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1

Earth Probe TOMS Ozone Hole Animation for 1996  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This animation shows a sequence of daily images of the southern hemisphere in which daily and seasonal fluctuations in the ozone hole over Antarctica can bee seen. The images were captured by the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS), an instrument carried aboard the Earth Probe spacecraft.

2

Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) Derived Data, Global Earth Coverage (GEC) from NASA's Earth Probe Satellite  

DOE Data Explorer

This is data from an external datastream processed through the ARM External Data Center (XDC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The XDC identifies sources and acquires data, called "external data", to augment the data being generated within the ARM program. The external data acquired are usually converted from native format to either netCDF or HDF formats. The GEC collection contains global data derived from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) instrument on the Earth Probe satellite, consisting of daily values of aerosol index, ozone and reflectivity remapped into a regular 1x1.25 deg grid. Data are available from July 25, 1996 - December 31, 2005, but have been updated or replaced as of September 2007. See the explanation on the ARM web site at http://www.arm.gov/xds/static/toms.stm and the information at the NASA/TOMS web site: http://toms.gsfc.nasa.gov/ (Registration required)

3

Earth Probe Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) Data Product User's Guide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two data products from the Earth Probe Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (EP/TOMS) have been archived at the Distributed Active Archive Center, in the form of Hierarchical Data Format files. The EP/ TOMS began taking measurements on July 15, 1996. The instrument measures backscattered Earth radiance and incoming solar irradiance; their ratio is used in ozone retrievals. Changes in the reflectivity of the solar diffuser used for the irradiance measurement are monitored using a carousel of three diffusers, each exposed to the degrading effects of solar irradiation at different rates. The algorithm to retrieve total column ozone compares measured Earth radiances at sets of three wavelengths with radiances calculated for different total ozone values. The initial error in the absolute scale for TOMS total ozone is 3 percent, the one standard deviation random error is 2 percent, and the drift is less than 0.5 percent over the first year of data. The Level-2 product contains the measured radiances, the derived total ozone amount, and reflectivity information for each scan position. The Level-3 product contains daily total ozone and reflectivity in a 1-degree latitude by 1.25 degrees longitude grid. Level-3 files containing estimates of LTVB at the Earth surface and tropospheric aerosol information are also available, Detailed descriptions of both HDF data-files and the CD-ROM product are provided.

McPeters, R.; Bhartia, P. K.; Krueger, A.; Herman, J.; Wellemeyer, C.; Seftor, C.; Jaross, G.; Torres, O.; Moy, L.; Labow, G.; Byerly, W.; Taylor, S.; Swissler, T.; Cebula, R.

1998-01-01

4

Tropical Tropospheric Ozone (TTO) Maps from Nimbus 7 and Earth-Probe TOMS by the Modified-Residual Method. 1; Validation, Evaluation and Trends based on Atlantic Regional Time Series  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The well-known wave-one pattern seen in tropical total ozone [Shiotani, 1992; Ziemke et al., 1996, 1998] has been used to develop a modified-residual (MR) method for retrieving time-averaged stratospheric ozone and tropospheric ozone column amount from TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) over the 14 complete calendar years of Nimbus 7 observations (1979-1992) and from TOMS on the Earth-Probe (1996-present) and ADEOS platforms (1996- 1997). Nine- to sixteen-day averaged tropical tropospheric ozone (TTO) maps, validated with ozonesondes, show a seasonality expected from dynamical and chemical influences. The maps may be viewed on a homepage: http://metosrv2.umd.edu/tropo. Stratospheric column ozone, which is also derived by the modified-residual method, compares well with sondes (to within 6-7 DU) and with stratospheric ozone column derived from other satellites (within 8-10 DU). Validation of the TTO time-series is presently limited to ozonesonde comparisons with Atlantic stations and sites on the adjacent continents (Ascension Island, Natal, Brazil; Brazzaville); for the sounding periods, TTO at all locations agrees with the sonde record to +/-7 DU. TTO time-series and the magnitude of the wave-one pattern show ENSO signals in the strongest El Nifio periods from 1979-1998. From 12degN and 12degS, zonally averaged tropospheric ozone shows no significant trend from 1980-1990. Trends are also not significant during this period in localized regions, e.g. from just west of South America across to southern Africa. This is consistent with the ozonesonde record at Natal, Brazil (the only tropical ozone data publicly available for the 1980's), which shows a not statistically significant increase. The lack of trend in tropospheric ozone agrees with a statistical analysis based on another method for deriving TTO from TOMS, the so-called Convective-Cloud-Differential approach of Ziemke et al. [1998].

Thompson, Anne M.; Hudson, Robert D.

1998-01-01

5

Contribution of TOMS to Earth Science- An Overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The TOMS instrument was launched on the Nimbus-7 satellite in Oct 1978 with the goal of understanding the meteorological influences on the ozone column. The nominal lifetime of the instrument was 1 year. However, in response to the concern over possible man-made influences on the ozone layer NASA continued to nurse the instrument for 13.5 years and launched a major program to produce accurate trend quality dataset of ozone. Despite severe optical degradation and other significant anomalies that developed in the instrument over its lifetime, the effort turned out to be a tremendous success. In 1984, TOMS took center stage as the primary provider of Antarctic ozone hole maps to the world community; it continues to play that role until today. An unexpected benefit of the close attention paid to improving the TOMS data quality was that several atmospheric constituents that interfere with ozone measurement were also identified and meticulously converted into long-term datasets of their own. These constituents include clouds, volcanic S02, aerosols, and ocean phytoplankton. In addition, the high quality of the basic datasets made it possible to produce global maps of surface UV and tropospheric ozone. In most cases there are no other sources of these data sets. Advanced UV instruments currently under development in the US and Europe will continue to exploit the TOMS-developed techniques for several decades.

Bhartia, P. K.

2004-01-01

6

Tropospheric Ozone and Smoke from Earth Probe TOMS: Indian Ocean  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Researchers have discovered that smoke and smog move in different ways through the atmosphere. A series of unusual events several years ago created a blanket of pollution over the Indian Ocean. In this animation, significant smog or tropospheric ozone is represented by red and green and regions of significant smoke index are in shades of white and gray.

Horace Mitchell

2001-03-06

7

Tropospheric Ozone and Smoke from Earth Probe TOMS: Indonesia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Researchers have discovered that smoke and smog move in different ways through the atmosphere. A series of unusual events several years ago created a blanket of pollution over the Indian Ocean. In this animation, significant smog or tropospheric ozone is represented by red and green and regions of significant smoke index are in shades of white and gray.

Horace Mitchell

2001-03-06

8

TOMS sees continental effects of 2004 Alaskan Fires  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Wildfires started by lightning burned more than 80,000 acres in Alaska in June 2004. The effects of these fires can be seen across North America with the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) instrument on the Earth Probes spacecraft. TOMS detects the presence of UV-absorbing tropospheric aerosols across the globe.

Lori Perkins

2004-07-02

9

CORRELATION BETWEEN TOMS AEROSOL INDEX AND THE ASTRONOMICAL EXTINCTION  

E-print Network

CORRELATION BETWEEN TOMS AEROSOL INDEX AND THE ASTRONOMICAL EXTINCTION El Arbi Siher a,d , Sergio and Earth Probe observations with CAMC visual extinction over La Palma from 1984 to 1997, to investigate the possibility to calibrate TOMS data in terms of astronomical extinction. The results show that the correlation

Liske, Jochen

10

Earth-Based Observations of the Galileo Probe Entry Site  

E-print Network

observations. The decision to use the space- craft memory as the primary storage of probe data precludedEarth-Based Observations of the Galileo Probe Entry Site G. Orton, J. L. Ortiz, K. Baines, G, J. Hora, L. Deutsch Earth-based observations of Jupiter indicate that the Galileo probe probably

Stewart, Sarah T.

11

Inductive probe to measure the Earth’s magnetic field: a short note  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This experiment provides ‘hands-on’ experience of Faraday’s law. By flipping a coil of wire (the probe) in a horizontal or vertical plane the two components of the Earth’s magnetic field are determined. The signal from the probe is recorded by a Picoscope ADC100.

Thompson, Frank

2014-09-01

12

The Antarctic Ozone Hole: Initial Results from Aura / OMI Compared with TOMS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A series of TOMS instruments (on November 7 , Meteor 3, and Earth Probe) has been monitoring the annual development of the Antarctic ozone hole since the 1980s. The ozone mapping instrument on Aura, OMI, is expected to take over this record of observation from the aging Earth Probe TOMS instrument. The area of the ozone hole can be taken as a sensitive indicator of the magnitude of ozone destruction each year. The timing of initial formation of the ozone hole and its duration are sensitive to the atmospheric dynamics of the southern polar regions. The entire TOMS data record (1978 - 2004) has recently been reprocessed with the new version 8 algorithm, which includes a revised calibration. The effect has been to slightly increase ozone hole area over earlier estimates, but only by 23%. OMI (ozone monitoring instrument) on Aura is a hyperspectral imaging instrument that operates in a pushbroom mode to measure solar backscattered radiation in the ultraviolet and visible. OMI has higher spatial resolution than TOMS - 14 x 24 km versus 38 km x 38 km from TOMS. OMI has now begin mapping total column ozone on a global basis in a measurement similar to TOMS. The ozone hole measurements for 2003 are compared with those from Earth Probe TOMS.

McPeters, R.; Bhartia, P. K.; Newman, P.

2004-01-01

13

Coding performance of the Probe-Orbiter-Earth communication link  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The coding performance of the Probe-Orbiter-Earth communication link is analyzed and compared for several cases. It is assumed that the coding system consists of a convolutional code at the Probe, a quantizer and another convolutional code at the Orbiter, and two cascaded Viterbi decoders or a combined decoder on the ground.

Divsalar, D.; Dolinar, S.; Pollara, F.

1993-01-01

14

Deep drilling; Probing beneath the earth's surface  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on boreholes from 4.5 to greater than 10 kilometers deep that are pushing back the boundaries of earth science as they yield information that is used to refine seismic surveys, chart the evolution of sedimentary basins and shield volcanos, and uncover important clues on the origin and migration of mantle-derived water and gas.

Rosen, J.250

1991-06-01

15

Satellite probes plasma processes in earth orbit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mission of the DOD/NASA Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES) is to deepen understanding of the earth's near-space environment, including the radiation belts and the ionosphere; this will help spacecraft designers protect against radiation-belt particles that affect onboard electronics, solar panel arrays, and crewmembers. Attention is presently given to CRRES's study of ionospheric plasma processes through releases of Ba, Ca, Sr, and Li at altitudes of 400-36,000 km.

Christensen, Andrew B.; Reasoner, David L.

1992-01-01

16

An earth-isolated optically coupled wideband high voltage probe powered by ambient light  

E-print Network

An earth-isolated optically coupled wideband high voltage probe powered by ambient light Xiang Zhai) An earth-isolated optically coupled wideband high voltage probe powered by ambient light Xiang Zhaia online 9 October 2012) An earth-isolated optically-coupled wideband high voltage probe has been developed

Bellan, Paul M.

17

Tropospheric Ozone and Smoke from Earth Probe TOMS: Indian Ocean to Indonesia Zoom  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Researchers have discovered that smoke and smog move in different ways through the atmosphere. A series of unusual events several years ago created a blanket of pollution over the Indian Ocean. In this animation, significant smog or tropospheric ozone is represented by red and green and regions of significant smoke index are in shades of white and gray.

Horace Mitchell

2001-03-06

18

Aerosols from Earth Probe TOMS: Transatlantic Dust Event in July 2000  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Saharan dust storms raise dust that is carried in the upper atmosphere across the Atlantic Ocean. That dust can land as far west as the Carribean and the Americas. This dust can carry potentially hazardous bacteria and fungi.

Michael Mangos

2001-06-14

19

Aerosols from Earth Probe TOMS: Transatlantic Dust Event in July 2000 (with Dates)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Saharan dust storms raise dust that is carried in the upper atmosphere across the Atlantic Ocean. That dust can land as far west as the Carribean and the Americas. This dust can carry potentially hazardous bacteria and fungi.

Michael Mangos

2001-06-14

20

China Dust Storm seen by Earth Probe-TOMS in April of 2001  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A thick shroud of dust appears over China on April 6 and 7, 2001. The densest portion of the aerosol pollution travels east over China, Russia, Japan, the Pacific Ocean, Canada, and the United States.

Lori Perkins

2003-12-03

21

Earth-Based Observations of the Galileo Probe Entry Site  

PubMed

Earth-based observations of Jupiter indicate that the Galileo probe probably entered Jupiter's atmosphere just inside a region that has less cloud cover and drier conditions than more than 99 percent of the rest of the planet. The visual appearance of the clouds at the site was generally dark at longer wavelengths. The tropospheric and stratospheric temperature fields have a strong longitudinal wave structure that is expected to manifest itself in the vertical temperature profile. PMID:8662571

Orton; Ortiz; Baines; Bjoraker; Carsenty; Colas; Dayal; Deming; Drossart; Frappa; Friedson; Goguen; Golisch; Griep; Hernandez; Hoffmann; Jennings; Kaminski; Kuhn; Laques; Limaye; Lin; Lecacheux; Martin; McCabe; Momary; Parker; Puetter; Ressler; Reyes; Sada; Spencer; Spitale; Stewart; Varsik; Warell; Wild; Yanamandra-Fisher; Fazio; Hora; Deutsch

1996-05-10

22

Probing the Kondo Lattice Model with Alkaline Earth Atoms  

E-print Network

We study transport properties of alkaline-earth atoms governed by the Kondo Lattice Hamiltonian plus a harmonic confining potential, and suggest simple dynamical probes of several different regimes of the phase diagram that can be implemented with current experimental techniques. In particular, we show how Kondo physics at strong coupling, low density, and in the heavy fermion phase is manifest in the dipole oscillations of the conduction band upon displacement of the trap center.

Michael Foss-Feig; Michael Hermele; Ana Maria Rey

2009-12-24

23

A Rare Earth-DOTA-Binding Antibody: Probe Properties and Binding Affinity across the Lanthanide Series  

E-print Network

1) binds transition metals and rare earths with extreme stability under physiological conditionsA Rare Earth-DOTA-Binding Antibody: Probe Properties and Binding Affinity across the Lanthanide affinity and exquisite specificity.1 An antibody that binds rare earth complexes selectively could be used

Fisher, Andrew J.

24

TOMS Ozone Anomalies and Ozone Retrieval Errors Over Cloudy Areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study characterizes TOMS Ozone Retrieval Errors (OREs) associated with incorrect Cloud-Top Pressures (CTPs) and with assuming opaque Lambertian clouds, investigates these errors' effects on tropospheric ozone derivation, and analyzes ozone anomalies over TOMS data. Large errors occurring in TOMS assumed CTPs and inaccurate CTP-caused OREs are most significantly from inappropriately added ozone below clouds. Because OREs are usually within the TOMS retrieval precision when Cloud Optical Depth (COD)>20, assuming Lambertian surface is good. Because of In-Cloud Ozone Absorption ENhancement (ICOAEN), assuming opaque clouds can introduce large positive OREs even for optically thick clouds. For a 2-12 km water cloud of COD 40 with 20.8 DU ozone inside the cloud, the ORE is 17.8 DU at nadir. The ICOAEN effect depends strongly on viewing geometry and inter-cloud ozone amount and distribution; it is typically 5-13 DU over the tropical Atlantic and Africa and 1-7 DU over the tropical Pacific for deep convective clouds. The negative errors from using the TOMS Partial Cloud Model (PCM) partly cancel other positive errors. At COD < 5, the TOMS algorithm retrieves approximately the correct total ozone because of compensating errors. With increasing COD up to 20-40, negative PCM effect decreases to almost zero, and the overall positive ORE increases and is dominated by ICOAEN effect. The ICOAEN effect can largely underestimate tropospheric ozone derived from cloudy/clear difference techniques. The convective cloud differential and cloud-clear pair methods use minimum ozone above clouds to cancel positive errors. A Positive or Negative Ozone Anomaly (POA/NOA) is defined to occur if the ozone/reflectivity correlation coefficient in a region is >0.5 or <-0.5. Average fractions of OA occurrence are 31.8% and 35.8% in Nimbus-7 and Earth-Probe TOMS data, respectively. Most tropical NOAs result from large cloud-height errors; corrections lead to 50-70% POAs in the tropics because of mainly the ICOAEN effect. POAs with fractions of 30-60% occur in marine stratocumulus regions west of South Africa and South America. OREs over clear and cloudy areas cause about half the ozone/reflectivity slope; greater ozone production from frequent low-altitude clouds and rich ozone precursors may cause the remainder. The knowledge of TOMS OREs has important implications for ozone/trace gas retrieval from other satellites.

Liu, X.; Newchurch, M.; Kim, J.; Bhartia, P. K.; Loughman, R.

2003-12-01

25

Combined Characterisation of GOME and TOMS Total Ozone Using Ground-Based Observations from the NDSC  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several years of total ozone measured from space by the ERS-2 GOME, the Earth Probe Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS), and the ADEOS TOMS, are compared with high-quality ground-based observations associated with the Network for the Detection of Stratospheric Change (NDSC), over an extended latitude range and a variety of geophysical conditions. The comparisons with each spaceborne sensor are combined altogether for investigating their respective solar zenith angle (SZA) dependence, dispersion, and difference of sensitivity. The space- and ground-based data are found to agree within a few percent on average. However, the analysis highlights for both Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) and TOMS several sources of discrepancies, including a dependence on the SZA at high latitudes and internal inconsistencies.

Lambert, J.-C.; VanRoozendael, M.; Simon, P. C.; Pommereau, J.-P.; Goutail, F.; Andersen, S. B.; Arlander, D. W.; BuiVan, N. A.; Claude, H.; deLaNoee, J.; DeMaziere, M.; Dorokhov, V.; Eriksen, P.; Gleason, J. F.; Tornkvist, K. Karlsen; Hoiskar, B. A. Kastad; Kyroe, E.; Leveau, J.; Merienne, M.-F.; Milinevsky, G.

1998-01-01

26

PAET, an entry probe experiment in the earth's atmosphere.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Description of the instrumentation of a probe designed for atmospheric studies on other planets and designated PAET. The probe was launched on June 20, 1971, near Bermuda in a trial experiment for measurements of the structure and composition of the terrestrial atmosphere. The instrumentation included accelerometers, pressure and temperature sensors, a mass spectrometer, and a radiometer. The measurements, carried out during the descent of the probe from an altitude of 90 km into the sea, were a success.

Seiff, A.; Reese, D. E.; Sommer, S. C.; Kirk, D. B.; Whiting, E. E.; Niemann, H. B.

1973-01-01

27

Earth-Based Radio Tracking of the Galileo Probe for Jupiter Wind Estimation  

PubMed

Although the Galileo probe was designed to communicate only to the orbiter, the probe radio signal was detected at two Earth-based radio observatories where the signal was a billion times weaker. The measured signal frequency was used to derive a vertical profile of the jovian zonal wind speed. Due to the mission geometry, the Earth-based wind estimates are less sensitive to descent trajectory errors than estimates based on probe-orbiter Doppler measurements. The two estimates of wind profiles agree qualitatively; both show high wind speeds at all depths sampled. PMID:9005845

Folkner; Preston; Border; Navarro; Wilson; Oestreich

1997-01-31

28

Probing the Earth's Interior with SeismicTomography  

E-print Network

that are generally classi®ed as either Love waves which oscillate transversely (perpendicular to the path properties of the Earth. This chapter describes in detail the relationships between the character of body Earth model). It shows how, and under what conditions these relationships can be linearised; this allows

29

Probing the secrets of the Earth and light in  

E-print Network

researchers, students and partners to foster greater scientific exchange. It will have a tremendous impact measures the scientific performance of 750 universities internationally, lists our Department of Earth Communications Officer Translation La Boîte à mots Design and layout Simzer Design Photography Peter Thornton E

30

Geo-neutrinos: a new probe of Earth's interior  

E-print Network

In preparation to the experimental results which will be available in the future, we study geo-neutrino production for different models of mantle convection and composition. By using global mass balance for the Bulk Silicate Earth, the predicted flux contribution from distant sources in the crust and in the mantle is fixed within a total uncertainty of +-15%. We also discuss regional effects, provided by subducting slabs or plumes near the detector. In four years a five-kton detector operating at a site relatively far from nuclear power plants can achieve measurements of the geo-neutrino signal accurate to within +-5%. It will provide a crucial test of the Bulk Silicate Earth and a direct estimate of the radiogenic contribution to terrestrial heat.

Gianni Fiorentini; Marcello Lissia; Fabio Mantovani; Riccardo Vannucci

2005-08-02

31

Does OPERA probe that the Earth is moving ?  

E-print Network

The OPERA experiment reported recently a puzzling result. The time of flight of a neutrino beam between the CERN and the Gran Sasso Laboratory has been measured to be slightly shorter than expected. More precisely, an early arrival time of the neutrino with respect to the one computed assuming the speed of light in vacuum of 60.7 ns was measured, with a quite high confidence level. Alternatively, one can conclude that the neutrinos travelled 18.2 m more than light would do in vacuum. In this short paper, we suggest a possible systematic effect that does not appear in the analysis and which can easily been probed to be confirmed.

Monderen, Dominique

2011-01-01

32

Does OPERA probe that the Earth is moving ?  

E-print Network

The OPERA experiment reported recently a puzzling result. The time of flight of a neutrino beam between the CERN and the Gran Sasso Laboratory has been measured to be slightly shorter than expected. More precisely, an early arrival time of the neutrino with respect to the one computed assuming the speed of light in vacuum of 60.7 ns was measured, with a quite high confidence level. Alternatively, one can conclude that the neutrinos travelled 18.2 m more than light would do in vacuum. In this short paper, we suggest a possible systematic effect that does not appear in the analysis and which can easily been probed to be confirmed.

Dominique Monderen

2011-10-17

33

Probing iron at Super-Earth core conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we report on the quasi-isentropic compression of an iron sample using ramp shaped laser irradiation. This technique allows us to quasi-isentropically compress iron up to 700 GPa and 8500 K. To our knowledge, these data are the highest pressures reached on iron in off-Hugoniot conditions and the closest to the thermodynamic states thought to exist in Earth-like planetary cores. The experiment was performed on the Ligne d'Intégration laser facility at CESTA, Bordeaux, France.

Amadou, N.; Brambrink, E.; Vinci, T.; Benuzzi-Mounaix, A.; Huser, G.; Brygoo, S.; Morard, G.; Guyot, F.; de Resseguier, T.; Mazevet, S.; Miyanishi, K.; Ozaki, N.; Kodama, R.; Henry, O.; Raffestin, D.; Boehly, T.; Koenig, M.

2015-02-01

34

Session Title: Structure, composition and dynamics of Earth's interior -probing with neutrinos Session Description  

E-print Network

Session Title: Structure, composition and dynamics of Earth's interior - probing with neutrinos of neutrino geoscience offers novel techniques for tackling these tasks. Ongoing detections of geological neutrinos at Japan and Italy are beginning to resolve radiogenic heating in the mantle, leading

Mcdonough, William F.

35

The iEarth Adaptive Virtual Earth Observatory: Probing the Performance of Spaceborne Climate Sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The iEarth Adaptive Virtual Earth Observatory is built upon JPL's Grid-based GENESIS/SciFlo automated workflow execution system developed under NASA's REASoN program. SciFlo enables ready chaining of data services from multiple providers; iEarth provides a friendly graphical interface for building an automated, end-to-end scientific investigation for execution by SciFlo. At present iEarth is configured to conduct atmospheric, climate, and related instrumental studies that integrate large data sets from premier sensors on NASA's Terra and Aqua platforms. The first release of the SciFlo execution engine is operating at a number of NASA centers and other research facilities across the country. Several scientific studies applying SciFlo are in progress, including EOS instrument validation, atmospheric aerosol studies, and cloud model validation with multiple datasets. The first public version of the iEarth Observatory will be rolled out in early 2007 as part of the ESIP (Earth Science Information Partners) Federation's "Earth Information Exchange," to reside within the government-wide Geospatial One-Stop portal. Our team is conducting comparative studies of atmospheric temperature and moisture retrievals from NASA's AIRS, MODIS, and GPS occultation sensors. The ease and speed of defining and executing complex studies involving large, multi-instrument data sets with iEarth greatly increase the pace of investigations. Our studies have led to unexpected insights into the performance of some of NASA's flagship climate sensors. We will present a live demonstration of iEarth along with the results of our most recent instrumental comparisons.

Yunck, T. P.; Wilson, B. D.; Fetzer, E. J.; Mannucci, A. J.; Ao, C. O.; Braverman, A. J.; Manipon, G. J.; Garay, M. J.; Tang, B.

2006-12-01

36

Earthly probes of the smallest dark matter halos  

SciTech Connect

Dark matter kinetic decoupling involves elastic scattering of dark matter off of leptons and quarks in the early universe, the same process relevant for direct detection and for the capture rate of dark matter in celestial bodies; the resulting size of the smallest dark matter collapsed structures should thus correlate with quantities connected with direct detection rates and with the flux of high-energy neutrinos from dark matter annihilation in the Sun or in the Earth. In this paper we address this general question in the context of two widely studied and paradigmatic weakly-interacting particle dark matter models: the lightest neutralino of the minimal supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model, and the lightest Kaluza-Klein particle of Universal Extra Dimensions (UED). We argue and show that while the scalar neutralino-nucleon cross section correlates poorly with the kinetic decoupling temperature, the spin-dependent cross section exhibits a strong correlation in a wide range of models. In UED models the correlation is present for both cross sections, and is extraordinarily tight for the spin-dependent case. A strong correlation is also found, for both models, for the flux of neutrinos from the Sun, especially for fluxes large enough to be at potentially detectable levels. We provide analytic guidance and formulae that illustrate our findings.

Cornell, Jonathan M.; Profumo, Stefano, E-mail: jcornell@ucsc.edu, E-mail: profumo@ucsc.edu [Department of Physics, University of California, 1156 High St., Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)

2012-06-01

37

Ozone retrieval errors associated with clouds in total ozone mapping spectrometer (TOMS) data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study characterizes TOMS Ozone Retrieval Errors (ORES) associated with incorrect Cloud-Top Pressures (CTPs) and with assuming opaque Lambertian clouds, investigates these errors' effects on tropospheric ozone derivation, and analyzes ozone anomalies over TOMS data. Large errors occurring in TOMS assumed CTPs and inaccurate CTP-caused ORES are most significantly from inappropriately added ozone below clouds. Because OREs are usually within the TOMS retrieval precision when Cloud Optical Depth (COD) ? 20, assuming angular-independent cloud reflection is good. Because of In-Cloud Ozone Absorption ENhancement (ICOAEN), assuming opaque clouds can introduce large positive OREs even for optically thick clouds. For a 2--12 km water cloud of COD 40 with 20.8 DU ozone homogeneously distributed inside the cloud, the ORE is 17.8 DU at nadir view. The ICOAEN effect depends strongly on viewing geometry and inter-cloud ozone amount and distribution; it is typically 5--13 DU over the tropical Atlantic and Africa and 1--7 DU over the tropical Pacific for deep convective clouds. The TOMS Partial Cloud Model (PCM) is good because negative PCM effect partly cancels other positive errors. At COD ? 5, the TOMS algorithm retrieves approximately the correct total ozone because of compensating errors. With increasing COD up to 20--40, negative PCM effect decreases more dramatically than positive effects, so overall positive ORE increases and is dominated by the ICOAEN effect. The ICOAEN effect can largely underestimate tropospheric ozone derived from cloudy/clear difference techniques. The convective cloud differential and cloud-clear pair methods use minimum ozone above clouds to cancel positive errors. A Positive or Negative Ozone Anomaly (POA/NOA) is defined to occur if the ozone/reflectivity correlation coefficient in a region is ?0.5 or ?-0.5. Average fractions of OA occurrence are 31.8% and 35.8% in Nimbus-7 and Earth-Probe TOMS data, respectively. Most tropical NOAs result from large cloud-height errors; corrections lead to 50--70% POAs in the tropics because of mainly the ICOAEN effect. POAs with fractions of 30--60% occur in marine stratocumulus regions west of South Africa and South America. ORES over clear and cloudy areas cause about half the ozone/reflectivity slope; greater ozone production from frequent low-altitude clouds and rich ozone precursors may cause the remainder. The knowledge of TOMS OREs has important implications for ozone/trace gas retrieval from other satellites.

Liu, Xiong

38

An earth-isolated optically coupled wideband high voltage probe powered by ambient light.  

PubMed

An earth-isolated optically-coupled wideband high voltage probe has been developed for pulsed power applications. The probe uses a capacitive voltage divider coupled to a fast light-emitting diode that converts high voltage into an amplitude-modulated optical signal, which is then conveyed to a receiver via an optical fiber. A solar cell array, powered by ambient laboratory lighting, charges a capacitor that, when triggered, acts as a short-duration power supply for an on-board amplifier in the probe. The entire system has a noise level ?0.03 kV, a DC-5 MHz bandwidth, and a measurement range from -6 to 2 kV; this range can be conveniently adjusted. PMID:23126786

Zhai, Xiang; Bellan, Paul M

2012-10-01

39

The Pilot Warm Spitzer Near Earth Object Survey: Probing the size distribution of the most abundant Near Earth Objects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a Warm Spitzer search for Near Earth Objects (NEOs), bodies whose orbits bring them close to the Earth's orbit. Previous work has measured the properties of larger NEOs, but the physical properties of the smallest and most numerous NEOs are poorly constrained. We will capitalize on Spitzer's unparalleled sensitivity and unique geometry to measure the size distribution of NEOs down to 100 meters, where completeness from previous surveys is poor. This allows us to probe the dynamical history of near-Earth space and meet the Congressional mandate to determine the impact threat from objects >140 m. This project will also serve as a scientific and technical pathfinder for a future large Spitzer proposal that will increase our knowledge of the small NEO size distribution by another order of magnitude. Both projects will also be sensitive to previously unseen NEO populations. This proposed work significantly surpasses recent results from both our ExploreNEOS program and NEOWISE. Future ground- and space-based missions have been proposed to carry out similar work at costs of $500M or more, but this fundamental work can be done now, with Spitzer, for far less money. Our team has unmatched scientific and technical expertise in observations and modeling of Spitzer-observed NEOs.

Trilling, David; Delbo, Marco; Emery, Joshua; Fazio, Giovanni; Fuentes, Cesar; Harris, Alan; Hora, Joseph; Mommert, Michael; Mueller, Michael; Smith, Howard

2012-12-01

40

University Librarian Tom Leonard  

E-print Network

University Librarian Tom Leonard Interlibrary Services Library Applications & Publishing Library Librarian Jean McKenzie Finance, Business & Library Operations Chief Administrative Officer Elise Woods Subject Specialty Libraries East Asia Library Assistant University Librarian Peter Zhou Administrative

Jacobs, Lucia

41

University Librarian Tom Leonard  

E-print Network

University Librarian Tom Leonard Interlibrary Services Library Applications & Publishing Library Computing Infrastructure Catalog Department Doe/Moffitt Libraries Collections Associate University Librarian Subject Specialty Libraries East Asia Library Assistant University Librarian Peter Zhou Administrative

Walker, Matthew P.

42

Implications of Version 8 TOMS and SBUV Data for Long-Term Trend Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Total ozone data from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) and profile/total ozone data from the Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet (SBUV; SBW/2) series of instruments have recently been reprocessed using new retrieval algorithms (referred to as Version 8 for both) and updated calibrations. In this paper, we incorporate the Version 8 data into a TOMS/SBW merged total ozone data set and an S B W merged profile ozone data set. The Total Merged Ozone Data (Total MOD) combines data from multiple TOMS and SBW instruments to form an internally consistent global data set with virtually complete time coverage from October 1978 through December 2003. Calibration differences between instruments are accounted for using external adjustments based on instrument intercomparisons during overlap periods. Previous results showed errors due to aerosol loading and sea glint are significantly reduced in the V8 TOMS retrievals. Using SBW as a transfer standard, calibration differences between V8 Nimbus 7 and Earth Probe TOMS data are approx. 1.3%, suggesting small errors in calibration remain. We will present updated total ozone long-term trends based on the Version 8 data. The Profile Merged Ozone Data (Profile MOD) data set is constructed using data from the SBUV series of instruments. In previous versions, SAGE data were used to establish the long-term external calibration of the combined data set. The SBW Version 8 we assess the V8 profile data through comparisons with SAGE and between SBW instruments in overlap periods. We then construct a consistently-calibrated long term time series. Updated zonal mean trends as a function of altitude and season from the new profile data set will be shown, and uncertainties in determining the best long-term calibration will be discussed.

Frith, Stacey M.

2004-01-01

43

Tom's Hardware Guide  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Tom's Hardware Guide, by Thomas Pabst, is an excellent compendium of news, reviews, and technical guides pertaining to PC hardware. The hardware news includes product releases, roadmaps, and computer conference news. The reviews focus on motherboards, CPUs, and graphics cards, all of which are thoroughly tested by Tom and his staff. Testing results are graphed, evaluated, and compared. For the PC-users who want to tweak every bit of performance out of their system, there are guides for the system bios and CPU overclocking. This site is a must-visit for almost anyone looking to build or upgrade a computer.

44

SinoProbe - A Multidisciplinary Research Program of Earth Sciences in China (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

China occupies a large region of central and eastern Asia and holds keys to resolving several first-order problems in Earth Sciences. Besides the importance in Earth Science research, the rapid growth of Chinese economy also demands a comprehensive and systematic evaluation of its natural resources and the impacts of geohazards on its societal development. In order to address the above issues, the Chinese government had initiated a new multidisciplinary research project in Earth Sciences - the SinoProbe Program. Its fundamental goal is to determine the three-dimensional structure, composition distribution, and geological evolution of the Chinese continental lithosphere. The results of the SinoProbe Program are expected to have broad impacts on the Chinese society and economy. In particular, the program will greatly enhance our current understanding on (1) the forming and distribution of mineral resources in the nation, (2) the locations and recurrence histories of major active fault zones capable of generating large earthquakes in highly populated regions, and (3) the distribution of major hazard-prone regions induced by geological processes. In 2009, more than 720 investigators and 70 engineers from Chinese institutions are currently involved with the research program. Sinoprobe hope that the joint forces by Chinese and international researchers will bring in modern approaches, new analytical tools, and advanced exploration technology into the successful operation of the program. In past year, 1,960km long seismic reflection profiling with broadband seismological studies and MT surveys separated from 6 profiles in China continent have completed. MT array coved the North China craton by 1°×1° network and 3-D exploration in larger ore deposits in selected area were carried out. A scientific drilling area operated in Tibet. We started to establish a geochemical reference framework for the values of 76 elements in a grid network with data-point spacing of 160 km in China. Some stress monitoring were centered in the Beijing and the southeastern margin of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau regions. Also, SinoProbe begin to establish a high-performance calculation platform that will consider coupling processes between deformation and thermal evolution in the lithosphere. Meanwhile, data integration and data dissemination is going to stored. Finally, SinoProbe will also devote to develop new technologies, innovative methods, data integration platforms, and modern equipments for deep Earth and mineral-deposit explorations. In summary, SinoProbe is a multi-year and multidisciplinary research program to be carried in China with 9 projects and 49 sub-projects. It will integrate geological, geophysical, geochemical, and modern exploration technology to examine the deep Earth structures and their evolution in China. The results will undoubtedly contribute to the improvement of our current understanding of the Eurasia continent in particular and the Earth in general.

Dong, S.; Li, T.

2010-12-01

45

Dust Storms and Their Impact on Ocean and Human Health: Dust in Earth’s Atmosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

Satellite imagery has greatly influenced our understanding of dust activity on a global scale. A number of different satellites such as NASA’s Earth-Probe Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) and Sea-viewing Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) acquire daily global-scale data used to produce imagery for monitoring dust storm formation and movement. This global-scale imagery has documented the frequent transmission of dust storm-derived soils

Dale W. Griffin; Christina A. Kellogg

2004-01-01

46

Plasma Wave Measurements in Earth's Magnetosphere by Juno, Van Allen Probes, and Cluster  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On October 9, 2013, Juno will fly within about 550 km of Earth in the process of executing a gravity assist on its way to its eventual arrival at Jupiter in July 2016. Since this will be the only magnetospheric plasma regime Juno will sample prior to arrival at Jupiter, it presents both engineering and scientific opportunities. One of the scientific opportunities is to make observations in the inner magnetosphere at the same time as the twin Van Allen Probes and Cluster. During the Juno flyby, which is on the dusk side at closest approach, the Van Allen Probes' apoapsis is also in the dusk sector. The Cluster orbits favor comparisons on the nightside after Juno's closest approach. Models of the radiation belts suggest that Juno will traverse both the inner and outer belts, albeit at higher latitudes than the low-inclination Van Allen Probes while the Cluster spacecraft are in a rather high inclination orbit. The Waves instrument on Juno utilizes a single electric dipole antenna and a single search coil sensor for measurements of the electric and magnetic components of plasma waves, consequently it will provide wave spectra and brief bursts of waveforms. The Waves instrument on Van Allen Probes, on the other hand makes triaxial electric and magnetic measurements of plasma waves, hence, can determine the propagation characteristics of waves such as the wave-normal angle, Poynting flux, and polarization characteristics of the waves. The Wideband Instrument on Cluster can be configured to capture single axis (electric or magnetic) waveforms at selected times to coincide with Juno and Van Allen Probes burst observations. We will compare observations of whistler-mode emissions and electron cyclotron harmonic emissions in and near the radiation belts from the vantage points of these spacecraft.

Kurth, W. S.; Hospodarsky, G. B.; Bolton, S. J.; Gurnett, D. A.; Santolik, O.; Kletzing, C.; Thorne, R. M.; Pickett, J. S.

2013-12-01

47

Long-Term Variability of Airborne Asian Dust Observed from TOMS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent studies suggest that airborne Asian dust may not only play an important role in the regional radiation budget, but also influence the air quality over North America through long-range transport. In this paper, we use satellite data to investigate the long-term variability of airborne Asian dust as well as the daily variation of the dust aerosol distribution. By combining the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) aerosol index with National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) wind data, our analysis shows a strong correlation between the generation of dust storms in the region and the passage of springtime weather fronts. This is consistent with earlier studies performed by other researchers. According to both the Nimbus-7 and Earth-Probe TOMS data the Takla Makan desert, the Gobi desert, and the and region of Inner Mongolia are major sources of the eastward-flowing airborne Asian dust. Heavily populated areas in eastern China (e.g., Beijing) are often on the primary path of the dust storms originating in these desert regions. The increasing desertification north of the Beijing region has served to exacerbate problems stemming from these storms. The time series derived from 20 years of TOMS aerosol index data shows the first significant satellite evidence of the atmospheric effect of increasing desertification, indicating that the amount of dust blown eastward has increased strongly during the past few years including the year 2000.

Herman, J. R.; Hsu, N. C.; Seftor, C. J.; Holben, B. N.; Holben, B. N.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

48

Interview with Tom Bertocci by Mike Hastings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biographical NoteTom Bertocci was born in Lewiston, Maine, on February 17, 1945. His father was Salvatore Theodore “Ted” Bertocci, the son of Italian immigrants who came to the United States in 1912. Two of Tom’s uncles became professors at Bates College, where they met Ed Muskie. Tom’s father worked at Bath Iron Works, and met Tom’s mother, Margaret True Allen

Thomas Tom A Bertocci

2008-01-01

49

Probing the extraordinary ends of ordinary stars white dwarf seismology with the Whole Earth Telescope  

E-print Network

During the final evolution of most stars, they shed their outer skin and expose their core of the hot ashes of nuclear burning. As these hot and very dense cores cool into white dwarf stars, they go through episodes of multiperiodic, nonradial g-mode pulsation. The tools of stellar seismology allow us to use the pulsation spectra as powerful probes into the deep interiors of these stars. Progress in white dwarf seismology has required significant international cooperation, since another consequence of the complex pulsations of these stars is decoding the true pulsation frequencies requires a coordinated global effort involving high-speed photometric observations. Through one such effort, the Whole Earth Telescope project, we have located subsurface composition changes, detected differential rotation and magnetic fields, and measured fundamental quantities such as stellar mass, luminosity, and distance to extraordinary accuracy.

Kawaler, S D

1995-01-01

50

Probing the Extraordinary Ends of Ordinary Stars: White Dwarf Seismology with the Whole Earth Telescope  

E-print Network

During the final evolution of most stars, they shed their outer skin and expose their core of the hot ashes of nuclear burning. As these hot and very dense cores cool into white dwarf stars, they go through episodes of multiperiodic, nonradial g-mode pulsation. The tools of stellar seismology allow us to use the pulsation spectra as powerful probes into the deep interiors of these stars. Progress in white dwarf seismology has required significant international cooperation, since another consequence of the complex pulsations of these stars is decoding the true pulsation frequencies requires a coordinated global effort involving high-speed photometric observations. Through one such effort, the Whole Earth Telescope project, we have located subsurface composition changes, detected differential rotation and magnetic fields, and measured fundamental quantities such as stellar mass, luminosity, and distance to extraordinary accuracy.

Steven D. Kawaler

1995-03-15

51

Tropospheric Ozone Pollution from Space: New Views from the TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) Instrument  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

New products from the TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) >satellite instrument can resolve pollution events in tropical and mid-latitudes, Over the past several years, we have developed tropospheric ozone data sets by two methods. The modified-residual technique [Hudson and Thompson, 1998; Thompson and Hudson, 1999] uses v. 7 TOMS total ozone and is applicable to tropical regimes in which the wave-one pattern in total ozone is observed. The TOMSdirect method [Hudson et at., 2000] represents a new algorithm that uses TOMS radiances to extract tropospheric ozone in regions of constant stratospheric ozone and tropospheric ozone displaying high mixing ratios and variability characteristic of pollution, Absorbing aerosols (dust and smoke; Herman et at., 1997 Hsu et al., 1999), a standard TOMS product, provide transport and/or source marker information to interpret tropospheric ozone. For the Nimbus 7/TOMS observing period (1979-1992), modified-residual TTO (tropical tropospheric ozone) appears as two maps/month at I-degree latitude 2-degree longitude resolution at a homepage and digital data are available (20S to 20N) by ftp at http://metosrv2. umd.edu/tropo/ 14y_data.d. Preliminary modified-residual TTO data from the operational Earth-Probe/TOMS (1996- present) are posted in near-real-time at the same website. Analyses with the new tropospheric ozone and aerosol data are illustrated by the following (I)Signals in tropical tropospheric ozone column and smoke amount during ENSO (El Nino-Southern Oscillation) events, e.g. 1982-1983 and the intense ENSO induced biomass fires of 1997-1998 over the Indonesian region [Thompson et a[, 2000a, Thompson and Hudson, 1999]. (2) Trends in tropospheric ozone and smoke aerosols in various tropical regions (Atlantic, Pacific, Africa, Brazil). No significant trends were found for ozone from1980-1990 [Thompson and Hudson, 19991 although smoke aerosols increased during the period [Hsu et al.,1999]. (3) Temporal and spatial offsets ("paradoxes") in tropical tropospheric ozone and smoke aerosol in regions of greatest tropical biomass burning [Thompson et at., 1996;2000b]. (4) Trans-boundary pollution tracking. With an air parcel (trajectory) model, smoke aerosol and ozone and dust plumes can be tracked across oceans (e.g., Asia to North America; North America to Europe) and national boundaries, e.g. Indonesia to Singapore and Malaysia during the 1997 ENSO fires.

Thompson, Anne M.; Hudson, Robert D.; Frolov, Alexander D.; Witte, Jacquelyn C.; Kucsera, Tom L.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

52

The Role of TOMS in Understanding the Fates of Volcanic Emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) has observed over 100 eruption s during the past 25 years, from both explosive and effusive sources. The four TOMS instruments (Nimbus-7, Meteor, ADEOS, and Earth Probe) have gen erated an unprecedented archive of eruption data and allowed us to look at processes, in addition to describing individual events. The TOMS sensors are less affected by atmospheric water vapor and optical thickness than i nfrared techniques, and thus are able to return information on the cloud f rom it's early, most concentrated form, to dilute cloudmasses several days later. From the many observations and advances generated from TOMS data, here we document those which pertain to the first few days following emis sion into the atmosphere. Following discrete eruption events, we have observed that the mass of retr ieved SO2 often increases for 1-2 days, independent of any volcanic contri bution. Combining TOMS with other sensor data suggests that significant S O2 is sequestered by ice in the rising plume. Ablation of the ice slowly re-releases SO2, which results in the apparent increase. After 2-3 days, this process appears to be largely complete, and SO2 removal then follows an exponential decay rate. TOMS-derived removal rates of SO2 have ranged from approximately 25 days (e-folding time) for Pinatubo-sized eruptions, to less than one day for smaller or tropospheric eruptions. Within the sa me eruption this rate may vary, as SO2 removal is strongly affected by ads orption onto co-existing ash and ice particles. The removal processes can also be linked to an eruption height threshold, separating eruptions whic h are emplaced above the tropopause and produce potentially long-lasting a tmospheric impacts from those which are rapidly removed from the atmospher e. We have also observed that many eruptions produce a vertical separatio n of gas-rich and ash-rich phases. However, other events have produced no separation, suggesting that the separation may be linked to the eruption dynamics or an early, gas-enriched pulse rather than a post-eruption, grav itational process.

Bluth, G. J.; Rose, W. I.; Guo, S.; Carn, S. A.

2003-12-01

53

Composition of the earth's atmosphere by shock-layer radiometry during the PAET entry probe experiment.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A determination of the composition of the earth's atmosphere obtained from onboard radiometer measurements of the spectra emitted from the bow shock layer of a high-speed entry probe is reported. The N2, O2, CO2, and noble gas concentrations in the earth's atmosphere were determined to good accuracy by this technique. The results demonstrate unequivocally the feasibility of determining the composition of an unknown planetary atmosphere by means of a multichannel radiometer viewing optical emission from the heated atmospheric gases in the region between the bow shock wave and the vehicle surface. The spectral locations in this experiment were preselected to enable the observation of CN violet, N2(+) first negative and atomic oxygen emission at 3870, 3910, and 7775 A, respectively. The atmospheric gases were heated and compressed by the shock wave to a peak temperature of about 6100 K and a corresponding pressure of 0.4 atm. Complete descriptions of the data analysis technique and the onboard radiometer and its calibration are given.

Whiting, E. E.; Arnold, J. O.; Page, W. A.; Reynolds, R. M.

1973-01-01

54

Van Allen Probes Mission Space Academy: Educating middle school students about Earth's mysterious radiation belts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

How's the weather in space? Why on Earth did NASA send two satellites above Earth to study radiation belts and space weather? To learn the answer to questions about NASA's Van Allen Probes mission, 450 students and their teachers from Maryland middle schools attended Space Academy events highlighting the Van Allen Probes mission. Sponsored by the Applied Physics Laboratory (APL) and Discovery Education, the events are held at the APL campus in Laurel, MD. Space Academies take students and teachers on behind-the-scenes exploration of how spacecraft are built, what they are designed to study, and introduces them to the many professionals that work together to create some of NASA's most exciting projects. Moderated by a public relations representative in the format of an official NASA press conference, the daylong event includes a student press conference with students as reporters and mission experts as panelists. Lunch with mission team members gives students a chance to ask more questions. After lunch, students don souvenir clean room suits, enjoy interactive science demonstrations, and tour APL facilities where the Van Allen Probes were built and tested before launch. Students may even have an opportunity to peek inside a clean room to view spacecraft being assembled. Prior to the event, teachers are provided with classroom activities, lesson plans, and videos developed by APL and Discovery Education to help prepare students for the featured mission. The activities are aligned to National Science Education Standards and appropriate for use in the classroom. Following their visit, student journalists are encouraged to write a short article about their field trip; selections are posted on the Space Academy web site. Designed to engage, inspire, and influence attitudes about space science and STEM careers, Space Academies provide an opportunity to attract underserved populations and emphasize that space science is for everyone. Exposing students to a diverse group of scientists and engineers may alleviate some common stereotypes about these careers. When students engage with the scientists and engineers at APL, they see first-hand that successful science and engineering requires a diverse team with multi-disciplinary backgrounds. Activities throughout the day develop student understanding about science and technology, and address the fundamental concepts that fall under the National Science Education Content Standards. Students are immersed in a hands-on experience designed to facilitate understanding of the History and Nature of Science. Throughout the day students interact with people of diverse backgrounds and interests while hearing about the specific ways various individuals and teams of people contribute to the science and technology of the mission, addressing the concepts which fall under the headings of Science as a Human Endeavor, Nature of Science, and History of Science. Getting students outside the classroom to visit APL is an exclusive opportunity; evaluations have indicated that students became interested in learning more about space science and STEM careers after attending a Space Academy event.

Butler, L.; Turney, D.; Matiella Novak, A.; Smith, D.; Simon, M.

2013-12-01

55

Occurrence of ozone anomalies over cloudy areas in TOMS version-7 level-2 data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigates anomalous ozone distributions over cloudy areas in Nimbus-7 (N7) and Earth-Probe (EP) TOMS version-7 data and analyzes the causes for ozone anomaly formation. A 5°-longitude by 5°-latitude region is defined to contain a Positive Ozone Anomaly (POA) or Negative Ozone Anomaly (NOA) if the correlation coefficient between total ozone and reflectivity is > 0.5 or < -0.5. The average fractions of ozone anomalies among all cloud fields are 31.8 ± 7.7% and 35.8 ± 7.7% in the N7 and EP TOMS data, respectively. Some ozone anomalies are caused by ozone retrieval errors, and others are caused by actual geophysical phenomena. Large cloud-height errors are found in the TOMS version-7 algorithm in comparison to the Temperature Humidity Infrared Radiometer (THIR) cloud data. On average, cloud-top pressures are overestimated by ~200 hPa (THIR cloud-top pressure < 200 hPa) for high-altitude clouds and underestimated by ~150 hPa for low-altitude clouds (THIR cloud-top pressure > 750 hPa). Most tropical NOAs result from negative errors induced by large cloud-height errors, and most tropical POAs are caused by positive errors due to intra-cloud ozone absorption enhancement. However, positive and negative errors offset each other, reducing the ozone anomaly occurrence in TOMS data. Large ozone/reflectivity slopes for mid-latitude POAs show seasonal variation consistent with total ozone fluctuation, indicating that they result mainly from synoptic and planetary wave disturbances. POAs with an occurrence fraction of 30--60% occur in regions of marine stratocumulus off the west coast of South Africa and off the west coast of South America. Both fractions and ozone/reflectivity slopes of these POAs show seasonal variations consistent with that in the tropospheric ozone. About half the ozone/reflectivity slope can be explained by ozone retrieval errors over clear and cloudy areas. The remaining slope may result from there being more ozone production because of rich ozone precursors and higher photolysis rates over high-frequency, low-altitude clouds than in clear areas. Ozone anomalies due to ozone retrieval errors have important implications in TOMS applications such as tropospheric ozone derivation and analysis of ozone seasonal variation.

Liu, X.; Newchurch, M. J.; Kim, J. H.

2003-08-01

56

Occurrence of ozone anomalies over cloudy areas in TOMS version-7 level-2 data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigates anomalous ozone distributions over cloudy areas in Nimbus-7 (N7) and Earth-Probe (EP) TOMS version-7 data and analyzes the causes for ozone anomaly formation. A 5°-longitude by 5°-latitude region is defined to contain a Positive Ozone Anomaly (POA) or Negative Ozone Anomaly (NOA) if the correlation coefficient between total ozone and reflectivity is ?0.5 or ?- 0.5. The average fractions of ozone anomalies among all cloud fields are 31.8+/-7.7% and 35.8+-7.7% in the N7 and EP TOMS data, respectively. Some ozone anomalies are caused by ozone retrieval errors, and others are caused by actual geophysical phenomena. Large cloud-height errors are found in the TOMS version-7 algorithm in comparison to the Temperature Humidity Infrared Radiometer (THIR) cloud data. On average, cloud-top pressures are overestimated by 200 hPa (THIR cloud-top pressure ? 200 hPa) for high-altitude clouds and underestimated by 150 hPa for low-altitude clouds (THIR cloud-top pressure ?750 hPa). Most tropical NOAs result from negative errors induced by large cloud-height errors, and most tropical POAs are caused by positive errors due to intra-cloud ozone absorption enhancement. However, positive and negative errors offset each other, reducing the ozone anomaly occurrence in TOMS data. Large ozone/reflectivity slopes for mid-latitude POAs show seasonal variation consistent with total ozone fluctuation, indicating that they result mainly from synoptic and planetary wave disturbances. POAs with an occurrence fraction of 30-60% occur in regions of marine stratocumulus off the west coast of South Africa and off the west coast of South America. Both fractions and ozone/reflectivity slopes of these POAs show seasonal variations consistent with that in the tropospheric ozone. About half the ozone/reflectivity slope can be explained by ozone retrieval errors over clear and cloudy areas. The remaining slope may result from there being more ozone production because of rich ozone precursors and higher j-values over high-frequency, low-altitude clouds than in clear areas. Ozone anomalies due to ozone retrieval errors have important implications in TOMS applications such as tropospheric ozone derivation and analysis of ozone seasonal variation.

Liu, X.; Newchurch, M. J.; Kim, J. H.

2003-01-01

57

TOMS Ozone at the South Pole: September Averages from 1979 through 2000.  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The year 2000s Antarctic ozone hole is the largest ever observed. Scientists continue to investigate the phenomenon, and are somewhat surprised by its scale. Using data from NASAs Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) instrument onboard the Earth Probe satellite, researchers can evaluate and compare current conditions over the south pole to readings taken by other instruments in years past. Continued monitoring of polar ozone levels helps researchers gain a better understanding of how the planets climate may be changing. The following animation shows how ozone loss at the south pole has grown since the mid-80s. Early readings over Antarctica indicate little or no ozone depletion beyond naturally predicted levels. But as the 80s and 90s progress, a clear change in atmospheric chemistry takes place at the bottom of the world. The hole starts small in the late 80s and spreads as subsequent winter cycles break apart ozone molecules.

Greg Shirah

2000-10-03

58

TOMS Ozone at the South Pole: October Averages from 1979 through 2000  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The year 2000s Antarctic ozone hole is the largest ever observed. Scientists continue to investigate the phenomenon, and are somewhat surprised by its scale. Using data from NASAs Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) instrument onboard the Earth Probe satellite, researchers can evaluate and compare current conditions over the south pole to readings taken by other instruments in years past. Continued monitoring of polar ozone levels helps researchers gain a better understanding of how the planets climate may be changing. The following animation shows how ozone loss at the south pole has grown since the mid-80s. Early readings over Antarctica indicate little or no ozone depletion beyond naturally predicted levels. But as the 80s and 90s progress, a clear change in atmospheric chemistry takes place at the bottom of the world. The hole starts small in the late 80s and spreads as subsequent winter cycles break apart ozone molecules.

Greg Shirah

2002-10-09

59

Impact of Atmospheric Refraction: How Deeply can We Probe Exo-Earth's Atmospheres during Primary Eclipse Observations?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most models used to predict or fit exoplanet transmission spectra do not include all the effects of atmospheric refraction. Namely, the angular size of the star with respect to the planet can limit the lowest altitude, or highest density and pressure, probed during primary eclipses as no rays passing below this critical altitude can reach the observer. We discuss this geometrical effect of refraction for all exoplanets and tabulate the critical altitude, density, and pressure for an exoplanet identical to Earth with a 1 bar N2/O2 atmosphere as a function of both the incident stellar flux (Venus, Earth, and Mars-like) at the top of the atmosphere and the spectral type (O5-M9) of the host star. We show that such a habitable exo-Earth can be probed to a surface pressure of 1 bar only around the coolest stars. We present 0.4-5.0 ?m model transmission spectra of Earth's atmosphere viewed as a transiting exoplanet, and show how atmospheric refraction modifies the transmission spectrum depending on the spectral type of the host star. We demonstrate that refraction is another phenomenon that can potentially explain flat transmission spectra over some spectral regions.

Bétrémieux, Yan; Kaltenegger, Lisa

2014-08-01

60

Chemistry Experiments — For Comparative Analyses for Demonstrating Environmental Differences on Venus, Earth, Mars and Titan, — Built on Educational Space Probes Hunveyor and Husar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We compared chemical environments of Venus, Earth, Mars and Titan by experiments planned for selection to realize them on educational space probe landers and rovers (Hunveyor and Husar) built by Hungarian universities and high schools.

Bérczi, Sz.; Róka, A.; Nyíri, Z.; Varga, T.; Fabriczy, A. Sz.; Peták, Cs.; Hudoba, Gy.; Hegyi, S.; Lang, A.; Gyollai, I.; Gucsik, A.

2014-11-01

61

The Mutual Impedance Probe Technique for Plasma Parameters Measurements: the ROSETTA RPC/MIP Results during the Earth's Flybys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Mutual Impedance Probe technique, used in geophysical prospection to measure the ground permittivity since the early 1900, has been successfully transposed to measure space plasma properties in the 70s. This technique has been used in space for many years on sounding rockets and spacecraft: GEOS-1, GEOS-2, VIKING, MARS-96, ARCAD/AUREOL-3, and Huygens. The basic principle of the technique is to measure the self impedance of a single electric antenna or the mutual impedance between two sets of E-field dipoles. Since the impedance of the probe depends on the dielectric properties of the medium in which the probe is immersed, some characteristics of the medium can be determined. Space plasma parameters such as the density and temperature of thermal electrons may thus be reliably and accurately deduced. As a bonus, using only the receiving part of the probe, natural waves can also be investigated in a large frequency range. An E-field impedance probe is currently flying onboard ESA’s comet Chaser ROSETTA and one such probe is in development for BepiColombo. The most common configuration of a mutual impedance probe uses a dipole for transmitting a frequency-controlled signal and a second dipole for receiving the induced signal. Transmitting electrodes are fed with a signal generator, in series with a current meter if necessary, while the receiving electrodes are connected to a voltmeter with a very high input impedance. The transmitted current I and the received voltage V being known, the mutual impedance Z is by definition Z = V/I. Both the imaginary and the real parts of Z may then be interpreted to deduce plasma properties. The capabilities of this technique are illustrated with in-flight calibration results obtained by the Mutual Impedance Probe, MIP, which is one instrument of the ROSETTA plasma package. MIP and the four other instruments of the ROSETTA Plasma Consortium, RPC, were switched on during the three Earth swingbys (March 2005, November 2007, and November 2009). Calibration and general testing were the main objectives, nevertheless valuable observations of the Earth’s plasmasphere have been made by the MIP instrument. While MIP itself has been designed to measure plasma properties in the Debye length range: 0.5-20 cm, a special configuration uses a second instrument of the RPC, the Langmuir Probe (LAP), as a transmitter to allow measuring the plasma properties in the long Debye length range: 0.1-2 m, thus allowing to investigate a wide range of plasma conditions expected to be met by ROSETTA. The results obtained during the Earth flybys will be shown and the performance of the instrument discussed. The application of the technique to probe the environment of Callisto and Ganymede is discussed and the strength of this measurement approach as a potential sensor onboard one of the two spacecraft of the Europa Jupiter System Mission, the Jupiter Ganymede Orbiter, is highlighted.

Trotignon, J.; Lebreton, J.; Rauch, J.

2010-12-01

62

Earth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The following aspects of the planet Earth are discussed: plate tectonics, the interior of the planet, the formation of the Earth, and the evolution of the atmosphere and hydrosphere. The Earth's crust, mantle, and core are examined along with the bulk composition of the planet.

Carr, M. H.

1984-01-01

63

Using Array Seismology to Probe the Deep Earth With Core Seismic Phases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much work is undertaken to investigate the structure of the deep Earth, i.e. the core and lower mantle. Researching these regions is important, as they are thought to govern the generation of the Earth's magnetic field, as well as mantle convection. The deep mantle region includes the core-mantle interaction zone, and is potentially the origin of plumes, and the graveyard

J. A. Black; C. Thomas

2003-01-01

64

Probing the coupling of heavy dark matter to nucleons by detecting neutrino signature from the Earth's core  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We argue that the detection of the neutrino signature from the Earth's core can effectively probe the coupling of heavy dark matter (m?>104 GeV ) to nucleons. We first note that direct searches for dark matter (DM) in such a mass range provide much less stringent constraint than the constraint provided by such searches for m?˜100 GeV . Furthermore, the energies of neutrinos arising from DM annihilation inside the Sun cannot exceed a few TeVs at the Sun's surface due to the attenuation effect. Therefore, the sensitivity to the heavy DM coupling is lost. Finally, the detection of the neutrino signature from the Galactic halo can only probe DM annihilation cross sections. We present neutrino event rates in IceCube and KM3NeT arising from the neutrino flux produced by annihilation of Earth-captured DM heavier than 104 GeV . The IceCube and KM3NeT sensitivities to spin-independent DM-proton scattering cross section ?? p in this mass range are presented for both isospin-symmetric and isospin-violating cases.

Lin, Guey-Lin; Lin, Yen-Hsun; Lee, Fei-Fan

2015-02-01

65

Probing the coupling of heavy dark matter to nucleons by detecting neutrino signature from the Earth core  

E-print Network

We argue that the detection of neutrino signature from the Earth core is an ideal approach for probing the coupling of heavy dark matter ($m_{\\chi}>10^{4}$ GeV) to nucleons. We first note that direct searches for dark matter (DM) in such a mass range do not provide stringent constraints. Furthermore the energies of neutrinos arising from DM annihilations inside the Sun cannot exceed a few TeV at the Sun surface due to the attenuation effect. Therefore the sensitivity to the heavy DM coupling is lost. Finally, the detection of neutrino signature from galactic halo can only probe DM annihilation cross sections. After presenting the rationale of our studies, we discuss the event rates in IceCube and KM3NeT arising from the neutrino flux produced by annihilations of Earth-captured DM heavier than $10^{4}$ GeV. The IceCube and KM3NeT sensitivities to spin independent DM-proton scattering cross section $\\sigma_{\\chi p}$ and isospin violation effect in this mass range are presented. The implications of our results are also discussed.

Guey-Lin Lin; Yen-Hsun Lin

2014-04-02

66

An Interview with Tom Wessels.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Author and environmental educator Tom Wessels discusses how to infer a landscape's history from plants and other clues found on site. Reading the landscape enables people to develop a stronger connection to place. Understanding historic landscape changes is essential to understanding current environmental issues. He also discusses his teaching…

Pryor, Patrick K.; Wessels, Tom

2002-01-01

67

Tom Houlton [The sun flattened  

E-print Network

Tom Houlton [The sun flattened] The sun flattened Outside her window, Hardly touched the panes and grey when It appeared, the sun jumping From cloud to cloud. The world went waterwards again. Her right://poetry.girton.cam.ac.uk #12;A cloud steps aside for a second. The sun hits. 2 #12;

Robertson, Stephen

68

Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site provides information about the TOMS instrument, its mission, space craft, and data products. Visitors can access same-day or archived data on aerosols, ozone, reflectivity, ultraviolet radiation, or volcanic gases. Teachers can choose from a selection of links to activities and lesson plans. Other materials include news articles, movies, and links to related sites.

69

Comparison of Galileo Probe and Earth-Based Translation Rates of Jupiter's Equatorial Clouds  

PubMed

The Doppler wind speeds derived from Galileo probe data are comparable with the maximum translation speeds observed in the equatorial zone by Voyager 1 and the Hubble Space Telescope. Slower published values of east-west winds are based on measurements of larger features and should be interpreted as translation rates of large weather systems interacting with the wind. The nature of the hot-spot region that the Galileo probe entered is compatible with a high-speed jet at 6 degrees north. The hot spot is associated with an equatorial weather system that spans 5 degrees of latitude and translates at 103 meters per second. PMID:8662572

Beebe; Simon; Huber

1996-05-10

70

Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lithograph depicts a view of Earth taken from Apollo 10 during its journey to the Moon in May 1969. False-color satellite images showing chlorophyll concentration, sea surface temperature, topography, and ozone concentration are also featured. The images are accompanied by a brief description, some statistical facts, and a list of important dates in the history of Earth exploration.

71

Probing Earth's Middle Atmosphere: Non­lte Processes And Infrared Heterodyne Spectroscopy, A Preliminary Study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study of chemical and physical phenomena in the Earth's troposphere, strato- sphere and mesosphere is important to understand the coupling between these regions of the atmosphere. Information on the thermal structure, non-LTE processes, pres- sures, trace species abundances, and local dynamics is contained in emitted and ab- sorbed line spectra of molecular constituents in these atmospheric regions. Access to this information is optimized by spectroscopic resolution sufficient to resolve the molecular line shapes. We will describe a direct approach for such a study using true shapes of measured lines from mid-atmospheric constituents. We will present model calculations of the Earth's limb monochromatic radiances in the 9­12 µm spectral re- gion within spectral lines of a number of atmospheric trace gases (CO2, O3, N2O, OH, and others). The calculations account for non­LTE effects and simulate both emission and solar/lunar occultation observations from Earth orbit. These results will be com- pared to measurements expected from infrared heterodyne spectroscopy, which pro- vides the necessary spectral resolution (/ 106) to measure the line shapes and their accurate frequencies. The required instrumental parameters and the sensitivity for various observing geometries will be determined for retrieval of information on species abundance, kinetic temperature, non-LTE effects, and local winds. The feasi- bility and specific scientific return of such an investigation from Earth orbit will be discussed, in the context of many similar previous investigations of other planetary atmospheres in our solar system.

Kutepov, A. A.; Feofilov, A. G.; Gusev, O. A.; Kostiuk, Th.; Maguire, W.; Livengood, T. A.

72

Ion probe determinations of the rare earth concentrations of individual meteoritic phosphate grains  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new ion probe method for quantitative measurements of the concentrations of all the REE down to the ppm level in 5-20 micron spots is presented. The first application of the method is the determination of REE abundances in meteoritic phosphates. Results are shown to be in good agreement with previous INAA and ion probe determinations. The merrillites in the St. Severin amphoterite are richer in REE than the apatites (the enrichment factors, for various REE, range from 2.3 to 14.2) in contradiction with the results of Ebihara and Honda (1983). Provided good standards for other mineral phases are found or implanted marker ion techniques are used, the method should find a wide range of applications for the study of both terrestrial and extraterrestrial crystals at the microscopic level.

Crozaz, G.; Zinner, E.

1985-01-01

73

Characteristics of the Galileo probe entry site from Earth-based remote sensing observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

A reassessment of ground-based observations confirms to better than a 98% confidence level that the Galileo probe entered a 5-mum hot spot, a region of unusual clarity and dryness, some 900+\\/-300km north of its southern boundary. Cloud conditions at that point were similar to those in the center of this region, some 600 km further north. At the time of

Glenn S. Orton; Brendan M. Fisher; Kevin H. Baines; Sarah T. Stewart; A. James Friedson; Jose Luis Ortiz; Milena Marinova; Michael Ressler; Aditya Dayal; William Hoffmann; Joseph Hora; Sasha Hinkley; Viswanathan Krishnan; Milan Masanovic; Jelena Tesic; Andreas Tziolas; Kartik C. Parija

1998-01-01

74

Uncle Tom's Cabin & American Culture  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

While it is fairly easy to find electronic full-text versions of Harriet Beecher Stowe's tremendously important work "Uncle Tom's Cabin" online, visitors will want to first take a look at this very thorough exploration not only of the book itself, but also of American culture in the 19th century. Created and maintained by Professor Stephen Railton of the University of Virginia (with funding from the National Endowment for the Humanities), the site allows users to browse through such materials as editorials from the period that respond to the book along with information about how the book has been transformed into a children's book and various plays. Beyond this helpful information, visitors can also look at the covers of different editions of Uncle Tom's Cabin through the years, including one that was published in Yiddish in 1911. For students of American literature or culture, this site could prove to be quite an invaluable resource.

75

Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) planet profile provides data and images of the planet Earth. These data include planet size, orbit facts, distance from the Sun, rotation and revolution times, temperature, atmospheric composition, density, surface materials and albedo. Images with descriptions show Earth features such as the Ross Ice Shelf in Antarctica, Simpson Desert in Australia, Mt. Etna in Sicily, the Cassiar Mountains in Canada, the Strait of Gibraltar, Mississippi River, Grand Canyon, Wadi Kufra Oasis in Libya, and Moon images such as Hadley Rille, Plum Crater, massifs and Moon rocks. These images were taken with the Galileo Spacecraft and by the Apollo missions.

76

Using Array Seismology to Probe the Deep Earth With Core Seismic Phases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Much work is undertaken to investigate the structure of the deep Earth, i.e. the core and lower mantle. Researching these regions is important, as they are thought to govern the generation of the Earth's magnetic field, as well as mantle convection. The deep mantle region includes the core-mantle interaction zone, and is potentially the origin of plumes, and the graveyard for slabs. Much controversy exists regarding the nature of the inner core, in particular its anisotropy and rotation. Up to now, seismological studies of the Earth's core have focused primarily on travel time deviations. These locate anomalous regions, but cannot determine the nature of the anomaly. The rays may have been deviated along an anomalous path (backazimuth deviation), or travelled at an anomalous phase velocity (slowness deviation). The work presented here utilises array seismology to further examine anomalies previously located by studying travel time deviations. The slowness and backazimuth of core seismic phases are calculated, and compared with global velocity models. Deviations of the different phases are analysed to resolve the location of the anomalous regions. The results are then compared with travel time deviations. This method will be employed globally, utilising arrays that lie at a suitable epicentral distance from relatively deep, strong events. Currently two arrays have been used, the German Regional Seismic Network (GRSN) and the Alaska Seismic Network (ASN). Earthquakes in Tonga-Fiji are received by the GRSN, and data from the ASN is used to further investigate the anomalous South Sandwich Islands to Alaska path. This path has been shown in recent studies to have strong anisotropy and is also used to study rotations of the inner core. Results show that deviations are present in all three phases (PKPab, PKPbc and PKPdf); deviations vary for the different paths. The Tonga-Fiji to Germany path has particularly deviated backazimuth values for all three phases, possibly indicative of lower mantle structure. The South Sandwich Island to Alaska path shows deviations particularly in the PKPdf branch (the branch that travels through the inner core).

Black, J. A.; Thomas, C.

2003-12-01

77

Inner Core Tilt and Polar Motion: Probing the Dynamics Deep Inside the Earth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A tilted inner core permits exchange of angular momentum between the core and the mantle through gravitational and pressure torques and, as a result, changes in the direction of Earth's axis of rotation with respect to the mantle. Some of the observed variations in the direction of Earth's rotation could then be caused by equatorial torques on the inner core which tilt the latter out of its alignment with the mantle. In this work, we investigate whether such a scenario could explain the decade polar motion known as the Markowitz wobble. We show that a decade polar motion of the same amplitude as the observed Markowitz wobble requires a torque of 1020 N m which tilts the inner core by 0.07 degrees. This result critically depends on the viscosity of the inner core; for a viscosity less than 5 x 1017 Pa s, larger torques are required. A torque of 1020 N m with decadal periodicity can perhaps be produced by electromagnetic coupling between the inner core and a component of the flow in the outer core known as torsional oscillations, provided that the radial magnetic field at the inner core boundary is on the order of 3 to 4 mT and satisfies certain geometrical constraints. The resulting polar motion thus produced is eccentric and polarized, in agreement with the observations. Our model suggests that equatorial torques at the inner core boundary might also excite the Chandler wobble, provided shorter wavelength torsional oscillations with higher natural frequencies have enough power or provided there exists another physical mechanism that can generate a large torque at a 14 month period.

Dumberry, M.; Bloxham, J.

2003-12-01

78

A comprehensive mission to planet Earth: Woods Hole Space Science and Applications Advisory Committee Planning Workshop  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA program Mission to Planet Earth (MTPE) is described in this set of visuals presented in Massachusetts on July 29, 1991. The problem presented in this document is that the earth system is changing and that human activity accelerates the rate of change resulting in increased greenhouse gases, decreasing levels of stratospheric ozone, acid rain, deforestation, decreasing biodiversity, and overpopulation. Various national and international organizations are coordinating global change research. The complementary space observations for this activity are sun-synchronous polar orbits, low-inclination, low altitude orbits, geostationary orbits, and ground measurements. The Geostationary Earth Observatory is the major proposed mission of MTPE. Other proposed missions are EOS Synthetic Aperture Radar, ARISTOTELES Magnetic Field Experiment, and the Global Topography Mission. Use of the NASA DC-8 aircraft is outlined as carrying out the Airborne Science and Applications Program. Approved Earth Probes Program include the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS). Other packages for earth observation are described.

1991-01-01

79

Earth  

E-print Network

As in his original cosmology proposal 1,2 and in subsequent writings in its defence, 3,4 so also in New vistas of space-time rebut the critics, 5 Dr Humphreys makes sweeping physical claims without backing them up with the simple mathematical calculations which would demonstrate their truth or falsity. It is straightforward, using only undergraduate-level differential calculus, to show that Humphreys’ claim of a ‘timeless zone ’ in the Klein metric is false. In order for a ‘timeless zone ’ to exist, there must be a region of spacetime within which there are no spacetime trajectories which have the property ds 2> 0. However, it is easy to verify that every comoving clock in Humphreys ’ bounded matter sphere cosmology traverses a timelike trajectory (ds 2> 0), even in the region of (?,?) space which Humphreys alleges is ‘timeless. ’ Consider, for example, the trajectory of the Earth, which Humphreys hypothesizes is at the center of the matter sphere. The Earth’s spatial trajectory in Schwarzschild coordinates is given by d?

unknown authors

80

Aerosol characterization of Morocco with AERONET and intercomparison with satellite data: TOMS, MODIS, and MISR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this paper is to characterize the aerosol loadings, their optical and microphysical properties over Morocco, by use of the AERONET network and satellite data. Three AERONET stations in Morocco; Saada, Ras_El_Ain and Dakhla are considered in this work. The aerosol parameters studied are the aerosol optical thickness, the Angstrom parameter, the size distribution, the single scattering albedo and the refraction index. An inter-comparison with satellite data has been achieved. The most popular satellite products, TOMS (Earth Probe and OMI), MODIS and MISR have been considered. It comes out from this study that the mean aerosol optical thickness (550 nm) vary from 0.22 to 0.3, with a peak in summer time of 0.56 for Dakhla, 0.42 for Ras_El_Ain and 0.35 for Saada. The Angstrom parameter mean is 0.6 for Dakhla and 0.75 for Saada and Ras_El_Ain with a summer minimum of 0.32 for Dakhla and 0.55 for Saada and Ras_El_Ain. The size distribution is bimodal with a predominance of the coarse mode except for Saada in winter and autumn. This region depicts desert dust predominant environment with a single scattering albedo varying from 0.72 to 0.96. Saada and Ras_El_Ain being at 52 km apart, their coincident daily AOT correlate with a correlation coefficient; R=0.93. Concerning the correlation between satellite data and AERONET AOT, TOMS EP has a correlation coefficient of 0.53 for Saada (all data), 0.68 for Dakhla (all data). TOMS OMI correlation coefficient is 0.68 for Saada (all data) and 0.71 for Ras_El_Ain (year 2006). MISR (level 3 data) correlation coefficient is 0.77 for Saada (all data) and 0.85 for Dakhla (all data). MODIS (level 3) correlation coefficient is 0.86 for Saada (all data) and 0.92 for Dakhla (all data). Level 2 MODIS correlation coefficient is 0.69 for Saada (year 2006), 0.86 for Ras_El_Ain (year 2006) and 0.97 for Dakhla (year 2003).

Bounhir, A.; Benkhaldoun, Z.; Sarazin, M.

2007-10-01

81

Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) Level-3 Data Products User's Guide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Data from the TOMS series of instruments span the time period from November 1978, through the present with about a one and a-half year gap from January 1994 through July 1996. A set of four parameters derived from the TOMS measurements have been archived in the form of daily global maps or Level-3 data products. These products are total column ozone, effective surface reflectivity, aerosol index, and erythermal ultraviolet estimated at the Earth surface. A common fixed grid of I degree latitude by 1.25 degree longitude cells over the entire globe is provided daily for each parameter. These data are archived at the Goddard Space Flight Center Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAQ in Hierarchical Data Format (HDF). They are also available in a character format through the TOMS web site at http://toms.gsfc.nasa.gov. The derivations of the parameters, the mapping algorithm, and the data formats are described. The trend uncertainty for individual TOMS instruments is about 1% decade, but additional uncertainty exists in the combined data record due to uncertainty in the relative calibrations of the various TOMS.

McPeters, Richard D.; Bhartia, P. K.; Krueger, Arlin J.; Herman, Jay R.; Wellemeyer, Charles G.; Seftor, Colin J.; Byerly, William; Celarier, Edward A.

2000-01-01

82

Changes in Cloud and Aerosol Cover (1980-2006) from Reflectivity Time Series Using SeaWiFS, N7-TOMS, EP-TOMS, SBUV-2, and OMI Radiance Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The amount of solar radiation reflected back to space or reaching the Earth's surface is primarily governed by the amount of cloud cover and, to a much lesser extent, by Rayleigh scatteri ng, aerosols, and various absorbing gases (e.g., O3, NO2, H2O). A useful measure of the effect of cloud plus aerosol cover is given by the amount that the 331 run Lambert Equivalent Reflectivity (LER) ofa scene exceeds the surfuce reflectivity for snow/ice-free scenes after Rayleigh scattering has been removed. Twenty-eight years of reflectivity data are available by overlapping data from several satellites: N7 (Nimbus 7, TOMS; 331 nm) from 1979 to 1992, SBUV-2 series (Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet, NOAA; 331 nm) 1985 to 2007, EP (Earth-Probe, TOMS; 331 nm) 1997 to 2006, SW (SeaWiFS; 412 nm) 1998 to 2006, and OMI (Ozone Measuring Instrument; 331 nm) 2004-2007. Only N7 and SW have a sufficiently long data record, Sun-synchronous orbits, and are adequately calibrated for long-term reflectivity trend estimation. Reflectivity data derived from these instruments and the SBUV-2 series are compared during the overlapping years. Key issues in determining long-term reflecti vity changes that have occurred during the N7 and SW operating periods are discussed. The largest reflectivity changes in the 412 nm SW LER and 331 nm EP LER are found to occur near the equator and are associated with a large EI Nino-Southern Oscillation event. Most other changes that have occurred are regional, such as the apparent cloud decrease over northern Europe since 1998. The fractional occurrence (fraction of days) of high reflectivity values over Hudson Bay, Canada (snow/ice and clouds) appears to have decreased when comparing reflectivity data from 1980 to 1992 to 1997-2006, suggesting shorter duration of ice in Hudson Bay since 1980.

Herman, J. R.; Labow, G.; Hsu, N. C.; Larko, D.

2009-01-01

83

A simple method for verifying the deployment of the TOMS-EP solar arrays  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer-Earth Probe (TOMS-EP) mission relies upon a successful deployment of the spacecraft's solar arrays. Several methods of verification are being employed to ascertain the solar array deployment status, with each requiring differing amounts of data. This paper describes a robust attitude-independent verification method that utilizes telemetry from the coarse Sun sensors (CSS's) and the three-axis magnetometers (TAM's) to determine the solar array deployment status - and it can do so with only a few, not necessarily contiguous, points of data. The method developed assumes that the solar arrays are deployed. Telemetry data from the CSS and TAM are converted to the Sun and magnetic field vectors in spacecraft body coordinates, and the angle between them is calculated. Deployment is indicated if this angle is within a certain error tolerance of the angle between the reference Sun and magnetic field vectors. Although several other methods can indicate a non-deployed state, with this method there is a 70% confidence level in confirming deployment as well as a nearly 100% certainty in confirming a non-deployed state. In addition, the spacecraft attitude (which is not known during the first orbit after launch) is not needed for this algorithm because the angle between the Sun and magnetic field vectors is independent of the spacecraft attitude. This technique can be applied to any spacecraft with a TAM and with CSS's mounted on the solar array(s).

Koppersmith, James R.; Ketchum, Eleanor

1995-01-01

84

TOMS Ozone at the South Pole: August 1, 2000 to October 2, 2000  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The year 2000s Antarctic ozone hole is the largest ever observed. Scientists continue to investigate the phenomenon, and are somewhat surprised by its scale. Using data from NASAs Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) instrument onboard the Earth Probe satellite, researchers can evaluate and compare current conditions over the south pole to readings taken by other instruments in years past. Continued monitoring of polar ozone levels helps researchers gain a better understanding of how the planets climate may be changing. This animation shows a huge section of the atmosphere around the south pole thats comparatively devoid of ozone. The gap reached a record size of 28.3 million kilometers squared on September 3, 2000. The previous record was 27.2 million square kilometers squared recorded on Sept. 19, 1998. Although current measurements of the ozone hole show that it has stabilized, low value points in the interior continue to decline. The lowest values are typically observed in the late September or early October.

Greg Shirah

2000-10-03

85

Close Reading Exemplar: Tom Sawyer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The goal of this one day exemplar is to give students the opportunity to use the reading and writing habits they’ve been practicing on a regular basis to discover the rich humor and moral lesson embedded in Twain’s text. By reading and rereading the passage closely, and focusing their reading through a series of questions and discussion about the text, students will explore the problem Tom Sawyer faced and how he “solved” his conundrum. When combined with writing about the passage, students will learn to appreciate how Twain’s humor contains a deeper message and derive satisfaction from the struggle to master complex text. At the end of the lesson, students are provided two writing prompts to constructive a narrative inspired by Twain's text.

Student Achievement Partners for Just Read, Florida!

2012-09-09

86

Nimbus/TOMS Science Data Operations Support  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

1. Participate in and provide analysis of laboratory and in-flight calibration of UV sensors used for space observations of backscattered UV radiation. 2. Provide support to the TOMS Science Operations Center, including generating instrument command lists and analysis of TOMS health and safety data. 3. Develop and maintain software and algorithms designed to capture and process raw spacecraft and instrument data, convert the instrument output into measured radiance and irradiances, and produce scientifically valid products. 4. Process the TOMS data into Level 1, Level 2, and Level 3 data products. 5. Provide analysis of the science data products in support of NASA GSFC Code 916's research.

Childs, Jeff

1998-01-01

87

Probes to the inferior planets—A new dawn for NEO and IEO detection technology demonstration from heliocentric orbits interior to the earth's?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent years have seen a renewed interest in exploration of the interior of the solar system. A number of missions are currently under way, in planning as well as in space, with the primary goal to expand our knowledge on the planets Mercury and Venus. Chemical propulsion missions to Mercury in particular require an extended cruise phase prior to arrival at their destination, usually involving multiple planetary fly-by manoeuvres and many revolutions in heliocentric orbit. The difficulties in discovering and tracking small objects interior to Earth's orbit, mainly due to unfavourable viewing geometry as well as atmospheric interference, have long been noted by the solar system science and planetary defence communities. Space probes in the interior of the solar system are in a position to observe objects near or interior to Earth's orbit in favourable opposition geometry. They are also usually free from planet-related interference, at least while in cruise, and often can be while in planetary eclipse. Dedicated search and survey missions to look for Near and Inner Earth Objects (NEO, IEO) from the vicinity of Earth or low Earth orbit are being planned. In this article, the ad-hoc available as well as near-term planned in-situ capabilities of the optical instrument payloads of space probes to Venus and Mercury are compiled from publications by the respective instrument teams. The small-object detection capabilities of cameras and spectrographs in opposition geometry are estimated by a common method, using data from comparable instruments to supplement missing information where necessary. The on-board cameras are classified according to their small-object detection potential in a technology demonstration of asteroid detection from a heliocentric orbit substantially interior to Earth's.

Grundmann, Jan Thimo; Mottola, Stefano; Drentschew, Maximilian; Drobczyk, Martin; Kahle, Ralph; Maiwald, Volker; Quantius, Dominik; Zabel, Paul; van Zoest, Tim

2013-09-01

88

Tom Berlijn Eugene P. Wigner Fellow  

E-print Network

Tom Berlijn Eugene P. Wigner Fellow Nanomaterials Theory Institute Center For Nanophase Materials University Condensed Matter Physics Ph.D. 2011 Professional Experience 2013-present, Eugene P. Wigner Fellow

Pennycook, Steve

89

Tom LaPenta Chief HR Officer  

E-print Network

Tom LaPenta Chief HR Officer Chris Ulrich Director, Compensation & Benefits Kathy Corbitt Assoc Director, Educ & Wellness Anna Bloch Director, Payroll/ Records/HRIS Vacant Labor Relations Cecily Sawyer

Firestone, Jeremy

90

Observation guidelines for a Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) in geosynchronous orbit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The successful utilization of Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) measurements in low Earth orbit for the analysis of rapidly changing events has led to the consideration of a TOMS in geosynchronous orbit. This orbit should allow for the selection of temporal and spatial resolutions that are specifically designed for these events, plus the flexibility of selecting different sized areas and pointing the sensor to focus on the most interesting events. Separate temporal and spatial resolution guidelines plus recommended areal coverage have been developed for tropical cyclones, jet streams, the interaction between strong convection and the environment, and the surveillance of volcanoes. It is also suggested that the most effective use of TOMS would be simultaneous flights with microwave and high spatial resolution infrared temperature profiles.

Shenk, William E.

1987-01-01

91

Effect of marine stratocumulus in TOMS ozone  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The algorithm used to correct total O3 from the total ozone mapping spectrometer (TOMS) for cloud effects is based on the measured reflectivity, a climatological cloud top height, and an assumed tropospheric O3 column amount below clouds. In regions of persistent subtropical marine stratocumulus it is assumed that this introduces a positive error into total O3 because these clouds are lower than the assumed mean cloud height used in the algorithm. This appears to be confirmed by high correlation between Nimbus 7 TOMS total O3 and reflectivity data for typical regimes of persistent stratus, as identified by the international satellite cloud climatology project (ISCCP) observations. The TOMS total O3 overestimate has been computed using Nimbus 7/solar backscattered ultraviolet total O3 derived using temperature humidity infrared radiometer (THIR) data for years 1979-1984. A functional relationship between the THIR/non-THIR total O3 difference and reflectivity is used with TOMS reflectivity to modify Nimbus 7 TOMS O3 data for selected regions and periods. The correction diminishes or eliminates a number of apparent O3 maxima, with reductions of up to 20 Dobson units (DU) in total O3 on daily maps and approximately 5 DU on monthly mean O3 maps. Significant correlation between corrected TOMS O3 and reflectivity data remains because low-altitude O3 is retrieved more efficiently over a high-albedo surface. It is also possible that dynamical influences leading to stratocumulus formation bring O3-enriched air into the area. These results imply that although good arguments can be made for the use of TOMS total O3 as a proxy for tropospheric O3 in the tropics, caution must be exercised in the use of daily and even monthly O3 maps in the vicinity of clouds. Further research into the TOMS algorithm in cloudy regions is required to derive reliable estimates of tropospheric O3.

Thompson, A. M.; Mcnamara, D. P.; Pickering, K. E.; Mcpeters, R. D.

1993-01-01

92

TOMS UV Algorithm: Problems and Enhancements. 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Satellite instruments provide global maps of surface ultraviolet (UV) irradiance by combining backscattered radiance measurements with radiative transfer models. The models are limited by uncertainties in input parameters of the atmosphere and the surface. We evaluate the effects of possible enhancements of the current Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) surface UV irradiance algorithm focusing on effects of diurnal variation of cloudiness and improved treatment of snow/ice. The emphasis is on comparison between the results of the current (version 1) TOMS UV algorithm and each of the changes proposed. We evaluate different approaches for improved treatment of pixel average cloud attenuation, with and without snow/ice on the ground. In addition to treating clouds based only on the measurements at the local time of the TOMS observations, the results from other satellites and weather assimilation models can be used to estimate attenuation of the incident UV irradiance throughout the day. A new method is proposed to obtain a more realistic treatment of snow covered terrain. The method is based on a statistical relation between UV reflectivity and snow depth. The new method reduced the bias between the TOMS UV estimations and ground-based UV measurements for snow periods. The improved (version 2) algorithm will be applied to re-process the existing TOMS UV data record (since 1978) and to the future satellite sensors (e.g., Quik/TOMS, GOME, OMI on EOS/Aura and Triana/EPIC).

Krotkov, Nickolay; Herman, Jay; Bhartia, P. K.; Seftor, Colin; Arola, Antti; Kaurola, Jussi; Kroskinen, Lasse; Kalliskota, S.; Taalas, Petteri; Geogdzhaev, I.

2002-01-01

93

Toms Creek IGCC Demonstration Project  

SciTech Connect

In response to the PON, 33 proposals were received by DOE in May 1991. One of the nine is a project proposed by Tampella Power Corporation (Tampella) and Coastal Power Production Company (Coastal) for the design, construction, and operation of a pressurized, air-blown, fluidized-bed, integrated gasification, combined-cycle, (IGCC) demonstration project. The project, entitled the Toms Creek IGCC Demonstration Project, will consume 430 tons per day of bituminous coal and generate 55 megawatts (MK) of power for the electric grid and steam for use in a nearby coal preparation plant. The project site is located near Coeburn in Wise County, Virginia. The project, including the demonstration phase, will last 99 months at a total cost of $196,570,000. DOE'S share of the project cost will be 48.3%, or $95,000,000. The objective of the proposed project is to demonstrate an advanced IGCC system based upon the air-blown, pressurized fluidized-bed U-Gas gasifier developed by the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) with in-bed desulfurization using a calcium-based sorbent and an external zinc titanate sulfur removal system.

Not Available

1992-09-01

94

Probes to the Inferior Planets - A New Dawn for NEO and IEO Detection Technology Demonstration from Heliocentric Orbits Interior to the Earth's?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the launch of MESSENGER and VENUS EXPRESS, a new wave of exploration of the inner solar system has begun. Noting the growing number of probes to the inner solar system, it is proposed to connect the expertise of the respective spacecraft teams and the NEO and IEO survey community to best utilize the extended cruise phases and to provide additional data return in support of pure science as well as planetary defence. Several missions to Venus and Mercury are planned to follow in this decade. Increased interest in the inferior planets is accompanied by several missions designed to study the Sun and the interplanetary medium (IPM) from a position near or in Earth orbit, such as the STEREO probes and SDO. These augment established solar observation capabilities at the Sun-Earth L1 Lagrangian point such as the SOHO spacecraft. Thus, three distinct classes of spacecraft operate or observe interior to Earth's orbit. All these spacecraft carry powerful multispectral cameras optimized for their respective primary targets. MESSENGER is scheduled to end its six-year interplanetary cruise in March 2011 to enter Mercury orbit, but a similarly extended cruise with several gravity-assists awaits the European Mercury mission BEPICOLOMBO. Unfortunately, the automatic abort of the orbit insertion manoeuvre has also left AKATSUKI (a.k.a. Venus Climate Orbiter (VCO), Planet-C) stranded in heliocentric orbit. After an unintended fly-by, the probe will catch up with Venus in approximately six years. Meanwhile, it stays mostly interior to Venus in a planet-leading orbit. In addition to the study of comets and their interaction with the IPM, observations of small bodies akin to those carried out by outer solar system probes are occasionally attempted with the equipment available. The study of structures in the interplanetary dust (IPD) cloud has been a science objective during the cruise phase of the Japanese Venus probe AKATSUKI from Earth to Venus. IPD observations in the astronomical H-band (1.65 ?m) are supported by its IR2 camera down to 1.5 ?W/m2sr in single 2 minute exposures. In the same setting, point sources of 13 mag can be detected. Obviously, a number of large asteroids exceed this threshold. The EARTHGUARD-I study, completed in 2003 by the DLR Institute of Planetary Research and Kayser-Threde under ESA contract, proposed a dedicated steerable 020...35 cm telescope and CCD camera payload on a probe to the inner solar system, to detect Near-Earth and Inner-Earth Objects (NEOs, IEOs) in favourable opposition geometry. A ride- share on a Mercury orbiter and a dedicated low-thrust propulsion spacecraft to a heliocentric 0.5 AU orbit were studied. A similar-sized telescope is presently being developed for the ASTEROIDFINDER satellite of DLR. Therefore, the technical feasibility of a number of asteroid observation scenarios involving spacecraft and targets interior to Earth's orbit is assessed based on the latest available spacecraft information and asteroid population models. A rough estimate of the required effort in terms of ground-based spacecraft operations and on-board resources is given for selected representative scenarios.

Grundmann, J. T.; Mottola, S.; Drentschew, M.; Drobczyk, M.; Kahle, R.; Maiwald, V.; Quantius, D.; Zabel, P.; Van Zoest, T.

2011-11-01

95

Feasibility study of a swept frequency electromagnetic probe (SWEEP) using inductive coupling for the determination of subsurface conductivity of the earth and water prospecting in arid regions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Techniques developed for electromagnetic probing of the lunar interior, and techniques developed for the generation of high power audio frequencies were combined to make practical a magnetic inductive coupling system for the rapid measurement of ground conductivity profiles which are helpful when prospecting for the presence and quality of subsurface water. A system which involves the measurement of the direction, intensity, and time phase of the magnetic field observed near the surface of the earth at a distance from a horizontal coil energized so as to create a field that penetrates the earth was designed and studied to deduce the conductivity and stratification of the subsurface. Theoretical studies and a rudimentary experiment in an arid region showed that the approach is conceptually valid and that this geophysical prospecting technique can be developed for the economical exploration of subterranean water resources.

Latorraca, G. A.; Bannister, L. H.

1974-01-01

96

Nimbus/TOMS Science Data Operations Support  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Projected goals include the following: (1) Participate in and provide analysis of laboratory and in-flight calibration of LTV sensors used for space observations of backscattered LTV radiation; (2) Provide support to the TOMS Science Operations Center, including generating instrument command lists and analysis of TOMS health and safety data; (3) Develop and maintain software and algorithms designed to capture and process raw spacecraft and instrument data, convert the instrument output into measured radiance and irradiances, and produce scientifically valid products; (4) Process the TOMS data into Level 1, Level 2, and Level 3 data products; (5) Provide analysis of the science data products in support of NASA GSFC Code 916's research.

1998-01-01

97

Scientific and Operational Requirements for TOMS Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Global total ozone and sulfur dioxide data from the Nimbus 7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) instrument have applications in a broad range of disciplines. The presentations of 29 speakers who are using the data in research or who have operational needs for the data are summarized. Five sessions addressed topics in stratospheric processes, tropospheric dynamics and chemistry, remote sensing, volcanology, and future instrument requirements. Stratospheric and some volcanology requirements can be met by a continuation of polar orbit satellites using a slightly modified TOMS but weather related research, tropospheric sulfur budget studies, and most operational needs require the time resolution of a geostationary instrument.

Krueger, Arlin J. (editor)

1987-01-01

98

Calibration and postlaunch performance of the Meteor 3/TOMS instrument  

SciTech Connect

Prelaunch and postlaunch calibration results for the Meteor 3/total ozone mapping spectrometer (TOMS) instrument are presented here. Ozone amounts are retrieved from measurements of Earth albedo in the 312- to 380-nm range. The accuracy of albedo measurements is primarily tied to knowledge of the reflective properties of diffusers used in the calibrations and to the instrument`s wavelength selection. These and other important prelaunch calibrations are presented. Their estimated accuracies are within the bounds necessary to determine column ozone to better than 1%. However, postlaunch validation results indicate some prelaunch calibration uncertainties may be larger than originally estimated. Instrument calibrations have been maintained postlaunch to within a corresponding 1% error in retrieved ozone. Onboard calibrations, including wavelength monitoring and a three-diffuser solar measurement system, are described and specific results are presented. Other issues, such as the effects of orbital precession on calibration and recent chopper wheel malfunctions, are also discussed.

Jaross, G.; Krueger, A.; Cebula, R.P.; Seftor, C.; Hartmann, U.; Haring, R.; Burchfield, D. [Hughes STX Corp., Greenbelt, MD (United States)] [Hughes STX Corp., Greenbelt, MD (United States); [NASA, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States); [Orbital Sciences Corp., Pomona, CA (United States)

1995-02-01

99

Endofin recruits clathrin to early endosomes via TOM1  

Microsoft Academic Search

endofin, it did not interact with the C-terminal region of TOM1. Examination of chimeric proteins of endofin and SARA suggests that the C-terminal half of endofin is responsible for interaction with the C-terminal region of TOM1 and for recruitment of TOM1 and clathrin to endosomes. The correlation between the ability of endofin to interact with the C-terminal domain of TOM1

Li-Fong Seet; Wanjin Hong

2005-01-01

100

Toms River Drivers Manual 1984-1985.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The procedures in this manual are designed to establish stability and continuity within the student transportation department of the Toms River Regional Schools in New Jersey. The manual is divided into three sections. Section 1 provides driver and aide specific information. It includes directives related to time clock, spare buses, and…

Thomas, Patricia

101

Tom Donahue Environmental Ethics ENVIRONMENTAL ETHICS.  

E-print Network

Tom Donahue Environmental Ethics 1 ENVIRONMENTAL ETHICS. EPE S399/PHIL S331/PLSC S335 Summer 2012 Environmental Ethics 2 the thesis. I will ask you what you think of those reasons, and so forth. The course before then. REQUIRED TEXTBOOKS (on sale at Yale Bookstore) [1] Environmental Ethics: An Anthology, ed

102

American Laughter: Nietzsche Reads Tom Sawyer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The strength of Friedrich Nietzsche's interest in the works of Mark Twain has not been sufficiently noted. His special favorite, The Adventures of Tom Sawyer (1876), has philosophical parallels to the works of Nietzsche's middle period, in which he anatomizes the sources of conventional morality.

Benjamin Griffin

2010-01-01

103

STS-98 Crew Interview: Tom Jones  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The STS-98 Mission Specialist Tom Jones is seen being interviewed. He answers questions about his inspiration to become an astronaut, his career path, and his training. He gives details on the mission's goals and significance, and the payload and hardware it brings to the International Space Station (ISS). Mr. Jones discusses his role in the mission's spacewalks and activities.

2001-01-01

104

Spiny Android Tom Tantillo, Abhishek Prakash, and  

E-print Network

Spiny Android Tom Tantillo, Abhishek Prakash, and Daniel Obenshain The original Android logo is from Android.com. #12;Android Phones · Android is a new, popular smartphone platform. · On average, there are 350,000 new Android phones activated per day. · Android phones are reported to be easier to work

Amir, Yair

105

Solar UV irradiance measured at ground and compared with satellite TOMS/NASA derived data at different locations in Argentina  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The solar UV radiation incident on different and distant places of Argentina (Ushuaia, Puerto Madryn, Buenos Aires and Jujuy) obtained at 305, 320, 340 and 380 nm with a GUV-511/Biospherical narrowband radiometer of the CONICET Latitudinal UV-PAR radiation monitoring network, were compared with TUV model calculations in order to derive the effective aerosol optical depths in the locations indicated above. The adjusted spectral curve is employed in order to determine, -with the inclusion of the erythemal action spectrum, the corresponding integrated dose for each day. This value, usually called exposure, is compared with the data derived at noon from those taken by the satellite instrument TOMS/NASA on board of Earth Probe. Other biological UV irradiances like carcinogenesis and ADN and plant damages are also analyzed. In particular, the signals produced by the ozone hole and minihole events (with values lowers or equal to 220 DU) are clearly distinguished in the biological actions that depend strongly on the most energetic UVB radiations.

Wolfram, W.; Quel, E.; Paladini, A.; Orce, V.; Piacentini, R. D.

106

Nimbus-7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) data products user's guide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two tape products from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) aboard the Nimbus-7 have been archived at the National Space Science Data Center. The instrument measures backscattered Earth radiance and incoming solar irradiance; their ratio -- the albedo -- is used in ozone retrievals. In-flight measurements are used to monitor changes in the instrument sensitivity. The algorithm to retrieve total column ozone compares the observed ratios of albedos at pairs of wavelengths with pair ratios calculated for different ozone values, solar zenith angles, and optical paths. The initial error in the absolute scale for TOMS total ozone is 3 percent, the one standard-deviation random error is 2 percent, and the drift is +/- 1.5 percent over 14.5 years. The High Density TOMS (HDTOMS) tape contains the measured albedos, the derived total ozone amount, reflectivity, and cloud-height information for each scan position. It also contains an index of SO2 contamination for each position. The Gridded TOMS (GRIDTOMS) tape contains daily total ozone and reflectivity in roughly equal area grids (110 km in latitude by about 100-150 km in longitude). Detailed descriptions of the tape structure and record formats are provided.

Mcpeters, Richard D.; Krueger, Arlin J.; Bhartia, P. K.; Herman, Jay R.; Oaks, Arnold; Ahmad, Ziuddin; Cebula, Richard P.; Schlesinger, Barry M.; Swissler, Tom; Taylor, Steven L.

1993-01-01

107

Remote sounding from artificial satellites and space probes of the atmospheres of the Earth and the planets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observation of radiation reflected, scattered or emitted in various regions of the electromagnetic spectrum can yield information about the structure of a planetary atmosphere. Instrumentation for the measurement of temperature, density, and composition and for cloud imaging is described, methods of information retrieval from radiometric observations are discussed, and some of the results for the atmospheres of Earth, Mars and

J. T. Houghton; F. W. Taylor

1973-01-01

108

Alpha-particle and proton probes of nuclear shapes in the rare earth and mass 80 regions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low emission barriers and large subbarrier anisotropies in the alpha-particle decay with respect to the spin direction, of Sn and rare earth compound nuclei, are examined in the light of recent calculations incorporating deformation. To explore the possibility of a correlation between the proton emission barriers and nuclear deformation, we studied proton spectra from the ⁵²Cr(³⁴S,2p2n)⁸²Sr reaction. The proton spectra

D. G. Sarantites; N. G. Nicolis; V. Abenante; Z. Majka; T. M. Semkow; C. Baktash; J. R. Beene; G. Garcia-Bermudez; M. L. Halbert; D. C. Hensley; N. R. Johnson; I. Y. Lee; F. K. McGowan; M. A. Riley; A. Virtanen; H. C. Griffin

1989-01-01

109

Impact Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This planetarium show teaches about meteors, meteorites, asteroids, and comets. It includes results from NASA missions and about the dangers they can pose to life on Earth. It is created for full-dome theaters but can also be shown in flat version for TVs and computer monitors. Shows the effects of the Chixulub and Tungusta events, plus the Pallasite impact that resulted in the Brenham meteorite fall. Describes ways that asteroid hunters seek new objects in the Solar System, and how ground-penetrating radar is used to find meteorites that have reached the Earth's surface and ancient craters under the desert. Narrated by astronaut Tom Jones, it also discusses ways that humans might try to deflect an asteroid or comet that is on a collision course with Earth. Created for informal science venues (digital planetariums), it is also useful as ancillary material for middle school science. Created under NASA Cooperative Agreement NCC5-316 to Rice University in conjunction with the Houston Museum of Natural Science as part of the "Immersive Earth" project, part of the REASoN program.

Patricia Reiff

2009-05-01

110

Preliminary Results from an Assimilation of TOMS Aerosol Observations Into the GOCART Model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

At NASA Goddard we are developing a global aerosol data assimilation system that combines advances in remote sensing and modeling of atmospheric aerosols. The goal is to provide high resolution, 3-D aerosol distributions to the research community. Our first step is to develop a simple assimilation system for Saharan mineral aerosol. The Goddard Chemistry and Aerosol Radiation model (GOCART) provides accurate 3-D mineral aerosol size distributions that compare well with TOMS satellite observations. Surface, mobilization, wet and dry deposition, convective and long-range transport are all driven by assimilated fields from the Goddard Earth Observing System Data Assimilation System, GEOS-DAS. Our version of GOCART transports sizes from.08-10 microns and only simulates Saharan dust. TOMS radiance observations in the ultra violet provide information on the mineral and carbonaceous aerosol fields. We use two main observables in this study: the TOMS aerosol index (AI) which is directly related to the ratio of the 340 and 380 radiances and the 380 radiance. These are sensitive to the aerosol optical thickness, the single scattering albedo and the height of the aerosol layer. The Goddard Aerosol Assimilation System (GAAS) uses the Data Assimilation Office's Physical-space Statistical Analysis System (PSAS) to combine TOMS observations and GOCART model first guess fields. At this initial phase we only assimilate observations into the the GOCART model over regions of Africa and the Atlantic where mineral aerosols dominant and carbonaceous aerosols are minimal, Our preliminary results during summer show that the assimilation with TOMS data modifies both the aerosol mass loading and the single scattering albedo. Assimilated aerosol fields will be compared with assimilated aerosol fields from GOCART and AERONET observations over Cape Verde.

daSilva, Arlindo; Weaver, Clark J.; Ginoux, Paul; Torres, Omar; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

111

Dr. Tom Lawrence: a life in chiropractic  

PubMed Central

He dwelt within the chiropractic orbit from the cradle to the grave. Second-generation chiropractor Tom Lawrence was a successful professional and family man who followed in his father’s footsteps and fought the good fight to improve chiropractic within his state and nation. His passing closes a chapter of living memory of the middle years of the first chiropractic century. PMID:17549212

Keating, Joseph C

2005-01-01

112

TOMS and the NASA Ozone Trends Panel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 1985, the measurements of total ozone over the Antarctic burst suddenly into the ongoing discussions of stratospheric ozone depletion and its possible causes in the spring (Halley Bay Dobson data) and the summer (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer, TOMS). These were quickly followed by three scientific expeditions to the Antarctic--from the surface at McMurdo in 1986 and 1987, and by air from Punta Arenas, Chile, in 1987. The NASA Ozone Trends Panel came into existence under the direction of NASA's Bob Watson in December of 1986, and made its conclusions public in March, 1988. The data from TOMS on total ozone, and from the SBUV instrument on vertical ozone distribution, were the primary cause for the formation of the Ozone Trends Panel. These results combined with those from the other expeditions all played very significant roles in the conclusions drawn by the Panel, and by the scientific community. The TOMS data over Antarctica have become the accepted world-wide symbol for stratospheric ozone depletion.

Rowland, F. S.

2003-12-01

113

Global Mapping of Earth-like Exoplanets from Scattered Light Curves as a Probe of the Habitat  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the next step after the recent discoveries of exoplanets in habitable zones, it is desirable to develop techniques to investigate them farther to determine whether or not they really harbor life. In this context, it is valuable to consider a well-defined question how we would know about the habitat if we were to observe an Earth-twin at an astronomical distance. In principle, the scattered light of planets contains rich information of planetary surface and the atmosphere, and indeed the new instruments for direct imaging in optical/near-IR are actively proposed. However, interpretation of the spatially unresolved light from the planets can be complicated especially in the case of highly inhomogeneous planets like our own Earth. Here we demonstrate the 2-dimensional mapping of the surface from the scattered light variation assuming a continuous observation for 1 year (Kawahara and Fujii, 2010, 2011). We create mock light curves of the Earth including the realistic cloud cover and the seasonal variation, and invert them to the surface inhomogeneity by making the most of the spin rotation and orbital motion of the planet and using the technique of tomography. The recovered map successfully traces the actual cloud distribution, continents, and even the localized red-edge feature of vegetation. Therefore, such long observations of scattered light will give us the access to the landscape of exoplanets with diverse surface components. Another consequence of this tomography is the measurement of the planetary obliquity, which is a key parameter both for habitability and to constrain the formation scenario. We discuss the detectability of obliquity assuming a realistic instrumental design.

Fujii, Yuka; Kawahara, H.

2011-09-01

114

Hyperfine local probe study of alkaline-earth manganites SrMnO? and BaMnO?.  

PubMed

We report perturbed angular correlation measurements with (111m)Cd/(111)Cd and (111)In/(111)Cd probes, at the ISOLDE-CERN facility, in the manganite compounds BaMnO3, with the 6H and 15R polymorphs, and SrMnO3, with the 4H polymorph. The electric field gradient (EFG) is measured, and found approximately constant in a large temperature range for all the compounds. The EFG is also calculated from first principles with density functional theory, and compared with experimental results by considering diluted substitutional Cd impurities. Based on the results, we assign as sites for the probes the Ba (for BaMnO3-6H, 15R) and Sr (for SrMnO3-4H) sites, apart from fractions of undetermined origin in the case of BaMnO3-6H. We predict the hyperfine parameters in the recently synthesized multiferroic manganite Sr(0.5)Ba(0.5)MnO3, and its variation with the structure and electric polarization, which is found to be very small. PMID:24787139

Gonçalves, J N; Amaral, V S; Correia, J G; Lopes, A M L; Araújo, J P; Tavares, P B

2014-05-28

115

Dust storms and their impact on ocean and human health: dust in Earth's atmosphere  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Satellite imagery has greatly influenced our understanding of dust activity on a global scale. A number of different satellites such as NASA's Earth-Probe Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) and Se-viewing Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) acquire daily global-scale data used to produce imagery for monitoring dust storm formation and movement. This global-scale imagery has documented the frequent transmission of dust storm-derived soils through Earth's atmosphere and the magnitude of many of these events. While various research projects have been undertaken to understand this normal planetary process, little has been done to address its impact on ocean and human health. This review will address the ability of dust storms to influence marine microbial population densities and transport of soil-associated toxins and pathogenic microorganisms to marine environments. The implications of dust on ocean and human health in this emerging scientific field will be discussed.

Griffin, Dale W.; Kellog, Christina A.

2004-01-01

116

Van Allen Probes observations of energetic particle drift-phase structure in the Earth's radiation belts (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present data from the Magnetic Electron Ion Spectrometer (MagEIS) instrument, part of the Energetic Composition and Thermal Plasma (ECT) Suite, onboard the NASA Van Allen Probes spacecraft. MagEIS measures radiation belt electrons in the ~40-4000 keV energy range and protons in the ~60-1000 keV energy range, with high resolution in both energy and pitch-angle. We present a summary of our initial findings from the mission, with a focus on the large number of wave-particle interaction events we have observed. In particular, MagEIS frequently observes drift-resonance between magnetospheric ultra-low frequency (ULF) waves and energetic electrons and protons, and a number of interesting ULF wave characteristics can be deduced from the particle measurements alone. We also discuss electron and proton drift-echoes, which MagEIS observes across a wide energy range with surprising regularity and coherency.

Claudepierre, S. G.; Mann, I. R.; Takahashi, K.; Fennell, J. F.; Hudson, M. K.; Blake, J. B.; Roeder, J. L.; Clemmons, J.; Spence, H.; Reeves, G. D.; Baker, D. N.; Funsten, H. O.; Friedel, R. H.; Henderson, M. G.; Kletzing, C.; Kurth, W. S.; Wygant, J. R.

2013-12-01

117

GRUNDMANN Tom BEES1, Les P'tites Bulles  

E-print Network

GRUNDMANN Tom BEES1, Les P'tites Bulles DETENDEURS N4DETENDEURS N4DETENDEURS N4DETENDEURS N4DETENDEURS N4DETENDEURS N4DETENDEURS N4DETENDEURS N4 #12;GRUNDMANN Tom BEES1, Les P'tites Bulles DETENDEURS N ou débit continu? Principes d'étanchéité #12;GRUNDMANN Tom BEES1, Les P'tites Bulles Principes d

Jacquet, Stéphan

118

Impact Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This 24 minute planetarium show teaches about meteors, meteorites, asteroids, and comets. The show was created for fulldome theaters, but is also available on DVD to be shown in flat version for TVs and computer monitors, and can be freely viewed online. It shows the effects of the Chixulub and Tungusta events, plus the Pallasite impact that resulted in the Brenham meteorite fall, and describes ways that asteroid hunters seek new objects in the solar system, and how ground penetrating radar is used to find meteorites that have survived to the Earth's surface. Narrated by astronaut Tom Jones, it also discusses ways that humans might try to deflect an asteroid or comet that is on a collision course with Earth. The show was created for informal science venues (digital planetariums); it is also useful as supplemental material for middle school science. Impact Earth is available for free if presented directly from the Space Update site (widescreen or fisheye views linked from YouTube). Otherwise, a DVD of the show can be purchased for $10.

2012-08-26

119

Tom Hollingsworth Art Scholarship Fund for Undergraduate and Graduate Research  

E-print Network

Tom Hollingsworth Art Scholarship Fund for Undergraduate and Graduate Research Do you have an idea this scholarship supporting undergraduate and graduate research. For full consideration, please submit

Arnold, Jonathan

120

In Their Own Words: Tom Simon - Duration: 4:21.  

NASA Video Gallery

Tom Simon, a contracting officer's representative for NASA's Commercial Crew Program, discusses the importance of certifying commercial transportation systems are safe to carry NASA astronauts to t...

121

Alpha-particle and proton probes of nuclear shapes in the rare earth and mass 80 regions  

SciTech Connect

Low emission barriers and large subbarrier anisotropies in the alpha-particle decay with respect to the spin direction, of Sn and rare earth compound nuclei, are examined in the light of recent calculations incorporating deformation. To explore the possibility of a correlation between the proton emission barriers and nuclear deformation, we studied proton spectra from the {sup 52}Cr({sup 34}S,2p2n){sup 82}Sr reaction. The proton spectra were observed with the Dwarf-Ball 4{pi} CsI(Tl) array, in coincidence with 18 Compton suppressed Ge detectors operated in conjunction with the Spin Spectrometer, a 4{pi} NaI(Tl) array. We found significant changes and shifts in the proton energy spectra as we selected gating transitions from bands of different moments of inertia or transitions from states of different spin in the same band. Substantial differences were also seen as a function of the {gamma}-ray multiplicity. These results are discussed in terms of statistical model calculations incorporating deformation and structure effects of the emitting system. 20 refs., 9 figs.

Sarantites, D.G.; Nicolis, N.G.; Abenante, V.; Majka, Z.; Semkow, T.M.; Baktash, C.; Beene, J.R.; Garcia-Bermudez, G.; Halbert, M.L.; Hensley, D.C.; Johnson, N.R.; Lee, I.Y.; McGowan, F.K.; Riley, M.A.; Virtanen, A.; Griffin, H.C. (Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (USA); Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA); Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (USA))

1989-01-01

122

Near-Real-Time Detection and Monitoring of Dust Events by Satellite (SeaWIFS, MODIS, and TOMS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Over the last few years satellites have given us increasingly detailed information on the size, location, and duration of dust events around the world. These data not only provide valuable feedback to the modelling community as to the fidelity of their aerosol models but are also finding increasing use in near real-time applications. In particular, the ability to locate and track the development of aerosol dust clouds on a near real-time basis is being used by scientists and government to provide warning of air pollution episodes over major urban area. This ability has also become a crucial component of recent coordinated campaigns to study the characteristics of tropospheric aerosols such as dust and their effect on climate. One such recent campaign was ACE-Asia, which was designed to obtain the comprehensive set of ground, aircraft, and satellite data necessary to provide a detailed understanding of atmospheric aerosol particles over the Asian-Pacific region. As part of ACE-Asia, we developed a near real-time data processing and access system to provide satellite data from the polar-orbiting instruments Earth Probe TOMS (in the form of absorbing aerosol index) and SeaWiFS (in the form of aerosol optical thickness, AOT, and Angstrom exponent). The results were available via web access. The location and movement information provided by these data were used both in support of the day-to-day flight planning of ACE-Asia and as input into aerosol transport models. While near real-time SeaWiFS data processing can be performed using either the normal global data product or data obtained via direct broadcast to receiving stations close to the area of interest, near real-time MODIS processing of data to provide aerosol retrievals is currently only available using its direct broadcast capability. In this paper, we will briefly discuss the algorithms used to generate these data. The retrieved aerosol optical thickness and Angstrom exponent from SeaWiFS will be compared with those obtained from various AERONET sites over the Asian-Pacific region. The TOMS aerosol index will also be compared with AERONET aerosol optical thickness over different aerosol conditions, and comparisons between the MODIS and SeaWiFS data will also be presented. Finally, we will discuss the climate implication of our studies using the combined satellite and AERONET observations.

Hsu, N. Christina; Tsay, Si-Chee; Herman, Jay R.; Kaufman, Yoram

2002-01-01

123

E. E. Cummings's Tom: A Ballet and Uncle Tom's Doll-Dance of Modernism  

Microsoft Academic Search

:This essay analyzes Cummings's rarely-studied, never-performed ballet based on Harriet Beecher Stowe's Uncle Tom's Cabin. Through close reading and a historical contextualization of the ballet's commission and subsequent failures of collaboration, the essay explores the various ways that modernist notions of the primitive and the automaton imbue the ballet and its implied relationship of influence between Cummings and Stowe. Throughout

Michael A. Chaney

2011-01-01

124

E. E. Cummings's Tom: A Ballet and Uncle Tom's Doll-Dance of Modernism  

Microsoft Academic Search

This essay analyzes Cummings's rarely-studied, never-performed ballet based on Harriet Beecher Stowe's Uncle Tom's Cabin. Through close reading and a historical contextualization of the ballet's commission and subsequent failures of collaboration, the essay explores the various ways that modernist notions of the primitive and the automaton imbue the ballet and its implied relationship of influence between Cummings and Stowe. Throughout

Michael A. Chaney

2011-01-01

125

Tom Clothier's Garden Walk and Talk  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This impressive website was created by long-time gardener Tom Clothier as an archive for numerous gardening articles, germination databases, and photos. The 314 pages in this online archive were "developed as a public service in the spirit of cooperative extension." The site is free of advertisements and was designed to accommodate children researchers as well. The website provides information on seed starting, garden design, aphids, native pollinators, and much more. The site also offers an extensive photo album of Mr. Clothier's flowers which are listed by Scientific Name, Common Name, and Variety / Color.

2007-08-01

126

Tom Clothier's Garden Walk and Talk  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This impressive website was created by long-time gardener Tom Clothier as an archive for numerous gardening articles, germination databases, and photos. The 314 pages in this online archive were "developed as a public service in the spirit of cooperative extension." The site is free of advertisements and was designed to accommodate children researchers as well. The website provides information on seed starting, garden design, aphids, native pollinators, and much more. The site also offers an extensive photo album of Mr. Clothier's flowers which are listed by Scientific Name, Common Name, and Variety / Color.

127

If you saw Tom Cruise smiling like Jack Nicolson, you would still recognize the person as Tom Cruise. However, if you saw  

E-print Network

If you saw Tom Cruise smiling like Jack Nicolson, you would still recognize the person as Tom Nicolsons' faces and that face was smiling like Jack Nicolson, you would more likely name this person¨lthoff Could you recognize Jack Nicolson or Tom Cruise by their smiles? Would you realize, if Tom Cruise smiled

128

Probing a highly efficient dual mode: down-upconversion luminescence and temperature sensing performance of rare-earth oxide phosphors.  

PubMed

A dual mode rare-earth based oxide phosphor (Y(0.977)Yb(0.02)Er(0.003)NbO(4)), demonstrating both down conversion (DC) and upconversion (UC) emission, has been developed using a facile solid state reaction method which can be easily scaled-up for large quantities. In the DC studies, the material exhibits a strong blue emission with a long decay time (4.36 ?s), corresponding to the charge transfer band of [NbO(4)](3-) under UV excitation (262 nm), and a green emission of the Er(3+) ions under blue (379 nm) excitation. Furthermore, it has been noticed that under infrared (976 nm) excitation, this phosphor shows strong green and red emission along with relatively weak emission bands in the UV-blue and IR regions, which confirm the compatibility of this phosphor for UC too. In the UC emission, the (2)H(11/2) ? (4)I(15/2) and (4)S(3/2) ? (4)I(15/2) transitions of the Er(3+) ion portray a temperature dependent behaviour and have been used for temperature sensing (optical thermometry) using the fluorescence intensity ratio (FIR) method. The maximum sensitivity is found to be 0.0073 K(-1) at 473 K, which is better in comparison with other host matrixs reported so far. The results suggest that this dual mode phosphor could be an exceptional choice for next generation luminescence-based temperature sensing devices as well as in advanced display devices. PMID:23114691

Singh, A K; Singh, S K; Gupta, Bipin Kumar; Prakash, Rajiv; Rai, S B

2013-01-28

129

Synergic use of TOMS and Aeronet Observations for Characterization of Aerosol Absorption  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The role of aerosol absorption on the radiative transfer balance of the earth-atmosphere system is one of the largest sources of uncertainty in the analysis of global climate change. Global measurements of aerosol single scattering albedo are, therefore, necessary to properly assess the radiative forcing effect of aerosols. Remote sensing of aerosol absorption is currently carried out using both ground (Aerosol Robotic Network) and space (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) based observations. The satellite technique uses measurements of backscattered near ultraviolet radiation. Carbonaceous aerosols, resulting from the combustion of biomass, are one of the most predominant absorbing aerosol types in the atmosphere. In this presentation, TOMS and AERONET retrievals of single scattering albedo of carbonaceous aerosols, are compared for different environmental conditions: agriculture related biomass burning in South America and Africa and peat fires in Eastern Europe. The AERONET and TOMS derived aerosol absorption information are in good quantitative agreement. The most absorbing smoke is detected over the African Savanna. Aerosol absorption over the Brazilian rain forest is less absorbing. Absorption by aerosol particles resulting from peat fires in Eastern Europe is weaker than the absorption measured in Africa and South America. This analysis shows that the near UV satellite method of aerosol absorption characterization has the sensitivity to distinguish different levels of aerosol absorption. The analysis of the combined AERONET-TOMS observations shows a high degree of synergy between satellite and ground based observations.

Torres, O.; Bhartia, P. K.; Dubovik, O.; Holben, B.; Siniuk, A.

2003-01-01

130

The Gravity Probe B `Niobium bird' experiment: Verifying the data reduction scheme for estimating the relativistic precession of Earth-orbiting gyroscopes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Gravity Probe B (GP-B) is a relatively gyroscope experiment begun at Stanford University in 1960 and supported by NASA since 1963. This experiment will check, for the first time, the relativistic precession of an Earth-orbiting gyroscope that was predicted by Einstein's General Theory of Relativity, to an accuracy of 1 milliarcsecond per year or better. A drag-free satellite will carry four gyroscopes in a polar orbit to observe their relativistic precession. The primary sensor for measuring the direction of gyroscope spin axis is the SQUID (superconducting quantum interference device) magnetometer. The data reduction scheme designed for the GP-B program processes the signal from the SQUID magnetometer and estimates the relativistic precession rates. We formulated the data reduction scheme and designed the Niobium bird experiment to verify the performance of the data reduction scheme experimentally with an actual SQUID magnetometer within the test loop. This paper reports the results from the first phase of the Niobium bird experiment, which used a commercially available SQUID magnetometer as its primary sensor, and adresses the issues they raised. The first phase resulted in a large, temperature-dependent bias drift in the insensitive design and a temperature regulation scheme.

Uemaatsu, Hirohiko; Parkinson, Bradford W.; Lockhart, James M.; Muhlfelder, Barry

1993-01-01

131

Tropical easterly jet located using TOMS data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The formative stages of the onset of the 1979 southwest monsoon was marked by a WNW-ESE oriented band of marine convection over the South Arabian Sea. This convection was first observed on June 10, 1979 using satellite cloud imagery. The marine convection appeared during a major acceleration of the upper troposphere easterly wind field. A composite vertical meridional cross-section of upper level winds for June 11, revealed the core of the Tropical Easterly Jet (TEJ) at 115 mb, 9.5 deg N. Time analysis of the upper level wind field over the Tropical Wind Observing Ship (TWOS) polygon show a lowering of both the pressure level of maximum wind and tropopause level with acceleration of the upper level easterlies. The tropopause was as much as 20 mb lower on the equatorial side of the TEJ. Streamline analysis of the maximum observed easterly winds over India did not reveal the horizontal position of the TEJ. Careful analysis of Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) data for June 11, 1979 showed relatively high values of ozone south of India. It was observed that the latitudinal position of the TEJ on June 11, at approximately 70 deg E coincided with the northern edge of relatively high ozone values. Using this as a reference, the TEJ core was identified as far as NE Bay of Bengal (the limits of the available TOMS data).

Bolhofer, William C.

1987-01-01

132

Uncle Tom's Cabin and American Culture  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from the Institute for Advanced Technologies in the Humanities at the University of Virginia contains a plethora of materials concerning Harriet Beecher Stowe's Uncle Tom's Cabin and the nation's response to it. The site features a complete electronic edition of the first published version of the novel along with the various prefaces Stowe wrote for different editions as well as audio versions of most of the Christian hymns presented in the text. Users can also examine and compare different published editions of the text using 3-D applications as well as view selected manuscript pages and sheets from the novel's original newspaper serialization side-by-side. The site's unique value, though, lies in the documents it presents that elucidate the novel's historical and cultural context. Included here are anti-slavery and Christian abolitionist texts, materials on Sentimental Culture in the nineteenth century, newspaper reviews of the text, articles and notices, and both African-American and Pro-Slavery responses to it. The subsequent media history of the novel's adaptations in songs, children's books, plays, and films is also represented here. As if that isn't enough, the site offers "an interactive timeline, virtual exhibits to accompany the primary material, and lesson plans for teachers and student projects." The entire site -- including the individual text of Uncle Tom's Cabin -- can be easily searched or browsed.

133

Early Adolescents' Participation in Bullying: Is ToM Involved?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study investigated the role of theory of mind (ToM) skills in three forms of involvement in bullying: ringleader bullying, defending the victim(s), and victimization. Individual (affective empathy) and interpersonal variables (social preference and perceived popularity) were assumed to moderate the associations between ToM and the ways…

Caravita, Simona C. S.; Di Blasio, Paola; Salmivalli, Christina

2010-01-01

134

Version 2 TOMS UV algorithm: problems and enhancements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We evaluate the effects of possible enhancements of the current (version 1) TOMS surface UV irradiance algorithm. The major enhancements include more detailed treatment of tropospheric aerosols, effects of diurnal variation of cloudiness and improved treatment of snow/ice. The emphasis is on the comparison between the results of the version 1 TOMS UV algorithm and each of the changes proposed. TOMS UV algorithm does not discriminate between nonabsorbing aerosols and clouds. Absorbing aerosols are corrected by using the TOMS aerosol index data. The treatment of aerosol attenuation might have been improved by using newly derived TOMS products: optical depths and the single-scattering albedo for dust, smoke, and sulfate aerosols. We evaluate different approaches for improved treatment of pixel average cloud attenuation, with and without snow/ice on the ground. In addition to treating clouds based only on the measurements at the local time of the TOMS observations, the results from other satellites and weather assimilation models can be used to estimate attenuation of the UV irradiance throughout the day. The improved (version 2) algorithm will be applied to reprocess the existing TOMS UV data record (since 1978) and to the future satellite sensors (e.g., Quik/TOMS, GOME, OMI on EOS/Aura and Triana/EPIC).

Krotkov, Nickolay A.; Herman, Jay R.; Bhartia, Pawan K.; Seftor, Colin J.; Arola, Antti; Kaurola, Jussi; Koskinen, Lasse; Kalliskota, S.; Taalas, Petteri; Geogdzhaev, Igor V.

2002-01-01

135

Impossible Alternatives to Tom Sawyer's Delusions in Twain and Adorno  

Microsoft Academic Search

Theodor Adorno's adaptation of Tom Sawyer depicts it as a precursor to his negative dialectic, which Derrida saw as resembling deconstruction in attempting to articulate the 'possibility of the impossible.' The lack of any authentic alternative to Tom, the epitome of America's delusion, is allegorized when Joe is first posited as 'wholly other,' then contained by the hegemonic, referential discourses

Christopher D. Morris

2012-01-01

136

BOREAS RSS-10 TOMS Circumpolar One-Degree PAR Images  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) Remote Sensing Science (RSS)-10 team investigated the magnitude of daily, seasonal, and yearly variations of Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR) from ground and satellite observations. This data set contains satellite estimates of surface-incident PAR (400-700 nm, MJ/sq m) at one-degree spatial resolution. The spatial coverage is circumpolar from latitudes of 41 to 66 degrees north. The temporal coverage is from May through September for years 1979 through 1989. Eleven-year statistics are also provided: (1) mean, (2) standard deviation, and (3) coefficient of variation for 1979-89. The PAR estimates were derived from the global gridded ultraviolet reflectivity data product (average of 360, 380 nm) from the Nimbus-7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS). Image mask data are provided for identifying the boreal forest zone, and ocean/land and snow/ice-covered areas. The data are available as binary image format data files. The PAR data are available from the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884).

Dye, Dennis G.; Holben, Brent; Nickeson, Jaime (Editor); Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

137

Study of Tropospheric Ozone and UV Reflectivity Using TOMS Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Perhaps the single most important result from the study of Chuang and Yung is that the interannual variability of the Earth's albedo (especially in Spring) on land is dominated by snow/ice, and not by clouds. This interannual variability could be the major driver of changes in the atmosphere and the biosphere. It is plausible that the interannual variability of snow/ice, through interactions with the atmosphere and biosphere, is responsible for the interannual variability of atmospheric CO2. By carefully studying the albedo variations off the Peru coast, we found evidence for indirect aerosol effect on clouds. Based on a detailed analysis of the cloud data obtained by the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (SCCP) in the years 1983-1991, we show that besides the reported 3 % variation in global cloudiness, the global mean cloud optical thickness (MCOT) also has significant variation which is out of phase with that of the global cloudiness. The combined effect of the two opposing variations may be a null effect on the cloud reflectivity. These results are consistent with the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) reflectively measurements. The MCOT variation is further shown to be correlated with both the solar cycle and the ENSO (El Nino Southern Oscillation) cycle. Our present analysis cannot distinguish which of the above two provides better correlation, although independent data from the High resolution Infrared Radiation Sounder (HIRS) from 1990 to 1996 favor the solar cycle. Future data are needed to identify the true cause of these changes.

Yung, Yuk L.

2002-01-01

138

The Drosophila tom retrotransposon encodes an envelope protein.  

PubMed Central

The tom transposable element of Drosophila ananassae is mobilized with high frequency in the germ line of females from the ca; px strain, and its insertion results in mutations that show almost exclusively dominant eye phenotypes. tom is a long terminal repeat-containing retrotransposon that encodes three different open reading frames (ORFs). It is expressed in the nurse cells during oogenesis, in the central and peripheral nervous systems during embryonic development, and in the imaginal discs of the larva. tom RNA accumulates in the germarium of ovaries from ca; px females but not in the parental inactive strain, suggesting that this altered pattern of tom expression might be the cause of the high rate of mobilization of this retrotransposon. The specificity of tom-induced eye phenotypes can be explained by the presence of regulatory sequences responsible for expression of tom in the eye imaginal discs of third-instar larvae. These sequences might cause overexpression of adjacent genes affected by tom-induced mutations, resulting in the death of undifferentiated cells located anterior to the morphogenetic furrow. In addition to the full-length RNA, tom is also transcribed into a spliced subgenomic transcript that encodes a protein resulting from the fusion between the amino-terminal region of the first (gag) and the third ORFs. The protein encoded by this RNA shows structural characteristics such as a signal peptide, glycosylation sites, endopeptidase cleavage site, and fusion peptide that are typical of the envelope proteins of retroviruses. Antibodies against tom ORF3 recognize two different proteins present in female ovaries, suggesting that tom might be able to form infective viral particles that could play a role in the horizontal transmission of this retrotransposon. Images PMID:8035817

Tanda, S; Mullor, J L; Corces, V G

1994-01-01

139

Professor Tom Angelo A Biographical Sketch Tom Angelo is Assistant Provost, Founding Director of the Center for the  

E-print Network

conferences internationally. Internationally, Tom has been awarded fellowships from the Fulbright Program of the Center for the Advancement of Faculty Excellence (CAF�), and Professor of Higher Education at Queens University of Charlotte. Over the past twenty-five years, Tom has served ­ often concurrently ­ as a faculty

de Lijser, Peter

140

The Tom Regan Animal Rights Archive  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Tom Regan has taught at North Carolina State University since 1967, and he is well-known for his work in the field of animal rights within the discipline of philosophy. In 2000, the North Carolina State University Libraries received a large gift to establish an archive of his personal papers and books, and since then, they have also created this online collection for the general public. First-time visitors can perform an advanced search on the documents contained here, or they may also want to browse through categories that include animal rights legislation, animals in the news, diet ethics, and farmed animals. Within each section, visitors can view a list of related web sites and also learn about other external resources. Additionally, visitors can also learn about research opportunities at the Center.

Regan, Tom

141

The Papers of Justice Tom C. Clark  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

While several Texans have served as President of the United States, so far only one has served on the Supreme Court. Tom C. Clark was appointed to the position of Associate Justice in 1949 by President Truman and served in that capacity until 1967 when he stepped down. Clark is perhaps best known for his support of anticommunist policies during the Cold War and his unwavering support of civil rights. Recently, the staff of the University of Texas School of Law created this fine online collection, which contains a sampling of Clark's papers and legal documents. Visitors can browse the collection at their leisure, or they may also elect to look through a series of topical sections (such as those that address school prayer or desegregation) of related documents. Visitors will also appreciate the glossary that is contained on the site, as it offers some brief explanations of germane legal terms.

142

Direct measurements of tropospheric ozone using TOMS data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fishman and Larsen have proposed a new algorithm, called 'tropospheric residual method,' which retrieves the climatological tropospheric ozone by using SAGE (Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment) and TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) data. In this paper, we will examine the feasibility of detection for tropospheric ozone using only TOMS data. From a case study over the Atlantic Ocean off the coast of west Africa, it has been found that total ozone in the archived TOMS data has been overestimated over a region of marine-stratocumulus clouds.

Hudson, Robert D.; Kim, Jae-Hwan

1994-01-01

143

Nimbus-7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) Data Products User's Guide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two data products from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) onboard Nimbus-7 have been archived at the Distributed Active Archive Center, in the form of Hierarchical Data Format files. The instrument measures backscattered Earth radiance and incoming solar irradiance; their ratio is used in ozone retrievals. Changes in the instrument sensitivity are monitored by a spectral discrimination technique using measurements of the intrinsically stable wavelength dependence of derived surface reflectivity. The algorithm to retrieve total column ozone compares measured Earth radiances at sets of three wavelengths with radiances calculated for different total ozone values, solar zenith angles, and optical paths. The initial error in the absolute scale for TOMS total ozone is 3 percent, the one standard deviation random error is 2 percent, and drift is less than 1.0 percent per decade. The Level-2 product contains the measured radiances, the derived total ozone amount, and reflectivity information for each scan position. The Level-3 product contains daily total ozone amount and reflectivity in a I - degree latitude by 1.25 degrees longitude grid. The Level-3 product also is available on CD-ROM. Detailed descriptions of both HDF data files and the CD-ROM product are provided.

McPeters, Richard D.; Bhartia, P. K.; Krueger, Arlin J.; Herman, Jay R.; Schlesinger, Barry M.; Wellemeyer, Charles G.; Seftor, Colin J.; Jaross, Glen; Taylor, Steven L.; Swissler, Tom; Torres, Omar; Labow, Gordon; Byerly, William; Cebula, Richard P.

1996-01-01

144

2. General view of Morrison Bridge, looking northeast, with Tom ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. General view of Morrison Bridge, looking northeast, with Tom McCall Riverfront Park in foreground. - Morrison Bridge, Spanning Willamette River on Morrison & Alder Streets, Portland, Multnomah County, OR

145

Whitewashing the Fence: Revisiting "The Adventures of Tom Sawyer."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the story lines in "The Adventures of Tom Sawyer," how the characters in the book reflected people in Twain's childhood, the famous whitewashing scene, and Twain's racial attitudes. Appends suggestions for stimulating student response to the novel. (RS)

Griswold, Jerry

1995-01-01

146

Towards a prokaryotic genomic taxonomy q Tom Coenye a,*,1  

E-print Network

Towards a prokaryotic genomic taxonomy q Tom Coenye a,*,1 , Dirk Gevers a,b,1 , Yves Van de Peer b genomics; Microarrays; Multilocus sequence typing; Prokaryotic species concept Contents 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148 3. Shaping the prokaryotic genome

Gent, Universiteit

147

(In) Famous Spirituality: Harriet Beecher Stowe's Uncle Tom  

Microsoft Academic Search

This essay explores the interrelatedness of spirituality, manhood, and race in Harriet Beecher Stowe’s most famous character Uncle Tom. While Uncle Tom has become a cultural type with many negative connotations, recent studies have re-evaluated Stowe’s achievement. This is the context to this essay’s central question: whether—and to what extent-- Stowe’s fictional creation achieved the ideal of a “fullness of

Irene Visser

2008-01-01

148

On ETI alien probe flux density  

Microsoft Academic Search

An alien probe diffusion equation and corresponding alien probe flux density are developed to see if earth or the Solar System is being detected by technologically advanced extraterrestrial civilisations. If such is the case, then data in the form of observed probes, anomalous and alien as they may be, may possibly be reconciled with data gathered by earth-based observers.

E. J. Betinis

1978-01-01

149

Korea Earth Observation Satellite Program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

via Korea Aerospace Research Institute (KARI) as the prime contractor in the area of Korea earth observation satellite program to enhance Korea's space program development capability. In this paper, Korea's on-going and future earth observation satellite programs are introduced: KOMPSAT- 1 (Korea Multi Purpose Satellite-1), KOMPSAT-2 and Communication, Broadcasting and Meteorological Satellite (CBMS) program. KOMPSAT-1 satellite successfully launched in December 1999 with Taurus launch vehicle. Since launch, KOMPSAT-1 is downlinking images of Korea Peninsular every day. Until now, KOMPSAT-1 has been operated more than 2 and half years without any major hardware malfunction for the mission operation. KOMPSAT-1 payload has 6.6m panchromatic spatial resolution at 685 km on-orbit and the spacecraft bus had NASA TOMS-EP (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer-Earth Probe) spacecraft bus heritage designed and built by TRW, U.S.A.KOMPSAT-1 program was international co-development program between KARI and TRW funded by Korean Government. be launched in 2004. Main mission objective is to provide geo-information products based on the multi-spectral high resolution sensor called Multi-Spectral Camera (MSC) which will provide 1m panchromatic and 4m multi-spectral high resolution images. ELOP of Israel is the prime contractor of the MSC payload system and KARI is the total system prime contractor including spacecraft bus development and ground segment. KARI also has the contract with Astrium of Europe for the purpose of technical consultation and hardware procurement. Based on the experience throughout KOMPSAT-1 and KOMPSAT-2 space system development, Korea is expecting to establish the infrastructure of developing satellite system. Currently, KOMPSAT-2 program is in the critical design stage. are scheduled to launch in 2008 and in 2014, respectively. The mission of CBMS consists of two areas. One is of space technology test for the communications mission, and the other is of a real- time environmental observation for meteorological mission on the geosynchronous orbit for public services. The CBMS is expected to weigh about 2 ~ 2.5 tons, and 6 channels of Ka-band and S- band transponder are equipped for communications service and observation payloads such as meteorological and ocean sensors. To increase the reliability of the first CBMS, a cooperative development with advanced foreign companies of the space business is being considered.

Baek, Myung-Jin; Kim, Zeen-Chul

150

The TOM core complex: the general protein import pore of the outer membrane of mitochondria.  

PubMed

Translocation of nuclear-encoded preproteins across the outer membrane of mitochondria is mediated by the multicomponent transmembrane TOM complex. We have isolated the TOM core complex of Neurospora crassa by removing the receptors Tom70 and Tom20 from the isolated TOM holo complex by treatment with the detergent dodecyl maltoside. It consists of Tom40, Tom22, and the small Tom components, Tom6 and Tom7. This core complex was also purified directly from mitochondria after solubilization with dodecyl maltoside. The TOM core complex has the characteristics of the general insertion pore; it contains high-conductance channels and binds preprotein in a targeting sequence-dependent manner. It forms a double ring structure that, in contrast to the holo complex, lacks the third density seen in the latter particles. Three-dimensional reconstruction by electron tomography exhibits two open pores traversing the complex with a diameter of approximately 2.1 nm and a height of approximately 7 nm. Tom40 is the key structural element of the TOM core complex. PMID:10579717

Ahting, U; Thun, C; Hegerl, R; Typke, D; Nargang, F E; Neupert, W; Nussberger, S

1999-11-29

151

Electromagnetic deep-probing (100-1000 KMS) of the Earth's interior from artificial satellites: Constraints on the regional emplacement of crustal resources  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Model simulations show that induction in a spherical Earth by distant magnetospheric sources can contribute magnetic field fluctuations at MAGSAT altitudes which are 30 to 40 percent of the external field amplitudes. When the characteristic dimensions (e.g. depth of penetration, etc) of a particular situations are small compared with the Earth's radius, the Earth can be approximated by a plane horizontal half space. In this case, electromagnetic energy is reflected with close to 100 percent efficiency from the Earth's surface. This implies that the total horizontal field is twice the source field when the source is above the satellite, but is reduced to values which are much smaller than the source field when the source is below the satellite. This latter effect tends to enhance the signature of gross electrical discontinuities in the lithosphere when observed at satellite altitudes.

Hermance, J. F. (principal investigator)

1981-01-01

152

Electromagnetic deep-probing (100-1000 kms) of the Earth's interior from artificial satellites: Constraints on the regional emplacement of crustal resources  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The reconnaissance phase of using satellite observtions to studying electromagnetic induction in the solid earth is summarized. Several points are made: (1) satellite data apparently suffer far less from the effects of near surface lateral heterogeneities in the earth than do ground-based data; (2) zonal ionospheric currents during the recovery phase of major magnetic storms appear to be minimal, at least in the dawn and dusk sectors wher MAGSAT was flown; hence the internal contributions that satellites observe during these times is in fact due primarily to induction in the Earth with little or no contribution from ionospheric currents; and (3) the interpretation of satellite data in terms of primitive electromagnetic response functions, while grossly over-simplified, results in a surprisingly well-resolved radius for an equivalent super-conductor representing the conductivity region of the Earth's interior (5,370 + or - 120 km).

Hermance, J. F.

1983-01-01

153

Gravity Probe B  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This broadcast reports on Gravity Probe B, a satellite designed to test the frame dragging prediction of Einstein's theory of general relativity, where a spinning object such as the Earth will push spacetime in front of it. Gravity Probe B uses gyroscopes which will shift direction while orbiting the Earth (if general relativity is correct). The broadcast contains comments from a scientist who has worked on the Gravity Probe B mission for over 44 years. There is a brief explanation of the difference between the behavior of gravity in Newtonian physics and general relativity. The broadcast also discusses why it took so long to build the satellite (a dozen technologies had to be invented first), the cost involved, and whether the plug would be pulled on the mission; however, Gravity Probe B was finally launched on April 20, 2004. The broadcast is 30 minutes in length.

154

Gordon And Mike's ICT Podcast: China And TOM-Skype  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Gordon and Mike's ICT Podcast offers perspectives on the information and communication technologies (ICT) industries from Gordon Snyder and Mike Qaissaunee.In this audio podcast, Gordon and Mike discuss the report â??Breaching Trust: An analysis of surveillance and security practices on Chinaâ??s TOM-Skype platformâ? as well as confidentiality and security issues with TOM-Skype, the Chinese version of Skype. Running time: 25:21. This podcast is available for direct download in mp3 format from the Libsyn site, or click here to subscribe to the whole series in iTunes.

Qaissaunee, Michael

155

Graph Clustering Using Multiway Ratio Cut Tom Roxborough and Arunabha Sen ?  

E-print Network

was partially supported by a grant from Tom Sawyer Software under NIST Advanced Technology Program. #12Graph Clustering Using Multiway Ratio Cut Tom Roxborough and Arunabha Sen ? Department of Computer

Sen, Arunabha

156

Electromagnetic deep-probing (100-1000 KMS) of the Earth's interior from artificial satellites: Constraints on the regional emplacement of crustal resources  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An algorithm was developed to address the problem of electromagnetic coupling of ionospheric current systems to both a homogeneous Earth having finite conductivity, and to an Earth having gross lateral variations in its conductivity structure, e.g., the ocean-land interface. Typical results from the model simulation for ionospheric currents flowing parallel to a representative geologic discontinuity are shown. Although the total magnetic field component at the satellite altitude is an order of magnitude smaller than at the Earth's surface (because of cancellation effects from the source current), the anomalous behavior of the satellite observations as the vehicle passes over the geologic contact is relatively more important pronounced. The results discriminate among gross lithospheric structures because of difference in electrical conductivity.

Hermance, J. F. (principal investigator)

1981-01-01

157

2013 Tom Larson, Pharm.D. University of Minnesota College of Pharmacy. 1 Dermatology  

E-print Network

2013 Tom Larson, Pharm.D. University of Minnesota College of Pharmacy. 1 Dermatology Course Director: Tom A. Larson, Pharm.D. Office: 7-159C Weaver-Densford Hall Phone: 612-626-5025 Office hours, and convenience. #12;2013 Tom Larson, Pharm.D. University of Minnesota College of Pharmacy. 2 3. Explain

Thomas, David D.

158

The relationship between growth of commercial toms and linear skeletal development  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

An experiment was conducted to study the relationship between the growth of commercial toms (Nicholas) and linear skeletal development. All toms were fed a commercial turkey starter diet for the entire experiment. At two week intervals, 10 toms were randomly selected and weighed. The right half of t...

159

77 FR 39406 - Safety Zone; Tom Graves Memorial Fireworks, Port Bay, Wolcott, NY  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Tom Graves Memorial Fireworks, Port Bay, Wolcott, NY AGENCY...portion of Port Bay during the Tom Graves Memorial Fireworks display. This temporary safety...spectators and vessels during the Tom Graves Memorial Fireworks. This zone will be...

2012-07-03

160

or UW Bothell Professor of Education Tom Bellamy,  

E-print Network

success based on the outcomes of students who are receiving special education services. That will take8 F or UW Bothell Professor of Education Tom Bellamy, leadership in schools has become a prime focus. And as a former director of special education for the U.S. Department of Education, Bellamy

Eichler, Evan

161

FAiry Tale Teller Dirkjan Bussink, Tom Nijmeijer, Matthijs Ooms  

E-print Network

FATT FAiry Tale Teller Dirkjan Bussink, Tom Nijmeijer, Matthijs Ooms 2 september 2005 #12;Abstract Dit verslag biedt een inzicht in het door ons ontwikkelde systeem genaamd FATT. FATT staat voor FAiry Tale Teller en is zoals de naam al aangeeft, een sprookjesverteller. Het nieuwe hieraan is, is dat het

Theune, Mariët

162

Good Guys Finish Last: "Tom Brown's School Days" and "Flashman."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Instructors and students of literature should look to George McDonald Fraser's "Flashman: From the Flashman Papers, 1839-1842" for a clever critique of 19th-century notions of character, virtue, and moral teleology. Written to criticize Thomas Hughes's famous 19th-century novel, "Tom Brown's School Days," Fraser's 20th-century novel turns on end…

Riga, Frank P.

163

Magnitude of Metric Spaces II Tom Leinster & Simon Willerton  

E-print Network

Magnitude of Metric Spaces II Tom Leinster & Simon Willerton Universities of Glasgow & Sheffield Integral Geometry and Valuation Theory, CRM Barcelona 8th September 2010 #12;Weighting and magnitude Recall: Suppose A is a finite metric space. 1/12 #12;Weighting and magnitude Recall: Suppose A is a finite metric

Willerton, Simon

164

Challenge without Threat: An Interview with Tom Dewell  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents an interview with Tom Dewell, a professional physical educator with 28 years of experience and a fixture in Dallas physical education. Dewell has melded a background in movement education and adapted physical education with early childhood theory, including Montessori. The bulk of his experience has been in private, parochial…

Stork, Steve

2005-01-01

165

Total ozone trends deduced from Nimbus 7 TOMS data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) on the Nimbus 7 satellite has been measuring the total column amount of ozone over the globe for more than 11 years. Recent improvements in the data analysis have led to a technique for determining and removing drift in the calibration such that the data at the end of the record are precise to

Richard S. Stolarski; R. D. McPeters; J. R. Herman; P. Bloomfield

1991-01-01

166

California Fires MODIS imagery and TOMS Aerosols from October 2003  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This animation sequences through the MODIS imagery of the devastating Californian fires from October 23, 2003 through October 29, 2003. Then the animation resets to October 23, 2003 and zooms out to see the TOMS aerosol sequence. It clearly shows that the California fires had an impact on air quality as far east as Maine.

Lori Perkins

2003-11-24

167

Some rhetorical functions of Fielding's narrator in Tom Jones  

E-print Network

-86. "The Voices of Henry Fielding: Style in Tom Jones, " in The Au ustan Milieu, ed. Henry Knight Miller, Eric Ro hstein, and . S. Rousseau (Oxford: The Clarendon Press, 1970), p. ~65. 10 Miller, pp. 265-266. 11 Henr Fieldin : Mask and Feast (Berkeley...

Hoffman, Mary Jo

1971-01-01

168

Towards a Taxonomy of Software Evolution Tom Mens Jim Buckley  

E-print Network

Towards a Taxonomy of Software Evolution Tom Mens Jim Buckley Vrije Universiteit Brussel Pleinlaan taxonomies of software evolution have focused on the purpose of the change (i.e., the why) rather than the underlying mechanisms. This paper proposes a taxonomy of software evolution based on the characterizing

Zenger, Matthias

169

"The Man that Was a Thing": Criticism and Uncle Tom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Claims that Tom is a character eminently suited to the multiplicity and subjectivity arguments of reader response criticism (RRC), that meaning is a relation between an author, a text, and a reader, not an object, as New Criticism held, and not a procedure, as RRC assumes. (RAE)

Harris, R. Allen

1988-01-01

170

TOM: Teaching flow over Mountains Worksheet at the radar site  

E-print Network

1 TOM: Teaching flow over Mountains Worksheet at the radar site Exercise 1: Sign in Names on the radar? Briefly describe the differences between the three configurations. What is the maximum range between the closest part of the Foothills and the radar location. Write down the distance in kilometers: b

171

Tutorial 4: Comparisons of Groups Tom Miller and Jason Pienaar  

E-print Network

Tutorial 4: Comparisons of Groups Tom Miller and Jason Pienaar Statistics with R: the t interest for this course is using R to help statistically evaluate data, so this tutorial will cover using is the Student's t-test and this tutorial will also include an introduction to using ANOVA, which is a much more

Miller, Thomas E.

172

Open Sensor Web Architecture: Stateful Web Tom Kobialka 1  

E-print Network

Open Sensor Web Architecture: Stateful Web Services Tom Kobialka 1 , Rajkumar Buyya 2 , Christopher As sensor networks become more pervasive there emerges a need for interfacing applications to perform common operations and transformations on sensor data. Web Services provide an interoperable and platform independent

Melbourne, University of

173

Tom Volk's Fungus of the Month for October 2002  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Biologist Tom Volk of the University of Wisconsin-La Crosse offers photos and an audio pronunciation guide of various fungi. The website is filled with different multimedia activities involving Volk's work with fungi. Education mixed with entertainment is the focus of this engaging work.

Volk, Thomas J.

174

Volume 6 Number 2 Spring 1998 by Tom Campbell  

E-print Network

in the United States. That pressure has caused many a sleepless night. "All of the hype Photo by Tom Campbell in the fall. "All the work was done by people right here at Purdue," says Scott, who built Wellington Golf most notorious holes have even graced beverage cans and clothing apparel. Grown men and women plan

175

From the University The Adventures of Tom Sawyer  

E-print Network

From the University Librarian 2014 no. 8 th August The Adventures of Tom Sawyer http it ­ thoughtful points on the broad impact of universities and national benefit from higher education investment, as well as fee deregulation, university models and funding. Minister Pyne flags changes in higher

176

Robust Trait Composition for Javascript$ Tom Van Cutsema  

E-print Network

Robust Trait Composition for Javascript$ Tom Van Cutsema , Mark S. Millerb aSoftware Languages Lab trait composition library for Javascript. Traits are a more robust alternative to multiple inheritance in using and extending Javascript's recently added meta-level object description format. By reusing

Tomkins, Andrew

177

Electromagnetic deep-probing (100-1000 kms) of the Earth's interior from artificial satellites: Constraints on the regional emplacement of crustal resources  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Efforts continue in the development of a computer program for looking at the coupling of finite dimensioned source fields with a laterally heterogeneous Earth. An algorithm for calculating a time-varying reference field using ground-based magnetic observatory data is also under development as part of the production of noise-free estimates of global electromagnetic response functions using Magsat data.

Hermance, J. F. (principal investigator)

1981-01-01

178

TOM ANGELL FELLOWSHIP The Graduate Division is now accepting nominations for the Tom Angell Fellowship, which will be awarded in  

E-print Network

faculty member. The faculty award must be used as a fellowship to a student of the faculty's choice (e Angell Fellowship, which will be awarded in winter 2015. This fellowship is intended to honor Tom Angell another student or faculty member, and faculty may nominate another faculty or a student. Award Amount One

Rose, Michael R.

179

Probing the Solar System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Humans have always had the vision to one day live on other planets. This vision existed even before the first person was put into orbit. Since the early space missions of putting humans into orbit around Earth, many advances have been made in space technology. We have now sent many space probes deep into the Solar system to explore the planets and…

Wilkinson, John

2013-01-01

180

Stellar occultation probes of the Uranian rings at 0.1 and 2.2 microns - A comparison of Voyager UVS and earth-based results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A comparison between Voyager 2 UV spectrometer data for stellar occultations of the Uranian ring system obtained at 0.11 microns and 2.2-micron earth-based occultation data reveals the anticipated factor-of-two reduction in observed optical depths relative to those observed from earth. This is due to Voyager's proximity to the rings, which allows light diffracted out of the direct beam by ring particles to be replaced by light diffracted into the direct beam light from other particles, and further permits the placing of firm lower limits on typical particle sizes of 0.3 and 1 cm for the epsilon and delta rings, respectively. As a function of true anomaly, the epsilon ring profile is noted to remain very similar in shape and essentially constant in equivalent depth, even very near periapse.

Holberg, J. B.; Nicholson, P. D.; French, R. G.; Elliot, J. L.

1987-01-01

181

Alpha-particles as probes of nuclear shape in the rare earths and structure effects on proton emission in the mass 80 region  

SciTech Connect

Low emission barriers and large subbarrier anisotropies in the alpha-particle decay with respect to the spin direction, of Sn and rare earth compound nuclei, are examined in the light of recent calculations incorporating deformation. For the rare earth systems deformation which increases with spin is necessary to explain the data. Energy spectra and angular correlations of evaporated protons from the {sup 52}Cr({sup 34}S, 2p2n){sup 82}Sr reaction were measured in coincidence with discrete transition. Large changes in the shape of the proton spectra were observed when high spin states in different rotation al bands are populated. These effects cannot be explained by phase space arguments in the deexcitation process. They are interpreted as due to near-yrast to near-yrast stretched proton emission, which preferentially populates the yrast band by subbarrier protons. 20 refs., 8 figs.

Sarantites, D.G.; Nicolis, N.G.; Abenante, V.; Majka, Z.; Semkow, T.M. (Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (USA). Dept. of Internal Medicine); Baktash, C.; Beene, J.R.; Garcia-Bermudez, G.; Halbert, M.L.; Hensley, D.C.; Johnson, N.R.; Lee, I.Y.; McGowan, F.K.; Riley, M.A.; Virtanen, A. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Griffin, H.C. (Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (USA))

1989-01-01

182

Using PlayDoh Astronomy for Understanding the Size and Scale of the Earth-Moon System and as a Probe for Spatial Translation Ability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To help students love science more and to help them understand the vast distances that pervade astronomy, we use kinesthetic modeling of the Earth-Moon system using PlayDoh. When coupled with discussion, we found (in a pilot study) that students of all ages (children up through adults) acquired a more accurate mental representation of the Earth-Moon system. During early September 2012, we devised and implemented a curriculum unit that focused on the Earth-Moon system and how that relates to eclipses for six middle-Tennessee 6th grade public school classrooms. For this unit, we used PlayDoh as the kinesthetic modeling tool. First, we evaluated what the students knew about the size and scale prior to this intervention using paper and model pre-tests. Second, we used the PlayDoh to model the Earth-Moon system and when possible, conducted an immediate post-test. The students then engaged with the PlayDoh model to help them understand eclipses. Third, we conducted a one-month-later delayed post-test. One thing to note is that about half of the students had experienced the PlayDoh modeling part of a 5th grade pilot lesson during May 2012 therefore the pre-test acted as a four-month-later delayed post-test for these students. We find, among other things, that students retain relative size information more readily than relative distance information. We also find differences in how consistent students are when trying to translate the size/scale they have in their heads to the different modes of assessment utilized.

Grundstrom, Erika

2013-01-01

183

Electromagnetic deep-probing (100-1000 KMS) of the Earth's interior from artificial satellites: Constraints on the regional emplacement of crustal resources  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The applicability of electromagnetic deep sounding experiments using natural sources in the magnetosphere by incorporating Magsat data with other geophysical data was evaluated. Magsat satellite data, ground based magnetic observations, appropriate reference field models, and other satellite data was analyzed. The optimal combination of observations which lead first to a global and then to a regional characterization of the conductivity of the Earth's upper mantle is sought.

Hermance, J. F. (principal investigator)

1980-01-01

184

Global distribution of UV-absorbing aerosols from Nimbus 7/TOMS data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global distributions of UV-absorbing aerosols are obtained using measured differences between the 340 and the 380 nm radiances from the Nimbus 7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) for the years 1979-1993. Time series are shown for major sources of biomass burning and desert dust giving the frequency of occurrence and areal coverage over land and oceans. Minor sources of UV-absorbing aerosols in the atmosphere are also discussed (volcanic ash and oil fires). Relative values of year-to-year variability of UV-absorbing aerosol amounts are shown for major aerosol source regions: (1) central South America (Brazil) near 10°S latitude; (2) Africa near 0°-20°S and 0° to 10°N latitude; (3) Saharan Desert and sub-Saharan region (Sahel), Arabian Peninsula, and the northern border region of India; (4) agricultural burning in Indonesia, Eastern China, and Indochina, and near the mouth of the Amazon River; and (5) coal burning and dust in northeastern China. The first three of these regions dominate the injection of UV-absorbing aerosols into the atmosphere each year and cover areas far outside of their source regions from advection of UV-absorbing particulates by atmospheric wind systems. During the peak months, smoke and dust from these sources are transported at altitudes above 1 km with an optical depth of at least 0.1 and can cover about 10% of the Earth's surface. Boundary layer absorbing aerosols are not readily seen by TOMS because the small amount of underlying Rayleigh scattering leads to a small signal. Significant portions of the observed dust originate from agricultural regions frequently within arid areas, such as in the Sahel region of Africa, especially from the dry lake-bed near Lake Chad (13.5°N, 14°E), and intermittently dry drainage areas and streams. In addition to drought cycle effects, this suggests there may be an anthropogenic component to the amount of dust injected into the atmosphere each year. Detection of absorbing aerosols and calculation of optical depths are affected by the presence of large-scale and subpixel clouds in the TOMS field of view.

Herman, J. R.; Bhartia, P. K.; Torres, O.; Hsu, C.; Seftor, C.; Celarier, E.

1997-07-01

185

Electromagnetic deep-probing (100-1000 KMS) of the Earth's interior from artificial satellites: Constraints on the regional emplacement of crustal resources  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Efforts continue in the development of a computer program for looking at the coupling of finite-dimensional source fields with a laterally heterogeneous Earth. An algorithm is also being developed for calculating a time-varying reference field using ground-based magnetic observatory data. It was discovered that ground-based standard magnetic observation is not as so available for the time of the MAGSAT mission as might be expected. Attempts are being made to determine the exact times and observatories from which data are avaliable.

Hermance, J. F. (principal investigator)

1981-01-01

186

Highlights of TOMS Version 9 Total Ozone Algorithm  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The fundamental basis of TOMS total ozone algorithm was developed some 45 years ago by Dave and Mateer. It was designed to estimate total ozone from satellite measurements of the backscattered UV radiances at few discrete wavelengths in the Huggins ozone absorption band (310-340 nm). Over the years, as the need for higher accuracy in measuring total ozone from space has increased, several improvements to the basic algorithms have been made. They include: better correction for the effects of aerosols and clouds, an improved method to account for the variation in shape of ozone profiles with season, latitude, and total ozone, and a multi-wavelength correction for remaining profile shape errors. These improvements have made it possible to retrieve total ozone with just 3 spectral channels of moderate spectral resolution (approx. 1 nm) with accuracy comparable to state-of-the-art spectral fitting algorithms like DOAS that require high spectral resolution measurements at large number of wavelengths. One of the deficiencies of the TOMS algorithm has been that it doesn't provide an error estimate. This is a particular problem in high latitudes when the profile shape errors become significant and vary with latitude, season, total ozone, and instrument viewing geometry. The primary objective of the TOMS V9 algorithm is to account for these effects in estimating the error bars. This is done by a straightforward implementation of the Rodgers optimum estimation method using a priori ozone profiles and their error covariances matrices constructed using Aura MLS and ozonesonde data. The algorithm produces a vertical ozone profile that contains 1-2.5 pieces of information (degrees of freedom of signal) depending upon solar zenith angle (SZA). The profile is integrated to obtain the total column. We provide information that shows the altitude range in which the profile is best determined by the measurements. One can use this information in data assimilation and analysis. A side benefit of this algorithm is that it is considerably simpler than the present algorithm that uses a database of 1512 profiles to retrieve total ozone. These profiles are tedious to construct and modify. Though conceptually similar to the SBUV V8 algorithm that was developed about a decade ago, the SBUV and TOMS V9 algorithms differ in detail. The TOMS algorithm uses 3 wavelengths to retrieve the profile while the SBUV algorithm uses 6-9 wavelengths, so TOMS provides less profile information. However both algorithms have comparable total ozone information and TOMS V9 can be easily adapted to use additional wavelengths from instruments like GOME, OMI and OMPS to provide better profile information at smaller SZAs. The other significant difference between the two algorithms is that while the SBUV algorithm has been optimized for deriving monthly zonal means by making an appropriate choice of the a priori error covariance matrix, the TOMS algorithm has been optimized for tracking short-term variability using month and latitude dependent covariance matrices.

Bhartia, Pawan; Haffner, David

2012-01-01

187

Nimbus-7 TOMS Antarctic ozone atlas: August through November, 1989  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Because of the great environmental significance of ozone and to support continuing research at the Antarctic and other Southern Hemisphere stations, the development of the 1989 ozone hole was monitored using data from the Nimbus-7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) instrument, produced in near-real-time. This Atlas provides a complete set of daily polar orthographic projections of the TOMS total ozone measurements over the Southern Hemisphere for the period August 1 through November 30, 1989. The 1989 ozone hole developed in a manner similar to that of 1987, reaching a comparable depth in early October. This was in sharp contrast to the much weaker hole of 1988. The 1989 ozone hole remained at polar latitudes as it filled in November, in contrast to other recent years when the hole drifted to mid-latitudes before disappearing. Daily ozone values above selected Southern Hemisphere stations are presented, along with comparisons of the 1989 ozone distribution to that of other years.

Krueger, Arlin J.; Penn, Lanning M.; Larko, David E.; Doiron, Scott D.; Guimaraes, Patricia T.

1990-01-01

188

Coordination and ion-ion interactions of chromium centers in alkaline earth zinc borate glasses probed by electron paramagnetic resonance and optical spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), optical absorption and FT-IR studies have been carried out on chromium ions incorporated in alkaline earth zinc borate glasses. The EPR spectra exhibit two resonance signals with effective g values at g ? 1.99 and ?1.97. The resonance signal at g ? 1.99 is attributed to the contribution from both the exchange coupled Cr3+-Cr3+ ion pairs and the isolated Cr3+ ions and the resonance signal at g ? 1.97 is due to Cr5+ ions. The paramagnetic susceptibility (?) was calculated from the EPR data at various (123-303 K) temperatures and the Curie temperature (?p) was calculated from the 1/?-T graph. The optical absorption spectra exhibit three bands at ˜360 nm, ˜440 nm and a broad band at ˜615 nm characteristic of Cr3+ ions in an octahedral symmetry. From the observed band positions, the crystal-field splitting parameter Dq and the Racah parameters (B and C) have been evaluated. From the ultraviolet edges, the optical band gap energies (Eopt) and Urbach energy (?E) are calculated. The theoretical optical basicity (?th) of these glasses has also been evaluated. Chromium ions doped alkaline earth zinc borate glasses show BO3 and BO4 structural units in the FT-IR studies.

Sumalatha, B.; Omkaram, I.; Rajavardana Rao, T.; Linga Raju, Ch

2013-05-01

189

Geological assessment probe  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A probe is described which can be installed in a side hole that extends from a bore hole in the Earth, to assess the permeability of the strata surrounding the borehole. The probe is elongated and has a plurality of seals spaced therealong and sealed to the walls of the side hole to form a plurality of chambers sealed from one another. A tracer fluid injector on the probe can inject a tracer fluid into one of the chambers, while a tracer fluid detector located in another chamber can detect the tracer fluid, to thereby sense the permeability of the strata surrounding the side hole. The probe can include a train of modules, with each module having an inflatable packer which is inflated by the difference between the borehole pressure and the strata pressure.

Collins, E. R. (inventor)

1980-01-01

190

Catalog of Micro-Tom tomato responses to common fungal, bacterial, and viral pathogens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lycopersicon esculentum cultivar Micro-Tom is a miniature tomato with many advantages for studies of the molecular biology and physiology of plants. To evaluate the suitability of Micro-Tom as a host plant for the study of pathogenesis, Micro-Tom plants were inoculated with 16 well-known fungal, bacterial, and viral pathogens of tomato. Athelia rolfsii, Botryotinia fuckeliana, Oidium sp., Phytophthora infestans, and Sclerotinia

Hideki Takahashi; Ayano Shimizu; Tsutomu Arie; Syofi Rosmalawati; Sumire Fukushima; Mari Kikuchi; Yasufumi Hikichi; Ayami Kanda; Akiko Takahashi; Akinori Kiba; Kohei Ohnishi; Yuki Ichinose; Fumiko Taguchi; Chihiro Yasuda; Motoichiro Kodama; Mayumi Egusa; Chikara Masuta; Hiroyuki Sawada; Daisuke Shibata; Koichi Hori; Yuichiro Watanabe

2005-01-01

191

Cognitive, Affective, and Conative Theory of Mind (ToM) in Children with Traumatic Brain Injury  

PubMed Central

We studied three forms of dyadic communication involving theory of mind (ToM) in 82 children with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and 61 children with orthopedic injury (OI): Cognitive (concerned with false belief), Affective (concerned with expressing socially deceptive facial expressions), and Conative (concerned with influencing another’s thoughts or feelings). We analyzed the pattern of brain lesions in the TBI group and conducted voxel-based morphometry for all participants in five large-scale functional brain networks, and related lesion and volumetric data to ToM outcomes. Children with TBI exhibited difficulty with Cognitive, Affective, and Conative ToM. The perturbation threshold for Cognitive ToM is higher than that for Affective and Conative ToM, in that Severe TBI disturbs Cognitive ToM but even Mild-Moderate TBI disrupt Affective and Conative ToM. Childhood TBI was associated with damage to all five large-scale brain networks. Lesions in the Mirror Neuron Empathy network predicted lower Conative ToM involving ironic criticism and empathic praise. Conative ToM was significantly and positively related to the package of Default Mode, Central Executive, and Mirror Neuron Empathy networks and, more specifically, to two hubs of the Default Mode network, the posterior cingulate/retrosplenial cortex and the hippocampal formation, including entorhinal cortex and parahippocampal cortex. PMID:23291312

Dennis, Maureen; Simic, Nevena; Bigler, Erin D.; Abildskov, Tracy; Agostino, Alba; Taylor, H. Gerry; Rubin, Kenneth; Vannatta, Kathryn; Gerhardt, Cynthia A.; Stancin, Terry; Yeates, Keith Owen

2012-01-01

192

Presequence Recognition by the Tom40 Channel Contributes to Precursor Translocation into the Mitochondrial Matrix  

PubMed Central

More than 70% of mitochondrial proteins utilize N-terminal presequences as targeting signals. Presequence interactions with redundant cytosolic receptor domains of the translocase of the outer mitochondrial membrane (TOM) are well established. However, after the presequence enters the protein-conducting Tom40 channel, the recognition events that occur at the trans side leading up to the engagement of the presequence with inner membrane-bound receptors are less well defined. Using a photoaffinity-labeling approach with modified presequence peptides, we identified Tom40 as a presequence interactor of the TOM complex. Utilizing mass spectrometry, we mapped Tom40's presequence-interacting regions to both sides of the ?-barrel. Analysis of a phosphorylation site within one of the presequence-interacting regions revealed altered translocation kinetics along the presequence pathway. Our analyses assess the relation between the identified presequence-binding region of Tom40 and the intermembrane space domain of Tom22. The identified presequence-interacting region of Tom40 is capable of functioning independently of the established trans-acting TOM presequence-binding domain during matrix import. PMID:25002531

Melin, Jonathan; Schulz, Christian; Wrobel, Lidia; Bernhard, Olaf; Chacinska, Agnieszka; Jahn, Olaf; Schmidt, Bernhard

2014-01-01

193

Molecular Chaperone Hsp70/Hsp90 Prepares the Mitochondrial Outer Membrane Translocon Receptor Tom71 for Preprotein Loading  

SciTech Connect

The preproteins targeted to the mitochondria are transported through the translocase of the outer membrane complex. Tom70/Tom71 is a major surface receptor of the translocase of the outer membrane complex for mitochondrial preproteins. The preproteins are escorted to Tom70/Tom71 by molecular chaperones Hsp70 and Hsp90. Here we present the high resolution crystal structures of Tom71 and the protein complexes between Tom71 and the Hsp70/Hsp90 C terminus. The crystal structures indicate that Tom70/Tom71 may exhibit two distinct states. In the closed state, the N-terminal domain of Tom70/Tom71 partially blocks the preprotein-binding pocket. In the open state, the N-terminal domain moves away, and the preprotein-binding pocket is fully exposed. The complex formation between the C-terminal EEVD motif of Hsp70/Hsp90 and Tom71 could lock Tom71 in the open state where the preprotein-binding pocket of Tom71 is ready to receive preproteins. The interactions between Hsp70/Hsp90 and Tom71 N-terminal domain generate conformational changes that may increase the volume of the preprotein-binding pocket. The complex formation of Hsp70/Hsp90 and Tom71 also generates significant domain rearrangement within Tom71, which may position the preprotein-binding pocket closer to Hsp70/Hsp90 to facilitate the preprotein transfer from the molecular chaperone to Tom71. Therefore, molecular chaperone Hsp70/Hsp90 may function to prepare the mitochondrial outer membrane receptor Tom71 for preprotein loading.

Li, Jingzhi; Qian, Xinguo; Hu, Junbin; Sha, Bingdong; (UAB)

2010-11-03

194

Probing the role of encapsulated alkaline earth metal atoms in endohedral metallofullerenes M@C76 (M = Ca, Sr, and Ba) by first-principles calculations.  

PubMed

By means of density functional theory and statistical mechanics, we investigate the geometric and electronic structures, thermodynamic stability and infrared (IR) vibrational frequencies of alkaline earth metal endohedral fullerenes, M@C(76) (M = Ca, Sr, and Ba). The results reveal that M@C(1)(17,459)-C(76) possesses the lowest energy followed by M@C(2v)(19,138)-C(76) with a very small energy difference. Both the structures have a pair of adjacent pentagons and are related by a single Stone-Wales transformation. Equilibrium statistical thermodynamic analyses based on Gibbs energy treatments suggest that M@C(1)(17,459)-C(76) has a prominent thermodynamic stability at higher temperatures, in contrast with M@C(2v)(19,138)-C(76) whose thermodynamic stability is affected by the encapsulated metal atom. The encapsulated metallic atoms as well as cage structures significantly influence the electronic properties of endohedral fullerenes such as electron affinities and ionization potentials. On the other hand, the singlet-triplet splitting energy ?E(S-T) depends on the cage structures. In addition, IR spectra and chemical shifts of these compounds have been computed to assist further experimental characterization. PMID:22415172

Yang, Tao; Zhao, Xiang; Xu, Qian; Zheng, Hong; Wang, Wei-Wei; Li, Sheng-Tao

2012-05-01

195

Electromagnetic deep-probing (100-1000 kms) of the Earth's interior from artificial satellites: Constraints on the regional emplacement of crustal resources  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A spherical harmonic analysis program is being tested which takes magnetic data in universal time from a set of arbitrarily space observatories and calculates a value for the instantaneous magnetic field at any point on the globe. The calculation is done as a least mean-squares value fit to a set of spherical harmonics up to any desired order. The program accepts as a set of input the orbit position of a satellite coordinates it with ground-based magnetic data for a given time. The output is a predicted time series for the magnetic field on the Earth's surface at the (r, theta) position directly under the hypothetically orbiting satellite for the duration of the time period of the input data set. By tracking the surface magnetic field beneath the satellite, narrow-band averages crosspowers between the spatially coordinated satellite and the ground-based data sets are computed. These crosspowers are used to calculate field transfer coefficients with minimum noise distortion. The application of this technique to calculating the vector response function W is discussed.

Hermance, J. F. (principal investigator)

1981-01-01

196

Molecular Probes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Supported commercially by Molecular Probes, this site provides an overview of molecular probe technology as well as a searchable bibliography, a list of related literature, and an outstanding photo gallery with examples of probe applications. The Gallery contains 22 different categories, from Actin and Tubulin Probes to Yeast and Other Fungi Stains, with several images provided for each category. A help link provides tips on using some of the probes and stains, a list of FAQs, and a list of more general technical questions related to probe technology.

1998-01-01

197

Empirical correction for earth sensor horizon radiance variation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A major limitation on the use of infrared horizon sensors for attitude determination is the variability of the height of the infrared Earth horizon. This variation includes a climatological component and a stochastic component of approximately equal importance. The climatological component shows regular variation with season and latitude. Models based on historical measurements have been used to compensate for these systematic changes. The stochastic component is analogous to tropospheric weather. It can cause extreme, localized changes that for a period of days, overwhelm the climatological variation. An algorithm has been developed to compensate partially for the climatological variation of horizon height and at least to mitigate the stochastic variation. This method uses attitude and horizon sensor data from spacecraft to update a horizon height history as a function of latitude. For spacecraft that depend on horizon sensors for their attitudes (such as the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer-Earth Probe-TOMS-EP) a batch least squares attitude determination system is used. It is assumed that minimizing the average sensor residual throughout a full orbit of data results in attitudes that are nearly independent of local horizon height variations. The method depends on the additional assumption that the mean horizon height over all latitudes is approximately independent of season. Using these assumptions, the method yields the latitude dependent portion of local horizon height variations. This paper describes the algorithm used to generate an empirical horizon height. Ideally, an international horizon height database could be established that would rapidly merge data from various spacecraft to provide timely corrections that could be used by all.

Hashmall, Joseph A.; Sedlak, Joseph; Andrews, Daniel; Luquette, Richard

1998-01-01

198

On the Study of Richard Tom Robert Identity  

E-print Network

In order to estimate the average speed of mosquitoes, a simple experiment was designed by Richard (Lu-Hsing Tsai), Tom (Po-Yu Tsai) and Robert (Hung-Ming Tsai). The result of the experiment was posted in the science exhibitions Taichung Taiwan 1993. The average speed of mosquitoes is inferred by the simple relation that is obtained easily. In this paper, we will show how the data generated by computer. Though the rigorous proof is not shown, a sketch proof will be shown in this paper. There are five figures one table and one fortran computer source program in the end of the paper.

Yeong-Shyeong Tsai

2008-11-05

199

Bridging the Gap: Physics in the Plays of Tom Stoppard  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The idea of a communication gap between the sciences and the arts is persistent in academia. To help bridge this gap, I created an Honors course that attempts to make connections between physics and drama: Physics in the Plays of Tom Stoppard. Three of Stoppard's plays explicitly incorporate physics into their plots. The topics included in the plays span the syllabus of a typical conceptual physics course, from Galileo's experiments with freely falling balls to quantum indeterminacy. A descriptive physics text is used along with the plays to supply the necessary background and continuity. The structure of the course, and student reactions, are described.

Carroll, Bradley

2010-10-01

200

Spectrophotometric probe  

DOEpatents

A support structure is described bearing at least one probe for making spectrophotometric measurements of a fluid using a source of light and a spectrophotometer. The probe includes a housing with two optical fibers and a planoconvex lens. A sleeve bearing a mirror surrounds the housing. The lens is separated from the mirror by a fixed distance, defining an interior space for receiving a volume of the fluid sample. A plurality of throughholes extending through the sleeve communicate between the sample volume and the exterior of the probe, all but one hole bearing a screen. A protective jacket surrounds the probe. A hollow conduit bearing a tube is formed in the wall of the probe for venting any air in the interior space when fluid enters. The probe is held at an acute angle so the optic fibers carrying the light to and from the probe are not bent severely on emergence from the probe. 3 figs.

Prather, W.S.; O'Rourke, P.E.

1994-08-02

201

Spectrophotometric probe  

DOEpatents

A support structure bearing at least one probe for making spectrophotometric measurements of a fluid using a source of light and a spectrophotometer. The probe includes a housing with two optical fibers and a planoconvex lens. A sleeve bearing a mirror surrounds the housing. The lens is separated from the mirror by a fixed distance, defining an interior space for receiving a volume of the fluid sample. A plurality of throughholes extending through the sleeve communicate between the sample volume and the exterior of the probe, all but one hole bearing a screen. A protective jacket surrounds the probe. A hollow conduit bearing a tube is formed in the wall of the probe for venting any air in the interior space when fluid enters. The probe is held at an acute angle so the optic fibers carrying the light to and from the probe are not bent severely on emergence from the probe.

Prather, William S. (Augusta, GA); O'Rourke, Patrick E. (Martinez, GA)

1994-01-01

202

Gravity Probe B Inspection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The space vehicle Gravity Probe B (GP-B) is the relativity experiment developed at Stanford University to test two extraordinary predictions of Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity. The experiment will measure, very precisely, the expected tiny changes in the direction of the spin axes of four gyroscopes contained in an Earth-orbiting satellite at a 400-mile altitude. So free are the gyroscopes from disturbance that they will provide an almost perfect space-time reference system. They will measure how space and time are very slightly warped by the presence of the Earth, and, more profoundly, how the Earth's rotation very slightly drags space-time around with it. These effects, though small for the Earth, have far-reaching implications for the nature of matter and the structure of the Universe. GP-B is among the most thoroughly researched programs ever undertaken by NASA. This is the story of a scientific quest in which physicists and engineers have collaborated closely over many years. Inspired by their quest, they have invented a whole range of technologies that are already enlivening other branches of science and engineering. In this photograph, engineer Gary Reynolds is inspecting the inside of the probe neck during probe thermal repairs. GP-B is scheduled for launch in April 2004 and managed for NASA by the Marshall Space Flight Center. Development of the GP-B is the responsibility of Stanford University along with major subcontractor Lockheed Martin Corporation. (Image credit to Russ Leese, Gravity Probe B, Stanford University)

2000-01-01

203

The 1988 Antarctic ozone monitoring Nimbus-7 TOMS data atlas  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Because of the great environmental significance of ozone and to support continuing research at McMurdo, Syowa, and other Southern Hemisphere stations, the development of the 1988 ozone hole was monitored using data from the Nimbus-7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) instrument, produced in near-real-time. This Atlas provides a complete set of daily polar orthographic projections of the TOMS total ozone measurements over the Southern Hemisphere for the period August 1 through November 17, 1988. Although total ozone in mini-holes briefly dropped below 150 DU in late August, the main ozone hole is seen to be much less pronounced than in 1987. Minimum values, observed in late September and early October 1988, were seldom less than 175 DU. Compared with the same period in 1987, when a pronounced ozone hole whose minimum value of 109 Dobson Units (DU) was the lowest total ozone ever observed, the 1988 ozone hole is displaced from the South Pole, opposing a persistent maximum with values consistently above 500 DU. Daily ozone values above selected Southern Hemisphere stations are presented, along with comparisons of the 1988 ozone distribution to that of other years.

Krueger, Arlin J.; Penn, Lanning M.; Larko, David E.; Doiron, Scott D.; Guimaraes, Patricia T.

1989-01-01

204

A NEW PROXIMITY CONDITION FOR MANIFOLD-VALUED SUBDIVISION TOM DUCHAMP, GANG XIE, AND THOMAS YU  

E-print Network

A NEW PROXIMITY CONDITION FOR MANIFOLD-VALUED SUBDIVISION SCHEMES TOM DUCHAMP, GANG XIE, AND THOMAS CRG on Applied and Computational Harmonic Analysis. Gang Xie's research was supported, Georgi Medvedev, and Mark Levi for discussions on dynamical systems. 1 #12;2 TOM DUCHAMP, GANG XIE

Yu, Thomas P.-Y.

205

Rhetorical Features of the Idioms in The Adventures of Tom Sawyer  

Microsoft Academic Search

As an American humorous writer, Mark Twain is especially famous for his various using of idioms. Through studying the representative idioms in his novel The Adventures of Tom Sawyer from lexical and phonetic feature, figures of speech and variation, this paper represents clearly his distinctive writing style. Key word: Mark Twain; The Adventures of Tom Sawyer; idiom; rhetorical feature

MIAO Xin

2006-01-01

206

Indonesia 82 (October 2006) Tom Boellstorff. The Gay Archipelago: Sexuality and Nation in Indonesia.  

E-print Network

Indonesia 82 (October 2006) Tom Boellstorff. The Gay Archipelago: Sexuality and Nation in Indonesia to underwrite what they instinctively know to be the case. In The Gay Archipelago, Tom Boellstorff describes his own response to this challenge, as he negotiated a way of conceptualizing the lives of the gay

Brody, James P.

207

Has Tom Peters lost the plot? A timely review of a celebrated management guru  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper has been timed to coincide with the 25th anniversary of the publication of In Search of Excellence. Observing this anniversary, the paper aims to offer a critical review of the works of Tom Peters – a man vaunted as the guru of management. Reviewers have observed that Tom Peters' narratives of business build and depend upon

David Collins

2008-01-01

208

Regents Professor and Tom J. Cunningham Chair School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering  

E-print Network

in the School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering at Oklahoma State University. He has been an active CINTDon Lucca Regents Professor and Tom J. Cunningham Chair School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Oklahoma State University Don A. Lucca is currently Regents Professor and Tom J. Cunningham Chair

209

Immunocytochemical localization of the translocase of the outer mitochondrial membrane (Tom20) in the human cochlea.  

PubMed

Mitochondrial degeneration in the inner ear is likely a contributing factor in age-related hearing loss and other otopathologies such as Meniere's disease. Most mitochondrial proteins are synthesized in the cytosol and imported through the mitochondrial membranes by translocators. The translocase of the outer membrane (Tom) is the universal entry gate for all proteins that are imported into mitochondria. Altered function of the translocator could alter protein transport into the mitochondria, and disrupt function. In this study, we determined the immunolocalization of Tom20, a major mitochondrial protein import receptor, in microdissected human cochlea frozen sections obtained from postmortem autopsy and celloidin-embedded archival specimens. We used affinity purified rabbit polyclonal antibodies against Tom20. We also determined the Tom20 immunolocalization in the mouse inner ear. In the human and mouse cochlea, Tom20 was ubiquitously distributed in the organ of Corti, allowing well-delineated visualization of inner and outer hair cells. Tom20 immunoreactivity localized in the cytoplasm of spiral ganglia neurons. In the inner ear of aged subjects with Meniere's disease, there was decreased expression of Tom20. These results suggest that Tom20 can be used in the inner ear as a marker for mitochondrial protein import. PMID:23165776

Balaker, Ashley E; Ishiyama, Paul; Lopez, Ivan A; Ishiyama, Gail; Ishiyama, Akira

2013-02-01

210

Theory of mind broad and narrow: Reasoning about social exchange engages ToM areas, precautionary  

E-print Network

Theory of mind broad and narrow: Reasoning about social exchange engages ToM areas, precautionary is regulated by social contract algorithms: a domain-specific inference system that is functionally specialized are unnecessary). We argue that the interaction between ToM and social contract algorithms can be reciprocal

Cosmides, Leda

211

33 CFR 80.501 - Tom's River, NJ to Cape May, NJ.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Tom's River, NJ to Cape May, NJ. 80.501 Section...Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND...501 Tom's River, NJ to Cape May, NJ. (a) A line... (h) A line drawn from Cape May Inlet East Jetty Light...

2010-07-01

212

TOMS Data Showing the Ozone Hole over Antarctica (8-20-92 - 10-19-92)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

TOMS Ozone over Antarctica from 8-20-92 to 10-19-92. The ozone hole is indicated in shades of blue. The missing data region over the south pole is due to the inability of the TOMS instrument to measure data during the polar night.

Jesse Allen

1999-04-09

213

Toms Saraceno is Inaugural Visiting Artist in newly established MIT Center for  

E-print Network

1 Tomás Saraceno is Inaugural Visiting Artist in newly established MIT Center for Art, Science & Technology Tomás Saraceno, Vik Muniz & Don Byron Among MIT's Eight Visiting Artists Creative artists enhance, the artist acclaimed for his utopian Cloud City, a navigable, multi-level structure of interconnected modules

214

Earth's Atmosphere  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This problem set is about the methods scientists use to compare the abundance of the different elements in Earth's atmosphere. Answer key is provided. This is part of Earth Math: A Brief Mathematical Guide to Earth Science and Climate Change.

2012-08-03

215

Earth's Three  

E-print Network

Broadcast Transcript: From Mongolia, land of fermented mare's milk, comes this beguiling morsel of nomadic oral tradition. It's called yertonciin gorav or Earth's Three. Earth's three what? Well, Earth's three top things in a number of categories...

Hacker, Randi

2010-11-17

216

Earth Sciences Environmental Earth Sciences,  

E-print Network

94 Earth Sciences­ Environmental Earth Sciences, Geology Degree options MGeol (Single Honours Degrees) Earth Sciences BSc (Single Honours Degrees) Environmental Earth Sciences Geology BSc (Joint placement. * The Geology and Environmental Earth Sciences degrees are accredited by the Geological Society

Brierley, Andrew

217

Earth Sciences Environmental Earth Sciences,  

E-print Network

84 Earth Sciences­ Environmental Earth Sciences, Geology MGeol (Single Honours Degrees) Earth Sciences BSc (Single Honours Degrees) Environmental Earth Sciences Geology BSc (Joint Honours Degrees) and among the most research-intensive in Europe. Features * The Department of Earth and Environmental

Brierley, Andrew

218

Global and Seasonal Aerosol Optical Depths Derived From Ultraviolet Observations by Satellites (TOMS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It has been shown that absorbing aerosols (dust, smoke, volcanic ash) can be detected in the ultraviolet wavelengths (331 nm to 380 nm) from satellite observations (TOMS, Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) over both land and water. The theoretical basis for these observations and their conversions to optical depths is discussed in terms of an aerosol index AI or N-value residue (assigned positive for absorbing aerosols). The theoretical considerations show that negative values of the AI frequently represent the presence of non-absorbing aerosols (NA) in the troposphere (mostly pollution in the form of sulfates, hydrocarbons, etc., and some natural sulfate aerosols) with particle sizes near 0.1 to 0.2 microns or less. The detection of small-particle non-absorbing aerosols from the measured backscattered radiances is based on the observed wavelength dependence from Mie scattering after the background Rayleigh scattering is subtracted. The Mie scattering from larger particles, 1 micron or more (e.g., cloud water droplets) has too small a wavelength dependence to be detected by this method. In regions that are mostly cloud free, aerosols of all sizes can be seen in the single channel 380 nm or 360 nm radiance data. The most prominent Al feature observed is the strong asymmetry in aerosol amount between the Northern and Southern Hemispheres, with the large majority of NA occurring above 20degN latitude. The maximum values of non-absorbing aerosols are observed over the eastern U.S. and most of western Europe corresponding to the areas of highest industrial pollution. Annual cycles in the amount of NA are observed over Europe and North America with maxima occurring in the summer corresponding to times of minimum wind transport. Similarly, the maxima in the winter over the Atlantic Ocean occurs because of wind borne transport from the land. Most regions of the world have the maximum amount of non-absorbing aerosol in the December to January period except for the eastern North America and Europe. Comparisons of the estimated TOMS aerosol optical depths show good agreement in magnitude and seasonal dependence with sun-photometer optical depths obtained at Goddard Space Flight Center (39degN 76.88degW) in the U.S. and in Lille (50.63degN 3.07degE) in France. The study of these aerosols is important for detecting the sources of industrial pollution and its redistribution by winds on a global basis, as well as its effect on reducing the UV irradiance at the Earth's surface.

Herman, J. R.; Torres, O.

1999-01-01

219

Huygens probe on target  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In October 1997, a Titan/Centaur rocket lifting-off from Cape Canaveral will boost the spacecraft into a 6.7 year trajectory to reach Saturn. The trajectory will use two swing-bys of Venus in April 1998 and June 1999, followed by an Earth swing-by in August 1999 and a Jupiter swing-by in December 2000 to boost speed and reach Saturn in July 2004. A few months after going into orbit around Saturn, the Cassini spacecraft will release the Huygens probe for its descent through the atmosphere of Titan, the largest satellite of Saturn. The Huygens probe will measure the abundance of elements and compounds in Titan's atmosphere, the distribution of trace gases and aerosols, winds, temperature, pressure and surface state and its composition. A multi-spectral camera on the probe will provide images of the landscape of Titan. Titan is a unique planetary body in the solar system. It has an atmosphere which is primarily nitrogen. but is also rich in hydrocarbons. Due to the vast distance of the Saturnian system from the Sun, this atmosphere is at a very low temperature, thus greatly slowing down all the chemical processes. A study of this atmosphere will throw light on the development of our own atmosphere and contribute to our understanding of the origins of life on Earth. The Huygens probe is being developed by ESA with Aerospatiale (F) as the industrial prime contractor. Since the start of the programme in April 1990, very good progress has been made in design and hardware development. The entry into the Titan atmosphere will result in a very high surface temperature on the probe, generated as it decelerates due to the friction of the upper atmospheric layers. After the probe has slowed down sufficiently, a system of parachutes ensures a slow descent to the surface of Titan in approximately two and a half hours. The scientific measurements can only begin after the heat shield, which is needed to protect the probe during the high temperature entry phase, has been ejected. This occurs at an altitude of around 170 km above Titan's surface. In order to validate this complex sequence, a Balloon Drop Test was recently carried out on a full size model of the probe. The balloon carried the probe to an altitude of 36 km above the test range (ESRANGE) near Kiruna in Sweden. The probe was automatically released and all the descent control systems were operated. This test was completely successfully and the Descent Module was recovered on ground intact and functioning (pictures are available upon request). In addition, all the environmental testing has been carried out on another model to prove the structural and thermal integrity of the probe. The Structure Thermal and Pyro Model (SIAM) of the Huygens probe was delivered to NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) on 5 th July, 1995 for combined testing with the Cassini spacecraft. For the electrical systems, a special Engineering Model has been subjected to functional testing and the results to date are successful. This model will also be delivered to JPL for combined testing in the near future. Currently-, the Flight Model hardware is being delivered to Daimler Benz in Munich, by the industrial subcontractors, where integration of the Flight Probe will take place. "The design and the production of this complex system in a relatively short time of four years has proceeded very smoothly thanks to the motivation of the European space industry", said Huygens ESA Project Manager Hamid Hassan. The Flight Probe will be delivered to NASA/JPL in early 1997 for a launch of Cassini-Huygens on a Titan IV/Centaur rocket in October 1997.

1995-07-01

220

Biogenesis of the preprotein translocase of the outer mitochondrial membrane: protein kinase A phosphorylates the precursor of Tom40 and impairs its import  

PubMed Central

The preprotein translocase of the outer mitochondrial membrane (TOM) functions as the main entry gate for the import of nuclear-encoded proteins into mitochondria. The major subunits of the TOM complex are the three receptors Tom20, Tom22, and Tom70 and the central channel-forming protein Tom40. Cytosolic kinases have been shown to regulate the biogenesis and activity of the Tom receptors. Casein kinase 2 stimulates the biogenesis of Tom22 and Tom20, whereas protein kinase A (PKA) impairs the receptor function of Tom70. Here we report that PKA exerts an inhibitory effect on the biogenesis of the ?-barrel protein Tom40. Tom40 is synthesized as precursor on cytosolic ribosomes and subsequently imported into mitochondria. We show that PKA phosphorylates the precursor of Tom40. The phosphorylated Tom40 precursor is impaired in import into mitochondria, whereas the nonphosphorylated precursor is efficiently imported. We conclude that PKA plays a dual role in the regulation of the TOM complex. Phosphorylation by PKA not only impairs the receptor activity of Tom70, but it also inhibits the biogenesis of the channel protein Tom40. PMID:22419819

Rao, Sanjana; Schmidt, Oliver; Harbauer, Angelika B.; Schönfisch, Birgit; Guiard, Bernard; Pfanner, Nikolaus; Meisinger, Chris

2012-01-01

221

Logic Probes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This brief interactive activity, by the Electromechanical Digital Library and Wisconsin Technical College System faculty, introduces Logic Probes. There is an overview which illustrates the probe's application and operation and how to operate a logic probe in multifamily use, steady states, and changing states. There is also a set of three review questions for students to answer at the end. This is an excellent resource, as are the others in this digital library, for reviewing fundamental concepts for electromechanical devices, systems, and applications.

Bartelt, Terry L. M.

222

Earth\\'s Surface  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

You have already learned about the four major parts of Earth\\'s system: atmosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere, and geosphere. Go to the following sites to learn more about rocks and minerals, continental drift, and geologic time. When you finish viewing all the sites, you will participate in a problem-based learning activity, \\"The Case of the Disappearing Dirt.\\" Topographic Maps All About Geology Answer the questions on the handout. Erosion and Weathering Summarize what your learned about erosion and weathering. Examine a landscape formed by erosion Observe the effects of mechanical weathering Plate Tectonics FAQ s About Rocks and Fossils Igneous Rocks Rocks and Minerals Slide Show Rock Cycle Observe an animation of metamorphic rocks forming Continental Drift Mineralogy 4 kids : rockin Internet site : the best place to learn about rocks and minerals Draw a picture of the rock cycle. Coasting Away ...

Ms. Mathis

2008-01-11

223

Mim1, a protein required for the assembly of the TOM complex of mitochondria  

PubMed Central

The translocase of the outer mitochondrial membrane (TOM complex) is the general entry site for newly synthesized proteins into mitochondria. This complex is essential for the formation and maintenance of mitochondria. Here, we report on the role of the integral outer membrane protein, Mim1 (mitochondrial import), in the biogenesis of mitochondria. Depletion of Mim1 abrogates assembly of the TOM complex and results in accumulation of Tom40, the principal constituent of the TOM complex, as a low-molecular-mass species. Like all mitochondrial ?-barrel proteins, the precursor of Tom40 is inserted into the outer membrane by the TOB complex. Mim1 is likely to be required for a step after this TOB-complex-mediated insertion. Mim1 is a constituent of neither the TOM complex nor the TOB complex; rather, it seems to be a subunit of another, as yet unidentified, complex. We conclude that Mim1 has a vital and specific function in the assembly of the TOM complex. PMID:15608614

Waizenegger, Thomas; Schmitt, Simone; Zivkovic, Jelena; Neupert, Walter; Rapaport, Doron

2005-01-01

224

Analysis of individual mitochondria via fluorescent immunolabeling with Anti-TOM22 antibodies  

PubMed Central

Mitochondria are responsible for maintaining a variety of cellular functions. One such function is the interaction and subsequent import of proteins into these organelles via the translocase of outer membrane (TOM) complex. Antibodies have been used to analyze the presence and function of proteins comprising this complex, but have not been used to investigate variations in the abundance of TOM complex in mitochondria. Here, we report on the feasibility of using capillary cytometry with laser-induced fluorescence to detect mitochondria labeled with antibodies targeting the TOM complex and to estimate the number of antibodies that bind to these organelles. Mitochondria were fluorescently labeled with DsRed2, while antibodies targeting the TOM22 protein, one of nine proteins comprising the TOM complex, were conjugated to the Atto-488 fluorophore. At typical labeling conditions, 94 % of DsRed2 mitochondria were also immunofluorescently labeled with Atto-488 Anti-TOM22 antibodies. The calculated median number of Atto-488 Anti-TOM22 antibodies bound to the surface of mitochondria was ?2,000 per mitochondrion. The combination of fluorescent immunolabeling and capillary cytometry could be further developed to include multicolor labeling experiments, which enable monitoring several molecular targets at the same time in the same or different organelle types. PMID:24481619

Taylor, Thane H.; Frost, Nicholas W.; Bowser, Michael T.

2015-01-01

225

The Broad Impact of TOM40 on Neurodegenerative Diseases in Aging  

PubMed Central

Mitochondrial dysfunction is an important factor in the pathogenesis of age-related diseases, including neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s spectrum disorders. A polymorphism in Translocase of the Outer Mitochondrial Membrane – 40 kD (TOMM40) is associated with risk and age-of onset of late-onset AD, and is the only nuclear- encoded gene identified in genetic studies to date that presumably contributes to LOAD-related mitochondria dysfunction. In this review, we describe the TOM40-mediated mitochondrial protein import mechanism, and discuss the evidence linking TOM40 with Alzheimer’s (AD) and Parkinson’s (PD) diseases. All but 36 of the >~1,500 mitochondrial proteins are encoded by the nucleus and are synthesized on cytoplasmic ribosomes, and most of these are imported into mitochondria through the TOM complex, of which TOM40 is the central pore, mediating communication between the cytoplasm and the mitochondrial interior. APP enters and obstructs the TOM40 pore, inhibiting import of OXPHOS-related proteins and disrupting the mitochondrial redox balance. Other pathogenic proteins, such as A? and alpha-synuclein, readily pass through the pore and cause toxic effects by directly inhibiting mitochondrial enzymes. Healthy mitochondria normally import and degrade the PD-related protein Pink1, but Pink1 exits mitochondria if the membrane potential collapses and initiates Parkin-mediated mitophagy. Under normal circumstances, this process helps clear dysfunctional mitochondria and contributes to cellular health, but PINK1 mutations associated with PD exit mitochondria with intact membrane potentials, disrupting mitochondrial dynamics, leading to pathology. Thus, TOM40 plays a central role in the mitochondrial dysfunction that underlies age-related neurodegenerative diseases. Learning about the factors that control TOM40 levels and activity, and how TOM40, specifically, and the TOM complex, generally, interacts with potentially pathogenic proteins, will provide deeper insights to AD and PD pathogenesis, and possibly new targets for preventative and/or therapeutic treatments.

Gottschalk, William K.; Lutz, Michael W.; He, Yu Ting; Saunders, Ann M.; Burns, Daniel K.; Roses, Allen D.; Chiba-Falek, Ornit

2015-01-01

226

Samara Probe For Remote Imaging  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Imaging probe descends through atmosphere of planet, obtaining images of ground surface as it travels. Released from aircraft over Earth or from spacecraft over another planet. Body and single wing shaped like samara - winged seed like those of maple trees. Rotates as descends, providing panoramic view of terrain below. Radio image obtained by video camera to aircraft or spacecraft overhead.

Burke, James D.

1989-01-01

227

Floating input, optically isolated, high-voltage measurement probe  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple, floating input, high-voltage measurement probe is described. The divider is purely capacitive and is completely isolated from earth. Optical fibers are used to transmit information to the recording instruments which can be operated at earth potential. The probe can easily be constructed in a laboratory and is adaptable to a wide range of voltages up to 1 MV.

C. A. Bleys

1976-01-01

228

Probing the Proteome on Earth and Beyond  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Less than a decade ago, protein sequencing was the bane of paleobiology. Since that time researchers have completely sequenced proteins in >50 Ka fossils, been dazzled by reports of collagen peptides in dinosaur bones, and witnessed the development of phylogenetic trees from ancient protein sequences. Enlisting proteomics as biosignature is now in our grasp. In this talk the pitfalls and challenges of mass spectrometric approaches to protein sequencing will be illustrated and phylogenetic applications will be discussed. Work on extinct organisms at Michigan State University, University of Michigan and York University will provide a vantage point to assess methodologies, explore diagenetic alterations, evaluate mass spectra and illustrate issues associated with data base searching. Challenges encountered in the study of paleoproteomics, such as the absence of sequences for extinct organisms in commercially available databases, protein diagenesis and low concentrations of target are parallel to those that will be encountered when protein sequencing is extended to extreme and extraterrestrial environments. Thus, lessons learned from interrogating the ancient proteome are important and necessary step in developing proteomics as a biosignature tools.

Ostrom, P.

2008-12-01

229

Earth Fun!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Futher Discovering Volcanos and how they work. Lets go on a Virtual field trip to a volcano, plus look at interactive games and lessons on volcanos and the Earth. This is our virtual field trip! Hop aboard, and hold on tight while we discover one of Earths great wonders. Volcano Field Trip Click here to learn more about volcanos and how they work! Earth: Plates on the Move Make Your Own Earth Science Stationery Making Rocks Meet the Earth OLogists Volcano! What Do You Know About Earth Science? ...

miss.whit

2009-10-09

230

Satellite Mapping of the Earth's Ozone and Sulfur Dioxide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) instruments are spatially-scanning UV spectrometers that have produced daily global images of total ozone over the last 21 years since the launch of the Nimbus 7 satellite. The instruments use a total ozone retrieval algorithm pioneered by J.V. Dave and C. L. Mateer for the Nimbus 4 Backscatter Ultraviolet (BUV) instrument, designed by D.F. Heath. The TOMS ozone maps have revealed the relations between total ozone and atmospheric dynamics, and shown the dramatic losses of ozone in the Antarctic ozone hole and the Northern hemisphere. The accepted long-term trends in global, regional, and local ozone are derived from data from the Nimbus 7 TOMS and three successive TOMS flights on Russian, Japanese, and American satellites. The next TOMS flight will be launched in 2000. The contiguous mapping design and fortuitous choice of TOMS wavelengths bands also permitted imaging of a second atmospheric gas, sulfur dioxide, which is transient due to its short lifetime. The importance of this measurement was first realized after the eruption of El Chichon volcano in 1982. The extreme range of sizes of volcanic eruptions and the associated danger require observations from a distant observing platform. The first quantitative time series of the input of sulfur dioxide by explosive volcanic eruptions into the atmosphere thus was developed from the TOMS missions. Finally, the Rayleigh and aerosol scattering spectral characteristic and reflectivity complete the four dominant pieces of information in the near UV albedo of the Earth. The four parameters are derived with a linear algorithm, the absorption coefficients of the gases, and effective paths computed from radiative transfer tables. Absorbing aerosol clouds (smoke, dust, volcanic ash) are readily identified by their deviation from a Rayleigh signature. The greatest shortcoming of the TOMS dataset is the 24 hour time resolution that is produced by the polar orbit of the satellite. Dynamic phenomena, such as upper air fronts that modulate total ozone and volcanic eruptions of sulfur dioxide and ash, cannot be adequately resolved. It is hoped that UV observations from geostationary satellites will soon be made to test the value of this unique information in weather forecasting and aviation safety.

Krueger, Arlin; Bhartia, P. K.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

231

Satellite Mapping of the Earth's Ozone and Sulfur Dioxide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) instruments are spatially-scanning UV spectrometers that have produced daily global images of total ozone over the last 21 years since the launch of the Nimbus 7 satellite. The instruments use a total ozone retrieval algorithm pioneered by J.V. Dave and C. L. Mateer for the Nimbus 4 Backscatter Ultraviolet (BUV) instrument, designed by D.F. Heath. The TOMS ozone maps have revealed the relations between total ozone and atmospheric dynamics, and shown the dramatic losses of ozone in the Antarctic ozone hole and the Northern hemisphere. The accepted long-term trends in global, regional, and local ozone are derived from data from the Nimbus 7 TOMS and three successive TOMS flights on Russian, Japanese, and American satellites. The next TOMS flight will be launched in 2000. The contiguous mapping design and fortuitous choice of TOMS wavelengths bands also permitted imaging of a second atmospheric gas, sulfur dioxide, which is transient due to its short lifetime. The importance of this measurement was first realized after the eruption of El Chichon volcano in 1982. The extreme range of sizes of volcanic eruptions and the 'associated danger require observations from a distant observing platform. The first quantitative time series of the input of sulfur dioxide by explosive volcanic eruptions into the atmosphere thus was developed from the TOMS missions. Finally, the Rayleigh and aerosol scattering spectral characteristic and reflectivity complete the four dominant pieces of information in the near UV albedo of the Earth. The four parameters are derived with a linear algorithm, the absorption coefficients of the gases, and effective paths computed from radiative transfer tables. Absorbing aerosol clouds (smoke, dust, volcanic ash) are readily identified by their deviation from a Rayleigh signature. The greatest shortcoming of the TOMS dataset is the 24 hour time resolution that is produced by the polar orbit of the satellite. Dynamic phenomena, such as upper air fronts that modulate total ozone and volcanic eruptions of sulfur dioxide and ash, cannot be adequately resolved. It is hoped that UV observations from geostationary satellites will soon be made to test the value of this unique information in weather forecasting and aviation safety.

Krueger, Arlin; Bhartia, P. K.

2000-01-01

232

How many golf balls would it take to circle the Earth at the equator?*  

E-print Network

Fore! 3.2 How many golf balls would it take to circle the Earth at the equator?* *Thanks to Tom the distance from NY to LA. You can fly that distance in 6 hours. HINT: What's the diameter of a golf ball, recording, or #12;Fore! 3.2 How many golf balls would it take to circle the Earth at the equator?* ANSWER

Landweber, Laura

233

Subsurface Ice Probe  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The subsurface ice probe (SIPR) is a proposed apparatus that would bore into ice to depths as great as hundreds of meters by melting the ice and pumping the samples of meltwater to the surface. Originally intended for use in exploration of subsurface ice on Mars and other remote planets, the SIPR could also be used on Earth as an alternative to coring, drilling, and melting apparatuses heretofore used to sample Arctic and Antarctic ice sheets. The SIPR would include an assembly of instrumentation and electronic control equipment at the surface, connected via a tether to a compact assembly of boring, sampling, and sensor equipment in the borehole (see figure). Placing as much equipment as possible at the surface would help to attain primary objectives of minimizing power consumption, sampling with high depth resolution, and unobstructed imaging of the borehole wall. To the degree to which these requirements would be satisfied, the SIPR would offer advantages over the aforementioned ice-probing systems.

Hecht, Michael; Carsey, Frank

2005-01-01

234

, 20120999, published online 8 January 201392013Biol. Lett. Kyriacos Kareklas, Daniel Nettle and Tom V. Smulders  

E-print Network

http://rsbl.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/suppl/2013/01/07/rsbl.2012.0999.DC2.ht "Video Podcast and Tom V. Smulders Centre for Behaviour and Evolution, Institute of Neuroscience, Newcastle University

Meyers, Ron

235

ISS Update: Orion Recovery and Rescue Lead Tom Walker - Duration: 5:03.  

NASA Video Gallery

NASA Public Affairs Officer Brandi Dean talks with Tom Walker, Orion Recovery and Rescue Lead, about how the Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL) is being used to train rescue and recovery personnel f...

236

33 CFR 80.170 - Sandy Hook, NJ to Tom's River, NJ.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... Atlantic Coast § 80.170 Sandy Hook, NJ to Tom's River, NJ. (a) A line drawn from Shark River Inlet North Breakwater Light 2 to Shark River Inlet South Breakwater Light 1. (b) A line drawn from Manasquan Inlet North...

2014-07-01

237

33 CFR 80.170 - Sandy Hook, NJ to Tom's River, NJ.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Atlantic Coast § 80.170 Sandy Hook, NJ to Tom's River, NJ. (a) A line drawn from Shark River Inlet North Breakwater Light 2 to Shark River Inlet South Breakwater Light 1. (b) A line drawn from Manasquan Inlet North...

2011-07-01

238

33 CFR 80.170 - Sandy Hook, NJ to Tom's River, NJ.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Atlantic Coast § 80.170 Sandy Hook, NJ to Tom's River, NJ. (a) A line drawn from Shark River Inlet North Breakwater Light 2 to Shark River Inlet South Breakwater Light 1. (b) A line drawn from Manasquan Inlet North...

2013-07-01

239

33 CFR 80.170 - Sandy Hook, NJ to Tom's River, NJ.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Atlantic Coast § 80.170 Sandy Hook, NJ to Tom's River, NJ. (a) A line drawn from Shark River Inlet North Breakwater Light 2 to Shark River Inlet South Breakwater Light 1. (b) A line drawn from Manasquan Inlet North...

2012-07-01

240

33 CFR 80.170 - Sandy Hook, NJ to Tom's River, NJ.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Atlantic Coast § 80.170 Sandy Hook, NJ to Tom's River, NJ. (a) A line drawn from Shark River Inlet North Breakwater Light 2 to Shark River Inlet South Breakwater Light 1. (b) A line drawn from Manasquan Inlet North...

2010-07-01

241

Mathematical Methods for Curves and Surfaces: Oslo 2000 Tom Lyche and Larry Schumaker, eds.  

E-print Network

Mathematical Methods for Curves and Surfaces: Oslo 2000 Tom Lyche and Larry A. Crampton, J. C. Mason, and D. A. Turner . . . . . . . . . . 63 Subdivision Surfaces in Feature Films Tony D. DeRose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 A 4-Point Hermite

Schumaker, Larry

242

Version 8 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) Algorithm Charles G. Wellemeyer1  

E-print Network

things, the Version 8 enhancements have reduced latitudinal dependence seen previously in the TOMS Dobson, inter-annual variability and long-term trends are minimally influenced by the algorithm, thus any

243

January 10, 2014School of Environmental & Forest Sciences Tom DeLuca Prof & Director/Chair  

E-print Network

January 10, 2014School of Environmental & Forest Sciences Tom DeLuca Prof & Director/Chair ALLAN Payroll Coordinator Bioresource Science & Engineering Forest Ecology Forest Soils Restoration Ecology & Environmental Hort Social Sciences Sustainable Resource Management

Borenstein, Elhanan

244

Earth's Seasons  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A computer animation on the reason for the seasons. Voice-over describes the motion of Earth around the sun to show how the sun's light impacts the tilted Earth at different times of the year, causing seasonal changes.

Rochester Museum and Science Center, Strasenburgh Planetarium

245

Google Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Google Earth has gone underwater with this latest iteration of their popular Earth-roaming application. Along with traveling the usual roads provided by previous versions of Google Earth, visitors can now visit the bottom of the Mariana Trench, learn about ocean observations, and even discover new places to surf and dive. On the Google Earth homepage, visitors can take a guided tour of all these new features. This version is compatible with all operating systems.

2009-01-01

246

Earth Calendar  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This handout lists major events in Earth history with approximate ages (in millions of years before present). The calendar date is determined by setting midnight, January 1, to correspond with the formation of the Earth, and setting the following midnight, December 31, to correspond to the present. Thus, the entire history of the Earth is displayed as a single calendar year.

Jeffrey Barker

247

Edible Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners make a model of the solid Earth's layers that's good enough to eat! Learners use tasty foodstuffs to simulate Earth's inner core, outer core, mantle, and crust. The recipe includes ingredients for one edible Earth, but can be doubled or tripled to accommodate groups of learners. This activity requires adult supervision.

American Museum of Natural History

2011-08-20

248

Earth's Layers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Complete a poster all about Earth's Layers! Directions: Make a poster about Earth's Layers. (20 points) Include at least (1) large picture (15 points) on your poster complete with labels of every part (10 points). (15 points) Include at least three (3) facts about Earth's Layers. (5 points each) (15 points) Write at least a three sentence summary of your poster ...

Mrs. Walls

2011-01-30

249

Snowball Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Audio program from the University of Wisconsin's Earthwatch Radio discusses the notion of the entire planet covered with ice. Doug Macdougall is an earth scientist at the University of California-San Diego and author of a new book called "Frozen Earth." He says the planet-wide freeze is known as "Snowball Earth."

250

Earth Changes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These activities give students a hands-on feeling for the relationships between the Earth's structural layers and aid them in understanding the world around them. They will be able to identify (by modeling) the Earth's structure (core, mantle and crust) and also (by experiment and demonstration) the forces within the Earth that cause constant changes on the surface (earthquakes).

1998-01-01

251

Planet Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For those interested in a global view of the weather, Planet Earth is a "real-time 3-D model of the Earth with continuously updating night shadows and clouds." Cloud images are provided by the University of Wisconsin-Madison Space Science and Engineering Center. Planet Earth is shareware with a fee of $29.95.

252

Gravity Probe B Encapsulated  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this photo, the Gravity Probe B (GP-B) space vehicle is being encapsulated atop the Delta II launch vehicle. The GP-B is the relativity experiment developed at Stanford University to test two extraordinary predictions of Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity. The experiment will measure, very precisely, the expected tiny changes in the direction of the spin axes of four gyroscopes contained in an Earth-orbiting satellite at a 400-mile altitude. So free are the gyroscopes from disturbance that they will provide an almost perfect space-time reference system. They will measure how space and time are very slightly warped by the presence of the Earth, and, more profoundly, how the Earth's rotation very slightly drags space-time around with it. These effects, though small for the Earth, have far-reaching implications for the nature of matter and the structure of the Universe. GP-B is among the most thoroughly researched programs ever undertaken by NASA. This is the story of a scientific quest in which physicists and engineers have collaborated closely over many years. Inspired by their quest, they have invented a whole range of technologies that are already enlivening other branches of science and engineering. Launched April 20, 2004 , the GP-B program was managed for NASA by the Marshall Space Flight Center. Development of the GP-B is the responsibility of Stanford University along with major subcontractor Lockheed Martin Corporation. (Image credit to Russ Underwood, Lockheed Martin Corporation).

2004-01-01

253

Optical probe  

DOEpatents

A compact optical probe is disclosed particularly useful for analysis of emissions in industrial environments. The instant invention provides a geometry for optically-based measurements that allows all optical components (source, detector, rely optics, etc.) to be located in proximity to one another. The geometry of the probe disclosed herein provides a means for making optical measurements in environments where it is difficult and/or expensive to gain access to the vicinity of a flow stream to be measured. Significantly, the lens geometry of the optical probe allows the analysis location within a flow stream being monitored to be moved while maintaining optical alignment of all components even when the optical probe is focused on a plurality of different analysis points within the flow stream.

Hencken, Kenneth (Pleasanton, CA); Flower, William L. (Livermore, CA)

1999-01-01

254

Novel TPR-containing subunit of TOM complex functions as cytosolic receptor for Entamoeba mitosomal transport  

PubMed Central

Under anaerobic environments, the mitochondria have undergone remarkable reduction and transformation into highly reduced structures, referred as mitochondrion-related organelles (MROs), which include mitosomes and hydrogenosomes. In agreement with the concept of reductive evolution, mitosomes of Entamoeba histolytica lack most of the components of the TOM (translocase of the outer mitochondrial membrane) complex, which is required for the targeting and membrane translocation of preproteins into the canonical aerobic mitochondria. Here we showed, in E. histolytica mitosomes, the presence of a 600-kDa TOM complex composed of Tom40, a conserved pore-forming subunit, and Tom60, a novel lineage-specific receptor protein. Tom60, containing multiple tetratricopeptide repeats, is localized to the mitosomal outer membrane and the cytosol, and serves as a receptor of both mitosomal matrix and membrane preproteins. Our data indicate that Entamoeba has invented a novel lineage-specific shuttle receptor of the TOM complex as a consequence of adaptation to an anaerobic environment. PMID:23350036

Makiuchi, Takashi; Mi-ichi, Fumika; Nakada-Tsukui, Kumiko; Nozaki, Tomoyoshi

2013-01-01

255

Highlights of the Version 8 SBUV and TOMS Datasets Released at this Symposium  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Last October was the 25th anniversary of the launch of the SBUV and TOMS instruments on NASA's Nimbus-7 satellite. Total Ozone and ozone profile datasets produced by these and following instruments have produced a quarter century long record. Over time we have released several versions of these datasets to incorporate advances in UV radiative transfer, inverse modeling, and instrument characterization. In this meeting we are releasing datasets produced from the version 8 algorithms. They replace the previous versions (V6 SBUV, and V7 TOMS) released about a decade ago. About a dozen companion papers in this meeting provide details of the new algorithms and intercomparison of the new data with external data. In this paper we present key features of the new algorithm, and discuss how the new results differ from those released previously. We show that the new datasets have better internal consistency and also agree better with external datasets. A key feature of the V8 SBUV algorithm is that the climatology has no influence on inter-annual variability and trends; it only affects the mean values and, to a limited extent, the seasonal dependence. By contrast, climatology does have some influence on TOMS total O3 trends, particularly at large solar zenith angles. For this reason, and also because TOMS record has gaps, md EP/TOMS is suffering from data quality problems, we recommend using SBUV total ozone data for applications where the high spatial resolution of TOMS is not essential.

Bhartia, Pawan K.; McPeters, Richard D.; Flynn, Lawrence E.; Wellemeyer, Charles G.

2004-01-01

256

Straight talk with... Tom Inglesby. Interview by Kevin Jiang.  

PubMed

When letters containing anthrax spores were mailed to several US senators and media offices in September 2001, just one week after the 9/11 attacks, bioterrorism catapulted to the national stage. Political leaders and public health officials, desperate for guidance on this once-theoretical scenario, turned to experts including Tom Inglesby, then deputy director of the Johns Hopkins Center for Civilian Biodefense Strategies, a bioterrorism research and analysis think tank in Baltimore. In the years that followed, Inglesby and his colleagues ran exercises to simulate bioterror incidents, established a peer-reviewed journal on biodefense and advised government agencies on how to reduce the public health impact of biological threats.Today, he continues his work with the think tank, which moved to the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center (UPMC) in 2003 (although it stayed headquartered in Baltimore) and which was recently renamed the UPMC Center for Health Security. As director and chief executive officer for the past four years, Inglesby has expanded the center's focus toward preventing public health crises arising from infectious diseases, pandemics and major natural disasters, in addition to biological, chemical and nuclear accidents or threats. Inglesby spoke with Kevin Jiang about how responses to bioterrorism, pandemics and natural disasters aren't all that different. PMID:23744137

Inglesby, Tom

2013-06-01

257

Nuclear magnetic resonance in rare earth metals  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes the study, by nuclear magnetic resonance, of both static and dynamical aspects of the hyperfine interaction in rare earth metals, and illustrates the categories of information that can be obtained by using nuclei as microscopic probes in metallic media. The systems discussed include not only the pure rare earth metals but also their alloys and their metallic

M. A. H. McCausland; I. S. Mackenzie

1979-01-01

258

Tom7 modulates the dynamics of the mitochondrial outer membrane translocase and plays a pathway-related role in protein import.  

PubMed Central

The preprotein translocase of the outer mitochondrial membrane is a multi-subunit complex with receptors and a general import pore. We report the molecular identification of Tom7, a small subunit of the translocase that behaves as an integral membrane protein. The deletion of TOM7 inhibited the mitochondrial import of the outer membrane protein porin, whereas the import of preproteins destined for the mitochondrial interior was impaired only slightly. However, protein import into the mitochondrial interior was strongly inhibited when it occurred in two steps: preprotein accumulation at the outer membrane in the absence of a membrane potential and subsequent further import after the re-establishment of a membrane potential. The delay of protein import into tom7delta mitochondria seemed to occur after the binding of preproteins to the outer membrane receptor sites. A lack of Tom7 stabilized the interaction between the receptors Tom20 and Tom22 and the import pore component Tom40. This indicated that Tom7 exerts a destabilizing effect on part of the outer membrane translocase, whereas Tom6 stabilizes the interaction between the receptors and the import pore. Synthetic growth defects of the double mutants tom7delta tom20delta and tom7delta tom6delta provided genetic evidence for the functional relationship of Tom7 with Tom20 and Tom6. These results suggest that (i) Tom7 plays a role in sorting and accumulation of the preproteins at the outer membrane, and (ii) Tom7 and Tom6 perform complementary functions in modulating the dynamics of the outer membrane translocase. Images PMID:8641278

Hönlinger, A; Bömer, U; Alconada, A; Eckerskorn, C; Lottspeich, F; Dietmeier, K; Pfanner, N

1996-01-01

259

Traffic dynamics in empirical probe vehicle data studied with three-phase theory: Spatiotemporal reconstruction of traffic phases and generation of jam warning messages  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Empirical and theoretical analyses of the spatiotemporal dynamics of traffic flow reconstructed from randomly distributed probe vehicle data are presented. For the empirical analysis, probe vehicle data generated by TomTom’s navigation devices in the commercial TomTom’s HD-traffic service as well as road detector data measured at the same road section are used. A stochastic microscopic (car-following) three-phase model is further developed for simulations of a real empirical complex spatiotemporal traffic dynamics measured over a three-lane long road stretch with several different bottlenecks. Physical features and limitations of simulations of real spatiotemporal traffic dynamics are revealed. Phase transition points between free flow (F), synchronized flow (S), and wide moving jam (J) are identified along trajectories of empirical and simulated probe vehicles randomly distributed in traffic flow. As predicted by three-phase theory, the empirical probe vehicle data shows that traffic breakdown is an F?S transition and wide moving jams emerge only in synchronized flow, i.e., due to S?J transitions. Through the use of the simulations, it has been found that already about 2% of probe vehicle data allows us to reconstruct traffic dynamics in space and time with an accuracy that is high enough for most applications like the generation of jam warning messages studied in the article.

Kerner, Boris S.; Rehborn, Hubert; Schäfer, Ralf-Peter; Klenov, Sergey L.; Palmer, Jochen; Lorkowski, Stefan; Witte, Nikolaus

2013-01-01

260

Earth orbiting technologies for understanding global change  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper considers the technology requirements needed to support the Mission to Planet Earth concept, which will consist of several sun synchronous polar platforms; a series of low-earth orbit equatorial missions, such as Space Shuttle payloads, Space-Station-attached payloads, and the Explorer-class Earth Probes; and five geostationary platforms. In particular, the technology requirements in the areas of space-based observation, data/information, and spacecraft operation are examined.

Harris, Leonard A.; Johnston, Gordon I.; Hudson, Wayne R.; Couch, Lana M.

1989-01-01

261

Discover Earth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Discover Earth is a NASA-sponsored project for teachers of grades 5-12, designed to: (1) enhance understanding of the Earth as an integrated system; (2) enhance the interdisciplinary approach to science instruction; and (3) provide classroom materials that focus on those goals. Discover Earth is conducted by the Institute for Global Environmental Strategies in collaboration with Dr. Eric Barron, Director, Earth System Science Center, The Pennsylvania State University; and Dr. Robert Hudson, Chair, the Department of Meteorology, University of Maryland at College Park. The enclosed materials: (1) represent only part of the Discover Earth materials; (2) were developed by classroom teachers who are participating in the Discover Earth project; (3) utilize an investigative approach and on-line data; and (4) can be effectively adjusted to classrooms with greater/without technology access. The Discover Earth classroom materials focus on the Earth system and key issues of global climate change including topics such as the greenhouse effect, clouds and Earth's radiation balance, surface hydrology and land cover, and volcanoes and climate change. All the materials developed to date are available on line at (http://www.strategies.org) You are encouraged to submit comments and recommendations about these materials to the Discover Earth project manager, contact information is listed below. You are welcome to duplicate all these materials.

Steele, Colleen

1998-01-01

262

The 1987 Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment: the Nimbus-7 TOMS Data Atlas  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Total ozone data taken by the Nimbus-7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) played a central role in the successful outcome of the 1987 Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment. The near-real-time TOMS total ozone observations were suppled within hours of real time to the operations center in Punta Arenas, Chile, over a telecommunications network designed specifically for this purpose. The TOMS data preparation and method of transfer over the telecommunications links are reviewed. This atlas includes a complete set of the near-real-time TOMS orbital overpass data over regions around the Palmer Peninsula of Antarctica for the period of August 8 through September 29, 1987. Also provided are daily polar orthographic projections of TOMS total ozone measurements over the Southern Hemisphere from August through November 1987. In addition, a chronology of the salient points of the experiment, along with some latitudinal cross sections and time series at locations of interest of the TOMS total ozone observations are presented. The TOMS total ozone measurements are evaluated along the flight tracks of each of the ER-2 and DC-8 missions during the experiment. The ozone hole is shown here to develop in a monotonic progression throughout late August and September. The minimum total ozone amount was found on 5 October, when its all-time lowest value of 109 DU is recorded. The hole remains well defined, but fills gradually from mid-October through mid-November. The hole's dissolution is observed here to begin in mid-November, when it elongates and begins to rotate. By the end of November, the south pole is no longer located within the ozone hole.

Krueger, Arlin J.; Ardanuy, Philip E.; Sechrist, Frank S.; Penn, Lanning M.; Larko, David E.; Doiron, Scott D.; Galimore, Reginald N.

1988-01-01

263

Results from SIM's thermo-opto-mechanical (TOM3) testbed  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Future space-based optical interferometers, such as the Space Interferometer Mission Planet Quest (SIM), require thermal stability of the optical wavefront to the level of picometers in order to produce astrometric data at the micro-arc-second level. In SIM, the internal path of the interferometer will be measured with a small metrology beam whereas the starlight fringe position is estimated from a large concentric annular beam. To achieve the micro-arc-second observation goal for SIM, it is necessary to maintain the optical path difference between the central and the outer annulus portions of the wavefront of the front-end telescope optics to a few tens of picometers. The Thermo-Opto-Mechanical testbed (TOM3) was developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory to measure thermally induced optical deformations of a full-size flight-like beam compressor and siderostat, the two largest optics on SIM, in flight-like thermal environments. A Common Path Heterodyne Interferometer (COPHI) developed at JPL was used for the fine optical path difference measurement as the metrology sensor. The system was integrated inside a large vacuum chamber in order to mitigate the atmospheric and thermal disturbances. The siderostat was installed in a temperature-controlled thermal shroud inside the vacuum chamber, creating a flight-like thermal environment. Detailed thermal and structural models of the test articles (siderostat and compressor) were also developed for model prediction and correlation of the thermal deformations. Experimental data shows SIM required thermal stability of the test articles and good agreement with the model predictions.

Goullioud, R.; Lindensmith, C. A.; Hahn, I.

2006-06-01

264

Jetsam: Exposing our Everyday Discarded Objects Eric Paulos Tom Jenkins  

E-print Network

neighbors. As we traverse our city we share time and space with others. As we idle awaiting a bus that is the inspiration for Jetsam ­ the result of an Urban Probe focused on public city trashcans. Just of usage perhaps near a public city trashcan that can reveal a larger story of the place and people

Paulos, Eric

265

Dynamic Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Dynamic Earth consists of four sections and an assessment. Each section explores one aspect of the earth's structure and the movement of its tectonic plates. Simply follow the instructions on the screen to learn about the layers that make up the earth; how the continents arrived at their current locations; the constant movement of the tectonic plates; and the volcanoes, earthquakes, and other events that result from the movements of the plates. Students will view animations, read explanations, and use their mouse to drag and drop the earth's continents in their correct places, highlight features on a map, and cause earth's tectonic plates to move. At various points, students will check their knowledge by taking a quick quiz or playing a game to see how much they have learned about the Dynamic Earth. Students should read section introductions carefully, as they give a basic overview of concepts, and use the Glossary to look up definitions to unfamiliar terms.

Ashlinn Quinn

2007-01-01

266

Syllabus ESM 203 -Earth System Science for Environmental Management Fall 2010 Lecture Date Lecture Topic Lecturer Readings Section  

E-print Network

Tu Climate dynamics ­ the data record Jeff Crowley 2000 19 2-Dec Th The end of Earth System Science Tom Milly et al. 2008; Gardner & Schulman 2005 12/03/10- 12/07/10 Weekend Lab Exercise #1 Final Exercise #2 Lab Exercise #3 Lab Exercise #4 Review week #12;

California at Santa Barbara, University of

267

CREATION OF PATHOGEN MIMETICS AS NOVEL DRUG DELIVERY PLATFORMS Tom Bongiorno, University of Notre Dame, SURF 2010 Fellow  

E-print Network

CREATION OF PATHOGEN MIMETICS AS NOVEL DRUG DELIVERY PLATFORMS Tom Bongiorno, University of Notre phagocytosis of antibody-coated polystyrene microspheres, which served as pathogen mimetics. Although part

Li, Mo

268

The Pro-Apoptotic BH3-Only Protein Bim Interacts with Components of the Translocase of the Outer Mitochondrial Membrane (TOM)  

PubMed Central

The pro-apoptotic Bcl-2-family protein Bim belongs to the BH3-only proteins known as initiators of apoptosis. Recent data show that Bim is constitutively inserted in the outer mitochondrial membrane via a C-terminal transmembrane anchor from where it can activate the effector of cytochrome c-release, Bax. To identify regulators of Bim-activity, we conducted a search for proteins interacting with Bim at mitochondria. We found an interaction of Bim with Tom70, Tom20 and more weakly with Tom40, all components of the Translocase of the Outer Membrane (TOM). In vitro import assays performed on tryptically digested yeast mitochondria showed reduced Bim insertion into the outer mitochondrial membrane (OMM) indicating that protein receptors may be involved in the import process. However, RNAi against components of TOM (Tom40, Tom70, Tom22 or Tom20) by siRNA, individually or in combination, did not consistently change the amount of Bim on HeLa mitochondria, either at steady state or upon de novo-induction. In support of this, the individual or combined knock-downs of TOM receptors also failed to alter the susceptibility of HeLa cells to Bim-induced apoptosis. In isolated yeast mitochondria, lack of Tom70 or the TOM-components Tom20 or Tom22 alone did not affect the import of Bim into the outer mitochondrial membrane. In yeast, expression of Bim can sensitize the cells to Bax-dependent killing. This sensitization was unaffected by the absence of Tom70 or by an experimental reduction in Tom40. Although thus the physiological role of the Bim-TOM-interaction remains unclear, TOM complex components do not seem to be essential for Bim insertion into the OMM. Nevertheless, this association should be noted and considered when the regulation of Bim in other cells and situations is investigated. PMID:25875815

Frank, Daniel O.; Dengjel, Jörn; Wilfling, Florian; Kozjak-Pavlovic, Vera; Häcker, Georg; Weber, Arnim

2015-01-01

269

Earth Floor  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Classroom of the Future (COTF) website highlights information about the Earth and its development through time. Spheres discusses layers of the Earth's environment such as the hydrosphere, Cycles discusses rock and water cycles, and Diversity illustrates different species and genetic variations that have emerged on Earth. Also covered are biomes, adaptation, geologic time, and plate tectonics. Each of these sections is an in-depth tutorial on these specific topics.

270

Celebrate Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Earth is truly something to celebrate! Click on the links below and have some fun! Click on the link to send you to a fun website created just for kids like you! Now go celebrate the earth! Kids for Saving Earth Enjoy these other activities as well! Go recycling! A is for Air Discover what all of the letters of the alphabet can stand for! video Get on ...

Mrs. Rokes

2009-04-23

271

Earth's Interior  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website contains class notes from a Geology 101 (physical geology) course. It discusses the composition and structure of the Earth's interior. Each layer, the inner core, outer core, mantle, and crust, is covered. Details about each layer explain their composition, temperature, depth, and state. Also covered is how scientists discovered what the interior of the Earth is made of through the use of seismic waves, plate tectonics, and the Earth's magnetic field.

John Louie

272

Earth Island  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Earth Island Web site is maintained by the Earth Island Institute (EII). EII also publishes the Earth Island Journal quarterly. The current issue of the journal can be browsed by section or by subject, and offers current news, world reports, and feature articles on a wide range of environmental subject areas. Earth Island also undertakes a number of projects that are discussed at the site as well as in a portion of the journal. The entire site is searchable. This is an excellent site for those interested in keeping up on environmental issues.

273

Earth Force  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"Earth Force engages young people as active citizens who improve the environment and their communities now and in the future." Educators can learn about Earth Force's three programs: Community Action and Problem solving (CAPS), the Global Rivers Environmental Education Network (GREEN), and Earth Force After School. Users can discover students' many accomplishments such as creating reusable fabric grocery bags, recycling cell phones and ink cartridges to earn money, and cleaning up litter. The Tools for Teachers section offers evaluation results, a quality rubric, and a description of the six-step Earth Force community action and problem-solving process.

274

For more information, contact Tom Mason (303) 492-8257  

E-print Network

at the Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics for our next public lecture Riding a rocket into space Earth from orbit--how can I possibly describe space flight? LASP holds a special place in my heart, first- hand, in some of the most exciting space research available anywhere. My time at LASP was filled

Mojzsis, Stephen J.

275

Cooperation of TOM and TIM23 Complexes during Translocation of Proteins into Mitochondria.  

PubMed

Translocation of the majority of mitochondrial proteins from the cytosol into mitochondria requires the cooperation of TOM and TIM23 complexes in the outer and inner mitochondrial membranes. The molecular mechanisms underlying this cooperation remain largely unknown. Here, we present biochemical and genetic evidence that at least two contacts from the side of the TIM23 complex play an important role in TOM-TIM23 cooperation in vivo. Tim50, likely through its very C-terminal segment, interacts with Tom22. This interaction is stimulated by translocating proteins and is independent of any other TOM-TIM23 contact known so far. Furthermore, the exposure of Tim23 on the mitochondrial surface depends not only on its interaction with Tim50 but also on the dynamics of the TOM complex. Destabilization of the individual contacts reduces the efficiency of import of proteins into mitochondria and destabilization of both contacts simultaneously is not tolerated by yeast cells. We conclude that an intricate and coordinated network of protein-protein interactions involving primarily Tim50 and also Tim23 is required for efficient translocation of proteins across both mitochondrial membranes. PMID:25083920

Waegemann, Karin; Popov-?eleketi?, Dušan; Neupert, Walter; Azem, Abdussalam; Mokranjac, Dejana

2015-03-13

276

An Expanded UV Irradiance Database from TOMS Including the Effects of Ozone, Clouds, and Aerosol Attenuation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The TOMS UV irradiance database (1978 to 2003) has been expanded to include five new products (noon irradiance at 305,310,324, and 380 nm, and noon erythemal-weighted irradiance), in addition to the existing erythemal daily exposure, that permit direct comparisons with ground-based measurements from spectrometers and broadband instruments. The new data are available on http://toms.gsfc.nasa.gov/>http://toms.gsfc.nasa.gov. Comparisons of the TOMS estimated irradiances with ground-based instruments are given along with a review of the sources of known errors, especially the recent improvements in accounting for aerosol attenuation. Trend estimations from the new TOMS irradiances permit the clear separation of changes caused by ozone and those caused by aerosols and clouds. Systematic differences in cloud cover are shown to be the most important factor in determining regional differences in UV radiation reaching the ground for locations at the same latitude (e.g., the summertime differences between Australia and the US southwest).

Herman, J.; Krotkov, N.

2003-01-01

277

TOMS total ozone data compared with northern latitude Dobson ground stations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ozone measurements from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer on the Nimbus 7 satellite are compared with ground-based measurements from five Dobson stations at northern latitudes to evaluate the accuracy of the TOMS data, particularly in regions north of 50 deg N. The measurements from the individual stations show mean differences from -2.5 percent up to plus 8.3 percent relative to TOMS measurements and two of the ground stations, Oslo and Longyearbyen, show a significant drift of plus 1.2 percent and plus 3.7 percent per year, respectively. It can be shown from nearly simultaneous measurements in two different wavelength double pairs at Oslo that at least 2 percent of the differences result from the use of the CC' wavelength double pair instead of the standard AD wavelength double pair. Since all Norwegian stations used the CC' wavelength double pair exclusively a similar error can be assumed for Tromso and Longyearbyren. A comparison between the tropospheric ozone content in TOMS data and from ECC ozonesonde measurements at Ny-Alesund and Bear Island shows that the amount of tropospheric ozone in the standard profiles used in the TOMS algorithm is too low, which leads to an error of about 2 percent in total ozone. Particularly at high solar zenith angles (greater than 80 deg), Dobson measurements become unreliable. They are up to 20 percent lower than TOMS measurements averaged over solar zenith angles of 88 deg to 89 deg.

Heese, B.; Barthel, K.; Hov, O.

1994-01-01

278

Edge probes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The first probe measurements of the edge properties of the new large tokamaks, TFTR and JET, have recently been reported. These data are used to compare the basic properties of the scrape-off layers, SOLs, in these devices with those of smaller tokamaks. It is found that the SOLs in the large tokamaks are approaching the condition where distributed-processes, such as parallel-field Te- gradients, ionization re-cycle, impurity radiation cooling, etc., are beginning to play a role, in contrast with the sheath-dominated SOL which is more typical of smaller devices. Achievement of such distributed process SOLs will be desirable for reducing the limiter heat load and sputtering. An example is provided of the use of edge probe data taken on JET, in conjunction with spectroscopic measurements of impurity influxes, to deduce central impurity levels, Zeff, etc. Probe innovations are described which should permit probe operation in the long-pulse, high power discharges associated with break-even experiments. Predictions from a simple model relating edge density to central density, and particle confinement time to central density are compared with experimental results.

Stangeby, P. C.

1987-02-01

279

Pollution Probe.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book is written as a statement of concern about pollution by members of Pollution Probe, a citizens' anti-pollution group in Canada. Its purpose is to create public awareness and pressure for the eventual solution to pollution problems. The need for effective government policies to control the population explosion, conserve natural resources,…

Chant, Donald A.

280

Moon Probe  

E-print Network

launched something a good deal larger than a potato: Chang 'e 1, a moon probe named for the Chinese goddess of the moon. At a cost of 1.4 billion Yuan--or $175 million dollars--it seems lunacy to spend this sum on this celestial body. What with skies dim...

Hacker, Randi; Tsutsui, William

2007-11-26

281

Earth Day  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

On April 22, 2005, people around the world will celebrate the 35th anniversary of Earth Day. This Topic in Depth focuses on the past and present of this significant day. From the Wisconsin Historical Society, the first two sites contain historical documents pertaining to Earth Day. The first (1) document features a May 1970 issue of The Gaylord Nelson Newsletter reporting on the first Earth Day. The second (2) document is a speech by Nelson entitled "An Environmental Agenda for the 70's." Housed in the archives of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) website, the next two sites also contain historical documents. The first (3) site contains an article written by Nelson for the EPA Journal in April of 1980, entitled "Earth Day '70: What It Meant." The second (4) site contains an article written by John C. Whitaker (former Interior undersecretary in the Nixon administration) for the EPA Journal in the summer of 1998. The article is entitled "Earth Day Recollections: What It Was Like When the Movement Took Off." The (5) Earth Day Network (first mentioned in the April 4, 2003, Scout Report for Life Sciences) works "to broaden the environmental movement worldwide and to educate and mobilize people, governments, and corporations to take responsibility for a clean and healthy environment." In addition to information sections about Ongoing Programs, Current Campaigns, and News, the Earth Day Network website contains Earth Day 2005 Materials for organizers. From EarthDay.gov, Take Action In Your Classroom (6) offers links to a variety of environmental education resources. The next website, from the U.S. Army Environmental Center, presents (7) Army Earth Day; and links to information about the Army's environmental activities. The final (8) site is an Earth Day-inspired educational website (first reported on in the April 14, 1999 Scout Report for Science & Engineering) from the Wilderness Society. The site offers a collection of environmental education resources for teachers and students. [NL

282

The Sounds of Earth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Flying board Voyagers 1 and 2 are identical 'golden' records, carrying the story of Earth far into deep space. The 12 inch gold-plated copper discs contain greetings in 60 languages, samples of music from different cultures and eras, and natural and man-made sounds from Earth. They also contain electronic information that an advanced technological civilization could convert into diagrams and photographs. The cover of each gold plated aluminum jacket, designed to protect the record from micrometeorite bombardment, also serves a double purpose in providing the finder a key to playing the record. The explanatory diagram appears on both the inner and outer surfaces of the cover, as the outer diagram will be eroded in time. Currently, both Voyager probes are sailing adrift in the black sea of interplanetary space, having left our solar system years ago.

1977-01-01

283

Sun-Earth Connection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

One of three divisions within the Office of Space Science at NASA, the Sun-Earth Connection has the primary goal of understanding the Sun, Heliosphere, and planetary environments as a single connected system. The Web site offers visitors information on space science missions including the Living with a Star and Solar Terrestrial Probes mission. Meeting notes and official reports can be viewed online, including the Sun Earth Connection 2002 Strategic Plan. Other items of interest include information on the science and technology behind the missions, education and news links, and more. One highlight of the site is the image gallery that includes some of the most incredible photos and illustrations of the sun that are available online.

2007-12-12

284

Rainbow Earth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The environment is a great concern in the 1990s, and everyone needs to work at maintaining our planet. The 1992 Arizona State Library Reading Program, "Rainbow Earth," provides children with many techniques they can use to help the Earth. This reading program guide provides information on the following: goals, objectives, and evaluation; getting…

Arizona State Dept. of Library and Archives, Phoenix.

285

Earth tides  

SciTech Connect

Nineteen papers on gravity, tilt, and strain tides are compiled into this volume. Detailed chapters cover the calculation of the tidal forces and of the Earth's response to them, as well as actual observations of earth tides. Partial Contents: On Earth tides. The tidal forces: Tidal Forces. New Computations of the Tide-Generating Potential. Corrected Tables of Tidal Harmonics. The Theory of Tidal Deformations. Body Tides on an Elliptical, Rotating, Elastic and Oceanless Earth, Deformation of the Earth by Surface Loads. Gravimetric Tidal Loading Computed from Integrated Green's Functions. Tidal Friction in the Solid Earth. Loading Tides Versus Body Tides. Lunar Tidal Acceleration from Earth Satellite Orbit Analysis. Observations: gravity. Tidal Gravity in Britain: Tidal Loading and the Spatial Distribution of the Marine Tide. Tidal Loading along a Profile Europe-East Africa-South Asia-Australia and the Pacific Ocean. Detailed Gravity-Tide Spectrum between One and Four Cycles per Day. Observations: tilt and strain. Cavity and Topographic Effects in Tilt and Strain Measurement. Observations of Local Elastic Effects on Earth Tide Tilts and Strains.

Harrison, J.C.

1984-01-01

286

Earth Impact  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity poses the question: What would happen if a meteor or comet impacted Earth? Students simulate an impact in a container of sand using various-sized rocks, all while measuring, recording and graphing results and conclusions. Then students brainstorm ways to prevent an object from hitting the Earth.

Integrated Teaching and Learning Program,

287

146 Earth Science 147 Earth Science  

E-print Network

146 Earth Science 147 Earth Science ESCI 101 The Earth or ESCI 102 Evolution of the Earth or ESCI 107 Oceans and Global Change or ESCI 108 Crises of the Earth ESCI 105 Introductory Lab for Earth Geophysics I ESCI 444 Exploration Geophysics II or ESCI 446 Solid Earth Geophysics Math and Other Sciences

Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

288

An Initial Comparison of Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) TotalAn Initial Comparison of Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) Total OzoneOzone with EP/TOMS, SBUV/2, and Ground Stationswith EP/TOMS, SBUV/2, and Ground Stations  

E-print Network

An Initial Comparison of Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) TotalAn Initial Comparison of Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) Total OzoneOzone with EP/TOMS, SBUV/2, and Ground Stationswith EP/TOMS, SBUV/2 Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD USA * ahn@chescat.gsfc.nasa.gov [OMI - EPTOMS] A33A-0139 Total

289

The Application of TOMS Ozone, Aerosol and UV-B Data to Madagascar Air Quality Determination  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) data products for the area of Madagascar are presented. In addition to total ozone, aerosols and UV-B tropospheric ozone results are shown from 1979 to the present. Tropospheric ozone over Africa and Madagascar is enhanced by 10 to 15 DU in October. This maximum coincides with the time of maximum biomass area burning in Africa and Madagascar. Ozone observations were made from 1979 to 1999 using the TOMS tropospheric ozone convective cloud differential method. As a result of easterly trade winds, ozone originating on Madagascar is transported to the west over the Mozambique Channel. In El Nino years higher level westerly winds descend to transport low level ozone easterly. This results in African continental ozone being transported east of Madagascar. Long range transport of African ozone is observed during El Nino periods. The potential of TOMS and other space data for use in public education and research on Madagascar air quality is demonstrated.

Aikin, A.C.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

290

The 1989 Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition Nimbus-7 TOMS data atlas  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Over the past several years, world scientific attention was focused on the rapid and unanticipated decrease in the abundance of ozone over Antarctica during the Austral spring. A major aircraft campaign was conducted from December 1988 to February 1989 in response to the recently published Ozone Trends Panel Report which found that the largest decreases in Arctic ozone occurred during January to February at latitudes near the edge of the Arctic vortex. This atlas provides a complete set of TOMS ozone measurements over Europe and the North Atlantic for the duration of the experiment. These were the orbital TOMS measurements provided to the experimenters in near-real-time. In addition, a set of Northern Hemisphere TOMS ozone measurements for the period December 26, 1988 to March 20, 1989 is presented. A comparison of January and February 1989 mean ozone values to prior years is also presented.

Krueger, Arlin J.; Penn, Lanning M.; Larko, David E.; Doiron, Scott D.; Guimaraes, Patricia T.

1989-01-01

291

The effect of toe trimming on production characteristics of heavy turkey toms.  

PubMed

Trimming the 3 anterior toes on both feet at day of hatch to remove the claws, reduce bird scratching, and improve carcass grades is a common practice in the turkey industry. Changes in the method of trimming and the growth potential of turkeys since the majority of research on this topic was completed motivated this study with the objective of establishing the effects of microwave toe treatment on production characteristics of tom turkeys. Turkey toms (306 in total) were either toe trimmed at the hatchery using a microwave claw processor (T) or were sham treated only (NT). Poults were randomly assigned to 1 of 9 replicate pens for each treatment. Average BW, feed consumption, and feed efficiency were determined from BW and feed intake measured by pen on d 0, 7, 21, 42, 56, 70, 91, 126, and 140. On d 140, toms were sent to a commercial processing facility where 5 carcasses from each pen were examined for scratching and other externally visible damage. Average BW was higher for NT toms on d 91, 126, and 140, with final weights of 21.70 and 21.15 kg for NT and T birds, respectively. The T birds had lower feed consumption than their NT counterparts during the first and last week of production, but feed efficiency was unaffected. Carcass scratching (T, 13.33% of carcasses scratched vs. NT, 15.56%) and other carcass damages were not affected by treatment. Although overall mortality was not affected by treatment, the incidence of mortality due to skeletal causes, especially rotated tibia, was increased in T toms. Negative effects on performance and no effect on carcass quality suggest that toe trimming may not be required or recommended for heavy tom turkeys. PMID:25002552

Fournier, J; Schwean-Lardner, K; Knezacek, T D; Gomis, S; Classen, H L

2014-09-01

292

Gravity Probe B Assembled  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this photo, the Gravity Probe B (GP-B) space vehicle is being assembled at the Sunnyvale, California location of the Lockheed Martin Corporation. The GP-B is the relativity experiment developed at Stanford University to test two extraordinary predictions of Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity. The experiment will measure, very precisely, the expected tiny changes in the direction of the spin axes of four gyroscopes contained in an Earth-orbiting satellite at a 400-mile altitude. So free are the gyroscopes from disturbance that they will provide an almost perfect space-time reference system. They will measure how space and time are very slightly warped by the presence of the Earth, and, more profoundly, how the Earth's rotation very slightly drags space-time around with it. These effects, though small for the Earth, have far-reaching implications for the nature of matter and the structure of the Universe. GP-B is among the most thoroughly researched programs ever undertaken by NASA. This is the story of a scientific quest in which physicists and engineers have collaborated closely over many years. Inspired by their quest, they have invented a whole range of technologies that are already enlivening other branches of science and engineering. Launched April 20, 2004 , the GP-B program was managed for NASA by the Marshall Space Flight Center. Development of the GP-B is the responsibility of Stanford University along with major subcontractor Lockheed Martin Corporation. (Image credit to Russ Underwood, Lockheed Martin Corporation).

2000-01-01

293

Study of Air Pollution from Space Using TOMS: Challenges and Promises for Future Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A series of TOMS instruments built by NASA has flown on US, Russian, and Japanese satellites in the last 24 years. These instruments are well known for producing spectacular maps of the ozone hole that forms over Antarctica each spring. However, it is less well known that these instruments also provided first evidence that space-based measurements in UV of sufficiently high precision and accuracy can provide valuable information to study global air quality. We will use the TOMS experience to highlight the promises and challenges of future space-based missions designed specifically for air quality studies.

Bhartia, Pawan K.

2002-01-01

294

Effect of stratospheric aerosol layers on the TOMS/SBUV ozone retrieval  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An evaluation of the optical effects of stratospheric aerosol layers on total ozone retrieval from space by the TOMS/SBUV type instruments is presented here. Using the Dave radiative transfer model we estimate the magnitude of the errors in the retrieved ozone when polar stratospheric clouds (PSC's) or volcanic aerosol layers interfere with the measurements. The largest errors are produced by optically thick water ice PSC's. Results of simulation experiments on the effect of the Pinatubo aerosol cloud on the Nimbus-7 and Meteor-3 TOMS products are presented.

Torres, O.; Ahmad, Zia; Pan, L.; Herman, J. R.; Bhartia, P. K.; Mcpeters, R.

1994-01-01

295

Venus Transit Live on June 5 Experts, Karen Kinemuchi, Tom Barclay, Jonathan Cirtain, Renee Weber, Melissa McGrath and  

E-print Network

Venus Transit Live on June 5 Experts, Karen Kinemuchi, Tom Barclay, Jonathan Cirtain, Renee Weber _____________________________________________________________________________________ Moderator_Brooke: Welcome to the Venus Transit chat. The first portion of our chat focuses on the KeplerHunters group. Timothyjav: why will Venus seem to be so small? Tom: It's because relative to the Sun, Venus

296

The TOM Test: A New Instrument For Assessing Theory of Mind in Normal Children and Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes a first attempt to investigate the reliability and validity of the TOM test, a new instrument for assessing theory of mind ability in normal children and children with pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs). In Study 1, TOM test scores of normal children (n = 70) correlated positively with their performance on other theory of mind tasks. Furthermore, young

Peter Muris; Pim Steerneman; Cor Meesters; Harald Merckelbach; Robert Horselenberg; Tanja van den Hogen; Lieke van Dongen

1999-01-01

297

Probing Earth's smallProbing Earth's small--scale structurescale structure array seismologyarray seismology  

E-print Network

seismologyarray seismology Dr. SebastianDr. Sebastian RostRost Department of Geological SciencesIntroduction Array seismologyArray seismology Upper mantle structureUpper mantle structure -- scatteringscattering., 2005 RostRost andand GarneroGarnero, 2004, 2004 #12;Array SeismologyArray Seismology Seismic Array

Rost, Sebastian

298

The Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson covers the interior of the Earth, geological differentiation, plate tectonics, composition and layers of the atmosphere, weather and climate, consequences of rotation for weather, the magnetic field, magnetosphere and Van Allen Radiation Belts of Earth, auroras (Northern and Southern Lights, and imaging the Earth. There is information on seismic waves, and convection currents; an animation of continental drift; evidence for plate tectonics, including maps of crustal plate boundaries and the age of the sea floor crustal plates; and explanations of solar heating, Coriolis forces, cyclones and anticyclones.

299

Visible Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

NASA's Visible Earth is a searchable directory of images, visualizations, and animations of Earth science-related images being produced by several NASA projects including Terra and SeaWiFS. Images are categorized by location, satellite, and topic, and are also searchable using a full-text search engine. Resources include agriculture, atmosphere, biosphere, cryosphere, human dimensions, hydrosphere, land surface, oceans, radiance or imagery, and solid earth. Accompanying each image are credits, data about the image, the satellite it was taken from, a description of what is shown, and a high-resolution viewable image.

300

Early Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The formative processes that shaped our planet offer up several exciting areas for teaching. How did the earth's solid crust evolve? What processes formed the initial atmosphere? How and where did life emerge? Each of these areas is interesting in its own right, but the formation and evolution of the earth as an integrated system is a concept that also has direct applications for teaching. This website offers a growing collection of teaching materials and research results that will aid in the understanding of and teaching about the early earth.

301

Discover Earth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Discover Earth is a NASA-funded project for teachers of grades 5-12 who want to expand their knowledge of the Earth system, and prepare to become master teachers who promote Earth system science in their own schools, counties, and throughout their state. Participants from the following states are invited to apply: Connecticut, Delaware, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont, and Washington, DC. Teachers selected for the project participate in a two-week summer workshop conducted at the University of Maryland, College Park; develop classroom-ready materials during the workshop for broad dissemination; conduct a minimum of two peer training activities during the coming school year; and participate in other enrichment/education opportunities as available and desired. Discover Earth is a team effort that utilizes expertise from a range of contributors, and balances science content with hands-on classroom applications.

Steele, Colleen

1996-01-01

302

Discover Earth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Discover Earth is a NASA-funded project for teachers of grades 5-12 who want to expand their knowledge of the Earth system, and prepare to become master teachers who promote Earth system science in their own schools, counties, and throughout their state. Participants from the following states are invited to apply: Connecticut, Delaware, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont, and Washington, DC. Teachers selected for the project participate in a two-week summer workshop conducted at the University of Maryland, College Park; develop classroom-ready materials during the workshop for broad dissemination; conduct a minimum of two peer training activities during the coming school year; and participate in other enrichment/education opportunities as available and desired. Discover Earth is a team effort that utilizes expertise from a range of contributors, and balances science content with hands-on classroom applications.

1997-01-01

303

Earth Day  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The State University of New York at Buffalo presents this History of Earth Day website. The goal of the site is that teachers and students can better understand the development and purpose of Earth Day. In addition to the history, SUNY-Buffalo has compiled a series of websites complete with projects associated with Earth Day, appropriate for children, high school students, and college undergrads. Furthermore, the legal aspect of Earth Day - environmental legislation, EPA standards, and Global Climate Change legislation - are also discussed on the site. A list of further sites is also provided if users want more information on this national effort to help solve environmental issues such as pollution, overpopulation, and global warming. Teachers will find this website both informative and helpful in developing appropriate teaching curricula connected to this holiday, while students can have fun learning and creating projects of their own that contribute to preserving the environment.

304

Earth Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This self-contained module on Earth systems includes a range of fun activities that students can perform in the classroom and at home with family members. They impart important concepts such as observation, identification, measurement, and differentiation.

Houghton Mifflin Science

305

Earth's Surface  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This self-contained module on Earth's crust includes a range of fun activities that students can perform in the classroom and at home with family members. They impart important concepts such as observation, identification, measurement, and differentiation.

Houghton Mifflin Science

306

Comparing Earth to Other Planets  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How do the atmospheres of Mars, Earth, and Venus compare? This activity, part of an interactive laboratory series for grades 8-12, provides students opportunities to collect atmospheric data from Mars and Venus. Students launch animated data-collecting probes and view two sets of data that compare temperature and pressure from Mars and Venus with that of Earth. Colorful plots of the data are available. Using the information from the data tables and plots, students then answer multiple-choice questions to assess their learning.

University of Utah. Astrophysics Science Project Integrating Research and Education (ASPIRE)

2003-01-01

307

Earth materials and earth dynamics  

SciTech Connect

In the project ''Earth Materials and Earth Dynamics'' we linked fundamental and exploratory, experimental, theoretical, and computational research programs to shed light on the current and past states of the dynamic Earth. Our objective was to combine different geological, geochemical, geophysical, and materials science analyses with numerical techniques to illuminate active processes in the Earth. These processes include fluid-rock interactions that form and modify the lithosphere, non-linear wave attenuations in rocks that drive plate tectonics and perturb the earth's surface, dynamic recrystallization of olivine that deforms the upper mantle, development of texture in high-pressure olivine polymorphs that create anisotropic velocity regions in the convecting upper mantle and transition zone, and the intense chemical reactions between the mantle and core. We measured physical properties such as texture and nonlinear elasticity, equation of states at simultaneous pressures and temperatures, magnetic spins and bonding, chemical permeability, and thermal-chemical feedback to better characterize earth materials. We artificially generated seismic waves, numerically modeled fluid flow and transport in rock systems and modified polycrystal plasticity theory to interpret measured physical properties and integrate them into our understanding of the Earth. This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL).

Bennett, K; Shankland, T. [and others

2000-11-01

308

Earth Viewers  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a One of the most influential developments boosting the application of geo-information technologies in a wide variety of scientific\\u000a and professional disciplines has its origin outside the geomatics field although the establishment of the technology heavily\\u000a relies on recent accomplishments in geo-information technology. The developments referred to concern the emergence of Earth\\u000a viewers such as Google Earth or Bing Maps accessible

Mathias Lemmens

309

The Radiation Belt Storm Probes - Duration: 3:26.  

NASA Video Gallery

The Radiation Belt Storm Probe mission (RBSP) will explore the Van Allen Radiation Belts in the Earth's magnetosphere. The charge particles in these regions can be hazardous to both spacecraft and ...

310

Earth’s Earliest Atmospheres  

PubMed Central

Earth is the one known example of an inhabited planet and to current knowledge the likeliest site of the one known origin of life. Here we discuss the origin of Earth’s atmosphere and ocean and some of the environmental conditions of the early Earth as they may relate to the origin of life. A key punctuating event in the narrative is the Moon-forming impact, partly because it made Earth for a short time absolutely uninhabitable, and partly because it sets the boundary conditions for Earth’s subsequent evolution. If life began on Earth, as opposed to having migrated here, it would have done so after the Moon-forming impact. What took place before the Moon formed determined the bulk properties of the Earth and probably determined the overall compositions and sizes of its atmospheres and oceans. What took place afterward animated these materials. One interesting consequence of the Moon-forming impact is that the mantle is devolatized, so that the volatiles subsequently fell out in a kind of condensation sequence. This ensures that the volatiles were concentrated toward the surface so that, for example, the oceans were likely salty from the start. We also point out that an atmosphere generated by impact degassing would tend to have a composition reflective of the impacting bodies (rather than the mantle), and these are almost without exception strongly reducing and volatile-rich. A consequence is that, although CO- or methane-rich atmospheres are not necessarily stable as steady states, they are quite likely to have existed as long-lived transients, many times. With CO comes abundant chemical energy in a metastable package, and with methane comes hydrogen cyanide and ammonia as important albeit less abundant gases. PMID:20573713

Zahnle, Kevin; Schaefer, Laura; Fegley, Bruce

2010-01-01

311

EARTH OBSERVATIONS  

E-print Network

Each year, Federal agencies invest billions of dollars in civil Earth observations. Through these investments, the U.S. government ensures that the Nation’s decision makers have the information they need about climate and weather, disaster events, land-use change, ecosystem health, natural resources, and many other characteristics of the planet. Section 702 of the NASA Authorization Act of 2010, signed into law on October 11, 2010, instructs the Director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) to establish a mechanism to ensure greater coordination of civilian Earth observations, including the development of a strategic implementation plan that is updated at least every three years. In December 2010, I reported to Congress on the formation of a National Earth Observations Task Force to respond to this direction. The attached National Strategy for Civil Earth Observations, completed by the Task Force, establishes a three-year assessment and planning framework for Earth observations organized by major areas of societal benefit, initiates a prioritization of national observing systems according to those areas, and codifies guidelines for Federal agencies concerning the effective management of Earth observation data. As this National Strategy document describes, the Administration has begun a broad and

unknown authors

2013-01-01

312

Digital Earth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Digital Earth (DE) seeks to make geospatial information broadly and easily available. Vast amounts of natural and cultural information are gathered about the Earth, but it is often difficult to find needed data, to share knowledge across disciplines, and to combine information from several sources. DE defines a framework for interoperability by selecting relevant open standards from the information technology community. These standards specify the technical means by which publishers can provide or sell their data, and by which client applications can find and access data in an automated fashion. The standardized DE framework enables many types of clients--from web browsers to museum kiosks to research-grade virtual environments--to use a common geospatial information infrastructure. Digital Earth can benefit Earth system education in general, and DLESE in particular, in several ways. First, educators, students and creators of instructional material will benefit from standardized access to georeferenced data. Secondly, educational lesson plans that focus on a region or aspect of the Earth can themselves be considered geospatial information resources that could be cataloged and retrieved through DE. Finally, general public knowledge about our planet will by increased by Digital Earth.

de La Beaujardiere, J.

2001-05-01

313

TOM: a web-based integrated approach for identification of candidate disease genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The massive production of biological data by means of highly parallel devices like microarrays for gene expression has paved the way to new possible approaches in molecular genetics. Among them the possibility of inferring biological answers by query- ing large amounts of expression data. Based on this principle, we present here TOM, a web-based resource for the efficient extraction of

Simona Rossi; Daniele Masotti; Christine Nardini; Elena Bonora; Giovanni Romeo; Enrico Macii; Luca Benini; Stefano Volinia

2006-01-01

314

Sensor Fusion and Occlusion Refinement for Tablet-based AR Georg Klein and Tom Drummond  

E-print Network

Sensor Fusion and Occlusion Refinement for Tablet-based AR Georg Klein and Tom Drummond Department, delivered via a tablet PC to which a video cam- era has been attached. By combining several technologies this is achieved without the use of contrived markers in the environment: An outside-in tracker observes the tablet

Klein, Georg

315

ELECTRONIC TEXTILES FOR IN SITU BIOMECHANICAL MEASUREMENTS Tom Martin*, Thurmon Lockhart, Mark Jones, and Josh Edmison  

E-print Network

ELECTRONIC TEXTILES FOR IN SITU BIOMECHANICAL MEASUREMENTS Tom Martin*, Thurmon Lockhart, Mark textile (e-textile) system capable of assessing a suite of biomechanical measures. Unlike laboratory conditions. A prototype e-textile developed at Virginia Tech has already shown promising results in the area

316

A Service Backplane for E-Textile Applications Mark Jones, Tom Martin, and Zahi Nakad  

E-print Network

A Service Backplane for E-Textile Applications Mark Jones, Tom Martin, and Zahi Nakad Electrical and Computer Engineering, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg VA 24061-0111 Abstract. E-textile technology is rapidly textiles. Efficient development of applications on e- textiles will require significant software services

317

Collateral Damage: Veterans and Domestic Violence in Mari Sandoz's "The Tom-Walker"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"The Tom-Walker" combines the best of Sandoz's realism with her worst attempts at moralizing. Unable to divine exactly what political configuration right-wing post-World War II sentiments might take, Sandoz nevertheless feared a fascist uprising in this country. Perhaps because these concerns dominated her thoughts at the time, she allowed her…

Bahr, Kathy

2010-01-01

318

Person Identification by Mobile Robots in Indoor Environments Grzegorz Cielniak and Tom Duckett  

E-print Network

, entertainment, educa- tion and delivery. These robots must have the ability to co- operate with peoplePerson Identification by Mobile Robots in Indoor Environments Grzegorz Cielniak and Tom Duckett with a mobile robot. In the proposed system, people are first detected and then tracked with the robot's laser

Duckett, Tom

319

Constraint-based Diagram Beautification Sitt Sen Chok, Kim Marriott and Tom Paton  

E-print Network

of Computer Science and Software Engineering Monash University, Victoria, Australia {css the graphic editor is specialized for a particular class of diagrams, i.e. a visual language. During diagramConstraint-based Diagram Beautification Sitt Sen Chok, Kim Marriott and Tom Paton School

Marriott, Kimbal

320

Commentary to "Multiple Grammars and Second Language Representation," by Luiz Amaral and Tom Roeper  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this commentary, the author defends the Multiple Grammars (MG) theory proposed by Luiz Amaral and Tom Roepe (A&R) in the present issue. Topics discussed include second language acquisition, the concept of developmental optionality, and the idea that structural decisions involve the lexical dimension. The author states that A&R's…

Pérez-Leroux, Ana T.

2014-01-01

321

Evaluation of High-Performance Computing Software Shirley Browne Jack Dongarray Tom Rowanz  

E-print Network

Evaluation of High-Performance Computing Software Shirley Browne Jack Dongarray Tom Rowanz Abstract The absence of unbiased and up to date compara- tive evaluations of high-performance computing soft- ware should be directed. HPCC programs, is currently undertaking compara- tive evaluations of high-performance

Dongarra, Jack

322

Building Rm Last Name First Name Department Extension Armington (PEC) 135 Love Tom Athletic Trainer 2184  

E-print Network

Building Rm Last Name First Name Department Extension Armington (PEC) 135 Love Tom Athletic Trainer Sene Ibra History 2622 118 Hettinger Madonna History 2439 119 Parker Jeffrey History 1928 127 Rapport 2411 130 Weaver Mark Political Science 2416 2013-2014 OFFICE ASSIGNMENTS #12;Building Rm Last Name

Wilson, Mark A.

323

SIZING OF PROCESSING ARRAYS FOR FPGA-BASED COMPUTATION* Tom VanCourt and Martin Herbordt  

E-print Network

SIZING OF PROCESSING ARRAYS FOR FPGA-BASED COMPUTATION* Tom VanCourt and Martin Herbordt Boston of parallelism ­ ideally, the most that will fit into the fabric of the FPGA being used. Several factors complicate determination of the largest structure that will fit the FPGA: arrays that grow polynomially

Herbordt, Martin

324

REU PROJECT ON BRANCH POLYMERS SARA BILLEY, TOM BOOTHBY, MORGAN EICHWALD, AND CHRIS FOX  

E-print Network

REU PROJECT ON BRANCH POLYMERS SARA BILLEY, TOM BOOTHBY, MORGAN EICHWALD, AND CHRIS FOX 1. A branched polymer of order n in R2 is obtained by plac- ing these disks in the plane in any configuration so at the origin. Branched polymers have been studied in con- nection with molecular chemistry, statistical physics

Billey, Sara

325

Ocean Color and Evidence of Chlorophyll Signature in the TOMS Minimum Reflectivity Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis of the TOMS minimum reflectivity data for 380 nm channel (R380) show regions of high reflectivity values (7 to 8%) over Sargasso Sea in the Northern Atlantic, anti-cyclonic region in the Southern Atlantic, and a large part of the ocean in the Southern Pacific, and low values (5 to 6 %) over the rest of the open ocean. Through

Z. Ahmad; J. R. Herman; P. K. Bhartia

2003-01-01

326

Cooling laser system for quantum computing with barium-137 ions Tom Chartrand  

E-print Network

Cooling laser system for quantum computing with barium-137 ions Tom Chartrand Department of Physics of a powerful 493 nm laser source for cooling, by the resonant frequency doubling of a 986 nm external cavity nm, is ideal for pumping to initialize the qubit, and for doppler laser cooling. Depending

Blinov, Boris

327

Pullman's Weather and Air Quality Station James O'Malley, Brian Lamb, Tom Jobson  

E-print Network

Pullman's Weather and Air Quality Station James O'Malley, Brian Lamb, Tom Jobson Thanks, and to Dr. Shelley N. Pressley. To monitor air quality in Pullman, the Laboratory for Atmospheric Research in the department of civil and environmental engineering, as well as providing a long-term record of air quality

Collins, Gary S.

328

"Worms"Cotton ID Key Ed Bynum, Steve Byrns, Tom Fuchs, Rick Minzenmayer and Warren Multer*  

E-print Network

"Worms"Cotton ID Key Ed Bynum, Steve Byrns, Tom Fuchs, Rick Minzenmayer and Warren Multer* · Head is tan to dark with a white inverted "Y." · Four black dots on the rear of the worm form a "square." Fall of the body above the second true leg. (Photos: M. Spellman) Cotton Bollworm ­ Tobacco Budworm · Both worms

Mukhtar, Saqib

329

Software Documents: Comparison and Measurement Tom Arbuckle, Adam Balaban, Dennis K. Peters and Mark Lawford  

E-print Network

Software Documents: Comparison and Measurement Tom Arbuckle, Adam Balaban, Dennis K. Peters of Newfoundland, St. John's NL, Canada A1B 3X5. Email: dpeters@engr.mun.ca §Department of Computing and Software@mcmaster.ca Abstract-- For some time now, researchers have been seeking to place software measurement on a more firmly

Lawford, Mark

330

Nearly 20 Years Since Hurricane Iniki by Steven Businger and Tom Schroeder  

E-print Network

Nearly 20 Years Since Hurricane Iniki by Steven Businger and Tom Schroeder businger@hawaii.edu, tas@hawaii.edu Professors of Meteorology at the University of Hawaii at Manoa On September 11, 1992 hurricane Iniki scored a direct hit on the island of Kauai. Over a period of only three hours, the category-3 hurricane caused

Dong, Yingfei

331

SOFA 2.0 metamodel Petr Hntynka, Frantisek Plsil, Toms Bures, Vladimr Mencl, Lucia Kapov  

E-print Network

SOFA 2.0 metamodel Petr Hntynka, Frantisek Plásil, Tomás Bures, Vladimír Mencl, Lucia Kapová, Vladimír Mencl, Lucia Kapová Another currently emerging paradigm is the service-oriented architecture (SOA

332

Anonymous Identity and Trust for Peer-to-Peer Networks Tom Murphy VII, Amit K. Manjhi  

E-print Network

Anonymous Identity and Trust for Peer-to-Peer Networks Tom Murphy VII, Amit K. Manjhi April 29, 2002 Abstract In this paper, we present a new way of establish- ing independently-verifiable identities framework where these identities can be used to assign blame and to construct auditable blacklists

Budiu, Mihai

333

The Toms Canyon structure, New Jersey outer continental shelf: A possible late Eocene impact crater  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Toms Canyon structure [~20-22 km wide] is located on the New Jersey outer continental shelf beneath 80-100 m of water, and is buried by ~1 km of upper Eocene to Holocene sedimentary strata. The structure displays several characteristics typical of terrestrial impact craters (flat floor; upraised faulted rim: brecciated sedimentary fill), but several other characteristics are atypical (an unusually thin ejecta blanket; lack of an inner basin, peak ring, or central peak; bearing nearly completely filled with breccia). Seismostratigraphic and biostratigraphic analyses show that the structure formed during planktonic foraminiferal biochron P15 of the early to middle late Eocene. The fill unit is stratigraphically correlating with impact ejecta cored nearby at Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) Site 612 and at Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Sites 903 and 904 (22-35 km southeast of the Toms Canyon structure). The Toms Canyon fill unit also correlates with the Exmore breccia, which fills the much larger Chesapeake Bay impact crater (90-km diameter; 335 km to the southwest). On the basis of our analyses, we postulate that the Toms Canyon structure is an impact crater, formed when a cluster of relatively small meteorites approached the target site bearing ~N 50 E, and struck the sea floor obliquely.

Poag, C.W.; Poppe, L.J.

1998-01-01

334

Tom Beaver, Creek Television Reporter. With Teacher's Guide. Native Americans of the Twentieth Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A biography for elementary school students presents an account of an American Indian television reporter, Tom Beaver (Creek), and includes a map of Oklahoma showing the location of Indian tribes. A teacher's guide following the biography contains information about the Creek tribe and the history of television, learning objectives and directions…

Minneapolis Public Schools, MN.

335

Therapy outcome measures for allied health practitioners in Australia: the AusTOMs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. The aim of this study was to develop a valid and reliable measure of therapy outcome for three allied health profes- sions in Australia: speech pathology, occupational therapy, and physiotherapy. The Australian Therapy Outcome Measures (AusTOMs) enable measurement of the differences in client profiles and patterns of services provision across health care settings. In this paper we describe phase

ALISON PERRY; MEG MORRIS; CAROLYN UNSWORTH; STEPHEN DUCKETT; JEMMA SKEAT; KAREN DODD; NICHOLAS TAYLOR; KAREN REILLY

2004-01-01

336

RNAi Screen in Drosophila Cells Reveals the Involvement of the Tom Complex  

E-print Network

RNAi Screen in Drosophila Cells Reveals the Involvement of the Tom Complex in Chlamydia Infection developmental cycle in Drosophila SL2 cells. Using this model system, we have performed a genome-wide RNA of nuclear-encoded proteins to the mitochondria, as required for C. caviae infection of Drosophila cells

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

337

Three Researchers, Five Conjectures: An Empirical Analysis of TOM-Skype Censorship and Surveillance  

E-print Network

Three Researchers, Five Conjectures: An Empirical Analysis of TOM-Skype Censorship and Surveillance functionality and a chat client. The censorship and surveillance that we studied for this paper is specific that the In- ternet censorship research community could potentially answer with more data and appropriate

Saia, Jared

338

Optical effects of polar stratospheric clouds on the retrieval of TOMS total ozone  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Small areas of sharply reduced ozone density appear frequently in the maps produced from polar region total ozone mapping spectrometer (TOMS) data. These mini-holes are of the order of 1000 km in extent with a lifetime of a few days. On the basis of measurements from ground-based instruments, balloon-borne ozonesondes, and simultaneous measurements of aerosol and ozone concentrations during aircraft flights in the Arctic and Antarctic regions, the appearance of polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) are frequently associated with false reductions in ozone derived from the TOMS albedo data. By combining radiative transfer calculations with the observed PSC and ozone data, it is shown that PSCs located near or above the ozone density maximum (with optical thickness greater than 0.1) can explain most of the differences between TOMS ozone data and ground or in situ ozone measurements. Several examples of real and false TOMS mini-hole phenomenon are investigated using data from the 1989 Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition (AASE) and from balloon flights over Norway and Sweden.

Torres, O.; Ahmad, Z.; Herman, J. R.

1992-01-01

339

High-School Reading and Junior-High Hope: The Tom Sawyer Solution.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Shows how Mark Twain's fictional adolescent Tom Sawyer shares many characteristics with the typical young adult readers of today. Considers the challenge of getting students interested and enthusiastic about reading. Claims that young adult novels are suitable for engaging high school students. (HB)

VandeStaay, Steven

1994-01-01

340

Samuel Langhorne Clemens: A Centennial for Tom Sawyer; An Annotated, Selected Bibliography.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This annotated bibliography, prepared by the Children's Book Section of the Library of Congress to celebrate the centennial of "The Adventures of Tom Sawyer," lists editions of the Mark Twain classics most widely read by young people, biographical or autobiographical and travel works significant for relevent background, and miscellaneous items…

Haviland, Virginia, Comp.; Coughlan, Margaret N., Comp.

341

The "Seductive Outside" and the "Sacred Precincts": Boundaries and Transgressions in "The Adventures of Tom Sawyer."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analyzes Mark Twain's novel, "The Adventures of Tom Sawyer," to determine the ways in which the masculine is constructed by a series of forces or discourses. Argues that this novel articulates the social construction of gender in a manner similar to Michel Foucault's theory of disciplinary discourses. (HB)

Campbell, Neil

1994-01-01

342

Blood Glucose Measurements in Critically Ill Patients Tom Van Herpe, Ph.D.,1,2  

E-print Network

and scientific interest in the dysregulation of the normal glucose homeostasis has emerged only recently. Before22 Blood Glucose Measurements in Critically Ill Patients Tom Van Herpe, Ph.D.,1,2 and Dieter) blood glucose, (Hct) hematocrit, (ICU) intensive care unit, (ISO) International Organization

343

Controlled Dicke Subradiance from a Large Cloud of Two-Level Systems Tom Bienaime,1  

E-print Network

Controlled Dicke Subradiance from a Large Cloud of Two-Level Systems Tom Bienaime´,1 Nicola Celoria 16, I-20133 Milano, Italy (Received 28 July 2011; published 23 March 2012) Dicke superradiance has on the pioneering work by Dicke, who studied collective decay rates in small and large samples [7]. Dicke states

344

The Future of the Digital Library: An Interview with Tom Peters  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents an interview with Tom Peters, an academic librarian and founder of TAP Information Services, a firm that provides consulting services to libraries and other organizations in the information industry. Peters also serves as a consultant to LibraryCity, an ambitious project that seeks to make thousands of e-books in easy-to-use…

Morrison, James L.; Peters, Tom

2005-01-01

345

Modified Letter from Tom Formanek, Manager, Ithaca Social Security Administration September 2011  

E-print Network

Modified Letter from Tom Formanek, Manager, Ithaca Social Security Administration September 2011 We're writing to encourage use of our online services by employers and their employees. Social Security has for a Social Security number, becoming insured under Social Security, planning for retirement, and filing

Hemami, Sheila S.

346

Tom Glavich, Robert O. Green, Simon J. Hook, Betsy Middleton Francois Rogez, Stephen Ungar  

E-print Network

Tom Glavich, Robert O. Green, Simon J. Hook, Betsy Middleton Francois Rogez, Stephen Ungar Presented by Robert O. Green February 11-12, 2009 NASA Headquarters #12;Visible ShortWave InfraRed (VSWIR. Green, S. Hook, E. Middleton, S. Ungar 31 member scientists Science oversights, Mission Dev. and Sci

Christian, Eric

347

Sensor Relocation in Mobile Sensor Networks Guiling Wang, Guohong Cao, Tom La Porta, and Wensheng Zhang  

E-print Network

the sensor network, which means that the relocation should minimize its effect on the current sensingSensor Relocation in Mobile Sensor Networks Guiling Wang, Guohong Cao, Tom La Porta, and Wensheng of research on using mobility in sensor networks to assist in the initial deployment of nodes. Mobile sensors

Zhang, Wensheng

348

The Art of Succession: Reading, Writing, and Watching Comics Author(s): Tom Gunning  

E-print Network

The Art of Succession: Reading, Writing, and Watching Comics Author(s): Tom Gunning Source: Critical Inquiry, Vol. 40, No. 3, Comics & Media, edited by Hillary Chute and Patrick Jagoda (Spring 2014 All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions #12;36 A t the recent conference on comics

Saldin, Dilano

349

Theory of mind (ToM) on robots: a functional neuroimaging study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Theory of Mind (ToM) is not only a key capability for cognitive development but also for successful social interaction. In order for a robot to interact successfully with a human both interaction part- ners need to have an adequate representation of the other's actions. In this paper we address the question of how a robot's actions are perceived and represented

Frank Hegel; Soeren Krach; Tilo Kircher; Britta Wrede; Gerhard Sagerer

2008-01-01

350

STABLE MAPS AND QUASIMAPS TO TORIC FANO VARIETIES TOM COATES AND CRISTINA MANOLACHE  

E-print Network

STABLE MAPS AND QUASIMAPS TO TORIC FANO VARIETIES TOM COATES AND CRISTINA MANOLACHE Abstract. We analyze the relationship between two compactifications of the moduli space of maps from curves to a toric fano varieties: the Kontsevich moduli space of stable maps and the Ciocan-Fontanine­Kim moduli space

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

351

Crowdsourcing Semantics for Big Data in Geoscience Applications Tom Narock1  

E-print Network

Crowdsourcing Semantics for Big Data in Geoscience Applications Tom Narock1 and Pascal Hitzler 1 the potential to overcome some of the issues currently surrounding Big Data. Semantic technologies, and complexity of data sources ­ the very definition of Big Data. Yet, for some tasks, semantic algorithms do

Hitzler, Pascal

352

Science and the (Lockean) Pursuit of Happiness in Tom Wolfe's I Am Charlotte Simmons  

Microsoft Academic Search

In I Am Charlotte Simmons, Tom Wolfe explores how precarious the pursuit of happiness is in our liberal society, which provides insufficient moral support for individuals to resist following popular opinion in their pursuit of happiness. For Wolfe, the first step of the pursuit of happiness requires the courage to resist popular opinion and to seek an answer to what

Elizabeth Amato

2011-01-01

353

A Traceability Attack Against e-Passports Tom Chothia and Vitaliy Smirnov  

E-print Network

A Traceability Attack Against e-Passports Tom Chothia and Vitaliy Smirnov School of Computer "e-passports" containing an RFID tag that, when powered, broadcasts information. It is claimed that these passports are more secure and that our data will be protected from any possible unauthorised attempts

Chothia, Tom

354

Calibration For Augmented Reality Experimental Testbeds Valerie A. Summers*& Kellogg S. Booth Tom Calvert  

E-print Network

Calibration For Augmented Reality Experimental Testbeds Valerie A. Summers*& Kellogg S. Booth Tom.3.7[ComputerGraphics]: Three-Dimensional GraphicsandRealism-virtual reality Keywords: augmentedreality "augment" theuser's view of thereal 3D world with computer-generatedvirtual objects. Thesevirtual

355

A single-frame visual gyroscope Georg Klein and Tom Drummond  

E-print Network

A single-frame visual gyroscope Georg Klein and Tom Drummond {gswk2|twd20}@eng.cam.ac.uk Department employ additional sensors to provide robustness to rapid #12;rotations. Rate gyroscopes, which provide-based alternative to the use of rate gyroscopes. We describe a novel algorithm which can compute rotational velocity

Drummond, Tom

356

Earth: Earth Science and Health  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A major new NASA initiative on environmental change and health has been established to promote the application of Earth science remote sensing data, information, observations, and technologies to issues of human health. NASA's Earth Sciences suite of Earth observing instruments are now providing improved observations science, data, and advanced technologies about the Earth's land, atmosphere, and oceans. These new space-based resources are being combined with other agency and university resources, data integration and fusion technologies, geographic information systems (GIS), and the spectrum of tools available from the public health community, making it possible to better understand how the environment and climate are linked to specific diseases, to improve outbreak prediction, and to minimize disease risk. This presentation is an overview of NASA's tools, capabilities, and research advances in this initiative.

Maynard, Nancy G.

2001-01-01

357

Azoospermia with variable testicular histology after 7 months of treatment with a deslorelin implant in toms.  

PubMed

The main aim of the study was to assess whether the longer use of a GnRH-agonist implant (deslorelin 4.7 mg, Suprelorin) in toms would lead to the suppression of spermatogenesis comparable with histologic appearance in juvenile animals as was previously described in dogs. The other aims were to monitor the progression of the testes size decrease and development of azoospermia 5 to 7 months after treatment with a GnRH-agonist implant. In animals, 5, 6, and 7 months after GnRH-agonist implant insertion, variable histological appearance of germinal epithelium was found, when tubules with elongating spermatids, round spermatids, spermatocytes, and spermatogonia as the most developed germinal cells were found in each group of toms. In all male cats, 5, 6, and 7 months after implant insertion, testosterone concentrations and testes size significantly differed between the first and the last visit. All animals, except one tom castrated 5 months after implant insertion, developed complete azoospermia. However, in this tom, all spermatozoa were immotile. Treatment with the subcutaneous GnRH-agonist implant was well tolerated, and no treatment-related adverse effects were noted. These results reported the efficacy of 4.7-mg deslorelin implant (Suprelorin) during its 7 months of use. The complete azoospermia confirms its contraceptive effect. However, the histologic evaluation revealed a great individual variability in the degree of spermatogenic suppression. The question as to whether spermatogenesis in toms can be suppressed in all males to the level of spermatogonia/primary spermatocytes after prolonged exposure to deslorelin has yet to be answered. PMID:25617987

Novotny, R; Vitasek, R; Bartoskova, A; Cizek, P; Prinosilova, P; Novakova, K

2015-04-15

358

Multiple seismic reflectors in Earth’s lowermost mantle  

PubMed Central

The modern view of Earth’s lowermost mantle considers a D? region of enhanced (seismologically inferred) heterogeneity bounded by the core–mantle boundary and an interface some 150–300 km above it, with the latter often attributed to the postperovskite phase transition (in MgSiO3). Seismic exploration of Earth’s deep interior suggests, however, that this view needs modification. So-called ScS and SKKS waves, which probe the lowermost mantle from above and below, respectively, reveal multiple reflectors beneath Central America and East Asia, two areas known for subduction of oceanic plates deep into Earth’s mantle. This observation is inconsistent with expectations from a thermal response of a single isochemical postperovskite transition, but some of the newly observed structures can be explained with postperovskite transitions in differentiated slab materials. Our results imply that the lowermost mantle is more complex than hitherto thought and that interfaces and compositional heterogeneity occur beyond the D? region sensu stricto. PMID:24550266

Shang, Xuefeng; Shim, Sang-Heon; de Hoop, Maarten; van der Hilst, Robert

2014-01-01

359

Scorched Earth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For the past three years, leading scientists from more than 40 countries have been conducting a physical of the planet. They have monitored its vital signs, probed its parts, taken its temperature, measured its bodily fluids. This article deals with the global-warming report for the United Nations released by a panel of 1,200 scientists at a news…

Monastersky, Richard

2007-01-01

360

Ka band TWTA for space probes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thales electron devices has many years of experience in the manufacture of traveling wave tube amplifiers (TWTA) for space probes, which must send large quantities of data back to Earth. The application of TWTA have traditionally used the X band, around 8 GHz, with RF power ranging from 20 to 40 watts. However, the upcoming generation of spacecraft will also

F. Andre; A. Gallien; P. Boone

2003-01-01

361

Probing Microstructure in Interstellar Plasma with Pulsars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pulsars provide excellent probes of small structure in the interstellar plasma. The list of observable effects includes dispersion, Faraday rotation, diffraction and refraction. Of great interest recently has been episodes of lensing and dual path propagation when the plasma perturbation has just the right focal length for the pulsar-perturber-earth geometry at a given frequency. I will discuss a recent study

Donald Backer

1999-01-01

362

Savage Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Savage Earth website is the on-line companion to the PBS television series of the same name. This site tells the stories of several great natural disasters, particularly the eruption of Mt. Vesuvius in 79 A.D. that destroyed Pompeii and the 1994 earthquake in Kobe, Japan. It contains articles on the earth's crust and plate tectonics, earthquakes, volcanoes, and tsunamis. Each article features photographs, animated drawings, and video clips. For example, the earthquakes article includes animations of types of faults and three different kinds of seismic waves. There is also a question and answer section and links to related sites about geology and natural hazards.

2002-04-24

363

Digital Earth - A sustainable Earth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

All life, particularly human, cannot be sustainable, unless complimented with shelter, poverty reduction, provision of basic infrastructure and services, equal opportunities and social justice. Yet, in the context of cities, it is believed that they can accommodate more and more people, endlessly, regardless to their carrying capacity and increasing ecological footprint. The 'inclusion', for bringing more and more people in the purview of development is often limited to social and economic inclusion rather than spatial and ecological inclusion. Economic investment decisions are also not always supported with spatial planning decisions. Most planning for a sustainable Earth, be at a level of rural settlement, city, region, national or Global, fail on the capacity and capability fronts. In India, for example, out of some 8,000 towns and cities, Master Plans exist for only about 1,800. A chapter on sustainability or environment is neither statutorily compulsory nor a norm for these Master Plans. Geospatial technologies including Remote Sensing, GIS, Indian National Spatial Data Infrastructure (NSDI), Indian National Urban Information Systems (NUIS), Indian Environmental Information System (ENVIS), and Indian National GIS (NGIS), etc. have potential to map, analyse, visualize and take sustainable developmental decisions based on participatory social, economic and social inclusion. Sustainable Earth, at all scales, is a logical and natural outcome of a digitally mapped, conceived and planned Earth. Digital Earth, in fact, itself offers a platform to dovetail the ecological, social and economic considerations in transforming it into a sustainable Earth.

Mahavir

2014-02-01

364

The early Earth Observing System reference handbook: Earth Science and Applications Division missions, 1990-1997  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Prior to the launch of the Earth Observing System (EOS) series, NASA will launch and operate a wide variety of new earth science satellites and instruments, as well as undertake several efforts collecting and using the data from existing and planned satellites from other agencies and nations. These initiatives will augment the knowledge base gained from ongoing Earth Science and Applications Division (ESAD) programs. This volume describes three sets of ESAD activities -- ongoing exploitation of operational satellite data, research missions with upcoming launches between now and the first launch of EOS, and candidate earth probes.

1990-01-01

365

Earth Movers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson explores plate tectonics and helps students understand how mountains, earthquakes, and volcanoes are related to the movements of plates. Students will learn about the idea of continental drift and the theory of plate tectonics to ascertain a fuller picture of how land formations on the surface of the Earth are shaped by plates moving below the surface.

366

Visible Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web site provides a searchable directory of NASA Earth science images, animations and data visualizations. Most resources are available digitally at multiple resolutions, with captions and metadata. Users can search the database using full text and advanced searches by topic, keyword, sensor, location, parameter, and dates.

2001-01-01

367

Earth Walk  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this hands-on and feet-on excursion, learners take a science walk to visualize the planet's immense size and numerous structures, without the usual scale and ratio dimensions found in most textbooks. Learners also compare their body's height to a scaled-down Earth.

2012-06-26

368

Rare earths  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Global mine production of rare earths was estimated to have declined slightly in 2012 relative to 2011 (Fig. 1). Production in China was estimated to have decreased to 95 from 105 kt (104,700 from 115,700 st) in 2011, while new mine production in the United States and Australia increased.

Gambogi, J.

2013-01-01

369

Earth's Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource provides an overview of the distribution and occurence of water on Earth. Topics include where and how much water there is, the water cycle, and how water is measured. There is also discussion of characteristics and distribution of surface water, groundwater, glaciers, and icecaps.

370

Interpretation of TOMS Observations of Tropical Tropospheric Ozone with a Global Model and In Situ Observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We interpret the distribution of tropical tropospheric ozone columns (TTOCs) from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) by using a global three-dimensional model of tropospheric chemistry (GEOS-CHEM) and additional information from in situ observations. The GEOS-CHEM TTOCs capture 44% of the variance of monthly mean TOMS TTOCs from the convective cloud differential method (CCD) with no global bias. Major discrepancies are found over northern Africa and south Asia where the TOMS TTOCs do not capture the seasonal enhancements from biomass burning found in the model and in aircraft observations. A characteristic feature of these northern topical enhancements, in contrast to southern tropical enhancements, is that they are driven by the lower troposphere where the sensitivity of TOMS is poor due to Rayleigh scattering. We develop an efficiency correction to the TOMS retrieval algorithm that accounts for the variability of ozone in the lower troposphere. This efficiency correction increases TTOC's over biomass burning regions by 3-5 Dobson units (DU) and decreases them by 2-5 DU over oceanic regions, improving the agreement between CCD TTOCs and in situ observations. Applying the correction to CCD TTOCs reduces by approximately DU the magnitude of the "tropical Atlantic paradox" [Thompson et al, 2000], i.e. the presence of a TTOC enhancement over the southern tropical Atlantic during the northern African biomass burning season in December-February. We reproduce the remainder of the paradox in the model and explain it by the combination of upper tropospheric ozone production from lightning NOx, peristent subsidence over the southern tropical Atlantic as part of the Walker circulation, and cross-equatorial transport of upper tropospheric ozone from northern midlatitudes in the African "westerly duct." These processes in the model can also account for the observed 13-17 DU persistent wave-1 pattern in TTOCs with a maximum above the tropical Atlantic and a minimum over the tropical Pacific during all seasons. The photochemical effects of mineral dust have only a minor role on the modeled distribution of TTOCs, including over northern Africa, due to multiple competing effects. The photochemical effects of mineral dust globally decease annual mean OH concentrations by 9%. A global lightning NOx source of 6 Tg N yr(sup -1) in the model produces a simulation that is most consistent with TOMS and in situ observations.

Martin, Randall V.; Jacob, Daniel J.; Logan, Jennifer A.; Bey, Isabelle; Yantosca, Robert M.; Staudt, Amanda C.; Fiore, Arlene M.; Duncan, Bryan N.; Liu, Hongyu; Ginoux, Paul

2004-01-01

371

Earth meandering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we try to put away current Global Tectonic Model to look the tectonic evolution of the earth from new point of view. Our new dynamic model is based on study of river meandering (RM) which infer new concept as Earth meandering(EM). In a universal gravitational field if we consider a clockwise spiral galaxy model rotate above Ninety East Ridge (geotectonic axis GA), this system with applying torsion field (likes geomagnetic field) in side direction from Rocky Mt. (west geotectonic pole WGP) to Tibetan plateau TP (east geotectonic pole EGP),it seems that pulled mass from WGP and pushed it in EGP due to it's rolling dynamics. According to this idea we see in topographic map that North America and Green land like a tongue pulled from Pacific mouth toward TP. Actually this system rolled or meander the earth over itself fractaly from small scale to big scale and what we see in the river meandering and Earth meandering are two faces of one coin. River transport water and sediments from high elevation to lower elevation and also in EM, mass transport from high altitude-Rocky Mt. to lower altitude Himalaya Mt. along 'S' shape geodetic line-optimum path which connect points from high altitude to lower altitude as kind of Euler Elastica(EE). These curves are responsible for mass spreading (source) and mass concentration (sink). In this regard, tiltness of earth spin axis plays an important role, 'S' are part of sigmoidal shape which formed due to intersection of Earth rolling with the Earth glob and actual feature of transform fault and river meandering. Longitudinal profile in mature rivers as a part of 'S' curve also is a kind of EE. 'S' which bound the whole earth is named S-1(S order 1) and cube corresponding to this which represent Earth fracturing in global scale named C-1(cube order 1 or side vergence cube SVC), C-1 is a biggest cycle of spiral polygon, so it is not completely closed and it has separation about diameter of C-7. Inside SVC we introduce cone vergence cube (CVC or geotectonic equator GE) which rotate 45 degree counterclockwise with respect to SVC. Every cube from big scale to small scale fractalize in order of 23 and every '8' shape from big scale to small scale also fractalize in the same order. Three dimensional and fractoscopic imagination about understanding the changing on earth is very important so we should imagine '8' as curved surface, sea floor spreading happened in maximum curvature of these surfaces. '8' formed from pair 'S' string with opposite direction. '8' oscillate in Pole-Pole and Side-Side direction and have saddle geometry with two 'U' path along perpendicular saddle (e.g. Lut/Jazmurian and Helmand/Mashkal basin in Iran actually intersection of this saddle shape with the earth surface and Iceland /Black Sea and CapeVerde/Victoria Lake are also In/Out (small scale polygon) of 'U' shape conduit which followed axial saddle of Side-'S-2' and Okhotsk Sea /Balkhash Lake followed axial saddle conduit of Pole-'S-2' actually intersection of this perpendicular conduit with surface make spot-like-lakes/volcanoes or basin. Global EM in Side-S-1 bounded compression region-TP inside and tension region-East African Rift offside).This is a interesting competing between two kinematic geometry - spherical and isometrical geometry by using the interaction of them we can analyze the earth face in past, present and future apart of the forces that cause this face. C-1 in two dimensional look like six sided big tent which speared over Tibet and main rod driven along GA. Pair S-1 curve. have seven component(fold) and six segment in between,S-7 exactly located on TP(center of S-1). Between two successive fold we have complex geology(e.g. eastern Iran and Afghanistan)mass dragged from North America and Siberian and accumulated gradually during six step in Earth Foundation(Tibet),S-7 bounded Takla Makan Desert (in smaller loop) and TP (in bigger loop) S-7 alter the earth balance and responsible for earth disturbing, another sample of 'S' curve we see around Australia and Kermadec/Tonga Trench, Aleutian ri

Asadiyan, H.; Zamani, A.

2009-04-01

372

Observations of triboelectric charging effects on Langmuir-type probes in dusty plasma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigation of Earth's mesosphere using sounding rockets equipped with a myriad of instruments has been a highly active field in the last 2 decades. This paper presents data from three separate instruments: an RF impedance probe, a DC fixed bias Langmuir probe, and an electric field probe, that were flown on a mesospheric sounding rocket flight investigating the presence of

Aroh Barjatya; Charles M. Swenson

2006-01-01

373

Comparative analysis of UVB exposure between Nimbus 7/TOMS satellite estimates and ground-based measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study describes the patterns of variation in ultraviolet (UV) exposure across time and space using two continental scale data sets on UV radiation and conducts a comparative analysis of two sources of noontime UV-B exposure data across the continental US. One dataset was collected from 37 ground-based stations equipped with broadband UV-B-1 Pyranometers across North America whereas the other dataset was of synchronous satellite data collected from the Nimbus-7/TOMS sensor. Comparisons of these datasets confirmed agreement between the ground-based measurements and the TOMS satellite estimates with correlation coefficients of 0.87 and 0.95 for daily and monthly UV Index time series (i.e., a common metric of UV radiation exposure), respectively.

Gao, Zhiqiang; Gao, Wei

2010-08-01

374

Nimbus-7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) Antarctic ozone atlas: August through November 1991  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Because of the great environmental significance of stratospheric ozone, and to support continuing research at the Antarctic Southern Hemisphere stations, the development of the 1991 ozone hole was monitored using data from the Nimbus-7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) instrument, produced in near-real-time. This atlas provides a complete set of daily polar orthographic projections of the TOMS total ozone measurements over the Southern Hemisphere for the period August 1 through November 30, 1991. The 1991 ozone hole developed in a manner similar to that of the 1987, 1989, and 1990 holes, reaching a comparable depth in early October. However, the 1991 ozone hole filled far more rapidly than in 1987 or 1989, and nearly 4 weeks earlier than in 1990.

Krueger, Arlin J.; Penn, Lanning M.; Scott, Courtney J.; Larko, David E.

1992-01-01

375

Comparison of TOMS and AVHRR volcanic ssh retrievals from the August 1992 eruption of Mt. Spurr  

USGS Publications Warehouse

On August 19, 1992, the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) onboard NOAA-12 and NASA's Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) onboard the Nimbus-7 satellite simultaneously detected and mapped the ash cloud from the eruption of Mt. Spurr, Alaska. The spatial extent and geometry of the cloud derived from the two datasets are in good agreement and both AVHRR split window IR (11-12??m brightness temperature difference) and the TOMS UV Aerosol Index (0.34-0.38??m ultraviolet backscattering and absorption) methods give the same range of total cloud ash mass. Redundant methods for determination of ash masses in drifting volcanic clouds offer many advantages for potential application to the mitigation of aircraft hazards.

Krotkov, N.A.; Torres, O.; Seftor, C.; Krueger, A.J.; Kostinski, A.; Rose, W.I.; Bluth, G.J.S.; Schneider, D.; Schaefer, S.J.

1999-01-01

376

Atlas of TOMS ozone data collected during the Genesis of Atlantic Lows Experiment (GALE), 1986  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Data from the TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) instrument aboard the Nimbus-7 satellite were collected daily in real time during the GALE (Genesis of Atlantic Lows Experiment) from January 15 through March 15, l986. The TOMS ozone data values were processed into GEMPAK format and transferred from the Goddard Space Flight Center to GALE operations in Raleigh-Durham, NC, in as little as three hours for use, in part, to direct aircraft research flights recording in situ measurements of ozone and water vapor in areas of interest. Once in GEMPAK format, the ozone values were processed into gridded form using the Barnes objective analysis scheme and contour plots of the ozone created. This atlas provides objectively analyzed contour plots of the ozone for each of the sixty days of GALE as well as four-panel presentations of the ozone analysis combined on the basis of GALE Intensive Observing Periods (IOP's).

Larko, David E.; Uccellini, Louis W.; Krueger, Arlin J.

1986-01-01

377

Earth Math  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This text explores a few of the many concepts that frequently come up in the study of Earth systems and global climate change. Students will be exposed to many problems involving unit conversion. Global climate change reports involve terms such as kilowatt-hour, megawatt-hour, and gigawatt-hour, as well as megatons and gigatons. Students will become versed in converting units where appropriate, and through the calculations, will work with the concept of significant figures. Creating linear equations from graphical and tabular information is covered, as well as forecasting. The text is meant to be used as a companion to standard Earth science and mathematics courses, and presents enough application problems to allow students to quantitatively understand typical media reports about global climate change.

2009-01-01

378

Earth plasmas  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Fusion is the focus of this section of a tutorial about plasma, one of the four states of matter. This section deals with plasmas on Earth. There is little naturally-occurring plasma here because of the Earth's relatively cool (by universe standards) temperature, but human-made plasma is produced for industry and research purposes. The section explores the use of plasmas in experimental fusion reactors, pointing out three categories of significant unresolved issues that stand in the way of fusion becoming a viable energy source. The use of electromagnets to confine plasmas is discussed. Enlargeable images of fusion reactors are provided, and an explanation of the difference between fission and fusion is supplemented by animations of the two reaction types. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Space Science Institute

2005-01-01

379

Earth Institute  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The mission of the Earth Institute at Columbia University is to help the world achieve sustainability by expanding understanding of the Earth as one integrated system. Through research, education, and the practical application of research to real-world challenges, the Institute addresses nine interconnected global issues: climate and society, water, energy, poverty, ecosystems, public health, food and nutrition, and hazards and urbanization. The Institute's site offers a collection of videotaped events, including the biannual "State of the Planet" conferences, 2002-08, a Distinguished Lecture series, and the Sustainable Development seminar series, as well as e-seminars and e-briefings, information about funding opportunities, and information about educational opportunities at Columbia.

380

Breathing Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Visual simulation and representation programs and applications have been popping up online in greater numbers, and this recent find is one that will pique the interest of scientists, policy makers, and others who are concerned about carbon dioxide emission rates across the Earth. The Breathing Earth site was created by David Bleja, and he draws on a number of resources (such as the World Factbook and the United Nations) for the data that is utilized to create this site. Visitors can scroll over different countries to learn about their population, their emissions, and their birth and death rate. This interactive map and educational resource also contains a legend in the right-hand corner which explains the various symbols in use here.

Bleja, David

381

Impact: Earth!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What would happen if a large meteorite or other object hit the Earth? It's something that has engaged the minds and talents of astrophysicists (and students of all ages) for decades. Now the generally curious can create their own simulated impact with Purdue University's "Impact Earth" website. Visitors can browse the Famous Craters area to get started. This part includes some "classics," such as the Ries Crater and the Tunguska Fireball. Of course, visitors really must use the handy interface to craft their own impact, projectile, and target parameters to get the full effect on how such an event plays out. Also, the site includes a complete Documentation file (a peer-reviewed article) and a detailed glossary.

2013-01-01

382

Determination of the minimal clinically important difference on the Australian Therapy Outcome Measures for Occupational Therapy (AusTOMs - OT).  

PubMed

Abstract Purpose: Outcome measures must be responsive to change (able to show statistically significant change) and must also produce information on the degree of change that is clinically significant, or the minimal clinically important difference (MCID). This research sought to establish the MCID for four domains of the Australian Therapy Outcome Measures for Occupational Therapy (AusTOMs - OT). Methods: Using a criterion approach, 30 international clinicians were surveyed about their perceptions of the MCID for AusTOMs - OT. Second, using a distribution-based approach, the MCID was calculated as half of the standard deviation (SD) of the AusTOMs - OT raw scores for a sample of 787 clients. Results: Just over half the clinicians surveyed indicated that a one-point change represented the MCID for AusTOMs - OT for three domains, and 0.5-point change showed MCID for the final domain. The data analysed for the distribution-based calculation indicated that the half SD ranged from 0.51 to 0.61. Conclusion: Using both criterion and distribution-based approaches, this research empirically demonstrated that a change on the four domains of the AusTOMs - OT of between 0.51 and 1 point shows MCID. Considering these findings, and for ease of clinical interpretation, it is recommended that a one-point shift be adopted as the MCID across all domains. Implications for Rehabilitation The AusTOMs - OT have been previously shown to be valid and reliable outcome measures for use with all client groups across all settings including rehabilitation. So that rehabilitation professionals can interpret outcomes data from AusTOMs - OT, information must be available on the degree of change that is clinically significant (also referred to as the minimal clinically important difference or MCID). Using empirical calculations as well as clinician opinion, it is recommended that a one-point shift be used as the minimal clinically important difference for the AusTOMs - OT. PMID:25144830

Unsworth, Carolyn Anne; Coulson, Melissa; Swinton, Luchie; Cole, Helen; Sarigiannis, Mary

2014-08-21

383

Earth Day  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Wow! Endagered species are everywhere! Just understanding the needs of animals will help them to survive longer. Find out how much your use of energy leaves a 'carbon' footprint on the earth. We all need to use our limited resources wisely. Reduce your footprint! Find out how and take the carbon footrpint quiz here. Carbon Footprint Watch the following YouTube video to hear a special message from Carl Hiaasen, the ...

Mrs. Datwyler

2010-04-19

384

Earth's Biomes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What are the characteristics of Earth's biomes? First, open the Biomes Graphic Organizer Now read through Information on Aquatic Biome (Freshwater) and fill in 5 characterestics of a freshwater biome in your graphic organizer. Now read through Information on Desert and fill in 5 characteristics of a desert biome in your graphic organizer. Now read through Information on Rainforest and fill in 5 characteristics of rainforest biome in your graphic organizer. Now ...

Ms. Allman

2012-04-05

385

Earth Observatory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web site includes shares the images, stories and discoveries that emerge from NASA Earth science research, including its satellite missions, in-the-field research and climate models. View global maps of NASA data, check out the Image of the Day and images of current events, and read feature articles and blogs. Also includes special collections of NASA images, including the World of Change series, which documents how our planet’s land, oceans, atmosphere and Sun are changing over time.

2011-01-01

386

Earth Rocks!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of this lesson is to introduce students to the basic elements of our Earth's crust: rocks, soils and minerals. They learn how we categorize rocks, soils and minerals and how they are literally the foundation for our civilization. Students also explore how engineers use rocks, soils and minerals to create the buildings, roads, vehicles, electronics, chemicals, and other objects we use to enhance our lives.

Integrated Teaching and Learning Program,

387

Earth's Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The total amount of water on Earth, the places in which it is found and the percentages of fresh vs. salt are examined in this lesson. A short demonstration allows students to visualize the percentage differences and a coloring exercise illustrates locations. This lesson uses the 5E instructional model. All background information, student worksheets and images/photographs/data are included in these downloadable sections: Teacher's Guide, Student Capture Sheet and PowerPoint Presentation.

388

Save the Earth vs Destroy the Earth  

E-print Network

Abstract. Save the Earth VS Destroy the Earth is an interactive installation. Two structures, built with the skeletons of old monitors, are holding two world globes, plus a sign indicating on one Save the Earth and on the other Destroy the Earth. The audience is invited to mime the action to save or destroy the Earth becoming a part of the artwork. Every action is monitored and photographed, leading to the creation of an image dataset of save-the-earth vs destroy-the-earth actions. Such dataset can be interpreted as sort of sentiment dataset, where actors express a negative or positive sentiment about the "Save the Earth " topic.

Davide Giaccone

389

Total Ozone from the Ozone Monitoring System (OMI) using TOMS and DOAS Methods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) is the Dutch-Finnish contribution to NASA's EOS-Aura satellite scheduled for launch in January 2004. OMI is an imaging spectrometer that will measure the back-scattered Solar radiance in the wavelength range of 270 to 500 nm. The instrument provides near global coverage in one day with a spatial resolution of 13x24 square kilometers. OMI is a new instrument, with a heritage from TOMS, SBW, GOME, GOMOS and SCIAMACHY. OMI'S unique capabilities for measuring important trace gases and aerosols with a small footprint and daily global coverage, in conjunction with the other Aura instruments, will make a major contribution to our understanding of stratospheric and tropospheric chemistry and climate change. OMI will provide data continuity with the 23-year ozone record of TOMS. There are three ozone products planned for OMI: total column ozone, ozone profile and tropospheric column ozone. We are developing two different algorithms for total column ozone: one similar to the algorithm currently being used to process the TOMS data, and the other an improved version of the differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) method, which has been applied to GOME and SCIAMACHY data. The main reasons for starting with two algorithms for total ozone have to do with heritage and past experience; our long-term goal is to combine the two to develop a more accurate and reliable total ozone product for OMI. We will compare the performance of these two algorithms by applying both of them to the GOME data. We will examine where and how the results differ, and use the extensive TOMS-Dobson comparison studies to assess the performance of the DOAS algorithm.

Veefkind, J. P.; Bhartia, P. K.; Gleason, J.; deHaan, J. F.; Wellemeyer, C.; Levelt, P. F.

2003-01-01

390

Satellite Detection of Smoke Aerosols Over a Snow/Ice Surface by TOMS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) satellite data demonstrates the recently developed technique of using satellite UV radiance measurements to detect absorbing tropospheric aerosols is effective over snow/ice surfaces. Instead of the traditional single wavelength (visible or infrared) method of measuring tropospheric aerosols, this method takes advantage of the wavelength dependent reduction in the backscattered radiance due to the presence of absorbing aerosols over snow/ice surfaces. An example of the resulting aerosol distribution derived from TOMS data is shown for an August 1998 event in which smoke generated by Canadian forest fires drifts over and across Greenland. As the smoke plume moved over Greenland, the TOMS observed 380 nm reflectivity over the snow/ice surface dropped drastically from 90-100% down to 30-40%. To study the effects of this smoke plume in both the UV and visible regions of the spectrum, we compared a smoke-laden spectrum taken over Greenland by the high spectral resolution (300 to 800 nm) GOME instrument with one that is aerosol-free. We also discuss the results of modeling the darkening effects of various types of absorbing aerosols over snow/ice surfaces using a radiative transfer code. Finally, we investigated the history of such events by looking at the nearly twenty year record of TOMS aerosol index measurements and found that there is a large interannual variability in the amount of smoke aerosols observed over Greenland. This information will be available for studies of radiation and transport properties in the Arctic.

Hsu, N. Christina; Herman, Jay R.; Gleason, J. F.; Torres, O.; Seftor, C. J.

1998-01-01

391

MicroTom—a high-throughput model transformation system for functional genomics  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed a high-throughput Agrobacterium-mediated transformation model system using both nptII and the 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase gene from Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain CP4 (cp4) based selections in MicroTom, a miniature rapid-cycling cherry tomato variety. With the NPTII selection system, transformation\\u000a frequency calculated as independent transgenic events per inoculated explant ranged from 24 to 80% with an average of 56%,\\u000a in industrial

Yinghui Dan; Hua Yan; Tichafa Munyikwa; Jimmy Dong; Yanling Zhang; Charles L. Armstrong

2006-01-01

392

A review of "The Complete Poetry of Robert Herrick" edited by Tom Cain and Ruth Connolly  

E-print Network

190 seventeenth-century news Tom Cain and Ruth Connolly, eds. The Complete Poetry of Robert Herrick. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013. Vol. 1: lxxv + 504 pp. + 20 illus. $135. Vol. 2: xix + 805 pp. + 22 illus. $135. Review by james mardock....” Siobhán Collins, Bodies, Politics and Transformations: John Donne’s Metempsychosis (Farnham, Surrey: Ashgate, 2013), x+202 pp. Review by anne lake prescott, barnard college, columbia university. This informative if not always limpid study of John Donne...

Mardock, James; Rasmussen, Eric

2014-01-01

393

Gravity Probe B Space Vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The space vehicle for Gravity Probe B (GP-B) arrives at the launch site at Vandenburg Air Force Base. GP-B is the relativity experiment being developed at Stanford University to test two extraordinary predictions of Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity. The experiment will measure, very precisely, the expected tiny changes in the direction of the spin axes of four gyroscopes contained in an Earth-orbiting satellite at a 400-mile altitude. So free are the gyroscopes from disturbance that they will provide an almost perfect space-time reference system. They will measure how space and time are very slightly warped by the presence of the Earth, and, more profoundly, how the Earth's rotation very slightly drags space-time around with it. These effects, though small for the Earth, have far-reaching implications for the nature of matter and the structure of the Universe. GP-B is among the most thoroughly researched programs ever undertaken by NASA. This is the story of a scientific quest in which physicists and engineers have collaborated closely over many years. Inspired by their quest, they have invented a whole range of technologies that are already enlivening other branches of science and engineering. Scheduled for launch in 2003 and managed for NASA by the Marshall Space Flight Center, development of the GP-B is the responsibility of Stanford University, with major subcontractor Lockheed Martin Corporation.

2003-01-01

394

Gravity Probe B Gyroscope Rotor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Gravity Probe B (GP-B) is the relativity experiment developed at Stanford University to test two extraordinary predictions of Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity. The experiment will measure, very precisely, the expected tiny changes in the direction of the spin axes of four gyroscopes contained in an Earth-orbiting satellite at a 400-mile altitude. So free are the gyroscopes from disturbance that they will provide an almost perfect space-time reference system. They will measure how space and time are very slightly warped by the presence of the Earth, and, more profoundly, how the Earth's rotation very slightly drags space-time around with it. These effects, though small for the Earth, have far-reaching implications for the nature of matter and the structure of the Universe. This photograph is a close up of a niobium-coated gyroscope motor and its housing halves. GP-B is among the most thoroughly researched programs ever undertaken by NASA. This is the story of a scientific quest in which physicists and engineers have collaborated closely over many years. Inspired by their quest, they have invented a whole range of technologies that are already enlivening other branches of science and engineering. Launched April 20, 2004 , the GP-B program was managed for NASA by the Marshall Space Flight Center. Development of the GP-B is the responsibility of Stanford University along with major subcontractor Lockheed Martin Corporation. (Image credit to Don Harley.)

2003-01-01

395

Highlights from a Decade of OMI-TOMS Total Ozone Observations on EOS Aura  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Total ozone measurements from OMI have been instrumental in meeting Aura science objectives. In the last decade, OMI has extended the length of the TOMS total ozone record to over 35 years to monitor stratospheric ozone recovery. OMI-TOMS total ozone measurements have also been combined synergistically with measurements from other Aura instruments and MLS in particular, which provides vertically resolved information that complements the total O3 mapping capability of OMI. With this combined approach, the EOS Aura platform has produced more accurate and detailed measurements of tropospheric ozone. This has led in turn to greater understanding of the sources and transport of tropospheric ozone as well as its radiative forcing effect. The combined use of OMI and MLS data was also vital to the analysis of the severe Arctic ozone depletion event of 2011. The quality of OMI-TOMS total O3 data used in these studies is the result of several factors: a mature and well-validated algorithm, the striking stability of the OMI instrument, and OMI's hyperspectral capabilities used to derive cloud pressures. The latter has changed how we think about the effects of clouds on total ozone retrievals. We will discuss the evolution of the operational V8.5 algorithm and provide an overview and motivation for V9. After reviewing results and developments of the past decade, we finally highlight how ozone observations from EOS Aura are playing an important role in new ozone mapping missions.

Haffner, David P.; Bhartia, Pawan K.; McPeters, Richard D.; Joiner, Joanna; Ziemke, Jerald R.; Vassilkov, Alexander; Labow, Gordon J.; Chiou, Er-Woon

2014-01-01

396

Dynamic Langmuir Probe Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of circuit parameters, probe configuration, current delays, ; and displacement-current spikes on the results obtained using dynamic Langmuir ; probe methods are outlined. The analysis of these effects is carried out in the ; positive column of a d-c discharge, using pulsedprobe, high-frequency-probe, ; resonance-probe, and fixedprobe--time-varying-plasma measuring methods. (T.F.H.);

R. W. Carlson; T. Okuda; H. J. Oskam

1962-01-01

397

probeBase  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Microbial Ecology Group of Munich's University of Technology has recently launched probeBase, "a comprehensive database containing published rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probe sequences, DNA microarray layouts and associated information." Users may search for sequences by target organism, which "can assist in the development of new rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes for fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)," or by probe name for rapidly retrieving published probes targeting desired sequences without prior phylogenetic analysis. Researchers are encouraged to submit new or missing probes in efforts to keep probeBase as up-to-date as possible. A list of RNA-related links is also provided.

Horn, Matthias

398

Hydrodynamic ultrasonic probe  

DOEpatents

An improved probe for in-service ultrasonic inspection of long lengths of a workpiece, such as small diameter tubing from the interior. The improved probe utilizes a conventional transducer or transducers configured to inspect the tubing for flaws and/or wall thickness variations. The probe utilizes a hydraulic technique, in place of the conventional mechanical guides or bushings, which allows the probe to move rectilinearly or rotationally while preventing cocking thereof in the tube and provides damping vibration of the probe. The probe thus has lower friction and higher inspection speed than presently known probes.

Day, Robert A. (Livermore, CA); Conti, Armond E. (San Jose, CA)

1980-01-01

399

Investigations of Desert Dust and Smoke in the North Atlantic in Support of the TOMS Instrument  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the initial period of the work we concentrated on Saharan dust storms and published a sequence of papers (Colarco et a1 2002,2003a,b, Toon, 2004). The U.S. Air Force liked the dust model so well that they appropriated it for operational dust storm forecasting (Barnum et al., 2004). The Air Force has used it for about 5 yrs in the Middle East where dust storms cause significant operational problems. The student working on this project, Peter Colarco, has graduated and is now a civil servant at Goddard where he continues to interact with the TOMS team. This work helped constrain the optical properties of dust at TOMS wavelengths, which is useful for climate simulations and for TOMS retrievals of dust properties such as optical depth. We also used TOMS data to constrain the sources of dust in Africa and the Middle East, to determine the actual paths taken by Saharan dust storms, to learn more about the mechanics of variations in the optical depths, and to learn more about the mechanisms controlling the altitudes of the dust. During the last two years we have been working on smoke from fires. Black carbon aerosols are one of the leading factors in radiative forcing. The US Climate Change Science Program calls this area out for specific study. It has been suggested by Jim Hansen, and Mark Jacobsen among others, that by controlling emissions of black carbon we might reduce greenhouse radiative forcing in a relatively painless manner. However, we need a greatly improved understanding of the amount of black carbon in the atmosphere, where it is located, where it comes from, how it is mixed with other particles, what its actual optical properties are, and how it evolves. In order to learn about these issues we are using a numerical model of smoke. We have applied this model to the SAFARI field program data, and used the TOMS satellite observations in that period (Sept. 2000). Our goal is to constrain source function estimates for black carbon, and smoke optical properties.

Toon, Owen B.

2005-01-01

400

Earth's Orbit  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners draw a circle with a single focus, an ellipse with two foci close together, and an ellipse with two foci far apart, and compare the shapes. Learners then measure the Sun in four images each taken in a different season, comparing the apparent size of the Sun in each image to determine when Earth is closest to the Sun. This is the second activity in the SDO Secondary Learning Unit. The activity is reprinted with permission from the Great Explorations in Math and Science (GEMS).

401

Earth 911  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Earth 911 is an organization focused on empowering the public with community-specific resources to improve their quality of life. To accomplish this goal, they provide information on a wide range of environmental topics including recycling (several types of materials), household hazardous waste, water quality, composting, air pollution prevention, fire prevention, green shopping tips, and mercury pollution. Environmental news links, games and activities for kids, and local news and events are also included. Users may enter a zip code to obtain information on environmental issues specific to where they live.

2004-01-01

402

Earth Exploration Toolbook: Analyzing the Antarctic Ozone Hole  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, users examine satellite images from NASA's Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) that show how much ozone is in the atmosphere over the Southern Hemisphere. They interpret the images to identify ozone thinning that develops over this region each summer, and compare its size from year to year. Using freely-available image analysis software, ImageJ, users quantify the area of the Antarctic ozone hole each October from 1996 to 2004. Finally, they bring their measurements into a spreadsheet program and create a graph to document changes in the size of the ozone hole. This chapter is part of the Earth Exploration Toolbook, which provides teachers and/or students with direct practice for using scientific tools to analyze Earth science data. Students should begin on the Case Study page.

2012-08-03

403

Monitoring Physiological Variables with Membrane Probes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This project has demonstrated the possibility of using membrane probes in rodents to monitor physiological variables for extended periods of time. The utility of these probes in physiological studies of microgravity has been demonstrated. The feasibility of developing on-line sensors has also been demonstrated and allows for the possibility of developing real-time automated monitoring systems which can be used in ground-base physiological research as well as in research and medical monitoring in space. In addition to space applications these techniques can be extended to medical monitoring in critical care situations on earth as well as facilitating research in many human and animal diseases.

Janle, Elsa M.

1997-01-01

404

Lunar Polar Orbiter and Landing Probe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A feasibility study of the Lunar Polar Orbiter (LPO) and small Landing Probe tentatively planned to be launched in 1997 by H-II launch vehicle is presented. The mission objectives of the LPO are to provide global geographical and elemental composition data about the lunar surface. Three types of LPO systems have been studied according to three different requirements of the mission candidates. Each LPO system can be designed by best utilizing the up-to-date earth observation satellite technologies without any major technical challenges. As for the Landing Probe, Navigation and Guidance, Landing Radar, Engine Throttling and Landing Gear are the key technologies which require further research effort.

Iwata, Tsutomu; Eto, Takao; Okuda, Kazumi; Ota, Kazuo; Kaneko, Yutaka; Imai, Ryoichi

405

Tropospheric Ozone Pollution Transport Traced from the TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) Instrument During the Nashville-1999 Campaign  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Over the past several years, we have developed two new tropospheric ozone retrievals from the TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) satellite instrument that are of sufficient resolution to follow pollution episodes. The modified-residual technique [Hudson and Thompson, 1998; Thompson and Hudson, 1999] uses v. 7 TOMS total ozone and is applicable to tropical regimes in which the wave-one pattern in total ozone is observed. The TOMS-direct method [("TDOT" = TOMS Direct Ozone in the Troposphere; Frolov et al., 2000] represents a new algorithm that uses TOMS radiances directly (i.e., not previously processed for TOMS ozone) to extract tropospheric ozone in regions of constant stratospheric ozone and tropospheric ozone displaying high mixing ratios and variability characteristic of pollution. These events tend to occur in certain meteorological regimes. For example, mid-latitude pollution usually occurs on the backside of subtropical fronts, as low pv, usually moist air intrudes to the extra-tropics. July 1999 was a month characterized by robust pollution in the eastern US, with high ozone, as detected by TOMS, originating over south central states and moving up the Atlantic seaboard. This corresponds to 50-80 DU in tropospheric ozone column depth. In most cases, further transport occurred to the North Atlantic, with ozone plumes traveling to western Europe in 4-5 days. Examples of high ozone and transit across boundaries within the US, as well as US->Europe, give a regional context for model results and field measurements taken in the SE US during the Nashville-1999 campaign period. Validation of the TDOT maps is made with ozonesondes taken during that time. TDOT maps also show ozone pollution from Asia traveling to the western US in July 1999.

Thompson, Anne M.; Frolov, A. D.; Hudson, R. D.; Witte, J. C.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

406

Solar System: The Earth in Space  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Science Object is the first of four Science Objects in the Solar System SciPack. It provides an understanding of where Earth is located in space and explores evidence used by astronomers to place Earth at this location. Earth is a relatively small planet and the third from the Sun in our solar system. The Sun is the central and largest body in the solar system. Our still-growing knowledge of the solar system comes to us in part by direct observation from Earth, including the use of optical, radio, and x-ray telescopes that are sensitive to a broad spectrum of information coming to us from space; computers that can undertake increasingly complicated calculations, find patterns in data, and support or reject theories about the origins of the solar system; and space probes that send back detailed pictures and other data from distant planets. Learning Outcomes:? Explain that we discovered and learn about the other planets through the use of various kinds of telescopes, space probes, and other technologies.? Relate observations of the motion of objects in the sky to a Sun-centric model of the solar system, including observations of the "wandering" stars (planets) from Earth's frame of reference.? Recognize that Earth is one of the planets in the solar system, that it orbits the Sun just as the other planets do.

National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

2006-11-01

407

GOOGLE EARTH QUICK GUIDE (1)Google Earth Features  

E-print Network

GOOGLE EARTH QUICK GUIDE (1)Google Earth Features The Google Earth of the Google Earth window. Often when opening up the Google Earth program, the view screen will be a view of the entire Earth from space. Navigation bar

Smith-Konter, Bridget

408

Earth Pulse  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Earth Pulse is the National Geographic site for conservation. It features a set of links to National Geographic sites with a variety of conservation themes such as oceans, climate, energy, fresh water, and others. Many of these pages feature interactive tours or videos. "Virtual Worlds" is a set of interactive tours of various environments, from the rain forest at night to a "new urbanist" neighborhood. There is also a collection of "Sights and Sounds" interactive pages on a variety of ecosystems, in which users can click on a map and see information on wildlife that inhabits the selected region. There are also links to news articles and online expeditions in which users can follow actual expeditions as they were conducted by explorers-in-residence.

409

Earth's Oceans  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource guide from the Middle School Portal 2 project, written specifically for teachers, provides links to exemplary resources including background information, lessons, career information, and related national science education standards. This guide focuses on the oceans as a part of the Earth system: the link between oceans and climate; tsunamis; life science concepts such as ocean ecosystems, food webs, and biodiversity; real data – both sources of and projects that use real data; and related careers. There is also a section on the misconceptions commonly surrounding ocean concepts and finally the National Science Education Standards that these resource connect to. So even though you might not teach a unit called oceans, the oceans can be used as a context within an existing unit, such as ecosystems, energy transfer, systems thinking, or methods in science.

Kimberly Lightle

410

Earth-Sun Geometry - Earth Revolution Animation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The representation is an animation of the Earth revolving around the sun. The Earth is shown as a solid green sphere with the equator and arctic circle marked with black lines and the dark side of the Earth shaded. The Earth's axis is shown with a red line. As the Earth revolves around the sun, the axis is shown to always be pointing in the same direction. The positions of Earth at the winter solstice, vernal equinox, summer solstice, and autumnal equinox are labeled.

Dr. Michael Pidwirny

411

SYNTHESIS & INTEGRATION Earth Stewardship  

E-print Network

SYNTHESIS & INTEGRATION Earth Stewardship: science for action to sustain the human-earth system F, A. G. Power, and A. Bartuska. 2011. Earth Stewardship: science for action to sustain the human-earth system. Ecosphere 2(8):art89. doi:10.1890/ES11-00166.1 Abstract. Human activities affect Earth's life

Jackson, Robert B.

412

Tom O'Connor: His legacy of atmospheric aerosol research in Ireland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dr. Thomas C. (Tom) O'Connor received his foundation in atmospheric aerosols through his M. Sc. work at University College Dublin (with P.J. Nolan) and then as research scholar with Leo W. Pollak at the Dublin Institute of Advanced Studies. On moving to Galway in 1956, a significant legacy was his choosing of a field station site at Mace Head and his pioneering measurements there. He played a pivotal role in the development and progression of the Mace Head Atmospheric Research Station (www.macehead.org) for some 50 years. He passed away peacefully in November 2012.

Jennings, S. Gerard

2013-05-01

413

The Gravity Probe B Science Instrument  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Gravity Probe B (GP-B) experiment employs a unique state-of-the-art science instrument to measure the geodetic and frame-dragging precessions predicted by Einstein's theory of general relativity for gyroscopes orbiting a massive spinning body, in this case the Earth. The GP-B instrument comprises four electrostatically suspended gyroscopes, each of which is independently subject to both the geodetic and frame-dragging precessions, and

John Turneaure

2007-01-01

414

Nanopositioning for probe storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scanning-probe data-storage devices are currently being explored as alternatives to conventional data storage. Ultra-high density, small form factor, and low cost are thought to be the primary advantages of probe storage. The ultra-high a real density makes nanopositioning a significant challenge in probe storage. In this paper, we discuss the control of a MEMS scanner used in a probe storage

A. Sebastian; A. Pantazi; G. Cherubini; E. Eleftheriou; M. A. Lantz; H. Pozidis

2005-01-01

415

Geo-neutrinos and Earth's interior  

E-print Network

The deepest hole that has ever been dug is about 12 km deep. Geochemists analyze samples from the Earth's crust and from the top of the mantle. Seismology can reconstruct the density profile throughout all Earth, but not its composition. In this respect, our planet is mainly unexplored. Geo-neutrinos, the antineutrinos from the progenies of U, Th and K40 decays in the Earth, bring to the surface information from the whole planet, concerning its content of natural radioactive elements. Their detection can shed light on the sources of the terrestrial heat flow, on the present composition, and on the origins of the Earth. Geo-neutrinos represent a new probe of our planet, which can be exploited as a consequence of two fundamental advances that occurred in the last few years: the development of extremely low background neutrino detectors and the progress on understanding neutrino propagation. We review the status and the prospects of the field.

Gianni Fiorentini; Marcello Lissia; Fabio Mantovani

2007-08-18

416

Detecting solar axions using Earth's magnetic field.  

PubMed

We show that solar axion conversion to photons in the Earth's magnetosphere can produce an x-ray flux, with average energy omega approximately 4 keV, which is measurable on the dark side of the Earth. The smallness of the Earth's magnetic field is compensated by a large magnetized volume. For axion masses m(a) less, similar10(-4) eV, a low-Earth-orbit x-ray detector with an effective area of 10(4) cm(2), pointed at the solar core, can probe the photon-axion coupling down to 10(-11) GeV-1, in 1 yr. Thus, the sensitivity of this new approach will be an order of magnitude beyond current laboratory limits. PMID:17155238

Davoudiasl, Hooman; Huber, Patrick

2006-10-01

417

The Lifeworld Earth and a Modelled Earth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The goal of this paper is to study the question of whether a phenomenological view of the Earth could be empirically endorsed. The phenomenological way of thinking considers the Earth as a material entity, but not as an object as viewed in science. In the learning science tradition, tracking the process of the conceptual change of the shape of the Earth, science's view of the Earth as an object—a celestial body—has been applied. I reanalysed data published in Vosniadou and Brewer's (Cognit psychol 24:535-585, 1992) seminal paper. According to my reanalysis of their interview material, it is plausible to conclude that the Earth as an infinite surface is the way to experience the Earth. Further, the `dual Earth model' is the first model of the Earth as an object. I conclude that experiences in the lifeworld need to be taken into consideration more seriously in science education research.

Juuti, Kalle

2014-08-01

418

Earth Science Lessons  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collection of Earth Science lessons, tests, and activities for middle school students is an accompaniment to the Volcano World website. Topics covered include plate tectonics, Pangea, plate movement, Earth layers, earthquakes, volcanoes, rocks and minerals, and prehistoric Earth.

Scott Johnson

419

D Region Probe Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

A systematic theory of a parachute-borne blunt probe operating in an altitude range from 50 to 80 km is presented. The relationships between positive ion, negative ion, and electron densities and the current to the probe and the probe voltage are found. It is shown that order of magnitude errors occur if a free molecular flow theory is used in

David P. Hoult

1965-01-01

420

Academic Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Academic Earth provides videos of lectures by top scholars in "Subjects" that range from Astronomy to Entrepreneurship to Religion, from "Universities" as celebrated as MIT, Berkeley, Harvard, and Stanford. Visitors must register to view the lectures, but registration is free. There are over 1500 video lectures available, with more being added everyday. In addition to viewing the lectures available by subject or university, visitors can choose by "Instructors" or by "Playlists". When visitors click on "Playlists" at the top of the homepage, they will see a list of lectures by theme, by several different instructors, and a grade given to the lecture series. A good example is the 6-part lecture entitled "Understanding the Financial Crisis" by four different instructors. The series is given a grade overall, in this case, an A-, and when visitors click on "See all 6 lectures" at the bottom of the series' description, they will be taken to the page with the links to the individual lectures, as well as shown the grade given each individual lecture. Visitors can even keep a playlist of their favorite lectures or download the lectures. Visitors should definitely check out the Frequently Asked Questions page, accessible by the "FAQ" link at the bottom of the website.

421

Exploring Magnetism on Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This teacher's guide contains four lessons that provide a way for teachers to introduce students to and elaborate on Earth's changing magnetic field. It covers learning to navigate using Earth's magnetic field and compass, Earth's magnetic pole and its motion across Earth's surface, magnetic reversals on Earth, and Earth's currently declining magnetic field. These lessons have been taught primarily in math, geology, and astronomy classes.

2005-01-01

422

Analytical theory of Earth’s rotation  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analytical theory of the rotation of the rigid Earth is developed in a form compatible with the general planetary theory.\\u000a Numerical estimates of the constants of integration of the Poisson equations, which are a particular case of the equations\\u000a of the Earth’s rotation, are given.

V. A. Brumberg; T. V. Ivanova

2009-01-01

423

Spectral analyses, climatology, and interannual variability of Nimbus-7 TOMS version 6 total column ozone  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This reference publication presents selected results from space-time spectral analyses of 13 years of version 6 daily global ozone fields from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS). One purpose is to illustrate more quantitatively the well-known richness of structure and variation in total ozone. A second purpose is to provide, for use by modelers and for comparison with other analysts' work, quantitative measures of zonal waves 1, 2, 3, and medium-scale waves 4-7 in total ozone. Their variations throughout the year and at a variety of latitudes are presented, from equatorial to polar regions. The 13-year averages are given, along with selected individual years which illustrate year-to-year variability. The largest long wave amplitudes occur in the polar winters and early springs of each hemisphere, and are related to strong wave amplification during major warning events. In low attitudes total ozone wave amplitudes are an order of magnitude smaller than at high latitudes. However, TOMS fields contain a number of equatorial dynamical features, including Rossby-gravity and Kelvin waves.

Stanford, J. L.; Ziemke, J. R.; Mcpeters, R. D.; Krueger, A. J.; Bhartia, P. K.

1995-01-01

424

Optimization of factors affecting Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Micro-Tom tomatoes.  

PubMed

Micro-Tom is the smallest known variety of tomatoes. An orthogonal experimental design L(16) (4(5)) was used to optimize Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of cotyledon explants of Lycopersicon esculentum cv. Micro-Tom. Four parameters were investigated to determine their effect on transformation frequency: the concentration of bacterial suspension, time of dip in bacterial suspension, co-cultivation time, and concentration of carbenicillin. We also examined the effect of these parameters on contamination rate, necrosis rate, mortality, cut-surface browning rate, and undamaged explant rate. Both the bacterial and carbenicillin concentrations had a significant influence on the rate of infected explants. The time of co-cultivation also had a significant influence on the transformation parameters. The optimal transformation protocol consisted of an Agrobacterium suspension of 0.5 × 10(8) cells/mL (OD(600) = 0.5) and an infection time of 5 min, one day of co-cultivation and 500 mg/L carbenicillin. Under these conditions, the transformation efficiency of the shoots reached 5.1%; the mean transformation frequency was 3.9% (N = 838). PMID:22535402

Guo, M; Zhang, Y L; Meng, Z J; Jiang, J

2012-01-01

425

Seasonal trend analysis of published ground-based and TOMS total ozone data through 1991  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A seasonal trend analysis of published Dobson (including stations' newly revised and Brewer-simulated Dobson) total ozone data through 1991 from a network of 56 stations has been performed, using three different data periods. The trend results for the longest data period 1964 - 1991 indicate substantial negative trends in ozone in the higher northern latitudes during the winter and spring seasons, some evidence of negative trend in the higher southern latitudes (30 deg S - 55 deg S) during all seasons, and trends close to zero for all seasons over the 30 deg S - 30 deg N latitude range. For the shortest data period, November 1978 through 1991, there is a clear indication that trends have become more negative in the higher northern latitudes, especially during the winter and spring seasons, and also in the higher southern latitudes in all seasons. A seasonal trend analysis of zonal averages of total ozone mapping spectrometer (TOMS) satellite total ozone data for the comparable period November 1978 through 1991 has also been performed, and moderately good agreement is found between trends in Dobson and TOMS data over this period.

Reinsel, Gregory C.; Tiao, George C.; Wuebbles, Donald J.; Kerr, James B.; Miller, Alvin J.; Nagatani, Ronald M.; Bishop, Lane; Ying, Lisa H.

1994-01-01

426

The Effect of New Ozone Cross Sections Applied to SBUV and TOMS Retrievals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The ozone cross sections as measured by Bass and Paur have been used for processing of SBUV and TOMS data since 1986. While these cross sections were a big improvement over those previously available, there were known minor problems with accuracy for wavelengths longward of 330 nm and with the temperature dependance. Today's requirements to separate stratospheric ozone from tropospheric ozone and for the derivation of minor species such as BrO and N02 place stringent new requirements on the accuracy needed. The ozone cross section measurements of Brion, Daumont, and Malicet (BDM) are being considered for use in UV-based ozone retrievals. They have much better resolution, an extended wavelength range, and a more consistent temperature dependance. Tests show that BDM retrievals exhibit lower retrieval residuals in the satellite data; i.e., they explain our measured atmospheric radiances more accurately. Total column ozone retrieved by the TOMS instruments is about 1.5% higher than before. Ozone profiles retrieved from SBUV using the new cross sections are lower in the upper stratosphere and higher in the lower stratosphere and troposphere.

McPeters, Richard D.; Labow, Gordon J.

2010-01-01

427

Comparison of recalculated Dobson and TOMS total ozone at Hradec Kralove, Czechoslovakia, 1978-1990  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The reevaluated Dobson total ozone data from Hradec Kralove, Czechoslovakia were compared with independent Total Ozone Mapping Spectrophotometer (TOMS) 'version 6' data set. The comparison was performed by means of the parallel daily averages of ground-based and satellite total ozone pairs of the period November 1978 to December 1990. The comparison showed slight differences between both data series. Their average relative difference is 0.48 percent. The similar results have been reached for subsets of direct sun and zenith types of measurements as well. Their relative differences are 0.61 percent and 0.11 percent respectively. These facts indicate not only good mutual relation of both data sources but also reliability and accuracy of the zenith charts of the spectrophotometer No. 74 used at Hradec Kralove. Preliminary assessment of seasonal MU-dependence of the differences between Dobson and TOMS data was made while using total ozones of winter and summer months representing values of MU=2.70-5.20 and MU = 1.12-1.30 respectively. The results did not show systematic underestimation or overestimation of total ozone due to MU-dependence of the instrument at Hradec Kralove in both seasons.

Stanek, Martin; Vanicek, Karel

1994-01-01

428

Heat pipe cooled probe  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The basic heat pipe principle is employed to provide a self-contained passively cooled probe that may be placed into a high temperature environment. The probe consists of an evaporator region of a heat pipe and a sensing instrument. Heat is absorbed as the working fluid evaporates in the probe. The vapor is transported to the vapor space of the condenser region. Heat is dissipated from the condenser region and fins causing condensation of the working fluid, which returns to the probe by gravity and the capillary action of the wick. Working fluid, wick and condenser configurations and structure materials can be selected to maintain the probe within an acceptable temperature range.

Camarda, C. J. (inventor); Couch, L. M.

1984-01-01

429

2014 Tom Larson, Pharm.D. and Amanda Maderich, Pharm.D. University of Minnesota College of Pharmacy. 1 Phar 6211 Non-Prescription Drug Therapy  

E-print Network

2014 Tom Larson, Pharm.D. and Amanda Maderich, Pharm.D. University of Minnesota College of Pharmacy materials, self-tests, and assignment information. Course Directors and Information: Tom Larson, Pharm.D. Amanda Maderich, Pharm.D. Preferred method of contact: email or phone Office Hours: By appointment Dr

Thomas, David D.

430

SphagnumSphagnum Production and Decomposition in a Mountain Raised BogProduction and Decomposition in a Mountain Raised Bog TomTomss HHjekjek  

E-print Network

, decomposition and decomposability in six dominant Sphagnum species in a Central European mountain patterned mireSphagnumSphagnum Production and Decomposition in a Mountain Raised BogProduction and Decomposition in a Mountain Raised Bog TomTomásás HHáájekjek The Third International Symposium on the Biology of Sphagnum

Hájek, Tomá�

431

Martin Nowak's latest book written with Telegraph columnist Roger Highfield is going to create controversy. He tells Tom Chivers why the values preached by Jesus are encoded  

E-print Network

, will be serialised next week. By Tom Chivers (http://www.telegraph.co.uk/journalists/tom-chivers/) 7:31AM GMT 15 Mar the planets to move in complicated flower patterns to explain their movement in the sky. "Somehow you Martin

Wenseleers, Tom

432

Study of tropopause height estimate from TOMS total ozone data from Nimbus-7 and from the microwave regression temperature retrieval of simulated brightness temperatures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of TOMS total ozone data obtained by the Nimbus-7 satellite in order to improve satellite microwave retrieval in the tropopause is investigated. Attention is given to the determination of the tropopause by means of TOMS data, the character of the effect of tropopause errors on microwave MSU retrievals, and the use of air mass to stratify regression retrievals.

Munteanu, M.-J.

1983-01-01

433

Clinical and Research Implications of an Investigation into Theory of Mind (TOM) Task Performance in Children and Adults with Non-Specific Intellectual Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Theory of Mind (TOM) has rarely been studied in people with intellectual disabilities. Wherever it has been studied, differing results have been found. These may be attributed to a variety of factors (e.g. the different chronological ages of samples). The validity of relating TOM performance to social behaviour has also been questioned…

Jervis, Nicola; Baker, Martyn

2004-01-01

434

Searching for Frozen Super Earth via Microlensing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microlensing planet hunt is a unique method to probe efficiently for frozen Super Earth orbiting the most common stars of our galaxy. It is nicely complementing the parameter space probed by very high accuracy radial velocity measurements and future space based detections of low mass transiting planets. In order to maximize the planet catch, the microlensing community is engaged in a total cooperation among the different groups (OGLE, MicroFUN, MOA, PLANET/RoboNET) by making the real time data available, and mutual informing/reporting about modeling efforts. Four planets have been published so far by combinations of the different groups, 2 Jovian analogues, one Neptune and a Super Earth. Given the microlensing detection efficiency, it suggests that these Neptunes/Super Earths may be quite common. Using networks of dedicated 1-2m class telescopes, the microlensing community has entered a new phase of planet discoveries, and will be able to provide constraints on the abundance of frozen Super-Earths in the near future. Statistics about Mars to Earth mass planets, extending to the habitable zone will be achieved with space based wide field imagers at the horizon 2015.

Beaulieu, J. P.; Batista, V.; Cassan, A.; Coutures, C.; Donatowicz, J.; Fouqué, P.; Kubas, D.; Marquette, J. B.

435

Searching for Frozen Super Earth via Microlensing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microlensing planet hunt is a unique method to probe efficiently for frozen Super Earth orbiting the most common stars of our galaxy. It is nicely complementing the parameter space probed by very high accuracy radial velocity measurements and future space based detections of low mass transiting planets. In order to maximize the planet catch, the microlensing community is engaged in a total cooperation among the different groups (OGLE, MicroFUN, MOA, PLANET/RoboNET) by making the real time data available, and mutual informing/reporting about modeling efforts. Eight planets have been published so far by combinations of the different groups, 4 Jovian analogues, one Neptune and two Super Earth. Given the microlensing detection efficiency, it suggests that these Neptunes/Super Earths may be quite common. Using networks of dedicated 1-2m class telescopes, the microlensing community has entered a new phase of planet discoveries, and will be able to provide constraints on the abundance of frozen Super-Earths in the near future. Statistics about Mars to Earth mass planets, extending to the habitable zone will be achieved with space based wide field imagers (EUCLID) at the horizon 2017.

Batista, V.; Beaulieu, J. P.; Cassan, A.; Coutures, C.; Donatowicz, J.; Fouqué, P.; Kubas, D.; Marquette, J. B.

2009-04-01

436

Evaluating Ultraviolet Radiation Exposures Determined from TOMS Satellite Data at Sites of Amphibian Declines in Central and South America  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Many amphibian species have experienced substantial population declines, or have disappeared altogether, during the last several decades at a number of amphibian census sites in Central and South America. This study addresses the use of satellite-derived trends in solar ultraviolet-B (UV-B; 280-320 nm) radiation exposures at these sites over the last two decades, and is intended to demonstrate a role for satellite observations in determining whether UV-B radiation is a contributing factor in amphibian declines. UV-B radiation levels at the Earth's surface were derived from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) satellite data, typically acquired daily since 1979. These data were used to calculate the daily erythemal (sunburning) UV-B, or UV-B(sub ery), exposures at the latitude, longitude, and elevation of each of 20 census sites. The annually averaged UV-B(sub ery) dose, as well as the maximum values, have been increasing in both Central and South America, with higher levels received at the Central American sites. The annually averaged UV-B(sub ery) exposures increased significantly from 1979-1998 at all 11 Central American sites examined (r(exp 2) = 0.60 - 0.79; P<=0.015), with smaller but significant increases at five of the nine South American sites (r(exp 2) = 0.24-0.42; P<=0.05). The contribution of the highest UV-B(sub ery) exposure levels (>= 6750 J/sq m*d) to the annual UV-B(sub ery) total has increased from approx. 5% to approx. 15% in Central America over the 19 year period, but actual daily exposures for each species are unknown. Synergy among UV-B radiation and other factors, especially those associated with alterations of water chemistry (e.g., acidification) in aqueous habitats is discussed. These findings justify further research concerning whether UV-B(sub ery) radiation plays a role in amphibian population declines and extinctions.

Middleton, Elizabeth M.; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

437

Earth Observation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For pipeline companies, mapping, facilities inventory, pipe inspections, environmental reporting, etc. is a monumental task. An Automated Mapping/Facilities Management/Geographic Information Systems (AM/FM/GIS) is the solution. However, this is costly and time consuming. James W. Sewall Company, an AM/FM/GIS consulting firm proposed an EOCAP project to Stennis Space Center (SSC) to develop a computerized system for storage and retrieval of digital aerial photography. This would provide its customer, Algonquin Gas Transmission Company, with an accurate inventory of rights-of-way locations and pipeline surroundings. The project took four years to complete and an important byproduct was SSC's Digital Aerial Rights-of-Way Monitoring System (DARMS). DARMS saves substantial time and money. EOCAP enabled Sewall to develop new products and expand its customer base. Algonquin now manages regulatory requirements more efficiently and accurately. EOCAP provides government co-funding to encourage private investment in and broader use of NASA remote sensing technology. Because changes on Earth's surface are accelerating, planners and resource managers must assess the consequences of change as quickly and accurately as possible. Pacific Meridian Resources and NASA's Stennis Space Center (SSC) developed a system for monitoring changes in land cover and use, which incorporated the latest change detection technologies. The goal of this EOCAP project was to tailor existing technologies to a system that could be commercialized. Landsat imagery enabled Pacific Meridian to identify areas that had sustained substantial vegetation loss. The project was successful and Pacific Meridian's annual revenues have substantially increased. EOCAP provides government co-funding to encourage private investment in and broader use of NASA remote sensing technology.

1994-01-01

438

The Toms River Childhood Cancer Cluster: Coupled Groundwater and Water Distribution System Modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Toms River, New Jersey is the location of a statistically significant childhood cancer cluster. A 1995 cancer investigation indicated that relative to the state, the Toms River section of Dover Township had excess childhood cancer incidence for all malignant cancers combined, brain and central nervous system (CNS) cancers, and leukemia. Children under the age of five were found to have a seven-fold increase in brain and CNS cancer. The community's concern focused on the possibility that exposure to environmental contaminants may be related to the incidence of these childhood cancers. Two Superfund sites in Dover Township were implicated as having a possible impact on the local water supply. One of these, the Reich Farm site, is a source of contaminants to the aquifer that serves a major well field for Toms River. Contaminants in the aquifer include TCE, PCE and styrene-acrylonitrile (SAN) trimer. In 1997, the New Jersey Department of Health and Senior Services and the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry began an epidemiology study to evaluate the relationship between the environmental exposure pathways and the elevated childhood cancer incidence. Toxicity studies for the SAN trimer were also initiated. Groundwater modeling was undertaken to establish the historical relationship between the Reich Farm site and the municipal well field and to aid in the management and protection of the aquifer and well field to ensure both water quality and quantity. The modeling of the water distribution system for Toms River was also part of the study. Groundwater flow from the Reich Farm Superfund site to the municipal well field for Toms River was modeled for a thirty-year time period using MODFLOW. To account for the growth and development of the well field within the modeling domain, a transient model was constructed. The use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and databases to manage, maintain, and compile field observations for model input and calibration was an important part of the work. GIS and databases were important tools in assessing the quality of the data, discovering and correcting errors in the field data (including surveying inconsistencies), as well as providing an efficient and automated means to visualize the data. Model calibration exercises indicated that a more physically based spatial and temporally variable recharge was necessary to account for dramatic fluctuations in water levels due to seasonal variations. The accurate simulation of the transient groundwater flow system was essential for the subsequent prediction of contaminant migration from the superfund site to the municipal wells and then subsequently into the modeled water distribution system. The independent estimation of the adsorption parameters of the SAN trimer on the porous media of the aquifer was an important aspect of the determination of both the average travel time and the breakthrough of the chemical at the municipal well field. The modeling methodology included an uncertainty analysis of the estimated exposure concentration in the water distribution system given uncertain groundwater parameters. Distributed computing with a Monte Carlo analysis was used for this work. The results of the modeling study were used to assist in the definition of the temporal integration periods in the epidemiology study. The predicted historical breakthrough curve of the SAN trimer in the municipal wells correlates with the period with the excess childhood cancer incidence.

Sykes, J. F.; Normani, S. D.

2003-12-01

439

Ultrafast scanning probe microscopy  

DOEpatents

An ultrafast scanning probe microscopy method for achieving subpicosecond-temporal resolution and submicron-spatial resolution of an observation sample. In one embodiment of the present claimed invention, a single short optical pulse is generated and is split into first and second pulses. One of the pulses is delayed using variable time delay means. The first pulse is then directed at an observation sample located proximate to the probe of a scanning probe microscope. The scanning probe microscope produces probe-sample signals indicative of the response of the probe to characteristics of the sample. The second pulse is used to modulate the probe of the scanning probe microscope. The time delay between the first and second pulses is then varied. The probe-sample response signal is recorded at each of the various time delays created between the first and second pulses. The probe-sample response signal is then plotted as a function of time delay to produce a cross-correlation of the probe sample response. In so doing, the present invention provides simultaneous subpicosecond-temporal resolution and submicron-spatial resolution of the sample.

Weiss, Shimon (El Cerrito, CA); Chemla, Daniel S. (Kensington, CA); Ogletree, D. Frank (El Cerrito, CA); Botkin, David (San Francisco, CA)

1995-01-01

440

Gravity Probe B: The Relativity Mission  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Physicists and Engineers from Stanford University and NASA have combined efforts to create "a relativity gyroscope experiment...to test two extraordinary, unverified predictions of Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity." The Gravity Probe B Experiment uses four gyroscopes orbiting over the earth's poles. The satellites are largely free from disturbance and thus provide "an almost perfect space-time reference system." They hope to measure the warping effects of earth on space and time, and the drag created by the earth's rotation on space and time. The site offers a general interest section with press clips, educational materials, FAQs, and an image library. Along with weekly highlights, a technical interest section supplies information on technology spinoffs, scientific papers, contacts, an orbit timeline, and a link to the ground station.

441

Electrical resistivity probes  

DOEpatents

A miniaturized electrical resistivity (ER) probe based on a known current-voltage (I-V) electrode structure, the Wenner array, is designed for local (point) measurement. A pair of voltage measuring electrodes are positioned between a pair of current carrying electrodes. The electrodes are typically about 1 cm long, separated by 1 cm, so the probe is only about 1 inch long. The electrodes are mounted to a rigid tube with electrical wires in the tube and a sand bag may be placed around the electrodes to protect the electrodes. The probes can be positioned in a borehole or on the surface. The electrodes make contact with the surrounding medium. In a dual mode system, individual probes of a plurality of spaced probes can be used to measure local resistance, i.e. point measurements, but the system can select different probes to make interval measurements between probes and between boreholes.

Lee, Ki Ha; Becker, Alex; Faybishenko, Boris A.; Solbau, Ray D.

2003-10-21

442

Flattening Earth acceleration in atomic fountains  

SciTech Connect

A method to compensate for Earth's gravity tide over an extended axial region is reported. Flattening acceleration is important in experiments where the coupling of the dynamics of free-falling probes to the gravity gradient generates stochastic noise on the measurement. Optimized cylindrically symmetric mass distributions lower Earth's tidal effect over 10 cm by a factor 10{sup 3}. A multimass compensation system with comparable performance is devised for tall atom interferometers. Reducing the gravity gradient is essential in terrestrial experiments based on atom fountain configurations being developed to precisely test general relativity or the neutrality of matter.

Bertoldi, Andrea [Laboratoire Charles Fabry de l'Institut d'Optique, Univ. Paris Sud, Campus Polytechnique RD128, F-91127 Palaiseau (France)

2010-07-15

443

Early Results from the Floating Potential Probe on the International Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation provides information on the Floating Potential Probe (FPP) on the International Space Station (ISS). The FPP measures the body voltage (electric potential) of the, and the measurements are then transmitted to Earth.

Morton, Thomas L.; Ferguson, Dale C.

2001-01-01

444

Guided earth boring tool  

Microsoft Academic Search

A controllable tool for drilling holes in the earth is described comprising a hollow elongated rigid supporting drill pipe having a forward end for entering the earth, means supporting the drill pipe for earth boring or piercing movement, including means for moving the drill pipe longitudinally for penetrating the earth, the drill pipe moving means being constructed to permit addition

W. J. Mc Donald; G. T. Pittard; W. C. Maurer; M. R. Wasson; W. C. Herben

1987-01-01

445

Earth Structure Introduction  

E-print Network

Earth Structure Introduction Earth Structure (2nd Edition), 2004 W.W. Norton & Co, New York Slide show by Ben van der Pluijm © WW Norton, unless noted otherwise #12;© EarthStructure (2nd ed) 210/4/2010 Aerial views #12;© EarthStructure (2nd ed) 310/4/2010 http://www.globalchange.umich.edu/Ben/ES/ #12

446

Why Earth Science?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article briefly describes Earth science. The study of Earth science provides the foundation for an understanding of the Earth, its processes, its resources, and its environment. Earth science is the study of the planet in its entirety, how its lithosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere work together as systems and how they affect…

Smith, Michael J.

2004-01-01

447

Crew Earth Observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Crew Earth Observations (CEO) takes advantage of the crew in space to observe and photograph natural and human-made changes on Earth. The photographs record the Earth's surface changes over time, along with dynamic events such as storms, floods, fires and volcanic eruptions. These images provide researchers on Earth with key data to better understand the planet.

Runco, Susan

2009-01-01

448

Earth's Mineral Evolution  

E-print Network

Earth's Mineral Evolution :: Astrobiology Magazine - earth science - evol...rth science evolution Extreme Life Mars Life Outer Planets Earth's Mineral Evolution Summary (Nov 14, 2008): New research. Display Options: Earth's Mineral Evolution Based on a CIW news release Mineral Kingdom Has Co

Downs, Robert T.

449

Planetary science: Mission to Earth's core - a modest proposal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Planetary missions have enhanced our understanding of the Solar System and how planets work, but no comparable exploratory effort has been directed towards the Earth's interior, where equally fascinating scientific issues are waiting to be investigated. Here I propose a scheme for a mission to the Earth's core, in which a small communication probe would be conveyed in a huge volume of liquid-iron alloy migrating down to the core along a crack that is propagating under the action of gravity. The grapefruit-sized probe would transmit its findings back to the surface using high-frequency seismic waves sensed by a ground-coupled wave detector. The probe should take about a week to reach the core, and the minimum mass of molten iron required would be 108-1010 kg - or roughly between an hour and a week of Earth's total iron-foundry production.

Stevenson, David J.

2003-05-01

450

Scientific Value of a Saturn Atmospheric Probe Mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Atmospheric entry probe mISSions to the giant planets can uniquely discriminate between competing theories of solar system formation and the origin and evolution of the giant planets and their atmospheres. This provides for important comparative studies of the gas and ice giants, and to provide a laboratory for studying the atmospheric chemistries, dynamics, and interiors of all the planets including Earth. The giant planets also represent a valuable link to extrasolar planetary systems. As outlined in the recent Planetary Decadal Survey, a Saturn Probe mission - with a shallow probe - ranks as a high priority for a New Frontiers class mission [1].

Simon-Miller, A. A.; Lunine, J. I.; Atreya, S. K.; Spilker, T. R.; Coustenis, A.; Atkinson, D. H.

2012-01-01

451

Earth Observatory Glossary  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Earth Observatory Glossary defines words from space science, ecology and Earth science. It is part of the NASA Earth Observatory site, which provides new satellite imagery and scientific information about Earth with a focus on climate and environmental change. The new glossary mode allows users to browse the Earth Observatory site with special terms highlighted that, when selected, will take you to the appropriate entry in the glossary.

452

Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) observations of increases in Asian aerosol in winter from 1979 to 2000  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emission inventories indicate that the largest increases in SO emissions have occurred in Asia during the last 20 years. By inference, largest increases in aerosol, produced primarily by the conversion of SO to sulfate, should have occurred in Asia during the same time period. Decadal changes in regional aerosol optical depths are calculated by analyzing Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS)

Steven T. Massie; Omar Torres; Steven J. Smith

2004-01-01

453

Nearfield sound response to fire ant alate wingbeat Lichuan Gui, Dayong Sun, Tom Fink, John Seiner and Douglas Streett*  

E-print Network

more high frequency components than that from the bottom, and the Fourier analysis (bottom right in Fig.56, so that the hindwing has a high rotation speed between t/T=0.56 and 0.62. The sound pressureNearfield sound response to fire ant alate wingbeat Lichuan Gui, Dayong Sun, Tom Fink, John Seiner

Gui, Lichuan

454

Inclusion of Fabric Properties in the E-Textile Design Process Meghan M. Quirk, Tom L. Martin, Mark T. Jones  

E-print Network

Inclusion of Fabric Properties in the E-Textile Design Process Meghan M. Quirk, Tom L. Martin, Mark: {quirk, tlmartin, mtj}@vt.edu Abstract This paper considers the impact of fabric properties on the e-textile as physical aspects of an e-textile system within an expanded design flow. Results from woven e-textile

455

Language and ToM Development in Autism versus Asperger Syndrome: Contrasting Influences of Syntactic versus Lexical/Semantic Maturity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Theory of mind (ToM) development by a sample of 63 children aged 5-12 years (24 with Asperger syndrome, 19 with high-functioning autism, and 20 age-matched typical developers) was assessed with a five-task false-belief battery in relation to both lexical (vocabulary) and syntactic (grammar) language skills. Contrary to some previous research, no…

Paynter, Jessica; Peterson, Candida

2010-01-01

456

Mitochondrial DNA evolution in the Anaxyrus boreas species group Anna M. Goebel a,b,*, Tom A. Ranker c,1  

E-print Network

Mitochondrial DNA evolution in the Anaxyrus boreas species group Anna M. Goebel a,b,*, Tom A June 2008 Available online 8 July 2008 Keywords: Amphibia Anura Bufonidae Anaxyrus boreas Bufo boreasDNA Phylogeography Conservation a b s t r a c t The Anaxyrus boreas species group currently comprises four species

Olmstead, Richard

457

Profiles in Online Learning: A Series on Leadership--Tom Layton: Judo and the Art of Technology Innovation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Profiles a high school technology teacher and creator of CyberSchool, a distance learning program of the Eugene (Oregon) School District. Discusses Tom Layton's education, early work experience, establishment of a high school English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) program, integration of computers into the classroom, reputation as a technology leader,…

Danielson, Larry

1998-01-01

458

U.S. EPA’s Technical Support for the Reich Farm (Toms River, NJ) Superfund Site Remediation  

EPA Science Inventory

PowerPoint slide file that gives a brief history of the SAN Trimer contamination in Toms River, NJ as well as the EPA's provided technical support, specifically the development and application of the Provisional Peer-Reviewed Toxicity Value (PPRTV) assessment for SAN Trimer....

459

Invasion by alien species and size and location of nature reserves Petr PYSEK\\ Toms KUCERA1 and Vojtech JAROSK2  

E-print Network

Invasion by alien species and size and location of nature reserves Petr PYSEK\\ Tomás KUCERA1 in the landscape arfect the probability that it will be exposed to invasion by alien species? ODe of the most large Dnes;we found a weak significant relationship between the occurrence of aliens and reserve area

Kratochvíl, Lukas

460

Toward the problem of oil and gas bearing capacity of the East Tom-Kolyvan structural zone (Western Siberia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The vast depression in the east Tom-Kolyvan folded zone (West Siberia) has been identified by the geophysical data. The well which uncovered 4000 m deep profile of the Jurassic and Paleozoic deposits has been drilled. The relevance of the research is the oil\\gas-bearing capacity evaluation of the discovered depression in this West Siberia area.

Stolbova, N. F.; Maerkov, P. O.

2014-08-01

461

Ecosystem Informatics Strategic Initiative Final Report 2009 Julia Jones, Geosciences; Tom Dietterich, Computer Science; Enrique Thomann, Mathematics; Ed  

E-print Network

Ecosystem Informatics Strategic Initiative Final Report 2009 Julia Jones, Geosciences; Tom over the last five years. The Ecosystem Informatics program at Oregon State University has established a presence here at the University and on a global scale. The OSU Ecosystem Informatics IGERT Program (with

Escher, Christine

462

Challenges, Design and Analysis of a Large-scale P2P-VoD , Tom Z. J. Fu  

E-print Network

Challenges, Design and Analysis of a Large-scale P2P-VoD System Yan Huang , Tom Z. J. Fu , Dah University of Hong Kong ABSTRACT P2P file downloading and streaming have already become very popular Internet content distribution, as long as there is interest for the content. P2P-based video-on-demand (P2P

Lui, John C.S.

463

Economic Impacts of the Aquaculture Industry in Alabama in 2005 Tom Stevens, Alan Hodges, and David Mulkey  

E-print Network

Economic Impacts of the Aquaculture Industry in Alabama in 2005 by Tom Stevens, Alan Hodges of Agriculture Economics and Rural Sociology. #12;i Economic Impacts of the Aquaculture Industry in Alabama, 2005. Executive Summary The positive economic impacts of aquaculture on the State of Alabama in 2005 were

Florida, University of

464

Arctic sea ice animation (Tom Agnew, Environment Canada) Lecture 12 HAS222d Intro to energy and environment 2009  

E-print Network

by the stratification of the air #12;water evaporates from the Great Lakes when cold north winds blow over them. It soonArctic sea ice animation (Tom Agnew, Environment Canada) #12;Lecture 12 HAS222d Intro to energy condenses back into water, as cloud droplets which then rain or snow out...The lake water has become cloud

465

Developing Alternative Markets for peach cull fruit --A new Michigan State University GREEEN project -Bill Shane and Tom  

E-print Network

Developing Alternative Markets for peach cull fruit -- A new Michigan State University GREEEN project - Bill Shane and Tom Zabadal, Michigan State University Michigan's fresh market peach crop Michigan peaches to make wine and brandy but the high costs of removing pits by hand have hampered this use

466

The gravity probe B relativity gyroscope program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The idea of testing general relativity through observations on Earth orbiting gyroscopes was suggested in 1959 to 1960. The direction, it was noted, of spin of a suitably oriented gyroscope should change with respect to the line of sight to a guide star for two reasons: a geodetic effect from the motion of the gyroscope through the curved space-time around the Earth, and a frame-dragging effect from the Earth's rotation. NASA began supporting laboratory research on the experiment, now called Gravity Probe B, in 1964. Technologies for it were progressively established, and an error analysis demonstrated the potential of measuring frame-dragging to 1 to 2 percent and the geodetic effect to 1 part in 10(exp 4). Later analyses, discussed herein, suggest possibilities for further improving those precisions each by a further factor of 10. In 1984, after technical and scientific reviews by the Space Science Board and other bodies, and completion by NASA Marshall Center of a Phase B Study, the NASA Administrator approved the start of a program known as STORE (Shuttle Test Of the Relativity Experiment). The purpose of STORE is to verify the final Gravity Probe B science payload, perform on the Shuttle a 7-day experiment rehearsal (including sophisticated gyro tests in low gravity), and then return the payload to Earth for refurbishment and integration into the Science Mission spacecraft. The payload comprises four gyroscopes, a telescope, and a drag-free proof mass, all mounted in a quartz block assembly within an evacuated magnetically shielded probe, which in turn is inserted into a 10-ft long, 6-ft diameter liquid helium dewar, operating at 1.8 K and maintaining low temperature for 2 years. STORE is manifested on Shuttle OV-105, for launch MSSN 69 in February 1993. The Science Mission is set tentatively for June 1995.

Everitt, C. W. Francis; Parkinson, B. W.; Turneaure, J. P.

1989-01-01

467

High temperature probe  

DOEpatents

A high temperature probe for sampling, for example, smokestack fumes, and is able to withstand temperatures of 3000.degree. F. The probe is constructed so as to prevent leakage via the seal by placing the seal inside the water jacket whereby the seal is not exposed to high temperature, which destroys the seal. The sample inlet of the probe is also provided with cooling fins about the area of the seal to provide additional cooling to prevent the seal from being destroyed. Also, a heated jacket is provided for maintaining the temperature of the gas being tested as it passes through the probe. The probe includes pressure sensing means for determining the flow velocity of an efficient being sampled. In addition, thermocouples are located in various places on the probe to monitor the temperature of the gas passing there through.

Swan, Raymond A. (Fremont, CA)

1994-01-01

468

Periodontal probing: a review.  

PubMed

Periodontal probes are the main instruments that are used to assess the status of the periodontium, either for screening purposes or to evaluate periodontal changes throughout the treatment process. With increased knowledge and understanding of periodontal disease, the probes have evolved from a unidimensional manual shape into a more sophisticated computerised instrument. This is due to the need to increase the accuracy and reproducibility of readings and to improve efficiency (time, effort, money). Each probe has characteristic features that makes it unique and, in some cases, specific and limited to use. The aim of this paper is to present a brief introduction to periodontal disease and the methodology of measuring it, followed by probing limitations. The paper will also discuss the methodology of reducing probing error, examiner calibration and probing reproducibility. PMID:25198634

Al Shayeb, Kwthar Nassar A; Turner, Wendy; Gillam, David G

2014-08-01

469

The IUCF Phase Probe  

Microsoft Academic Search

A non-intercepting, charge-sensitive, sampling beam probe has been developed for use in internal beam phase measurements in the variable-energy, separated sector injector cyclotron at Indiana University. The two probe pickup plates of 10mm by 16mm are located above and below the median plane with sampling diodes in close proximity. The probe head is mounted on a movable assembly permitting continuous

E. A. Kowalski; D. W. Devins; A. Seidman

1975-01-01

470

Earth, Earth's Moon and Mars Balloons  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an activity about planetary sizes and distances. Learners will construct a scale model of the Earth, Earth’s Moon and Mars in relation to each other using balloons. They will use this model to predict distances and reflect on how scientists use models to construct explanations through the scientific process. The lesson models scientific inquiry using the 5E instructional model and includes teacher notesand vocabulary.

2013-04-03

471

Atom probe tomography  

SciTech Connect

This introductory tutorial describes the technique of atom probe tomography for materials characterization at the atomic level. The evolution of the technique from the initial atom probe field ion microscope to today's state-of-the-art three dimensional atom probe is outlined. An introduction is presented on the basic physics behind the technique, the operation of the instrument, and the reconstruction of the three-dimensional data. The common methods for analyzing the three-dimensional atom probe data, including atom maps, isoconcentration surfaces, proximity histograms, maximum separation methods, and concentration frequency distributions, are described.

Miller, M.K., E-mail: millermk@ornl.gov [Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37871-6136 (United States); Forbes, R.G., E-mail: R.Forbes@surrey.ac.uk [Advanced Technology Institute, Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey, GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)

2009-06-15

472

Atom Probe Tomography  

SciTech Connect

This introductory tutorial describes the technique of atom probe tomography for materials characterization at the atomic level. The evolution of the technique from the initial atom probe field ion microscope to today s state-of-the-art three dimensional atom probe is outlined. An introduction is presented on the basic physics behind the technique, the operation of the instrument, and the reconstruction of the three-dimensional data. The common methods for analyzing the three-dimensional atom probe data, including atom maps, isoconcentration surfaces, proximity histograms, maximum separation methods, and concentration frequency distributions, are described.

Miller, Michael K [ORNL; Forbes, Richard [University of Surrey, UK

2009-01-01

473

Radio frequency-compensated Langmuir probe with auxiliary double probes.  

PubMed

A radio frequency (rf) compensation design using auxiliary double probes connected in parallel with a main measurement probe was developed for Langmuir probe diagnostics. This probe structure can reduce the sheath impedance of the main probe. In our probe design, the sheath capacitance of the probe can be increased and its sheath resistance can be decreased with increasing dc bias differential voltage between the auxiliary double probes. The I-V characteristic curve and electron energy distribution functions measured by our probe system had sufficient rf compensation performance in inductively coupled plasmas. PMID:20886976

Oh, Se-Jin; Oh, Seung-Ju; Chung, Chin-Wook

2010-09-01

474

TOMS and SBUV Data: Comparison to 3D Chemical-Transport Model Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We have updated our merged ozone data (MOD) set using the TOMS data from the new version 8 algorithm. We then analyzed these data for contributions from solar cycle, volcanoes, QBO, and halogens using a standard statistical time series model. We have recently completed a hindcast run of our 3D chemical-transport model for the same years. This model uses off-line winds from the finite-volume GCM, a full stratospheric photochemistry package, and time-varying forcing due to halogens, solar uv, and volcanic aerosols. We will report on a parallel analysis of these model results using the same statistical time series technique as used for the MOD data.

Stolarski, Richard S.; Douglass, Anne R.; Steenrod, Steve; Frith, Stacey

2003-01-01

475

Optimum Probe Parameters for Entangling Probe in Quantum Key Distribution  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the four-state protocol of quantum key distribution, optimum sets of probe parameters are calculated for the most general unitary probe in which each individual transmitted photon is made to interact with the probe so that the signal and the probe are left in an entangled state, and projective measurement by the probe, made subsequent to projective measurement by the

Howard E. Brandt

2003-01-01

476

Galileo Probe Mass Spectrometer Measurements of the Chemical Composition of the Atmosphere of Jupiter  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical and isotopic composition of the Jovian atmosphere was measured by the Galileo Probe Mass Spectrometer (GPMS). This data was obtained on December 7, 1995 over a time period of approximately 1 hour during the probe descent in the 0.5 to 20 bar pressure region and transmitted to Earth over a period of several weeks. The sampling was either

H. B. Niemann; J. A. Haberman; D. N. Harpold; R. E. Hartle; W. T. Kasprzak; P. R. Mahaffy; S. K. Atreya; G. R. Carignan; T. M. Donahue; D. M. Hunten; T. C. Owen; N. W. Spencer

1996-01-01

477

Multiphonon relaxation of rare-earth ions in oxide glasses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nonradiative decay of excited rare-earth ions by multiphonon emission has been investigated in a series of oxide glasses. Various rare-earth electronic levels were selectively excited by short-duration laser pulses and multiphonon relaxation rates were determined from measurements of fluorescence rise and decay times. Time resolution for fluorescence measurements was 3 nsec, so excited states were probed for which the decay

C. B. Layne; W. H. Lowdermilk; M. J. Weber

1977-01-01

478

Geology of Earth's Moon  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

First, researchers at the University of California, San Diego discuss the importance of studying earthquakes on the moon, also known as moonquakes, and the Apollo Lunar Seismic Experiment (1). Users can discover the problems scientists must deal with when collecting the moon's seismic data. The students at Case Western Reserve University created the second website to address three missions the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS) has planned between now and 2010, including a mission to the moon (2). Visitors can learn about the Lunar-A probe that will be used to photograph the surface of the moon, "monitor moonquakes, measure temperature, and study the internal structure." Next, the Planetary Data Service (PDS) at the USGS offers users four datasets that they can use to create an image of a chosen area of the moon (3). Each dataset can be viewed as a basic clickable map; a clickable map where users can specify size, resolution, and projection; or an advanced version where visitors can select areas by center latitude and longitude. The fourth site, produced by Robert Wickman at the University of North Dakota, presents a map of the volcanoes on the moon and compares their characteristics with those on earth (4). Students can learn how the gravitational forces on the Moon affect the lava flows. Next, Professor Jeff Ryan at the University of South Florida at Tampa supplies fantastic images and descriptive text of the lunar rocks obtained by the Apollo missions (5). Visitors can find links to images of meteorites, terrestrial rocks, and Apollo landings as well. At the Science Channel website, students and educators can find a video clip discussing the geologic studies on the moon along with videos about planets (6). Users can learn about how studying moon rocks help scientists better understand the formation of the earth. Next, the Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum presents its research of "lunar topography, cratering and impacts basins, tectonics, lava flows, and regolith properties" (7). Visitors can find summaries of the characteristics of the moon and the main findings since the 1950s. Lastly, the USGS Astrogeology Research Program provides archived lunar images and data collected between 1965 and 1992 by Apollo, Lunar Orbiter, Galileo, and Zond 8 missions (8). While the data is a little old, students and educators can still find valuable materials about the moon's topography, chemical composition, and geology.

479

The Sounds of Earth Record Cover  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This gold aluminum cover was designed to protect the Voyager 1 and 2 'Sounds of Earth' gold-plated records from micrometeorite bombardment, but also serves a double purpose in providing the finder a key to playing the record. The explanatory diagram appears on both the inner and outer surfaces of the cover, as the outer diagram will be eroded in time. Flying aboard Voyagers 1 and 2 are identical 'golden' records, carrying the story of Earth far into deep space. The 12 inch gold-plated copper discs contain greetings in 60 languages, samples of music from different cultures and eras, and natural and man-made sounds from Earth. They also contain electronic information that an advanced technological civilization could convert into diagrams and photographs. Currently, both Voyager probes are sailing adrift in the black sea of interplanetary space, having left our solar system years ago.

1977-01-01

480

Multiple seismic reflectors in Earth's lowermost mantle.  

PubMed

The modern view of Earth's lowermost mantle considers a D? region of enhanced (seismologically inferred) heterogeneity bounded by the core-mantle boundary and an interface some 150-300 km above it, with the latter often attributed to the postperovskite phase transition (in MgSiO3). Seismic exploration of Earth's deep interior suggests, however, that this view needs modification. So-called ScS and SKKS waves, which probe the lowermost mantle from above and below, respectively, reveal multiple reflectors beneath Central America and East Asia, two areas known for subduction of oceanic plates deep into Earth's mantle. This observation is inconsistent with expectations from a thermal response of a single isochemical postperovskite transition, but some of the newly observed structures can be explained with postperovskite transitions in differentiated slab materials. Our results imply that the lowermost mantle is more complex than hitherto thought and that interfaces and compositional heterogeneity occur beyond the D? region sensu stricto. PMID:24550266

Shang, Xuefeng; Shim, Sang-Heon; de Hoop, Maarten; van der Hilst, Robert

2014-02-18

481

Comparing Earth's atmosphere with other planets  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How does Earth's atmosphere differ from that of Mars and Venus? In this informational piece, part of an interactive laboratory series for grades 8-12, students read how small changes in Earth's atmosphere can change the planet's temperatures and rainfall. In an interactive activity, students launch a probe to collect atmospheric data about temperature and pressure on both Mars and Venus. Students can see graphs of altitude plotted versus temperature or pressure. Multiple-choice questions reinforce the student readings. A second activity provides students additional information and questions on the atmospheres of Mars, Venus, and Earth. As a final review, students respond to questions with written answers, which may be printed. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

University of Utah. Astrophysics Science Project Integrating Research and Education (ASPIRE)

2003-01-01

482

Probe System for Plasma Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

A probe system for studying the plasma of a stellarator is described. Such a fully ionized plasma can have a density ?1013 cm?3 and a temperature ?50 eV. The probe translator can carry various probes (we take as an example a simple Langmuir electrostatic probe) and forms part of an ultrahigh vacuum system. The associated circuitry for probe biasing, control,

J. M. Chapuk; V. L. Corso; V. S. Foote; W. L. Harries; R. M. Sinclair; J. L. Upham; S. Yoshikawa

1963-01-01

483

Formative Assessment Probes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Formative assessment probes can be effective tools to help teachers build a bridge between students' initial ideas and scientific ones. In this article, the authors describe how using two formative assessment probes can help teachers determine the extent to which students make similar connections between developing a concept of matter and a…

Eberle, Francis; Keeley, Page

2008-01-01

484

Magnetically driven filament probe  

SciTech Connect

A radially movable probe has been developed for studies of filamentary transport in ASDEX Upgrade during edge localized modes (ELMs) by means of Langmuir tips and magnetic pickup coils. The probe is permanently installed at the low field side in the ASDEX Upgrade vacuum vessel and is not subject to limitations in probe size, as, for example, probes on a shared manipulator are. The probe is moved by a magnetic drive, which allows for easy installation in the vessel, and has moderate machine requirements, as it will only require an electric feedthrough and an external power supply. The drive gives a linear motion with a radial range of 5 cm within 50 ms, where range and velocity can be largely scaled according to experimental requirements. The probe has been installed in the outer midplane of the ASDEX Upgrade vessel, where ELM filaments are expected to have their maximum amplitude. Filaments are coherent substructures within an ELM, carrying a fraction of the ELM released energy towards the wall. The new probe allows to measure the structure of these filaments, in particular, parameters such as filament rotation (by time delay measurements) and size (by peak width analysis). Activating the drive moves the probe from a safe position behind the limiter to a position in front of the limiters, i.e., exposes the Langmuir pins to the scrape-off layer plasma.

Schmid, A.; Herrmann, A.; Rohde, V.; Maraschek, M.; Mueller, H. W. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Boltzmannstr. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

2007-05-15

485

The Lifeworld Earth and a Modelled Earth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The goal of this paper is to study the question of whether a phenomenological view of the Earth could be empirically endorsed. The phenomenological way of thinking considers the Earth as a material entity, but not as an object as viewed in science. In the learning science tradition, tracking the process of the conceptual change of the shape of the…

Juuti, Kalle

2014-01-01

486

Down to Earth Down to Earth  

E-print Network

Down to Earth 1 Down to Earth Newsletter of the Geology and Geophysics Department University of this college. The university's plan is to design the building to be built at an estimated cost of $14 million..........................9 Geology and Geophysics Faculty at Work..... 10 Third Annual Geo-Winter Adventure .............. 11

Johnson, Cari

487

PDV Probe Alignment Technique  

SciTech Connect

This alignment technique was developed while performing heterodyne velocimetry measurements at LLNL. There are a few minor items needed, such as a white card with aperture in center, visible alignment laser, IR back reflection meter, and a microscope to view the bridge surface. The work was performed on KCP flyers that were 6 and 8 mils wide. The probes used were Oz Optics manufactured with focal distances of 42mm and 26mm. Both probes provide a spot size of approximately 80?m at 1550nm. The 42mm probes were specified to provide an internal back reflection of -35 to -40dB, and the probe back reflections were measured to be -37dB and -33dB. The 26mm probes were specified as -30dB and both measured -30.5dB. The probe is initially aligned normal to the flyer/bridge surface. This provides a very high return signal, up to -2dB, due to the bridge reflectivity. A white card with a hole in the center as an aperture can be used to check the reflected beam position relative to the probe and launch beam, and the alignment laser spot centered on the bridge, see Figure 1 and Figure 2. The IR back reflection meter is used to measure the dB return from the probe and surface, and a white card or similar object is inserted between the probe and surface to block surface reflection. It may take several iterations between the visible alignment laser and the IR back reflection meter to complete this alignment procedure. Once aligned normal to the surface, the probe should be tilted to position the visible alignment beam as shown in Figure 3, and the flyer should be translated in the X and Y axis to reposition the alignment beam onto the flyer as shown in Figure 4. This