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1

Earth Probe TOMS Ozone Hole Animation for 1996  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This animation shows a sequence of daily images of the southern hemisphere in which daily and seasonal fluctuations in the ozone hole over Antarctica can bee seen. The images were captured by the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS), an instrument carried aboard the Earth Probe spacecraft.

2

Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) Derived Data, Global Earth Coverage (GEC) from NASA's Earth Probe Satellite  

DOE Data Explorer

This is data from an external datastream processed through the ARM External Data Center (XDC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The XDC identifies sources and acquires data, called "external data", to augment the data being generated within the ARM program. The external data acquired are usually converted from native format to either netCDF or HDF formats. The GEC collection contains global data derived from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) instrument on the Earth Probe satellite, consisting of daily values of aerosol index, ozone and reflectivity remapped into a regular 1x1.25 deg grid. Data are available from July 25, 1996 - December 31, 2005, but have been updated or replaced as of September 2007. See the explanation on the ARM web site at http://www.arm.gov/xds/static/toms.stm and the information at the NASA/TOMS web site: http://toms.gsfc.nasa.gov/ (Registration required)

3

Tropical Tropospheric Ozone From Nimbus 7 and Earth-Probe Toms: Validation, ENSO Signals and Trends  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The well-known wave-one pattern seen in tropical total ozone has been used to develop a modified-residual (MR) method for retrieving time-averaged stratospheric ozone and tropospheric ozone column amount from TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) over the 14 complete years of Nimbus 7 observations (1979-1992) and from Earth-Probe (1996-present) and ADEOS/TOMS (1996-1997). Nine- to sixteen-day averaged tropical tropospheric ozone (TTO) maps show a seasonality expected from dynamical and chemical influences. Validation of the TTO time-series is presently limited to Atlantic sounding stations, notably Ascension Island, Natal, Brazil, and Brazzaville, Congo. Stratospheric column ozone, which is also derived from the modified-residual method, compares well with sondes and with stratospheric ozone column derived from other satellites.

Thompson, Anne M.

1998-01-01

4

Fire at Iraqi sulfur plant emits SO2 clouds detected by Earth Probe TOMS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A fire started at the Al-Mishraq State Sulfur plant near Mosul, Iraq on 24 June 2003 and burned for almost a month. Combustion of elemental sulfur in the fire produced dense clouds of sulfur dioxide (SO2) that were detected from space by the Earth Probe Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (EP TOMS) on 18 days. Estimated daily SO2 production from the continuously emitting source closely mirrors contemporaneous thermal infrared radiance from the fire sensed in the 3.96 ?m band of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). We calculate total SO2 production during the blaze amounting to ~600 kilotons, which is roughly commensurate with the predicted SO2 yield from the inventory of elemental sulfur allegedly destroyed by the fire when potential SO2 losses are considered. This event is the largest non-volcanic SO2 emission incident measured to date by any TOMS instrument.

Carn, S. A.; Krueger, A. J.; Krotkov, N. A.; Gray, M. A.

2004-10-01

5

Tropical Tropospheric Ozone (TTO) Maps from Nimbus 7 and Earth-Probe TOMS by the Modified-Residual Method. 1; Validation, Evaluation and Trends based on Atlantic Regional Time Series  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The well-known wave-one pattern seen in tropical total ozone [Shiotani, 1992; Ziemke et al., 1996, 1998] has been used to develop a modified-residual (MR) method for retrieving time-averaged stratospheric ozone and tropospheric ozone column amount from TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) over the 14 complete calendar years of Nimbus 7 observations (1979-1992) and from TOMS on the Earth-Probe (1996-present) and ADEOS platforms (1996- 1997). Nine- to sixteen-day averaged tropical tropospheric ozone (TTO) maps, validated with ozonesondes, show a seasonality expected from dynamical and chemical influences. The maps may be viewed on a homepage: http://metosrv2.umd.edu/tropo. Stratospheric column ozone, which is also derived by the modified-residual method, compares well with sondes (to within 6-7 DU) and with stratospheric ozone column derived from other satellites (within 8-10 DU). Validation of the TTO time-series is presently limited to ozonesonde comparisons with Atlantic stations and sites on the adjacent continents (Ascension Island, Natal, Brazil; Brazzaville); for the sounding periods, TTO at all locations agrees with the sonde record to +/-7 DU. TTO time-series and the magnitude of the wave-one pattern show ENSO signals in the strongest El Nifio periods from 1979-1998. From 12degN and 12degS, zonally averaged tropospheric ozone shows no significant trend from 1980-1990. Trends are also not significant during this period in localized regions, e.g. from just west of South America across to southern Africa. This is consistent with the ozonesonde record at Natal, Brazil (the only tropical ozone data publicly available for the 1980's), which shows a not statistically significant increase. The lack of trend in tropospheric ozone agrees with a statistical analysis based on another method for deriving TTO from TOMS, the so-called Convective-Cloud-Differential approach of Ziemke et al. [1998].

Thompson, Anne M.; Hudson, Robert D.

1998-01-01

6

Contribution of TOMS to Earth Science - An Overview  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The TOMS instrument was launched on the Nimbus-7 satellite in Oct 1978 with the goal of understanding the meteorological influences on the ozone column. The nominal lifetime of the instrument was 1 year. However, in response to the concern over possible man-made influences on the ozone layer NASA continued to nurse the instrument for 13.5 years and launched a major program to produce accurate trend quality dataset of ozone. Despite severe optical degradation and other significant anomalies that developed in the instrument over its lifetime, the effort turned out to be a tremendous success. In 1984, TOMS took center stage as the primary provider of Antarctic ozone hole maps to the world community; it continues to play that role until today. An unexpected benefit of the close attention paid to improving the TOMS data quality was that several atmospheric constituents that interfere with ozone measurement were also identified and meticulously converted into long-term datasets of their own. These constituents include clouds, volcanic SO2, aerosols, and ocean phytoplankton. In addition, the high quality of the basic datasets made it possible to produce global maps of surface UV and tropospheric ozone. In most cases there are no other sources of these data sets. Advanced UV instruments currently under development in the US and Europe will continue to exploit the TOMS-developed techniques for several decades.

Bhartia, P. K.

2003-12-01

7

Contribution of TOMS to Earth Science- An Overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The TOMS instrument was launched on the Nimbus-7 satellite in Oct 1978 with the goal of understanding the meteorological influences on the ozone column. The nominal lifetime of the instrument was 1 year. However, in response to the concern over possible man-made influences on the ozone layer NASA continued to nurse the instrument for 13.5 years and launched a major program to produce accurate trend quality dataset of ozone. Despite severe optical degradation and other significant anomalies that developed in the instrument over its lifetime, the effort turned out to be a tremendous success. In 1984, TOMS took center stage as the primary provider of Antarctic ozone hole maps to the world community; it continues to play that role until today. An unexpected benefit of the close attention paid to improving the TOMS data quality was that several atmospheric constituents that interfere with ozone measurement were also identified and meticulously converted into long-term datasets of their own. These constituents include clouds, volcanic S02, aerosols, and ocean phytoplankton. In addition, the high quality of the basic datasets made it possible to produce global maps of surface UV and tropospheric ozone. In most cases there are no other sources of these data sets. Advanced UV instruments currently under development in the US and Europe will continue to exploit the TOMS-developed techniques for several decades.

Bhartia, P. K.

2004-01-01

8

Distribution of UV radiation at the Earth's surface from TOMS-measured UV-backscattered radiances  

Microsoft Academic Search

Daily global maps of monthly integrated UV-erythemal irradiance (290-400 nm) at the Earth's surface are estimated using the ozone amount, cloud transmittance, aerosol amounts, and surface reflectivity from the solar UV radiation backscattered from the Earth's atmosphere as measured by the total ozone mapping spectrometer (TOMS) and independently measured values of the extraterrestrial solar irradiance. The daily irradiance values at

J. R. Herman; N. Krotkov; E. Celarier; D. Larko; G. Labow

1999-01-01

9

Data Validation for Earth Probe-Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This presentation represents the final report for the NASA grant project. The goal of this project was to provide scientific analysis to aid in validation fo data sets used in detection of long term global trends of total ozone. Ozone data from the Earth Probe Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer instrument was compared for validation purposes with features in previous TOMS data. Atmospheric dynamic concepts were used in the analysis. The publications sponsored by the grant are listed along with abstracts.

Stanford, John L.

1995-01-01

10

Tropospheric Ozone and Smoke from Earth Probe TOMS: Indian Ocean  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Researchers have discovered that smoke and smog move in different ways through the atmosphere. A series of unusual events several years ago created a blanket of pollution over the Indian Ocean. In this animation, significant smog or tropospheric ozone is represented by red and green and regions of significant smoke index are in shades of white and gray.

Mitchell, Horace; Thompson, Anne

2001-03-06

11

TOMS sees continental effects of 2004 Alaskan Fires  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Wildfires started by lightning burned more than 80,000 acres in Alaska in June 2004. The effects of these fires can be seen across North America with the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) instrument on the Earth Probes spacecraft. TOMS detects the presence of UV-absorbing tropospheric aerosols across the globe.

Perkins, Lori; Newman, Paul; Bhartia, Pawan

2004-07-02

12

Aerosol variability over Thessaloniki using ground based remote sensing observations and the TOMS aerosol index  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main aim of this work is to assess the performance of the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) on board the Earth Probe satellite aerosol index (AI) version 8.0 retrieved from the daily measurements of the TOMS instrument as an indicator of the presence of absorbing aerosols in the atmosphere. The analysis is carried out over the region of Northern

M. E. Koukouli; D. S. Balis; V. Amiridis; S. Kazadzis; A. Bais; S. Nickovic; O. Torres

2006-01-01

13

Structure of the Earth: Probing Anomalous Balls  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity has students investigate plasticine spheres in a nondestructive manner. Some of the spheres have steel ball bearings inside of them while others are solid plasticine. Students determine density by probing with a pin or any other method that does not involve cutting into the sphere. The activity demonstrates how information can be obtained about the interior of the Earth without seeing it.

14

The Antarctic Ozone Hole: Initial Results from Aura / OMI Compared with TOMS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A series of TOMS instruments (on November 7 , Meteor 3, and Earth Probe) has been monitoring the annual development of the Antarctic ozone hole since the 1980s. The ozone mapping instrument on Aura, OMI, is expected to take over this record of observation from the aging Earth Probe TOMS instrument. The area of the ozone hole can be taken as a sensitive indicator of the magnitude of ozone destruction each year. The timing of initial formation of the ozone hole and its duration are sensitive to the atmospheric dynamics of the southern polar regions. The entire TOMS data record (1978 - 2004) has recently been reprocessed with the new version 8 algorithm, which includes a revised calibration. The effect has been to slightly increase ozone hole area over earlier estimates, but only by 23%. OMI (ozone monitoring instrument) on Aura is a hyperspectral imaging instrument that operates in a pushbroom mode to measure solar backscattered radiation in the ultraviolet and visible. OMI has higher spatial resolution than TOMS - 14 x 24 km versus 38 km x 38 km from TOMS. OMI has now begin mapping total column ozone on a global basis in a measurement similar to TOMS. The ozone hole measurements for 2003 are compared with those from Earth Probe TOMS.

McPeters, R.; Bhartia, P. K.; Newman, P.

2004-01-01

15

A Comparison of TOMS Version 8 Total Column Ozone Data with Data from Groundstations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Nimbus-7 and Earth Probe Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) data have been reprocessed with a new retrieval algorithm, (Version 8) and an updated calibration procedure. These data have been systematically compared to total ozone data from Brewer and Dobson spectrophotometers for 73 individual ground stations. The comparisons were made as a function of latitude, solar zenith angle, reflectivity and total ozone. Results show that the accuracy of the TOMS retrieval'is much improved when aerosols are present in the atmosphere, when snow/ice and sea glint are present, and when ozone in the northern hemisphere is extremely low. TOMS overpass data are derived from the single TOMS best match measurement, almost always located within one degree of the ground station and usually made within an hour of local noon. The version 8 Earth Probe TOMS ozone values have decreased by an average of about 1% due to a much better understanding of the calibration of the instrument. The remaining differences between TOMS and ground stations suggest that there are still small errors in the TOMS retrievals. But if TOMS is used as a transfer standard to compare ground stations, the large station-to-station differences suggest the possibility of significant instrument errors at some ground stations.

Labow, G. J.; McPeters, R. D.; Bhartia, P. K.

2004-01-01

16

Earth surface reflectivity climatology at 340–380 nm from TOMS data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 340-380 nm (UV) Lambertian equivalent reflectivities (LER) of the Earth's surface, between the latitudes +70 ø , are constructed from 14.5 years of radiances measured by Nimbus-7\\/total ozone mapping spectrometer (November 1978 to May 1993). The surface LER values are obtained from the minimum reflectivity values for each 1 ø x 1.25 ø (latitude x longitude) pixel with statistically

J. R. Herman; E. A. Celarier

1997-01-01

17

TOMS: Ozone  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) database is provided by NASA and contains real-time measurements of ozone in the atmosphere from July 25, 1996 to the current date. The data may be viewed either as raw data (Data File) or as synthesized images (Global Image, North Pole Image, and South Pole Image). The goal of TOMS is to give scientists and the concerned public a better understanding of the link between atmospheric ozone distribution and the factors that alter it. Useful interpretive descriptions accompany the baseline images.

18

A Long-Term Record of Aerosol Optical Depth from TOMS Observations and Comparison to AERONET Measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observations of backscattered near-ultraviolet radiation from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) on board the Nimbus-7 (1979-92) and the Earth Probe (mid-1996 to present) satellites have been used to derive a long-term record of aerosol optical depth over oceans and continents. The retrieval technique applied to the TOMS data makes use of two unique advantages of near-UV remote sensing not

O. Torres; P. K. Bhartia; J. R. Herman; A. Sinyuk; Paul Ginoux; Brent Holben

2002-01-01

19

Aerosols from Earth Probe TOMS: Transatlantic Dust Event in July 2000 (with Dates)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Saharan dust storms raise dust that is carried in the upper atmosphere across the Atlantic Ocean. That dust can land as far west as the Carribean and the Americas. This dust can carry potentially hazardous bacteria and fungi.

Mangos, Michael; Herman, Jay

2001-06-14

20

Aerosols from Earth Probe TOMS: Transatlantic Dust Event in July 2000  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Saharan dust storms raise dust that is carried in the upper atmosphere across the Atlantic Ocean. That dust can land as far west as the Carribean and the Americas. This dust can carry potentially hazardous bacteria and fungi.

Mangos, Michael; Herman, Jay

2001-06-14

21

Probing Earth and Mars: What Should We Pack?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson students explore the idea of using probes to gain scientific information on both Mars and Earth. The students also attempt to determine the likely surface temperature at landing sites on Earth that are comparable to Pathfinder and Viking sites on Mars. This is the fifth in a series of interactive student lessons from the Martian Sun Times.

22

TOMS Tropical Tropospheric Ozone Data Sets at the University of Maryland Website  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Since 1997, shortly after the launch of the Earth-Probe TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) satellite instrument, we have been processing data in near-real time to post maps of tropical tropospheric ozone at a website: metosrv2.umd.edu/-tropo. Daily, 3-day and 9-day averages of tropical tropospheric ozone column depth (TTO) are viewable from 10N to 10S. Data can be downloaded (running 9-day means) from 20N-30S. Pollution events are trackable along with dynamically-induced variations in tropospheric ozone column. TOMS smoke aerosol (toms.gsfc.nasa.gov) can be used to interpret biomass burning ozone, as for example, during the extreme ozone and smoke pollution period during the ENSO-related fires of August November 1997. During that time plumes of ozone and smoke were frequently decoupled and ozone from Indonesian fires and from Africa merged in one large feature by late October 1997. In addition to the Earth-Probe TOMS record, data as half-month averages and as daily 9-day means from the Nimbus 7 TOMS instrument are at the metosrv2.umd.edu/-tropo website. A guide to the website and examples of ozone time-series and maps will be shown.

Kochhar, A. K.; Thompson, A. M.; Hudson, R. D.; Frolov, A. D.; Witte, J. C.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

23

Comparison of TOMS, SBW & SBUV/2 Version 8 Total Column Ozone Data with Data from Groundstations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Nimbus-7 and Earth Probe Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) data as well as SBUV and SBUV/2 data have been reprocessed with a new retrieval algorithm (Version 8) and an updated calibration procedure. An overview will be presented systematically comparing ozone values to an ensemble of Brewer and Dobson spectrophotometers. The comparisons were made as a function of latitude, solar zenith angle, reflectivity and total ozone. Results show that the accuracy of the TOMS retrieval has been improved when aerosols are present in the atmosphere, when snow/ice and sea glint are present, and when ozone in the northern hemisphere is extremely low. TOMS overpass data are derived from the single TOMS best match measurement, almost always located within one degree of the ground station and usually made within an hour of local noon. The Version 8 Earth Probe TOMS ozone values have decreased by an average of about 1% due to a much better understanding of the calibration of the instrument. N-7 SBUV as well as the series of NOAA SBUV/2 column ozone values have also been processed with the Version 8 algorithm and have been compared to values from an ensemble of groundstations. Results show that the SBW column ozone values agree well with the groundstations and the datasets are useful for trend studies.

Labow, G. J.; McPeters, R. D.; Bhartia, P. K.

2004-01-01

24

Satellite probes plasma processes in earth orbit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The mission of the DOD/NASA Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES) is to deepen understanding of the earth's near-space environment, including the radiation belts and the ionosphere; this will help spacecraft designers protect against radiation-belt particles that affect onboard electronics, solar panel arrays, and crewmembers. Attention is presently given to CRRES's study of ionospheric plasma processes through releases of Ba, Ca, Sr, and Li at altitudes of 400-36,000 km.

Christensen, Andrew B.; Reasoner, David L.

1992-01-01

25

TOMS Ozone Anomalies and Ozone Retrieval Errors Over Cloudy Areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study characterizes TOMS Ozone Retrieval Errors (OREs) associated with incorrect Cloud-Top Pressures (CTPs) and with assuming opaque Lambertian clouds, investigates these errors' effects on tropospheric ozone derivation, and analyzes ozone anomalies over TOMS data. Large errors occurring in TOMS assumed CTPs and inaccurate CTP-caused OREs are most significantly from inappropriately added ozone below clouds. Because OREs are usually within the TOMS retrieval precision when Cloud Optical Depth (COD)>20, assuming Lambertian surface is good. Because of In-Cloud Ozone Absorption ENhancement (ICOAEN), assuming opaque clouds can introduce large positive OREs even for optically thick clouds. For a 2-12 km water cloud of COD 40 with 20.8 DU ozone inside the cloud, the ORE is 17.8 DU at nadir. The ICOAEN effect depends strongly on viewing geometry and inter-cloud ozone amount and distribution; it is typically 5-13 DU over the tropical Atlantic and Africa and 1-7 DU over the tropical Pacific for deep convective clouds. The negative errors from using the TOMS Partial Cloud Model (PCM) partly cancel other positive errors. At COD < 5, the TOMS algorithm retrieves approximately the correct total ozone because of compensating errors. With increasing COD up to 20-40, negative PCM effect decreases to almost zero, and the overall positive ORE increases and is dominated by ICOAEN effect. The ICOAEN effect can largely underestimate tropospheric ozone derived from cloudy/clear difference techniques. The convective cloud differential and cloud-clear pair methods use minimum ozone above clouds to cancel positive errors. A Positive or Negative Ozone Anomaly (POA/NOA) is defined to occur if the ozone/reflectivity correlation coefficient in a region is >0.5 or <-0.5. Average fractions of OA occurrence are 31.8% and 35.8% in Nimbus-7 and Earth-Probe TOMS data, respectively. Most tropical NOAs result from large cloud-height errors; corrections lead to 50-70% POAs in the tropics because of mainly the ICOAEN effect. POAs with fractions of 30-60% occur in marine stratocumulus regions west of South Africa and South America. OREs over clear and cloudy areas cause about half the ozone/reflectivity slope; greater ozone production from frequent low-altitude clouds and rich ozone precursors may cause the remainder. The knowledge of TOMS OREs has important implications for ozone/trace gas retrieval from other satellites.

Liu, X.; Newchurch, M.; Kim, J.; Bhartia, P. K.; Loughman, R.

2003-12-01

26

Ion probe measurement of rare earth elements in biogenic phosphates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rare earth element (REE) distributions in individual fish teeth and conodonts have been measured by ion probe. Concentrations and La/Yb ratios show little variations, except in the enamel, which suggests that REE uptake from the sedimented biogenic debris takes place at the water-sediment interface as an essentially quantitative process without fractionation. Late diagenetic disturbances remained of marginal importance. Hence, REE in phosphatic debris might reflect the input from the overlying water column.

Grandjean, Patricia; Albarède, Francis

1989-12-01

27

Combined Characterisation of GOME and TOMS Total Ozone Using Ground-Based Observations from the NDSC  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several years of total ozone measured from space by the ERS-2 GOME, the Earth Probe Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS), and the ADEOS TOMS, are compared with high-quality ground-based observations associated with the Network for the Detection of Stratospheric Change (NDSC), over an extended latitude range and a variety of geophysical conditions. The comparisons with each spaceborne sensor are combined altogether for investigating their respective solar zenith angle (SZA) dependence, dispersion, and difference of sensitivity. The space- and ground-based data are found to agree within a few percent on average. However, the analysis highlights for both Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) and TOMS several sources of discrepancies, including a dependence on the SZA at high latitudes and internal inconsistencies.

Lambert, J.-C.; VanRoozendael, M.; Simon, P. C.; Pommereau, J.-P.; Goutail, F.; Andersen, S. B.; Arlander, D. W.; BuiVan, N. A.; Claude, H.; deLaNoee, J.; DeMaziere, M.; Dorokhov, V.; Eriksen, P.; Gleason, J. F.; Tornkvist, K. Karlsen; Hoiskar, B. A. Kastad; Kyroe, E.; Leveau, J.; Merienne, M.-F.; Milinevsky, G.

1998-01-01

28

The Recovery of TOMS-EP  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

On December 13th 1998, the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer - Earth Probe (TOMS-EP) spacecraft experienced a Single Event Upset which caused the system to reconfigure and enter a Safe Mode. This incident occurred two and a half years after the launch of the spacecraft which was designed for a two year life. A combination of factors, including changes in component behavior due to age and extended use, very unfortunate initial conditions and the safe mode processing logic prevented the spacecraft from entering its nominal long term storage mode. The spacecraft remained in a high fuel consumption mode designed for temporary use. By the time the onboard fuel was exhausted, the spacecraft was Sun pointing in a high rate flat spin. Although the uncontrolled spacecraft was initially in a power and thermal safe orientation, it would not stay in this state indefinitely due to a slow precession of its momentum vector. A recovery team was immediately assembled to determine if there was time to develop a method of despinning the vehicle and return it to normal science data collection. A three stage plan was developed that used the onboard magnetic torque rods as actuators. The first stage was designed to reduce the high spin rate to within the linear range of the gyros. The second stage transitioned the spacecraft from sun pointing to orbit reference pointing. The final stage returned the spacecraft to normal science operation. The entire recovery scenario was simulated with a wide range of initial conditions to establish the expected behavior. The recovery sequence was started on December 28th 1998 and completed by December 31st. TOMS-EP was successfully returned to science operations by the beginning of 1999. This paper describes the TOMS-EP Safe Mode design and the factors which led to the spacecraft anomaly and loss of fuel. The recovery and simulation efforts are described. Flight data are presented which show the performance of the spacecraft during its return to science. Finally, lessons learned are presented.

Robertson, Brent; Sabelhaus, Phil; Mendenhall, Todd; Fesq, Lorraine

1998-01-01

29

Probing the Kondo Lattice Model with Alkaline Earth Atoms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has recently been proposed that alkaline-earth atoms can be used to simulate condensed matter Hamiltonians with both spin and orbital electronic degrees of freedom [1]. For example, it is possible to create two independent optical lattices for trapping the ^1S0 and ^3P0 clock states, which we then associate with two orbital degrees of freedom [2]. Such a system is particularly well suited to simulation of the Kondo Lattice Model (KLM): by placing one clock state in a deep lattice and the other in a shallow lattice it is possible to mimic the interaction of localized spins with a band of conduction electrons. We suggest simple dynamical probes of the KLM phase diagram that can be implemented with current experimental techniques. In particular, we show how Kondo physics at strong coupling, low density, and in the heavy fermion phase is manifest in the dipole oscillations of the conduction band upon sudden displacement of a parabolic trapping potential. [1] A. V Gorshkov et al. arXiv:0905.2610v2 [cond-mat.quant-gas], Jan 2009. [2] A Daley, M Boyd, J Ye, and P Zoller. Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 170504 (2008).

Feig, Michael; Hermele, Michael; Gurarie, Victor; Rey, Ana Maria

2010-03-01

30

Probing the Kondo Lattice Model with Alkaline Earth Atoms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has recently been proposed that alkaline-earth atoms can be used to simulate condensed matter Hamiltonians with both spin and orbital electronic degrees of freedom[1]. For example, it is possible to create two independent optical lattices for trapping the 1S0 and 3P0 clock states, which we then associate with two orbital degrees of freedom[2]. Such a system is particularly well suited to simulation of the Kondo Lattice Model (KLM): by placing one clock state in a deep lattice and the other in a shallow lattice it is possible to mimic the interaction of localized spins with a band of conduction electrons. We suggest simple dynamical probes of the KLM phase diagram that can be implemented with current experimental techniques. In particular, we show how Kondo physics at strong coupling, low density, and in the heavy fermion phase is manifest in the dipole oscillations of the conduction band upon sudden displacement of a parabolic trapping potential. [1] A V Gorshkov et al. arXiv:0905.2610v2 [cond-mat.quant-gas], Jan 2009. [2] A Daley, M Boyd, J Ye, and P Zoller. Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 170504 (2008).

Foss-Feig, Michael; Hermele, Michael; Gurarie, Victor; Rey, Ana Maria

2010-03-01

31

Ozone retrieval errors associated with clouds in total ozone mapping spectrometer (TOMS) data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study characterizes TOMS Ozone Retrieval Errors (ORES) associated with incorrect Cloud-Top Pressures (CTPs) and with assuming opaque Lambertian clouds, investigates these errors' effects on tropospheric ozone derivation, and analyzes ozone anomalies over TOMS data. Large errors occurring in TOMS assumed CTPs and inaccurate CTP-caused ORES are most significantly from inappropriately added ozone below clouds. Because OREs are usually within the TOMS retrieval precision when Cloud Optical Depth (COD) ? 20, assuming angular-independent cloud reflection is good. Because of In-Cloud Ozone Absorption ENhancement (ICOAEN), assuming opaque clouds can introduce large positive OREs even for optically thick clouds. For a 2--12 km water cloud of COD 40 with 20.8 DU ozone homogeneously distributed inside the cloud, the ORE is 17.8 DU at nadir view. The ICOAEN effect depends strongly on viewing geometry and inter-cloud ozone amount and distribution; it is typically 5--13 DU over the tropical Atlantic and Africa and 1--7 DU over the tropical Pacific for deep convective clouds. The TOMS Partial Cloud Model (PCM) is good because negative PCM effect partly cancels other positive errors. At COD ? 5, the TOMS algorithm retrieves approximately the correct total ozone because of compensating errors. With increasing COD up to 20--40, negative PCM effect decreases more dramatically than positive effects, so overall positive ORE increases and is dominated by the ICOAEN effect. The ICOAEN effect can largely underestimate tropospheric ozone derived from cloudy/clear difference techniques. The convective cloud differential and cloud-clear pair methods use minimum ozone above clouds to cancel positive errors. A Positive or Negative Ozone Anomaly (POA/NOA) is defined to occur if the ozone/reflectivity correlation coefficient in a region is ?0.5 or ?-0.5. Average fractions of OA occurrence are 31.8% and 35.8% in Nimbus-7 and Earth-Probe TOMS data, respectively. Most tropical NOAs result from large cloud-height errors; corrections lead to 50--70% POAs in the tropics because of mainly the ICOAEN effect. POAs with fractions of 30--60% occur in marine stratocumulus regions west of South Africa and South America. ORES over clear and cloudy areas cause about half the ozone/reflectivity slope; greater ozone production from frequent low-altitude clouds and rich ozone precursors may cause the remainder. The knowledge of TOMS OREs has important implications for ozone/trace gas retrieval from other satellites.

Liu, Xiong

32

Volcanic Eruption Detection by the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) Instruments: a 22-Year Record of Sulfur Dioxide and Ash Emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since their first deployment in November 1978, the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) instruments have provided a unique, robust and near-continuous record of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and ash emissions from active volcanoes worldwide. Data from the four TOMS satellites that have flown to date (Nimbus-7, Meteor-3, ADEOS and Earth Probe) have been incorporated into a TOMS volcanic emissions database that presently covers 22 years of SO2 and ash emissions, representing one of the longest satellite-derived records of volcanic activity in existence. At the beginning of 2002, this database comprised 194 individual eruptive events produced during 100 eruptions from 60 volcanoes, resulting in a total of 666 days of volcanic cloud observations by TOMS. Regular eruptions of the African volcano Nyamuragira (DR Congo) since 1978, accompanied by copious SO2 production (Guth et al., 2002), have alone contributed approximately 20% of the days on which clouds were observed. Indonesian volcanoes have produced over 30% of detected eruptive events, due largely to frequent explosive activity at Galunggung, Soputan and Colo during the 1980s. The latest SO2 retrieval results from Earth Probe (EP) TOMS document a period (1996-2001) lacking large explosive eruptions, and also dominated by SO2 emission from 4 eruptions of Nyamuragira. EP TOMS has detected the SO2 and ash produced during 39 eruptive events from 15 volcanoes to date, with volcanic clouds observed on 128 days. Data from EP TOMS have recently begun to degrade, and its erstwhile successor (QuikTOMS) failed to achieve orbit in 2001. New SO2 algorithms are currently being developed for the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), which will continue the TOMS record of UV remote sensing of volcanic emissions from 2004. OMI will offer SO2 detection limits up to 50 times lower than TOMS and comparable to COSPEC, offering the prospect of regular space-based measurement of passive degassing. Reference: A.L. Guth, G.J.S. Bluth & S.A. Carn (2002). Analyzing sulfur dioxide emissions of Nyamuragira, Abstract (this meeting).

Carn, S. A.; Krueger, A. J.; Bluth, G. J.; Schaefer, S. J.; Krotkov, N. A.; Watson, I. M.; Datta, S.

2002-05-01

33

Tom's Hardware Guide  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Tom's Hardware Guide, by Thomas Pabst, is an excellent compendium of news, reviews, and technical guides pertaining to PC hardware. The hardware news includes product releases, roadmaps, and computer conference news. The reviews focus on motherboards, CPUs, and graphics cards, all of which are thoroughly tested by Tom and his staff. Testing results are graphed, evaluated, and compared. For the PC-users who want to tweak every bit of performance out of their system, there are guides for the system bios and CPU overclocking. This site is a must-visit for almost anyone looking to build or upgrade a computer.

34

Earth-Based Radio Tracking of the Galileo Probe for Jupiter Wind Estimation  

PubMed

Although the Galileo probe was designed to communicate only to the orbiter, the probe radio signal was detected at two Earth-based radio observatories where the signal was a billion times weaker. The measured signal frequency was used to derive a vertical profile of the jovian zonal wind speed. Due to the mission geometry, the Earth-based wind estimates are less sensitive to descent trajectory errors than estimates based on probe-orbiter Doppler measurements. The two estimates of wind profiles agree qualitatively; both show high wind speeds at all depths sampled. PMID:9005845

Folkner; Preston; Border; Navarro; Wilson; Oestreich

1997-01-31

35

Long-Term Variability of Airborne Asian Dust Observed from TOMS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent studies suggest that airborne Asian dust may not only play an important role in the regional radiation budget, but also influence the air quality over North America through long-range transport. In this paper, we use satellite data to investigate the long-term variability of airborne Asian dust as well as the daily variation of the dust aerosol distribution. By combining the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) aerosol index with National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) wind data, our analysis shows a strong correlation between the generation of dust storms in the region and the passage of springtime weather fronts. This is consistent with earlier studies performed by other researchers. According to both the Nimbus-7 and Earth-Probe TOMS data the Takla Makan desert, the Gobi desert, and the and region of Inner Mongolia are major sources of the eastward-flowing airborne Asian dust. Heavily populated areas in eastern China (e.g., Beijing) are often on the primary path of the dust storms originating in these desert regions. The increasing desertification north of the Beijing region has served to exacerbate problems stemming from these storms. The time series derived from 20 years of TOMS aerosol index data shows the first significant satellite evidence of the atmospheric effect of increasing desertification, indicating that the amount of dust blown eastward has increased strongly during the past few years including the year 2000.

Herman, J. R.; Hsu, N. C.; Seftor, C. J.; Holben, B. N.; Holben, B. N.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

36

Argon isotopic composition of Archaean atmosphere probes early Earth geodynamics.  

PubMed

Understanding the growth rate of the continental crust through time is a fundamental issue in Earth sciences. The isotopic signatures of noble gases in the silicate Earth (mantle, crust) and in the atmosphere afford exceptional insight into the evolution through time of these geochemical reservoirs. However, no data for the compositions of these reservoirs exists for the distant past, and temporal exchange rates between Earth's interior and its surface are severely under-constrained owing to a lack of samples preserving the original signature of the atmosphere at the time of their formation. Here, we report the analysis of argon in Archaean (3.5-billion-year-old) hydrothermal quartz. Noble gases are hosted in primary fluid inclusions containing a mixture of Archaean freshwater and hydrothermal fluid. Our analysis reveals Archaean atmospheric argon with a (40)Ar/(36)Ar value of 143?±?24, lower than the present-day value of 298.6 (for which (40)Ar has been produced by the radioactive decay of the potassium isotope (40)K, with a half-life of 1.25 billion years; (36)Ar is primordial in origin). This ratio is consistent with an early development of the felsic crust, which might have had an important role in climate variability during the first half of Earth's history. PMID:23739427

Pujol, Magali; Marty, Bernard; Burgess, Ray; Turner, Grenville; Philippot, Pascal

2013-06-01

37

Probing the atmosphere of the coolest super-Earth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Theoretical models predict that low mass planets are likely to exist with atmospheres that can vary widely in their composition and structure. Our team recently detected a super-Earth transiting the nearby low-mass star GJ1214 (Charbonneau et al., 2009). This detection has opened the door to testing predictions of low mass planet atmosphere theories. We propose to use the Spitzer space

Jean-Michel Desert; David Charbonneau; Zachory Berta; Christopher Burke; Jonathan Irwin; Philip Nutzman; Eliza Miller-Ricci

2010-01-01

38

Tropospheric Ozone Pollution from Space: New Views from the TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) Instrument  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

New products from the TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) >satellite instrument can resolve pollution events in tropical and mid-latitudes, Over the past several years, we have developed tropospheric ozone data sets by two methods. The modified-residual technique [Hudson and Thompson, 1998; Thompson and Hudson, 1999] uses v. 7 TOMS total ozone and is applicable to tropical regimes in which the wave-one pattern in total ozone is observed. The TOMSdirect method [Hudson et at., 2000] represents a new algorithm that uses TOMS radiances to extract tropospheric ozone in regions of constant stratospheric ozone and tropospheric ozone displaying high mixing ratios and variability characteristic of pollution, Absorbing aerosols (dust and smoke; Herman et at., 1997 Hsu et al., 1999), a standard TOMS product, provide transport and/or source marker information to interpret tropospheric ozone. For the Nimbus 7/TOMS observing period (1979-1992), modified-residual TTO (tropical tropospheric ozone) appears as two maps/month at I-degree latitude 2-degree longitude resolution at a homepage and digital data are available (20S to 20N) by ftp at http://metosrv2. umd.edu/tropo/ 14y_data.d. Preliminary modified-residual TTO data from the operational Earth-Probe/TOMS (1996- present) are posted in near-real-time at the same website. Analyses with the new tropospheric ozone and aerosol data are illustrated by the following (I)Signals in tropical tropospheric ozone column and smoke amount during ENSO (El Nino-Southern Oscillation) events, e.g. 1982-1983 and the intense ENSO induced biomass fires of 1997-1998 over the Indonesian region [Thompson et a[, 2000a, Thompson and Hudson, 1999]. (2) Trends in tropospheric ozone and smoke aerosols in various tropical regions (Atlantic, Pacific, Africa, Brazil). No significant trends were found for ozone from1980-1990 [Thompson and Hudson, 19991 although smoke aerosols increased during the period [Hsu et al.,1999]. (3) Temporal and spatial offsets ("paradoxes") in tropical tropospheric ozone and smoke aerosol in regions of greatest tropical biomass burning [Thompson et at., 1996;2000b]. (4) Trans-boundary pollution tracking. With an air parcel (trajectory) model, smoke aerosol and ozone and dust plumes can be tracked across oceans (e.g., Asia to North America; North America to Europe) and national boundaries, e.g. Indonesia to Singapore and Malaysia during the 1997 ENSO fires.

Thompson, Anne M.; Hudson, Robert D.; Frolov, Alexander D.; Witte, Jacquelyn C.; Kucsera, Tom L.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

39

The Pilot Warm Spitzer Near Earth Object Survey: Probing the size distribution of the most abundant Near Earth Objects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a Warm Spitzer search for Near Earth Objects (NEOs), bodies whose orbits bring them close to the Earth's orbit. Previous work has measured the properties of larger NEOs, but the physical properties of the smallest and most numerous NEOs are poorly constrained. We will capitalize on Spitzer's unparalleled sensitivity and unique geometry to measure the size distribution of NEOs down to 100 meters, where completeness from previous surveys is poor. This allows us to probe the dynamical history of near-Earth space and meet the Congressional mandate to determine the impact threat from objects >140 m. This project will also serve as a scientific and technical pathfinder for a future large Spitzer proposal that will increase our knowledge of the small NEO size distribution by another order of magnitude. Both projects will also be sensitive to previously unseen NEO populations. This proposed work significantly surpasses recent results from both our ExploreNEOS program and NEOWISE. Future ground- and space-based missions have been proposed to carry out similar work at costs of $500M or more, but this fundamental work can be done now, with Spitzer, for far less money. Our team has unmatched scientific and technical expertise in observations and modeling of Spitzer-observed NEOs.

Trilling, David; Delbo, Marco; Emery, Joshua; Fazio, Giovanni; Fuentes, Cesar; Harris, Alan; Hora, Joseph; Mommert, Michael; Mueller, Michael; Smith, Howard

2012-12-01

40

An earth-isolated optically coupled wideband high voltage probe powered by ambient light  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An earth-isolated optically-coupled wideband high voltage probe has been developed for pulsed power applications. The probe uses a capacitive voltage divider coupled to a fast light-emitting diode that converts high voltage into an amplitude-modulated optical signal, which is then conveyed to a receiver via an optical fiber. A solar cell array, powered by ambient laboratory lighting, charges a capacitor that, when triggered, acts as a short-duration power supply for an on-board amplifier in the probe. The entire system has a noise level <=0.03 kV, a DC-5 MHz bandwidth, and a measurement range from -6 to 2 kV; this range can be conveniently adjusted.

Zhai, Xiang; Bellan, Paul M.

2012-10-01

41

The magnetospheric disturbance ring current as a source for probing the deep earth electrical conductivity  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Two current rings have been observed in the equatorial plane of the earth at times of high geomagnetic activity. An eastward current exists between about 2 and 3.5 earth radii (Re) distant, and a larger, more variable companion current exists between about 4 and 9 Re. These current regions are loaded during geomagnetic substorms. They decay, almost exponentially, after the cessation of the particle influx that attends the solar wind disturbance. This review focuses upon characteristics needed for intelligent use of the ring current as a source for induction probing of the earth's mantle. Considerable difficulties are found with the assumption that Dst is a ring-current index. ?? 1990 Birkha??user Verlag.

Campbell, W. H.

1990-01-01

42

Van Allen Probes: Successful launch campaign and early operations exploring Earth's radiation belts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The twin Van Allen Probe observatories developed at The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory for NASA's Heliophysics Division completed final observatory integration and environmental test activities and were successfully launched into orbit around the Earth on August 30, 2012. As the science operations phase begins, the mission is providing exciting new information about the impact of radiation belt activity on the earth. The on-board boom mounted magnetometers and other instruments are the most sensitive sensors of their type that have ever flown in the Van Allen radiation belts. The observatories are producing near-Earth space weather information that can be used to provide warnings of potential power grid interruptions or satellite damaging storms. The Van Allen Probes are operating in a challenging high radiation environment, and at the same time they are designed to make an insubstantial electric and magnetic field contribution to their surroundings. This paper will describe the challenges associated with observatory integration and test activities and observatory on-orbit checkout and commissioning. The lessons learned can be applied to other observatories and payloads that will be exposed to similar environments.

Kirby, K.; Stratton, J.

43

Volcanic eruption detection with TOMS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Nimbus 7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) is designed for mapping of the atmospheric ozone distribution. Absorption by sulfur dioxide at the same ultraviolet spectral wavelengths makes it possible to observe and resolve the size of volcanic clouds. The sulfur dioxide absorption is discriminated from ozone and water clouds in the data processing by their spectral signatures. Thus, the sulfur dioxide can serve as a tracer which appears in volcanic eruption clouds because it is not present in other clouds. The detection limit with TOMS is close to the theoretical limit due to telemetry signal quantization of 1000 metric tons (5-sigma threshold) within the instrument field of view (50 by 50 km near the nadir). Requirements concerning the use of TOMS in detection of eruptions, geochemical cycles, and volcanic climatic effects are discussed.

Krueger, Arlin J.

1987-01-01

44

The Rare Earth PAC Probe 172Lu in Wide Band-Gap Semiconductors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Group III nitrides and other wide band-gap semiconductors like ZnO are very promising materials for application in optoelectronics. However, little is known about the recovery of lattice damage caused by ion implantation necessary to achieve lateral structuring. We use the PAC technique to study the behaviour of the Rare Earth isotope 172Lu(172Yb) after implantation. After annealing, a large fraction of the probes is found on unique lattice sites with axial symmetry and a low damping of the interaction frequency. In addition the corresponding electric field gradient is aligned along the <0001> axis. A substitutional incorporation of the Rare Earth on regular metal lattice sites is therefore probable.

Nédélec, R.; Vianden, R.

2004-11-01

45

Q&A with Tom Snyder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, an interview with Tom Snyder, founder of Tom Snyder Productions in 1980, is presented. One of the topics discussed here is Snyder's biggest turning point in education technology over the past 25 years.

McLester, Susan

2005-01-01

46

Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site provides information about the TOMS instrument, its mission, space craft, and data products. Visitors can access same-day or archived data on aerosols, ozone, reflectivity, ultraviolet radiation, or volcanic gases. Teachers can choose from a selection of links to activities and lesson plans. Other materials include news articles, movies, and links to related sites.

47

Plasma Wave Measurements in Earth's Magnetosphere by Juno, Van Allen Probes, and Cluster  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On October 9, 2013, Juno will fly within about 550 km of Earth in the process of executing a gravity assist on its way to its eventual arrival at Jupiter in July 2016. Since this will be the only magnetospheric plasma regime Juno will sample prior to arrival at Jupiter, it presents both engineering and scientific opportunities. One of the scientific opportunities is to make observations in the inner magnetosphere at the same time as the twin Van Allen Probes and Cluster. During the Juno flyby, which is on the dusk side at closest approach, the Van Allen Probes' apoapsis is also in the dusk sector. The Cluster orbits favor comparisons on the nightside after Juno's closest approach. Models of the radiation belts suggest that Juno will traverse both the inner and outer belts, albeit at higher latitudes than the low-inclination Van Allen Probes while the Cluster spacecraft are in a rather high inclination orbit. The Waves instrument on Juno utilizes a single electric dipole antenna and a single search coil sensor for measurements of the electric and magnetic components of plasma waves, consequently it will provide wave spectra and brief bursts of waveforms. The Waves instrument on Van Allen Probes, on the other hand makes triaxial electric and magnetic measurements of plasma waves, hence, can determine the propagation characteristics of waves such as the wave-normal angle, Poynting flux, and polarization characteristics of the waves. The Wideband Instrument on Cluster can be configured to capture single axis (electric or magnetic) waveforms at selected times to coincide with Juno and Van Allen Probes burst observations. We will compare observations of whistler-mode emissions and electron cyclotron harmonic emissions in and near the radiation belts from the vantage points of these spacecraft.

Kurth, W. S.; Hospodarsky, G. B.; Bolton, S. J.; Gurnett, D. A.; Santolik, O.; Kletzing, C.; Thorne, R. M.; Pickett, J. S.

2013-12-01

48

Uncle Tom's Cabin & American Culture  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

While it is fairly easy to find electronic full-text versions of Harriet Beecher Stowe's tremendously important work "Uncle Tom's Cabin" online, visitors will want to first take a look at this very thorough exploration not only of the book itself, but also of American culture in the 19th century. Created and maintained by Professor Stephen Railton of the University of Virginia (with funding from the National Endowment for the Humanities), the site allows users to browse through such materials as editorials from the period that respond to the book along with information about how the book has been transformed into a children's book and various plays. Beyond this helpful information, visitors can also look at the covers of different editions of Uncle Tom's Cabin through the years, including one that was published in Yiddish in 1911. For students of American literature or culture, this site could prove to be quite an invaluable resource.

49

Global surface ultraviolet radiation climatology from TOMS and ERBE data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A global climatology of biologically active solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) at the Earth's surface is derived using NASA total ozone mapping spectrometer (TOMS) measurements of column ozone abundance and NASA Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) measurements of solar reflectance from the Earth-atmosphere system. These two sources of satellite data are used as input to a delta-Eddington radiative transfer model to estimate climatological cloud opacity and thereby demonstrate how surface UVR varies with geography and season. The surface UVR fluxes are spectrally resolved to enable weighted integration with any biological action spectrum. Solar elevation is shown to be more important than total column ozone abundance in governing the variability of surface UVR over large geographic areas, although some regions with pronounced local minima in ozone (30 Dobson units or more) will cause noticeable enhancements of integrated UV-B (280-315 nm) flux relative to UV-A (315-400 nm). The greatest variability in surface UVR within a given climate zone is induced by cloud cover. During summer, regions that show lower surface UVR fluxes relative to their surrounding regions include the eastern United States (versus the western United States), India, China (in the vicinity of the Yangtze River), and Japan (relative to the surrounding oceans). Cloud cover over tropical rainforest areas reduces the surface UVR flux relative to ocean areas at the same latitudes. The UVR cloud transmission derived from the TOMS and ERBE data correlates with an independent climatology of global cloud coverage. The UVR mapping method, based on the TOMS and ERBE data, allows a direct investigation of diurnal variability and a rigorous calculation of the biologically relevant integrated daily dose of UVR. However, it is shown that a UVR mapping method based on TOMS data alone, which is limited to only local noon satellite measurements, can make defensible estimates of the integrated daily UVR dose and the instantaneous local noon UVR surface flux.

Lubin, Dan; Jensen, Elsa H.; Gies, H. Peter

1998-10-01

50

The Radiation Belt Storm Probes Mission: Advancing Our Understanding of the Earth's Radiation Belts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We describe NASA's Radiation Belt Storm Probe (RBSP) mission, whose primary science objective is to understand, ideally to the point of predictability, the dynamics of relativistic electrons and penetrating ions in the Earth's radiation belts resulting from variable solar activity. The overarching scientific questions addressed include: 1. the physical processes that produce radiation belt enhancement events, 2. the dominant mechanisms for relativistic electron loss, and 3. how the ring current and other geomagnetic processes affect radiation belt behavior. The RBSP mission comprises two spacecraft which will be launched during Fall 2012 into low inclination lapping equatorial orbits. The orbit periods are about 9 hours, with perigee altitudes and apogee radial distances of 600 km and 5.8 RE respectively. During the two-year primary mission, the spacecraft orbits precess once around the Earth and lap each other twice in each local time quadrant. The spacecraft are each equipped with identical comprehensive instrumentation packages to measure, electrons, ions and wave electric and magnetic fields. We provide an overview of the RBSP mission, onboard instrumentation and science prospects and invite scientific collaboration.

Sibeck, David; Kanekal, Shrikanth; Kessel, Ramona; Fox, Nicola; Mauk, Barry

2012-01-01

51

A Long-term Record of Saharan Dust Aerosol Properties from TOMS Observations: Optical Depth and Single Scattering Albedo  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The interaction between the strong Rayleigh scattering in the near UV spectral region (330-380 nm) and the processes of aerosol absorption and scattering, produce a clear spectral signal in the upwelling radiance at the top of the atmosphere. This interaction is the basis of the TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) aerosol retrieval technique that can be used for their characterization and to differentiate non-absorbing sulfates from strongly UV-absorbing aerosols such as mineral dust. For absorbing aerosols, the characterization is in terms of the optical depth and single scattering albedo with assumptions about the aerosol plume height. The results for non-absorbing aerosols are not dependent on plume height. Although iron compounds represent only between 5% to 8% of desert dust aerosol mass, hematite (Fe2O3) accounts for most of the near UV absorption. Because of the large ultraviolet absorption characteristic of hematite, the near UV method of aerosol sensing is especially suited for the detection and characterization of desert dust aerosols. Using the combined record of near UV measurements by the Nimbus7 (1978-1992) and Earth Probe (1996-present) TOMS instruments, a global longterm climatology of near UV optical depth and single scattering albedo has been produced. The multi-year long record of mineral aerosol properties over the area of influence of the Saharan desert, will be discussed.

Torres, Omar; Bhartia, P. K.; Herman, J. R.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

52

Toms' Effect in District Heating System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

During the period 1974-1982, studies have been undertaken to investigate if it is technically and economically possible to introduce the so called Toms' effect in Sweden's district heating system. The significance of Toms' effect is that one can reduce th...

L. Ahrnbom U. Hagstrand

1982-01-01

53

Van Allen Probes Mission Space Academy: Educating middle school students about Earth's mysterious radiation belts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

How's the weather in space? Why on Earth did NASA send two satellites above Earth to study radiation belts and space weather? To learn the answer to questions about NASA's Van Allen Probes mission, 450 students and their teachers from Maryland middle schools attended Space Academy events highlighting the Van Allen Probes mission. Sponsored by the Applied Physics Laboratory (APL) and Discovery Education, the events are held at the APL campus in Laurel, MD. Space Academies take students and teachers on behind-the-scenes exploration of how spacecraft are built, what they are designed to study, and introduces them to the many professionals that work together to create some of NASA's most exciting projects. Moderated by a public relations representative in the format of an official NASA press conference, the daylong event includes a student press conference with students as reporters and mission experts as panelists. Lunch with mission team members gives students a chance to ask more questions. After lunch, students don souvenir clean room suits, enjoy interactive science demonstrations, and tour APL facilities where the Van Allen Probes were built and tested before launch. Students may even have an opportunity to peek inside a clean room to view spacecraft being assembled. Prior to the event, teachers are provided with classroom activities, lesson plans, and videos developed by APL and Discovery Education to help prepare students for the featured mission. The activities are aligned to National Science Education Standards and appropriate for use in the classroom. Following their visit, student journalists are encouraged to write a short article about their field trip; selections are posted on the Space Academy web site. Designed to engage, inspire, and influence attitudes about space science and STEM careers, Space Academies provide an opportunity to attract underserved populations and emphasize that space science is for everyone. Exposing students to a diverse group of scientists and engineers may alleviate some common stereotypes about these careers. When students engage with the scientists and engineers at APL, they see first-hand that successful science and engineering requires a diverse team with multi-disciplinary backgrounds. Activities throughout the day develop student understanding about science and technology, and address the fundamental concepts that fall under the National Science Education Content Standards. Students are immersed in a hands-on experience designed to facilitate understanding of the History and Nature of Science. Throughout the day students interact with people of diverse backgrounds and interests while hearing about the specific ways various individuals and teams of people contribute to the science and technology of the mission, addressing the concepts which fall under the headings of Science as a Human Endeavor, Nature of Science, and History of Science. Getting students outside the classroom to visit APL is an exclusive opportunity; evaluations have indicated that students became interested in learning more about space science and STEM careers after attending a Space Academy event.

Butler, L.; Turney, D.; Matiella Novak, A.; Smith, D.; Simon, M.

2013-12-01

54

Close Reading Exemplar: Tom Sawyer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The goal of this one day exemplar is to give students the opportunity to use the reading and writing habits theyâve been practicing on a regular basis to discover the rich humor and moral lesson embedded in Twainâs text. By reading and rereading the passage closely, and focusing their reading through a series of questions and discussion about the text, students will explore the problem Tom Sawyer faced and how he “solved” his conundrum. When combined with writing about the passage, students will learn to appreciate how Twainâs humor contains a deeper message and derive satisfaction from the struggle to master complex text. At the end of the lesson, students are provided two writing prompts to constructive a narrative inspired by Twain's text.

Student Achievement Partners for Just Read, Florida!

2012-09-09

55

Toms Creek IGCC Demonstration Project  

SciTech Connect

The Toms Creek Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) Demonstration Project was selected by DOE in September 1991 to participate in Round Four of the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program. The project will demonstrate a simplified IGCC process consisting of an air-blown, fluidized-bed gasifier (Tampella U-Gas), a gas cooler/steam generator, and a hot gas cleanup system in combination with a gas turbine modified for use with a low-Btu content fuel and a conventional steam bottoming cycle. The demonstration plant will be located at the Toms Creek coal mine near Coeburn, Wise County, Virginia. Participants in the project are Tampella Power Corporation and Coastal Power Production Company. The plant will use 430 tons per day of locally mined bituminous coal to produce 55 MW of power from the gasification section of the project. A modern pulverized coal fired unit will be located adjacent to the Demonstration Project producing an additional 150 MW. A total 190 MW of power will be delivered to the electric grid at the completion of the project. In addition, 50,000 pounds per hour of steam will be exported to be used in the nearby coal preparation plant. Dolomite is used for in-bed gasifier sulfur capture and downs cleanup is accomplished in a fluidized-bed of regenerative zinc titanate. Particulate clean-up, before the gas turbine, will be performed by high temperature candle filters (1020{degree}F). The demonstration plant heat rate is estimated to be 8,700 Btu/kWh. The design of the project goes through mid 1995, with site construction activities commencing late in 1995 and leading to commissioning and start-up by the end of 1997. This is followed by a three year demonstration period.

Virr, M.J.

1992-11-01

56

Toms Creek IGCC Demonstration Project  

SciTech Connect

The Toms Creek Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) Demonstration Project was selected by DOE in September 1991 to participate in Round Four of the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program. The project will demonstrate a simplified IGCC process consisting of an air-blown, fluidized-bed gasifier (Tampella U-Gas), a gas cooler/steam generator, and a hot gas cleanup system in combination with a gas turbine modified for use with a low-Btu content fuel and a conventional steam bottoming cycle. The demonstration plant will be located at the Toms Creek coal mine near Coeburn, Wise County, Virginia. Participants in the project are Tampella Power Corporation and Coastal Power Production Company. The plant will use 430 tons per day of locally mined bituminous coal to produce 55 MW of power from the gasification section of the project. A modern pulverized coal fired unit will be located adjacent to the Demonstration Project producing an additional 150 MW. A total 190 MW of power will be delivered to the electric grid at the completion of the project. In addition, 50,000 pounds per hour of steam will be exported to be used in the nearby coal preparation plant. Dolomite is used for in-bed gasifier sulfur capture and downs cleanup is accomplished in a fluidized-bed of regenerative zinc titanate. Particulate clean-up, before the gas turbine, will be performed by high temperature candle filters (1020[degree]F). The demonstration plant heat rate is estimated to be 8,700 Btu/kWh. The design of the project goes through mid 1995, with site construction activities commencing late in 1995 and leading to commissioning and start-up by the end of 1997. This is followed by a three year demonstration period.

Virr, M.J.

1992-01-01

57

Sensing systems for measuring mechanical properties in ground masses. Volume 1: Bore hole shear earth settlement and earth penetrometer probes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An analysis of three in situ testing methods for possible use in tunnel design in soft ground is discussed. These three in situ testing methods, the Bore Hole Shear (BHS), Bore Hole Earth Settlement (BESA) and Bore Hole Electronic Earth Pentrometer (BEEP) are in various stages of refinement. All show promise as practical methods of obtaining soil engineering data in a bored hole. The BHS is presently in commercial production. The BEEP requires only additional instrument research design to become manufacturable, and the BESA requires additional applied research and correlation testing prior to final design and manufacture.

Fox, N. S.

1981-10-01

58

Nimbus/TOMS Science Data Operations Support  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

1. Participate in and provide analysis of laboratory and in-flight calibration of UV sensors used for space observations of backscattered UV radiation. 2. Provide support to the TOMS Science Operations Center, including generating instrument command lists and analysis of TOMS health and safety data. 3. Develop and maintain software and algorithms designed to capture and process raw spacecraft and instrument data, convert the instrument output into measured radiance and irradiances, and produce scientifically valid products. 4. Process the TOMS data into Level 1, Level 2, and Level 3 data products. 5. Provide analysis of the science data products in support of NASA GSFC Code 916's research.

Childs, Jeff

1998-01-01

59

Eu3+ as a probe for rare-earth dopant site structure in nano-glass-ceramics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eu3+-doped transparent nano-glass-ceramics, 32(SiO2)9(AlO1.5)31.5(CdF2)18.5(PbF2)5.5(ZnF2):3.5(EuF3)mol %, have been prepared aiming at the investigation of the site structure of the Eu3+ rare-earth dopant. In this nano-glass-ceramic host, other rare-earth dopants, such as Er3+, Tm3+, Ho3+, and Dy3+, also have served as a dopant; however the Eu3+ ion is a preferably sensitive probe for a rare-earth dopant site structure due to its unique

K. Driesen; V. K. Tikhomirov; C. Görller-Walrand

2007-01-01

60

The Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet (SBUV) and Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The SBUV/TOMS is designed to measure the extraterrestrial ultraviolet solar irradiation and the solar ultraviolet radiation from the earth and its atmosphere. Methods to recover the ozone information from backscattered ultraviolet measurements are described. Mapping of the total ozone and 200 mb height fields is obtained.

Heath, D. F.; Krueger, A. J.; Park, H.

1978-01-01

61

Changes in Cloud and Aerosol Cover (1980-2006) from Reflectivity Time Series Using SeaWiFS, N7-TOMS, EP-TOMS, SBUV-2, and OMI Radiance Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The amount of solar radiation reflected back to space or reaching the Earth's surface is primarily governed by the amount of cloud cover and, to a much lesser extent, by Rayleigh scatteri ng, aerosols, and various absorbing gases (e.g., O3, NO2, H2O). A useful measure of the effect of cloud plus aerosol cover is given by the amount that the 331 run Lambert Equivalent Reflectivity (LER) ofa scene exceeds the surfuce reflectivity for snow/ice-free scenes after Rayleigh scattering has been removed. Twenty-eight years of reflectivity data are available by overlapping data from several satellites: N7 (Nimbus 7, TOMS; 331 nm) from 1979 to 1992, SBUV-2 series (Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet, NOAA; 331 nm) 1985 to 2007, EP (Earth-Probe, TOMS; 331 nm) 1997 to 2006, SW (SeaWiFS; 412 nm) 1998 to 2006, and OMI (Ozone Measuring Instrument; 331 nm) 2004-2007. Only N7 and SW have a sufficiently long data record, Sun-synchronous orbits, and are adequately calibrated for long-term reflectivity trend estimation. Reflectivity data derived from these instruments and the SBUV-2 series are compared during the overlapping years. Key issues in determining long-term reflecti vity changes that have occurred during the N7 and SW operating periods are discussed. The largest reflectivity changes in the 412 nm SW LER and 331 nm EP LER are found to occur near the equator and are associated with a large EI Nino-Southern Oscillation event. Most other changes that have occurred are regional, such as the apparent cloud decrease over northern Europe since 1998. The fractional occurrence (fraction of days) of high reflectivity values over Hudson Bay, Canada (snow/ice and clouds) appears to have decreased when comparing reflectivity data from 1980 to 1992 to 1997-2006, suggesting shorter duration of ice in Hudson Bay since 1980.

Herman, J. R.; Labow, G.; Hsu, N. C.; Larko, D.

2009-01-01

62

TOMS Near Realtime System Design Document.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The System Design Document for the TOMS (Total Mapping Spectrometer) Near Realtime System provides detailed definition of the system functions and records the system history from a data processing and development point-of-view. The system was designed to ...

E. F. Puccinelli

1981-01-01

63

Effect of marine stratocumulus in TOMS ozone  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The algorithm used to correct total O3 from the total ozone mapping spectrometer (TOMS) for cloud effects is based on the measured reflectivity, a climatological cloud top height, and an assumed tropospheric O3 column amount below clouds. In regions of persistent subtropical marine stratocumulus it is assumed that this introduces a positive error into total O3 because these clouds are lower than the assumed mean cloud height used in the algorithm. This appears to be confirmed by high correlation between Nimbus 7 TOMS total O3 and reflectivity data for typical regimes of persistent stratus, as identified by the international satellite cloud climatology project (ISCCP) observations. The TOMS total O3 overestimate has been computed using Nimbus 7/solar backscattered ultraviolet total O3 derived using temperature humidity infrared radiometer (THIR) data for years 1979-1984. A functional relationship between the THIR/non-THIR total O3 difference and reflectivity is used with TOMS reflectivity to modify Nimbus 7 TOMS O3 data for selected regions and periods. The correction diminishes or eliminates a number of apparent O3 maxima, with reductions of up to 20 Dobson units (DU) in total O3 on daily maps and approximately 5 DU on monthly mean O3 maps. Significant correlation between corrected TOMS O3 and reflectivity data remains because low-altitude O3 is retrieved more efficiently over a high-albedo surface. It is also possible that dynamical influences leading to stratocumulus formation bring O3-enriched air into the area. These results imply that although good arguments can be made for the use of TOMS total O3 as a proxy for tropospheric O3 in the tropics, caution must be exercised in the use of daily and even monthly O3 maps in the vicinity of clouds. Further research into the TOMS algorithm in cloudy regions is required to derive reliable estimates of tropospheric O3.

Thompson, A. M.; Mcnamara, D. P.; Pickering, K. E.; Mcpeters, R. D.

1993-01-01

64

TOMS UV Algorithm: Problems and Enhancements. 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Satellite instruments provide global maps of surface ultraviolet (UV) irradiance by combining backscattered radiance measurements with radiative transfer models. The models are limited by uncertainties in input parameters of the atmosphere and the surface. We evaluate the effects of possible enhancements of the current Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) surface UV irradiance algorithm focusing on effects of diurnal variation of cloudiness and improved treatment of snow/ice. The emphasis is on comparison between the results of the current (version 1) TOMS UV algorithm and each of the changes proposed. We evaluate different approaches for improved treatment of pixel average cloud attenuation, with and without snow/ice on the ground. In addition to treating clouds based only on the measurements at the local time of the TOMS observations, the results from other satellites and weather assimilation models can be used to estimate attenuation of the incident UV irradiance throughout the day. A new method is proposed to obtain a more realistic treatment of snow covered terrain. The method is based on a statistical relation between UV reflectivity and snow depth. The new method reduced the bias between the TOMS UV estimations and ground-based UV measurements for snow periods. The improved (version 2) algorithm will be applied to re-process the existing TOMS UV data record (since 1978) and to the future satellite sensors (e.g., Quik/TOMS, GOME, OMI on EOS/Aura and Triana/EPIC).

Krotkov, Nickolay; Herman, Jay; Bhartia, P. K.; Seftor, Colin; Arola, Antti; Kaurola, Jussi; Kroskinen, Lasse; Kalliskota, S.; Taalas, Petteri; Geogdzhaev, I.

2002-01-01

65

Toms Creek IGCC Demonstration Project  

SciTech Connect

In response to the PON, 33 proposals were received by DOE in May 1991. One of the nine is a project proposed by Tampella Power Corporation (Tampella) and Coastal Power Production Company (Coastal) for the design, construction, and operation of a pressurized, air-blown, fluidized-bed, integrated gasification, combined-cycle, (IGCC) demonstration project. The project, entitled the Toms Creek IGCC Demonstration Project, will consume 430 tons per day of bituminous coal and generate 55 megawatts (MK) of power for the electric grid and steam for use in a nearby coal preparation plant. The project site is located near Coeburn in Wise County, Virginia. The project, including the demonstration phase, will last 99 months at a total cost of $196,570,000. DOE'S share of the project cost will be 48.3%, or $95,000,000. The objective of the proposed project is to demonstrate an advanced IGCC system based upon the air-blown, pressurized fluidized-bed U-Gas gasifier developed by the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) with in-bed desulfurization using a calcium-based sorbent and an external zinc titanate sulfur removal system.

Not Available

1992-09-01

66

Global Surface Ultraviolet Radiation Climatology from TOMS and ERBE Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The overall goal of this project has been to develop a method for calculating the distribution of solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) over most of the earth's surface using NASA's Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) and Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) data, and to use this method to develop a UVR climatology that is useful in the context of the global ozone depletion issue. The research carried out with this support has resulted the following accomplishments: (1) a radioactive transfer method. based on the delta-Eddington approximation, was successfully developed; (2) the method was applied to the five years of overlapping TOMS and ERBE Monthly-Hourly data to examine the impact of global variability in cloud cover on trends in surface UVR; (3) a presentation was made on effects of stratospheric ozone depletion; (4) the radioactive transfer model was finally applied to all daylight hours to make a through study of the global effect of cloud cover;and (6) a five-year global climatology of surface UVR based on all of the research has been prepared for general distribution.

Lubin, Dan

1998-01-01

67

Changes in Earth 360 380 nm Reflectivity: 1980 2000  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) reflectivity time series 1980 to 1992 and 1997 to 2000 have been combined to estimate change that have occurred over a 21 year period. The relative calibration of the two TOMS (Nimbus-7, N7 and Earth-Probe, EP) has been adjusted using the measured minimum reflectivity over mid-latitude ocean and land locations (50o). The result is that the N7 reflectivity has been decreased by 0.02 to match the better-calibrated Earth-Probe/TOMS. Most of the local trend features seen in the N7 time series (1980 to 1992) have been continued in the combined time series, but the overall zonal average and global trends have changed. The correlation of cloud cover with solar activity (measured by the 10.7 cm solar radiation) that was present during the Nimbus-7 period (1980 to 1992) is no longer evident for the period 1980 to 2000. The UV reflectivity data are compared with changes in the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) Outgoing Long-wavelength Radiation (OLR) and show an expected anti-correlation with cloud-cover changes over the same period for many, but not all, features. The key results include a continuing decrease in cloud cover over Europe and North America and an increase in reflectivity near climatology should be reduced by 0.02. The TOMS reflectivity time series 1980 to 1992 and 1997 to 2000 have been Antarctica. This also means that the previously published N7 UV surface reflectivity.

Herman, J. R.; Ziemke, G.; Larko, D.

2002-01-01

68

Untangling complex processes within Earth's radiation belts with the Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP) mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Progress towards developing a predictive understanding of Earth's dynamic radiation belts requires that we: 1) better understand individual transport and energization mechanisms, and 2) better understand how these mechanisms act together to yield the complex behaviors that are observed. An example of the former imperative is to understand the extent to which non-linearities modify the role that whistler mode waves play in exchanging energy with and scattering radiation belt electrons. However, the latter imperative represents a greater challenge. What is the relationship between processes that supply electron source populations and those that generate the Ultra Low Frequency waves that can help transport those particles? What is the role of substorm injections in creating or modifying the global electric fields that transport and redistribute the injected plasma populations? How dependent is the wave activity that energizes radiation belt electrons on the global electric field that creates the conditions for wave generation? Two characteristics of the Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP) mission will enable researchers to address these interdependent mechanisms. First, the payload complement is unusually comprehensive, measuring all of the particle (electrons, ions, ion composition), fields (E and B), and wave distributions (dE and dB) needed to address the most critical science questions. However, the ability of the two RBSP spacecraft to make multiple, identical, and simultaneous measurements over a wide range of spatial scales is even more critical. RBSP comprises two spacecraft making in situ measurements for at least 2 years in nearly the same highly elliptical, low inclination orbits (1.1 x 5.8 RE, 10 degrees). The orbits are slightly different so that 1 spacecraft laps the other spacecraft about every 2.5 months, allowing separation of spatial from temporal affects over spatial scales ranging from ~0.1 to 5 RE. Here we discuss how the unique capabilities of the RBSP mission, when combined with a multiplicity of other serendipitous assets, will resolve the interdependent mechanisms that determine the complex behavior of the radiation belts.

Mauk, B. H.; Fox, N. J.; Sibeck, D. G.; Kanekal, S. G.; Kessel, R.

2011-12-01

69

TOMS Ozone at the South Pole: August 1, 2000 to October 2, 2000  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The year 2000s Antarctic ozone hole is the largest ever observed. Scientists continue to investigate the phenomenon, and are somewhat surprised by its scale. Using data from NASAs Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) instrument onboard the Earth Probe satellite, researchers can evaluate and compare current conditions over the south pole to readings taken by other instruments in years past. Continued monitoring of polar ozone levels helps researchers gain a better understanding of how the planets climate may be changing. This animation shows a huge section of the atmosphere around the south pole thats comparatively devoid of ozone. The gap reached a record size of 28.3 million kilometers squared on September 3, 2000. The previous record was 27.2 million square kilometers squared recorded on Sept. 19, 1998. Although current measurements of the ozone hole show that it has stabilized, low value points in the interior continue to decline. The lowest values are typically observed in the late September or early October.

Shirah, Greg; Newman, Paul

2000-10-03

70

A simple method for verifying the deployment of the TOMS-EP solar arrays  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer-Earth Probe (TOMS-EP) mission relies upon a successful deployment of the spacecraft's solar arrays. Several methods of verification are being employed to ascertain the solar array deployment status, with each requiring differing amounts of data. This paper describes a robust attitude-independent verification method that utilizes telemetry from the coarse Sun sensors (CSS's) and the three-axis magnetometers (TAM's) to determine the solar array deployment status - and it can do so with only a few, not necessarily contiguous, points of data. The method developed assumes that the solar arrays are deployed. Telemetry data from the CSS and TAM are converted to the Sun and magnetic field vectors in spacecraft body coordinates, and the angle between them is calculated. Deployment is indicated if this angle is within a certain error tolerance of the angle between the reference Sun and magnetic field vectors. Although several other methods can indicate a non-deployed state, with this method there is a 70% confidence level in confirming deployment as well as a nearly 100% certainty in confirming a non-deployed state. In addition, the spacecraft attitude (which is not known during the first orbit after launch) is not needed for this algorithm because the angle between the Sun and magnetic field vectors is independent of the spacecraft attitude. This technique can be applied to any spacecraft with a TAM and with CSS's mounted on the solar array(s).

Koppersmith, James R.; Ketchum, Eleanor

1995-01-01

71

Solar EUV index for aeronomical studies at earth from Langmuir probe photoelectron measurements on the Pioneer Venus Orbiter  

SciTech Connect

The authors present a solar EUV index for aeronomical studies at Earth, obtained from the Langmuir probe measurement of photoelectron current on the Pioneer Venus orbiter (PVO). When the probe is in the solar wind and is negatively biased, the current, I{sub pe}, is mainly due to the impact of solar EUV photons with energies above the work function of the probe. I{sub pe} thus measures the total EUV flux over the wavelength interval from about 30 nm to Lyman alpha; on Venus this solar flux, V{sub EUV}, was defined by Brace et al. (1988). When translated to the solar longitude of Earth, for Earth use, it is called E{sub EUV}. To examine the potential of E{sub EUV} as a solar EUV flux index, they study the behavior of ionospheric parameters f{sub 0}E,f{sub 0}F{sub 1}, and f{sub 0}F{sub 2} at mid-latitude stations and compare their relationship with E{sub EUV} and with the 10.7-cm solar radio flux. They find f{sub 0}F{sup 1} and f{sub 0}F{sub 2} to be better correlated with E{sub EUV} than with the 10.7-cm flux. However, f{sub 0}E is better correlated with the 10.7-cm flux, because the 10.7-cm flux is also a proxy for soft X rays, which are an important ionizing source in the E region. They also provide a table of the EUV index, E{sub EUV}, for the period February 12, 1979, through most of 1991 which extends in time the table (of Venus values) published earlier by Brace et al. (1988). The EUV index will continue to grow until the end of the PVO mission in late 1992.

Hoegy, W.R. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States)); Mahajan, K.K. (National Physical Lab., New Delhi (India))

1992-07-01

72

LILBID-mass spectrometry of the mitochondrial preprotein translocase TOM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present work we applied a novel mass spectrometry method termed laser-induced liquid bead ion desorption mass spectrometry (LILBID-MS) to the outer mitochondrial membrane protein translocon TOM to analyze its subunit composition and stoichiometry. With TOM core complex, purified at high pH, we demonstrate that a TOM core complex of Neurospora crassa is composed of at least two Tom40 and Tom22 molecules, respectively, and more than five small Tom subunits between 5.5 and 6.4 kDa. We show that the multiprotein complex has a total molecular mass higher than 170 depending on the number of Tom5, Tom6 and Tom7 molecules bound.

Mager, Frauke; Sokolova, Lucie; Lintzel, Julia; Brutschy, Bernhard; Nussberger, Stephan

2010-11-01

73

Nimbus/TOMS Science Data Operations Support  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Projected goals include the following: (1) Participate in and provide analysis of laboratory and in-flight calibration of LTV sensors used for space observations of backscattered LTV radiation; (2) Provide support to the TOMS Science Operations Center, including generating instrument command lists and analysis of TOMS health and safety data; (3) Develop and maintain software and algorithms designed to capture and process raw spacecraft and instrument data, convert the instrument output into measured radiance and irradiances, and produce scientifically valid products; (4) Process the TOMS data into Level 1, Level 2, and Level 3 data products; (5) Provide analysis of the science data products in support of NASA GSFC Code 916's research.

1998-01-01

74

Changes in Earth 360 to 380 nm Reflectivity: 1980 to 2000  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The TOMS reflectivity time series 1980 to 1992 and 1997 to 2000 have been combined to estimate change that have occurred over a 21 year period. The relative calibration of the two TOMS (Nimbus-7, N7 and Earth-Probe, EP) has been adjusted using the measured minimum reflectivity over mid-latitude ocean and land locations (50 deg.). The result is that the N7 reflectivity has been decreased by 0.02 to match the better-calibrated Earth-Probe/TOMS. Most of the local trend features seen in the N7 time series (1980 to 1992) have been continued in the combined time series, but the overall zonal average and global trends have changed. The correlation of cloud cover with solar activity (measured by the 10.7 cm solar radiation) that was present during the Nimbus-7 period (1980 to 1992) is no longer evident for the period 1980 to 2000. The UV reflectivity data are compared with changes in the AVHRR outgoing long-wavelength radiation (OLR) and show an expected anti-correlation with cloud-cover changes over the same period for many, but not all, features. The key results include a continuing decrease in cloud cover over Europe and North America and an increase in reflectivity near Antarctica. This also means that the previously published N7 UV surface reflectivity climatology should be reduced by 0.02.

Herman, J. R.; Ziemke, G.; Larko, D.

2002-01-01

75

TOMS Near Realtime System design document  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The System Design Document for the TOMS (Total Mapping Spectrometer) Near Realtime System provides detailed definition of the system functions and records the system history from a data processing and development point-of-view. The system was designed to produce map products displaying ozone concentrations over the United States as measured by the TOMS flown on the NIMBUS 7 satellite. The maps were produced and delivered to the user within six hours of round receipt of the satellite data for the period March 1, 1981 through May 15, 1981 on a daily basis. Sample system products are shown and data archival locations are listed.

Puccinelli, E. F.

1981-08-01

76

Scientific and Operational Requirements for TOMS Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Global total ozone and sulfur dioxide data from the Nimbus 7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) instrument have applications in a broad range of disciplines. The presentations of 29 speakers who are using the data in research or who have operational needs for the data are summarized. Five sessions addressed topics in stratospheric processes, tropospheric dynamics and chemistry, remote sensing, volcanology, and future instrument requirements. Stratospheric and some volcanology requirements can be met by a continuation of polar orbit satellites using a slightly modified TOMS but weather related research, tropospheric sulfur budget studies, and most operational needs require the time resolution of a geostationary instrument.

Krueger, Arlin J. (editor)

1987-01-01

77

TOMS Near Realtime System design document  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The System Design Document for the TOMS (Total Mapping Spectrometer) Near Realtime System provides detailed definition of the system functions and records the system history from a data processing and development point-of-view. The system was designed to produce map products displaying ozone concentrations over the United States as measured by the TOMS flown on the NIMBUS 7 satellite. The maps were produced and delivered to the user within six hours of round receipt of the satellite data for the period March 1, 1981 through May 15, 1981 on a daily basis. Sample system products are shown and data archival locations are listed.

Puccinelli, E. F.

1981-01-01

78

Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With three levels to choose from on each page - beginner, intermediate or advanced - this site provides information on our plant Earth. There is a section about water on earth and its many different varities, like freshwater, groundwater, and frozen water. There is information about the chemical make-up of water and many images showing the different water anvironments. There is a section about life in water, such as animals, plants, and plankton.

2008-10-03

79

Probing the blow-off criteria of hydrogen-rich `super-Earths'  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The discovery of transiting `super-Earths' with inflated radii and known masses, such as Kepler-11b-f, GJ 1214b and 55 Cnc e, indicates that these exoplanets did not lose their nebula-captured hydrogen-rich, degassed or impact-delivered protoatmospheres by atmospheric escape processes. Because hydrodynamic blow-off of atmospheric hydrogen atoms is the most efficient atmospheric escape process we apply a time-dependent numerical algorithm which is able to solve the system of 1D fluid equations for mass, momentum and energy conservation to investigate the criteria under which `super-Earths' with hydrogen-dominated upper atmospheres can experience hydrodynamic expansion by heating of the stellar soft X-rays and extreme ultraviolet (XUV) radiation and thermal escape via blow-off. Depending on orbit location, XUV flux, heating efficiency and the planet's mean density our results indicate that the upper atmospheres of all `super-Earths' can expand to large distances, so that except for Kepler-11c all of them experience atmospheric mass-loss due to Roche lobe overflow. The atmospheric mass loss of the studied `super-Earths' is one to two orders of magnitude lower compared to that of `hot Jupiters' such as HD 209458b, so that one can expect that these exoplanets cannot lose their hydrogen envelopes during their remaining lifetimes.

Lammer, H.; Erkaev, N. V.; Odert, P.; Kislyakova, K. G.; Leitzinger, M.; Khodachenko, M. L.

2013-04-01

80

A comprehensive mission to planet Earth: Woods Hole Space Science and Applications Advisory Committee Planning Workshop  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA program Mission to Planet Earth (MTPE) is described in this set of visuals presented in Massachusetts on July 29, 1991. The problem presented in this document is that the earth system is changing and that human activity accelerates the rate of change resulting in increased greenhouse gases, decreasing levels of stratospheric ozone, acid rain, deforestation, decreasing biodiversity, and overpopulation. Various national and international organizations are coordinating global change research. The complementary space observations for this activity are sun-synchronous polar orbits, low-inclination, low altitude orbits, geostationary orbits, and ground measurements. The Geostationary Earth Observatory is the major proposed mission of MTPE. Other proposed missions are EOS Synthetic Aperture Radar, ARISTOTELES Magnetic Field Experiment, and the Global Topography Mission. Use of the NASA DC-8 aircraft is outlined as carrying out the Airborne Science and Applications Program. Approved Earth Probes Program include the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS). Other packages for earth observation are described.

1991-01-01

81

Tropospheric Ozone from the TOMS TDOT (TOMS-Direct-Ozone-in-Troposphere) Technique During SAFARI-2000  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There are a number of published residual-type methods for deriving tropospheric ozone from TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer). The basic concept of these methods is that within a zone of constant stratospheric ozone, the tropospheric ozone column can be computed by subtracting stratospheric ozone from the TOMS Level 2 total ozone column, We used the modified-residual method for retrieving tropospheric ozone during SAFARI-2000 and found disagreements with in-situ ozone data over Africa in September 2000. Using the newly developed TDOT (TOMS-Direct-Ozone-in-Troposphere) method that uses TOMS radiances and a modified lookup table based on actual profiles during high ozone pollution periods, new maps were prepared and found to compare better to soundings over Lusaka, Zambia (15.5 S, 28 E), Nairobi and several African cities where MOZAIC aircraft operated in September 2000. The TDOT technique and comparisons are described in detail.

Stone, J. B.; Thompson, A. M.; Frolov, A. D.; Hudson, R. D.; Bhartia, P. K. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

82

Toms River Drivers Manual 1984-1985.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The procedures in this manual are designed to establish stability and continuity within the student transportation department of the Toms River Regional Schools in New Jersey. The manual is divided into three sections. Section 1 provides driver and aide specific information. It includes directives related to time clock, spare buses, and…

Thomas, Patricia

83

05-NIF Dedication: Tom D'Agostino  

ScienceCinema

The National Ignition Facility, the world's largest laser system, was dedicated at a ceremony on May 29, 2009 at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. These are the remarks by Tom D'Agostino, the administrator of the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration.

84

STS-98 Crew Interview: Tom Jones  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The STS-98 Mission Specialist Tom Jones is seen being interviewed. He answers questions about his inspiration to become an astronaut, his career path, and his training. He gives details on the mission's goals and significance, and the payload and hardware it brings to the International Space Station (ISS). Mr. Jones discusses his role in the mission's spacewalks and activities.

2001-01-01

85

Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) planet profile provides data and images of the planet Earth. These data include planet size, orbit facts, distance from the Sun, rotation and revolution times, temperature, atmospheric composition, density, surface materials and albedo. Images with descriptions show Earth features such as the Ross Ice Shelf in Antarctica, Simpson Desert in Australia, Mt. Etna in Sicily, the Cassiar Mountains in Canada, the Strait of Gibraltar, Mississippi River, Grand Canyon, Wadi Kufra Oasis in Libya, and Moon images such as Hadley Rille, Plum Crater, massifs and Moon rocks. These images were taken with the Galileo Spacecraft and by the Apollo missions.

86

TOMS as a monitor of the ultraviolet radiation environment: Applications to photobiology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The flux of biologically relevant ultraviolet radiation that reaches the surface of the Earth varies with the ozone amount, surface reflectivity, and cloudcover. The Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) provides information relevant to all three items. A recent application of satellite-based ozone measurements has been to develop climatologies of the biologically significant UV-B radiation reaching the Earth's surface. A growing body of research suggests that UV-B radiation tends to suppress the immune system of laboratory mice. At tropical latitudes, it is likely that parasitical diseases develop most readily in people who have experienced immune system suppression from UV-B exposure. The computed distribution of surface radiation combined with information on disease incidence may clarify the role of UV-B as a suppressor of the human immune system. TOMS used in conjunction with radiative transfer calculations can provide information of relevance in photobiology.

Frederick, John E.

1987-01-01

87

Evolution of the Southern Hemisphere ozone hole as seen by TOMS from August 1979 to December 1991. (Videotape)  

SciTech Connect

The computerized color images of the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) showed the ozone distribution and levels in the Earth's southern hemisphere from August 1979 to December 1991 in this video. The annual variations were presented in a monthly format and the ozone levels were measured in Dobson units.

Not Available

1994-08-01

88

Global time-dependent chorus maps from low-Earth-orbit electron precipitation and Van Allen Probes data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

injected electrons (several-100 s keV) produce whistler-mode chorus waves that are thought to have a major impact on the radiation belts by causing both energization and loss of relativistic electrons in the outer belt. High-altitude measurements, such as those from the Van Allen Probes, provide detailed wave measurements at a few points in the magnetosphere. But physics-based models of radiation-belt dynamics require knowledge of the global distribution of chorus waves. We demonstrate that time-dependent, global distributions of near-equatorial chorus wave intensities can be inferred from low-Earth-orbit (LEO) measurements of precipitating low-energy electrons. We compare in situ observations of near-equatorial chorus waves with LEO observations of precipitating electrons and derive a heuristic formula that relates, quantitatively, electron precipitation fluxes to chorus wave intensities. Finally, we demonstrate how that formula can be applied to LEO precipitation measurements and in situ Van Allen Probes wave measurements to provide global, data-driven inputs for radiation belt models.

Chen, Yue; Reeves, Geoffrey D.; Friedel, Reiner H. W.; Cunningham, Gregory S.

2014-02-01

89

Using Array Seismology to Probe the Deep Earth With Core Seismic Phases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Much work is undertaken to investigate the structure of the deep Earth, i.e. the core and lower mantle. Researching these regions is important, as they are thought to govern the generation of the Earth's magnetic field, as well as mantle convection. The deep mantle region includes the core-mantle interaction zone, and is potentially the origin of plumes, and the graveyard for slabs. Much controversy exists regarding the nature of the inner core, in particular its anisotropy and rotation. Up to now, seismological studies of the Earth's core have focused primarily on travel time deviations. These locate anomalous regions, but cannot determine the nature of the anomaly. The rays may have been deviated along an anomalous path (backazimuth deviation), or travelled at an anomalous phase velocity (slowness deviation). The work presented here utilises array seismology to further examine anomalies previously located by studying travel time deviations. The slowness and backazimuth of core seismic phases are calculated, and compared with global velocity models. Deviations of the different phases are analysed to resolve the location of the anomalous regions. The results are then compared with travel time deviations. This method will be employed globally, utilising arrays that lie at a suitable epicentral distance from relatively deep, strong events. Currently two arrays have been used, the German Regional Seismic Network (GRSN) and the Alaska Seismic Network (ASN). Earthquakes in Tonga-Fiji are received by the GRSN, and data from the ASN is used to further investigate the anomalous South Sandwich Islands to Alaska path. This path has been shown in recent studies to have strong anisotropy and is also used to study rotations of the inner core. Results show that deviations are present in all three phases (PKPab, PKPbc and PKPdf); deviations vary for the different paths. The Tonga-Fiji to Germany path has particularly deviated backazimuth values for all three phases, possibly indicative of lower mantle structure. The South Sandwich Island to Alaska path shows deviations particularly in the PKPdf branch (the branch that travels through the inner core).

Black, J. A.; Thomas, C.

2003-12-01

90

The nuclear microprobe as a probe of earth structure and geological processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nuclear microprobe is ideally suited to the microanalysis of geological samples where trace element quantitative microanalysis and imaging are essential. The use of these methods, particularly proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE), is becoming more common in many areas of geology as the impact of trace element data become more widely appreciated. This review provides an update on the progress of geological applications of the nuclear microprobe since these were reviewed at the previous conference on Nuclear Microprobe Technology and Applications in 1992. But more importantly, the applications described in more detail in this paper are chosen to illustrate the impact nuclear microprobe methods are having on our understanding of earth structure and geological processes, and to focus attention on the power and potential of quantitative nuclear microprobe methods for further geological research.

Ryan, C. G.

1995-09-01

91

Social versus Intrapersonal ToM: Social ToM Is a Cognitive Strength for Low- and Middle-SES Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Metarepresentational theory of mind (ToM) was studied in middle- and low-SES five- and six-year-olds. Two aspects of ToM were distinguished. Reasoning about one's own mental states (Intrapersonal ToM) was assessed in the intrapersonal ToM task condition and reasoning about others' mental states (Social ToM) was assessed in the social ToM task…

Lucariello, Joan M.; Durand, Tina M.; Yarnell, Lisa

2007-01-01

92

Using yeast RNA as a probe for generation of hydroxyl radicals by earth materials.  

PubMed

Inhalation of certain types of particulate matter can lead to lung disease. The reactivity of these particles and, in part, the pathologic responses that result are dictated by their physicochemical properties. The ability of particles to induce the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), especially hydroxyl radicals in vivo, is one property that has been correlated to the development of lung disease. Several minerals, such as quartz and asbestos, are known to generate hydroxyl radicals and cause lung disease, but many other minerals have never been tested. Here, we describe a technique employing yeast RNA as a probe to screen for mineral-generated hydroxyl radicals. The stability of RNA in the presence of hydrogen peroxide, ferrous iron, hydroxyl radicals, and several common minerals (quartz, albite, forsterite, fayalite, hematite, magnetite, coal, and pyrite) was examined. 3'-(p-Aminophenyl) fluorescein (APF) was used to verify mineral generation of ROS. RNA is stable in the presence of hydrogen peroxide, quartz, and albite; while it degrades in the presence of ferrous iron, hydroxyl radicals, and the other minerals. Coal and pyrite are the most reactive both in RNA degradation and hydroxyl radical generation. This noncellular technique provides a straightforward way to compare many different particles simultaneously. Those particles showing reactivity toward RNA using this method are high-priority candidates for further in vitro and possibly in vivo tests. PMID:16683632

Cohn, Corey A; Laffers, Richard; Schoonen, Martin A A

2006-04-15

93

What on Earth?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This quiz game from the NASA Earth Science Enterprise features air, water and land categories in round one; and natural hazards, people, and Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) categories in round two. The questions involve the Terra satellite mission, its measurement of aerosols, and what causes aerosols; the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission; movement of the island of Maui, satellite laser ranging, and the Tethys or Mediterranean Sea; TOMS and false-color images; the effect of people on the environment; and tornadoes, hurricanes, earthquakes and volcanoes.

94

Estimation of errors in the TOMS total ozone measurement during the Antarctica ozone campaign of August/September 1987  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) instrument on the Nimbus-7 satellite provides the primary source of total ozone data for the study of total ozone in the polar regions of the earth. There are two types of instrument related errors: a slowly developing drift in the instrument calibration since the launch of the instrument in October 1978 and an increase in the measurement noise beginning April, 1984. It is estimated that by October 1987, the accumulated error in the TOMS total ozone measurement due to instrument drift is about 6 m-atm-cm. The sign of the error is such that the TOMS is slightly overpredicting the long-term decrease of the Antarctica ozone. The increase in the measurement noise is more difficult to quantify, affecting some measurements by as much as 10 D.U. and others not at all. A detailed analysis of this error and its potential impact on the studies of total ozone from TOMS will be provided. There are three categories of algorithmic errors: (1) error due the unusual shape of the ozone profile in the ozone hole; (2) error caused by very low atmospheric temperatures in the ozone hole affecting the ozone absorption cross-sections at the TOMS wavelengths; and (3) errors resulting from occasionally thick stratospheric clouds that sometimes reach to 20 km in the ozone hole.

Bhartia, P. K.; Krueger, Arlin J.; Taylor, S.; Wellemeyer, C.

1988-01-01

95

Solar EUV index for aeronomical studies at earth from Langmuir probe photoelectron measurements on the Pioneer Venus orbiter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A solar EUV index for aeronomical studies at earth, obtained from the Langmuir probe measurement of photoelectron current on the Pioneer Venus orbiter, is presented. To examine the potential of E sub EUV as a solar EUV flux index, the behavior of ionospheric parameters f sub 0 E, f sub 0 F1, and f sub 0 F2 are studied at midlatitude stations, and their relationship with E sub EUV and with the 10.7-cm solar radio flux is compared. f sub 0 F1 and f sub 0 F2 are found to be better correlated with E sub EUV than with the 10.7-cm flux. F sub 0 E is better correlated with the 10.7-cm flux, because the 10.7-cm flux is also a proxy for soft X-rays, which are an important ionizing source in the E region. A table is also presented for the EUV index, E sub EUV, for the period February 12, 1979, through most of 1991.

Hoegy, W. R.; Mahajan, K. K.

1992-01-01

96

Early Adolescents' Participation in Bullying: Is ToM Involved?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study investigated the role of theory of mind (ToM) skills in three forms of involvement in bullying: ringleader bullying, defending the victim(s), and victimization. Individual (affective empathy) and interpersonal variables (social preference and perceived popularity) were assumed to moderate the associations between ToM and the ways…

Caravita, Simona C. S.; Di Blasio, Paola; Salmivalli, Christina

2010-01-01

97

Wave activity (planetary, tidal) throughout the middle atmosphere (20-100km) over the CUJO network: Satellite (TOMS) and Medium Frequency (MF) radar observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Planetary and tidal wave activity in the tropopause-lower stratosphere and mesosphere-lower thermosphere (MLT) is studied using combinations of ground-based (GB) and satellite instruments (2000-2002). The relatively new MFR (medium frequency radar) at Platteville (40° N, 105° W) has provided the opportunity to create an operational network of middle-latitude MFRs, stretching from 81° W-142° E, which provides winds and tides 70-100km. CUJO (Canada U.S. Japan Opportunity) comprises systems at London (43° N, 81° W), Platteville (40° N, 105° W), Saskatoon (52° N, 107° W), Wakkanai (45° N, 142° E) and Yamagawa (31° N, 131° E). It offers a significant 7000-km longitudinal sector in the North American-Pacific region, and a useful range of latitudes (12-14°) at two longitudes. Satellite data mainly involve the daily values of the total ozone column measured by the Earth Probe (EP) TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) and provide a measure of tropopause-lower stratospheric planetary wave activity, as well as ozone variability. Climatologies of ozone and winds/tides involving frequency versus time (wavelet) contour plots for periods from 2-d to 30-d and the interval from mid 2000 to 2002, show that the changes with altitude, longitude and latitude are very significant and distinctive. Geometric-mean wavelets for the region of the 40° N MFRs demonstrate occasions during the autumn, winter and spring months when there are similarities in the spectral features of the lower atmosphere and at mesopause (85km) heights. Both direct planetary wave (PW) propagation into the MLT, nonlinear PW-tide interactions, and disturbances in MLT tides associated with fluctuations in the ozone forcing are considered to be possible coupling processes. The complex horizontal wave numbers of the longer period oscillations are provided in frequency contour plots for the TOMS satellite data to demonstrate the differences between lower atmospheric and MLT wave motions and their directions of propagation.

Manson, A. H.; Meek, C. E.; Chshyolkova, T.; Avery, S. K.; Thorsen, D.; MacDougall, J. W.; Hocking, W.; Murayama, Y.; Igarashi, K.

2005-02-01

98

Synergic use of TOMS and Aeronet Observations for Characterization of Aerosol Absorption  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The role of aerosol absorption on the radiative transfer balance of the earth-atmosphere system is one of the largest sources of uncertainty in the analysis of global climate change. Global measurements of aerosol single scattering albedo are, therefore, necessary to properly assess the radiative forcing effect of aerosols. Remote sensing of aerosol absorption is currently carried out using both ground (Aerosol Robotic Network) and space (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) based observations. The satellite technique uses measurements of backscattered near ultraviolet radiation. Carbonaceous aerosols, resulting from the combustion of biomass, are one of the most predominant absorbing aerosol types in the atmosphere. In this presentation, TOMS and AERONET retrievals of single scattering albedo of carbonaceous aerosols, are compared for different environmental conditions: agriculture related biomass burning in South America and Africa and peat fires in Eastern Europe. The AERONET and TOMS derived aerosol absorption information are in good quantitative agreement. The most absorbing smoke is detected over the African Savanna. Aerosol absorption over the Brazilian rain forest is less absorbing. Absorption by aerosol particles resulting from peat fires in Eastern Europe is weaker than the absorption measured in Africa and South America. This analysis shows that the near UV satellite method of aerosol absorption characterization has the sensitivity to distinguish different levels of aerosol absorption. The analysis of the combined AERONET-TOMS observations shows a high degree of synergy between satellite and ground based observations.

Torres, O.; Bhartia, P. K.; Dubovik, O.; Holben, B.; Siniuk, A.

2003-01-01

99

Study of Tropospheric Ozone and UV Reflectivity Using TOMS Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Perhaps the single most important result from the study of Chuang and Yung is that the interannual variability of the Earth's albedo (especially in Spring) on land is dominated by snow/ice, and not by clouds. This interannual variability could be the major driver of changes in the atmosphere and the biosphere. It is plausible that the interannual variability of snow/ice, through interactions with the atmosphere and biosphere, is responsible for the interannual variability of atmospheric CO2. By carefully studying the albedo variations off the Peru coast, we found evidence for indirect aerosol effect on clouds. Based on a detailed analysis of the cloud data obtained by the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (SCCP) in the years 1983-1991, we show that besides the reported 3 % variation in global cloudiness, the global mean cloud optical thickness (MCOT) also has significant variation which is out of phase with that of the global cloudiness. The combined effect of the two opposing variations may be a null effect on the cloud reflectivity. These results are consistent with the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) reflectively measurements. The MCOT variation is further shown to be correlated with both the solar cycle and the ENSO (El Nino Southern Oscillation) cycle. Our present analysis cannot distinguish which of the above two provides better correlation, although independent data from the High resolution Infrared Radiation Sounder (HIRS) from 1990 to 1996 favor the solar cycle. Future data are needed to identify the true cause of these changes.

Yung, Yuk L.

2002-01-01

100

BOREAS RSS-10 TOMS Circumpolar One-Degree PAR Images  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) Remote Sensing Science (RSS)-10 team investigated the magnitude of daily, seasonal, and yearly variations of Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR) from ground and satellite observations. This data set contains satellite estimates of surface-incident PAR (400-700 nm, MJ/sq m) at one-degree spatial resolution. The spatial coverage is circumpolar from latitudes of 41 to 66 degrees north. The temporal coverage is from May through September for years 1979 through 1989. Eleven-year statistics are also provided: (1) mean, (2) standard deviation, and (3) coefficient of variation for 1979-89. The PAR estimates were derived from the global gridded ultraviolet reflectivity data product (average of 360, 380 nm) from the Nimbus-7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS). Image mask data are provided for identifying the boreal forest zone, and ocean/land and snow/ice-covered areas. The data are available as binary image format data files. The PAR data are available from the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884).

Dye, Dennis G.; Holben, Brent; Nickeson, Jaime (Editor); Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

101

The Tom Regan Animal Rights Archive  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Tom Regan has taught at North Carolina State University since 1967, and he is well-known for his work in the field of animal rights within the discipline of philosophy. In 2000, the North Carolina State University Libraries received a large gift to establish an archive of his personal papers and books, and since then, they have also created this online collection for the general public. First-time visitors can perform an advanced search on the documents contained here, or they may also want to browse through categories that include animal rights legislation, animals in the news, diet ethics, and farmed animals. Within each section, visitors can view a list of related web sites and also learn about other external resources. Additionally, visitors can also learn about research opportunities at the Center.

Regan, Tom

102

The Papers of Justice Tom C. Clark  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

While several Texans have served as President of the United States, so far only one has served on the Supreme Court. Tom C. Clark was appointed to the position of Associate Justice in 1949 by President Truman and served in that capacity until 1967 when he stepped down. Clark is perhaps best known for his support of anticommunist policies during the Cold War and his unwavering support of civil rights. Recently, the staff of the University of Texas School of Law created this fine online collection, which contains a sampling of Clark's papers and legal documents. Visitors can browse the collection at their leisure, or they may also elect to look through a series of topical sections (such as those that address school prayer or desegregation) of related documents. Visitors will also appreciate the glossary that is contained on the site, as it offers some brief explanations of germane legal terms.

103

UV 380 nm Reflectivity of the Earth's Surface.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 380 nm radiance measurements of TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) have been converted into a global data set of daily (1979 to 1992) Lambert equivalent reflectivities R of the Earth's surface and boundary layer (clouds, aerosols, surface haze, a...

J. R. Herman E. Celarier D. Larko

2000-01-01

104

Calibration of TOMS Radiances From Ground Observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Verification of a stratospheric ozone recovery remains a high priority for environmental research and policy definition. Models predict an ozone recovery at a much lower rate than the measured depletion rate observed to date. Therefore improved precision of the satellite and ground ozone observing systems are required over the long term to verify its recovery. We show that validation of radiances from the ground can be a very effective means for correcting long term drifts of backscatter type satellite measurements and can be used to cross calibrate all BUV instruments in orbit (TOMS, SBUV/2, GOME, SCIAMACHY, OMI, GOME-2, OMPS). This method bypasses the retrieval algorithms used to derive ozone products from both satellite and ground based measurements that are normally used to validate the satellite data. Radiance comparisons employ forward models, but they are inherently more accurate than the retrieval This method employs very accurate comparisons between ground based zenith sicy radiances and satellite nadir radiances and employs two well established capabilities at the Goddard Space Flight Center, 1) the SSBUV calibration facilities and 2) the radiative transfer codes used for the TOMS and SBUV/2 algorithms and their subsequent refinements. The zenith sky observations are made by the SSBUV where its calibration is maintained to a high degree of accuracy and precision. Radiative transfer calculations show that ground based zenith sky and satellite nadir backscatter ultraviolet comparisons can be made very accurately under certain viewing conditions. Initial ground observations taken from Goddard Space Flight Center compared with radiative transfer calculations has indicated the feasibility of this method. The effect of aerosols and varying ozone amounts are considered in the model simulations and the theoretical comparisons. The radiative transfer simulations show that the ground and satellite radiance comparisons can be made with an uncertainty of less than l\\% without the knowledge of the amount ozone viewed by either instrument on ground or in space. algorithms.

Bojkov, B. R.; Kowalewski, M.; Wellemeyer, C.; Labow, G.; Hilsenrath, E.; Bhartia, P. K.; Ahmad, Z.

2003-01-01

105

U.S. Congressmen from Florida Tom Feeney and Dave Weldon at the STS-113 launch  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - U.S. Congressmen from Florida Tom Feeney (left) and Dave Weldon wait in the VIP viewing site for the STS-113 launch. The launch will carry the Expedition 6 crew to the Station and return the Expedition 5 crew to Earth. The major objective of the mission is delivery of the Port 1 (P1) Integrated Truss Assembly, which will be attached to the port side of the S0 truss. Three spacewalks are planned to install and activate the truss and its associated equipment. Launch of Space Shuttle Endeavour on mission STS-113 is now scheduled for Nov. 23 at 7:50 p.m. EST.

2002-01-01

106

Direct measurements of tropospheric ozone using TOMS data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fishman and Larsen have proposed a new algorithm, called 'tropospheric residual method,' which retrieves the climatological tropospheric ozone by using SAGE (Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment) and TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) data. In this paper, we will examine the feasibility of detection for tropospheric ozone using only TOMS data. From a case study over the Atlantic Ocean off the coast of west Africa, it has been found that total ozone in the archived TOMS data has been overestimated over a region of marine-stratocumulus clouds.

Hudson, Robert D.; Kim, Jae-Hwan

1994-01-01

107

What on Earth is D”?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Studied in earnest for 50 years time Is Earth's deep layer called Dee Double Prime. Exotic hypotheses new papers chime, But evasive big pictures halt reason or rhyme.Even before the first nuclear bomb, People like Gutenberg, Bullen, and Dahm And probably others: Dick, Harry, and Tom Proposed this new layer to address a qualm.

Garnero, Ed; Wysession, Michael

108

ISS Update: Orion Recovery and Rescue Lead Tom Walker  

NASA Video Gallery

NASA Public Affairs Officer Brandi Dean talks with Tom Walker, Orion Recovery and Rescue Lead, about how the Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL) is being used to train rescue and recovery personnel f...

109

2. General view of Morrison Bridge, looking northeast, with Tom ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. General view of Morrison Bridge, looking northeast, with Tom McCall Riverfront Park in foreground. - Morrison Bridge, Spanning Willamette River on Morrison & Alder Streets, Portland, Multnomah County, OR

110

10. WEST SIDE OF BRIDGE, LOOKING EAST, WITH TOM SHAW, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

10. WEST SIDE OF BRIDGE, LOOKING EAST, WITH TOM SHAW, SC DEPT ARCHIVES & HISTORY - Poinsett Bridge, SC Route 42, 2 miles Northwest of Route 11, 2.5 miles East of SC Route 25, Tigerville, Greenville, SC

111

1. GENERAL VIEW FROM NORTHEAST OF TOMB, DESIGNED BY TOM ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. GENERAL VIEW FROM NORTHEAST OF TOMB, DESIGNED BY TOM P. BARNETT AND BUILT IN 1915 - Bellefontaine Cemetery, Adolphus & Ully Busch Tomb, 4947 West Florissant Avenue, Saint Louis, Independent City, MO

112

2. WEST (FRONT) ELEVATION, LOOKING EAST, WITH SCALE (AND TOM ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. WEST (FRONT) ELEVATION, LOOKING EAST, WITH SCALE (AND TOM SHAW, S.C.ARCHIVES & HISTORY) - Cowpens Iron Furnace, 1000 feet East of County Road 34 & Cherokee Creek Bridge, Gaffney, Cherokee County, SC

113

ISS Update: Progress 50 Launch and Docking with Tom Erkenswick  

NASA Video Gallery

NASA Public Affairs Officer Rob Navias conducts an interview with Visiting Vehicle Officer Tom Erkenswick about the launch of the ISS Progress 50 resupply ship and its docking to the International ...

114

Feasibility study of a swept frequency electromagnetic probe (SWEEP) using inductive coupling for the determination of subsurface conductivity of the earth and water prospecting in arid regions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Techniques developed for electromagnetic probing of the lunar interior, and techniques developed for the generation of high power audio frequencies were combined to make practical a magnetic inductive coupling system for the rapid measurement of ground conductivity profiles which are helpful when prospecting for the presence and quality of subsurface water. A system which involves the measurement of the direction, intensity, and time phase of the magnetic field observed near the surface of the earth at a distance from a horizontal coil energized so as to create a field that penetrates the earth was designed and studied to deduce the conductivity and stratification of the subsurface. Theoretical studies and a rudimentary experiment in an arid region showed that the approach is conceptually valid and that this geophysical prospecting technique can be developed for the economical exploration of subterranean water resources.

Latorraca, G. A.; Bannister, L. H.

1974-01-01

115

Changes in Earth 360 380 nm Reflectivity: 1980-2000  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) reflectively time series 1980 to 1992 and 1997 to 2000 have been combined to estimate change that have occurred over a 21 year period. The relative calibration of the two TOMS (Nimbus-7, N7 and Earth-Probe, EP) has been validated using the measured reflectivity R over Hudson Bay, Canada and found to be within 1 RU (R=0.01). Some of the local trend features seen in the N7 time series (1980 to 1992) have been continued in the combined time series, but the overall zonal average and global trends have changed. The UV (ultraviolet) reflectivity data are compared with changes in the AVHRR outgoing long-wavelength radiation (OLR) and show an expected anti-correlation with cloud-cover changes over the same period for many, but not all, features. The key results include a continuing decrease in cloud cover over Europe and North America and an increase in reflectivity near Antarctica.

Herman, J. R.; Weatherhead, B.; Chubarova, N.; Ziemke, G.; Hsu, C.; Larki, D.; Bhartia, P. K. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

116

Analysis of error in TOMS total ozone as a function of orbit and attitude parameters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Computer simulations of orbital scenarios were performed to examine the effects of orbital altitude, equator crossing time, attitude uncertainty, and orbital eccentricity on ozone observations by future satellites. These effects were assessed by determining changes in solar and viewing geometry and earth daytime coverage loss. The importance of these changes on ozone retrieval was determined by simulating uncertainties in the TOMS ozone retrieval algorithm. The major findings are as follows: (1) Drift of equator crossing time from local noon would have the largest effect on the quality of ozone derived from TOMS. The most significant effect of this drift is the loss of earth daytime coverage in the winter hemisphere. The loss in coverage increases from 1 degree latitude for + or - 1 hour from noon, 6 degrees for + or - 3 hours from noon, to 53 degrees for + or - 6 hours from noon. An additional effect is the increase in ozone retrieval errors due to high solar zenith angles. (2) To maintain contiguous earth coverage, the maximum scan angle of the sensor must be increased with decreasing orbital altitude. The maximum scan angle required for full coverage at the equator varies from 60 degrees at 600 km altitude to 45 degrees at 1200 km. This produces an increase in spacecraft zenith angle, theta, which decreases the ozone retrieval accuracy. The range in theta was approximately 72 degrees for 600 km to approximately 57 degrees at 1200 km. (3) The effect of elliptical orbits is to create gaps in coverage along the subsatellite track. An elliptical orbit with a 200 km perigee and 1200 km apogee produced a maximum earth coverage gap of about 45 km at the perigee at nadir. (4) An attitude uncertainty of 0.1 degree in each axis (pitch, roll, yaw) produced a maximum scan angle to view the pole, and maximum solar zenith angle).

Gregg, W. W.; Ardanuy, P. E.; Braun, W. C.; Vallette, B. J.; Bhartia, P. K.; Ray, S. N.

1991-01-01

117

Estimations of the Global Distribution and Time Series of UV Noontime Irradiance (305, 310, 324, 380 nm, and Erythemal) from TOMS and SeaWiFS Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The amount of UV irradiance reaching the Earth's surface is estimated from the measured cloud reflectivity, ozone, aerosol amounts, and surface reflectivity time series from 1980 to 1992 and 1997 to 2000 to estimate changes that have occurred over a 21-year period. Recent analysis of the TOMS data shows that there has been an apparent increase in reflectivity (decrease in W) in the Southern Hemisphere that is related to a calibration error in EP-TOMS. Data from the well-calibrated SeaWiFS satellite instrument have been used to correct the EP-TOMS reflectivity and UV time series. After correction, some of the local trend features seen in the N7 time series (1980 to 1992) have been continued in the combined time series, but the overall zonal average and global trends have changed. In addition to correcting the EP-TOMS radiance calibration, the use of SeaWiFS cloud data permits estimation of UV irradiance at higher spatial resolution (1 to 4 km) than is available from TOMS (100 km) under the assumption that ozone is slowly varying over a scale of 100 km. The key results include a continuing decrease in cloud cover over Europe and North America with a corresponding increase in UV and a decrease in UV irradiance near Antarctica.

Herman, J.

2004-01-01

118

Monitoring of photoluminescence decay by alkali and alkaline earth metal cations using a photoluminescent bolaamphiphile self-assembly as an optical probe.  

PubMed

Photoluminescence (PL) decay induced by the displacement of an ionic fluorescence component, Tb(3+), with alkali and alkaline earth metal cations was investigated using photoluminescent spherical self-assemblies as optical probes. The photoluminescent spherical self-assembly was prepared by the self-organization of a tyrosine-containing bolaamphiphile molecule with a photosensitizer and Tb(3+) ion. The lanthanide ion, Tb(3+), electrically bound to the carboxyl group of the bolaamphiphile molecule, was displaced by alkali and alkaline earth metal cations that had stronger electrophilicity. The PL of the self-assembly decayed remarkably due to the substitution of lanthanide ions with alkali and alkaline earth metal cations. The PL decay showed a positive correlation with cation concentration and was sensitive to the cation valency. Generally, the PL decay was enhanced by the electrophilicity of the cations. However, Ca(2+) showed greater PL decay than Mg(2+) because Ca(2+) could create various complexes with the carboxyl groups of the bolaamphiphile molecule. Microscopic and spectroscopic investigations were conducted to study the photon energy transfer and displacement of Tb(3+) by the cation exchange. This study demonstrated that the PL decay by the displacement of the ionic fluorescent compound was applied to the detection of various cations in aqueous media and is applicable to the development of future optical sensors. PMID:24657611

Kim, Sunhyung; Kwak, Jinyoung; Lee, Sang-Yup

2014-05-01

119

Detection of biomass burning smoke from TOMS measurements  

SciTech Connect

A 14.5 year gridded data set of tropospheric absorbing aerosol index was derived from the Nimbus-7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) reflectivity difference between 340 and 380 nm channels. Based upon radiative transfer calculations, the reflectivity anomaly between these two UV wavelength channels is very sensitive to smoke and soot aerosols from biomass burning and forest fires, volcanic ash clouds as well as desert mineral dust. The authors demonstrate the ability of the TOMS instrument to detect and track smoke and soot aerosols generated by biomass burning in South America. TOMS data can clearly distinguish between absorbing particles (smoke and dust) and non-absorbing aerosols (clouds and haze). For South American fires, comparisons of TOMS data are consistent with the limited amount of ground-based observations (Porto Nacional, Brazil) and show generally good agreement with other satellite imagery. TOMS data shows large-scale transport of smoke particulates generated by the burning fires in the South America, which subsequentially advects smoke aerosols as far as the Atlantic Ocean east of Uruguay. 15 refs., 4 fig.

Hsu, N.C.; Seftor, C.J.; Torres, O.; Eck, T.F. [Hughes STX, Greenbelt, MD (United States)] [and others] [Hughes STX, Greenbelt, MD (United States); and others

1996-04-01

120

Single molecule tracking fluorescence microscopy in mitochondria reveals highly dynamic but confined movement of Tom40  

PubMed Central

Tom40 is an integral protein of the mitochondrial outer membrane, which as the central component of the Translocase of the Outer Membrane (TOM) complex forms a channel for protein import. We characterize the diffusion properties of individual Tom40 molecules fused to the photoconvertable fluorescent protein Dendra2 with millisecond temporal resolution. By imaging individual Tom40 molecules in intact isolated yeast mitochondria using photoactivated localization microscopy with sub-diffraction limited spatial precision, we demonstrate that Tom40 movement in the outer mitochondrial membrane is highly dynamic but confined in nature, suggesting anchoring of the TOM complex as a whole.

Kuzmenko, Anton; Tankov, Stoyan; English, Brian P.; Tarassov, Ivan; Tenson, Tanel; Kamenski, Piotr; Elf, Johan; Hauryliuk, Vasili

2011-01-01

121

Single molecule tracking fluorescence microscopy in mitochondria reveals highly dynamic but confined movement of Tom40  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tom40 is an integral protein of the mitochondrial outer membrane, which as the central component of the Translocase of the Outer Membrane (TOM) complex forms a channel for protein import. We characterize the diffusion properties of individual Tom40 molecules fused to the photoconvertable fluorescent protein Dendra2 with millisecond temporal resolution. By imaging individual Tom40 molecules in intact isolated yeast mitochondria using photoactivated localization microscopy with sub-diffraction limited spatial precision, we demonstrate that Tom40 movement in the outer mitochondrial membrane is highly dynamic but confined in nature, suggesting anchoring of the TOM complex as a whole.

Kuzmenko, Anton; Tankov, Stoyan; English, Brian P.; Tarassov, Ivan; Tenson, Tanel; Kamenski, Piotr; Elf, Johan; Hauryliuk, Vasili

2011-12-01

122

Impact Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This 24 minute planetarium show teaches about meteors, meteorites, asteroids, and comets. The show was created for fulldome theaters, but is also available on DVD to be shown in flat version for TVs and computer monitors, and can be freely viewed online. It shows the effects of the Chixulub and Tungusta events, plus the Pallasite impact that resulted in the Brenham meteorite fall, and describes ways that asteroid hunters seek new objects in the solar system, and how ground penetrating radar is used to find meteorites that have survived to the Earth's surface. Narrated by astronaut Tom Jones, it also discusses ways that humans might try to deflect an asteroid or comet that is on a collision course with Earth. The show was created for informal science venues (digital planetariums); it is also useful as supplemental material for middle school science. Impact Earth is available for free if presented directly from the Space Update site (widescreen or fisheye views linked from YouTube). Otherwise, a DVD of the show can be purchased for $10.

123

Tropospheric Chemistry Studies using Observations from GOME and TOMS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Studies to quantitatively determine trace gas and aerosol amounts from the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) and the Total Ozone Monitoring Experiment (TOMS) and to perform chemical modeling studies which utilize these results are given. This includes: 1. Analysis of measurements from the GOME and TOMS instruments for troposphere distributions of O3 and HCHO; troposphere enhancements of SO2, NO2 and aerosols associated with major sources; and springtime events of elevated BrO in the lower Arctic troposphere. 2. Application of a global 3-dimensional model of troposphere chemistry to interpret the GOME observations in terms of the factors controlling the abundances of troposphere ozone and OH.

Chance, Kelly; Spurr, Robert J. D.; Kurosu, Thomas P.; Jacob, Daniel J.; Gleason, James F.

2003-01-01

124

Gordon And Mike's ICT Podcast: China And TOM-Skype  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Gordon and Mike's ICT Podcast offers perspectives on the information and communication technologies (ICT) industries from Gordon Snyder and Mike Qaissaunee.In this audio podcast, Gordon and Mike discuss the report âÂÂBreaching Trust: An analysis of surveillance and security practices on ChinaâÂÂs TOM-Skype platformâ as well as confidentiality and security issues with TOM-Skype, the Chinese version of Skype. Running time: 25:21. This podcast is available for direct download in mp3 format from the Libsyn site, or click here to subscribe to the whole series in iTunes.

Qaissaunee, Michael; Snyder, Gordon F.

2010-05-04

125

Global Mapping of Earth-like Exoplanets from Scattered Light Curves as a Probe of the Habitat  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the next step after the recent discoveries of exoplanets in habitable zones, it is desirable to develop techniques to investigate them farther to determine whether or not they really harbor life. In this context, it is valuable to consider a well-defined question how we would know about the habitat if we were to observe an Earth-twin at an astronomical distance. In principle, the scattered light of planets contains rich information of planetary surface and the atmosphere, and indeed the new instruments for direct imaging in optical/near-IR are actively proposed. However, interpretation of the spatially unresolved light from the planets can be complicated especially in the case of highly inhomogeneous planets like our own Earth. Here we demonstrate the 2-dimensional mapping of the surface from the scattered light variation assuming a continuous observation for 1 year (Kawahara and Fujii, 2010, 2011). We create mock light curves of the Earth including the realistic cloud cover and the seasonal variation, and invert them to the surface inhomogeneity by making the most of the spin rotation and orbital motion of the planet and using the technique of tomography. The recovered map successfully traces the actual cloud distribution, continents, and even the localized red-edge feature of vegetation. Therefore, such long observations of scattered light will give us the access to the landscape of exoplanets with diverse surface components. Another consequence of this tomography is the measurement of the planetary obliquity, which is a key parameter both for habitability and to constrain the formation scenario. We discuss the detectability of obliquity assuming a realistic instrumental design.

Fujii, Yuka; Kawahara, H.

2011-09-01

126

MIDL: A Demonstration of Multi-Mission Analysis of Charged Particle Data From Van Allen Probes and the Juno Earth Flyby  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the present time, a fleet of heliosphere spacecraft is producing an unprecedented number of measurements of charged particles and magnetic fields throughout the solar system - from Mercury to the local interstellar medium. It is vital to have a flexible and efficient data browsing, discovery, and analysis environment to navigate this wealth of information. We present a multi-mission tool for quick look data viewing and analysis. In addition to a rich tool and feature set, MIDL3 (Mission Independent Data Layer - 3rd version) provides environments to cater to different user classes from instrument team engineers, to team scientists, to the general science community. Furthermore, MIDL3 adds a new, highly interactive, end-user visualization environment for rapid browsing and exploration of science and engineering data. Like AMDA and MAPSVIEW, MIDL has functioned for Cassini plasma and particle data as a highly successful platform for inter-comparing different instruments/sensors with minimal preparation work on the part of the user. We present a demonstration of simultaneous analysis of the JUNO Earth flyby (October 9, 2013) data from the JEDI instruments and Van Allen Probes data from the RBSPICE instruments. Since these two instrument sets share a very similar design (see presentations by C Paranicas, et al. and J Manwiler, et al. at this conference for details) we anticipate important results from this unique opportunity to compare measurements of energetic electrons and ions made by six telescopes each for the five similar instruments on three spacecraft within Earth's magnetosphere.

Brown, L. E.; Mitchell, D. G.; Paranicas, C.; Mauk, B.; Lanzerotti, L. J.; Vandegriff, J. D.

2013-12-01

127

Hyperfine local probe study of alkaline-earth manganites SrMnO? and BaMnO?.  

PubMed

We report perturbed angular correlation measurements with (111m)Cd/(111)Cd and (111)In/(111)Cd probes, at the ISOLDE-CERN facility, in the manganite compounds BaMnO3, with the 6H and 15R polymorphs, and SrMnO3, with the 4H polymorph. The electric field gradient (EFG) is measured, and found approximately constant in a large temperature range for all the compounds. The EFG is also calculated from first principles with density functional theory, and compared with experimental results by considering diluted substitutional Cd impurities. Based on the results, we assign as sites for the probes the Ba (for BaMnO3-6H, 15R) and Sr (for SrMnO3-4H) sites, apart from fractions of undetermined origin in the case of BaMnO3-6H. We predict the hyperfine parameters in the recently synthesized multiferroic manganite Sr(0.5)Ba(0.5)MnO3, and its variation with the structure and electric polarization, which is found to be very small. PMID:24787139

Gonçalves, J N; Amaral, V S; Correia, J G; Lopes, A M L; Araújo, J P; Tavares, P B

2014-05-28

128

Hyperfine local probe study of alkaline-earth manganites SrMnO3 and BaMnO3  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report perturbed angular correlation measurements with 111mCd/111Cd and 111In/111Cd probes, at the ISOLDE-CERN facility, in the manganite compounds BaMnO3, with the 6H and 15R polymorphs, and SrMnO3, with the 4H polymorph. The electric field gradient (EFG) is measured, and found approximately constant in a large temperature range for all the compounds. The EFG is also calculated from first principles with density functional theory, and compared with experimental results by considering diluted substitutional Cd impurities. Based on the results, we assign as sites for the probes the Ba (for BaMnO3-6H, 15R) and Sr (for SrMnO3-4H) sites, apart from fractions of undetermined origin in the case of BaMnO3-6H. We predict the hyperfine parameters in the recently synthesized multiferroic manganite Sr0.5Ba0.5MnO3, and its variation with the structure and electric polarization, which is found to be very small.

Gonçalves, J. N.; Amaral, V. S.; Correia, J. G.; Lopes, A. M. L.; Araújo, J. P.; Tavares, P. B.

2014-05-01

129

Measuring Theory of Mind in Children. Psychometric Properties of the ToM Storybooks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although research on Theory-of-Mind (ToM) is often based on single task measurements, more comprehensive instruments result in a better understanding of ToM development. The ToM Storybooks is a new instrument measuring basic ToM-functioning and associated aspects. There are 34 tasks, tapping various emotions, beliefs, desires and mental-physical…

Blijd-Hoogewys, E. M. A.; van Geert, P. L. C.; Serra, M.; Minderaa, R. B.

2008-01-01

130

Good Guys Finish Last: "Tom Brown's School Days" and "Flashman."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Instructors and students of literature should look to George McDonald Fraser's "Flashman: From the Flashman Papers, 1839-1842" for a clever critique of 19th-century notions of character, virtue, and moral teleology. Written to criticize Thomas Hughes's famous 19th-century novel, "Tom Brown's School Days," Fraser's 20th-century novel turns on end…

Riga, Frank P.

131

Detection of biomass burning smoke from TOMS measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 14.5 year gridded data set of tropospheric absorbing aerosol index was derived from the Nimbus-7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) reflectivity difference between 340 and 380 nm channels. Based upon radiative transfer calculations, the reflectivity anomaly between these two UV wavelength channels is very sensitive to smoke and soot aerosols from biomass burning and forest fires, volcanic ash clouds

N. C. Hsu; C. J. Seftor; O. Torres; T. F. Eck; A. M. Thompson; J. F. Gleason; B. N. Holben

1996-01-01

132

Tom Stewart Interview (Part I): Registrar and SPEEDE's Champion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

At AACRAO's Annual Meeting in April 2003, Tom Stewart was presented with the APEX Award for Achieving Professional Excellence in his field. He was recognized for his tireless work and commitment to SPEEDE, the electronic transmission of records. Over the almost 40-year span of his career, he has earned the SACRAO and AACRAO Distinguished Service…

Stones, David

2004-01-01

133

California Fires MODIS imagery and TOMS Aerosols from October 2003  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This animation sequences through the MODIS imagery of the devastating Californian fires from October 23, 2003 through October 29, 2003. Then the animation resets to October 23, 2003 and zooms out to see the TOMS aerosol sequence. It clearly shows that the California fires had an impact on air quality as far east as Maine.

Perkins, Lori; Shirah, Greg; Newman, Paul; Bhartia, Pawan

2003-11-24

134

Tom Green County Library Literacy Project. Final Performance Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The final report of the Tom Green Country Library System (Texas) literacy project details progress toward achievement of 11 objectives. Objectives of the literacy outreach program were to: (1) increase Hispanic enrollment; (2) increase Black enrollment; (3) provide free child care for 4 students to attend 50 tutoring sessions; (4) provide…

Vavricka, D. Karen

135

Challenge without Threat: An Interview with Tom Dewell  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents an interview with Tom Dewell, a professional physical educator with 28 years of experience and a fixture in Dallas physical education. Dewell has melded a background in movement education and adapted physical education with early childhood theory, including Montessori. The bulk of his experience has been in private, parochial…

Stork, Steve

2005-01-01

136

Rare Earth Elemental Signatures in Fungal Fruiting Bodies as Probes into Mineral Breakdown Reactions in Post-glacial Landscapes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The application of rare earth element (REE) abundances in low temperature geochemistry and biogeochemistry has improved our understanding of the cycling of various micro- and macronutrients from the bedrock into terrestrial ecosystems. In many continental rocks, REEs are concentrated in accessory phases such as apatite and monazite. These phosphate mineral phases break down readily and may be especially important nutrient sources, particularly for P and Ca, in recently glaciated terrains. Several studies (e.g., 1-3) have suggested that the presence of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi, due to the organic acids they secrete, may play an especially important role in this weathering process. A field-based experiment implementing mesh bags doped with specific mineral compositions confirmed that ECM fungal tissues do record the REE signatures of the minerals they break down (4). In an effort to understand the relative role different ECM fungi may play in mineral breakdown reactions, we have measured REE abundances in tissues of several ECM fruiting bodies. Our preliminary data include Russula, Suillus Americana, Leccinum and Lactarius ECM fungi from three postglacial landscapes. At a given site, the relative abundance of REEs varies between the different ECM fungi. Interestingly, we found distinctions in tissue La/Ce values at two of the sites. Leccinum, a deep rooter, shows much lower La/Ce than the companion Russula and Lactarius samples from the same site. Similarly Suillus tissues demonstrated lower La/Ce when compared to Russula growing nearby. Lower La/Ce is consistent with enhanced dissolution of the mineral apatite, a common accessory phase. While the influence of symbiotic host (beech vs. oak vs. pine) may play some role in the distinctive REE signatures recorded by the fruiting bodies, we attribute the observed differences to organic acid production and tendency to colonize in different horizons of the soil profile. (1) Wallander, Plant and Soil, 2000; (2) Blum et al., Nature, 2002; (3) Hoffland et al., Front Ecol Environ., 2003; (4) Hagerburg et al., Plant and Soil, 2003.

Bryce, J. G.; Hobbie, E. A.

2008-12-01

137

Intercomparisons of TOMS, SBUV and MFR satellite ozone measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simultaneous intercomparison of ozone measurements by the Total Ozone Mapping System (TOMS), Satellite Backscattered Ultraviolet (SBUV), and Multichannel Filter Radiometer (MFR), obtained in July 1979, is presented. For all three data sets the largest difference is noted in the 55-75 deg N latitude region, where it is 30.6 DU between SBUV and MFR. The data sets compare most closely between 15 deg N and 60 deg S, with the difference between TOMS and MFR being within 3 percent (9.3 DU) in a 75-deg latitudinal span. The same general large-scale features were observed in all data sets, with maxima at 50-60 deg N and 40-60 deg S, and minima at 0-5 deg S.

Lovill, J. E.

138

Highlights of TOMS Version 9 Total Ozone Algorithm  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The fundamental basis of TOMS total ozone algorithm was developed some 45 years ago by Dave and Mateer. It was designed to estimate total ozone from satellite measurements of the backscattered UV radiances at few discrete wavelengths in the Huggins ozone absorption band (310-340 nm). Over the years, as the need for higher accuracy in measuring total ozone from space has increased, several improvements to the basic algorithms have been made. They include: better correction for the effects of aerosols and clouds, an improved method to account for the variation in shape of ozone profiles with season, latitude, and total ozone, and a multi-wavelength correction for remaining profile shape errors. These improvements have made it possible to retrieve total ozone with just 3 spectral channels of moderate spectral resolution (approx. 1 nm) with accuracy comparable to state-of-the-art spectral fitting algorithms like DOAS that require high spectral resolution measurements at large number of wavelengths. One of the deficiencies of the TOMS algorithm has been that it doesn't provide an error estimate. This is a particular problem in high latitudes when the profile shape errors become significant and vary with latitude, season, total ozone, and instrument viewing geometry. The primary objective of the TOMS V9 algorithm is to account for these effects in estimating the error bars. This is done by a straightforward implementation of the Rodgers optimum estimation method using a priori ozone profiles and their error covariances matrices constructed using Aura MLS and ozonesonde data. The algorithm produces a vertical ozone profile that contains 1-2.5 pieces of information (degrees of freedom of signal) depending upon solar zenith angle (SZA). The profile is integrated to obtain the total column. We provide information that shows the altitude range in which the profile is best determined by the measurements. One can use this information in data assimilation and analysis. A side benefit of this algorithm is that it is considerably simpler than the present algorithm that uses a database of 1512 profiles to retrieve total ozone. These profiles are tedious to construct and modify. Though conceptually similar to the SBUV V8 algorithm that was developed about a decade ago, the SBUV and TOMS V9 algorithms differ in detail. The TOMS algorithm uses 3 wavelengths to retrieve the profile while the SBUV algorithm uses 6-9 wavelengths, so TOMS provides less profile information. However both algorithms have comparable total ozone information and TOMS V9 can be easily adapted to use additional wavelengths from instruments like GOME, OMI and OMPS to provide better profile information at smaller SZAs. The other significant difference between the two algorithms is that while the SBUV algorithm has been optimized for deriving monthly zonal means by making an appropriate choice of the a priori error covariance matrix, the TOMS algorithm has been optimized for tracking short-term variability using month and latitude dependent covariance matrices.

Bhartia, Pawan; Haffner, David

2012-01-01

139

Nimbus-7 TOMS Antarctic ozone atlas: August through November, 1989  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Because of the great environmental significance of ozone and to support continuing research at the Antarctic and other Southern Hemisphere stations, the development of the 1989 ozone hole was monitored using data from the Nimbus-7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) instrument, produced in near-real-time. This Atlas provides a complete set of daily polar orthographic projections of the TOMS total ozone measurements over the Southern Hemisphere for the period August 1 through November 30, 1989. The 1989 ozone hole developed in a manner similar to that of 1987, reaching a comparable depth in early October. This was in sharp contrast to the much weaker hole of 1988. The 1989 ozone hole remained at polar latitudes as it filled in November, in contrast to other recent years when the hole drifted to mid-latitudes before disappearing. Daily ozone values above selected Southern Hemisphere stations are presented, along with comparisons of the 1989 ozone distribution to that of other years.

Krueger, Arlin J.; Penn, Lanning M.; Larko, David E.; Doiron, Scott D.; Guimaraes, Patricia T.

1990-01-01

140

Jumpin' Tom Thumb: Charles Stratton Onstage at the American Museum  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1847, nine-year-old child star Charles Sherwood Stratton, better known to an adoring European public as 'General Tom Thumb,' returned to the United States from a wildly successful three-year European tour. That year he would begin a meteoric rise to a stardom in the United States that would be unequalled by any actor in his lifetime. His debut on the

Michael M. Chemers

141

Dobson-stations performance assessment using TOMS data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Examples of comparisons of monthly summaries (based on daily measurements) of some of the regularily operating Dobson stations, with the values deduced from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) overpass are given. Shortcomings in certain Dobson stations are identified, such as: use of an incorrect value for the extraterrestrial constant (HOBART); sudden large volume changes (Brisbane); unusually low Dobson readings (Mauna Loa); and use of inaccurate cloud blue sky charts, causing fictitious differences with direct sun measurements (Toronto).

Bojkov, Rumen D.; Mateer, Carl L.

1987-01-01

142

The Gravity Probe B `Niobium bird' experiment: Verifying the data reduction scheme for estimating the relativistic precession of Earth-orbiting gyroscopes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Gravity Probe B (GP-B) is a relatively gyroscope experiment begun at Stanford University in 1960 and supported by NASA since 1963. This experiment will check, for the first time, the relativistic precession of an Earth-orbiting gyroscope that was predicted by Einstein's General Theory of Relativity, to an accuracy of 1 milliarcsecond per year or better. A drag-free satellite will carry four gyroscopes in a polar orbit to observe their relativistic precession. The primary sensor for measuring the direction of gyroscope spin axis is the SQUID (superconducting quantum interference device) magnetometer. The data reduction scheme designed for the GP-B program processes the signal from the SQUID magnetometer and estimates the relativistic precession rates. We formulated the data reduction scheme and designed the Niobium bird experiment to verify the performance of the data reduction scheme experimentally with an actual SQUID magnetometer within the test loop. This paper reports the results from the first phase of the Niobium bird experiment, which used a commercially available SQUID magnetometer as its primary sensor, and adresses the issues they raised. The first phase resulted in a large, temperature-dependent bias drift in the insensitive design and a temperature regulation scheme.

Uemaatsu, Hirohiko; Parkinson, Bradford W.; Lockhart, James M.; Muhlfelder, Barry

1993-01-01

143

Ozone Climatological Profiles for Version 8 TOMS and SBUV Retrievals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new altitude dependent ozone climatology has been produced for use with the latest Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) and Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet (SBUV) retrieval algorithms. The climatology consists of monthly average profiles for ten degree latitude zones covering from 0 to 60 km. The climatology was formed by combining data from SAGE II (1988 to 2000) and MLS (1991-1999) with data from balloon sondes (1988-2002). Ozone below about 20 km is based on balloons sondes, while ozone above 30 km is based on satellite measurements. The profiles join smoothly between 20 and 30 km. The ozone climatology in the southern hemisphere and tropics has been greatly enhanced in recent years by the addition of balloon sonde stations under the SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes) program. A major source of error in the TOMS and SBUV retrieval of total column ozone comes from their reduced sensitivity to ozone in the lower troposphere. An accurate climatology for the retrieval a priori is important for reducing this error on the average. The new climatology follows the seasonal behavior of tropospheric ozone and reflects its hemispheric asymmetry. Comparisons of TOMS version 8 ozone with ground stations show an improvement due in part to the new climatology.

McPeters, R. D.; Logan, J. A.; Labow, G. J.

2003-01-01

144

Total ozone trends deduced from Nimbus 7 TOMS data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) on the Nimbus 7 satellite has been measuring the total column amount of ozone over the globe for more than 11 years. Recent improvements in the data analysis have led to a technique for determining and removing drift in the calibration such that the data at the end of the record are precise to + or - 1.3 percent (2-sigma) relative to the data at the beginning of the record. A statistical model, including terms for seasonal variation, linear trend, quasi-biennial oscillation, solar cycle and second-order autoregressive noise has been fit to the TOMS time series of total ozone data. The linear trend obtained when this statistical model is fit to the TOMS data averaged between 65 N and 65 S latitudes is -0.26 + or - 0.14 percent/year or -3 percent over the 11.6 year time period from November 1978 to May 1990. The trend is near zero (0.0002 + or - 0.2 percent/year) at the equator and increases toward both poles.

Stolarski, Richard S.; Mcpeters, Richard D.; Herman, Jay R.; Bloomfield, Peter

1991-01-01

145

Novel TPR-containing subunit of TOM complex functions as cytosolic receptor for Entamoeba mitosomal transport  

PubMed Central

Under anaerobic environments, the mitochondria have undergone remarkable reduction and transformation into highly reduced structures, referred as mitochondrion-related organelles (MROs), which include mitosomes and hydrogenosomes. In agreement with the concept of reductive evolution, mitosomes of Entamoeba histolytica lack most of the components of the TOM (translocase of the outer mitochondrial membrane) complex, which is required for the targeting and membrane translocation of preproteins into the canonical aerobic mitochondria. Here we showed, in E. histolytica mitosomes, the presence of a 600-kDa TOM complex composed of Tom40, a conserved pore-forming subunit, and Tom60, a novel lineage-specific receptor protein. Tom60, containing multiple tetratricopeptide repeats, is localized to the mitosomal outer membrane and the cytosol, and serves as a receptor of both mitosomal matrix and membrane preproteins. Our data indicate that Entamoeba has invented a novel lineage-specific shuttle receptor of the TOM complex as a consequence of adaptation to an anaerobic environment.

Makiuchi, Takashi; Mi-ichi, Fumika; Nakada-Tsukui, Kumiko; Nozaki, Tomoyoshi

2013-01-01

146

Korea Earth Observation Satellite Program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

via Korea Aerospace Research Institute (KARI) as the prime contractor in the area of Korea earth observation satellite program to enhance Korea's space program development capability. In this paper, Korea's on-going and future earth observation satellite programs are introduced: KOMPSAT- 1 (Korea Multi Purpose Satellite-1), KOMPSAT-2 and Communication, Broadcasting and Meteorological Satellite (CBMS) program. KOMPSAT-1 satellite successfully launched in December 1999 with Taurus launch vehicle. Since launch, KOMPSAT-1 is downlinking images of Korea Peninsular every day. Until now, KOMPSAT-1 has been operated more than 2 and half years without any major hardware malfunction for the mission operation. KOMPSAT-1 payload has 6.6m panchromatic spatial resolution at 685 km on-orbit and the spacecraft bus had NASA TOMS-EP (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer-Earth Probe) spacecraft bus heritage designed and built by TRW, U.S.A.KOMPSAT-1 program was international co-development program between KARI and TRW funded by Korean Government. be launched in 2004. Main mission objective is to provide geo-information products based on the multi-spectral high resolution sensor called Multi-Spectral Camera (MSC) which will provide 1m panchromatic and 4m multi-spectral high resolution images. ELOP of Israel is the prime contractor of the MSC payload system and KARI is the total system prime contractor including spacecraft bus development and ground segment. KARI also has the contract with Astrium of Europe for the purpose of technical consultation and hardware procurement. Based on the experience throughout KOMPSAT-1 and KOMPSAT-2 space system development, Korea is expecting to establish the infrastructure of developing satellite system. Currently, KOMPSAT-2 program is in the critical design stage. are scheduled to launch in 2008 and in 2014, respectively. The mission of CBMS consists of two areas. One is of space technology test for the communications mission, and the other is of a real- time environmental observation for meteorological mission on the geosynchronous orbit for public services. The CBMS is expected to weigh about 2 ~ 2.5 tons, and 6 channels of Ka-band and S- band transponder are equipped for communications service and observation payloads such as meteorological and ocean sensors. To increase the reliability of the first CBMS, a cooperative development with advanced foreign companies of the space business is being considered.

Baek, Myung-Jin; Kim, Zeen-Chul

147

Catalog of Micro-Tom tomato responses to common fungal, bacterial, and viral pathogens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lycopersicon esculentum cultivar Micro-Tom is a miniature tomato with many advantages for studies of the molecular biology and physiology of plants. To evaluate the suitability of Micro-Tom as a host plant for the study of pathogenesis, Micro-Tom plants were inoculated with 16 well-known fungal, bacterial, and viral pathogens of tomato. Athelia rolfsii, Botryotinia fuckeliana, Oidium sp., Phytophthora infestans, and Sclerotinia

Hideki Takahashi; Ayano Shimizu; Tsutomu Arie; Syofi Rosmalawati; Sumire Fukushima; Mari Kikuchi; Yasufumi Hikichi; Ayami Kanda; Akiko Takahashi; Akinori Kiba; Kohei Ohnishi; Yuki Ichinose; Fumiko Taguchi; Chihiro Yasuda; Motoichiro Kodama; Mayumi Egusa; Chikara Masuta; Hiroyuki Sawada; Daisuke Shibata; Koichi Hori; Yuichiro Watanabe

2005-01-01

148

Bridging the Gap: Physics in the Plays of Tom Stoppard  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The idea of a communication gap between the sciences and the arts is persistent in academia. To help bridge this gap, I created an Honors course that attempts to make connections between physics and drama: Physics in the Plays of Tom Stoppard. Three of Stoppard's plays explicitly incorporate physics into their plots. The topics included in the plays span the syllabus of a typical conceptual physics course, from Galileo's experiments with freely falling balls to quantum indeterminacy. A descriptive physics text is used along with the plays to supply the necessary background and continuity. The structure of the course, and student reactions, are described.

Carroll, Bradley

2010-10-01

149

The 1988 Antarctic ozone monitoring Nimbus-7 TOMS data atlas  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Because of the great environmental significance of ozone and to support continuing research at McMurdo, Syowa, and other Southern Hemisphere stations, the development of the 1988 ozone hole was monitored using data from the Nimbus-7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) instrument, produced in near-real-time. This Atlas provides a complete set of daily polar orthographic projections of the TOMS total ozone measurements over the Southern Hemisphere for the period August 1 through November 17, 1988. Although total ozone in mini-holes briefly dropped below 150 DU in late August, the main ozone hole is seen to be much less pronounced than in 1987. Minimum values, observed in late September and early October 1988, were seldom less than 175 DU. Compared with the same period in 1987, when a pronounced ozone hole whose minimum value of 109 Dobson Units (DU) was the lowest total ozone ever observed, the 1988 ozone hole is displaced from the South Pole, opposing a persistent maximum with values consistently above 500 DU. Daily ozone values above selected Southern Hemisphere stations are presented, along with comparisons of the 1988 ozone distribution to that of other years.

Krueger, Arlin J.; Penn, Lanning M.; Larko, David E.; Doiron, Scott D.; Guimaraes, Patricia T.

1989-01-01

150

Immunocytochemical localization of the translocase of the outer mitochondrial membrane (Tom20) in the human cochlea.  

PubMed

Mitochondrial degeneration in the inner ear is likely a contributing factor in age-related hearing loss and other otopathologies such as Meniere's disease. Most mitochondrial proteins are synthesized in the cytosol and imported through the mitochondrial membranes by translocators. The translocase of the outer membrane (Tom) is the universal entry gate for all proteins that are imported into mitochondria. Altered function of the translocator could alter protein transport into the mitochondria, and disrupt function. In this study, we determined the immunolocalization of Tom20, a major mitochondrial protein import receptor, in microdissected human cochlea frozen sections obtained from postmortem autopsy and celloidin-embedded archival specimens. We used affinity purified rabbit polyclonal antibodies against Tom20. We also determined the Tom20 immunolocalization in the mouse inner ear. In the human and mouse cochlea, Tom20 was ubiquitously distributed in the organ of Corti, allowing well-delineated visualization of inner and outer hair cells. Tom20 immunoreactivity localized in the cytoplasm of spiral ganglia neurons. In the inner ear of aged subjects with Meniere's disease, there was decreased expression of Tom20. These results suggest that Tom20 can be used in the inner ear as a marker for mitochondrial protein import. PMID:23165776

Balaker, Ashley E; Ishiyama, Paul; Lopez, Ivan A; Ishiyama, Gail; Ishiyama, Akira

2013-02-01

151

Tom Stewart Interview (Part II): A Little Bit About the Man Behind SPEEDE  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although admittedly shy and more comfortable as an attentive listener, Tom Stewart is also friendly and accommodating. He graciously agreed to share his thoughts about some of the important experiences in his life. Tom is that rare bird, a native Floridian, from West Palm Beach, 68 miles north of his Miami home. He received a Bachelor of Chemical…

Winarski, Kathy

2004-01-01

152

TOMS Data Showing the Ozone Hole over Antarctica (8-20-92 - 10-19-92)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

TOMS Ozone over Antarctica from 8-20-92 to 10-19-92. The ozone hole is indicated in shades of blue. The missing data region over the south pole is due to the inability of the TOMS instrument to measure data during the polar night.

Allen, Jesse; Schoeberl, Mark

1999-04-09

153

Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) Level-3 Data Products User's Guide.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Data from the TOMS series of instruments span the time period from November 1978, through the present with about a one and a-half year gap from January 1994 through July 1996. A set of four parameters derived from the TOMS measurements have been archived ...

R. D. McPeters P. K. Bhartia A. J. Krueger J. R. Herman C. G. Wellemeyer C. J. Seftor W. Byerly E. A. Celarier

2000-01-01

154

33 CFR 80.170 - Sandy Hook, NJ to Tom's River, NJ.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Sandy Hook, NJ to Tom's River, NJ. 80.170 Section 80.170 Navigation...Coast § 80.170 Sandy Hook, NJ to Tom's River, NJ. (a) A line drawn from Shark River Inlet North Breakwater Light 2 to Shark...

2013-07-01

155

User's guide for SBUV/TOMS ozone derivative products  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A series of products are available derived from the total-ozone and ozone vertical profile results for the Solar Backscattered Ultraviolet/Total-Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (SBUV/TOMS) Nimbus-7 operation. Products available are (1) orbital height-latitude cross sections of the SBUV profile data, (2) daily global total ozone contours in polar coordinates, (3) daily averages of total ozone in global 5x5 degree latitude-longitude grid, (4) daily, monthly and quarterly averages of total ozone and profile data in 10 degree latitude zones, (5) tabular presentation of zonal means, (6) daily global total ozone and profile contours in polar coordinates. The ""Derivative Products User's Guide'' describes each of these products in detail, including their derivation and presentation format. Information is provided on how to order the tapes and microfilm from the National Space Science Data Center.

Fleig, A. J.; Wellemeyer, C.; Oslik, N.; Lee, D.; Miller, J.; Magatani, R.

1984-01-01

156

Contributions of Nimbus 7 TOMS Data to Volcanic Study and Hazard Mitigation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nimbus TOMS data have led to advancements among many volcano-related scientific disciplines, from the initial ability to quantify SO2 clouds leading to derivations of eruptive S budgets and fluxes, to tracking of individual clouds, assessing global volcanism and atmospheric impacts. Some of the major aspects of TOMS-related research, listed below, will be reviewed and updated: (1) Measurement of volcanic SO2 clouds: Nimbus TOMS observed over 100 individual SO2 clouds during its mission lifetime; large explosive eruptions are now routinely and reliably measured by satellite. (2) Eruption processes: quantification of SO2 emissions have allowed assessments of eruption sulfur budgets, the evaluation of "excess" sulfur, and inferences of H2S emissions. (3) Detection of ash: TOMS data are now used to detect volcanic particulates in the atmosphere, providing complementary analyses to infrared methods of detection. Paired TOMS and AVHRR studies have provided invaluable information on volcanic cloud compositions and processes. (4) Cloud tracking and hazard mitigation: volcanic clouds can be considered gigantic tracers in the atmosphere, and studies of the fates of these clouds have led to new knowledge of their physical and chemical dispersion in the atmosphere for predictive models. (5) Global trends: the long term data set has provided researchers an unparalleled record of explosive volcanism, and forms a key component in assessing annual to decadal trends in global S emissions. (6) Atmospheric impacts: TOMS data have been linked to independent records of atmospheric change, in order to compare cause and effect processes following a massive injection of SO2 into the atmosphere. (7) Future TOMS instruments and applications: Nimbus TOMS has given way to new satellite platforms, with several wavelength and resolution modifications. New efforts to launch a geostationary TOMS could provide unprecedented observations of volcanic activity.

Krueger, Arlin J.; Bluth, G. J. S.; Schaefer, S. A.

1998-01-01

157

Electromagnetic Deep-Probing (100-1000 Kms) of the Earth's Interior from Artificial Satellites: Constraints on the Regional Emplacement of Crustal Resources.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The reconnaissance phase of using satellite observtions to studying electromagnetic induction in the solid earth is summarized. Several points are made: (1) satellite data apparently suffer far less from the effects of near surface lateral heterogeneities...

J. F. Hermance

1983-01-01

158

Electromagnetic deep-probing (100-1000 kms) of the Earth's interior from artificial satellites: Constraints on the regional emplacement of crustal resources  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The reconnaissance phase of using satellite observtions to studying electromagnetic induction in the solid earth is summarized. Several points are made: (1) satellite data apparently suffer far less from the effects of near surface lateral heterogeneities in the earth than do ground-based data; (2) zonal ionospheric currents during the recovery phase of major magnetic storms appear to be minimal, at least in the dawn and dusk sectors wher MAGSAT was flown; hence the internal contributions that satellites observe during these times is in fact due primarily to induction in the Earth with little or no contribution from ionospheric currents; and (3) the interpretation of satellite data in terms of primitive electromagnetic response functions, while grossly over-simplified, results in a surprisingly well-resolved radius for an equivalent super-conductor representing the conductivity region of the Earth's interior (5,370 + or - 120 km).

Hermance, J. F.

1983-01-01

159

The C-terminal TPR Domain of Tom70 Defines a Family of Mitochondrial Protein Import Receptors Found only in Animals and Fungi  

Microsoft Academic Search

In fungi and animals the translocase in the outer mitochondrial membrane (TOM complex) consists of multiple components including the receptor subunit Tom70. Genome sequence analyses suggest no Tom70 receptor subunit exists in plants or protozoans, raising questions about its ancestry, function and the importance of its activity. Here we characterise the relationships within the Tom70 family of proteins. We find

Nickie C. Chan; Vladimir A. Likic ´; Ross F. Waller; Terrence D. Mulhern; Trevor Lithgow

2006-01-01

160

Spatiotemporal Variability of Total Column Ozone Derived from TOMS Using Rotated Principal Component Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study analyzes these natural variations (across all spatial and temporal scales) through the application of rotated Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to the total column ozone data derived from Version 6.0 TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) for...

S. K. LeDuc B. K. Eder L. Truppi

1996-01-01

161

Electromagnetic deep-probing (100-1000 KMS) of the Earth's interior from artificial satellites: Constraints on the regional emplacement of crustal resources  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An algorithm was developed to address the problem of electromagnetic coupling of ionospheric current systems to both a homogeneous Earth having finite conductivity, and to an Earth having gross lateral variations in its conductivity structure, e.g., the ocean-land interface. Typical results from the model simulation for ionospheric currents flowing parallel to a representative geologic discontinuity are shown. Although the total magnetic field component at the satellite altitude is an order of magnitude smaller than at the Earth's surface (because of cancellation effects from the source current), the anomalous behavior of the satellite observations as the vehicle passes over the geologic contact is relatively more important pronounced. The results discriminate among gross lithospheric structures because of difference in electrical conductivity.

Hermance, J. F. (principal investigator)

1981-01-01

162

Functional Refolding and Characterization of Two Tom40 Isoforms from Human Mitochondria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tom40 proteins represent an essential class of molecules which facilitate translocation of unfolded proteins from the cytosol\\u000a into the mitochondrial intermembrane space. They are part of a high-molecular mass complex that forms the protein-conducting\\u000a channel in outer mitochondrial membranes. This study concerns the recombinant expression, purification and folding of amino-terminally\\u000a truncated variants of the two human Tom40 isoforms for structural

Frauke Mager; Dennis Gessmann; Stephan Nussberger; Kornelius Zeth

2011-01-01

163

Interpretation of TOMS observations of tropical tropospheric ozone with a global model and in situ observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

We interpret the distribution of tropical tropospheric ozone columns (TTOCs) from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) by using a global three-dimensional model of tropospheric chemistry (GEOS-CHEM) and additional information from in situ observations. The GEOS-CHEM TTOCs capture 44% of the variance of monthly mean TOMS TTOCs from the convective cloud differential method (CCD) with no global bias. Major discrepancies

Randall V. Martin; Daniel J. Jacob; Jennifer A. Logan; Isabelle Bey; Robert M. Yantosca; Amanda C. Staudt; Qinbin Li; Arlene M. Fiore; Bryan N. Duncan; Hongyu Liu; Paul Ginoux; Valerie Thouret

2002-01-01

164

Tom Brown Jr.'s Tracker School: Tracking, Nature and Wilderness Survival  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Tom Brown's Tracker School is the largest school of its kind with locations in New Jersey, California, and Florida. On this site, visitors will find course descriptions for classes on tracking, scouting, philosophy, vision, healing, and survival. "Tom's Newsletter" provides readers with a monthly insight into the organization and its events. Links to other tracking and nature conservation organizations are also available for those seeking additional information. Check out the "Tracker Clubs" section to locate the club in your area!

Brown, Tom J.

2008-01-23

165

Managing Foliar Blights on Carrot Using Copper, Azoxystrobin, and Chlorothalonil Applied According to TOM-CAST  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dorman, E. A., Webster, B. J., and Hausbeck, M. K. 2009. Managing foliar blights on carrot using copper, azoxystrobin, and chlorothalonil applied according to TOM-CAST. Plant Dis. 93:402-407. Alternaria dauci and Cercospora carotae cause foliar blight on carrot, causing yield reductions in severely blighted fields. Currently, fungicides are used on either a 7-day schedule or according to the TOM-CAST disease

E. A. Dorman; B. J. Webster; M. K. Hausbeck

2009-01-01

166

Ozone depletion over Scotland as derived from Nimbus7 TOMS measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

The TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) flown on the Nimbus-7 satellite has been measuring the total ozone concentration over the globe since November 1978. Recent investigations based on TOMS data have shown that in the latitude belt 40–70° N the spring ozone depletion rate reaches the value of —0·8 per cent per year. This paper reports trends derived from the

A. P. CRACKNELL; C. A. VAROTSOS

1994-01-01

167

Comparison of TOMS retrievals and UVMRP measurements of surface spectral UV radiation in the United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surface noontime spectral ultraviolet (UV) irradiances during May-September of 2000-2004 from the total ozone mapping spectrometer (TOMS) satellite retrievals are systematically compared with the ground measurements at 27 climatological sites maintained by the USDA UV-B Monitoring and Research Program. The TOMS retrievals are evaluated by two cloud screening methods and local air quality conditions to determine their bias dependencies on spectral bands, cloudiness, aerosol loadings, and air pollution. Under clear-sky conditions, TOMS retrieval biases vary from -3.4% (underestimation) to 23.6% (overestimation). Averaged over all sites, the relative mean biases for 305, 311, 325, and 368 nm are respectively 15.4, 7.9, 7.6, and 7.0% (overestimation). The bias enhancement for 305 nm by approximately twice that of other bands likely results from absorption by gaseous pollutants (SO2, O3), and aerosols that are not included in the TOMS algorithm. For all bands, strong positive correlations of the TOMS biases are identified with aerosol optical depth, which explains nearly 50% of the variances of TOMS biases. The more restrictive in-situ cloud screening method reduces the biases by 3.4-3.9% averaged over all sites. This suggests that the TOMS biases from the in-situ cloud contamination may account for approximately 25% for 305 nm and 50% for other bands of the total bias. The correlation coefficients between total-sky and clear-sky biases across 27 sites are 0.92, 0.89, 0.83, and 0.78 for 305, 311, 325, and 368 nm, respectively. The results show that the spatial characteristics of the TOMS retrieval biases are systematic, representative of both clear and total-sky conditions.

Xu, M.; Liang, X.-Z.; Gao, W.; Krotkov, N.

2010-09-01

168

Comparison of TOMS retrievals and UVMRP measurements of surface spectral UV radiation in the United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surface noontime spectral ultraviolet (UV) irradiances during May-September of 2000-2004 from the total ozone mapping spectrometer (TOMS) satellite retrievals are systematically compared with the ground measurements at 27 climatological sites maintained by the USDA UV-B Monitoring and Research Program. The TOMS retrievals are evaluated by two cloud screening methods and local air quality conditions to determine their bias dependencies on spectral bands, cloudiness, aerosol loadings, and air pollution. Under clear-sky conditions, TOMS retrieval biases vary from -3.4% (underestimation) to 23.6% (overestimation). Averaged over all sites, the relative mean biases for 305, 311, 325, and 368 nm are respectively 15.4, 7.9, 7.6, and 7.0% (overestimation). The bias enhancement for 305 nm by approximately twice that of other bands likely results from absorption by gaseous pollutants (SO2, O3), and aerosols that are not included in the TOMS algorithm. For all bands, strong positive correlations of the TOMS biases are identified with aerosol optical depth, which explains nearly 50% of the variances of TOMS biases. The more restrictive in-situ cloud screening method reduces the biases by 3.4-3.9% averaged over all sites. This suggests that the TOMS biases from the in-situ cloud contamination may account for approximately 25% for 305 nm and 50% for other bands of the total bias. The correlation coefficients between total-sky and clear-sky biases across 27 sites are 0.92, 0.89, 0.83, and 0.78 for 305, 311, 325, and 368 nm, respectively. The results show that the spatial characteristics of the TOMS retrieval biases are systematic, representative of both clear and total-sky conditions.

Xu, M.; Liang, X.-Z.; Gao, W.; Krotkov, N.

2010-04-01

169

GOME Total Ozone and Calibration Error Derived Usign Version 8 TOMS Algorithm  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) is a hyper-spectral satellite instrument measuring the ultraviolet backscatter at relatively high spectral resolution. GOME radiances have been slit averaged to emulate measurements of the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) made at discrete wavelengths and processed using the new TOMS Version 8 Ozone Algorithm. Compared to Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) techniques based on local structure in the Huggins Bands, the TOMS uses differential absorption between a pair of wavelengths including the local stiucture as well as the background continuum. This makes the TOMS Algorithm more sensitive to ozone, but it also makes the algorithm more sensitive to instrument calibration errors. While calibration adjustments are not needed for the fitting techniques like the DOAS employed in GOME algorithms, some adjustment is necessary when applying the TOMS Algorithm to GOME. Using spectral discrimination at near ultraviolet wavelength channels unabsorbed by ozone, the GOME wavelength dependent calibration drift is estimated and then checked using pair justification. In addition, the day one calibration offset is estimated based on the residuals of the Version 8 TOMS Algorithm. The estimated drift in the 2b detector of GOME is small through the first four years and then increases rapidly to +5% in normalized radiance at 331 nm relative to 385 nm by mid 2000. The lb detector appears to be quite well behaved throughout this time period.

Gleason, J.; Wellemeyer, C.; Qin, W.; Ahn, C.; Gopalan, A.; Bhartia, P.

2003-01-01

170

Constructing something funny: levels of associative connection in Tom Swifties.  

PubMed

In the present study, redundancy (low, medium, or high association between the adverb and sentence content) and contextual connection (presence vs. absence of a meaning-based connection between the adverb and other information in the sentence) were manipulated systematically in Tom Swifties (single-sentence wordplays in which a pun is based on the adverb at the end of the sentence). Sixty-nine university students provided ratings of each Swifty's humorousness, cleverness, and coherence and of their reactions to each (tendency to smile, laugh, and groan). Added context led to greater perceived coherence. In keeping with optimal level of arousal arising from resolution of incongruity, an inverted-U redundancy effect was obtained for all scales except "groan." The authors suggest that a social setting is a required but not a sufficient condition for a pun to evoke a groan. It also requires material of greater length that includes some build-up, as found in a fable or shaggy-dog story. PMID:16011072

Lippman, Louis G; Tragesser, Sarah L

2005-07-01

171

Straight talk with... Tom Inglesby. Interview by Kevin Jiang.  

PubMed

When letters containing anthrax spores were mailed to several US senators and media offices in September 2001, just one week after the 9/11 attacks, bioterrorism catapulted to the national stage. Political leaders and public health officials, desperate for guidance on this once-theoretical scenario, turned to experts including Tom Inglesby, then deputy director of the Johns Hopkins Center for Civilian Biodefense Strategies, a bioterrorism research and analysis think tank in Baltimore. In the years that followed, Inglesby and his colleagues ran exercises to simulate bioterror incidents, established a peer-reviewed journal on biodefense and advised government agencies on how to reduce the public health impact of biological threats.Today, he continues his work with the think tank, which moved to the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center (UPMC) in 2003 (although it stayed headquartered in Baltimore) and which was recently renamed the UPMC Center for Health Security. As director and chief executive officer for the past four years, Inglesby has expanded the center's focus toward preventing public health crises arising from infectious diseases, pandemics and major natural disasters, in addition to biological, chemical and nuclear accidents or threats. Inglesby spoke with Kevin Jiang about how responses to bioterrorism, pandemics and natural disasters aren't all that different. PMID:23744137

Inglesby, Tom

2013-06-01

172

Trajectory modeling of aerosol clouds observed by TOMS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An aerosol trajectory model (ATM), which couples TOMS aerosol index (AI) measurements with multiple-level parcel trajectories, is presented for determining the three-dimensional (3-D) distribution of a tropospheric aerosol cloud. The ATM is illustrated with an idealized 2-D (height-longitude) cloud in linear vertical shear. The half width of the vertical parcel distribution (an indicator of how well the cloud is resolved) is inversely proportional to time and to vertical shear. The degree to which a cloud can be resolved is limited by an "uncertainty principle," whereby model precision improves with time, while accuracy degrades with time because of accumulating trajectory errors. ATM is applied to the ash cloud from the September 1992 eruption of Mount Spurr, Alaska. Disagreement in the predicted cloud structure occurs between 3-day ATM runs using United Kingdom Meteorological Office (UKMO) and National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) winds. This is due to significant differences in the UKMO and NCEP zonal wind speed near the tropopause, which cause large trajectory separations over 3 days. The UKMO-predicted cloud range (310-390 K) agrees well with radar and pilot observations of the ash cloud, while the NCEP-predicted range shows strong disagreement with observations in the region of the jet maximum. This indicates the potential (when independent observations are available) for using ATM to partially validate wind fields.

Allen, D. R.; Schoeberl, M. R.; Herman, J. R.

1999-11-01

173

The Radiation Belt Storm Probes  

NASA Video Gallery

The Radiation Belt Storm Probe mission (RBSP) will explore the Van Allen Radiation Belts in the Earth's magnetosphere. The charge particles in these regions can be hazardous to both spacecraft and ...

174

Electromagnetic deep-probing (100-1000 KMS) of the Earth's interior from artificial satellites: Constraints on the regional emplacement of crustal resources  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The applicability of electromagnetic deep sounding experiments using natural sources in the magnetosphere by incorporating Magsat data with other geophysical data was evaluated. Magsat satellite data, ground based magnetic observations, appropriate reference field models, and other satellite data was analyzed. The optimal combination of observations which lead first to a global and then to a regional characterization of the conductivity of the Earth's upper mantle is sought.

Hermance, J. F. (principal investigator)

1980-01-01

175

Using PlayDoh Astronomy for Understanding the Size and Scale of the Earth-Moon System and as a Probe for Spatial Translation Ability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To help students love science more and to help them understand the vast distances that pervade astronomy, we use kinesthetic modeling of the Earth-Moon system using PlayDoh. When coupled with discussion, we found (in a pilot study) that students of all ages (children up through adults) acquired a more accurate mental representation of the Earth-Moon system. During early September 2012, we devised and implemented a curriculum unit that focused on the Earth-Moon system and how that relates to eclipses for six middle-Tennessee 6th grade public school classrooms. For this unit, we used PlayDoh as the kinesthetic modeling tool. First, we evaluated what the students knew about the size and scale prior to this intervention using paper and model pre-tests. Second, we used the PlayDoh to model the Earth-Moon system and when possible, conducted an immediate post-test. The students then engaged with the PlayDoh model to help them understand eclipses. Third, we conducted a one-month-later delayed post-test. One thing to note is that about half of the students had experienced the PlayDoh modeling part of a 5th grade pilot lesson during May 2012 therefore the pre-test acted as a four-month-later delayed post-test for these students. We find, among other things, that students retain relative size information more readily than relative distance information. We also find differences in how consistent students are when trying to translate the size/scale they have in their heads to the different modes of assessment utilized.

Grundstrom, Erika

2013-01-01

176

Results from SIM's Thermo-Opto-Mechanical (TOM3) Testbed  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Future space-based optical interferometers, such as the Space Interferometer Mission Planet Quest (SIM), require thermal stability of the optical wavefront to the level of picometers in order to produce astrometric data at the micro-arc-second level. In SIM, the internal path of the interferometer will be measured with a small metrology beam whereas the starlight fringe position is estimated from a large concentric annular beam. To achieve the micro-arc-second observation goal for SIM, it is necessary to maintain the optical path difference between the central and the outer annulus portions of the wavefront of the front-end telescope optics to a few tens of picometers. The Thermo-Opto-Mecha nical testbed (TOM3) was developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory to measure thermally induced optical deformations of a full-size flight-like beam compressor and siderostat, the two largest optics on SIM, in flight-like thermal environments. A Common Path Heterodyne Interferometer (COPHI) developed at JPL was used for the fine optical path difference measurement as the metrology sensor. The system was integrated inside a large vacuum chamber in order to mitigate the atmospheric and thermal disturbances. The siderostat was installed in a temperature-controlled thermal shroud inside the vacuum chamber, creating a flight-like thermal environment. Detailed thermal and structural models of the test articles (siderostat and compressor) were also developed for model prediction and correlation of the thermal deformations. Experimental data shows SIM required thermal stability of the test articles and good agreement with the model predictions.

Goullioud, Renaud; Lindensmith, C. A.; Hahn, I.

2006-01-01

177

Aspects of Biological Changes in Breeder Toms after Treatment with Subcutaneous Cadmium Injection: Study of Some Semen Characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monsi, A., Cecil, H.C. and Bakst, M.R. 1993. Aspects of biological changes in breeder toms after treatment with subcutaneous cadmium injection: Study of semen characteristics. J. Appl. Anim. Res., 4: 83–90.Changes in reproductive parameters of breeder toms injected with cadmium chloride (CdCl 2.5HO) were studied. Each treated member of twenty-four pairs of yearling toms was given 4.5 mg Cd\\/kg body

A. Monsi; H. C. Cecil; M. R. Bakst

1993-01-01

178

Empirical correction for earth sensor horizon radiance variation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A major limitation on the use of infrared horizon sensors for attitude determination is the variability of the height of the infrared Earth horizon. This variation includes a climatological component and a stochastic component of approximately equal importance. The climatological component shows regular variation with season and latitude. Models based on historical measurements have been used to compensate for these systematic changes. The stochastic component is analogous to tropospheric weather. It can cause extreme, localized changes that for a period of days, overwhelm the climatological variation. An algorithm has been developed to compensate partially for the climatological variation of horizon height and at least to mitigate the stochastic variation. This method uses attitude and horizon sensor data from spacecraft to update a horizon height history as a function of latitude. For spacecraft that depend on horizon sensors for their attitudes (such as the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer-Earth Probe-TOMS-EP) a batch least squares attitude determination system is used. It is assumed that minimizing the average sensor residual throughout a full orbit of data results in attitudes that are nearly independent of local horizon height variations. The method depends on the additional assumption that the mean horizon height over all latitudes is approximately independent of season. Using these assumptions, the method yields the latitude dependent portion of local horizon height variations. This paper describes the algorithm used to generate an empirical horizon height. Ideally, an international horizon height database could be established that would rapidly merge data from various spacecraft to provide timely corrections that could be used by all.

Hashmall, Joseph A.; Sedlak, Joseph; Andrews, Daniel; Luquette, Richard

1998-01-01

179

TOM40 Mediates Mitochondrial Dysfunction Induced by ?-Synuclein Accumulation in Parkinson's Disease  

PubMed Central

Alpha-synuclein (?-Syn) accumulation/aggregation and mitochondrial dysfunction play prominent roles in the pathology of Parkinson’s disease. We have previously shown that postmortem human dopaminergic neurons from PD brains accumulate high levels of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) deletions. We now addressed the question, whether alterations in a component of the mitochondrial import machinery -TOM40- might contribute to the mitochondrial dysfunction and damage in PD. For this purpose, we studied levels of TOM40, mtDNA deletions, oxidative damage, energy production, and complexes of the respiratory chain in brain homogenates as well as in single neurons, using laser-capture-microdissection in transgenic mice overexpressing human wildtype ?-Syn. Additionally, we used lentivirus-mediated stereotactic delivery of a component of this import machinery into mouse brain as a novel therapeutic strategy. We report here that TOM40 is significantly reduced in the brain of PD patients and in ?-Syn transgenic mice. TOM40 deficits were associated with increased mtDNA deletions and oxidative DNA damage, and with decreased energy production and altered levels of complex I proteins in ?-Syn transgenic mice. Lentiviral-mediated overexpression of Tom40 in ?-Syn-transgenic mice brains ameliorated energy deficits as well as oxidative burden. Our results suggest that alterations in the mitochondrial protein transport machinery might contribute to mitochondrial impairment in ?-Synucleinopathies.

Rockenstein, Edward; Adame, Anthony; Elstner, Matthias; Laub, Christoph; Mueller, Sarina; Koob, Andrew O.; Mante, Michael; Pham, Emily; Klopstock, Thomas; Masliah, Eliezer

2013-01-01

180

An Expanded UV Irradiance Database from TOMS Including the Effects of Ozone, Clouds, and Aerosol Attenuation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The TOMS UV irradiance database (1978 to 2003) has been expanded to include five new products (noon irradiance at 305,310,324, and 380 nm, and noon erythemal-weighted irradiance), in addition to the existing erythemal daily exposure, that permit direct comparisons with ground-based measurements from spectrometers and broadband instruments. The new data are available on http://toms.gsfc.nasa.gov/>http://toms.gsfc.nasa.gov. Comparisons of the TOMS estimated irradiances with ground-based instruments are given along with a review of the sources of known errors, especially the recent improvements in accounting for aerosol attenuation. Trend estimations from the new TOMS irradiances permit the clear separation of changes caused by ozone and those caused by aerosols and clouds. Systematic differences in cloud cover are shown to be the most important factor in determining regional differences in UV radiation reaching the ground for locations at the same latitude (e.g., the summertime differences between Australia and the US southwest).

Herman, J.; Krotkov, N.

2003-01-01

181

TOMS total ozone data compared with northern latitude Dobson ground stations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ozone measurements from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer on the Nimbus 7 satellite are compared with ground-based measurements from five Dobson stations at northern latitudes to evaluate the accuracy of the TOMS data, particularly in regions north of 50 deg N. The measurements from the individual stations show mean differences from -2.5 percent up to plus 8.3 percent relative to TOMS measurements and two of the ground stations, Oslo and Longyearbyen, show a significant drift of plus 1.2 percent and plus 3.7 percent per year, respectively. It can be shown from nearly simultaneous measurements in two different wavelength double pairs at Oslo that at least 2 percent of the differences result from the use of the CC' wavelength double pair instead of the standard AD wavelength double pair. Since all Norwegian stations used the CC' wavelength double pair exclusively a similar error can be assumed for Tromso and Longyearbyren. A comparison between the tropospheric ozone content in TOMS data and from ECC ozonesonde measurements at Ny-Alesund and Bear Island shows that the amount of tropospheric ozone in the standard profiles used in the TOMS algorithm is too low, which leads to an error of about 2 percent in total ozone. Particularly at high solar zenith angles (greater than 80 deg), Dobson measurements become unreliable. They are up to 20 percent lower than TOMS measurements averaged over solar zenith angles of 88 deg to 89 deg.

Heese, B.; Barthel, K.; Hov, O.

1994-01-01

182

Coordination and ion-ion interactions of chromium centers in alkaline earth zinc borate glasses probed by electron paramagnetic resonance and optical spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), optical absorption and FT-IR studies have been carried out on chromium ions incorporated in alkaline earth zinc borate glasses. The EPR spectra exhibit two resonance signals with effective g values at g ? 1.99 and ?1.97. The resonance signal at g ? 1.99 is attributed to the contribution from both the exchange coupled Cr3+-Cr3+ ion pairs and the isolated Cr3+ ions and the resonance signal at g ? 1.97 is due to Cr5+ ions. The paramagnetic susceptibility (?) was calculated from the EPR data at various (123-303 K) temperatures and the Curie temperature (?p) was calculated from the 1/?-T graph. The optical absorption spectra exhibit three bands at ˜360 nm, ˜440 nm and a broad band at ˜615 nm characteristic of Cr3+ ions in an octahedral symmetry. From the observed band positions, the crystal-field splitting parameter Dq and the Racah parameters (B and C) have been evaluated. From the ultraviolet edges, the optical band gap energies (Eopt) and Urbach energy (?E) are calculated. The theoretical optical basicity (?th) of these glasses has also been evaluated. Chromium ions doped alkaline earth zinc borate glasses show BO3 and BO4 structural units in the FT-IR studies.

Sumalatha, B.; Omkaram, I.; Rajavardana Rao, T.; Linga Raju, Ch

2013-05-01

183

Genome-wide analysis of intraspecific DNA polymorphism in 'Micro-Tom', a model cultivar of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum).  

PubMed

Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is regarded as a model plant of the Solanaceae family. The genome sequencing of the tomato cultivar 'Heinz 1706' was recently completed. To accelerate the progress of tomato genomics studies, systematic bioresources, such as mutagenized lines and full-length cDNA libraries, have been established for the cultivar 'Micro-Tom'. However, these resources cannot be utilized to their full potential without the completion of the genome sequencing of 'Micro-Tom'. We undertook the genome sequencing of 'Micro-Tom' and here report the identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and insertion/deletions (indels) between 'Micro-Tom' and 'Heinz 1706'. The analysis demonstrated the presence of 1.23 million SNPs and 0.19 million indels between the two cultivars. The density of SNPs and indels was high in chromosomes 2, 5 and 11, but was low in chromosomes 6, 8 and 10. Three known mutations of 'Micro-Tom' were localized on chromosomal regions where the density of SNPs and indels was low, which was consistent with the fact that these mutations were relatively new and introgressed into 'Micro-Tom' during the breeding of this cultivar. We also report SNP analysis for two 'Micro-Tom' varieties that have been maintained independently in Japan and France, both of which have served as standard lines for 'Micro-Tom' mutant collections. Approximately 28,000 SNPs were identified between these two 'Micro-Tom' lines. These results provide high-resolution DNA polymorphic information on 'Micro-Tom' and represent a valuable contribution to the 'Micro-Tom'-based genomics resources. PMID:24319074

Kobayashi, Masaaki; Nagasaki, Hideki; Garcia, Virginie; Just, Daniel; Bres, Cécile; Mauxion, Jean-Philippe; Le Paslier, Marie-Christine; Brunel, Dominique; Suda, Kunihiro; Minakuchi, Yohei; Toyoda, Atsushi; Fujiyama, Asao; Toyoshima, Hiromi; Suzuki, Takayuki; Igarashi, Kaori; Rothan, Christophe; Kaminuma, Eli; Nakamura, Yasukazu; Yano, Kentaro; Aoki, Koh

2014-02-01

184

The 1989 Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition Nimbus-7 TOMS data atlas  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Over the past several years, world scientific attention was focused on the rapid and unanticipated decrease in the abundance of ozone over Antarctica during the Austral spring. A major aircraft campaign was conducted from December 1988 to February 1989 in response to the recently published Ozone Trends Panel Report which found that the largest decreases in Arctic ozone occurred during January to February at latitudes near the edge of the Arctic vortex. This atlas provides a complete set of TOMS ozone measurements over Europe and the North Atlantic for the duration of the experiment. These were the orbital TOMS measurements provided to the experimenters in near-real-time. In addition, a set of Northern Hemisphere TOMS ozone measurements for the period December 26, 1988 to March 20, 1989 is presented. A comparison of January and February 1989 mean ozone values to prior years is also presented.

Krueger, Arlin J.; Penn, Lanning M.; Larko, David E.; Doiron, Scott D.; Guimaraes, Patricia T.

1989-01-01

185

Seven years of total ozone from the TOMS instrument - A report on data quality  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Seven years of TOMS total ozone data are currently available. Recently a new ozone retrieval algorithm based on improved ozone absorption cross section was implemented that has introduced 6-7 percent discontinuity in the archived data sets at the end of the fifth year of instrument operation. Until all data are reprocessed with the new algorithm users can use a table of correction factors given in this paper to make the data set internally consistent. This paper also presents a comparison of TOMS results with Amundsen Scott Dobson station. Though the agrement in most years is good, in 1983-84 the Dobson station reported unusually high values of ozone while TOMS saw the very low ozone values associated with the Antarctica ozone hole.

Fleig, Albert J.; Bhartia, Pawan K.; Wellemeyer, Charles G.; Silberstein, David S.

1986-01-01

186

Linkage of oxygen deficiency defects and rare earth concentrations in silica glass optical fiber probed by ultraviolet absorption and laser excitation spectroscopy.  

PubMed

Ultraviolet absorption measurements and laser excitation spectroscopy in the vicinity of 248 nm provide compelling evidence for linkages between the oxygen deficiency center (ODC) and rare earth concentrations in Yb and Er-doped glass optical fibers. Investigations of YAG-derived and solution-doped glass fibers are described. For both Yb and Er-doped fibers, the dependence of Type II ODC absorption on the rare earth number density is approximately linear, but the magnitude of the effect is greater for Yb-doped fibers. Furthermore, laser excitation spectra demonstrate unambiguously the existence of an energy transfer mechanism coupling an ODC with Yb(3+). Photopumping glass fibers with a Ti:sapphire laser/optical parametric amplifier system, tunable over the 225-265 nm region, or with a KrF laser at 248.4 nm show: 1) emission features in the 200-1100 nm interval attributable only to the ODC (Type II) defect or Yb(3+), and 2) the excitation spectra for ODC (II) emission at ~280 nm and Yb(3+) fluorescence (? ~1.03 ?m) to be, within experimental uncertainty, identical. The latter demonstrates that, when irradiating Yb-doped silica fibers between ~240 and 255 nm, the ODC (II) defect is at least the primary precursor to Yb(3+) emission. Consistent with previous reports in the literature, the data show the ODC (II) absorption spectrum to have a peak wavelength and breadth of ~246 nm and ~19 nm (FWHM). Experiments also reveal that, in the absence of Yb, incorporating either Al(2)O(3) or Y(2)O(3) into glass fibers has a negligible impact on the ODC concentration. Not only do the data reported here demonstrate the relationship between the ODC (II) number density and the Yb doping concentration, but they also suggest that the appearance of ODC defects in the fiber is associated with the introduction of Yb and the process by which the fiber is formed. PMID:22714511

Liu, Y-S; Galvin, T C; Hawkins, T; Ballato, J; Dong, L; Foy, P R; Dragic, P D; Eden, J G

2012-06-18

187

UV 380 nm reflectivity of the Earth's surface, clouds and aerosols  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 380 nm radiance measurements of the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) have been converted into a global data set of daily (1979-1992) Lambert equivalent reflectivities R of the Earth's surface and boundary layer (clouds, aerosols, surface haze, and snow\\/ice) and then corrected to RPC for the presence of partly clouded scenes. Since UV surface reflectivity is between 2 and

J. R. Herman; E. Celarier; D. Larko

2001-01-01

188

Study of Air Pollution from Space Using TOMS: Challenges and Promises for Future Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A series of TOMS instruments built by NASA has flown on US, Russian, and Japanese satellites in the last 24 years. These instruments are well known for producing spectacular maps of the ozone hole that forms over Antarctica each spring. However, it is less well known that these instruments also provided first evidence that space-based measurements in UV of sufficiently high precision and accuracy can provide valuable information to study global air quality. We will use the TOMS experience to highlight the promises and challenges of future space-based missions designed specifically for air quality studies.

Bhartia, Pawan K.

2002-01-01

189

The TOM Test: A New Instrument for Assessing Theory of Mind in Normal Children and Children with Pervasive Development Disorders.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Four studies investigated reliability and validity of the Theory of Mind (TOM) test, an instrument for assessing theory-of-mind ability in typical children and children with pervasive developmental disorders. The TOM test was found to be a reliable and valid instrument for measuring various aspects of theory of mind. (Author/CR)

Muris, Peter; Steerneman, Pim; Meesters, Cor; Merckelbach, Harald; Horselenberg, Robert; van den Hogen, Tanja; van Dongen, Lieke

1999-01-01

190

Direct membrane insertion of voltage-dependent anion-selective channel protein catalyzed by mitochondrial Tom20.  

PubMed

Insertion of newly synthesized proteins into or across the mitochondrial outer membrane is initiated by import receptors at the surface of the organelle. Typically, this interaction directs the precursor protein into a preprotein translocation pore, comprised of Tom40. Here, we show that a prominent beta-barrel channel protein spanning the outer membrane, human voltage- dependent anion-selective channel (VDAC), bypasses the requirement for the Tom40 translocation pore during biogenesis. Insertion of VDAC into the outer membrane is unaffected by plugging the translocation pore with a partially translocated matrix preprotein, and mitochondria containing a temperature-sensitive mutant of Tom40 insert VDAC at the nonpermissive temperature. Synthetic liposomes harboring the cytosolic domain of the human import receptor Tom20 efficiently insert newly synthesized VDAC, resulting in transbilayer transport of ATP. Therefore, Tom20 transforms newly synthesized cytosolic VDAC into a transmembrane channel that is fully integrated into the lipid bilayer. PMID:10352015

Schleiff, E; Silvius, J R; Shore, G C

1999-05-31

191

Probing the role of encapsulated alkaline earth metal atoms in endohedral metallofullerenes M@C76 (M = Ca, Sr, and Ba) by first-principles calculations.  

PubMed

By means of density functional theory and statistical mechanics, we investigate the geometric and electronic structures, thermodynamic stability and infrared (IR) vibrational frequencies of alkaline earth metal endohedral fullerenes, M@C(76) (M = Ca, Sr, and Ba). The results reveal that M@C(1)(17,459)-C(76) possesses the lowest energy followed by M@C(2v)(19,138)-C(76) with a very small energy difference. Both the structures have a pair of adjacent pentagons and are related by a single Stone-Wales transformation. Equilibrium statistical thermodynamic analyses based on Gibbs energy treatments suggest that M@C(1)(17,459)-C(76) has a prominent thermodynamic stability at higher temperatures, in contrast with M@C(2v)(19,138)-C(76) whose thermodynamic stability is affected by the encapsulated metal atom. The encapsulated metallic atoms as well as cage structures significantly influence the electronic properties of endohedral fullerenes such as electron affinities and ionization potentials. On the other hand, the singlet-triplet splitting energy ?E(S-T) depends on the cage structures. In addition, IR spectra and chemical shifts of these compounds have been computed to assist further experimental characterization. PMID:22415172

Yang, Tao; Zhao, Xiang; Xu, Qian; Zheng, Hong; Wang, Wei-Wei; Li, Sheng-Tao

2012-05-01

192

Remote Hyperspectral Imaging of Endolithic Biofilms Using a Robotic Probe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many scientists on Earth have concentrated their searches for extraterrestrial life on robotic probes sent to nearby planets and moons. These robotic probes are able to analyze conditions on the planets and transmit data back to Earth. One branch of astrobiology is devoted to duplicating the specified conditions of remote planets and moons on Earth, and identifying the life that

Amanda E. Lowell; Kah-Siew Ho; Robert A. Lodder

193

A management process defining approach for converged services based on eTOM and ITIL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Present operating management methods can not satisfy the emerging requirements along with the rapid development of the converged services. A novel management process defining approach for the converged services is presented, which aims at the management of the converged services. The approach proposes the convergence of eTOM and ITIL to build the management process framework, which is based on the

Aimin Zhuang; Xuesong Qiu; Haichuan Cheng; Xingyu Chen; Zhipeng Gaol

2010-01-01

194

Molecular Chaperones Hsp90 and Hsp70 Deliver Preproteins to the Mitochondrial Import Receptor Tom70  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of cytosolic factors in protein targeting to mitochondria is poorly understood. Here, we show that in mammals, the cytosolic chaperones Hsp90 and Hsp70 dock onto a specialized TPR domain in the import receptor Tom70 at the outer mitochondrial membrane. This interaction serves to deliver a set of preproteins to the receptor for subsequent membrane translocation dependent on the

Jason C. Young; Nicholas J. Hoogenraad; F. Ulrich Hartl

2003-01-01

195

Wake Up, It Is 2013! Commentary on Luiz Amaral and Tom Roeper's Article  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the Multiple Grammars (MG) theory proposed by Luiz Amaral and Tom Roeper in the present issue and presents a critique of the research that went into the theory. Topics discussed include the allegation that the bilinguals and second language learners in the original article are primarily students in an academic setting, Amaral…

Muysken, Pieter

2014-01-01

196

Therapy outcome measures for allied health practitioners in Australia: the AusTOMs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. The aim of this study was to develop a valid and reliable measure of therapy outcome for three allied health profes- sions in Australia: speech pathology, occupational therapy, and physiotherapy. The Australian Therapy Outcome Measures (AusTOMs) enable measurement of the differences in client profiles and patterns of services provision across health care settings. In this paper we describe phase

ALISON PERRY; MEG MORRIS; CAROLYN UNSWORTH; STEPHEN DUCKETT; JEMMA SKEAT; KAREN DODD; NICHOLAS TAYLOR; KAREN REILLY

2004-01-01

197

An Interview Forum on Interlibrary Loan/Document Delivery with Lynn Wiley and Tom Delaney  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Virginia Boucher-OCLC Distinguished ILL Librarian Award is the most prestigious commendation given to practitioners in the field. The following questions about ILL were posed to the two most recent recipients of the Boucher Award: Tom Delaney (2002), Coordinator of Interlibrary Loan Services at Colorado State University and Lynn Wiley (2001),…

Hasty, Douglas F.

2003-01-01

198

An Open Letter to Suzanne deCastell and Tom Walker.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Responds to "Identity, Metamorphosis, and Ethnographic Research: What Kind of Story Is Ways with Words?" by Suzanne deCastell and Tom Walker (1991). Describes the author's reaction to "Ways with Words--Language, Life and Work in Communities and Classrooms" by Shirley Brice Heath (1983). (SLD)

Assinck, Beverly Belvin

1993-01-01

199

How to Teach for Social Justice: Lessons from "Uncle Tom's Cabin" and Cognitive Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author explains how principles of cognitive science can help teachers of literature use texts as a means of increasing students' commitment to social justice. Applying these principles to a particular work, Uncle Tom's Cabin, he calls particular attention to the relationship between cognitive science and literary schemes for building reader…

Bracher, Mark

2009-01-01

200

AIP is a mitochondrial import mediator that binds to both import receptor Tom20 and preproteins  

PubMed Central

Most mitochondrial preproteins are maintained in a loosely folded import-competent conformation by cytosolic chaperones, and are imported into mitochondria by translocator complexes containing a preprotein receptor, termed translocase of the outer membrane of mitochondria (Tom) 20. Using two-hybrid screening, we identified arylhydrocarbon receptor–interacting protein (AIP), an FK506-binding protein homologue, interacting with Tom20. The extreme COOH-terminal acidic segment of Tom20 was required for interaction with tetratricopeptide repeats of AIP. An in vitro import assay indicated that AIP prevents preornithine transcarbamylase from the loss of import competency. In cultured cells, overexpression of AIP enhanced preornithine transcarbamylase import, and depletion of AIP by RNA interference impaired the import. An in vitro binding assay revealed that AIP specifically binds to mitochondrial preproteins. Formation of a ternary complex of Tom20, AIP, and preprotein was observed. Hsc70 was also found to bind to AIP. An aggregation suppression assay indicated that AIP has a chaperone-like activity to prevent substrate proteins from aggregation. These results suggest that AIP functions as a cytosolic factor that mediates preprotein import into mitochondria.

Yano, Masato; Terada, Kazutoyo; Mori, Masataka

2003-01-01

201

Collateral Damage: Veterans and Domestic Violence in Mari Sandoz's "The Tom-Walker"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"The Tom-Walker" combines the best of Sandoz's realism with her worst attempts at moralizing. Unable to divine exactly what political configuration right-wing post-World War II sentiments might take, Sandoz nevertheless feared a fascist uprising in this country. Perhaps because these concerns dominated her thoughts at the time, she allowed her…

Bahr, Kathy

2010-01-01

202

Total ozone amount trend at St Petersburg as deduced from Nimbus7 TOMS observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The observations of the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) flown on the Nimbus-7 satellite have been used in order to detect the monthly trend in total ozone concentration over St Petersburg (60°N, 30°E) during the period from November 1978 to January 1992. The trend analysis suggests that the total ozone depletion over the 13-year period shows strong variations from month

K. Y. A. KONDRATYEV; C. A. VAROTSOS; A. P. CRACKNELL

1994-01-01

203

Erythemally weighted UV trends over northern latitudes derived from Nimbus 7 TOMS measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the distribution of long-term trends in ground level erythemally weighted ultraviolet (UV) exposures in the northern latitudes for the period 1979-1991 using measurements from the Nimbus 7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) instrument. A new erythemal UV data set (now available to the public via World Wide Web) was produced recently by NASA and has been tested

J. R. Ziemke; S. Chandra; J. Herman; C. Varotsos

2000-01-01

204

The Toms Canyon structure, New Jersey outer continental shelf: A possible late Eocene impact crater  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Toms Canyon structure (~ 20–22 km wide) is located on the New Jersey outer continental shelf beneath 80–100 m of water, and is buried by ~ 1 km of upper Eocene to Holocene sedimentary strata. The structure displays several characteristics typical of terrestrial impact craters (flat floor; upraised faulted rim; brecciated sedimentary fill), but several other characteristics are atypical

C. Wylie Poag; Lawrence J. Poppe

1998-01-01

205

The Toms Canyon structure, New Jersey outer continental shelf: A possible late Eocene impact crater  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Toms Canyon structure [~20-22 km wide] is located on the New Jersey outer continental shelf beneath 80-100 m of water, and is buried by ~1 km of upper Eocene to Holocene sedimentary strata. The structure displays several characteristics typical of terrestrial impact craters (flat floor; upraised faulted rim: brecciated sedimentary fill), but several other characteristics are atypical (an unusually thin ejecta blanket; lack of an inner basin, peak ring, or central peak; bearing nearly completely filled with breccia). Seismostratigraphic and biostratigraphic analyses show that the structure formed during planktonic foraminiferal biochron P15 of the early to middle late Eocene. The fill unit is stratigraphically correlating with impact ejecta cored nearby at Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) Site 612 and at Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Sites 903 and 904 (22-35 km southeast of the Toms Canyon structure). The Toms Canyon fill unit also correlates with the Exmore breccia, which fills the much larger Chesapeake Bay impact crater (90-km diameter; 335 km to the southwest). On the basis of our analyses, we postulate that the Toms Canyon structure is an impact crater, formed when a cluster of relatively small meteorites approached the target site bearing ~N 50 E, and struck the sea floor obliquely.

Poag, C. W.; Poppe, L. J.

1998-01-01

206

Influence of Whole Barley and Grit on Live Performance and Health of Turkey Toms1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Live performance to 96 d was compared for 1,584 turkey toms reared on diets containing four levels of whole barley and two levels of insoluble grit (0 or 9 g\\/bird per wk). Nutrient specifications for all diets were similar. The six dietary treatments were 1) 0% whole barley plus grit, 2) Treatment 1 minus grit, 3) grit plus 5% whole

C. D. Bennett; H. L. Classen; K. Schwean; C. Riddell

207

Results from the TOM3 testbed: thermal deformation of optics at the picometer Level  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We have discussed the TOM3 testbed developed to assess the thermo-opto-mechanical stability of optical assembly such as SIM's siderostat and telescope in flight-like thermal conditions. Although limited by the metrology sensor noise, test results show that optical wavefront stability of SIM's optical assembly is compatible with single micro-arcsecond astrometry.

Goullioud, Renaud; Lindensmith, C. A.; Hahn, I.

2006-01-01

208

Commentary to "Multiple Grammars and Second Language Representation," by Luiz Amaral and Tom Roeper  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this commentary, the author defends the Multiple Grammars (MG) theory proposed by Luiz Amaral and Tom Roepe (A&R) in the present issue. Topics discussed include second language acquisition, the concept of developmental optionality, and the idea that structural decisions involve the lexical dimension. The author states that A&R's…

Pérez-Leroux, Ana T.

2014-01-01

209

Pioneer III Probe  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Looking more like surgeons, these technicians wearing 'cleanroom' attire inspect the Pioneer III probe before shipping it to Cape Canaveral, Florida. Pioneer III was launched on December 6, 1958 aboard a Juno II rocket at the Atlantic Missile Range, Cape Canaveral, Florida. The mission objectives were to measure the radiation intensity of the Van Allen radiation belt, test long range communication systems, the launch vehicle and other subsystems. The Juno II failed to reach proper orbital escape velocity. The probe re-entered the Earth's atmosphere on December 7th ending its brief mission.

1961-01-01

210

Determination of Radiative Forcing of Saharan Dust using Combined TOMS and ERBE Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The direct radiative forcing of Saharan dust aerosols has been determined by combining aerosol information derived from Nimbus-7 TOMS with radiation measurements observed at the top of atmosphere (TOA) by NOAA-9 ERBE made during February-July 1985. Cloud parameters and precipitable water derived from the NOAA-9 HIRS2 instrument were used to aid in screening for clouds and water vapor in the analyses. Our results indicate that under "cloud-free" and "dry" conditions there is a good correlation between the ERBE TOA outgoing longwave fluxes and the TOMS aerosol index measurements over both land and ocean in areas under the influence of airborne Saharan dust. The ERBE TOA outgoing shortwave fluxes were also found to correlate well with the dust loading derived from TOMS over ocean. However, the calculated shortwave forcing of Saharan dust aerosols is very weak and noisy over land for the range of solar zenith angle viewed by the NOAA-9 ERBE in 1985. Sensitivity factors of the TOA outgoing fluxes to changes in aerosol index were estimated using a linear regression fit to the ERBE and TOMS measurements. The ratio of the shortwave-to-longwave response to changes in dust loading over the ocean is found to be roughly 2 to 3, but opposite in sign. The monthly averaged "clear-sky" TOA direct forcing of airborne Saharan dust was also calculated by multiplying these sensitivity factors by the TOMS monthly averaged "clear-sky" aerosol index. Both the observational and theoretical analyses indicate that the dust layer height, ambient moisture content as well as the presence of cloud all play an important role in determining the TOA direct radiative forcing due to mineral aerosols.

Hsu, N. Christina; Herman, Jay R.; Weaver, Clark

1999-01-01

211

Late Eocene Star Wars: The Toms Canyon and Chesapeake Bay Impact Craters, U.S. East Coast  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two coeval(?) impacts produced craters on the middle late Eocene continental shelf of the United States at ~35 Ma. The smaller crater (1 5-20-km diameter) is buried beneath the New Jersey continental shelf, near Toms Canyon [1]; the larger crater (90-km diameter) lies beneath the floor of Chesapeake Bay, Virginia [2]. Both features are documented by seismic reflection profiles, bore-hole stratigraphy, and shock metamorphism. The Chesapeake Bay crater also is expressed by a distinctive bull's-eye gravity signature. The Toms Canyon crater exhibits atypical features attributable to an oblique impact into a water column 500-1000 m deep. Tektite-bearing sediment gravity flows, generated by the impact, have been cored 30 km southeast of the crater at Deep Sea Drilling Project Site 612 and Ocean Drilling Project Site 904 [3]. The Chesapeake Bay crater appears to be a typical peak-ring crater, as expressed on seismic profiles, but its gravity signature may indicate the presence of an irregular central peak, as well. Seismic profiles document the fault-bounded outer rim of the crater at four locations in the bay and two locations on the adjacent continental shelf, which constrains the position and geometry of two-thirds of the crater perimeter. Two seismic profiles show the presence of six secondary craters (1-5-km diameter) outside the crater rim. Depsite the large size of the Chesapeake Bay crater, there is no signal of global environmental distress or mass extinction associated with the impact. The postimpact strata immediately overlying the breccia lens, however, contain a record of local paleoenvironmental damage. A distinctive postimpact assemblage of agglutinated foraminifera is associated with a low-diversity, infaunal group of calcareous benthic foraminifera, plus abundant planktoninc foraminifera and radiolarians. This taphofacies reflects highly productive late Eocene surface waters (200-500 m deep), resulting in abundant organic matter and oxygen-poor conditions on the sea floor. Similar assemblages have been reported at some K-T boundary sites [4]. These primary and secondary craters are among the best preserved impact structures known on Earth and are relatively easily accessible to researchers. They should provide excellent future opportunities to improve our knowledge of both primary and secondary subaqueous craters and of the structural and sedimentological processes associated with their formation. References: [1] Poag C. W. and Poppe L. J. (1995) GSA Bull. [2] Poag C. W. et al. (1994) Geology, 22, 691-694. [3] Poag C. W. and Aubry M.-P. (1995) Palaios, 10, 1643. [4] Coccioni R. and Galeotti S. (1994) Geology, 22, 779-782.

Poag, C. W.

1995-09-01

212

Molecular Probes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Supported commercially by Molecular Probes, this site provides an overview of molecular probe technology as well as a searchable bibliography, a list of related literature, and an outstanding photo gallery with examples of probe applications. The Gallery contains 22 different categories, from Actin and Tubulin Probes to Yeast and Other Fungi Stains, with several images provided for each category. A help link provides tips on using some of the probes and stains, a list of FAQs, and a list of more general technical questions related to probe technology.

1998-01-01

213

Spectrophotometric probe  

DOEpatents

A support structure is described bearing at least one probe for making spectrophotometric measurements of a fluid using a source of light and a spectrophotometer. The probe includes a housing with two optical fibers and a planoconvex lens. A sleeve bearing a mirror surrounds the housing. The lens is separated from the mirror by a fixed distance, defining an interior space for receiving a volume of the fluid sample. A plurality of throughholes extending through the sleeve communicate between the sample volume and the exterior of the probe, all but one hole bearing a screen. A protective jacket surrounds the probe. A hollow conduit bearing a tube is formed in the wall of the probe for venting any air in the interior space when fluid enters. The probe is held at an acute angle so the optic fibers carrying the light to and from the probe are not bent severely on emergence from the probe. 3 figs.

Prather, W.S.; O'Rourke, P.E.

1994-08-02

214

Radiation belt probes launched  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Storms on Earth delayed by only a few days the launch of NASA's Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP), which blasted off on 30 August for a 2-year tour to explore the Van Allen radiation belts. The two satellites will help scientists learn about the processes that affect electrons and ions in the donut-shaped belts and how the belts change in the context of geomagnetic storms. “The information collected from these probes will benefit the public by allowing us to better protect our satellites and understand how space weather affects communications and technology on Earth,” said John Grunsfeld, associate administrator for NASA's Science Mission Directorate. Each probe carries an identical suite of instruments, including an Energetic Particle, Composition, and Thermal Plasma Suite; Electric and Magnetic Field Instrument Suite and Integrated Science; Electric Field and Waves Suite; Radiation Belt Storm Probes Ion Composition Experiment; and Relativistic Proton Spectrometer. RBSP is part of NASA's Living With a Star program and is managed for NASA by the Johns Hopkins University's Applied Physics Laboratory. For more information, see http://rbsp.jhuapl.edu.

Showstack, Randy

2012-09-01

215

Traffic dynamics in empirical probe vehicle data studied with three-phase theory: Spatiotemporal reconstruction of traffic phases and generation of jam warning messages  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Empirical and theoretical analyses of the spatiotemporal dynamics of traffic flow reconstructed from randomly distributed probe vehicle data are presented. For the empirical analysis, probe vehicle data generated by TomTom’s navigation devices in the commercial TomTom’s HD-traffic service as well as road detector data measured at the same road section are used. A stochastic microscopic (car-following) three-phase model is further developed for simulations of a real empirical complex spatiotemporal traffic dynamics measured over a three-lane long road stretch with several different bottlenecks. Physical features and limitations of simulations of real spatiotemporal traffic dynamics are revealed. Phase transition points between free flow (F), synchronized flow (S), and wide moving jam (J) are identified along trajectories of empirical and simulated probe vehicles randomly distributed in traffic flow. As predicted by three-phase theory, the empirical probe vehicle data shows that traffic breakdown is an F?S transition and wide moving jams emerge only in synchronized flow, i.e., due to S?J transitions. Through the use of the simulations, it has been found that already about 2% of probe vehicle data allows us to reconstruct traffic dynamics in space and time with an accuracy that is high enough for most applications like the generation of jam warning messages studied in the article.

Kerner, Boris S.; Rehborn, Hubert; Schäfer, Ralf-Peter; Klenov, Sergey L.; Palmer, Jochen; Lorkowski, Stefan; Witte, Nikolaus

2013-01-01

216

Clinical Evaluation of the Gen-Probe Amplified Direct Test for Detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex Organisms in Cerebrospinal Fluid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eighty-four cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from different children who presented with signs and symp- toms of meningitis were evaluated for the presence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex organisms by the Gen- Probe Amplified Mycobacterium tuberculosis Direct Test (MTD; Gen-Probe, San Diego, Calif.). All CSF samples had negative acid-fast smears by the Ziehl-Neelsen staining method. M. tuberculosis was recovered from five samples.

ANNE M. LANG; JESUS FERIS-IGLESIAS; CHABELA PENA; JACQUELINE F. SANCHEZ; LESLIE STOCKMAN; PAUL RYS; GLENN D. ROBERTS; NANCY K. HENRY; DAVID H. PERSING; FRANKLIN R. COCKERILL; Robert Reid

1998-01-01

217

Lower-stratospheric/upper-tropospheric exchange processes associated with tropical cyclones as observed by TOMS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Total ozone associated with western Atlantic and Pacific tropical cyclones at various stages of development were analyzed for the purpose of monitoring storm intensity and/or intensity changes. The analysis is based on total ozone measurements from the Nimbus 7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS). Since ozone may be considered a passive tracer in the lower stratosphere and the ozone gradients are strongest just above the tropopause, fluctuations of total ozone are due to variations in tropopause height and/or changes in concentration within the column caused by vertical and horizontal advection. In the subtropical northern Pacific during August and September 1981, a negative correlation greater than 0.60 was found between upper-tropospheric geopotential heights near the tropopause level and total ozone. Preliminary results suggest that TOMS can be used to resolve the upper-troposphere structure in and around tropical cyclones and can provide an indication of those processes that help to intensify and maintain these storms.

Rodgers, Edward B.

1987-01-01

218

Nimbus-7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) Antarctic ozone atlas: August through November 1991  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Because of the great environmental significance of stratospheric ozone, and to support continuing research at the Antarctic Southern Hemisphere stations, the development of the 1991 ozone hole was monitored using data from the Nimbus-7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) instrument, produced in near-real-time. This atlas provides a complete set of daily polar orthographic projections of the TOMS total ozone measurements over the Southern Hemisphere for the period August 1 through November 30, 1991. The 1991 ozone hole developed in a manner similar to that of the 1987, 1989, and 1990 holes, reaching a comparable depth in early October. However, the 1991 ozone hole filled far more rapidly than in 1987 or 1989, and nearly 4 weeks earlier than in 1990.

Krueger, Arlin J.; Penn, Lanning M.; Scott, Courtney J.; Larko, David E.

1992-01-01

219

Comparison of TOMS and AVHRR volcanic ssh retrievals from the August 1992 eruption of Mt. Spurr  

USGS Publications Warehouse

On August 19, 1992, the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) onboard NOAA-12 and NASA's Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) onboard the Nimbus-7 satellite simultaneously detected and mapped the ash cloud from the eruption of Mt. Spurr, Alaska. The spatial extent and geometry of the cloud derived from the two datasets are in good agreement and both AVHRR split window IR (11-12??m brightness temperature difference) and the TOMS UV Aerosol Index (0.34-0.38??m ultraviolet backscattering and absorption) methods give the same range of total cloud ash mass. Redundant methods for determination of ash masses in drifting volcanic clouds offer many advantages for potential application to the mitigation of aircraft hazards.

Krotkov, N. A.; Torres, O.; Seftor, C.; Krueger, A. J.; Kostinski, A.; Rose, W. I.; Bluth, G. J. S.; Schneider, D.; Schaefer, S. J.

1999-01-01

220

Theory of mind broad and narrow: Reasoning about social exchange engages ToM areas, precautionary reasoning does not  

Microsoft Academic Search

Baron-Cohen (1995) proposed that the theory of mind (ToM) inference system evolved to promote strategic social interaction. Social exchange—a form of co-operation for mutual benefit—involves strategic social interaction and requires ToM inferences about the contents of other individuals’ mental states, especially their desires, goals, and intentions. There are behavioral and neuropsychological dissociations between reasoning about social exchange and reasoning about

Elsa Ermer; Scott A. Guerin; Leda Cosmides; John Tooby; Michael B. Miller

2006-01-01

221

Environmental Characterization of Global Sources of Atmospheric Soil Dust Identified with the NIMBUS7 TOMS Absorbing Aerosol Product  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) sensor provides information on the global distribution of absorbing aerosol, i.e., mineral dust and smoke. We use the TOMS absorbing aerosol data obtained on the NIMBUS-7 satellite over the period 1980-1992 to map the global distribution of major atmospheric dust sources with the goal of identifying common environmental characteristics. The largest and most persistent

O. Torres; J. M. Prospero; P. Ginoux; S. E. Nicholson; T. E. Gill

2001-01-01

222

Satellite Detection of Smoke Aerosols Over a Snow/Ice Surface by TOMS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) satellite data demonstrates the recently developed technique of using satellite UV radiance measurements to detect absorbing tropospheric aerosols is effective over snow/ice surfaces. Instead of the traditional single wavelength (visible or infrared) method of measuring tropospheric aerosols, this method takes advantage of the wavelength dependent reduction in the backscattered radiance due to the presence of absorbing aerosols over snow/ice surfaces. An example of the resulting aerosol distribution derived from TOMS data is shown for an August 1998 event in which smoke generated by Canadian forest fires drifts over and across Greenland. As the smoke plume moved over Greenland, the TOMS observed 380 nm reflectivity over the snow/ice surface dropped drastically from 90-100% down to 30-40%. To study the effects of this smoke plume in both the UV and visible regions of the spectrum, we compared a smoke-laden spectrum taken over Greenland by the high spectral resolution (300 to 800 nm) GOME instrument with one that is aerosol-free. We also discuss the results of modeling the darkening effects of various types of absorbing aerosols over snow/ice surfaces using a radiative transfer code. Finally, we investigated the history of such events by looking at the nearly twenty year record of TOMS aerosol index measurements and found that there is a large interannual variability in the amount of smoke aerosols observed over Greenland. This information will be available for studies of radiation and transport properties in the Arctic.

Hsu, N. Christina; Herman, Jay R.; Gleason, J. F.; Torres, O.; Seftor, C. J.

1998-01-01

223

Cloning and mutagenesis of nodulation genes from Rhizobium leguminosarum TOM, a strain with extended host range  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some primitive pea lines, e.g. cultivar Afghanistan, are resistant to nodulation by most strains of Rhizobium leguminosarum. However the Turkish strain TOM can nodulate cv. Afghanistan in addition to commercial pea varieties, and this extended host range is a property of its symbiotic plasmid, pRL5JI. A gene bank was constructed using DNA from a strain of R. leguminosarum containing pRL5JI.

G. Hombrecher; R. Götz; N. J. Dibb; J. A. Downie; A. W. B. Johnston; N. J. Brewin

1984-01-01

224

Global distribution of UV-absorbing aerosols from Nimbus 7\\/TOMS data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global distributions of UV-absorbing aerosols are obtained using measured differences between the 340 and the 380 nm radiances from the Nimbus 7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) for the years 1979-1993. Time series are shown for major sources of biomass burning and desert dust giving the frequency of occurrence and areal coverage over land and oceans. Minor sources of UV-absorbing

J. R. Herman; P. K. Bhartia; O. Torres; C. Hsu; C. Seftor; E. Celarier

1997-01-01

225

Spatiotemporal variability of total column ozone derived from TOMS using rotated principal component analysis  

SciTech Connect

This study analyzes these natural variations (across all spatial and temporal scales) through the application of rotated Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to the total column ozone data derived from Version 6.0 TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) for the period 1984-1989. Utilization of Kaiser`s varimax orthogonal rotation allowed delineation of eleven homogeneous subregions that together accounted for 74.08% of the total variance.

LeDuc, S.K.; Eder, B.K.; Truppi, L.

1996-06-01

226

Global distribution of the residual ozonosphere field based on TOMS satellite data 1979–1992  

Microsoft Academic Search

The residual ozone field (ROF), i.e., the global distribution of the total ozone content (TOC) after subtracting the contribution of calm solar energy, was constructed. Only the experimental Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) Nimbus 7 data (1978?1993) were used in [1, 2]. In order to suppress temporal variations, the daily TOC values were first averaged over a 1-yr period for

R. S. Steblova

2007-01-01

227

Total Ozone from the Ozone Monitoring System (OMI) using TOMS and DOAS Methods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) is the Dutch-Finnish contribution to NASA's EOS-Aura satellite scheduled for launch in January 2004. OMI is an imaging spectrometer that will measure the back-scattered Solar radiance in the wavelength range of 270 to 500 nm. The instrument provides near global coverage in one day with a spatial resolution of 13x24 square kilometers. OMI is a new instrument, with a heritage from TOMS, SBW, GOME, GOMOS and SCIAMACHY. OMI'S unique capabilities for measuring important trace gases and aerosols with a small footprint and daily global coverage, in conjunction with the other Aura instruments, will make a major contribution to our understanding of stratospheric and tropospheric chemistry and climate change. OMI will provide data continuity with the 23-year ozone record of TOMS. There are three ozone products planned for OMI: total column ozone, ozone profile and tropospheric column ozone. We are developing two different algorithms for total column ozone: one similar to the algorithm currently being used to process the TOMS data, and the other an improved version of the differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) method, which has been applied to GOME and SCIAMACHY data. The main reasons for starting with two algorithms for total ozone have to do with heritage and past experience; our long-term goal is to combine the two to develop a more accurate and reliable total ozone product for OMI. We will compare the performance of these two algorithms by applying both of them to the GOME data. We will examine where and how the results differ, and use the extensive TOMS-Dobson comparison studies to assess the performance of the DOAS algorithm.

Veefkind, J. P.; Bhartia, P. K.; Gleason, J.; deHaan, J. F.; Wellemeyer, C.; Levelt, P. F.

2003-01-01

228

Analysis of the breakdown of the Antarctic circumpolar vortex using TOMS ozone data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Climatological analysis of data from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) on the Nimbus 7 satellite has shown that the annual cycles of ozone are very different in the Arctic and Antarctic. The annual cycle in the Arctic is a relatively smooth annual sine wave; but in the Antarctic the circumpolar vortex breaks down rapidly during the Southern Hemisphere spring (September through November), producing a rapid rise in total ozone and a sawtooth-shaped annual cycle. The evolution of the Antarctic total ozone field during the vortex breakdown was studied by computing areally-integrated ozone amounts from the TOMS data. This technique avoids substantial difficulties with using zonally-averaged ozone amounts to study the asymmetric breakdown phenomenon. Variability of total ozone is found to be large both within an individual year and between different years. During the last decade monthly-mean total ozone values in the Antarctic during the springtime vortex breakdown period have decreased dramatically. The ozone-area statistics indicate that the decrease has resulted in part from changes in the timing of the vortex breakdown and resultant ozone increase, which have occurred later during recent years. Analysis of the spatial scales involved in the ozone transport and mixing that occur during the vortex breakdown is now underway. Reliable calculation of diagnostic quantities like areally-integrated ozone is possible only with the high-resolution, two-dimensional, daily coverage provided by the TOMS instrument.

Bowman, Kenneth P.

1987-01-01

229

Near-real-time TOMS, telecommunications and meteorological support for the 1987 Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The goal of the 1987 Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment was to improve the understanding of the mechanisms involved in the formation of the Antarctic ozone hole. Total ozone data taken by the Nimbus-7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) played a central role in the successful outcome of the experiment. During the experiment, the near-real-time TOMS total ozone observations were supplied within hours of real time to the operations center in Punta Arenas, Chile. The final report summarizes the role which Research and Data Systems (RDS) Corporation played in the support of the experiment. The RDS provided telecommunications to support the science and operations efforts for the Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment, and supplied near real-time weather information to ensure flight and crew safety; designed and installed the telecommunications network to link NASA-GSFC, the United Kingdom Meteorological Office (UKMO), Palmer Station, the European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) to the operation at Punta Arenas; engineered and installed stations and other stand-alone systems to collect data from designated low-orbiting polar satellites and beacons; provided analyses of Nimbus-7 TOMS data and backup data products to Punta Arenas; and provided synoptic meteorological data analysis and reduction.

Ardanuy, P.; Victorine, J.; Sechrist, F.; Feiner, A.; Penn, L.

1988-01-01

230

Optical Tracking of Deep-Space Probes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Specular reflection of sunlight from plane mirror surfaces on deep-space probes is sufficiently bright to be detected with large telescopes on Earth. The optical requirements for the reflector surface and the pointing requirements for its orientation are ...

H. B. Liemohn

1968-01-01

231

Probing the Proteome on Earth and Beyond  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Less than a decade ago, protein sequencing was the bane of paleobiology. Since that time researchers have completely sequenced proteins in >50 Ka fossils, been dazzled by reports of collagen peptides in dinosaur bones, and witnessed the development of phylogenetic trees from ancient protein sequences. Enlisting proteomics as biosignature is now in our grasp. In this talk the pitfalls and challenges of mass spectrometric approaches to protein sequencing will be illustrated and phylogenetic applications will be discussed. Work on extinct organisms at Michigan State University, University of Michigan and York University will provide a vantage point to assess methodologies, explore diagenetic alterations, evaluate mass spectra and illustrate issues associated with data base searching. Challenges encountered in the study of paleoproteomics, such as the absence of sequences for extinct organisms in commercially available databases, protein diagenesis and low concentrations of target are parallel to those that will be encountered when protein sequencing is extended to extreme and extraterrestrial environments. Thus, lessons learned from interrogating the ancient proteome are important and necessary step in developing proteomics as a biosignature tools.

Ostrom, P.

2008-12-01

232

Investigations of Desert Dust and Smoke in the North Atlantic in Support of the TOMS Instrument  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the initial period of the work we concentrated on Saharan dust storms and published a sequence of papers (Colarco et a1 2002,2003a,b, Toon, 2004). The U.S. Air Force liked the dust model so well that they appropriated it for operational dust storm forecasting (Barnum et al., 2004). The Air Force has used it for about 5 yrs in the Middle East where dust storms cause significant operational problems. The student working on this project, Peter Colarco, has graduated and is now a civil servant at Goddard where he continues to interact with the TOMS team. This work helped constrain the optical properties of dust at TOMS wavelengths, which is useful for climate simulations and for TOMS retrievals of dust properties such as optical depth. We also used TOMS data to constrain the sources of dust in Africa and the Middle East, to determine the actual paths taken by Saharan dust storms, to learn more about the mechanics of variations in the optical depths, and to learn more about the mechanisms controlling the altitudes of the dust. During the last two years we have been working on smoke from fires. Black carbon aerosols are one of the leading factors in radiative forcing. The US Climate Change Science Program calls this area out for specific study. It has been suggested by Jim Hansen, and Mark Jacobsen among others, that by controlling emissions of black carbon we might reduce greenhouse radiative forcing in a relatively painless manner. However, we need a greatly improved understanding of the amount of black carbon in the atmosphere, where it is located, where it comes from, how it is mixed with other particles, what its actual optical properties are, and how it evolves. In order to learn about these issues we are using a numerical model of smoke. We have applied this model to the SAFARI field program data, and used the TOMS satellite observations in that period (Sept. 2000). Our goal is to constrain source function estimates for black carbon, and smoke optical properties.

Toon, Owen B.

2005-01-01

233

Earth's Seasons  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A computer animation on the reason for the seasons. Voice-over describes the motion of Earth around the sun to show how the sun's light impacts the tilted Earth at different times of the year, causing seasonal changes.

Rochester Museum And Science Center, Strasenburgh P.

234

Earth Flow  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Flash animation with accompanying audio exhibits the different stages involved in the formation of an earth flow. A step-like scarp forms along with a flowage zone at the toe of the earth flow. The sequence concludes with the stabilization of the earth flow with vegetation. Expect long loading times.

Wiley

235

Edible Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners make a model of the solid Earth's layers that's good enough to eat! Learners use tasty foodstuffs to simulate Earth's inner core, outer core, mantle, and crust. The recipe includes ingredients for one edible Earth, but can be doubled or tripled to accommodate groups of learners. This activity requires adult supervision.

History, American M.

2011-08-20

236

Earth's Layers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Complete a poster all about Earth's Layers! Directions: Make a poster about Earth's Layers. (20 points) Include at least (1) large picture (15 points) on your poster complete with labels of every part (10 points). (15 points) Include at least three (3) facts about Earth's Layers. (5 points each) (15 points) Write at least a three sentence summary of your poster ...

Walls, Mrs.

2011-01-30

237

Snowball Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Audio program from the University of Wisconsin's Earthwatch Radio discusses the notion of the entire planet covered with ice. Doug Macdougall is an earth scientist at the University of California-San Diego and author of a new book called "Frozen Earth." He says the planet-wide freeze is known as "Snowball Earth."

238

Modeling the Dielectric Constant of Earth-Formation Rocks: A Sandstone Memory of Immiscible-Saturation History.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Electromagnetic (EM) probings of the earth are contributing to the economic exploration and production of geoenergy resources (e.g., gas, oil and geothermal reservoirs). There are two analytical effects included in one type of EM probing: First, the earth...

J. S. Yu

1981-01-01

239

Current to a moving cylindrical electrostatic probe  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The current collection characteristics of a moving cylindrical Langmuir probe are evaluated for a range of probe speeds and potentials which are applicable to earth and planetary measurements. The current expressions derived include the cases of the general accelerated current, sheath area limited current, orbital motion limited current, and retarded current. For the orbital motion limited current, a simple algebraic expression is obtained which includes and generalizes the Mott-Smith and Langmuir expressions for both a stationary probe and a rapidly moving probe. For a rapidly moving probe a single formula adequately represents both the accelerated and the retarded current.

Hoegy, W. R.; Wharton, L. E.

1972-01-01

240

Orbiting Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Flash animation contrasts the geostationary versus polar orbits for satellites. For a geostationary orbit, the satellite remains directly above a fixed point at all times; in time with the Earth's rotation, the satellite circles the earth once every 24 hours, continually viewing the same part of Earth. For the polar orbit, the satellite circles over both poles in a constant plane while earth rotates beneath. Earth's rotation exposes different parts of the surface on each orbit. The animation is useful for a discussion on how remote sensing imagery and Global Positioning Systems (GPS) signals are derived. The animation can be paused and rewound to stress important points.

Loomis, Jennifer; Nasa; Earth, Exploring

241

Samara Probe For Remote Imaging  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Imaging probe descends through atmosphere of planet, obtaining images of ground surface as it travels. Released from aircraft over Earth or from spacecraft over another planet. Body and single wing shaped like samara - winged seed like those of maple trees. Rotates as descends, providing panoramic view of terrain below. Radio image obtained by video camera to aircraft or spacecraft overhead.

Burke, James D.

1989-01-01

242

Tropospheric Ozone Pollution Transport Traced from the TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) Instrument During the Nashville-1999 Campaign  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Over the past several years, we have developed two new tropospheric ozone retrievals from the TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) satellite instrument that are of sufficient resolution to follow pollution episodes. The modified-residual technique [Hudson and Thompson, 1998; Thompson and Hudson, 1999] uses v. 7 TOMS total ozone and is applicable to tropical regimes in which the wave-one pattern in total ozone is observed. The TOMS-direct method [("TDOT" = TOMS Direct Ozone in the Troposphere; Frolov et al., 2000] represents a new algorithm that uses TOMS radiances directly (i.e., not previously processed for TOMS ozone) to extract tropospheric ozone in regions of constant stratospheric ozone and tropospheric ozone displaying high mixing ratios and variability characteristic of pollution. These events tend to occur in certain meteorological regimes. For example, mid-latitude pollution usually occurs on the backside of subtropical fronts, as low pv, usually moist air intrudes to the extra-tropics. July 1999 was a month characterized by robust pollution in the eastern US, with high ozone, as detected by TOMS, originating over south central states and moving up the Atlantic seaboard. This corresponds to 50-80 DU in tropospheric ozone column depth. In most cases, further transport occurred to the North Atlantic, with ozone plumes traveling to western Europe in 4-5 days. Examples of high ozone and transit across boundaries within the US, as well as US->Europe, give a regional context for model results and field measurements taken in the SE US during the Nashville-1999 campaign period. Validation of the TDOT maps is made with ozonesondes taken during that time. TDOT maps also show ozone pollution from Asia traveling to the western US in July 1999.

Thompson, Anne M.; Frolov, A. D.; Hudson, R. D.; Witte, J. C.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

243

Discover Earth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Discover Earth is a NASA-sponsored project for teachers of grades 5-12, designed to: (1) enhance understanding of the Earth as an integrated system; (2) enhance the interdisciplinary approach to science instruction; and (3) provide classroom materials that focus on those goals. Discover Earth is conducted by the Institute for Global Environmental Strategies in collaboration with Dr. Eric Barron, Director, Earth System Science Center, The Pennsylvania State University; and Dr. Robert Hudson, Chair, the Department of Meteorology, University of Maryland at College Park. The enclosed materials: (1) represent only part of the Discover Earth materials; (2) were developed by classroom teachers who are participating in the Discover Earth project; (3) utilize an investigative approach and on-line data; and (4) can be effectively adjusted to classrooms with greater/without technology access. The Discover Earth classroom materials focus on the Earth system and key issues of global climate change including topics such as the greenhouse effect, clouds and Earth's radiation balance, surface hydrology and land cover, and volcanoes and climate change. All the materials developed to date are available on line at (http://www.strategies.org) You are encouraged to submit comments and recommendations about these materials to the Discover Earth project manager, contact information is listed below. You are welcome to duplicate all these materials.

Steele, Colleen

1998-01-01

244

A re-evaluation of the 1991 Pinatubo SO{2} emission using TOMS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Explosive volcanic eruptions influence the atmosphere and environment from days to years depending on the amount of sulfur species and ash erupted. Large volcanic eruptions, such as Pinatubo, have much stronger effects on the atmospheric chemistry and global climate change since huge amounts of SO{2} are directly erupted into the stratosphere. The June 1991 Pinatubo eruption is the largest eruption of the satellite era, and accurate retrievals of emitted sulfur and ash species are therefore crucial in understanding its atmospheric impacts. The Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) is routinely used to map and quantify SO{2} for volcanic eruptions. Column amounts of SO{2} and aerosol indices (AI, which represents the ash and aerosol amount qualitatively) for each pixel can be retrieved and then a total mass of SO{2} within the volcanic cloud can be calculated. The SO{2} cloud from the Pinatubo eruption has been studied by Bluth et al. (GRL, Vol. 19, No. 2, 1992). Uncertainties from missing data, saturation, gaps and overlap between neighboring pixels may bring errors in the estimation of initially erupted SO{2} amounts and SO{2} removal rate. An iterative SO{2} algorithm, which was developed by scientists from NASA, is used for getting a more accurate result of total column SO{2} in each pixel. The gap and overlap problem of neighboring pixels is addressed by resampling the data into grids using a nearest neighbor method. Missing data problems in the TOMS datasets due to periodic transmission interruptions are treated by a variety of interpolation models. We have been analyzing the accuracy of a variety of reconstruction methods. The goals of this project include revised tonnage values for daily cloud images; this information will be used to derive a more accurate emitted sulfur dioxide mass and removal rate. Studies of gas and particle separation in the TOMS UV dataset will be supplemented by and compared to IR data analyses.

Guo, S.; Bluth, G. J.; Watson, I. M.; Rose, W. I.

2001-12-01

245

An assessment of the long-term drift in TOMS total ozone data, based on comparison with the Dobson network  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Seven years of total ozone data derived from the TOMS instrument on Nimbus-7 are compared with results from 41 Dobson stations. In this study, a significant improvement in fit from previous studies is obtained using a model which assumes a change in the rate of drift between TOMS and Dobson around the middle of 1982. Results indicate that the TOMS measurements have drifted relative to the Dobson stations with a two-part linear trend of -0.25 + or - 0.17 percent per year during the period from launch to 6/30/82, and -0.51 + or - 0.21 percent per year during 7/1/82 - 10/31/85. The causes of this drift cannot be definitively separated between residual uncorrected drift in the TOMS instrument (a similar drift is apparent in the SBUV-Dobson comparisons), limited sensitivity of the TOMS to increases in tropospheric ozone, and the effect of local increases in pollution levels on individual Dobson stations.

Fleig, Albert J.; Silberstein, David S.; Wellemeyer, Charles G.; Cebula, Richard P.; Bhartia, Pawan K.

1988-01-01

246

Searching for Frozen Super Earth via Microlensing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microlensing planet hunt is a unique method to probe efficiently for frozen Super Earth orbiting the most common stars of our galaxy. It is nicely complementing the parameter space probed by very high accuracy radial velocity measurements and future space based detections of low mass transiting planets. In order to maximize the planet catch, the microlensing community is engaged in

V. Batista; J. P. Beaulieu; A. Cassan; C. Coutures; J. Donatowicz; P. Fouqué; D. Kubas; J. B. Marquette

2009-01-01

247

Searching for Frozen Super Earth via Microlensing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microlensing planet hunt is a unique method to probe efficiently for frozen Super Earth orbiting the most common stars of our galaxy. It is nicely complementing the parameter space probed by very high accuracy radial velocity measurements and future space based detections of low mass transiting planets. In order to maximize the planet catch, the microlensing community is engaged in

J. P. Beaulieu; V. Batista; A. Cassan; C. Coutures; J. Donatowicz; P. Fouqué; D. Kubas; J. B. Marquette

2008-01-01

248

Subsurface Ice Probe  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The subsurface ice probe (SIPR) is a proposed apparatus that would bore into ice to depths as great as hundreds of meters by melting the ice and pumping the samples of meltwater to the surface. Originally intended for use in exploration of subsurface ice on Mars and other remote planets, the SIPR could also be used on Earth as an alternative to coring, drilling, and melting apparatuses heretofore used to sample Arctic and Antarctic ice sheets. The SIPR would include an assembly of instrumentation and electronic control equipment at the surface, connected via a tether to a compact assembly of boring, sampling, and sensor equipment in the borehole (see figure). Placing as much equipment as possible at the surface would help to attain primary objectives of minimizing power consumption, sampling with high depth resolution, and unobstructed imaging of the borehole wall. To the degree to which these requirements would be satisfied, the SIPR would offer advantages over the aforementioned ice-probing systems.

Hecht, Michael; Carsey, Frank

2005-01-01

249

Dynamic Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Dynamic Earth consists of four sections and an assessment. Each section explores one aspect of the earth's structure and the movement of its tectonic plates. Simply follow the instructions on the screen to learn about the layers that make up the earth; how the continents arrived at their current locations; the constant movement of the tectonic plates; and the volcanoes, earthquakes, and other events that result from the movements of the plates. Students will view animations, read explanations, and use their mouse to drag and drop the earth's continents in their correct places, highlight features on a map, and cause earth's tectonic plates to move. At various points, students will check their knowledge by taking a quick quiz or playing a game to see how much they have learned about the Dynamic Earth. Students should read section introductions carefully, as they give a basic overview of concepts, and use the Glossary to look up definitions to unfamiliar terms.

Quinn, Ashlinn

2007-01-01

250

Toms Creek integrated gasification combined cycle demonstration project. Quarterly report, April 1--June 30, 1993  

SciTech Connect

The quarterly technical progress report for the period ending June 30, 1993, summarizes the work done to date by Tampella Power Corporation and Enviropower, Inc. Enviropower Inc.`s efforts were concentrated on the Toms Creek PDS (Preliminary Design and Studies). Tampella Power Corporation`s efforts were concentrated on site specific heat and material balances to provide the basis for evaluating alternate locations for the Project. Enviropower, Inc. is nearing completion of the PDS (Preliminary Design and Studies). The status of the design of the equipment for the Gasifier Island, not covered in the previous technical progress report, is given.

Feher, G.; Schmid, M.

1993-09-01

251

Comparisons between TOMS, TOVS and DOBSON observations - Satellite and surface views of total column ozone  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The reliability of the ozone retrievals by the TIROS-N Operational Vertical Sounder (TOVS) calculated with the newly developed physical algorithm is investigated by comparing the quality of the TOVS total ozone soundings to the corresponding values obtained by the Nimbus-7 TOMS and by the ground-based DOBSON network. The three-way comparison concentrates on observations during the last 4 months of 1987, the period of the great Antarctic 'ozone hole'. It is shown that each instrument has characteristic strengths and weaknesses, and that each of the three systems makes serious errors under some conditions.

Chesters, Dennis; Neuendorffer, Arthur

1990-01-01

252

Nuclear magnetic resonance in rare earth metals  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes the study, by nuclear magnetic resonance, of both static and dynamical aspects of the hyperfine interaction in rare earth metals, and illustrates the categories of information that can be obtained by using nuclei as microscopic probes in metallic media. The systems discussed include not only the pure rare earth metals but also their alloys and their metallic

M. A. H. McCausland; I. S. Mackenzie

1979-01-01

253

Earth Floor  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Classroom of the Future (COTF) website highlights information about the Earth and its development through time. Spheres discusses layers of the Earth's environment such as the hydrosphere, Cycles discusses rock and water cycles, and Diversity illustrates different species and genetic variations that have emerged on Earth. Also covered are biomes, adaptation, geologic time, and plate tectonics. Each of these sections is an in-depth tutorial on these specific topics.

254

Visible Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

NASA's Visible Earth is a searchable directory of images, visualizations, and animations of the Earth. The images are also listed under the following categories: agriculture, atmosphere, biosphere, cryosphere, human dimensions, hydrosphere, land surface, oceans, radiance or imagery, solid earth, locations, and satellites. Accompanying each image are credits, data about the image, the satellite it was taken from, a description of what is shown, and a high-resolution viewable image.

255

Dynamic Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Dynamic Earth is an interactive Web site where students can learn about the structure of the Earth, the movements of tectonic plates, and the forces that create mountains, valleys, volcanoes, and earthquakes. It consists of four sections, a glossary and an assessment. Each section explores one aspect of the Earth's structure and the movement of its tectonic plates. At various points of the interactive, students can check their knowledge by taking a quick quiz or playing a game to see how much they have learned. Dynamic Earth includes an extensive assessment section designed to evaluate how well students have learned the content and skills.

256

Optical probe  

DOEpatents

A compact optical probe is disclosed particularly useful for analysis of emissions in industrial environments. The instant invention provides a geometry for optically-based measurements that allows all optical components (source, detector, rely optics, etc.) to be located in proximity to one another. The geometry of the probe disclosed herein provides a means for making optical measurements in environments where it is difficult and/or expensive to gain access to the vicinity of a flow stream to be measured. Significantly, the lens geometry of the optical probe allows the analysis location within a flow stream being monitored to be moved while maintaining optical alignment of all components even when the optical probe is focused on a plurality of different analysis points within the flow stream.

Hencken, Kenneth (Pleasanton, CA); Flower, William L. (Livermore, CA)

1999-01-01

257

Technical Note: Adjoint formulation of the TOMCAT atmospheric transport scheme in the Eulerian backtracking framework (RETRO-TOM)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new methodology for the formulation of an adjoint to the transport component of the chemistry transport model TOMCAT is described and implemented in a new model RETRO-TOM. The Eulerian backtracking method is used, allowing the forward advection scheme (Prather's second-order moments), to be efficiently exploited in the backward adjoint calculations. Prather's scheme is shown to be time-symmetric suggesting the possibility of high accuracy. To attain this accuracy, however, it is necessary to make a careful treatment of the "density inconsistency" problem inherent to offline transport models. The results are verified using a series of test experiments. These demonstrate the high accuracy of RETRO-TOM when compared with direct forward sensitivity calculations, at least for problems in which flux-limiters in the advection scheme are not required. RETRO-TOM therefore combines the flexibility and stability of a "finite difference of adjoint" formulation with the accuracy of an "adjoint of finite difference" formulation.

Haines, P. E.; Esler, J. G.; Carver, G. D.

2014-01-01

258

Technical Note: Adjoint formulation of the TOMCAT atmospheric transport scheme in the Eulerian backtracking framework (RETRO-TOM)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new methodology for the formulation of an adjoint to the transport component of the chemistry transport model TOMCAT is described and implemented in a new model, RETRO-TOM. The Eulerian backtracking method is used, allowing the forward advection scheme (Prather's second-order moments) to be efficiently exploited in the backward adjoint calculations. Prather's scheme is shown to be time symmetric, suggesting the possibility of high accuracy. To attain this accuracy, however, it is necessary to make a careful treatment of the "density inconsistency" problem inherent to offline transport models. The results are verified using a series of test experiments. These demonstrate the high accuracy of RETRO-TOM when compared with direct forward sensitivity calculations, at least for problems in which flux limiters in the advection scheme are not required. RETRO-TOM therefore combines the flexibility and stability of a "finite difference of adjoint" formulation with the accuracy of an "adjoint of finite difference" formulation.

Haines, P. E.; Esler, J. G.; Carver, G. D.

2014-06-01

259

Accuracy Assessments and Validation of an Expanded UV Irradiance Database from Satellite Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The TOMS UV irradiance database (1978 to 2000) has been expanded to include 5 new products (noon irradiance at 305, 310, 324, and 380 nm, and noon erythemal-weighted irradiance), in addition to the existing erythemal daily exposure, which permit direct Comparisons with ground-based measurements from UV spectrometers. Sensitivity studies are conducted to estimate uncertainties of the new TOMS UV irradiance data due to algorithm apriori assumptions. Comparisons with Brewer spectrometers as well as filter radiometers are used to review of the sources of known errors. Inability to distinguish between snow and cloud cover using only TOMS data results in large errors in estimating surface UV using snow climatology. A correction is suggested for the case when the regional snow albedo is known from an independent source. The summer-time positive bias between TOMS UV estimations and Brewer measurements can be seen at all wavelengths. This suggests the difference is not related to ozone absorption effects. We emphasize that uncertainty of boundary layer UV aerosol absorption properties remains a major source of error in modeling UV irradiance in clear sky conditions. Neglecting aerosol absorption by the present TOMS algorithm results in a positive summertime bias in clear-sky UV estimations over many locations. Due to high aerosol variability the bias is strongly site dependent. Data from UV-shadow-band radiometer and well-calibrated CIMEL sun-sky radiometer are used to quantify the bias at NASA/GSFC site in Greenbelt, MD. Recommendations are given to enable potential users to better account for local conditions by combining standard TOMS UV data with ancillary ground measurements.

Krotkov, N. A.; Herman, J.; Fioletov, V.; Seftor, C.; Larko, D.; Vasilkov, A.

2004-01-01

260

Earth Impact  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity poses the question: What would happen if a meteor or comet impacted Earth? Students simulate an impact in a container of sand using various-sized rocks, all while measuring, recording and graphing results and conclusions. Then students brainstorm ways to prevent an object from hitting the Earth.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

261

Earth tides  

SciTech Connect

Nineteen papers on gravity, tilt, and strain tides are compiled into this volume. Detailed chapters cover the calculation of the tidal forces and of the Earth's response to them, as well as actual observations of earth tides. Partial Contents: On Earth tides. The tidal forces: Tidal Forces. New Computations of the Tide-Generating Potential. Corrected Tables of Tidal Harmonics. The Theory of Tidal Deformations. Body Tides on an Elliptical, Rotating, Elastic and Oceanless Earth, Deformation of the Earth by Surface Loads. Gravimetric Tidal Loading Computed from Integrated Green's Functions. Tidal Friction in the Solid Earth. Loading Tides Versus Body Tides. Lunar Tidal Acceleration from Earth Satellite Orbit Analysis. Observations: gravity. Tidal Gravity in Britain: Tidal Loading and the Spatial Distribution of the Marine Tide. Tidal Loading along a Profile Europe-East Africa-South Asia-Australia and the Pacific Ocean. Detailed Gravity-Tide Spectrum between One and Four Cycles per Day. Observations: tilt and strain. Cavity and Topographic Effects in Tilt and Strain Measurement. Observations of Local Elastic Effects on Earth Tide Tilts and Strains.

Harrison, J.C.

1984-01-01

262

Earth meandering  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we try to put away current Global Tectonic Model to look the tectonic evolution of the earth from new point of view. Our new dynamic model is based on study of river meandering (RM) which infer new concept as Earth meandering(EM). In a universal gravitational field if we consider a clockwise spiral galaxy model rotate above Ninety

H. Asadiyan; A. Zamani

2009-01-01

263

Earth tides  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main geometrical characteristics and mechanical properties of bodily tides are described, using the convenient elastic parameters of Love. The problem of the Earth's deformation is a problem of spherical elasticity of the sixth order. The importance of Earth tides in astronomy and geophysics is emphasized by their relation to the precession-nutation and tesseral tidal problems, the secular retardation of

Paul Melchior

1974-01-01

264

Spectral analyses, climatology, and interannual variability of Nimbus-7 TOMS version 6 total column ozone  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This reference publication presents selected results from space-time spectral analyses of 13 years of version 6 daily global ozone fields from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS). One purpose is to illustrate more quantitatively the well-known richness of structure and variation in total ozone. A second purpose is to provide, for use by modelers and for comparison with other analysts' work, quantitative measures of zonal waves 1, 2, 3, and medium-scale waves 4-7 in total ozone. Their variations throughout the year and at a variety of latitudes are presented, from equatorial to polar regions. The 13-year averages are given, along with selected individual years which illustrate year-to-year variability. The largest long wave amplitudes occur in the polar winters and early springs of each hemisphere, and are related to strong wave amplification during major warning events. In low attitudes total ozone wave amplitudes are an order of magnitude smaller than at high latitudes. However, TOMS fields contain a number of equatorial dynamical features, including Rossby-gravity and Kelvin waves.

Stanford, J. L.; Ziemke, J. R.; Mcpeters, R. D.; Krueger, A. J.; Bhartia, P. K.

1995-01-01

265

Computer controlled cryo-electron microscopy--TOM² a software package for high-throughput applications.  

PubMed

Automated data acquisition expedites structural studies by electron microscopy and it allows to collect data sets of unprecedented size and consistent quality. In electron tomography it greatly facilitates the systematic exploration of large cellular landscapes and in single particle analysis it allows to generate data sets for an exhaustive classification of coexisting molecular states. Here we describe a novel software philosophy and architecture that can be used for a great variety of automated data acquisition scenarios. Based on our original software package TOM, the new TOM(2) package has been designed in an object-oriented way. The whole program can be seen as a collection of self-sufficient modules with defined relationships acting in a concerted manner. It subdivides data acquisition into a set of hierarchical tasks, bonding data structure and the operations to be performed tightly together. To demonstrate its capacity for high-throughput data acquisition it has been used in conjunction with instrumentation combining the latest technological achievements in electron optics, cryogenics and robotics. Its performance is demonstrated with a single particle analysis case study and with a batch tomography application. PMID:21704708

Korinek, Andreas; Beck, Florian; Baumeister, Wolfgang; Nickell, Stephan; Plitzko, Jürgen M

2011-09-01

266

The Effect of New Ozone Cross Sections Applied to SBUV and TOMS Retrievals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The ozone cross sections as measured by Bass and Paur have been used for processing of SBUV and TOMS data since 1986. While these cross sections were a big improvement over those previously available, there were known minor problems with accuracy for wavelengths longward of 330 nm and with the temperature dependance. Today's requirements to separate stratospheric ozone from tropospheric ozone and for the derivation of minor species such as BrO and N02 place stringent new requirements on the accuracy needed. The ozone cross section measurements of Brion, Daumont, and Malicet (BDM) are being considered for use in UV-based ozone retrievals. They have much better resolution, an extended wavelength range, and a more consistent temperature dependance. Tests show that BDM retrievals exhibit lower retrieval residuals in the satellite data; i.e., they explain our measured atmospheric radiances more accurately. Total column ozone retrieved by the TOMS instruments is about 1.5% higher than before. Ozone profiles retrieved from SBUV using the new cross sections are lower in the upper stratosphere and higher in the lower stratosphere and troposphere.

McPeters, Richard D.; Labow, Gordon J.

2010-01-01

267

The observation of atmospheric structure with TOMS and some potential advancements. [Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An overview is given of the Nimbus 7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) which was designed to observe the spatial characteristics of total ozone that were not resolved by the nadir-viewing Nimbus BUV and SBUV instruments. At the wavelengths suitable for total ozone measurements, the radiance is large enough that the entire daytime atmosphere could be surveyed with about 50-km resolution from a polar orbiting satellite. The resulting high spatial resolution TOMS ozone images are found to reflect the internal dynamic structure of the lower atmosphere. Features which can be identified and tracked include: planetary wave scale troughs and ridges, mesoscale cutoff lows and rapidly moving troughs, jet stream confluence and difluence areas, hurricanes, and polar night lows. These features control the ozone above any given location and account for nearly all the variance in the total ozone. The instrument has been used to track the volcanic eruption clouds from El Chichon, Mount St. Helens, Alaid, and smaller eruptions such as Galunggung. It would be feasible to use a similar instrument on a geostationary platform to obtain half-hourly maps. Determination of the vertical ozone distribution in the lower stratosphere using Radon transform principles would be of importance in measuring jet stream folds and the related troposphere-stratosphere exchange.

Krueger, A. J.

1985-01-01

268

Comparison of recalculated Dobson and TOMS total ozone at Hradec Kralove, Czechoslovakia, 1978-1990  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The reevaluated Dobson total ozone data from Hradec Kralove, Czechoslovakia were compared with independent Total Ozone Mapping Spectrophotometer (TOMS) 'version 6' data set. The comparison was performed by means of the parallel daily averages of ground-based and satellite total ozone pairs of the period November 1978 to December 1990. The comparison showed slight differences between both data series. Their average relative difference is 0.48 percent. The similar results have been reached for subsets of direct sun and zenith types of measurements as well. Their relative differences are 0.61 percent and 0.11 percent respectively. These facts indicate not only good mutual relation of both data sources but also reliability and accuracy of the zenith charts of the spectrophotometer No. 74 used at Hradec Kralove. Preliminary assessment of seasonal MU-dependence of the differences between Dobson and TOMS data was made while using total ozones of winter and summer months representing values of MU=2.70-5.20 and MU = 1.12-1.30 respectively. The results did not show systematic underestimation or overestimation of total ozone due to MU-dependence of the instrument at Hradec Kralove in both seasons.

Stanek, Martin; Vanicek, Karel

1994-01-01

269

The Toms River Childhood Cancer Cluster: Coupled Groundwater and Water Distribution System Modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Toms River, New Jersey is the location of a statistically significant childhood cancer cluster. A 1995 cancer investigation indicated that relative to the state, the Toms River section of Dover Township had excess childhood cancer incidence for all malignant cancers combined, brain and central nervous system (CNS) cancers, and leukemia. Children under the age of five were found to have a seven-fold increase in brain and CNS cancer. The community's concern focused on the possibility that exposure to environmental contaminants may be related to the incidence of these childhood cancers. Two Superfund sites in Dover Township were implicated as having a possible impact on the local water supply. One of these, the Reich Farm site, is a source of contaminants to the aquifer that serves a major well field for Toms River. Contaminants in the aquifer include TCE, PCE and styrene-acrylonitrile (SAN) trimer. In 1997, the New Jersey Department of Health and Senior Services and the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry began an epidemiology study to evaluate the relationship between the environmental exposure pathways and the elevated childhood cancer incidence. Toxicity studies for the SAN trimer were also initiated. Groundwater modeling was undertaken to establish the historical relationship between the Reich Farm site and the municipal well field and to aid in the management and protection of the aquifer and well field to ensure both water quality and quantity. The modeling of the water distribution system for Toms River was also part of the study. Groundwater flow from the Reich Farm Superfund site to the municipal well field for Toms River was modeled for a thirty-year time period using MODFLOW. To account for the growth and development of the well field within the modeling domain, a transient model was constructed. The use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and databases to manage, maintain, and compile field observations for model input and calibration was an important part of the work. GIS and databases were important tools in assessing the quality of the data, discovering and correcting errors in the field data (including surveying inconsistencies), as well as providing an efficient and automated means to visualize the data. Model calibration exercises indicated that a more physically based spatial and temporally variable recharge was necessary to account for dramatic fluctuations in water levels due to seasonal variations. The accurate simulation of the transient groundwater flow system was essential for the subsequent prediction of contaminant migration from the superfund site to the municipal wells and then subsequently into the modeled water distribution system. The independent estimation of the adsorption parameters of the SAN trimer on the porous media of the aquifer was an important aspect of the determination of both the average travel time and the breakthrough of the chemical at the municipal well field. The modeling methodology included an uncertainty analysis of the estimated exposure concentration in the water distribution system given uncertain groundwater parameters. Distributed computing with a Monte Carlo analysis was used for this work. The results of the modeling study were used to assist in the definition of the temporal integration periods in the epidemiology study. The predicted historical breakthrough curve of the SAN trimer in the municipal wells correlates with the period with the excess childhood cancer incidence.

Sykes, J. F.; Normani, S. D.

2003-12-01

270

The Sounds of Earth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Flying board Voyagers 1 and 2 are identical 'golden' records, carrying the story of Earth far into deep space. The 12 inch gold-plated copper discs contain greetings in 60 languages, samples of music from different cultures and eras, and natural and man-made sounds from Earth. They also contain electronic information that an advanced technological civilization could convert into diagrams and photographs. The cover of each gold plated aluminum jacket, designed to protect the record from micrometeorite bombardment, also serves a double purpose in providing the finder a key to playing the record. The explanatory diagram appears on both the inner and outer surfaces of the cover, as the outer diagram will be eroded in time. Currently, both Voyager probes are sailing adrift in the black sea of interplanetary space, having left our solar system years ago.

1977-01-01

271

Sun-Earth Connection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

One of three divisions within the Office of Space Science at NASA, the Sun-Earth Connection has the primary goal of understanding the Sun, Heliosphere, and planetary environments as a single connected system. The Web site offers visitors information on space science missions including the Living with a Star and Solar Terrestrial Probes mission. Meeting notes and official reports can be viewed online, including the Sun Earth Connection 2002 Strategic Plan. Other items of interest include information on the science and technology behind the missions, education and news links, and more. One highlight of the site is the image gallery that includes some of the most incredible photos and illustrations of the sun that are available online.

272

Initial Estimate of NOAA-9 SBUV/2 Total Ozone Drift: Based on Comparison with Re-Calibrated Toms Measurements and Pair Justification of SBUV/2.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Newly recalibrated version 6 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) data are used as a reference measurement in a comparison of monthly means of total ozone in 10 degree latitude zones from SBUV/2 and the nadir measurements from TOMS. These comparisons i...

C. G. Wellemeyer S. L. Taylor X. U. Gu R. D. Mcpeters R. D. Hudson

1990-01-01

273

Development and evaluation of monoclonal antibodies as probes to assess the differences between two tomato pectin methylesterase isoenzymes.  

PubMed

The enzyme pectin methylesterase (PME) was purified from red ripe tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum) and through affinity chromatography two isoenzymes were fractionated (t1PME and t2PME). Further analysis of these two isoenzymes, both having a molar mass of 34.5kDa, revealed a difference in the N-terminal sequence and in amino acid composition. t1PME was identified as the major isoenzyme of PME in tomato fruit. In this study the aim was to develop a toolbox, consisting of monoclonal antibodies, that allows to gain insight into the in situ localization of PME in plant based food systems like tomatoes. A panel of six interesting monoclonal antibodies was raised against both isoenzymes, designated MA-TOM1-12E11, MA-TOM1-41B2, MA-TOM2-9H8, MA-TOM2-20G7, MA-TOM2-31H1 and MA-TOM2-38A11. The differences in epitopes between these monoclonal antibodies were determined using affinity tests towards denatured PME, cross-reactivity tests and inhibition tests. Characterization of these antibodies indicated an immunological difference between t1PME and t2PME, also revealing a conserved epitope on t2PME, carrot PME and strawberry PME. Different epitopes are recognized by the generated antibodies making them excellent probes for immunolocalization of PME by tissue printing. In tomato, t1PME and t2PME showed a pronounced co-localization, especially in the pericarp and the radial arms of the pericarp. Three of the generated antibodies could be used for immunolocalization of PME in carrots (Daucus carota L.), which was only present in the cortex and not in the vascular cylinder of carrots. PMID:19686752

Vandevenne, Evelien; Van Buggenhout, Sandy; Duvetter, Thomas; Brouwers, Els; Declerck, Paul J; Hendrickx, Marc E; Van Loey, Ann; Gils, Ann

2009-09-30

274

Comparison of Landsat-7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) and Earth Observing One (EO-1) Advanced Land Imager  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We compare images from the Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) sensor on Landsat-7 and the Advanced Land Imager (ALI) instrument on Earth Observing One (EO-1) over a test site in Rochester, New York. The site contains a variety of features, ranging from water of varying depths, deciduous/coniferous forest, and grass fields, to urban areas. Nearly coincident cloud-free images were collected one minute apart on 25 August 2001. We also compare images of a forest site near Howland, Maine, that were collected on 7 September, 2001. We atmospherically corrected each pair of images with the Second Simulation of the Satellite Signal in the Solar Spectrum (6S) atmosphere model, using aerosol optical thickness and water vapor column density measured by in situ Cimel sun photometers within the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET), along with ozone density derived from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) on the Earth Probe satellite. We present true-color composites from each instrument that show excellent qualitative agreement between the multispectral sensors, along with grey-scale images that demonstrate a significantly improved ALI panchromatic band. We quantitatively compare ALI and ETM+ reflectance spectra of a grassy field in Rochester and find < or equal to 6% differences in the visible/near infrared and approx. 2% differences in the short wave infrared. Spectral comparisons of forest sites in Rochester and Howland yield similar percentage agreement except for band 1, which has very low reflectance. Principal component analyses and comparison of normalized difference vegetation index histograms for each sensor indicate that the ALI is able to reproduce the information content in the ETM+ but with superior signal-to-noise performance due to its increased 12-bit quantization.

Pedelty, Jeffrey A.; Morisette, Jeffrey T.; Smith, James A.

2004-01-01

275

Tilted Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an activity about how the Earth's axial tilt causes its seasons. Learners will make a model using polystyrene spheres and a light bulb to represent the Earth-Sun system, showing why the tilt of the Earthâs spin axis causes its seasons due to variations in day length. This is Activity 7 in the Great Explorations in Math and Science (GEMS) guide titled Real Reasons for Seasons: Sun-Earth Connections. The resource guide is available for purchase from the Lawrence Hall of Science.

276

Evaluating Ultraviolet Radiation Exposures Determined from TOMS Satellite Data at Sites of Amphibian Declines in Central and South America  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Many amphibian species have experienced substantial population declines, or have disappeared altogether, during the last several decades at a number of amphibian census sites in Central and South America. This study addresses the use of satellite-derived trends in solar ultraviolet-B (UV-B; 280-320 nm) radiation exposures at these sites over the last two decades, and is intended to demonstrate a role for satellite observations in determining whether UV-B radiation is a contributing factor in amphibian declines. UV-B radiation levels at the Earth's surface were derived from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) satellite data, typically acquired daily since 1979. These data were used to calculate the daily erythemal (sunburning) UV-B, or UV-B(sub ery), exposures at the latitude, longitude, and elevation of each of 20 census sites. The annually averaged UV-B(sub ery) dose, as well as the maximum values, have been increasing in both Central and South America, with higher levels received at the Central American sites. The annually averaged UV-B(sub ery) exposures increased significantly from 1979-1998 at all 11 Central American sites examined (r(exp 2) = 0.60 - 0.79; P<=0.015), with smaller but significant increases at five of the nine South American sites (r(exp 2) = 0.24-0.42; P<=0.05). The contribution of the highest UV-B(sub ery) exposure levels (>= 6750 J/sq m*d) to the annual UV-B(sub ery) total has increased from approx. 5% to approx. 15% in Central America over the 19 year period, but actual daily exposures for each species are unknown. Synergy among UV-B radiation and other factors, especially those associated with alterations of water chemistry (e.g., acidification) in aqueous habitats is discussed. These findings justify further research concerning whether UV-B(sub ery) radiation plays a role in amphibian population declines and extinctions.

Middleton, Elizabeth M.; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

277

Determination of the UV solar risk in Argentina with high-resolution maps calculated using TOMS ozone climatology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The connection between ultraviolet (UV) radiation and various skin diseases is well known. In this work, we present the computer program "UVARG", developed in order to prevent the risk of getting sunburn for persons exposed to solar UV radiation in Argentina, a country that extends from low (tropical) to high southern hemisphere latitudes. The software calculates the so-called "erythemal irradiance", i.e., the spectral irradiance weighted by the McKinlay and Diffey action spectrum for erythema and integrated in wavelength. The erythemal irradiance depends mainly on the following geophysical parameters: solar elevation, total ozone column, surface altitude, surface albedo, total aerosol optical depth and Sun-Earth distance. Minor corrections are due to the variability in the vertical ozone, aerosol, pressure, humidity and temperature profiles and the extraterrestrial spectral solar UV irradiance. Key parameter in the software is a total ozone column climatology incorporating monthly averages, standard deviations and tendencies for the particular geographical situation of Argentina that was obtained from TOMS/NASA satellite data from 1978 to 2000. Different skin types are considered in order to determine the sunburn risk at any time of the day and any day of the year, with and without sunscreen protection. We present examples of the software for three different regions: the high altitude tropical Puna of Atacama desert in the North-West, Tierra del Fuego in the South when the ozone hole event overpasses and low summertime ozone conditions over Buenos Aires, the largest populated city in the country. In particular, we analyzed the maximum time for persons having different skin types during representative days of the year (southern hemisphere equinoxes and solstices). This work was made possible by the collaboration between the Argentine Skin Cancer Foundation, the Institute of Physics Rosario (CONICET-National University of Rosario, Argentina) and the Institute of Medical Physics, University of Innsbruck, Austria. With the teamwork of physicians and physicists, a scientifically reliable and easy-to-handle tool was developed to predict the risk of solar exposure in Argentina. It can be used by dermatologists as well as health authorities and educators in order to prevent health problems induced by solar UV radiation.

Piacentini, Rubén D.; Cede, Alexander; Luccini, Eduardo; Stengel, Fernando

2004-01-01

278

Inter annual variations in the TOMS AI values and the aerosol transport in the Subtropical Northeast Atlantic region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The role play by the atmospheric aerosols in the radiative transfer in the Earth Atmosphere system presents the biggest uncertainties, among the elements to be account. One of the most important parameters to study absorbing aerosols is the TOMS Aerosol Index. We study inter annual transport patterns variations, and the AI seasonal behaviour in two measurements stations in the Subtropical Northeast Atlantic region. Back trajectories were calculated for these stations, one is located in the free troposphere (IZO, 28.3º N 16.5º W, 2367m asl) and the other one within the marine boundary layer MBL (SCO, 28.78º N 16.31º W, 10m asl) from January 1997 to December 2002. These trajectories had been classified according to its aerosol load. There are mainly three aerosol types in both stations with differences in its frequency and in the seasonal pattern. Thus, air masses type A, with origin in the African continent that loads high amount of mineral dust, has an annual frequency very similar in both stations, around the 5%. However its seasonal pattern and the AI values associated are very different. At IZO station, they appear mainly in summer months which AI values are in the range (0.7, 3.3) and with less frequency and low AI values in winter mainly from January to March. While at SCO station these air masses appear only in winter and its AI values are lower than 1.0. The second aerosol contribution is the maritime one, associated with low air masses type M. These air masses appear in both stations the whole year with annual frequency of 4% and 20% for IZO and SCO station respectively. The AI values associated are generally below 0.7, except in the summer months at SCO station. The third one is associated with air masses type FTA (free troposphere) like the previous ones they are maritime air masses but which is developed above 2km. In that case, the annual frequencies are around 36% and 4% for IZO and SCO, and also are presented the whole year and with negative AI values and 0. Finally, SCO station is also characterized by air masses type ME, with origin in Europe and which transport anthropogenic aerosols. The associated AI values are in the range (-0.7, 0.7) in winter and in the range (0.0, 2.0) on the summer months.

Díaz, A. M.; García, O. E.; Elmrissaní, M.; Díaz, J. P.; Expósito, F. J.

2003-04-01

279

Comparisons Between Ground Measurements of Broadband UV Irradiance (300-380 nm) and TOMS UV Estimates at Moscow for 1979-2000  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We show the comparisons between ground-based measurements of spectrally integrated (300 nm to 380 nm) ultraviolet (UV) irradiance with satellite estimates from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) total ozone and reflectivity data for the whole period of TOMS measurements (1979-2000) over the Meteorological Observatory of Moscow State University (MO MSU), Moscow, Russia. Several aspects of the comparisons are analyzed, including effects of cloudiness, aerosol, and snow cover. Special emphasis is given to the effect of different spatial and temporal averaging of ground-based data when comparing with low-resolution satellite measurements (TOMS footprint area 50-200 sq km). The comparisons in cloudless scenes with different aerosol loading have revealed TOMS irradiance overestimates from +5% to +20%. A-posteriori correction of the TOMS data accounting for boundary layer aerosol absorption (single scattering albedo of 0.92) eliminates the bias for cloud-free conditions. The single scattering albedo was independently verified using CIMEL sun and sky-radiance measurements at MO MSU in September 2001. The mean relative difference between TOMS UV estimates and ground UV measurements mainly lies within 1 10% for both snow-free and snow period with a tendency to TOMS overestimation in snow-free period especially at overcast conditions when the positive bias reaches 15-17%. The analysis of interannual UV variations shows quite similar behavior for both TOMS and ground measurements (correlation coefficient r=0.8). No long-term trend in the annual mean bias was found for both clear-sky and all-sky conditions with snow and without snow. Both TOMS and ground data show positive trend in UV irradiance between 1979 and 2000. The UV trend is attributed to decreases in both cloudiness and aerosol optical thickness during the late 1990's over Moscow region. However, if the analyzed period is extended to include pre-TOMS era (1968-2000 period), no trend in ground UV irradiance is detected.

Yurova, Alla Y.; Krotkov, Nicholay A.; Herman, Jay R.; Bhartia, P. K. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

280

Conductivity Probe  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Thermal and Electrical Conductivity Probe (TECP) for NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander took measurements in Martian soil and in the air.

The needles on the end of the instrument were inserted into the Martian soil, allowing TECP to measure the propagation of both thermal and electrical energy. TECP also measured the humidity in the surrounding air.

The needles on the probe are 15 millimeters (0.6 inch) long.

The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

2008-01-01

281

Earth Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This self-contained module on Earth systems includes a range of fun activities that students can perform in the classroom and at home with family members. They impart important concepts such as observation, identification, measurement, and differentiation.

Science, Houghton M.

282

Earth's Surface  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This self-contained module on Earth's crust includes a range of fun activities that students can perform in the classroom and at home with family members. They impart important concepts such as observation, identification, measurement, and differentiation.

Science, Houghton M.

283

Discover Earth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Discover Earth is a NASA-funded project for teachers of grades 5-12 who want to expand their knowledge of the Earth system, and prepare to become master teachers who promote Earth system science in their own schools, counties, and throughout their state. Participants from the following states are invited to apply: Connecticut, Delaware, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont, and Washington, DC. Teachers selected for the project participate in a two-week summer workshop conducted at the University of Maryland, College Park; develop classroom-ready materials during the workshop for broad dissemination; conduct a minimum of two peer training activities during the coming school year; and participate in other enrichment/education opportunities as available and desired. Discover Earth is a team effort that utilizes expertise from a range of contributors, and balances science content with hands-on classroom applications.

1997-01-01

284

Discover Earth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Discover Earth is a NASA-funded project for teachers of grades 5-12 who want to expand their knowledge of the Earth system, and prepare to become master teachers who promote Earth system science in their own schools, counties, and throughout their state. Participants from the following states are invited to apply: Connecticut, Delaware, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont, and Washington, DC. Teachers selected for the project participate in a two-week summer workshop conducted at the University of Maryland, College Park; develop classroom-ready materials during the workshop for broad dissemination; conduct a minimum of two peer training activities during the coming school year; and participate in other enrichment/education opportunities as available and desired. Discover Earth is a team effort that utilizes expertise from a range of contributors, and balances science content with hands-on classroom applications.

Steele, Colleen

1996-01-01

285

Earth Day  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The State University of New York at Buffalo presents this History of Earth Day website. The goal of the site is that teachers and students can better understand the development and purpose of Earth Day. In addition to the history, SUNY-Buffalo has compiled a series of websites complete with projects associated with Earth Day, appropriate for children, high school students, and college undergrads. Furthermore, the legal aspect of Earth Day - environmental legislation, EPA standards, and Global Climate Change legislation - are also discussed on the site. A list of further sites is also provided if users want more information on this national effort to help solve environmental issues such as pollution, overpopulation, and global warming. Teachers will find this website both informative and helpful in developing appropriate teaching curricula connected to this holiday, while students can have fun learning and creating projects of their own that contribute to preserving the environment.

2007-04-19

286

Earth Tides.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report explains that the effects of ocean tides on Earth tide observations can best be observed by a network of stations, varying in distance to the coast, which systematically monitor the ocean loading or attraction contributions to the observations....

B. D. Zetler J. T. Kus

1971-01-01

287

Earth materials and earth dynamics  

SciTech Connect

In the project ''Earth Materials and Earth Dynamics'' we linked fundamental and exploratory, experimental, theoretical, and computational research programs to shed light on the current and past states of the dynamic Earth. Our objective was to combine different geological, geochemical, geophysical, and materials science analyses with numerical techniques to illuminate active processes in the Earth. These processes include fluid-rock interactions that form and modify the lithosphere, non-linear wave attenuations in rocks that drive plate tectonics and perturb the earth's surface, dynamic recrystallization of olivine that deforms the upper mantle, development of texture in high-pressure olivine polymorphs that create anisotropic velocity regions in the convecting upper mantle and transition zone, and the intense chemical reactions between the mantle and core. We measured physical properties such as texture and nonlinear elasticity, equation of states at simultaneous pressures and temperatures, magnetic spins and bonding, chemical permeability, and thermal-chemical feedback to better characterize earth materials. We artificially generated seismic waves, numerically modeled fluid flow and transport in rock systems and modified polycrystal plasticity theory to interpret measured physical properties and integrate them into our understanding of the Earth. This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL).

Bennett, K; Shankland, T. [and others

2000-11-01

288

Language and ToM Development in Autism versus Asperger Syndrome: Contrasting Influences of Syntactic versus Lexical/Semantic Maturity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Theory of mind (ToM) development by a sample of 63 children aged 5-12 years (24 with Asperger syndrome, 19 with high-functioning autism, and 20 age-matched typical developers) was assessed with a five-task false-belief battery in relation to both lexical (vocabulary) and syntactic (grammar) language skills. Contrary to some previous research, no…

Paynter, Jessica; Peterson, Candida

2010-01-01

289

ProxTom lymphatic vessel reporter mice reveal Prox1 expression in the adrenal medulla, megakaryocytes, and platelets.  

PubMed

Lymphatic vessels (LVs) are important structures for antigen presentation, for lipid metabolism, and as conduits for tumor metastases, but they have been difficult to visualize in vivo. Prox1 is a transcription factor that is necessary for lymphangiogenesis in ontogeny and the maintenance of LVs. To visualize LVs in the lymph node of a living mouse in real time, we made the ProxTom transgenic mouse in a C57BL/6 background using red fluorescent LVs that are suitable for in vivo imaging. The ProxTom transgene contained all Prox1 regulatory sequences and was faithfully expressed in LVs coincident with endogenous Prox1 expression. The progenies of a ProxTom × Hec6stGFP cross were imaged using two-photon laser scanning microscopy, allowing the simultaneous visualization of LVs and high endothelial venules in a lymph node of a living mouse for the first time. We confirmed the expression of Prox1 in the adult liver, lens, and dentate gyrus. These intensely fluorescent mice revealed the expression of Prox1 in three novel sites: the neuroendocrine cells of the adrenal medulla, megakaryocytes, and platelets. The novel sites identified herein suggest previously unknown roles for Prox1. The faithful expression of the fluorescent reporter in ProxTom LVs indicates that these mice have potential utility in the study of diseases as diverse as lymphedema, filariasis, transplant rejection, obesity, and tumor metastasis. PMID:22310467

Truman, Lucy A; Bentley, Kevin L; Smith, Elenoe C; Massaro, Stephanie A; Gonzalez, David G; Haberman, Ann M; Hill, Myriam; Jones, Dennis; Min, Wang; Krause, Diane S; Ruddle, Nancy H

2012-04-01

290

Ground-based assessment of Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) data for dust transport over the northeastern Mediterranean  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiyear daily surface aerosol aluminum (Al) concentration and sunphotometer measurements at Erdemli (Turkey) sampling station were used to assess the performance of Absorbing Aerosol Index (AAI) and Aerosol Optical Thickness (AOT) retrieved from the daily Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) over the northeastern Mediterranean. A total of 98 moderate-to-high intensity dust events with durations from 1 day to 1 week

Nilgün Kubilay; Temel Oguz; Mustafa Koçak; Omar Torres

2005-01-01

291

Clear-Sky UV-B trends over Northern Midlatitudes derived from TOMS Low-Reflectivity Footprint Measurements.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study investigates the distribution of clear-sky ultraviolet-B (UV-B, wavelengths 290-320 nm) trends in northern midlatitudes using 1979-1991 Nimbus 7 total ozone mapping spectrometer (TOMS) version 7 low-reflectivity (R<0.2) total ozone footprint me...

J. Ziemke S. Chandra C. Varotsos

1998-01-01

292

Profiles in Online Learning: A Series on Leadership--Tom Layton: Judo and the Art of Technology Innovation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Profiles a high school technology teacher and creator of CyberSchool, a distance learning program of the Eugene (Oregon) School District. Discusses Tom Layton's education, early work experience, establishment of a high school English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) program, integration of computers into the classroom, reputation as a technology leader,…

Danielson, Larry

1998-01-01

293

Expunging Father Time: The Search for Temporal Transcendence in the Novels of Aldous Huxley and Tom Robbins  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explores the connection between the time concepts of Aldous Huxley and Tom Robbins. For both authors, time imprisons man on two fronts, or in two cages, if you will. The smaller of these cages is society's concept of time, clock time, which constrains the activities of man, forcing him to submit to his fate as a mere drone

Stephanie Abigail Taylor

2009-01-01

294

A unique gun application for both high velocity and low velocity projectiles in a standard 155mm long tom gun  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Terminal Ballistics Facility at Sandia National Laboratores in Albuquerque, New Mexico has developed an inexpensive and reliable capability for environmental testing of nuclear and kinetic energy weapon systems using the standard military 155 mm long tom gun. An unusual priming technique and charge configuration developed by Sandia National laboratories provides repeatable results such that payloads may be launched outside

1990-01-01

295

Valuing Tom: will ;;Valuing People Now;\\/; change the lives of people with profound and multiple learning disabilities?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Valuing People Now (DH, 2009) recognises that some people, particularly those with complex needs, have been missing out. It has made ‘including everyone’ a priority for the next three years. With reference to Tom's story, this paper will consider the reasons why people with profound and multiple learning disabilities (PMLD) remain among the most marginalised people in society today, what

Beverley Dawkins

2009-01-01

296

Estimation of the Dietary Calcium and Nonphytate Phosphorus Needs of Growing Commercial Tom Turkeys Weighing Four to Twelve Kilograms  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experiment was conducted to evaluate the dietary calcium and phosphorus needs of commercial toms during the grower feeding period of 8 to 14 wk of age. Dietary calcium and nonphytate phosphorus were formulated to be fed at 60, 75, 90, 105 or 120% of the NRC (1994) requirements based upon three-wk phase feeding periods. A corn-soybean meal based diet

2004-01-01

297

TOMS and SBUV Data: Comparison to 3D Chemical-Transport Model Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We have updated our merged ozone data (MOD) set using the TOMS data from the new version 8 algorithm. We then analyzed these data for contributions from solar cycle, volcanoes, QBO, and halogens using a standard statistical time series model. We have recently completed a hindcast run of our 3D chemical-transport model for the same years. This model uses off-line winds from the finite-volume GCM, a full stratospheric photochemistry package, and time-varying forcing due to halogens, solar uv, and volcanic aerosols. We will report on a parallel analysis of these model results using the same statistical time series technique as used for the MOD data.

Stolarski, Richard S.; Douglass, Anne R.; Steenrod, Steve; Frith, Stacey

2003-01-01

298

TOMS observations of increases in Asian aerosol in winter from 1979 to 2000  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Emission inventories indicate that the largest increases in SO2 emissions have occurred in Asia during the last 20 years. By inference, largest increases in aerosol, produced primarily by the conversion of SO2 to sulfate, should have occurred in Asia during the same time period. Decadal changes in regional aerosol optical depths are calculated by analyzing Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) vertical aerosol optical depths (converted to 550 nm) from 1979 to 2000 on a 1 degree by 1 degree global grid. Aerosol trends are calculated on a regional basis during winter (November - February) to maximize the anthropogenic component of the aerosol record. Largest increases in aerosol optical depths between 1979 and 2000 are present over the China coastal plain and the Ganges river basin in India.

Massie, S. T.; Heymsfield, A. J.; Torres, O.; Smith, S.

2004-12-01

299

Components of interannual ozone change based on Nimbus 7 TOMS data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A multiple regression statistical model is applied to estimate the latitude and seasonal dependences of the solar cycle, quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO), and anthropogenic trend components of stratospheric total ozone change using 13.2 years of Nimbus 7 TOMS data. The characteristics of the linear trend component are in agreement with earlier studies. The QBO regression coefficient is significantly different from zero at high southern latitudes in the Austral spring supporting earlier evidence that the Antarctic ozone depletion is modulated by the QBO. The existence of a solar cycle component is indicated by empirical studies of model residuals and by the approximate agreement of the derived global mean solar coefficient amplitude with photochemical calculations. Initial estimates for the latitude dependence of the solar coefficient suggest higher amplitudes with increasing latitude, especially in the Southern Hemisphere in spring. The statistical model predicts a return to more rapid ozone depletions during the next 4 years as solar minimum is approached.

Hood, Lon L.; Mccormack, John P.

1992-01-01

300

Trends in column ozone based on TOMS data - Dependence on month, latitude, and longitude  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

On the basis of the TOMS satellite column ozone data in latitudes 70 deg S-70 deg N from November 1978 to May 1990, a statistical model is used to estimate the trends in ozone as a function of latitude, longitude, and month. The trends in the TOMS ozone data are highly seasonal and dependent on location. Near the equator, the estimated monthly trends are not significantly different from zero. For high latitudes, most of the estimated monthly trends are negative. In January, February, and March, there are some positive trend estimates in the western hemisphere around latitude 60 deg N. The most negative trends for these three months also appear in the high latitudes of the northern hemisphere. Starting in June, more negative trends appear in the latitudes 50 deg S-70 deg S than the trends in the rest of the world considered. A large depletion develops during the spring time (September to November) in the southern high-latitude region, and the area of peak ozone decline is moving eastward during the period. The largest negative trends (about -29 percent per decade) for the area considered in this study appear in October around the latitude 70 deg S and longitudes 20 deg W-100 deg W region. For the northern hemisphere, the year-round trend estimates for latitudes 30 deg N-70 deg N range from -0.96 percent to -7.43 percent per decade. In the latitudes 30 deg N-50 deg N, the winter trend estimates are more negative than those for the summer and the fall. However, this pattern did not hold for latitudes 50 deg N-70 deg N.

Niu, Xufeng; Frederick, John E.; Stein, Michael L.; Tiao, George C.

1992-01-01

301

Earth: Earth Science and Health  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A major new NASA initiative on environmental change and health has been established to promote the application of Earth science remote sensing data, information, observations, and technologies to issues of human health. NASA's Earth Sciences suite of Earth observing instruments are now providing improved observations science, data, and advanced technologies about the Earth's land, atmosphere, and oceans. These new space-based resources are being combined with other agency and university resources, data integration and fusion technologies, geographic information systems (GIS), and the spectrum of tools available from the public health community, making it possible to better understand how the environment and climate are linked to specific diseases, to improve outbreak prediction, and to minimize disease risk. This presentation is an overview of NASA's tools, capabilities, and research advances in this initiative.

Maynard, Nancy G.

2001-01-01

302

Comparing Earth to Other Planets  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How do the atmospheres of Mars, Earth, and Venus compare? This activity, part of an interactive laboratory series for grades 8-12, provides students opportunities to collect atmospheric data from Mars and Venus. Students launch animated data-collecting probes and view two sets of data that compare temperature and pressure from Mars and Venus with that of Earth. Colorful plots of the data are available. Using the information from the data tables and plots, students then answer multiple-choice questions to assess their learning.

University of Utah. Astrophysics Science Project Integrating Research and Education (ASPIRE)

2003-01-01

303

Earth Structures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web guide explores several natural phenomena that are constantly changing the face of the Earth. These geologic forces not only impact the physical features of our planet but ultimately affect the biosphere in a dramatic way. Historically, the changes have ranged from gradual (such as with the process of mountain building) to the spontaneous (such as with seismic events).

National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

2005-04-01

304

Earth Movers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson explores plate tectonics and helps students understand how mountains, earthquakes, and volcanoes are related to the movements of plates. Students will learn about the idea of continental drift and the theory of plate tectonics to ascertain a fuller picture of how land formations on the surface of the Earth are shaped by plates moving below the surface.

305

Visible Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web site provides a searchable directory of NASA Earth science images, animations and data visualizations. Most resources are available digitally at multiple resolutions, with captions and metadata. Users can search the database using full text and advanced searches by topic, keyword, sensor, location, parameter, and dates.

2001-01-01

306

Protecting Earth  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Intense tempests of celestial origin have blown through the skies of Earth, obliterating landscapes and sending towering tsunamis\\u000a through the oceans. Fallout from such events has extinguished vast numbers of living organisms; some of these have been altered\\u000a by geological processes into fossils.

Les Johnson; Gregory L. Matloff; C Bangs

307

Earth meandering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we try to put away current Global Tectonic Model to look the tectonic evolution of the earth from new point of view. Our new dynamic model is based on study of river meandering (RM) which infer new concept as Earth meandering(EM). In a universal gravitational field if we consider a clockwise spiral galaxy model rotate above Ninety East Ridge (geotectonic axis GA), this system with applying torsion field (likes geomagnetic field) in side direction from Rocky Mt. (west geotectonic pole WGP) to Tibetan plateau TP (east geotectonic pole EGP),it seems that pulled mass from WGP and pushed it in EGP due to it's rolling dynamics. According to this idea we see in topographic map that North America and Green land like a tongue pulled from Pacific mouth toward TP. Actually this system rolled or meander the earth over itself fractaly from small scale to big scale and what we see in the river meandering and Earth meandering are two faces of one coin. River transport water and sediments from high elevation to lower elevation and also in EM, mass transport from high altitude-Rocky Mt. to lower altitude Himalaya Mt. along 'S' shape geodetic line-optimum path which connect points from high altitude to lower altitude as kind of Euler Elastica(EE). These curves are responsible for mass spreading (source) and mass concentration (sink). In this regard, tiltness of earth spin axis plays an important role, 'S' are part of sigmoidal shape which formed due to intersection of Earth rolling with the Earth glob and actual feature of transform fault and river meandering. Longitudinal profile in mature rivers as a part of 'S' curve also is a kind of EE. 'S' which bound the whole earth is named S-1(S order 1) and cube corresponding to this which represent Earth fracturing in global scale named C-1(cube order 1 or side vergence cube SVC), C-1 is a biggest cycle of spiral polygon, so it is not completely closed and it has separation about diameter of C-7. Inside SVC we introduce cone vergence cube (CVC or geotectonic equator GE) which rotate 45 degree counterclockwise with respect to SVC. Every cube from big scale to small scale fractalize in order of 23 and every '8' shape from big scale to small scale also fractalize in the same order. Three dimensional and fractoscopic imagination about understanding the changing on earth is very important so we should imagine '8' as curved surface, sea floor spreading happened in maximum curvature of these surfaces. '8' formed from pair 'S' string with opposite direction. '8' oscillate in Pole-Pole and Side-Side direction and have saddle geometry with two 'U' path along perpendicular saddle (e.g. Lut/Jazmurian and Helmand/Mashkal basin in Iran actually intersection of this saddle shape with the earth surface and Iceland /Black Sea and CapeVerde/Victoria Lake are also In/Out (small scale polygon) of 'U' shape conduit which followed axial saddle of Side-'S-2' and Okhotsk Sea /Balkhash Lake followed axial saddle conduit of Pole-'S-2' actually intersection of this perpendicular conduit with surface make spot-like-lakes/volcanoes or basin. Global EM in Side-S-1 bounded compression region-TP inside and tension region-East African Rift offside).This is a interesting competing between two kinematic geometry - spherical and isometrical geometry by using the interaction of them we can analyze the earth face in past, present and future apart of the forces that cause this face. C-1 in two dimensional look like six sided big tent which speared over Tibet and main rod driven along GA. Pair S-1 curve. have seven component(fold) and six segment in between,S-7 exactly located on TP(center of S-1). Between two successive fold we have complex geology(e.g. eastern Iran and Afghanistan)mass dragged from North America and Siberian and accumulated gradually during six step in Earth Foundation(Tibet),S-7 bounded Takla Makan Desert (in smaller loop) and TP (in bigger loop) S-7 alter the earth balance and responsible for earth disturbing, another sample of 'S' curve we see around Australia and Kermadec/Tonga Trench, Aleutian ri

Asadiyan, H.; Zamani, A.

2009-04-01

308

Tom Brown is a partner in O 'Melveny 's San Francisco office and a member of the Financial Services Practice. Tom 's practice focuses on competition law and legal issues affecting the financial services industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tom has been litigating cases, including class actions, in the financial services industry for more than a decade. He was a member of the trial team that handled the defense of the then largest civil antitrust class action in U.S. history for Visa U.S.A. Inc., In re Visa Check\\/MasterMoney Antitrust Litigation. He has helped numerous other financial services companies, including

309

Functional Probes for Scanning Probe Microscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Functional probes such as a metal-tip cantilever and a glass-coated tungsten tip for scanning probe microscopy (SPM) were fabricated utilizing focused ion beam method. Using the functional probes, we obtained results which were hard to reach by usual SPM probes.

Kotone Akiyama; Toyoaki Eguchi; Toshu An; Yasunori Fujikawa; Yukio Hasegawa; Toshio Sakurai

2007-01-01

310

Health Consultation: Childhood Cancer Incidence Update: A Review and Analysis of Cancer Registry Data, 2001-2003 for Township of Toms River, Ocean County, New Jersey.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In response to community concerns in the Township of Toms River (formerly named Dover Township), the New Jersey Department of Health and Senior Services (NJDHSS) and the federal Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) have investigated th...

2008-01-01

311

Ground-Based Intercomparisons of SBUV/2 Flight Instruments the World Standard Dobson Spectrophotometer 83 and Overpass Observations from Nimbus-7 TOMS and NOAA-11 SBUV/2.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Total ozone data obtained during summers at Mauna Loa Observatory, Hawaii, with Dobson Spectrophotometer 83 are routinely compared with overpass total ozone data from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) and the Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet (SBUV)...

D. F. Heath Z. Ahmad O. Torres R. D. Evans R. D. Grass

1994-01-01

312

Interview with Tom Peters. Father of post-modern corporation speaks out. Interview by Richard D. Brennan, Jr.  

PubMed

Tom Peters has been selected as the opening Keynote speaker at the National Association for Home Care and Hospice's Annual Meeting in Seattle, Washington on October 23-26, 2005. Peters has been described by the Los Angeles Times as the "father of the post-modern corporation." The New Yorker said, "In no small part, what American corporations have become is what Peters has encouraged them to be." Fortune called Tom Peters the top guru of management, and compares him to Ralph Waldo Emerson, Henry David Thoreau, Walt Whitman, and H.L. Mencken. The Economist tagged him the Uber-guru; and BusinessWeek's take on his "unconventional views" led them to label him "business's best friend and worst nightmare." PMID:16035269

Peters, Tom

2005-06-01

313

The early Earth Observing System reference handbook: Earth Science and Applications Division missions, 1990-1997  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Prior to the launch of the Earth Observing System (EOS) series, NASA will launch and operate a wide variety of new earth science satellites and instruments, as well as undertake several efforts collecting and using the data from existing and planned satellites from other agencies and nations. These initiatives will augment the knowledge base gained from ongoing Earth Science and Applications Division (ESAD) programs. This volume describes three sets of ESAD activities -- ongoing exploitation of operational satellite data, research missions with upcoming launches between now and the first launch of EOS, and candidate earth probes.

1990-01-01

314

Effect of semen treatments and age of tom on fertility of unstored semen and semen held 18 hours.  

PubMed

Three experiments were conducted to determine the effects of semen dilution, semen extender, and age of tom on the fertility of unstored semen and semen stored for 18 h at 5 C. In Experiment 1, semen was diluted 2:1, 1:1, and 1:2 with Beltsville poultry semen extender (BPSE) #2. In Experiment 2, semen was diluted 1:1 with either Lake's extender, BPSE #2, or BPSE #1. In Experiment 3, the fertility of semen from males 30 to 45-wk-old (first reproductive cycle) was compared to semen from males 51 to 66-wk-old (second reproductive cycle). Identical experiments were conducted in the fall-winter (F-W) and in the spring-summer (S-S). All hens were inseminated with 250 million spermatozoa per dose three times prior to egg production, then weekly for 15 wk. Egg fertility was determined after 7 days of incubation. In all experiments there was a significant interaction between holding time and treatment (semen dilution ratio, semen extender, or age of tom). Fertility of stored semen diluted 1:2 in Experiment 1 was lower than stored semen diluted 2:1 or 1:1 regardless of time of year (season) the experiment was conducted. Fertility was affected by a significant interaction between season and semen dilution ratio. Fertility of semen from males in F-W was higher than semen from males in S-S (Experiment 1). Semen fertility was unaffected by season when comparisons were made between semen extenders (Experiment 2) or age of tom (Experiment 3). Fertility was affected by a significant interaction between season x holding time x age of tom. PMID:3432200

Sexton, T J

1987-10-01

315

Ancient impact structures on modern continental shelves: The Chesapeake Bay, Montagnais, and Toms Canyon craters, Atlantic margin of North America  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three ancient impact craters (Chesapeake Bay—35.7Ma; Toms Canyon—35.7Ma; Montagnais—51Ma) and one multiring impact basin (Chicxulub—65Ma) are currently known to be buried beneath modern continental shelves. All occur on the passive Atlantic margin of North America in regions extensively explored by seismic reflection surveys in the search for oil and gas reserves. We limit our discussion herein to the three youngest

C. Wylie Poag; Jeffrey B Plescia; Phillip C Molzer

2002-01-01

316

Late Eocene Star Wars: The Toms Canyon and Chesapeake Bay Impact Craters, U.S. East Coast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two coeval(?) impacts produced craters on the middle late Eocene continental shelf of the United States at ~35 Ma. The smaller crater (1 5-20-km diameter) is buried beneath the New Jersey continental shelf, near Toms Canyon [1]; the larger crater (90-km diameter) lies beneath the floor of Chesapeake Bay, Virginia [2]. Both features are documented by seismic reflection profiles, bore-hole

C. W. Poag

1995-01-01

317

Systematic comparison between the ground based automated Dobson of the Observatory of Haute-Provence and TOMS since 1983  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The total ozone quantity has been obtained since September 1983 at O.H.P. using the conventional AD wavelength technique. An average of 180 measurements per year is obtained with the Dobson n deg 85. Each of these daily total quantities is in fact an average of at least 5 measurements. The preliminary comparison with TOMS data show good agreement. We discuss systematic daily and monthly comparisons.

Merienne, Marie-France; Barbe, Alain; Daconceicao, Pierre

1994-01-01

318

Breathing Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Visual simulation and representation programs and applications have been popping up online in greater numbers, and this recent find is one that will pique the interest of scientists, policy makers, and others who are concerned about carbon dioxide emission rates across the Earth. The Breathing Earth site was created by David Bleja, and he draws on a number of resources (such as the World Factbook and the United Nations) for the data that is utilized to create this site. Visitors can scroll over different countries to learn about their population, their emissions, and their birth and death rate. This interactive map and educational resource also contains a legend in the right-hand corner which explains the various symbols in use here.

Bleja, David

319

Earth Institute  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The mission of the Earth Institute at Columbia University is to help the world achieve sustainability by expanding understanding of the Earth as one integrated system. Through research, education, and the practical application of research to real-world challenges, the Institute addresses nine interconnected global issues: climate and society, water, energy, poverty, ecosystems, public health, food and nutrition, and hazards and urbanization. The Institute's site offers a collection of videotaped events, including the biannual "State of the Planet" conferences, 2002-08, a Distinguished Lecture series, and the Sustainable Development seminar series, as well as e-seminars and e-briefings, information about funding opportunities, and information about educational opportunities at Columbia.

320

Impact: Earth!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What would happen if a large meteorite or other object hit the Earth? It's something that has engaged the minds and talents of astrophysicists (and students of all ages) for decades. Now the generally curious can create their own simulated impact with Purdue University's "Impact Earth" website. Visitors can browse the Famous Craters area to get started. This part includes some "classics," such as the Ries Crater and the Tunguska Fireball. Of course, visitors really must use the handy interface to craft their own impact, projectile, and target parameters to get the full effect on how such an event plays out. Also, the site includes a complete Documentation file (a peer-reviewed article) and a detailed glossary.

2013-01-01

321

Earth plasmas  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Fusion is the focus of this section of a tutorial about plasma, one of the four states of matter. This section deals with plasmas on Earth. There is little naturally-occurring plasma here because of the Earth's relatively cool (by universe standards) temperature, but human-made plasma is produced for industry and research purposes. The section explores the use of plasmas in experimental fusion reactors, pointing out three categories of significant unresolved issues that stand in the way of fusion becoming a viable energy source. The use of electromagnets to confine plasmas is discussed. Enlargeable images of fusion reactors are provided, and an explanation of the difference between fission and fusion is supplemented by animations of the two reaction types. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Institute, Space S.

2005-01-01

322

Earth's Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The total amount of water on Earth, the places in which it is found and the percentages of fresh vs. salt are examined in this lesson. A short demonstration allows students to visualize the percentage differences and a coloring exercise illustrates locations. This lesson uses the 5E instructional model. All background information, student worksheets and images/photographs/data are included in these downloadable sections: Teacher's Guide, Student Capture Sheet and PowerPoint Presentation.

323

Earth's Biomes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What are the characteristics of Earth's biomes? First, open the Biomes Graphic Organizer Now read through Information on Aquatic Biome (Freshwater) and fill in 5 characterestics of a freshwater biome in your graphic organizer. Now read through Information on Desert and fill in 5 characteristics of a desert biome in your graphic organizer. Now read through Information on Rainforest and fill in 5 characteristics of rainforest biome in your graphic organizer. Now ...

Allman, Ms.

2012-04-05

324

Earth Observatory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web site includes shares the images, stories and discoveries that emerge from NASA Earth science research, including its satellite missions, in-the-field research and climate models. View global maps of NASA data, check out the Image of the Day and images of current events, and read feature articles and blogs. Also includes special collections of NASA images, including the World of Change series, which documents how our planetâs land, oceans, atmosphere and Sun are changing over time.

2011-01-01

325

Earth Observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This document is concentrates on a couple of the missions where the Spacelab hardware was used to do Earth science. The Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science (ATLAS) series of missions and the Lidar in-Space Technology Experiment (LITE) mission, the ATLAS being a series of three Shuttle missions that were very much Spacelab missions, are described. A little bit about the history, what the missions were, some of the instruments that were on them, and results are given.

Kaye, Jack

2000-01-01

326

Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) observations of increases in Asian aerosol in winter from 1979 to 2000  

SciTech Connect

Emission inventories indicate that the largest increases in SO{sub 2} emissions have occurred in Asia during the last 20 years. By inference, largest increases in aerosol, produced primarily by the conversion of SO{sub 2} to sulfate, should have occurred in Asia during the same time period. Decadal changes in regional aerosol optical depths are calculated by analyzing Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) vertical aerosol optical depths (converted to 550 nm) from 1979 to 2000 on a 1{sup o} by 1{sup o} global grid. The anthropogenic component of the TOMS aerosol record is maximized by examining the seasonal cycles of desert dust and Boreal fire smoke, and identifying the months of the year for which the desert dust and Boreal fire smoke are least conspicuous. Gobi and Taklimakan desert dust in Asia is prevalent in the TOMS record during spring, and eastern Siberian smoke from Boreal forest fires is prevalent during summer. Aerosol trends are calculated on a regional basis during winter (November-February) to maximize the anthropogenic component of the aerosol record. Large increases in aerosol optical depths between 1979 and 2000 are present over the China coastal plain and the Ganges river basin in India. Aerosol increased by 17% per decade during winter over the China coastal plain, while SO{sub 2} emissions over the same geographical region increased by 33% per decade.

Massie, Steven T.; Torres, O.; Smith, Steven J.

2004-12-01

327

Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) observations of increases in Asian aerosol in winter from 1979 to 2000  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Emission inventories indicate that the largest increases in SO2 emissions have occurred in Asia during the last 20 years. By inference, the largest increases in aerosol, produced primarily by the conversion of SO2 to sulfate, should have occurred in Asia during the same time period. Decadal changes in regional aerosol optical depths are calculated by analyzing Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) vertical aerosol optical depths (converted to 550 nm) from 1979 to 2000 on a 1° by 1° global grid. The anthropogenic component of the TOMS aerosol record is maximized by examining the seasonal cycles of desert dust and boreal fire smoke and identifying the months of the year for which the desert dust and boreal fire smoke are least conspicuous. Gobi and Taklimakan desert dust in Asia is prevalent in the TOMS record during spring, and eastern Siberian smoke from boreal forest fires is prevalent during summer. Aerosol trends are calculated on a regional basis during winter (November-February) to maximize the anthropogenic component of the aerosol record. Large increases in aerosol optical depths between 1979 and 2000 are present over the China coastal plain and the Ganges River basin in India. Aerosol increased by 17% per decade during winter over the China coastal plain, while SO2 emissions over the same geographical region increased by 35% per decade.

Massie, Steven T.; Torres, Omar; Smith, Steven J.

2004-09-01

328

PyTom: a python-based toolbox for localization of macromolecules in cryo-electron tomograms and subtomogram analysis.  

PubMed

Cryo-electron tomography (CET) is a three-dimensional imaging technique for structural studies of macromolecules under close-to-native conditions. In-depth analysis of macromolecule populations depicted in tomograms requires identification of subtomograms corresponding to putative particles, averaging of subtomograms to enhance their signal, and classification to capture the structural variations among them. Here, we introduce the open-source platform PyTom that unifies standard tomogram processing steps in a python toolbox. For subtomogram averaging, we implemented an adaptive adjustment of scoring and sampling that clearly improves the resolution of averages compared to static strategies. Furthermore, we present a novel stochastic classification method that yields significantly more accurate classification results than two deterministic approaches in simulations. We demonstrate that the PyTom workflow yields faithful results for alignment and classification of simulated and experimental subtomograms of ribosomes and GroEL(14)/GroEL(14)GroES(7), respectively, as well as for the analysis of ribosomal 60S subunits in yeast cell lysate. PyTom enables parallelized processing of large numbers of tomograms, but also provides a convenient, sustainable environment for algorithmic development. PMID:22193517

Hrabe, Thomas; Chen, Yuxiang; Pfeffer, Stefan; Cuellar, Luis Kuhn; Mangold, Ann-Victoria; Förster, Friedrich

2012-05-01

329

PVDF contact probes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three types of contact probes are discussed. A focussing angle beam probe, a normal incidence probe and an acoustic emission probe are investigated. Characteristics of PVDF foils for probe design are dealt with. A probe design program is used to calculate two types of probes in order to determine the properties and behavior of the PVDF foils. Calculated and measured pulses and frequency spectra are compared. The results agree well with the theoretical estimates. Deviations from the theoretical calculations and measurements are discussed.

Pitkaenen, Jorma

1989-06-01

330

Initial estimate of NOAA-9 SBUV/2 total ozone drift: Based on comparison with re-calibrated TOMS measurements and pair justification of SBUV/2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Newly recalibrated version 6 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) data are used as a reference measurement in a comparison of monthly means of total ozone in 10 degree latitude zones from SBUV/2 and the nadir measurements from TOMS. These comparisons indicate a roughly linear long-term drift in SBUV/2 total ozone relative to TOMS of about 2.5 Dobson units per year at the equator over the first three years of SBUV/2. The pari justification technique is also applied to the SBUV/2 measurements in a manner similar to that used for SBUV and TOMS. The higher solar zenith angles associated with the afternoon orbit of NOAA-9 and the large changes in solar zenith angle associated with its changing equator crossing time degrade the accuracy of the pair justification method relative to its application to SBUV and TOMS, but the results are consistent with the SBUV/2-TOMS comparisons, and show a roughly linear drift in SBUV/2 of 2.5 to 4.5 Dobson units per year in equatorial ozone.

Wellemeyer, C. G.; Taylor, S. L.; Gu, X. U.; Mcpeters, Richard D.; Hudson, R. D.

1990-01-01

331

The Hect Domain E3 Ligase Tom1 and the F-box Protein Dia2 Control Cdc6 Degradation in G1 Phase*  

PubMed Central

The accurate replication of genetic information is critical to maintaining chromosomal integrity. Cdc6 functions in the assembly of pre-replicative complexes and is specifically required to load the Mcm2-7 replicative helicase complex at replication origins. Cdc6 is targeted for protein degradation by multiple mechanisms in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, although only a single pathway and E3 ubiquitin ligase for Cdc6 has been identified, the SCFCdc4 (Skp1/Cdc53/F-box protein) complex. Notably, Cdc6 is unstable during the G1 phase of the cell cycle, but the ubiquitination pathway has not been previously identified. Using a genetic approach, we identified two additional E3 ubiquitin ligase components required for Cdc6 degradation, the F-box protein Dia2 and the Hect domain E3 Tom1. Both Dia2 and Tom1 control Cdc6 turnover during G1 phase of the cell cycle and act separately from SCFCdc4. Ubiquitination of Cdc6 is significantly reduced in dia2? and tom1? cells. Tom1 and Dia2 each independently immunoprecipitate Cdc6, binding to a C-terminal region of the protein. Tom1 and Dia2 cannot compensate for each other in Cdc6 degradation. Cdc6 and Mcm4 chromatin association is aberrant in tom1? and dia2? cells in G1 phase. Together, these results present evidence for a novel degradation pathway that controls Cdc6 turnover in G1 that may regulate pre-replicative complex assembly.

Kim, Dong-Hwan; Zhang, Wei; Koepp, Deanna M.

2012-01-01

332

Global Transport of Aerosol and CO: Initial 3-D Simulations of MAPS, TOMS, and AVHRR  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Carbon monoxide concentrations and aerosol properties provide the tracers of global tropospheric perturbation by humankind that are most easily observed from satellite platforms. Aircraft field observations are additionally needed for us to simulate and understand the patterns observed. We report on our accumulating experience in making detailed, situation-specific, 3-D simulations of these tropospheric constituents as observed from the MAPS CO sensor, the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) aerosol scattering data, and the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) absorbing-aerosol information. We have found a strong complimentarity of satellite and aircraft data in this effort, and recommend modelers use: (1) satellite data to pose initial questions; (2) aircraft data for modelers' first detailed simulations; and (3) a return to satellite data for global generalization. This work provides one example. Our main tools are the MM5 numerical model for meteorological assimilation and GRACES, our NASA Ames tracer-chemistry model, which incorporates emissions estimates. We report on several six-week simulations of global biomass burning effects as observed in the MAPS October 1994 dataset, and show the usefulness of two aircraft datasets, the TRACE-A (1992) and PEM-Tropics missions of NASA's Global Tropospheric Experiment. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

Chatfield, Robert B.; Li, Long; Hipskind, Stephen R. (Technical Monitor)

1997-01-01

333

Evidence of Stratosphere-to-Troposphere Transport Within a Mesoscale Model and TOMS Total Ozone  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present evidence for stratospheric mass transport into, and remaining in, the troposphere in an intense midlatitude cyclone. Mesoscale forecast model analysis fields from the Mesoscale Analysis and Prediction System (MAPS) were compared with total ozone observations from the Total Ozone Measurement Spectrometer (TOMS). Coupled with parcel back-trajectory calculations, the analyses suggest two mechanisms contributed to the mass exchange: (1) A region of dynamical ly-induced exchange occurred on the cyclone's southern edge. Parcels originally in the stratosphere crossed the jet core and experienced dilution by turbulent mixing with tropospheric air. (2) Diabatic effects reduced parcel potential vorticity (PV) for trajectories traversing precipitation regions, resulting in a "PV-hole" signature in the cyclone center. Air with lower-stratospheric values of ozone and water vapor was left in the troposphere. The strength of the latter process may be atypical. These results, combined with other research, suggest that precipitation-induced diabatic effects can significantly modify, (either decreasing or increasing) parcel potential vorticity, depending on parcel trajectory configuration with respect to jet core and maximum heating regions. In addition, these results underscore the importance of using not only PV but also chemical constituents for diagnoses of stratosphere-troposphere exchange (STE).

Olsen, Mark A.; Stanford, John L.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

334

Toms Creek IGCC Demonstration Project. Comprehensive report to Congress, Clean coal technology program  

SciTech Connect

In response to the PON, 33 proposals were received by DOE in May 1991. One of the nine is a project proposed by Tampella Power Corporation (Tampella) and Coastal Power Production Company (Coastal) for the design, construction, and operation of a pressurized, air-blown, fluidized-bed, integrated gasification, combined-cycle, (IGCC) demonstration project. The project, entitled the Toms Creek IGCC Demonstration Project, will consume 430 tons per day of bituminous coal and generate 55 megawatts (MK) of power for the electric grid and steam for use in a nearby coal preparation plant. The project site is located near Coeburn in Wise County, Virginia. The project, including the demonstration phase, will last 99 months at a total cost of $196,570,000. DOE`S share of the project cost will be 48.3%, or $95,000,000. The objective of the proposed project is to demonstrate an advanced IGCC system based upon the air-blown, pressurized fluidized-bed U-Gas gasifier developed by the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) with in-bed desulfurization using a calcium-based sorbent and an external zinc titanate sulfur removal system.

Not Available

1992-09-01

335

Ancient impact structures on modern continental shelves: The Chesapeake Bay, Montagnais, and Toms Canyon craters, Atlantic margin of North America  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three ancient impact craters (Chesapeake Bay—35.7 Ma; Toms Canyon—35.7 Ma; Montagnais—51 Ma) and one multiring impact basin (Chicxulub—65 Ma) are currently known to be buried beneath modern continental shelves. All occur on the passive Atlantic margin of North America in regions extensively explored by seismic reflection surveys in the search for oil and gas reserves. We limit our discussion herein to the three youngest structures. These craters were created by submarine impacts, which produced many structural and morphological features similar in construction, composition, and variability to those documented in well-preserved subaerial and planetary impact craters. The subcircular Chesapeake Bay (diameter 85 km) and ovate Montagnais (diameter 45-50 km) structures display outer-rim scarps, annular troughs, peak rings, inner basins, and central peaks similar to those incorporated in the widely cited conceptual model of complex impact craters. These craters differ in several respects from the model, however. For example, the Montagnais crater lacks a raised lip on the outer rim, the Chesapeake Bay crater displays only small remnants of a raised lip, and both craters contain an unusually thick body of impact breccia. The subtriangular Toms Canyon crater (diameter 20-22 km), on the other hand, contains none of the internal features of a complex crater, nor is it typical of a simple crater. It displays a prominent raised lip on the outer rim, but the lip is present only on the western side of the crater. In addition, each of these craters contains some distinct features, which are not present in one or both of the others. For example, the central peak at Montagnais rises well above the elevation of the outer rim, whereas at Chesapeake Bay, the outer rim is higher than the central peak. The floor of the Toms Canyon crater is marked by parallel deep troughs and linear ridges formed of sedimentary rocks, whereas at Chesapeake Bay, the crater floor contains concentric faults and compression ridges formed in rocks of the crystalline basement. The Chesapeake Bay crater is distinguished further by its cluster of at least 23 adjacent secondary craters. The North American tektite strewn field, a widespread deposit of distal ejecta, is thought to be derived from the Chesapeake Bay impact, perhaps with a small contribution from the Toms Canyon impact. No ejecta field is known to be associated with the Montagnais impact. No immediate major extinction event is directly linked to any of these three impacts. There is evidence, however, that the Chesapeake Bay and Toms Canyon impacts helped initiate a long-term pulse of warm global climate, whose eventual dissipation coincided with an early Oligocene mass extinction event, 2 Ma after the impacts.

Poag, C. Wylie; Plescia, Jeffrey B.; Molzer, Phillip C.

336

Earth's Orbit  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners draw a circle with a single focus, an ellipse with two foci close together, and an ellipse with two foci far apart, and compare the shapes. Learners then measure the Sun in four images each taken in a different season, comparing the apparent size of the Sun in each image to determine when Earth is closest to the Sun. This is the second activity in the SDO Secondary Learning Unit. The activity is reprinted with permission from the Great Explorations in Math and Science (GEMS).

337

Earth Gauge  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Earth Gauge is a free environmental information service for broadcast meteorologists in major U.S. media markets, based on the 3-5 day forecast. The service is designed to make it easy to talk about the links between weather and the environment on-air with simple "factoids" and viewer action tips. Teachers or students can browse an index of weather conditions, environmental impacts, and viewer action tips for many locations, organized by city, weather type, or environmental topic. There are also links to additional resources, including fact sheets and special features, imagery, video clips, and others.

338

Outer Planets/Solar Probe Project: Solar Probe  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Solar Probe, the first mission to the Sun and the third of three missions in NASA's Outer Solar System/Solar Probe Program, is a voyage of exploration, discovery, and comprehension. This near-Sun flyby will provide in situ measurements in the solar corona and high-resolution pictures and magnetograms of the photosphere and polar atmosphere. These measurements are also needed as "ground truth" for interpreting the many measurements of the Sun and solar activity that have been made from a distance of 1 AU. Solar Probe is scheduled for launch in February 2007. It will arrive at the Sun along a polar trajectory perpendicular to the Sun-Earth line with a perihelion of 4 solar radii (R(sub s)) from the Sun's center. Two perihelion passages will occur, the first in 2010 (near solar sunspot maximum) and the second in 2015 (near solar minimum) ensuring measurement of both coronal hole and streamer-related solar wind properties. To reach the Sun, probe must first fly to Jupiter and use a gravity assist to lose its angular momentum about the Sun. The imaging and in situ miniaturized instruments will provide the first 3-dimensional view of the corona, high spatial- and temporal-resolutions of the magnetic fields, and helioseismic measurements of the polar regions, as well as sporadic high-spatial-resolution local sampling of plasmas and fields at all latitudes.

Tsurutani, B. T.

2000-01-01

339

Earth Structure: Layers of the Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive Flash allows users to explore Earth's structure and processes that occur on Earth such as earthquakes and plate tectonics and how scientists know the composition and state of the Earth's layers. Interactive diagrams and animations with supplementary information make this a helpful overview or review for high school and undergraduate introductory-level courses in physical geology and Earth sciences.

Smoothstone; Mifflin, Houghton

340

Capacitance Probe Sensor Device.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A capacitance probe sensor device is disclosed which is a probe formed of KYNAR insulated wire spaced from an uninsulated metallic ground electrode. An oscillator and associated capacitance-resistance network connected to the probe serve to provide a line...

M. Gutierrez

1980-01-01

341

Functional Probes for Scanning Probe Microscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Functional probes for scanning probe microscopy (SPM) were fabricated with focused ion beam (FIB) method. Metal-tip cantilevers\\u000a were fabricated for Kelvin probe force microscopy (KFM) and glass-coated tungsten tips were fabricated for scanning tunneling\\u000a microscopy under irradiation of synchrotron-radiation light (SR-STM). Here we report the fabrication process and the characterization\\u000a of those functional probes.

K. Akiyama; T. Eguchi; Masayuki Hamada; T. An; Y. Fujikawa; Y. Hasegawa; Toshio Sakurai

2008-01-01

342

A New Method to Cross Calibrate and Validate TOMS, SBUV/2, and SCIAMACHY Measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A unique method to validate back scattered ultraviolet (buv) type satellite data that complements the measurements from existing ground networks is proposed. The method involves comparing the zenith sky radiance measurements from the ground to the nadir radiance measurements taken from space. Since the measurements are compared directly, the proposed method is superior to any other method that involves comparing derived products (for example, ozone), because comparison of derived products involve inversion algorithms which are susceptible to several type of errors. Forward radiative transfer (RT) calculations show that for an aerosol free atmosphere, the ground-based zenith sky radiance measurement and the satellite nadir radiance measurements can be predicted with an accuracy of better than 1 percent. The RT computations also show that for certain values of the solar zenith angles, the radiance comparisons could be better than half a percent. This accuracy is practically independent of ozone amount and aerosols in the atmosphere. Experiences with the Shuttle Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet (SSBUV) program show that the accuracy of the ground-based zenith sky radiance measuring instrument can be maintained at a level of a few tenth of a percent. This implies that the zenith sky radiance measurements can be used to validate Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS), Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet (SBUV/2), and The SCanning Imaging Absorption SpectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY (SCIAMACHY) radiance data. Also, this method will help improve the long term precision of the measurements for better trend detection and the accuracy of other BUV products such as tropospheric ozone and aerosols. Finally, in the long term, this method is a good candidate to inter-calibrate and validate long term observations of upcoming operational instruments such as Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME-2), Ozone Mapping Instrument (OMI), Ozone Dynamics Ultraviolet Spectrometer (ODUS), and Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite (OMPS).

Ahmad, Ziauddin; Hilsenrath, Ernest; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

343

TOMATOMA: a novel tomato mutant database distributing Micro-Tom mutant collections.  

PubMed

The tomato is an excellent model for studies of plants bearing berry-type fruits and for experimental studies of the Solanaceae family of plants due to its conserved genetic organization. In this study, a comprehensive mutant tomato population was generated in the background of Micro-Tom, a dwarf, rapid-growth variety. In this and previous studies, a family including 8,598 and 6,422 M(2) mutagenized lines was produced by ethylmethane sulfonate (EMS) mutagenesis and ?-ray irradiation, and this study developed and investigated these M(2) plants for alteration of visible phenotypes. A total of 9,183 independent M(2) families comprising 91,830 M(2) plants were inspected for phenotypic alteration, and 1,048 individual mutants were isolated. Subsequently, the observed mutant phenotypes were classified into 15 major categories and 48 subcategories. Overall, 1,819 phenotypic categories were found in 1,048 mutants. Of these mutants, 549 were pleiotropic, whereas 499 were non-pleiotropic. Multiple different mutant alleles per locus were found in the mutant libraries, suggesting that the mutagenized populations were nearly saturated. Additionally, genetic analysis of backcrosses indicated the successful inheritance of the mutations in BC(1)F(2) populations, confirming the reproducibility in the morphological phenotyping of the M(2) plants. To integrate and manage the visible phenotypes of mutants and other associated data, we developed the in silico database TOMATOMA, a relational system interfacing modules between mutant line names and phenotypic categories. TOMATOMA is a freely accessible database, and these mutant recourses are available through the TOMATOMA (http://tomatoma.nbrp.jp/index.jsp). PMID:21258066

Saito, Takeshi; Ariizumi, Tohru; Okabe, Yoshihiro; Asamizu, Erika; Hiwasa-Tanase, Kyoko; Fukuda, Naoya; Mizoguchi, Tsuyoshi; Yamazaki, Yukiko; Aoki, Koh; Ezura, Hiroshi

2011-02-01

344

Lower-Tropospheric Ozone (LTO) derived from TOMS near mountainous regions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) version-7 level-2 clear-sky (reflectivity ? 20%) ozone measurements corrected for aerosol effects and sea-glint errors, we derived Lower Tropospheric Ozone (LTO) west and east of the Andes, the Mexican and Rocky Mountains, the mountains in Africa and the Arabian Peninsula, New Guinea, and the Himalayan Mountains. The derived results agree reasonably well with the seasonality of LTO from ozonesonde observations at Boulder, Cristobal, Fiji, Java, and Tahiti. The LTO seasonality found in the biomass burning seasons characterized by the ATSR World Fire Atlas west and east of the Andes (23°S-2°N), east of the Mexican Mountains (15°-23°N), South Sudan (6°-14°N), South Africa (30°-28°S), and west of New Guinea is consistent with the influence of biomass burning on the formation of tropospheric ozone in these regions. The significant El Niño influence on LTO west of New Guinea is evident throughout several El Niño cycles. The spring maximum in ozone west of the Mexican Mountains, in western China, and west of the Andes (32°-23°S) is consistent with a stratospheric intrusion source. East of the Mexican Mountains (23°-30°N), both west and east of the Rocky Mountains, in north Sudan and Iraq, and in western China, high concentrations of ozone are found in these continental and coastal regions which are affected by anthropogenic sources. The maximum ozone in these regions usually occurs in the summer due to photochemical ozone production. A summer LTO minimum occurs in coastal regions west of the Andes and west of Mexico, due to ozone destruction in low NOx and high H2O marine environment. A summer minimum also occurs in south Sudan in the rainy season. The LTO in the northern tropics of South America (4°-10°N), Africa (1°S-2°N), and east of New Guinea (7°-3°S) experiences little seasonal variation.

Newchurch, M. J.; Liu, X.; Kim, J. H.

2001-01-01

345

Early evolution of a stratospheric volcanic eruption cloud as observed with TOMS and AVHRR  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This paper is a detailed study of remote sensing data from the total ozone mapping spectrometer (TOMS) and the advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) satellite detectors, of the 1982 eruption of El Chicho??n, Mexico. The volcanic cloud/atmosphere interactions in the first four days of this eruption were investigated by combining ultraviolet retrievals to estimate the mass of sulfur dioxide in the volcanic cloud [Krueger et al., 1995] with thermal infrared retrievals of the size, optical depth, and mass of fine-grained (1-10 ??m radius) volcanic ash [Wen and Rose, 1994]. Our study provides the first direct evidence of gravitational separation of ash from a stratospheric, gas-rich, plinian eruption column and documents the marked differences in residence times of volcanic ash and sulfur dioxide in volcanic clouds. The eruption column reached as high as 32 km [Carey and Sigurdsson, 1986] and was injected into an atmosphere with a strong wind shear, which allowed for an observation of the separation of sulfur dioxide and volcanic ash. The upper, more sulfur dioxide-rich part of the cloud was transported to the west in the stratosphere, while the fine-grained ash traveled to the south in the troposphere. The mass of sulfur dioxide released was estimated at 7.1 ?? 109 kg with the mass decreasing by approximately 4% 1 day after the peak. The mass of fine-grained volcanic ash detected was estimated at 6.5 ?? 109 kg, amounting to about 0.7% of the estimated mass of the ash which fell out in the mapped ash blanket close to the volcano. Over the following days, 98% of this remaining fine ash was removed from the volcanic cloud, and the effective radius of ash in the volcanic cloud decreased from about 8 ??m to about 4 ??m. Copyright 1999 by the American Geophysical Union.

Schneider, D. J.; Rose, W. I.; Coke, L. R.; Bluth, G. J. S.; Sprod, I. E.; Krueger, A. J.

1999-01-01

346

Telluride, Tom Cruise, and Land Use Codes: Science, Policy, and Community Response  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mountain areas throughout the western US have experienced a surge in popularity in the last decade, resulting in degradation of the resources that drew people to the area in the first place. Traditional economic interests, recreational users, and environmentalists all have opposing priorities. Thus, resource managers and planners face increasingly critical and controversial decisions regarding development and protection of watersheds. Best Management Practices (BMPs) are generally an attempt to improve land and water quality after degradation. Here we report on our work with local stakeholders in the San Miguel River drainage-home of Telluride Ski Area and Hollywood moguls such as Tom Cruise-to prevent degradation of headwater catchments while providing for reasonable economic and recreational activities. We developed new tools for resource managers by mapping landscape types and associated water quality parameters so as to develop sensitivity criteria that are displayed visually using GIS maps. Using these results, San Miguel County Commissioners adopted land use codes to restrict development, including an 800-sqft building footprint, and bans on septic systems and winter plowing. This case study lays the foundation for science-based policy at the catchment scale, but is dependent on local culture and politics. Preliminary fieldwork was conducted in the summer of 2003 as the first steps toward similar work in adjacent San Juan County, which has a strong mining heritage. The San Juan County Planning Commission identified priority basins for study, and extensive physical field surveys were conducted in these drainages to map spatial distribution and aerial extent of numerous landscape types. Again, water quality parameters will be associated with different land covers to enable alpine sensitivity analysis at the landscape unit scale. Results will be provided to the San Juan Planning Commission to augment current planning tools. However, because of the different political and cultural climates of the two counties, we show that policy outcomes that ensue in San Juan County will likely differ from those achieved in San Miguel County.

Raby, K. S.; Williams, M. W.

2003-12-01

347

Sulfur Earth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Variations in surface tension affect the buoyancy of objects floating in a liquid. Thus an object floating in water will sink deeper in the presence of dishwater fluid. This is a very minor but measurable effect. It causes for instance ducks to drown in aqueous solutions with added surfactant. The surface tension of liquid iron is very strongly affected by the presence of sulfur which acts as a surfactant in this system varying between 1.9 and 0.4 N/m at 10 mass percent Sulfur (Lee & Morita (2002), This last value is inferred to be the maximum value for Sulfur inferred to be present in the liquid outer core. Venting of Sulfur from the liquid core manifests itself on the Earth surface by the 105 to 106 ton of sulfur vented into the atmosphere annually (Wedepohl, 1984). Inspection of surface Sulfur emission indicates that venting is non-homogeneously distributed over the Earth's surface. The implication of such large variation in surface tension in the liquid outer core are that at locally low Sulfur concentration, the liquid outer core does not wet the predominantly MgSiO3 matrix with which it is in contact. However at a local high in Sulfur, the liquid outer core wets this matrix which in the fluid state has a surface tension of 0.4 N/m (Bansal & Doremus, 1986), couples with it, and causes it to sink. This differential and diapiric movement is transmitted through the essentially brittle mantle (1024 Pa.s, Lambeck & Johnson, 1998; the maximum value for ice being about 1030 Pa.s at 0 K, in all likely hood representing an upper bound of viscosity for all materials) and manifests itself on the surface by the roughly 20 km differentiation, about 0.1 % of the total mantle thickness, between topographical heights and lows with concomitant lateral movement in the crust and upper mantle resulting in thin skin tectonics. The brittle nature of the medium though which this movement is transmitted suggests that the extremes in topography of the D" layer are similar in range to those observed on the Earth's surface and are mimicked by lows under the oceans and highs under the altiplanos. Careful and area selective S wave core mantle ellipsometry might be able to discern these core-mantle topographic variations. As such this process demonstrates the validity of the Gaia hypothesis enunciated by Baas Becking(1931) that no ecological niche on our planet is closed off from other niches "nothing in the world is single".

de Jong, B. H.

2007-12-01

348

From frozen Super Earth to habitable Earth via microlensing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the last fifteen years, astronomers have found over 415 exoplanets including some in systems that resemble our very own solar system. These discoveries have already challenged and revolutionized our theories of planet formation and dynamical evolution. Several different methods have been used to discover exoplanets, including radial velocity, stellar transits, direct imaging, pulsar timing, astrometry, and gravitational microlensing which is based on Einstein's theory of general relativity. So far 10 exoplanets have been published with this method. While this number is relatively modest compared with that discovered by the radial velocity method, microlensing probes a part of the parameter space (host separation vs. planet mass) not accessible in the medium term to other methods. The mass distribution of microlensing exoplanets has already revealed that cold super-Earths (at or beyond the "snow line" and with a mass of around 5 to 15 Earth mass appear to be common (Beaulieu et al., 2006, Gould et al., 2006, Sumi et al. 2010) . We detected a scale 1/2 model of our solar system (Gaudi et al., 2008), several hot Neptunes/Super Earth, shown that our detection efficiencies extends to 1 Earth mass planets (Batista et al., 2009). We have made the first measurement of the frequency of ice and gas giants beyond the snow line, and have shown that this is about 7 times higher than closer-in systems probed by the Doppler method (Gould et al. 2010). This comparison provides strong evidence that most giant planets do not migrate very far (Gould et al. 2010). Microlensing is currently capable of detecting cool planets of super-Earth mass from the ground (and on favourable circumstances down to 1 Earth), with a network of wide-field telescopes strategically located around the world, could routinely detect planets with mass as low as the Earth. I will stress the importance of high angular resolution using adaptive optics on 8m class telescopes during microlensing events in order to nail down the physical parameters of the star and planet systems to 10%.

Beaulieu, J.-P.; Fouqué, P.; Batista, V.; Cassan, A.; Coutures, C.; Kubas, D.; Marquette, J.-B.

2010-10-01

349

Magnetic, fluorescent, and thermo-responsive Fe(3)O(4)/rare earth incorporated poly(St-NIPAM) core-shell colloidal nanoparticles in multimodal optical/magnetic resonance imaging probes.  

PubMed

Multifunctional colloidal nanoparticles which exhibit fluorescence, superparamagnetism, and thermosensitivity are produced by two step seed emulsifier-free emulsion polymerization in the presence of oleic acid (OA) and sodium undecylenate (NaUA) modified Fe(3)O(4) nanoparticles. In the first step, St and NIPAM polymerize the NaUA on the surface of Fe(3)O(4) nanoparticles to form Fe(3)O(4)/poly(St-NIPAM) nanoparticles which act as seeds for the polymerization of Eu(AA)(3)Phen with the remaining St and NIPAM in the second step to form an outer fluorescent layer. The core-shell composite nanoparticles show reversible dimensional changes in response to external temperature stimuli. Fluorescence spectra acquired from the composites exhibit characteristic emission peaks of Eu(3+) at 594 and 619 nm and vivid red luminescence can be observed by 2-photon confocal scanning laser microscopy (CLSM). In vitro cytotoxicity tests based on the MTT assay demonstrate good cytocompatibility and the composites also possess paramagnetic properties with a maximum saturation magnetization of 6.45 emu/g and high transverse relaxivity rates (r(2)) of 411.78 mM(-1) s(-1). In vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies show significant liver and spleen contrast with relative signal intensity reduction of about 86% 10 min after intravenous injection of the composites. These intriguing properties suggest that these nanocarriers have large clinical potential as multimodal optical/MRI probes. PMID:23274069

Zhu, Haie; Tao, Juan; Wang, Wenhao; Zhou, Yingjie; Li, Penghui; Li, Zheng; Yan, Kai; Wu, Shuilin; Yeung, Kelvin W K; Xu, Zushun; Xu, Haibo; Chu, Paul K

2013-03-01

350

Observations of triboelectric charging effects on Langmuir-type probes in dusty plasma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigation of Earth's mesosphere using sounding rockets equipped with a myriad of instruments has been a highly active field in the last 2 decades. This paper presents data from three separate instruments: an RF impedance probe, a DC fixed bias Langmuir probe, and an electric field probe, that were flown on a mesospheric sounding rocket flight investigating the presence of

Aroh Barjatya; Charles M. Swenson

2006-01-01

351

Earth-Sun Geometry - Earth Revolution Animation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The representation is an animation of the Earth revolving around the sun. The Earth is shown as a solid green sphere with the equator and arctic circle marked with black lines and the dark side of the Earth shaded. The Earth's axis is shown with a red line. As the Earth revolves around the sun, the axis is shown to always be pointing in the same direction. The positions of Earth at the winter solstice, vernal equinox, summer solstice, and autumnal equinox are labeled.

Pidwirny, Michael; Okanagan, Scott J.

352

The influence of alkaline earth ions on the structural organization of acetone probed by the noncoincidence effect of the nu(C=O) band: experimental and quantum chemical results.  

PubMed

We have investigated the Raman noncoincidence effect (NCE = nu(aniso)-nu(iso), where nu(aniso) and nu(iso) are the anisotropic and the isotropic Raman frequencies) of the nu(C=O) band of acetone arising from the interactions of this solvent with the metal ions in acetone electrolytic solutions of alkaline earth metal (Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba) perchlorates. Assisted by the results of ab initio molecular orbital (MO) calculations carried out at the Hartree-Fock (HF) level with the 6-31+G(2df,p) and LanL2DZ basis sets, we have been able to attribute the anisotropic and isotropic components of this band to the formation of acetone-metal ion clusters, (acetone)(n)M(2+), and to interpret its high and negative NCE, opposed to the positive NCE of the bulk liquid, as the consequence of the large separation between the higher frequency of the in-phase mode (active in the Raman isotropic spectrum) and the lower (average) frequency of the n- 1 out-of-phase modes (predominantly active in the Raman anisotropic spectrum). The negative sign of the NCE is compatible with the transition dipole coupling (TDC) mechanism. The comparison between the observed NCE for each electrolytic solution at the concentrations used in this study and those calculated for the different solvation numbers n of each (acetone)(n)M(2+)cluster gives a clear indication of the highest stability of the hexa-coordinated cluster for the Mg(2+) ion, but leaving uncertain (n = 6 or 8) this conclusion for the acetone clusters of the remaining M(2+) ions. We have interpreted the observed and calculated decrease of the magnitude of NCE with the ion size through the ion polarizing power in the light of the ion effective charge and its distance (M(2+)...O=C) from the C=O oscillators. PMID:20024458

Giorgini, Maria Grazia; Torii, Hajime; Musso, Maurizio

2010-01-01

353

Hydrodynamic ultrasonic probe  

SciTech Connect

An improved probe is disclosed for in-service ultrasonic inspection of long lengths of a workpiece, such as small diameter tubing from the interior. The improved probe utilizes a conventional transducer or transducers configured to inspect the tubing for flaws and/or wall thickness variations. The probe utilizes a hydraulic technique, in place of the conventional mechanical guides or bushings, which allows the probe to move rectilinearly or rotationally while preventing cocking thereof in the tube and provides damping vibration of the probe. The probe thus has lower friction and higher inspection speed than presently known probes. 3 figs.

Day, R.A.; Conti, A.E.

1980-02-26

354

Exploring Saturn With Shallow Probes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Entry probe missions to the outer planets are essential to constrain models of solar system formation and the origin and evolution of atmospheres, to provide a basis for comparative studies of the gas and ice giants, and to provide a valuable link to extrasolar planetary systems. It is within the deep, well-mixed atmospheres and interiors of the giant planets that material from the epoch of solar system formation can be found, providing clues to the local chemical and physical conditions existing at the time and location at which each planet formed. The giant planets therefore offer a laboratory for studying the atmospheric chemistries, dynamics, and interiors of all the planets, including Earth. A shallow entry probe mission to Saturn carrying a Neutral Mass Spectrometer, Atmospheric Structure Instrument, and ultrastable oscillator can provide the composition, structure, and dynamics of Saturn's upper troposphere. The key measurement for a Saturn probe mission is the composition of the well-mixed atmosphere below the cloud layers, including the heavy elements C, N, O, and S, the noble gases He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe and their isotopes, isotope ratios 15N/14N, 13C/12C and D/H, and disequilibrium species such as PH3, AsH3, GeH4 as tracers of internal processes. A precise determination of the helium abundance is required for the formation models. Moreover, helium sedimentation could provide significant indigenous energy at Saturn, thus a measurement of the He abundance in Saturn's atmosphere and its comparison with the value at Jupiter determined by the Galileo Probe is important for understanding the process of internal heat generation in the gas giant planets. All of above species can be accessed and measured by entry probes at pressures less than 10 bars at Saturn, with the exception of oxygen whose gradient with depth can be determined from H2O.

Atkinson, David H.; Spilker, T. R.; Reh, K.; Atreya, S. K.; Balint, T. S.; Beebe, R.; Colaprete, A.; Mahaffy, P.

2010-10-01

355

Earth Science Lessons  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collection of Earth Science lessons, tests, and activities for middle school students is an accompaniment to the Volcano World website. Topics covered include plate tectonics, Pangea, plate movement, Earth layers, earthquakes, volcanoes, rocks and minerals, and prehistoric Earth.

Johnson, Scott

356

Earth and Space  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In earth and space science, students study the origin, structure, and physical phenomena of the earth and the universe. Earth and space science studies include concepts in geology, meteorology, oceanography, and astronomy.

K-12 Outreach,

357

Exploring Magnetism on Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This teacher's guide contains four lessons that provide a way for teachers to introduce students to and elaborate on Earth's changing magnetic field. It covers learning to navigate using Earth's magnetic field and compass, Earth's magnetic pole and its motion across Earth's surface, magnetic reversals on Earth, and Earth's currently declining magnetic field. These lessons have been taught primarily in math, geology, and astronomy classes.

2005-01-01

358

Monitoring Physiological Variables with Membrane Probes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This project has demonstrated the possibility of using membrane probes in rodents to monitor physiological variables for extended periods of time. The utility of these probes in physiological studies of microgravity has been demonstrated. The feasibility of developing on-line sensors has also been demonstrated and allows for the possibility of developing real-time automated monitoring systems which can be used in ground-base physiological research as well as in research and medical monitoring in space. In addition to space applications these techniques can be extended to medical monitoring in critical care situations on earth as well as facilitating research in many human and animal diseases.

Janle, Elsa M.

1997-01-01

359

The Hect domain E3 ligase Tom1 and the F-box protein Dia2 control Cdc6 degradation in G1 phase.  

PubMed

The accurate replication of genetic information is critical to maintaining chromosomal integrity. Cdc6 functions in the assembly of pre-replicative complexes and is specifically required to load the Mcm2-7 replicative helicase complex at replication origins. Cdc6 is targeted for protein degradation by multiple mechanisms in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, although only a single pathway and E3 ubiquitin ligase for Cdc6 has been identified, the SCF(Cdc4) (Skp1/Cdc53/F-box protein) complex. Notably, Cdc6 is unstable during the G(1) phase of the cell cycle, but the ubiquitination pathway has not been previously identified. Using a genetic approach, we identified two additional E3 ubiquitin ligase components required for Cdc6 degradation, the F-box protein Dia2 and the Hect domain E3 Tom1. Both Dia2 and Tom1 control Cdc6 turnover during G(1) phase of the cell cycle and act separately from SCF(Cdc4). Ubiquitination of Cdc6 is significantly reduced in dia2? and tom1? cells. Tom1 and Dia2 each independently immunoprecipitate Cdc6, binding to a C-terminal region of the protein. Tom1 and Dia2 cannot compensate for each other in Cdc6 degradation. Cdc6 and Mcm4 chromatin association is aberrant in tom1? and dia2? cells in G(1) phase. Together, these results present evidence for a novel degradation pathway that controls Cdc6 turnover in G(1) that may regulate pre-replicative complex assembly. PMID:23129771

Kim, Dong-Hwan; Zhang, Wei; Koepp, Deanna M

2012-12-28

360

Detecting Solar Axions Using Earth's Magnetic Field  

SciTech Connect

We show that solar axion conversion to photons in the Earth's magnetosphere can produce an x-ray flux, with average energy <{omega}>{approx_equal}4 keV, which is measurable on the dark side of the Earth. The smallness of the Earth's magnetic field is compensated by a large magnetized volume. For axion masses m{sub a}(less-or-similar sign)10{sup -4} eV, a low-Earth-orbit x-ray detector with an effective area of 10{sup 4} cm{sup 2}, pointed at the solar core, can probe the photon-axion coupling down to 10{sup -11} GeV{sup -1}, in 1 yr. Thus, the sensitivity of this new approach will be an order of magnitude beyond current laboratory limits.

Davoudiasl, Hooman; Huber, Patrick [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)

2006-10-06

361

Detecting solar axions using Earth's magnetic field.  

PubMed

We show that solar axion conversion to photons in the Earth's magnetosphere can produce an x-ray flux, with average energy omega approximately 4 keV, which is measurable on the dark side of the Earth. The smallness of the Earth's magnetic field is compensated by a large magnetized volume. For axion masses m(a) less, similar10(-4) eV, a low-Earth-orbit x-ray detector with an effective area of 10(4) cm(2), pointed at the solar core, can probe the photon-axion coupling down to 10(-11) GeV-1, in 1 yr. Thus, the sensitivity of this new approach will be an order of magnitude beyond current laboratory limits. PMID:17155238

Davoudiasl, Hooman; Huber, Patrick

2006-10-01

362

Availability of Micro-Tom mutant library combined with TILLING in molecular breeding of tomato fruit shelf-life  

PubMed Central

Novel mutant alleles of an ethylene receptor Solanum lycopersicum ETHYLENE RESPONSE1 (SlETR1) gene, Sletr1-1 and Sletr1-2, were isolated from the Micro-Tom mutant library by TILLING in our previous study. They displayed different levels of impaired fruit ripening phenotype, suggesting that these alleles could be a valuable breeding material for improving shelf life of tomato fruit. To conduct practical use of the Sletr1 alleles in tomato breeding, genetic complementation analysis by transformation of genes carrying each allele is required. In this study, we generated and characterized transgenic lines over-expressing Sletr1-1 and Sletr1-2. All transgenic lines displayed ethylene insensitive phenotype and ripening inhibition, indicating that Sletr1-1 and Sletr1-2 associate with the ethylene insensitive phenotype. The level of ethylene sensitivity in the seedling was different between Sletr1-1 and Sletr1-2 transgenic lines, whereas no apparent difference was observed in fruit ripening phenotype. These results suggested that it is difficult to fine-tune the extent of ripening by transgenic approach even if the weaker allele (Sletr1-2) was used. Our present and previous studies indicate that the Micro-Tom mutant library combined with TILLING could be an efficient tool for exploring genetic variations of important agronomic traits in tomato breeding.

Okabe, Yoshihiro; Asamizu, Erika; Ariizumi, Tohru; Shirasawa, Kenta; Tabata, Satoshi; Ezura, Hiroshi

2012-01-01

363

Fusion of SeaWiFS and TOMS satellite data with surface observations and topographic data during extreme aerosol events.  

PubMed

Spaceborne sensors allow near-continuous aerosol monitoring throughout the world. This paper illustrates the fusion of Sea-Viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor (SeaWiFS) and TOMS satellite data with surface observations and topographic data during four extreme aerosol events: (1) the April 1998 Asian dust storm that impacted the west coast of North America, (2) the May 1998 Central American forest fire smoke that impacted eastern North America, (3) the intense fall 1999 northern California fires, and (4) the massive February 2000 Sahara dust storm. During these dust and smoke events, the aerosol was visualized on true color SeaWiFS images as a distinct yellowish dye, the result of the aerosol increasing the reflectance of darker surfaces (ocean and land) and decreasing the reflectance of clouds. TOMS imagery also indicated increased aerosol absorption in the affected areas, while surface monitors measured major reductions in visual range. Fusing these data aids in the determination of the aerosol's spatial, temporal, and optical properties and provides supporting evidence for characterizing what is being visualized as dust or smoke. A 3-dimensional perspective of the events is obtained when incorporating topographic data and provides insight into the vertical properties of the aerosol plumes. PMID:11720105

Falke, S R; Husar, R B; Schichtel, B A

2001-11-01

364

Mapping of Micro-Tom BAC-End Sequences to the Reference Tomato Genome Reveals Possible Genome Rearrangements and Polymorphisms  

PubMed Central

A total of 93,682 BAC-end sequences (BESs) were generated from a dwarf model tomato, cv. Micro-Tom. After removing repetitive sequences, the BESs were similarity searched against the reference tomato genome of a standard cultivar, “Heinz 1706.” By referring to the “Heinz 1706” physical map and by eliminating redundant or nonsignificant hits, 28,804 “unique pair ends” and 8,263 “unique ends” were selected to construct hypothetical BAC contigs. The total physical length of the BAC contigs was 495, 833, 423?bp, covering 65.3% of the entire genome. The average coverage of euchromatin and heterochromatin was 58.9% and 67.3%, respectively. From this analysis, two possible genome rearrangements were identified: one in chromosome 2 (inversion) and the other in chromosome 3 (inversion and translocation). Polymorphisms (SNPs and Indels) between the two cultivars were identified from the BLAST alignments. As a result, 171,792 polymorphisms were mapped on 12 chromosomes. Among these, 30,930 polymorphisms were found in euchromatin (1 per 3,565?bp) and 140,862 were found in heterochromatin (1 per 2,737?bp). The average polymorphism density in the genome was 1 polymorphism per 2,886?bp. To facilitate the use of these data in Micro-Tom research, the BAC contig and polymorphism information are available in the TOMATOMICS database.

Asamizu, Erika; Shirasawa, Kenta; Hirakawa, Hideki; Sato, Shusei; Tabata, Satoshi; Yano, Kentaro; Ariizumi, Tohru; Shibata, Daisuke; Ezura, Hiroshi

2012-01-01

365

Fine-Scale Comparison of TOMS Total Ozone Data with Model Analysis of an Intense Midwestern Cyclone  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High-resolution (approx. 40 km) along-track total column ozone data from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) instrument are compared with a high-resolution mesoscale numerical model analysis of an intense cyclone in the Midwestern United States. Total ozone increased by 100 DU (nearly 38%) as the TOMS instrument passed over the associated tropopause fold region. Complex structure is seen in the meteorological fields and compares well with the total ozone observations. Ozone data support the meteorological analysis showing that stratospheric descent was confined to levels above approx. 600 hPa; significant positive potential vorticity at lower levels is attributable to diabetic processes. Likewise, meteorological fields show that two pronounced ozone streamers extending north and northeastward into Canada at high levels are not bands of stratospheric air feeding into the cyclone; one is a channel of exhaust downstream from the system, and the other apparently previously connected the main cyclonic circulation to a southward intrusion of polar stratospheric air and advected eastward as the cut-off cyclone evolved. Good agreement between small-scale features in the model output and total ozone data underscores the latter's potential usefulness in diagnosing upper tropospheric/lower stratospheric dynamics and kinematics.

Olsen, Mark A.; Gallus, William A., Jr.; Stanford, John L.; Brown, John M.

2000-01-01

366

Continental Effects of 2004 Alaskan Fires (WMS)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Wildfires started by lightning burned more than 80,000 acres in Alaska in June 2004. The effects of these fires can be seen across North America with the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) instrument on the Earth Probe spacecraft. TOMS detects the presence of UV-absorbing tropospheric aerosols across the globe.

Delabeaujardiere, Jeff; Newman, Paul; Bhartia, Pawan

2005-03-14

367

UV 380 nm Reflectivity of the Earth's Surface  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The 380 nm radiance measurements of TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) have been converted into a global data set of daily (1979 to 1992) Lambert equivalent reflectivities R of the Earth's surface and boundary layer (clouds, aerosols, surface haze, and snow/ice). Since UV surface reflectivity is between 2 and 8% for both land and water during all seasons of the year (except for ice and snow cover), reflectivities larger than the surface value indicates the presence of clouds, haze, or aerosols in the satellite field of view. Statistical analysis of 14 years of daily data show that most snow/ice-free regions of the Earth have their largest fraction of days each year when the reflectivity is low (R less than 10%). The 380 nm reflectivity data shows that the true surface reflectivity is 2 to 3% lower than the most frequently occurring reflectivity value for each TOMS scene. The most likely cause of this could be a combination of frequently occurring boundary-layer water or aerosol haze. For most regions, the observation of extremely clear conditions needed to estimate the surface reflectivity from space is a comparatively rare occurrence. Certain areas (e.g., Australia, southern Africa, portions of northern Africa) are cloud-free more than 80% of the year, which exposes these regions to larger amounts of UV radiation than at comparable latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere. Regions over rain-forests, jungle areas, Europe and Russia, the bands surrounding the Arctic and Antarctic regions, and many ocean areas have significant cloud cover (R greater than 15%) more than half of each year. In the low to middle latitudes, the areas with the heaviest cloud cover (highest reflectivity for most of the year) are the forest areas of northern South America, southern Central America, the jungle areas of equatorial Africa, and high mountain regions such as the Himalayas or the Andes. The TOMS reflectivity data show the presence of large nearly clear ocean areas and the effects of the major ocean currents on cloud production.

Herman, J. R.; Celarier, E.; Larko, D.

2000-01-01

368

Lessons learned from planetary entry probe missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Probing the atmospheres and surfaces of the planets and their moons with fast moving entry probes has been a very useful and essential technique to obtain in situ or quasi in situ scientific data (ground truth) which could not otherwise be obtained from fly by or orbiter only missions and where balloon, aircraft or lander missions are too complex and too costly. Planetary entry probe missions have been conducted successfully on Venus, Mars, Jupiter and Titan after having been first demonstrated in the Earth's atmosphere. Future planetary missions should also include more entry probe missions back to Venus and to the outer planets. The success of and science returns from past missions, the need for more and unique data, and a continuously advancing technology generate confidence that future missions will be even more successful with respect to science return and technical performance. There are, however, unique challenges associated with entry probe missions and with building instruments for an entry probe, as compared to orbiters, landers, or rovers. Conditions during atmospheric entry are extreme. There are operating time constraints due to the usually short duration of the probe descent, and the instruments experience rapid environmental changes in temperature and pressure. In addition, there are resource limitations, i.e. mass, power, size and bandwidth. Because of the protective heat shield and the high acceleration the probe experiences during entry, the ratio of payload to total probe mass is usually much smaller than in other missions. Finally, the demands on the instrument design are determined in large part by conditions (pressure, temperature, composition) unique to the particular body under study, and as a result, there is no one-size-fits-all instrument for an atmospheric probe. Many of these requirements are more easily met by miniaturizing the probe instrumentation and consequently reducing the required size of the probe. Improved heat shield technology will also play an important role. The emergence over the past twenty years of Micro-electro-mechanical Systems (MEMS), utilizing lithographic semiconductor fabrication techniques to produce instrument systems in miniature, holds great promise for application to spaceflight. For example, a highly miniaturized, high performance and low-power gas chromatograph mass spectrometer would enormously benefit entry probe missions, allowing, for example, parallel measurements (e.g., multiple simultaneous gas chromatographic and direct atmospheric measurements). Such an instrument would also enable mass spectrometry on board small multiple entry probes. The challenge facing us in the development of MEMS based instruments is to move beyond the proof-of-concept, where research dollars tend to focus, and carry out the detailed work of developing high performance flight instrument systems on a chip which reach the required high technical readiness level for space flight.

Niemann, Hasso; Atreya, Sushil K.; Kasprzak, Wayne

369

Saturn Science from Entry Probes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data from atmospheric entry probe missions at the giant planets could uniquely discriminate between competing theories of solar system formation and the origin and evolution of the giant planets and their atmospheres, providing for valuable comparative studies of giant planets as well as providing a laboratory for studying the atmospheric chemistries, dynamics, and interiors of all the planets including Earth. The giant planets also represent a valuable link to extrasolar planetary systems. For these reasons, a Saturn Probe mission with a shallow probe is ranked by the recent U.S. Planetary Science Decadal Survey as a high priority for a New Frontiers class mission. Atmospheric constituents needed to constrain theories of solar system formation and the origin and evolution of the giant planets could be accessed and sampled by shallow entry probes. Many important constituents are either spectrally inactive or are beneath an atmospheric overburden that is optically thick at useful wavelengths and are therefore not remotely accessible by flyby or orbiting spacecraft. A small, scientifically focused shallow entry probe mission could make critical abundance measurements of key constituents, and could measure profiles of atmospheric structure and dynamics at a vertical resolution that is significantly higher than could be achieved by remote sensing techniques. The Galileo mission began the detailed study of the solar system's two gas giants by dropping an entry probe into the atmosphere of Jupiter and deploying an orbiter around Jupiter. In 2016-2017 the Juno mission will make measurements of Jupiter's deep oxygen abundance, and gravitational and magnetic fields. In the same epoch, the Cassini orbiter is planned to pursue a set of Juno-like orbits to make comparable gravitational and magnetic field measurements of Saturn. A Saturn atmospheric entry probe would complete the quartet of missions needed for a comparative study of the two gas giants, leading to improved models of solar system formation. A highly focused entry probe mission at Saturn carrying a minimal science payload could address unique and critical science while fitting within existing program budget caps. Fundamental measurements include abundances of the noble gases He, Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe and, abundances of key isotopic ratios 4He/3He, D/H, 15N/14N, 18O/16O, and 13C/12C. Detection of disequilibrium species CO, PH3, AsH3, and GeH4 is diagnostic of deeper internal processes and dynamics of the atmosphere along the probe descent. Abundances of these key constituents, as well as carbon which does not condense at Saturn, sulfur which is expected to be well-mixed below the 4 to 5-bar ammonium hydrosulfide (NH4SH) cloud, and gradients of nitrogen below the NH4SH cloud and oxygen in the upper layers of the H2O and H2O-NH4 solution cloud, could be measured by an entry probe descending through 10 bars. In concert with the results from Galileo, Cassini, and Juno, a shallow Saturn probe capable of measuring abundances of key constituents not accessible by a remote sensing mission would provide critical measurements enabling a comparison of composition and dynamical processes on the giant planets while also providing an improved context for understanding exoplanets.

Atkinson, David H.; Coustenis, Athena; Lunine, Jonathan; Simon-Miller, Amy; Atreya, Sushil; Brinckerhoff, William; Colaprete, Anthony; Guillot, Tristan; Mahaffy, Paul; Reh, Kim; Spilker, Linda; Spilker, Tom; Webster, Chris

2013-04-01

370

Hydrodynamic ultrasonic probe  

SciTech Connect

An improved probe for in-service ultrasonic inspection of long lengths of a workpiece, such as small diameter tubing from the interior, utilizes a conventional transducer or transducers configured to inspect the tubing for flaws and/or wall thickness variations. The probe utilizes a hydraulic technique, in place of the conventional mechanical guides or bushings, which allows the probe to move rectilinearly or rotationally while preventing cocking thereof in the tube and provides damping vibration of the probe. The probe thus has lower friction and higher inspection speed than presently known probes.

Day, R.A.; Conti, A.E.

1980-02-26

371

Hekla's February 26, 2000 Eruption as seen and Measured from Space using MODIS, TOMS and AVHRR.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 26 February eruption started at 1819 UT. Like other Hekla events, it had a brief explosive phase which reached a seismic intensity peak after about one hour, producing a volcanic cloud that reached 11 km high. The explosive eruption then declined in intensity and a lava eruption continued from fissure vents for several days (Smithsonian GVN Bulletin). AVHRR (1945, 2125 UT) and MODIS (2100 UT) thermal IR data depict a cold (-70 C) plume with strong signal of ice during the explosive phase. The earliest (1945 UT) image has a core region with a weak volcanic ash signal and high optical depth (>2) and represents the only signal of ash found in 18 AVHRR and 6 MODIS images studied over the next 36 hours as the ice-rich volcanic cloud was tracked to the N and NNE of Iceland. The ice masses in the drifting cloud, retrieved from IR data, peak at about 100 kT 10 hours after eruption and then decline to less than 20 kT after 35 hours. SO2 masses estimated in the cloud about 17 hours after eruption were about 100 kT, while the total volume of tephra and lava erupted for the entire eruption was about 0.11 km3. We also can measure the SO2 signal with MODIS, where the ice signal complicates our results. MODIS IR retrievals yield a peak SO2 burden of 18 g m2. Multispectral MODIS IR data can be used to estimate the sulfate mass in the Hekla cloud at 1-4 kT throughout the 36 hour period. TOMS AI data also do not show an ash signal [Krotkov et al, 2000, EOS Transactions 81 (48) F1277]. We interpret the Hekla cloud to be ash-poor and gas (H2O and SO2) rich, perhaps the result of an early gas-rich explosion as carefully described by S Thorarinsson (1967, Visindafelag Islendinga, Reykjavik) for the 1947 eruption, observed from the ground during excellent visibility. Overall our results portray the stratospheric injection of an ash-poor volcanic cloud, generated in the very early stages of a small volume basaltic andesite eruption. The results compare well with previous Hekla eruptions, but the satellite detectors provide a new tool to measure from above. An unintentional aircraft encounter with an atmospheric research aircraft [Miller et al, 2000, EOS Transactions 81 (48) F1277] provided data to potentially validate SO2 and particles. The damage inflicted on the plane is consistent with volcanic ash as is aerosol particle detector data which includes significant "non volatile" aerosol. Thus there is apparently ash that was undetected by both the IR and UV detectors.

Rose, W. I.; Bluth, G. J.; Watson, I. M.; Yu, T.; Gu, Y.

2001-12-01

372

Why Earth Science?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article briefly describes Earth science. The study of Earth science provides the foundation for an understanding of the Earth, its processes, its resources, and its environment. Earth science is the study of the planet in its entirety, how its lithosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere work together as systems and how they affect…

Smith, Michael J.

2004-01-01

373

Crew Earth Observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Crew Earth Observations (CEO) takes advantage of the crew in space to observe and photograph natural and human-made changes on Earth. The photographs record the Earth's surface changes over time, along with dynamic events such as storms, floods, fires and volcanic eruptions. These images provide researchers on Earth with key data to better understand the planet.

Runco, Susan

2009-01-01

374

A computer program for the determination of the solar risk in Argentina by dermatologists employing NASA TOMS satellite ozone data as a key geophysical variable  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The connection between skin cancer and solar ultraviolet radiation has been well documented (i.e., UNEP report "Environmental Effects of Ozone Depletion. 1998 Assessment"). In this work wepresent a computer software that can be used by dermatologists for determining the risk of persons that are exposed to solar UV radiation incident in Argentina, a country largely extended from low (tropical) to high southern hemisphere latitudes. In particular, its spectral distribution weighted by the CIE standard erythemal action spectrum and integrated in wavelength usually called "erythemal irradiance", is calculated including the following geophysical variables: ozone, solar elevation, Sun-Earth distance, altitude, aerosol and albedo. Other variables that have less influence in the final results are the vertical ozone, aerosol, pressure and temperature profiles, the extraterrestrial spectral solar UV irradiance and the ozone photoabsorption cross section. The ozone total column was obtained from the corresponding seasonal and latitudinal climatological NASA TOMS satellite data, including monthly averages, standard deviations and tendencies for the particular geographical situation of Argentina. The program considers also the different skin types, in order to determine the skin risk without or with a sunscreen protection at each moment of the day and for different days of the year. We present the program output for typical examples of persons exposed in extreme conditions, like in the high altitude tropical Puna of Atacama desert in the North- West, or when the ozone hole event overpasses Ushuaia in the South, as well as in Buenos Aires, the largest populated city in the country and one of the megacities of the world. The availability of a large satellite ozone data set gives us the possibility to make a clear sky day solar risk forecast for all the year, that can be applied in all places of the country. This work was made possible through a collaboration between the Argentina Skin Cancer Foundation, the Institute of Physics Rosario (CONICET - National University of Rosario) and the Institute of Medical Physics of the University of Innsbruck, Austria. With this support and the work of physicians and physicists, now dermatologists as well as health authorities and educators can make a reliable (scientific) prediction of the risk due to solar exposure, in order to prevent health problems induced by solar UV radiation.

Piacentini, R.; Cede, A.; Luccini, E.; Stengel, F.

375

Flattening Earth acceleration in atomic fountains  

SciTech Connect

A method to compensate for Earth's gravity tide over an extended axial region is reported. Flattening acceleration is important in experiments where the coupling of the dynamics of free-falling probes to the gravity gradient generates stochastic noise on the measurement. Optimized cylindrically symmetric mass distributions lower Earth's tidal effect over 10 cm by a factor 10{sup 3}. A multimass compensation system with comparable performance is devised for tall atom interferometers. Reducing the gravity gradient is essential in terrestrial experiments based on atom fountain configurations being developed to precisely test general relativity or the neutrality of matter.

Bertoldi, Andrea [Laboratoire Charles Fabry de l'Institut d'Optique, Univ. Paris Sud, Campus Polytechnique RD128, F-91127 Palaiseau (France)

2010-07-15

376

Earth Observatory Glossary  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Earth Observatory Glossary defines words from space science, ecology and Earth science. It is part of the NASA Earth Observatory site, which provides new satellite imagery and scientific information about Earth with a focus on climate and environmental change. The new glossary mode allows users to browse the Earth Observatory site with special terms highlighted that, when selected, will take you to the appropriate entry in the glossary.

377

Introduction to corrosion probes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dow Chemical USA's introduction to corrosion-probe technology briefly summarizes existing industrial probe systems, how they work, and their applications. Dow describes the principal characteristics and functions of linear-polarization and electrical-resistance corrosion probes. Linear probes measure the potential of a test vs. a reference electrode and apply 10, 15, or 20 mV positive or negative overpotential to the test electrode by

Macki

1977-01-01

378

Galileo Probe Nephelometer Experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the Nephelometer Experiment aboard the Probe of the Galileo mission is to explore the vertical structure and microphysical properties of the clouds and hazes in the atmosphere of Jupiter along the descent trajectory of the Probe (nominally from 0.1 to greater than 10 bars). The measurements, to be obtained at least every kilometer of the Probe descent,

B. Ragent; C. A. Privette; P. Avrin; J. G. Waring; C. E. Carlston; T. C. D. Knight; J. P. Martin

1992-01-01

379

Galileo Probe Nephelometer experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the Nephelometer Experient aboard the Probe of the Galileo mission is to explore the vertical structure and microphysical properties of the clouds and hazes in the atmosphere of Jupiter along the descent trajectory of the Probe (nominally from 0.1 to > 10 bars). The measurements, to be obtained at least every kilometer of the Probe descent, will

B. Ragent; C. A. Privette; P. Avrin; J. G. Waring; C. E. Carlston; T. C. D. Knight; J. P. Martin

1992-01-01

380

Surface charge detection probe  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a low-cost contact mode surface charge probe that consists of an integrating IC, its control electronics and a metal probe. A microcontroller is used to control the probe and to A\\/D convert its analog output voltage. The measured object is moved by a translation stage that consists of three linear piezoactuators which are controlled by microcontrollers. The

Olli Kursu; Janne Kivijakola; Marko Pudas; Timo Rahkonen

2007-01-01

381

Conclusive Entangling Probe.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A design is given for an optimized entangling probe attacking the BB84 (Bennett-Brassard 1984) protocol of quantum key distribution and yielding maximum information to the probe for a full range of induced error rates. Probe photon polarization states bec...

H. E. Brandt

2008-01-01

382

Theory of Mind (ToM) in Children with Autism or Typical Development: Links between Eye-Reading and False Belief Understanding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous research shows that high-functioning children with autism are slow to pass "litmus" false belief tests of ToM but how this may relate to other aspects of mindreading (e.g., discerning thoughts from facial expressions) is less clear, partly for methodological reasons. Thus the joint methodological and conceptual goals of this study were:…

Peterson, Candida C.; Slaughter, Virginia

2009-01-01

383

Relations of Water Quality to Streamflow, Season, and Lane Use for Four Tributaries to the Toms River, Ocean County, New Jersey, 1994-99.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The effects of nonpoint-source contamination on the water quality of four tributaries to the Toms River in Ocean County, New Jersey, have been investigated in a 5-year study by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the New Jersey Departme...

K. Hunchak-Kariouk R. J. Baker

2006-01-01

384

Environmental characterization of global sources of atmospheric soil dust identified with the NIMBUS 7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) absorbing aerosol product  

Microsoft Academic Search

(1) We use the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) sensor on the Nimbus 7 satellite to map the global distribution of major atmospheric dust sources with the goal of identifying common environmental characteristics. The largest and most persistent sources are located in the Northern Hemisphere, mainly in a broad \\

Joseph M. Prospero; Paul Ginoux; Omar Torres; Sharon E. Nicholson; Thomas E. Gill

2002-01-01

385

Environmental Characterization of GLOBAL Sources of Atmospheric Soil DUST Identified with the NIMBUS 7 Total OZONE Mapping SPECTROMETER (toms) Absorbing Aerosol Product  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) sensor on the Nimbus 7 satellite to map the global distribution of major atmospheric dust sources with the goal of identifying common environmental characteristics. The largest and most persistent sources are located in the Northern Hemisphere, mainly in a broad ``dust belt'' that extends from the west coast of North Africa, over

Joseph M. Prospero; Paul Ginoux; Omar Torres; Sharon E. Nicholson; Thomas E. Gill

2002-01-01

386

Space and Earth sciences, computer systems, and scientific data analysis support, volume 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This Final Progress Report covers the specific technical activities of Hughes STX Corporation for the last contract triannual period of 1 June through 30 Sep. 1993, in support of assigned task activities at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). It also provides a brief summary of work throughout the contract period of performance on each active task. Technical activity is presented in Volume 1, while financial and level-of-effort data is presented in Volume 2. Technical support was provided to all Division and Laboratories of Goddard's Space Sciences and Earth Sciences Directorates. Types of support include: scientific programming, systems programming, computer management, mission planning, scientific investigation, data analysis, data processing, data base creation and maintenance, instrumentation development, and management services. Mission and instruments supported include: ROSAT, Astro-D, BBXRT, XTE, AXAF, GRO, COBE, WIND, UIT, SMM, STIS, HEIDI, DE, URAP, CRRES, Voyagers, ISEE, San Marco, LAGEOS, TOPEX/Poseidon, Pioneer-Venus, Galileo, Cassini, Nimbus-7/TOMS, Meteor-3/TOMS, FIFE, BOREAS, TRMM, AVHRR, and Landsat. Accomplishments include: development of computing programs for mission science and data analysis, supercomputer applications support, computer network support, computational upgrades for data archival and analysis centers, end-to-end management for mission data flow, scientific modeling and results in the fields of space and Earth physics, planning and design of GSFC VO DAAC and VO IMS, fabrication, assembly, and testing of mission instrumentation, and design of mission operations center.

Estes, Ronald H. (editor)

1993-01-01

387

A Multiple Regression Analysis Between UV Radiation Measurements at Badajoz and Ozone, Reflectivity and Aerosols Estimated by TOMS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper analyzes the relationship between ultraviolet erythemal radiation (UVER) measured in Badajoz (Spain) and ozone, cloudiness and aerosols. Initially, the values of transmissivity of UVER are related with three parameters (ozone amount, reflectivity and aerosol index) estimated by the satellite instrument TOMS. The relative importance and dependence of each variable is analyzed by means of a multiple regression analysis with an expression derived from the Lambert-Bouger-Beer law. The results indicate that the aerosol index is not a statistically significant factor for the initial expression. Then, a partial model with only ozone and reflectivity as regressors is proposed and coefficients are obtained using UVER measurements of year 2001. Finally the model is validated comparing its prediction for 2002 with UVER measurements at ground. The agreement between both data sets is reasonably good, suggesting that UVER estimations can be successfully derived from observations of other atmospheric variables, thus providing the basis to obtain spatial distributed maps of UV variations.

Antón, M.; Cancillo, M. L.; Serrano, A.; García, J. A.

2005-01-01

388

Global Mapping of Underwater UV Irradiances and DNA-Weighted Exposures using TOMS and SeaWiFS Data Products  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The global stratospheric ozone-layer depletion results In an increase in biologically harmful ultraviolet (UV) radiation reaching the surface and penetrating to ecologically significant depths in natural waters. Such an increase can be estimated on a global scale by combining satellite estimates of UV irradiance at the ocean surface from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) satellite instrument with the SeaWIFS satellite ocean-color measurements in the visible spectral region. In this paper we propose a model of seawater optical properties in the UV spectral region based on the Case I water model in the visible range. The inputs to the model are standard monthly SeaWiFS products: chlorophyll concentration and the diffuse attenuation coefficient at 490nm. Penetration of solar UV radiation to different depths in open ocean waters is calculated using the RT (radiative transfer) quasi-single scattering approximation (QSSA). The accuracy of the QSSA approximation in the water is tested using more accurate codes. The sensitivity study of the underwater UV irradiance to atmospheric and oceanic optical properties have shown that the main environmental parameters controlling the absolute levels of the UVB (280-320nm) and DNA-weighted irradiance underwater are: solar-zenith angle, cloud transmittance, water optical properties, and total ozone. Weekly maps of underwater UV irradiance and DNA-weighted exposure are calculated using monthly-mean SeaWiFS chlorophyll and diffuse attenuation coefficient products, daily SeaWiFS cloud fraction data, and the TOMS-derived surface UV irradiance daily maps. The final products include global maps of weekly-average UVB irradiance and DNA-weighted daily exposures at 3m and 10m, and depths where the UVB irradiance and DNA-weighted dose rate at local noon are equal to 10% of their surface values.

Vasilkov, Alexander; Krotkov, Nickolay; Herman, Jay; McClain, Charles; Arrigo, Kevin; Robinson, Wayne

1999-01-01

389

Isolation and characterization of an IgNAR variable domain specific for the human mitochondrial translocase receptor Tom70.  

PubMed

The new antigen receptor (IgNAR) from sharks is a disulphide bonded dimer of two protein chains, each containing one variable and five constant domains, and functions as an antibody. In order to assess the antigen-binding capabilities of isolated IgNAR variable domains (VNAR), we have constructed an in vitro library incorporating synthetic CDR3 regions of 15-18 residues in length. Screening of this library against the 60 kDa cytosolic domain of the 70 kDa outer membrane translocase receptor from human mitochondria (Tom70) resulted in one dominant antigen-specific clone (VNAR 12F-11) after four rounds of in vitro selection. VNAR 12F-11 was expressed into the Escherichia coli periplasm and purified by anti-FLAG affinity chromatography at yields of 3 mg x L(-1). Purified protein eluted from gel filtration columns as a single monomeric protein and CD spectrum analysis indicated correct folding into the expected beta-sheet conformation. Specific binding to Tom70 was demonstrated by ELISA and BIAcore (Kd = 2.2 +/- 0.31 x 10(-9) m-1) indicating that these VNAR domains can be efficiently displayed as bacteriophage libraries, and selected against target antigens with an affinity and stability equivalent to that obtained for other single domain antibodies. As an initial step in producing 'intrabody' variants of 12F-11, the impact of modifying or removing the conserved immunoglobulin intradomain disulphide bond was assessed. High affinity binding was only retained in the wild-type protein, which combined with our inability to affinity mature 12F-11, suggests that this particular VNAR is critically dependent upon precise CDR loop conformations for its binding affinity. PMID:12919318

Nuttall, Stewart D; Krishnan, Usha V; Doughty, Larissa; Pearson, Kylie; Ryan, Michael T; Hoogenraad, Nicholas J; Hattarki, Meghan; Carmichael, Jennifer A; Irving, Robert A; Hudson, Peter J

2003-09-01

390

Monitoring spatio-temporal aerosol patterns over Pakistan based on MODIS, TOMS and MISR satellite data and a HYSPLIT model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three different satellite-borne sensors, namely the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS), the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), and the Multi-angle Imaging Spectroradiometer (MISR), were used to investigate the spatial and temporal variations of aerosols over several cities in Pakistan. A Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model was used for trajectory analysis in order to reconstruct the origins of air masses and understand the spatio-temporal variability of aerosol concentrations. Recent MODIS aerosol data (2002-2008) and earlier TOMS data (1979-2001) revealed increasing concentrations of aerosols over Pakistan and adjacent areas. Validation of MODIS and MISR derived aerosol optical depths (AODs) with Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) data for 2007 demonstrated that the MISR data was more accurate when close to the ocean, while the MODIS was more accurate over vegetated areas. The relationship between MODIS and MISR AOD data from 2002 to 2008 was analyzed, revealing a strong correlation between the two datasets. An assessment of seasonal variability in AOD for industrial, urban, semi-urban, rural, and semi-arid areas revealed maximum AOD values during the summer over all the areas investigated. Back trajectory analyses indicated that while winter air masses reaching Pakistan had travelled long distances, summer air masses had travelled only short distances. The higher aerosol concentrations during the summer are interpreted to be a result of the air masses spending more time over land during the summer than they do during the winter. While monsoonal rainfall tends to reduce aerosol concentrations by washing aerosols out of the atmosphere, this effect is mainly restricted to the eastern and south-eastern parts of Pakistan.

Alam, Khan; Qureshi, Salman; Blaschke, Thomas

2011-09-01

391

Profiling of Genes Related to Cross Protection and Competition for NbTOM1 by HLSV and TMV  

PubMed Central

Cross protection is the phenomenon through which a mild strain virus suppresses symptoms induced by a closely related severe strain virus in infected plants. Hibiscus latent Singapore virus (HLSV) and Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) are species within the genus tobamovirus. HLSV can protect Nicotianabenthamiana against TMV-U1 strain, resulting in mild symptoms instead of severe systemic necrosis. The mechanism of cross protection between HLSV and TMV is unknown. In the past, some researchers suggest that the protecting virus strain might occupy virus-specific replication sites within a cell leaving no room for the challenge virus. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR was performed to detect viral RNA levels during cross protection. HLSV accumulation increased in cross protected plants compared with that of single HLSV infected plants, while TMV decreased in cross protected plants. This suggests that there is a competition for host factors between HLSV and TMV for replication. To investigate the mechanism under the cross protection between HLSV and TMV, microarray analysis was conducted to examine the transcriptional levels of global host genes during cross protection, using Tobacco Gene Expression Microarray, 4x44 k slides. The transcriptional level of some host genes corresponded to accumulation level of TMV. Some host genes were up-regulated only by HLSV. Tobamovirus multiplication gene 1 (TOM1), essential for tobamovirus multiplication, was involved in competition for replication by HLSV and TMV during cross protection. Both HLSV and TMV accumulation decreased when NbTOM1 was silenced. A large quantity of HLSV resulted in decreased TMV accumulation in HLSV+TMV (100:1) co-infection. These results indicate that host genes involved in the plant defense response and virus multiplication are up-regulated by challenge virus TMV but not by protecting virus HLSV during cross protection.

Wen, Yi; Lim, Grace Xiao-Yun; Wong, Sek-Man

2013-01-01

392

Geology of Earth's Moon  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

First, researchers at the University of California, San Diego discuss the importance of studying earthquakes on the moon, also known as moonquakes, and the Apollo Lunar Seismic Experiment (1). Users can discover the problems scientists must deal with when collecting the moon's seismic data. The students at Case Western Reserve University created the second website to address three missions the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS) has planned between now and 2010, including a mission to the moon (2). Visitors can learn about the Lunar-A probe that will be used to photograph the surface of the moon, "monitor moonquakes, measure temperature, and study the internal structure." Next, the Planetary Data Service (PDS) at the USGS offers users four datasets that they can use to create an image of a chosen area of the moon (3). Each dataset can be viewed as a basic clickable map; a clickable map where users can specify size, resolution, and projection; or an advanced version where visitors can select areas by center latitude and longitude. The fourth site, produced by Robert Wickman at the University of North Dakota, presents a map of the volcanoes on the moon and compares their characteristics with those on earth (4). Students can learn how the gravitational forces on the Moon affect the lava flows. Next, Professor Jeff Ryan at the University of South Florida at Tampa supplies fantastic images and descriptive text of the lunar rocks obtained by the Apollo missions (5). Visitors can find links to images of meteorites, terrestrial rocks, and Apollo landings as well. At the Science Channel website, students and educators can find a video clip discussing the geologic studies on the moon along with videos about planets (6). Users can learn about how studying moon rocks help scientists better understand the formation of the earth. Next, the Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum presents its research of "lunar topography, cratering and impacts basins, tectonics, lava flows, and regolith properties" (7). Visitors can find summaries of the characteristics of the moon and the main findings since the 1950s. Lastly, the USGS Astrogeology Research Program provides archived lunar images and data collected between 1965 and 1992 by Apollo, Lunar Orbiter, Galileo, and Zond 8 missions (8). While the data is a little old, students and educators can still find valuable materials about the moon's topography, chemical composition, and geology.

393

Langmuir probe measurements in the ionosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electric probes have been the primary instruments for the in situ investigation of plasma parameters in the Earth's ionosphere. This dissertation is a compendium of three papers, each dealing with a separate spacecraft that carried one or more instruments based on the electric probe technique. The first paper presents data from the Sudden Atom Layer sounding rocket that carried an RF impedance Probe, a DC fixed-bias Langmuir Probe (DCP), and an Electric Field Probe. The combined dataset indicates a case of payload surface charging, the causes of which are investigated within the paper. A generic circuit, model is developed to analyze payload charging and behavior of Langmuir-type instruments. Our analysis indicates that the anomalous charging event was an outcome of triboelectrification of the payload surface from neutral dust particles present in the Earth's mesosphere. These results suggest caution in interpreting observations from the Langmuir class of instrumentation within dusty environments. The second paper presents data from the Floating Potential Measurement Unit (FPMU) that is deployed on the International Space Station. The FPMU instrument suite consists of three different Langmuir-type probes and a Plasma Impedance Probe (PIP). We first give a brief overview of the instrumentation, and then describe the algorithm used to reduce Langmuir probe I-V curves to plasma parameters. It is shown that the derived temperatures agree well with International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) model, while the derived density matches better with the USU-Global Assimilation of Ionospheric Measurement model. The third paper presents the dataset from the EQUIS II sounding rocket campaign. The rocket payloads carried a PIP, a DCP, and an internally heated Sweeping Langmuir Probe. The ratio of the payload surface area to the cumulative area of the instrument and its guard was about 250. We show that on small sounding rocket payloads the DCP technique of relative electron density measurement is not very accurate. We further show that the ion saturation region analysis of the I-V curve produces absolute ion density that matches very well with the absolute electron density derived from the PIP, and the derived temperatures agree reasonably well with the IRI model.

Barjatya, Aroh

394

Synergies of Earth science and space exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A more flexible policy basis from which to manage our planet in the 21st century is desirable. As one contribution, we note that synergies between space exploration and the preservation of our habitat exist, and that protecting life on Earth requires similar concepts and information as investigations of life beyond the Earth, including the expansion of human presence in space. Instrumentation and data handling to observe both planetary objects and planet Earth are based on similar techniques. Moreover, while planetary surface operations are conducted under different conditions, the technology to probe the surface and subsurface of both the Earth and other planets requires similar tools, such as radar, seismometers, and drilling devices. The Earth observation community has developed some exemplary tools and has featured successful international cooperation in data handling and sharing that could be equally well applied to robotic planetary exploration. Here we propose a network involving both communities that will enable the interchange of scientific insights and the development of new policies and management strategies. Those tools can provide a vital forum through which the management of this planet can be assisted, and in which a new bridge between the Earth-centric and space-centric communities can be built.

Chung, S. Y.; Ehrenfreund, P.; Rummel, J. D.; Peter, N.

2010-01-01

395

Early Results from the Floating Potential Probe on the International Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation provides information on the Floating Potential Probe (FPP) on the International Space Station (ISS). The FPP measures the body voltage (electric potential) of the, and the measurements are then transmitted to Earth.

Morton, Thomas L.; Ferguson, Dale C.

2001-01-01

396

Comparing Earth's atmosphere with other planets  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How does Earth's atmosphere differ from that of Mars and Venus? In this informational piece, part of an interactive laboratory series for grades 8-12, students read how small changes in Earth's atmosphere can change the planet's temperatures and rainfall. In an interactive activity, students launch a probe to collect atmospheric data about temperature and pressure on both Mars and Venus. Students can see graphs of altitude plotted versus temperature or pressure. Multiple-choice questions reinforce the student readings. A second activity provides students additional information and questions on the atmospheres of Mars, Venus, and Earth. As a final review, students respond to questions with written answers, which may be printed. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

University of Utah. Astrophysics Science Project Integrating Research and Education (ASPIRE)

2003-01-01

397

Goddard earth models (5 and 6)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A comprehensive earth model has been developed that consists of two complementary gravitational fields and center-of-mass locations for 134 tracking stations on the earth's surface. One gravitational field is derived solely from satellite tracking data. This data on 27 satellite orbits is the most extensive used for such a solution. A second solution uses this data with 13,400 simultaneous events from satellite camera observations and surface gravimetric anomalies. The satellite-only solution as a whole is accurate to about 4.5 milligals as judged by the surface gravity data. The majority of the station coordinates are accurate to better than 10 meters as judged by independent results from geodetic surveys and by Doppler tracking of both distant space probes and near earth orbits.

Lerch, F. J.; Wagner, C. A.; Richardson, J. A.; Brownd, J. E.

1974-01-01

398

The Sounds of Earth Record Cover  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This gold aluminum cover was designed to protect the Voyager 1 and 2 'Sounds of Earth' gold-plated records from micrometeorite bombardment, but also serves a double purpose in providing the finder a key to playing the record. The explanatory diagram appears on both the inner and outer surfaces of the cover, as the outer diagram will be eroded in time. Flying aboard Voyagers 1 and 2 are identical 'golden' records, carrying the story of Earth far into deep space. The 12 inch gold-plated copper discs contain greetings in 60 languages, samples of music from different cultures and eras, and natural and man-made sounds from Earth. They also contain electronic information that an advanced technological civilization could convert into diagrams and photographs. Currently, both Voyager probes are sailing adrift in the black sea of interplanetary space, having left our solar system years ago.

1977-01-01

399

Earth on the Move.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides background information on the layers of the earth, the relationship between changes on the surface of the earth and its insides, and plate tectonics. Teaching activities are included, with some containing reproducible worksheets and handouts to accompany them. (TW)

Naturescope, 1987

1987-01-01

400

Electron–phonon interaction in rare earth doped nanocrystals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nanoscale materials exhibit properties which differ considerably from their bulk counterparts due to modifications of their phonon density of states due to finite size effects. Rare earth doped insulating nanoparticles provide an ideal model system for studying the fundamental interactions between electronic states and phonons since the narrow lines due to rare earth 4fn?4fn transitions provide a high-resolution probe, while

Ho-Soon Yang; K. S Hong; S. P Feofilov; Brian M Tissue; R. S Meltzer; W. M Dennis

1999-01-01

401

Magnetoacoustic Effects in Rare-Earth Iron Garnets  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have used the techniques of linear magnetoacoustic birefringence and transverse ferroacoustic resonance to measure the real and imaginary parts of the index of refraction of soundwaves in the rare-earth iron garnets. The sound waves act as a probe to study the magnetoelastic coupling and the large rare-earth ion relaxation effects in concentrated samples. We investigated YbIG, DyIG and TbIG

Judy R. Franz; Bruno Luethi

1967-01-01

402

Satellites Orbiting Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In recent years, there has been a push to better understand how Earth works as a system- how land, oceans, air, and life all interact. Satellites in orbit around Earth are a fast and efficient way of gathering remotely sensed data about the planet as a whole. This animated video shows the orbital paths of the satellites in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Earth Observing System (EOS), a collection of satellites that work together to study Earth on a wide scale.

403

Earth System Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Understanding climate requires understanding that Earth is a holistic system of dynamic, interacting components. Furthermore, understanding how the Earth system works is essential for making informed decisions about how to manage, protect, and sustain our planet and its natural resources. This EarthLabs module helps students understand their world as an interconnected living system. Students learn to identify the parts of the Earth system and the processes that connect them, starting locally and gradually expanding their view to regional and global scales.

Bardar, Erin; Haddad, Nick

404

Museum of the Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Museum of the Earth is a natural history museum that stresses the interdependence of the Earth and its life, fostering public understanding of the environment and Earth's past, present and future. The museum is an exhibit facility for one of the nation's largest fossil collections, providing a resource for the public, teachers and students. It serves regional and national audiences by disseminating educational materials as well as promoting best practices and collaboration among providers of informal Earth system education.

2006-08-14

405

The gravity probe B relativity gyroscope program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The idea of testing general relativity through observations on Earth orbiting gyroscopes was suggested in 1959 to 1960. The direction, it was noted, of spin of a suitably oriented gyroscope should change with respect to the line of sight to a guide star for two reasons: a geodetic effect from the motion of the gyroscope through the curved space-time around the Earth, and a frame-dragging effect from the Earth's rotation. NASA began supporting laboratory research on the experiment, now called Gravity Probe B, in 1964. Technologies for it were progressively established, and an error analysis demonstrated the potential of measuring frame-dragging to 1 to 2 percent and the geodetic effect to 1 part in 10(exp 4). Later analyses, discussed herein, suggest possibilities for further improving those precisions each by a further factor of 10. In 1984, after technical and scientific reviews by the Space Science Board and other bodies, and completion by NASA Marshall Center of a Phase B Study, the NASA Administrator approved the start of a program known as STORE (Shuttle Test Of the Relativity Experiment). The purpose of STORE is to verify the final Gravity Probe B science payload, perform on the Shuttle a 7-day experiment rehearsal (including sophisticated gyro tests in low gravity), and then return the payload to Earth for refurbishment and integration into the Science Mission spacecraft. The payload comprises four gyroscopes, a telescope, and a drag-free proof mass, all mounted in a quartz block assembly within an evacuated magnetically shielded probe, which in turn is inserted into a 10-ft long, 6-ft diameter liquid helium dewar, operating at 1.8 K and maintaining low temperature for 2 years. STORE is manifested on Shuttle OV-105, for launch MSSN 69 in February 1993. The Science Mission is set tentatively for June 1995.

Everitt, C. W. Francis; Parkinson, B. W.; Turneaure, J. P.

1989-01-01

406

Mass of the Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners use basic measurements of the Earth and pieces of rock and iron to estimate the mass of the Earth. Learners will calculate mass, volume, and density, convert units, and employ the water displacement method. To calculate an even more accurate estimate of the mass of the Earth, this resource includes optional instructions on how to measure the iron core mass.

Muller, Eric

2010-01-01

407

The Earth's Interior  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site contains 22 questions on the topic of the Earth's interior, which covers layers and composition of the Earth. This is part of the Principles of Earth Science course at the University of South Dakota. Users submit their answers and are provided immediate verification.

Heaton, Timothy

408

Layers of the Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students use graphs of seismic wave travel times, and value for the diameter of Earth obtained in the Size of the Earth activity, to investigate the internal structure of the Earth and determine that it is layered. Click here to view the full activity on the Kéyah Math Project website.

Semken, Steven; Perkins, Tracy

409

Exploring Earth Investigations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Exploring Earth Investigations are Internet-based activities that use animations, interactive graphics, and unique imagery to help students gather information about a particular Earth science theme, issue, or concept. Exploring Earth Investigations were created by Houghton-Mifflin/McDougal-Littell in collaboration with TERC.

2008-07-01

410

Earth's Inconstant Magnetic Field  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This NASA site describes long-term changes in Earth's magnetic field, and how magnetic stripes in the Atlantic seafloor provide evidence for reversals of this field. The site presents a model of Earth's interior that helps explain how Earth's magnetic field is generated and how the reversals occur. A computer-generated image shows the complicated magnetic field in-between reversals.

2007-04-27

411

The Dynamic Earth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses how the earth is a dynamic system that maintains itself in a steady state. Areas considered include large/small-scale earth motions, geologic time, rock and hydrologic cycles, and other aspects dealing with the changing face of the earth. (JN)

Siever, Raymond

1983-01-01

412

Models of Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, candy models are used to demonstrate the features of the Earth, including its internal structure and layers. Students learn why models are essential in Earth science and answer questions about how their candy models do and do not compare with the actual Earth.

Ladue, Nicole

413

Functional probes for scanning probe microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Inspite of importance of the probe in scanning probe microscopy (SPM), little attention was paid for the SPM probes for most of the measurements of SPM. We developed sharp metal-tip cantilevers with a typical curvature radius better than 5nm using focused ion beam (FIB) suitable for Kelvin probe force microscopy (KFM)^1. We obtained atomically resolved KFM images with an energy resolution less than 3meV with the probe^2. We also developed a glass-coated tungsten tip for synchrotron radiation-scanning tunneling microscopy with the FIB method^3 and obtained elementally resolved images in a resolution less than 20nm^4. We are now developing a precise atomic force microscope (AFM) lithography^5 with the FIB-milled tip attached to a quartz tuning fork controlled by noncontact AFM. We will present recent results of our AFM lithography, such as an Au line with a width of 20˜30 nm and characters drawn with Au nano dots on a Si surface. 1 K. Akiyama et al., RSI 76, 033705 (2005) 2 T. Eguchi, K. Akiyama et al., PRL 93, 266102 (2004) 3 K. Akiyama et al., RSI 76, 083711 (2005) 4 T. Eguchi, K. Akiyama et al., APL 89, 243119 (2006) 5 K. Akiyama et al., JP 61, 22 (2007).

Hasegawa, Yukio; Akiyama, Kotone; Hamada, Masayuki; Eguchi, Toyoaki; An, Toshu; Fujikawa, Yasunori; Sakurai, Toshio

2008-03-01

414

A Comparison of Seasonal and Interannual Variability of Soil Dust Aerosols Over the Atlantic Ocean as Inferred by the Toms AI and AVHRR AOT Retrievals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The seasonal cycle and interannual variability of two estimates of soil (or 'mineral') dust aerosols are compared: Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) aerosol optical thickness (AOT) and Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) aerosol index (AI), Both data sets, comprising more than a decade of global, daily images, are commonly used to evaluate aerosol transport models. The present comparison is based upon monthly averages, constructed from daily images of each data set for the period between 1984 and 1990, a period that excludes contamination from volcanic eruptions. The comparison focuses upon the Northern Hemisphere subtropical Atlantic Ocean, where soil dust aerosols make the largest contribution to the aerosol load, and are assumed to dominate the variability of each data set. While each retrieval is sensitive to a different aerosol radiative property - absorption for the TOMS AI versus reflectance for the AVHRR AOT - the seasonal cycles of dust loading implied by each retrieval are consistent, if seasonal variations in the height of the aerosol layer are taken into account when interpreting the TOMS AI. On interannual time scales, the correlation is low at most locations. It is suggested that the poor interannual correlation is at least partly a consequence of data availability. When the monthly averages are constructed using only days common to both data sets, the correlation is substantially increased: this consistency suggests that both TOMS and AVHRR accurately measure the aerosol load in any given scene. However, the two retrievals have only a few days in common per month so that these restricted monthly averages have a large uncertainty. Calculations suggest that at least 7 to 10 daily images are needed to estimate reliably the average dust load during any particular month, a threshold that is rarely satisfied by the AVHRR AOT due to the presence of clouds in the domain. By rebinning each data set onto a coarser grid, the availability of the AVHRR AOT is increased during any particular month, along with its interannual correlation with the TOMS AI The latter easily exceeds the sampling threshold due to its greater ability to infer the aerosol load in the presence of clouds. Whether the TOMS AI should be regarded as a more reliable indicator of interannual variability depends upon the extent of contamination by sub-pixel clouds.

Cakmur, R. V.; Miller, R. L.; Tegen, Ina; Hansen, James E. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

415

Atom Probe Tomography  

SciTech Connect

This introductory tutorial describes the technique of atom probe tomography for materials characterization at the atomic level. The evolution of the technique from the initial atom probe field ion microscope to today s state-of-the-art three dimensional atom probe is outlined. An introduction is presented on the basic physics behind the technique, the operation of the instrument, and the reconstruction of the three-dimensional data. The common methods for analyzing the three-dimensional atom probe data, including atom maps, isoconcentration surfaces, proximity histograms, maximum separation methods, and concentration frequency distributions, are described.

Miller, Michael K [ORNL; Forbes, Richard [University of Surrey, UK

2009-01-01

416

Atom probe tomography  

SciTech Connect

This introductory tutorial describes the technique of atom probe tomography for materials characterization at the atomic level. The evolution of the technique from the initial atom probe field ion microscope to today's state-of-the-art three dimensional atom probe is outlined. An introduction is presented on the basic physics behind the technique, the operation of the instrument, and the reconstruction of the three-dimensional data. The common methods for analyzing the three-dimensional atom probe data, including atom maps, isoconcentration surfaces, proximity histograms, maximum separation methods, and concentration frequency distributions, are described.

Miller, M.K., E-mail: millermk@ornl.gov [Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37871-6136 (United States); Forbes, R.G., E-mail: R.Forbes@surrey.ac.uk [Advanced Technology Institute, Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey, GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)

2009-06-15

417

Project Earth Science: Astronomy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The hands-on, teacher-tested activities in Project Earth Science: Astronomy brings the sometimes daunting concepts of astronomy down to Earth. Background information, supplementary readings, and suggestions for integrating other disciplines provide the teacher with a framework to launch a successful introduction to astronomy. Students will discover Earth's uniqueness by examining it as a part of the whole--one planet within our Solar System. How did the planets form? Are we seeing a star's present or past? Why is Earth's distance from the Sun so important? Project Earth Science: Astronomy will lead you and your students on an exploration that takes you to the stars and back.

Smith, P. S.

2001-01-01

418

Earth as a System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Earth is a complex, evolving body characterized by ceaseless change. To understand Earth on a global scale means using a scientific approach to consider how Earth's component parts and their interactions have evolved, how they function, and how they may be expected to further evolve over time. This video points out the complex interactions between Earth's atmosphere, oceans, and land, and helps explain why understanding Earth as an integrated system of components and processes is essential to science education. The segment is five minutes thirty-one seconds in length. A background essay and discussion questions are included.

419

Mission to Planet Earth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mission to Planet Earth (MTPE) is NASA's concept for an international science program to produce the understanding needed to predict changes in the Earth's environment. NASA and its interagency and international partners will place satellites carrying advanced sensors in strategic Earth orbits to gather multidisciplinary data. A sophisticated data system will process and archive an unprecedented amount of information about the Earth and how it works as a system. Increased understanding of the Earth system is a basic human responsibility, a prerequisite to informed management of the planet's resources and to the preservation of the global environment.

Tilford, Shelby G.; Asrar, Ghassem; Backlund, Peter W.

1994-01-01

420

Dear Colleague Letter - Earth Sciences  

NSF Publications Database

... Division of Earth Sciences 16 July, 2004 Dear Colleague; The Division of Earth Sciences (EAR ... Division of Earth Sciences. EAR will now be structured in two Sections: Surface Earth Processes ...

421

Earth Science Students  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site provides varied and vital information for earth science students. Links lead to important and interesting sites that change from time to time. The permanent pages at this site offer information that is of value to all earth science students and some that are for local students. There are animations and visual learning aids, interactive unit notes, practice questions for exams, earth science flash cards, supplementary Lessons, a course curriculum, and conversion calculators. The Current Earth Science page has real-time information about weather, volcanoes, earthquakes, and population. Other pages on this site list a host of earth science news items, earth science computer labs, all of the required earth science reference tables, a glossary, an "ask an expert" page, and a guestbook. Other links lead to information of local concern.

Burrows, Charles

422

The Earth Simulator Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Earth Simulator Center, funded by the Japanese government, is the birth place of the Earth Simulator, a super computer designed to provide a "holistic simulation of the entire earth system" that "may enable accurate prediction of the future by modelling present conditions based on data about the past." The Journal of the Earth Simulator, which is available online from this website as of June 2004, provides updates on the Earth Simulator and related research. Visitors to this website will also find background information on the Earth Simulator and websites for the four research groups: the Atmosphere & Ocean Simulation Group, the Solid Earth Simulation Group, the Multiscale Simulation Research Group, and the Advanced Perception Research Group. Each website provides an overview of the research and publications. Several collaboration projects are also identified along with images of the Simulator. Other publications include the annual report and newsletters, some of which are available only in Japanese.

2007-12-24

423

Earth Science Information Center  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An ESIC? An Earth Science Information Center. Don't spell it. Say it. ESIC. It rhymes with seasick. You can find information in an information center, of course, and you'll find earth science information in an ESIC. That means information about the land that is the Earth, the land that is below the Earth, and in some instances, the space surrounding the Earth. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) operates a network of Earth Science Information Centers that sell earth science products and data. There are more than 75 ESIC's. Some are operated by the USGS, but most are in other State or Federal agencies. Each ESIC responds to requests for information received by telephone, letter, or personal visit. Your personal visit.

U.S. Geological Survey

1991-01-01

424

SinoProbe-09 Exploration Measurement Development and Combination Strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

SinoProbe project has been established as a big national project for investigating deep Earth structure and related aspects associated with various natural resources and geological disasters. The plane has been plotted and refined for decades. It is treated as a sort of feasibility study project, that will test capability to extend the task throughout the country, so that it has

P. Yu; D. Huang; C. Liu

2010-01-01

425

Galileo Probe Mass Spectrometer Measurements of the Chemical Composition of the Atmosphere of Jupiter  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical and isotopic composition of the Jovian atmosphere was measured by the Galileo Probe Mass Spectrometer (GPMS). This data was obtained on December 7, 1995 over a time period of approximately 1 hour during the probe descent in the 0.5 to 20 bar pressure region and transmitted to Earth over a period of several weeks. The sampling was either

H. B. Niemann; J. A. Haberman; D. N. Harpold; R. E. Hartle; W. T. Kasprzak; P. R. Mahaffy; S. K. Atreya; G. R. Carignan; T. M. Donahue; D. M. Hunten; T. C. Owen; N. W. Spencer

1996-01-01

426

Probing magneto-optic trap dynamics through weak excitation of a coupled narrow-linewidth transition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Alkaline-earth-like atoms possess singlet and triplet manifolds coupled through the ground state. The weak and hence narrow linewidth intercombination transition can provide a powerful probe of singlet-singlet magneto-optic trap (MOT) dynamics. We demonstrate in situ probing of an ytterbium MOT and discuss how cloud position, size, and temperature can be determined.

Loftus, T.; Bochinski, J. R.; Mossberg, T. W.

2000-06-01

427

Clear-Sky UV-B trends over Northern Midlatitudes derived from TOMS Low-Reflectivity Footprint Measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This study investigates the distribution of clear-sky ultraviolet-B (UV-B, wavelengths 290-320 nm) trends in northern midlatitudes using 1979-1991 Nimbus 7 total ozone mapping spectrometer (TOMS) version 7 low-reflectivity (R<0.2) total ozone footprint measurements. The incorporation of essentially cloud-free ozone data from TOMS provides a direct method for separating transient cloud effects from anthropogenic and other dynamical factors present in UV-B. This study has also included both National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) microwave sounding unit channel 4 (MSU4) and National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) 500 hPa temperature (T500) fields in our trend models to improve UV-Index (UVI) trend statistics and to investigate the effects of interannual changes in UVI caused by synoptic-scale (horizontal wavelengths 4000-8000 km) and planetary-scale (horizontal wavelengths greater than 8000 km) dynamical events. Clear-sky UVI trends in the northern midlatitudes show large increases (exceeding 10 % per decade) and distinct regional variability especially during winter-spring months which can be attributed to topography and dynamical forcing effects. In the UV-important summer-autumn months, these trends are more uniformly distributed and still statistically significant, although smaller at around +2 to +3 % per decade. Specifically, during April largest increases in midlatitude UVI are seen to extend from near the dateline eastward across North America. In June months largest UVI increases occur over the east Asian continent with values around +5 to +6 % per decade. These increases in UVI over both the Pacific and Asian continent regions persist through summer into Autumn. In the the European sector, statistically significant increases in clear-sky UVI are found over central Europe with values around +2 to +3 % per decade and +8 to +9 % per decade during summer and winter-spring months, respectively. Over the nearby Mediterranean region these seasonal trends are around +2 to +3 and +5 to +6 % per decade.

Ziemke, Jerry; Chandra, Sushil; Varotsos, C.

1998-01-01

428

Environmental Characterization of Global Sources of Atmospheric Soil Dust Identified with the NIMBUS-7 TOMS Absorbing Aerosol Product  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) sensor provides information on the global distribution of absorbing aerosol, i.e., mineral dust and smoke. We use the TOMS absorbing aerosol data obtained on the NIMBUS-7 satellite over the period 1980-1992 to map the global distribution of major atmospheric dust sources with the goal of identifying common environmental characteristics. The largest and most persistent sources are located in the Northern Hemisphere, mainly in a broad "dust belt" that extends from the west coast of North Africa, over the Middle East, Central and South Asia, to China. There is remarkably little large-scale dust activity outside this region. In particular the Southern Hemisphere is devoid of major dust activity. Dust sources, regardless of size or strength, can usually be associated with topographical lows located in arid regions with annual rainfall under 200-250 mm. Although the source regions themselves are arid or hyper-arid, the action of water is evident from the presence of ephemeral streams, rivers, lakes, and playas. Most major sources have been intermittently flooded through the Quaternary as evidenced by deep alluvial deposits. Many sources are associated with areas where human impacts are well documented - e.g., the Caspian and Aral Seas; Tigris-Euphrates River Basin, southwestern North America, the loess-lands in China. Nonetheless, the largest and most active sources are located in truly remote areas where there is little or no human activity. Thus on a global scale dust mobilization appears to be dominated by natural sources. Dust activity is extremely sensitive to many environmental parameters. The identification of major sources will enable us to focus on critical regions and to characterize emission rates in response to environmental conditions. With such knowledge we will be better able to improve global dust models and to assess the effects of climate change on emissions in the future. It will also facilitate the interpretation of the paleoclimate record based on dust contained in ocean sediments and ice cores.

Torres, O.; Prospero, J. M.; Ginoux, P.; Nicholson, S. E.; Gill, T. E.

2001-12-01

429

Galileo probe battery system  

Microsoft Academic Search

NASA's pair of Galileo spacecraft arrived at Jupiter on 7 December 1995. The Probe descended into the upper Jovian atmosphere, performing its planned sequence of scientific measurements of the properties of that medium for about an hour. This Probe has been the most ambitious planetary entry vehicle to date. It evolved over several years of planning and construction, its launch

B. P. Dagarin; R. K. Taenaka; E. J. Stofel

1996-01-01

430

Pioneer Venus probe design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The summary provides descriptions for a set of probes designed to explore an inner rather than an outer planet, and designed to survive to 100 bars rather than 10 bars. The probes carry a variety of scientific instruments and their supporting integrated subsystems are adjusted to Venus environmental conditions.

Nolte, L. J.

1974-01-01

431

Measuring Probe Position Recorder.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A device which enables a person to record the location of measurements made by a hand held nonconducting probe is described. The hand probe is coupled to a linear potentiometer and a sine-cosine potentiometer by means that varies the output of the linear ...

B. Flagge

1974-01-01

432

Formative Assessment Probes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Formative assessment probes can be effective tools to help teachers build a bridge between students' initial ideas and scientific ones. In this article, the authors describe how using two formative assessment probes can help teachers determine the extent to which students make similar connections between developing a concept of matter and a…

Eberle, Francis; Keeley, Page

2008-01-01

433

Application of probe manipulator to repair probe cards  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We fabricated an apparatus for manipulation and welding of fine metal objects using a probe. The apparatus is composed of a work probe of a tungsten alloy needle, stages, a DC power supply, and an observation system. The work probe is held vertically above a gold substrate placed on stages to control the relative position against the work probe. The DC power supply is equipped to apply voltage of 0-10kV between the work probe and the substrate. One application of the apparatus is to repair probe cards. Thousands of contact probes (needles) are mounted on the printed circuit board (PCB) in the probe card. The contact probes are mounted one by one by the hands. Recently, an array of the contact probe on the PCB is produced by the LIGA process in response to narrower semiconductor pitch length. The problem is that there are no methods to repair a wrong contact probe. Whole of the contact probes should be a waste owing to one wrong contact probe. We propose to replace a wrong contact probe with a good one using our apparatus. Experiments to remove a contact probe by the apparatus is carried out using the specimen of a mimic probe card, where a cantilever type contact probes are arranged with a pitch of 25 micrometers. Removal of the wrong contact probe is carried out by a non-contact discharge and a contact discharge using the apparatus. High voltage of about 1-2kV is applied after the work probe is moved to above the target contact probe for the non-contact discharge. While high voltage of about10kV is applied after the work probe is positioned in contact with the target contact probe for the contact discharge. The target contact probe is removed by both methods, though the neighboring contact probes are damaged. The latter method is hopeful for removal for repair of the probe card.

Konno, Takeshi; Kobayashi, Mikihiko; Egashira, Mitsuru; Machida, Kazumichi; Urata, Atsuo

2006-04-01

434

PDV Probe Alignment Technique  

SciTech Connect

This alignment technique was developed while performing heterodyne velocimetry measurements at LLNL. There are a few minor items needed, such as a white card with aperture in center, visible alignment laser, IR back reflection meter, and a microscope to view the bridge surface. The work was performed on KCP flyers that were 6 and 8 mils wide. The probes used were Oz Optics manufactured with focal distances of 42mm and 26mm. Both probes provide a spot size of approximately 80?m at 1550nm. The 42mm probes were specified to provide an internal back reflection of -35 to -40dB, and the probe back reflections were measured to be -37dB and -33dB. The 26mm probes were specified as -30dB and both measured -30.5dB. The probe is initially aligned normal to the flyer/bridge surface. This provides a very high return signal, up to -2dB, due to the bridge reflectivity. A white card with a hole in the center as an aperture can be used to check the reflected beam position relative to the probe and launch beam, and the alignment laser spot centered on the bridge, see Figure 1 and Figure 2. The IR back reflection meter is used to measure the dB return from the probe and surface, and a white card or similar object is inserted between the probe and surface to block surface reflection. It may take several iterations between the visible alignment laser and the IR back reflection meter to complete this alignment procedure. Once aligned normal to the surface, the probe should be tilted to position the visible alignment beam as shown in Figure 3, and the flyer should be translated in the X and Y axis to reposition the alignment beam onto the flyer as shown in Figure 4. This tilting of the probe minimizes the amount of light from the bridge reflection into the fiber within the probe while maintaining the alignment as near normal to the flyer surface as possible. When the back reflection is measured after the tilt adjustment, the level should be about -3dB to -6dB higher than the probes specified back reflection. This 3 to 6dB increase in back reflection from the surface relative to the probes specified back reflection is the optimal level for acquiring data from the flyer. Data obtained with the LLNL system is shown in Figure 5.

Whitworth, T L; May, C M; Strand, O T

2007-10-26

435

Probe System for Plasma Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

A probe system for studying the plasma of a stellarator is described. Such a fully ionized plasma can have a density ?1013 cm?3 and a temperature ?50 eV. The probe translator can carry various probes (we take as an example a simple Langmuir electrostatic probe) and forms part of an ultrahigh vacuum system. The associated circuitry for probe biasing, control,

J. M. Chapuk; V. L. Corso; V. S. Foote; W. L. Harries; R. M. Sinclair; J. L. Upham; S. Yoshikawa

1963-01-01

436

Substorm electric fields in the earth's magnetotail  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A survey has been made of all the electric field data from the University of California, Berkeley, double probe experiment on ISEE-1 (apogee approximately 22 earth radii) during 1980 when the satellite was in the magnetotail. This study was restricted to the 74 events where E cross B flows could be calculated and were equal to or greater than 100 km/s. Substorm times were determined by examining the Ae index for peaks equal to or greater than 250 gamma. In association with substorms, approximately 70 percent of the flows were earthward, and approximately 20 percent had a signature called 'near satellite reconnection' (first described by Nishida et al. (1983) of tailward flow followed by earthward flow which can be interpreted in terms of a model where the x-line forms earthward of the satellite and subsequently propagates tailward of X(GSM) = -21 earth radii and within the absolute value of Y(GSM) equal to or less than 4.5 earth radii. These data suggest that the near earth x-line usually forms tailward of X(GSM) approximately -20 earth radii.

Cattell, C. A.; Mozer, F. S.

1984-01-01