System History Announcements

    E-print Network

    Mojzsis, Stephen J.

    Earth System History GEOL 1020 [21] Announcements Phylogenetic analysis of life October 16, 2013 are an alien visitor to planet Earth, and you have taken a sample of vastly different life forms here. How would you use the Relatedness in DNA of these samples to make sense of the order of life on Earth? #12

  13. Earth System History Announcements

    E-print Network

    Mojzsis, Stephen J.

    #12;Earth System History GEOL 1020 [3] Announcements More about ages and origins of rocks OPPORTUNITY: "The crustal platform for early life on Earth" lecture by Prof. Stephen Mojzsis (me), Wed. 9/4, 4 for the ages of events. #12;OLDEST OLD OLDER #12;Earth history is reconstructed using the chronological

  14. EARTH SCIENCE Ontheevolutionofminerals

    E-print Network

    Downs, Robert T.

    EARTH SCIENCE Ontheevolutionofminerals Minik T. Rosing The variety of mineral species has increased the observation that planets such as Earth started out as more or less homogeneous systems, which over time segregated into chemically distinct reservoirs -- on Earth, the continents, the oceans and the atmosphere

  15. Earth and the Terrestrial

    E-print Network

    Walter, Frederick M.

    Earth and the Geology of the Terrestrial Planets (Bennett et al. Ch. 9) #12; Terrestrial planets the Sun, rotation affects erosion Crater density can indicate surface age Earth has a unique geology: ­ P-waves: compressional waves ­ S-waves: shear waves S-waves cannot pass through liquid ­ Earth

  16. Earth Update Activities

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Carolyn Sumners

    2000-01-01

    This site provides earth science student activities in PDF format, organized by grade level and national science and math objectives. Most of the activities use the data or images from Earth Update (available on the web or using the "Earth Update" CD-Rom). Activities include both inquiry-based and guided data exploration.

  17. The Dynamic Earth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siever, Raymond

    1983-01-01

    Discusses how the earth is a dynamic system that maintains itself in a steady state. Areas considered include large/small-scale earth motions, geologic time, rock and hydrologic cycles, and other aspects dealing with the changing face of the earth. (JN)

  18. Focus: DNA probes

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-11-01

    Progress in the development of DNA probes for the identification and quantitation of specific genetic sequences in biological samples is reviewed. Current research efforts in the development of DNA probes for the diagnosis of a wide variety of bacterial, viral, and other infectious diseases, such as herpes simplex and cytomegalovirus, and inherited genetic diseases such as cystic fibrosis and sickle cell anemia are discussed. Progress in development of DNA probe assays for cancer diagnosis, detection of Salmonella food poisoning, tissue typing (detection of histocompatibility antigens), mutagen screening, and animal diseases, among other applications is included.

  19. Logic Probe Troubleshooting

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Bartelt, Terry L. M.

    This brief interactive activity, by Electromechanical Digital Library and Wisconsin Technical College System faculty member Terry Bartelt, introduces Logic Probe Troubleshooting. The resource begins with an overview, the logic components in an integrated circuit, input/outputs leads to which circuit tracks are connected, how to use a logic probe to determine if proper voltage and signals are present, and a demonstration of how the probe measures circuit operation. There is also a defective integrated circuit example and a troubleshooting problem for students to answer. This is an excellent resource, as are the others in this digital library, for reviewing fundamental concepts for electromechanical devices, systems, and applications.

  20. Chemical sensing flow probe

    DOEpatents

    Laguna, G.R.; Peter, F.J.; Butler, M.A.

    1999-02-16

    A new chemical probe determines the properties of an analyte using the light absorption of the products of a reagent/analyte reaction. The probe places a small reaction volume in contact with a large analyte volume. Analyte diffuses into the reaction volume. Reagent is selectively supplied to the reaction volume. The light absorption of the reaction in the reaction volume indicates properties of the original analyte. The probe is suitable for repeated use in remote or hostile environments. It does not require physical sampling of the analyte or result in significant regent contamination of the analyte reservoir. 7 figs.

  1. Chemical sensing flow probe

    DOEpatents

    Laguna, George R. (Albuquerque, NM); Peter, Frank J. (Albuquerque, NM); Butler, Michael A. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1999-01-01

    A new chemical probe determines the properties of an analyte using the light absorption of the products of a reagent/analyte reaction. The probe places a small reaction volume in contact with a large analyte volume. Analyte diffuses into the reaction volume. Reagent is selectively supplied to the reaction volume. The light absorption of the reaction in the reaction volume indicates properties of the original analyte. The probe is suitable for repeated use in remote or hostile environments. It does not require physical sampling of the analyte or result in significant regent contamination of the analyte reservoir.

  2. Specific fluorogenic probes for ozone in biological and atmospheric samples

    PubMed Central

    Garner, Amanda L.; St Croix, Claudette M.; Pitt, Bruce R.; Leikauf, George D.; Ando, Shin; Koide, Kazunori

    2010-01-01

    Ozone exposure is a growing global health problem, especially in urban areas. While ozone in the stratosphere protects the earth from harmful ultraviolet light, tropospheric or ground-level ozone is toxic and can damage the respiratory tract. It has recently been shown that ozone may be produced endogenously in inflammation and antibacterial responses of the immune system; however, these results have sparked controversy owing to the use of a non-specific colorimetric probe. Here we report the synthesis of fluorescent molecular probes able to unambiguously detect ozone in both biological and atmospheric samples. Unlike other ozone-detection methods, in which interference from different reactive oxygen species is often a problem, these probes are ozone specific. Such probes will prove useful for the study of ozone in environmental science and biology, and so possibly provide some insight into the role of ozone in cells. PMID:20634904

  3. Earth Systems Science Earth Systems Science at UNH

    E-print Network

    Pringle, James "Jamie"

    Earth Systems Science Earth Systems Science at UNH THE UNH Institute for the Study of Earth, Oceans, and Space (EOS) Earth Systems Research Center is dedicated to understanding the Earth as an integrative scientists and students study the Earth's ecosystems, atmosphere, water, and ice using field measurements

  4. Synchrotron radiation: earth, environmental and material sciences applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul Fenter

    2003-01-01

    This book is the latest in a series of volumes from by the Mineralogical Association of Canada presenting a range of science- and technique-based reviews in various areas of mineralogy. The present volume describes applications of synchrotron radiation (SR) to probe systems of relevance to the earth, environmental, and material sciences. Synchrotron radiation sources are well matched to many of

  5. Earth Science for Society Exhibition

    E-print Network

    de Leon, Alex R.

    4th Earth Science for Society Exhibition March 1618, 2014 Big Four............................................................................................................................................ 9 Earth Science for Society Exhibitor Listing.com 3 WelcomeMessage Thank you for participating in Earth Science for Society! Earth Science

  6. The gridded electromagnet probe

    E-print Network

    Shadman, K. (Khashayar), 1972-

    2003-01-01

    We attempted to measure the anisotropy in the electron distribution function in magnetized plasma by exploiting the adiabatic invariance of the electron's magnetic moment with a probe comprising a grid, a collector, and ...

  7. An Ultrasonographic Periodontal Probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertoncini, C. A.; Hinders, M. K.

    2010-02-01

    Periodontal disease, commonly known as gum disease, affects millions of people. The current method of detecting periodontal pocket depth is painful, invasive, and inaccurate. As an alternative to manual probing, an ultrasonographic periodontal probe is being developed to use ultrasound echo waveforms to measure periodontal pocket depth, which is the main measure of periodontal disease. Wavelet transforms and pattern classification techniques are implemented in artificial intelligence routines that can automatically detect pocket depth. The main pattern classification technique used here, called a binary classification algorithm, compares test objects with only two possible pocket depth measurements at a time and relies on dimensionality reduction for the final determination. This method correctly identifies up to 90% of the ultrasonographic probe measurements within the manual probe's tolerance.

  8. Earth Today 1998 Countdown

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Alex Kekesi

    1998-10-20

    The ability to see Earth from space has forever changed our view of the planet. We are now able to look at the Earth as a whole, and observe how its atmosphere, oceans, land masses, and life interact as global systems. Earths atmosphere, hydrosphere, geosphere, and biosphere are dynamic, changing on timescales of days, minutes, or even seconds. Monitoring the Earth in near real time allows us to get an up to date picture of conditions on our planet. More SVS visualizations for the Earth Today exhibit are in animation ids 1401 and 1402.

  9. Earth Today 1998

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Alex Kekesi

    1998-10-20

    The ability to see Earth from space has forever changed our view of the planet. We are now able to look at the Earth as a whole, and observe how its atmosphere, oceans, land masses, and life interact as global systems. Earths atmosphere, hydrosphere, geosphere, and biosphere are dynamic, changing on timescales of days, minutes, or even seconds. Monitoring the Earth in near real time allows us to get an up to date picture of conditions on our planet. More SVS visualizations for the Earth Today exhibit can be found in animation ids 328 and 1401.

  10. Earth Today 1998 Introduction

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Alex Kekesi

    1998-10-20

    The ability to see Earth from space has forever changed our view of the planet. We are now able to look at the Earth as a whole, and observe how its atmosphere, oceans, land masses, and life interact as global systems. Earths atmosphere, hydrosphere, geosphere, and biosphere are dynamic, changing on timescales of days, minutes, or even seconds. Monitoring the Earth in near real time allows us to get an up to date picture of conditions on our planet. More SVS visualizations for the Earth Today exhibit can be found in animation ids 328 and 1402.

  11. Earth Science Students

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Charles Burrows

    This site provides varied and vital information for earth science students. Links lead to important and interesting sites that change from time to time. The permanent pages at this site offer information that is of value to all earth science students and some that are for local students. There are animations and visual learning aids, interactive unit notes, practice questions for exams, earth science flash cards, supplementary Lessons, a course curriculum, and conversion calculators. The Current Earth Science page has real-time information about weather, volcanoes, earthquakes, and population. Other pages on this site list a host of earth science news items, earth science computer labs, all of the required earth science reference tables, a glossary, an "ask an expert" page, and a guestbook. Other links lead to information of local concern.

  12. Rare Earth Nanoprobes for Functional Biomolecular Imaging and Theranostics

    PubMed Central

    Naczynski, Dominik J.; Tan, Mei Chee; Riman, Richard E.; Moghe, Prabhas V.

    2014-01-01

    Contrast agents designed to visualize the molecular mechanisms underlying cancer pathogenesis and progression have deepened our understanding of disease complexity and accelerated the development of enhanced drug strategies targeted to specific biochemical pathways. For the next generation probes and imaging systems to be viable, they must exhibit enhanced sensitivity and robust quantitation of morphologic and contrast features, while offering the ability to resolve the disease-specific molecular signatures that may be critical to reconstitute a more comprehensive portrait of pathobiology. This feature article provides an overview on the design and advancements of emerging biomedical optical probes in general and evaluates the promise of rare earth nanoprobes, in particular, for molecular imaging and theranostics. Combined with new breakthroughs in nanoscale probe configurations, and improved dopant compositions, and multimodal infrared optical imaging, rare-earth nanoprobes can be used to address a wide variety of biomedical challenges, including deep tissue imaging, real-time drug delivery tracking and multispectral molecular profiling. PMID:24921049

  13. Rare Earth Nanoprobes for Functional Biomolecular Imaging and Theranostics.

    PubMed

    Naczynski, Dominik J; Tan, Mei Chee; Riman, Richard E; Moghe, Prabhas V

    2014-05-28

    Contrast agents designed to visualize the molecular mechanisms underlying cancer pathogenesis and progression have deepened our understanding of disease complexity and accelerated the development of enhanced drug strategies targeted to specific biochemical pathways. For the next generation probes and imaging systems to be viable, they must exhibit enhanced sensitivity and robust quantitation of morphologic and contrast features, while offering the ability to resolve the disease-specific molecular signatures that may be critical to reconstitute a more comprehensive portrait of pathobiology. This feature article provides an overview on the design and advancements of emerging biomedical optical probes in general and evaluates the promise of rare earth nanoprobes, in particular, for molecular imaging and theranostics. Combined with new breakthroughs in nanoscale probe configurations, and improved dopant compositions, and multimodal infrared optical imaging, rare-earth nanoprobes can be used to address a wide variety of biomedical challenges, including deep tissue imaging, real-time drug delivery tracking and multispectral molecular profiling. PMID:24921049

  14. Space and Earth Sciences, Computer Systems, and Scientific Data Analysis Support, Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estes, Ronald H. (editor)

    1993-01-01

    This Final Progress Report covers the specific technical activities of Hughes STX Corporation for the last contract triannual period of 1 June through 30 Sep. 1993, in support of assigned task activities at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). It also provides a brief summary of work throughout the contract period of performance on each active task. Technical activity is presented in Volume 1, while financial and level-of-effort data is presented in Volume 2. Technical support was provided to all Division and Laboratories of Goddard's Space Sciences and Earth Sciences Directorates. Types of support include: scientific programming, systems programming, computer management, mission planning, scientific investigation, data analysis, data processing, data base creation and maintenance, instrumentation development, and management services. Mission and instruments supported include: ROSAT, Astro-D, BBXRT, XTE, AXAF, GRO, COBE, WIND, UIT, SMM, STIS, HEIDI, DE, URAP, CRRES, Voyagers, ISEE, San Marco, LAGEOS, TOPEX/Poseidon, Pioneer-Venus, Galileo, Cassini, Nimbus-7/TOMS, Meteor-3/TOMS, FIFE, BOREAS, TRMM, AVHRR, and Landsat. Accomplishments include: development of computing programs for mission science and data analysis, supercomputer applications support, computer network support, computational upgrades for data archival and analysis centers, end-to-end management for mission data flow, scientific modeling and results in the fields of space and Earth physics, planning and design of GSFC VO DAAC and VO IMS, fabrication, assembly, and testing of mission instrumentation, and design of mission operations center.

  15. Changes in earth’s dipole

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Olson; Hagay Amit

    2006-01-01

    The dipole moment of Earth’s magnetic field has decreased by nearly $$9\\\\% $$ over the past 150 years and by about 30% over the past 2,000 years according to archeomagnetic measurements. Here, we explore the causes and the implications of this rapid change. Maps of the geomagnetic field on the core–mantle boundary derived from ground-based and satellite measurements reveal that most of

  16. Model for resonant plasma probe.

    SciTech Connect

    Warne, Larry Kevin; Johnson, William Arthur; Hebner, Gregory Albert; Jorgenson, Roy E.; Coats, Rebecca Sue

    2007-04-01

    This report constructs simple circuit models for a hairpin shaped resonant plasma probe. Effects of the plasma sheath region surrounding the wires making up the probe are determined. Electromagnetic simulations of the probe are compared to the circuit model results. The perturbing effects of the disc cavity in which the probe operates are also found.

  17. Ecotoxicity of rare earth elements Rare earth elements (REEs) or rare earth metals is the

    E-print Network

    Wehrli, Bernhard

    Ecotoxicity of rare earth elements Info Sheet Rare earth elements (REEs) or rare earth metals isolated. Actually, most rare earth elements exist in the Earth's crust in higher concentrations than though most people have never heard of rare earth elements, sev- eral of them govern mankind's modern

  18. CALIBRATION OF PU INTENSITY PROBES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Virginie Jaud; Finn Jacobsen

    A pressure-velocity sound intensity probe (or a 'p-u intensity probe') is a device that combines a pressure microphone with an acoustic particle velocity transducer. Such devices are mush more difficult to calibrate than sound intensity probes that combines closely spaced pressure microphones ('p-p intensity probes'). Various methods of calibrating p-u sound in- tensity probes are examined: a far field method

  19. Ligand amplification in a dynamic combinatorial glycopeptide library{ Tom Hotchkiss, Holger B. Kramer, Katie J. Doores, David P. Gamblin, Neil J. Oldham and

    E-print Network

    Davis, Ben G.

    Ligand amplification in a dynamic combinatorial glycopeptide library{ Tom Hotchkiss, Holger B of one member in a dynamic combinatorial glycopeptide library based on exchanging disulfides. Dynamic combinatorial glycopeptide library based on 1-thiosugars and cysteine containing dipeptides. These studies

  20. Rare Earth ? See Rare Earth, by Ward and Brownlee

    E-print Network

    Walter, Frederick M.

    Rare Earth ? See Rare Earth, by Ward and Brownlee #12;N to date N = N* fs fGHZfp nH fl fi fc L/T ·N Earth is "Just Right" Yes, life on Earth has adapted to Earth, but ... Earth has just the right mass to be ·Tectonically-active ·Retain an atmosphere Earth has had a stable climate The Sun is particularly inactive

  1. Earth: Inside and Out

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2001-05-01

    This book of 19 essays, written by Earth scientists, provides insight into the dynamic processes that shape the Earth. The essays are supported by case studies describing a range of research projects (including Looking for Life in Antarctica-and Mars, Mapping Mt. Rainer, and Mapping Hot Springs on the Deep Ocean Floor) and profiles of historically significant Earth scientists (Including Inge Lehmann, Milutin Milankovitch, and Harold C. Urey). The essays, case studies, and profiles are organized along the same themes explored in the American Museum of Natural History (AMNH) Gottesman Hall of Planet Earth, (How do we read the rocks?; How has the Earth evolved?; Why are there ocean basins, mountains and continents?; What causes climate and climate change?; Why is the Earth habitable?) a large, permanent exhibition that opened at the Museum in 1999.

  2. Radiation Belt Storm Probes: Resolving Fundamental Physics with Practical Consequences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ukhorskiy, Aleksandr Y.; Mauk, Barry H.; Fox, Nicola J.; Sibeck, David G.; Grebowsky, Joseph M.

    2011-01-01

    The fundamental processes that energize, transport, and cause the loss of charged particles operate throughout the universe at locations as diverse as magnetized planets, the solar wind, our Sun, and other stars. The same processes operate within our immediate environment, the Earth's radiation belts. The Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP) mission will provide coordinated two-spacecraft observations to obtain understanding of these fundamental processes controlling the dynamic variability of the near-Earth radiation environment. In this paper we discuss some of the profound mysteries of the radiation belt physics that will be addressed by RBSP and briefly describe the mission and its goals.

  3. Near Earth Object Program

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    NASA's Near Earth Object Program Office at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) offers this Webpage (for another similar page from JPL, see the March 13, 1998 Scout Report for Science & Engineering) containing relevant information on Near Earth Objects (NEO). The site includes current tables with tracking data for potentially hazardous asteroids and their approaches towards earth, detailed information of recent NEO discoveries, and images of the objects themselves. An FAQ section and a variety of related links are also available here.

  4. EarthWise Journeys

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    EarthWise Journeys is an independent resource for travel adventures worldwide with special emphasis on socially responsible travel, cross-cultural exchange, and the environment. EarthWise Journeys is dedicated to travelers who seek environmental awareness, adventure, personal growth, and discovery of our global community. EarthWise Journeys assists members find fun and rewarding travel adventures, learning opportunities, volunteer trips with non-profits, and personal retreats. In addition to travel planning, members receive newsletters, the discount airfares ...and more.

  5. Layering the Earth

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-08-03

    Students create a set of flash cards to assist them in learning the structure of the Earth, including the Earth's crust, inner core, outer core, and mantle. The resource includes a template with cut away diagrams of the Earth's interior. It is part of the teacher's guide accompanying the video, NASA SCI Files: The Case of the Shaky Quake. Lesson objectives supported by the video, additional resources, teaching tips and an answer sheet are included in the teacher's guide.

  6. The Digital Earth

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Greg Shirah

    1999-05-04

    The Digital Earth is a virtual representation of our planet that enables a person to explore and interact with the vast amounts of natural, cultural, and historical information being gathered about the Earth. This video describes the need for such a system, possible uses of a Digital Earth system, and the technologies and organizations that must come together in order for it to become a reality.

  7. The Nine Planets: Earth

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Bill Arnett

    This page contains details about the planet Earth. Information includes planet diameter, mass, distance from the Sun, orbit, and mythology. Also covered is planet composition, surface features, atmosphere and magnetic field data, temperature on planet, and data on its satellite: the Moon. Links are provided to more images, movies, and information about the Earth and Moon. This site discusses unanswered questions about Earth as well.

  8. Visible Earth: Biosphere

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This site is part of Visible Earth, which is hosted by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and contains a searchable directory of images, visualizations, and animations of the Earth. This section highlights the Earth's biosphere, which includes aquatic habitats, ecological dynamics, microbiota, fungi, terrestrial ecosystems and habitats, vegetation, wetlands, and zoology. Each image is available in a variety of resolutions and sizes, with a brief description, credit, date, and photographing satellite.

  9. Why Earth Science?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Michael J. Smith

    2004-05-01

    Nearly everything that we do each day is connected in some way to Earth--to its land, oceans, atmosphere, plants, and animals. To fully understand and appreciate our planet, students need to learn about its processes, its resources, and its environment. In 2004, the American Geological Institute (AGI) developed the "Why Earth Science?" brochure to help teachers, parents, and school boards to understand the value of Earth and space science to life, citizenship, and careers.

  10. Multispectral imaging probe

    DOEpatents

    Sandison, D.R.; Platzbecker, M.R.; Descour, M.R.; Armour, D.L.; Craig, M.J.; Richards-Kortum, R.

    1999-07-27

    A multispectral imaging probe delivers a range of wavelengths of excitation light to a target and collects a range of expressed light wavelengths. The multispectral imaging probe is adapted for mobile use and use in confined spaces, and is sealed against the effects of hostile environments. The multispectral imaging probe comprises a housing that defines a sealed volume that is substantially sealed from the surrounding environment. A beam splitting device mounts within the sealed volume. Excitation light is directed to the beam splitting device, which directs the excitation light to a target. Expressed light from the target reaches the beam splitting device along a path coaxial with the path traveled by the excitation light from the beam splitting device to the target. The beam splitting device directs expressed light to a collection subsystem for delivery to a detector. 8 figs.

  11. Integrated Optical Voltage Probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordero-Iannarella, R. F.; Yao, S. K.; Thaniyavarn, S.; Findakly, T.; Hayward, G.; Chen, B.

    1983-11-01

    We have designed and tested a guided wave optical modulator for applications as an integrated optical voltage probe. This voltage probe consists of an injection laser diode (ILD) connected to a stress-induced polarization preserving fiber, an electro-optic coupled-channel waveguide modulator, a graded-index multimode fiber for the return optical signal, and an electronics box containing the necessary electronics for the driving of the ILD source and the detection of the return signal. The electronics box can be physically separated from the ILD source and the fiber-modulator assemblies for ease of installation in the field. The ILD and modulator assemblies are ruggedized and the fibers are cabled. This probe has been tested in the frequency range 10 kHz-200 MHz and at a dynamic range of 40 dB at 200 MHz bandwidth.

  12. The Flat Earth

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Jean Beard

    In this lesson, students are exposed to a compelling idea: the Earth really IS flat! They are challenged to provide evidence for a spherical earth, then present evidence (experiences) for a flat Earth, discuss the relative strengths of the evidence, and reach conclusions. They look at the nature of science and pseudoscience and examine the flat Earth idea in that context. The social context of science is also explored, with the roles of collaboration and past experience biases being emphasized. The role of science in exposing illusions in nature is also mentioned.

  13. Earth's Changing Surface

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

    2008-01-07

    Overview: The Earth's Changing Surface SciPack explores how Earth's ever-changing surface is due to continuous natural processes such as tectonic activity, earthquakes, volcanic activities, weathering and erosion, and sedimentation and the reformation of rock. The focus is on topics supporting Standards and Benchmarks related to how and why these processes occur, and how elements cycle through the land, oceans, and atmosphere as a result of these processes. This SciPack looks at Earth as a system that exists in dynamic equilibrium. In addition to comprehensive inquiry-based learning materials tied to Science Education Standards and Benchmarks, the SciPack includes the following additional components: Pedagogical Implications section addressing common misconceptions, teaching resources and strand maps linking grade band appropriate content to standards. Access to one-on-one support via e-mail to content "Wizards". Final Assessment which can be used to certify mastery of the concepts. Learning Outcomes: Earth's Changing Surface: Changing Earth From Within Explain that both Earth's surface and interior are in motion and describe the causes the motion. Describe how heat within Earth comes from two main sources: radioactive decay and residual heat (gravitational energy left over from the formation of Earth). Explain the fact that the vast majority of earthquakes and volcanic activities which occur near plate boundaries are caused by the movement of the plates. Describe that changes on Earth's surface also happen on the ocean floor to create forms such as ocean basins, mountains and volcanoes. Earth's Changing Surface: Sculpting the Landscape Distinguish between changes in Earth's surface that are abrupt, such as earthquakes and volcanoes and changes that happen very slowly such as uplift and wearing down of mountains. Identify rates of landscape formation. Infer from present data that the processes that shape the earth today are similar to events that occurred in the past. Identify agents of change as destructive, constructive, or both. Describe how erosion by way of waves, wind, glaciers, gravity, running water, etc., causes change in geological features. Earth's Changing Surface: Humans as Agents of Change Distinguish natural processes that shape the surface of Earth from human impact factors that change the surface of Earth. Explain how human activities such as river control, mining, and deforestation have had an effect on the shape of Earth's surface. Describe how human activities do not create new processes but cause changes in the rate and scale of natural processes.

  14. NASA EarthKAM

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Teon Edwards

    2000-09-01

    NASA EarthKAM (Earth Knowledge Acquired by Middle schools) enables students, teachers, and the public to learn about Earth via photographs taken from space. This growing collection of Earth images come from middle school students around the world who used the Internet to target areas of Earth to be photographed with a digital camera onboard the Space Shuttle and International Space Station. These images are available to everyone through a user-friendly data system. Users can search for images of the earth by geographic area, feature, country, mission or school. The collection is wide reaching, and includes land features, water, atmospheric systems, and human impacts. Middle schools (grades 5-8) can apply to join the EarthKAM Community. Community schools use the EarthKAM images in inquiry-based investigations and can even become Flight Certified, which enables them to take their own images of Earth from space. Also included is a section for educators, which provides tips and guides on how to incorporate these images into daily lessons.

  15. Visible Earth: Atmosphere

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This site is part of Visible Earth, which is hosted by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and contains a searchable directory of images, visualizations, and animations of the Earth. This section contains images of the Earth's atmosphere, which includes aerosols, air quality, atmospheric phenomena, pressure, radiation, temperature, water, winds, clouds, precipitation, and earth's radiation bidget. Each image is available in a variety of resolutions and sizes, with a brief description, credit, date, and the name of the spacecraft or instrument that captured the image.

  16. The Sun-Earth Connection The Temperature of the Earth

    E-print Network

    Walter, Frederick M.

    AST248 The Sun-Earth Connection #12;The Temperature of the Earth The Earth is in equilibrium ­ the heat absorbed from the Sun with ­ the heat radiated by the Earth. Heat in = heat out #12;Heat constant) ­ L is the solar luminosity ­ d is the distance from the Earth to the Sun, 1AU ­ The solar

  17. Earth and the Environment Earth and the Environment at UNH

    E-print Network

    Pringle, James "Jamie"

    Earth and the Environment Earth and the Environment at UNH The DeparTmenT of earTh ScienceS within the college of engineering and physical Sciences (cepS) aims to improve our understanding of the earth and graduate degrees encompassing a broad spectrum of disciplines. The Department of earth Sciences offers

  18. Ns Simulator Tests for Reno FullTCP Kevin Fall, Sally Floyd, \\Lambday and Tom Henderson z

    E-print Network

    Floyd, Sally

    for the implementa­ tion of Reno FullTCP in the ns simulators (ns­1 [Ns­1] and ns­2 [Ns­2]). This implementation was ported by ns­2 by Tom Henderson. FullTCP differs from the earlier TCP implementations in ns­fulltcp.tcl''. These tests can be run in the newer simula­ tor ns­2 with the command ``test­all­fulltcp'' in the directory

  19. Tom Gibson, Plastic Surgeon (1915-93): Allograft rejection by the immune system and prediction of free tissue transplantation.

    PubMed

    Conway, H; Reid, W H; Beaton, J J; McGrouther, D A

    2012-11-01

    Tom Gibson made enormous contributions to the modern development of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. His key 1943 paper 'The fate of skin homografts in man' described the 'second set' phenomenon attributing graft rejection to an immunological phenomenon. Later in his career he visualised the concept of microvascular tissue transplantation and inspired many young surgeons through his various roles of Director of the unit at Canniesburn Hospital, Professor of Bioengineering and President of the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Glasgow. PMID:23069213

  20. Effect of Feed Texture on Growth Performance and Litter Moisture When Fed to Growing-Finishing Commercial Toms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2003-01-01

    Large White male turkeys were fed diets with similar nutrient content using either a corn-soybean meal-wheat middlings based diet fed as pellets or mash or a corn-soybean meal based mash diet. The pelleted diets were processed either with or without a commercial pellet binder. Each treatment was assigned to four pens of 25 toms from 6 to 18 wk of

  1. Mdm10 as a dynamic constituent of the TOB\\/SAM complex directs coordinated assembly of Tom40

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Koji Yamano; Sachiko Tanaka-Yamano; Toshiya Endo

    2010-01-01

    The mitochondrial outer membrane contains two protein translocators: the TOM40 and TOB\\/SAM complexes. Mdm10 is distributed in the TOB complex for ?-barrel protein assembly and in the MMM1 complex for tethering of the endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria. Here, we establish a system in which the Mdm10 level in the TOB complex—but not in the MMM1 complex—is altered to analyse its

  2. Science from a Saturn Entry Probe Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkinson, D. H.; Spilker, T. R.; Lunine, J. I.; Simon-Miller, A. A.; Atreya, S. K.; Colaprete, A.; Coustenis, A.; Reh, K. R.; Spilker, L. J.

    2012-12-01

    Data from atmospheric entry probe missions to the giant planets can uniquely discriminate between competing theories of solar system formation and the origin and evolution of the giant planets and their atmospheres. This provides for important comparative studies of the gas and ice giants, and provides a laboratory for studying the atmospheric chemistries, dynamics, and interiors of all the planets including Earth. Additionally, the giant planets also represent a valuable link to extrasolar planetary systems. For these reasons, a Saturn Probe mission with a shallow probe is ranked as a high priority for a New Frontiers class mission in the recent Planetary Decadal Survey. Atmospheric constituents needed to constrain theories of solar system formation and the origin and evolution of the giant planets can be accessed and sampled by shallow entry probes. Many of the most important constituents are either spectrally inactive or are beneath an atmospheric overburden that is optically thick at useful wavelengths and are therefore not remotely accessible by flyby or orbiting spacecraft such as Cassini. A small, scientifically focused shallow entry probe mission can make critical abundance measurements of key constituents, and can measure profiles of atmospheric structure and dynamics at a vertical resolution that is significantly higher than can be achieved by remote sensing techniques. The Galileo mission began the detailed study of the solar system's two major gas giants by dropping an entry probe into the atmosphere of Jupiter and deploying an orbiter around Jupiter. In 2016-2017 the Juno mission will make detailed measurements of Jupiter's deep oxygen abundance, and gravitational and magnetic fields. In the same epoch, the Cassini Saturn Orbiter will begin a set of Juno-like orbits to make comparable gravitational and magnetic field measurements of Saturn. A Saturn atmospheric entry probe would complete the quartet of missions needed for a comparative study of the two planets leading to a better understanding of the formation of the solar system. A highly focused Saturn entry / descent probe mission carrying a minimal science payload can address unique and critical science while fitting within existing program budget caps. Fundamental measurements include abundances of the noble gases He, Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe, abundances of key isotopic ratios 4He/3He, D/H, 15N/14N, 18O/16O, and 13C/12C. Detection of disequilibrium species such as CO, PH3, AsH3, and GeH4 are diagnostic of deeper internal processes and dynamics of the atmosphere along the probe descent path. Abundances of all these key constituents, as well as carbon which does not condense at Saturn, sulfur which is expected to be well-mixed below the 4 to 5-bar ammonium hydrosulfide (NH4SH) cloud, and gradients of nitrogen below the NH4SH cloud and oxygen in the upper layers of the water and water-ammonia solution cloud, can be measured by a shallow entry probe descending through 5 - 10 bars. In concert with the results from Galileo, Cassini, and Juno, a shallow Saturn probe capable of measuring abundances of key constituents not remotely accessible by an orbiter or flyby mission will provide measurements critical to enabling a comparison of composition and dynamical processes on the giant planets in our solar system, thereby providing an improved context for understanding exoplanets as well.

  3. Science from Shallow Saturn Entry Probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkinson, D. H.; Coustenis, A.; Lunine, J. I.; Simon-Miller, A. A.; Atreya, S. K.; Brinckerhoff, W.; Colaprete, A.; Guillot, T.; Mahaffy, P.; Spilker, L. J.; Spilker, T. R.; Webster, C.

    2013-09-01

    Data from atmospheric entry probe missions at the giant planets could uniquely discriminate between competing theories of solar system formation and the origin and evolution of the giant planets and their atmospheres, providing for valuable comparative studies of giant planets as well as providing a laboratory for studying the atmospheric chemistries, dynamics, and interiors of all the planets including Earth. The giant planets also represent a valuable link to extrasolar planetary systems. For these reasons, a Saturn Probe mission with a shallow probe is ranked by the recent U.S. Planetary Science Decadal Survey as a high priority for a New Frontiers class mission. Atmospheric constituents needed to constrain theories of solar system formation and the origin and evolution of the giant planets could be accessed and sampled by shallow entry probes. Many important constituents are either spectrally inactive or are beneath an atmospheric overburden that is optically thick at useful wavelengths and are therefore not remotely accessible by flyby or orbiting spacecraft. A small, scientifically focused shallow entry probe mission could make critical abundance measurements of key constituents, and could measure profiles of atmospheric structure and dynamics at a vertical resolution that is significantly higher than could be achieved by remote sensing techniques. The Galileo mission began the detailed study of the solar system's two gas giants by dropping an entry probe into the atmosphere of Jupiter and deploying an orbiter around Jupiter. In 2016-2017 the Juno mission will make measurements of Jupiter's deep oxygen abundance, and gravitational and magnetic fields. In the same epoch, the Cassini orbiter is planned to pursue a set of Juno-like orbits to make comparable gravitational and magnetic field measurements of Saturn. A Saturn atmospheric entry probe would complete the quartet of missions needed for a comparative study of the two gas giants, leading to improved models of solar system formation. A highly focused entry probe mission at Saturn carrying a minimal science payload could address unique and critical science while fitting within existing program budget caps. Fundamental measurements include abundances of the noble gases He, Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe and, abundances of key isotopic ratios 4He/3He, D/H, 15N/14N, 18O/16O, and 13C/12C. Detection of disequilibrium species CO, PH3, AsH3, and GeH4 is diagnostic of deeper internal processes and dynamics of the atmosphere along the probe descent. Abundances of these key constituents, as well as carbon which does not condense at Saturn, sulfur which is expected to be well-mixed below the 4 to 5-bar ammonium hydrosulfide (NH4SH) cloud, and gradients of nitrogen below the NH4SH cloud and oxygen in the upper layers of the H2O and H2O-NH4 solution cloud, could be measured by an entry probe descending through 10 bars. In concert with the results from Galileo, Cassini, and Juno, a shallow Saturn probe capable of measuring abundances of key constituents not accessible by a remote sensing mission would provide critical measurements enabling a comparison of composition and dynamical processes on the giant planets while also providing an improved context for understanding exoplanets.

  4. Capturing near-Earth asteroids around Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasnain, Zaki; Lamb, Christopher A.; Ross, Shane D.

    2012-12-01

    The list of detected near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) is constantly growing. NEAs are likely targets for resources to support space industrialization, as they may be the least expensive source of certain needed raw materials. The limited supply of precious metals and semiconducting elements on Earth may be supplemented or even replaced by the reserves floating in the form of asteroids around the solar system. Precious metals make up a significant fraction NEAs by mass, and even one metallic asteroid of ˜1km size and fair enrichment in platinum-group metals would contain twice the tonnage of such metals already harvested on Earth. There are ˜1000 NEAs with a diameter of greater than 1 km. Capturing these asteroids around the Earth would expand the mining industry into an entirely new dimension. Having such resources within easy reach in Earth's orbit could provide an off-world environmentally friendly remedy for impending terrestrial shortages, especially given the need for raw materials in developing nations. In this paper, we develop and implement a conceptually simple algorithm to determine trajectory characteristics necessary to move NEAs into capture orbits around the Earth. Altered trajectories of asteroids are calculated using an ephemeris model. Only asteroids of eccentricity less than 0.1 have been studied and the model is restricted to the ecliptic plane for simplicity. We constrain the time of retrieval to be 10 years or less, based on considerations of the time to return on investment. For the heliocentric phase, constant acceleration is assumed. The acceleration required for transporting these asteroids from their undisturbed orbits to the sphere of influence of the Earth is the primary output, along with the impulse or acceleration necessary to effect capture to a bound orbit once the Earth's sphere of influence is reached. The initial guess for the constant acceleration is provided by a new estimation method, similar in spirit to Edelbaum's. Based on the numerically calculated trajectories, 23 asteroids are recommended for future consideration for capture missions, provided necessary technological developments are made.

  5. carleton.ca Earth Sciences

    E-print Network

    Dawson, Jeff W.

    carleton.ca Earth Sciences #12;Earth is our home. It is a dynamic planet, integrating and recording spectrometers or electron microprobes--earth scientists investigate Earth's evolution to help understand future today and for the future is enhanced by the expertise of economic geologists. Knowledge of the Earth

  6. EARTH SURFACE PROCESSES AND LANDFORMS Earth Surf. Process. Landforms (2010)

    E-print Network

    2010-01-01

    EARTH SURFACE PROCESSES AND LANDFORMS Earth Surf. Process. Landforms (2010) Copyright © 2010 John at the global scale, whether by agriculture or by more direct earth-moving operations (e.g. Hooke, 2000

  7. Gravity field information from Gravity Probe-B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, D. E.; Lerch, F. J.; Colombo, O. L.; Everitt, C. W. F.

    1989-01-01

    The Gravity Probe-B Mission will carry the Stanford Gyroscope relativity experiment into orbit in the mid 1990's, as well as a Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver whose tracking data will be used to study the earth gravity field. Estimates of the likely quality of a gravity field model to be derived from the GPS data are presented, and the significance of this experiment to geodesy and geophysics are discussed.

  8. The solar probe shield\\/antenna materials characterization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Randolph; J. Ayon; R. Dirling; W. Imbriale; R. Miyake; D. Le Queau; G. Olalde; E. Pierson; S. Rawal; B. Rivoire; J. F. Robert; C. Royere; R. Taylor; P. Valentine; W. Vaughn

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the development process used to select the shield\\/antenna material satisfying the design requirements of the Solar Probe mission that will encounter a flux at perihelion equivalent to an intensity of 3000 times greater than that at the Earth. A joint U.S.–French testing program was devised that would screen samples of carbon–carbon to determine the fabrication process that

  9. Chemistry & Biology Fluorogenic Probe

    E-print Network

    Raines, Ronald T.

    on signal transduction pathways that can mal- function in cancer patients (Hanahan and Weinberg, 2011 options. For example, pancreatic-type ribonucleases (ptRNases) have emerged as putative cancer esterases activate the tri- methyl lock. Using this probe, we found that human breast cancer cells undergo

  10. Endocavity Ultrasound Probe Manipulators.

    PubMed

    Stoianovici, Dan; Kim, Chunwoo; Schäfer, Felix; Huang, Chien-Ming; Zuo, Yihe; Petrisor, Doru; Han, Misop

    2013-06-01

    We developed two similar structure manipulators for medical endocavity ultrasound probes with 3 and 4 degrees of freedom (DoF). These robots allow scanning with ultrasound for 3-D imaging and enable robot-assisted image-guided procedures. Both robots use remote center of motion kinematics, characteristic of medical robots. The 4-DoF robot provides unrestricted manipulation of the endocavity probe. With the 3-DoF robot the insertion motion of the probe must be adjusted manually, but the device is simpler and may also be used to manipulate external-body probes. The robots enabled a novel surgical approach of using intraoperative image-based navigation during robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy (RALP), performed with concurrent use of two robotic systems (Tandem, T-RALP). Thus far, a clinical trial for evaluation of safety and feasibility has been performed successfully on 46 patients. This paper describes the architecture and design of the robots, the two prototypes, control features related to safety, preclinical experiments, and the T-RALP procedure. PMID:24795525

  11. Galileo Probe Mass Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owen, Tobias C.

    1998-01-01

    During the past year, the Principal Investigator's research carried out under this contract has focused on an analysis of the implications of Galileo Probe Mass Spectrometer (GPMS) results for the origin of Jupiter's atmosphere and the origin of the ice and other possible volatiles on the Galilean satellites.

  12. The Changing Earth

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1998-01-01

    These activities present evidence, illustrations and visualizations for some of the changes in the Earth's crust. Students will learn to categorize materials as either chemically or physically weathered, describe how a glacier can change the crust of the Earth (erratic rocks, hills, scraping), and identify at least five examples of changes in the crust within walking distance of their school.

  13. Earth Science Vocabulary Review

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This collection of activities lets students test their knowledge of hundreds of random geologic terms. The activities include games such as hangman (several varieties), flash cards, guessing words or definitions, and matching terms with definitions. Topics include rocks and minerals, Earth dynamics, Earth history, surface processes, weather, and astronomy.

  14. The Earth's deep interior

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Arthus Jacobs

    1976-01-01

    The deep interior of the Earth is inaccessible to man and in some ways we know less about it than we do about the distant stars. However seismology has revealed certain details of the earth's structure. Below a rocky mantle some 2,900 km thick there is a core consisting mainly of nickel-iron, the outer part of which is liquid and

  15. Earth Flyby Anomalies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Martin Nieto; John D. Anderson

    2009-01-01

    In a reference frame fixed to the solar system's center of mass, a satellite's energy will change as it is deflected by a planet. But a number of satellites flying by Earth have also experienced energy changes in the Earth-centered frame -- and that's a mystery.

  16. Earth flyby anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieto, Michael Martin; Anderson, John D.

    In a reference frame fixed to the solar system's center of mass, a satellite's energy will change as it is deflected by a planet. But a number of satellites flying by Earth have also experienced energy changes in the Earth-centered frame -- and that's a mystery.

  17. Earth Flyby Anomalies

    E-print Network

    Michael Martin Nieto; John D. Anderson

    2009-10-07

    In a reference frame fixed to the solar system's center of mass, a satellite's energy will change as it is deflected by a planet. But a number of satellites flying by Earth have also experienced energy changes in the Earth-centered frame -- and that's a mystery.

  18. Earth as a System

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    WGBH/Boston

    This short video uses animated imagery from satellite remote sensing systems to illustrate that Earth is a complex, evolving body characterized by ceaseless change. Adapted from NASA, this visualization helps explain why understanding Earth as an integrated system of components and processes is essential to science education.

  19. Earth's anthrobiogeochemical copper cycle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. N. Rauch; T. E. Graedel

    2007-01-01

    An “anthrobiogeochemical” copper cycle, from Earth's core to the Moon, combining natural biogeochemical and human anthropogenic stocks and flows is derived for the mid-1990s. Although some aspects of the quantification have moderate to high uncertainty, the anthropogenic mining, manufacturing, and use flows (on the order of 104 Gg Cu\\/yr) clearly dominate the cycle. In contrast, the natural repositories of Earth's

  20. Oscillations of the Earth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z. Alterman; H. Jarosch; C. L. Pekeris

    1959-01-01

    A study is made of the free and forced oscillations of the earth. The natural periods are determined for radial, torsional and spheroidal types of oscillation. Several models of the earth are used: a homogeneous model, such as was assumed originally by Love, a model consisting of a homogeneous solid mantle enclosing a homogeneous liquid core, Bullen's model B, and

  1. Cool Earth Solar

    SciTech Connect

    Lamkin, Rob; McIlroy, Andy; Swalwell, Eric; Rajan, Kish

    2013-04-22

    In a public-private partnership that takes full advantage of the Livermore Valley Open Campus (LVOC) for the first time, Sandia National Laboratories and Cool Earth Solar have signed an agreement that could make solar energy more affordable and accessible. In this piece, representatives from Sandia, Cool Earth Solar, and leaders in California government all discuss the unique partnership and its expected impact.

  2. The Earth's Dynamic Magnetotail

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Nishida

    2000-01-01

    Geomagnetic field lines that are stretched on the nightside of the Earth due to reconnection with the interplanetary magnetic field constitute the Earth's magnetotail. The magnetotail is a dynamic entity where energy imparted from the solar wind is stored and then released to generate disturbance phenomena such as substorms. This paper gives an updated overview on the physics of the

  3. The Earth's Crust

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Timothy Heaton

    This site contains 14 questions on the topic of the Earth's crust, which covers unconformities, geologic time, and lithification. This is part of the Principles of Earth Science course at the University of South Dakota. Users submit their answers and are provided immediate verification.

  4. The Earth Needs You!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curriculum Review, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Celebrated annually on April 22, schools and communities organize numerous activities during Earth Day to promote awareness. To help teachers plan their own initiatives and to learn more about what is happening around the world, they can join the Earth Day Network at: http://network.earthday.net/. Once they have joined, they can create a webpage…

  5. Density of the Earth

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Jeffrey Barker

    This demonstration of average density uses understandable units of total mass and volume of the Earth. The required supplies are a can of beer or soda and a 1-pound bag of pretzels. By imagining, for instance, 4.4 bags of pretzels fitting into a beer/soda can, students can better visualize the average density of the Earth.

  6. Earth as a System

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The representation shows earthquake and volcanic activity corresponds to plate boundaries. This video clip is part of a movie that describes the Earth as a system. The clip referenced in this review begins midway through the video, with the statement "Draining the ocean reveals that the Earth's solid surface..." and concludes with "Like earthquakes, most volcanoes are located near plate boundaries."

  7. Earth Science Week

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    American Geological Institute

    This website, from the American Geological Institute, features information about Earth Science Week, which occurs October 8-14 in 2006. Discover ideas about how you and others can become scientifically literate citizens. The site features information for both teachers and students, as well as information about planning earth science events and classroom activities.

  8. Earth and ocean modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knezovich, F. M.

    1976-01-01

    A modular structured system of computer programs is presented utilizing earth and ocean dynamical data keyed to finitely defined parameters. The model is an assemblage of mathematical algorithms with an inherent capability of maturation with progressive improvements in observational data frequencies, accuracies and scopes. The Eom in its present state is a first-order approach to a geophysical model of the earth's dynamics.

  9. Ancient impact structures on modern continental shelves: The Chesapeake Bay, Montagnais, and Toms Canyon craters, Atlantic margin of North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Poag, C. Wylie; Plescia, J.B.; Molzer, P.C.

    2002-01-01

    Three ancient impact craters (Chesapeake Bay - 35.7 Ma; Toms Canyon - 35.7 Ma; Montagnais - 51 Ma) and one multiring impact basin (Chicxulub - 65 Ma) are currently known to be buried beneath modern continental shelves. All occur on the passive Atlantic margin of North America in regions extensively explored by seismic reflection surveys in the search for oil and gas reserves. We limit our discussion herein to the three youngest structures. These craters were created by submarine impacts, which produced many structural and morphological features similar in construction, composition, and variability to those documented in well-preserved subaerial and planetary impact craters. The subcircular Chesapeake Bay (diameter 85 km) and ovate Montagnais (diameter 45-50 km) structures display outer-rim scarps, annular troughs, peak rings, inner basins, and central peaks similar to those incorporated in the widely cited conceptual model of complex impact craters. These craters differ in several respects from the model, however. For example, the Montagnais crater lacks a raised lip on the outer rim, the Chesapeake Bay crater displays only small remnants of a raised lip, and both craters contain an unusually thick body of impact breccia. The subtriangular Toms Canyon crater (diameter 20-22 km), on the other hand, contains none of the internal features of a complex crater, nor is it typical of a simple crater. It displays a prominent raised lip on the outer rim, but the lip is present only on the western side of the crater. In addition, each of these craters contains some distinct features, which are not present in one or both of the others. For example, the central peak at Montagnais rises well above the elevation of the outer rim, whereas at Chesapeake Bay, the outer rim is higher than the central peak. The floor of the Toms Canyon crater is marked by parallel deep troughs and linear ridges formed of sedimentary rocks, whereas at Chesapeake Bay, the crater floor contains concentric faults and compression ridges formed in rocks of the crystalline basement. The Chesapeake Bay crater is distinguished further by its cluster of at least 23 adjacent secondary craters. The North American tektite strewn field, a widespread deposit of distal ejecta, is thought to be derived from the Chesapeake Bay impact, perhaps with a small contribution from the Toms Canyon impact. No ejecta field is known to be associated with the Montagnais impact. No immediate major extinction event is directly linked to any of these three impacts. There is evidence, however, that the Chesapeake Bay and Toms Canyon impacts helped initiate a long-term pulse of warm global climate, whose eventual dissipation coincided with an early Oligocene mass extinction event, 2 Ma after the impacts.

  10. Introduction to Google Earth

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Liane Stevens

    This assignment is a geologically-oriented Google Earth tutorial that is used in preparation for a course project in which students create Google Earth content summarizing the geology of features of interest on campus. This tutorial addresses navigation, layers and featured content, and creation and modification of placemarks, paths, and polygons. Students are expected to be proficient in the use of Google Earth at the completion of the tutorial. Proficiency with Google Earth allows students to complete geologically advanced projects that require, or benefit from, geographic display of information. Further, non-science majors are introduced to the exploration of Earth using this fascinating application, and are able to find applications for the program in their daily lives.

  11. Asteroid Challenge, Target: Earth

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This interactive multimedia feature introduces students to asteroids. Topics include what they are, where they occur, and the probability that a large asteroid might strike the Earth. There is a discussion of Near-Earth Asteroids (NEAs) and particularly the asteroid Apophis, an asteroid over a thousand feet wide that is expected to pass very close to Earth in 2036. There is also discussion of possible ways to alter the orbits of NEAs so that they will not hit the Earth. After each segment, which consists of narrated videos and illustrations featuring Dr. Neil deGrasse Tyson, director of New York City's Hayden Planetarium, students complete a quiz to move on to the next section. The feature concludes with virtual labs in which students match spectrograms of asteroids with compositions of known substances such as water, carbon, and iron, and compute the trajectory of an asteroid to see if it will hit the Earth.

  12. The Earth's Atmosphere

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This section of the Windows to the Universe web site provides information and images about Earth's atmosphere including detailed information about the layers of Earth's atmosphere, the greenhouse effect, and weather. Windows to the Universe is a user-friendly learning system pertaining to the Earth and Space sciences. The objective of this project is to develop an innovative and engaging web site that spans the Earth and Space sciences and includes a rich array of documents, including images, movies, animations, and data sets that explore the Earth and Space sciences and the historical and cultural ties between science, exploration and the human experience. Links at the top of each page allow users to navigate between beginner, intermediate and advanced levels. The content is also available in Spanish.

  13. Mechanosensitive membrane probes.

    PubMed

    Dal Molin, Marta; Verolet, Quentin; Soleimanpour, Saeideh; Matile, Stefan

    2015-04-13

    This article assembles pertinent insights behind the concept of planarizable push-pull probes. As a response to the planarization of their polarized ground state, a red shift of their excitation maximum is expected to report on either the disorder, the tension, or the potential of biomembranes. The combination of chromophore planarization and polarization contributes to various, usually more complex processes in nature. Examples include the color change of crabs or lobsters during cooking or the chemistry of vision, particularly color vision. The summary of lessons from nature is followed by an overview of mechanosensitive organic materials. Although often twisted and sometimes also polarized, their change of color under pressure usually originates from changes in their crystal packing. Intriguing exceptions include the planarization of several elegantly twisted phenylethynyl oligomers and polymers. Also mechanosensitive probes in plastics usually respond to stretching by disassembly. True ground-state planarization in response to molecular recognition is best exemplified with the binding of thoughtfully twisted cationic polythiophenes to single- and double-stranded oligonucleotides. Molecular rotors, en vogue as viscosity sensors in cells, operate by deplanarization of the first excited state. Pertinent recent examples are described, focusing on ?-ratiometry and intracellular targeting. Complementary to planarization of the ground state with twisted push-pull probes, molecular rotors report on environmental changes with quenching or shifts in emission rather than absorption. The labeling of mechanosensitive channels is discussed as a bioengineering approach to bypass the challenge to create molecular mechanosensitivity and use biological systems instead to sense membrane tension. With planarizable push-pull probes, this challenge is met not with twistome screening, but with "fluorescent flippers," a new concept to insert large and bright monomers into oligomeric probes to really feel the environment and also shine when twisted out of conjugation. PMID:25693760

  14. Faculty of Science: EARTH SCIENCES

    E-print Network

    Brownstone, Rob

    Faculty of Science: EARTH SCIENCES Possible Careers Geologist Geochemist Geophysicist Mining - www.gac.ca Canadian Federation of Earth Sciences - www.geoscience.ca Canadian Geotechnical Society Respect the Earth Majors & Careers www.dal.ca/careerinfo #12;

  15. Probing properties of cold radiofrequency plasma with polymer probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bormashenko, E.; Chaniel, G.; Multanen, V.

    2015-01-01

    The probe intended for the characterization of cold plasma is introduced. The probe allows the estimation of Debye length of cold plasma. The probe is based on the pronounced modification of surface properties (wettability) of polymer films by cold plasmas. The probe was tested with the cold radiofrequency inductive air plasma discharge. The Debye length and the concentration of charge carriers were estimated for various gas pressures. The reported results coincide reasonably with the corresponding values established by other methods. The probe makes possible measurement of characteristics of cold plasmas in closed chambers.

  16. Strong refraction near the Venus surface - Effects observed by descent probes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Croft, T. A.

    1982-01-01

    The telemetry signals from Pioneer Venus probes indicated the strong downward refraction of radio waves. As the probes descended, the strength of the direct signal decreased because of absorption and refractive defocusing. During the last 30 km of descent there was a second measured component in addition to the direct signal. Strong atmospheric reaction is important in strengthening echoes that are scattered toward the earth. Such surface-reflected signals are good indicators of horizontal winds.

  17. Enabling interstellar probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNutt, Ralph L.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F.; International Interstellar Probe Team

    2011-04-01

    The scientific community has advocated a scientific probe to the interstellar medium for over 30 years. While the Voyager spacecraft have passed through the termination shock of the solar wind, they have limited lifetimes as their radioisotope power supplies decay. It remains unclear whether they can reach the heliopause, the boundary between shocked solar wind and interstellar plasmas, and, in any case, they will not reach the undisturbed interstellar medium. As with most exploratory space missions, their ongoing observations continue to raise even more questions about the nature of the interaction of our heliosphere and the interstellar medium. Scientific questions including: What is the nature of the nearby interstellar medium? How do the Sun and galaxy affect the dynamics of the heliosphere? What is the structure of the heliosphere? How did matter in the solar system and interstellar medium originate and evolve? can only be answered by an "interstellar precursor" probe. Such a mission is required to make in situ measurements in the interaction region and interstellar medium itself at distances far from the Sun, but in a finite mission lifetime. By launching a probe toward the incoming "interstellar wind," whose direction is known, the distance to be traveled can be minimized but is still large. The current consensus is that a scientifically compelling mission must function to at least a distance of 200 astronomical units (AU) from the Sun and return a reasonable stream of data during the voyage. The central problem is that of providing a means of propulsion to accelerate a probe from the Solar System. Even with a low-mass payload and spacecraft, achieving the high speeds needed, even with gravity assists, have remained problematic. Voyager 1, the fastest object ever to leave the system is now traveling ˜3.6 AU/yr, and a credible probe must reach at least 2-3 times this speed. The use of an Ares V is an approach for enabling a fast interstellar precursor mission. Maximum capability uses the combination of an Ares V, two-engine Centaur upper stage, close fly-by of Jupiter, and radioisotope electric propulsion (REP). Deletion of any of these pieces does not disable the mission, but does increase the flyout time to a given distance. This approach is more robust and provides a faster probe than an earlier alternative, designed for launch by a Delta IV 4050H plus twin Star 48A upper stages.

  18. The Dynamic Earth

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The reason we know that glaciers covered certain areas of the globe while continental plates buckled elsewhere is because of rocks. Thanks to these gatekeepers of the past, we are better able to understand the earth's history and the present. The National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, offers this really interactive and engaging site to teach about science of the earth. The three main sections of the site include: Rocks at Earth's Surface, Rocks Below Earth's Surface, and Mining. The detailed interactive modules in each section take the visitor from learning about the different minerals that make up gneiss, granite, and feldspar, to touring three mines in the United States. As the site states, "Earth's history is written on pages of stone. Since our planet's birth 4.6 billion years ago, rocks have been continually forming and, over time, changing from one kind to another. Every rock preserves part of this ancient and ongoing story." And, this great Web site takes you through this story of the earth's history exceptionally well. Those interested in earth science, students, and teachers will surely find this site useful. And, although the best viewing is by using Flash, there is a text-only option as well.

  19. Accretion of the Earth.

    PubMed

    Canup, Robin M

    2008-11-28

    The origin of the Earth and its Moon has been the focus of an enormous body of research. In this paper I review some of the current models of terrestrial planet accretion, and discuss assumptions common to most works that may require re-examination. Density-wave interactions between growing planets and the gas nebula may help to explain the current near-circular orbits of the Earth and Venus, and may result in large-scale radial migration of proto-planetary embryos. Migration would weaken the link between the present locations of the planets and the original provenance of the material that formed them. Fragmentation can potentially lead to faster accretion and could also damp final planet orbital eccentricities. The Moon-forming impact is believed to be the final major event in the Earth's accretion. Successful simulations of lunar-forming impacts involve a differentiated impactor containing between 0.1 and 0.2 Earth masses, an impact angle near 45 degrees and an impact speed within 10 per cent of the Earth's escape velocity. All successful impacts-with or without pre-impact rotation-imply that the Moon formed primarily from material originating from the impactor rather than from the proto-Earth. This must ultimately be reconciled with compositional similarities between the Earth and the Moon. PMID:18826928

  20. Specialized probes with nanowhisker structures for scanning probe microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhukov, M. V.; Kukhtevich, I. V.; Levichev, V. V.; Mukhin, I. S.; Golubok, A. O.

    2014-10-01

    Probes with single nanowhiskers (SNWs) and nanoscalpels (NSs) for scanning force microscopy were created and studied. SNWs consisting of an amorphous Pt/C material and amorphous carbon SNWs were grown up at top of standard Si cantilevers with help of focused electron beam technique. By means of test samples it was shown that a SNW probe give more contrast and accurate images of deep channels and steps on a sample surface in comparison with a standard Si cantilever having the same radius of top as SNW. It was revealed that unlike the standard Si probe, the SNW probe allows to visualize fine nanostructure an erythrocyte membrane. The specialized NS probes achieve better results than standard probes when they work in force lithography mode. Moreover, the possibility of applying NS probes for precision movement of nanoparticles and cell nanosurgery are demonstrated.

  1. Ice-Borehole Probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Behar, Alberto; Carsey, Frank; Lane, Arthur; Engelhardt, Herman

    2006-01-01

    An instrumentation system has been developed for studying interactions between a glacier or ice sheet and the underlying rock and/or soil. Prior borehole imaging systems have been used in well-drilling and mineral-exploration applications and for studying relatively thin valley glaciers, but have not been used for studying thick ice sheets like those of Antarctica. The system includes a cylindrical imaging probe that is lowered into a hole that has been bored through the ice to the ice/bedrock interface by use of an established hot-water-jet technique. The images acquired by the cameras yield information on the movement of the ice relative to the bedrock and on visible features of the lower structure of the ice sheet, including ice layers formed at different times, bubbles, and mineralogical inclusions. At the time of reporting the information for this article, the system was just deployed in two boreholes on the Amery ice shelf in East Antarctica and after successful 2000 2001 deployments in 4 boreholes at Ice Stream C, West Antarctica, and in 2002 at Black Rapids Glacier, Alaska. The probe is designed to operate at temperatures from 40 to +40 C and to withstand the cold, wet, high-pressure [130-atm (13.20-MPa)] environment at the bottom of a water-filled borehole in ice as deep as 1.6 km. A current version is being outfitted to service 2.4-km-deep boreholes at the Rutford Ice Stream in West Antarctica. The probe (see figure) contains a sidelooking charge-coupled-device (CCD) camera that generates both a real-time analog video signal and a sequence of still-image data, and contains a digital videotape recorder. The probe also contains a downward-looking CCD analog video camera, plus halogen lamps to illuminate the fields of view of both cameras. The analog video outputs of the cameras are converted to optical signals that are transmitted to a surface station via optical fibers in a cable. Electric power is supplied to the probe through wires in the cable at a potential of 170 VDC. A DC-to-DC converter steps the supply down to 12 VDC for the lights, cameras, and image-data-transmission circuitry. Heat generated by dissipation of electric power in the probe is removed simply by conduction through the probe housing to the visible features of the lower structure of the ice sheet, including ice layers formed at different times, bubbles, and mineralogical inclusions. At the time of reporting the information for this article, the system was just deployed in two boreholes on the Amery ice shelf in East Antarctica and after successful 2000 2001 deployments in 4 boreholes at Ice Stream C, West Antarctica, and in 2002 at Black Rapids Glacier, Alaska. The probe is designed to operate at temperatures from 40 to +40 C and to withstand the cold, wet, high-pressure [130-atm (13.20-MPa)] environment at the bottom of a water-filled borehole in ice as deep as 1.6 km. A current version is being outfitted to service 2.4-km-deep boreholes at the Rutford Ice Stream in West Antarctica. The probe (see figure) contains a sidelooking charge-coupled-device (CCD) camera that generates both a real-time analog video signal and a sequence of still-image data, and contains a digital videotape recorder. The probe also contains a downward-looking CCD analog video camera, plus halogen lamps to illuminate the fields of view of both cameras. The analog video outputs of the cameras are converted to optical signals that are transmitted to a surface station via optical fibers in a cable. Electric power is supplied to the probe through wires in the cable at a potential of 170 VDC. A DC-to-DC converter steps the supply down to 12 VDC for the lights, cameras, and image-datatransmission circuitry. Heat generated by dissipation of electric power in the probe is removed simply by conduction through the probe housing to the visible features of the lower structure of the ice sheet, including ice layers formed at different times, bubbles, and mineralogical inclusions. At thime of reporting the information for this article, the system was just deployed in two boreholes

  2. The Rare Earth Peak : An Overlooked r-Process Diagnostic

    E-print Network

    Mumpower, M; Surman, R

    2012-01-01

    The astrophysical site or sites responsible for the r-process of nucleosynthesis still remains an enigma. Since the rare earth region is formed in the latter stages of the r-process it provides a unique probe of the astrophysical conditions during which the r-process takes place. We use features of a successful rare earth region in the context of a high entropy r-process (S>100k_B) and discuss the types of astrophysical conditions that produce abundance patterns that best match meteoritic and observational data. Despite uncertainties in nuclear physics input, this method effectively constrains astrophysical conditions.

  3. Dimensions of the Earth

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Medina, Philip

    This unit consists of a variety of materials that explain the shape of the Earth and how it is measured. There is a set of 'proofs' that the Earth is round, an account of how Greek geographer and mathematician Eratosthenes deduced that Earth's surface was curved, and explanations of how roundness, latitude, and longitude are measured. There is also information on time zones, contour (isoline) maps, topograpic profiles, and map projections. A vocabulary list and downloadable, printable worksheets for each major topic are provided.

  4. Earth and Sky

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2002-01-01

    This companion web site to the Earth and Sky Radio Series offers recordings of the award winning daily radio show, plus oodles of supplementary science material. Visitors can search for specific science topics and retrieve relevant articles and past shows (and transcripts) on the topic. There is a great kids earth and sky section directed at younger children, plus a teacher's lounge with virtual text book, resources, and tips for using Earth and Sky in the classroom. This well organized, attractive, and content rich site is a pleasure to use. This site is also reviewed in the August 9, 2002 Scout Report.

  5. The Earth's Moon

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Roberta Johnson

    2000-07-01

    This section of the Windows to the Universe website provides information and images about Earth's Moon, including detailed information about lunar geology, lunar atmosphere, eclipse, orbit, and Moon formation. Windows to the Universe is a user-friendly learning system pertaining to the Earth and Space sciences. The objective of this project is to develop an innovative and engaging website that includes a rich array of documents, including images, movies, animations, and data sets that explore the Earth and Space sciences and the historical and cultural ties between science, exploration and the human experience. Links at the top of each page allow users to navigate between beginner, intermediate and advanced levels.

  6. The Earth's Magnetic Field

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Roberta Johnson

    2000-07-01

    This section of the Windows to the Universe website provides information and images about Earth's magnetic field (the magnetosphere), including detailed information about the aurora borealis, magnets, and solar wind. Windows to the Universe is a user-friendly learning system pertaining to the Earth and Space sciences. The objective of this project is to develop an innovative and engaging website that includes a rich array of documents, including images, movies, animations, and data sets that explore the Earth and Space sciences and the historical and cultural ties between science, exploration and the human experience. Links at the top of each page allow users to navigate between beginner, intermediate and advanced levels.

  7. Droplet monitoring probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baughman, J. R.; Thys, P. C.

    1973-01-01

    A droplet monitoring system is disclosed for analysis of mixed-phase fluid flow in development of gas turbines. The system uses a probe comprising two electrical wires spaced a known distance apart and connected at one end to means for establishing a dc potential between the wires. A drop in the fluid stream momentarily contacting both wires simultaneously causes and electrical signal which is amplified, detected and counted.

  8. Icing Sensor Probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emery, Edward; Kok, Gregory L.

    2002-01-01

    Aircraft icing is a serious safety problem for the general aviation and some commuter transport airplanes. There has been tremendous growth in the commuter aviation industry in the last few years, Since these type of aircraft generally operate at lower altitudes they consequently spend a far greater proportion of their time operating in icing conditions. For the past thirty years airborne and ground based facilities have relied primarily on two types of cloud physics instrumentation to measure the characteristics of icing clouds: hot wire liquid water content probes and laser based particle sizing probes for the measurement of water droplet size. The instrumentation is severely limited by the technology that was developed during the 1970's and is quite large in size. The goal of this research is to develop one instrument with a wide bandwidth, better response time, higher resolution, user selectability, and small and lightweight. NASA Glenn Research Center, Droplet Measurement Technology, and Meteorology Society of Canada have developed a collaborative effort to develop such an instrument. This paper describes the development and test results of the prototype Icing Sensor Probe.

  9. Einstein Inflationary Probe (EIP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinshaw, Gary

    2004-01-01

    I will discuss plans to develop a concept for the Einstein Inflation Probe: a mission to detect gravity waves from inflation via the unique signature they impart to the cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization. A sensitive CMB polarization satellite may be the only way to probe physics at the grand-unified theory (GUT) scale, exceeding by 12 orders of magnitude the energies studied at the Large Hadron Collider. A detection of gravity waves would represent a remarkable confirmation of the inflationary paradigm and set the energy scale at which inflation occurred when the universe was a fraction of a second old. Even a strong upper limit to the gravity wave amplitude would be significant, ruling out many common models of inflation, and pointing to inflation occurring at much lower energy, if at all. Measuring gravity waves via the CMB polarization will be challenging. We will undertake a comprehensive study to identify the critical scientific requirements for the mission and their derived instrumental performance requirements. At the core of the study will be an assessment of what is scientifically and experimentally optimal within the scope and purpose of the Einstein Inflation Probe.

  10. Nanoscale thermal probing

    PubMed Central

    Yue, Yanan; Wang, Xinwei

    2012-01-01

    Nanoscale novel devices have raised the demand for nanoscale thermal characterization that is critical for evaluating the device performance and durability. Achieving nanoscale spatial resolution and high accuracy in temperature measurement is very challenging due to the limitation of measurement pathways. In this review, we discuss four methodologies currently developed in nanoscale surface imaging and temperature measurement. To overcome the restriction of the conventional methods, the scanning thermal microscopy technique is widely used. From the perspective of measuring target, the optical feature size method can be applied by using either Raman or fluorescence thermometry. The near-field optical method that measures nanoscale temperature by focusing the optical field to a nano-sized region provides a non-contact and non-destructive way for nanoscale thermal probing. Although the resistance thermometry based on nano-sized thermal sensors is possible for nanoscale thermal probing, significant effort is still needed to reduce the size of the current sensors by using advanced fabrication techniques. At the same time, the development of nanoscale imaging techniques, such as fluorescence imaging, provides a great potential solution to resolve the nanoscale thermal probing problem. PMID:22419968

  11. Earth to Saturn, Earth to Saturn!

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This is a lesson about Saturn. Learners will use drawing and writing to explore the comparative features of Saturn and Earth. To scaffold student writing, the lesson includes a drawing activity, a brainstorming activity, a structured Cloze activity, and a chance for independent writing where students create their own analogies. This is lesson 6 of 10 in the Mission to Saturn Educators Guide, Reading Writing Rings, for grades 1-2.

  12. Capturing near-Earth asteroids around Earth Zaki Hasnain n

    E-print Network

    Ross, Shane

    metals and semiconducting elements on Earth may be supplemented or even replaced by the reserves floating twice the tonnage of such metals already harvested on Earth. There are $ 1000 NEAs with a diameter propellant to transport spacecraft between space habitats, Earth, the Moon, the asteroids, and beyond. Rare-Earth

  13. RARE EARTHS--2002 61.1 RARE EARTHS

    E-print Network

    of rare earths are iron gray to silvery lustrous metals that are typically soft, malleable, ductile decreased as imports of rare-earth alloys, compounds, and metals declined. Production of bastnäsiteRARE EARTHS--2002 61.1 RARE EARTHS By James B. Hedrick Domestic survey data and tables were

  14. RARE EARTHS--2003 60.1 RARE EARTHS

    E-print Network

    . U.S. imports of cerium compounds and rare-earth metals and alloys decreased (table 5). YttriumRARE EARTHS--2003 60.1 RARE EARTHS By James B. Hedrick Domestic survey data and tables were, geographic information specialist. The rare earths are a moderately abundant group of 17 elements comprising

  15. Alexandria Digital Earth ProtoType The Alexandria Digital Earth

    E-print Network

    Janée, Greg

    Alexandria Digital Earth ProtoType The Alexandria Digital Earth Prototype System Terence Smith Greg Janée James Frew Anita Coleman #12;Alexandria Digital Earth ProtoType 2Smith et al. / JCDL 2001 / 2x Earth ProtoType 3Smith et al. / JCDL 2001 / 2x-Jun-2001 Core System (inherited from ADL) Components

  16. Physical Earth Science Is Physical Earth Science right for me?

    E-print Network

    Harman, Neal.A.

    Physical Earth Science Is Physical Earth Science right for me? If you are interested in learning a Physical Earth Science degree. The skills you will gain are wide-ranging and will provide a good basis for employment in almost any sector. Are all Physical Earth Science degrees the same? Universities do not have

  17. Down to Earth Fall 2004 Down to Earth

    E-print Network

    Johnson, Cari

    Down to Earth Fall 2004 1 Down to Earth Newsletter of the Geology and Geophysics Department re- ported about our role in museum displays, the new interdis- ciplinary earth science teaching to Earth Fall greetings! It's hard to believe it is time for our annual newsletter again. Several events

  18. EARTH SURFACE PROCESSES AND LANDFORMS Earth Surf. Process. Landforms (2010)

    E-print Network

    Howat, Ian M.

    2010-01-01

    EARTH SURFACE PROCESSES AND LANDFORMS Earth Surf. Process. Landforms (2010) Copyright © 2010 John , Abu Saleh Khan8 and A.K.M. Zeaul Hoque8 1 School of Earth Sciences, Ohio State University, Columbus OH environments. First, repeat-pass interferometric SAR measurements from the Japanese Earth Resources Satellite

  19. EARTH SURFACE PROCESSES AND LANDFORMS Earth Surf. Process. Landforms (2010)

    E-print Network

    Lancaster, Stephen T.

    2010-01-01

    EARTH SURFACE PROCESSES AND LANDFORMS Earth Surf. Process. Landforms (2010) Copyright © 2010 John. Jefferson,1 * G.E. Grant,2 S.L. Lewis3 and S.T. Lancaster3 1 Department of Geography and Earth Sciences, Department of Geography and Earth Sciences, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, 9201 University City

  20. EARTH SURFACE PROCESSES AND LANDFORMS Earth Surf. Process. Landforms (2009)

    E-print Network

    Heimsath, Arjun M.

    2009-01-01

    EARTH SURFACE PROCESSES AND LANDFORMS Earth Surf. Process. Landforms (2009) Copyright © 2009 John.1790 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.Chichester, UKESPEarth Surface Processes and LandformsEARTH SURFACE Research GroupEarth Surf. Process. Landforms0197-93371096-9837Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd