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1

Contingency Maneuver Strategies for the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer-Earth Probe (TOMS-EP).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer-Earth Probe (TOMS-EP) is a polar-orbiting spacecraft designed to measure total ozone levels in the Earth's atmosphere. The nominal mission orbit is a 955-kilometer circular Sun-synchronous orbit with an ascending node ...

J. Kestler D. Walls

1995-01-01

2

Fire at Iraqi sulfur plant emits SO2 clouds detected by Earth Probe TOMS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A fire started at the Al-Mishraq State Sulfur plant near Mosul, Iraq on 24 June 2003 and burned for almost a month. Combustion of elemental sulfur in the fire produced dense clouds of sulfur dioxide (SO2) that were detected from space by the Earth Probe Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (EP TOMS) on 18 days. Estimated daily SO2 production from the continuously emitting source closely mirrors contemporaneous thermal infrared radiance from the fire sensed in the 3.96 ?m band of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). We calculate total SO2 production during the blaze amounting to ~600 kilotons, which is roughly commensurate with the predicted SO2 yield from the inventory of elemental sulfur allegedly destroyed by the fire when potential SO2 losses are considered. This event is the largest non-volcanic SO2 emission incident measured to date by any TOMS instrument.

Carn, S. A.; Krueger, A. J.; Krotkov, N. A.; Gray, M. A.

2004-10-01

3

Effects of storage on Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer-Earth Probe (TOMS-EP) 9Ah Super NiCdTM battery cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to launch vehicle delays, the 22-cell 9 Ampere-hour (Ah) Super NiCdTM Battery designed and built for the NASA GSFC Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer-Earth Probe (“TOMS-EP”) satellite mission was required to be stored, in an activated condition, for nearly four years. The super NiCdTM cells were manufactured by Eagle-Picher Industries, Inc. Power Systems Department located in Colorado Springs, Colorado. The

D. L. Scoles; J. W. Hayden; G. M. Rao; C. Lurie; J. E. Bell

1997-01-01

4

TOMS Data Products at the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences DAAC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The current Total Mapping Ozone Spectrometer (TOMS) was launched aboard the NASA Earth Probe (EP) satellite in July1996 to provide global monitoring of total column atmospheric ozone derived from measurements of backscattered solar ultraviolet radiation. TOMS is a second-generation, ozone-sounding instrument based on the Backscatter Ultraviolet (BUV) Spectrometer flown aboard NASA's Nimbus-4 satellite in 1970. The first TOMS instrument was launched aboard Nimbus-7 in 1978. Nimbus-7 TOMS provided data continuously for more than 14 years until May 1993. From 1991 through 1994, a second TOMS instrument was also flown aboard a Russian Meteor-3 satellite, and the third instrument in the series is the currently operating EP-TOMS. A fourth instrument was flown on the Japanese Advanced Environmental Orbiting Satellite (ADEOS) in August 1996 but prematurely ended 9 months later. The high quality measurements of TOMS played an instrumental role in the detection of a small but steady ozone decline since the early 1980s. In September 1991, the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) was launched containing a comprehensive suite of instruments designed to collectively determine the impact of chemical, dynamic and energy input processes on ozone creation and destruction. In addition to its primary role of ozone monitoring, TOMS has also provided (1) estimates of harmful UV-B radiation at the surface, (2) the effective UV reflectivity due to the combined effects of clouds, aerosols, and the earth's surface, (3) an index to track the global transport of ash and sulfur dioxide resulting from volcanic eruptions, and (4) an index to track smoke emanating from large fires and dust plumes originating from desert regions. Aerosol characteristics including optical depth and single scattering albedo are also being produced as evaluation products at this time. Continuity of ozone, other trace species, and solar UV measurements will be provided with the launch of the Aura spacecraft in mid 2003 (the third mission in NASA's Earth Observing System program), in conjunction with the Solar Radiation and Climate Experiment (SORCE) slated for launch in late 2002. Standard products from TOMS and UARS sensors and ancillary correlative data sets are archived at the Goddard DAAC and are freely available to the public. Data products from future upper atmospheric research missions, e.g., the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) and the High Resolution Dynamics Limb Sounder (HIRDLS) aboard Aura, as well as SORCE will also be archived at the Goddard DAAC. To facilitate the use of multiyear data sets, a number of tools and server-side capabilities for data access, visualization, and analysis have been developed at the Goddard DAAC. For detailed information please visit http://daac.gsfc.nasa.gov/. This presentation will provide highlights of the TOMS data products available from the Goddard DAAC, including several data applications, and the services provided by the DAAC Upper Atmosphere Data Support Team (DST) in support of the users of the data.

Ahmad, S. P.; Johnson, J. E.; Serafino, G. N.; McPeters, R. D.

2002-05-01

5

The Tom40 assembly process probed using the attachment of different intramitochondrial sorting signals  

PubMed Central

The TOM40 complex is a protein translocator in the mitochondrial outer membrane and consists of several different subunits. Among them, Tom40 is a central subunit that constitutes a protein-conducting channel by forming a ?-barrel structure. To probe the nature of the assembly process of Tom40 in the outer membrane, we attached various mitochondrial presequences to Tom40 that possess sorting information for the intermembrane space (IMS), inner membrane, and matrix and would compete with the inherent Tom40 assembly process. We analyzed the mitochondrial import of those fusion proteins in vitro. Tom40 crossed the outer membrane and/or inner membrane even in the presence of various sorting signals. N-terminal anchorage of the attached presequence to the inner membrane did not prevent Tom40 from associating with the TOB/SAM complex, although it impaired its efficient release from the TOB complex in vitro but not in vivo. The IMS or matrix-targeting presequence attached to Tom40 was effective in substituting for the requirement for small Tim proteins in the IMS for the translocation of Tom40 across the outer membrane. These results provide insight into the mechanism responsible for the precise delivery of ?-barrel proteins to the outer mitochondrial membrane.

Shiota, Takuya; Maruyama, Miyuki; Miura, Mami; Tamura, Yasushi; Yamano, Koji; Esaki, Masatoshi; Endo, Toshiya

2012-01-01

6

Contribution of TOMS to Earth Science - An Overview  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The TOMS instrument was launched on the Nimbus-7 satellite in Oct 1978 with the goal of understanding the meteorological influences on the ozone column. The nominal lifetime of the instrument was 1 year. However, in response to the concern over possible man-made influences on the ozone layer NASA continued to nurse the instrument for 13.5 years and launched a major program to produce accurate trend quality dataset of ozone. Despite severe optical degradation and other significant anomalies that developed in the instrument over its lifetime, the effort turned out to be a tremendous success. In 1984, TOMS took center stage as the primary provider of Antarctic ozone hole maps to the world community; it continues to play that role until today. An unexpected benefit of the close attention paid to improving the TOMS data quality was that several atmospheric constituents that interfere with ozone measurement were also identified and meticulously converted into long-term datasets of their own. These constituents include clouds, volcanic SO2, aerosols, and ocean phytoplankton. In addition, the high quality of the basic datasets made it possible to produce global maps of surface UV and tropospheric ozone. In most cases there are no other sources of these data sets. Advanced UV instruments currently under development in the US and Europe will continue to exploit the TOMS-developed techniques for several decades.

Bhartia, P. K.

2003-12-01

7

Distribution of UV radiation at the Earth's surface from TOMS-measured UV-backscattered radiances  

Microsoft Academic Search

Daily global maps of monthly integrated UV-erythemal irradiance (290-400 nm) at the Earth's surface are estimated using the ozone amount, cloud transmittance, aerosol amounts, and surface reflectivity from the solar UV radiation backscattered from the Earth's atmosphere as measured by the total ozone mapping spectrometer (TOMS) and independently measured values of the extraterrestrial solar irradiance. The daily irradiance values at

J. R. Herman; N. Krotkov; E. Celarier; D. Larko; G. Labow

1999-01-01

8

Distribution of UV radiation at the Earth's surface from TOMS-measured UV-backscattered radiances  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Daily global maps of monthly integrated UV-erythemal irradiance (290-400 nm) at the Earth's surface are estimated using the ozone amount, cloud transmittance, aerosol amounts, and surface reflectivity from the solar UV radiation backscattered from the Earth's atmosphere as measured by the total ozone mapping spectrometer (TOMS) and independently measured values of the extraterrestrial solar irradiance. The daily irradiance values at a given location show that short-term variability (daily to annual) in the amount of UV radiation, 290-400 nm, reaching the Earth's surface is caused by (1) partially reflecting cloud cover, (2) haze and absorbing aerosols (dust and smoke), and (3) ozone. The reductions of UV irradiance estimated from TOMS data can exceed 50 ± 12% underneath the absorbing aerosol plumes in Africa and South America (desert dust and smoke from biomass burning) and exceeded 70 ± 12% during the Indonesian fires in September 1997 and again during March 1998. Recent biomass burning in Mexico and Guatemala have caused large smoke plumes extending into Canada with UV reductions of 50% in Mexico and 20% in Florida, Louisiana, and Texas. Where available, ground-based Sun photometer data show similar UV irradiance reductions caused by absorbing aerosol plumes of dust and smoke. Even though terrain height is a major factor in increasing the amount of UV exposure compared to sea level, the presence of prolonged clear-sky conditions can lead to UV exposures at sea level rivaling those at cloudier higher altitudes. In the equatorial regions, ±20°, the UV exposures during the March equinox are larger than during the September equinox because of increased cloudiness during September. Extended land areas with the largest erythemal exposure are in Australia and South Africa where there is a larger proportion of clear-sky days. The large short-term variations in ozone amount which occur at high latitudes in the range ±65° cause changes in UV irradiance comparable to clouds and aerosols for wavelengths between 280 nm and 300 nm that are strongly absorbed by ozone. The absolute accuracy of the TOMS monthly erythemal exposure estimates over a TOMS field of view is within ±6%, except under UV-absorbing aerosol plumes (dust and smoke) where the accuracy is within ±12%. The error caused by aerosols can be reduced if the height of the aerosol plume is more accurately known. The TOMS estimated irradiances are compared with ground-based Brewer spectroradiometer data obtained at Toronto, Canada. The Brewer irradiances are systematically 20% smaller than TOMS irradiance estimates during the summer months. An accounting of systematic errors brings the Brewer and TOMS irradiances into approximate agreement within the estimated instrumental uncertainties for both instruments.

Herman, J. R.; Krotkov, N.; Celarier, E.; Larko, D.; Labow, G.

1999-05-01

9

Tropospheric Ozone and Smoke from Earth Probe TOMS: Indian Ocean  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Researchers have discovered that smoke and smog move in different ways through the atmosphere. A series of unusual events several years ago created a blanket of pollution over the Indian Ocean. In this animation, significant smog or tropospheric ozone is represented by red and green and regions of significant smoke index are in shades of white and gray.

Mitchell, Horace; Thompson, Anne

2001-03-06

10

Tropospheric Ozone and Smoke from Earth Probe TOMS: Indonesia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Researchers have discovered that smoke and smog move in different ways through the atmosphere. A series of unusual events several years ago created a blanket of pollution over the Indian Ocean. In this animation, significant smog or tropospheric ozone is represented by red and green and regions of significant smoke index are in shades of white and gray.

Mitchell, Horace; Thompson, Anne

2001-03-06

11

TOMS sees continental effects of 2004 Alaskan Fires  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Wildfires started by lightning burned more than 80,000 acres in Alaska in June 2004. The effects of these fires can be seen across North America with the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) instrument on the Earth Probes spacecraft. TOMS detects the presence of UV-absorbing tropospheric aerosols across the globe.

Perkins, Lori; Newman, Paul; Bhartia, Pawan

2004-07-02

12

Earth surface reflectivity climatology at 340–380 nm from TOMS data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 340-380 nm (UV) Lambertian equivalent reflectivities (LER) of the Earth's surface, between the latitudes +70 ø , are constructed from 14.5 years of radiances measured by Nimbus-7\\/total ozone mapping spectrometer (November 1978 to May 1993). The surface LER values are obtained from the minimum reflectivity values for each 1 ø x 1.25 ø (latitude x longitude) pixel with statistically

J. R. Herman; E. A. Celarier

1997-01-01

13

A Long-Term Record of Aerosol Optical Depth from TOMS Observations and Comparison to AERONET Measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observations of backscattered near-ultraviolet radiation from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) on board the Nimbus-7 (1979-92) and the Earth Probe (mid-1996 to present) satellites have been used to derive a long-term record of aerosol optical depth over oceans and continents. The retrieval technique applied to the TOMS data makes use of two unique advantages of near-UV remote sensing not

O. Torres; P. K. Bhartia; J. R. Herman; A. Sinyuk; Paul Ginoux; Brent Holben

2002-01-01

14

Tropospheric Ozone and Smoke from Earth Probe TOMS: Indian Ocean to Indonesia Zoom  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Researchers have discovered that smoke and smog move in different ways through the atmosphere. A series of unusual events several years ago created a blanket of pollution over the Indian Ocean. In this animation, significant smog or tropospheric ozone is represented by red and green and regions of significant smoke index are in shades of white and gray.

Mitchell, Horace; Thompson, Anne

2001-03-06

15

China Dust Storm seen by Earth Probe-TOMS in April of 2001  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A thick shroud of dust appears over China on April 6 and 7, 2001. The densest portion of the aerosol pollution travels east over China, Russia, Japan, the Pacific Ocean, Canada, and the United States.

Perkins, Lori; Shirah, Greg; Newman, Paul; Bhartia, Pawan

2003-12-03

16

Probing Earth and Mars: What Should We Pack?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson students explore the idea of using probes to gain scientific information on both Mars and Earth. The students also attempt to determine the likely surface temperature at landing sites on Earth that are comparable to Pathfinder and Viking sites on Mars. This is the fifth in a series of interactive student lessons from the Martian Sun Times.

17

TOMS Tropical Tropospheric Ozone Data Sets at the University of Maryland Website  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since 1997, shortly after the launch of the Earth-Probe TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) satellite instrument, we have been processing data in near-real time to post maps of tropical tropospheric ozone at a website: http://metosrv2.umd.edu/~tropo. Daily, 3-day and 9-day averages of Tropical Tropospheric Ozone (TTO) column depth are viewable from 10N to 10S. Data can be downloaded (running 9-day means) from 20N-30S. Pollution events are trackable along with dynamically-induced variations in tropospheric ozone column. TOMS smoke aerosol (http://toms.gsfc.nasa.gov) can be used to interpret biomass burning ozone, as for example, during the extreme ozone and smoke pollution period during the ENSO-related fires of August-November 1997. During that time plumes of ozone and smoke were frequently decoupled and ozone from Indonesian fires and from Africa merged in one large feature by late October 1997. In addition to the Earth-Probe TOMS record, data as half-month averages and as daily 9-day means from the Nimbus 7 TOMS instrument are at the http://metosrv2.umd.edu/~tropo website. A guide to the website and examples of ozone time-series and maps will be shown.

Kochhar, A. K.; Thompson, A. M.; Hudson, R. D.; Frolov, A.; Witte, J. C.

2001-05-01

18

Earth-Based Observations of the Galileo Probe Entry Site  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earth-based observations of Jupiter indicate that the Galileo probe probably entered Jupiter's atmosphere just inside a region that has less cloud cover and drier conditions than more than 99 percent of the rest of the planet. The visual appearance of the clouds at the site was generally dark at longer wavelengths. The tropospheric and stratospheric temperature fields have a strong

G. Orton; J. L. Ortiz; K. Baines; G. Bjoraker; U. Carsenty; F. Colas; A. Dayal; D. Deming; P. Drossart; E. Frappa; J. Friedson; J. Goguen; W. Golisch; D. Griep; C. Hernandez; W. Hoffmann; D. Jennings; C. Kaminski; J. Kuhn; P. Laques; S. Limaye; H. Lin; J. Lecacheux; T. Martin; G. McCabe; T. Momary; D. Parker; R. Puetter; M. Ressler; G. Reyes; P. Sada; J. Spencer; J. Spitale; S. Stewart; J. Varsik; J. Warell; W. Wild; P. Yanamandra-Fisher; G. Fazio; J. Hora; L. Deutsch

1996-01-01

19

Tropospheric Ozone at High Latitudes from POAM and TOMS Measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We derive the tropospheric ozone column at high latitudes based on the stratospheric ozone column from the Polar Ozone and Aerosol Measurement (POAM) III instrument and the total ozone column from Earth Probe Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS). The POAM ozone column in the lower stratosphere compares very well with the ozonesonde lower stratospheric column at POAM latitudes and is well suited for this study. The POAM/TOMS Tropospheric Ozone Residual (TOR) is compared to the tropospheric ozone column (TOC) from ozonesonde stations and from the GEOS-CHEM 3D photochemical transport model. Good quantitative agreement was found between the TOR and the ozonesonde TOC. In addition, comparisons indicate good qualitative agreement in longitudinal variability between the POAM/TOMS TOR and the model TOC. This is the first time the TOR method has been used to examine longitudinal variability in tropospheric ozone at high latitudes. The POAM/TOMS TOR reproduces well the monthly variability in ozone over Europe from March through September, with a maximum during summer due to increased photochemistry.

Prados, A. I.; Nedoluha, G. E.; Shettle, E. P.; Allen, D. R.; Bevilacqua, R. M.; Randall, C. E.; Park, R.

2003-12-01

20

Ion probe measurement of rare earth elements in biogenic phosphates  

SciTech Connect

The rare earth element (REE) distributions in individuals fish teeth and conodonts have been measured by ion probe. Concentrations and La/Yb ratios show little variations, except in the enamel, which suggests that REE uptake from the sedimented biogenic debris takes place at the water-sediment interface as an essentially quantitative process without fractionation. Late diagenetic disturbances remained of marginal importance. Hence, REE in phosphatic debris might reflect the input from the overlying water column.

Grandjean, P.; Albarede, F. (Ecole Nationale Superieure de Geologie (France))

1989-12-01

21

Ozone retrieval errors associated with clouds in total ozone mapping spectrometer (TOMS) data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study characterizes TOMS Ozone Retrieval Errors (ORES) associated with incorrect Cloud-Top Pressures (CTPs) and with assuming opaque Lambertian clouds, investigates these errors' effects on tropospheric ozone derivation, and analyzes ozone anomalies over TOMS data. Large errors occurring in TOMS assumed CTPs and inaccurate CTP-caused ORES are most significantly from inappropriately added ozone below clouds. Because OREs are usually within the TOMS retrieval precision when Cloud Optical Depth (COD) ? 20, assuming angular-independent cloud reflection is good. Because of In-Cloud Ozone Absorption ENhancement (ICOAEN), assuming opaque clouds can introduce large positive OREs even for optically thick clouds. For a 2--12 km water cloud of COD 40 with 20.8 DU ozone homogeneously distributed inside the cloud, the ORE is 17.8 DU at nadir view. The ICOAEN effect depends strongly on viewing geometry and inter-cloud ozone amount and distribution; it is typically 5--13 DU over the tropical Atlantic and Africa and 1--7 DU over the tropical Pacific for deep convective clouds. The TOMS Partial Cloud Model (PCM) is good because negative PCM effect partly cancels other positive errors. At COD ? 5, the TOMS algorithm retrieves approximately the correct total ozone because of compensating errors. With increasing COD up to 20--40, negative PCM effect decreases more dramatically than positive effects, so overall positive ORE increases and is dominated by the ICOAEN effect. The ICOAEN effect can largely underestimate tropospheric ozone derived from cloudy/clear difference techniques. The convective cloud differential and cloud-clear pair methods use minimum ozone above clouds to cancel positive errors. A Positive or Negative Ozone Anomaly (POA/NOA) is defined to occur if the ozone/reflectivity correlation coefficient in a region is ?0.5 or ?-0.5. Average fractions of OA occurrence are 31.8% and 35.8% in Nimbus-7 and Earth-Probe TOMS data, respectively. Most tropical NOAs result from large cloud-height errors; corrections lead to 50--70% POAs in the tropics because of mainly the ICOAEN effect. POAs with fractions of 30--60% occur in marine stratocumulus regions west of South Africa and South America. ORES over clear and cloudy areas cause about half the ozone/reflectivity slope; greater ozone production from frequent low-altitude clouds and rich ozone precursors may cause the remainder. The knowledge of TOMS OREs has important implications for ozone/trace gas retrieval from other satellites.

Liu, Xiong

22

Determination of three-layer earth model from Wenner four-probe test data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on the solution of the electric field inverse problem, an efficient method for determining three-layer earth models and parameters from Wenner's four-probe test data is presented, i.e., from a set of voltage values measured on the earth surface due to the current injected into the earth. The speed of the iterative convergence is increased by employing the generalized inverse

Huina Yang; Jiansheng Yuan; Wei Zong

2001-01-01

23

Earth-Based Radio Tracking of the Galileo Probe for Jupiter Wind Estimation  

PubMed

Although the Galileo probe was designed to communicate only to the orbiter, the probe radio signal was detected at two Earth-based radio observatories where the signal was a billion times weaker. The measured signal frequency was used to derive a vertical profile of the jovian zonal wind speed. Due to the mission geometry, the Earth-based wind estimates are less sensitive to descent trajectory errors than estimates based on probe-orbiter Doppler measurements. The two estimates of wind profiles agree qualitatively; both show high wind speeds at all depths sampled. PMID:9005845

Folkner; Preston; Border; Navarro; Wilson; Oestreich

1997-01-31

24

Global validation of empirically corrected EP-Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) total ozone columns using Brewer and Dobson ground-based measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article focuses on the global-scale validation of the empirically corrected Version 8 total ozone column data set acquired by the NASA Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) during the period 1996–2004 when this instrument was flying aboard the Earth Probe (EP) satellite platform. This analysis is based on the use of spatially co-located, ground-based measurements from Dobson and Brewer spectrophotometers.

M. Antón; M. E. Koukouli; M. Kroon; R. D. McPeters; G. J. Labow; D. Balis; A. Serrano

2010-01-01

25

Interview with Tom Bertocci by Mike Hastings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biographical NoteTom Bertocci was born in Lewiston, Maine, on February 17, 1945. His father was Salvatore Theodore “Ted” Bertocci, the son of Italian immigrants who came to the United States in 1912. Two of Tom’s uncles became professors at Bates College, where they met Ed Muskie. Tom’s father worked at Bath Iron Works, and met Tom’s mother, Margaret True Allen

Thomas Tom A Bertocci

2008-01-01

26

Geo-neutrinos: A new probe of Earth's interior  

Microsoft Academic Search

In preparation to the experimental results which will be available in the future, we study geo-neutrino production for different models of mantle convection and composition. By using global mass balance for the Bulk Silicate Earth, the predicted flux contribution from distant sources in the crust and in the mantle is fixed within a total uncertainty of ±15%. We also discuss

Gianni Fiorentini; Marcello Lissia; Fabio Mantovani; Riccardo Vannucci

2005-01-01

27

Using millimeter radio waves to probe the earth's atmosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyze the unique features involved in employing millimeter radio waves to investigate and monitor the earth's atmosphere by means of radio transmissions involving the use of two satellites. We discuss the absorption of radio waves in the atmosphere along the path of the two satellites, depending on the wavelength and the time of year. Signal attenuation is analyzed in

S. D. Eliseev; O. I. Yakovlev

1989-01-01

28

Probing the atmosphere of the coolest super-Earth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Theoretical models predict that low mass planets are likely to exist with atmospheres that can vary widely in their composition and structure. Our team recently detected a super-Earth transiting the nearby low-mass star GJ1214 (Charbonneau et al., 2009). This detection has opened the door to testing predictions of low mass planet atmosphere theories. We propose to use the Spitzer space

Jean-Michel Desert; David Charbonneau; Zachory Berta; Christopher Burke; Jonathan Irwin; Philip Nutzman; Eliza Miller-Ricci

2010-01-01

29

A video atlas of TOMS ozone data, 1978-88  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS), on-board NASA's Nimbus-7 weather satellite, has been observing ozone over the earth once daily for the last 10 yr. A time-lapse atlas of 3440 color-coded images drawn from the TOMS archive from 1978 to 1988 has been visualized on a standard VHS videotape that is now available from NASA. The rapid and complex ozone variations presented demonstrate the difficulty of separating man-induced climate changes from natural variability. This article presents a few images from the atlas and describes interesting features in the animation, such as the correlation between ozone and 'the weather', and the recent deepening of the annual ozone hole over the South Pole. Originally intended as a browsing tool for the TOMS digital database, the videotape is a vivid presentation of the earth's atmospheric dynamics and chemistry that is recommended for scientists, educators, policy makers, and citizens concerned about the global environment.

Chesters, D.; Krueger, A. J.

1989-12-01

30

Probing the atmosphere of the coolest super-Earth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Theoretical models predict that low mass planets are likely to exist with atmospheres that can vary widely in their composition and structure. Our team recently detected a super-Earth transiting the nearby low-mass star GJ1214 (Charbonneau et al., 2009). This detection has opened the door to testing predictions of low mass planet atmosphere theories. We propose to use the Spitzer space telescope to detect the atmosphere and infer the molecular composition of GJ1214b. The mid-infrared (MIR) is particularly well suited to observe numerous molecular signatures such as water vapor. We plan to observe the primary eclipse of the planet (when the planet passes in front of the parent star) with the IRAC instrument in the two available channels at 3.6 and 4.5 microns. Comparing the radius measurements obtained in the two band-passes will allow us to detect the atmosphere of this object and to place constraints on its molecular composition. This study is possible because of the small size of the host star GJ1214. Consequently, the expected atmospheric signatures observed in transmission (0.1%) can be detected with the same level of confidence as has successfully been accomplished with much larger planets (hot-Jupiters). Moreover, the high photometric precision, continuous coverage and no limb-darkening of these light curves will improve the planetary parameters, and allow to search for transiting moons.

Desert, Jean-Michel; Charbonneau, David; Berta, Zachory; Burke, Christopher; Irwin, Jonathan; Nutzman, Philip; Miller-Ricci, Eliza

2010-02-01

31

Dust Storms and Their Impact on Ocean and Human Health: Dust in Earth’s Atmosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

Satellite imagery has greatly influenced our understanding of dust activity on a global scale. A number of different satellites such as NASA’s Earth-Probe Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) and Sea-viewing Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) acquire daily global-scale data used to produce imagery for monitoring dust storm formation and movement. This global-scale imagery has documented the frequent transmission of dust storm-derived soils

Dale W. Griffin; Christina A. Kellogg

2004-01-01

32

Nimbus-7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) Data Products User's Guide.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Two tape products from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) aboard the Nimbus-7 have been archived at the National Space Science Data Center. The instrument measures backscattered Earth radiance and incoming solar irradiance; their ratio -- the alb...

R. D. Mcpeters A. J. Krueger P. K. Bhartia J. R. Herman A. Oaks

1993-01-01

33

The Pilot Warm Spitzer Near Earth Object Survey: Probing the size distribution of the most abundant Near Earth Objects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a Warm Spitzer search for Near Earth Objects (NEOs), bodies whose orbits bring them close to the Earth's orbit. Previous work has measured the properties of larger NEOs, but the physical properties of the smallest and most numerous NEOs are poorly constrained. We will capitalize on Spitzer's unparalleled sensitivity and unique geometry to measure the size distribution of NEOs down to 100 meters, where completeness from previous surveys is poor. This allows us to probe the dynamical history of near-Earth space and meet the Congressional mandate to determine the impact threat from objects >140 m. This project will also serve as a scientific and technical pathfinder for a future large Spitzer proposal that will increase our knowledge of the small NEO size distribution by another order of magnitude. Both projects will also be sensitive to previously unseen NEO populations. This proposed work significantly surpasses recent results from both our ExploreNEOS program and NEOWISE. Future ground- and space-based missions have been proposed to carry out similar work at costs of $500M or more, but this fundamental work can be done now, with Spitzer, for far less money. Our team has unmatched scientific and technical expertise in observations and modeling of Spitzer-observed NEOs.

Trilling, David; Delbo, Marco; Emery, Joshua; Fazio, Giovanni; Fuentes, Cesar; Harris, Alan; Hora, Joseph; Mommert, Michael; Mueller, Michael; Smith, Howard

2012-12-01

34

Tom Marshburn Offers Holiday Greetings  

NASA Video Gallery

NASA Flight Engineer Tom Marshburn offered his greetings from Russia before departing for the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan where he will launch Dec. 19 on a Soyuz TMA-07M spacecraft to join Expedition 34 on the station.

Mark Garcia

2012-12-18

35

Probing the Kondo lattice model with alkaline-earth-metal atoms  

SciTech Connect

We study transport properties of alkaline-earth-metal atoms governed by the Kondo lattice Hamiltonian plus a harmonic confining potential, and suggest simple dynamical probes of several different regimes of the phase diagram that can be implemented with current experimental techniques. In particular, we show how Kondo physics at strong coupling, at low density, and in the heavy fermion phase is manifest in the dipole oscillations of the conduction band upon displacement of the trap center.

Foss-Feig, Michael [Department of Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States); JILA, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States); Hermele, Michael [Department of Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States); Rey, Ana Maria [Department of Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States); JILA, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States); NIST, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States)

2010-05-15

36

An earth-isolated optically coupled wideband high voltage probe powered by ambient light.  

PubMed

An earth-isolated optically-coupled wideband high voltage probe has been developed for pulsed power applications. The probe uses a capacitive voltage divider coupled to a fast light-emitting diode that converts high voltage into an amplitude-modulated optical signal, which is then conveyed to a receiver via an optical fiber. A solar cell array, powered by ambient laboratory lighting, charges a capacitor that, when triggered, acts as a short-duration power supply for an on-board amplifier in the probe. The entire system has a noise level ?0.03 kV, a DC-5 MHz bandwidth, and a measurement range from -6 to 2 kV; this range can be conveniently adjusted. PMID:23126786

Zhai, Xiang; Bellan, Paul M

2012-10-01

37

Summertime ``ozone valley'' over the Tibetan Plateau derived from ozonesondes and EP/TOMS data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the Asian summer monsoon period, total ozone over the Tibetan Plateau is much lower than that over the surrounding areas when compared at the same latitudes. This phenomenon called the ``ozone valley'' was investigated continuously with the use of ozonesondes and Earth Probe/Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (EP/TOMS). These measurements reveal that although relatively low ozone mixing ratios extend from the troposphere to the lower stratosphere, those near the tropopause (between about 150 and 70 hPa) largely contribute to lower total ozone over the Tibetan Plateau. Temperatures near the tropopause appear to be correlated with the observed ozone changes. Meteorological analyses show that this phenomenon is accompanied by the upper level monsoon anticyclone, which is characterized by deep convection over South Asia. These results suggest that lower ozone mixing ratios and colder temperatures near the tropopause are primarily due to convection, which is linked to the Asian summer monsoon.

Tobo, Yutaka; Iwasaka, Yasunobu; Zhang, Daizhou; Shi, Guangyu; Kim, Yoon-Suk; Tamura, Koichi; Ohashi, Tetsuya

2008-08-01

38

TOMS ozone data analysis of Indonesian forest fire effect on total ozone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biomass burning can result in tropospheric ozone increasing. In 1997, Indonesia big forest fire in dry season as a result of El Nino emitted large amounts of biomass burning plumes into the atmosphere, which produce ozone in troposphere via photochemical reaction. We mapped three day average of Earth Probe TOMS data from July to December 1997 in Latitude of 20 degrees S to 20 degrees N, and Longitude of 30 degrees E to 180 degrees E, which involves the forest fire area. As a composition we got every day ADEOS TOMS maps in the same area and the same period in 1996. From this maps we can find that in October 1997 the largest total amount of ozone was about 30 Dobson unit larger than the average in the same period of 1996. The area of largest amount was twice appeared in September 8 to 13 and October 11 to 19 which lasted about ten days. The location of that was in the west not far from the forest fire area which can be considered as a result of seasonal wind form east to west. Besides that a fairly large amount ozone area form east Indonesia through the west, we can find that ozone amount was largely increased than that of 1996.

Niu, Jianguo; Watanabe, Yoshihiro; Takeuchi, Nobuo; Ogawa, Toshihio

1998-08-01

39

Changes in Aerosols and Cloud Reflectivity (1979-2008) From 30 Years of Radiance Data using Multiple Satellites: N7-TOMS, EP-TOMS, SBUV-2 Series, SeaWiFS, and OMI  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The amount of solar radiation reflected back to space or reaching the Earth's surface is primarily governed by the amount of cloud cover, and, to a much lesser extent, by aerosols and various absorbing gases (e.g., O3, NO2, H2O) in their relative bands of absorption. A useful measure of the effect of cloud plus aerosol cover is given by the amount that the UV (331nm to 400 nm) Lambert Equivalent Reflectivity (LER) of a scene exceeds the surface reflectivity for snow/ice-free scenes. A 30-year reflectivity time series is presented by combining data from several satellites: N7 (Nimbus-7 TOMS; 331 nm) from 1979 to 1992, SBUV-2 series (Solar Backscatter UltraViolet-NOAA N9, N11, N16, N17, N18; 331 nm) 1985 to 2007, EP (Earth-Probe TOMS; 331 nm) 1997 to 2006, SW (SeaWiFS; 412 nm) 1998 to 2007, and OMI (Ozone Measuring Instrument; 331 nm) 2004 - 2007. Only N7 and SW have a sufficiently long data record and are adequately calibrated for long-term reflectivity trend estimation by themselves. Values derived from these instruments and the SBUV-2 series obtained during the overlapping years are compared. Key issues in determining long- term reflectivity changes that have occurred during the N7 and SW operating periods are discussed, as are the problems in re-calibrating all of the TOMS and SBUV satellite data. The preliminary combined 30-year reflectivity data set shows a small global increase in radiation reflected back to space suggestive of global dimming at the surface.

Herman, J. R.; Labow, G.; Wenhan, Q.; Huang, L.

2008-12-01

40

TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) as a Monitor of the Ultraviolet Radiation Environment: Applications to Photobiology. Abstract Only.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The flux of biologically relevant ultraviolet radiation that reaches the surface of the Earth varies with the ozone amount, surface reflectivity, and cloudcover. The Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) provides information relevant to all three items....

J. E. Frederick

1987-01-01

41

Origin and cycle of water on Earth as determined by Ion probe H and D\\/H measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

The question of the origin of water on Earth, and of its abundance has been the object of numerous debates, as well as for the other terrestrial planets. Furthermore the presence and amount of water, or more commonly fluids, in the mantle and continental crust are crucial issues for determining their nature and evolution. Ion probe have been a major

E. Deloule

2009-01-01

42

A Comparison of SBUV and TOMS Version 8.6 Total Column Ozone Data with Data from Groundstations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data from the Nimbus-7 and Earth Probe Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometers(TOMS) as well as the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) have been newly reprocessed with Version 8.6 of the TOMS column ozone retrieval algorithm. The ozone absorption cross-sections of Brion, Daumont, & Malicet have replaced those of Bass & Paur in the new algorithm, a new cloud height climatology derived from OMI measurements of UV rotational raman filling is now used instead of the previous thermal IR-based cloud data, and instrument calibration has been re-examined and updated in cases that were appropriate. These algorithm changes are also made to the SBUV (Solar Backscatter UltraViolet) ozone profile algorithm, advancing it Version 8.6 as well. Data from seven NOAA SBUV/2 instruments as well as the SBUV on Nimbus-7 have been reprocessed with the new profile algorithm. The newest versions of all these data have been systematically compared to total ozone data from Brewer and Dobson spectrophotometers for many individual ground stations as a function of latitude, solar zenith angle, reflectivity and total ozone amount.

Labow, G. J.; Haffner, D.; McPeters, R. D.; Bhartia, P. K.; Taylor, S.

2010-12-01

43

Toms' Effect in District Heating Tube Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Toms' Effect refers to the substantial decrease in frictional drag that is obtained when small amounts of polymers of high molecular weight are added to water. The possible benefits of using the Toms' Effect in district heating systems were studied. The i...

L. Ahrnbom U. Hagstrand

1977-01-01

44

Toms' Effect in District Heating System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

During the period 1974-1982, studies have been undertaken to investigate if it is technically and economically possible to introduce the so called Toms' effect in Sweden's district heating system. The significance of Toms' effect is that one can reduce th...

L. Ahrnbom U. Hagstrand

1982-01-01

45

Twenty five years of TOMS data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) was conceived as a satellite instrument to measure the contiguous, daily, global horizontal distribution of the total ozone field. Prior information about spatial variations in total ozone from the Dobson spectrophotometer network was limited by station density and calibration errors. TOMS uses the methods of UV radiative transfer and retrieval pioneered by J.V. Dave

A. Krueger

2004-01-01

46

Toms Creek IGCC Demonstration Project  

SciTech Connect

The Toms Creek Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) Demonstration Project was selected by DOE in September 1991 to participate in Round Four of the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program. The project will demonstrate a simplified IGCC process consisting of an air-blown, fluidized-bed gasifier (Tampella U-Gas), a gas cooler/steam generator, and a hot gas cleanup system in combination with a gas turbine modified for use with a low-Btu content fuel and a conventional steam bottoming cycle. The demonstration plant will be located at the Toms Creek coal mine near Coeburn, Wise County, Virginia. Participants in the project are Tampella Power Corporation and Coastal Power Production Company. The plant will use 430 tons per day of locally mined bituminous coal to produce 55 MW of power from the gasification section of the project. A modern pulverized coal fired unit will be located adjacent to the Demonstration Project producing an additional 150 MW. A total 190 MW of power will be delivered to the electric grid at the completion of the project. In addition, 50,000 pounds per hour of steam will be exported to be used in the nearby coal preparation plant. Dolomite is used for in-bed gasifier sulfur capture and downs cleanup is accomplished in a fluidized-bed of regenerative zinc titanate. Particulate clean-up, before the gas turbine, will be performed by high temperature candle filters (1020{degree}F). The demonstration plant heat rate is estimated to be 8,700 Btu/kWh. The design of the project goes through mid 1995, with site construction activities commencing late in 1995 and leading to commissioning and start-up by the end of 1997. This is followed by a three year demonstration period.

Virr, M.J.

1992-11-01

47

Toms Creek IGCC Demonstration Project  

SciTech Connect

The Toms Creek Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) Demonstration Project was selected by DOE in September 1991 to participate in Round Four of the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program. The project will demonstrate a simplified IGCC process consisting of an air-blown, fluidized-bed gasifier (Tampella U-Gas), a gas cooler/steam generator, and a hot gas cleanup system in combination with a gas turbine modified for use with a low-Btu content fuel and a conventional steam bottoming cycle. The demonstration plant will be located at the Toms Creek coal mine near Coeburn, Wise County, Virginia. Participants in the project are Tampella Power Corporation and Coastal Power Production Company. The plant will use 430 tons per day of locally mined bituminous coal to produce 55 MW of power from the gasification section of the project. A modern pulverized coal fired unit will be located adjacent to the Demonstration Project producing an additional 150 MW. A total 190 MW of power will be delivered to the electric grid at the completion of the project. In addition, 50,000 pounds per hour of steam will be exported to be used in the nearby coal preparation plant. Dolomite is used for in-bed gasifier sulfur capture and downs cleanup is accomplished in a fluidized-bed of regenerative zinc titanate. Particulate clean-up, before the gas turbine, will be performed by high temperature candle filters (1020[degree]F). The demonstration plant heat rate is estimated to be 8,700 Btu/kWh. The design of the project goes through mid 1995, with site construction activities commencing late in 1995 and leading to commissioning and start-up by the end of 1997. This is followed by a three year demonstration period.

Virr, M.J.

1992-01-01

48

Updating the Micro-Tom TILLING platform  

PubMed Central

The dwarf tomato variety Micro-Tom is regarded as a model system for functional genomics studies in tomato. Various tomato genomic tools in the genetic background of Micro-Tom have been established, such as mutant collections, genome information and a metabolomic database. Recent advances in tomato genome sequencing have brought about a significant need for reverse genetics tools that are accessible to the larger community, because a great number of gene sequences have become available from public databases. To meet the requests from the tomato research community, we have developed the Micro-Tom Targeting-Induced Local Lesions IN Genomes (TILLING) platform, which is comprised of more than 5000 EMS-mutagenized lines. The platform serves as a reverse genetics tool for efficiently identifying mutant alleles in parallel with the development of Micro-Tom mutant collections. The combination of Micro-Tom mutant libraries and the TILLING approach enables researchers to accelerate the isolation of desirable mutants for unraveling gene function or breeding. To upgrade the genomic tool of Micro-Tom, the development of a new mutagenized population is underway. In this paper, the current status of the Micro-Tom TILLING platform and its future prospects are described.

Okabe, Yoshihiro; Ariizumi, Tohru; Ezura, Hiroshi

2013-01-01

49

Updating the Micro-Tom TILLING platform.  

PubMed

The dwarf tomato variety Micro-Tom is regarded as a model system for functional genomics studies in tomato. Various tomato genomic tools in the genetic background of Micro-Tom have been established, such as mutant collections, genome information and a metabolomic database. Recent advances in tomato genome sequencing have brought about a significant need for reverse genetics tools that are accessible to the larger community, because a great number of gene sequences have become available from public databases. To meet the requests from the tomato research community, we have developed the Micro-Tom Targeting-Induced Local Lesions IN Genomes (TILLING) platform, which is comprised of more than 5000 EMS-mutagenized lines. The platform serves as a reverse genetics tool for efficiently identifying mutant alleles in parallel with the development of Micro-Tom mutant collections. The combination of Micro-Tom mutant libraries and the TILLING approach enables researchers to accelerate the isolation of desirable mutants for unraveling gene function or breeding. To upgrade the genomic tool of Micro-Tom, the development of a new mutagenized population is underway. In this paper, the current status of the Micro-Tom TILLING platform and its future prospects are described. PMID:23641180

Okabe, Yoshihiro; Ariizumi, Tohru; Ezura, Hiroshi

2013-03-01

50

Changes in cloud and aerosol cover (1980-2006) from reflectivity time series using SeaWiFS, N7-TOMS, EP-TOMS, SBUV-2, and OMI radiance data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The amount of solar radiation reflected back to space or reaching the Earth's surface is primarily governed by the amount of cloud cover and, to a much lesser extent, by Rayleigh scattering, aerosols, and various absorbing gases (e.g., O3, NO2, H2O). A useful measure of the effect of cloud plus aerosol cover is given by the amount that the 331 nm Lambert Equivalent Reflectivity (LER) of a scene exceeds the surface reflectivity for snow/ice-free scenes after Rayleigh scattering has been removed. Twenty-eight years of reflectivity data are available by overlapping data from several satellites: N7 (Nimbus 7, TOMS; 331 nm) from 1979 to 1992, SBUV-2 series (Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet, NOAA; 331 nm) 1985 to 2007, EP (Earth-Probe, TOMS; 331 nm) 1997 to 2006, SW (SeaWiFS; 412 nm) 1998 to 2006, and OMI (Ozone Measuring Instrument; 331 nm) 2004-2007. Only N7 and SW have a sufficiently long data record, Sun-synchronous orbits, and are adequately calibrated for long-term reflectivity trend estimation. Reflectivity data derived from these instruments and the SBUV-2 series are compared during the overlapping years. Key issues in determining long-term reflectivity changes that have occurred during the N7 and SW operating periods are discussed. The largest reflectivity changes in the 412 nm SW LER and 331 nm EP LER are found to occur near the equator and are associated with a large El Nino-Southern Oscillation event. Most other changes that have occurred are regional, such as the apparent cloud decrease over northern Europe since 1998. The fractional occurrence (fraction of days) of high reflectivity values over Hudson Bay, Canada (snow/ice and clouds) appears to have decreased when comparing reflectivity data from 1980 to 1992 to 1997-2006, suggesting shorter duration of ice in Hudson Bay since 1980.

Herman, J. R.; Labow, G.; Hsu, N. C.; Larko, D.

2009-01-01

51

Some Interpretations of the Toms Effect.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Some hypotheses for the Toms effect and/or its threshold stress were discussed. While a simple molecular-viscoelasticity interpretation of the threshold stress dependence upon the unperturbed diameter of the macromolecular coil was partly successful, the ...

A. G. Fabula J. L. Lumley W. D. Taylor

1966-01-01

52

Toms Effect in Model and Real Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selected data on use of macromolecular compounds (polymers) as additives that diminish the hydraulic resistance of turbulent fluid flows (Toms effect) are presented. Theoretical and applied (concerning mainly oil production) aspects of the phenomenon are considered.

V. A. Myagchenkov; S. V. Chichkanov

2005-01-01

53

An analysis of a staked dipole probe on a lossy Earth plane using the finite-difference time-domain method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method, an electrically short, staked, grounded horizontal probe is shown to have an open circuit voltage directly related to the horizontal electric field at the Earth's surface providing the surface coupling is subtracted from the output. This result is valid not only for an infinitely deep Earth plane but also for one which is horizontally

David V. Thiel; Raj Mittra

1997-01-01

54

Inhibition of TMV multiplication by siRNA constructs against TOM1 and TOM3 genes of Capsicum annuum.  

PubMed

The host proteins TOM1 and TOM3 associated with tonoplast membrane are shown to be required for efficient multiplication of Tobamoviruses. In this study, homologous of TOM1 and TOM3 genes were identified in pepper (Capsicum annuum) using specific primers. Their gene sequences have similarity to Nicotiana tabacum NtTOM1 and NtTOM3. Sequence alignment showed that CaTOM1 and CaTOM3 are closely related to TOM1 and TOM3 of N. tabacum and Solanum lycopersicum with 90% and 70% nucleotide sequence identities, respectively. RNA interference approach was used to suppress the TOM1 and TOM3 gene expression which in turn prevented Tobacco mosaic virus replication in tobacco. Nicotiana plants agro-infiltrated with siRNA constructs of TOM1 or TOM3 showed no mosaic or necrotic infection symptoms upon inoculation with TMV. The results indicated that silencing of TOM1 and TOM3 of pepper using the siRNA constructs is an efficient method for generating TMV-resistant plants. PMID:22814091

Kumar, Sunil; Dubey, Ashvini Kumar; Karmakar, Ruma; Kini, Kukkundoor Ramachandra; Mathew, Mathew Kuriyan; Prakash, Harischandra Sripathy

2012-07-17

55

Untangling complex processes within Earth's radiation belts with the Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP) mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Progress towards developing a predictive understanding of Earth's dynamic radiation belts requires that we: 1) better understand individual transport and energization mechanisms, and 2) better understand how these mechanisms act together to yield the complex behaviors that are observed. An example of the former imperative is to understand the extent to which non-linearities modify the role that whistler mode waves play in exchanging energy with and scattering radiation belt electrons. However, the latter imperative represents a greater challenge. What is the relationship between processes that supply electron source populations and those that generate the Ultra Low Frequency waves that can help transport those particles? What is the role of substorm injections in creating or modifying the global electric fields that transport and redistribute the injected plasma populations? How dependent is the wave activity that energizes radiation belt electrons on the global electric field that creates the conditions for wave generation? Two characteristics of the Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP) mission will enable researchers to address these interdependent mechanisms. First, the payload complement is unusually comprehensive, measuring all of the particle (electrons, ions, ion composition), fields (E and B), and wave distributions (dE and dB) needed to address the most critical science questions. However, the ability of the two RBSP spacecraft to make multiple, identical, and simultaneous measurements over a wide range of spatial scales is even more critical. RBSP comprises two spacecraft making in situ measurements for at least 2 years in nearly the same highly elliptical, low inclination orbits (1.1 x 5.8 RE, 10 degrees). The orbits are slightly different so that 1 spacecraft laps the other spacecraft about every 2.5 months, allowing separation of spatial from temporal affects over spatial scales ranging from ~0.1 to 5 RE. Here we discuss how the unique capabilities of the RBSP mission, when combined with a multiplicity of other serendipitous assets, will resolve the interdependent mechanisms that determine the complex behavior of the radiation belts.

Mauk, B. H.; Fox, N. J.; Sibeck, D. G.; Kanekal, S. G.; Kessel, R.

2011-12-01

56

Tippers at island observatories: Can we use them to probe electrical conductivity of the Earth's crust and upper mantle?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For decades, time series of hourly-mean values of the geomagnetic field measured on a global network of observatories have been routinely used to recover the electrical conductivity distribution in midmantle depths. Nowadays, most observatories provide data in the form of minute-means. This allows for analysis of short-period geomagnetic variations, which, in principle, contain information about geoelectric structures in the crust and upper mantle. However, so far these data have been ignored for induction studies of the Earth due to a theoretical preconception. In this paper, we demonstrate that short-period responses (tippers) at island observatories, being large owing to the ocean effect, are also sensitive to 1-D structures and thus can be used for probing the Earth. This means that a huge amount of data that was not exploited hitherto for induction studies should be reconsidered as a useful source of information about geoelectric structures in oceanic regions where our knowledge is still very limited.

Samrock, F.; Kuvshinov, A.

2013-03-01

57

The Failure of the Free World: Anarchy in Uncle Tom’s Cabin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Harriett Beecher Stowe is often identified as an advocate for Christianity, woman's suffrage, autonomy, and the abolishment of slavery. However, inviting the reader to view her work through an anarchist lens, her magnum opus—Uncle Tom’s Cabin— offers the reader the opportunity to reconstruct her politics with immense implication. Critics regard Stowe's \\

Andy Cerrone

2011-01-01

58

Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) planet profile provides data and images of the planet Earth. These data include planet size, orbit facts, distance from the Sun, rotation and revolution times, temperature, atmospheric composition, density, surface materials and albedo. Images with descriptions show Earth features such as the Ross Ice Shelf in Antarctica, Simpson Desert in Australia, Mt. Etna in Sicily, the Cassiar Mountains in Canada, the Strait of Gibraltar, Mississippi River, Grand Canyon, Wadi Kufra Oasis in Libya, and Moon images such as Hadley Rille, Plum Crater, massifs and Moon rocks. These images were taken with the Galileo Spacecraft and by the Apollo missions.

59

GeoSystems: Probing Climate and Linked Systems of Earth's Deep-Time Dark Ages  

Microsoft Academic Search

GeoSystems is a developing community-based initiative that focuses on the importance of the deep-time perspective for understanding the complexities of Earth's atmosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere and surficial lithosphere using climate as the focus. Earth's climate operates on a continuum of temporal, spatial and parametric scales. The deep-time geologic record preserves the results of multiple large-scale experiments in climate and broader environmental

G. S. Soreghan

2004-01-01

60

LILBID-mass spectrometry of the mitochondrial preprotein translocase TOM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present work we applied a novel mass spectrometry method termed laser-induced liquid bead ion desorption mass spectrometry (LILBID-MS) to the outer mitochondrial membrane protein translocon TOM to analyze its subunit composition and stoichiometry. With TOM core complex, purified at high pH, we demonstrate that a TOM core complex of Neurospora crassa is composed of at least two Tom40 and Tom22 molecules, respectively, and more than five small Tom subunits between 5.5 and 6.4 kDa. We show that the multiprotein complex has a total molecular mass higher than 170 depending on the number of Tom5, Tom6 and Tom7 molecules bound.

Mager, Frauke; Sokolova, Lucie; Lintzel, Julia; Brutschy, Bernhard; Nussberger, Stephan

2010-11-01

61

Huygens probe mission simulation in Earth's atmosphere: a stratospheric balloon experiment for the Huygens Atmospheric Structure Instrument (HASI)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On May, 30th 2002, a balloon experiment was successfully performed from the ASI stratospheric balloons launch base of Trapani-Milo in Sicily, in order to simulate the descent of the Huygens probe into Titan's atmosphere. This test consisted of the release in the Earth's atmosphere of a 1:1 scale mockup of the Huygens probe, lifted up to the altitude of 32.5 km by means of a stratospheric balloon and decelerated by a parachute. The on-board payload consisted of the HASI instrumentation (pressure, temperature sensors and accelerometers), Huygens SSP tilt sensor, Beagle2 UV sensor and an add-on package of complementary sensors. The descent lasted about 54 minutes and was a unique opportunity to investigate the behaviour of the HASI sensors and to get a real data set for trajectory reconstruction. Other added sensors such as a three axial magnetometer, sun sensors and the tilt sensor were used to investigate the attitude of the probe along the descent. During the flight, all the instrumentation was nominally functioning providing data for the determination of the atmospheric vertical pressure and temperature profiles and the acceleration descent profile of the mockup. The whole data set has been used for the determination of the mockup descent and attitude, and to test the algorithms developed for the Huygens trajectory reconstruction. In the same way, the data analysis improved our understanding of the probe motion (mainly pendulum) and how this motion affects accelerometer measurements. From a scientific point of view, this flight was a success and a new balloon experiment is foreseen in summer 2003 in order to integrate other instruments of the real Huygens probe and to improve and complete the existing results.

Colombatti, G.; Gaborit, V.; Ferri, F.; Bettanini, C.; Bastianello, S.; Flamini, E.; Antonello, M.; Aboudan, A.; Lion Stoppano, P. F.; Fulchignoni, M.

2003-04-01

62

GeoSystems: Probing Earth's Deep-Time Climate and Linked Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Located at the University of Oklahoma, "GeoSystems is an interdisciplinary, community-based initiative stemming from the growing recognition that a full understanding of Earth's climate system--and our climate future--lies in examining the wealth of "alternative-Earth" climatic extremes archived in the pre-Quaternary geologic record." After reading a short introduction to the initiative, users can find contact information for a host of researchers interested in deep-time climate studies. While there does not appear to be much activity in the Forum, the Resources link offers information on upcoming and recent workshops and meetings, and images about pre-Quaternary research.

63

Probing Earth's Middle Atmosphere: Non­lte Processes And Infrared Heterodyne Spectroscopy, A Preliminary Study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study of chemical and physical phenomena in the Earth's troposphere, strato- sphere and mesosphere is important to understand the coupling between these regions of the atmosphere. Information on the thermal structure, non-LTE processes, pres- sures, trace species abundances, and local dynamics is contained in emitted and ab- sorbed line spectra of molecular constituents in these atmospheric regions. Access to this information is optimized by spectroscopic resolution sufficient to resolve the molecular line shapes. We will describe a direct approach for such a study using true shapes of measured lines from mid-atmospheric constituents. We will present model calculations of the Earth's limb monochromatic radiances in the 9­12 µm spectral re- gion within spectral lines of a number of atmospheric trace gases (CO2, O3, N2O, OH, and others). The calculations account for non­LTE effects and simulate both emission and solar/lunar occultation observations from Earth orbit. These results will be com- pared to measurements expected from infrared heterodyne spectroscopy, which pro- vides the necessary spectral resolution (/ 106) to measure the line shapes and their accurate frequencies. The required instrumental parameters and the sensitivity for various observing geometries will be determined for retrieval of information on species abundance, kinetic temperature, non-LTE effects, and local winds. The feasi- bility and specific scientific return of such an investigation from Earth orbit will be discussed, in the context of many similar previous investigations of other planetary atmospheres in our solar system.

Kutepov, A. A.; Feofilov, A. G.; Gusev, O. A.; Kostiuk, Th.; Maguire, W.; Livengood, T. A.

64

Effect of marine stratocumulus on TOMS ozone  

Microsoft Academic Search

The algorithm used to correct total O3 from the total ozone mapping spectrometer (TOMS) for cloud effects is based on the measured reflectivity, a climatological cloud top height, and an assumed tropospheric O3 column amount below clouds. In regions of persistent subtropical marine stratocumulus it is assumed that this introduces a positive error into total O3 because these clouds are

A. M. Thompson; D. P. McNamara; K. E. Pickering; R. D. McPeters

1993-01-01

65

Fluid Dynamics Approach to the Toms Effect  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on the stability of flows of viscoelastic fluids suggests a possible mechanism by which viscoelasticity can reduce turbulent drag. Analysis of the development of turbulence remains to be done, but experimental evidence seems to support the proposals made here. The disparity between previous work in fluid dynamics and the experimental findings of the Toms effect may be explained in

F. J. Lockett

1969-01-01

66

05-NIF Dedication: Tom D'Agostino  

ScienceCinema

The National Ignition Facility, the world's largest laser system, was dedicated at a ceremony on May 29, 2009 at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. These are the remarks by Tom D'Agostino, the administrator of the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration.

67

The TOM Core Complex: The General Protein Import Pore of the Outer Membrane of Mitochondria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Translocation of nuclear-encoded prepro- teins across the outer membrane of mitochondria is me- diated by the multicomponent transmembrane TOM complex. We have isolated the TOM core complex of Neurospora crassa by removing the receptors Tom70 and Tom20 from the isolated TOM holo complex by treatment with the detergent dodecyl maltoside. It con- sists of Tom40, Tom22, and the small Tom

Uwe Ahting; Clemens Thun; Reiner Hegerl; Dieter Typke; Frank E. Nargang; Walter Neupert; Stephan Nussberger

1999-01-01

68

Tom Cruise is dangerous and irresponsible.  

PubMed

Yes, even the JCI can weigh in on celebrity gossip, but hopefully without becoming a tabloid. Rather, we want to shine a light on the reckless comments actor Tom Cruise has recently made that psychiatry is a "quack" field and his belief that postpartum depression cannot be treated pharmacologically. We can only hope that his influence as a celebrity does not hold back those in need of psychiatric treatment. PMID:16075033

Neill, Ushma S

2005-08-01

69

Reproductive ultrasound of the dog and tom.  

PubMed

Ultrasonographic evaluation of the reproductive tract is an important component in the evaluation of the dog and tom with reproductive disorders. Information is obtained confirming normal anatomy as well as pathologic conditions (eg, testicular neoplasia). Serial ultrasonographic evaluation of the diseased reproductive tract can be very helpful in evaluating progression of disease (eg, testicular atrophy) and response to therapy (eg, benign prostatic hyperplasia). PMID:19501344

Davidson, Autumn P; Baker, Tomas W

2009-05-01

70

Inner Core Tilt and Polar Motion: Probing the Dynamics Deep Inside the Earth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A tilted inner core permits exchange of angular momentum between the core and the mantle through gravitational and pressure torques and, as a result, changes in the direction of Earth's axis of rotation with respect to the mantle. Some of the observed variations in the direction of Earth's rotation could then be caused by equatorial torques on the inner core which tilt the latter out of its alignment with the mantle. In this work, we investigate whether such a scenario could explain the decade polar motion known as the Markowitz wobble. We show that a decade polar motion of the same amplitude as the observed Markowitz wobble requires a torque of 1020 N m which tilts the inner core by 0.07 degrees. This result critically depends on the viscosity of the inner core; for a viscosity less than 5 x 1017 Pa s, larger torques are required. A torque of 1020 N m with decadal periodicity can perhaps be produced by electromagnetic coupling between the inner core and a component of the flow in the outer core known as torsional oscillations, provided that the radial magnetic field at the inner core boundary is on the order of 3 to 4 mT and satisfies certain geometrical constraints. The resulting polar motion thus produced is eccentric and polarized, in agreement with the observations. Our model suggests that equatorial torques at the inner core boundary might also excite the Chandler wobble, provided shorter wavelength torsional oscillations with higher natural frequencies have enough power or provided there exists another physical mechanism that can generate a large torque at a 14 month period.

Dumberry, M.; Bloxham, J.

2003-12-01

71

Social versus Intrapersonal ToM: Social ToM Is a Cognitive Strength for Low- and Middle-SES Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Metarepresentational theory of mind (ToM) was studied in middle- and low-SES five- and six-year-olds. Two aspects of ToM were distinguished. Reasoning about one's own mental states (Intrapersonal ToM) was assessed in the intrapersonal ToM task condition and reasoning about others' mental states (Social ToM) was assessed in the social ToM task…

Lucariello, Joan M.; Durand, Tina M.; Yarnell, Lisa

2007-01-01

72

Social versus intrapersonal ToM: Social ToM is a cognitive strength for low- and middle-SES children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metarepresentational theory of mind (ToM) was studied in middle- and low-SES five- and six-year-olds. Two aspects of ToM were distinguished. Reasoning about one's own mental states (Intrapersonal ToM) was assessed in the intrapersonal ToM task condition and reasoning about others' mental states (Social ToM) was assessed in the social ToM task condition. Performance in the two aspects was tested with

Joan M. Lucariello; Tina M. Durand; Lisa Yarnell

2007-01-01

73

Solar UV irradiance measured at ground and compared with satellite TOMS/NASA derived data at different locations in Argentina  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The solar UV radiation incident on different and distant places of Argentina (Ushuaia, Puerto Madryn, Buenos Aires and Jujuy) obtained at 305, 320, 340 and 380 nm with a GUV-511/Biospherical narrowband radiometer of the CONICET Latitudinal UV-PAR radiation monitoring network, were compared with TUV model calculations in order to derive the effective aerosol optical depths in the locations indicated above. The adjusted spectral curve is employed in order to determine, -with the inclusion of the erythemal action spectrum, the corresponding integrated dose for each day. This value, usually called exposure, is compared with the data derived at noon from those taken by the satellite instrument TOMS/NASA on board of Earth Probe. Other biological UV irradiances like carcinogenesis and ADN and plant damages are also analyzed. In particular, the signals produced by the ozone hole and minihole events (with values lowers or equal to 220 DU) are clearly distinguished in the biological actions that depend strongly on the most energetic UVB radiations.

Wolfram, W.; Quel, E.; Paladini, A.; Orce, V.; Piacentini, R. D.

74

Uncle Tom's Cabin and American Culture  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from the Institute for Advanced Technologies in the Humanities at the University of Virginia contains a plethora of materials concerning Harriet Beecher Stowe's Uncle Tom's Cabin and the nation's response to it. The site features a complete electronic edition of the first published version of the novel along with the various prefaces Stowe wrote for different editions as well as audio versions of most of the Christian hymns presented in the text. Users can also examine and compare different published editions of the text using 3-D applications as well as view selected manuscript pages and sheets from the novel's original newspaper serialization side-by-side. The site's unique value, though, lies in the documents it presents that elucidate the novel's historical and cultural context. Included here are anti-slavery and Christian abolitionist texts, materials on Sentimental Culture in the nineteenth century, newspaper reviews of the text, articles and notices, and both African-American and Pro-Slavery responses to it. The subsequent media history of the novel's adaptations in songs, children's books, plays, and films is also represented here. As if that isn't enough, the site offers "an interactive timeline, virtual exhibits to accompany the primary material, and lesson plans for teachers and student projects." The entire site -- including the individual text of Uncle Tom's Cabin -- can be easily searched or browsed.

75

Tropical easterly jet located using TOMS data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The formative stages of the onset of the 1979 southwest monsoon was marked by a WNW-ESE oriented band of marine convection over the South Arabian Sea. This convection was first observed on June 10, 1979 using satellite cloud imagery. The marine convection appeared during a major acceleration of the upper troposphere easterly wind field. A composite vertical meridional cross-section of upper level winds for June 11, revealed the core of the Tropical Easterly Jet (TEJ) at 115 mb, 9.5 deg N. Time analysis of the upper level wind field over the Tropical Wind Observing Ship (TWOS) polygon show a lowering of both the pressure level of maximum wind and tropopause level with acceleration of the upper level easterlies. The tropopause was as much as 20 mb lower on the equatorial side of the TEJ. Streamline analysis of the maximum observed easterly winds over India did not reveal the horizontal position of the TEJ. Careful analysis of Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) data for June 11, 1979 showed relatively high values of ozone south of India. It was observed that the latitudinal position of the TEJ on June 11, at approximately 70 deg E coincided with the northern edge of relatively high ozone values. Using this as a reference, the TEJ core was identified as far as NE Bay of Bengal (the limits of the available TOMS data).

Bolhofer, William C.

1987-12-01

76

Early Adolescents' Participation in Bullying: Is ToM Involved?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The present study investigated the role of theory of mind (ToM) skills in three forms of involvement in bullying: ringleader bullying, defending the victim(s), and victimization. Individual (affective empathy) and interpersonal variables (social preference and perceived popularity) were assumed to moderate the associations between ToM and the…

Caravita, Simona C. S.; Di Blasio, Paola; Salmivalli, Christina

2010-01-01

77

Version 2 TOMS UV algorithm: problems and enhancements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We evaluate the effects of possible enhancements of the current (version 1) TOMS surface UV irradiance algorithm. The major enhancements include more detailed treatment of tropospheric aerosols, effects of diurnal variation of cloudiness and improved treatment of snow/ice. The emphasis is on the comparison between the results of the version 1 TOMS UV algorithm and each of the changes proposed. TOMS UV algorithm does not discriminate between nonabsorbing aerosols and clouds. Absorbing aerosols are corrected by using the TOMS aerosol index data. The treatment of aerosol attenuation might have been improved by using newly derived TOMS products: optical depths and the single-scattering albedo for dust, smoke, and sulfate aerosols. We evaluate different approaches for improved treatment of pixel average cloud attenuation, with and without snow/ice on the ground. In addition to treating clouds based only on the measurements at the local time of the TOMS observations, the results from other satellites and weather assimilation models can be used to estimate attenuation of the UV irradiance throughout the day. The improved (version 2) algorithm will be applied to reprocess the existing TOMS UV data record (since 1978) and to the future satellite sensors (e.g., Quik/TOMS, GOME, OMI on EOS/Aura and Triana/EPIC).

Krotkov, Nickolay A.; Herman, Jay R.; Bhartia, Pawan K.; Seftor, Colin J.; Arola, Antti; Kaurola, Jussi; Koskinen, Lasse; Kalliskota, S.; Taalas, Petteri; Geogdzhaev, Igor V.

2002-01-01

78

Direct measurements of tropospheric ozone using TOMS data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fishman and Larsen have proposed a new algorithm, called 'tropospheric residual method,' which retrieves the climatological tropospheric ozone by using SAGE (Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment) and TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) data. In this paper, we will examine the feasibility of detection for tropospheric ozone using only TOMS data. From a case study over the Atlantic Ocean off the

Robert D. Hudson; Jae-Hwan Kim

1994-01-01

79

Crystal structure of yeast mitochondrial outer membrane translocon member Tom70p  

Microsoft Academic Search

A majority of the proteins targeted to the mitochondria are transported through the translocase of the outer membrane (TOM) complex. Tom70 is a major surface receptor for mitochondrial protein precursors in the TOM complex. To investigate how Tom70 receives the mitochondrial protein precursors, we have determined the crystal structure of yeast Tom70p to 3.0 Å. Tom70p forms a homodimer in

Yunkun Wu; Bingdong Sha

2006-01-01

80

Synergic use of TOMS and AERONET observations for characterization of aerosol absorption  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The role of aerosol absorption on the radiative transfer balance of the earth-atmosphere system is one of the largest sources of uncertainty in the analysis of global climate change. Global measurements of aerosol single scattering albedo are, therefore, necessary to properly assess the radiative forcing effect of aerosols. Remote sensing of aerosol absorption is currently carried out using both ground (Aerosol Robotic Network) and space (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) based observations. The satellite technique uses measurements of backscattered near ultraviolet radiation. Carbonaceous aerosols, resulting from the combustion of biomass, are one of the most predominant absorbing aerosol types in the atmosphere. In this presentation, TOMS and AERONET retrievals of single scattering albedo of carbonaceous aerosols, are compared for different environmental conditions: agriculture related biomass burning in South America and Africa and peat fires in Eastern Europe. The AERONET and TOMS derived aerosol absorption information are in good quantitative agreement. The most absorbing smoke is detected over the African Savanna. Aerosol absorption over the Brazilian rain forest is less absorbing. Absorption by aerosol particles resulting from peat fires in Eastern Europe is weaker than the absorption measured in Africa and South America. This analysis shows that the near UV satellite method of aerosol absorption characterization has the sensitivity to distinguish different levels of aerosol absorption. The analysis of the combined AERONET-TOMS observations shows a high degree of synergy between satellite and ground based observations.

Torres, O.; Sinyuk, A.; Bhartia, P. K.; Dubovik, O.; Holben, B.

2003-04-01

81

UV 380 nm Reflectivity of the Earth's Surface.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 380 nm radiance measurements of TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) have been converted into a global data set of daily (1979 to 1992) Lambert equivalent reflectivities R of the Earth's surface and boundary layer (clouds, aerosols, surface haze, a...

J. R. Herman E. Celarier D. Larko

2000-01-01

82

Wave activity (planetary, tidal) throughout the middle atmosphere (20-100km) over the CUJO network: Satellite (TOMS) and Medium Frequency (MF) radar observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Planetary and tidal wave activity in the tropopause-lower stratosphere and mesosphere-lower thermosphere (MLT) is studied using combinations of ground-based (GB) and satellite instruments (2000-2002). The relatively new MFR (medium frequency radar) at Platteville (40° N, 105° W) has provided the opportunity to create an operational network of middle-latitude MFRs, stretching from 81° W-142° E, which provides winds and tides 70-100km. CUJO (Canada U.S. Japan Opportunity) comprises systems at London (43° N, 81° W), Platteville (40° N, 105° W), Saskatoon (52° N, 107° W), Wakkanai (45° N, 142° E) and Yamagawa (31° N, 131° E). It offers a significant 7000-km longitudinal sector in the North American-Pacific region, and a useful range of latitudes (12-14°) at two longitudes. Satellite data mainly involve the daily values of the total ozone column measured by the Earth Probe (EP) TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) and provide a measure of tropopause-lower stratospheric planetary wave activity, as well as ozone variability. Climatologies of ozone and winds/tides involving frequency versus time (wavelet) contour plots for periods from 2-d to 30-d and the interval from mid 2000 to 2002, show that the changes with altitude, longitude and latitude are very significant and distinctive. Geometric-mean wavelets for the region of the 40° N MFRs demonstrate occasions during the autumn, winter and spring months when there are similarities in the spectral features of the lower atmosphere and at mesopause (85km) heights. Both direct planetary wave (PW) propagation into the MLT, nonlinear PW-tide interactions, and disturbances in MLT tides associated with fluctuations in the ozone forcing are considered to be possible coupling processes. The complex horizontal wave numbers of the longer period oscillations are provided in frequency contour plots for the TOMS satellite data to demonstrate the differences between lower atmospheric and MLT wave motions and their directions of propagation.

Manson, A. H.; Meek, C. E.; Chshyolkova, T.; Avery, S. K.; Thorsen, D.; MacDougall, J. W.; Hocking, W.; Murayama, Y.; Igarashi, K.

2005-02-01

83

Tropospheric Ozone from the TOMS TDOT (TOMS-Direct-Ozone-in-Troposphere) Technique during SAFARI2000 (September 2000)  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are a number of published residual-type methods for deriving tropospheric ozone from TOMS. The basic concept of these methods is that within a zone of constant stratospheric ozone, the tropospheric ozone column can be computed by subtracting stratospheric ozone from the TOMS Level 2 total ozone column. We used the modified-residual method [Hudson and Thompson, 1998; Thompson and Hudson,

J. Stone; A. M. Thompson; A. D. Frolov; R. D. Hudson

2002-01-01

84

The Tom Regan Animal Rights Archive  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Tom Regan has taught at North Carolina State University since 1967, and he is well-known for his work in the field of animal rights within the discipline of philosophy. In 2000, the North Carolina State University Libraries received a large gift to establish an archive of his personal papers and books, and since then, they have also created this online collection for the general public. First-time visitors can perform an advanced search on the documents contained here, or they may also want to browse through categories that include animal rights legislation, animals in the news, diet ethics, and farmed animals. Within each section, visitors can view a list of related web sites and also learn about other external resources. Additionally, visitors can also learn about research opportunities at the Center.

Regan, Tom

85

Probes to the Inferior Planets - A New Dawn for NEO and IEO Detection Technology Demonstration from Heliocentric Orbits Interior to the Earth's?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the launch of MESSENGER and VENUS EXPRESS, a new wave of exploration of the inner solar system has begun. Noting the growing number of probes to the inner solar system, it is proposed to connect the expertise of the respective spacecraft teams and the NEO and IEO survey community to best utilize the extended cruise phases and to provide additional data return in support of pure science as well as planetary defence. Several missions to Venus and Mercury are planned to follow in this decade. Increased interest in the inferior planets is accompanied by several missions designed to study the Sun and the interplanetary medium (IPM) from a position near or in Earth orbit, such as the STEREO probes and SDO. These augment established solar observation capabilities at the Sun-Earth L1 Lagrangian point such as the SOHO spacecraft. Thus, three distinct classes of spacecraft operate or observe interior to Earth's orbit. All these spacecraft carry powerful multispectral cameras optimized for their respective primary targets. MESSENGER is scheduled to end its six-year interplanetary cruise in March 2011 to enter Mercury orbit, but a similarly extended cruise with several gravity-assists awaits the European Mercury mission BEPICOLOMBO. Unfortunately, the automatic abort of the orbit insertion manoeuvre has also left AKATSUKI (a.k.a. Venus Climate Orbiter (VCO), Planet-C) stranded in heliocentric orbit. After an unintended fly-by, the probe will catch up with Venus in approximately six years. Meanwhile, it stays mostly interior to Venus in a planet-leading orbit. In addition to the study of comets and their interaction with the IPM, observations of small bodies akin to those carried out by outer solar system probes are occasionally attempted with the equipment available. The study of structures in the interplanetary dust (IPD) cloud has been a science objective during the cruise phase of the Japanese Venus probe AKATSUKI from Earth to Venus. IPD observations in the astronomical H-band (1.65 ?m) are supported by its IR2 camera down to 1.5 ?W/m2sr in single 2 minute exposures. In the same setting, point sources of 13 mag can be detected. Obviously, a number of large asteroids exceed this threshold. The EARTHGUARD-I study, completed in 2003 by the DLR Institute of Planetary Research and Kayser-Threde under ESA contract, proposed a dedicated steerable 020...35 cm telescope and CCD camera payload on a probe to the inner solar system, to detect Near-Earth and Inner-Earth Objects (NEOs, IEOs) in favourable opposition geometry. A ride- share on a Mercury orbiter and a dedicated low-thrust propulsion spacecraft to a heliocentric 0.5 AU orbit were studied. A similar-sized telescope is presently being developed for the ASTEROIDFINDER satellite of DLR. Therefore, the technical feasibility of a number of asteroid observation scenarios involving spacecraft and targets interior to Earth's orbit is assessed based on the latest available spacecraft information and asteroid population models. A rough estimate of the required effort in terms of ground-based spacecraft operations and on-board resources is given for selected representative scenarios.

Grundmann, J. T.; Mottola, S.; Drentschew, M.; Drobczyk, M.; Kahle, R.; Maiwald, V.; Quantius, D.; Zabel, P.; Van Zoest, T.

2011-11-01

86

Impact Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This planetarium show teaches about meteors, meteorites, asteroids, and comets. It includes results from NASA missions and about the dangers they can pose to life on Earth. It is created for full-dome theaters but can also be shown in flat version for TVs and computer monitors. Shows the effects of the Chixulub and Tungusta events, plus the Pallasite impact that resulted in the Brenham meteorite fall. Describes ways that asteroid hunters seek new objects in the Solar System, and how ground-penetrating radar is used to find meteorites that have reached the Earth's surface and ancient craters under the desert. Narrated by astronaut Tom Jones, it also discusses ways that humans might try to deflect an asteroid or comet that is on a collision course with Earth. Created for informal science venues (digital planetariums), it is also useful as ancillary material for middle school science. Created under NASA Cooperative Agreement NCC5-316 to Rice University in conjunction with the Houston Museum of Natural Science as part of the "Immersive Earth" project, part of the REASoN program.

Reiff, Patricia

2009-05-01

87

A Novel probe for in-situ Electron density and Neutral Wind (ENWi) measurements in the near Earth space  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel method for the in-situ measurement of thermospheric and ionospheric parameters has successfully been tried out by means of a new probe ENWi. The probe has been designed for neutral wind and electron density measurements up to ?115km. ENWi was successfully flight tested on sounding rockets from Thumba, India during the recent annular solar eclipse (January 2010) that passed

G. Manju; R. Sridharan; P. Sreelatha; Sudha Ravindran; M. K. Madhav Haridas; Tarun K. Pant; P. Pradeep Kumar; R. Satheesh Thampi; Neha Naik; N. Mridula; Lijo Jose; S. G. Sumod

88

Elastic Recovery and the Toms Effect - a Simple Model.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Toms effect (drag reduction by introduction of dilute polymer) is investigated analytically in terms of a properly invariant Maxwell model. A stability analysis of plane Poiseuille flow shows stability decreases with increasing elasticity. The change ...

G. A. Tlapa B. Bernstein

1968-01-01

89

A Critical Survey of Literature Concerning the Toms' Effect.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Literature on the Toms' effect, i.e., greatly increased flow rate of dilute polymer solutions occurring with small increases in solute concentration, is examined. Several existing theories dealing with the phenomena are reviewed, appraised and modified. W...

C. A. Deavours

1966-01-01

90

2. General view of Morrison Bridge, looking northeast, with Tom ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. General view of Morrison Bridge, looking northeast, with Tom McCall Riverfront Park in foreground. - Morrison Bridge, Spanning Willamette River on Morrison & Alder Streets, Portland, Multnomah County, OR

91

David Henry and Tom Hogan: Stop the Clot  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text Version... Page 2. Stop the Clot ™ www.stoptheclot.org David Henry and Tom Hogan ... Future Aging Baby Boomers Stop the Clot ™ Page 13. ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials

92

WARNING LETTER February 26, 2007 Tom Young CEO ...  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

Text Version... February 26, 2007 Tom Young CEO Qualitest Pharmaceuticals, Inc . 130 Vintage Drive NE Huntsville, Alabama 35811-8216 Dear Mr. Young: ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/drugs/guidancecomplianceregulatoryinformation

93

10. WEST SIDE OF BRIDGE, LOOKING EAST, WITH TOM SHAW, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

10. WEST SIDE OF BRIDGE, LOOKING EAST, WITH TOM SHAW, SC DEPT ARCHIVES & HISTORY - Poinsett Bridge, SC Route 42, 2 miles Northwest of Route 11, 2.5 miles East of SC Route 25, Tigerville, Greenville, SC

94

Early Adolescents’ Participation in Bullying: Is ToM Involved?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study investigated the role of theory of mind (ToM) skills in three forms of involvement in bullying: ringleader bullying, defending the victim(s), and victimization. Individual (affective empathy) and interpersonal variables (social preference and perceived popularity) were assumed to moderate the associations between ToM and the ways of being involved in bullying. Moderation effects by gender were also explored.

Simona C. S. Caravita; Paola Di Blasio; Christina Salmivalli

2010-01-01

95

Sea-land total ozone differences from TOMS: GHOST effect  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mean global TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) ozone data, averaged in time, reveals persistent year-to-year differences in total ozone between continents and oceans. This feature has been named GHOST (global hidden ozone structures from TOMS). During Northern Hemisphere summer it can be seen within the latitudinal belt between 40°S and 50°N. The most pronounced land-sea difference in total ozone with

E. Cuevas; M. Gil; J. Rodríguez; M. Navarro; K. P. Hoinka

2001-01-01

96

Global ozone data from the meteor-3\\/TOMS ultraviolet spectrometer  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new TOMS instrument (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) was launched from the Plesetsk Cosomodrome, Russia on August 15, 1991. The purpose of the joint project between the U.S. and Russia was to continue the long-term record of ozone measurements from Nimbus-7\\/TOMS (launched in October 1978). Ozone data from the two satellites compare very closely. When the orbital positions were nearly

J. R. Herman; Arlin Krueger; C. Cote; Zia Ahmad; M. Forman; C. Wellemeyer; W. Byerly; L. Pan; Glen Jaross; R. Hudson

1994-01-01

97

Nimbus-7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) Data Products User`s Guide  

SciTech Connect

Two data products from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) onboard Nimbus-7 have been archived at the Distributed Active Archive Center, in the form of Hierarchical Data Format files. The instrument measures backscattered Earth radiance and incoming solar irradiance; their ratio is used in ozone retrievals. Changes in the instrument sensitivity are monitored by a spectral discrimination technique using measurements of the intrinsically stable wavelength dependence of derived surface reflectivity. The algorithm to retrieve total column ozone compares measured Earth radiances at sets of three wavelengths with radiances calculated for different total ozone values, solar zenith angles, and optical paths. The initial error in the absolute scale for TOMS total ozone is 3 percent, the one standard deviation random error is 2 percent, and drift is less than 1.0 percent per decade. The Level-2 product contains the measured radiances, the derived total ozone amount, and reflectivity information for each scan position. The Level-3 product contains daily total ozone amount and reflectivity in a 1 - degree latitude by 1.25 degrees longitude grid. The Level-3 product also is available on CD-ROM. Detailed descriptions of both HDF data files and the CD-ROM product are provided.

Mcpeters, R.D.; Bhartia, P.K.; Krueger, A.J.; Herman, J.R.; Schlesinger, B.M.; Wellemeyer, C.G.; Seftor, C.J.; Jaross, G.; Taylor, S.L.; Swissler, T.

1996-04-01

98

Remote sounding from artificial satellites and space probes of the atmospheres of the Earth and the planets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observation of radiation reflected, scattered or emitted in various regions of the electromagnetic spectrum can yield information about the structure of a planetary atmosphere. Instrumentation for the measurement of temperature, density, and composition and for cloud imaging is described, methods of information retrieval from radiometric observations are discussed, and some of the results for the atmospheres of Earth, Mars and

J. T. Houghton; F. W. Taylor

1973-01-01

99

Investigation of the Structure of Yeast tRNAPhe by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance: Paramagnetic Rare Earth Ion Probes of Structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The binding of paramagnetic rare earth ions to yeast tRNAPhe shifts some resonances in the low-field nuclear magnetic resonance spectrum that have been assigned to ring nitrogen protons of specific Watson-Crick base pairs. The changes in the nuclear magnetic resonance spectrum as the tRNA is titrated with Eu3+ indicate that 4 (or 5) Eu3+ ions are tightly bound, that the

Claude R. Jones; David R. Kearns

1974-01-01

100

Direct measurements of tropospheric ozone from TOMS data. Progress report  

SciTech Connect

In the past year, we have made measurements of the tropospheric total column of ozone during the biomass burning season in Africa (August to October). Fishman et. al. had reported previously that by taking a time average of the low spatial resolution data from TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) on Nimbus-7 (referred to as the Grid-T data set), during the biomass burning season in Africa, a plume of ozone extends from the East coast of Africa into the Atlantic. In this report, we present an analysis that we have made using the measured TOMS radiances taken from the High Density TOMS data set (referred as the HDT data set), which examines this plume in more detail.

Hudson, R.D.

1993-01-01

101

33 CFR 80.170 - Sandy Hook, NJ to Tom's River, NJ.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sandy Hook, NJ to Tom's River, NJ. 80...COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES... Atlantic Coast § 80.170 Sandy Hook, NJ to Tom's River,...

2013-07-01

102

33 CFR 80.170 - Sandy Hook, NJ to Tom's River, NJ.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sandy Hook, NJ to Tom's River, NJ. 80...COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES... Atlantic Coast § 80.170 Sandy Hook, NJ to Tom's River,...

2010-07-01

103

33 CFR 80.170 - Sandy Hook, NJ to Tom's River, NJ.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Sandy Hook, NJ to Tom's River, NJ. 80...COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES... Atlantic Coast § 80.170 Sandy Hook, NJ to Tom's River,...

2009-07-01

104

Team Leader: Tom Peters--TAP Information Services  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Tom Peters packs 36 hours of work into the confines of a 24-hour day. Without breaking a sweat, he juggles multiple collaborative projects, which currently include an Illinois academic library shared storage facility; a multistate virtual reference and instruction service for blind and visually impaired individuals (InfoEyes); a virtual meeting…

Library Journal, 2005

2005-01-01

105

Direct measurements of tropospheric ozone from TOMS data. Progress report  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the past year, we have made measurements of the tropospheric total column of ozone during the biomass burning season in Africa (August to October). Fishman et. al. had reported previously that by taking a time average of the low spatial resolution data from TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) on Nimbus-7 (referred to as the Grid-T data set), during the

1993-01-01

106

California Fires MODIS imagery and TOMS Aerosols from October 2003  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This animation sequences through the MODIS imagery of the devastating Californian fires from October 23, 2003 through October 29, 2003. Then the animation resets to October 23, 2003 and zooms out to see the TOMS aerosol sequence. It clearly shows that the California fires had an impact on air quality as far east as Maine.

Perkins, Lori; Shirah, Greg; Newman, Paul; Bhartia, Pawan

2003-11-24

107

Team Leader: Tom Peters--TAP Information Services  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tom Peters packs 36 hours of work into the confines of a 24-hour day. Without breaking a sweat, he juggles multiple collaborative projects, which currently include an Illinois academic library shared storage facility; a multistate virtual reference and instruction service for blind and visually impaired individuals (InfoEyes); a virtual meeting…

Library Journal, 2005

2005-01-01

108

Challenge without Threat: An Interview with Tom Dewell  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article presents an interview with Tom Dewell, a professional physical educator with 28 years of experience and a fixture in Dallas physical education. Dewell has melded a background in movement education and adapted physical education with early childhood theory, including Montessori. The bulk of his experience has been in private,…

Stork, Steve

2005-01-01

109

Good Guys Finish Last: "Tom Brown's School Days" and "Flashman."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Instructors and students of literature should look to George McDonald Fraser's "Flashman: From the Flashman Papers, 1839-1842" for a clever critique of 19th-century notions of character, virtue, and moral teleology. Written to criticize Thomas Hughes's famous 19th-century novel, "Tom Brown's School Days," Fraser's 20th-century novel turns on end…

Riga, Frank P.

110

Tom Garvin, Mancur Olson and Irish Economic Growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Preventing the Future: Why Ireland was so poor for so long? Tom Garvin attempts to explain the development of the independent Irish state from an economic, political and cultural perspective. The starting point of Garvin's argument is the theory developed by Mancur Olson. Garvin finds that Olson's work can only partially explain Irish economic growth. This is because unfortunately,

John Considine; Robert Butler

111

The Bostonian: Tom Payzant's Focused Approach to School Reform  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article features Boston superintendent Tom Payzant. In a national landscape dotted with dysfunctional urban systems and short-lived superintendents, Payzant stands out. With over a decade at the helm, Payzant is arguably the best big-city school leader in the nation and Boston the most improved urban district. The success side of the Payzant…

Russo, Alexander

2006-01-01

112

Tropospheric ozone from space: tracking pollution with the TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) instrument  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two new products have been developed from the TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) satellite instrument to resolve pollution in the tropics and mid-latitudes. The modified-residual technique uses v.7 TOMS total ozone and is applicable to tropical regimes in which the wave-one pattern in total ozone is observed. The second method, the TOMS-direct method is a new algorithm that uses TOMS

Anne M. Thompson; Robert D. Hudson; Alexander D. Frolov; Jacquelyn C. Witte; Tom L. Kucsera

2001-01-01

113

Measuring Theory of Mind in Children. Psychometric Properties of the ToM Storybooks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Although research on Theory-of-Mind (ToM) is often based on single task measurements, more comprehensive instruments result in a better understanding of ToM development. The ToM Storybooks is a new instrument measuring basic ToM-functioning and associated aspects. There are 34 tasks, tapping various emotions, beliefs, desires and mental-physical…

Blijd-Hoogewys, E. M. A.; van Geert, P. L. C.; Serra, M.; Minderaa, R. B.

2008-01-01

114

Alpha-particle and proton probes of nuclear shapes in the rare earth and mass 80 regions  

SciTech Connect

Low emission barriers and large subbarrier anisotropies in the alpha-particle decay with respect to the spin direction, of Sn and rare earth compound nuclei, are examined in the light of recent calculations incorporating deformation. To explore the possibility of a correlation between the proton emission barriers and nuclear deformation, we studied proton spectra from the {sup 52}Cr({sup 34}S,2p2n){sup 82}Sr reaction. The proton spectra were observed with the Dwarf-Ball 4{pi} CsI(Tl) array, in coincidence with 18 Compton suppressed Ge detectors operated in conjunction with the Spin Spectrometer, a 4{pi} NaI(Tl) array. We found significant changes and shifts in the proton energy spectra as we selected gating transitions from bands of different moments of inertia or transitions from states of different spin in the same band. Substantial differences were also seen as a function of the {gamma}-ray multiplicity. These results are discussed in terms of statistical model calculations incorporating deformation and structure effects of the emitting system. 20 refs., 9 figs.

Sarantites, D.G.; Nicolis, N.G.; Abenante, V.; Majka, Z.; Semkow, T.M.; Baktash, C.; Beene, J.R.; Garcia-Bermudez, G.; Halbert, M.L.; Hensley, D.C.; Johnson, N.R.; Lee, I.Y.; McGowan, F.K.; Riley, M.A.; Virtanen, A.; Griffin, H.C. (Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (USA); Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA); Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (USA))

1989-01-01

115

Genetic and functional interactions between the mitochondrial outer membrane proteins Tom6 and Sam37.  

PubMed

The TOM complex is the general mitochondrial entry site for newly synthesized proteins. Precursors of beta-barrel proteins initially follow this common pathway and are then relayed to the SAM/TOB complex, which mediates their integration into the outer membrane. Three proteins, Sam50 (Tob55), Sam35 (Tob38/Tom38), and Sam37 (Mas37), have been identified as the core constituents of the latter complex. Sam37 is essential for growth at elevated temperatures, but the function of the protein is currently unresolved. To identify interacting partners of Sam37 and thus shed light on its function, we screened for multicopy suppressors of sam37Delta. We identified the small subunit of the TOM complex, Tom6, as such a suppressor and found a tight genetic interaction between the two proteins. Overexpression of SAM37 suppresses the growth phenotype of tom6Delta, and cells lacking both genes are not viable. The ability of large amounts of Tom6 to suppress the sam37Delta phenotype can be linked to the capacity of Tom6 to stabilize Tom40, an essential beta-barrel protein which is the central component of the TOM complex. Our results suggest that Sam37 is required for growth at higher temperatures, since it enhances the biogenesis of Tom40, and this requirement can be overruled by improved stability of newly synthesized Tom40 molecules. PMID:19797086

Dukanovic, Jovana; Dimmer, Kai S; Bonnefoy, Nathalie; Krumpe, Katrin; Rapaport, Doron

2009-09-21

116

Critical Error: Tom Daschle's Blurred Health Care Vision  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tom Daschle's new book, Critical: What Can We Do About the Health-Care Crisis, confirms that advocates for a complete government takeover of American health care have learned an important lesson: Don't try it in one big bite. Here Daschle and co-author Jeanne Lambrew have direct experience. Mr. Daschle was a Democratic leader in the Senate during the push for \\

John R. Graham

117

Jumpin' Tom Thumb: Charles Stratton Onstage at the American Museum  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1847, nine-year-old child star Charles Sherwood Stratton, better known to an adoring European public as 'General Tom Thumb,' returned to the United States from a wildly successful three-year European tour. That year he would begin a meteoric rise to a stardom in the United States that would be unequalled by any actor in his lifetime. His debut on the

Michael M. Chemers

118

Critical Assessment of TOMS-derived Tropospheric Ozone: Comparisons with Other Measurements and Model Evaluation of Controlling Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper will assess the accuracy of a variety of methods that derive tropospheric ozone from TOMS observations. These methods include the Tropospheric Ozone Residual, TOR (TOMS total ozone - SAGE or SBUV stratosphere); modified TOR; CCD and CCP (clear - cloudy TOMS differences); modified CCD; Scan Angle Method; Topographic Contrast Method; and Modified-residual Method (strato-spheric fitting of TOMS total

M. Newchurch; L. Emmons; L. Horowitz; J. H. Kim; D. Kinnison; G. Brasseur; D. Jacob; J. Logan; X. Liu; D. Sun; K. Han; S. Na

2001-01-01

119

Global distribution of UV-absorbing aerosols from Nimbus 7/TOMS data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global distributions of UV-absorbing aerosols are obtained using measured differences between the 340 and the 380 nm radiances from the Nimbus 7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) for the years 1979-1993. Time series are shown for major sources of biomass burning and desert dust giving the frequency of occurrence and areal coverage over land and oceans. Minor sources of UV-absorbing aerosols in the atmosphere are also discussed (volcanic ash and oil fires). Relative values of year-to-year variability of UV-absorbing aerosol amounts are shown for major aerosol source regions: (1) central South America (Brazil) near 10°S latitude; (2) Africa near 0°-20°S and 0° to 10°N latitude; (3) Saharan Desert and sub-Saharan region (Sahel), Arabian Peninsula, and the northern border region of India; (4) agricultural burning in Indonesia, Eastern China, and Indochina, and near the mouth of the Amazon River; and (5) coal burning and dust in northeastern China. The first three of these regions dominate the injection of UV-absorbing aerosols into the atmosphere each year and cover areas far outside of their source regions from advection of UV-absorbing particulates by atmospheric wind systems. During the peak months, smoke and dust from these sources are transported at altitudes above 1 km with an optical depth of at least 0.1 and can cover about 10% of the Earth's surface. Boundary layer absorbing aerosols are not readily seen by TOMS because the small amount of underlying Rayleigh scattering leads to a small signal. Significant portions of the observed dust originate from agricultural regions frequently within arid areas, such as in the Sahel region of Africa, especially from the dry lake-bed near Lake Chad (13.5°N, 14°E), and intermittently dry drainage areas and streams. In addition to drought cycle effects, this suggests there may be an anthropogenic component to the amount of dust injected into the atmosphere each year. Detection of absorbing aerosols and calculation of optical depths are affected by the presence of large-scale and subpixel clouds in the TOMS field of view.

Herman, J. R.; Bhartia, P. K.; Torres, O.; Hsu, C.; Seftor, C.; Celarier, E.

1997-07-01

120

Extragenic suppressors that rescue defects in the heat stress response of the budding yeast mutant tom1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The TOM1 gene codes for a so-called HECT protein, a putative ubiquitin ligase, in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Deletion of the entire gene (tom1-10) or the sequence encoding the HECT domain (tom1-2) causes temperature sensitivity for growth. Here we report the isolation of extragenic, recessive suppressors of tom1-2, which were designated tmr (for tom1 revertant) mutations. These were classified into eight complementation

T. Sasaki; A. Toh-e; Y. Kikuchi

2000-01-01

121

An Expanded UV Irradiance Database from TOMS Including the Effects of Ozone, Clouds, and Aerosol Attenuation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The TOMS UV irradiance database (1978 to 2003) has been expanded to include 5 new products (noon irradiance at 305, 310, 324, and 380 nm, and noon erythemal-weighted irradiance), in addition to the existing erythemal daily exposure, that permit direct comparisons with ground-based measurements from spectrometers and broadband instruments. The new data are available on http:\\/\\/toms.gsfc.nasa.gov. Comparisons of the TOMS

J. R. Herman; N. Krotkov

2003-01-01

122

Participation of Tom1L1 in EGF-stimulated endocytosis of EGF receptor  

PubMed Central

Although many proteins have been shown to participate in ligand-stimulated endocytosis of EGF receptor (EGFR), the adaptor protein responsible for interaction of activated EGFR with endocytic machinery remains elusive. We show here that EGF stimulates transient tyrosine phosphorylation of Tom1L1 by the Src family kinases, resulting in transient interaction of Tom1L1 with the activated EGFR bridged by Grb2 and Shc. Cytosolic Tom1L1 is recruited onto the plasma membrane and subsequently redistributes into the early endosome. Mutant forms of Tom1L1 defective in Tyr-phosphorylation or interaction with Grb2 are incapable of interaction with EGFR. These mutants behave as dominant-negative mutants to inhibit endocytosis of EGFR. RNAi-mediated knockdown of Tom1L1 inhibits endocytosis of EGFR. The C-terminal tail of Tom1L1 contains a novel clathrin-interacting motif responsible for interaction with the C-terminal region of clathrin heavy chain, which is important for exogenous Tom1L1 to rescue endocytosis of EGFR in Tom1L1 knocked-down cells. These results suggest that EGF triggers a transient Grb2/Shc-mediated association of EGFR with Tyr-phosphorylated Tom1L1 to engage the endocytic machinery for endocytosis of the ligand–receptor complex.

Liu, Ning Sheng; Loo, Li Shen; Loh, Eva; Seet, Li-Fong; Hong, Wanjin

2009-01-01

123

Cognitive, affective, and conative theory of mind (ToM) in children with traumatic brain injury.  

PubMed

We studied three forms of dyadic communication involving theory of mind (ToM) in 82 children with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and 61 children with orthopedic injury (OI): Cognitive (concerned with false belief), Affective (concerned with expressing socially deceptive facial expressions), and Conative (concerned with influencing another's thoughts or feelings). We analyzed the pattern of brain lesions in the TBI group and conducted voxel-based morphometry for all participants in five large-scale functional brain networks, and related lesion and volumetric data to ToM outcomes. Children with TBI exhibited difficulty with Cognitive, Affective, and Conative ToM. The perturbation threshold for Cognitive ToM is higher than that for Affective and Conative ToM, in that Severe TBI disturbs Cognitive ToM but even Mild-Moderate TBI disrupt Affective and Conative ToM. Childhood TBI was associated with damage to all five large-scale brain networks. Lesions in the Mirror Neuron Empathy network predicted lower Conative ToM involving ironic criticism and empathic praise. Conative ToM was significantly and positively related to the package of Default Mode, Central Executive, and Mirror Neuron Empathy networks and, more specifically, to two hubs of the Default Mode Network, the posterior cingulate/retrosplenial cortex and the hippocampal formation, including entorhinal cortex and parahippocampal cortex. PMID:23291312

Dennis, Maureen; Simic, Nevena; Bigler, Erin D; Abildskov, Tracy; Agostino, Alba; Taylor, H Gerry; Rubin, Kenneth; Vannatta, Kathryn; Gerhardt, Cynthia A; Stancin, Terry; Yeates, Keith Owen

2012-11-23

124

Molecular Chaperone Hsp70/Hsp90 Prepares the Mitochondrial Outer Membrane Translocon Receptor Tom71 for Preprotein Loading  

SciTech Connect

The preproteins targeted to the mitochondria are transported through the translocase of the outer membrane complex. Tom70/Tom71 is a major surface receptor of the translocase of the outer membrane complex for mitochondrial preproteins. The preproteins are escorted to Tom70/Tom71 by molecular chaperones Hsp70 and Hsp90. Here we present the high resolution crystal structures of Tom71 and the protein complexes between Tom71 and the Hsp70/Hsp90 C terminus. The crystal structures indicate that Tom70/Tom71 may exhibit two distinct states. In the closed state, the N-terminal domain of Tom70/Tom71 partially blocks the preprotein-binding pocket. In the open state, the N-terminal domain moves away, and the preprotein-binding pocket is fully exposed. The complex formation between the C-terminal EEVD motif of Hsp70/Hsp90 and Tom71 could lock Tom71 in the open state where the preprotein-binding pocket of Tom71 is ready to receive preproteins. The interactions between Hsp70/Hsp90 and Tom71 N-terminal domain generate conformational changes that may increase the volume of the preprotein-binding pocket. The complex formation of Hsp70/Hsp90 and Tom71 also generates significant domain rearrangement within Tom71, which may position the preprotein-binding pocket closer to Hsp70/Hsp90 to facilitate the preprotein transfer from the molecular chaperone to Tom71. Therefore, molecular chaperone Hsp70/Hsp90 may function to prepare the mitochondrial outer membrane receptor Tom71 for preprotein loading.

Li, Jingzhi; Qian, Xinguo; Hu, Junbin; Sha, Bingdong; (UAB)

2010-11-03

125

Integrating TOMS and TOVS retrievals of sulfur dioxide in volcanic clouds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultraviolet backscatter data from the series of Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) instruments have been used to construct a time series of volcanic sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions covering the past ~24 years, except for an 18-month data gap in 1995-96. Recently a new technique for retrieving SO2 from infrared data collected by the High-Resolution Infrared Sounder (HIRS) on the TIROS Operational Vertical Sounder (TOVS) platform has been developed, based on a strong SO2 absorption band centered around 7.3 ?m. The TOVS data are global, cover almost 22 years, have a spatial resolution of 18 km at nadir (compared to 25-50 km for TOMS) and can be used by day or night (TOMS requires sunlight), and therefore provide a unique opportunity to independently cross-validate and evaluate the TOMS SO2 retrievals. The nighttime capability of TOVS and the uninterrupted dataset also permit extension of the TOMS volcanic SO2 record (e.g. to include eruptions at high latitudes in the winter months) and coverage of the TOMS data gap in 1995-96. As a case study of the relative merits of the UV TOMS and IR TOVS methods, we will present retrievals of SO2 in the stratospheric volcanic cloud produced by the August 1980 eruption of Hekla volcano, Iceland. This was a relatively modest eruption, producing ~470 kilotons of SO2 (measured by TOMS), but the resulting volcanic cloud was unusually long-lived and could be tracked by TOMS and TOVS for ~5 days as it circumnavigated the North Pole. Detailed intercomparison of SO2 retrievals from TOMS and TOVS, taking into account the different sensitivities and biases of the two methods, allows a thorough examination of the evolution of this SO2 cloud. Merging of the TOMS and TOVS datasets may also provide sufficient information on the movement of the volcanic cloud to permit validation of trajectory models (e.g. CANERM, HYSPLIT).

Carn, S. A.; Prata, F. J.; Karlsdottir, S.; Krueger, A. J.

2002-12-01

126

An EOF study of the Earth's ozone field  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a previous paper we discussed the spectral properties of the Earth's ozone layer, obtained using Empirical Orthogonal Function decomposition of the Total Ozone Map- ping Spectrometer (TOMS) database. Here we present other aspects of the analysis, including the EOF method adapted for incomplete datasets, analysis of spatial struc- ture and temporal variation of first several eigenfunctions, and an extended

D. Manin; R. Everson; L. Sirovich

2008-01-01

127

Technical Evaluation of Tom Scurry Associates: Model PM-203 Doorway Monitor.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Under a basic assignment by the Office of Safeguards and Security, the Tom Scurry Associates Model PM-203 Personnel Doorway SNM Monitor manufactured by Tom Scurry Associates was evaluated by LASL Group Q-2 against the DOE Personnel Doorway Monitor standar...

1978-01-01

128

Immunocytochemical localization of the translocase of the outer mitochondrial membrane (Tom20) in the human cochlea.  

PubMed

Mitochondrial degeneration in the inner ear is likely a contributing factor in age-related hearing loss and other otopathologies such as Meniere's disease. Most mitochondrial proteins are synthesized in the cytosol and imported through the mitochondrial membranes by translocators. The translocase of the outer membrane (Tom) is the universal entry gate for all proteins that are imported into mitochondria. Altered function of the translocator could alter protein transport into the mitochondria, and disrupt function. In this study, we determined the immunolocalization of Tom20, a major mitochondrial protein import receptor, in microdissected human cochlea frozen sections obtained from postmortem autopsy and celloidin-embedded archival specimens. We used affinity purified rabbit polyclonal antibodies against Tom20. We also determined the Tom20 immunolocalization in the mouse inner ear. In the human and mouse cochlea, Tom20 was ubiquitously distributed in the organ of Corti, allowing well-delineated visualization of inner and outer hair cells. Tom20 immunoreactivity localized in the cytoplasm of spiral ganglia neurons. In the inner ear of aged subjects with Meniere's disease, there was decreased expression of Tom20. These results suggest that Tom20 can be used in the inner ear as a marker for mitochondrial protein import. PMID:23165776

Balaker, Ashley E; Ishiyama, Paul; Lopez, Ivan A; Ishiyama, Gail; Ishiyama, Akira

2012-11-19

129

Has Tom Peters lost the plot? A timely review of a celebrated management guru  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper has been timed to coincide with the 25th anniversary of the publication of In Search of Excellence. Observing this anniversary, the paper aims to offer a critical review of the works of Tom Peters – a man vaunted as the guru of management. Reviewers have observed that Tom Peters' narratives of business build and depend upon

David Collins

2008-01-01

130

Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) Level-3 Data Products User's Guide.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Data from the TOMS series of instruments span the time period from November 1978, through the present with about a one and a-half year gap from January 1994 through July 1996. A set of four parameters derived from the TOMS measurements have been archived ...

R. D. McPeters P. K. Bhartia A. J. Krueger J. R. Herman C. G. Wellemeyer C. J. Seftor W. Byerly E. A. Celarier

2000-01-01

131

Ozone depletion over Greece as deduced from Nimbus7 TOMS measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) on the Nimbus-7 satellite has been measuring the total column amount of ozone over the globe for more than 13 years. Recent findings from TOMS data suggest that just north of 40° N the winter trend shows an annual ozone depletion rate of just over —0-8 per cent per year. This paper reports trends

C. A. VAROTSOS; A. P. CRACKNELL

1993-01-01

132

How does the TOM complex mediate insertion of precursor proteins into the mitochondrial outer membrane?  

PubMed Central

A multisubunit translocase of the outer mitochondrial membrane (TOM complex) mediates both the import of mitochondrial precursor proteins into the internal compartments of the organelle and the insertion of proteins residing in the mitochondrial outer membrane. The proposed ?-barrel structure of Tom40, the pore-forming component of the translocase, raises the question of how the apparent uninterrupted ?-barrel topology can be compatible with a role of Tom40 in releasing membrane proteins into the lipid core of the bilayer. In this review, I discuss insertion mechanisms of proteins into the outer membrane and present alternative models based on the opening of a multisubunit ?-barrel TOM structure or on the interaction of outer membrane precursors with the outer face of the Tom40 ?-barrel structure.

Rapaport, Doron

2005-01-01

133

Tom, a new aromatic degradative plasmid from Burkholderia (Pseudomonas) cepacia G4  

SciTech Connect

Burkholderia (Pseudomonas) cepacia PR1{sub 23} has been shown to constitutively express a toluene catabolic pathway distinguished by a unique toluene ortho-monooxygenase (Tom). This strain has also been shown to contain two extrachromosomal elements of <70 and> 100 kb. A derivative strain cured of the largest plasmid, PR1{sub 23} Cure, was unable to grow on phenol or toluene as the sole source of carbon and energy, which requires expression of the Tom pathway. Transfer of the larger plasmid from strain G4 J(the parent strain inducible for Tom) enabled PR1{sub 23} Cure to grow on toluene or phenol via inducible Tom pathway expression. Conjugal transfer of TOM{sub 23c} from PR1{sub 23} to an antibiotic-resistant derivative of PR1{sub 23} Cure enabled the transconjugant to grow with either phenol or toluene as the sole source of carbon and energy through constitutive expression of the Tom pathway. A cloned 11.2-kb EcoRI restriction fragment of Tom{sub 23c} resulted in the expression of both Tom and catechol 2,3-dioxygenase in Escherichia coli, as evidenced by its ability to oxidize trichloroethylene, toluene, m-cresol, o-cresol, phenol, and catechol. The largest resident plasmid of PR1 was identified as the source of these genes by DNA hybridization. These results indicate that the genes which encode Tom and catechol 2,3-dioxygenase are located on TOM, an approximately 108-kb degradative plasmid of B. cepacia G4. 35 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

Shields, M.S.; Reagin, J.J.; Campbell, R. [Univ. of West Florida, Pensacola, FL (United States)] [and others

1995-04-01

134

Biogenesis of the preprotein translocase of the outer mitochondrial membrane: protein kinase A phosphorylates the precursor of Tom40 and impairs its import  

PubMed Central

The preprotein translocase of the outer mitochondrial membrane (TOM) functions as the main entry gate for the import of nuclear-encoded proteins into mitochondria. The major subunits of the TOM complex are the three receptors Tom20, Tom22, and Tom70 and the central channel-forming protein Tom40. Cytosolic kinases have been shown to regulate the biogenesis and activity of the Tom receptors. Casein kinase 2 stimulates the biogenesis of Tom22 and Tom20, whereas protein kinase A (PKA) impairs the receptor function of Tom70. Here we report that PKA exerts an inhibitory effect on the biogenesis of the ?-barrel protein Tom40. Tom40 is synthesized as precursor on cytosolic ribosomes and subsequently imported into mitochondria. We show that PKA phosphorylates the precursor of Tom40. The phosphorylated Tom40 precursor is impaired in import into mitochondria, whereas the nonphosphorylated precursor is efficiently imported. We conclude that PKA plays a dual role in the regulation of the TOM complex. Phosphorylation by PKA not only impairs the receptor activity of Tom70, but it also inhibits the biogenesis of the channel protein Tom40.

Rao, Sanjana; Schmidt, Oliver; Harbauer, Angelika B.; Schonfisch, Birgit; Guiard, Bernard; Pfanner, Nikolaus; Meisinger, Chris

2012-01-01

135

TOMS Total Ozone Data Compared with Northern Latitude Dobson Ground Stations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Ozone measurements from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer on the Nimbus 7 satellite are compared with ground-based measurements from five Dobson stations at northern latitudes to evaluate the accuracy of the TOMS data, particularly in regions north of ...

B. Heese K. Barthel O. Hov

1994-01-01

136

Satellite Detection of Smoke Aerosols Over a Snow/Ice Surface by TOMS.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The use of TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) satellite data demonstrates the recently developed technique of using satellite UV radiance measurements to detect absorbing tropospheric aerosols is effective over snow/ice surfaces. Instead of the tradi...

N. C. Hsu J. R. Herman J. F. Gleason O. Torres C. J. Seftor

1998-01-01

137

Probing a continuum of macro-molecular assembly models with graph templates of complexes.  

PubMed

Reconstruction by data integration is an emerging trend to reconstruct large protein assemblies, but uncertainties on the input data yield average models whose quantitative interpretation is challenging. This article presents methods to probe fuzzy models of large assemblies against atomic resolution models of subsystems. Consider a toleranced model (TOM) of a macromolecular assembly, namely a continuum of nested shapes representing the assembly at multiple scales. Also consider a template namely an atomic resolution 3D model of a subsystem (a complex) of this assembly. We present graph-based algorithms performing a multi-scale assessment of the complexes of the TOM, by comparing the pairwise contacts which appear in the TOM against those of the template. We apply this machinery on TOM derived from an average model of the nuclear pore complex, to explore the connections among members of its well-characterized Y-complex. Proteins 2013; 81:2034-2044. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:23609891

Dreyfus, Tom; Doye, Valérie; Cazals, Frédéric

2013-06-20

138

Tom22', an 8-kDa trans-site receptor in plants and protozoans, is a conserved feature of the TOM complex that appeared early in the evolution of eukaryotes.  

PubMed

One of the earliest events in the evolution of mitochondria was the development a means to translocate proteins made in the cytosol into the "protomitochondrion." How this was achieved remains uncertain, and the nature of the earliest version of the protein translocation machinery is not known. Comparative sequence analysis suggests three subunits, Tom40, Tom7, and Tom22 as common elements of the protein translocase in the mitochondrial outer membrane in diverse extant eukaryotes. Tom22, the 22-kDa subunit, plays a critical role in the function of this complex in fungi and animals, and we show that an 8-kDa subunit of the plant translocase is a truncated form of Tom22. It has a single transmembrane segment conforming in sequence to the same region of Tom22 from other eukaryotic lineages and a short carboxy-terminal trans domain located in the mitochondrial intermembrane space. The trans domain from the Arabidopsis thaliana protein functions in yeast lacking their own Tom22 by complementing protein import defects and restoring cell growth. Moreover, we have identified orthologs of Tom22, Tom7, and Tom40 in diverse eukaryotes such as the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum, the amoebic slime Dictyostelium discoideum, and the protozoan parasite Plasmodium falciparum. This finding strongly suggests these subunits as the core of the protein translocase in the earliest mitochondria. PMID:15155803

Ma?asev, Diana; Whelan, James; Newbigin, Ed; Silva-Filho, Marcio C; Mulhern, Terrence D; Lithgow, Trevor

2004-05-21

139

Gravity Probe B  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This broadcast reports on Gravity Probe B, a satellite designed to test the frame dragging prediction of Einstein's theory of general relativity, where a spinning object such as the Earth will push spacetime in front of it. Gravity Probe B uses gyroscopes which will shift direction while orbiting the Earth (if general relativity is correct). The broadcast contains comments from a scientist who has worked on the Gravity Probe B mission for over 44 years. There is a brief explanation of the difference between the behavior of gravity in Newtonian physics and general relativity. The broadcast also discusses why it took so long to build the satellite (a dozen technologies had to be invented first), the cost involved, and whether the plug would be pulled on the mission; however, Gravity Probe B was finally launched on April 20, 2004. The broadcast is 30 minutes in length.

140

Magnetic hyperfine fields at 119Sn probe nuclei on the R sites of the cubic rare-earth Laves-phase compounds RFe2 and RCo2  

Microsoft Academic Search

The magnetic hyperfine interaction of the 119Sn probe nucleus on the R site of the ferro- and ferrimagnetic RFe2 (R = Sm-Tm, Lu, Zr, Hf and U) and RCo2 (R = Gd-Er) compounds has been investigated by Mössbauer spectroscopy technique. It was found that the magnetic hyperfine fields (Bhf) exhibit quite different behaviours in the two series of the compounds.

N. N. Delyagin; V. I. Krylov

2007-01-01

141

Comparisons of ground cloud\\/aerosol characteristics and broadband UV irradiance measurements with TOMS retrievals over Moscow (Russia) since 1979  

Microsoft Academic Search

We show the comparisons between ground-based cloud\\/aerosol characteristics as well as measurements of spectrally integrated (300nm to 380nm) UV irradiance with satellite retrievals from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) for the whole period of TOMS measurements (1979-2000) over the Meteorological Observatory of Moscow State University (MO MSU), Moscow, Russia. The comparison of TOMS UV Reflectivity with an independent dataset

N. Chubarova; N. Krotkov; J. Herman; P. Bhartia

2002-01-01

142

Glucose-induced regulation of protein import receptor tom22 by cytosolic and mitochondria-bound kinases.  

PubMed

Most mitochondrial proteins are imported by the translocase of the outer mitochondrial membrane (TOM). Tom22 functions as central receptor and transfers preproteins to the import pore. Casein kinase 2 (CK2) constitutively phosphorylates the cytosolic precursor of Tom22 at Ser44 and Ser46 and, thus, promotes its import. It is unknown whether Tom22 is regulated under different metabolic conditions. We report that CK1, which is involved in glucose-induced signal transduction, is bound to mitochondria. CK1 phosphorylates Tom22 at Thr57 and stimulates the assembly of Tom22 and Tom20. In contrast, protein kinase A (PKA), which is also activated by the addition of glucose, phosphorylates the precursor of Tom22 at Thr76 and impairs its import. Thus, PKA functions in an opposite manner to CK1 and CK2. Our results reveal that three kinases regulate the import and assembly of Tom22, demonstrating that the central receptor is a major target for the posttranslational regulation of mitochondrial protein import. PMID:24093680

Gerbeth, Carolin; Schmidt, Oliver; Rao, Sanjana; Harbauer, Angelika B; Mikropoulou, Despina; Opali?ska, Magdalena; Guiard, Bernard; Pfanner, Nikolaus; Meisinger, Chris

2013-10-01

143

Peptide library approach with a disulfide tether to refine the Tom20 recognition motif in mitochondrial presequences.  

PubMed

Many mitochondrial matrix and inner-membrane proteins are synthesized in the cytosol as precursor proteins with an N-terminal presequence, and are imported into the mitochondria. Although no distinct sequence homology has been found among mitochondrial presequences, Tom20, a general import receptor in the outer mitohcondrial membrane, binds to presequences, and distinguishes mitochondrial proteins from non-mitochonrial proteins. The recently determined structure of the cytosolic domain of Tom20 (DeltaTom20) in a complex with the presequence of rat aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) showed that a short stretch of the presequence forms an amphiphilic helix, and its hydrophobic surface interacts with the hydrophobic-binding groove of Tom20. The following NMR analyses revealed a common five-residue pattern for Tom20 binding in five different presequences. To refine the common amino acid motif for the recognition by Tom20, we introduced a new peptide library approach in this study: we prepared a mixture of ALDH presequence variants, tethered these peptides to DeltaTom20 in a competitive manner by an intermolecular disulfide bond, and determined the relative affinities by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. We successfully deduced a refined, common motif for the recognition by Tom20, and found that the segment consisting of residues 14-20 of the ALDH presequence was locally optimized in the sequence space, with respect to Tom20 binding. PMID:12691756

Obita, Takayuki; Muto, Takanori; Endo, Toshiya; Kohda, Daisuke

2003-04-25

144

TOM40 Mediates Mitochondrial Dysfunction Induced by ?-Synuclein Accumulation in Parkinson's Disease  

PubMed Central

Alpha-synuclein (?-Syn) accumulation/aggregation and mitochondrial dysfunction play prominent roles in the pathology of Parkinson’s disease. We have previously shown that postmortem human dopaminergic neurons from PD brains accumulate high levels of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) deletions. We now addressed the question, whether alterations in a component of the mitochondrial import machinery -TOM40- might contribute to the mitochondrial dysfunction and damage in PD. For this purpose, we studied levels of TOM40, mtDNA deletions, oxidative damage, energy production, and complexes of the respiratory chain in brain homogenates as well as in single neurons, using laser-capture-microdissection in transgenic mice overexpressing human wildtype ?-Syn. Additionally, we used lentivirus-mediated stereotactic delivery of a component of this import machinery into mouse brain as a novel therapeutic strategy. We report here that TOM40 is significantly reduced in the brain of PD patients and in ?-Syn transgenic mice. TOM40 deficits were associated with increased mtDNA deletions and oxidative DNA damage, and with decreased energy production and altered levels of complex I proteins in ?-Syn transgenic mice. Lentiviral-mediated overexpression of Tom40 in ?-Syn-transgenic mice brains ameliorated energy deficits as well as oxidative burden. Our results suggest that alterations in the mitochondrial protein transport machinery might contribute to mitochondrial impairment in ?-Synucleinopathies.

Rockenstein, Edward; Adame, Anthony; Elstner, Matthias; Laub, Christoph; Mueller, Sarina; Koob, Andrew O.; Mante, Michael; Pham, Emily; Klopstock, Thomas; Masliah, Eliezer

2013-01-01

145

The Radiation Belt Storm Probes  

NASA Video Gallery

The Radiation Belt Storm Probe mission (RBSP) will explore the Van Allen Radiation Belts in the Earth's magnetosphere. The charge particles in these regions can be hazardous to both spacecraft and astronauts. The mission will explore space weather -- changes in Earth's space environment caused by the sun -- which can affect our technology.

gsfcvideo

2012-08-09

146

Probes, Exploration and Application  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson examines some of the benefits of the space program to our life on Earth. The activities introduce students to what probes are, how they are designed, what they do, and how they provide information about surfaces without allowing us to actually see it (remote sensing).

147

Atmospheric probes: needs and prospects  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is only one Rosetta Stone in the Solar System; it's in the British Museum. We cannot understand the inner planets by simply studying the Earth, nor can we apprehend the giants by examining only Jupiter. Despite the stunning successes of previous probes to Venus and the Galileo probe to Jupiter, our knowledge of the atmospheres of even these two

Tobias Owen

2004-01-01

148

Differential Regulation of Synaptic Vesicle Tethering and Docking by UNC-18 and TOM-1  

PubMed Central

The assembly of SNARE complexes between syntaxin, SNAP-25 and synaptobrevin is required to prime synaptic vesicles for fusion. Since Munc18 and tomosyn compete for syntaxin interactions, the interplay between these proteins is predicted to be important in regulating synaptic transmission. We explored this possibility, by examining genetic interactions between C. elegans unc-18(Munc18), unc-64(syntaxin) and tom-1(tomosyn). We have previously demonstrated that unc-18 mutants have reduced synaptic transmission, whereas tom-1 mutants exhibit enhanced release. Here we show that the unc-18 mutant release defect is associated with loss of two morphologically distinct vesicle pools; those tethered within 25?nm of the plasma membrane and those docked with the plasma membrane. In contrast, priming defective unc-13 mutants accumulate tethered vesicles, while docked vesicles are greatly reduced, indicating tethering is UNC-18-dependent and occurs in the absence of priming. C. elegans unc-64 mutants phenocopy unc-18 mutants, losing both tethered and docked vesicles, whereas overexpression of open syntaxin preferentially increases vesicle docking, suggesting UNC-18/closed syntaxin interactions are responsible for vesicle tethering. Given the competition between vertebrate tomosyn and Munc18, for syntaxin binding, we hypothesized that C. elegans TOM-1 may inhibit both UNC-18-dependent vesicle targeting steps. Consistent with this hypothesis, tom-1 mutants exhibit enhanced UNC-18 plasma membrane localization and a concomitant increase in both tethered and docked synaptic vesicles. Furthermore, in tom-1;unc-18 double mutants the docked, primed vesicle pool is preferentially rescued relative to unc-18 single mutants. Together these data provide evidence for the differential regulation of two vesicle targeting steps by UNC-18 and TOM-1 through competitive interactions with syntaxin.

Gracheva, Elena O.; Maryon, Ed B.; Berthelot-Grosjean, Martine; Richmond, Janet E.

2010-01-01

149

Van Allen Probes - The Instruments  

NASA Video Gallery

Dr. David Sibeck explains the instruments on the twin Van Allen Probes (formerly the Radiation Belt Storm Probes, RBSP). The Van Allen Probes will explore the Van Allen Radiation Belts in the Earth's magnetosphere. The charged particles in these regions can be hazardous to both spacecraft and astronauts. The mission also will allow researchers to understand fundamental radiation and particle acceleration processes throughout the universe.

gsfcvideo

2012-11-08

150

Remote Hyperspectral Imaging of Endolithic Biofilms Using a Robotic Probe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many scientists on Earth have concentrated their searches for extraterrestrial life on robotic probes sent to nearby planets and moons. These robotic probes are able to analyze conditions on the planets and transmit data back to Earth. One branch of astrobiology is devoted to duplicating the specified conditions of remote planets and moons on Earth, and identifying the life that

Amanda E. Lowell; Kah-Siew Ho; Robert A. Lodder

151

Performance and Carcass Composition of Large White Toms as Affected by Dietary Crude Protein and Threonine Supplements  

Microsoft Academic Search

This experiment evaluates the effects of decreasing dietary CP, in addition to the effects of dietary supplements of L-Thr to low CP diets, in Large White Nicholas toms from 0 to 18 wk of age. Toms were fed dietary treatments consisting of four levels of dietary CP as a percentage of NRC (1994) recommendations (100, 92, 84, and 76% of

M. T. KIDD; B. J. KERR; J. A. ENGLAND; P. W. WALDROUP

152

Tropospheric Ozone Pollution Transport Traced From the TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) Instrument During the Nashville-1999 Campaign  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past several years, we have developed two new tropospheric ozone retrievals from the TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) satellite instrument that are of sufficient resolution to follow pollution episodes. The modified-residual technique [Hudson and Thompson, 1998; Thompson and Hudson, 1999] uses version 7 TOMS total ozone and is applicable to tropical regimes in which the wave-one pattern in

A. M. Thompson; A. D. Frolov; R. D. Hudson; J. C. Witte

2001-01-01

153

The TOM Test: A New Instrument For Assessing Theory of Mind in Normal Children and Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes a first attempt to investigate the reliability and validity of the TOM test, a new instrument for assessing theory of mind ability in normal children and children with pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs). In Study 1, TOM test scores of normal children (n = 70) correlated positively with their performance on other theory of mind tasks. Furthermore, young

Peter Muris; Pim Steerneman; Cor Meesters; Harald Merckelbach; Robert Horselenberg; Tanja van den Hogen; Lieke van Dongen

1999-01-01

154

Toms Effect in Direct Crude Oil Emulsions as Influenced by the Stream Velocity and Concentration of Anionic Copolymers of Acrylamide  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major relationships in the Toms effect in direct crude oil emulsions differing in the dispersed phase concentration were studied on a modified turbulent rheometer with anionic copolymer of acrylamide as the polymer additive. The Toms effect was studied as influenced by the polymeric additive concentration and shear stress.

V. A. Myagchenkov; S. V. Chichkanov; D. F. Yakovenko

2005-01-01

155

The Relativistic Electron-Proton Telescope (REPT) Instrument on Board the Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP) Spacecraft: Characterization of Earth's Radiation Belt High-Energy Particle Populations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Particle acceleration and loss in the million electron Volt (MeV) energy range (and above) is the least understood aspect of radiation belt science. In order to measure cleanly and separately both the energetic electron and energetic proton components, there is a need for a carefully designed detector system. The Relativistic Electron-Proton Telescope (REPT) on board the Radiation Belt Storm Probe (RBSP) pair of spacecraft consists of a stack of high-performance silicon solid-state detectors in a telescope configuration, a collimation aperture, and a thick case surrounding the detector stack to shield the sensors from penetrating radiation and bremsstrahlung. The instrument points perpendicular to the spin axis of the spacecraft and measures high-energy electrons (up to ˜20 MeV) with excellent sensitivity and also measures magnetospheric and solar protons to energies well above E=100 MeV. The instrument has a large geometric factor (g=0.2 cm2 sr) to get reasonable count rates (above background) at the higher energies and yet will not saturate at the lower energy ranges. There must be fast enough electronics to avert undue dead-time limitations and chance coincidence effects. The key goal for the REPT design is to measure the directional electron intensities (in the range 10-2-106 particles/cm2 s sr MeV) and energy spectra (?E/E˜25 %) throughout the slot and outer radiation belt region. Present simulations and detailed laboratory calibrations show that an excellent design has been attained for the RBSP needs. We describe the engineering design, operational approaches, science objectives, and planned data products for REPT.

Baker, D. N.; Kanekal, S. G.; Hoxie, V. C.; Batiste, S.; Bolton, M.; Li, X.; Elkington, S. R.; Monk, S.; Reukauf, R.; Steg, S.; Westfall, J.; Belting, C.; Bolton, B.; Braun, D.; Cervelli, B.; Hubbell, K.; Kien, M.; Knappmiller, S.; Wade, S.; Lamprecht, B.; Stevens, K.; Wallace, J.; Yehle, A.; Spence, H. E.; Friedel, R.

2012-12-01

156

Progress of Spectral Probes for Nucleic Acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spectral probes have been widely used for the structural and quantitative study of nucleic acids. Traditional probes including absorption-type, fluorescent, and chemiluminescent probes continue to be developed. Of them, near infrared (NIR) dyes, ruthenium(II), and rare earth complexes are especially suitable for the investigation and determination of biomacromolecules including nucleic acids, so their developments are rapid. Resonance light scattering and

Yuebo Wang; Jinghe Yang; Xia Wu; Lei Li; Shuna Sun; Benyu Su; Zongshan Zhao

2003-01-01

157

The Toms Canyon structure, New Jersey outer continental shelf: A possible late Eocene impact crater  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Toms Canyon structure [~20-22 km wide] is located on the New Jersey outer continental shelf beneath 80-100 m of water, and is buried by ~1 km of upper Eocene to Holocene sedimentary strata. The structure displays several characteristics typical of terrestrial impact craters (flat floor; upraised faulted rim: brecciated sedimentary fill), but several other characteristics are atypical (an unusually thin ejecta blanket; lack of an inner basin, peak ring, or central peak; bearing nearly completely filled with breccia). Seismostratigraphic and biostratigraphic analyses show that the structure formed during planktonic foraminiferal biochron P15 of the early to middle late Eocene. The fill unit is stratigraphically correlating with impact ejecta cored nearby at Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) Site 612 and at Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Sites 903 and 904 (22-35 km southeast of the Toms Canyon structure). The Toms Canyon fill unit also correlates with the Exmore breccia, which fills the much larger Chesapeake Bay impact crater (90-km diameter; 335 km to the southwest). On the basis of our analyses, we postulate that the Toms Canyon structure is an impact crater, formed when a cluster of relatively small meteorites approached the target site bearing ~N 50 E, and struck the sea floor obliquely.

Poag, C. W.; Poppe, L. J.

1998-01-01

158

Therapy outcome measures for allied health practitioners in Australia: the AusTOMs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. The aim of this study was to develop a valid and reliable measure of therapy outcome for three allied health profes- sions in Australia: speech pathology, occupational therapy, and physiotherapy. The Australian Therapy Outcome Measures (AusTOMs) enable measurement of the differences in client profiles and patterns of services provision across health care settings. In this paper we describe phase

ALISON PERRY; MEG MORRIS; CAROLYN UNSWORTH; STEPHEN DUCKETT; JEMMA SKEAT; KAREN DODD; NICHOLAS TAYLOR; KAREN REILLY

2004-01-01

159

Camus' Actor as Tom Stoppard's Player; A Key to Interpreting "Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Dead."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|An examination of Albert Camus' definition of the actor in "The Myth on Sisyphus" helps to illuminate the character and role of The Player in Tom Stoppard's play and, hence, to bring light to an understanding of the philosophy of the play itself. The actor, for Camus, reveals our mortality in the face of the absurdity of our mortality, but also…

Zivanovic, Judith

160

Comparisons of the TOMS aerosol index with Sun-photometer aerosol optical thickness: Results and applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

A nearly 20-year global data set (1979-1994 and 1996 to the present) of tropospheric absorbing aerosols has been developed from total ozone mapping spectrometer (TOMS) backscattered radiance measurements in the range from 331 to 380 nm. The occurrence of aerosols is derived directly from measured backscattered radiances and is represented by a quantity known as the aerosol index. Previous theoretical

N. C. Hsu; J. R. Herman; O. Torres; B. N. Holben; D. Tanre; T. F. Eck; A. Smirnov; B. Chatenet; F. Lavenu

1999-01-01

161

Collateral Damage: Veterans and Domestic Violence in Mari Sandoz's "The Tom-Walker"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|"The Tom-Walker" combines the best of Sandoz's realism with her worst attempts at moralizing. Unable to divine exactly what political configuration right-wing post-World War II sentiments might take, Sandoz nevertheless feared a fascist uprising in this country. Perhaps because these concerns dominated her thoughts at the time, she allowed her…

Bahr, Kathy

2010-01-01

162

Effect of Stratospheric Aerosol Layers on the TOMS/SBUV Ozone Retrieval.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An evaluation of the optical effects of stratospheric aerosol layers on total ozone retrieval from space by the TOMS/SBUV type instruments is presented here. Using the Dave radiative transfer model we estimate the magnitude of the errors in the retrieved ...

O. Torres Z. Ahmad L. Pan J. R. Herman P. K. Bhartia

1994-01-01

163

Science and the (Lockean) Pursuit of Happiness in Tom Wolfe's I Am Charlotte Simmons  

Microsoft Academic Search

In I Am Charlotte Simmons, Tom Wolfe explores how precarious the pursuit of happiness is in our liberal society, which provides insufficient moral support for individuals to resist following popular opinion in their pursuit of happiness. For Wolfe, the first step of the pursuit of happiness requires the courage to resist popular opinion and to seek an answer to what

Elizabeth Amato

2011-01-01

164

Collateral Damage: Veterans and Domestic Violence in Mari Sandoz's "The Tom-Walker"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"The Tom-Walker" combines the best of Sandoz's realism with her worst attempts at moralizing. Unable to divine exactly what political configuration right-wing post-World War II sentiments might take, Sandoz nevertheless feared a fascist uprising in this country. Perhaps because these concerns dominated her thoughts at the time, she allowed her…

Bahr, Kathy

2010-01-01

165

Evaluation of Tom Fertility as Affected by Dietary Fatty Acid Composition  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT The objective of two studies was to manipulate the essential fatty acid content of turkey semen,by enhancing the dietary levels of either n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) or n-6 PUFA and determine the effect on fertility. In 1999 (Trial 1), and again in 2000 (Trial 2), Large White tom turkeys, 37 weeks of age, were fed one of three

Judd Niles Culver; D. M. Denbow

166

Influence of structure of aqueous polymer solutions on the Toms effect  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of the structural characteristics of dilute polymer solutions on the Toms effect has been investigated with reference to the example of aqueous solutions of polyoxyethylene, containing inorganic salts, and polyvinyl alcohol, characterized by the existence of a supermolecular order.

L. I. Shakhovskaya; T. A. Lemesheva; Yu. G. Kryazhev

1978-01-01

167

The shape of micelles of a complex soap causing the Toms effect  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is well known that a small addition of some substances to a fluid is the cause of Toms effect. In order to explain this effect various theories have been proposed which take into consideration the shape of microparticles in the additives (macromolecules and soapmicelles). We have investigated the shape and the size of micelles or their aggregates of a

J. Myška; Marta Šime?ková

1983-01-01

168

Sensitivity of TOMS aerosol index to boundary layer height: Implications for detection of mineral aerosol sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

The TOMS aerosol index (AI) is proposed as a powerful tool in determining the sources of mineral aerosols. The sensitivity of the AI to the height of the aerosol layer has been noted previously, but the implications of this sensitivity for deducing sources has not been explicitly considered. Here, we present a methodology and sensitivity test to show the importance

Natalie M. Mahowald; Jean-Louis Dufresne

2004-01-01

169

The Future of the Digital Library: An Interview with Tom Peters  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article presents an interview with Tom Peters, an academic librarian and founder of TAP Information Services, a firm that provides consulting services to libraries and other organizations in the information industry. Peters also serves as a consultant to LibraryCity, an ambitious project that seeks to make thousands of e-books in easy-to-use…

Morrison, James L.; Peters, Tom

2005-01-01

170

An Interview Forum on Interlibrary Loan\\/Document Delivery with Lynn Wiley and Tom Delaney  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Virginia Boucher-OCLC Distinguished ILL Librarian Award is the most prestigiouscommendation given to practitioners in the field. The following questions about ILL were posed to the two most recent recipients of the Boucher Award: Tom Delaney (2002), Coordinator of Interlibrary Loan Services at Colorado State University and Lynn Wiley (2001), Information Resource Retrieval Center Coordinator at the University of Illinois,

Douglas F. Hasty

2003-01-01

171

An Interview Forum on Interlibrary Loan/Document Delivery with Lynn Wiley and Tom Delaney  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Virginia Boucher-OCLC Distinguished ILL Librarian Award is the most prestigious commendation given to practitioners in the field. The following questions about ILL were posed to the two most recent recipients of the Boucher Award: Tom Delaney (2002), Coordinator of Interlibrary Loan Services at Colorado State University and Lynn Wiley (2001),…

Hasty, Douglas F.

2003-01-01

172

A British stage of the postmodern: Theatre as cultural capital in Tom Stoppard and Caryl Churchill  

Microsoft Academic Search

In seeking to understand the move away from realism that has been occurring in British Theatre since the 1950's, this project appeals to the critical category of postmodernism. For my focus, I consider two of contemporary Britain's most important playwrights, Tom Stoppard and Caryl Churchill. After exploring the possibility that two postmodern critics of fiction (Linda Hutcheon and Brian McHale)

Daniel K Jernigan

2001-01-01

173

Studies of rare-earth stannates by sup 119 Sn MAS NMR. The use of paramagnetic shift probes in the solid state  

SciTech Connect

{sup 119}Sn MAS NMR spectra have been obtained from members of a series of rare-earth stannates Ln{sub 2}Sn{sub 2}O{sub 7} (Ln = La, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tm, Yb, Lu, and Y), all of which adopt the pyrochlore structure. Apart from La{sub 2}Sn{sub 2}O{sub 7}, Lu{sub 2}Sn{sub 2}O{sub 7}, and Y{sub 2}Sn{sub 2}O{sub 7}, these compounds are paramagnetic and exhibit a very large variation in {sup 119}Sn chemical shifts (from approximately +5,400 to {minus}4,200 ppm), which can be attributed principally to a Fermi contact shift mechanism. The spectra from the paramagnetic samples have large overall line widths associated with the substantial anisotropy of the shift, but the individual peaks within the spinning sideband manifolds remain sharp. Several tin pyrochlore solid solutions have also been studied (namely Y{sub 2-y}Ln{sub y}Sn{sub 2}O{sub 7} where Ln = Sm, Nd, Pr, and Eu and La{sub 2-y}Nd{sub y}Sn{sub 2}O{sub u}) by {sup 119}Sn MAS NMR. When the short relaxation times of nuclei close to paramagnetic centers were exploited, a series of peaks were observed, associated with the substitution of paramagnetic for diamagnetic lanthanide ions in the local coordination around a tin atom. For Y{sub 2-y}Sm{sub y}Sn{sub 2}O{sub 7} the composition of the solid solution could be determined from the intensities of these peaks. In the solid solutions the {sup 119}Sn nuclei were found to be sensitive not only to neighboring paramagnetic ions but also to paramagnetic ions in the second and third coordination spheres. The shifts induced in these cases arise primarily from a through-space dipolar pseudocontact mechanism and can be interpreted with a model for the site symmetry based on the crystal structure. 30 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

Grey, C.P.; Dobson, C.M.; Cheetham, A.K.; Jakeman, R.J.B. (Univ. of Oxford (England))

1989-01-18

174

Late Eocene Star Wars: The Toms Canyon and Chesapeake Bay Impact Craters, U.S. East Coast  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two coeval(?) impacts produced craters on the middle late Eocene continental shelf of the United States at ~35 Ma. The smaller crater (1 5-20-km diameter) is buried beneath the New Jersey continental shelf, near Toms Canyon [1]; the larger crater (90-km diameter) lies beneath the floor of Chesapeake Bay, Virginia [2]. Both features are documented by seismic reflection profiles, bore-hole stratigraphy, and shock metamorphism. The Chesapeake Bay crater also is expressed by a distinctive bull's-eye gravity signature. The Toms Canyon crater exhibits atypical features attributable to an oblique impact into a water column 500-1000 m deep. Tektite-bearing sediment gravity flows, generated by the impact, have been cored 30 km southeast of the crater at Deep Sea Drilling Project Site 612 and Ocean Drilling Project Site 904 [3]. The Chesapeake Bay crater appears to be a typical peak-ring crater, as expressed on seismic profiles, but its gravity signature may indicate the presence of an irregular central peak, as well. Seismic profiles document the fault-bounded outer rim of the crater at four locations in the bay and two locations on the adjacent continental shelf, which constrains the position and geometry of two-thirds of the crater perimeter. Two seismic profiles show the presence of six secondary craters (1-5-km diameter) outside the crater rim. Depsite the large size of the Chesapeake Bay crater, there is no signal of global environmental distress or mass extinction associated with the impact. The postimpact strata immediately overlying the breccia lens, however, contain a record of local paleoenvironmental damage. A distinctive postimpact assemblage of agglutinated foraminifera is associated with a low-diversity, infaunal group of calcareous benthic foraminifera, plus abundant planktoninc foraminifera and radiolarians. This taphofacies reflects highly productive late Eocene surface waters (200-500 m deep), resulting in abundant organic matter and oxygen-poor conditions on the sea floor. Similar assemblages have been reported at some K-T boundary sites [4]. These primary and secondary craters are among the best preserved impact structures known on Earth and are relatively easily accessible to researchers. They should provide excellent future opportunities to improve our knowledge of both primary and secondary subaqueous craters and of the structural and sedimentological processes associated with their formation. References: [1] Poag C. W. and Poppe L. J. (1995) GSA Bull. [2] Poag C. W. et al. (1994) Geology, 22, 691-694. [3] Poag C. W. and Aubry M.-P. (1995) Palaios, 10, 1643. [4] Coccioni R. and Galeotti S. (1994) Geology, 22, 779-782.

Poag, C. W.

1995-09-01

175

Earth's Seasons  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A computer animation on the reason for the seasons. Voice-over describes the motion of Earth around the sun to show how the sun's light impacts the tilted Earth at different times of the year, causing seasonal changes.

Rochester Museum And Science Center, Strasenburgh P.

176

Edible Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners make a model of the solid Earth's layers that's good enough to eat! Learners use tasty foodstuffs to simulate Earth's inner core, outer core, mantle, and crust. The recipe includes ingredients for one edible Earth, but can be doubled or tripled to accommodate groups of learners. This activity requires adult supervision.

History, American M.

2011-08-20

177

Earth Flow  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Flash animation with accompanying audio exhibits the different stages involved in the formation of an earth flow. A step-like scarp forms along with a flowage zone at the toe of the earth flow. The sequence concludes with the stabilization of the earth flow with vegetation. Expect long loading times.

Wiley

178

Earth Calendar  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This handout lists major events in Earth history with approximate ages (in millions of years before present). The calendar date is determined by setting midnight, January 1, to correspond with the formation of the Earth, and setting the following midnight, December 31, to correspond to the present. Thus, the entire history of the Earth is displayed as a single calendar year.

Barker, Jeffrey

179

Snowball Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Audio program from the University of Wisconsin's Earthwatch Radio discusses the notion of the entire planet covered with ice. Doug Macdougall is an earth scientist at the University of California-San Diego and author of a new book called "Frozen Earth." He says the planet-wide freeze is known as "Snowball Earth."

180

Planet Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For those interested in a global view of the weather, Planet Earth is a "real-time 3-D model of the Earth with continuously updating night shadows and clouds." Cloud images are provided by the University of Wisconsin-Madison Space Science and Engineering Center. Planet Earth is shareware with a fee of $29.95.

181

Mathematical modeling used for assessing the influence of anthropogenic factors on the Tom River water regime  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of mathematical modeling of the unsteady water motion in the Tom River over the section between the town of Tomsk\\u000a and the river mouth, when it is under pressure head of the Ob River flood waves, are presented. The research is performed\\u000a based on the analysis of field materials, numerical computation results of field and hypothetical hydrological regimes

V. S. Nikiforovskaya

2009-01-01

182

Tom Thumb and Jack the Giant-Killer: Two Arthurian Fairytales?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the chapbook tales of Tom Thumb and Jack the Giant-Killer. The earliest recorded forms of these stories are discussed and it is contended that the common dismissal of their Arthurian elements as unimportant background—Arthur's Britain as a variant of “Once upon a time”—is unhelpful. Rather, both arguably embody and illustrate important points about the nature of the

Thomas Green

2007-01-01

183

Global distribution of UV-absorbing aerosols from Nimbus 7\\/TOMS data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global distributions of UV-absorbing aerosols are obtained using measured differences between the 340 and the 380 nm radiances from the Nimbus 7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) for the years 1979-1993. Time series are shown for major sources of biomass burning and desert dust giving the frequency of occurrence and areal coverage over land and oceans. Minor sources of UV-absorbing

J. R. Herman; P. K. Bhartia; O. Torres; C. Hsu; C. Seftor; E. Celarier

1997-01-01

184

Global distribution of the residual ozonosphere field based on TOMS satellite data 1979–1992  

Microsoft Academic Search

The residual ozone field (ROF), i.e., the global distribution of the total ozone content (TOC) after subtracting the contribution of calm solar energy, was constructed. Only the experimental Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) Nimbus 7 data (1978?1993) were used in [1, 2]. In order to suppress temporal variations, the daily TOC values were first averaged over a 1-yr period for

R. S. Steblova

2007-01-01

185

Dynamic Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Dynamic Earth consists of four sections and an assessment. Each section explores one aspect of the earth's structure and the movement of its tectonic plates. Simply follow the instructions on the screen to learn about the layers that make up the earth; how the continents arrived at their current locations; the constant movement of the tectonic plates; and the volcanoes, earthquakes, and other events that result from the movements of the plates. Students will view animations, read explanations, and use their mouse to drag and drop the earth's continents in their correct places, highlight features on a map, and cause earth's tectonic plates to move. At various points, students will check their knowledge by taking a quick quiz or playing a game to see how much they have learned about the Dynamic Earth. Students should read section introductions carefully, as they give a basic overview of concepts, and use the Glossary to look up definitions to unfamiliar terms.

Quinn, Ashlinn

2007-01-01

186

Comparisons of the TOMS aerosol index with Sun-photometer aerosol optical thickness: Results and applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A nearly 20-year global data set (1979-1994 and 1996 to the present) of tropospheric absorbing aerosols has been developed from total ozone mapping spectrometer (TOMS) backscattered radiance measurements in the range from 331 to 380 nm. The occurrence of aerosols is derived directly from measured backscattered radiances and is represented by a quantity known as the aerosol index. Previous theoretical model simulations have demonstrated that the aerosol index depends on aerosol optical thickness (AOT), single scattering albedo, and aerosol height and that the AOT can be determined provided that the microphysical properties and height of aerosols are known. In this paper we show that the TOMS aerosol index measurements are linearly proportional to the AOT derived independently from ground-based Sun-photometer instruments over regions of biomass burning and regions covered by African dust. We also show how this linear relationship can be used to directly convert the aerosol index into AOT for smoke and dust aerosols for the regions near the Sun-photometer sites and how information about aerosol height can be inferred from the results. Finally, we apply this method to the TOMS data over the last two decades and find a significant increase in the amount of biomass burning smoke in the African savanna regions during the 1990s in addition to the more obvious increase in South America.

Hsu, N. C.; Herman, J. R.; Torres, O.; Holben, B. N.; Tanre, D.; Eck, T. F.; Smirnov, A.; Chatenet, B.; Lavenu, F.

1999-03-01

187

Ocean Color and Evidence of Chlorophyll Signature in the TOMS Minimum Reflectivity Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analysis of the TOMS minimum reflectivity data for 380 nm channel (R380) show regions of high reflectivity values (7 to 8%) over Sargasso Sea in the Northern Atlantic, anti-cyclonic region in the Southern Atlantic, and a large part of the ocean in the Southern Pacific, and low values (5 to 6 %) over the rest of the open ocean. Through radiative transfer simulations we show that these features are highly correlated with the distribution of chlorophyll in the ocean. Theoretical minimum reflectivity values derived with the help of CZCS chlorophyll concentration data as input into a vector ocean-atmosphere radiative transfer code developed by Ahmad and Fraser show very good agreement with TOMS minimum reflectivity data for the winter season of year 1980. For the summer season of year 1980, good qualitative agreement is observed in the equatorial and northern hemisphere but not as good in the southern hemisphere. Also, for cloud-free conditions, we find a very strong correlation between R340 minus R380 values and the chlorophyll concentration in the ocean. Results on the possible effects of absorbing and non-absorbing aerosols on the TOMS minimum reflectivity will also be presented. The results also imply that ocean color will affect the aerosol retrieval over oceans unless corrected.

Ahmad, Z.; Herman, J. R.; Bhartia, P. K.

2003-12-01

188

Earth Viewer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Earth Viewer was written primarily for elementary school students, and shows the daytime and nighttime portions of the Earth for any day of the year. Two views of the Earth are possible: a globe shows the planet as it would appear from space, and a map shows a flat view of the entire surface. The image can be animated or still, and set to any desired latitude and longitude.

Carlisle, Paul

189

Earth Lecture  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lecture is about the Earth, the planet which we know the most about, due to our ability to explore its interior as well as exterior. The lecture will compare values and processes on other planets to those on the Earth. It covers topics such as the interior, surface features and observations. It also includes a discussion of the Earth's crust, atmosphere, evolution and magnetic field. There is a quiz at the end of the lecture.

Schombert, Jim

2008-12-15

190

Tropospheric ozone during the TRACE-P mission: Comparison between TOMS satellite retrievals and aircraft lidar data, March 2001  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past several years, we have developed two new tropospheric ozone retrievals from the TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) satellite instrument that are of sufficient resolution to follow pollution episodes. The modified-residual technique [Hudson and Thompson, 1998; Thompson and Hudson, 1999] uses v.7 TOMS total ozone and is applicable to tropical regimes in which the wave-one pattern in total

A. Frolov; A. M. Thompson; R. D. Hudson; E. V. Browell; S. J. Oltmans; J. C. Witte

2002-01-01

191

Not sell outs, Uncle Tom's, or Aunt Jemima's: African American Republicans and their reasons for affliating with the GOP  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous work on identification informed us that people desire to join groups that are perceived favorably by others and that enhance a person’s self esteem (Tajfel & Turner, 1986). However for one group, African American Republicans, this is not the case. African American Republicans often are called racial epithets such as Uncle Tom’s, Aunt Jemima’s and Sell Outs because of

Shavonne Renee Shorter

2010-01-01

192

Theory of mind broad and narrow: Reasoning about social exchange engages ToM areas, precautionary reasoning does not  

Microsoft Academic Search

Baron-Cohen (1995) proposed that the theory of mind (ToM) inference system evolved to promote strategic social interaction. Social exchange—a form of co-operation for mutual benefit—involves strategic social interaction and requires ToM inferences about the contents of other individuals’ mental states, especially their desires, goals, and intentions. There are behavioral and neuropsychological dissociations between reasoning about social exchange and reasoning about

Elsa Ermer; Scott A. Guerin; Leda Cosmides; John Tooby; Michael B. Miller

2006-01-01

193

Environmental Characterization of Global Sources of Atmospheric Soil Dust Identified with the NIMBUS7 TOMS Absorbing Aerosol Product  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) sensor provides information on the global distribution of absorbing aerosol, i.e., mineral dust and smoke. We use the TOMS absorbing aerosol data obtained on the NIMBUS-7 satellite over the period 1980-1992 to map the global distribution of major atmospheric dust sources with the goal of identifying common environmental characteristics. The largest and most persistent

O. Torres; J. M. Prospero; P. Ginoux; S. E. Nicholson; T. E. Gill

2001-01-01

194

Nuclear magnetic resonance in rare earth metals  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes the study, by nuclear magnetic resonance, of both static and dynamical aspects of the hyperfine interaction in rare earth metals, and illustrates the categories of information that can be obtained by using nuclei as microscopic probes in metallic media. The systems discussed include not only the pure rare earth metals but also their alloys and their metallic

M. A. H. McCausland; I. S. Mackenzie

1979-01-01

195

Uranus - The view from earth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Present knowledge of Uranus and its satellites based on observations from earth is reviewed. The composition of the satellites is discussed and their known values for their orbital radii, eccentricities, inclinations, radii, densities, V magnitudes, and albedos are given. The Uranian rings are discussed, including how knowledge of ring characteristics assists in probing Uranus itself. The emission from Uranus and

J. Elliot

1985-01-01

196

Earth Day  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

On April 22, 2005, people around the world will celebrate the 35th anniversary of Earth Day. This Topic in Depth focuses on the past and present of this significant day. From the Wisconsin Historical Society, the first two sites contain historical documents pertaining to Earth Day. The first (1) document features a May 1970 issue of The Gaylord Nelson Newsletter reporting on the first Earth Day. The second (2) document is a speech by Nelson entitled "An Environmental Agenda for the 70's." Housed in the archives of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) website, the next two sites also contain historical documents. The first (3) site contains an article written by Nelson for the EPA Journal in April of 1980, entitled "Earth Day '70: What It Meant." The second (4) site contains an article written by John C. Whitaker (former Interior undersecretary in the Nixon administration) for the EPA Journal in the summer of 1998. The article is entitled "Earth Day Recollections: What It Was Like When the Movement Took Off." The (5) Earth Day Network (first mentioned in the April 4, 2003, Scout Report for Life Sciences) works "to broaden the environmental movement worldwide and to educate and mobilize people, governments, and corporations to take responsibility for a clean and healthy environment." In addition to information sections about Ongoing Programs, Current Campaigns, and News, the Earth Day Network website contains Earth Day 2005 Materials for organizers. From EarthDay.gov, Take Action In Your Classroom (6) offers links to a variety of environmental education resources. The next website, from the U.S. Army Environmental Center, presents (7) Army Earth Day; and links to information about the Army's environmental activities. The final (8) site is an Earth Day-inspired educational website (first reported on in the April 14, 1999 Scout Report for Science & Engineering) from the Wilderness Society. The site offers a collection of environmental education resources for teachers and students. [NL

197

Rainbow Earth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The environment is a great concern in the 1990s, and everyone needs to work at maintaining our planet. The 1992 Arizona State Library Reading Program, "Rainbow Earth," provides children with many techniques they can use to help the Earth. This reading program guide provides information on the following: goals, objectives, and evaluation; getting…

Arizona State Dept. of Library and Archives, Phoenix.

198

Earth tides  

SciTech Connect

Nineteen papers on gravity, tilt, and strain tides are compiled into this volume. Detailed chapters cover the calculation of the tidal forces and of the Earth's response to them, as well as actual observations of earth tides. Partial Contents: On Earth tides. The tidal forces: Tidal Forces. New Computations of the Tide-Generating Potential. Corrected Tables of Tidal Harmonics. The Theory of Tidal Deformations. Body Tides on an Elliptical, Rotating, Elastic and Oceanless Earth, Deformation of the Earth by Surface Loads. Gravimetric Tidal Loading Computed from Integrated Green's Functions. Tidal Friction in the Solid Earth. Loading Tides Versus Body Tides. Lunar Tidal Acceleration from Earth Satellite Orbit Analysis. Observations: gravity. Tidal Gravity in Britain: Tidal Loading and the Spatial Distribution of the Marine Tide. Tidal Loading along a Profile Europe-East Africa-South Asia-Australia and the Pacific Ocean. Detailed Gravity-Tide Spectrum between One and Four Cycles per Day. Observations: tilt and strain. Cavity and Topographic Effects in Tilt and Strain Measurement. Observations of Local Elastic Effects on Earth Tide Tilts and Strains.

Harrison, J.C.

1984-01-01

199

Earth Viewer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The representation is an enhanced image and animation of Earth from above that shows daytime and nighttime on 1/2 of the Earth at a time. The representation's viewing angle and date can be manipulated by the viewer, and the representation can be toggled between globe and map views.

Carlisle, Paul

200

Spectrophotometric probe  

DOEpatents

A support structure bearing at least one probe for making spectrophotometric measurements of a fluid using a source of light and a spectrophotometer. The probe includes a housing with two optical fibers and a planoconvex lens. A sleeve bearing a mirror surrounds the housing. The lens is separated from the mirror by a fixed distance, defining an interior space for receiving a volume of the fluid sample. A plurality of throughholes extending through the sleeve communicate between the sample volume and the exterior of the probe, all but one hole bearing a screen. A protective jacket surrounds the probe. A hollow conduit bearing a tube is formed in the wall of the probe for venting any air in the interior space when fluid enters. The probe is held at an acute angle so the optic fibers carrying the light to and from the probe are not bent severely on emergence from the probe.

Prather, William S. (Augusta, GA); O' Rourke, Patrick E. (Martinez, GA)

1994-01-01

201

Spectrophotometric probe  

DOEpatents

A support structure is described bearing at least one probe for making spectrophotometric measurements of a fluid using a source of light and a spectrophotometer. The probe includes a housing with two optical fibers and a planoconvex lens. A sleeve bearing a mirror surrounds the housing. The lens is separated from the mirror by a fixed distance, defining an interior space for receiving a volume of the fluid sample. A plurality of throughholes extending through the sleeve communicate between the sample volume and the exterior of the probe, all but one hole bearing a screen. A protective jacket surrounds the probe. A hollow conduit bearing a tube is formed in the wall of the probe for venting any air in the interior space when fluid enters. The probe is held at an acute angle so the optic fibers carrying the light to and from the probe are not bent severely on emergence from the probe. 3 figs.

Prather, W.S.; O' Rourke, P.E.

1994-08-02

202

Atmospheric probes: needs and prospects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is only one Rosetta Stone in the Solar System; it's in the British Museum. We cannot understand the inner planets by simply studying the Earth, nor can we apprehend the giants by examining only Jupiter. Despite the stunning successes of previous probes to Venus and the Galileo probe to Jupiter, our knowledge of the atmospheres of even these two planets remains tantalizingly incomplete. We must therefore return to Venus and consider the challenge of exploring all of the outer planets with a family of identical probes, a project that could commemorater the vision of multiple worlds championed by Giordano Bruno.

Owen, Tobias

2004-02-01

203

Sun-Earth Connection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

One of three divisions within the Office of Space Science at NASA, the Sun-Earth Connection has the primary goal of understanding the Sun, Heliosphere, and planetary environments as a single connected system. The Web site offers visitors information on space science missions including the Living with a Star and Solar Terrestrial Probes mission. Meeting notes and official reports can be viewed online, including the Sun Earth Connection 2002 Strategic Plan. Other items of interest include information on the science and technology behind the missions, education and news links, and more. One highlight of the site is the image gallery that includes some of the most incredible photos and illustrations of the sun that are available online.

204

Tropospheric Ozone Pollution Transport Traced From the TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) Instrument During the Nashville-1999 Campaign.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past several years, we have developed two new tropospheric ozone retrievals from the TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) satellite instrument that are of sufficient resolution to follow pollution episodes. The modified-residual technique [Hudson and Thompson, 1998; Thompson and Hudson, 1999] uses version 7 TOMS total ozone and is applicable to tropical regimes in which the wave-one pattern in total ozone is observed. The TOMS-direct method ["TDOT" = TOMS Direct Ozone in the Troposphere; Frolov et al., 2000] represents a new algorithm that uses TOMS radiances directly (i.e. not previously processed for TOMS ozone) to extract tropospheric ozone in regions of constant stratospheric ozone and tropospheric ozone displaying high mixing ratios and variability characteristic of pollution. These events tend to occur in certain meteorological regimes. For example, mid-latitude pollution usually occurs on the backside of subtropical fronts as low pv, usually moist air, intrudes to the extra-tropics. July 1999 was a month characterized by robust pollution in the eastern US, with high ozone, as detected by TOMS, originating over south central states and moving up the Atlantic seaboard. This corresponds to 50-80 DU in tropospheric ozone column depth. In most cases, further transport occurred to the North Atlantic, with ozone plumes traveling to western Europe in 4-5 days. Examples of high ozone and transit across boundaries within the US, as well as US to Europe, give a regional context for model results and field measurements taken in the SE US during the Nashville-1999 campaign period. Validation of the TDOT maps is made with ozonesondes taken during that time. TDOT maps also show ozone pollution from Asia traveling to the western US in July 1999.

Thompson, A. M.; Frolov, A. D.; Hudson, R. D.; Witte, J. C.

2001-05-01

205

Gravity Probe B: Testing Einstein's Universe  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Gravity Probe B is the relativity gyroscope experiment being developed by NASA and Stanford University to test two extraordinary, unverified predictions of Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity. The experiment will use changes in the direction of spin of four gyroscopes contained in an Earth satellite to measure how space and time are warped by the presence of the Earth, and, more profoundly, how the Earth's rotation drags spacetime around with it.

Everitt, C. W.

2003-10-10

206

Huygens probe on target  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In October 1997, a Titan/Centaur rocket lifting-off from Cape Canaveral will boost the spacecraft into a 6.7 year trajectory to reach Saturn. The trajectory will use two swing-bys of Venus in April 1998 and June 1999, followed by an Earth swing-by in August 1999 and a Jupiter swing-by in December 2000 to boost speed and reach Saturn in July 2004. A few months after going into orbit around Saturn, the Cassini spacecraft will release the Huygens probe for its descent through the atmosphere of Titan, the largest satellite of Saturn. The Huygens probe will measure the abundance of elements and compounds in Titan's atmosphere, the distribution of trace gases and aerosols, winds, temperature, pressure and surface state and its composition. A multi-spectral camera on the probe will provide images of the landscape of Titan. Titan is a unique planetary body in the solar system. It has an atmosphere which is primarily nitrogen. but is also rich in hydrocarbons. Due to the vast distance of the Saturnian system from the Sun, this atmosphere is at a very low temperature, thus greatly slowing down all the chemical processes. A study of this atmosphere will throw light on the development of our own atmosphere and contribute to our understanding of the origins of life on Earth. The Huygens probe is being developed by ESA with Aerospatiale (F) as the industrial prime contractor. Since the start of the programme in April 1990, very good progress has been made in design and hardware development. The entry into the Titan atmosphere will result in a very high surface temperature on the probe, generated as it decelerates due to the friction of the upper atmospheric layers. After the probe has slowed down sufficiently, a system of parachutes ensures a slow descent to the surface of Titan in approximately two and a half hours. The scientific measurements can only begin after the heat shield, which is needed to protect the probe during the high temperature entry phase, has been ejected. This occurs at an altitude of around 170 km above Titan's surface. In order to validate this complex sequence, a Balloon Drop Test was recently carried out on a full size model of the probe. The balloon carried the probe to an altitude of 36 km above the test range (ESRANGE) near Kiruna in Sweden. The probe was automatically released and all the descent control systems were operated. This test was completely successfully and the Descent Module was recovered on ground intact and functioning (pictures are available upon request). In addition, all the environmental testing has been carried out on another model to prove the structural and thermal integrity of the probe. The Structure Thermal and Pyro Model (SIAM) of the Huygens probe was delivered to NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) on 5 th July, 1995 for combined testing with the Cassini spacecraft. For the electrical systems, a special Engineering Model has been subjected to functional testing and the results to date are successful. This model will also be delivered to JPL for combined testing in the near future. Currently-, the Flight Model hardware is being delivered to Daimler Benz in Munich, by the industrial subcontractors, where integration of the Flight Probe will take place. "The design and the production of this complex system in a relatively short time of four years has proceeded very smoothly thanks to the motivation of the European space industry", said Huygens ESA Project Manager Hamid Hassan. The Flight Probe will be delivered to NASA/JPL in early 1997 for a launch of Cassini-Huygens on a Titan IV/Centaur rocket in October 1997.

1995-07-01

207

Dynamic Earth  

NASA Video Gallery

Watch this NASA animation as it shows a coronal mass ejection from the sun pelts Venus, and then zooms in for a close-up view of Earth's winds and ocean currents. > Related story > Download high-res video

gsfcvideo

2012-06-19

208

Earth Bulletin  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Earth Bulletin is a series of stories that explain the science behind current environmental and atmospheric events on our planet. Content changes periodically and older stories are put into the sites archive.

209

An EOF study of the Earth{close_quote}s ozone field  

SciTech Connect

In a previous paper we discussed the spectral properties of the Earth{close_quote}s ozone layer, obtained using Empirical Orthogonal Function decomposition of the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) database. Here we present other aspects of the analysis, including the EOF method adapted for incomplete datasets, analysis of spatial structure and temporal variation of first several eigenfunctions, and an extended study of small-scale properties of ozone concentration fields. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

Manin, D.; Everson, R.; Sirovich, L. [The Rockefeller University, New York City, New York 10021 (United States)

1996-06-01

210

Earth materials and earth dynamics  

SciTech Connect

In the project ''Earth Materials and Earth Dynamics'' we linked fundamental and exploratory, experimental, theoretical, and computational research programs to shed light on the current and past states of the dynamic Earth. Our objective was to combine different geological, geochemical, geophysical, and materials science analyses with numerical techniques to illuminate active processes in the Earth. These processes include fluid-rock interactions that form and modify the lithosphere, non-linear wave attenuations in rocks that drive plate tectonics and perturb the earth's surface, dynamic recrystallization of olivine that deforms the upper mantle, development of texture in high-pressure olivine polymorphs that create anisotropic velocity regions in the convecting upper mantle and transition zone, and the intense chemical reactions between the mantle and core. We measured physical properties such as texture and nonlinear elasticity, equation of states at simultaneous pressures and temperatures, magnetic spins and bonding, chemical permeability, and thermal-chemical feedback to better characterize earth materials. We artificially generated seismic waves, numerically modeled fluid flow and transport in rock systems and modified polycrystal plasticity theory to interpret measured physical properties and integrate them into our understanding of the Earth. This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL).

Bennett, K; Shankland, T. [and others

2000-11-01

211

Ten years experience in the management of borderline ovarian tumors at Tom Baker Cancer Centre  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  The aim of this study was to review the clinical outcomes of patients with borderline ovarian tumors (BOTs) at Tom Baker Cancer\\u000a Centre (TBCC) and to assess the value of surgical staging.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  This retrospective study included 138 patients treated for BOTs at TBCC between January 1994 and December 2005. Patients were\\u000a divided into two groups: group I with complete surgical

Nisrin Anfinan; Khalid Sait; Prafull Ghatage; Jill Nation; Pam Chu

212

Tom O'Connor: His legacy of atmospheric aerosol research in Ireland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dr. Thomas C. (Tom) O'Connor received his foundation in atmospheric aerosols through his M. Sc. work at University College Dublin (with P.J. Nolan) and then as research scholar with Leo W. Pollak at the Dublin Institute of Advanced Studies. On moving to Galway in 1956, a significant legacy was his choosing of a field station site at Mace Head and his pioneering measurements there. He played a pivotal role in the development and progression of the Mace Head Atmospheric Research Station (www.macehead.org) for some 50 years. He passed away peacefully in November 2012.

Jennings, S. Gerard

2013-05-01

213

Roles of the Mdm10, Tom7, Mdm12, and Mmm1 Proteins in the Assembly of Mitochondrial Outer Membrane Proteins in Neurospora crassa  

PubMed Central

The Mdm10, Mdm12, and Mmm1 proteins have been implicated in several mitochondrial functions including mitochondrial distribution and morphology, assembly of ?-barrel proteins such as Tom40 and porin, association of mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum, and maintaining lipid composition of mitochondrial membranes. Here we show that loss of any of these three proteins in Neurospora crassa results in the formation of large mitochondrial tubules and reduces the assembly of porin and Tom40 into the outer membrane. We have also investigated the relationship of Mdm10 and Tom7 in the biogenesis of ?-barrel proteins. Previous work showed that mitochondria lacking Tom7 assemble Tom40 more efficiently, and porin less efficiently, than wild-type mitochondria. Analysis of mdm10 and tom7 single and double mutants, has demonstrated that the effects of the two mutations are additive. Loss of Tom7 partially compensates for the decrease in Tom40 assembly resulting from loss of Mdm10, whereas porin assembly is more severely reduced in the double mutant than in either single mutant. The additive effects observed in the double mutant suggest that different steps in ?-barrel assembly are affected in the individual mutants. Many aspects of Tom7 and Mdm10 function in N. crassa are different from those of their homologues in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

Wideman, Jeremy G.; Go, Nancy E.; Klein, Astrid; Redmond, Erin; Lackey, Sebastian W.K.; Tao, Tan; Kalbacher, Hubert; Rapaport, Doron; Neupert, Walter

2010-01-01

214

Mitochondrial translocation contact sites: separation of dynamic and stabilizing elements in formation of a TOM-TIM-preprotein supercomplex  

PubMed Central

Preproteins with N-terminal presequences are imported into mitochondria at translocation contact sites that include the translocase of the outer membrane (TOM complex) and the presequence translocase of the inner membrane (TIM23 complex). Little is known about the functional cooperation of these translocases. We have characterized translocation contact sites by a productive TOM–TIM–preprotein supercomplex to address the role of three translocase subunits that expose domains to the intermembrane space (IMS). The IMS domain of the receptor Tom22 is required for stabilization of the translocation contact site supercomplex. Surprisingly, the N-terminal segment of the channel Tim23, which tethers the TIM23 complex to the outer membrane, is dispensable for both protein import and generation of the TOM–TIM supercomplex. Tim50, with its large IMS domain, is crucial for generation but not for stabilization of the supercomplex. Thus, Tim50 functions as a dynamic factor and the IMS domain of Tom22 represents a stabilizing element in formation of a productive translocation contact site supercomplex.

Chacinska, Agnieszka; Rehling, Peter; Guiard, Bernard; Frazier, Ann E.; Schulze-Specking, Agnes; Pfanner, Nikolaus; Voos, Wolfgang; Meisinger, Chris

2003-01-01

215

Tropospheric ozone during the TRACE-P mission: Comparison between TOMS satellite retrievals and aircraft lidar data, March 2001  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past several years, we have developed two new tropospheric ozone retrievals from the TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) satellite instrument that are of sufficient resolution to follow pollution episodes. The modified-residual technique [Hudson and Thompson, 1998; Thompson and Hudson, 1999] uses v.7 TOMS total ozone and is applicable to tropical regimes in which the wave-one pattern in total ozone is observed. The TOMS-direct method ("TDOT" = TOMS Direct Ozone in the Troposphere) represents a new algorithm that uses TOMS radiances directly to extract tropospheric ozone in regions of constant stratospheric ozone. It is not geographically restricted and it is useful where tropospheric ozone displays high mixing ratios and variability characteristic of pollution. Some of these episodes were observed downwind of Asian biomass burning during the TRACE-P (Transport and Atmospheric Chemical Evolution-Pacific) field experiment in March 2001. This paper features comparisons among TDOT tropospheric ozone column depth, uv-DIAL measurements made from NASA's DC-8, and ozonesondes.

Frolov, A.; Thompson, A. M.; Hudson, R. D.; Browell, E. V.; Oltmans, S. J.; Witte, J. C.

2002-05-01

216

Toms Creek Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle Demonstration Project. Annual report, [January 1, 1993--December 31, 1993  

SciTech Connect

The first Annual Technical Progress Report for the period ending December 31, 1993, summarizes the work done to date by Tampella Power Corporation and Enviropower Inc. Enviropower Inc.`s efforts were concentrated on the Toms Creek PDS (Preliminary Design and Studies). The PDS was based on a Gasification Island size providing coal gas to General Electric`s frame 6(B) gas turbine. During the course of the project, the scope of the PDS was expanded to include heat and material balances and selected equipment sizing for an IGCC plant size incorporating General Electric`s newly introduced 6(FA) gas turbine. The reasons for this revision were improved plant economics and performance. Tampella Power Corporation`s efforts were also concentrated on Toms Creek design. Information provided by Enviropower Inc. was used to generate more detailed heat and material balances; P&IDs; equipment and system design; and economic evaluation data. Tampella Power Corporation also performed several site specific heat and material balance calculations and economic analyses to provide the basis for evaluating alternate locations for the Project.

Feher, G.

1994-03-01

217

Column Ozone in the 2011 Arctic Spring as observed by Aura/OMI and the TOMS Total Ozone Algorithm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) aboard Aura observed very low ozone levels in the Arctic Spring of 2011 and provided the spatial coverage and resolution to map the area of depletion in detail. We carefully examine column ozone results from OMI derived from the TOMS total ozone algorithm to place this year's event in the context of past low ozone years. OMI and the TOMS algorithm generally perform well in high latitude observational conditions. However, reliable interpretation of the data is best done taking algorithmic and instrumental effects into consideration. The topics are discussed while showing Arctic ozone maps and trends from OMI and instruments flown aboard previous satellite missions.

Haffner, D. P.; Newman, P. A.; Labow, G. J.; McPeters, R. D.

2011-12-01

218

Toms Creek Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle Demonstration Project. Final quarterly technical progress report for the period ending March 31, 1993  

SciTech Connect

This Quarterly Technical Progress Report for the period ending March 31, 1993 summarizes the work done to data by Tampella Power Corporation and Enviropower, Inc. on the integrated combined-cycle power plant project. Efforts were concentrated on the Toms Creek PDS (Preliminary Design and Studies). Tampella Power Corporation`s efforts were concentrated on the Toms Creek Preliminary Process Flow Diagram (PFD) and Piping and Instrument Diagrams (P&IDs). Tampella Power Corporation also prepared Heat and Material Balances (H&MBs) for different site-specific cases.

Feher, G.

1993-05-24

219

A new method of deriving time-averaged tropospheric column ozone over the tropics using total ozone mapping spectrometer (TOMS) radiances: Intercomparison and analysis using TRACE A data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Error analysis of archived total 0 3 from total ozone mapping spectrometer (TOMS) (version 6) presented in earlier studies (Hudson and Kim, 1994; Hudson et al., 1995) is extended to include scan angle effects. Daily total 0 3 maps for the tropics, from the period October 6-21, 1992, are derived from TOMS radiances following correction for these errors. These daily

J. H. Kimand; R. D. Hudson; A. M. Thompson

1996-01-01

220

A new method of deriving time-averaged tropospheric column ozone over the tropics using total ozone mapping spectrometer (TOMS) radiances: Intercomparison and analysis using TRACE A data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Error analysis of archived total O3 from total ozone mapping spectrometer (TOMS) (version 6) presented in earlier studies [Hudson and Kim, 1994; Hudson et al., 1995] is extended to include scan angle effects. Daily total O3 maps for the tropics, from the period October 6-21, 1992, are derived from TOMS radiances following correction for these errors. These daily maps, averaged

J. H. Kim; R. D. Hudson; A. M. Thompson

1996-01-01

221

Incorporating TOMS Ozone Measurements into the Prediction of the Washington, D.C., Winter Storm during 24-25 January 2000  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, a methodology is proposed for incorporating total column ozone data from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) into the initial conditions of a mesoscale prediction model. Based on the strong correlation between vertical mean potential vorticity (MPV) and TOMS ozone (O3) that was found in middle latitudes at both 30- and 90-km resolutions, using either analyses or

Kun-Il Jang; X. Zou; M. Shapiro; C. Davis; A. Krueger

2003-01-01

222

Detecting Solar Axions Using Earth's Magnetic Field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show that solar axion conversion to photons in the Earth’s magnetosphere can produce an x-ray flux, with average energy ????4keV, which is measurable on the dark side of the Earth. The smallness of the Earth’s magnetic field is compensated by a large magnetized volume. For axion masses ma?10-4eV, a low-Earth-orbit x-ray detector with an effective area of 104cm2, pointed at the solar core, can probe the photon-axion coupling down to 10-11GeV-1, in 1 yr. Thus, the sensitivity of this new approach will be an order of magnitude beyond current laboratory limits.

Davoudiasl, Hooman; Huber, Patrick

2006-10-01

223

Earth Walk  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this hands-on and feet-on excursion, learners take a science walk to visualize the planet's immense size and numerous structures, without the usual scale and ratio dimensions found in most textbooks. Learners also compare their body's height to a scaled-down Earth.

Muller, Eric

1995-01-01

224

Visualizing Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Visualizing Earth program uses the power of visualizations (pictures, maps, spatial representations) to help learners to visualize large volumes of data, perceive and understand complex concepts, create mental models of systems, and comprehend the interactions among data elements. Site materials include remote imagery (mostly Landsat and Space Shuttle images) of Earth surface features such as the Aral Sea, Salton Sea, and volcanoes around the world (Mt. Shasta, Mt Fuji, Mt. Kilimanjaro, and others). There is also a section that uses maps to describe and explain earthquake occurences in the Mammoth Lakes, California, area, and a VRML presentation that shows the relationship between the hypocenter and epicenter of an earthquake. The 'Fun stuff' section includes features about the Aral Sea and the Salton Sea, as well as 'Earth Detective', a feature on the use of remote imagery to detect fault systems, and a tutorial on the basics of geology. There is also information of the schools that participated in the Visualizing Earth program, and a page of links to other websites with related information.

225

Spaceship Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, from Science NetLinks, students will develop an understanding of our planet as a system by designing a very-long-duration space mission in which the life-support system is patterned after that of earth.

Science Netlinks;

2002-09-10

226

Earth Structures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web guide explores several natural phenomena that are constantly changing the face of the Earth. These geologic forces not only impact the physical features of our planet but ultimately affect the biosphere in a dramatic way. Historically, the changes have ranged from gradual (such as with the process of mountain building) to the spontaneous (such as with seismic events).

National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

2005-04-01

227

Earth's Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource provides an overview of the distribution and occurence of water on Earth. Topics include where and how much water there is, the water cycle, and how water is measured. There is also discussion of characteristics and distribution of surface water, groundwater, glaciers, and icecaps.

228

Earth meandering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we try to put away current Global Tectonic Model to look the tectonic evolution of the earth from new point of view. Our new dynamic model is based on study of river meandering (RM) which infer new concept as Earth meandering(EM). In a universal gravitational field if we consider a clockwise spiral galaxy model rotate above Ninety East Ridge (geotectonic axis GA), this system with applying torsion field (likes geomagnetic field) in side direction from Rocky Mt. (west geotectonic pole WGP) to Tibetan plateau TP (east geotectonic pole EGP),it seems that pulled mass from WGP and pushed it in EGP due to it's rolling dynamics. According to this idea we see in topographic map that North America and Green land like a tongue pulled from Pacific mouth toward TP. Actually this system rolled or meander the earth over itself fractaly from small scale to big scale and what we see in the river meandering and Earth meandering are two faces of one coin. River transport water and sediments from high elevation to lower elevation and also in EM, mass transport from high altitude-Rocky Mt. to lower altitude Himalaya Mt. along 'S' shape geodetic line-optimum path which connect points from high altitude to lower altitude as kind of Euler Elastica(EE). These curves are responsible for mass spreading (source) and mass concentration (sink). In this regard, tiltness of earth spin axis plays an important role, 'S' are part of sigmoidal shape which formed due to intersection of Earth rolling with the Earth glob and actual feature of transform fault and river meandering. Longitudinal profile in mature rivers as a part of 'S' curve also is a kind of EE. 'S' which bound the whole earth is named S-1(S order 1) and cube corresponding to this which represent Earth fracturing in global scale named C-1(cube order 1 or side vergence cube SVC), C-1 is a biggest cycle of spiral polygon, so it is not completely closed and it has separation about diameter of C-7. Inside SVC we introduce cone vergence cube (CVC or geotectonic equator GE) which rotate 45 degree counterclockwise with respect to SVC. Every cube from big scale to small scale fractalize in order of 23 and every '8' shape from big scale to small scale also fractalize in the same order. Three dimensional and fractoscopic imagination about understanding the changing on earth is very important so we should imagine '8' as curved surface, sea floor spreading happened in maximum curvature of these surfaces. '8' formed from pair 'S' string with opposite direction. '8' oscillate in Pole-Pole and Side-Side direction and have saddle geometry with two 'U' path along perpendicular saddle (e.g. Lut/Jazmurian and Helmand/Mashkal basin in Iran actually intersection of this saddle shape with the earth surface and Iceland /Black Sea and CapeVerde/Victoria Lake are also In/Out (small scale polygon) of 'U' shape conduit which followed axial saddle of Side-'S-2' and Okhotsk Sea /Balkhash Lake followed axial saddle conduit of Pole-'S-2' actually intersection of this perpendicular conduit with surface make spot-like-lakes/volcanoes or basin. Global EM in Side-S-1 bounded compression region-TP inside and tension region-East African Rift offside).This is a interesting competing between two kinematic geometry - spherical and isometrical geometry by using the interaction of them we can analyze the earth face in past, present and future apart of the forces that cause this face. C-1 in two dimensional look like six sided big tent which speared over Tibet and main rod driven along GA. Pair S-1 curve. have seven component(fold) and six segment in between,S-7 exactly located on TP(center of S-1). Between two successive fold we have complex geology(e.g. eastern Iran and Afghanistan)mass dragged from North America and Siberian and accumulated gradually during six step in Earth Foundation(Tibet),S-7 bounded Takla Makan Desert (in smaller loop) and TP (in bigger loop) S-7 alter the earth balance and responsible for earth disturbing, another sample of 'S' curve we see around Australia and Kermadec/Tonga Trench, Aleutian ri

Asadiyan, H.; Zamani, A.

2009-04-01

229

Scorched Earth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|For the past three years, leading scientists from more than 40 countries have been conducting a physical of the planet. They have monitored its vital signs, probed its parts, taken its temperature, measured its bodily fluids. This article deals with the global-warming report for the United Nations released by a panel of 1,200 scientists at a news…

Monastersky, Richard

2007-01-01

230

Perirenal hemorrhage syndrome in market turkey toms: effect of management factors.  

PubMed

Differences in the overall mortality rates and mortality due to perirenal hemorrhage syndrome (PHS) were compared in large white Nicholas tom turkeys. The study evaluated the effects of 1) four different light and temperature treatments; 2) three feed additives proposed to have anti-stress effects (reserpine, acetylsalicylic acid, and increased calcium); 3) toe-clipping on mortality, various disease conditions, and production parameters. Mortality varied from 0.60% to 3.57% among groups. Increased room temperature (21 C), toe-clipping, step-up/step-down lighting, and dietary reserpine reduced the incidence of PHS as compared with lower room temperature (13 C), no toe-clipping, intermittent lighting (2 hours light, 4 hours dark), and no dietary reserpine. Dietary aspirin or elevated calcium levels had no effect on PHS incidence. Overall mortality was greatest in the warmer rooms. PMID:2282013

Frank, R K; Noll, S L; el Halawani, M; Newman, J A; Halvorson, D A; Ruth, G R

231

Ground-based assessment of Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) data for dust transport over the northeastern Mediterranean  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiyear daily surface aerosol aluminum (Al) concentration and sunphotometer measurements at Erdemli (Turkey) sampling station were used to assess the performance of Absorbing Aerosol Index (AAI) and Aerosol Optical Thickness (AOT) retrieved from the daily Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) over the northeastern Mediterranean. A total of 98 moderate-to-high intensity dust events with durations from 1 day to 1 week

Nilgün Kubilay; Temel Oguz; Mustafa Koçak; Omar Torres

2005-01-01

232

Growing Up Through the Ages: Autonomy and Socialization in Tom Jones, Great Expecta- tions, and I Am Charlotte Simmons  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines three novels over a two and a half century period —Tom Jones, Great Expectations, and I Am Charlotte Simmons—from the time when the Bildungsroman was just being explored to the present when some are arguing that the form is dead. We shall argue rather that the genre necessarily changes as concomitant ideas change, in particular, the evolving

Robert Scott Stewart; Michael Manson

233

Profiles in Online Learning: A Series on Leadership--Tom Layton: Judo and the Art of Technology Innovation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Profiles a high school technology teacher and creator of CyberSchool, a distance learning program of the Eugene (Oregon) School District. Discusses Tom Layton's education, early work experience, establishment of a high school English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) program, integration of computers into the classroom, reputation as a technology…

Danielson, Larry

1998-01-01

234

Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) observations of increases in Asian aerosol in winter from 1979 to 2000  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emission inventories indicate that the largest increases in SO emissions have occurred in Asia during the last 20 years. By inference, largest increases in aerosol, produced primarily by the conversion of SO to sulfate, should have occurred in Asia during the same time period. Decadal changes in regional aerosol optical depths are calculated by analyzing Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS)

Steven T. Massie; Omar Torres; Steven J. Smith

2004-01-01

235

Breathing Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Visual simulation and representation programs and applications have been popping up online in greater numbers, and this recent find is one that will pique the interest of scientists, policy makers, and others who are concerned about carbon dioxide emission rates across the Earth. The Breathing Earth site was created by David Bleja, and he draws on a number of resources (such as the World Factbook and the United Nations) for the data that is utilized to create this site. Visitors can scroll over different countries to learn about their population, their emissions, and their birth and death rate. This interactive map and educational resource also contains a legend in the right-hand corner which explains the various symbols in use here.

Bleja, David

236

Earth Math  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This text explores a few of the many concepts that frequently come up in the study of Earth systems and global climate change. Students will be exposed to many problems involving unit conversion. Global climate change reports involve terms such as kilowatt-hour, megawatt-hour, and gigawatt-hour, as well as megatons and gigatons. Students will become versed in converting units where appropriate, and through the calculations, will work with the concept of significant figures. Creating linear equations from graphical and tabular information is covered, as well as forecasting. The text is meant to be used as a companion to standard Earth science and mathematics courses, and presents enough application problems to allow students to quantitatively understand typical media reports about global climate change.

2009-01-01

237

Earth Institute  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The mission of the Earth Institute at Columbia University is to help the world achieve sustainability by expanding understanding of the Earth as one integrated system. Through research, education, and the practical application of research to real-world challenges, the Institute addresses nine interconnected global issues: climate and society, water, energy, poverty, ecosystems, public health, food and nutrition, and hazards and urbanization. The Institute's site offers a collection of videotaped events, including the biannual "State of the Planet" conferences, 2002-08, a Distinguished Lecture series, and the Sustainable Development seminar series, as well as e-seminars and e-briefings, information about funding opportunities, and information about educational opportunities at Columbia.

238

Earth Lab  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Earth Lab is a database of fossils, minerals and rocks from the UK. A photograph is displayed for each specimen selected, as well as the scientific name, location and properties or age of the specimen. The fossils can be searched by area, age, and group; minerals by area, element, group, and property; and rocks by area, geological age, and type of rock. A series of questions allows users to identify their own specimens.

239

Earth Rocks!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of this lesson is to introduce students to the basic elements of our Earth's crust: rocks, soils and minerals. They learn how we categorize rocks, soils and minerals and how they are literally the foundation for our civilization. Students also explore how engineers use rocks, soils and minerals to create the buildings, roads, vehicles, electronics, chemicals, and other objects we use to enhance our lives.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

240

Arctic oscillation and the interannual variability of dust emissions from the Tarim Basin: a TOMS AI based study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper examines the teleconnection between the Arctic Oscillation Index (AO) and dust activities in the Tarim Basin [in terms of the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) Aerosol Index (AI) level]. In this study, High Dust Active years (H) and Low Dust Active years (L) in terms of dust loading are identified. Composites of geopotential height at both 850 and 500 hPa level show that, the geopotential height level of H years is generally lower than the average, especially over the south end of the Central Siberian Plateau. The geopotential height level of L years is generally higher than the average, especially over the same region of Siberia. By correlating the AO and TOMS AI with geopotential height at different pressure levels, a South Siberia Geopotential Height Index (SSGI) is constructed. A strong positive correlation is found between AO and SSGI. Strong negative correlations are found between TOMS AI and AO, and between TOMS AI and SSGI. Through investigating the relation among these three measures (TOMS AI, AO and SSGI), we found that in the positive phase of AO, geopotential gradient between the inside and outside of the basin is small. The northerly wind from Siberia is weak and decreases when it encounters the north barrier of the basin. As a result, dust activities in the Tarim Basin is weak and Eddy Kinetic Energy (EKE) level measured in the basin is lower. In the negative phase of AO, geopotential gradient between the inside and outside of the basin is big. The northerly wind from Siberia is strong, and passes the north barrier of the basin. When it encounters the Tibetan Plateau, a component of the wind goes into the basin. During this process, the wind accelerates given the higher pressure gradient. As a result, dust activities in the Tarim Basin are frequent and intensive, and the EKE level in the basin is higher.

Gao, Hang; Washington, Richard

2010-08-01

241

Intraoperative probes and imaging probes  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Intraoperative probes have been employed to assist in the detection and removal of tumors for more than 50 years. For a period\\u000a of about 40 years, essentially every detector type that could be miniaturized had been tested or at least suggested for use\\u000a as an intraoperative probe. These detectors included basic Geiger-Müller (GM) tubes, scintillation detectors, and even state-of-the-art

Edward J. Hoffman; Martin P. Tornai; Martin Janecek; Bradley E. Patt; Jan S. Iwanczyk

1999-01-01

242

Development and evaluation of monoclonal antibodies as probes to assess the differences between two tomato pectin methylesterase isoenzymes.  

PubMed

The enzyme pectin methylesterase (PME) was purified from red ripe tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum) and through affinity chromatography two isoenzymes were fractionated (t1PME and t2PME). Further analysis of these two isoenzymes, both having a molar mass of 34.5kDa, revealed a difference in the N-terminal sequence and in amino acid composition. t1PME was identified as the major isoenzyme of PME in tomato fruit. In this study the aim was to develop a toolbox, consisting of monoclonal antibodies, that allows to gain insight into the in situ localization of PME in plant based food systems like tomatoes. A panel of six interesting monoclonal antibodies was raised against both isoenzymes, designated MA-TOM1-12E11, MA-TOM1-41B2, MA-TOM2-9H8, MA-TOM2-20G7, MA-TOM2-31H1 and MA-TOM2-38A11. The differences in epitopes between these monoclonal antibodies were determined using affinity tests towards denatured PME, cross-reactivity tests and inhibition tests. Characterization of these antibodies indicated an immunological difference between t1PME and t2PME, also revealing a conserved epitope on t2PME, carrot PME and strawberry PME. Different epitopes are recognized by the generated antibodies making them excellent probes for immunolocalization of PME by tissue printing. In tomato, t1PME and t2PME showed a pronounced co-localization, especially in the pericarp and the radial arms of the pericarp. Three of the generated antibodies could be used for immunolocalization of PME in carrots (Daucus carota L.), which was only present in the cortex and not in the vascular cylinder of carrots. PMID:19686752

Vandevenne, Evelien; Van Buggenhout, Sandy; Duvetter, Thomas; Brouwers, Els; Declerck, Paul J; Hendrickx, Marc E; Van Loey, Ann; Gils, Ann

2009-08-15

243

Tracking the unfolding pathway of a multirepeat protein via tryptophan scanning: evidence of localized instability in the mitochondrial import receptor Tom70.  

PubMed

The tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) is a degenerate 34-amino acid repeating motif that forms a repeating helix-turn-helix structure and is a well characterized mediator of protein-protein interactions. Recently, a biophysical investigation on one naturally occurring TPR protein, Tom70, found that the mitochondrial receptor displayed an unusual three-state unfolding pathway, distinct from the two-state model usually displayed by TPR proteins. To investigate this unusual behavior, we undertook a tryptophan-scanning analysis of Tom70, where both native and engineered tryptophan residues are used as fluorescent reporters to monitor the range of local and global unfolding events that comprise the unfolding pathway of Tom70. Specifically, seven Tom70 variants were constructed, each with a single tryptophan residue in each of the seven TPR repeats of Tom70. By combining equilibrium and kinetic fluorescent unfolding assays, with circular dichroism experiments, our study reveals that the unusual folding pathway of Tom70 is a consequence of the unfolding of two separate, autonomous TPR arrays, with the less stable region appearing to account for the low structural stability of Tom70. PMID:16803880

Bushell, Simon R; Bottomley, Stephen P; Rossjohn, Jamie; Beddoe, Travis

2006-06-27

244

Genes encoding ribosomal proteins Rps0A/B of Saccharomyces cerevisiae interact with TOM1 mutants defective in ribosome synthesis.  

PubMed Central

The Saccharomyces cerevisiae RPS0A/B genes encode proteins of the 40S ribosomal subunit that are required for the maturation of 18S rRNA. We show here that the RPS0 genes interact genetically with TOM1. TOM1 encodes a member of the hect-domain-containing E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase family that is required for growth at elevated temperatures. Mutant alleles of the RPS0 and TOM1 genes have synergistic effects on cell growth at temperatures permissive for TOM1 mutants. Moreover, the growth arrest of TOM1 mutants at elevated temperatures is partially suppressed by overexpression of RPS0A/B. Strains with mutant alleles of TOM1 are defective in multiple steps in rRNA processing, and interactions between RPS0A/B and TOM1 stem, in part, from their roles in the maturation of ribosomal subunits. Ribosome synthesis is therefore included among the cellular processes governed by members of the hect-domain-containing E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase family.

Tabb, A L; Utsugi, T; Wooten-Kee, C R; Sasaki, T; Edling, S A; Gump, W; Kikuchi, Y; Ellis, S R

2001-01-01

245

Earth Structure: Layers of the Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive Flash allows users to explore Earth's structure and processes that occur on Earth such as earthquakes and plate tectonics and how scientists know the composition and state of the Earth's layers. Interactive diagrams and animations with supplementary information make this a helpful overview or review for high school and undergraduate introductory-level courses in physical geology and Earth sciences.

Smoothstone; Mifflin, Houghton

246

Earth Gauge  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Earth Gauge is a free environmental information service for broadcast meteorologists in major U.S. media markets, based on the 3-5 day forecast. The service is designed to make it easy to talk about the links between weather and the environment on-air with simple "factoids" and viewer action tips. Teachers or students can browse an index of weather conditions, environmental impacts, and viewer action tips for many locations, organized by city, weather type, or environmental topic. There are also links to additional resources, including fact sheets and special features, imagery, video clips, and others.

247

Great SEP events and space weather, 5. Expected radiation hazard for space probes in space at different distances from the Sun, for satellites in the Earth's magnetosphere at different orbits, for airplanes at different air-lines, and on the ground in dependence of altitude and cutoff rigidity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In report Applbaum et al. (2010) was described how works automatically the program allowed by using one minute data of NM and satellite data for different moments of time to determine time of ejection, diffusion coefficient in the interplanetary space and energy spectrum in source of SEP . These results were obtained for extended interval of solar CR energy, to which are sensitive NM and satellites. Then obtained results we use in equation, described SEP propagation in space, and by using method of coupling functions determine the expected radiation hazard for space probes in space at different distances from the Sun, for satellites in the Earth's magnetosphere at different orbits, for airplanes at different air-lines, and on the ground in dependence of altitude and cutoff rigidity. REFERENCES: Applbaum et al., "Great SEP events and space weather, 4. Simultaneously using of NM and satellite one minute data", Report on COSPAR 2010, Event PSW-1.

Dorman, Lev; Applbaum, David; Pustil'Nik, Lev; Sternlieb, Abraham; Zagnetko, Alexander; Zukerman, Igor

248

Pollution Probe.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This book is written as a statement of concern about pollution by members of Pollution Probe, a citizens' anti-pollution group in Canada. Its purpose is to create public awareness and pressure for the eventual solution to pollution problems. The need for effective government policies to control the population explosion, conserve natural…

Chant, Donald A.

249

Imaging the Earth's Interior: the Angular Distribution of Terrestrial Neutrinos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Decays of radionuclides throughout the earth's interior produce geothermal heat, but also are a source of antineutrinos; these geoneutrinos are now becoming observable in experiments such as KamLAND. The (angle-integrated) geoneutrino flux has been shown to provide a unique probe of geothermal heating due to decays, and an integral constraint on the distribution of radionuclides in the earth. In this

Brian D. Fields; Kathrin A. Hochmuth

2006-01-01

250

Interview with Tom Peters. Father of post-modern corporation speaks out. Interview by Richard D. Brennan, Jr.  

PubMed

Tom Peters has been selected as the opening Keynote speaker at the National Association for Home Care and Hospice's Annual Meeting in Seattle, Washington on October 23-26, 2005. Peters has been described by the Los Angeles Times as the "father of the post-modern corporation." The New Yorker said, "In no small part, what American corporations have become is what Peters has encouraged them to be." Fortune called Tom Peters the top guru of management, and compares him to Ralph Waldo Emerson, Henry David Thoreau, Walt Whitman, and H.L. Mencken. The Economist tagged him the Uber-guru; and BusinessWeek's take on his "unconventional views" led them to label him "business's best friend and worst nightmare." PMID:16035269

Peters, Tom

2005-06-01

251

Earth's Oceans  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource guide from the Middle School Portal 2 project, written specifically for teachers, provides links to exemplary resources including background information, lessons, career information, and related national science education standards. This guide focuses on the oceans as a part of the Earth system: the link between oceans and climate; tsunamis; life science concepts such as ocean ecosystems, food webs, and biodiversity; real data â both sources of and projects that use real data; and related careers. There is also a section on the misconceptions commonly surrounding ocean concepts and finally the National Science Education Standards that these resource connect to. So even though you might not teach a unit called oceans, the oceans can be used as a context within an existing unit, such as ecosystems, energy transfer, systems thinking, or methods in science.

Lightle, Kimberly; Fries-Gaither, Jessica

2009-10-01

252

From frozen Super Earth to habitable Earth via microlensing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the last fifteen years, astronomers have found over 415 exoplanets including some in systems that resemble our very own solar system. These discoveries have already challenged and revolutionized our theories of planet formation and dynamical evolution. Several different methods have been used to discover exoplanets, including radial velocity, stellar transits, direct imaging, pulsar timing, astrometry, and gravitational microlensing which is based on Einstein's theory of general relativity. So far 10 exoplanets have been published with this method. While this number is relatively modest compared with that discovered by the radial velocity method, microlensing probes a part of the parameter space (host separation vs. planet mass) not accessible in the medium term to other methods. The mass distribution of microlensing exoplanets has already revealed that cold super-Earths (at or beyond the "snow line" and with a mass of around 5 to 15 Earth mass appear to be common (Beaulieu et al., 2006, Gould et al., 2006, Sumi et al. 2010) . We detected a scale 1/2 model of our solar system (Gaudi et al., 2008), several hot Neptunes/Super Earth, shown that our detection efficiencies extends to 1 Earth mass planets (Batista et al., 2009). We have made the first measurement of the frequency of ice and gas giants beyond the snow line, and have shown that this is about 7 times higher than closer-in systems probed by the Doppler method (Gould et al. 2010). This comparison provides strong evidence that most giant planets do not migrate very far (Gould et al. 2010). Microlensing is currently capable of detecting cool planets of super-Earth mass from the ground (and on favourable circumstances down to 1 Earth), with a network of wide-field telescopes strategically located around the world, could routinely detect planets with mass as low as the Earth. I will stress the importance of high angular resolution using adaptive optics on 8m class telescopes during microlensing events in order to nail down the physical parameters of the star and planet systems to 10%.

Beaulieu, J.-P.; Fouqué, P.; Batista, V.; Cassan, A.; Coutures, C.; Kubas, D.; Marquette, J.-B.

2010-10-01

253

Toms Creek IGCC Demonstration Project. Comprehensive report to Congress, Clean coal technology program  

SciTech Connect

In response to the PON, 33 proposals were received by DOE in May 1991. One of the nine is a project proposed by Tampella Power Corporation (Tampella) and Coastal Power Production Company (Coastal) for the design, construction, and operation of a pressurized, air-blown, fluidized-bed, integrated gasification, combined-cycle, (IGCC) demonstration project. The project, entitled the Toms Creek IGCC Demonstration Project, will consume 430 tons per day of bituminous coal and generate 55 megawatts (MK) of power for the electric grid and steam for use in a nearby coal preparation plant. The project site is located near Coeburn in Wise County, Virginia. The project, including the demonstration phase, will last 99 months at a total cost of $196,570,000. DOE`S share of the project cost will be 48.3%, or $95,000,000. The objective of the proposed project is to demonstrate an advanced IGCC system based upon the air-blown, pressurized fluidized-bed U-Gas gasifier developed by the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) with in-bed desulfurization using a calcium-based sorbent and an external zinc titanate sulfur removal system.

Not Available

1992-09-01

254

Ancient impact structures on modern continental shelves: The Chesapeake Bay, Montagnais, and Toms Canyon craters, Atlantic margin of North America  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three ancient impact craters (Chesapeake Bay—35.7Ma; Toms Canyon—35.7Ma; Montagnais—51Ma) and one multiring impact basin (Chicxulub—65Ma) are currently known to be buried beneath modern continental shelves. All occur on the passive Atlantic margin of North America in regions extensively explored by seismic reflection surveys in the search for oil and gas reserves. We limit our discussion herein to the three youngest

C. Wylie Poag; Jeffrey B Plescia; Phillip C Molzer

2002-01-01

255

Public health partnerships addressing childhood cancer investigations: case study of Toms River, Dover Township, New Jersey, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Toms River, located in Dover Township, Ocean County, New Jersey, USA, experienced an increased incidence in childhood leukemia, brain, and central nervous system cancers from the mid-1980s through the early 1990s. These findings initiated a series of community-based activities that lead to the establishment of a successful partnership between the community, public health, and environmental agencies. The common goal of

Morris L. Maslia; Juan J. Reyes; Richard E. Gillig; Jason B. Sautner; Jerald A. Fagliano; Mustafa M. Aral

2005-01-01

256

Peptide Library Approach with a Disulfide Tether to Refine the Tom20 Recognition Motif in Mitochondrial Presequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many mitochondrial matrix and inner-membrane proteins are synthesized in the cytosol as precursor proteins with an N-terminal presequence, and are imported into the mitochondria. Although no distinct sequence homology has been found among mitochondrial presequences, Tom20, a general import receptor in the outer mitohcondrial membrane, binds to presequences, and distinguishes mitochondrial proteins from non-mitochonrial proteins. The recently determined structure of

Takayuki Obita; Takanori Muto; Toshiya Endo; Daisuke Kohda

2003-01-01

257

TOMS ozone data compared at mesoscale resolution to tropopause heights from the AVE radiosonde network and to VAS radiances over the south-central United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observations from 1982 are being compared between the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS), the Atmospheric Variability Experiment (AVE), and the VISSR Atmospheric Sounder (VAS) across Texas and Oklahoma. TOMS data show a significant ozone maximum over northeastern Texas. AVE radiosonde analysis shows tropopause heights with the highest pressure (lowest altitudes) over central Oklahoma accompanied by a mid-level jet across northern Mexico exiting above the Texas-Gulf coast. Corresponding VAS radiances show a dry slot in the middle tropopause across central Texas accompanied by a secondary slot over Oklahoma. The maxima are separated by 100 to 500 km. The impact of TOMS data on tropopause analysis is preliminarily seen as insignificant because TOMS data is not registered with respect to AVE tropopause heights.

Chesters, Dennis; Uccellini, Louis; Larko, David

1987-12-01

258

The Huygens Probe System Design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Huygens Probe is the ESA-provided element of the joint NASA/ESA Cassini/Huygens mission to Saturn and its largest moon Titan. Huygens is an entry probe designed to enter Titan's atmosphere and descend under parachute down to the surface. The Probe is carried to Titan on board the Cassini Saturn Orbiter. Huygens is dormant for 7.2 years, during the interplanetary journey and during the first 6 months around Saturn. It is activated about every 6 months for an in-flight checkout to verify and monitor its health and to perform a periodic maintenance and calibration of the payload instruments. The Probe will be targeted to Titan and released from the Orbiter about 3 weeks before the Titan encounter on the third Orbit around Saturn. During the 3-week coast phase the Probe is ‘OFF’, except a timer unit that has the task to awaken Huygens before it enters Titan's atmosphere. The Probe's aeroshell will decelerate it in less than 2 minutes from the entry speed of about 6 km s-1 to 400 m s-1 (Mach 1.5) at an altitude of 150 180 km. From that point onwards, a pre-programmed sequence will trigger the parachute deployment and the heat-shield ejection. The main part of the scientific mission will then start, lasting for a descent of 2 21/2 hours. The Orbiter will listen to the Probe for a total duration of at least 3 hours, which includes time to receive data from the surface, should the Probe continue to transmit data after touchdown. Huygens' transmissions are received and stored aboard the Orbiter for later retransmission to the Earth. This paper presents a technical description of the elements of the Huygens Probe System. The reader is invited to refer to the companion paper (Lebreton and Matson, 2002) for further background information about the Huygens mission, and the payload. The early in-flight performance of the Probe is briefly discussed. During in-flight testing in 2000, a technical anomaly was found with the Probe-to-Orbiter telecommunication system that required a change in the Huygens mission scenario designed before launch. It required also a change in the Orbiter trajectory during the Probe mission. This change was achieved by modifying the initial Cassini/Huygens orbits around Saturn. At the time of writing, details of the implementation of the revised Huygens mission scenario are still being worked.

Clausen, K. C.; Hassan, H.; Verdant, M.; Couzin, P.; Huttin, G.; Brisson, M.; Sollazzo, C.; Lebreton, J.-P.

2002-07-01

259

Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) observations of increases in Asian aerosol in winter from 1979 to 2000  

SciTech Connect

Emission inventories indicate that the largest increases in SO{sub 2} emissions have occurred in Asia during the last 20 years. By inference, largest increases in aerosol, produced primarily by the conversion of SO{sub 2} to sulfate, should have occurred in Asia during the same time period. Decadal changes in regional aerosol optical depths are calculated by analyzing Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) vertical aerosol optical depths (converted to 550 nm) from 1979 to 2000 on a 1{sup o} by 1{sup o} global grid. The anthropogenic component of the TOMS aerosol record is maximized by examining the seasonal cycles of desert dust and Boreal fire smoke, and identifying the months of the year for which the desert dust and Boreal fire smoke are least conspicuous. Gobi and Taklimakan desert dust in Asia is prevalent in the TOMS record during spring, and eastern Siberian smoke from Boreal forest fires is prevalent during summer. Aerosol trends are calculated on a regional basis during winter (November-February) to maximize the anthropogenic component of the aerosol record. Large increases in aerosol optical depths between 1979 and 2000 are present over the China coastal plain and the Ganges river basin in India. Aerosol increased by 17% per decade during winter over the China coastal plain, while SO{sub 2} emissions over the same geographical region increased by 33% per decade.

Massie, Steven T.; Torres, O.; Smith, Steven J.

2004-12-01

260

Magnetoptical Probes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The necessity of probe validation of widely used iron oxide particles in molecular magnetic resonance imaging (mMRI) has called\\u000a for a growing demand for simple detection and quantification methods in vitro and ex vivo. A simple option to adapt these\\u000a particles to standard methods of biological research such as microscopy and flow cytometry is the conjugation of fluorescent\\u000a dyes. With

Eyk Schellenberger

261

Earth's Vital Signs  

NASA Website

NASA launched the Earth Observing System's flagship satellite "Terra," named for Earth, on December 18, 1999. Terra has been collecting data about Earth's changing climate. On February 24, 2000, sensors on NASA's Terra ...

262

Solar System: The Earth in Space  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Science Object is the first of four Science Objects in the Solar System SciPack. It provides an understanding of where Earth is located in space and explores evidence used by astronomers to place Earth at this location. Earth is a relatively small planet and the third from the Sun in our solar system. The Sun is the central and largest body in the solar system. Our still-growing knowledge of the solar system comes to us in part by direct observation from Earth, including the use of optical, radio, and x-ray telescopes that are sensitive to a broad spectrum of information coming to us from space; computers that can undertake increasingly complicated calculations, find patterns in data, and support or reject theories about the origins of the solar system; and space probes that send back detailed pictures and other data from distant planets. Learning Outcomes:� Explain that we discovered and learn about the other planets through the use of various kinds of telescopes, space probes, and other technologies.� Relate observations of the motion of objects in the sky to a Sun-centric model of the solar system, including observations of the "wandering" stars (planets) from Earth's frame of reference.� Recognize that Earth is one of the planets in the solar system, that it orbits the Sun just as the other planets do.

National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

2006-11-01

263

Dr. Tom Chalmers, 1917-1995: the tribulations of a trialist. Interview by Malcolm Maclure.  

PubMed Central

This article is the second part of an interview Dr. Malcolm Maclure had with Dr. Thomas Chalmers shortly before Chalmers' death late in 1995. It probes his role as a champion of randomized clinical trials.

Chalmers, T C

1996-01-01

264

Exploring Magnetism on Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This teacher's guide contains four lessons that provide a way for teachers to introduce students to and elaborate on Earth's changing magnetic field. It covers learning to navigate using Earth's magnetic field and compass, Earth's magnetic pole and its motion across Earth's surface, magnetic reversals on Earth, and Earth's currently declining magnetic field. These lessons have been taught primarily in math, geology, and astronomy classes.

2005-01-01

265

Ancient impact structures on modern continental shelves: The Chesapeake Bay, Montagnais, and Toms Canyon craters, Atlantic margin of North America  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Three ancient impact craters (Chesapeake Bay - 35.7 Ma; Toms Canyon - 35.7 Ma; Montagnais - 51 Ma) and one multiring impact basin (Chicxulub - 65 Ma) are currently known to be buried beneath modern continental shelves. All occur on the passive Atlantic margin of North America in regions extensively explored by seismic reflection surveys in the search for oil and gas reserves. We limit our discussion herein to the three youngest structures. These craters were created by submarine impacts, which produced many structural and morphological features similar in construction, composition, and variability to those documented in well-preserved subaerial and planetary impact craters. The subcircular Chesapeake Bay (diameter 85 km) and ovate Montagnais (diameter 45-50 km) structures display outer-rim scarps, annular troughs, peak rings, inner basins, and central peaks similar to those incorporated in the widely cited conceptual model of complex impact craters. These craters differ in several respects from the model, however. For example, the Montagnais crater lacks a raised lip on the outer rim, the Chesapeake Bay crater displays only small remnants of a raised lip, and both craters contain an unusually thick body of impact breccia. The subtriangular Toms Canyon crater (diameter 20-22 km), on the other hand, contains none of the internal features of a complex crater, nor is it typical of a simple crater. It displays a prominent raised lip on the outer rim, but the lip is present only on the western side of the crater. In addition, each of these craters contains some distinct features, which are not present in one or both of the others. For example, the central peak at Montagnais rises well above the elevation of the outer rim, whereas at Chesapeake Bay, the outer rim is higher than the central peak. The floor of the Toms Canyon crater is marked by parallel deep troughs and linear ridges formed of sedimentary rocks, whereas at Chesapeake Bay, the crater floor contains concentric faults and compression ridges formed in rocks of the crystalline basement. The Chesapeake Bay crater is distinguished further by its cluster of at least 23 adjacent secondary craters. The North American tektite strewn field, a widespread deposit of distal ejecta, is thought to be derived from the Chesapeake Bay impact, perhaps with a small contribution from the Toms Canyon impact. No ejecta field is known to be associated with the Montagnais impact. No immediate major extinction event is directly linked to any of these three impacts. There is evidence, however, that the Chesapeake Bay and Toms Canyon impacts helped initiate a long-term pulse of warm global climate, whose eventual dissipation coincided with an early Oligocene mass extinction event, 2 Ma after the impacts.

Poag, C. Wylie; Plescia, J. B.; Molzer, P. C.

2002-01-01

266

Ka band TWTA for space probes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thales electron devices has many years of experience in the manufacture of traveling wave tube amplifiers (TWTA) for space probes, which must send large quantities of data back to Earth. The application of TWTA have traditionally used the X band, around 8 GHz, with RF power ranging from 20 to 40 watts. However, the upcoming generation of spacecraft will also

F. Andre; A. Gallien; P. Boone

2003-01-01

267

Academic Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Academic Earth provides videos of lectures by top scholars in "Subjects" that range from Astronomy to Entrepreneurship to Religion, from "Universities" as celebrated as MIT, Berkeley, Harvard, and Stanford. Visitors must register to view the lectures, but registration is free. There are over 1500 video lectures available, with more being added everyday. In addition to viewing the lectures available by subject or university, visitors can choose by "Instructors" or by "Playlists". When visitors click on "Playlists" at the top of the homepage, they will see a list of lectures by theme, by several different instructors, and a grade given to the lecture series. A good example is the 6-part lecture entitled "Understanding the Financial Crisis" by four different instructors. The series is given a grade overall, in this case, an A-, and when visitors click on "See all 6 lectures" at the bottom of the series' description, they will be taken to the page with the links to the individual lectures, as well as shown the grade given each individual lecture. Visitors can even keep a playlist of their favorite lectures or download the lectures. Visitors should definitely check out the Frequently Asked Questions page, accessible by the "FAQ" link at the bottom of the website.

2009-06-09

268

Academic Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Academic Earth provides videos of lectures by top scholars in "Subjects" that range from Astronomy to Entrepreneurship to Religion, from "Universities" as celebrated as MIT, Berkeley, Harvard, and Stanford. Visitors must register to view the lectures, but registration is free. There are over 1500 video lectures available, with more being added everyday. In addition to viewing the lectures available by subject or university, visitors can choose by "Instructors" or by "Playlists". When visitors click on "Playlists" at the top of the homepage, they will see a list of lectures by theme, by several different instructors, and a grade given to the lecture series. A good example is the 6-part lecture entitled "Understanding the Financial Crisis" by four different instructors. The series is given a grade overall, in this case, an A-, and when visitors click on "See all 6 lectures" at the bottom of the series' description, they will be taken to the page with the links to the individual lectures, as well as shown the grade given each individual lecture. Visitors can even keep a playlist of their favorite lectures or download the lectures. Visitors should definitely check out the Frequently Asked Questions page, accessible by the "FAQ" link at the bottom of the website.

269

A New Method to Cross Calibrate and Validate TOMS, SBUV/2, and SCIAMACHY Measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A unique method to validate back scattered ultraviolet (buv) type satellite data that complements the measurements from existing ground networks is proposed. The method involves comparing the zenith sky radiance measurements from the ground to the nadir radiance measurements taken from space. Since the measurements are compared directly, the proposed method is superior to any other method that involves comparing derived products (for example, ozone), because comparison of derived products involve inversion algorithms which are susceptible to several type of errors. Forward radiative transfer (RT) calculations show that for an aerosol free atmosphere, the ground-based zenith sky radiance measurement and the satellite nadir radiance measurements can be predicted with an accuracy of better than 1 percent. The RT computations also show that for certain values of the solar zenith angles, the radiance comparisons could be better than half a percent. This accuracy is practically independent of ozone amount and aerosols in the atmosphere. Experiences with the Shuttle Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet (SSBUV) program show that the accuracy of the ground-based zenith sky radiance measuring instrument can be maintained at a level of a few tenth of a percent. This implies that the zenith sky radiance measurements can be used to validate Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS), Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet (SBUV/2), and The SCanning Imaging Absorption SpectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY (SCIAMACHY) radiance data. Also, this method will help improve the long term precision of the measurements for better trend detection and the accuracy of other BUV products such as tropospheric ozone and aerosols. Finally, in the long term, this method is a good candidate to inter-calibrate and validate long term observations of upcoming operational instruments such as Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME-2), Ozone Mapping Instrument (OMI), Ozone Dynamics Ultraviolet Spectrometer (ODUS), and Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite (OMPS).

Ahmad, Z.; Hilsenrath, E.

2001-05-01

270

TOMATOMA: a novel tomato mutant database distributing Micro-Tom mutant collections.  

PubMed

The tomato is an excellent model for studies of plants bearing berry-type fruits and for experimental studies of the Solanaceae family of plants due to its conserved genetic organization. In this study, a comprehensive mutant tomato population was generated in the background of Micro-Tom, a dwarf, rapid-growth variety. In this and previous studies, a family including 8,598 and 6,422 M(2) mutagenized lines was produced by ethylmethane sulfonate (EMS) mutagenesis and ?-ray irradiation, and this study developed and investigated these M(2) plants for alteration of visible phenotypes. A total of 9,183 independent M(2) families comprising 91,830 M(2) plants were inspected for phenotypic alteration, and 1,048 individual mutants were isolated. Subsequently, the observed mutant phenotypes were classified into 15 major categories and 48 subcategories. Overall, 1,819 phenotypic categories were found in 1,048 mutants. Of these mutants, 549 were pleiotropic, whereas 499 were non-pleiotropic. Multiple different mutant alleles per locus were found in the mutant libraries, suggesting that the mutagenized populations were nearly saturated. Additionally, genetic analysis of backcrosses indicated the successful inheritance of the mutations in BC(1)F(2) populations, confirming the reproducibility in the morphological phenotyping of the M(2) plants. To integrate and manage the visible phenotypes of mutants and other associated data, we developed the in silico database TOMATOMA, a relational system interfacing modules between mutant line names and phenotypic categories. TOMATOMA is a freely accessible database, and these mutant recourses are available through the TOMATOMA (http://tomatoma.nbrp.jp/index.jsp). PMID:21258066

Saito, Takeshi; Ariizumi, Tohru; Okabe, Yoshihiro; Asamizu, Erika; Hiwasa-Tanase, Kyoko; Fukuda, Naoya; Mizoguchi, Tsuyoshi; Yamazaki, Yukiko; Aoki, Koh; Ezura, Hiroshi

2011-01-21

271

Lower-Tropospheric Ozone (LTO) derived from TOMS near mountainous regions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) version-7 level-2 clear-sky (reflectivity ? 20%) ozone measurements corrected for aerosol effects and sea-glint errors, we derived Lower Tropospheric Ozone (LTO) west and east of the Andes, the Mexican and Rocky Mountains, the mountains in Africa and the Arabian Peninsula, New Guinea, and the Himalayan Mountains. The derived results agree reasonably well with the seasonality of LTO from ozonesonde observations at Boulder, Cristobal, Fiji, Java, and Tahiti. The LTO seasonality found in the biomass burning seasons characterized by the ATSR World Fire Atlas west and east of the Andes (23°S-2°N), east of the Mexican Mountains (15°-23°N), South Sudan (6°-14°N), South Africa (30°-28°S), and west of New Guinea is consistent with the influence of biomass burning on the formation of tropospheric ozone in these regions. The significant El Niño influence on LTO west of New Guinea is evident throughout several El Niño cycles. The spring maximum in ozone west of the Mexican Mountains, in western China, and west of the Andes (32°-23°S) is consistent with a stratospheric intrusion source. East of the Mexican Mountains (23°-30°N), both west and east of the Rocky Mountains, in north Sudan and Iraq, and in western China, high concentrations of ozone are found in these continental and coastal regions which are affected by anthropogenic sources. The maximum ozone in these regions usually occurs in the summer due to photochemical ozone production. A summer LTO minimum occurs in coastal regions west of the Andes and west of Mexico, due to ozone destruction in low NOx and high H2O marine environment. A summer minimum also occurs in south Sudan in the rainy season. The LTO in the northern tropics of South America (4°-10°N), Africa (1°S-2°N), and east of New Guinea (7°-3°S) experiences little seasonal variation.

Newchurch, M. J.; Liu, X.; Kim, J. H.

2001-01-01

272

VLA Will Receive Galileo Probe Signals To Measure Jupiter's Winds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Socorro, NM -- When the Galileo Probe becomes the first spacecraft to enter the atmosphere of Jupiter on Dec. 7, a New Mexico radio telescope will be watching. In a technical feat thought impossible when Galileo was launched in 1989, the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array (VLA) will record the faint radio signal from the probe to help scientists measure the giant planet's winds. The VLA observations will dramatically improve estimates of Jupiter's wind speeds and complement other measurements studying the climate of Jupiter. The Galileo probe will transmit information to the main spacecraft as it descends toward a searing death under tremendous heat in Jupiter's lower atmosphere. The main spacecraft will later relay the probe's data to Earth. No Earth-based reception of the probe's radio signals was planned originally. The probe's antenna will be pointed at the main spacecraft, not the Earth. However, in 1991, Robert Preston and William Folkner of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in Pasadena, CA, were discussing Earth-based reception of data from a similar probe under design for a planned mission to Saturn. "I thought, why not do this for Galileo," Folkner said. "They were planning to build this capability into the spacecraft for Saturn," Folkner explained, "and they thought it couldn't be done with the Galileo spacecraft already enroute to Jupiter. I didn't know it couldn't be done, so I worked it out and found that we could do it." According to Preston and Folkner's calculations, the direct reception of the probe's signals by the VLA and a similar radio telescope in Australia will make the measurement of Jupiter's winds ten times more precise as long as the probe radio signal can be detected. In addition, the direct reception also greatly improves scientists' knowledge of the probe's position as it enters the Jovian atmosphere. This will allow more effective use of the measurements of the probe radio signal by the main spacecraft to determine atmospheric properties. The VLA observations will record the shift in frequency of the probe's radio signal as Jupiter's winds buffet the probe. This Doppler shift in frequency will allow scientists to calculate the wind speeds. Scientists expect the 746-pound probe to send information about Jupiter's atmosphere for up to 75 minutes during its parachute-slowed descent. Preston and Folkner, who are working with Jose Navarro of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Socorro, NM, expect to receive the probe's signals with the VLA for the first 20 or 30 minutes of the descent. The technical difficulties in directly receiving the probe's signal are challenging. The probe has only a 25-watt radio transmitter. The probe's directional antenna is aimed at the main Galileo spacecraft, nearly 90 degrees away from the direction of the Earth. This effectively reduces the power to 7 watts or less toward the Earth. At Jupiter, the probe is more than half a billion miles distant from Earth. Only a large radio telescope is capable of receiving this faint signal, more than 100,000 times weaker than the faintest signal a home FM radio can pick up. Even using a radio telescope as large as the VLA, the scientists may have to wait for the main Galileo spacecraft to send the probe's data back to Earth before they can recover the signals they recorded. With the relayed data in hand, they can "reconstruct" the probe's radio signal and use that reconstructed signal to help their computers find the weak recorded signal on the VLA tapes. A preliminary relay of the probe's data from the main spacecraft is planned in December. During its descent, the Galileo probe will send information about the chemical composition of Jupiter's atmosphere at different altitudes. It is expected to encounter winds of up to 200 m.p.h.

1995-11-01

273

Why Earth Science?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article briefly describes Earth science. The study of Earth science provides the foundation for an understanding of the Earth, its processes, its resources, and its environment. Earth science is the study of the planet in its entirety, how its lithosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere work together as systems and how they affect…

Smith, Michael J.

2004-01-01

274

Earth from Above  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Google Earth is a free online software that provides a virtual view of Earth. Using Google Earth, students can view Earth by hovering over features and locations they preselect or by serendipitously exploring locations that catch their fascination. Going beyond hovering, they can swoop forward and even tilt images to make more detailed…

Stahley, Tom

2006-01-01

275

Magnetic, fluorescent, and thermo-responsive Fe(3)O(4)/rare earth incorporated poly(St-NIPAM) core-shell colloidal nanoparticles in multimodal optical/magnetic resonance imaging probes.  

PubMed

Multifunctional colloidal nanoparticles which exhibit fluorescence, superparamagnetism, and thermosensitivity are produced by two step seed emulsifier-free emulsion polymerization in the presence of oleic acid (OA) and sodium undecylenate (NaUA) modified Fe(3)O(4) nanoparticles. In the first step, St and NIPAM polymerize the NaUA on the surface of Fe(3)O(4) nanoparticles to form Fe(3)O(4)/poly(St-NIPAM) nanoparticles which act as seeds for the polymerization of Eu(AA)(3)Phen with the remaining St and NIPAM in the second step to form an outer fluorescent layer. The core-shell composite nanoparticles show reversible dimensional changes in response to external temperature stimuli. Fluorescence spectra acquired from the composites exhibit characteristic emission peaks of Eu(3+) at 594 and 619 nm and vivid red luminescence can be observed by 2-photon confocal scanning laser microscopy (CLSM). In vitro cytotoxicity tests based on the MTT assay demonstrate good cytocompatibility and the composites also possess paramagnetic properties with a maximum saturation magnetization of 6.45 emu/g and high transverse relaxivity rates (r(2)) of 411.78 mM(-1) s(-1). In vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies show significant liver and spleen contrast with relative signal intensity reduction of about 86% 10 min after intravenous injection of the composites. These intriguing properties suggest that these nanocarriers have large clinical potential as multimodal optical/MRI probes. PMID:23274069

Zhu, Haie; Tao, Juan; Wang, Wenhao; Zhou, Yingjie; Li, Penghui; Li, Zheng; Yan, Kai; Wu, Shuilin; Yeung, Kelvin W K; Xu, Zushun; Xu, Haibo; Chu, Paul K

2012-12-27

276

Exploring Earth from Space  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This set of lithographs from the ISS EarthKAM program contains an educators' guide, student information and worksheets, and several Earth photos taken from the Space Shuttle. Shuttle astronauts and the ISS EarthKAM program provide photos of our planet from the unique perspective of Earth orbit. This resource can enhance students' studies of Earth and space science, geography, social studies, mathematics, and educational technologies.

2002-12-01

277

Electric Probes in Plasmas.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper provides a background for the use of Langmuir and gridded energy analyzer probes in diagnosing plasmas with varied characteristics. Theory is illustrated which governs the analysis of data from, and the design of these probes. Several probe ana...

B. Lipschultz I. Hutchinson B. LaBombard A. Wan

1985-01-01

278

Circumferential Pressure Probe.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A probe for measuring circumferential pressure inside a body cavity is disclosed. In the preferred embodiment, a urodynamic pressure measurement probe for evaluating human urinary sphincter function is disclosed. Along the length of the probe are disposed...

H. K. Holmes T. C. Moore A. J. Fanti

1988-01-01

279

Fusion of SeaWiFS and TOMS satellite data with surface observations and topographic data during extreme aerosol events.  

PubMed

Spaceborne sensors allow near-continuous aerosol monitoring throughout the world. This paper illustrates the fusion of Sea-Viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor (SeaWiFS) and TOMS satellite data with surface observations and topographic data during four extreme aerosol events: (1) the April 1998 Asian dust storm that impacted the west coast of North America, (2) the May 1998 Central American forest fire smoke that impacted eastern North America, (3) the intense fall 1999 northern California fires, and (4) the massive February 2000 Sahara dust storm. During these dust and smoke events, the aerosol was visualized on true color SeaWiFS images as a distinct yellowish dye, the result of the aerosol increasing the reflectance of darker surfaces (ocean and land) and decreasing the reflectance of clouds. TOMS imagery also indicated increased aerosol absorption in the affected areas, while surface monitors measured major reductions in visual range. Fusing these data aids in the determination of the aerosol's spatial, temporal, and optical properties and provides supporting evidence for characterizing what is being visualized as dust or smoke. A 3-dimensional perspective of the events is obtained when incorporating topographic data and provides insight into the vertical properties of the aerosol plumes. PMID:11720105

Falke, S R; Husar, R B; Schichtel, B A

2001-11-01

280

Availability of Micro-Tom mutant library combined with TILLING in molecular breeding of tomato fruit shelf-life  

PubMed Central

Novel mutant alleles of an ethylene receptor Solanum lycopersicum ETHYLENE RESPONSE1 (SlETR1) gene, Sletr1-1 and Sletr1-2, were isolated from the Micro-Tom mutant library by TILLING in our previous study. They displayed different levels of impaired fruit ripening phenotype, suggesting that these alleles could be a valuable breeding material for improving shelf life of tomato fruit. To conduct practical use of the Sletr1 alleles in tomato breeding, genetic complementation analysis by transformation of genes carrying each allele is required. In this study, we generated and characterized transgenic lines over-expressing Sletr1-1 and Sletr1-2. All transgenic lines displayed ethylene insensitive phenotype and ripening inhibition, indicating that Sletr1-1 and Sletr1-2 associate with the ethylene insensitive phenotype. The level of ethylene sensitivity in the seedling was different between Sletr1-1 and Sletr1-2 transgenic lines, whereas no apparent difference was observed in fruit ripening phenotype. These results suggested that it is difficult to fine-tune the extent of ripening by transgenic approach even if the weaker allele (Sletr1-2) was used. Our present and previous studies indicate that the Micro-Tom mutant library combined with TILLING could be an efficient tool for exploring genetic variations of important agronomic traits in tomato breeding.

Okabe, Yoshihiro; Asamizu, Erika; Ariizumi, Tohru; Shirasawa, Kenta; Tabata, Satoshi; Ezura, Hiroshi

2012-01-01

281

Planetary science: Mission to Earth's core - a modest proposal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Planetary missions have enhanced our understanding of the Solar System and how planets work, but no comparable exploratory effort has been directed towards the Earth's interior, where equally fascinating scientific issues are waiting to be investigated. Here I propose a scheme for a mission to the Earth's core, in which a small communication probe would be conveyed in a huge volume of liquid-iron alloy migrating down to the core along a crack that is propagating under the action of gravity. The grapefruit-sized probe would transmit its findings back to the surface using high-frequency seismic waves sensed by a ground-coupled wave detector. The probe should take about a week to reach the core, and the minimum mass of molten iron required would be 108-1010 kg - or roughly between an hour and a week of Earth's total iron-foundry production.

Stevenson, David J.

2003-05-01

282

Earth on the Move.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Provides background information on the layers of the earth, the relationship between changes on the surface of the earth and its insides, and plate tectonics. Teaching activities are included, with some containing reproducible worksheets and handouts to accompany them. (TW)|

Naturescope, 1987

1987-01-01

283

Geology of Earth's Moon  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

First, researchers at the University of California, San Diego discuss the importance of studying earthquakes on the moon, also known as moonquakes, and the Apollo Lunar Seismic Experiment (1). Users can discover the problems scientists must deal with when collecting the moon's seismic data. The students at Case Western Reserve University created the second website to address three missions the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS) has planned between now and 2010, including a mission to the moon (2). Visitors can learn about the Lunar-A probe that will be used to photograph the surface of the moon, "monitor moonquakes, measure temperature, and study the internal structure." Next, the Planetary Data Service (PDS) at the USGS offers users four datasets that they can use to create an image of a chosen area of the moon (3). Each dataset can be viewed as a basic clickable map; a clickable map where users can specify size, resolution, and projection; or an advanced version where visitors can select areas by center latitude and longitude. The fourth site, produced by Robert Wickman at the University of North Dakota, presents a map of the volcanoes on the moon and compares their characteristics with those on earth (4). Students can learn how the gravitational forces on the Moon affect the lava flows. Next, Professor Jeff Ryan at the University of South Florida at Tampa supplies fantastic images and descriptive text of the lunar rocks obtained by the Apollo missions (5). Visitors can find links to images of meteorites, terrestrial rocks, and Apollo landings as well. At the Science Channel website, students and educators can find a video clip discussing the geologic studies on the moon along with videos about planets (6). Users can learn about how studying moon rocks help scientists better understand the formation of the earth. Next, the Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum presents its research of "lunar topography, cratering and impacts basins, tectonics, lava flows, and regolith properties" (7). Visitors can find summaries of the characteristics of the moon and the main findings since the 1950s. Lastly, the USGS Astrogeology Research Program provides archived lunar images and data collected between 1965 and 1992 by Apollo, Lunar Orbiter, Galileo, and Zond 8 missions (8). While the data is a little old, students and educators can still find valuable materials about the moon's topography, chemical composition, and geology.

284

Geoscientists Explore the Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Visit the American Geological Institute (AGI) Earth Science Week website to learn about how you can provide your students with inquiry-based learning experiences that celebrates the theme, "Geoscientists Explore the Earth." On the website you will find events taking place in your community, local organizations to partner with, the many careers available in geoscience, the monthly Earth Science Week Update electronic newsletter, and how you can order an Earth Science Week educator's kit.

Benbow, Ann E.; Camphire, Geoff

2005-10-01

285

Satellites Orbiting Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In recent years, there has been a push to better understand how Earth works as a system- how land, oceans, air, and life all interact. Satellites in orbit around Earth are a fast and efficient way of gathering remotely sensed data about the planet as a whole. This animated video shows the orbital paths of the satellites in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Earth Observing System (EOS), a collection of satellites that work together to study Earth on a wide scale.

286

Museum of the Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Museum of the Earth is a natural history museum that stresses the interdependence of the Earth and its life, fostering public understanding of the environment and Earth's past, present and future. The museum is an exhibit facility for one of the nation's largest fossil collections, providing a resource for the public, teachers and students. It serves regional and national audiences by disseminating educational materials as well as promoting best practices and collaboration among providers of informal Earth system education.

2006-08-14

287

Solar probe technology challenges  

SciTech Connect

A mission close to the sun is only possible if new spacecraft technologies can be developed and incorporated into a state-of-the-art spacecraft concept. The perihelion goal of 4 solar radii requires a shielded spacecraft that can tolerate the almost 3000 suns solar flux while maintaining the electronics components at room temperature. In addition, the shield surface should sublimate at a rate of less than 3mg/s at perihelion. Many shield configuration designs have been studied and the most promising is a parabolic shape that functions as both a shield and a large high gain antenna. The shield material chosen for this design is a carbon-carbon material with highly emissive surface properties. A mission requirement for a high telecommunications power stems from the expected interference when attempting to transmit data through the solar corona. It is expected that the large carbon-carbon shield/antenna will have a high power gain even at high temperatures and will return adequate telemetry at the X-band radio frequency chosen for the Solar Probe mission. Other key technology needs include a non-nuclear power subsystem that can function in the extreme environments of the mission from Earth to Jupiter and onward to a 4 solar radii perihelion. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

Randolph, J.E.; Miyake, R.N.; Nesmith, B.J. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 4800 Oak Grove Dr., Pasadena, California 91109 (United States); Dirling, R.B. Jr. [Science Applications International Corporation, Material Technologies Division, 18350 Mt. Langley Street, Fountain Valley, California 92708 (United States); Howard, R.J. [Space Physics Division, Code SS, NASA Headquarters, Washington, District of Columbia 20546 (United States)

1996-03-01

288

Mass of the Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners use basic measurements of the Earth and pieces of rock and iron to estimate the mass of the Earth. Learners will calculate mass, volume, and density, convert units, and employ the water displacement method. To calculate an even more accurate estimate of the mass of the Earth, this resource includes optional instructions on how to measure the iron core mass.

Muller, Eric

2010-01-01

289

Flat earth upward continuation  

Microsoft Academic Search

For a thorough understanding of flat earth upward continuation, Poisson's integral equation is transformed from a coordinate system with spherical symmetry to one with planar symmetry. The two separate cases of infinite and finite flat earths are considered. In resulting exact forms a functional factor in the integrands is isolated, a factor which allows the translation of a spherical earth

John V. Shebalin

1979-01-01

290

More About “Planet Earth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seven programs, each 1 hour in length, form the centerpiece of Planet Earth: The Living Machine, The Blue Planet, The Climate Puzzle, Tales from Other Worlds, Gifts from the Earth, The Solar Sea, Fate of the EarthMost public television stations will broadcast the series on Wednesday evenings; check local listings for the correct time and station.

291

Layers of the Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students use graphs of seismic wave travel times, and value for the diameter of Earth obtained in the Size of the Earth activity, to investigate the internal structure of the Earth and determine that it is layered. Click here to view the full activity on the Kéyah Math Project website.

Semken, Steven; Perkins, Tracy

292

The Dynamic Earth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses how the earth is a dynamic system that maintains itself in a steady state. Areas considered include large/small-scale earth motions, geologic time, rock and hydrologic cycles, and other aspects dealing with the changing face of the earth. (JN)|

Siever, Raymond

1983-01-01

293

Exploring Saturn With Shallow Probes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Entry probe missions to the outer planets are essential to constrain models of solar system formation and the origin and evolution of atmospheres, to provide a basis for comparative studies of the gas and ice giants, and to provide a valuable link to extrasolar planetary systems. It is within the deep, well-mixed atmospheres and interiors of the giant planets that material from the epoch of solar system formation can be found, providing clues to the local chemical and physical conditions existing at the time and location at which each planet formed. The giant planets therefore offer a laboratory for studying the atmospheric chemistries, dynamics, and interiors of all the planets, including Earth. A shallow entry probe mission to Saturn carrying a Neutral Mass Spectrometer, Atmospheric Structure Instrument, and ultrastable oscillator can provide the composition, structure, and dynamics of Saturn's upper troposphere. The key measurement for a Saturn probe mission is the composition of the well-mixed atmosphere below the cloud layers, including the heavy elements C, N, O, and S, the noble gases He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe and their isotopes, isotope ratios 15N/14N, 13C/12C and D/H, and disequilibrium species such as PH3, AsH3, GeH4 as tracers of internal processes. A precise determination of the helium abundance is required for the formation models. Moreover, helium sedimentation could provide significant indigenous energy at Saturn, thus a measurement of the He abundance in Saturn's atmosphere and its comparison with the value at Jupiter determined by the Galileo Probe is important for understanding the process of internal heat generation in the gas giant planets. All of above species can be accessed and measured by entry probes at pressures less than 10 bars at Saturn, with the exception of oxygen whose gradient with depth can be determined from H2O.

Atkinson, David H.; Spilker, T. R.; Reh, K.; Atreya, S. K.; Balint, T. S.; Beebe, R.; Colaprete, A.; Mahaffy, P.

2010-10-01

294

Comparing Earth's atmosphere with other planets  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How does Earth's atmosphere differ from that of Mars and Venus? In this informational piece, part of an interactive laboratory series for grades 8-12, students read how small changes in Earth's atmosphere can change the planet's temperatures and rainfall. In an interactive activity, students launch a probe to collect atmospheric data about temperature and pressure on both Mars and Venus. Students can see graphs of altitude plotted versus temperature or pressure. Multiple-choice questions reinforce the student readings. A second activity provides students additional information and questions on the atmospheres of Mars, Venus, and Earth. As a final review, students respond to questions with written answers, which may be printed. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

University of Utah. Astrophysics Science Project Integrating Research and Education (ASPIRE)

2003-01-01

295

Continental Effects of 2004 Alaskan Fires (WMS)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Wildfires started by lightning burned more than 80,000 acres in Alaska in June 2004. The effects of these fires can be seen across North America with the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) instrument on the Earth Probe spacecraft. TOMS detects the presence of UV-absorbing tropospheric aerosols across the globe.

Delabeaujardiere, Jeff; Newman, Paul; Bhartia, Pawan

2005-03-14

296

Multiphonon relaxation of rare-earth ions in oxide glasses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nonradiative decay of excited rare-earth ions by multiphonon emission has been investigated in a series of oxide glasses. Various rare-earth electronic levels were selectively excited by short-duration laser pulses and multiphonon relaxation rates were determined from measurements of fluorescence rise and decay times. Time resolution for fluorescence measurements was 3 nsec, so excited states were probed for which the decay

C. B. Layne; W. H. Lowdermilk; M. J. Weber

1977-01-01

297

How probes work  

Microsoft Academic Search

'Cultural probes', since first being proposed and described by Bill Gaver and his colleagues, have been adapted and appropriated for a range of purposes within a variety of technology projects. In this paper we critically review different uses of Probes and discuss common aspects of different Probe variants. We also present and critique some of the debate around Probes through

Connor Graham; Mark Rouncefield; Martin R. Gibbs; Frank Vetere; Keith Cheverst

2007-01-01

298

NASA Earth Observatory images  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of NASA's Earth Observatory is to provide a freely-accessible publication on the Internet where the public can obtain new satellite imagery and scientific information about our home planet. The focus is on Earth's climate and environmental change. In particular, the site may be useful to public media and educators. Earth scientists and science writers from all NASA centers, as well as all agencies and universities affiliated with NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, are encouraged to submit articles and/or images for publication on the Earth Observatory.

Administration, National A.

2010-02-16

299

Earth Today 1998 Introduction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The ability to see Earth from space has forever changed our view of the planet. We are now able to look at the Earth as a whole, and observe how its atmosphere, oceans, land masses, and life interact as global systems. Earths atmosphere, hydrosphere, geosphere, and biosphere are dynamic, changing on timescales of days, minutes, or even seconds. Monitoring the Earth in near real time allows us to get an up to date picture of conditions on our planet. More SVS visualizations for the Earth Today exhibit can be found in animation ids 328 and 1402.

Kekesi, Alex; Shoan, Wendy; Watters, Tom

1998-10-20

300

Earth Today 1998 Countdown  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The ability to see Earth from space has forever changed our view of the planet. We are now able to look at the Earth as a whole, and observe how its atmosphere, oceans, land masses, and life interact as global systems. Earths atmosphere, hydrosphere, geosphere, and biosphere are dynamic, changing on timescales of days, minutes, or even seconds. Monitoring the Earth in near real time allows us to get an up to date picture of conditions on our planet. More SVS visualizations for the Earth Today exhibit are in animation ids 1401 and 1402.

Kekesi, Alex; Shoan, Wendy; Watters, Tom

1998-10-20

301

Earth Today 1998  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The ability to see Earth from space has forever changed our view of the planet. We are now able to look at the Earth as a whole, and observe how its atmosphere, oceans, land masses, and life interact as global systems. Earths atmosphere, hydrosphere, geosphere, and biosphere are dynamic, changing on timescales of days, minutes, or even seconds. Monitoring the Earth in near real time allows us to get an up to date picture of conditions on our planet. More SVS visualizations for the Earth Today exhibit can be found in animation ids 328 and 1401.

Kekesi, Alex; Shoan, Wendy; Watters, Tom

1998-10-20

302

Project Earth Science: Astronomy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The hands-on, teacher-tested activities in Project Earth Science: Astronomy brings the sometimes daunting concepts of astronomy down to Earth. Background information, supplementary readings, and suggestions for integrating other disciplines provide the teacher with a framework to launch a successful introduction to astronomy. Students will discover Earth's uniqueness by examining it as a part of the whole--one planet within our Solar System. How did the planets form? Are we seeing a star's present or past? Why is Earth's distance from the Sun so important? Project Earth Science: Astronomy will lead you and your students on an exploration that takes you to the stars and back.

Smith, P. S.

2001-01-01

303

Hydrodynamic ultrasonic probe  

DOEpatents

An improved probe for in-service ultrasonic inspection of long lengths of a workpiece, such as small diameter tubing from the interior. The improved probe utilizes a conventional transducer or transducers configured to inspect the tubing for flaws and/or wall thickness variations. The probe utilizes a hydraulic technique, in place of the conventional mechanical guides or bushings, which allows the probe to move rectilinearly or rotationally while preventing cocking thereof in the tube and provides damping vibration of the probe. The probe thus has lower friction and higher inspection speed than presently known probes.

Day, Robert A. (Livermore, CA); Conti, Armond E. (San Jose, CA)

1980-01-01

304

A biophysical analysis of the tetratricopeptide repeat-rich mitochondrial import receptor, Tom70, reveals an elongated monomer that is inherently flexible, unstable, and unfolds via a multistate pathway.  

PubMed

Proteins destined for all submitochondrial compartments are translocated across the outer mitochondrial membrane by the TOM (translocase of the outer membrane) complex, which consists of a number of specialized receptor subunits that bind mitochondrial precursor proteins for delivery into the translocation channel. One receptor, Tom70, binds large, hydrophobic mitochondrial precursors. The current model of Tom70-mediated import involves multiple dimers of the receptor recognizing a single molecule of substrate. Here we show via a battery of biophysical and spectroscopic techniques that the cytosolic domain of Tom70 is an elongated monomer. Thermal and urea-induced denaturation revealed that the receptor, which unfolds via a multistate pathway, is a relatively unstable molecule undergoing major conformational change at physiological temperatures. The data suggest that the malleability of the monomeric Tom70 receptor is an important factor in mitochondrial import. PMID:15316022

Beddoe, Travis; Bushell, Simon R; Perugini, Matthew A; Lithgow, Trevor; Mulhern, Terrence D; Bottomley, Stephen P; Rossjohn, Jamie

2004-08-16

305

Earth Science Students  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site provides varied and vital information for earth science students. Links lead to important and interesting sites that change from time to time. The permanent pages at this site offer information that is of value to all earth science students and some that are for local students. There are animations and visual learning aids, interactive unit notes, practice questions for exams, earth science flash cards, supplementary Lessons, a course curriculum, and conversion calculators. The Current Earth Science page has real-time information about weather, volcanoes, earthquakes, and population. Other pages on this site list a host of earth science news items, earth science computer labs, all of the required earth science reference tables, a glossary, an "ask an expert" page, and a guestbook. Other links lead to information of local concern.

Burrows, Charles

306

The Earth Simulator Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Earth Simulator Center, funded by the Japanese government, is the birth place of the Earth Simulator, a super computer designed to provide a "holistic simulation of the entire earth system" that "may enable accurate prediction of the future by modelling present conditions based on data about the past." The Journal of the Earth Simulator, which is available online from this website as of June 2004, provides updates on the Earth Simulator and related research. Visitors to this website will also find background information on the Earth Simulator and websites for the four research groups: the Atmosphere & Ocean Simulation Group, the Solid Earth Simulation Group, the Multiscale Simulation Research Group, and the Advanced Perception Research Group. Each website provides an overview of the research and publications. Several collaboration projects are also identified along with images of the Simulator. Other publications include the annual report and newsletters, some of which are available only in Japanese.

2007-12-24

307

EarthLabs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

EarthLabs is a collection of challenging, lab-based high school Earth science curriculum units, each of which integrates text, hands-on activities, interactive visualizations, video, authentic science data, and data visualization and analysis tools. Each unit highlights the interconnectedness and complexities of the Earth system in the context of a specific content area (including Earth system science, climate, weather, atmosphere, cryosphere, environmental science, hurricanes, drought, fisheries, oceans, carbon cycle), and can be integrated into an existing Earth or environmental science course or used as an independent curriculum unit. In addition to the student portal, EarthLabs provides a separate teacher's guide ("EarthLabs for Educators") that provides background and logistical information, pedagogical guidance, and answers to assessments embedded in the student portal.

2012-05-31

308

EarthLabs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

EarthLabs is a collection of challenging, lab-based high school Earth science curriculum units, each of which integrates text, hands-on activities, interactive visualizations, video, authentic science data, and data visualization and analysis tools. Each unit highlights the interconnectedness and complexities of the Earth system in the context of a specific content area (including Earth system science, climate, weather, atmosphere, cryosphere, environmental science, hurricanes, drought, fisheries, oceans, carbon cycle), and can be integrated into an existing Earth or environmental science course or used as an independent curriculum unit. In addition to the student portal, EarthLabs provides a separate teacher's guide ("EarthLabs for Educators") that provides background and logistical information, pedagogical guidance, and answers to assessments embedded in the student portal.

309

Changes in earth’s dipole  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dipole moment of Earth’s magnetic field has decreased by nearly $$9\\\\% $$ over the past 150 years and by about 30% over the past 2,000 years according to archeomagnetic measurements. Here, we explore the causes and the implications of this rapid change. Maps of the geomagnetic field on the core–mantle boundary derived from ground-based and satellite measurements reveal that most of

Peter Olson; Hagay Amit

2006-01-01

310

A Multiple Regression Analysis Between UV Radiation Measurements at Badajoz and Ozone, Reflectivity and Aerosols Estimated by TOMS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper analyzes the relationship between ultraviolet erythemal radiation (UVER) measured in Badajoz (Spain) and ozone, cloudiness and aerosols. Initially, the values of transmissivity of UVER are related with three parameters (ozone amount, reflectivity and aerosol index) estimated by the satellite instrument TOMS. The relative importance and dependence of each variable is analyzed by means of a multiple regression analysis with an expression derived from the Lambert-Bouger-Beer law. The results indicate that the aerosol index is not a statistically significant factor for the initial expression. Then, a partial model with only ozone and reflectivity as regressors is proposed and coefficients are obtained using UVER measurements of year 2001. Finally the model is validated comparing its prediction for 2002 with UVER measurements at ground. The agreement between both data sets is reasonably good, suggesting that UVER estimations can be successfully derived from observations of other atmospheric variables, thus providing the basis to obtain spatial distributed maps of UV variations.

Antón, M.; Cancillo, M. L.; Serrano, A.; García, J. A.

2005-01-01

311

Atmospheric heating due to carbonaceous aerosol in northern Australia—confidence limits based on TOMS aerosol index and sun-photometer data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aerosol index (AI) derived from backscattered UV radiances measured by the total ozone mapping spectrometer (TOMS) provides global coverage spanning nearly 20 years. Published maps of significant global sources of UV-absorbing aerosol produced from AI do not include northern Australia, despite the extensive grass fires that persist throughout the dry season, a result that could be interpreted to mean

D. M O'Brien; R. M Mitchell

2003-01-01

312

Environmental Characterization of GLOBAL Sources of Atmospheric Soil DUST Identified with the NIMBUS 7 Total OZONE Mapping SPECTROMETER (toms) Absorbing Aerosol Product  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) sensor on the Nimbus 7 satellite to map the global distribution of major atmospheric dust sources with the goal of identifying common environmental characteristics. The largest and most persistent sources are located in the Northern Hemisphere, mainly in a broad ``dust belt'' that extends from the west coast of North Africa, over

Joseph M. Prospero; Paul Ginoux; Omar Torres; Sharon E. Nicholson; Thomas E. Gill

2002-01-01

313

Relation of Water Quality to Land Use in the Drainage Basins of Four Tributaries to the Toms River, New Jersey, 1994-95.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the results of a study to determine the relation between land use and the water quality of four tributaries to the Toms River--Long Swamp Creek, Wrangel Brook, Davenport Branch, and Jakes Branch. The constituent concentrations and yi...

K. Hunchak-Kariouk

1999-01-01

314

Monitoring spatio-temporal aerosol patterns over Pakistan based on MODIS, TOMS and MISR satellite data and a HYSPLIT model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three different satellite-borne sensors, namely the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS), the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), and the Multi-angle Imaging Spectroradiometer (MISR), were used to investigate the spatial and temporal variations of aerosols over several cities in Pakistan. A Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model was used for trajectory analysis in order to reconstruct the origins of air masses and understand the spatio-temporal variability of aerosol concentrations. Recent MODIS aerosol data (2002-2008) and earlier TOMS data (1979-2001) revealed increasing concentrations of aerosols over Pakistan and adjacent areas. Validation of MODIS and MISR derived aerosol optical depths (AODs) with Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) data for 2007 demonstrated that the MISR data was more accurate when close to the ocean, while the MODIS was more accurate over vegetated areas. The relationship between MODIS and MISR AOD data from 2002 to 2008 was analyzed, revealing a strong correlation between the two datasets. An assessment of seasonal variability in AOD for industrial, urban, semi-urban, rural, and semi-arid areas revealed maximum AOD values during the summer over all the areas investigated. Back trajectory analyses indicated that while winter air masses reaching Pakistan had travelled long distances, summer air masses had travelled only short distances. The higher aerosol concentrations during the summer are interpreted to be a result of the air masses spending more time over land during the summer than they do during the winter. While monsoonal rainfall tends to reduce aerosol concentrations by washing aerosols out of the atmosphere, this effect is mainly restricted to the eastern and south-eastern parts of Pakistan.

Alam, Khan; Qureshi, Salman; Blaschke, Thomas

2011-09-01

315

Profiling of Genes Related to Cross Protection and Competition for NbTOM1 by HLSV and TMV  

PubMed Central

Cross protection is the phenomenon through which a mild strain virus suppresses symptoms induced by a closely related severe strain virus in infected plants. Hibiscus latent Singapore virus (HLSV) and Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) are species within the genus tobamovirus. HLSV can protect Nicotianabenthamiana against TMV-U1 strain, resulting in mild symptoms instead of severe systemic necrosis. The mechanism of cross protection between HLSV and TMV is unknown. In the past, some researchers suggest that the protecting virus strain might occupy virus-specific replication sites within a cell leaving no room for the challenge virus. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR was performed to detect viral RNA levels during cross protection. HLSV accumulation increased in cross protected plants compared with that of single HLSV infected plants, while TMV decreased in cross protected plants. This suggests that there is a competition for host factors between HLSV and TMV for replication. To investigate the mechanism under the cross protection between HLSV and TMV, microarray analysis was conducted to examine the transcriptional levels of global host genes during cross protection, using Tobacco Gene Expression Microarray, 4x44 k slides. The transcriptional level of some host genes corresponded to accumulation level of TMV. Some host genes were up-regulated only by HLSV. Tobamovirus multiplication gene 1 (TOM1), essential for tobamovirus multiplication, was involved in competition for replication by HLSV and TMV during cross protection. Both HLSV and TMV accumulation decreased when NbTOM1 was silenced. A large quantity of HLSV resulted in decreased TMV accumulation in HLSV+TMV (100:1) co-infection. These results indicate that host genes involved in the plant defense response and virus multiplication are up-regulated by challenge virus TMV but not by protecting virus HLSV during cross protection.

Wen, Yi; Lim, Grace Xiao-Yun; Wong, Sek-Man

2013-01-01

316

Saturn Science from Entry Probes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data from atmospheric entry probe missions at the giant planets could uniquely discriminate between competing theories of solar system formation and the origin and evolution of the giant planets and their atmospheres, providing for valuable comparative studies of giant planets as well as providing a laboratory for studying the atmospheric chemistries, dynamics, and interiors of all the planets including Earth. The giant planets also represent a valuable link to extrasolar planetary systems. For these reasons, a Saturn Probe mission with a shallow probe is ranked by the recent U.S. Planetary Science Decadal Survey as a high priority for a New Frontiers class mission. Atmospheric constituents needed to constrain theories of solar system formation and the origin and evolution of the giant planets could be accessed and sampled by shallow entry probes. Many important constituents are either spectrally inactive or are beneath an atmospheric overburden that is optically thick at useful wavelengths and are therefore not remotely accessible by flyby or orbiting spacecraft. A small, scientifically focused shallow entry probe mission could make critical abundance measurements of key constituents, and could measure profiles of atmospheric structure and dynamics at a vertical resolution that is significantly higher than could be achieved by remote sensing techniques. The Galileo mission began the detailed study of the solar system's two gas giants by dropping an entry probe into the atmosphere of Jupiter and deploying an orbiter around Jupiter. In 2016-2017 the Juno mission will make measurements of Jupiter's deep oxygen abundance, and gravitational and magnetic fields. In the same epoch, the Cassini orbiter is planned to pursue a set of Juno-like orbits to make comparable gravitational and magnetic field measurements of Saturn. A Saturn atmospheric entry probe would complete the quartet of missions needed for a comparative study of the two gas giants, leading to improved models of solar system formation. A highly focused entry probe mission at Saturn carrying a minimal science payload could address unique and critical science while fitting within existing program budget caps. Fundamental measurements include abundances of the noble gases He, Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe and, abundances of key isotopic ratios 4He/3He, D/H, 15N/14N, 18O/16O, and 13C/12C. Detection of disequilibrium species CO, PH3, AsH3, and GeH4 is diagnostic of deeper internal processes and dynamics of the atmosphere along the probe descent. Abundances of these key constituents, as well as carbon which does not condense at Saturn, sulfur which is expected to be well-mixed below the 4 to 5-bar ammonium hydrosulfide (NH4SH) cloud, and gradients of nitrogen below the NH4SH cloud and oxygen in the upper layers of the H2O and H2O-NH4 solution cloud, could be measured by an entry probe descending through 10 bars. In concert with the results from Galileo, Cassini, and Juno, a shallow Saturn probe capable of measuring abundances of key constituents not accessible by a remote sensing mission would provide critical measurements enabling a comparison of composition and dynamical processes on the giant planets while also providing an improved context for understanding exoplanets.

Atkinson, David H.; Coustenis, Athena; Lunine, Jonathan; Simon-Miller, Amy; Atreya, Sushil; Brinckerhoff, William; Colaprete, Anthony; Guillot, Tristan; Mahaffy, Paul; Reh, Kim; Spilker, Linda; Spilker, Tom; Webster, Chris

2013-04-01

317

Design and optimization of a trajectory for Moon departure Near Earth Asteroid exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lunar probe often has some remaining fuel on completing the predefined Moon exploration mission and may carry out some\\u000a additional tasks from the Moon orbit using the fuel. The possibility for the lunar probe to escape from the Moon and the Earth\\u000a is analyzed. Design and optimization of the trajectory from the Moon orbit to the Near Earth Asteroids

Yang Chen; Hexi Baoyin; Junfeng Li

2011-01-01

318

Active control of an atmospheric tether using a lifting probe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, a large number of atmospheric tether missions to the Earth and other planets have been proposed. Tethered probes in these studies are generally modeled as simple spheres whose altitude must be controlled using slow tether reel mechanisms. Using a hypersonic lifting body as the probe provides a faster, more effective means for controlling the tether system. In addition, the use of a moveable tether attachment point represents a simple mechanism to control the altitude and aerodynamic forces on the lifting probe. This thesis presents a new mathematical model of a flexible-elastic tether system, including a lifting probe with a moveable attachment point. For the circular orbit case, a simplified linear version of this model is used to analyze the stability of the tether system and to develop a controller. The results indicate that the lifting probe controller is able to rapidly alter the probe altitude and effectively reject atmospheric disturbances. Next, the lifting probe system is applied to the aerocapture maneuver. The analysis shows that the use of the lifting probe during aerocapture can substantially reduce the required mass of the probe versus traditional tether aerocapture proposals. The lifting probe system can also significantly reduce the final eccentricity of the capture orbit resulting in large mass savings versus retropropulsion maneuvers. These results indicate that the lifting probe with moveable attachment point greatly increases the range of potential atmospheric missions for tether systems.

Biswell, Brian Lee

319

Variables Affecting Earth's Albedo  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Earth's albedo is the fraction of incoming radiation (sunlight) that is reflected into space. The Earth has an average albedo, which describes how much sunlight is reflected on average for the whole planet and the whole year. The Earth also has a local albedo, which determines how much of the Sun's light is reflected from a particular place at a particular time. The local albedo depends on the particular local surface, which can change seasonally as vegetation changes. It also depends on more rapidly changing things such as snow and clouds. In this lesson, students will investigate one of the variables that affect the Earth's albedo. They will collect and graph data on Earth's albedo from two surface types at the same latitude over a period of two years. They will then use the data to calculate how much difference there is in Earth's albedo between the two locations and suggest reasons for the differences.

320

Earth: Inside and Out  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This book of 19 essays, written by Earth scientists, provides insight into the dynamic processes that shape the Earth. The essays are supported by case studies describing a range of research projects (including Looking for Life in Antarctica-and Mars, Mapping Mt. Rainer, and Mapping Hot Springs on the Deep Ocean Floor) and profiles of historically significant Earth scientists (Including Inge Lehmann, Milutin Milankovitch, and Harold C. Urey). The essays, case studies, and profiles are organized along the same themes explored in the American Museum of Natural History (AMNH) Gottesman Hall of Planet Earth, (How do we read the rocks?; How has the Earth evolved?; Why are there ocean basins, mountains and continents?; What causes climate and climate change?; Why is the Earth habitable?) a large, permanent exhibition that opened at the Museum in 1999.

2001-05-01

321

Variations in earth rotation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present conference on variations in the earth's rotation encompasses geophysical effects on earth rotation (ER) parameters, the relationship of ER with tides and oceans, terrestrial and celestial reference systems for measuring ER, refinements of terrestial reference frames, the relationship between length of day and atmospheric angular momentum, and long-term fluctuations of ER parameters. Specific issues addressed include the variational calculation of wobble modes, the long-period elastic behavior of the earth, tidal deceleration of the earth, geophysical implications of the earth's forced nutations, and the study of fluid-solid earth-coupling processes with satellite altimeter data. Also addressed are atmospheric excitation of the ER rate, ER and climatic periodicities, ENSO-related signals in ER, station coordinates and ER parameters, short-period UT1 variations from Iris daily VLBI observations, and the definition and realization of terrestrial reference systems for monitoring ER.

McCarthy, Dennis D.; Carter, William E.

322

Earth surface reflectance climatology from 3 years of OMI data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global maps of the Earth's surface Lambertian equivalent reflectance (LER) are constructed using 3 years of Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) measurements obtained between October 2004 and October 2007 at 23 wavelengths between 328 and 500 nm. The maps are constructed on a 0.5° by 0.5° longitude-latitude grid for each calendar month using an algorithm based on temporal histograms of the observed LER values per geophysical location. The algorithm allows seasonal effects related to vegetation, snow, and ice but excludes statistical outliers. The maps show typical features like open ocean regions with high reflectivity indicative of low phytoplankton levels, coastal waters with high reflectance caused by silt, and oceanic regions with low reflectance correlated with chlorophyll. Open oceans in general have a higher reflectivity than does land up to 420 nm. The highest reflectivity values of oceans occur at 380 nm. Good agreement is found with a similar LER map based on data from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) at 331, 340, 360, and 380 nm, which is 0.015 lower on average. The comparison with data from the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) at 335, 380, 440, and 494 nm is also satisfactory, being 0.005 lower on average. The LER derived from OMI data is approximately 0.02 higher than the black sky albedo as derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer at 470 nm, which is partly related to viewing geometry effects of the bidirectional reflectance distribution function of the surface. The data set presented contains residual cloud features over tropical rain forest regions, has a higher spatial resolution than those created using TOMS and GOME data, and includes more wavelengths.

Kleipool, Q. L.; Dobber, M. R.; de Haan, J. F.; Levelt, P. F.

2008-09-01

323

Earth's Changing Surface  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site presents changes in the crust and climate of Earth by investigating aspects such as the rock cycle, rock dating, climate and variables that affect the climate, and other processes that change the crust of the Earth. These topics include: the atmosphere and surface of Earth; volcanoes and earthquakes; igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks; and weathering and erosion. There are also laboratory activities to explore radioactive dating and the asthenosphere as well as a rock formation quiz.

324

EarthWise Journeys  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

EarthWise Journeys is an independent resource for travel adventures worldwide with special emphasis on socially responsible travel, cross-cultural exchange, and the environment. EarthWise Journeys is dedicated to travelers who seek environmental awareness, adventure, personal growth, and discovery of our global community. EarthWise Journeys assists members find fun and rewarding travel adventures, learning opportunities, volunteer trips with non-profits, and personal retreats. In addition to travel planning, members receive newsletters, the discount airfares ...and more.

1998-01-01

325

Sun-Earth Days  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sun-Earth Day is a well-coordinated series of programs, resources and events under a unique yearly theme highlighting the fundamentals of heliophysics research and missions. A menu of activities, conducted throughout the year, inspire and educate participants. Sun-Earth Day itself can vary in date, but usually is identified by a celebration on or near the spring equinox. Through the Sun-Earth Day

J. Thieman; C. Ng; E. Lewis; T. Cline

2010-01-01

326

Earth in Motion: Seasons  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Earth's orbit around the Sun, together with the tilt of its axis, results in periodic climate changes around the globe known as seasons. Different locations experience different types of climate changes. For example, some places have extreme seasonal changes in temperature, while others have little temperature change but may have rainy and dry seasons. This interactive activity from the Adler Planetarium explains why Earth experiences seasons and has students properly place Earth in its orbit for particular seasons in specific locations.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2009-07-13

327

Earth at Night  

NASA Video Gallery

This view of Earth at night is a cloud-free view from space as acquired by the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership Satellite. A joint program by NASA and NOAA, Suomi NPP captured this nighttime image by the day-night band of the satellite's Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite VIIRS. It combines the Earth at night view created by NASA's Earth Observatory with data processed by NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center with the EO Blue Marble: Next Generation. Credit: NASA Goddard/NASA's Earth Observatory/NOAA/DOD › Related story› Download high-res video

gsfcvideo

2012-12-04

328

The Earth's early evolution.  

PubMed

The Archean crust contains direct geochemical information of the Earth's early planetary differentiation. A major outstanding question in the Earth sciences is whether the volume of continental crust today represents nearly all that formed over Earth's history or whether its rates of creation and destruction have been approximately balanced since the Archean. Analysis of neodymium isotopic data from the oldest remnants of Archean crust suggests that crustal recycling is important and that preserved continental crust comprises fragments of crust that escaped recycling. Furthermore, the data suggest that the isotopic evolution of Earth's mantle reflects progressive eradication of primordial heterogeneities related to early differentiation. PMID:7667634

Bowring, S A; Housh, T

1995-09-15

329

Earth and Moon Viewer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

At this site you can view either a map of the Earth showing the day and night regions at this moment, or view the Earth from the Sun, the Moon, the night side of the Earth, above any location on the planet specified by latitude, longitude and altitude, from a satellite in Earth orbit, or above various cities around the globe. Images can be generated based on a full-colour image of the Earth by day and night, a topographical map of the Earth, up-to-date weather satellite imagery, or a composite image of cloud cover superimposed on a map of the Earth, or a color composite which shows clouds, land and sea temperatures, and ice. In addition to the Earth, you can also view the Moon from the Earth, Sun, night side, above named formations on the lunar surface or as a map showing day and night. A related document compares the appearance of the Moon at perigee and apogee, including an interactive Perigee and Apogee Calculator.

Walker, John

1999-03-27

330

The Flat Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students are exposed to a compelling idea: the Earth really IS flat! They are challenged to provide evidence for a spherical earth, then present evidence (experiences) for a flat Earth, discuss the relative strengths of the evidence, and reach conclusions. They look at the nature of science and pseudoscience and examine the flat Earth idea in that context. The social context of science is also explored, with the roles of collaboration and past experience biases being emphasized. The role of science in exposing illusions in nature is also mentioned.

Beard, Jean

331

Infinite Line Pressure Probe.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The infinite line pressure probe provides a means for measuring high frequency fluctuating pressures in difficult environments. A properly designed infinite line probe does not resonate; thus its frequency response is not limited by acoustic resonance in ...

D. R. Englund W. B. Richards

1984-01-01

332

Multilayer Capacitor Model of the Earth's Upper Crust  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, an equivalent electric circuit model of Earth's upper crust is proposed to explain the behavior of measurement patterns acquired from network of the earthquake forecast project. A multi-layer capacitor model having active components that couples with the monopolar probe close to the surface is used to determine earthquake precursory patterns due to structural changes in time. Equivalent

IDO GAN

2005-01-01

333

Time domain reflectometry (TDR) applications in Earth sciences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Time domain reflectometry (TDR) is becoming the method of choice for measurement of water content and electrical conductivity in Earth materials. New TDR devices designed specifically for measurements in porous media are cheap, robust, and amenable to automation for continuous monitoring. TDR probes are often designed for direct insertion into soil or rock using only a few conductors to minimize

D. Or; S. B. Jones

2002-01-01

334

Spaced based infrared detection and characterization of near earth objects  

Microsoft Academic Search

An infrared space-based survey system would be an invaluable adjunct to the ground based visible searches for the discovery of Near Earth Objects (NEOs). It would significantly increase the discovery rate of NEOs and would have unique capabilities to probe their physical character. An infrared NEO survey compensates for the bias of visible searches to preferentially discover high albedo objects

Stephan D. Price; Michael P. Egan

2001-01-01

335

Introduction to corrosion probes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dow Chemical USA's introduction to corrosion-probe technology briefly summarizes existing industrial probe systems, how they work, and their applications. Dow describes the principal characteristics and functions of linear-polarization and electrical-resistance corrosion probes. Linear probes measure the potential of a test vs. a reference electrode and apply 10, 15, or 20 mV positive or negative overpotential to the test electrode by

Macki

1977-01-01

336

Did Tom Kuhn actually Meet Tom Bayes?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wesley Salmon and John Earman have presented influential Bayesian reconstructions of Thomas Kuhn’s account of theory-change.\\u000a In this paper I argue that all attempts to give a Bayesian reading of Kuhn’s philosophy of science are fundamentally misguided\\u000a due to the fact that Bayesian confirmation theory is in fact inconsistent with Kuhn’s account. The reasons for this inconsistency\\u000a are traced to

Lefteris Farmakis

2008-01-01

337

High temperature probe  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high temperature probe for sampling, for example, smokestack fumes, and is able to withstand temperatures of 3000.degree. F. The probe is constructed so as to prevent leakage via the seal by placing the seal inside the water jacket whereby the seal is not exposed to high temperature, which destroys the seal. The sample inlet of the probe is also

Swan; Raymond A

1994-01-01

338

High temperature probe  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high temperature probe is described for sampling, for example, smokestack fumes, and is able to withstand temperatures of 3000 F. The probe is constructed so as to prevent leakage via the seal by placing the seal inside the water jacket whereby the seal is not exposed to high temperature, which destroys the seal. The sample inlet of the probe

Swan

1994-01-01

339

Photonic electromagnetic field probes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary form only given. Optically sensed probes designed to accurately measure electromagnetic fields are described. The probes use passive electrooptic modulators of Pockels cell or integrated optics designs to transfer the electromagnetic signal to an optical carrier propagating in a fibre-optic link. This approach eliminates the need for active components or power sources in the probe head. It minimizes the

M. Kanda; K. D. Masterson; D. R. Novotny

1992-01-01

340

Earth as a System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The representation shows earthquake and volcanic activity corresponds to plate boundaries. This video clip is part of a movie that describes the Earth as a system. The clip referenced in this review begins midway through the video, with the statement "Draining the ocean reveals that the Earth's solid surface..." and concludes with "Like earthquakes, most volcanoes are located near plate boundaries."

341

Low Level Earth Motion.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Constructing P-velocity models to fit restricted sets of travel-time data; Inversion of inaccurate gross earth data; Tidal to seismic frequency investigations with a quartz; Accelerometer of new geometry; Earth normal modes from a 6.5 magnitude ...

R. A. Haubrich G. Backus B. Block F. Gilbert R. D. Moore

1970-01-01

342

Rare earth permanent magnets  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey is given of the state of the art in rare earth permanent magnet research of materials based on Nd2Fe14B. The magnetic properties of various types of interstitially modified Fe-rich rare earth intermetallics are discussed, including the possibility to apply these materials in permanent magnets.

K. H. J. Buschow; F. H. Feijen; Kees de Kort

1995-01-01

343

Density of the Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This demonstration of average density uses understandable units of total mass and volume of the Earth. The required supplies are a can of beer or soda and a 1-pound bag of pretzels. By imagining, for instance, 4.4 bags of pretzels fitting into a beer/soda can, students can better visualize the average density of the Earth.

Barker, Jeffrey

344

The Earth's Dynamic Magnetotail  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geomagnetic field lines that are stretched on the nightside of the Earth due to reconnection with the interplanetary magnetic field constitute the Earth's magnetotail. The magnetotail is a dynamic entity where energy imparted from the solar wind is stored and then released to generate disturbance phenomena such as substorms. This paper gives an updated overview on the physics of the

A. Nishida

2000-01-01

345

Earth System Science Project  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|For several decades, science teachers have used bottles for classroom projects designed to teach students about biology. Bottle projects do not have to just focus on biology, however. These projects can also be used to engage students in Earth science topics. This article describes the Earth System Science Project, which was adapted and developed…

Rutherford, Sandra; Coffman, Margaret

2004-01-01

346

Earth Charter Initiative  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Earth Charter is a declaration of fundamental principles for building a just, sustainable, and peaceful global society in the 21st century. The principles of the Earth Charter reflect extensive international consultations conducted over a period of many years. These principles are also based upon contemporary science, international law, and the insights of philosophy and religion.

2007-09-28

347

Know Your Earth  

NASA Video Gallery

This animated video shares a series of fascinating facts about how climate change affects oceans, land, the atmosphere and ice sheets around the world. With the help of an animated astronaut touring the Earth, the video explains how NASA’s Earth-observing satellite fleet enables scientists to gather accurate data and understand those changes.

gsfcvideo

2010-06-30

348

NASA Visible Earth: Runoff  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The NASA Visible Earth site is a searchable collection of images of the Earth taken by orbiting satellites. This section features a variety of images specifically illustrating effects of runoff. Each image is available in one or more graphic formats and sizes, and is accompanied by a description, as well as detailed metadata about how the image was obtained.

349

The Earth Charter  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Humanity is part of a vast evolving universe. Earth is alive with a unique community of life. The forces of nature make existence a demanding and uncertain adventure, but Earth has provided the conditions essential to life's evolution. The resilience of the community of life and the well-being of humanity depend upon preserving a healthy…

Journal of Education for Sustainable Development, 2010

2010-01-01

350

The Earth's Core.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The nature of the earth's core is described. Indirect evidence (such as that determined from seismological data) indicates that it is an iron alloy, solid toward its center but otherwise liquid. Evidence also suggests that it is the turbulent flow of the liquid that generates the earth's magnetic field. (JN)|

Jeanloz, Raymond

1983-01-01

351

Candy Bar Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students model Earth's interior and plate tectonics (movement at the boundaries) by manipulating taffy and a Milky Way candy bar. This is a worksheet-led activity to help students "visualize" the movement of the plates and to relate Earth's interior to objects they see on a regular basis.

Workshop, Rocks A.

2009-05-04

352

Earth Science Vocabulary Review  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collection of activities lets students test their knowledge of hundreds of random geologic terms. The activities include games such as hangman (several varieties), flash cards, guessing words or definitions, and matching terms with definitions. Topics include rocks and minerals, Earth dynamics, Earth history, surface processes, weather, and astronomy.

353

Earth Island Institute  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Visitors to this homepage can learn about the Earth Island Institute and its mission, origins, and purpose. Materials include summaries of projects designed to promote conservation, preservation, and restoration of the Earth, a biography of the organization's founder, news articles, and information for people who wish to become involved in conservation or outreach efforts.

354

Earth as a System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This short video uses animated imagery from satellite remote sensing systems to illustrate that Earth is a complex, evolving body characterized by ceaseless change. Adapted from NASA, this visualization helps explain why understanding Earth as an integrated system of components and processes is essential to science education.

Wgbh/boston

355

Earth Science Books  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This OLogy reference list has nine kid-friendly books on Earth science. A short description is given for each title, along with author name and publisher. The list includes illustrated looks at the powerful forces of nature, hands-on science activities for kids that introduce them to how the Earth works, guides to weather, rocks and minerals, the solar system, and more.

356

Rare earth containing magnets  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a rare earth-ferromagnetic metal alloy permanent magnet. Produced by the method comprising the steps of: mixing a particular additive material selected from the group consisting of refractory oxides, carbides, and nitrides, in an amount which provides about 0.1 percent to about 2 percent by weight additive material in the mixture, with a major amount of a particulate rare earth-ferromagnetic metal, and a minor amount of a particulate rate earth-ferromagnetic metal sintering aid alloy; aligning magnetic domains of the mixture in a magnetic field; compacting the aligned mixture to form a shape; sintering the compacted shape; and wherein the method produces a magnet composition containing a major phase amount of the particulate rare earth-ferromagnetic metal alloy, a minor phase amount of the particulate rare earth-ferromagnetic metal sintering aid alloy, and added oxide, carbide or nitride from the particulate additive.

Ghandehari, M.H.

1990-01-01

357

The Earth's Atmosphere  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This section of the Windows to the Universe web site provides information and images about Earth's atmosphere including detailed information about the layers of Earth's atmosphere, the greenhouse effect, and weather. Windows to the Universe is a user-friendly learning system pertaining to the Earth and Space sciences. The objective of this project is to develop an innovative and engaging web site that spans the Earth and Space sciences and includes a rich array of documents, including images, movies, animations, and data sets that explore the Earth and Space sciences and the historical and cultural ties between science, exploration and the human experience. Links at the top of each page allow users to navigate between beginner, intermediate and advanced levels.

Johnson, Roberta

2000-07-01

358

Earth Science Week evolves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earth Science Week, October 7-13, is an annual grassroots effort sponsored by the American Geological Institute (AGI) and its member societies, of which AGU is the largest. This year, for the first time, Earth Science Week has a general theme, evolution in Earth history. The Earth Science Week information kit for 2001, available from AGI, includes a variety of posters, bookmarks, and other materials that illustrate this concept. The kit contains a new 32-page “Ideas and Activities” booklet that emphasizes evolution in Earth history through an array of activities about rocks, fossils, and geologic time. It also has information on the upcoming Public Broadcasting Service series, “Evolution,” which is to be aired in late September.

359

Muon diagnostics of the Earth’s atmosphere and magnetosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method of distant monitoring of the Earth’s magnetosphere and atmosphere is described, which is based on the close correlation\\u000a between the modulations in the flux of atmospheric muons detected at the Earth’s surface and the dynamic processes in the\\u000a Earth’s magnetosphere and atmosphere and implies the use of large-area muon hodoscopes with high angular accuracy of muon\\u000a detection. The

N. S. Barbashina; V. V. Borog; A. N. Dmitrieva; R. P. Kokoulin; K. G. Kompaniets; A. A. Petrukhin; D. A. Timashkov; V. V. Shutenko; I. I. Yashin

2007-01-01

360

Imaging the Earth's Interior: the Angular Distribution of Terrestrial Neutrinos  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Decays of radionuclides throughout the earth’s interior produce geothermal heat, but also are a source of antineutrinos; these geoneutrinos are now becoming observable in experiments such as KamLAND. The (angle-integrated) geoneutrino flux has been shown to provide a unique probe of geothermal heating due to decays, and an integral constraint on the distribution of radionuclides in the earth. In this paper, we calculate the angular distribution of geoneutrinos, which opens a window on the differential radial distribution of terrestrial radionuclides. We develop the general formalism for the neutrino angular distribution. We also present the inverse transformation which recovers the terrestrial radioisotope distribution given a measurement of the neutrino angular distribution. Thus, geoneutrinos not only allow a means to image the earth’s interior, but offer a direct measure of the radioactive earth, both revealing the earth’s inner structure as probed by radionuclides, and allowing a complete determination of the radioactive heat generation as a function of radius. Turning to specific models, we emphasize the very useful approximation in which the earth is modeled as a series of shells of uniform density. Using this multishell approximation, we present the geoneutrino angular distribution for the favored earth model which has been used to calculate the geoneutrino flux. In this model the neutrino generation is dominated by decays of potassium, uranium, and thorium in the earth’s mantle and crust; this leads to a very “peripheral” angular distribution, in which 2/3 of the neutrinos come from angles ? ? 60° away from the nadir. We note that a measurement of the neutrino intensity in peripheral directions leads to a strong lower limit to the central intensity. We briefly discuss the challenges facing experiments to measure the geoneutrino angular distribution. Currently available techniques using inverse beta decay of protons require a (for now) unfeasibly large number of events to recover with confidence the forward scattering signal from the background of subsequent elastic scatterings. Nevertheless, it is our hope that future large experiments, and/or more sensitive techniques, can resolve an image of the earth’s radioactive interior.

Fields, Brian D.; Hochmuth, Kathrin A.

2006-12-01

361

Determining Relative Expression for Probe Groups in Probe Arrays.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A method of determining relative expression for probe groups in probe arrays includes: determining probe values for one or more probe arrays of a baseline category and multiple probe arrays of an experimental category, where each probe array includes a pl...

J. B. Aimone F. H. Gage

2005-01-01

362

Environmental Characterization of Global Sources of Atmospheric Soil Dust Identified with the NIMBUS-7 TOMS Absorbing Aerosol Product  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) sensor provides information on the global distribution of absorbing aerosol, i.e., mineral dust and smoke. We use the TOMS absorbing aerosol data obtained on the NIMBUS-7 satellite over the period 1980-1992 to map the global distribution of major atmospheric dust sources with the goal of identifying common environmental characteristics. The largest and most persistent sources are located in the Northern Hemisphere, mainly in a broad "dust belt" that extends from the west coast of North Africa, over the Middle East, Central and South Asia, to China. There is remarkably little large-scale dust activity outside this region. In particular the Southern Hemisphere is devoid of major dust activity. Dust sources, regardless of size or strength, can usually be associated with topographical lows located in arid regions with annual rainfall under 200-250 mm. Although the source regions themselves are arid or hyper-arid, the action of water is evident from the presence of ephemeral streams, rivers, lakes, and playas. Most major sources have been intermittently flooded through the Quaternary as evidenced by deep alluvial deposits. Many sources are associated with areas where human impacts are well documented - e.g., the Caspian and Aral Seas; Tigris-Euphrates River Basin, southwestern North America, the loess-lands in China. Nonetheless, the largest and most active sources are located in truly remote areas where there is little or no human activity. Thus on a global scale dust mobilization appears to be dominated by natural sources. Dust activity is extremely sensitive to many environmental parameters. The identification of major sources will enable us to focus on critical regions and to characterize emission rates in response to environmental conditions. With such knowledge we will be better able to improve global dust models and to assess the effects of climate change on emissions in the future. It will also facilitate the interpretation of the paleoclimate record based on dust contained in ocean sediments and ice cores.

Torres, O.; Prospero, J. M.; Ginoux, P.; Nicholson, S. E.; Gill, T. E.

2001-12-01

363

The Moon and the Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How does the moon affect the Earth? Read the information on the following websites to help you learn about the moon and the earth. Easy Moon/Earth info Easy Moon Info Moon Information Moon Photos Moon Phases ...

Benson, Carrie

2012-01-06

364

Unitized high temperature probes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The invention comprises a single piece metallic probe manufactured from high temperature material. The probe has integral kiel heads for static instrumentation and is formed in an airfoil shape that minimizes its negative effects on the engine flow stream. In the preferred embodiment of the invention the probe is manufactured by electrical discharge machining from a single piece of stock material. Other aspects of the preferred embodiment of the invention comprise an integral platform for attachment of the probe to an engine housing and static sensors mounted in integral kiel heads positioned on the leading edge of the probe airfoil. It is also preferred that the probe be manufactured from a high temperature material such as an Inconel nickel alloy. In an alternate embodiment of the invention the probe body may be manufactured by a casting method such as powdered metallurgy and finished machined by electrical discharge machining.

Komanetsky, Frederick J.

1986-07-01

365

Replacing critical rare earth materials in high energy density magnets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High energy density permanent magnets are crucial to the design of internal permanent magnet motors (IPM) for hybride and electric vehicles and direct drive wind generators. Current motor designs use rare earth permanent magnets which easily meet the performance goals, however, the rising concerns over cost and foreign control of the current supply of rare earth resources has motivated a search for non-rare earth based permanent magnets alloys with performance metrics which allow the design of permanent magnet motors and generators without rare earth magnets. This talk will discuss the state of non-rare-earth permanent magnets and efforts to both improve the current materials and find new materials. These efforts combine first principles calculations and meso-scale magnetic modeling with advance characterization and synthesis techniques in order to advance the state of the art in non rare earth permanent magnets. The use of genetic algorithms in first principle structural calculations, combinatorial synthesis in the experimental search for materials, atom probe microscopy to characterize grain boundaries on the atomic level, and other state of the art techniques will be discussed. In addition the possibility of replacing critical rare earth elements with the most abundant rare earth Ce will be discussed.

McCallum, R. William

2012-02-01

366

The Huygens probe—space history in many ways  

Microsoft Academic Search

The European Space Agency's Huygens probe, developed under the prime contractorship of Alcatel Alenia Space, has on the 14th January 2005 arrived at its final destination, Saturn's largest Moon Titan. This event provides a major step in our solar system exploration activities and represents a significant contribution to the exploration of Titan, an Earth-like body in many respects. The road

Anne Marie Schipper; Jean-Pierre Lebreton

2006-01-01

367

Radioactive decay to propel relativistic interstellar probes along a rectilinear hyperbolic motion (Rindler spacetime)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this academy transactions note, we study a type of relativistic interstellar flight that would enable an unmanned space probe to reach the nearest stars in a few decades’ time. “Time” here means “proper time”, that is the time aboard the probe, a little shorter than the time elapsed on Earth for the same flight.We consider what in special relativity

Claudio Maccone

2005-01-01

368

Images of Earth and Space II  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This videotape tours the Solar System and outer space using scientific visualizations from Goddard Space Flight Center, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, and the HPCC Earth and Space Sciences Project. At the Sun, simulations investigate processes that create magnetic field and release energetic particles. Earth science begins with the Pacific Ocean, studying the 1997-98 El Nino and Cyclone Susan. Crossing the globe, visualizations trace North Americas East Coast and ocean currents in the North Atlantic Ocean. The lights of the worlds cities then show human impact. Next, two models probe nearby-space phenomena, fluid behavior in microgravity conditions and an asteroid collision. A jaunt to Mars explores the mountains and trenches of its dry, rocky exterior. The video concludes at a binary neutron star system, where two city-sized objects with the Suns mass merge in a titanic explosion.

Kekesi, Alex; Shoan, Wendy; Antiochos, Brendan; Wynn, William; Shirah, Greg; Maher, Steve

1998-10-23

369

Galileo Earth Views (WMS)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Galileo spacecraft was launched from the Space Shuttle Atlantis on October 18, 1989 on a six-year trip to Jupiter. On the way, the trajectory of the spacecraft took it past Venus once and Earth twice. Galileo took the Earth images in this animation just after the first flyby of the Earth, on December 11 and 12, 1990. This six-hour sequence of images taken two minutes apart clearly shows how the Earth looks from space and how fast (or slow) the cloud features change when looked at from a distance. The path of the sun can be seen crossing Australia by its reflection in the nearby ocean, and the terminator region between night and day can be seen moving across the Indian Ocean. In the original images, the Earths rotation is so dominant that cloud movement is hard to see, but these images have been mapped to the Earth is such a way that a viewer can watch just the clouds move in the ocean around Antarctica or across the Austrailian land mass. In this animation, New Zealand can ony be seen as a stationary disturbance under a moving cloud bank. The black area with the sharp boundary to the north and east of Australia is the side of the Earth that could not be seen from Galileos position.

Mitchell, Horace

2004-08-13

370

Sun-Earth Days  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sun-Earth Day is a well-coordinated series of programs, resources and events under a unique yearly theme highlighting the fundamentals of heliophysics research and missions. A menu of activities, conducted throughout the year, inspire and educate participants. Sun-Earth Day itself can vary in date, but usually is identified by a celebration on or near the spring equinox. Through the Sun-Earth Day framework we have been able to offer a series of coordinated events that promote and highlight the Sun, its connection to Earth and the other planets. Sun-Earth Day events are hosted by educators, museums, amateur astronomers and scientists and occur at schools, community groups, parks, planetaria and science centers around the globe. Sun-Earth Day raises the awareness and knowledge of formal and informal education audiences concerning space weather and heliophysics. By building on the success of Sun-Earth Day yearly celebrations, we seek to affect people of all backgrounds and ages with the wonders of heliophysics science, discovery, and exploration in ways that are both tangible and meaningful to their lives.

Thieman, J.; Ng, C.; Lewis, E.; Cline, T.

2010-08-01

371

Watering the Earth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite our living embedded in the Earth environment, the origin of water on Earth is one of the most puzzling enigmas in the planetary sciences. Our planet that spawned our watery origins presently carries enough surface water in vapor or liquid form to cover the entire planet to a depth of about 3 km. Earth has substantially more water than scientists would expect to find at 1 A.U. Other compounds and elements also readily vaporize at Earth's distance. Previous proposed solutions to the puzzle considered comets as a viable source of the water, until spectral analysis of the comets Halley, Hyakutake, and Hale-Bopp, during their near-Earth passes in 1986, 1996 and 1997 showed that the abundance of the deuterium isotope of water is twice that found in Earth's water. Recent dynamical models [1] and the current best geochemical and water abundance data indicate that parent bodies from an overlooked region in the solar system, the inner asteroid belt, are promising as the primary source for Earth's water. References [1] O'Brien, David P.; Morbidelli, Alessandro; Levison, Harold F. (2006), Terrestrial Planet Formation with Strong Dynamical Friction, Icarus in press.

Graps, Amara L.; Lunine, J. I.; Coradini, A.; O'Brien, D. P.; Morbidelli, A.

2006-09-01

372

Accretion of the Earth.  

PubMed

The origin of the Earth and its Moon has been the focus of an enormous body of research. In this paper I review some of the current models of terrestrial planet accretion, and discuss assumptions common to most works that may require re-examination. Density-wave interactions between growing planets and the gas nebula may help to explain the current near-circular orbits of the Earth and Venus, and may result in large-scale radial migration of proto-planetary embryos. Migration would weaken the link between the present locations of the planets and the original provenance of the material that formed them. Fragmentation can potentially lead to faster accretion and could also damp final planet orbital eccentricities. The Moon-forming impact is believed to be the final major event in the Earth's accretion. Successful simulations of lunar-forming impacts involve a differentiated impactor containing between 0.1 and 0.2 Earth masses, an impact angle near 45 degrees and an impact speed within 10 per cent of the Earth's escape velocity. All successful impacts-with or without pre-impact rotation-imply that the Moon formed primarily from material originating from the impactor rather than from the proto-Earth. This must ultimately be reconciled with compositional similarities between the Earth and the Moon. PMID:18826928

Canup, Robin M

2008-11-28

373

Earth's Earliest Atmospheres  

PubMed Central

Earth is the one known example of an inhabited planet and to current knowledge the likeliest site of the one known origin of life. Here we discuss the origin of Earth’s atmosphere and ocean and some of the environmental conditions of the early Earth as they may relate to the origin of life. A key punctuating event in the narrative is the Moon-forming impact, partly because it made Earth for a short time absolutely uninhabitable, and partly because it sets the boundary conditions for Earth’s subsequent evolution. If life began on Earth, as opposed to having migrated here, it would have done so after the Moon-forming impact. What took place before the Moon formed determined the bulk properties of the Earth and probably determined the overall compositions and sizes of its atmospheres and oceans. What took place afterward animated these materials. One interesting consequence of the Moon-forming impact is that the mantle is devolatized, so that the volatiles subsequently fell out in a kind of condensation sequence. This ensures that the volatiles were concentrated toward the surface so that, for example, the oceans were likely salty from the start. We also point out that an atmosphere generated by impact degassing would tend to have a composition reflective of the impacting bodies (rather than the mantle), and these are almost without exception strongly reducing and volatile-rich. A consequence is that, although CO- or methane-rich atmospheres are not necessarily stable as steady states, they are quite likely to have existed as long-lived transients, many times. With CO comes abundant chemical energy in a metastable package, and with methane comes hydrogen cyanide and ammonia as important albeit less abundant gases.

Zahnle, Kevin; Schaefer, Laura; Fegley, Bruce

2010-01-01

374

Magnetic Reconnection X-Line Retreat Associated with Dipolarization of the Earth's Magnetosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic reconnection is the key process of plasma transport in the Earth's magnetotail. The `X-line' where magnetic field lines reconnect often moves away from the Earth. However, the precise cause of the X-line motion remains unclear. Here we present data from five THEMIS probes positioned along the Sun-Earth line and show that a tailward retreat motion of the X-line (detected by the outermost probe P1) occurred when a dipolarization of the inner magnetosphere turned into its recovery phase (observed by the inner probes P3, P4 and P5 as a pressure decrease). At an intermediate location (P2), the total pressure was increasing. These observations are consistent with the idea that the pressure increase in the inner magnetosphere eventually causes the X-line to retreat tailward. Because of the large scale pressure gradient along the Sun-Earth line, we suggest that magnetotail reconnection may become asymmetric in the outflow direction.

Oka, M.; Phan, T.; Eastwood, J. P.; Angelopoulos, V.; Murphy, N. A.; Oieroset, M.; Miyashita, Y.; Fujimoto, M.; McFadden, J. P.; Larson, D. E.

2011-12-01

375

Earth in Motion: Seasons  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Earth's orbit around the Sun, together with the tilt of its axis, results in periodic climate changes around the globe known as seasons. Different locations experience different types of climate changes. For example, some places have extreme seasonal changes in temperature, while others have little temperature change but may have rainy and dry seasons. This interactive feature explains why Earth experiences day and night and has seasons. Students are also asked to properly place Earth in its orbit for particular seasons. A background essay and discussion questions are included.

376

Your Planet Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collection of Earth science presentations covers various topics, including volcanoes, dinosaurs, ice ages, plate tectonics, and geologic time, . Aimed at the 14-15 years age group, they introduce key Earth sciences subjects with a focus on current debate and basic science concepts. Each talk includes a Powerpoint presentation, lecture notes and exercises. There is also a training module that may be used by instructors/outreach coordinators in Earth sciences institutes to train presenters before they take the science show into schools.

377

The Earth's Magnetic Field  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The magnetic field of the Earth is contained in a region called the magnetosphere. The magnetosphere prevents most of the particles from the sun, carried in solar wind, from hitting the Earth. This site, produced by the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR), uses text, scientific illustrations,and remote imagery to explain the occurrence and nature of planetary magnetic fields and magnetospheres, how these fields interact with the solar wind to produce phenomena like auroras, and how magnetic fields of the earth and other planets can be detected and measured by satellite-borne magnetometers.

378

Rare earth gas laser  

DOEpatents

A high energy gas laser with light output in the infrared or visible region of the spectrum is described. Laser action is obtained by generating vapors of rare earth halides, particularly neodymium iodide or, to a lesser extent, neodymium bromide, and disposing the rare earth vapor medium in a resonant cavity at elevated temperatures; e.g., approximately 1200/sup 0/ to 1400/sup 0/K. A particularly preferred gaseous medium is one involving a complex of aluminum chloride and neodymium chloride, which exhibits tremendously enhanced vapor pressure compared to the rare earth halides per se, and provides comparable increases in stored energy densities.

Krupke, W.F.

1975-10-31

379

Multiple 40-kDa Heat-Shock Protein Chaperones Function in Tom70-dependent Mitochondrial Import  

PubMed Central

Mitochondrial preproteins that are imported via the translocase of the mitochondrial outer membrane (Tom)70 receptor are complexed with cytosolic chaperones before targeting to the mitochondrial outer membrane. The adenine nucleotide transporter (ANT) follows this pathway, and its purified mature form is identical to the preprotein. Purified ANT was reconstituted with chaperones in reticulocyte lysate, and bound proteins were identified by mass spectrometry. In addition to 70-kDa heat-shock cognate protein (Hsc70) and 90-kDa heat-shock protein (Hsp90), a specific subset of cochaperones were found, but no mitochondria-specific targeting factors were found. Interestingly, three different Hsp40-related J-domain proteins were identified: DJA1, DJA2, and DJA4. The DJAs bound preproteins to different extents through their C-terminal regions. DJA dominant-negative mutants lacking the N-terminal J-domains impaired mitochondrial import. The mutants blocked the binding of Hsc70 to preprotein, but with varying efficiency. The DJAs also showed significant differences in activation of the Hsc70 ATPase and Hsc70-dependent protein refolding. In HeLa cells, the DJAs increased new protein folding and mitochondrial import, although to different extents. No single DJA was superior to the others in all aspects, but each had a profile of partial specialization. The Hsp90 cochaperones p23 and Aha1 also regulated Hsp90–preprotein interactions. We suggest that multiple cochaperones with similar yet partially specialized properties cooperate in optimal chaperone–preprotein complexes.

Bhangoo, Melanie K.; Tzankov, Stefan; Fan, Anna C.Y.; Dejgaard, Kurt; Thomas, David Y.

2007-01-01

380

Industry-wide studies report of industrial hygiene surveys at the Ciba-Geigy Corporation, Toms River, New Jersey  

SciTech Connect

Personal and area samples were collected at each step during the production of a dye batch, except during the removal of the wet cake from the filter press, at the CIBA-Geigy Corporation located in Toms River, New Jersey. All personal monitoring was conducted for o-dianisidine dyes, and the area monitoring was performed for o-dianisidine dyes and total dust. Airborne total dye concentrations as high as 1.64 mg/cu m were generated during the processing of dry dye. However, these were brief excursions occurring adjacent to the process equipment. The operators were required to wear respiratory protection while handling the dye. Air concentrations of dye at work stations next to the blending and grinding of the dye were below 0.24 mg/kg. These operators also wore respiratory protection. The unreacted or free o-dianisidine in the dye C.I.-Direct-Black-91 being processed during the survey was about 11 parts per million. The author recommends that biological monitoring be performed on the workers to obtain more accurate exposure data. Biological monitoring of urine would detect the metabolite of benzidine congener dyes.

Hills, B.

1987-05-01

381

Earthing defect: a cause for unstable hemodynamics.  

PubMed

Interference of monitored electrocardiogram (ECG) is a common event in intensive care units and operation theaters. Artifacts in the ECG tracing can resemble serious arrhythmia, thus leading to unnecessary usage of antiarrhythmics or electrical defibrillation. In addition, ECG artifacts may lead to serious hemodynamic consequences secondary to intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) trigger failure. We report a rare event of IABP failure due to ECG artifact, which appeared on placement of the transthoracic echocardiography probe over the chest. Subsequent evaluation revealed potential current leakage from echocardiography machine secondary to earthing defect in the machine. PMID:22234022

Selvan, R Barani; Rao, Parnandi Bhaskar; Ramachandran, T R; Veliath, David George

382

The Whole Earth Dialogue.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the trend toward more "earth-as-a-system" approaches in research and teaching about global science. Uses the "greenhouse effect" as a prototypical global change problem that requires interdisciplinary problem-solving approaches. (TW)

Schneider, Stephen H.

1988-01-01

383

Understanding Earth: Coal Formation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Supplementary material from Understanding Earth (4th ed.), this short animation guides viewers through the formation of coal and its pathway through different grades. The animation is annotated with labels.

W.H. Freeman & Co. Publishing

384

Soild Earth Teaching Ideas  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These teaching ideas were submitted during the April 2007 workshop on Teaching About the Early Earth. They represent collaborative brainstorming rather than finished products, but they are a useful starting point ...

385

Is Earth Warming?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video is part two of a seven-part National Academies series, Climate Change: Lines of Evidence. The video outlines, with the use of recent research and historical data, how we know that the Earth is warming.

Council, National R.; Academies, The N.

386

The Earth Tides.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In addition to oceans, the earth is subjected to tidal stresses and undergoes tidal deformations. Discusses origin of tides, tidal stresses, and methods of determining tidal deformations (including gravity, tilt, and strain meters). (JN)|

Levine, Judah

1982-01-01

387

Earth Policy Institute  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Earth Policy Institute provides a vision of a sustainable society as well as a roadmap to achieve an environmentally sustainable economy. The website also showcases extensive resources on sustainable development, including a list of links for web sites.

2007-10-16

388

GPM Earth Spin Animation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission is to improve ongoing efforts to predict climate, improve the accuracy of weather and precipitation forecasts, and to provide more frequent and complete sampling of the Earths precipitation.

Snodgrass, Stuart; Thomson, Joycelyn; Newcombe, Marte; Salomonson, Vincent

2003-08-08

389

Exploring Magnetism on Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Understanding the power of magnetism on Earth isnâÂÂt always easy, and students and teachers alike will be glad to find out about this handy guide to the subject. Created by experts at NASA, this 15-page teacherâÂÂs guide was designed in partnership with other educators at Berkeley and several other participating institutions. The guide contains problems which examine EarthâÂÂs changing magnetic field in time and space, and how these changes can impact navigation on EarthâÂÂs surface. In terms of specific activities, the guide includes exercises on navigating the earth with a compass, the declining magnetic field, and the reversal of magnetic polarity. Each of these activities is explained in detail, and they all include relevant illustrations, graphs, questions, and an answer key.

Odenwald, Sten F.; Peticolas, Laura; Craig, N. (Nahide)

2007-04-29

390

Flashlights on Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This three-part, hands-on investigation explores how sunlight's angle of incidence at Earth's surface impacts the amount of solar radiation received in a given area. The activity is supported by PowerPoint slides and background information.

Framework, Environmental L.; Andrill

391

Exploring Magnetism on Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Understanding the power of magnetism on Earth isn't always easy, and students and teachers alike will be glad to find out about this handy guide to the subject. Created by experts at NASA, this 15-page teacher's guide was designed in partnership with other educators at Berkeley as well as several other participating institutions. The guide contains problems which examine Earth's changing magnetic field in time and space, and how these changes can impact navigation on Earth's surface. In terms of specific activities, the guide includes exercises on navigating the earth with a compass, the declining magnetic field, and the reversal of magnetic polarity. Each of these activities is explained in detail, and they all include relevant illustrations, graphs, questions, and an answer key.

Odenwald, Sten F.; Peticolas, Laura; Craig, N. (Nahide)

2005-01-01

392

Earth's fiery start  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The verdant hills, lush valleys, and blue waters that distinguish our planet today weren't there from the beginning. Peering into Earth's genesis, scientists find a world forged in fire and sculpted by ice.

Trefil, James

2007-12-01

393

Earth or Mars?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive activity shows pictures from Earth and Mars and asks you to guess which planet each one is from. The pictures include volcanos, sand dunes, and red dunes, etc. The activity is fun and educational.

Barstow, Daniel

394

Life on Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Life on Earth is a Windows to the Universe Exploratour and provides information and images about life, kingdoms, heterotrophs, autotrophs, animals, fungi, plantae, monera, and evolution. Windows to the Universe is a user-friendly learning system pertaining to the Earth and Space sciences. The objective of this project is to develop an innovative and engaging web site that spans the Earth and Space sciences and includes a rich array of documents, including images, movies, animations, and data sets that explore the Earth and Space sciences and the historical and cultural ties between science, exploration and the human experience. Links at the top of each page allow users to navigate between beginner, intermediate, and advanced options for each topic level.

Johnson, Roberta

2000-07-01

395

Microneurosurgical water probe.  

PubMed

When constructing the micro-neurosurgical water ball probe, the authors have simply combined the properties of a ball probe with an irrigational function and the supportive role of water current to form a new irrigating ball dissector. The micro-instrument has an outlet mechanism with which the surgeon can regulate the flow of physiological solution into the operational field. Its point has the properties of a ball probe, and the overall bayonet shape facilitates surgical interventions in deep tissues under microscopic control. The water probe therefore enables the surgeon to perform precise mechanical preparation supported by a regulated current of water and a targeted irrigation in the operational field. The physiological solution in the pressure infusion cuff is under minimal pressure and directly connected to the probe. Due to the fact that one device can be used for various purposes the water ball probe represents an advantageous alternative to conventional micro-neurosurgical preparation. PMID:15906209

Pogády, P; Wurm, G

2005-04-01

396

Earth orbiting stations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The earth-orbiting station has evolved through Salyut, Skylab, and the Apollo-Soyuz project. The Shuttle combined with Spacelab will permit low-earth-orbit flights of up to 30 days. Later manned and automated free-flying Spacelabs will extend stay-times to 60 days. Bigger space stations housing 6-12 crewmen for up to six months could be built up from modules carried into orbit. Future space

D. W. Patterson; J. W. Gurr; G. V. Butler

1975-01-01

397

Structure of the Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site explains that seismologic studies of the Earth have revealed that it has several distinct layers. Each of these layers has its own properties and this information has helped to give credence to plate tectonic theory. There is an interactive diagram of the Earth that shows and describes the layers. In addition, each layer is described and diagramed in detail. There are also active links to a Glossary of Terms for unfamiliar words in the text.

398

IR Earth Flats Pathfinder  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This program is an experimental path finder for Cycle 18 calibration. {The WFC3 UVIS version of this is program 11914 and contains additional detail in its description}. Infrared-wavelength flat fields will be obtained by observing the dark side of the Earth during periods of full moon illumination. The observations will consist of full-frame streaked WFC3 IR imagery: per single "dark-sky" orbit, we anticipate achieving Poisson S/N > 100 per pixel in each of three to five exposures, depending on sample sequence {SPARS25 or SPARS50}. Why not use the Sunlit Earth? It is too bright for WFC3 IR full-frame minimum exposure time of 3 sec. Similarly, for NICMOS the sunlit-Earth is too bright which saturates the detector too quickly and/or induces abnormal behaviors such as super-shading {Gilmore 1998, NIC 098-011}. In the narrowband IR filters the sunlit earth sometimes is faint enough to not saturate immediately, but based upon predictions {Cox et al. 1987 "Standard Astronomical Sources for HST: 6. Spatially Flat Fields."} and observations {Gilmore 1998}, we consider sunlit Earth unlikely to be successful unless it is twilight. Other possibilities? Cox et al.'s Section II.D addresses many other possible sources for flat fields, rejecting them for a variety of reasons. A remaining possibility would be the totally eclipsed moon. Such eclipses provide approximately 2 hours {1 HST orbit} of opportunity per year, so they are too rare to be generically useful. An advantage of the moon over the Earth is that the moon subtends less than 0.25 square degree, whereas the Earth subtends a steradian or more, so scattered light and light prior to the unshuttered exposure presents additional problems for the Earth. Also, we're unsure if HST can point 180 deg from the Sun.;

McCullough, Peter

2008-07-01

399

Characterizing Extrasolar Earths  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For thousands of years people have wondered, are we alone? Is there life elsewhere in the Universe? For the first time in human history we are on the way to being able to answer this question by plans to search for Earth-like extrasolar planets. This review summarizes the current state of the scientific motivation for Earth-like planet detection and characterization. The relevance of the June 2004 transit of Venus to the the characterization of extrasolar planets is also discussed.

Seager, Sara

2004-06-01

400

Mercury, Venus, and Earth!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

You will compare and contrast Mercury, Venus, and Earth. While looking at these different websites, use the information to fill in your handout of a column chart and on the back answer the questions you are asked on here. First view this website and record on your chart the distance from the sun Mercury,Venus, and Earth are. Now, learn about Mercury! What is the surface ...

Bschiffer

2009-10-21

401

Earth's spectral reflectivity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cyclic spectroscopic observations of the dark and bright sides of the moon (or earthshine and moonshine) have been carried out in the visible spectral region from several astronomical observatories as Earth rotates. The ratio of the earthshine to moonshine has been analyzed to determine the globally-integrated Earth's albedo during the observations. Information concerning to the search of terrestrial planets beyond the solar system can also be obtained from these results.

Montanes, P.

2007-05-01

402

Atom Probe Tomography  

SciTech Connect

This introductory tutorial describes the technique of atom probe tomography for materials characterization at the atomic level. The evolution of the technique from the initial atom probe field ion microscope to today s state-of-the-art three dimensional atom probe is outlined. An introduction is presented on the basic physics behind the technique, the operation of the instrument, and the reconstruction of the three-dimensional data. The common methods for analyzing the three-dimensional atom probe data, including atom maps, isoconcentration surfaces, proximity histograms, maximum separation methods, and concentration frequency distributions, are described.

Miller, Michael K [ORNL; Forbes, Richard [University of Surrey, UK

2009-01-01

403

NASA's Earth Day Video Contest  

NASA Video Gallery

Everyone knows NASA as the space exploration agency. It's easy to forget that exploring Earth is also exploring a celestial body. It is, in fact, the only planet we've ever been to -- our Home Frontier. To learn about NASA's Earth Day video contest, visit: http://www.nasa.gov/topics/earth/features/earth-videos.html

gsfcvideo

2011-04-21

404

Earthshine and the Earth's Reflectivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The earth's climate is driven by the net sunlight reaching the earth, which depends on the solar irradiance and the earth's reflectivity. Changes in the the solar irradiance have been well-studied for twenty years, but the degree of variation in the earth's albedo is not so clear. We have been measuring the earthshine from Big Bear Solar Observatory (BBSO) since

P. R. Goode; J. Hickey; J. Qiu; V. B. Yurchyshyn; S. E. Koonin; T. Brown; E. Kolbe; M. Chu

2000-01-01

405

Radio frequency-compensated Langmuir probe with auxiliary double probes.  

PubMed

A radio frequency (rf) compensation design using auxiliary double probes connected in parallel with a main measurement probe was developed for Langmuir probe diagnostics. This probe structure can reduce the sheath impedance of the main probe. In our probe design, the sheath capacitance of the probe can be increased and its sheath resistance can be decreased with increasing dc bias differential voltage between the auxiliary double probes. The I-V characteristic curve and electron energy distribution functions measured by our probe system had sufficient rf compensation performance in inductively coupled plasmas. PMID:20886976

Oh, Se-Jin; Oh, Seung-Ju; Chung, Chin-Wook

2010-09-01

406

Gravity Probe B / New Source Review  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This 47 minute radio broadcast discusses the Gravity Probe B mission, which tests the general theory of relativity. Four ultra-high-precision gyroscopes on board the craft are looking for evidence of the warping of space by the mass of Earth as the craft orbits some 400 miles above Earth. Was Einstein right? The mission has been over 40 years in the making, and has cost 700 million dollars. The show discusses whether it is worth it. The second part of the broadcast discusses air pollution, the Clean Air Act, and the new source review. There is discussion about why the new source review rule, which governs how new sources of emissions and those undergoing significant renovations are regulated, has the energy industry and environmentalists up in arms.

407

Earth's earliest atmospheres.  

PubMed

Earth is the one known example of an inhabited planet and to current knowledge the likeliest site of the one known origin of life. Here we discuss the origin of Earth's atmosphere and ocean and some of the environmental conditions of the early Earth as they may relate to the origin of life. A key punctuating event in the narrative is the Moon-forming impact, partly because it made Earth for a short time absolutely uninhabitable, and partly because it sets the boundary conditions for Earth's subsequent evolution. If life began on Earth, as opposed to having migrated here, it would have done so after the Moon-forming impact. What took place before the Moon formed determined the bulk properties of the Earth and probably determined the overall compositions and sizes of its atmospheres and oceans. What took place afterward animated these materials. One interesting consequence of the Moon-forming impact is that the mantle is devolatized, so that the volatiles subsequently fell out in a kind of condensation sequence. This ensures that the volatiles were concentrated toward the surface so that, for example, the oceans were likely salty from the start. We also point out that an atmosphere generated by impact degassing would tend to have a composition reflective of the impacting bodies (rather than the mantle), and these are almost without exception strongly reducing and volatile-rich. A consequence is that, although CO- or methane-rich atmospheres are not necessarily stable as steady states, they are quite likely to have existed as long-lived transients, many times. With CO comes abundant chemical energy in a metastable package, and with methane comes hydrogen cyanide and ammonia as important albeit less abundant gases. PMID:20573713

Zahnle, Kevin; Schaefer, Laura; Fegley, Bruce

2010-06-23

408

Geologists probe buried craton in western Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Precambrian cratons—the relatively stable areas of the Earth's crust that form the core of continents—hold the key to understanding how continents evolve, but vast cratonic areas are concealed from scientific probing beneath Phanerozoic sediments. Working for the Alberta Basement Transect (ABT), a part of the Canadian Lithoprobe project, geologists are examining the evolution of the petroleum-rich Western Canada Sedimentary Basin (WCSB). Armed with a variety of techniques, the scientists are resolving features within the sedimentary basin and unravelling the genesis of the underlying Precambrian crust and upper mantle. This represents a new view of a significant and largely unknown part of cratonic North America.

Ross, Gerald M.; Eaton, David W.; Boerner, David E.; Clowes, Ron M.

409

Formative Assessment Probes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Formative assessment probes can be effective tools to help teachers build a bridge between students' initial ideas and scientific ones. In this article, the authors describe how using two formative assessment probes can help teachers determine the extent to which students make similar connections between developing a concept of matter and a…

Eberle, Francis; Keeley, Page

2008-01-01

410

Application of probe manipulator to repair probe cards  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We fabricated an apparatus for manipulation and welding of fine metal objects using a probe. The apparatus is composed of a work probe of a tungsten alloy needle, stages, a DC power supply, and an observation system. The work probe is held vertically above a gold substrate placed on stages to control the relative position against the work probe. The DC power supply is equipped to apply voltage of 0-10kV between the work probe and the substrate. One application of the apparatus is to repair probe cards. Thousands of contact probes (needles) are mounted on the printed circuit board (PCB) in the probe card. The contact probes are mounted one by one by the hands. Recently, an array of the contact probe on the PCB is produced by the LIGA process in response to narrower semiconductor pitch length. The problem is that there are no methods to repair a wrong contact probe. Whole of the contact probes should be a waste owing to one wrong contact probe. We propose to replace a wrong contact probe with a good one using our apparatus. Experiments to remove a contact probe by the apparatus is carried out using the specimen of a mimic probe card, where a cantilever type contact probes are arranged with a pitch of 25 micrometers. Removal of the wrong contact probe is carried out by a non-contact discharge and a contact discharge using the apparatus. High voltage of about 1-2kV is applied after the work probe is moved to above the target contact probe for the non-contact discharge. While high voltage of about10kV is applied after the work probe is positioned in contact with the target contact probe for the contact discharge. The target contact probe is removed by both methods, though the neighboring contact probes are damaged. The latter method is hopeful for removal for repair of the probe card.

Konno, Takeshi; Kobayashi, Mikihiko; Egashira, Mitsuru; Machida, Kazumichi; Urata, Atsuo

2006-04-01

411

PDV Probe Alignment Technique  

SciTech Connect

This alignment technique was developed while performing heterodyne velocimetry measurements at LLNL. There are a few minor items needed, such as a white card with aperture in center, visible alignment laser, IR back reflection meter, and a microscope to view the bridge surface. The work was performed on KCP flyers that were 6 and 8 mils wide. The probes used were Oz Optics manufactured with focal distances of 42mm and 26mm. Both probes provide a spot size of approximately 80?m at 1550nm. The 42mm probes were specified to provide an internal back reflection of -35 to -40dB, and the probe back reflections were measured to be -37dB and -33dB. The 26mm probes were specified as -30dB and both measured -30.5dB. The probe is initially aligned normal to the flyer/bridge surface. This provides a very high return signal, up to -2dB, due to the bridge reflectivity. A white card with a hole in the center as an aperture can be used to check the reflected beam position relative to the probe and launch beam, and the alignment laser spot centered on the bridge, see Figure 1 and Figure 2. The IR back reflection meter is used to measure the dB return from the probe and surface, and a white card or similar object is inserted between the probe and surface to block surface reflection. It may take several iterations between the visible alignment laser and the IR back reflection meter to complete this alignment procedure. Once aligned normal to the surface, the probe should be tilted to position the visible alignment beam as shown in Figure 3, and the flyer should be translated in the X and Y axis to reposition the alignment beam onto the flyer as shown in Figure 4. This tilting of the probe minimizes the amount of light from the bridge reflection into the fiber within the probe while maintaining the alignment as near normal to the flyer surface as possible. When the back reflection is measured after the tilt adjustment, the level should be about -3dB to -6dB higher than the probes specified back reflection. This 3 to 6dB increase in back reflection from the surface relative to the probes specified back reflection is the optimal level for acquiring data from the flyer. Data obtained with the LLNL system is shown in Figure 5.

Whitworth, T L; May, C M; Strand, O T

2007-10-26

412

Modeling the earth system  

SciTech Connect

The 1990 Global Change Institute (GCI) on Earth System Modeling is the third of a series organized by the Office for Interdisciplinary Earth Studies to look in depth at particular issues critical to developing a better understanding of the earth system. The 1990 GCI on Earth System Modeling was organized around three themes: defining critical gaps in the knowledge of the earth system, developing simplified working models, and validating comprehensive system models. This book is divided into three sections that reflect these themes. Each section begins with a set of background papers offering a brief tutorial on the subject, followed by working group reports developed during the institute. These reports summarize the joint ideas and recommendations of the participants and bring to bear the interdisciplinary perspective that imbued the institute. Since the conclusion of the 1990 Global Change Institute, research programs, nationally and internationally, have moved forward to implement a number of the recommendations made at the institute, and many of the participants have maintained collegial interactions to develop research projects addressing the needs identified during the two weeks in Snowmass.

Ojima, D. [ed.

1992-12-31

413

Earth and planetary sciences  

SciTech Connect

The earth is a dynamic body. The major surface manifestation of this dynamism has been fragmentation of the earth's outer shell and subsequent relative movement of the pieces on a large scale. Evidence for continental movement came from studies of geomagnetism. As the sea floor spreads and new crust is formed, it is magnetized with the polarity of the field at the time of its formation. The plate tectonics model explains the history, nature, and topography of the oceanic crust. When a lithospheric plate surmounted by continental crust collides with an oceanic lithosphere, it is the denser oceanic lithosphere that is subducted. Hence the ancient oceans have vanished and the knowledge of ancient earth will require deciphering the complex continental geological record. Geochemical investigation shows that the source region of continental rocks is not simply the depleted mantle that is characteristic of the source region of basalts produced at the oceanic ridges. The driving force of plate tectonics is convection within the earth, but much remains to be learned about the convection and interior of the earth. A brief discussion of planetary exploration is given. (SC)

Wetherill, G.W. (Carnegie Institution of Washington, DC); Drake, C.L.

1980-07-04

414

Circumferential pressure probe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A probe for measuring circumferential pressure inside a body cavity is disclosed. In the preferred embodiment, a urodynamic pressure measurement probe for evaluating human urinary sphincter function is disclosed. Along the length of the probe are disposed a multiplicity of deformable wall sensors which typically comprise support tube sections with flexible side wall areas. These are arranged along the length of the probe in two areas, one just proximal to the tip for the sensing of fluid pressure inside the bladder, and five in the sensing section which is positioned within the urethra at the point at which the urinary sphincter constricts to control the flow of urine. The remainder of the length of the probe comprises multiple rigid support tube sections interspersed with flexible support tube sections in the form of bellows to provide flexibility.

Holmes, Harlan K.; Moore, Thomas C.; Fantl, Andrew J.

1989-10-01

415

THE RARE EARTH PEAK: AN OVERLOOKED r-PROCESS DIAGNOSTIC  

SciTech Connect

The astrophysical site or sites responsible for the r-process of nucleosynthesis still remains an enigma. Since the rare earth region is formed in the latter stages of the r-process, it provides a unique probe of the astrophysical conditions during which the r-process takes place. We use features of a successful rare earth region in the context of a high-entropy r-process (S {approx}> 100k{sub B} ) and discuss the types of astrophysical conditions that produce abundance patterns that best match meteoritic and observational data. Despite uncertainties in nuclear physics input, this method effectively constrains astrophysical conditions.

Mumpower, Matthew R.; McLaughlin, G. C. [Department of Physics, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-8202 (United States); Surman, Rebecca, E-mail: mrmumpow@ncsu.edu, E-mail: gail_mclaughlin@ncsu.edu, E-mail: surmanr@union.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Union College, Schenectady, NY 12308 (United States)

2012-06-20

416

Titan and the origin of life on Earth.  

PubMed

The relevance of Titan to the study of pre-biotic chemistry and the origin of life on Earth will be addressed by an interdisciplinary group of Cassini/Huygens scientists using the different, but synergistic data sets obtained by NASA's Cassini Orbiter and ESA's Huygens Probe. Titan's special importance lies in the primitive chemically-reducing nature of its atmosphere Cassini/ Huygens instruments will determine what compounds form in this environment, and the results will be compared with models for pre-biological chemical evolution on Earth. PMID:11541448

Owen, T; Raulin, F; McKay, C P; Lunine, J I; Lebreton, J P; Matson, D L

1997-11-01

417

Earth's Trojan asteroid.  

PubMed

It was realized in 1772 that small bodies can stably share the same orbit as a planet if they remain near 'triangular points' 60° ahead of or behind it in the orbit. Such 'Trojan asteroids' have been found co-orbiting with Jupiter, Mars and Neptune. They have not hitherto been found associated with Earth, where the viewing geometry poses difficulties for their detection, although other kinds of co-orbital asteroid (horseshoe orbiters and quasi-satellites) have been observed. Here we report an archival search of infrared data for possible Earth Trojans, producing the candidate 2010 TK(7). We subsequently made optical observations which established that 2010 TK(7) is a Trojan companion of Earth, librating around the leading Lagrange triangular point, L(4). Its orbit is stable over at least ten thousand years. PMID:21796207

Connors, Martin; Wiegert, Paul; Veillet, Christian

2011-07-27

418

Earth's Background Free Oscillations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earth's background free oscillations, known as Earth's hum, were discovered in 1998. Excited modes of the oscillations are almost exclusively fundamental spheroidal and toroidal modes from 2 to 20 mHz. Seasonal variations in the source distribution suggest that the dominant sources are ocean infragravity waves in the shallow and deep oceans. A probable excitation mechanism is random shear traction acting on the sea bottom owing to linear topographic coupling of the infragravity waves. Excitation by pressure sources on Earth's surface is also significant for a frequency below 5 mHz. A possible pressure source is atmospheric turbulence, which can cause observed resonant oscillations between the solid modes and atmospheric acoustic modes.

Nishida, Kiwamu

2013-05-01

419

Predicting the earth's future  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of earth system models that will simulate the past and present and provide predictions of future conditions is essential now that human activities have the potential to induce changes in the planetary environment. Critical aspects of global change include its pervasiveness and ubiquity, its distribution in several distinct time-scale bands, and the interactions between the atmosphere, ocean, land surface, and the terrestrial and marine biospheres. A model of the earth system on the scale of decades to centuries, developed by the Earth System Science Committee (NASA) with the strategy of dividing by time scale rather than discipline, is presented and the requirements for observations to support the implementation of the model are reviewed.

Dutton, J. A.

1986-10-01

420

Earth on Fire  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Earth on Fire belongs to a series of online modules entitled Exploring the Environment. Emphasizing an integrated approach to environmental earth science through problem-based learning, this module asks students to examine global warming through supplying evidence for its existence, identifying its sources, and providing ways to minimize its impact. To accomplish this goal, the site provides five links that lead students to information concerning global warming. These links include information pertaining to the carbon cycle, possible culprits of warming such as greenhouse gasses, solar output, the Earth's orbit, solutions to global warming, connections between global warming and natural disasters, and remote sensing. Various activities for students include a remote sensing analysis of burning biomass during the 1988 Yellowstone fires. Hyperlinked background resources are available throughout the site and offer more detail for student investigations. A glossary, teacher resources, related links, and a general description of the problem-based learning model compliment the site.

2000-11-21

421

Layer-Cake Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Though you can't tell just by looking at them, layers of sediments tell us much aboutEarth's history--when the ocean flooded continents, when mountains were formed, when climate was warmer or cooler, and so much more. Stratigraphy, the study of sediment layers and the relationships between rocks and fossils with time, has done much to help us understand Earth. While heading out to real-life dig sites with your students is not so realistic, there is a safe, fun, effective way to introduce geology concepts to elementary school children of all ages: "coring" layer cakes! All it takes is some simple baking to create a model of sediment layers and their fossil record. Exploring this topic in the classroom allows your students to learn about how geologists work while they explore Earth science.

Tedford, Rebecca; Warny, Sophie

2006-12-01

422

Mission to planet earth  

SciTech Connect

Plans for environmental monitoring using remote-sensing satellites in the era of the International Space Station are reviewed. The role of international cooperation is stressed, considering the present Landsat, SPOT, and Marine Observation Satellite programs; ERS-1 and Topex/Poseidon; and plans for the Italian Lageos-2, the Indian Remote Sensing Satellite, and the Japanese Advanced Earth Observation Satellite. The NASA Mission to Planet Earth proposal calls for four polar-orbit and five GEO platforms (five NASA, two ESA, and two NASDA), to be in place by the year 2000, as well as dedicated spacecraft of the Earth System Explorer series in the 1990s. Payloads will monitor the geomagnetic field, atmospheric temperature and water vapor, O3 and aerosols, outgoing radiation, precipitation, sea-surface temperature, sea ice, ocean chlorophyll, surface winds, wave height, ocean circulation, snow cover, land use, vegetation, crops, volcanic activity, and the hydrologic cycle.

Baker, D.J.

1988-07-01

423

American Experience: Earth Days  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In late 1969, Wisconsin Senator Gaylord Nelson hired Denis Hayes to organize a national teach-in day about the importance of protecting the environment for future generations. On April 22, 1970, the first Earth Day was held and over 20 million Americans participated via a variety of celebrations and demonstrations. This website is designed to be a companion to the American Experience documentary on the history of Earth Day, and it includes a teacher's guide, several special interviews, and the documentary in its entirety. The film was directed by Robert Stone, and it serves as "a poetic meditation on man's complex relationship with nature and an engaging history...of groundbreaking eco-activism." On the homepage, visitors should also take note of the photo gallery, the interactive timeline of the modern environmental movement, and a telling interview with the father of the "Green Revolution", Norman Borlaug. Visitors are also encouraged to share their own Earth Day memories on the site.

424

Earth Day Network  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Every spring, get ready for Earth Day with a visit to the official Web site of the Earth Day Network Web site, "an alliance of 5,000 groups in 184 countries working to promote a healthy environment and a peaceful, just, sustainable world." The Web site contains a wealth of information and resources designed to increase public awareness of important environmental issues and provide opportunities for individuals and communities to get involved. Visitors may read about current Earth Day Network campaigns and programs, as well as review environmental issues and threats with a collection of fact sheets and other resources. In all, this comprehensive and well-organized site is definitely worth a visit for anyone who would like to learn more about environmental problems and environmental activism.

425

Earth's Atmosphere Wind Dance  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson introduces the expanding and condensing properties of air masses and the unequal heating of Earth as the force behind the wind, it also displays the structure of the earth's atmosphere and the science concepts of layering, air density, and particles by using dance concepts such as level and shape. Students use previously learned movement skills to relay information about winds and the structure of the atmosphere. Hello Students! In class we have been learning about the atmosphere, to review some of what we've learned please follow the directions below! To read about the five layers that make up the earth's atmosphere click on this link: 5 Layers of the Atmosphere To learn about the properties of wind click on this link: Wind To learn ...

Magnuson, Miss

2009-12-07

426

EarthRef  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The enormous Earthref.org is an umbrella site for sources of reference data and models for a range of earth science subdisciplines. With funding from various public foundations and institutions, this project supports the development and publication of physical and chemical reference models known as REM, GERM, and PACER; provides Web space for databases and modeling tools; and organizes workshops and special sessions at national and international meetings. Geochemical Earth Reference Model, or GERM, contains summary data on the geochemistry of petroleum reservoirs. Soon a feature by which users can contribute data to GERM will be available. PACER, sponsored by the Quest for Truth Foundation, the NSF, and the Scripps Institution of Oceanography, supports software and modeling projects such as ArArCalc (an interactive interface to data reduction in 40Ar/39Ar geochronology) and TnT2000 (geochemical evolution models for the Earth using the Terra Nova Toolbox). A bathymetric seamount catalog based on the SeaBeam2000 cruises in the West and Equatorial Pacific Ocean is also available through PACER. Finally, Reference Earth Model (REM), still under construction, will bring together the work of many people and disciplines to "provide the geophysical community with a model (or a set of models -- various versions in one and three dimensions) that fits a great variety of geophysical constraints. The spherical average of the model should eventually replace the current PREM (Preliminary Reference Earth Model) that was created in 1981." The REM Webpage serves as the headquarters for the collection and distribution of data, models, and computer codes. A wealth of information exists at Earthref.org, so navigation can be tricky, but overall, the site will be a boon to geophysicists and others involved in earth system modeling.

427

Dry Earth, Wet Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sometimes the best place to learn about Mars exploration is right here on Earth. In Chile's Atacama Desert, scientists have discovered an area so dry that organic material, and therefore evidence of life, is virtually undetectable. Study of this parched Mars-like region on Earth may lead us to a better understanding of how to search for water and the elements of life in Martian soil. This year, The Planetary Society cosponsored a field expedition to the Atacama Desert, sending graduate student Troy Hudson on a 1-week adventure with a team of scientists led by Society Board member Chris McKay. Here, Troy describes his experience.

Hudson, Troy

2005-09-01

428

Savage Earth Online  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Savage Earth Online Website is sponsored by PBS Online along with the WNET Station in New York. This site is a companion piece to the Savage Earth series initially presented on PBS on July 19, 1998. Articles about volcanoes, earthquakes, and tsunamis are presented along with animations that illustrate the action of these natural phenomena. Flash Plug-ins are needed to view the animations and can easily be downloaded. Visitors who want more information can check out the list of links of the best Web resources on earthquakes.

429

In Brief: Earth TV  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is seeking participation from primary investigators working on science projects in geology, geomorphology, climate, and history for a new series, ``How Earth Made Us.'' According to the BBC, the aim of this follow-up to the 2007 program ``Earth: Power of the Planet'' is to reveal the influence of planetary forces (geology, climate, and geomorphology) in shaping human history over the past 10,000 years. The BBC anticipates producing a series focusing on cutting-edge science and dramatic locations that have been rarely filmed.

Showstack, Randy

2008-11-01

430

The wooing of earth  

SciTech Connect

Reckless use of energy by industrial nations has begun to alter the global climate. Each year more arable land is lost to desertification and erosion due to anthropogenic activities. Air pollutants carried by winds contaminate ecosystems in many parts of the globe. Various kinds of wilderness are being spoiled by overexploitation or permanent occupation. However, human interventions into nature have often revealed potentialities of the earth that would have remained unexpressed in the state of wilderness. With knowledge and a sense of responsibility for the welfare of the earth, human intervention into nature can be ecologically sound, aesthetically satisfying, and economically rewarding.

Dubos, R.

1981-02-01

431

Environmental Earth Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Provided by Dr. Bill Heins, Associate Professor of Geology at Lewis-Clark State College, this course homepage contains many of the lesson plans used for Environmental Earth Sciences classes at Lewis-Clark. The course begins with an overview of fundamental topics such as geologic time, chemistry, minerals, rocks, structure of the earth, and plate tectonics. Each of these sections contains a short introduction followed by book, web, and field work. Teachers can consult this site for useful project and curriculum ideas. Currently, only the fundamentals sections are active.

Heins, William A., 1961-.

432

Beyond Books: Earth Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Beyond Books is a subscription-based source for online educational content that parallels state and national curriculum standards. The Earth science section offers links, a dictionary, do-it-yourself and interactive activities, study questions, and beyond-science topics. The teacher section has lesson plans, correlations between curricula, guest expert sessions, and strategies for resource use. Topics covered include: volcanoes, earthquakes, the rock-cycle, minerals, Earth's structure, cycles, climate, weather, and more. There are also life science and physical science sections available.

433

The Earth's Timeline  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this group activity, learners will mark important developments of life on Earth on a timeline (each foot in length representing 200 million years). From working with the timeline, learners will understand that humans have been living on Earth for a relatively short time compared to how long life has existed on our planet. The activity can be extended by having learners do their own research of events on the timeline and adding their own descriptions or illustrations to timeline events. This activity can be found on pages 33-34 of the activity guide.

Terc

2007-01-01

434

Blowing up the Earth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An occasional theme in science fiction involves blowing up a planet. In ``Star Wars,'' the Death Star blows up Alderan. In ``The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy,'' a Vorgon destructor fleet blows up Earth to make room for a cosmic bypass. So, as an exercise for upper division students, or the more advance first year calculus based physics students, the energy needed to disassemble Earth can be computed. Assuming that advanced scifi aliens get their energy from matter-antimatter interactions, students can then compute the amount of antimatter needed to accomplish the task.

Benge, Raymond

2006-10-01

435

UVIS Earth Flats  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This program is an experimental path finder for Cycle 18 calibration. Visible-wavelength flat fields will be obtained by observing the dark side of the Earth during periods of full moon illumination. The observations will consist of full-frame streaked WFC3 UVIS imagery: per 22-min total exposure time in a single "dark-sky" orbit, we anticipate collecting 7000 e/pix in F606W or 4500 e/pix in F814W. To achieve Poisson S/N > 100 per pixel, we requires at least 2 orbits of F606W and 3 orbits of F814W. For UVIS narrowband filters, exposures of 1 sec typically do not saturate on the sunlit Earth, so we will take sunlit Earth flats for three of the more-commonly used narrowband filters in Cycle 17 plus the also-popular long-wavelength quad filters, for which we get four filters at once. Why not use the Sunlit Earth for the wideband visible-light filters? It is too bright in the visible for WFC3 UVIS minimum exposure time of 0.5 sec. Similarly, for NICMOS the sunlit-Earth is too bright which saturates the detector too quickly and/or induces abnormal behaviors such as super-shading {Gilmore 1998, NIC 098-011}. In the narrowband visible and broadband near-UV its not too bright {predictions in Cox et al. 1987 "Standard Astronomical Sources for HST: 6. Spatially Flat Fields." and observations in ACS Program 10050}. Other possibilities? Cox et al.'s Section II.D addresses many other possible sources for flat fields, rejecting them for a variety of reasons. A remaining possibility would be the totally eclipsed moon. Such eclipses provide approximately 2 hours {1 HST orbit} of opportunity per year, so they are too rare to be generically useful. An advantage of the moon over the Earth is that the moon subtends less than 0.25 square degree, whereas the Earth subtends a steradian or more, so scattered light and light potentially leaking around the shutter presents additional problems for the Earth. Also, we're unsure if HST can point 180 deg from the Sun.;

McCullough, Peter

2008-07-01

436

Song of the Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This PBS Web site is the online companion to the Nature documentary "Song of the Earth," hosted by David Attenborough. The program explores the elemental purpose of music and offers a fascinating look at the connection between animal sounds and human music. The site includes two detailed lesson plans that integrate science and language arts, designed for grades 9-12. Learning objectives include conducting research on animal behavior, applying scientific methodology, synthesizing information to create presentations, and more. The main Song of the Earth Web site has other features -- such as a list of related links and a photo essay of animal music -- that would make excellent additions to classroom activities.

437

Down to Earth Sciences  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Experimentation and exploration the way scientists create new knowledge will be adopted as the cornerstone for learning and teaching science in Arizona State University's Down to Earth Science fellow/teacher/student partnership program. The activities are based on a strongly interdisciplinary, multiscalar approach to earth systems science in three important research domains that powerfully convey science content Materials Science and Engineering, Ecology, and Planetary Studies. MERC Online Reviewer Comments: Good review of physics concepts for K-12 students to understand the importance and role of engineering in our society.

2009-11-06

438

Paleomap Project Earth History  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The goal of the Earth History segment of the Paleomap Project is to illustrate global plate tectonic development, as well as the changing configuration of landmasses and seas during the past 1100 million years. An array of colorful paleogeographic maps for geologically significant periods of earth's history is provided. Each paleogeographic map displays the reconstructed positions of modern continental coastlines, shelf margins, major tectonic boundaries, active plate boundaries and seafloor spreading isochrones. The maps also include a short discussion indicating important geologic features and events for each period.

Scotese, Christopher; Project, Paleomap

439

Jupiter: Earth's Shield  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

More than 155 planets have been found outside of our solar system since the first extra-solar planet was identified in 1995. The search has long been heavily biased towards finding massive planets with short orbits. Now, to find an Earth-like planet, scientists are looking for a planetary setup that is similar to our own, in which a Jupiter-like planet lies a good distance away from its sun. This video segment adapted from NOVA explores how the arrangement of planets in our solar system may have affected the development of life on Earth.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2009-07-13

440

On the Interannual Variation of the Earth Radiation Balance.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The interannual variability of the top of the atmosphere net radiation budget as measured from the Nimbus- 7 Earth Radiation Budget instruments was calculated for an eight yew period 1979-1986. The largest fluctuations are shown to occur in three tropical areas. the Atlantic off the west emit of Africa, the eastern Pacific near South America, and the western Pacific northeast of Indonesia. The variability in the Atlantic was 20% greater than in the eastern Pacific and 35% greater than in the Indonesian area. The maximum anomalies in these two Pacific regions occurred during the El Niño year 1982-1983, while the maximum Atlantic anomalies. south of the Gulf of Guinea, were during 1984. An independent dataset of derived cloud type and amount from the Temperature Humidity Infrared Radiometer (THIR) and the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) instruments shows interannual changes in multilevel convective cloud systems have a minimal effect of the net balance. However changes in middle and low clouds drastically effect the balance, and are the most likely cause of the maximum radiation balance variability in the Gulf of Guinea region. This observed interannual variation of the top of the atmosphere net balance, reported in the present study, denotes the most variable `cloud radiative forcing' situation observed to date.

Randel, David L.; Vonder Haar, Thomas H.

1990-10-01

441

Uncovering Student Ideas in Science, Volume 3: Another 25 Formative Assessment Probes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Because you demanded it! Since publication of Volume 1 of this series, thousands of teachers are using these innovative classroom tools to improve student learning in science. Following in the footsteps of earlier volumes in the Uncovering Student Ideas in Science series, this all-new book provides short, easy-to-administer probes that determine what misconceptions students bring to the classroom about the nature of science and about physical, life, Earth, and space sciences. This new volume in our bestselling series provides more topic areas for classroom use as well as guidance on how teachers can use the probes for their own learning. As outlined in previous volumes, teachers--like their students--can have misconceptions that come to the fore when administering the probes. Volume 3 provides 10 detailed suggestions for teachers on how to use the probes to uncover, accurately assess, and correct their own preconceptions as well as their students' (e.g., do the probes yourself, examine student responses with other teachers, embed the probes into existing professional development programs, select specific areas to focus on, examine student thinking across grade spans, categorize ideas, and crunch data to create classroom profiles). Volume 3 offers five life science probes, seven Earth and space science probes, ten physical science probes, and three nature of science probes. This volume is an invaluable resource for classroom teachers, preservice teachers, professional developers, and college science and preservice faculty.

Dorsey, Chad; Eberle, Francis; Keeley, Page

2008-04-01

442

An Improved Static Pressure Probe.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An improved design for shortened static pressure probes for supersonic velocities, is given. The probe has a smaller length than conventional static probes with the same diameter and requires no compensation for yaw angles of up to 10 deg.

S. Z. Pinckney

1974-01-01

443

Seven-Hole Pressure Probe.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper documents recent and past developments with respect to the seven-hole pressure probe. Included are discussions on probe design, construction, calibration, and measurement capabilities. The effects on probe measurements in shear flows, as well a...

L. Reed J. D. Mattingly F. M. Jonas

1984-01-01

444

A silicon PET probe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

PET scanners with high spatial resolution offer a great potential in improving diagnosis, therapy monitoring and treatment validation for several severe diseases. One way to improve resolution of a PET scanner is to extend a conventional PET ring with a small probe with excellent spatial resolution. The probe is intended to be placed close to the area of interest. The coincidences of interactions within the probe and the external ring provide a subset of data which combined with data from external ring, greatly improve resolution in the area viewed by the probe.Our collaboration is developing a prototype of a PET probe, composed of high-resolution silicon pad detectors. The detectors are 1 mm thick, measuring 40 by 26 mm2, and several such sensors are envisaged to either compensate for low stopping power of silicon or increase the area covered by the probe. The sensors are segmented into 1 mm3 cubic voxels, giving 1040 readout pads per sensor. A module is composed of two sensors placed in a back-to-back configuration, allowing for stacking fraction of up to 70% within a module. The pads are coupled to a set of 16 ASICs (VaTaGP7.1 by IDEAS) per module and read out through a custom designed data acquisition board, allowing for trigger and data interfacing with the external ring.This paper presents an overview of probe requirements and expected performance parameters. It will focus on the characteristics of the silicon modules and their impact on overall probe performance, including spatial resolution, energy resolution and timing resolution. We will show that 1 mm3 voxels will significantly extend the spatial resolution of conventional PET rings, and that broadening of timing resolution related to varying depth of photon interactions can be compensated to match the timing resolution of the external ring. The initial test results of the probe will also be presented.

Studen, A.; Chesi, E.; Cindro, V.; Clinthorne, N. H.; Cochran, E.; Groši?ar, B.; Honscheid, K.; Kagan, H.; Lacasta, C.; Llosa, G.; Linhart, V.; Mikuž, M.; Stankova, V.; Weilhammer, P.; Žontar, D.

2011-08-01

445

BEAM CONTROL PROBE  

DOEpatents

A probe is described for intercepting a desired portion of a beam of charged particles and for indicating the spatial disposition of the beam. The disclosed probe assembly includes a pair of pivotally mounted vanes moveable into a single plane with adjacent edges joining and a calibrated mechanical arrangement for pivoting the vancs apart. When the probe is disposed in the path of a charged particle beam, the vanes may be adjusted according to the beam current received in each vane to ascertain the dimension of the beam.

Chesterman, A.W.

1959-03-17

446

Foldable polymers as probes  

DOEpatents

Disclosed herein are novel probes, which can be used to detect and identify target molecules of interest in a sample. The disclosed probes can be used to monitor conformational changes induced by molecular recognition events in addition to providing signaling the presence and/or identity of a target molecule. Methods, including solid phase synthesis techniques, for making probe molecules that exhibit changes in their optical properties upon target molecule binding are described in the disclosure. Also disclosed herein are novel chromophore moieties, which have tailored fluorescent emission spectra.

Li, Alexander D. Q. (Pullman, WA); Wang, Wei (Pullman, WA)

2009-07-07

447

Foldable polymers as probes  

DOEpatents

Disclosed herein are novel probes, which can be used to detect and identify target molecules of interest in a sample. The disclosed probes can be used to monitor conformational changes induced by molecular recognition events in addition to providing signaling the presence and/or identity of a target molecule. Methods, including solid phase synthesis techniques, for making probe molecules that exhibit changes in their optical properties upon target molecule binding are described in the disclosure. Also disclosed herein are novel chromophore moieties, which have tailored fluorescent emission spectra.

Li, Alexander D. Q. (Pullman, WA); Wang, Wei (Pullman, WA)

2007-07-03

448

Logic Probe Troubleshooting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This brief interactive activity, by Electromechanical Digital Library and Wisconsin Technical College System faculty member Terry Bartelt, introduces Logic Probe Troubleshooting. The resource begins with an overview, the logic components in an integrated circuit, input/outputs leads to which circuit tracks are connected, how to use a logic probe to determine if proper voltage and signals are present, and a demonstration of how the probe measures circuit operation. There is also a defective integrated circuit example and a troubleshooting problem for students to answer. This is an excellent resource, as are the others in this digital library, for reviewing fundamental concepts for electromechanical devices, systems, and applications.

Bartelt, Terry L.

2009-05-13

449

Chemical sensing flow probe  

DOEpatents

A new chemical probe determines the properties of an analyte using the light absorption of the products of a reagent/analyte reaction. The probe places a small reaction volume in contact with a large analyte volume. Analyte diffuses into the reaction volume. Reagent is selectively supplied to the reaction volume. The light absorption of the reaction in the reaction volume indicates properties of the original analyte. The probe is suitable for repeated use in remote or hostile environments. It does not require physical sampling of the analyte or result in significant regent contamination of the analyte reservoir. 7 figs.

Laguna, G.R.; Peter, F.J.; Butler, M.A.

1999-02-16

450

Scanning Probe Microscopy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Published by the National Nanotechnology Infrastructure Network, this hour-long activity has students "simulate the function of a scanning probe microscope" by creating their own scanning probe microscope (SPM) boxes. The Teacher's Guide contains everything the instructor needs to carry out the lesson: goals and objectives, advanced preparation notes, safety considerations, materials, questions, and even variations for different classrooms. The Student Worksheet walks students through the activity by having them begin by making a prediction, giving the procedures, providing space to record observations, and asking open questions for students to respond to. This is a ready-to-use activity for classrooms looking to explore nanotechnology and scanning probe microscopes.

2009-04-14

451

ALEX neutral beam probe  

SciTech Connect

A neutral beam probe capable of measuring plasma space potential in a fully 3-dimensional magnetic field geometry has been developed. This neutral beam was successfully used to measure an arc target plasma contained within the ALEX baseball magnetic coil. A computer simulation of the experiment was performed to refine the experimental design and to develop a numerical model for scaling the ALEX neutral beam probe to other cases of fully 3-dimensional magnetic field. Based on this scaling a 30 to 50 keV neutral cesium beam probe capable of measuring space potential in the thermal barrier region of TMX Upgrade was designed.

Pourrezaei, K.

1982-01-01

452

Focus: DNA probes  

SciTech Connect

Progress in the development of DNA probes for the identification and quantitation of specific genetic sequences in biological samples is reviewed. Current research efforts in the development of DNA probes for the diagnosis of a wide variety of bacterial, viral, and other infectious diseases, such as herpes simplex and cytomegalovirus, and inherited genetic diseases such as cystic fibrosis and sickle cell anemia are discussed. Progress in development of DNA probe assays for cancer diagnosis, detection of Salmonella food poisoning, tissue typing (detection of histocompatibility antigens), mutagen screening, and animal diseases, among other applications is included.

Not Available

1986-11-01

453

Student Geoscientists Explore the Earth: During Earth Science Week 2005  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Visit the American Geological Institute (AGI) Earth Science Week website to learn about how you can provide your students with inquiry-based learning experiences that celebrates the theme, "Geoscientists Explore the Earth." On the website you will find events taking place in your community, local organizations to partner with, the many careers available in geoscience, the monthly Earth Science Week Update electronic newsletter, and how you can order an Earth Science Week educator's kit.

Benbow, Ann E.; Camphire, Geoff

2005-09-01

454

Earth Gauge Kids  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Earth Gauge Kids is a website for students in grades 5-8 that makes the connection between weather and the environment. Each month, kids will find an interactive quiz, online activities, fun facts and more about a new weather-environment theme. The website also provides a widget, which can be copied to any website and will update automatically.

455

Mission: New Earth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an interdisciplinary unit on the environment and space travel in which students plan a fictional departure from Earth which is on the brink of destruction from environmental waste and neglect. Students travel through concepts in environmental education, math, art, English, and astronomy before reaching their destination with a clearer…

Sparks, David

1997-01-01

456

Earth radiation budgets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The annual and seasonal averaged earth atmosphere radiation budgets, derived from the most complete set of satellite observations available in late 1979, are presented. The budgets are derived using a composite of 48 monthly mean radiation budget maps. The annual, global average emitted infrared flux is 234 W\\/sq m, the planetary albedo is 0.30, and the net flux is zero

G. L. Stephens; G. G. Campbell; T. H. Vonder Haar

1981-01-01

457

Mission: New Earth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes an interdisciplinary unit on the environment and space travel in which students plan a fictional departure from Earth which is on the brink of destruction from environmental waste and neglect. Students travel through concepts in environmental education, math, art, English, and astronomy before reaching their destination with a clearer…

Sparks, David

1997-01-01

458

Earth's Reflection: Albedo  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When viewing objects of different colors, you might notice that some appear brighter than others. This is because light is reflected differently from various surfaces, depending on their physical properties. The word "albedo" is used to describe how reflective a surface is. The Earth-atmosphere has a combined albedo of about 30%, a number that is…

Gillette, Brandon; Hamilton, Cheri

2011-01-01

459

Earth Atmosphere Composition  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners use rice grains to model the composition of the atmosphere of the Earth today and in 1880. Learners assemble the model while measuring percentages. This activity also introduces learners to greenhouse gases, infrared radiation, and global warming.

Doherty, Pete

2006-01-01

460

Earth at Night  

NASA Website

This new global view of Earth's city lights is a composite assembled from data acquired by the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP) satellite. The data was acquired over nine days in April 2012 and 13 days in October 2012. It took 312 ...

461

Imaging Earth's upper mantle  

Microsoft Academic Search

New images of the three-dimensional structure of Earth's upper mantle revealed by large-scale processing of global seismic data are beginning to change our understanding of convection in the planet. The processing techniques combine data from hundreds of seismograms to distinguish weak features from the background noise. These procedures are termed ``stacking'' and are similar in many respects to reflection seismic

Peter M. Shearer

1993-01-01

462

Modeling Earth's Climate  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Systems thinking suggests that one can best understand a complex system by studying the interrelationships of its component parts rather than looking at the individual parts in isolation. With ongoing concern about the effects of climate change, using innovative materials to help students understand how Earth's systems connect with each other is…

Pallant, Amy; Lee, Hee-Sun; Pryputniewicz, Sara

2012-01-01

463

Blowing up the Earth  

Microsoft Academic Search

An occasional theme in science fiction involves blowing up a planet. In ``Star Wars,'' the Death Star blows up Alderan. In ``The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy,'' a Vorgon destructor fleet blows up Earth to make room for a cosmic bypass. So, as an exercise for upper division students, or the more advance first year calculus based physics students, the

Raymond Benge

2006-01-01

464

Earth's Reflection: Albedo  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|When viewing objects of different colors, you might notice that some appear brighter than others. This is because light is reflected differently from various surfaces, depending on their physical properties. The word "albedo" is used to describe how reflective a surface is. The Earth-atmosphere has a combined albedo of about 30%, a number that is…

Gillette, Brandon; Hamilton, Cheri

2011-01-01

465

Earth flyby anomalies  

SciTech Connect

In the planet-centric system, a spacecraft should have the same initial and final energies, even though its energy and angular momentum will change in the barycenter of the solar system. However, without explanation, a number of earth flybys have yielded small energy changes.

Nieto, Michael Martin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Anderson, John D [PROPULSION LAB.

2009-01-01

466

The Earth's Heat Budget  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Hands-on laboratory activity that allows students to investigate the effects of distance and angle on the input of solar radiation at Earth's surface, the role played by albedo, the heat capacity of land and water, and how these cause the seasons. Students predict radiative heating based on simple geometry and experiment to test their hypotheses.

Plotnick, Roy; Teachers, National A.

467

Earth's Energy Cycle: Albedo  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners experiment and observe how the color of materials that cover the Earth affects the amounts of sunlight our planet absorbs. Use this activity to begin discussions on global warming and climate change. This lesson guide includes background information and handouts. Note: cost of materials does not include cost of thermometers or desk lamp/light bulbs.

Research, National C.

2005-01-01

468

Reinforced Earth Wall Evaluation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A reinforced earth wall was instrumented with eight (8) Sondex-type extensometers for measurement of horizontal movements; and with 64 Ailtech SG-129-6 strain gages for measurement of strains in the reinforcing strips. In addition to the eight (8) instrum...

U. Dash N. Hawks

1979-01-01

469

Earth Science Symposium  

Microsoft Academic Search

An Earth Science Symposium on Offshore Eastern Canada will be held in Camsell Hall, 588 Booth Street, Department of Energy, Mines and Resources, Ottawa, on February 22 24, 1971. The topics will include Surficial Geology, Geochemistry, Repetitive-Source Seismic, Bedrock Geology and Tectonics, Seismic Reflection and Refraction, Gravity, Magnetics, Magnetotellurics, Crustal Seismic, Heat Flow, Continental Drift, and Offshore Drilling. Papers are

Anonymous

1970-01-01

470

The Earth's Mantle.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The nature and dynamics of the earth's mantle is discussed. Research indicates that the silicate mantle is heated by the decay of radioactive isotopes and that the heat energizes massive convention currents in the upper 700 kilometers of the ductile rock. These currents and their consequences are considered. (JN)|

McKenzie, D. P.

1983-01-01

471

Intute Earth Sciences Gateway  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Intute provides free access to high quality internet resources for students, researchers and practitioners in the physical sciences, specifically in: astronomy, chemistry, earth sciences, materials science, physics, and general science. Available information includes lecture notes, text book chapters, tutorials, government publications, theses, and more. PSIgate also features scientific timelines, science career information, and access to their magazine, Spotlight.

472

Cosmic Rays at Earth  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1912 Victor Franz Hess made the revolutionary discovery that ionizing radiation is incident upon the Earth from outer space. He showed with ground-based and balloon-borne detectors that the intensity of the radiation did not change significantly between day and night. Consequently, the sun could not be regarded as the sources of this radiation and the question of its origin

P. K. F. Grieder

2001-01-01

473

Earth History Tours, Inc.  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students play the roles of "time travel agents" creating an advertisement for a geologic time period which has been assigned to them. They will use the Earth Science Reference Tables (available on the internet) to learn some basic facts about their assigned period. A rubric for assessing student understanding is provided.

Ladue, Nicole

474

Understanding Earth's Albedo Effect  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Earth and space science in the middle school classroom are composed of intricately intertwined sets of conceptual systems (AAAS 1993; NRC 1996). Some systems of study, such as the water and rock cycles, are quite explicit and often found as stand-alone middle school science units. Other phenomena are not so apparent, yet they play an extremely…

Fidler, Chuck

2012-01-01

475

Observing Earth's Changing Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last decade, a wide variety of spaceborne instruments have been developed and deployed to observe the Earth's environment on a global and almost continuous basis. Today, we have the capability to map solid surface topography, cover and subtle motion; to monitor on a global basis the ocean topography, circulation, temperature and near-surface wind; the atmospheric temperature and aerosol

Charles Elachi

2008-01-01

476

EPA Earth Day Website  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page from the US Environmental Protection Agency features a number of educational resources in honor of this year's Earth Day celebration. There are links to localized volunteer opportunities, a series of "green tips" or ideas for reducing one's carbon footprint, and a set of lesson plans and activities for K-12 students.

477

Geology: The Active Earth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Ranger Rick's NatureScope is a creative education series dedicated to inspiring in children an understanding and appreciation of the natural world while developing the skills they will need to make responsible decisions about the environment. The topic of this issue is "Geology: The Active Earth." Contents are organized into the following…

Braus, Judy, Ed.

1987-01-01

478

Understanding Earth's Albedo Effect  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Earth and space science in the middle school classroom are composed of intricately intertwined sets of conceptual systems (AAAS 1993; NRC 1996). Some systems of study, such as the water and rock cycles, are quite explicit and often found as stand-alone middle school science units. Other phenomena are not so apparent, yet they play an extremely…

Fidler, Chuck

2012-01-01

479

Earth Science in 1970  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reviews advancements in earth science during 1970 in each of these areas: economic geology (fuels), economic geology (metals), economic geology (nonmetals), environmental geology, geochemistry, manpower, hydrology, mapping, marine geology, mineralogy, paleontology, plate tectonics, politics and geology, remote sensing, and seismology. (PR)|

Geotimes, 1971

1971-01-01

480

Small transportable earth station  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes design and performance of C band (6\\/4 GHz) and K band (30\\/20 GHz) small transportable earth station for domestic satellite communication. These stations consist of three units, an antenna and two containers. Transmitter and receiver equipments are mounted in one container. Terminal equipment and power generator are mounted in the other container, thus enabling transportation by truck

S. Egami; T. Nara; T. Kaitsuka; T. Okamoto

1980-01-01