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1

Earth Probe TOMS Ozone Hole Animation for 1996  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This animation shows a sequence of daily images of the southern hemisphere in which daily and seasonal fluctuations in the ozone hole over Antarctica can bee seen. The images were captured by the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS), an instrument carried aboard the Earth Probe spacecraft.

2

Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) Derived Data, Global Earth Coverage (GEC) from NASA's Earth Probe Satellite  

DOE Data Explorer

This is data from an external datastream processed through the ARM External Data Center (XDC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The XDC identifies sources and acquires data, called "external data", to augment the data being generated within the ARM program. The external data acquired are usually converted from native format to either netCDF or HDF formats. The GEC collection contains global data derived from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) instrument on the Earth Probe satellite, consisting of daily values of aerosol index, ozone and reflectivity remapped into a regular 1x1.25 deg grid. Data are available from July 25, 1996 - December 31, 2005, but have been updated or replaced as of September 2007. See the explanation on the ARM web site at http://www.arm.gov/xds/static/toms.stm and the information at the NASA/TOMS web site: http://toms.gsfc.nasa.gov/ (Registration required)

3

Earth Probe Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) Data Product User's Guide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two data products from the Earth Probe Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (EP/TOMS) have been archived at the Distributed Active Archive Center, in the form of Hierarchical Data Format files. The EP/ TOMS began taking measurements on July 15, 1996. The instrument measures backscattered Earth radiance and incoming solar irradiance; their ratio is used in ozone retrievals. Changes in the reflectivity of the solar diffuser used for the irradiance measurement are monitored using a carousel of three diffusers, each exposed to the degrading effects of solar irradiation at different rates. The algorithm to retrieve total column ozone compares measured Earth radiances at sets of three wavelengths with radiances calculated for different total ozone values. The initial error in the absolute scale for TOMS total ozone is 3 percent, the one standard deviation random error is 2 percent, and the drift is less than 0.5 percent over the first year of data. The Level-2 product contains the measured radiances, the derived total ozone amount, and reflectivity information for each scan position. The Level-3 product contains daily total ozone and reflectivity in a 1-degree latitude by 1.25 degrees longitude grid. Level-3 files containing estimates of LTVB at the Earth surface and tropospheric aerosol information are also available, Detailed descriptions of both HDF data-files and the CD-ROM product are provided.

McPeters, R.; Bhartia, P. K.; Krueger, A.; Herman, J.; Wellemeyer, C.; Seftor, C.; Jaross, G.; Torres, O.; Moy, L.; Labow, G.; Byerly, W.; Taylor, S.; Swissler, T.; Cebula, R.

1998-01-01

4

Estimates of Spectral UV Irradiance from Earth Probe TOMS: Comparisons with Ground-Based Measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Estimates of the spectral UV flux incident on the Earth's surface are calculated based on total column ozone and cloud optical thickness determined from the Earth Probe Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) satellite data. Spectral fluxes are calculated between 300 and 325 nanometers using a weighting function similar to the measured function of the Brewer Spectrophotometer. Comparisons of the TOMS-derived values with ground-based Brewer Spectrophotometer measurements at 3 locations from the Canadian Brewer network (Toronto, Saskatoon and Saturna Island) and 3 locations from the United States EPA network (Boston, Gaithersburg, and Boulder) show reasonably good agreement over a variety of clear and cloudy conditions. Some systematic differences are apparent, particularly when snow/ice is present and the TOMS instrument cannot distinguish between clouds and snow covered ground, thus leading to an underestimation of UV flux. The presence of absorbing aerosols near the ground or sub-pixel clouds can also lead to significant errors. There are also possible errors in the Brewer data due to radiometric calibration uncertainties and uncorrected cosine response.

Labow, G. J.; Herman, J. R.; Celarier, E.; Udelhofen, P.

1998-01-01

5

Contingency maneuver strategies for the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer-Earth Probe (TOMS-EP)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer-Earth Probe (TOMS-EP) is a polar-orbiting spacecraft designed to measure total ozone levels in the Earth's atmosphere. The nominal mission orbit is a 955-kilometer circular Sun-synchronous orbit with an ascending node mean local crossing time (MLT) between 11:02 a.m. and 11:25 a.m. These two mean local ascending node times constitute the boundaries of the MLT box for this mission. The MLT boundaries were chosen to maintain the Sun-to-Earth-to-vehicle orbit-normal (SVN) angle within a preselected set of seasonally independent boundaries. Because the SVN angle is seasonally dependent, but the MLT is not, contingency options for correcting the MLT of orbital states that fall outside of the required MLT range become time dependent. This paper focuses on contingency orbit adjustment strategies developed at the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Flight Dynamics Division (FDD) during the mission planning phase of TOMS-EP. Time-dependent delta-V strategies are presented for correcting mission orbit states lying outside of the MLT range. Typically, passive control of the MLT drift rate can be used to restore the orbit state to the required MLT before a seasonal violation of SVN angle constraints can occur. Passive control of the MLT drift rate is obtained through adjustment of the semimajor axis and/or the inclination. The time between initial arrival on orbit at an 'out-of-the box' MLT state and violation of the SVN angle constraints is always less than or equal to 1 year. The choice of which parameter(s) to adjust is dictated by the duration of this time period, the desired mission lifetime, the delta-V cost, and operational constraints.

Kestler, James; Walls, Donna

1995-01-01

6

Effects of storage on Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer-Earth Probe (TOMS-EP) 9Ah Super NiCdTM battery cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to launch vehicle delays, the 22-cell 9 Ampere-hour (Ah) Super NiCdTM Battery designed and built for the NASA GSFC Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer-Earth ProbeTOMS-EP”) satellite mission was required to be stored, in an activated condition, for nearly four years. The super NiCdTM cells were manufactured by Eagle-Picher Industries, Inc. Power Systems Department located in Colorado Springs, Colorado. The

D. L. Scoles; J. W. Hayden; G. M. Rao; C. Lurie; J. E. Bell

1997-01-01

7

TOMS Data Products at the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences DAAC  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current Total Mapping Ozone Spectrometer (TOMS) was launched aboard the NASA Earth Probe (EP) satellite in July1996 to provide global monitoring of total column atmospheric ozone derived from measurements of backscattered solar ultraviolet radiation. TOMS is a second-generation, ozone-sounding instrument based on the Backscatter Ultraviolet (BUV) Spectrometer flown aboard NASA's Nimbus-4 satellite in 1970. The first TOMS instrument was

S. P. Ahmad; J. E. Johnson; G. N. Serafino; R. D. McPeters

2002-01-01

8

The Tom40 assembly process probed using the attachment of different intramitochondrial sorting signals  

PubMed Central

The TOM40 complex is a protein translocator in the mitochondrial outer membrane and consists of several different subunits. Among them, Tom40 is a central subunit that constitutes a protein-conducting channel by forming a ?-barrel structure. To probe the nature of the assembly process of Tom40 in the outer membrane, we attached various mitochondrial presequences to Tom40 that possess sorting information for the intermembrane space (IMS), inner membrane, and matrix and would compete with the inherent Tom40 assembly process. We analyzed the mitochondrial import of those fusion proteins in vitro. Tom40 crossed the outer membrane and/or inner membrane even in the presence of various sorting signals. N-terminal anchorage of the attached presequence to the inner membrane did not prevent Tom40 from associating with the TOB/SAM complex, although it impaired its efficient release from the TOB complex in vitro but not in vivo. The IMS or matrix-targeting presequence attached to Tom40 was effective in substituting for the requirement for small Tim proteins in the IMS for the translocation of Tom40 across the outer membrane. These results provide insight into the mechanism responsible for the precise delivery of ?-barrel proteins to the outer mitochondrial membrane. PMID:22933571

Shiota, Takuya; Maruyama, Miyuki; Miura, Mami; Tamura, Yasushi; Yamano, Koji; Esaki, Masatoshi; Endo, Toshiya

2012-01-01

9

Contribution of TOMS to Earth Science - An Overview  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The TOMS instrument was launched on the Nimbus-7 satellite in Oct 1978 with the goal of understanding the meteorological influences on the ozone column. The nominal lifetime of the instrument was 1 year. However, in response to the concern over possible man-made influences on the ozone layer NASA continued to nurse the instrument for 13.5 years and launched a major program to produce accurate trend quality dataset of ozone. Despite severe optical degradation and other significant anomalies that developed in the instrument over its lifetime, the effort turned out to be a tremendous success. In 1984, TOMS took center stage as the primary provider of Antarctic ozone hole maps to the world community; it continues to play that role until today. An unexpected benefit of the close attention paid to improving the TOMS data quality was that several atmospheric constituents that interfere with ozone measurement were also identified and meticulously converted into long-term datasets of their own. These constituents include clouds, volcanic SO2, aerosols, and ocean phytoplankton. In addition, the high quality of the basic datasets made it possible to produce global maps of surface UV and tropospheric ozone. In most cases there are no other sources of these data sets. Advanced UV instruments currently under development in the US and Europe will continue to exploit the TOMS-developed techniques for several decades.

Bhartia, P. K.

2003-12-01

10

Contribution of TOMS to Earth Science- An Overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The TOMS instrument was launched on the Nimbus-7 satellite in Oct 1978 with the goal of understanding the meteorological influences on the ozone column. The nominal lifetime of the instrument was 1 year. However, in response to the concern over possible man-made influences on the ozone layer NASA continued to nurse the instrument for 13.5 years and launched a major program to produce accurate trend quality dataset of ozone. Despite severe optical degradation and other significant anomalies that developed in the instrument over its lifetime, the effort turned out to be a tremendous success. In 1984, TOMS took center stage as the primary provider of Antarctic ozone hole maps to the world community; it continues to play that role until today. An unexpected benefit of the close attention paid to improving the TOMS data quality was that several atmospheric constituents that interfere with ozone measurement were also identified and meticulously converted into long-term datasets of their own. These constituents include clouds, volcanic S02, aerosols, and ocean phytoplankton. In addition, the high quality of the basic datasets made it possible to produce global maps of surface UV and tropospheric ozone. In most cases there are no other sources of these data sets. Advanced UV instruments currently under development in the US and Europe will continue to exploit the TOMS-developed techniques for several decades.

Bhartia, P. K.

2004-01-01

11

Ozone, Aerosols and other Atmospheric Products from Version8 TOMS Algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

NASA has provided scientists with high resolution daily global maps of total column ozone obtained from a series of Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer(TOMS) instruments flown on Nimbus-7 in 1978, Meteor-3 in 1991, the Advanced Earth Observing Satellite (ADEOS) and Earth Probe (EP) satellites in 1996. EP-TOMS (launched a few months prior to ADEOS-TOMS), is the currently operating TOMS instrument providing

S. P. Ahmad; P. K. Bhartia; R. D. McPeters; J. R. Herman; C. G. Wellemeyer; O. Torres; A. J. Krueger; J. E. Johnson

2003-01-01

12

Tropospheric Ozone and Smoke from Earth Probe TOMS: Indonesia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Researchers have discovered that smoke and smog move in different ways through the atmosphere. A series of unusual events several years ago created a blanket of pollution over the Indian Ocean. In this animation, significant smog or tropospheric ozone is represented by red and green and regions of significant smoke index are in shades of white and gray.

Mitchell, Horace; Thompson, Anne

2001-03-06

13

Tropospheric Ozone and Smoke from Earth Probe TOMS: Indian Ocean  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Researchers have discovered that smoke and smog move in different ways through the atmosphere. A series of unusual events several years ago created a blanket of pollution over the Indian Ocean. In this animation, significant smog or tropospheric ozone is represented by red and green and regions of significant smoke index are in shades of white and gray.

Mitchell, Horace; Thompson, Anne

2001-03-06

14

Structure of the Earth: Probing Anomalous Balls  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity has students investigate plasticine spheres in a nondestructive manner. Some of the spheres have steel ball bearings inside of them while others are solid plasticine. Students determine density by probing with a pin or any other method that does not involve cutting into the sphere. The activity demonstrates how information can be obtained about the interior of the Earth without seeing it.

15

A Comparison of TOMS Version 8 Total Column Ozone Data with Data from Groundstations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Nimbus-7 and Earth Probe Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) data have been reprocessed with a new retrieval algorithm, (Version 8) and an updated calibration procedure. These data have been systematically compared to total ozone data from Brewer and Dobson spectrophotometers for 73 individual ground stations. The comparisons were made as a function of latitude, solar zenith angle, reflectivity and total ozone. Results show that the accuracy of the TOMS retrieval'is much improved when aerosols are present in the atmosphere, when snow/ice and sea glint are present, and when ozone in the northern hemisphere is extremely low. TOMS overpass data are derived from the single TOMS best match measurement, almost always located within one degree of the ground station and usually made within an hour of local noon. The version 8 Earth Probe TOMS ozone values have decreased by an average of about 1% due to a much better understanding of the calibration of the instrument. The remaining differences between TOMS and ground stations suggest that there are still small errors in the TOMS retrievals. But if TOMS is used as a transfer standard to compare ground stations, the large station-to-station differences suggest the possibility of significant instrument errors at some ground stations.

Labow, G. J.; McPeters, R. D.; Bhartia, P. K.

2004-01-01

16

Aerosols from Earth Probe TOMS: Transatlantic Dust Event in July 2000  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Saharan dust storms raise dust that is carried in the upper atmosphere across the Atlantic Ocean. That dust can land as far west as the Carribean and the Americas. This dust can carry potentially hazardous bacteria and fungi.

Mangos, Michael; Herman, Jay

2001-06-14

17

Tropospheric Ozone and Smoke from Earth Probe TOMS: Indian Ocean to Indonesia Zoom  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Researchers have discovered that smoke and smog move in different ways through the atmosphere. A series of unusual events several years ago created a blanket of pollution over the Indian Ocean. In this animation, significant smog or tropospheric ozone is represented by red and green and regions of significant smoke index are in shades of white and gray.

Mitchell, Horace; Thompson, Anne

2001-03-06

18

China Dust Storm seen by Earth Probe-TOMS in April of 2001  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A thick shroud of dust appears over China on April 6 and 7, 2001. The densest portion of the aerosol pollution travels east over China, Russia, Japan, the Pacific Ocean, Canada, and the United States.

Perkins, Lori; Shirah, Greg; Newman, Paul; Bhartia, Pawan

2003-12-03

19

An earth-isolated optically coupled wideband high voltage probe powered by ambient light  

E-print Network

An earth-isolated optically coupled wideband high voltage probe powered by ambient light Xiang Zhai) An earth-isolated optically coupled wideband high voltage probe powered by ambient light Xiang Zhaia online 9 October 2012) An earth-isolated optically-coupled wideband high voltage probe has been developed

Bellan, Paul M.

20

Probing the Kondo Lattice Model with Alkaline Earth Atoms  

E-print Network

We study transport properties of alkaline-earth atoms governed by the Kondo Lattice Hamiltonian plus a harmonic confining potential, and suggest simple dynamical probes of several different regimes of the phase diagram that can be implemented with current experimental techniques. In particular, we show how Kondo physics at strong coupling, low density, and in the heavy fermion phase is manifest in the dipole oscillations of the conduction band upon displacement of the trap center.

Foss-Feig, Michael; Rey, Ana Maria

2010-01-01

21

Probing the Kondo Lattice Model with Alkaline Earth Atoms  

E-print Network

We study transport properties of alkaline-earth atoms governed by the Kondo Lattice Hamiltonian plus a harmonic confining potential, and suggest simple dynamical probes of several different regimes of the phase diagram that can be implemented with current experimental techniques. In particular, we show how Kondo physics at strong coupling, low density, and in the heavy fermion phase is manifest in the dipole oscillations of the conduction band upon displacement of the trap center.

Michael Foss-Feig; Michael Hermele; Ana Maria Rey

2009-12-24

22

Earth-Based Observations of the Galileo Probe Entry Site  

PubMed

Earth-based observations of Jupiter indicate that the Galileo probe probably entered Jupiter's atmosphere just inside a region that has less cloud cover and drier conditions than more than 99 percent of the rest of the planet. The visual appearance of the clouds at the site was generally dark at longer wavelengths. The tropospheric and stratospheric temperature fields have a strong longitudinal wave structure that is expected to manifest itself in the vertical temperature profile. PMID:8662571

Orton; Ortiz; Baines; Bjoraker; Carsenty; Colas; Dayal; Deming; Drossart; Frappa; Friedson; Goguen; Golisch; Griep; Hernandez; Hoffmann; Jennings; Kaminski; Kuhn; Laques; Limaye; Lin; Lecacheux; Martin; McCabe; Momary; Parker; Puetter; Ressler; Reyes; Sada; Spencer; Spitale; Stewart; Varsik; Warell; Wild; Yanamandra-Fisher; Fazio; Hora; Deutsch

1996-05-10

23

TOMS Tropical Tropospheric Ozone Data Sets at the University of Maryland Website  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Since 1997, shortly after the launch of the Earth-Probe TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) satellite instrument, we have been processing data in near-real time to post maps of tropical tropospheric ozone at a website: metosrv2.umd.edu/-tropo. Daily, 3-day and 9-day averages of tropical tropospheric ozone column depth (TTO) are viewable from 10N to 10S. Data can be downloaded (running 9-day means) from 20N-30S. Pollution events are trackable along with dynamically-induced variations in tropospheric ozone column. TOMS smoke aerosol (toms.gsfc.nasa.gov) can be used to interpret biomass burning ozone, as for example, during the extreme ozone and smoke pollution period during the ENSO-related fires of August November 1997. During that time plumes of ozone and smoke were frequently decoupled and ozone from Indonesian fires and from Africa merged in one large feature by late October 1997. In addition to the Earth-Probe TOMS record, data as half-month averages and as daily 9-day means from the Nimbus 7 TOMS instrument are at the metosrv2.umd.edu/-tropo website. A guide to the website and examples of ozone time-series and maps will be shown.

Kochhar, A. K.; Thompson, A. M.; Hudson, R. D.; Frolov, A. D.; Witte, J. C.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

24

Merged Long-Term Data Sets from TOMS and SBUV Total Ozone Measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Total ozone has been measured by a series of nadir-viewing satellite instruments. These measurements begin with the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) and Solar Backscatter UltraViolet (SBUV) instruments on Nimbus 7, launched in late 1978. The measurements have continued with the Meteor 3 TOMS, Earth Probe TOMS, and NOAA 9,11,14 SBUV/2 instruments. The problem for producing a long-term data set is establishing the relative calibration of the various instruments to better than 1%. There was a nearly two year gap between the Meteor 3 TOMS and the Earth Probe TOMS. This gap is filled by the NOAA 9 and 11 SBUV/2 instruments, but they were in drifting orbits that result in effective gaps in the record when the equator crossing time occurs at large solar zenith angle. We have used recently re-derived calibrations of the SBUV instruments using the D-pair (306/313 nm wavelengths) data at the equator. These equatorial D-pair measurements should maintain the internal calibration of each instrument better than previous approaches. We then use the comparisons between instruments during their overlap periods to establish a consistent calibration over the entire data set. The resulting merged ozone data set is independent of the ground-based Dobson/Brewer network.

Stolarski, Richard; McPeters, Richard; Labow, Gordon J.; Hollandsworth, Stacey; Flynn, Larry; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

25

Comparison of TOMS, SBW & SBUV/2 Version 8 Total Column Ozone Data with Data from Groundstations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Nimbus-7 and Earth Probe Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) data as well as SBUV and SBUV/2 data have been reprocessed with a new retrieval algorithm (Version 8) and an updated calibration procedure. An overview will be presented systematically comparing ozone values to an ensemble of Brewer and Dobson spectrophotometers. The comparisons were made as a function of latitude, solar zenith angle, reflectivity and total ozone. Results show that the accuracy of the TOMS retrieval has been improved when aerosols are present in the atmosphere, when snow/ice and sea glint are present, and when ozone in the northern hemisphere is extremely low. TOMS overpass data are derived from the single TOMS best match measurement, almost always located within one degree of the ground station and usually made within an hour of local noon. The Version 8 Earth Probe TOMS ozone values have decreased by an average of about 1% due to a much better understanding of the calibration of the instrument. N-7 SBUV as well as the series of NOAA SBUV/2 column ozone values have also been processed with the Version 8 algorithm and have been compared to values from an ensemble of groundstations. Results show that the SBW column ozone values agree well with the groundstations and the datasets are useful for trend studies.

Labow, G. J.; McPeters, R. D.; Bhartia, P. K.

2004-01-01

26

A Rare Earth-DOTA-Binding Antibody: Probe Properties and Binding Affinity across the Lanthanide Series  

E-print Network

1) binds transition metals and rare earths with extreme stability under physiological conditionsA Rare Earth-DOTA-Binding Antibody: Probe Properties and Binding Affinity across the Lanthanide affinity and exquisite specificity.1 An antibody that binds rare earth complexes selectively could be used

Fisher, Andrew J.

27

Earth-Based Radio Tracking of the Galileo Probe for Jupiter Wind Estimation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Although the Galileo probe was designed to communicate only to the orbiter, the probe radio signal was detected at two Earth-based radio observatories where the signal was a billion times weaker. The measured signal frequency was used to derive a vertical profile of the jovian zonal wind speed. Due to the mission geometry, the Earth-based wind estimates are less sensitive to descent trajectory errors than estimates based on probe-orbiter Doppler measurements. The two estimates of wind profiles agree qualitatively; both show high wind speeds at all depths sampled.

Folkner, W. M.; Preston, R. A.; Border, J. S.; Navarro, J.; Wilson, W. E.; Oestreich, M.

1997-01-01

28

Earth-Based Radio Tracking of the Galileo Probe for Jupiter Wind Estimation  

PubMed

Although the Galileo probe was designed to communicate only to the orbiter, the probe radio signal was detected at two Earth-based radio observatories where the signal was a billion times weaker. The measured signal frequency was used to derive a vertical profile of the jovian zonal wind speed. Due to the mission geometry, the Earth-based wind estimates are less sensitive to descent trajectory errors than estimates based on probe-orbiter Doppler measurements. The two estimates of wind profiles agree qualitatively; both show high wind speeds at all depths sampled. PMID:9005845

Folkner; Preston; Border; Navarro; Wilson; Oestreich

1997-01-31

29

Argon isotopic composition of Archaean atmosphere probes early Earth geodynamics.  

PubMed

Understanding the growth rate of the continental crust through time is a fundamental issue in Earth sciences. The isotopic signatures of noble gases in the silicate Earth (mantle, crust) and in the atmosphere afford exceptional insight into the evolution through time of these geochemical reservoirs. However, no data for the compositions of these reservoirs exists for the distant past, and temporal exchange rates between Earth's interior and its surface are severely under-constrained owing to a lack of samples preserving the original signature of the atmosphere at the time of their formation. Here, we report the analysis of argon in Archaean (3.5-billion-year-old) hydrothermal quartz. Noble gases are hosted in primary fluid inclusions containing a mixture of Archaean freshwater and hydrothermal fluid. Our analysis reveals Archaean atmospheric argon with a (40)Ar/(36)Ar value of 143?±?24, lower than the present-day value of 298.6 (for which (40)Ar has been produced by the radioactive decay of the potassium isotope (40)K, with a half-life of 1.25 billion years; (36)Ar is primordial in origin). This ratio is consistent with an early development of the felsic crust, which might have had an important role in climate variability during the first half of Earth's history. PMID:23739427

Pujol, Magali; Marty, Bernard; Burgess, Ray; Turner, Grenville; Philippot, Pascal

2013-06-01

30

Geo-neutrinos: A new probe of Earth's interior  

Microsoft Academic Search

In preparation to the experimental results which will be available in the future, we study geo-neutrino production for different models of mantle convection and composition. By using global mass balance for the Bulk Silicate Earth, the predicted flux contribution from distant sources in the crust and in the mantle is fixed within a total uncertainty of ±15%. We also discuss

Gianni Fiorentini; Marcello Lissia; Fabio Mantovani; Riccardo Vannucci

2005-01-01

31

The Recovery of TOMS-EP  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

On December 13th 1998, the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer - Earth Probe (TOMS-EP) spacecraft experienced a Single Event Upset which caused the system to reconfigure and enter a Safe Mode. This incident occurred two and a half years after the launch of the spacecraft which was designed for a two year life. A combination of factors, including changes in component behavior due to age and extended use, very unfortunate initial conditions and the safe mode processing logic prevented the spacecraft from entering its nominal long term storage mode. The spacecraft remained in a high fuel consumption mode designed for temporary use. By the time the onboard fuel was exhausted, the spacecraft was Sun pointing in a high rate flat spin. Although the uncontrolled spacecraft was initially in a power and thermal safe orientation, it would not stay in this state indefinitely due to a slow precession of its momentum vector. A recovery team was immediately assembled to determine if there was time to develop a method of despinning the vehicle and return it to normal science data collection. A three stage plan was developed that used the onboard magnetic torque rods as actuators. The first stage was designed to reduce the high spin rate to within the linear range of the gyros. The second stage transitioned the spacecraft from sun pointing to orbit reference pointing. The final stage returned the spacecraft to normal science operation. The entire recovery scenario was simulated with a wide range of initial conditions to establish the expected behavior. The recovery sequence was started on December 28th 1998 and completed by December 31st. TOMS-EP was successfully returned to science operations by the beginning of 1999. This paper describes the TOMS-EP Safe Mode design and the factors which led to the spacecraft anomaly and loss of fuel. The recovery and simulation efforts are described. Flight data are presented which show the performance of the spacecraft during its return to science. Finally, lessons learned are presented.

Robertson, Brent; Sabelhaus, Phil; Mendenhall, Todd; Fesq, Lorraine

1998-01-01

32

Session Title: Structure, composition and dynamics of Earth's interior -probing with neutrinos Session Description  

E-print Network

Session Title: Structure, composition and dynamics of Earth's interior - probing with neutrinos of neutrino geoscience offers novel techniques for tackling these tasks. Ongoing detections of geological neutrinos at Japan and Italy are beginning to resolve radiogenic heating in the mantle, leading

Mcdonough, William F.

33

Probing the Earth's Interior with the LENA Detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A future large-volume liquid scintillator detector such as the proposed 50 kton LENA (Low Energy Neutrino Astronomy) detector would provide a high-statistics measurement of terrestrial antineutrinos originating from ?-decays of the uranium and thorium chains. Additionally, the neutron is scattered in the forward direction in the detection reaction bar{?}_e+prightarrow n+e^+. Henceforth, we investigate to what extent LENA can distinguish between certain geophysical models on the basis of the angular dependence of the geoneutrino flux. Our analysis is based on a Monte-Carlo simulation with different levels of light yield, considering an unloaded PXE scintillator. We find that LENA is able to detect deviations from isotropy of the geoneutrino flux with high significance. However, if only the directional information is used, the time required to distinguish between different geophysical models is of the order of severals decades. Nonetheless, a high-statistics measurement of the total geoneutrino flux and its spectrum still provides an extremely useful glance at the Earth’s interior.

Hochmuth, Kathrin A.; Feilitzsch, Franz V.; Undagoitia, Teresa Marrodán; Oberauer, Lothar; Potzel, Walter; Wurm, Michael; Fields, Brian D.

2006-12-01

34

Global surface ultraviolet radiation climatology from TOMS and ERBE data  

Microsoft Academic Search

A global climatology of biologically active solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) at the Earth's surface is derived using NASA total ozone mapping spectrometer (TOMS) measurements of column ozone abundance and NASA Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) measurements of solar reflectance from the Earth-atmosphere system. These two sources of satellite data are used as input to a delta-Eddington radiative transfer model to

Dan Lubin; Elsa H. Jensen; H. Peter Gies

1998-01-01

35

Earthly probes of the smallest dark matter halos  

SciTech Connect

Dark matter kinetic decoupling involves elastic scattering of dark matter off of leptons and quarks in the early universe, the same process relevant for direct detection and for the capture rate of dark matter in celestial bodies; the resulting size of the smallest dark matter collapsed structures should thus correlate with quantities connected with direct detection rates and with the flux of high-energy neutrinos from dark matter annihilation in the Sun or in the Earth. In this paper we address this general question in the context of two widely studied and paradigmatic weakly-interacting particle dark matter models: the lightest neutralino of the minimal supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model, and the lightest Kaluza-Klein particle of Universal Extra Dimensions (UED). We argue and show that while the scalar neutralino-nucleon cross section correlates poorly with the kinetic decoupling temperature, the spin-dependent cross section exhibits a strong correlation in a wide range of models. In UED models the correlation is present for both cross sections, and is extraordinarily tight for the spin-dependent case. A strong correlation is also found, for both models, for the flux of neutrinos from the Sun, especially for fluxes large enough to be at potentially detectable levels. We provide analytic guidance and formulae that illustrate our findings.

Cornell, Jonathan M.; Profumo, Stefano, E-mail: jcornell@ucsc.edu, E-mail: profumo@ucsc.edu [Department of Physics, University of California, 1156 High St., Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)

2012-06-01

36

A relay imaging probe to check focus map of Earth-observing pushbroom imager  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bar chart patterns projects by collimator was adopted to measure contrast transfer function (CTF)values at Nyquist frequency before assembly of imaging sensor with telescope for earth-observing pushbroom imager. A relay imaging probe consisting of optical objective and 2D imaging sensor was builded to image these projected pattern and estimate the image quality of optical system before alignment of linear imaging sensor. By riding on a hexapod stage and measuring at a series focus position at several field angles, this probe provides a reference map for alignment of imaging sensor and image quality assessment. Certainly, testing result can be used to anticipate result of focusing alignment.

Tsay, H. L.; Huang, P. H.; Huang, T. M.

2014-10-01

37

Probing the Kondo lattice model with alkaline-earth-metal atoms  

SciTech Connect

We study transport properties of alkaline-earth-metal atoms governed by the Kondo lattice Hamiltonian plus a harmonic confining potential, and suggest simple dynamical probes of several different regimes of the phase diagram that can be implemented with current experimental techniques. In particular, we show how Kondo physics at strong coupling, at low density, and in the heavy fermion phase is manifest in the dipole oscillations of the conduction band upon displacement of the trap center.

Foss-Feig, Michael [Department of Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States); JILA, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States); Hermele, Michael [Department of Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States); Rey, Ana Maria [Department of Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States); JILA, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States); NIST, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States)

2010-05-15

38

Unravelling the Complexities of the Earth's Radiation Belts: Findings from the Van Allen Probes mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Within the first year of Van Allen Probe operations, team members made a series of highly publicized decisive discoveries concerning the structure and evolution of the Earth's radiation belts, the processes that energize particles there, and the locations where they operate. Nevertheless, much more extensive and less publicized findings from the Van Allen Probes suggest that Earth's radiation belts regions remain a highly complex and puzzling place. Although the relation between magnetic storm and radiation belt enhancements and loss has been emphasized, dynamics during non-storm periods has occasionally been shown to be dramatic. While emphasis has been placed on new findings regarding local non-adiabatic energization mechanisms, adiabatic mechanisms have also been shown to be important. Furthermore, the interplay between, and relative importance of, these and other energization processes remain uncertain. The role of seed populations has been highlighted, with some studies pointing to localized mechanisms and others pointing to the role of substorms in transporting and injecting such populations. Here we review some of the less publicized findings and future objectives of the Van Allen Probes mission to get a broader and in-depth view of present understanding of Earth's inner magnetosphere.

Mauk, Barry; Fox, Nicola; Kessel, Ramona; Sibeck, David; Kanekal, Shri

2014-05-01

39

Tom's Hardware Guide  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Tom's Hardware Guide, by Thomas Pabst, is an excellent compendium of news, reviews, and technical guides pertaining to PC hardware. The hardware news includes product releases, roadmaps, and computer conference news. The reviews focus on motherboards, CPUs, and graphics cards, all of which are thoroughly tested by Tom and his staff. Testing results are graphed, evaluated, and compared. For the PC-users who want to tweak every bit of performance out of their system, there are guides for the system bios and CPU overclocking. This site is a must-visit for almost anyone looking to build or upgrade a computer.

40

Van Allen Probes: Successful launch campaign and early operations exploring Earth's radiation belts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The twin Van Allen Probe observatories developed at The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory for NASA's Heliophysics Division completed final observatory integration and environmental test activities and were successfully launched into orbit around the Earth on August 30, 2012. As the science operations phase begins, the mission is providing exciting new information about the impact of radiation belt activity on the earth. The on-board boom mounted magnetometers and other instruments are the most sensitive sensors of their type that have ever flown in the Van Allen radiation belts. The observatories are producing near-Earth space weather information that can be used to provide warnings of potential power grid interruptions or satellite damaging storms. The Van Allen Probes are operating in a challenging high radiation environment, and at the same time they are designed to make an insubstantial electric and magnetic field contribution to their surroundings. This paper will describe the challenges associated with observatory integration and test activities and observatory on-orbit checkout and commissioning. The lessons learned can be applied to other observatories and payloads that will be exposed to similar environments.

Kirby, K.; Stratton, J.

41

Fluorescent probes and bioimaging: alkali metals, alkaline earth metals and pH.  

PubMed

All living species and life forms have an absolute requirement for bio-functional metals and acid-base equilibrium chemistry owing to the critical roles they play in biological processes. Hence, a great need exists for efficient methods to detect and monitor biometals and acids. In the last few years, great attention has been paid to the development of organic molecule based fluorescent chemosensors. The availability of new synthetic fluorescent probes has made fluorescence microscopy an indispensable tool for tracing biologically important molecules and in the area of clinical diagnostics. This review highlights the recent advances that have been made in the design and bioimaging applications of fluorescent probes for alkali metals and alkaline earth metal cations, including lithium, sodium and potassium, magnesium and calcium, and for pH determination within biological systems. PMID:25317749

Yin, Jun; Hu, Ying; Yoon, Juyoung

2014-10-15

42

A rare earth-DOTA-binding antibody: probe properties and binding affinity across the lanthanide series.  

PubMed

An antibody that binds rare earth complexes selectively could be used as a docking station for a set of probe molecules, of particular interest for medical imaging and therapy. The rare earths are rich in probe properties, such as the paramagnetism of Gd, the luminescence of Tb and Eu, and the nuclear properties of Lu and Y. We find that antibody 2D12.5, initially developed to bind analogues of Y-DOTA (1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-N,N',N' ',N' ''-tetraacetic acid) for radiotherapy, binds not only Y-DOTA analogues but also analogous DOTA complexes of all of the lanthanides. Surprisingly, chelates of some metals such as Gd3+ bind more tightly than the original Y3+ complex. When the shape of the complex is perturbed by either increasing or decreasing the radius of the lanthanide ion, the thermodynamic stability of the protein-ligand complex changes in a regular fashion. The behavior of DeltaDeltaG as a function of ionic radius fits a parabola, as might be expected for a system that behaves in a thermodynamically elastic way. The broad specificity and high affinity of this antibody for all rare earth-DOTA complexes make it particularly interesting for applications that take advantage of the unique characteristics of lanthanides. For example, UV excitation of the Tb-DOTA-2D12.5 complex leads to energy transfer from aromatic side chains of the antibody to bound Tb-DOTA, enhancing green terbium luminescence >104 relative to unbound Tb-DOTA. PMID:12643698

Corneillie, Todd M; Whetstone, Paul A; Fisher, Andrew J; Meares, Claude F

2003-03-26

43

Tropospheric Ozone Pollution from Space: New Views from the TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) Instrument  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

New products from the TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) >satellite instrument can resolve pollution events in tropical and mid-latitudes, Over the past several years, we have developed tropospheric ozone data sets by two methods. The modified-residual technique [Hudson and Thompson, 1998; Thompson and Hudson, 1999] uses v. 7 TOMS total ozone and is applicable to tropical regimes in which the wave-one pattern in total ozone is observed. The TOMSdirect method [Hudson et at., 2000] represents a new algorithm that uses TOMS radiances to extract tropospheric ozone in regions of constant stratospheric ozone and tropospheric ozone displaying high mixing ratios and variability characteristic of pollution, Absorbing aerosols (dust and smoke; Herman et at., 1997 Hsu et al., 1999), a standard TOMS product, provide transport and/or source marker information to interpret tropospheric ozone. For the Nimbus 7/TOMS observing period (1979-1992), modified-residual TTO (tropical tropospheric ozone) appears as two maps/month at I-degree latitude 2-degree longitude resolution at a homepage and digital data are available (20S to 20N) by ftp at http://metosrv2. umd.edu/tropo/ 14y_data.d. Preliminary modified-residual TTO data from the operational Earth-Probe/TOMS (1996- present) are posted in near-real-time at the same website. Analyses with the new tropospheric ozone and aerosol data are illustrated by the following (I)Signals in tropical tropospheric ozone column and smoke amount during ENSO (El Nino-Southern Oscillation) events, e.g. 1982-1983 and the intense ENSO induced biomass fires of 1997-1998 over the Indonesian region [Thompson et a[, 2000a, Thompson and Hudson, 1999]. (2) Trends in tropospheric ozone and smoke aerosols in various tropical regions (Atlantic, Pacific, Africa, Brazil). No significant trends were found for ozone from1980-1990 [Thompson and Hudson, 19991 although smoke aerosols increased during the period [Hsu et al.,1999]. (3) Temporal and spatial offsets ("paradoxes") in tropical tropospheric ozone and smoke aerosol in regions of greatest tropical biomass burning [Thompson et at., 1996;2000b]. (4) Trans-boundary pollution tracking. With an air parcel (trajectory) model, smoke aerosol and ozone and dust plumes can be tracked across oceans (e.g., Asia to North America; North America to Europe) and national boundaries, e.g. Indonesia to Singapore and Malaysia during the 1997 ENSO fires.

Thompson, Anne M.; Hudson, Robert D.; Frolov, Alexander D.; Witte, Jacquelyn C.; Kucsera, Tom L.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

44

Measurements of the RF characteristics of earth lightning with the Galileo probe lightning experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of some measurements of earth lightning made with the functional unit of the Galileo probe RF lightning experiment are presented. The frequency range used is about 100 Hz to 100 kHz. The measurements were carried out in conjunction with simultaneous studies of lightning sources made by the University of Florida lightning research group. It is found that the typical RF pulse duration times are less than 30 microsec, independent of lightning source distance (less than 250 km). It is also found that the time between successive pulses is either quite short (less than 64 microsec), corresponding to the time between intracloud pulses and to the time between bipolar pulses, or occur around 100 ms, corresponding to the time between return strokes in ground discharges. The RF spectra are found to become less steep (relatively more power at the higher frequencies) during an interval of intense, nearby (less than 150 km) storms.

Rinnert, K.; Lanzerotti, L. J.; Dehmel, G.; Gliem, F. O.; Krider, E. P.; Uman, M. A.

1985-01-01

45

The Radiation Belt Storm Probes Mission: Advancing Our Understanding of the Earth's Radiation Belts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We describe NASA's Radiation Belt Storm Probe (RBSP) mission, whose primary science objective is to understand, ideally to the point of predictability, the dynamics of relativistic electrons and penetrating ions in the Earth's radiation belts resulting from variable solar activity. The overarching scientific questions addressed include: 1. the physical processes that produce radiation belt enhancement events, 2. the dominant mechanisms for relativistic electron loss, and 3. how the ring current and other geomagnetic processes affect radiation belt behavior. The RBSP mission comprises two spacecraft which will be launched during Fall 2012 into low inclination lapping equatorial orbits. The orbit periods are about 9 hours, with perigee altitudes and apogee radial distances of 600 km and 5.8 RE respectively. During the two-year primary mission, the spacecraft orbits precess once around the Earth and lap each other twice in each local time quadrant. The spacecraft are each equipped with identical comprehensive instrumentation packages to measure, electrons, ions and wave electric and magnetic fields. We provide an overview of the RBSP mission, onboard instrumentation and science prospects and invite scientific collaboration.

Sibeck, David; Kanekal, Shrikanth; Kessel, Ramona; Fox, Nicola; Mauk, Barry

2012-01-01

46

TOMS Ozone at the South Pole: September Averages from 1979 through 2000.  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The year 2000s Antarctic ozone hole is the largest ever observed. Scientists continue to investigate the phenomenon, and are somewhat surprised by its scale. Using data from NASAs Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) instrument onboard the Earth Probe satellite, researchers can evaluate and compare current conditions over the south pole to readings taken by other instruments in years past. Continued monitoring of polar ozone levels helps researchers gain a better understanding of how the planets climate may be changing. The following animation shows how ozone loss at the south pole has grown since the mid-80s. Early readings over Antarctica indicate little or no ozone depletion beyond naturally predicted levels. But as the 80s and 90s progress, a clear change in atmospheric chemistry takes place at the bottom of the world. The hole starts small in the late 80s and spreads as subsequent winter cycles break apart ozone molecules.

Greg Shirah

2000-10-03

47

TOMS Ozone at the South Pole: October Averages from 1979 through 2000  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The year 2000s Antarctic ozone hole is the largest ever observed. Scientists continue to investigate the phenomenon, and are somewhat surprised by its scale. Using data from NASAs Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) instrument onboard the Earth Probe satellite, researchers can evaluate and compare current conditions over the south pole to readings taken by other instruments in years past. Continued monitoring of polar ozone levels helps researchers gain a better understanding of how the planets climate may be changing. The following animation shows how ozone loss at the south pole has grown since the mid-80s. Early readings over Antarctica indicate little or no ozone depletion beyond naturally predicted levels. But as the 80s and 90s progress, a clear change in atmospheric chemistry takes place at the bottom of the world. The hole starts small in the late 80s and spreads as subsequent winter cycles break apart ozone molecules.

Greg Shirah

2002-10-09

48

Van Allen Probes Mission Space Academy: Educating middle school students about Earth's mysterious radiation belts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

How's the weather in space? Why on Earth did NASA send two satellites above Earth to study radiation belts and space weather? To learn the answer to questions about NASA's Van Allen Probes mission, 450 students and their teachers from Maryland middle schools attended Space Academy events highlighting the Van Allen Probes mission. Sponsored by the Applied Physics Laboratory (APL) and Discovery Education, the events are held at the APL campus in Laurel, MD. Space Academies take students and teachers on behind-the-scenes exploration of how spacecraft are built, what they are designed to study, and introduces them to the many professionals that work together to create some of NASA's most exciting projects. Moderated by a public relations representative in the format of an official NASA press conference, the daylong event includes a student press conference with students as reporters and mission experts as panelists. Lunch with mission team members gives students a chance to ask more questions. After lunch, students don souvenir clean room suits, enjoy interactive science demonstrations, and tour APL facilities where the Van Allen Probes were built and tested before launch. Students may even have an opportunity to peek inside a clean room to view spacecraft being assembled. Prior to the event, teachers are provided with classroom activities, lesson plans, and videos developed by APL and Discovery Education to help prepare students for the featured mission. The activities are aligned to National Science Education Standards and appropriate for use in the classroom. Following their visit, student journalists are encouraged to write a short article about their field trip; selections are posted on the Space Academy web site. Designed to engage, inspire, and influence attitudes about space science and STEM careers, Space Academies provide an opportunity to attract underserved populations and emphasize that space science is for everyone. Exposing students to a diverse group of scientists and engineers may alleviate some common stereotypes about these careers. When students engage with the scientists and engineers at APL, they see first-hand that successful science and engineering requires a diverse team with multi-disciplinary backgrounds. Activities throughout the day develop student understanding about science and technology, and address the fundamental concepts that fall under the National Science Education Content Standards. Students are immersed in a hands-on experience designed to facilitate understanding of the History and Nature of Science. Throughout the day students interact with people of diverse backgrounds and interests while hearing about the specific ways various individuals and teams of people contribute to the science and technology of the mission, addressing the concepts which fall under the headings of Science as a Human Endeavor, Nature of Science, and History of Science. Getting students outside the classroom to visit APL is an exclusive opportunity; evaluations have indicated that students became interested in learning more about space science and STEM careers after attending a Space Academy event.

Butler, L.; Turney, D.; Matiella Novak, A.; Smith, D.; Simon, M.

2013-12-01

49

Chemistry Experiments — For Comparative Analyses for Demonstrating Environmental Differences on Venus, Earth, Mars and Titan, — Built on Educational Space Probes Hunveyor and Husar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We compared chemical environments of Venus, Earth, Mars and Titan by experiments planned for selection to realize them on educational space probe landers and rovers (Hunveyor and Husar) built by Hungarian universities and high schools.

Bérczi, Sz.; Róka, A.; Nyíri, Z.; Varga, T.; Fabriczy, A. Sz.; Peták, Cs.; Hudoba, Gy.; Hegyi, S.; Lang, A.; Gyollai, I.; Gucsik, A.

2014-11-01

50

Sensing systems for measuring mechanical properties in ground masses. Volume l: Bore hole shear, Earth settlement, and Earth penetrometer probes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An analysis of three in situ testing methods for possible use in tunnel design in soft ground is presented. These three in situ testing methods, the Bore Hole Shear (BHS), Bore Hole Earth Settlement (BESA) and Bore Hole Electronic Earth Penetrometer (BEEP) are in various stages of refinement. All show promise as practical methods of obtaining soil engineering data in a bored hole. The BHS is presently in commercial production. The BEEP requires only additional instrument research design to become manufacturable, and the BESA requires additional applied research and correlation testing prior to final design and manufacture.

Fox, N. S.

1981-10-01

51

Sensing systems for measuring mechanical properties in ground masses. Volume 1: Bore hole shear earth settlement and earth penetrometer probes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An analysis of three in situ testing methods for possible use in tunnel design in soft ground is discussed. These three in situ testing methods, the Bore Hole Shear (BHS), Bore Hole Earth Settlement (BESA) and Bore Hole Electronic Earth Pentrometer (BEEP) are in various stages of refinement. All show promise as practical methods of obtaining soil engineering data in a bored hole. The BHS is presently in commercial production. The BEEP requires only additional instrument research design to become manufacturable, and the BESA requires additional applied research and correlation testing prior to final design and manufacture.

Fox, N. S.

1981-10-01

52

The Mutual Impedance Probe Technique for Plasma Parameters Measurements: the ROSETTA RPC/MIP Results during the Earth's Flybys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Mutual Impedance Probe technique, used in geophysical prospection to measure the ground permittivity since the early 1900, has been successfully transposed to measure space plasma properties in the 70s. This technique has been used in space for many years on sounding rockets and spacecraft: GEOS-1, GEOS-2, VIKING, MARS-96, ARCAD/AUREOL-3, and Huygens. The basic principle of the technique is to measure the self impedance of a single electric antenna or the mutual impedance between two sets of E-field dipoles. Since the impedance of the probe depends on the dielectric properties of the medium in which the probe is immersed, some characteristics of the medium can be determined. Space plasma parameters such as the density and temperature of thermal electrons may thus be reliably and accurately deduced. As a bonus, using only the receiving part of the probe, natural waves can also be investigated in a large frequency range. An E-field impedance probe is currently flying onboard ESA’s comet Chaser ROSETTA and one such probe is in development for BepiColombo. The most common configuration of a mutual impedance probe uses a dipole for transmitting a frequency-controlled signal and a second dipole for receiving the induced signal. Transmitting electrodes are fed with a signal generator, in series with a current meter if necessary, while the receiving electrodes are connected to a voltmeter with a very high input impedance. The transmitted current I and the received voltage V being known, the mutual impedance Z is by definition Z = V/I. Both the imaginary and the real parts of Z may then be interpreted to deduce plasma properties. The capabilities of this technique are illustrated with in-flight calibration results obtained by the Mutual Impedance Probe, MIP, which is one instrument of the ROSETTA plasma package. MIP and the four other instruments of the ROSETTA Plasma Consortium, RPC, were switched on during the three Earth swingbys (March 2005, November 2007, and November 2009). Calibration and general testing were the main objectives, nevertheless valuable observations of the Earth’s plasmasphere have been made by the MIP instrument. While MIP itself has been designed to measure plasma properties in the Debye length range: 0.5-20 cm, a special configuration uses a second instrument of the RPC, the Langmuir Probe (LAP), as a transmitter to allow measuring the plasma properties in the long Debye length range: 0.1-2 m, thus allowing to investigate a wide range of plasma conditions expected to be met by ROSETTA. The results obtained during the Earth flybys will be shown and the performance of the instrument discussed. The application of the technique to probe the environment of Callisto and Ganymede is discussed and the strength of this measurement approach as a potential sensor onboard one of the two spacecraft of the Europa Jupiter System Mission, the Jupiter Ganymede Orbiter, is highlighted.

Trotignon, J.; Lebreton, J.; Rauch, J.

2010-12-01

53

Earth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The following aspects of the planet Earth are discussed: plate tectonics, the interior of the planet, the formation of the Earth, and the evolution of the atmosphere and hydrosphere. The Earth's crust, mantle, and core are examined along with the bulk composition of the planet.

Carr, M. H.

1984-01-01

54

ADEOS Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) Data Products User's Guide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two data products from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (ADEOS/TOMS) have been archived at the Distributed Active Archive Center, in the form of Hierarchical Data Format files. The ADEOS/ TOMS began taking measurements on September 11, 1996, and ended on June 29, 1997. The instrument measured backscattered Earth radiance and incoming solar irradiance; their ratio was used in ozone retrievals. Changes in the reflectivity of the solar diffuser used for the irradiance measurement were monitored using a carousel of three diffusers, each exposed to the degrading effects of solar irradiation at different rates. The algorithm to retrieve total column ozone compares measured Earth radiances at sets of three wavelengths with radiances calculated for different total ozone values, solar zenith angles, and optical paths. The initial error in the absolute scale for TOMS total ozone is 3 percent, the one standard deviation random error is 2 percent, and the drift is less than 0.5 percent over the 9-month data record. The Level 2 product contains the measured radiances, the derived total ozone amount, and reflectivity information for each scan position. The Level 3 product contains daily total ozone and reflectivity in a 1-degree latitude by 1.25 degrees longitude grid. The Level 3 files containing estimates of UVB at the Earth surface and tropospheric aerosol information will also be available. Detailed descriptions of both HDF data files and the CDROM product are provided.

Krueger, A.; Bhartia, P. K.; McPeters, R.; Herman, J.; Wellemeyer, C.; Jaross, G.; Seftor, C.; Torres, O.; Labow, G.; Byerly, W.; Moy, L.; Taylor, S.; Swissler, T.; Cebula, R.

1998-01-01

55

Family Example parent(tom, bob).  

E-print Network

there exist parent-children pairs"? 4 #12; Closed-World Assumption System knows only about facts (andFamily Example parent(tom, bob). parent(pam, bob). parent(tom, liz). parent(bob, ann). parent(bob, pat). parent(pat, jim). 1 Family Example | Structure pam tom bob ann pat liz jim 2 Rules Program: 6

Polani, Daniel

56

Tom Houlton [The sun flattened  

E-print Network

Tom Houlton [The sun flattened] The sun flattened Outside her window, Hardly touched the panes and grey when It appeared, the sun jumping From cloud to cloud. The world went waterwards again. Her right://poetry.girton.cam.ac.uk #12;A cloud steps aside for a second. The sun hits. 2 #12;

Robertson, Stephen

57

Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site provides information about the TOMS instrument, its mission, space craft, and data products. Visitors can access same-day or archived data on aerosols, ozone, reflectivity, ultraviolet radiation, or volcanic gases. Teachers can choose from a selection of links to activities and lesson plans. Other materials include news articles, movies, and links to related sites.

58

GeoSystems: Probing Climate and Linked Systems of Earth's Deep-Time Dark Ages  

Microsoft Academic Search

GeoSystems is a developing community-based initiative that focuses on the importance of the deep-time perspective for understanding the complexities of Earth's atmosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere and surficial lithosphere using climate as the focus. Earth's climate operates on a continuum of temporal, spatial and parametric scales. The deep-time geologic record preserves the results of multiple large-scale experiments in climate and broader environmental

G. S. Soreghan

2004-01-01

59

Probing the coupling of heavy dark matter to nucleons by detecting neutrino signature from the Earth core  

E-print Network

We argue that the detection of neutrino signature from the Earth core is an ideal approach for probing the coupling of heavy dark matter ($m_{\\chi}>10^{4}$ GeV) to nucleons. We first note that direct searches for dark matter (DM) in such a mass range do not provide stringent constraints. Furthermore the energies of neutrinos arising from DM annihilations inside the Sun cannot exceed a few TeV at the Sun surface due to the attenuation effect. Therefore the sensitivity to the heavy DM coupling is lost. Finally, the detection of neutrino signature from galactic halo can only probe DM annihilation cross sections. After presenting the rationale of our studies, we discuss the event rates in IceCube and KM3NeT arising from the neutrino flux produced by annihilations of Earth-captured DM heavier than $10^{4}$ GeV. The IceCube and KM3NeT sensitivities to spin independent DM-proton scattering cross section $\\sigma_{\\chi p}$ and isospin violation effect in this mass range are presented. The implications of our results are also discussed.

Guey-Lin Lin; Yen-Hsun Lin

2014-04-02

60

Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With three levels to choose from on each page - beginner, intermediate or advanced - this site provides information on our plant Earth. There is a section about water on earth and its many different varities, like freshwater, groundwater, and frozen water. There is information about the chemical make-up of water and many images showing the different water anvironments. There is a section about life in water, such as animals, plants, and plankton.

2008-10-03

61

Comparison of Galileo Probe and Earth-Based Translation Rates of Jupiter's Equatorial Clouds  

PubMed

The Doppler wind speeds derived from Galileo probe data are comparable with the maximum translation speeds observed in the equatorial zone by Voyager 1 and the Hubble Space Telescope. Slower published values of east-west winds are based on measurements of larger features and should be interpreted as translation rates of large weather systems interacting with the wind. The nature of the hot-spot region that the Galileo probe entered is compatible with a high-speed jet at 6 degrees north. The hot spot is associated with an equatorial weather system that spans 5 degrees of latitude and translates at 103 meters per second. PMID:8662572

Beebe; Simon; Huber

1996-05-10

62

Swept-frequency UHF radiometer for deep probes of earth - A concept  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Radiometer, developed for use on moon or planets, could be used to - determine layering and structure as deep as 100 feet below earth surface, determine physical properties of subsurface by variation of dielectric constants, identify types of materials including ore bodies and oil, and locate subsurface deposits of moisture.

Koppl, W.

1970-01-01

63

GeoSystems: Probing Climate and Linked Systems of Earth's Deep-Time Dark Ages  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

GeoSystems is a developing community-based initiative that focuses on the importance of the deep-time perspective for understanding the complexities of Earth's atmosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere and surficial lithosphere using climate as the focus. Earth's climate operates on a continuum of temporal, spatial and parametric scales. The deep-time geologic record preserves the results of multiple large-scale experiments in climate and broader environmental change, many of which are far more extreme than those archived in instrumental, historical, or Quaternary records, but are potentially repeatable on human time scales. Indeed, aspects of our modern climate are now returning to a state last known from "deep" time. Understanding the ranges, rates, and processes responsible for these "alternative Earth" extremes in global systems behavior is critical for developing a holistic knowledge of our planet's climate system and constraining predictions of future scenarios. Processes such as extinction and evolution of species, orogenic and magmatic events, sea-level change, and the like operate over a variety of time scales and are complexly entwined with climatic trends, many of which also operate over a variety of time scales and must be viewed within the context of the deep-time perspective. Recent research on Earth's climate and linked systems behavior in deep time is shattering previous preconceptions and interpretations by reconstructing, with increasing rigor and resolution, key parameters such as atmospheric CO2, sea-surface temperatures, rates and modes of ocean circulation, ocean state (anoxia, nutrient status, biological productivity), winds, seasonality, and even diurnal terrestrial temperatures from records dating from millions of years in the past. Beyond this, these same records are simultaneously teaching us how the climate system interacted with Earth's biosphere, lithosphere, and hydrosphere in ways previously unimagined.

Soreghan, G. S.

2004-12-01

64

Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) planet profile provides data and images of the planet Earth. These data include planet size, orbit facts, distance from the Sun, rotation and revolution times, temperature, atmospheric composition, density, surface materials and albedo. Images with descriptions show Earth features such as the Ross Ice Shelf in Antarctica, Simpson Desert in Australia, Mt. Etna in Sicily, the Cassiar Mountains in Canada, the Strait of Gibraltar, Mississippi River, Grand Canyon, Wadi Kufra Oasis in Libya, and Moon images such as Hadley Rille, Plum Crater, massifs and Moon rocks. These images were taken with the Galileo Spacecraft and by the Apollo missions.

65

Holography and Kinect Tom Groentjes, Leiden University  

E-print Network

Holography and Kinect Tom Groentjes, Leiden University January 31, 2013 Albert Einstein: "Reality changing the illusion of the floating object above the mirascope. Keywords Holography, Mirascope, Illusion

Emmerich, Michael

66

Comparisons of Satellite Retrieval of Aerosol Properties from SeaWiFS and TOMS to the AERONET Measurements during ACE-Asia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The primary goal of the ACE (Aerosol Characterization Experiment)-Asia mission is to increase our understanding of how atmospheric aerosol particles over the Asian-Pacific region affect the Earth climate system. In support of the day-to-day flight planning of ACE-Asia, we built a near real-time system to provide satellite data from the polar-orbiting instruments Earth Probe TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) (in the form of absorbing aerosol index) and SeaWiFS (Sea-Viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor) (in the form of aerosol optical thickness and Angstrom exponent). The results were available via web access. These satellite data provide a 'big picture' of aerosol distribution in the region, which is complementary to the ground based measurements. In this paper, we will briefly discuss the algorithms used to generate these data. The retrieved aerosol optical thickness and Angstrom exponent from SeaWiFS will be compared with those obtained from various AERONET (Aerosol Robotic Network) sites over the Asian-Pacific region. The TOMS aerosol index will also be compared with AERONET aerosol optical thickness over different aerosol conditions. Finally, we will discuss the climate implication of our studies using the combined satellite and AERONET observations.

Hsu, Christina N.; Tsay, Si-Chee; Herman, R.; Holben, Brent; Bhartia, P. K. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

67

A comprehensive mission to planet Earth: Woods Hole Space Science and Applications Advisory Committee Planning Workshop  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA program Mission to Planet Earth (MTPE) is described in this set of visuals presented in Massachusetts on July 29, 1991. The problem presented in this document is that the earth system is changing and that human activity accelerates the rate of change resulting in increased greenhouse gases, decreasing levels of stratospheric ozone, acid rain, deforestation, decreasing biodiversity, and overpopulation. Various national and international organizations are coordinating global change research. The complementary space observations for this activity are sun-synchronous polar orbits, low-inclination, low altitude orbits, geostationary orbits, and ground measurements. The Geostationary Earth Observatory is the major proposed mission of MTPE. Other proposed missions are EOS Synthetic Aperture Radar, ARISTOTELES Magnetic Field Experiment, and the Global Topography Mission. Use of the NASA DC-8 aircraft is outlined as carrying out the Airborne Science and Applications Program. Approved Earth Probes Program include the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS). Other packages for earth observation are described.

1991-01-01

68

Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) Level-3 Data Products User's Guide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Data from the TOMS series of instruments span the time period from November 1978, through the present with about a one and a-half year gap from January 1994 through July 1996. A set of four parameters derived from the TOMS measurements have been archived in the form of daily global maps or Level-3 data products. These products are total column ozone, effective surface reflectivity, aerosol index, and erythermal ultraviolet estimated at the Earth surface. A common fixed grid of I degree latitude by 1.25 degree longitude cells over the entire globe is provided daily for each parameter. These data are archived at the Goddard Space Flight Center Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAQ in Hierarchical Data Format (HDF). They are also available in a character format through the TOMS web site at http://toms.gsfc.nasa.gov. The derivations of the parameters, the mapping algorithm, and the data formats are described. The trend uncertainty for individual TOMS instruments is about 1% decade, but additional uncertainty exists in the combined data record due to uncertainty in the relative calibrations of the various TOMS.

McPeters, Richard D.; Bhartia, P. K.; Krueger, Arlin J.; Herman, Jay R.; Wellemeyer, Charles G.; Seftor, Colin J.; Byerly, William; Celarier, Edward A.

2000-01-01

69

3, 187223, 2003 TOMS cloudy ozone  

E-print Network

ACPD 3, 187­223, 2003 TOMS cloudy ozone anomaly X. Liu et al. Title Page Abstract Introduction Geosciences Union 2003 Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions Occurrence of ozone anomalies over cloudy 2003 Correspondence to: X. Liu (xliu@nsstc.uah.edu) 187 #12;ACPD 3, 187­223, 2003 TOMS cloudy ozone

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

70

The Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet (SBUV) and Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The SBUV/TOMS is designed to measure the extraterrestrial ultraviolet solar irradiation and the solar ultraviolet radiation from the earth and its atmosphere. Methods to recover the ozone information from backscattered ultraviolet measurements are described. Mapping of the total ozone and 200 mb height fields is obtained.

Heath, D. F.; Krueger, A. J.; Park, H.

1978-01-01

71

Probing the Structure near the Top of the Earth's Outer Core Using SmKS Traveltimes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Earth's solid inner core is composed of heavy Fe and Ni with a fraction of light elements such as O, S, Si. These light elements were expelled from the inner core during its formation and rise up through the outer core as the result of buoyancy, but their existence is still a mystery. Some authors have presented seismological evidence for lowered wave speed beneath the core-mantle boundary (CMB) relative to PREM, suggesting light elements there, but counter argument also exists. In this study, we use traveltime measurements from recorded and modeled SmKS waves to investigate the effect of the velocity under the CMB on the differential traveltimes between SKKS and S3KS waves (TS3KS-TSKKS). Due to the long propagation distance and interference with neighboring phases, the arrival times of SKKS and S3KS waves are difficult to define accurately in the records. Therefore in our analysis we measure both the observed and model-predicted differential traveltime TS3KS-TSKKS by cross-correlating the waveform of Hilbert-transformed S3KS with that of SKKS. We use synthetic seismograms calculated by the Direct-Solution Method (DSM) in a suite of 1D models with different structural profiles under the CMB to examine the existence of a zone of lowered velocity at the top of the outer core. We are conducting a systematic investigation using waveforms available at IRIS from globally distributed large deep earthquakes. Results from events we have processed so far indicate that the velocity under the CMB is slightly slower than that in PREM.

Tang, V. C.; Zhao, L.; Hung, S.

2013-12-01

72

TOMS Ozone at the South Pole: August 1, 2000 to October 2, 2000  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The year 2000s Antarctic ozone hole is the largest ever observed. Scientists continue to investigate the phenomenon, and are somewhat surprised by its scale. Using data from NASAs Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) instrument onboard the Earth Probe satellite, researchers can evaluate and compare current conditions over the south pole to readings taken by other instruments in years past. Continued monitoring of polar ozone levels helps researchers gain a better understanding of how the planets climate may be changing. This animation shows a huge section of the atmosphere around the south pole thats comparatively devoid of ozone. The gap reached a record size of 28.3 million kilometers squared on September 3, 2000. The previous record was 27.2 million square kilometers squared recorded on Sept. 19, 1998. Although current measurements of the ozone hole show that it has stabilized, low value points in the interior continue to decline. The lowest values are typically observed in the late September or early October.

Greg Shirah

2000-10-03

73

Observation guidelines for a Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) in geosynchronous orbit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The successful utilization of Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) measurements in low Earth orbit for the analysis of rapidly changing events has led to the consideration of a TOMS in geosynchronous orbit. This orbit should allow for the selection of temporal and spatial resolutions that are specifically designed for these events, plus the flexibility of selecting different sized areas and pointing the sensor to focus on the most interesting events. Separate temporal and spatial resolution guidelines plus recommended areal coverage have been developed for tropical cyclones, jet streams, the interaction between strong convection and the environment, and the surveillance of volcanoes. It is also suggested that the most effective use of TOMS would be simultaneous flights with microwave and high spatial resolution infrared temperature profiles.

Shenk, William E.

1987-01-01

74

TOMS UV Algorithm: Problems and Enhancements. 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Satellite instruments provide global maps of surface ultraviolet (UV) irradiance by combining backscattered radiance measurements with radiative transfer models. The models are limited by uncertainties in input parameters of the atmosphere and the surface. We evaluate the effects of possible enhancements of the current Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) surface UV irradiance algorithm focusing on effects of diurnal variation of cloudiness and improved treatment of snow/ice. The emphasis is on comparison between the results of the current (version 1) TOMS UV algorithm and each of the changes proposed. We evaluate different approaches for improved treatment of pixel average cloud attenuation, with and without snow/ice on the ground. In addition to treating clouds based only on the measurements at the local time of the TOMS observations, the results from other satellites and weather assimilation models can be used to estimate attenuation of the incident UV irradiance throughout the day. A new method is proposed to obtain a more realistic treatment of snow covered terrain. The method is based on a statistical relation between UV reflectivity and snow depth. The new method reduced the bias between the TOMS UV estimations and ground-based UV measurements for snow periods. The improved (version 2) algorithm will be applied to re-process the existing TOMS UV data record (since 1978) and to the future satellite sensors (e.g., Quik/TOMS, GOME, OMI on EOS/Aura and Triana/EPIC).

Krotkov, Nickolay; Herman, Jay; Bhartia, P. K.; Seftor, Colin; Arola, Antti; Kaurola, Jussi; Kroskinen, Lasse; Kalliskota, S.; Taalas, Petteri; Geogdzhaev, I.

2002-01-01

75

Probes to the inferior planets—A new dawn for NEO and IEO detection technology demonstration from heliocentric orbits interior to the earth's?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent years have seen a renewed interest in exploration of the interior of the solar system. A number of missions are currently under way, in planning as well as in space, with the primary goal to expand our knowledge on the planets Mercury and Venus. Chemical propulsion missions to Mercury in particular require an extended cruise phase prior to arrival at their destination, usually involving multiple planetary fly-by manoeuvres and many revolutions in heliocentric orbit. The difficulties in discovering and tracking small objects interior to Earth's orbit, mainly due to unfavourable viewing geometry as well as atmospheric interference, have long been noted by the solar system science and planetary defence communities. Space probes in the interior of the solar system are in a position to observe objects near or interior to Earth's orbit in favourable opposition geometry. They are also usually free from planet-related interference, at least while in cruise, and often can be while in planetary eclipse. Dedicated search and survey missions to look for Near and Inner Earth Objects (NEO, IEO) from the vicinity of Earth or low Earth orbit are being planned. In this article, the ad-hoc available as well as near-term planned in-situ capabilities of the optical instrument payloads of space probes to Venus and Mercury are compiled from publications by the respective instrument teams. The small-object detection capabilities of cameras and spectrographs in opposition geometry are estimated by a common method, using data from comparable instruments to supplement missing information where necessary. The on-board cameras are classified according to their small-object detection potential in a technology demonstration of asteroid detection from a heliocentric orbit substantially interior to Earth's.

Grundmann, Jan Thimo; Mottola, Stefano; Drentschew, Maximilian; Drobczyk, Martin; Kahle, Ralph; Maiwald, Volker; Quantius, Dominik; Zabel, Paul; van Zoest, Tim

2013-09-01

76

What on Earth?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This quiz game from the NASA Earth Science Enterprise features air, water and land categories in round one; and natural hazards, people, and Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) categories in round two. The questions involve the Terra satellite mission, its measurement of aerosols, and what causes aerosols; the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission; movement of the island of Maui, satellite laser ranging, and the Tethys or Mediterranean Sea; TOMS and false-color images; the effect of people on the environment; and tornadoes, hurricanes, earthquakes and volcanoes.

77

Nimbus-7 TOMS Version 7 Calibration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report describes an improved instrument characterization used for the Version 7 processing of the Nimbus-7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) data record. An improved internal calibration technique referred to as spectral discrimination is used to provide long-term calibration precision of +/- 1%/decade in total column ozone amount. A revised wavelength scale results in a day one calibration that agrees with other satellite and ground-based measurements of total ozone, while a wavelength independent adjustment of the initial radiometric calibration constants provides good agreement with surface reflectivity measured by other satellite-borne ultraviolet measurements. The impact of other aspects of the Nimbus-7 TOMS instrument performance are also discussed. The Version 7 data should be used in all future studies involving the Nimbus-7 TOMS measurements of ozone. The data are available through the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's Distributive Active Archive Center (DAAC).

Wellemeyer, C. G.; Taylor, S. L.; Jaross, G.; DeLand, M. T.; Seftor, C. J.; Labow, G.; Swissler, T. J.; Cebula, R. P.

1996-01-01

78

Nimbus/TOMS Science Data Operations Support  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Projected goals include the following: (1) Participate in and provide analysis of laboratory and in-flight calibration of LTV sensors used for space observations of backscattered LTV radiation; (2) Provide support to the TOMS Science Operations Center, including generating instrument command lists and analysis of TOMS health and safety data; (3) Develop and maintain software and algorithms designed to capture and process raw spacecraft and instrument data, convert the instrument output into measured radiance and irradiances, and produce scientifically valid products; (4) Process the TOMS data into Level 1, Level 2, and Level 3 data products; (5) Provide analysis of the science data products in support of NASA GSFC Code 916's research.

1998-01-01

79

Scientific and Operational Requirements for TOMS Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Global total ozone and sulfur dioxide data from the Nimbus 7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) instrument have applications in a broad range of disciplines. The presentations of 29 speakers who are using the data in research or who have operational needs for the data are summarized. Five sessions addressed topics in stratospheric processes, tropospheric dynamics and chemistry, remote sensing, volcanology, and future instrument requirements. Stratospheric and some volcanology requirements can be met by a continuation of polar orbit satellites using a slightly modified TOMS but weather related research, tropospheric sulfur budget studies, and most operational needs require the time resolution of a geostationary instrument.

Krueger, Arlin J. (editor)

1987-01-01

80

TOMS Near Realtime System design document  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The System Design Document for the TOMS (Total Mapping Spectrometer) Near Realtime System provides detailed definition of the system functions and records the system history from a data processing and development point-of-view. The system was designed to produce map products displaying ozone concentrations over the United States as measured by the TOMS flown on the NIMBUS 7 satellite. The maps were produced and delivered to the user within six hours of round receipt of the satellite data for the period March 1, 1981 through May 15, 1981 on a daily basis. Sample system products are shown and data archival locations are listed.

Puccinelli, E. F.

1981-01-01

81

Feasibility study of a swept frequency electromagnetic probe (SWEEP) using inductive coupling for the determination of subsurface conductivity of the earth and water prospecting in arid regions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Techniques developed for electromagnetic probing of the lunar interior, and techniques developed for the generation of high power audio frequencies were combined to make practical a magnetic inductive coupling system for the rapid measurement of ground conductivity profiles which are helpful when prospecting for the presence and quality of subsurface water. A system which involves the measurement of the direction, intensity, and time phase of the magnetic field observed near the surface of the earth at a distance from a horizontal coil energized so as to create a field that penetrates the earth was designed and studied to deduce the conductivity and stratification of the subsurface. Theoretical studies and a rudimentary experiment in an arid region showed that the approach is conceptually valid and that this geophysical prospecting technique can be developed for the economical exploration of subterranean water resources.

Latorraca, G. A.; Bannister, L. H.

1974-01-01

82

Calibration and postlaunch performance of the Meteor 3/TOMS instrument  

SciTech Connect

Prelaunch and postlaunch calibration results for the Meteor 3/total ozone mapping spectrometer (TOMS) instrument are presented here. Ozone amounts are retrieved from measurements of Earth albedo in the 312- to 380-nm range. The accuracy of albedo measurements is primarily tied to knowledge of the reflective properties of diffusers used in the calibrations and to the instrument`s wavelength selection. These and other important prelaunch calibrations are presented. Their estimated accuracies are within the bounds necessary to determine column ozone to better than 1%. However, postlaunch validation results indicate some prelaunch calibration uncertainties may be larger than originally estimated. Instrument calibrations have been maintained postlaunch to within a corresponding 1% error in retrieved ozone. Onboard calibrations, including wavelength monitoring and a three-diffuser solar measurement system, are described and specific results are presented. Other issues, such as the effects of orbital precession on calibration and recent chopper wheel malfunctions, are also discussed.

Jaross, G.; Krueger, A.; Cebula, R.P.; Seftor, C.; Hartmann, U.; Haring, R.; Burchfield, D. [Hughes STX Corp., Greenbelt, MD (United States)] [Hughes STX Corp., Greenbelt, MD (United States); [NASA, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States); [Orbital Sciences Corp., Pomona, CA (United States)

1995-02-01

83

Steganography using Gibbs random fields Toms Filler  

E-print Network

Steganography using Gibbs random fields Tomás Filler SUNY Binghamton Department of ECE Binghamton naturally from a parallel made between steganography and statistical physics. The Gibbs sampler is the key algorithms. The proposed framework reduces the design of secure steganography in empirical covers

Fridrich, Jessica

84

Multivariate Emulators with Nonseparable Covariance Tom Fricker  

E-print Network

Multivariate Emulators with Nonseparable Covariance Structures Tom Fricker Jeremy Oakley Department in Case Study 2. 1 #12;Abstract An emulator is a statistical representation of an expensive computer model that gives fast probabilistic predictions of the output. This article concerns emulators for computer models

Oakley, Jeremy

85

Seeing like a queer city Tom Boellstorff  

E-print Network

to this volume in light of these intellectual and activist experiences, I see five key themes of value for future#12;. i : i 14 Seeing like a queer city Tom Boellstorff Introduction It would be impossible and governance, norms and practices, history and change. It is through such a contextual SEEING LIKE A QUEER CITY

Brody, James P.

86

A note on Tom Paine's “vulgar” style  

Microsoft Academic Search

This essay examines aspects of Tom Paine's “vulgar” style by comparing the sentence structure and diction of Common Sense with that of four other pamphlets of the American Revolution. It concludes that Paine adapted his prose style to the popular audience, in part, by avoidance of noun modifiers and overly long subordinate clauses, and a preference for uninterrupted subject?verb?object sentences,

Thomas Clark

1978-01-01

87

Multilevel Chat (MLChat) Tom Macklin, Phyllis Jenket  

E-print Network

1 Multilevel Chat (MLChat) Tom Macklin, Phyllis Jenket Center for High Assurance Computer Systems Multilevel Chat: System Components #12;5 Trusted vs Untrusted Environment Only the trusted monitor can write to a chat room Trusted Space Trusted Monitor HTTP Chat Server HTTP Chat Server A-C Chat Room ACL Writes

88

Nimbus-7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) data products user's guide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two tape products from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) aboard the Nimbus-7 have been archived at the National Space Science Data Center. The instrument measures backscattered Earth radiance and incoming solar irradiance; their ratio -- the albedo -- is used in ozone retrievals. In-flight measurements are used to monitor changes in the instrument sensitivity. The algorithm to retrieve total column ozone compares the observed ratios of albedos at pairs of wavelengths with pair ratios calculated for different ozone values, solar zenith angles, and optical paths. The initial error in the absolute scale for TOMS total ozone is 3 percent, the one standard-deviation random error is 2 percent, and the drift is +/- 1.5 percent over 14.5 years. The High Density TOMS (HDTOMS) tape contains the measured albedos, the derived total ozone amount, reflectivity, and cloud-height information for each scan position. It also contains an index of SO2 contamination for each position. The Gridded TOMS (GRIDTOMS) tape contains daily total ozone and reflectivity in roughly equal area grids (110 km in latitude by about 100-150 km in longitude). Detailed descriptions of the tape structure and record formats are provided.

Mcpeters, Richard D.; Krueger, Arlin J.; Bhartia, P. K.; Herman, Jay R.; Oaks, Arnold; Ahmad, Ziuddin; Cebula, Richard P.; Schlesinger, Barry M.; Swissler, Tom; Taylor, Steven L.

1993-01-01

89

Ion distribution dynamics near the Earth's bow shock: first measurements with the 2D ion energy spectrometer CORALL on the INTERBALL/Tail-probe satellite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dynamics of the ion distribution function near the Earth's bow shock is studied on the basis of quasi-3D measurements of ion energy spectra in the range of 30-24200 eV/q with the Russian-Cuban CORALL instrument on the INTERBALL/Tail-probe satellite. The instrument was designed for observations of magnetospheric plasma and measures ions, in an angular range of 36°-144° from the Earth-Sun direction. Ion populations generated by the Earth bow shock are often observed upstream from the bow shock. In the solar-wind stream compressed and heated by the passing of very dense magnetic cloud (CME), two types of these ion populations were measured upstream and before the bow shock crossing on 25 August 1995 at 07:37 UT. Both populations were observed in the energy range above 2 keV. At sim06:20 UT, when the angle between the direction of the interplanetary magnetic field and normal to the bow shock Bn was simeq43° the instrument observed a narrow, fast (sim800 km/s) field-aligned beam moving from the Earth. At sim07:30, when Bnsimeq28°, the wide ion pitch-angle distribution was observed. A similar suprathermal ion population is observed in the magnetosheath simultaneously with the solar-wind ion population being heated and deflected from the Sun-Earth direction. The similarity of observations during the mentioned time-interval and under usual solar-wind conditions allows us to conclude that types of suprathermal ion populations upstream and downstream from the bow shock do not depend on the solar-wind disturbance generated by magnetic cloud.

Yermolaev, Yu. I.; Fedorov, A. O.; Vaisberg, O. L.; Balebanov, V. M.; Obod, Yu. A.; Jimenez, R.; Fleites, J.; Llera, L.; Omelchenko, A. N.

1997-05-01

90

Solar UV irradiance measured at ground and compared with satellite TOMS/NASA derived data at different locations in Argentina  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The solar UV radiation incident on different and distant places of Argentina (Ushuaia, Puerto Madryn, Buenos Aires and Jujuy) obtained at 305, 320, 340 and 380 nm with a GUV-511/Biospherical narrowband radiometer of the CONICET Latitudinal UV-PAR radiation monitoring network, were compared with TUV model calculations in order to derive the effective aerosol optical depths in the locations indicated above. The adjusted spectral curve is employed in order to determine, -with the inclusion of the erythemal action spectrum, the corresponding integrated dose for each day. This value, usually called exposure, is compared with the data derived at noon from those taken by the satellite instrument TOMS/NASA on board of Earth Probe. Other biological UV irradiances like carcinogenesis and ADN and plant damages are also analyzed. In particular, the signals produced by the ozone hole and minihole events (with values lowers or equal to 220 DU) are clearly distinguished in the biological actions that depend strongly on the most energetic UVB radiations.

Wolfram, W.; Quel, E.; Paladini, A.; Orce, V.; Piacentini, R. D.

91

Monitoring of photoluminescence decay by alkali and alkaline earth metal cations using a photoluminescent bolaamphiphile self-assembly as an optical probe.  

PubMed

Photoluminescence (PL) decay induced by the displacement of an ionic fluorescence component, Tb(3+), with alkali and alkaline earth metal cations was investigated using photoluminescent spherical self-assemblies as optical probes. The photoluminescent spherical self-assembly was prepared by the self-organization of a tyrosine-containing bolaamphiphile molecule with a photosensitizer and Tb(3+) ion. The lanthanide ion, Tb(3+), electrically bound to the carboxyl group of the bolaamphiphile molecule, was displaced by alkali and alkaline earth metal cations that had stronger electrophilicity. The PL of the self-assembly decayed remarkably due to the substitution of lanthanide ions with alkali and alkaline earth metal cations. The PL decay showed a positive correlation with cation concentration and was sensitive to the cation valency. Generally, the PL decay was enhanced by the electrophilicity of the cations. However, Ca(2+) showed greater PL decay than Mg(2+) because Ca(2+) could create various complexes with the carboxyl groups of the bolaamphiphile molecule. Microscopic and spectroscopic investigations were conducted to study the photon energy transfer and displacement of Tb(3+) by the cation exchange. This study demonstrated that the PL decay by the displacement of the ionic fluorescent compound was applied to the detection of various cations in aqueous media and is applicable to the development of future optical sensors. PMID:24657611

Kim, Sunhyung; Kwak, Jinyoung; Lee, Sang-Yup

2014-05-01

92

Impact Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This planetarium show teaches about meteors, meteorites, asteroids, and comets. It includes results from NASA missions and about the dangers they can pose to life on Earth. It is created for full-dome theaters but can also be shown in flat version for TVs and computer monitors. Shows the effects of the Chixulub and Tungusta events, plus the Pallasite impact that resulted in the Brenham meteorite fall. Describes ways that asteroid hunters seek new objects in the Solar System, and how ground-penetrating radar is used to find meteorites that have reached the Earth's surface and ancient craters under the desert. Narrated by astronaut Tom Jones, it also discusses ways that humans might try to deflect an asteroid or comet that is on a collision course with Earth. Created for informal science venues (digital planetariums), it is also useful as ancillary material for middle school science. Created under NASA Cooperative Agreement NCC5-316 to Rice University in conjunction with the Houston Museum of Natural Science as part of the "Immersive Earth" project, part of the REASoN program.

Reiff, Patricia

2009-05-01

93

Remote sounding from artificial satellites and space probes of the atmospheres of the Earth and the planets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observation of radiation reflected, scattered or emitted in various regions of the electromagnetic spectrum can yield information about the structure of a planetary atmosphere. Instrumentation for the measurement of temperature, density, and composition and for cloud imaging is described, methods of information retrieval from radiometric observations are discussed, and some of the results for the atmospheres of Earth, Mars and

J. T. Houghton; F. W. Taylor

1973-01-01

94

Social versus Intrapersonal ToM: Social ToM Is a Cognitive Strength for Low- and Middle-SES Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Metarepresentational theory of mind (ToM) was studied in middle- and low-SES five- and six-year-olds. Two aspects of ToM were distinguished. Reasoning about one's own mental states (Intrapersonal ToM) was assessed in the intrapersonal ToM task condition and reasoning about others' mental states (Social ToM) was assessed in the social ToM task…

Lucariello, Joan M.; Durand, Tina M.; Yarnell, Lisa

2007-01-01

95

Dr. Tom Lawrence: a life in chiropractic  

PubMed Central

He dwelt within the chiropractic orbit from the cradle to the grave. Second-generation chiropractor Tom Lawrence was a successful professional and family man who followed in his father’s footsteps and fought the good fight to improve chiropractic within his state and nation. His passing closes a chapter of living memory of the middle years of the first chiropractic century. PMID:17549212

Keating, Joseph C

2005-01-01

96

Participation in the TOMS Science Team  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Because of the nominal funding provided by this grant, some of the relevant research is partially funded by other sources. Research performed for this funding period included the following items: We have investigated errors in TOMS ozone measurements caused by the uncertainty in wavelength calibration, coupled with the ozone cross sections in the Huggins bands and their temperature dependence. Preliminary results show that 0.1 nm uncertainty in TOMS wavelength calibration at the ozone active wavelengths corresponds to approx. 1% systematic error in O3, and thus potential 1% biases among ozone trends from the various TOMS instruments. This conclusion will be revised for absolute O3 Measurements as cross sections are further investigated for inclusion in the HITRAN database at the SAO, but the potential for relative errors remains. In order to aid further comparisons among TOMS and GOME ozone measurements, we have implemented our method of direct fitting of GOME radiances (BOAS) for O3, and now obtain the best fitting precision to date for GOME O3 Columns. This will aid in future comparisons of the actual quantities measured and fitted for the two instrument types. We have made comparisons between GOME ICFA cloud fraction and cloud fraction determined from GOME data using the Ring effect in the Ca II lines. There is a strong correlation, as expected, but there are substantial systematic biases between the determinations. This study will be refined in the near future using the recently-developed GOME Cloud Retrieval Algorithm (GOMECAT). We have improved the SAO Ring effect determination to include better convolution with instrument transfer functions and inclusion of interferences by atmospheric absorbers (e.g., O3). This has been made available to the general community.

Chance, Kelly; Hilsenrath, Ernest (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

97

The role of small-scale ion injections in the buildup of Earth's ring current pressure: Van Allen Probes observations of the 17 March 2013 storm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

particle transport into the inner magnetosphere during geomagnetic storms is responsible for significant plasma pressure enhancement, which is the driver of large-scale currents that control the global electrodynamics within the magnetosphere-ionosphere system. Therefore, understanding the transport of plasma from the tail deep into the near-Earth magnetosphere, as well as the energization processes associated with this transport, is essential for a comprehensive knowledge of the near-Earth space environment. During the main phase of a geomagnetic storm on 17 March 2013 (minimum Dst ~ -137 nT), the Radiation Belt Storm Probes Ion Composition Experiment (RBSPICE) instrument on the Van Allen Probes observed frequent, small-scale proton injections deep into the inner nightside magnetosphere in the region L ~ 4 - 6. Although isolated injections have been previously reported inside geosynchronous orbit, the large number of small-scale injections observed in this event suggests that, during geomagnetic storms injections provide a robust mechanism for transporting energetic ions deep into the inner magnetosphere. In order to understand the role that these injections play in the ring current dynamics, we determine the following properties for each injection: (i) associated pressure enhancement, (ii) the time duration of this enhancement, and (iii) the lowest and highest energy channels exhibiting a sharp increase in their intensities. Based on these properties, we estimate the effect of these small-scale injections on the pressure buildup during the storm. We find that this mode of transport could make a substantial contribution to the total energy gain in the storm time inner magnetosphere.

Gkioulidou, Matina; Ukhorskiy, A. Y.; Mitchell, D. G.; Sotirelis, T.; Mauk, B. H.; Lanzerotti, L. J.

2014-09-01

98

Dust storms and their impact on ocean and human health: dust in Earth's atmosphere  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Satellite imagery has greatly influenced our understanding of dust activity on a global scale. A number of different satellites such as NASA's Earth-Probe Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) and Se-viewing Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) acquire daily global-scale data used to produce imagery for monitoring dust storm formation and movement. This global-scale imagery has documented the frequent transmission of dust storm-derived soils through Earth's atmosphere and the magnitude of many of these events. While various research projects have been undertaken to understand this normal planetary process, little has been done to address its impact on ocean and human health. This review will address the ability of dust storms to influence marine microbial population densities and transport of soil-associated toxins and pathogenic microorganisms to marine environments. The implications of dust on ocean and human health in this emerging scientific field will be discussed.

Griffin, Dale W.; Kellog, Christina A.

2004-01-01

99

Wave activity (planetary, tidal) throughout the middle atmosphere (20-100km) over the CUJO network: Satellite (TOMS) and Medium Frequency (MF) radar observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Planetary and tidal wave activity in the tropopause-lower stratosphere and mesosphere-lower thermosphere (MLT) is studied using combinations of ground-based (GB) and satellite instruments (2000-2002). The relatively new MFR (medium frequency radar) at Platteville (40° N, 105° W) has provided the opportunity to create an operational network of middle-latitude MFRs, stretching from 81° W-142° E, which provides winds and tides 70-100km. CUJO (Canada U.S. Japan Opportunity) comprises systems at London (43° N, 81° W), Platteville (40° N, 105° W), Saskatoon (52° N, 107° W), Wakkanai (45° N, 142° E) and Yamagawa (31° N, 131° E). It offers a significant 7000-km longitudinal sector in the North American-Pacific region, and a useful range of latitudes (12-14°) at two longitudes. Satellite data mainly involve the daily values of the total ozone column measured by the Earth Probe (EP) TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) and provide a measure of tropopause-lower stratospheric planetary wave activity, as well as ozone variability. Climatologies of ozone and winds/tides involving frequency versus time (wavelet) contour plots for periods from 2-d to 30-d and the interval from mid 2000 to 2002, show that the changes with altitude, longitude and latitude are very significant and distinctive. Geometric-mean wavelets for the region of the 40° N MFRs demonstrate occasions during the autumn, winter and spring months when there are similarities in the spectral features of the lower atmosphere and at mesopause (85km) heights. Both direct planetary wave (PW) propagation into the MLT, nonlinear PW-tide interactions, and disturbances in MLT tides associated with fluctuations in the ozone forcing are considered to be possible coupling processes. The complex horizontal wave numbers of the longer period oscillations are provided in frequency contour plots for the TOMS satellite data to demonstrate the differences between lower atmospheric and MLT wave motions and their directions of propagation.

Manson, A. H.; Meek, C. E.; Chshyolkova, T.; Avery, S. K.; Thorsen, D.; MacDougall, J. W.; Hocking, W.; Murayama, Y.; Igarashi, K.

2005-02-01

100

GRUNDMANN Tom BEES1, Les P'tites Bulles  

E-print Network

GRUNDMANN Tom BEES1, Les P'tites Bulles DETENDEURS N4DETENDEURS N4DETENDEURS N4DETENDEURS N4DETENDEURS N4DETENDEURS N4DETENDEURS N4DETENDEURS N4 #12;GRUNDMANN Tom BEES1, Les P'tites Bulles DETENDEURS N ou débit continu? Principes d'étanchéité #12;GRUNDMANN Tom BEES1, Les P'tites Bulles Principes d

Jacquet, Stéphan

101

Impact Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This 24 minute planetarium show teaches about meteors, meteorites, asteroids, and comets. The show was created for fulldome theaters, but is also available on DVD to be shown in flat version for TVs and computer monitors, and can be freely viewed online. It shows the effects of the Chixulub and Tungusta events, plus the Pallasite impact that resulted in the Brenham meteorite fall, and describes ways that asteroid hunters seek new objects in the solar system, and how ground penetrating radar is used to find meteorites that have survived to the Earth's surface. Narrated by astronaut Tom Jones, it also discusses ways that humans might try to deflect an asteroid or comet that is on a collision course with Earth. The show was created for informal science venues (digital planetariums); it is also useful as supplemental material for middle school science. Impact Earth is available for free if presented directly from the Space Update site (widescreen or fisheye views linked from YouTube). Otherwise, a DVD of the show can be purchased for $10.

102

In Their Own Words: Tom Simon - Duration: 4:21.  

NASA Video Gallery

Tom Simon, a contracting officer's representative for NASA's Commercial Crew Program, discusses the importance of certifying commercial transportation systems are safe to carry NASA astronauts to t...

103

Tom Clothier's Garden Walk and Talk  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This impressive website was created by long-time gardener Tom Clothier as an archive for numerous gardening articles, germination databases, and photos. The 314 pages in this online archive were "developed as a public service in the spirit of cooperative extension." The site is free of advertisements and was designed to accommodate children researchers as well. The website provides information on seed starting, garden design, aphids, native pollinators, and much more. The site also offers an extensive photo album of Mr. Clothier's flowers which are listed by Scientific Name, Common Name, and Variety / Color.

104

Tom Clothier's Garden Walk and Talk  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This impressive website was created by long-time gardener Tom Clothier as an archive for numerous gardening articles, germination databases, and photos. The 314 pages in this online archive were "developed as a public service in the spirit of cooperative extension." The site is free of advertisements and was designed to accommodate children researchers as well. The website provides information on seed starting, garden design, aphids, native pollinators, and much more. The site also offers an extensive photo album of Mr. Clothier's flowers which are listed by Scientific Name, Common Name, and Variety / Color.

Clothier, Tom

2007-08-01

105

Near-Real-Time Detection and Monitoring of Dust Events by Satellite (SeaWIFS, MODIS, and TOMS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Over the last few years satellites have given us increasingly detailed information on the size, location, and duration of dust events around the world. These data not only provide valuable feedback to the modelling community as to the fidelity of their aerosol models but are also finding increasing use in near real-time applications. In particular, the ability to locate and track the development of aerosol dust clouds on a near real-time basis is being used by scientists and government to provide warning of air pollution episodes over major urban area. This ability has also become a crucial component of recent coordinated campaigns to study the characteristics of tropospheric aerosols such as dust and their effect on climate. One such recent campaign was ACE-Asia, which was designed to obtain the comprehensive set of ground, aircraft, and satellite data necessary to provide a detailed understanding of atmospheric aerosol particles over the Asian-Pacific region. As part of ACE-Asia, we developed a near real-time data processing and access system to provide satellite data from the polar-orbiting instruments Earth Probe TOMS (in the form of absorbing aerosol index) and SeaWiFS (in the form of aerosol optical thickness, AOT, and Angstrom exponent). The results were available via web access. The location and movement information provided by these data were used both in support of the day-to-day flight planning of ACE-Asia and as input into aerosol transport models. While near real-time SeaWiFS data processing can be performed using either the normal global data product or data obtained via direct broadcast to receiving stations close to the area of interest, near real-time MODIS processing of data to provide aerosol retrievals is currently only available using its direct broadcast capability. In this paper, we will briefly discuss the algorithms used to generate these data. The retrieved aerosol optical thickness and Angstrom exponent from SeaWiFS will be compared with those obtained from various AERONET sites over the Asian-Pacific region. The TOMS aerosol index will also be compared with AERONET aerosol optical thickness over different aerosol conditions, and comparisons between the MODIS and SeaWiFS data will also be presented. Finally, we will discuss the climate implication of our studies using the combined satellite and AERONET observations.

Hsu, N. Christina; Tsay, Si-Chee; Herman, Jay R.; Kaufman, Yoram

2002-01-01

106

Magneto-Seebeck effect in R FeAsO (R =rare earth) compounds: Probing the magnon drag scenario  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the Seebeck effect in R FeAsO (R =rare earth) compounds as a function of temperature and magnetic field up to 30 T. The Seebeck curves are characterized by a broad negative bump around 50 K, which is sample dependent and strongly enhanced by the application of a magnetic field. A model for the temperature and field dependence of the magnon drag contribution to the Seebeck effect by antiferromagnetic (AFM) spin fluctuation is developed. It accounts for the magnitude and scaling properties of such bump feature in our experimental data in LaFeAsO. This analysis accounts for the apparent inconsistency of literature Seebeck effect data on these compounds and has the potential to extract precious information on the coupling between electrons and AFM spin fluctuations in these parent compound systems, with implications on the pairing mechanism of the related superconducting compounds.

Caglieris, F.; Braggio, A.; Pallecchi, I.; Provino, A.; Pani, M.; Lamura, G.; Jost, A.; Zeitler, U.; Galleani D'Agliano, E.; Manfrinetti, P.; Putti, M.

2014-10-01

107

Uncle Tom's Cabin and American Culture  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from the Institute for Advanced Technologies in the Humanities at the University of Virginia contains a plethora of materials concerning Harriet Beecher Stowe's Uncle Tom's Cabin and the nation's response to it. The site features a complete electronic edition of the first published version of the novel along with the various prefaces Stowe wrote for different editions as well as audio versions of most of the Christian hymns presented in the text. Users can also examine and compare different published editions of the text using 3-D applications as well as view selected manuscript pages and sheets from the novel's original newspaper serialization side-by-side. The site's unique value, though, lies in the documents it presents that elucidate the novel's historical and cultural context. Included here are anti-slavery and Christian abolitionist texts, materials on Sentimental Culture in the nineteenth century, newspaper reviews of the text, articles and notices, and both African-American and Pro-Slavery responses to it. The subsequent media history of the novel's adaptations in songs, children's books, plays, and films is also represented here. As if that isn't enough, the site offers "an interactive timeline, virtual exhibits to accompany the primary material, and lesson plans for teachers and student projects." The entire site -- including the individual text of Uncle Tom's Cabin -- can be easily searched or browsed.

108

BOREAS RSS-10 TOMS Circumpolar One-Degree PAR Images  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) Remote Sensing Science (RSS)-10 team investigated the magnitude of daily, seasonal, and yearly variations of Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR) from ground and satellite observations. This data set contains satellite estimates of surface-incident PAR (400-700 nm, MJ/sq m) at one-degree spatial resolution. The spatial coverage is circumpolar from latitudes of 41 to 66 degrees north. The temporal coverage is from May through September for years 1979 through 1989. Eleven-year statistics are also provided: (1) mean, (2) standard deviation, and (3) coefficient of variation for 1979-89. The PAR estimates were derived from the global gridded ultraviolet reflectivity data product (average of 360, 380 nm) from the Nimbus-7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS). Image mask data are provided for identifying the boreal forest zone, and ocean/land and snow/ice-covered areas. The data are available as binary image format data files. The PAR data are available from the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884).

Dye, Dennis G.; Holben, Brent; Nickeson, Jaime (Editor); Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

109

Linux-Sicherheit 17.06.08 Tom Rger 2  

E-print Network

Linux-Sicherheit Teil 2 #12;17.06.08 Tom Rüger 2 Erweitere Zugriffsrechte (ACLs) Security. In Situationen, in denen das traditionelle Dateirechte-Konzept nicht ausreicht, helfen ACLs. Sie erlauben es einer Datei übereinstimmen. #12;17.06.08 Tom Rüger 6 Sicherheit: Access Control Lists (ACLs) Eine Access

Ott, Albrecht

110

Data Update for Mt. Tom, Holyoke, MA Prepared for  

E-print Network

Data Update for Mt. Tom, Holyoke, MA June 2006 Prepared for Massachusetts Technology Collaborative 75 North Drive, Westborough, MA 01581 By Melissa Elkinton Monthly Data Summary for June 2006 This update summarizes the monthly data results for the Mt. Tom monitoring site in Holyoke, MA, at 42° 14' 59

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

111

Data Update for Mt. Tom, Holyoke, MA Prepared for  

E-print Network

Data Update for Mt. Tom, Holyoke, MA April 2008 Prepared for Massachusetts Technology Collaborative 75 North Drive, Westborough, MA 01581 By Puneet Malhotra Monthly Data Summary for April 2008 This update summarizes the monthly data results for the Mt. Tom monitoring site in Holyoke, MA, at 42° 14' 59

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

112

Data Update for Mt. Tom, Holyoke, MA January 2008  

E-print Network

Data Update for Mt. Tom, Holyoke, MA January 2008 Prepared for Massachusetts Technology Collaborative 75 North Drive, Westborough, MA 01581 By Puneet Malhotra Monthly Data Summary for January 2008 This update summarizes the monthly data results for the Mt. Tom monitoring site in Holyoke, MA, at 42° 14' 59

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

113

Data Update for Mt. Tom, Holyoke, MA October 2006  

E-print Network

Data Update for Mt. Tom, Holyoke, MA October 2006 Prepared for Massachusetts Technology Collaborative 75 North Drive, Westborough, MA 01581 By Melissa Elkinton Monthly Data Summary for October 2006 This update summarizes the monthly data results for the Mt. Tom monitoring site in Holyoke, MA, at 42° 14' 59

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

114

Data Update for Mt. Tom, Holyoke, MA October 2007  

E-print Network

Data Update for Mt. Tom, Holyoke, MA October 2007 Prepared for Massachusetts Technology Collaborative 75 North Drive, Westborough, MA 01581 By Puneet Malhotra Monthly Data Summary for October 2007 This update summarizes the monthly data results for the Mt. Tom monitoring site in Holyoke, MA, at 42° 14' 59

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

115

Data Update for Mt. Tom, Holyoke, MA August 2006  

E-print Network

Data Update for Mt. Tom, Holyoke, MA August 2006 Prepared for Massachusetts Technology Collaborative 75 North Drive, Westborough, MA 01581 By Melissa Elkinton Monthly Data Summary for August 2006 This update summarizes the monthly data results for the Mt. Tom monitoring site in Holyoke, MA, at 42° 14' 59

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

116

Data Update for Mt. Tom, Holyoke, MA February 2008  

E-print Network

Data Update for Mt. Tom, Holyoke, MA February 2008 Prepared for Massachusetts Technology Collaborative 75 North Drive, Westborough, MA 01581 By Puneet Malhotra Monthly Data Summary for February 2008 This update summarizes the monthly data results for the Mt. Tom monitoring site in Holyoke, MA, at 42° 14' 59

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

117

Data Update for Mt. Tom, Holyoke, MA Prepared for  

E-print Network

Data Update for Mt. Tom, Holyoke, MA April 2007 Prepared for Massachusetts Technology Collaborative 75 North Drive, Westborough, MA 01581 By Puneet Malhotra Monthly Data Summary for April 2007 This update summarizes the monthly data results for the Mt. Tom monitoring site in Holyoke, MA, at 42° 14' 59

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

118

Data Update for Mt. Tom, Holyoke, MA January 2006  

E-print Network

Data Update for Mt. Tom, Holyoke, MA January 2006 Prepared for Massachusetts Technology Collaborative 75 North Drive, Westborough, MA 01581 By Melissa Ray Monthly Data Summary for December 2005 This update summarizes the monthly data results for the Mt. Tom monitoring site in Holyoke, MA, at 42° 14' 59

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

119

Data Update for Mt. Tom, Holyoke, MA September 2005  

E-print Network

Data Update for Mt. Tom, Holyoke, MA September 2005 Prepared for Massachusetts Technology Collaborative 75 North Drive, Westborough, MA 01581 By Melissa Ray Monthly Data Summary for September 2005 This update summarizes the monthly data results for the Mt. Tom monitoring site in Holyoke, MA, at 42° 14' 59

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

120

Data Update for Mt. Tom, Holyoke, MA September 2006  

E-print Network

Data Update for Mt. Tom, Holyoke, MA September 2006 Prepared for Massachusetts Technology Collaborative 75 North Drive, Westborough, MA 01581 By Melissa Elkinton Monthly Data Summary for September 2006 This update summarizes the monthly data results for the Mt. Tom monitoring site in Holyoke, MA, at 42° 14' 59

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

121

Data Update for Mt. Tom, Holyoke, MA September 2007  

E-print Network

Data Update for Mt. Tom, Holyoke, MA September 2007 Prepared for Massachusetts Technology Collaborative 75 North Drive, Westborough, MA 01581 By Puneet Malhotra Monthly Data Summary for September 2007 This update summarizes the monthly data results for the Mt. Tom monitoring site in Holyoke, MA, at 42° 14' 59

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

122

Data Update for Mt. Tom, Holyoke, MA Prepared for  

E-print Network

Data Update for Mt. Tom, Holyoke, MA June 2005 Prepared for Massachusetts Technology Collaborative 75 North Drive, Westborough, MA 01581 By Melissa Ray Monthly Data Summary for June 2005 This update summarizes the monthly data results for the Mt. Tom monitoring site in Holyoke, MA, at 42° 14' 59.2" N, 72

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

123

Data Update for Mt. Tom, Holyoke, MA November 2005  

E-print Network

Data Update for Mt. Tom, Holyoke, MA November 2005 Prepared for Massachusetts Technology Collaborative 75 North Drive, Westborough, MA 01581 By Melissa Ray Monthly Data Summary for November 2005 This update summarizes the monthly data results for the Mt. Tom monitoring site in Holyoke, MA, at 42° 14' 59

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

124

Data Update for Mt. Tom, Holyoke, MA February 2007  

E-print Network

Data Update for Mt. Tom, Holyoke, MA February 2007 Prepared for Massachusetts Technology Collaborative 75 North Drive, Westborough, MA 01581 By Puneet Malhotra Monthly Data Summary for February 2007 This update summarizes the monthly data results for the Mt. Tom monitoring site in Holyoke, MA, at 42° 14' 59

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

125

Data Update for Mt. Tom, Holyoke, MA August 2007  

E-print Network

Data Update for Mt. Tom, Holyoke, MA August 2007 Prepared for Massachusetts Technology Collaborative 75 North Drive, Westborough, MA 01581 By Puneet Malhotra Monthly Data Summary for August 2007 This update summarizes the monthly data results for the Mt. Tom monitoring site in Holyoke, MA, at 42° 14' 59

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

126

Data Update for Mt. Tom, Holyoke, MA Prepared for  

E-print Network

Data Update for Mt. Tom, Holyoke, MA May 2008 Prepared for Massachusetts Technology Collaborative 75 North Drive, Westborough, MA 01581 By Puneet Malhotra Monthly Data Summary for May 2008 This update summarizes the monthly data results for the Mt. Tom monitoring site in Holyoke, MA, at 42° 14' 59

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

127

Data Update for Mt. Tom, Holyoke, MA December 2005  

E-print Network

Data Update for Mt. Tom, Holyoke, MA December 2005 Prepared for Massachusetts Technology Collaborative 75 North Drive, Westborough, MA 01581 By Melissa Ray Monthly Data Summary for December 2005 This update summarizes the monthly data results for the Mt. Tom monitoring site in Holyoke, MA, at 42° 14' 59

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

128

Data Update for Mt. Tom, Holyoke, MA Prepared for  

E-print Network

Data Update for Mt. Tom, Holyoke, MA June 2007 Prepared for Massachusetts Technology Collaborative 75 North Drive, Westborough, MA 01581 By Puneet Malhotra Monthly Data Summary for June 2007 This update summarizes the monthly data results for the Mt. Tom monitoring site in Holyoke, MA, at 42° 14' 59

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

129

Data Update for Mt. Tom, Holyoke, MA November 2007  

E-print Network

Data Update for Mt. Tom, Holyoke, MA November 2007 Prepared for Massachusetts Technology Collaborative 75 North Drive, Westborough, MA 01581 By Puneet Malhotra Monthly Data Summary for November 2007 This update summarizes the monthly data results for the Mt. Tom monitoring site in Holyoke, MA, at 42° 14' 59

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

130

Data Update for Mt. Tom, Holyoke, MA Prepared for  

E-print Network

Data Update for Mt. Tom, Holyoke, MA March 2007 Prepared for Massachusetts Technology Collaborative 75 North Drive, Westborough, MA 01581 By Puneet Malhotra Monthly Data Summary for March 2007 This update summarizes the monthly data results for the Mt. Tom monitoring site in Holyoke, MA, at 42° 14' 59

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

131

Data Update for Mt. Tom, Holyoke, MA February 2006  

E-print Network

Data Update for Mt. Tom, Holyoke, MA February 2006 Prepared for Massachusetts Technology Collaborative 75 North Drive, Westborough, MA 01581 By Melissa Ray Monthly Data Summary for February 2005 This update summarizes the monthly data results for the Mt. Tom monitoring site in Holyoke, MA, at 42° 14' 59

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

132

Data Update for Mt. Tom, Holyoke, MA Prepared for  

E-print Network

Data Update for Mt. Tom, Holyoke, MA July 2005 Prepared for Massachusetts Technology Collaborative 75 North Drive, Westborough, MA 01581 By Melissa Ray Monthly Data Summary for July 2005 This update summarizes the monthly data results for the Mt. Tom monitoring site in Holyoke, MA, at 42° 14' 59.2" N, 72

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

133

Data Update for Mt. Tom, Holyoke, MA Prepared for  

E-print Network

Data Update for Mt. Tom, Holyoke, MA July 2007 Prepared for Massachusetts Technology Collaborative 75 North Drive, Westborough, MA 01581 By Puneet Malhotra Monthly Data Summary for July 2007 This update summarizes the monthly data results for the Mt. Tom monitoring site in Holyoke, MA, at 42° 14' 59

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

134

Data Update for Mt. Tom, Holyoke, MA Prepared for  

E-print Network

Data Update for Mt. Tom, Holyoke, MA March 2008 Prepared for Massachusetts Technology Collaborative 75 North Drive, Westborough, MA 01581 By Puneet Malhotra Monthly Data Summary for March 2008 This update summarizes the monthly data results for the Mt. Tom monitoring site in Holyoke, MA, at 42° 14' 59

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

135

Data Update for Mt. Tom, Holyoke, MA Prepared for  

E-print Network

Data Update for Mt. Tom, Holyoke, MA March 2006 Prepared for Massachusetts Technology Collaborative 75 North Drive, Westborough, MA 01581 By Melissa Ray Monthly Data Summary for March 2006 This update summarizes the monthly data results for the Mt. Tom monitoring site in Holyoke, MA, at 42° 14' 59.2" N, 72

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

136

Data Update for Mt. Tom, Holyoke, MA August 2005  

E-print Network

Data Update for Mt. Tom, Holyoke, MA August 2005 Prepared for Massachusetts Technology Collaborative 75 North Drive, Westborough, MA 01581 By Melissa Ray Monthly Data Summary for August 2005 This update summarizes the monthly data results for the Mt. Tom monitoring site in Holyoke, MA, at 42° 14' 59

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

137

Data Update for Mt. Tom, Holyoke, MA Prepared for  

E-print Network

Data Update for Mt. Tom, Holyoke, MA July 2006 Prepared for Massachusetts Technology Collaborative 75 North Drive, Westborough, MA 01581 By Melissa Elkinton Monthly Data Summary for July 2006 This update summarizes the monthly data results for the Mt. Tom monitoring site in Holyoke, MA, at 42° 14' 59

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

138

Data Update for Mt. Tom, Holyoke, MA October 2005  

E-print Network

Data Update for Mt. Tom, Holyoke, MA October 2005 Prepared for Massachusetts Technology Collaborative 75 North Drive, Westborough, MA 01581 By Melissa Ray Monthly Data Summary for October 2005 This update summarizes the monthly data results for the Mt. Tom monitoring site in Holyoke, MA, at 42° 14' 59

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

139

Data Update for Mt. Tom, Holyoke, MA November 2006  

E-print Network

Data Update for Mt. Tom, Holyoke, MA November 2006 Prepared for Massachusetts Technology Collaborative 75 North Drive, Westborough, MA 01581 By Melissa Elkinton Monthly Data Summary for November 2006 This update summarizes the monthly data results for the Mt. Tom monitoring site in Holyoke, MA, at 42° 14' 59

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

140

Data Update for Mt. Tom, Holyoke, MA January 2007  

E-print Network

Data Update for Mt. Tom, Holyoke, MA January 2007 Prepared for Massachusetts Technology Collaborative 75 North Drive, Westborough, MA 01581 By Puneet Malhotra Monthly Data Summary for January 2007 This update summarizes the monthly data results for the Mt. Tom monitoring site in Holyoke, MA, at 42° 14' 59

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

141

Data Update for Mt. Tom, Holyoke, MA Prepared for  

E-print Network

Data Update for Mt. Tom, Holyoke, MA April 2006 Prepared for Massachusetts Technology Collaborative 75 North Drive, Westborough, MA 01581 By Melissa Ray Monthly Data Summary for April 2006 This update summarizes the monthly data results for the Mt. Tom monitoring site in Holyoke, MA, at 42° 14' 59.2" N, 72

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

142

Data Update for Mt. Tom, Holyoke, MA Prepared for  

E-print Network

Data Update for Mt. Tom, Holyoke, MA May 2007 Prepared for Massachusetts Technology Collaborative 75 North Drive, Westborough, MA 01581 By Puneet Malhotra Monthly Data Summary for May 2007 This update summarizes the monthly data results for the Mt. Tom monitoring site in Holyoke, MA, at 42° 14' 59

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

143

Data Update for Mt. Tom, Holyoke, MA Prepared for  

E-print Network

Data Update for Mt. Tom, Holyoke, MA May 2006 Prepared for Massachusetts Technology Collaborative 75 North Drive, Westborough, MA 01581 By Melissa Ray Monthly Data Summary for May 2006 This update summarizes the monthly data results for the Mt. Tom monitoring site in Holyoke, MA, at 42° 14' 59.2" N, 72

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

144

Rare Earth Elemental Signatures in Fungal Fruiting Bodies as Probes into Mineral Breakdown Reactions in Post-glacial Landscapes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The application of rare earth element (REE) abundances in low temperature geochemistry and biogeochemistry has improved our understanding of the cycling of various micro- and macronutrients from the bedrock into terrestrial ecosystems. In many continental rocks, REEs are concentrated in accessory phases such as apatite and monazite. These phosphate mineral phases break down readily and may be especially important nutrient sources, particularly for P and Ca, in recently glaciated terrains. Several studies (e.g., 1-3) have suggested that the presence of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi, due to the organic acids they secrete, may play an especially important role in this weathering process. A field-based experiment implementing mesh bags doped with specific mineral compositions confirmed that ECM fungal tissues do record the REE signatures of the minerals they break down (4). In an effort to understand the relative role different ECM fungi may play in mineral breakdown reactions, we have measured REE abundances in tissues of several ECM fruiting bodies. Our preliminary data include Russula, Suillus Americana, Leccinum and Lactarius ECM fungi from three postglacial landscapes. At a given site, the relative abundance of REEs varies between the different ECM fungi. Interestingly, we found distinctions in tissue La/Ce values at two of the sites. Leccinum, a deep rooter, shows much lower La/Ce than the companion Russula and Lactarius samples from the same site. Similarly Suillus tissues demonstrated lower La/Ce when compared to Russula growing nearby. Lower La/Ce is consistent with enhanced dissolution of the mineral apatite, a common accessory phase. While the influence of symbiotic host (beech vs. oak vs. pine) may play some role in the distinctive REE signatures recorded by the fruiting bodies, we attribute the observed differences to organic acid production and tendency to colonize in different horizons of the soil profile. (1) Wallander, Plant and Soil, 2000; (2) Blum et al., Nature, 2002; (3) Hoffland et al., Front Ecol Environ., 2003; (4) Hagerburg et al., Plant and Soil, 2003.

Bryce, J. G.; Hobbie, E. A.

2008-12-01

145

The magnetic spin-reorientation transitions in the RGa (R=rare earth) intermetallic compounds studied by measurements of the hyperfine interactions of the 119Sn probe atoms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The magnetic and electric hyperfine interactions of the probe nucleus 119Sn on the Ga site of the ferromagnetic rare-earth (R) gallium compounds RGa (R=Pr-Er) have been investigated by Mössbauer spectroscopy technique. For all of the compounds, the directions of the magnetic moments of the R 3+ ions have been determined as a function of temperature in the range from 5 K to TC. For NdGa, SmGa, HoGa, and ErGa compounds, the magnetic reorientation transitions due to the competition between the exchange interaction and the interaction with crystal field have been investigated. At high temperatures, when the electric interaction dominates, the orientation of the magnetic moments is unambiguously determined by the sign of the quadrupole moment of 4f shell of the R 3+ ion. With decreasing temperature, the magnetic moments rotate gradually from the bc-plane toward the crystallographic a-axis. In the temperature range 5 K? T<100 K, the ferromagnetic structure of the GdGa compound is noncollinear. At 5 K the magnetic moments of the Gd 3+ ions point in two distinct directions with respect to the crystallographic a-axis ( ?1?30° and ?2?60°).

Delyagin, N. N.; Krylov, V. I.; Rozantsev, I. N.

2007-01-01

146

The Gravity Probe B `Niobium bird' experiment: Verifying the data reduction scheme for estimating the relativistic precession of Earth-orbiting gyroscopes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Gravity Probe B (GP-B) is a relatively gyroscope experiment begun at Stanford University in 1960 and supported by NASA since 1963. This experiment will check, for the first time, the relativistic precession of an Earth-orbiting gyroscope that was predicted by Einstein's General Theory of Relativity, to an accuracy of 1 milliarcsecond per year or better. A drag-free satellite will carry four gyroscopes in a polar orbit to observe their relativistic precession. The primary sensor for measuring the direction of gyroscope spin axis is the SQUID (superconducting quantum interference device) magnetometer. The data reduction scheme designed for the GP-B program processes the signal from the SQUID magnetometer and estimates the relativistic precession rates. We formulated the data reduction scheme and designed the Niobium bird experiment to verify the performance of the data reduction scheme experimentally with an actual SQUID magnetometer within the test loop. This paper reports the results from the first phase of the Niobium bird experiment, which used a commercially available SQUID magnetometer as its primary sensor, and adresses the issues they raised. The first phase resulted in a large, temperature-dependent bias drift in the insensitive design and a temperature regulation scheme.

Uemaatsu, Hirohiko; Parkinson, Bradford W.; Lockhart, James M.; Muhlfelder, Barry

1993-01-01

147

The Papers of Justice Tom C. Clark  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

While several Texans have served as President of the United States, so far only one has served on the Supreme Court. Tom C. Clark was appointed to the position of Associate Justice in 1949 by President Truman and served in that capacity until 1967 when he stepped down. Clark is perhaps best known for his support of anticommunist policies during the Cold War and his unwavering support of civil rights. Recently, the staff of the University of Texas School of Law created this fine online collection, which contains a sampling of Clark's papers and legal documents. Visitors can browse the collection at their leisure, or they may also elect to look through a series of topical sections (such as those that address school prayer or desegregation) of related documents. Visitors will also appreciate the glossary that is contained on the site, as it offers some brief explanations of germane legal terms.

148

The Tom Regan Animal Rights Archive  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Tom Regan has taught at North Carolina State University since 1967, and he is well-known for his work in the field of animal rights within the discipline of philosophy. In 2000, the North Carolina State University Libraries received a large gift to establish an archive of his personal papers and books, and since then, they have also created this online collection for the general public. First-time visitors can perform an advanced search on the documents contained here, or they may also want to browse through categories that include animal rights legislation, animals in the news, diet ethics, and farmed animals. Within each section, visitors can view a list of related web sites and also learn about other external resources. Additionally, visitors can also learn about research opportunities at the Center.

Regan, Tom

149

Human mitochondrial import receptor Tom70 functions as a monomer.  

PubMed

The mitochondrial import receptor Tom70 (translocase of the mitochondrial outer membrane 70) interacts with chaperone-preprotein complexes through two domains: one that binds Hsp70 (heat-shock protein 70)/Hsc70 (heat-shock cognate 70) and Hsp90, and a second that binds preproteins. The oligomeric state of Tom70 has been controversial, with evidence for both monomeric and homodimeric forms. In the present paper, we report that the functional state of human Tom70 appears to be a monomer with mechanistic implications for its function in mitochondrial protein import. Based on analytical ultracentrifugation, cross-linking, size-exclusion chromatography and multi-angle light scattering, we found that the soluble cytosolic fragment of human Tom70 exists in equilibrium between monomer and dimer. A point mutation introduced at the predicted dimer interface increased the percentage of monomeric Tom70. Although chaperone docking to the mutant was the same as to the wild-type, the mutant was significantly more active in preprotein targeting. Cross-linking also demonstrated that the mutant formed stronger contacts with preprotein. However, cross-linking of full-length wild-type Tom70 on the mitochondrial membrane showed little evidence of homodimers. These results indicate that the Tom70 monomers are the functional form of the receptor, whereas the homodimers appear to be a minor population, and may represent an inactive state. PMID:20504278

Fan, Anna C Y; Gava, Lisandra M; Ramos, Carlos H I; Young, Jason C

2010-08-01

150

Nimbus-7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) Data Products User's Guide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two data products from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) onboard Nimbus-7 have been archived at the Distributed Active Archive Center, in the form of Hierarchical Data Format files. The instrument measures backscattered Earth radiance and incoming solar irradiance; their ratio is used in ozone retrievals. Changes in the instrument sensitivity are monitored by a spectral discrimination technique using measurements of the intrinsically stable wavelength dependence of derived surface reflectivity. The algorithm to retrieve total column ozone compares measured Earth radiances at sets of three wavelengths with radiances calculated for different total ozone values, solar zenith angles, and optical paths. The initial error in the absolute scale for TOMS total ozone is 3 percent, the one standard deviation random error is 2 percent, and drift is less than 1.0 percent per decade. The Level-2 product contains the measured radiances, the derived total ozone amount, and reflectivity information for each scan position. The Level-3 product contains daily total ozone amount and reflectivity in a I - degree latitude by 1.25 degrees longitude grid. The Level-3 product also is available on CD-ROM. Detailed descriptions of both HDF data files and the CD-ROM product are provided.

McPeters, Richard D.; Bhartia, P. K.; Krueger, Arlin J.; Herman, Jay R.; Schlesinger, Barry M.; Wellemeyer, Charles G.; Seftor, Colin J.; Jaross, Glen; Taylor, Steven L.; Swissler, Tom; Torres, Omar; Labow, Gordon; Byerly, William; Cebula, Richard P.

1996-01-01

151

Towards a prokaryotic genomic taxonomy q Tom Coenye a,*,1  

E-print Network

Towards a prokaryotic genomic taxonomy q Tom Coenye a,*,1 , Dirk Gevers a,b,1 , Yves Van de Peer b genomics; Microarrays; Multilocus sequence typing; Prokaryotic species concept Contents 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148 3. Shaping the prokaryotic genome

Gent, Universiteit

152

Polynomial Texture Maps Tom Malzbender, Dan Gelb, Hans Wolters  

E-print Network

Polynomial Texture Maps Tom Malzbender, Dan Gelb, Hans Wolters Hewlett-Packard Laboratories 1 http://www.hpl-Based Rendering, Reflectance & Shading Models, Texture Mapping 1 {malzbend,dgelb,wolters}@hpl.hp.com 1

Kazhdan, Michael

153

Colorado Forestry Advisory Board Members: Don Ament Tom Stone  

E-print Network

#12;Colorado Forestry Advisory Board Members: Don Ament Tom Stone Commissioner of Agriculture As Chairperson of Colorado's newly created Forestry Advisory Board, I would like to thank you for taking the time

154

75 FR 69470 - Tele Atlas North America, Inc., Currently Doing Business as Tom Tom Including Off-Site Workers...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...TA-W-70,839C] Tele Atlas North America, Inc., Currently Doing Business...Location, Lebanon, NH; Tele Atlas North America, Inc. Currently Doing Business...Tom, Concord, MA; Tele Atlas North America, Inc. Currently Doing...

2010-11-12

155

Tom Berlijn Eugene P. Wigner Fellow  

E-print Network

such as superconductors, dilute magnetic semiconductors, thermoelectrics, topological insulators and multiferroics. Lett. 106, 077005 (2011) 11) "Room-Temperature Ferromagnetism of Cu-Doped ZnO Films Probed by Soft X evolution of the full three-dimensional magnetic excitations in the multiferroic BiFeO3", Z.-J. Xu, J. S

Pennycook, Steve

156

Comparison of daily UV doses estimated from Nimbus 7/TOMS measurements and ground-based spectroradiometric data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During recent years, methods have been developed for estimating UV irradiance reaching the Earth's surface using satellite-measured backscattered UV radiances. The NASA-developed method is based on radiative transfer calculations and satellite measurements of parameters affecting UV radiation: extraterrestrial solar irradiance, atmospheric ozone, cloud reflectivity, aerosol amounts, and ground albedo. In this work a comparison is made between daily UV erythemal doses estimated from Nimbus-7/TOMS measurements (from 1991 to May 1993) and those calculated from ground-based spectroradiometer data. Three stations operated by the National Science Foundation were chosen for this comparison: Ushuaia, Argentina (for 573 days), Palmer, Antarctica (for 450 days), and San Diego, California, (for 149 days). These stations were selected to illustrate the differences between ground-based measurements using the same type of instrument, SUV-100 double monochromator spectroradiometers, and satellite estimates of surface UV irradiance under three different environmental conditions (mountains and snow, nearly continuous snow cover, and midlatitude urban sea level conditions). Averaging the measured and TOMS-estimated doses over periods from 1 week to 1 month improves the agreement. The daily or monthly mean bias increases during months when there is snow/ice on the surface. TOMS has a larger estimate of the UV irradiance by 25% at San Diego (no snow), in agreement with the summer-month analysis of Toronto irradiances [Herman et al., 1999]. TOMS underestimates the average daily-UV dose at Ushuaia (monthly mean bias of -13%) and at Palmer (-35%) consistent with snow/ice with cloud effects not being properly accounted for in the TOMS algorithm. When the reflectivity at all three sites is low (no snow), the TOMS irradiance estimate is larger than the SUV-100 measurements consistent with previously analyzed Brewer data at Toronto. The effects of local fog or clouds smaller than the satellite field of view and undetected UV-absorbing aerosols near the ground are discussed. In addition to uncertainties in radiometric calibrations of the spectrometers, none of the SUV-100 data are corrected for deviations of diffuser-transmittance from true cosine response.

Kalliskota, Sari; Kaurola, Jussi; Taalas, Petteri; Herman, Jay R.; Celarier, Edward A.; Krotkov, Nikolay A.

2000-02-01

157

Gordon And Mike's ICT Podcast: China And TOM-Skype  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Gordon and Mike's ICT Podcast offers perspectives on the information and communication technologies (ICT) industries from Gordon Snyder and Mike Qaissaunee.In this audio podcast, Gordon and Mike discuss the report â??Breaching Trust: An analysis of surveillance and security practices on Chinaâ??s TOM-Skype platformâ? as well as confidentiality and security issues with TOM-Skype, the Chinese version of Skype. Running time: 25:21. This podcast is available for direct download in mp3 format from the Libsyn site, or click here to subscribe to the whole series in iTunes.

Qaissaunee, Michael

158

The Mycological Society of San Francisco April 2008, vol. 59:04 Dr. Tom Bruns  

E-print Network

The Mycological Society of San Francisco April 2008, vol. 59:04 Dr. Tom Bruns Dr. Tom Bruns heads to the scientific review of mycological information. Continued on page 7 #12;Page 2 The Mycena News, April 2008

Bruns, Tom

159

A long-term record of aerosol optical depth from TOMS observations and comparison to AERONET measurements  

E-print Network

of local, regional, and global air pollution. Large-scale biomass burning and boreal forest fire events the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer on board the Nimbus7 (1979-1992) and the Earth-Probe (mid-1996

160

Electromagnetic deep-probing (100-1000 kms) of the Earth's interior from artificial satellites: Constraints on the regional emplacement of crustal resources  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The reconnaissance phase of using satellite observtions to studying electromagnetic induction in the solid earth is summarized. Several points are made: (1) satellite data apparently suffer far less from the effects of near surface lateral heterogeneities in the earth than do ground-based data; (2) zonal ionospheric currents during the recovery phase of major magnetic storms appear to be minimal, at least in the dawn and dusk sectors wher MAGSAT was flown; hence the internal contributions that satellites observe during these times is in fact due primarily to induction in the Earth with little or no contribution from ionospheric currents; and (3) the interpretation of satellite data in terms of primitive electromagnetic response functions, while grossly over-simplified, results in a surprisingly well-resolved radius for an equivalent super-conductor representing the conductivity region of the Earth's interior (5,370 + or - 120 km).

Hermance, J. F.

1983-01-01

161

Electromagnetic deep-probing (100-1000 KMS) of the Earth's interior from artificial satellites: Constraints on the regional emplacement of crustal resources  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Model simulations show that induction in a spherical Earth by distant magnetospheric sources can contribute magnetic field fluctuations at MAGSAT altitudes which are 30 to 40 percent of the external field amplitudes. When the characteristic dimensions (e.g. depth of penetration, etc) of a particular situations are small compared with the Earth's radius, the Earth can be approximated by a plane horizontal half space. In this case, electromagnetic energy is reflected with close to 100 percent efficiency from the Earth's surface. This implies that the total horizontal field is twice the source field when the source is above the satellite, but is reduced to values which are much smaller than the source field when the source is below the satellite. This latter effect tends to enhance the signature of gross electrical discontinuities in the lithosphere when observed at satellite altitudes.

Hermance, J. F. (principal investigator)

1981-01-01

162

Open Sensor Web Architecture: Stateful Web Tom Kobialka 1  

E-print Network

Open Sensor Web Architecture: Stateful Web Services Tom Kobialka 1 , Rajkumar Buyya 2 , Christopher As sensor networks become more pervasive there emerges a need for interfacing applications to perform common operations and transformations on sensor data. Web Services provide an interoperable and platform independent

Melbourne, University of

163

Tom Stewart Interview (Part I): Registrar and SPEEDE's Champion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

At AACRAO's Annual Meeting in April 2003, Tom Stewart was presented with the APEX Award for Achieving Professional Excellence in his field. He was recognized for his tireless work and commitment to SPEEDE, the electronic transmission of records. Over the almost 40-year span of his career, he has earned the SACRAO and AACRAO Distinguished Service…

Stones, David

2004-01-01

164

Henrik Svensen Sverre Planke Bjrn Jamtveit Tom Pedersen  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL Henrik Svensen � Sverre Planke � Bjørn Jamtveit Tom Pedersen Seep carbonate formation for methane seep carbonates, with low d13 C signatures of )28 to )54& PDB. The data suggest that the vent-surface microbial activity and seep carbonate formation. Introduction Seeps are fluid and gas leakage from a surface

Svensen, Henrik

165

On Modern DNS Behavior and Properties Tom Callahan  

E-print Network

On Modern DNS Behavior and Properties Tom Callahan , Mark Allman , Michael Rabinovich Case Western@icir.org ABSTRACT The Internet crucially depends on the Domain Name System (DNS) to both allow users to interact replicas at the instant the content is requested. While previous efforts have characterized DNS, the DNS

Rabinovich, Michael "Misha"

166

Challenge without Threat: An Interview with Tom Dewell  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents an interview with Tom Dewell, a professional physical educator with 28 years of experience and a fixture in Dallas physical education. Dewell has melded a background in movement education and adapted physical education with early childhood theory, including Montessori. The bulk of his experience has been in private, parochial…

Stork, Steve

2005-01-01

167

Dynallax: Solid State Dynamic Parallax Barrier Autostereoscopic VR Tom Peterka  

E-print Network

barrier addresses some of those shortcomings and has other advantages as well. Specifically, the benefitsDynallax: Solid State Dynamic Parallax Barrier Autostereoscopic VR Display Tom Peterka 1 , Robert L at San Diego ABSTRACT A novel barrier strip autostereoscopic (AS) display is demonstrated using a solid

Johnson, Andrew

168

Total ozone trends deduced from Nimbus 7 TOMS data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) on the Nimbus 7 satellite has been measuring the total column amount of ozone over the globe for more than 11 years. Recent improvements in the data analysis have led to a technique for determining and removing drift in the calibration such that the data at the end of the record are precise to

Richard S. Stolarski; R. D. McPeters; J. R. Herman; P. Bloomfield

1991-01-01

169

Towards a Taxonomy of Software Evolution Tom Mens Jim Buckley  

E-print Network

Towards a Taxonomy of Software Evolution Tom Mens Jim Buckley Vrije Universiteit Brussel Pleinlaan taxonomies of software evolution have focused on the purpose of the change (i.e., the why) rather than the underlying mechanisms. This paper proposes a taxonomy of software evolution based on the characterizing

Zenger, Matthias

170

From the University The Adventures of Tom Sawyer  

E-print Network

From the University Librarian 2014 no. 8 th August The Adventures of Tom Sawyer http it ­ thoughtful points on the broad impact of universities and national benefit from higher education investment, as well as fee deregulation, university models and funding. Minister Pyne flags changes in higher

171

TOM: Teaching flow over Mountains Worksheet at the radar site  

E-print Network

1 TOM: Teaching flow over Mountains Worksheet at the radar site Exercise 1: Sign in Names on the radar? Briefly describe the differences between the three configurations. What is the maximum range between the closest part of the Foothills and the radar location. Write down the distance in kilometers: b

172

California Fires MODIS imagery and TOMS Aerosols from October 2003  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This animation sequences through the MODIS imagery of the devastating Californian fires from October 23, 2003 through October 29, 2003. Then the animation resets to October 23, 2003 and zooms out to see the TOMS aerosol sequence. It clearly shows that the California fires had an impact on air quality as far east as Maine.

Lori Perkins

2003-11-24

173

Architektura GIS z pohledu tok dat Mgr. Toms Skopal  

E-print Network

1 Architektura GIS z pohledu tok dat Mgr. Tomás Skopal Katedra informatiky, FEI VSB ­ Technická This article introduces original model of open software architecture for GIS, which should hit the intent ­ accelerate and improve GIS applications design. First part deals with the solution motivation, second part

Skopal, Tomas

174

Tom Hollingsworth Art Scholarship Fund for Undergraduate and Graduate Research  

E-print Network

Tom Hollingsworth Art Scholarship Fund for Undergraduate and Graduate Research Do you have an idea this scholarship supporting undergraduate and graduate research. For full consideration, please submit for an exciting project but could use some help getting started? Two $2500 Awards available to 1 undergraduate

Arnold, Jonathan

175

School of Labour Studies Tom Szuty -Labour Studies Graduate  

E-print Network

case studies on employment and human rights Labour Studies 4F03 (Labour & the Environment) Learn aboutSchool of Labour Studies Tom Szuty - Labour Studies Graduate ­ Labour Relations Officer Cindy Gangaram - Labour Studies Graduate - Teaching #12;2 Andrea Horvath Labour Studies grad and first woman

Thompson, Michael

176

Robust Trait Composition for Javascript$ Tom Van Cutsema  

E-print Network

Robust Trait Composition for Javascript$ Tom Van Cutsema , Mark S. Millerb aSoftware Languages Lab trait composition library for Javascript. Traits are a more robust alternative to multiple inheritance in using and extending Javascript's recently added meta-level object description format. By reusing

Tomkins, Andrew

177

Tom Volk's Fungus of the Month for October 2002  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Biologist Tom Volk of the University of Wisconsin-La Crosse offers photos and an audio pronunciation guide of various fungi. The website is filled with different multimedia activities involving Volk's work with fungi. Education mixed with entertainment is the focus of this engaging work.

Volk, Thomas J.

2008-09-09

178

A Genetic Algorithm for Simultaneous Localization and Mapping Tom Duckett  

E-print Network

A Genetic Algorithm for Simultaneous Localization and Mapping Tom Duckett Centre for Applied. The fitness values in the genetic algorithm are obtained with a heuristic function that measures of the maps produced, and the search proceeds using a genetic algorithm (GA). GAs are a well-known search

Duckett, Tom

179

A Genetic Algorithm for Simultaneous Localization and Mapping Tom Duckett  

E-print Network

A Genetic Algorithm for Simultaneous Localization and Mapping Tom Duckett Centre for Applied. The fitness values in the genetic algorithm are obtained with a heuristic function that measures of the maps produced, and the search proceeds using a genetic algorithm (GA). GAs are a well­known search

Duckett, Tom

180

A Robust Game of Life Tom Portegys and Janet Wiles  

E-print Network

natural computation. Many properties of biological systems are emergent, and computational modelsA Robust Game of Life Tom Portegys and Janet Wiles Abstract. Biological life is characterized evolutionary purpose, it is also a threat that living systems are particularly adept at defending against

Portegys, Thomas E.

181

Team Leader: Tom Peters--TAP Information Services  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tom Peters packs 36 hours of work into the confines of a 24-hour day. Without breaking a sweat, he juggles multiple collaborative projects, which currently include an Illinois academic library shared storage facility; a multistate virtual reference and instruction service for blind and visually impaired individuals (InfoEyes); a virtual meeting…

Library Journal, 2005

2005-01-01

182

On the Value of a Liberal Education Tom Sullivan  

E-print Network

On the Value of a Liberal Education Tom Sullivan October 2014 Over the last several months;On the Value of a Liberal Education Page 2 certain fields, incorporating qualitative reasoning, a debate has ensued across higher education on a fundamental question: What should be the responsibility

Hayden, Nancy J.

183

Colorado Forestry Advisory Board Members: Don Ament Tom Stone  

E-print Network

#12;Colorado Forestry Advisory Board Members: Don Ament Tom Stone Commissioner of Agriculture of current concern and further highlighting opportunities for action. On behalf of the Colorado Forestry and where these actions should occur. Sincerely, Nancy M. Fishering Chairperson, Colorado Forestry Advisory

184

Colorado Forestry Advisory Board Members: Don Ament Tom Stone  

E-print Network

#12;Colorado Forestry Advisory Board Members: Don Ament Tom Stone Commissioner of Agriculture desired benefits? The members of Colorado's Forestry Advisory Board have presented this question, Colorado Forestry Advisory Board #12;2003 Report on the Health of Colorado's Forests 1 2003 Report

185

Gravity Probe B  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This broadcast reports on Gravity Probe B, a satellite designed to test the frame dragging prediction of Einstein's theory of general relativity, where a spinning object such as the Earth will push spacetime in front of it. Gravity Probe B uses gyroscopes which will shift direction while orbiting the Earth (if general relativity is correct). The broadcast contains comments from a scientist who has worked on the Gravity Probe B mission for over 44 years. There is a brief explanation of the difference between the behavior of gravity in Newtonian physics and general relativity. The broadcast also discusses why it took so long to build the satellite (a dozen technologies had to be invented first), the cost involved, and whether the plug would be pulled on the mission; however, Gravity Probe B was finally launched on April 20, 2004. The broadcast is 30 minutes in length.

186

Validity of the AusTOM scales: A comparison of the AusTOMs and EuroQol-5D  

PubMed Central

Background Clinicians require brief outcome measures in their busy daily practice to document global client outcomes. Based on the UK Therapy Outcome Measure, the Australian Therapy Outcome Measures were designed to capture global therapy outcomes of occupational therapy, physiotherapy and speech pathology in the Australian clinical context. The aim of this study was to investigate the construct (convergent) validity of the Australian Therapy Outcome Measures (AusTOMs) by comparing it with the EuroQuol-5D (EQ-5D). Methods The research was a prospective, longitudinal cohort study, with data collected over a seven month time period. The study was conducted at a total of 13 metropolitan and rural health-care sites including acute, sub-acute and community facilities. Two-hundred and five clients were asked to score themselves on the EQ-5D, and the same clients were scored by approximately 115 therapists (physiotherapists, speech pathologists and occupational therapists) using the AusTOMs at admission and discharge. Clients were consecutive admissions who agreed to participate in the study. Clients of all diagnoses, aged 18 years and over (a criteria of the EQ-5D), and able to give informed consent were scored on the measures. Spearman rank order correlation coefficients were used to analyze the relationships between scores from the two tools. The clients were scored on the AusTOMs and EQ-5D. Results There were many health care areas where correlations were expected and found between scores on the AusTOMs and the EQ-5D. Conclusion In the quest to measure the effectiveness of therapy services, managers, health care founders and clinicians are urgently seeking to undertake the first step by identifying tools that can measure therapy outcome. AusTOMs is one tool that can measure global client outcomes following therapy. In this study, it was found that on the whole, the AusTOMs and the EQ-5D measure similar constructs. Hence, although the validity of a tool is never 'proven', this study offers preliminary support for the construct validity of AusTOMs. PMID:15541181

Unsworth, Carolyn A; Duckett, Stephen J; Duncombe, Dianne; Perry, Alison; Skeat, Jemma; Taylor, Nicholas

2004-01-01

187

Electromagnetic deep-probing (100-1000 kms) of the Earth's interior from artificial satellites: Constraints on the regional emplacement of crustal resources  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Efforts continue in the development of a computer program for looking at the coupling of finite dimensioned source fields with a laterally heterogeneous Earth. An algorithm for calculating a time-varying reference field using ground-based magnetic observatory data is also under development as part of the production of noise-free estimates of global electromagnetic response functions using Magsat data.

Hermance, J. F. (principal investigator)

1981-01-01

188

Highlights of TOMS Version 9 Total Ozone Algorithm  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The fundamental basis of TOMS total ozone algorithm was developed some 45 years ago by Dave and Mateer. It was designed to estimate total ozone from satellite measurements of the backscattered UV radiances at few discrete wavelengths in the Huggins ozone absorption band (310-340 nm). Over the years, as the need for higher accuracy in measuring total ozone from space has increased, several improvements to the basic algorithms have been made. They include: better correction for the effects of aerosols and clouds, an improved method to account for the variation in shape of ozone profiles with season, latitude, and total ozone, and a multi-wavelength correction for remaining profile shape errors. These improvements have made it possible to retrieve total ozone with just 3 spectral channels of moderate spectral resolution (approx. 1 nm) with accuracy comparable to state-of-the-art spectral fitting algorithms like DOAS that require high spectral resolution measurements at large number of wavelengths. One of the deficiencies of the TOMS algorithm has been that it doesn't provide an error estimate. This is a particular problem in high latitudes when the profile shape errors become significant and vary with latitude, season, total ozone, and instrument viewing geometry. The primary objective of the TOMS V9 algorithm is to account for these effects in estimating the error bars. This is done by a straightforward implementation of the Rodgers optimum estimation method using a priori ozone profiles and their error covariances matrices constructed using Aura MLS and ozonesonde data. The algorithm produces a vertical ozone profile that contains 1-2.5 pieces of information (degrees of freedom of signal) depending upon solar zenith angle (SZA). The profile is integrated to obtain the total column. We provide information that shows the altitude range in which the profile is best determined by the measurements. One can use this information in data assimilation and analysis. A side benefit of this algorithm is that it is considerably simpler than the present algorithm that uses a database of 1512 profiles to retrieve total ozone. These profiles are tedious to construct and modify. Though conceptually similar to the SBUV V8 algorithm that was developed about a decade ago, the SBUV and TOMS V9 algorithms differ in detail. The TOMS algorithm uses 3 wavelengths to retrieve the profile while the SBUV algorithm uses 6-9 wavelengths, so TOMS provides less profile information. However both algorithms have comparable total ozone information and TOMS V9 can be easily adapted to use additional wavelengths from instruments like GOME, OMI and OMPS to provide better profile information at smaller SZAs. The other significant difference between the two algorithms is that while the SBUV algorithm has been optimized for deriving monthly zonal means by making an appropriate choice of the a priori error covariance matrix, the TOMS algorithm has been optimized for tracking short-term variability using month and latitude dependent covariance matrices.

Bhartia, Pawan; Haffner, David

2012-01-01

189

Derivation of Tropospheric Ozone Climatology and Trends from TOMS Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This research addresses the following three objectives: (1) Derive tropospheric ozone columns from the TOMS instruments by computing the difference between total-ozone columns over cloudy areas and over clear areas in the tropics; (2) Compute secular trends in Nimbus-7 derived tropospheric Ozone column amounts and associated potential trends in the decadal-scale tropical cloud climatology; (3) Explain the occurrence of anomalously high ozone retrievals over high ice clouds.

Newchurch, Michael J.; McPeters, Rich; Logan, Jennifer; Kim, Jae-Hwan

2002-01-01

190

Tom Kobialka tkob@cs.mu.OZ..AU  

E-print Network

Tom Kobialka tkob@cs.mu.OZ..AU June 2008 SensorWeb 2.0 Cookbook 1. Introduction The purpose of this document is to provide some guidance to the developer / engineer in using SensorWeb 2.0 Software (some places may also be used as NOSA). SensorWeb 2.0 Software is currently in Alpha release stage, some bugs

Melbourne, University of

191

Using PlayDoh Astronomy for Understanding the Size and Scale of the Earth-Moon System and as a Probe for Spatial Translation Ability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To help students love science more and to help them understand the vast distances that pervade astronomy, we use kinesthetic modeling of the Earth-Moon system using PlayDoh. When coupled with discussion, we found (in a pilot study) that students of all ages (children up through adults) acquired a more accurate mental representation of the Earth-Moon system. During early September 2012, we devised and implemented a curriculum unit that focused on the Earth-Moon system and how that relates to eclipses for six middle-Tennessee 6th grade public school classrooms. For this unit, we used PlayDoh as the kinesthetic modeling tool. First, we evaluated what the students knew about the size and scale prior to this intervention using paper and model pre-tests. Second, we used the PlayDoh to model the Earth-Moon system and when possible, conducted an immediate post-test. The students then engaged with the PlayDoh model to help them understand eclipses. Third, we conducted a one-month-later delayed post-test. One thing to note is that about half of the students had experienced the PlayDoh modeling part of a 5th grade pilot lesson during May 2012 therefore the pre-test acted as a four-month-later delayed post-test for these students. We find, among other things, that students retain relative size information more readily than relative distance information. We also find differences in how consistent students are when trying to translate the size/scale they have in their heads to the different modes of assessment utilized.

Grundstrom, Erika

2013-01-01

192

Domain organization of the monomeric form of the Tom70 mitochondrial import receptor.  

PubMed

Tom70 is a mitochondrial protein import receptor composed of 11 tetratricopeptide repeats (TPRs). The first three TPRs form an N-terminal domain that recruits heat shock protein family chaperones, while the eight C-terminal TPRs form a domain that receives, from the bound chaperone, mitochondrial precursor proteins destined for import. Analytical ultracentrifugation and solution small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) analysis characterized Tom70 as an elongated monomer. A model for the Tom70 monomer was proposed based on the alternate interpretation of the domain pairings observed in the crystal structure of the Tom70 dimer and refined against the SAXS data. In this "open" model of the Tom70 monomer, the chaperone- and precursor-binding sites are exposed and lay side by side on one face of the molecule. Fluorescence anisotropy measurements indicated that monomeric Tom70 can bind both chaperone and precursor peptides and that chaperone peptide binding does not alter the affinity of Tom70 for the precursor peptide. SAXS was unable to detect any shape change in Tom70 upon chaperone binding. However, molecular modeling indicated that chaperone binding is incompatible with Tom70 dimer formation. It is proposed that the Tom70 monomer is the functional unit mediating initial chaperone docking and precursor recognition. PMID:19358854

Mills, Ryan D; Trewhella, Jill; Qiu, Theresa Wenli; Welte, Thomas; Ryan, Timothy M; Hanley, Tracey; Knott, Robert B; Lithgow, Trevor; Mulhern, Terrence D

2009-05-22

193

Probing the Solar System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Humans have always had the vision to one day live on other planets. This vision existed even before the first person was put into orbit. Since the early space missions of putting humans into orbit around Earth, many advances have been made in space technology. We have now sent many space probes deep into the Solar system to explore the planets and…

Wilkinson, John

2013-01-01

194

Electromagnetic deep-probing (100-1000 KMS) of the Earth's interior from artificial satellites: Constraints on the regional emplacement of crustal resources  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Efforts continue in the development of a computer program for looking at the coupling of finite-dimensional source fields with a laterally heterogeneous Earth. An algorithm is also being developed for calculating a time-varying reference field using ground-based magnetic observatory data. It was discovered that ground-based standard magnetic observation is not as so available for the time of the MAGSAT mission as might be expected. Attempts are being made to determine the exact times and observatories from which data are avaliable.

Hermance, J. F. (principal investigator)

1981-01-01

195

The Impact of Withholding Observations from TOMS or SBUV Instruments on the GEOS Ozone Data Assimilation System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In a data assimilation system (DAS), model forecast atmospheric fields, observations and their respective statistics are combined in an attempt to produce the best estimate of these fields. Ozone observations from two instruments are assimilated in the Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) ozone DAS: the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) and the Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet (SBUV) instrument. The assimilated observations are complementary; TOMS provides a global daily coverage of total column ozone, without profile information, while SBUV measures ozone profiles and total column ozone at nadir only. The purpose of this paper is to examine the performance of the ozone assimilation system in the absence of observations from one of the instruments as it can happen in the event of a failure of an instrument or when there are problems with an instrument for a limited time. Our primary concern is for the performance of the GEOS ozone DAS when it is used in the operational mode to provide near real time analyzed ozone fields in support of instruments on the Terra satellite. In addition, we are planning to produce a longer term ozone record by assimilating historical data. We want to quantify the differences in the assimilated ozone fields that are caused by the changes in the TOMS or SBUV observing network. Our primary interest is in long term and large scale features visible in global statistics of analysis fields, such as differences in the zonal mean of assimilated ozone fields or comparisons with independent observations, While some drifts in assimilated fields occur immediately, after assimilating just one day of different observations, the others develop slowly over several months. Thus, we are also interested in the length of time, which is determined from time series, that is needed for significant changes to take place.

Stajner, Ovanka; Riishojgaard, Lars Peter; Rood, Richard B.

2000-01-01

196

Tom20-mediated mitochondrial protein import in muscle cells during differentiation.  

PubMed

Mitochondrial biogenesis is accompanied by an increased expression of components of the protein import machinery, as well as increased import of proteins destined for the matrix. We evaluated the role of the outer membrane receptor Tom20 by varying its expression and measuring changes in the import of malate dehydrogenase (MDH) in differentiating C2C12 muscle cells. Cells transfected with Tom20 had levels that were twofold higher than in control cells. Labeling of cells followed by immunoprecipitation of MDH revealed equivalent increases in MDH import. This parallelism between import rate and Tom20 levels was also evident as a result of thyroid hormone treatment. Using antisense oligodeoxynucleotides, we inhibited Tom20 expression by 40%, resulting in 40-60% reductions in MDH import. In vitro assays also revealed that import into the matrix was more sensitive to Tom20 inhibition than import into the outer membrane. These data indicate a close relationship between induced changes in Tom20 and the import of a matrix protein, suggesting that Tom20 is involved in determining the kinetics of import. However, this relationship was dissociated during normal differentiation, since the expression of Tom20 remained relatively constant, whereas imported MDH increased 12-fold. Thus Tom20 is important in determining import during organelle biogenesis, but other mechanisms (e.g., intramitochondrial protein degradation or nuclear transcription) likely also play a role in establishing the final mitochondrial phenotype during normal muscle differentiation. PMID:11029287

Grey, J Y; Connor, M K; Gordon, J W; Yano, M; Mori, M; Hood, D A

2000-11-01

197

Linkage of oxygen deficiency defects and rare earth concentrations in silica glass optical fiber probed by ultraviolet absorption and laser excitation spectroscopy.  

PubMed

Ultraviolet absorption measurements and laser excitation spectroscopy in the vicinity of 248 nm provide compelling evidence for linkages between the oxygen deficiency center (ODC) and rare earth concentrations in Yb and Er-doped glass optical fibers. Investigations of YAG-derived and solution-doped glass fibers are described. For both Yb and Er-doped fibers, the dependence of Type II ODC absorption on the rare earth number density is approximately linear, but the magnitude of the effect is greater for Yb-doped fibers. Furthermore, laser excitation spectra demonstrate unambiguously the existence of an energy transfer mechanism coupling an ODC with Yb(3+). Photopumping glass fibers with a Ti:sapphire laser/optical parametric amplifier system, tunable over the 225-265 nm region, or with a KrF laser at 248.4 nm show: 1) emission features in the 200-1100 nm interval attributable only to the ODC (Type II) defect or Yb(3+), and 2) the excitation spectra for ODC (II) emission at ~280 nm and Yb(3+) fluorescence (? ~1.03 ?m) to be, within experimental uncertainty, identical. The latter demonstrates that, when irradiating Yb-doped silica fibers between ~240 and 255 nm, the ODC (II) defect is at least the primary precursor to Yb(3+) emission. Consistent with previous reports in the literature, the data show the ODC (II) absorption spectrum to have a peak wavelength and breadth of ~246 nm and ~19 nm (FWHM). Experiments also reveal that, in the absence of Yb, incorporating either Al(2)O(3) or Y(2)O(3) into glass fibers has a negligible impact on the ODC concentration. Not only do the data reported here demonstrate the relationship between the ODC (II) number density and the Yb doping concentration, but they also suggest that the appearance of ODC defects in the fiber is associated with the introduction of Yb and the process by which the fiber is formed. PMID:22714511

Liu, Y-S; Galvin, T C; Hawkins, T; Ballato, J; Dong, L; Foy, P R; Dragic, P D; Eden, J G

2012-06-18

198

External comparisons of reprocessed SBUV/TOMS ozone data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ozone Retrievals from the Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet (SBUV) Instrument on-board the Nimbus-7 Satellite have been reprocessed using an improved internal calibration. The resulting data set covering November, 1978 through January, 1987 has been archived at the National Space Science Data Center in Greenbelt, Maryland. The reprocessed SBUV total ozone data as well as recalibrated Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) data are compared with total ozone measurements from a network of ground based Dobson spectrophotometers. The SBUV also measures the vertical distribution of ozone, and these measurements are compared with external measurements made by SAGE II, Umkehr, and Ozonesondes. Special attention is paid to long-term changes in ozone bias.

Wellemeyer, C. G.; Taylor, S. L.; Singh, R. R.; Mcpeters, R. D.

1994-01-01

199

Empirical correction for earth sensor horizon radiance variation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A major limitation on the use of infrared horizon sensors for attitude determination is the variability of the height of the infrared Earth horizon. This variation includes a climatological component and a stochastic component of approximately equal importance. The climatological component shows regular variation with season and latitude. Models based on historical measurements have been used to compensate for these systematic changes. The stochastic component is analogous to tropospheric weather. It can cause extreme, localized changes that for a period of days, overwhelm the climatological variation. An algorithm has been developed to compensate partially for the climatological variation of horizon height and at least to mitigate the stochastic variation. This method uses attitude and horizon sensor data from spacecraft to update a horizon height history as a function of latitude. For spacecraft that depend on horizon sensors for their attitudes (such as the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer-Earth Probe-TOMS-EP) a batch least squares attitude determination system is used. It is assumed that minimizing the average sensor residual throughout a full orbit of data results in attitudes that are nearly independent of local horizon height variations. The method depends on the additional assumption that the mean horizon height over all latitudes is approximately independent of season. Using these assumptions, the method yields the latitude dependent portion of local horizon height variations. This paper describes the algorithm used to generate an empirical horizon height. Ideally, an international horizon height database could be established that would rapidly merge data from various spacecraft to provide timely corrections that could be used by all.

Hashmall, Joseph A.; Sedlak, Joseph; Andrews, Daniel; Luquette, Richard

1998-01-01

200

Electromagnetic deep-probing (100-1000 kms) of the Earth's interior from artificial satellites: Constraints on the regional emplacement of crustal resources  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A spherical harmonic analysis program is being tested which takes magnetic data in universal time from a set of arbitrarily space observatories and calculates a value for the instantaneous magnetic field at any point on the globe. The calculation is done as a least mean-squares value fit to a set of spherical harmonics up to any desired order. The program accepts as a set of input the orbit position of a satellite coordinates it with ground-based magnetic data for a given time. The output is a predicted time series for the magnetic field on the Earth's surface at the (r, theta) position directly under the hypothetically orbiting satellite for the duration of the time period of the input data set. By tracking the surface magnetic field beneath the satellite, narrow-band averages crosspowers between the spatially coordinated satellite and the ground-based data sets are computed. These crosspowers are used to calculate field transfer coefficients with minimum noise distortion. The application of this technique to calculating the vector response function W is discussed.

Hermance, J. F. (principal investigator)

1981-01-01

201

Tom Stewart Interview (Part II): A Little Bit About the Man Behind SPEEDE  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although admittedly shy and more comfortable as an attentive listener, Tom Stewart is also friendly and accommodating. He graciously agreed to share his thoughts about some of the important experiences in his life. Tom is that rare bird, a native Floridian, from West Palm Beach, 68 miles north of his Miami home. He received a Bachelor of Chemical…

Winarski, Kathy

2004-01-01

202

33 CFR 80.170 - Sandy Hook, NJ to Tom's River, NJ.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sandy Hook, NJ to Tom's River, NJ. 80.170 Section 80... COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Atlantic Coast § 80.170 Sandy Hook, NJ to Tom's River, NJ. (a) A line drawn...

2010-07-01

203

From hinckley@u.washington.edu Fri Oct 22 From: Tom Hinckley  

E-print Network

From hinckley@u.washington.edu Fri Oct 22 From: Tom Hinckley To. David Ford #12;Please join us in congratulating these outstanding alumni and members of the SFR is limited, so sign up today at https://go.washington.edu/uwaa/events/2010FRAA_banquet/details.tcl Tom Thomas

Borenstein, Elhanan

204

TOMS Data Showing the Ozone Hole over Antarctica (8-20-92 - 10-19-92)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

TOMS Ozone over Antarctica from 8-20-92 to 10-19-92. The ozone hole is indicated in shades of blue. The missing data region over the south pole is due to the inability of the TOMS instrument to measure data during the polar night.

Allen, Jesse; Schoeberl, Mark

1999-04-09

205

Ozone depletion over Greece as deduced from Nimbus7 TOMS measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) on the Nimbus-7 satellite has been measuring the total column amount of ozone over the globe for more than 13 years. Recent findings from TOMS data suggest that just north of 40° N the winter trend shows an annual ozone depletion rate of just over —0-8 per cent per year. This paper reports trends

C. A. VAROTSOS; A. P. CRACKNELL

1993-01-01

206

A NEW PROXIMITY CONDITION FOR MANIFOLD-VALUED SUBDIVISION TOM DUCHAMP, GANG XIE, AND THOMAS YU  

E-print Network

A NEW PROXIMITY CONDITION FOR MANIFOLD-VALUED SUBDIVISION SCHEMES TOM DUCHAMP, GANG XIE, AND THOMAS CRG on Applied and Computational Harmonic Analysis. Gang Xie's research was supported, Georgi Medvedev, and Mark Levi for discussions on dynamical systems. 1 #12;2 TOM DUCHAMP, GANG XIE

Yu, Thomas P.-Y.

207

Earth's Atmosphere  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This problem set is about the methods scientists use to compare the abundance of the different elements in Earth's atmosphere. Answer key is provided. This is part of Earth Math: A Brief Mathematical Guide to Earth Science and Climate Change.

208

Earth's Three  

E-print Network

Broadcast Transcript: From Mongolia, land of fermented mare's milk, comes this beguiling morsel of nomadic oral tradition. It's called yertonciin gorav or Earth's Three. Earth's three what? Well, Earth's three top things in a number of categories...

Hacker, Randi

2010-11-17

209

Earth Sciences Environmental Earth Sciences,  

E-print Network

84 Earth Sciences­ Environmental Earth Sciences, Geology MGeol (Single Honours Degrees) Earth Sciences BSc (Single Honours Degrees) Environmental Earth Sciences Geology BSc (Joint Honours Degrees) and among the most research-intensive in Europe. Features * The Department of Earth and Environmental

Brierley, Andrew

210

Earth Sciences Environmental Earth Sciences,  

E-print Network

94 Earth Sciences­ Environmental Earth Sciences, Geology Degree options MGeol (Single Honours Degrees) Earth Sciences BSc (Single Honours Degrees) Environmental Earth Sciences Geology BSc (Joint placement. * The Geology and Environmental Earth Sciences degrees are accredited by the Geological Society

Brierley, Andrew

211

Gravity Probe B Inspection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The space vehicle Gravity Probe B (GP-B) is the relativity experiment developed at Stanford University to test two extraordinary predictions of Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity. The experiment will measure, very precisely, the expected tiny changes in the direction of the spin axes of four gyroscopes contained in an Earth-orbiting satellite at a 400-mile altitude. So free are the gyroscopes from disturbance that they will provide an almost perfect space-time reference system. They will measure how space and time are very slightly warped by the presence of the Earth, and, more profoundly, how the Earth's rotation very slightly drags space-time around with it. These effects, though small for the Earth, have far-reaching implications for the nature of matter and the structure of the Universe. GP-B is among the most thoroughly researched programs ever undertaken by NASA. This is the story of a scientific quest in which physicists and engineers have collaborated closely over many years. Inspired by their quest, they have invented a whole range of technologies that are already enlivening other branches of science and engineering. In this photograph, engineer Gary Reynolds is inspecting the inside of the probe neck during probe thermal repairs. GP-B is scheduled for launch in April 2004 and managed for NASA by the Marshall Space Flight Center. Development of the GP-B is the responsibility of Stanford University along with major subcontractor Lockheed Martin Corporation. (Image credit to Russ Leese, Gravity Probe B, Stanford University)

2000-01-01

212

Biogenesis of the preprotein translocase of the outer mitochondrial membrane: protein kinase A phosphorylates the precursor of Tom40 and impairs its import  

PubMed Central

The preprotein translocase of the outer mitochondrial membrane (TOM) functions as the main entry gate for the import of nuclear-encoded proteins into mitochondria. The major subunits of the TOM complex are the three receptors Tom20, Tom22, and Tom70 and the central channel-forming protein Tom40. Cytosolic kinases have been shown to regulate the biogenesis and activity of the Tom receptors. Casein kinase 2 stimulates the biogenesis of Tom22 and Tom20, whereas protein kinase A (PKA) impairs the receptor function of Tom70. Here we report that PKA exerts an inhibitory effect on the biogenesis of the ?-barrel protein Tom40. Tom40 is synthesized as precursor on cytosolic ribosomes and subsequently imported into mitochondria. We show that PKA phosphorylates the precursor of Tom40. The phosphorylated Tom40 precursor is impaired in import into mitochondria, whereas the nonphosphorylated precursor is efficiently imported. We conclude that PKA plays a dual role in the regulation of the TOM complex. Phosphorylation by PKA not only impairs the receptor activity of Tom70, but it also inhibits the biogenesis of the channel protein Tom40. PMID:22419819

Rao, Sanjana; Schmidt, Oliver; Harbauer, Angelika B.; Schönfisch, Birgit; Guiard, Bernard; Pfanner, Nikolaus; Meisinger, Chris

2012-01-01

213

User's guide for SBUV/TOMS ozone derivative products  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A series of products are available derived from the total-ozone and ozone vertical profile results for the Solar Backscattered Ultraviolet/Total-Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (SBUV/TOMS) Nimbus-7 operation. Products available are (1) orbital height-latitude cross sections of the SBUV profile data, (2) daily global total ozone contours in polar coordinates, (3) daily averages of total ozone in global 5x5 degree latitude-longitude grid, (4) daily, monthly and quarterly averages of total ozone and profile data in 10 degree latitude zones, (5) tabular presentation of zonal means, (6) daily global total ozone and profile contours in polar coordinates. The ""Derivative Products User's Guide'' describes each of these products in detail, including their derivation and presentation format. Information is provided on how to order the tapes and microfilm from the National Space Science Data Center.

Fleig, A. J.; Wellemeyer, C.; Oslik, N.; Lee, D.; Miller, J.; Magatani, R.

1984-01-01

214

Spectrophotometric probe  

DOEpatents

A support structure is described bearing at least one probe for making spectrophotometric measurements of a fluid using a source of light and a spectrophotometer. The probe includes a housing with two optical fibers and a planoconvex lens. A sleeve bearing a mirror surrounds the housing. The lens is separated from the mirror by a fixed distance, defining an interior space for receiving a volume of the fluid sample. A plurality of throughholes extending through the sleeve communicate between the sample volume and the exterior of the probe, all but one hole bearing a screen. A protective jacket surrounds the probe. A hollow conduit bearing a tube is formed in the wall of the probe for venting any air in the interior space when fluid enters. The probe is held at an acute angle so the optic fibers carrying the light to and from the probe are not bent severely on emergence from the probe. 3 figs.

Prather, W.S.; O'Rourke, P.E.

1994-08-02

215

Spectrophotometric probe  

SciTech Connect

A support structure bearing at least one probe for making spectrophotometric measurements of a fluid using a source of light and a spectrophotometer. The probe includes a housing with two optical fibers and a planoconvex lens. A sleeve bearing a mirror surrounds the housing. The lens is separated from the mirror by a fixed distance, defining an interior space for receiving a volume of the fluid sample. A plurality of throughholes extending through the sleeve communicate between the sample volume and the exterior of the probe, all but one hole bearing a screen. A protective jacket surrounds the probe. A hollow conduit bearing a tube is formed in the wall of the probe for venting any air in the interior space when fluid enters. The probe is held at an acute angle so the optic fibers carrying the light to and from the probe are not bent severely on emergence from the probe.

Prather, William S. (Augusta, GA); O'Rourke, Patrick E. (Martinez, GA)

1994-01-01

216

Radiation belt probes launched  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Storms on Earth delayed by only a few days the launch of NASA's Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP), which blasted off on 30 August for a 2-year tour to explore the Van Allen radiation belts. The two satellites will help scientists learn about the processes that affect electrons and ions in the donut-shaped belts and how the belts change in the context of geomagnetic storms. “The information collected from these probes will benefit the public by allowing us to better protect our satellites and understand how space weather affects communications and technology on Earth,” said John Grunsfeld, associate administrator for NASA's Science Mission Directorate. Each probe carries an identical suite of instruments, including an Energetic Particle, Composition, and Thermal Plasma Suite; Electric and Magnetic Field Instrument Suite and Integrated Science; Electric Field and Waves Suite; Radiation Belt Storm Probes Ion Composition Experiment; and Relativistic Proton Spectrometer. RBSP is part of NASA's Living With a Star program and is managed for NASA by the Johns Hopkins University's Applied Physics Laboratory. For more information, see http://rbsp.jhuapl.edu.

Showstack, Randy

2012-09-01

217

Ultrastructure of the domestic tom cat (Felis domestica ) and tiger (Panthera tigris altaica ) spermatozoa.  

PubMed

The ultrastructure of spermatozoa from the domestic tom cat and the Siberian tiger was studied. Semen was collected from anesthetized tom cats and Siberian tigers by electroejaculation. Spermatozoa were fixed and processed for examination by transmission electron microscopy. The principle differences between the spermatozoa from the two species were the head shape, mitochondrial organization in the neck area and structure of the fibrous sheath. Tom cat spermatozoa had an elongated oval-shaped head, while tiger spermatozoa had a more rounded head shape. Circularly oriented mitochondria in the neck area, near the proximal centriole, were frequently observed in tiger cells but rarely observed in tom cat cells. The semicircular ribs of tom cat spermatozoa were larger than the ribs of tiger spermatozoa. Also, the dense fibers (Numbers 3 and 8) of the corresponding microtubule doublets were fused or connected to the longitudinal columns in tiger spermatozoa but showed only occasional attachment in tom cat spermatozoa. These differences could influence results when the tom cat is used as a model for studying tiger semen. PMID:16726601

Schmehl, M L; Graham, E F

1989-04-01

218

Earth\\'s Surface  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

You have already learned about the four major parts of Earth\\'s system: atmosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere, and geosphere. Go to the following sites to learn more about rocks and minerals, continental drift, and geologic time. When you finish viewing all the sites, you will participate in a problem-based learning activity, \\"The Case of the Disappearing Dirt.\\" Topographic Maps All About Geology Answer the questions on the handout. Erosion and Weathering Summarize what your learned about erosion and weathering. Examine a landscape formed by erosion Observe the effects of mechanical weathering Plate Tectonics FAQ s About Rocks and Fossils Igneous Rocks Rocks and Minerals Slide Show Rock Cycle Observe an animation of metamorphic rocks forming Continental Drift Mineralogy 4 kids : rockin Internet site : the best place to learn about rocks and minerals Draw a picture of the rock cycle. Coasting Away ...

Mathis, Ms.

2008-01-11

219

Contributions of Nimbus 7 TOMS Data to Volcanic Study and Hazard Mitigation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nimbus TOMS data have led to advancements among many volcano-related scientific disciplines, from the initial ability to quantify SO2 clouds leading to derivations of eruptive S budgets and fluxes, to tracking of individual clouds, assessing global volcanism and atmospheric impacts. Some of the major aspects of TOMS-related research, listed below, will be reviewed and updated: (1) Measurement of volcanic SO2 clouds: Nimbus TOMS observed over 100 individual SO2 clouds during its mission lifetime; large explosive eruptions are now routinely and reliably measured by satellite. (2) Eruption processes: quantification of SO2 emissions have allowed assessments of eruption sulfur budgets, the evaluation of "excess" sulfur, and inferences of H2S emissions. (3) Detection of ash: TOMS data are now used to detect volcanic particulates in the atmosphere, providing complementary analyses to infrared methods of detection. Paired TOMS and AVHRR studies have provided invaluable information on volcanic cloud compositions and processes. (4) Cloud tracking and hazard mitigation: volcanic clouds can be considered gigantic tracers in the atmosphere, and studies of the fates of these clouds have led to new knowledge of their physical and chemical dispersion in the atmosphere for predictive models. (5) Global trends: the long term data set has provided researchers an unparalleled record of explosive volcanism, and forms a key component in assessing annual to decadal trends in global S emissions. (6) Atmospheric impacts: TOMS data have been linked to independent records of atmospheric change, in order to compare cause and effect processes following a massive injection of SO2 into the atmosphere. (7) Future TOMS instruments and applications: Nimbus TOMS has given way to new satellite platforms, with several wavelength and resolution modifications. New efforts to launch a geostationary TOMS could provide unprecedented observations of volcanic activity.

Krueger, Arlin J.; Bluth, G. J. S.; Schaefer, S. A.

1998-01-01

220

Comparison of ground based and TOMS measurements of SO2 from volcanic emissions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Brewer Ozone Spectrometer is being used in the World Ozone Network to monitor ozone and SO sub 2. SO sub 2 from natural as well as anthropogenic sources are measured. It has been demonstrated that SO sub 2 interferes with total ozone values as measured by the Dobson Spectrophotometer and the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS). A small amount of manmade SO sub 2 is difficult to detect and quantify by TOMS because it is located near the surface. However, larger amounts of SO sub 2 injected into the stratosphere from volcanic emissions are detected by TOMS.

Kerr, James B.; Evans, Wayne J.

1987-01-01

221

Nanoscale distribution of mitochondrial import receptor Tom20 is adjusted to cellular conditions and exhibits an inner-cellular gradient  

PubMed Central

The translocase of the mitochondrial outer membrane (TOM) complex is the main import pore for nuclear-encoded proteins into mitochondria, yet little is known about its spatial distribution within the outer membrane. Super-resolution stimulated emission depletion microscopy was used to determine quantitatively the nanoscale distribution of Tom20, a subunit of the TOM complex, in more than 1,000 cells. We demonstrate that Tom20 is located in clusters whose nanoscale distribution is finely adjusted to the cellular growth conditions as well as to the specific position of a cell within a microcolony. The density of the clusters correlates to the mitochondrial membrane potential. The distributions of clusters of Tom20 and of Tom22 follow an inner-cellular gradient from the perinuclear to the peripheral mitochondria. We conclude that the nanoscale distribution of the TOM complex is finely adjusted to the cellular conditions, resulting in distribution gradients both within single cells and between adjacent cells. PMID:21799113

Wurm, Christian A.; Neumann, Daniel; Lauterbach, Marcel A.; Harke, Benjamin; Egner, Alexander; Hell, Stefan W.; Jakobs, Stefan

2011-01-01

222

Huygens probe on target  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In October 1997, a Titan/Centaur rocket lifting-off from Cape Canaveral will boost the spacecraft into a 6.7 year trajectory to reach Saturn. The trajectory will use two swing-bys of Venus in April 1998 and June 1999, followed by an Earth swing-by in August 1999 and a Jupiter swing-by in December 2000 to boost speed and reach Saturn in July 2004. A few months after going into orbit around Saturn, the Cassini spacecraft will release the Huygens probe for its descent through the atmosphere of Titan, the largest satellite of Saturn. The Huygens probe will measure the abundance of elements and compounds in Titan's atmosphere, the distribution of trace gases and aerosols, winds, temperature, pressure and surface state and its composition. A multi-spectral camera on the probe will provide images of the landscape of Titan. Titan is a unique planetary body in the solar system. It has an atmosphere which is primarily nitrogen. but is also rich in hydrocarbons. Due to the vast distance of the Saturnian system from the Sun, this atmosphere is at a very low temperature, thus greatly slowing down all the chemical processes. A study of this atmosphere will throw light on the development of our own atmosphere and contribute to our understanding of the origins of life on Earth. The Huygens probe is being developed by ESA with Aerospatiale (F) as the industrial prime contractor. Since the start of the programme in April 1990, very good progress has been made in design and hardware development. The entry into the Titan atmosphere will result in a very high surface temperature on the probe, generated as it decelerates due to the friction of the upper atmospheric layers. After the probe has slowed down sufficiently, a system of parachutes ensures a slow descent to the surface of Titan in approximately two and a half hours. The scientific measurements can only begin after the heat shield, which is needed to protect the probe during the high temperature entry phase, has been ejected. This occurs at an altitude of around 170 km above Titan's surface. In order to validate this complex sequence, a Balloon Drop Test was recently carried out on a full size model of the probe. The balloon carried the probe to an altitude of 36 km above the test range (ESRANGE) near Kiruna in Sweden. The probe was automatically released and all the descent control systems were operated. This test was completely successfully and the Descent Module was recovered on ground intact and functioning (pictures are available upon request). In addition, all the environmental testing has been carried out on another model to prove the structural and thermal integrity of the probe. The Structure Thermal and Pyro Model (SIAM) of the Huygens probe was delivered to NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) on 5 th July, 1995 for combined testing with the Cassini spacecraft. For the electrical systems, a special Engineering Model has been subjected to functional testing and the results to date are successful. This model will also be delivered to JPL for combined testing in the near future. Currently-, the Flight Model hardware is being delivered to Daimler Benz in Munich, by the industrial subcontractors, where integration of the Flight Probe will take place. "The design and the production of this complex system in a relatively short time of four years has proceeded very smoothly thanks to the motivation of the European space industry", said Huygens ESA Project Manager Hamid Hassan. The Flight Probe will be delivered to NASA/JPL in early 1997 for a launch of Cassini-Huygens on a Titan IV/Centaur rocket in October 1997.

1995-07-01

223

Cooling laser system for quantum computing with barium-137 ions Tom Chartrand  

E-print Network

Cooling laser system for quantum computing with barium-137 ions Tom Chartrand Department of Physics for essentially any application. We have been trapping 137-barium with this end in mind. The odd isotope has

Blinov, Boris

224

THE YOGA OF THE CASSELS-TATE PAIRING TOM FISHER, EDWARD F. SCHAEFER, AND MICHAEL STOLL  

E-print Network

THE YOGA OF THE CASSELS-TATE PAIRING TOM FISHER, EDWARD F. SCHAEFER, AND MICHAEL STOLL Abstract, but the present writer is no longer an adept of the relevant yoga." (see [3, p. 115]). In this article, we prove

Fisher, Tom

225

THE YOGA OF THE CASSELSTATE PAIRING TOM FISHER, EDWARD F. SCHAEFER, AND MICHAEL STOLL  

E-print Network

THE YOGA OF THE CASSELS­TATE PAIRING TOM FISHER, EDWARD F. SCHAEFER, AND MICHAEL STOLL Abstract, but the present writer is no longer an adept of the relevant yoga.'' (see [3, p. 115]). In this article, we prove

Fisher, Tom

226

Great Lakes Sensitivity to Climatic Forcing Primary Investigator: Tom Croley -NOAAGLERL (Emeritus)  

E-print Network

Great Lakes Sensitivity to Climatic Forcing Primary Investigator: Tom Croley - NOAAGLERL (Emeritus of Toronto, Francine McCarthy - Brock University Overview The Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory simulated Great Lakes hydrology for hypothetical climate scenarios to understand the extremes necessary

227

ISS Update: Progress 50 Launch and Docking with Tom Erkenswick - Duration: 12:46.  

NASA Video Gallery

NASA Public Affairs Officer Rob Navias conducts an interview with Visiting Vehicle Officer Tom Erkenswick about the launch of the ISS Progress 50 resupply ship and its docking to the International ...

228

ISS Update: Orion Recovery and Rescue Lead Tom Walker - Duration: 5:03.  

NASA Video Gallery

NASA Public Affairs Officer Brandi Dean talks with Tom Walker, Orion Recovery and Rescue Lead, about how the Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL) is being used to train rescue and recovery personnel f...

229

Regents Professor and Tom J. Cunningham Chair School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering  

E-print Network

Don Lucca Regents Professor and Tom J. Cunningham Chair School of Mechanical and Aerospace in the School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering at Oklahoma State University. He has been an active CINT

230

Earth's Seasons  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A computer animation on the reason for the seasons. Voice-over describes the motion of Earth around the sun to show how the sun's light impacts the tilted Earth at different times of the year, causing seasonal changes.

Rochester Museum And Science Center, Strasenburgh P.

231

Tom Brown Jr.'s Tracker School: Tracking, Nature and Wilderness Survival  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Tom Brown's Tracker School is the largest school of its kind with locations in New Jersey, California, and Florida. On this site, visitors will find course descriptions for classes on tracking, scouting, philosophy, vision, healing, and survival. "Tom's Newsletter" provides readers with a monthly insight into the organization and its events. Links to other tracking and nature conservation organizations are also available for those seeking additional information. Check out the "Tracker Clubs" section to locate the club in your area!

Brown, Tom J.

2008-01-23

232

A new method for monitoring long term calibration of the SBUV and TOMS instruments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new method has been developed to monitor the long-term calibration of the Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet (SBUV) and Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) instruments. It is based on the fact that the radiance in one channel can be expressed as a linear sum of the radiances in neighboring channels. Using simulated radiances for the SBUV and TOMS instruments, various scenarios of changes in instrument calibration are investigated. Results from sample processing of SBUV data are also presented.

Ahmad, Z.; Seftor, C.; Wellemeyer, C.

1994-01-01

233

Highlights of the Version 8 SBUV and TOMS Datasets Released at this Symposium  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Last October was the 25th anniversary of the launch of the SBUV and TOMS instruments on NASA's Nimbus-7 satellite. Total Ozone and ozone profile datasets produced by these and following instruments have produced a quarter century long record. Over time we have released several versions of these datasets to incorporate advances in UV radiative transfer, inverse modeling, and instrument characterization. In this meeting we are releasing datasets produced from the version 8 algorithms. They replace the previous versions (V6 SBUV, and V7 TOMS) released about a decade ago. About a dozen companion papers in this meeting provide details of the new algorithms and intercomparison of the new data with external data. In this paper we present key features of the new algorithm, and discuss how the new results differ from those released previously. We show that the new datasets have better internal consistency and also agree better with external datasets. A key feature of the V8 SBUV algorithm is that the climatology has no influence on inter-annual variability and trends; it only affects the mean values and, to a limited extent, the seasonal dependence. By contrast, climatology does have some influence on TOMS total O3 trends, particularly at large solar zenith angles. For this reason, and also because TOMS record has gaps, md EP/TOMS is suffering from data quality problems, we recommend using SBUV total ozone data for applications where the high spatial resolution of TOMS is not essential.

Bhartia, Pawan K.; McPeters, Richard D.; Flynn, Lawrence E.; Wellemeyer, Charles G.

2004-01-01

234

Edible Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners make a model of the solid Earth's layers that's good enough to eat! Learners use tasty foodstuffs to simulate Earth's inner core, outer core, mantle, and crust. The recipe includes ingredients for one edible Earth, but can be doubled or tripled to accommodate groups of learners. This activity requires adult supervision.

American Museum of Natural History

2011-08-20

235

Earth Flow  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Flash animation with accompanying audio exhibits the different stages involved in the formation of an earth flow. A step-like scarp forms along with a flowage zone at the toe of the earth flow. The sequence concludes with the stabilization of the earth flow with vegetation. Expect long loading times.

Wiley

236

Planet Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For those interested in a global view of the weather, Planet Earth is a "real-time 3-D model of the Earth with continuously updating night shadows and clouds." Cloud images are provided by the University of Wisconsin-Madison Space Science and Engineering Center. Planet Earth is shareware with a fee of $29.95.

237

Earth Calendar  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This handout lists major events in Earth history with approximate ages (in millions of years before present). The calendar date is determined by setting midnight, January 1, to correspond with the formation of the Earth, and setting the following midnight, December 31, to correspond to the present. Thus, the entire history of the Earth is displayed as a single calendar year.

Barker, Jeffrey

238

Snowball Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Audio program from the University of Wisconsin's Earthwatch Radio discusses the notion of the entire planet covered with ice. Doug Macdougall is an earth scientist at the University of California-San Diego and author of a new book called "Frozen Earth." He says the planet-wide freeze is known as "Snowball Earth."

239

Logic Probes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This brief interactive activity, by the Electromechanical Digital Library and Wisconsin Technical College System faculty, introduces Logic Probes. There is an overview which illustrates the probe's application and operation and how to operate a logic probe in multifamily use, steady states, and changing states. There is also a set of three review questions for students to answer at the end. This is an excellent resource, as are the others in this digital library, for reviewing fundamental concepts for electromechanical devices, systems, and applications.

Bartelt, Terry L.

2009-05-07

240

Gravity Probe B: Testing Einstein's Universe  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Gravity Probe B is the relativity gyroscope experiment being developed by NASA and Stanford University to test two extraordinary, unverified predictions of Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity. The experiment will use changes in the direction of spin of four gyroscopes contained in an Earth satellite to measure how space and time are warped by the presence of the Earth, and, more profoundly, how the Earth's rotation drags spacetime around with it.

Everitt, C. W.

2003-10-10

241

Nuclear magnetic resonance in rare earth metals  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes the study, by nuclear magnetic resonance, of both static and dynamical aspects of the hyperfine interaction in rare earth metals, and illustrates the categories of information that can be obtained by using nuclei as microscopic probes in metallic media. The systems discussed include not only the pure rare earth metals but also their alloys and their metallic

M. A. H. McCausland; I. S. Mackenzie

1979-01-01

242

Clinical Evaluation of the Gen-Probe Amplified Direct Test for Detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex Organisms in Cerebrospinal Fluid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eighty-four cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from different children who presented with signs and symp- toms of meningitis were evaluated for the presence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex organisms by the Gen- Probe Amplified Mycobacterium tuberculosis Direct Test (MTD; Gen-Probe, San Diego, Calif.). All CSF samples had negative acid-fast smears by the Ziehl-Neelsen staining method. M. tuberculosis was recovered from five samples.

ANNE M. LANG; JESUS FERIS-IGLESIAS; CHABELA PENA; JACQUELINE F. SANCHEZ; LESLIE STOCKMAN; PAUL RYS; GLENN D. ROBERTS; NANCY K. HENRY; DAVID H. PERSING; FRANKLIN R. COCKERILL; Robert Reid

1998-01-01

243

Gravity Probe B Encapsulated  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this photo, the Gravity Probe B (GP-B) space vehicle is being encapsulated atop the Delta II launch vehicle. The GP-B is the relativity experiment developed at Stanford University to test two extraordinary predictions of Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity. The experiment will measure, very precisely, the expected tiny changes in the direction of the spin axes of four gyroscopes contained in an Earth-orbiting satellite at a 400-mile altitude. So free are the gyroscopes from disturbance that they will provide an almost perfect space-time reference system. They will measure how space and time are very slightly warped by the presence of the Earth, and, more profoundly, how the Earth's rotation very slightly drags space-time around with it. These effects, though small for the Earth, have far-reaching implications for the nature of matter and the structure of the Universe. GP-B is among the most thoroughly researched programs ever undertaken by NASA. This is the story of a scientific quest in which physicists and engineers have collaborated closely over many years. Inspired by their quest, they have invented a whole range of technologies that are already enlivening other branches of science and engineering. Launched April 20, 2004 , the GP-B program was managed for NASA by the Marshall Space Flight Center. Development of the GP-B is the responsibility of Stanford University along with major subcontractor Lockheed Martin Corporation. (Image credit to Russ Underwood, Lockheed Martin Corporation).

2004-01-01

244

Dynamic Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Dynamic Earth consists of four sections and an assessment. Each section explores one aspect of the earth's structure and the movement of its tectonic plates. Simply follow the instructions on the screen to learn about the layers that make up the earth; how the continents arrived at their current locations; the constant movement of the tectonic plates; and the volcanoes, earthquakes, and other events that result from the movements of the plates. Students will view animations, read explanations, and use their mouse to drag and drop the earth's continents in their correct places, highlight features on a map, and cause earth's tectonic plates to move. At various points, students will check their knowledge by taking a quick quiz or playing a game to see how much they have learned about the Dynamic Earth. Students should read section introductions carefully, as they give a basic overview of concepts, and use the Glossary to look up definitions to unfamiliar terms.

Ashlinn Quinn

2007-01-01

245

Celebrate Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Earth is truly something to celebrate! Click on the links below and have some fun! Click on the link to send you to a fun website created just for kids like you! Now go celebrate the earth! Kids for Saving Earth Enjoy these other activities as well! Go recycling! A is for Air Discover what all of the letters of the alphabet can stand for! video Get on ...

Mrs. Rokes

2009-04-23

246

Earth Force  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"Earth Force engages young people as active citizens who improve the environment and their communities now and in the future." Educators can learn about Earth Force's three programs: Community Action and Problem solving (CAPS), the Global Rivers Environmental Education Network (GREEN), and Earth Force After School. Users can discover students' many accomplishments such as creating reusable fabric grocery bags, recycling cell phones and ink cartridges to earn money, and cleaning up litter. The Tools for Teachers section offers evaluation results, a quality rubric, and a description of the six-step Earth Force community action and problem-solving process.

247

TOMS total ozone data compared with northern latitude Dobson ground stations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ozone measurements from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer on the Nimbus 7 satellite are compared with ground-based measurements from five Dobson stations at northern latitudes to evaluate the accuracy of the TOMS data, particularly in regions north of 50 deg N. The measurements from the individual stations show mean differences from -2.5 percent up to plus 8.3 percent relative to TOMS measurements and two of the ground stations, Oslo and Longyearbyen, show a significant drift of plus 1.2 percent and plus 3.7 percent per year, respectively. It can be shown from nearly simultaneous measurements in two different wavelength double pairs at Oslo that at least 2 percent of the differences result from the use of the CC' wavelength double pair instead of the standard AD wavelength double pair. Since all Norwegian stations used the CC' wavelength double pair exclusively a similar error can be assumed for Tromso and Longyearbyren. A comparison between the tropospheric ozone content in TOMS data and from ECC ozonesonde measurements at Ny-Alesund and Bear Island shows that the amount of tropospheric ozone in the standard profiles used in the TOMS algorithm is too low, which leads to an error of about 2 percent in total ozone. Particularly at high solar zenith angles (greater than 80 deg), Dobson measurements become unreliable. They are up to 20 percent lower than TOMS measurements averaged over solar zenith angles of 88 deg to 89 deg.

Heese, B.; Barthel, K.; Hov, O.

1994-01-01

248

TOM40 Mediates Mitochondrial Dysfunction Induced by ?-Synuclein Accumulation in Parkinson’s Disease  

PubMed Central

Alpha-synuclein (?-Syn) accumulation/aggregation and mitochondrial dysfunction play prominent roles in the pathology of Parkinson’s disease. We have previously shown that postmortem human dopaminergic neurons from PD brains accumulate high levels of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) deletions. We now addressed the question, whether alterations in a component of the mitochondrial import machinery -TOM40- might contribute to the mitochondrial dysfunction and damage in PD. For this purpose, we studied levels of TOM40, mtDNA deletions, oxidative damage, energy production, and complexes of the respiratory chain in brain homogenates as well as in single neurons, using laser-capture-microdissection in transgenic mice overexpressing human wildtype ?-Syn. Additionally, we used lentivirus-mediated stereotactic delivery of a component of this import machinery into mouse brain as a novel therapeutic strategy. We report here that TOM40 is significantly reduced in the brain of PD patients and in ?-Syn transgenic mice. TOM40 deficits were associated with increased mtDNA deletions and oxidative DNA damage, and with decreased energy production and altered levels of complex I proteins in ?-Syn transgenic mice. Lentiviral-mediated overexpression of Tom40 in ?-Syn-transgenic mice brains ameliorated energy deficits as well as oxidative burden. Our results suggest that alterations in the mitochondrial protein transport machinery might contribute to mitochondrial impairment in ?-Synucleinopathies. PMID:23626796

Rockenstein, Edward; Adame, Anthony; Elstner, Matthias; Laub, Christoph; Mueller, Sarina; Koob, Andrew O.; Mante, Michael; Pham, Emily; Klopstock, Thomas; Masliah, Eliezer

2013-01-01

249

Optical probe  

DOEpatents

A compact optical probe is disclosed particularly useful for analysis of emissions in industrial environments. The instant invention provides a geometry for optically-based measurements that allows all optical components (source, detector, rely optics, etc.) to be located in proximity to one another. The geometry of the probe disclosed herein provides a means for making optical measurements in environments where it is difficult and/or expensive to gain access to the vicinity of a flow stream to be measured. Significantly, the lens geometry of the optical probe allows the analysis location within a flow stream being monitored to be moved while maintaining optical alignment of all components even when the optical probe is focused on a plurality of different analysis points within the flow stream.

Hencken, Kenneth (Pleasanton, CA); Flower, William L. (Livermore, CA)

1999-01-01

250

Earth Day  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

On April 22, 2005, people around the world will celebrate the 35th anniversary of Earth Day. This Topic in Depth focuses on the past and present of this significant day. From the Wisconsin Historical Society, the first two sites contain historical documents pertaining to Earth Day. The first (1) document features a May 1970 issue of The Gaylord Nelson Newsletter reporting on the first Earth Day. The second (2) document is a speech by Nelson entitled "An Environmental Agenda for the 70's." Housed in the archives of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) website, the next two sites also contain historical documents. The first (3) site contains an article written by Nelson for the EPA Journal in April of 1980, entitled "Earth Day '70: What It Meant." The second (4) site contains an article written by John C. Whitaker (former Interior undersecretary in the Nixon administration) for the EPA Journal in the summer of 1998. The article is entitled "Earth Day Recollections: What It Was Like When the Movement Took Off." The (5) Earth Day Network (first mentioned in the April 4, 2003, Scout Report for Life Sciences) works "to broaden the environmental movement worldwide and to educate and mobilize people, governments, and corporations to take responsibility for a clean and healthy environment." In addition to information sections about Ongoing Programs, Current Campaigns, and News, the Earth Day Network website contains Earth Day 2005 Materials for organizers. From EarthDay.gov, Take Action In Your Classroom (6) offers links to a variety of environmental education resources. The next website, from the U.S. Army Environmental Center, presents (7) Army Earth Day; and links to information about the Army's environmental activities. The final (8) site is an Earth Day-inspired educational website (first reported on in the April 14, 1999 Scout Report for Science & Engineering) from the Wilderness Society. The site offers a collection of environmental education resources for teachers and students. [NL

251

The Sounds of Earth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Flying board Voyagers 1 and 2 are identical 'golden' records, carrying the story of Earth far into deep space. The 12 inch gold-plated copper discs contain greetings in 60 languages, samples of music from different cultures and eras, and natural and man-made sounds from Earth. They also contain electronic information that an advanced technological civilization could convert into diagrams and photographs. The cover of each gold plated aluminum jacket, designed to protect the record from micrometeorite bombardment, also serves a double purpose in providing the finder a key to playing the record. The explanatory diagram appears on both the inner and outer surfaces of the cover, as the outer diagram will be eroded in time. Currently, both Voyager probes are sailing adrift in the black sea of interplanetary space, having left our solar system years ago.

1977-01-01

252

Earth tides  

SciTech Connect

Nineteen papers on gravity, tilt, and strain tides are compiled into this volume. Detailed chapters cover the calculation of the tidal forces and of the Earth's response to them, as well as actual observations of earth tides. Partial Contents: On Earth tides. The tidal forces: Tidal Forces. New Computations of the Tide-Generating Potential. Corrected Tables of Tidal Harmonics. The Theory of Tidal Deformations. Body Tides on an Elliptical, Rotating, Elastic and Oceanless Earth, Deformation of the Earth by Surface Loads. Gravimetric Tidal Loading Computed from Integrated Green's Functions. Tidal Friction in the Solid Earth. Loading Tides Versus Body Tides. Lunar Tidal Acceleration from Earth Satellite Orbit Analysis. Observations: gravity. Tidal Gravity in Britain: Tidal Loading and the Spatial Distribution of the Marine Tide. Tidal Loading along a Profile Europe-East Africa-South Asia-Australia and the Pacific Ocean. Detailed Gravity-Tide Spectrum between One and Four Cycles per Day. Observations: tilt and strain. Cavity and Topographic Effects in Tilt and Strain Measurement. Observations of Local Elastic Effects on Earth Tide Tilts and Strains.

Harrison, J.C.

1984-01-01

253

Earth Impact  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity poses the question: What would happen if a meteor or comet impacted Earth? Students simulate an impact in a container of sand using various-sized rocks, all while measuring, recording and graphing results and conclusions. Then students brainstorm ways to prevent an object from hitting the Earth.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

254

Earth meandering  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we try to put away current Global Tectonic Model to look the tectonic evolution of the earth from new point of view. Our new dynamic model is based on study of river meandering (RM) which infer new concept as Earth meandering(EM). In a universal gravitational field if we consider a clockwise spiral galaxy model rotate above Ninety

H. Asadiyan; A. Zamani

2009-01-01

255

The Application of TOMS Ozone, Aerosol and UV-B Data to Madagascar Air Quality Determination  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) data products for the area of Madagascar are presented. In addition to total ozone, aerosols and UV-B tropospheric ozone results are shown from 1979 to the present. Tropospheric ozone over Africa and Madagascar is enhanced by 10 to 15 DU in October. This maximum coincides with the time of maximum biomass area burning in Africa and Madagascar. Ozone observations were made from 1979 to 1999 using the TOMS tropospheric ozone convective cloud differential method. As a result of easterly trade winds, ozone originating on Madagascar is transported to the west over the Mozambique Channel. In El Nino years higher level westerly winds descend to transport low level ozone easterly. This results in African continental ozone being transported east of Madagascar. Long range transport of African ozone is observed during El Nino periods. The potential of TOMS and other space data for use in public education and research on Madagascar air quality is demonstrated.

Aikin, A.C.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

256

The effect of toe trimming on production characteristics of heavy turkey toms.  

PubMed

Trimming the 3 anterior toes on both feet at day of hatch to remove the claws, reduce bird scratching, and improve carcass grades is a common practice in the turkey industry. Changes in the method of trimming and the growth potential of turkeys since the majority of research on this topic was completed motivated this study with the objective of establishing the effects of microwave toe treatment on production characteristics of tom turkeys. Turkey toms (306 in total) were either toe trimmed at the hatchery using a microwave claw processor (T) or were sham treated only (NT). Poults were randomly assigned to 1 of 9 replicate pens for each treatment. Average BW, feed consumption, and feed efficiency were determined from BW and feed intake measured by pen on d 0, 7, 21, 42, 56, 70, 91, 126, and 140. On d 140, toms were sent to a commercial processing facility where 5 carcasses from each pen were examined for scratching and other externally visible damage. Average BW was higher for NT toms on d 91, 126, and 140, with final weights of 21.70 and 21.15 kg for NT and T birds, respectively. The T birds had lower feed consumption than their NT counterparts during the first and last week of production, but feed efficiency was unaffected. Carcass scratching (T, 13.33% of carcasses scratched vs. NT, 15.56%) and other carcass damages were not affected by treatment. Although overall mortality was not affected by treatment, the incidence of mortality due to skeletal causes, especially rotated tibia, was increased in T toms. Negative effects on performance and no effect on carcass quality suggest that toe trimming may not be required or recommended for heavy tom turkeys. PMID:25002552

Fournier, J; Schwean-Lardner, K; Knezacek, T D; Gomis, S; Classen, H L

2014-09-01

257

Study of Air Pollution from Space Using TOMS: Challenges and Promises for Future Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A series of TOMS instruments built by NASA has flown on US, Russian, and Japanese satellites in the last 24 years. These instruments are well known for producing spectacular maps of the ozone hole that forms over Antarctica each spring. However, it is less well known that these instruments also provided first evidence that space-based measurements in UV of sufficiently high precision and accuracy can provide valuable information to study global air quality. We will use the TOMS experience to highlight the promises and challenges of future space-based missions designed specifically for air quality studies.

Bhartia, Pawan K.

2002-01-01

258

Optimization of TOMS wavelength channels for ozone and sulfur dioxide retrievals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The wavelengths of the TOMS channels can be optimized to minimize the effects of random measurement errors on simultaneous ozone and sulfur dioxide retrievals. The inversion matrix is extremely sensitive to the spectral position of the channels due to mathematical singularities related to O3 and SO2 absorption coefficients. None of the current sets of wavelengths in the TOMS instruments are optimal for the low latitude retrievals considered. Minor adjustment of the wavelengths can reduce retrieval errors by more than a factor of two.

Gurevich, G. S.; Krueger, Arlin J.

1997-09-01

259

Training Preschoolers on First-Order False Belief Understanding: Transfer on Advanced ToM Skills and Metamemory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the relation between theory of mind (ToM) and metamemory knowledge using a training methodology. Sixty-two 4- to 5-year-old children were recruited and randomly assigned to one of two training conditions: A first-order false belief (ToM) and a control condition. Intervention and control groups were equivalent at pretest for…

Lecce, Serena; Bianco, Federica; Demicheli, Patrizia; Cavallini, Elena

2014-01-01

260

Mach probes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Mach probe (MP) is an electric probe system to deduce the plasma flow velocity from the ratio of ion saturation currents. Generally, a typical MP is composed of two directional electric probes located at opposite sides of an insulator, which is mostly used as a parallel MP, but there are other MPs such as perpendicular MP (PMP), Gundestrup probe (GP) or rotating probe (RP), and visco-MP (VMP), depending on the shape of the probe holder, location of different probes or the method of collecting ions. For the parallel MP (to be called simply an MP), the relation between the ratio of the upstream ion saturation current density (Jup) to the downstream (Jdn) and the normalized drift velocity (M_\\infty=v_d/\\sqrt{T_e/m_i}) of the plasma has generally been fitted into an exponential form (R = Jup/Jdn ? exp[KM?]). For the GP or RP, with oblique ion collection, the relation becomes R = exp[K(M? - M??cot??)], where K ? 2.3-2.5, M? = M?, M? is the normalized perpendicular flow to the magnetic field, and ? is the angle between the magnetic field and the probe surface. The normalized drift velocity of flowing plasmas is deduced from the ratio (Rm) measured by an MP as M? = ln[Rm]/K, where K is a calibration factor depending on the magnetic flux density, collisionality of charged particles and neutrals, viscosity of plasmas, ion temperature, etc. Existing theories of MPs in unmagnetized and magnetized flowing plasmas are introduced in terms of kinetic, fluid and particle-in-cell models or self-consistent and self-similar methods along with key physics and comments. Experimental evidence of relevant models is shown along with validity of related theories. Calibration and error analysis are also given. For probes other than the typical parallel MP, the relation between the ratio of ion saturation currents and M? can be expressed as a combination of the functional forms: exponential and/or polynomial form of M? for PMP; two Rs of two separate MPs for VMP. Collisions of ions/electrons/neutrals, asymmetries of ion temperatures and the existence of hyperthermal electrons, existence of ion beam, supersonic flow and negative ions can affect the deduction of flow velocities by an MP.

Chung, Kyu-Sun

2012-12-01

261

Planet Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How does the Earth work? What is its relationship to the other planets? These are but a few important questions answered by this creative instructional series created by WQED in Pittsburgh, in association with the National Academy of Sciences. The series was designed to present information about "our solar system and Earth's oceans, climate, and mineral and energy sources." The Annenberg Media group has placed this entire series online, and visitors can view all seven installments here. The programs include "The Climate Puzzle", "Gifts from the Earth", and "The Solar Sea". Teachers will note that the site also contains links to other educational resources, reviews, and related resources from the Annenberg Media organization.

1986-01-01

262

Earth's Surface  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This self-contained module on Earth's crust includes a range of fun activities that students can perform in the classroom and at home with family members. They impart important concepts such as observation, identification, measurement, and differentiation.

Houghton Mifflin Science

263

Earth Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This self-contained module on Earth systems includes a range of fun activities that students can perform in the classroom and at home with family members. They impart important concepts such as observation, identification, measurement, and differentiation.

Houghton Mifflin Science

264

Discover Earth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Discover Earth is a NASA-funded project for teachers of grades 5-12 who want to expand their knowledge of the Earth system, and prepare to become master teachers who promote Earth system science in their own schools, counties, and throughout their state. Participants from the following states are invited to apply: Connecticut, Delaware, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont, and Washington, DC. Teachers selected for the project participate in a two-week summer workshop conducted at the University of Maryland, College Park; develop classroom-ready materials during the workshop for broad dissemination; conduct a minimum of two peer training activities during the coming school year; and participate in other enrichment/education opportunities as available and desired. Discover Earth is a team effort that utilizes expertise from a range of contributors, and balances science content with hands-on classroom applications.

1997-01-01

265

Earth Day  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The State University of New York at Buffalo presents this History of Earth Day website. The goal of the site is that teachers and students can better understand the development and purpose of Earth Day. In addition to the history, SUNY-Buffalo has compiled a series of websites complete with projects associated with Earth Day, appropriate for children, high school students, and college undergrads. Furthermore, the legal aspect of Earth Day - environmental legislation, EPA standards, and Global Climate Change legislation - are also discussed on the site. A list of further sites is also provided if users want more information on this national effort to help solve environmental issues such as pollution, overpopulation, and global warming. Teachers will find this website both informative and helpful in developing appropriate teaching curricula connected to this holiday, while students can have fun learning and creating projects of their own that contribute to preserving the environment.

2007-04-19

266

Visible Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site provides a searchable collection of NASA Earth science images, animations and data visualizations. Most images are available at multiple resolutions, with a description of the image and metadata. Users can search the database using full text; or with advanced searches by topic, keyword, sensor, geographic region, parameter, and dates. Examples of topics represented in this collection are snow and ice, agriculture, oceans, climate, the atmosphere, human dimensions, land surface, the solid earth and more.

NASA

267

Situ Discovery Electrostatic Potential, Trapping Electrons and Mediating Fast Reconnection Earth's Magnetotail  

E-print Network

Situ Discovery Electrostatic Potential, Trapping Electrons and Mediating Fast Reconnection Earth (60 Earth radii), analyzed. measured probe electrostatic magnetic geometry diffusion region. time, the presence a strong electrostatic potential within ion diffusion region is revealed. potential reaching

Egedal, Jan

268

Comparing Earth to Other Planets  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How do the atmospheres of Mars, Earth, and Venus compare? This activity, part of an interactive laboratory series for grades 8-12, provides students opportunities to collect atmospheric data from Mars and Venus. Students launch animated data-collecting probes and view two sets of data that compare temperature and pressure from Mars and Venus with that of Earth. Colorful plots of the data are available. Using the information from the data tables and plots, students then answer multiple-choice questions to assess their learning.

University of Utah. Astrophysics Science Project Integrating Research and Education (ASPIRE)

2003-01-01

269

Pollution Probe.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book is written as a statement of concern about pollution by members of Pollution Probe, a citizens' anti-pollution group in Canada. Its purpose is to create public awareness and pressure for the eventual solution to pollution problems. The need for effective government policies to control the population explosion, conserve natural resources,…

Chant, Donald A.

270

Moon Probe  

E-print Network

launched something a good deal larger than a potato: Chang 'e 1, a moon probe named for the Chinese goddess of the moon. At a cost of 1.4 billion Yuan--or $175 million dollars--it seems lunacy to spend this sum on this celestial body. What with skies dim...

Hacker, Randi; Tsutsui, William

2007-11-26

271

Gibbs Construction in Steganography Toms Filler, Student Member, IEEE and Jessica Fridrich, Member, IEEE  

E-print Network

1 Gibbs Construction in Steganography Tomás Filler, Student Member, IEEE and Jessica Fridrich, Member, IEEE Abstract--We make a connection between steganography de- sign by minimizing embedding- duces the design of secure steganography in empirical covers to the problem of finding local potentials

Fridrich, Jessica

272

A Middleware for Dependable Distributed Real-Time Systems Tom Bracewell Priya Narasimhan  

E-print Network

system. Real-time operation requires an application to be predictable, to have bounded request processing characteristic of real-time systems. In contrast, fault- tolerant operation requireA Middleware for Dependable Distributed Real-Time Systems Tom Bracewell Priya Narasimhan Raytheon

Narasimhan, Priya

273

Science Foundation, EPA join forces for study of nanotechnology By Tom Katsouleas : Guest columnist  

E-print Network

Science Foundation, EPA join forces for study of nanotechnology By Tom Katsouleas : Guest columnist the environmental impact of nanotechnology. While the research of these centers will be significant, what is more that nanotechnology offers to society -- from curing disease to providing unlimited renewable energy

Ferrari, Silvia

274

A Service Backplane for E-Textile Applications Mark Jones, Tom Martin, and Zahi Nakad  

E-print Network

A Service Backplane for E-Textile Applications Mark Jones, Tom Martin, and Zahi Nakad Electrical processors, microphones, and speakers [cite STRETCH & NC State]. Two broad categories of e-scale acoustic beamforming arrays [STRETCH], self- steering parafoils [Draper], and intelligent, inflatable

275

Pushkar Joshi, Mark Meyer, Tony DeRose, Brian Green, Tom Sanocki, Presented at Siggraph 2007  

E-print Network

Pushkar Joshi, Mark Meyer, Tony DeRose, Brian Green, Tom Sanocki, Presented at Siggraph 2007 #12, follow-through & squash-and-stretch Videos Given an input motion, produce an output motion which the object in direction perpendicular to the stretch or squash #12; Dynamic filter Sigma is modified real

North Carolina at Chapel Hill, University of

276

RNAi Screen in Drosophila Cells Reveals the Involvement of the Tom Complex  

E-print Network

RNAi Screen in Drosophila Cells Reveals the Involvement of the Tom Complex in Chlamydia Infection developmental cycle in Drosophila SL2 cells. Using this model system, we have performed a genome-wide RNA of nuclear-encoded proteins to the mitochondria, as required for C. caviae infection of Drosophila cells

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

277

Software Documents: Comparison and Measurement Tom Arbuckle, Adam Balaban, Dennis K. Peters and Mark Lawford  

E-print Network

Software Documents: Comparison and Measurement Tom Arbuckle, Adam Balaban, Dennis K. Peters Metric of Li, Vit´anyi, and coworkers for the comparison of software documents will lead software, we assume that these stages -- however they are assigned -- are documented. For the purposes

Lawford, Mark

278

Sensor Relocation in Mobile Sensor Networks Guiling Wang, Guohong Cao, Tom La Porta, and Wensheng Zhang  

E-print Network

Sensor Relocation in Mobile Sensor Networks Guiling Wang, Guohong Cao, Tom La Porta, and Wensheng of research on using mobility in sensor networks to assist in the initial deployment of nodes. Mobile sensors nodes such as small size and low cost, sensor networks [10], [13], [15], [17], [1] have become adopted

Zhang, Wensheng

279

Collateral Damage: Veterans and Domestic Violence in Mari Sandoz's "The Tom-Walker"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"The Tom-Walker" combines the best of Sandoz's realism with her worst attempts at moralizing. Unable to divine exactly what political configuration right-wing post-World War II sentiments might take, Sandoz nevertheless feared a fascist uprising in this country. Perhaps because these concerns dominated her thoughts at the time, she allowed her…

Bahr, Kathy

2010-01-01

280

Cryptography as a Network Service Tom Berson Drew Dean Matt Franklin  

E-print Network

Cryptography as a Network Service Tom Berson Drew Dean Matt Franklin Diana Smetters Michael@parc.xerox.com franklin@cs.ucdavis.edu smetters@parc.xerox.com mspreitz@us.ibm.com Abstract Cryptography is a powerful. This is especially true for public key cryptography. Con- ventional wisdom dictates that cryptography must be done

Dean, Drew

281

Arc-Disjoint Paths in Expander Digraphs Tom Bohman and Alan Frieze y  

E-print Network

and Chapter 9.2 of the recent book on digraphs by Bang-Jensen and Gutin [2]. For undirected graphsArc-Disjoint Paths in Expander Digraphs Tom Bohman #3; and Alan Frieze y Department of Mathematical Sciences, Carnegie Mellon University Pittsburgh PA 15213. Abstract Given a digraph D = (V; A) and a set

Bohman, Tom

282

Arc-Disjoint Paths in Expander Digraphs Tom Bohman and Alan Frieze y  

E-print Network

Frank [7] for a survey and Chapter 9.2 of the recent book on digraphs by Bang-Jensen and Gutin [2Arc-Disjoint Paths in Expander Digraphs Tom Bohman #3; and Alan Frieze y Department of Mathematical Sciences, Carnegie Mellon University Pittsburgh PA 15213. Abstract Given a digraph D = (V; A) and a set

Bohman, Tom

283

Indonesia 82 (October 2006) Tom Boellstorff. The Gay Archipelago: Sexuality and Nation in Indonesia.  

E-print Network

Indonesia 82 (October 2006) Tom Boellstorff. The Gay Archipelago: Sexuality and Nation in Indonesia expression and social enactments of nationhood in postcolonial Indonesia often find themselves, implicitly, too, in the anthropological literature on Indonesia an emphasis on difference has always served

Brody, James P.

284

Wake Up, It Is 2013! Commentary on Luiz Amaral and Tom Roeper's Article  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the Multiple Grammars (MG) theory proposed by Luiz Amaral and Tom Roeper in the present issue and presents a critique of the research that went into the theory. Topics discussed include the allegation that the bilinguals and second language learners in the original article are primarily students in an academic setting, Amaral…

Muysken, Pieter

2014-01-01

285

A review of "The Complete Poetry of Robert Herrick" edited by Tom Cain and Ruth Connolly  

E-print Network

and eric rasmussen, university of nevada. A new Oxford edition of the complete poems of Robert Herrick is long overdue and quite welcome. Tom Cain and Ruth Connolly, two of Herrick’s foremost scholarly champions, have produced a handsome and...

Mardock, James; Rasmussen, Eric

2014-01-01

286

Measuring diversity: the importance of species similarity Tom Leinster1,2,  

E-print Network

profile, microbial diversity. 1 Introduction `A mathematical approach does not oblige a biologist#12;Measuring diversity: the importance of species similarity Tom Leinster1,2, Christina A. Cobbold of species, but also the differences between them. We present a natural family of diversity measures taking

Cobbold, Christina

287

Measuring diversity: the importance of species Tom Leinster1,2,  

E-print Network

, species similarity, model, effective number, diversity profile, microbial diversity. 1 Introduction `AMeasuring diversity: the importance of species similarity Tom Leinster1,2, Christina A. Cobbold1 family of diversity measures taking both factors into account. This is not just another addition

288

HTML Web Page That Shows Its Own Source Code Tom Verhoeff  

E-print Network

an infinite regress. We decided to use JavaScript [2]. 2. A web page conforming to the HTML 4.01 StrictHTML Web Page That Shows Its Own Source Code Tom Verhoeff November 2009 1 Introduction A well Web with quines in mind, a natural question is whether one can design a web page that shows its own

Verhoeff, Tom

289

A single-frame visual gyroscope Georg Klein and Tom Drummond  

E-print Network

A single-frame visual gyroscope Georg Klein and Tom Drummond {gswk2|twd20}@eng.cam.ac.uk Department employ additional sensors to provide robustness to rapid #12;rotations. Rate gyroscopes, which provide-based alternative to the use of rate gyroscopes. We describe a novel algorithm which can compute rotational velocity

Drummond, Tom

290

PERFECT NUMBERS AND FINITE GROUPS TOM DE MEDTS AND ATTILA MAROTI  

E-print Network

PERFECT NUMBERS AND FINITE GROUPS TOM DE MEDTS AND ATTILA MAR´OTI Abstract. A number is perfect MEDTS AND ATTILA MAR ´OTI Second, it seems that expressing that the sum D(G) of the orders of the normal

Maróti, Attila

291

Brownian Ratchets Driven by Asymmetric Nucleation of Hydrolysis Waves Amit Lakhanpal and Tom Chou  

E-print Network

Brownian Ratchets Driven by Asymmetric Nucleation of Hydrolysis Waves Amit Lakhanpal and Tom Chou that asymmetric nucleation of hydrolysis waves on a track can also result in directed motion of an attached, myosins, helicases, and polymerases convert part of the free energy of, e.g., ATP hydrolysis

Chou, Tom

292

Sensitivity of TOMS aerosol index to boundary layer height: Implications for detection of mineral aerosol sources  

E-print Network

Sensitivity of TOMS aerosol index to boundary layer height: Implications for detection of mineral) is proposed as a powerful tool in determining the sources of mineral aerosols. The sensitivity of the AI to the height of the aerosol layer has been noted previously, but the implications of this sensitivity

Mahowald, Natalie

293

Commentary to "Multiple Grammars and Second Language Representation," by Luiz Amaral and Tom Roeper  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this commentary, the author defends the Multiple Grammars (MG) theory proposed by Luiz Amaral and Tom Roepe (A&R) in the present issue. Topics discussed include second language acquisition, the concept of developmental optionality, and the idea that structural decisions involve the lexical dimension. The author states that A&R's…

Pérez-Leroux, Ana T.

2014-01-01

294

74 Scientific American, April 2011 Illustration by Tom Whalen Earthquake early-warning networks  

E-print Network

74 Scientific American, April 2011 Illustration by Tom Whalen SEISMOLOGY Earthquake early. The alerts can pro- vide tens of seconds of warning time. Most systems rely on the fact that an earthquake earthquake early- warning system that could be extended to all of California. April 2011, Scientific

Allen, Richard M.

295

Searching the Web Using Screenshots Tom Yeh, Brandyn White, Larry Davis  

E-print Network

more useful results than keyword-based web and im- age search engines. Categories and Subject and wishes to find out how to change the IP address. To use a search engine, this user may first type "changeSearching the Web Using Screenshots Tom Yeh, Brandyn White, Larry Davis University of Maryland

Golbeck, Jennifer

296

Optical effects of polar stratospheric clouds on the retrieval of TOMS total ozone  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Small areas of sharply reduced ozone density appear frequently in the maps produced from polar region total ozone mapping spectrometer (TOMS) data. These mini-holes are of the order of 1000 km in extent with a lifetime of a few days. On the basis of measurements from ground-based instruments, balloon-borne ozonesondes, and simultaneous measurements of aerosol and ozone concentrations during aircraft flights in the Arctic and Antarctic regions, the appearance of polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) are frequently associated with false reductions in ozone derived from the TOMS albedo data. By combining radiative transfer calculations with the observed PSC and ozone data, it is shown that PSCs located near or above the ozone density maximum (with optical thickness greater than 0.1) can explain most of the differences between TOMS ozone data and ground or in situ ozone measurements. Several examples of real and false TOMS mini-hole phenomenon are investigated using data from the 1989 Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition (AASE) and from balloon flights over Norway and Sweden.

Torres, O.; Ahmad, Z.; Herman, J. R.

1992-01-01

297

TomAS Tomographic Algorithms and Ultrasound Simulation D. Zerfowski a  

E-print Network

tool to simulate medical imaging techniques such as computer tomog- raphy (CT) and ultrasound (USTomAS ­ Tomographic Algorithms and Ultrasound Simulation D. Zerfowski a , T. Rohlfing a , U. Mende) imaging. The main goal of TomAS is to support the development and evaluation of algorithms in medical

Zerfowski, Detlef

298

Tom Glavich, Robert O. Green, Simon J. Hook, Betsy Middleton Francois Rogez, Stephen Ungar  

E-print Network

Tom Glavich, Robert O. Green, Simon J. Hook, Betsy Middleton Francois Rogez, Stephen Ungar Presented by Robert O. Green February 11-12, 2009 NASA Headquarters #12;Visible ShortWave InfraRed (VSWIR. Green, S. Hook, E. Middleton, S. Ungar 31 member scientists Science oversights, Mission Dev. and Sci

Christian, Eric

299

Example: tom bosley Key Finding: Including temporal information in snippets is valuable for trending queries.  

E-print Network

Search Snippets Krysta M. Svore Microsoft Research ksvore@microsoft.com Jaime Teevan Microsoft Research teevan@microsoft.com Susan T. Dumais Microsoft Research sdumais@microsoft.com Anagha Kulkarni Carnegie lung cancer. www.answers.com/topic/tom-bosley Temporal Snippet (with new content) http://research.microsoft

Dumais, Susan

300

The Future of the Digital Library: An Interview with Tom Peters  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents an interview with Tom Peters, an academic librarian and founder of TAP Information Services, a firm that provides consulting services to libraries and other organizations in the information industry. Peters also serves as a consultant to LibraryCity, an ambitious project that seeks to make thousands of e-books in easy-to-use…

Morrison, James L.; Peters, Tom

2005-01-01

301

The Toms Canyon structure, New Jersey outer continental shelf: A possible late Eocene impact crater  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Toms Canyon structure [~20-22 km wide] is located on the New Jersey outer continental shelf beneath 80-100 m of water, and is buried by ~1 km of upper Eocene to Holocene sedimentary strata. The structure displays several characteristics typical of terrestrial impact craters (flat floor; upraised faulted rim: brecciated sedimentary fill), but several other characteristics are atypical (an unusually thin ejecta blanket; lack of an inner basin, peak ring, or central peak; bearing nearly completely filled with breccia). Seismostratigraphic and biostratigraphic analyses show that the structure formed during planktonic foraminiferal biochron P15 of the early to middle late Eocene. The fill unit is stratigraphically correlating with impact ejecta cored nearby at Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) Site 612 and at Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Sites 903 and 904 (22-35 km southeast of the Toms Canyon structure). The Toms Canyon fill unit also correlates with the Exmore breccia, which fills the much larger Chesapeake Bay impact crater (90-km diameter; 335 km to the southwest). On the basis of our analyses, we postulate that the Toms Canyon structure is an impact crater, formed when a cluster of relatively small meteorites approached the target site bearing ~N 50 E, and struck the sea floor obliquely.

Poag, C.W.; Poppe, L.J.

1998-01-01

302

ELECTRONIC TEXTILES FOR IN SITU BIOMECHANICAL MEASUREMENTS Tom Martin*, Thurmon Lockhart, Mark Jones, and Josh Edmison  

E-print Network

ELECTRONIC TEXTILES FOR IN SITU BIOMECHANICAL MEASUREMENTS Tom Martin*, Thurmon Lockhart, Mark systems. E-textiles, fabrics that have the interconnections and electronics woven in, offer This paper describes the benefits of and issues in designing and building an integrated, body-worn electronic

303

Crowdsourcing Semantics for Big Data in Geoscience Applications Tom Narock1  

E-print Network

Crowdsourcing Semantics for Big Data in Geoscience Applications Tom Narock1 and Pascal Hitzler 1 the potential to overcome some of the issues currently surrounding Big Data. Semantic technologies, and complexity of data sources ­ the very definition of Big Data. Yet, for some tasks, semantic algorithms do

Hitzler, Pascal

304

Topics in Algebra: Theory and Applications of Local Cohomology Instructor: Tom Marley  

E-print Network

Math 918 Topics in Algebra: Theory and Applications of Local Cohomology Fall 2014 Instructor: Tom the local duality theorem. The second half of the course will focus on special topics and applications of local co- homology. Possible topics include cohomological dimension, big Cohen-Macaulay alge- bras

Marley, Tom

305

Earth: Earth Science and Health  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A major new NASA initiative on environmental change and health has been established to promote the application of Earth science remote sensing data, information, observations, and technologies to issues of human health. NASA's Earth Sciences suite of Earth observing instruments are now providing improved observations science, data, and advanced technologies about the Earth's land, atmosphere, and oceans. These new space-based resources are being combined with other agency and university resources, data integration and fusion technologies, geographic information systems (GIS), and the spectrum of tools available from the public health community, making it possible to better understand how the environment and climate are linked to specific diseases, to improve outbreak prediction, and to minimize disease risk. This presentation is an overview of NASA's tools, capabilities, and research advances in this initiative.

Maynard, Nancy G.

2001-01-01

306

Gravity Probe B Assembled  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this photo, the Gravity Probe B (GP-B) space vehicle is being assembled at the Sunnyvale, California location of the Lockheed Martin Corporation. The GP-B is the relativity experiment developed at Stanford University to test two extraordinary predictions of Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity. The experiment will measure, very precisely, the expected tiny changes in the direction of the spin axes of four gyroscopes contained in an Earth-orbiting satellite at a 400-mile altitude. So free are the gyroscopes from disturbance that they will provide an almost perfect space-time reference system. They will measure how space and time are very slightly warped by the presence of the Earth, and, more profoundly, how the Earth's rotation very slightly drags space-time around with it. These effects, though small for the Earth, have far-reaching implications for the nature of matter and the structure of the Universe. GP-B is among the most thoroughly researched programs ever undertaken by NASA. This is the story of a scientific quest in which physicists and engineers have collaborated closely over many years. Inspired by their quest, they have invented a whole range of technologies that are already enlivening other branches of science and engineering. Launched April 20, 2004 , the GP-B program was managed for NASA by the Marshall Space Flight Center. Development of the GP-B is the responsibility of Stanford University along with major subcontractor Lockheed Martin Corporation. (Image credit to Russ Underwood, Lockheed Martin Corporation).

2000-01-01

307

Determination of Radiative Forcing of Saharan Dust using Combined TOMS and ERBE Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The direct radiative forcing of Saharan dust aerosols has been determined by combining aerosol information derived from Nimbus-7 TOMS with radiation measurements observed at the top of atmosphere (TOA) by NOAA-9 ERBE made during February-July 1985. Cloud parameters and precipitable water derived from the NOAA-9 HIRS2 instrument were used to aid in screening for clouds and water vapor in the analyses. Our results indicate that under "cloud-free" and "dry" conditions there is a good correlation between the ERBE TOA outgoing longwave fluxes and the TOMS aerosol index measurements over both land and ocean in areas under the influence of airborne Saharan dust. The ERBE TOA outgoing shortwave fluxes were also found to correlate well with the dust loading derived from TOMS over ocean. However, the calculated shortwave forcing of Saharan dust aerosols is very weak and noisy over land for the range of solar zenith angle viewed by the NOAA-9 ERBE in 1985. Sensitivity factors of the TOA outgoing fluxes to changes in aerosol index were estimated using a linear regression fit to the ERBE and TOMS measurements. The ratio of the shortwave-to-longwave response to changes in dust loading over the ocean is found to be roughly 2 to 3, but opposite in sign. The monthly averaged "clear-sky" TOA direct forcing of airborne Saharan dust was also calculated by multiplying these sensitivity factors by the TOMS monthly averaged "clear-sky" aerosol index. Both the observational and theoretical analyses indicate that the dust layer height, ambient moisture content as well as the presence of cloud all play an important role in determining the TOA direct radiative forcing due to mineral aerosols.

Hsu, N. Christina; Herman, Jay R.; Weaver, Clark

1999-01-01

308

The Radiation Belt Storm Probes - Duration: 3:26.  

NASA Video Gallery

The Radiation Belt Storm Probe mission (RBSP) will explore the Van Allen Radiation Belts in the Earth's magnetosphere. The charge particles in these regions can be hazardous to both spacecraft and ...

309

Comparison of Landsat-7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) and Earth Observing One (EO-1) Advanced Land Imager  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We compare images from the Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) sensor on Landsat-7 and the Advanced Land Imager (ALI) instrument on Earth Observing One (EO-1) over a test site in Rochester, New York. The site contains a variety of features, ranging from water of varying depths, deciduous/coniferous forest, and grass fields, to urban areas. Nearly coincident cloud-free images were collected one minute apart on 25 August 2001. We also compare images of a forest site near Howland, Maine, that were collected on 7 September, 2001. We atmospherically corrected each pair of images with the Second Simulation of the Satellite Signal in the Solar Spectrum (6S) atmosphere model, using aerosol optical thickness and water vapor column density measured by in situ Cimel sun photometers within the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET), along with ozone density derived from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) on the Earth Probe satellite. We present true-color composites from each instrument that show excellent qualitative agreement between the multispectral sensors, along with grey-scale images that demonstrate a significantly improved ALI panchromatic band. We quantitatively compare ALI and ETM+ reflectance spectra of a grassy field in Rochester and find < or equal to 6% differences in the visible/near infrared and approx. 2% differences in the short wave infrared. Spectral comparisons of forest sites in Rochester and Howland yield similar percentage agreement except for band 1, which has very low reflectance. Principal component analyses and comparison of normalized difference vegetation index histograms for each sensor indicate that the ALI is able to reproduce the information content in the ETM+ but with superior signal-to-noise performance due to its increased 12-bit quantization.

Pedelty, Jeffrey A.; Morisette, Jeffrey T.; Smith, James A.

2004-01-01

310

Savage Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Savage Earth website is the on-line companion to the PBS television series of the same name. This site tells the stories of several great natural disasters, particularly the eruption of Mt. Vesuvius in 79 A.D. that destroyed Pompeii and the 1994 earthquake in Kobe, Japan. It contains articles on the earth's crust and plate tectonics, earthquakes, volcanoes, and tsunamis. Each article features photographs, animated drawings, and video clips. For example, the earthquakes article includes animations of types of faults and three different kinds of seismic waves. There is also a question and answer section and links to related sites about geology and natural hazards.

2002-04-24

311

Digital Earth - A sustainable Earth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

All life, particularly human, cannot be sustainable, unless complimented with shelter, poverty reduction, provision of basic infrastructure and services, equal opportunities and social justice. Yet, in the context of cities, it is believed that they can accommodate more and more people, endlessly, regardless to their carrying capacity and increasing ecological footprint. The 'inclusion', for bringing more and more people in the purview of development is often limited to social and economic inclusion rather than spatial and ecological inclusion. Economic investment decisions are also not always supported with spatial planning decisions. Most planning for a sustainable Earth, be at a level of rural settlement, city, region, national or Global, fail on the capacity and capability fronts. In India, for example, out of some 8,000 towns and cities, Master Plans exist for only about 1,800. A chapter on sustainability or environment is neither statutorily compulsory nor a norm for these Master Plans. Geospatial technologies including Remote Sensing, GIS, Indian National Spatial Data Infrastructure (NSDI), Indian National Urban Information Systems (NUIS), Indian Environmental Information System (ENVIS), and Indian National GIS (NGIS), etc. have potential to map, analyse, visualize and take sustainable developmental decisions based on participatory social, economic and social inclusion. Sustainable Earth, at all scales, is a logical and natural outcome of a digitally mapped, conceived and planned Earth. Digital Earth, in fact, itself offers a platform to dovetail the ecological, social and economic considerations in transforming it into a sustainable Earth.

Mahavir

2014-02-01

312

Scorched Earth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For the past three years, leading scientists from more than 40 countries have been conducting a physical of the planet. They have monitored its vital signs, probed its parts, taken its temperature, measured its bodily fluids. This article deals with the global-warming report for the United Nations released by a panel of 1,200 scientists at a news…

Monastersky, Richard

2007-01-01

313

The early Earth Observing System reference handbook: Earth Science and Applications Division missions, 1990-1997  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Prior to the launch of the Earth Observing System (EOS) series, NASA will launch and operate a wide variety of new earth science satellites and instruments, as well as undertake several efforts collecting and using the data from existing and planned satellites from other agencies and nations. These initiatives will augment the knowledge base gained from ongoing Earth Science and Applications Division (ESAD) programs. This volume describes three sets of ESAD activities -- ongoing exploitation of operational satellite data, research missions with upcoming launches between now and the first launch of EOS, and candidate earth probes.

1990-01-01

314

Earth's Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource provides an overview of the distribution and occurence of water on Earth. Topics include where and how much water there is, the water cycle, and how water is measured. There is also discussion of characteristics and distribution of surface water, groundwater, glaciers, and icecaps.

315

Earth Structures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web guide explores several natural phenomena that are constantly changing the face of the Earth. These geologic forces not only impact the physical features of our planet but ultimately affect the biosphere in a dramatic way. Historically, the changes have ranged from gradual (such as with the process of mountain building) to the spontaneous (such as with seismic events).

National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

2005-04-01

316

Earth Movers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson explores plate tectonics and helps students understand how mountains, earthquakes, and volcanoes are related to the movements of plates. Students will learn about the idea of continental drift and the theory of plate tectonics to ascertain a fuller picture of how land formations on the surface of the Earth are shaped by plates moving below the surface.

317

Visible Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web site provides a searchable directory of NASA Earth science images, animations and data visualizations. Most resources are available digitally at multiple resolutions, with captions and metadata. Users can search the database using full text and advanced searches by topic, keyword, sensor, location, parameter, and dates.

2001-01-01

318

Interpretation of TOMS Observations of Tropical Tropospheric Ozone with a Global Model and In Situ Observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We interpret the distribution of tropical tropospheric ozone columns (TTOCs) from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) by using a global three-dimensional model of tropospheric chemistry (GEOS-CHEM) and additional information from in situ observations. The GEOS-CHEM TTOCs capture 44% of the variance of monthly mean TOMS TTOCs from the convective cloud differential method (CCD) with no global bias. Major discrepancies are found over northern Africa and south Asia where the TOMS TTOCs do not capture the seasonal enhancements from biomass burning found in the model and in aircraft observations. A characteristic feature of these northern topical enhancements, in contrast to southern tropical enhancements, is that they are driven by the lower troposphere where the sensitivity of TOMS is poor due to Rayleigh scattering. We develop an efficiency correction to the TOMS retrieval algorithm that accounts for the variability of ozone in the lower troposphere. This efficiency correction increases TTOC's over biomass burning regions by 3-5 Dobson units (DU) and decreases them by 2-5 DU over oceanic regions, improving the agreement between CCD TTOCs and in situ observations. Applying the correction to CCD TTOCs reduces by approximately DU the magnitude of the "tropical Atlantic paradox" [Thompson et al, 2000], i.e. the presence of a TTOC enhancement over the southern tropical Atlantic during the northern African biomass burning season in December-February. We reproduce the remainder of the paradox in the model and explain it by the combination of upper tropospheric ozone production from lightning NOx, peristent subsidence over the southern tropical Atlantic as part of the Walker circulation, and cross-equatorial transport of upper tropospheric ozone from northern midlatitudes in the African "westerly duct." These processes in the model can also account for the observed 13-17 DU persistent wave-1 pattern in TTOCs with a maximum above the tropical Atlantic and a minimum over the tropical Pacific during all seasons. The photochemical effects of mineral dust have only a minor role on the modeled distribution of TTOCs, including over northern Africa, due to multiple competing effects. The photochemical effects of mineral dust globally decease annual mean OH concentrations by 9%. A global lightning NOx source of 6 Tg N yr(sup -1) in the model produces a simulation that is most consistent with TOMS and in situ observations.

Martin, Randall V.; Jacob, Daniel J.; Logan, Jennifer A.; Bey, Isabelle; Yantosca, Robert M.; Staudt, Amanda C.; Fiore, Arlene M.; Duncan, Bryan N.; Liu, Hongyu; Ginoux, Paul

2004-01-01

319

Earth meandering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we try to put away current Global Tectonic Model to look the tectonic evolution of the earth from new point of view. Our new dynamic model is based on study of river meandering (RM) which infer new concept as Earth meandering(EM). In a universal gravitational field if we consider a clockwise spiral galaxy model rotate above Ninety East Ridge (geotectonic axis GA), this system with applying torsion field (likes geomagnetic field) in side direction from Rocky Mt. (west geotectonic pole WGP) to Tibetan plateau TP (east geotectonic pole EGP),it seems that pulled mass from WGP and pushed it in EGP due to it's rolling dynamics. According to this idea we see in topographic map that North America and Green land like a tongue pulled from Pacific mouth toward TP. Actually this system rolled or meander the earth over itself fractaly from small scale to big scale and what we see in the river meandering and Earth meandering are two faces of one coin. River transport water and sediments from high elevation to lower elevation and also in EM, mass transport from high altitude-Rocky Mt. to lower altitude Himalaya Mt. along 'S' shape geodetic line-optimum path which connect points from high altitude to lower altitude as kind of Euler Elastica(EE). These curves are responsible for mass spreading (source) and mass concentration (sink). In this regard, tiltness of earth spin axis plays an important role, 'S' are part of sigmoidal shape which formed due to intersection of Earth rolling with the Earth glob and actual feature of transform fault and river meandering. Longitudinal profile in mature rivers as a part of 'S' curve also is a kind of EE. 'S' which bound the whole earth is named S-1(S order 1) and cube corresponding to this which represent Earth fracturing in global scale named C-1(cube order 1 or side vergence cube SVC), C-1 is a biggest cycle of spiral polygon, so it is not completely closed and it has separation about diameter of C-7. Inside SVC we introduce cone vergence cube (CVC or geotectonic equator GE) which rotate 45 degree counterclockwise with respect to SVC. Every cube from big scale to small scale fractalize in order of 23 and every '8' shape from big scale to small scale also fractalize in the same order. Three dimensional and fractoscopic imagination about understanding the changing on earth is very important so we should imagine '8' as curved surface, sea floor spreading happened in maximum curvature of these surfaces. '8' formed from pair 'S' string with opposite direction. '8' oscillate in Pole-Pole and Side-Side direction and have saddle geometry with two 'U' path along perpendicular saddle (e.g. Lut/Jazmurian and Helmand/Mashkal basin in Iran actually intersection of this saddle shape with the earth surface and Iceland /Black Sea and CapeVerde/Victoria Lake are also In/Out (small scale polygon) of 'U' shape conduit which followed axial saddle of Side-'S-2' and Okhotsk Sea /Balkhash Lake followed axial saddle conduit of Pole-'S-2' actually intersection of this perpendicular conduit with surface make spot-like-lakes/volcanoes or basin. Global EM in Side-S-1 bounded compression region-TP inside and tension region-East African Rift offside).This is a interesting competing between two kinematic geometry - spherical and isometrical geometry by using the interaction of them we can analyze the earth face in past, present and future apart of the forces that cause this face. C-1 in two dimensional look like six sided big tent which speared over Tibet and main rod driven along GA. Pair S-1 curve. have seven component(fold) and six segment in between,S-7 exactly located on TP(center of S-1). Between two successive fold we have complex geology(e.g. eastern Iran and Afghanistan)mass dragged from North America and Siberian and accumulated gradually during six step in Earth Foundation(Tibet),S-7 bounded Takla Makan Desert (in smaller loop) and TP (in bigger loop) S-7 alter the earth balance and responsible for earth disturbing, another sample of 'S' curve we see around Australia and Kermadec/Tonga Trench, Aleutian ri

Asadiyan, H.; Zamani, A.

2009-04-01

320

A Sublinear Parallel Algorithm for Stable Matching Tom'as Feder \\Lambda Nimrod Megiddo y Serge A. Plotkin z  

E-print Network

A Sublinear Parallel Algorithm for Stable Matching Tom'as Feder \\Lambda Nimrod Megiddo y Serge A of Computer Science, Stanford University, Stan­ ford, CA 94305 [1]. In Section 4 we study the relation between

Plotkin, Serge

321

Nimbus-7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) Antarctic ozone atlas: August through November 1991  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Because of the great environmental significance of stratospheric ozone, and to support continuing research at the Antarctic Southern Hemisphere stations, the development of the 1991 ozone hole was monitored using data from the Nimbus-7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) instrument, produced in near-real-time. This atlas provides a complete set of daily polar orthographic projections of the TOMS total ozone measurements over the Southern Hemisphere for the period August 1 through November 30, 1991. The 1991 ozone hole developed in a manner similar to that of the 1987, 1989, and 1990 holes, reaching a comparable depth in early October. However, the 1991 ozone hole filled far more rapidly than in 1987 or 1989, and nearly 4 weeks earlier than in 1990.

Krueger, Arlin J.; Penn, Lanning M.; Scott, Courtney J.; Larko, David E.

1992-01-01

322

Comparison of TOMS and AVHRR volcanic ssh retrievals from the August 1992 eruption of Mt. Spurr  

USGS Publications Warehouse

On August 19, 1992, the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) onboard NOAA-12 and NASA's Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) onboard the Nimbus-7 satellite simultaneously detected and mapped the ash cloud from the eruption of Mt. Spurr, Alaska. The spatial extent and geometry of the cloud derived from the two datasets are in good agreement and both AVHRR split window IR (11-12??m brightness temperature difference) and the TOMS UV Aerosol Index (0.34-0.38??m ultraviolet backscattering and absorption) methods give the same range of total cloud ash mass. Redundant methods for determination of ash masses in drifting volcanic clouds offer many advantages for potential application to the mitigation of aircraft hazards.

Krotkov, N.A.; Torres, O.; Seftor, C.; Krueger, A.J.; Kostinski, A.; Rose, W.I.; Bluth, G.J.S.; Schneider, D.; Schaefer, S.J.

1999-01-01

323

Lower-stratospheric/upper-tropospheric exchange processes associated with tropical cyclones as observed by TOMS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Total ozone associated with western Atlantic and Pacific tropical cyclones at various stages of development were analyzed for the purpose of monitoring storm intensity and/or intensity changes. The analysis is based on total ozone measurements from the Nimbus 7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS). Since ozone may be considered a passive tracer in the lower stratosphere and the ozone gradients are strongest just above the tropopause, fluctuations of total ozone are due to variations in tropopause height and/or changes in concentration within the column caused by vertical and horizontal advection. In the subtropical northern Pacific during August and September 1981, a negative correlation greater than 0.60 was found between upper-tropospheric geopotential heights near the tropopause level and total ozone. Preliminary results suggest that TOMS can be used to resolve the upper-troposphere structure in and around tropical cyclones and can provide an indication of those processes that help to intensify and maintain these storms.

Rodgers, Edward B.

1987-01-01

324

Ka band TWTA for space probes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thales electron devices has many years of experience in the manufacture of traveling wave tube amplifiers (TWTA) for space probes, which must send large quantities of data back to Earth. The application of TWTA have traditionally used the X band, around 8 GHz, with RF power ranging from 20 to 40 watts. However, the upcoming generation of spacecraft will also

F. Andre; A. Gallien; P. Boone

2003-01-01

325

Detecting solar axions using Earth's magnetic field  

E-print Network

We show that solar axion conversion to photons in the Earth's magnetosphere can produce an x-ray flux, with average energy \\sim 4 keV, which is measurable on the dark side of the Earth. The smallness of the Earth's magnetic field is compensated by a large magnetized volume. For axion masses solar core, can probe the photon-axion coupling down to 10^{-11} GeV^{-1}, in one year. Thus, the sensitivity of this new approach will be an order of magnitude beyond current laboratory limits.

Hooman Davoudiasl; Patrick Huber

2005-10-20

326

Save the Earth vs Destroy the Earth  

E-print Network

Abstract. Save the Earth VS Destroy the Earth is an interactive installation. Two structures, built with the skeletons of old monitors, are holding two world globes, plus a sign indicating on one Save the Earth and on the other Destroy the Earth. The audience is invited to mime the action to save or destroy the Earth becoming a part of the artwork. Every action is monitored and photographed, leading to the creation of an image dataset of save-the-earth vs destroy-the-earth actions. Such dataset can be interpreted as sort of sentiment dataset, where actors express a negative or positive sentiment about the "Save the Earth " topic.

Davide Giaccone

327

Satellite Detection of Smoke Aerosols Over a Snow/Ice Surface by TOMS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) satellite data demonstrates the recently developed technique of using satellite UV radiance measurements to detect absorbing tropospheric aerosols is effective over snow/ice surfaces. Instead of the traditional single wavelength (visible or infrared) method of measuring tropospheric aerosols, this method takes advantage of the wavelength dependent reduction in the backscattered radiance due to the presence of absorbing aerosols over snow/ice surfaces. An example of the resulting aerosol distribution derived from TOMS data is shown for an August 1998 event in which smoke generated by Canadian forest fires drifts over and across Greenland. As the smoke plume moved over Greenland, the TOMS observed 380 nm reflectivity over the snow/ice surface dropped drastically from 90-100% down to 30-40%. To study the effects of this smoke plume in both the UV and visible regions of the spectrum, we compared a smoke-laden spectrum taken over Greenland by the high spectral resolution (300 to 800 nm) GOME instrument with one that is aerosol-free. We also discuss the results of modeling the darkening effects of various types of absorbing aerosols over snow/ice surfaces using a radiative transfer code. Finally, we investigated the history of such events by looking at the nearly twenty year record of TOMS aerosol index measurements and found that there is a large interannual variability in the amount of smoke aerosols observed over Greenland. This information will be available for studies of radiation and transport properties in the Arctic.

Hsu, N. Christina; Herman, Jay R.; Gleason, J. F.; Torres, O.; Seftor, C. J.

1998-01-01

328

Breathing Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Visual simulation and representation programs and applications have been popping up online in greater numbers, and this recent find is one that will pique the interest of scientists, policy makers, and others who are concerned about carbon dioxide emission rates across the Earth. The Breathing Earth site was created by David Bleja, and he draws on a number of resources (such as the World Factbook and the United Nations) for the data that is utilized to create this site. Visitors can scroll over different countries to learn about their population, their emissions, and their birth and death rate. This interactive map and educational resource also contains a legend in the right-hand corner which explains the various symbols in use here.

Bleja, David

329

Earth Institute  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The mission of the Earth Institute at Columbia University is to help the world achieve sustainability by expanding understanding of the Earth as one integrated system. Through research, education, and the practical application of research to real-world challenges, the Institute addresses nine interconnected global issues: climate and society, water, energy, poverty, ecosystems, public health, food and nutrition, and hazards and urbanization. The Institute's site offers a collection of videotaped events, including the biannual "State of the Planet" conferences, 2002-08, a Distinguished Lecture series, and the Sustainable Development seminar series, as well as e-seminars and e-briefings, information about funding opportunities, and information about educational opportunities at Columbia.

330

Earth Math  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This text explores a few of the many concepts that frequently come up in the study of Earth systems and global climate change. Students will be exposed to many problems involving unit conversion. Global climate change reports involve terms such as kilowatt-hour, megawatt-hour, and gigawatt-hour, as well as megatons and gigatons. Students will become versed in converting units where appropriate, and through the calculations, will work with the concept of significant figures. Creating linear equations from graphical and tabular information is covered, as well as forecasting. The text is meant to be used as a companion to standard Earth science and mathematics courses, and presents enough application problems to allow students to quantitatively understand typical media reports about global climate change.

2009-01-01

331

Impact: Earth!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What would happen if a large meteorite or other object hit the Earth? It's something that has engaged the minds and talents of astrophysicists (and students of all ages) for decades. Now the generally curious can create their own simulated impact with Purdue University's "Impact Earth" website. Visitors can browse the Famous Craters area to get started. This part includes some "classics," such as the Ries Crater and the Tunguska Fireball. Of course, visitors really must use the handy interface to craft their own impact, projectile, and target parameters to get the full effect on how such an event plays out. Also, the site includes a complete Documentation file (a peer-reviewed article) and a detailed glossary.

2013-01-01

332

VLA Will Receive Galileo Probe Signals To Measure Jupiter's Winds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Socorro, NM -- When the Galileo Probe becomes the first spacecraft to enter the atmosphere of Jupiter on Dec. 7, a New Mexico radio telescope will be watching. In a technical feat thought impossible when Galileo was launched in 1989, the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array (VLA) will record the faint radio signal from the probe to help scientists measure the giant planet's winds. The VLA observations will dramatically improve estimates of Jupiter's wind speeds and complement other measurements studying the climate of Jupiter. The Galileo probe will transmit information to the main spacecraft as it descends toward a searing death under tremendous heat in Jupiter's lower atmosphere. The main spacecraft will later relay the probe's data to Earth. No Earth-based reception of the probe's radio signals was planned originally. The probe's antenna will be pointed at the main spacecraft, not the Earth. However, in 1991, Robert Preston and William Folkner of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in Pasadena, CA, were discussing Earth-based reception of data from a similar probe under design for a planned mission to Saturn. "I thought, why not do this for Galileo," Folkner said. "They were planning to build this capability into the spacecraft for Saturn," Folkner explained, "and they thought it couldn't be done with the Galileo spacecraft already enroute to Jupiter. I didn't know it couldn't be done, so I worked it out and found that we could do it." According to Preston and Folkner's calculations, the direct reception of the probe's signals by the VLA and a similar radio telescope in Australia will make the measurement of Jupiter's winds ten times more precise as long as the probe radio signal can be detected. In addition, the direct reception also greatly improves scientists' knowledge of the probe's position as it enters the Jovian atmosphere. This will allow more effective use of the measurements of the probe radio signal by the main spacecraft to determine atmospheric properties. The VLA observations will record the shift in frequency of the probe's radio signal as Jupiter's winds buffet the probe. This Doppler shift in frequency will allow scientists to calculate the wind speeds. Scientists expect the 746-pound probe to send information about Jupiter's atmosphere for up to 75 minutes during its parachute-slowed descent. Preston and Folkner, who are working with Jose Navarro of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Socorro, NM, expect to receive the probe's signals with the VLA for the first 20 or 30 minutes of the descent. The technical difficulties in directly receiving the probe's signal are challenging. The probe has only a 25-watt radio transmitter. The probe's directional antenna is aimed at the main Galileo spacecraft, nearly 90 degrees away from the direction of the Earth. This effectively reduces the power to 7 watts or less toward the Earth. At Jupiter, the probe is more than half a billion miles distant from Earth. Only a large radio telescope is capable of receiving this faint signal, more than 100,000 times weaker than the faintest signal a home FM radio can pick up. Even using a radio telescope as large as the VLA, the scientists may have to wait for the main Galileo spacecraft to send the probe's data back to Earth before they can recover the signals they recorded. With the relayed data in hand, they can "reconstruct" the probe's radio signal and use that reconstructed signal to help their computers find the weak recorded signal on the VLA tapes. A preliminary relay of the probe's data from the main spacecraft is planned in December. During its descent, the Galileo probe will send information about the chemical composition of Jupiter's atmosphere at different altitudes. It is expected to encounter winds of up to 200 m.p.h.

1995-11-01

333

Earth Lab  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Earth Lab is a database of fossils, minerals and rocks from the UK. A photograph is displayed for each specimen selected, as well as the scientific name, location and properties or age of the specimen. The fossils can be searched by area, age, and group; minerals by area, element, group, and property; and rocks by area, geological age, and type of rock. A series of questions allows users to identify their own specimens.

334

Earth Observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This document is concentrates on a couple of the missions where the Spacelab hardware was used to do Earth science. The Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science (ATLAS) series of missions and the Lidar in-Space Technology Experiment (LITE) mission, the ATLAS being a series of three Shuttle missions that were very much Spacelab missions, are described. A little bit about the history, what the missions were, some of the instruments that were on them, and results are given.

Kaye, Jack

2000-01-01

335

Earth Rocks!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of this lesson is to introduce students to the basic elements of our Earth's crust: rocks, soils and minerals. They learn how we categorize rocks, soils and minerals and how they are literally the foundation for our civilization. Students also explore how engineers use rocks, soils and minerals to create the buildings, roads, vehicles, electronics, chemicals, and other objects we use to enhance our lives.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

336

Earth's Biomes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What are the characteristics of Earth's biomes? First, open the Biomes Graphic Organizer Now read through Information on Aquatic Biome (Freshwater) and fill in 5 characterestics of a freshwater biome in your graphic organizer. Now read through Information on Desert and fill in 5 characteristics of a desert biome in your graphic organizer. Now read through Information on Rainforest and fill in 5 characteristics of rainforest biome in your graphic organizer. Now ...

Ms. Allman

2012-04-05

337

Earth Observatory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web site includes shares the images, stories and discoveries that emerge from NASA Earth science research, including its satellite missions, in-the-field research and climate models. View global maps of NASA data, check out the Image of the Day and images of current events, and read feature articles and blogs. Also includes special collections of NASA images, including the World of Change series, which documents how our planetâs land, oceans, atmosphere and Sun are changing over time.

2011-01-01

338

Earth Day  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Wow! Endagered species are everywhere! Just understanding the needs of animals will help them to survive longer. Find out how much your use of energy leaves a 'carbon' footprint on the earth. We all need to use our limited resources wisely. Reduce your footprint! Find out how and take the carbon footrpint quiz here. Carbon Footprint Watch the following YouTube video to hear a special message from Carl Hiaasen, the ...

Mrs. Datwyler

2010-04-19

339

Highlights from a Decade of OMI-TOMS Total Ozone Observations on EOS Aura  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Total ozone measurements from OMI have been instrumental in meeting Aura science objectives. In the last decade, OMI has extended the length of the TOMS total ozone record to over 35 years to monitor stratospheric ozone recovery. OMI-TOMS total ozone measurements have also been combined synergistically with measurements from other Aura instruments and MLS in particular, which provides vertically resolved information that complements the total O3 mapping capability of OMI. With this combined approach, the EOS Aura platform has produced more accurate and detailed measurements of tropospheric ozone. This has led in turn to greater understanding of the sources and transport of tropospheric ozone as well as its radiative forcing effect. The combined use of OMI and MLS data was also vital to the analysis of the severe Arctic ozone depletion event of 2011. The quality of OMI-TOMS total O3 data used in these studies is the result of several factors: a mature and well-validated algorithm, the striking stability of the OMI instrument, and OMI's hyperspectral capabilities used to derive cloud pressures. The latter has changed how we think about the effects of clouds on total ozone retrievals. We will discuss the evolution of the operational V8.5 algorithm and provide an overview and motivation for V9. After reviewing results and developments of the past decade, we finally highlight how ozone observations from EOS Aura are playing an important role in new ozone mapping missions.

Haffner, David P.; Bhartia, Pawan K.; McPeters, Richard D.; Joiner, Joanna; Ziemke, Jerald R.; Vassilkov, Alexander; Labow, Gordon J.; Chiou, Er-Woon

2014-01-01

340

Cassini's Earthly Benefits BENEFITS OF INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION  

E-print Network

the large demand for instructional media for non English-speaking students. TECHNOLOGY UTILIZATION BENEFITSPage: 1 Cassini's Earthly Benefits May 1995 BENEFITS OF INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION The Cassini of the Huygens Titan probe is managed by the European Space Technology and Research Center (ESTEC). ESTEC

Waliser, Duane E.

341

Outer Planets/Solar Probe Project: Solar Probe  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Solar Probe, the first mission to the Sun and the third of three missions in NASA's Outer Solar System/Solar Probe Program, is a voyage of exploration, discovery, and comprehension. This near-Sun flyby will provide in situ measurements in the solar corona and high-resolution pictures and magnetograms of the photosphere and polar atmosphere. These measurements are also needed as "ground truth" for interpreting the many measurements of the Sun and solar activity that have been made from a distance of 1 AU. Solar Probe is scheduled for launch in February 2007. It will arrive at the Sun along a polar trajectory perpendicular to the Sun-Earth line with a perihelion of 4 solar radii (R(sub s)) from the Sun's center. Two perihelion passages will occur, the first in 2010 (near solar sunspot maximum) and the second in 2015 (near solar minimum) ensuring measurement of both coronal hole and streamer-related solar wind properties. To reach the Sun, probe must first fly to Jupiter and use a gravity assist to lose its angular momentum about the Sun. The imaging and in situ miniaturized instruments will provide the first 3-dimensional view of the corona, high spatial- and temporal-resolutions of the magnetic fields, and helioseismic measurements of the polar regions, as well as sporadic high-spatial-resolution local sampling of plasmas and fields at all latitudes.

Tsurutani, B. T.

2000-01-01

342

Earth 911  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Earth 911 is an organization focused on empowering the public with community-specific resources to improve their quality of life. To accomplish this goal, they provide information on a wide range of environmental topics including recycling (several types of materials), household hazardous waste, water quality, composting, air pollution prevention, fire prevention, green shopping tips, and mercury pollution. Environmental news links, games and activities for kids, and local news and events are also included. Users may enter a zip code to obtain information on environmental issues specific to where they live.

2004-01-01

343

Gravity Probe B Gyroscope Rotor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Gravity Probe B (GP-B) is the relativity experiment developed at Stanford University to test two extraordinary predictions of Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity. The experiment will measure, very precisely, the expected tiny changes in the direction of the spin axes of four gyroscopes contained in an Earth-orbiting satellite at a 400-mile altitude. So free are the gyroscopes from disturbance that they will provide an almost perfect space-time reference system. They will measure how space and time are very slightly warped by the presence of the Earth, and, more profoundly, how the Earth's rotation very slightly drags space-time around with it. These effects, though small for the Earth, have far-reaching implications for the nature of matter and the structure of the Universe. This photograph is a close up of a niobium-coated gyroscope motor and its housing halves. GP-B is among the most thoroughly researched programs ever undertaken by NASA. This is the story of a scientific quest in which physicists and engineers have collaborated closely over many years. Inspired by their quest, they have invented a whole range of technologies that are already enlivening other branches of science and engineering. Launched April 20, 2004 , the GP-B program was managed for NASA by the Marshall Space Flight Center. Development of the GP-B is the responsibility of Stanford University along with major subcontractor Lockheed Martin Corporation. (Image credit to Don Harley.)

2003-01-01

344

Gravity Probe B Space Vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The space vehicle for Gravity Probe B (GP-B) arrives at the launch site at Vandenburg Air Force Base. GP-B is the relativity experiment being developed at Stanford University to test two extraordinary predictions of Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity. The experiment will measure, very precisely, the expected tiny changes in the direction of the spin axes of four gyroscopes contained in an Earth-orbiting satellite at a 400-mile altitude. So free are the gyroscopes from disturbance that they will provide an almost perfect space-time reference system. They will measure how space and time are very slightly warped by the presence of the Earth, and, more profoundly, how the Earth's rotation very slightly drags space-time around with it. These effects, though small for the Earth, have far-reaching implications for the nature of matter and the structure of the Universe. GP-B is among the most thoroughly researched programs ever undertaken by NASA. This is the story of a scientific quest in which physicists and engineers have collaborated closely over many years. Inspired by their quest, they have invented a whole range of technologies that are already enlivening other branches of science and engineering. Scheduled for launch in 2003 and managed for NASA by the Marshall Space Flight Center, development of the GP-B is the responsibility of Stanford University, with major subcontractor Lockheed Martin Corporation.

2003-01-01

345

Tropospheric Ozone Pollution Transport Traced from the TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) Instrument During the Nashville-1999 Campaign  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Over the past several years, we have developed two new tropospheric ozone retrievals from the TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) satellite instrument that are of sufficient resolution to follow pollution episodes. The modified-residual technique [Hudson and Thompson, 1998; Thompson and Hudson, 1999] uses v. 7 TOMS total ozone and is applicable to tropical regimes in which the wave-one pattern in total ozone is observed. The TOMS-direct method [("TDOT" = TOMS Direct Ozone in the Troposphere; Frolov et al., 2000] represents a new algorithm that uses TOMS radiances directly (i.e., not previously processed for TOMS ozone) to extract tropospheric ozone in regions of constant stratospheric ozone and tropospheric ozone displaying high mixing ratios and variability characteristic of pollution. These events tend to occur in certain meteorological regimes. For example, mid-latitude pollution usually occurs on the backside of subtropical fronts, as low pv, usually moist air intrudes to the extra-tropics. July 1999 was a month characterized by robust pollution in the eastern US, with high ozone, as detected by TOMS, originating over south central states and moving up the Atlantic seaboard. This corresponds to 50-80 DU in tropospheric ozone column depth. In most cases, further transport occurred to the North Atlantic, with ozone plumes traveling to western Europe in 4-5 days. Examples of high ozone and transit across boundaries within the US, as well as US->Europe, give a regional context for model results and field measurements taken in the SE US during the Nashville-1999 campaign period. Validation of the TDOT maps is made with ozonesondes taken during that time. TDOT maps also show ozone pollution from Asia traveling to the western US in July 1999.

Thompson, Anne M.; Frolov, A. D.; Hudson, R. D.; Witte, J. C.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

346

GOOGLE EARTH QUICK GUIDE (1)Google Earth Features  

E-print Network

GOOGLE EARTH QUICK GUIDE (1)Google Earth Features The Google Earth of the Google Earth window. Often when opening up the Google Earth program, the view screen will be a view of the entire Earth from space. Navigation bar

Smith-Konter, Bridget

347

Solar System: The Earth in Space  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Science Object is the first of four Science Objects in the Solar System SciPack. It provides an understanding of where Earth is located in space and explores evidence used by astronomers to place Earth at this location. Earth is a relatively small planet and the third from the Sun in our solar system. The Sun is the central and largest body in the solar system. Our still-growing knowledge of the solar system comes to us in part by direct observation from Earth, including the use of optical, radio, and x-ray telescopes that are sensitive to a broad spectrum of information coming to us from space; computers that can undertake increasingly complicated calculations, find patterns in data, and support or reject theories about the origins of the solar system; and space probes that send back detailed pictures and other data from distant planets. Learning Outcomes:� Explain that we discovered and learn about the other planets through the use of various kinds of telescopes, space probes, and other technologies.� Relate observations of the motion of objects in the sky to a Sun-centric model of the solar system, including observations of the "wandering" stars (planets) from Earth's frame of reference.� Recognize that Earth is one of the planets in the solar system, that it orbits the Sun just as the other planets do.

National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

2006-11-01

348

Earth Pulse  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Earth Pulse is the National Geographic site for conservation. It features a set of links to National Geographic sites with a variety of conservation themes such as oceans, climate, energy, fresh water, and others. Many of these pages feature interactive tours or videos. Virtual Worlds is a set of interactive tours of various environments, from the rain forest at night to a new urbanist neighborhood. There is also a collection of Sights and Sounds interactive pages on a variety of ecosystems, in which users can click on a map and see information on wildlife that inhabits the selected region. There are also links to news articles and online expeditions in which users can follow actual expeditions as they were conducted by explorers-in-residence.

2007-12-12

349

Earth's Oceans  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource guide from the Middle School Portal 2 project, written specifically for teachers, provides links to exemplary resources including background information, lessons, career information, and related national science education standards. This guide focuses on the oceans as a part of the Earth system: the link between oceans and climate; tsunamis; life science concepts such as ocean ecosystems, food webs, and biodiversity; real data â both sources of and projects that use real data; and related careers. There is also a section on the misconceptions commonly surrounding ocean concepts and finally the National Science Education Standards that these resource connect to. So even though you might not teach a unit called oceans, the oceans can be used as a context within an existing unit, such as ecosystems, energy transfer, systems thinking, or methods in science.

Lightle, Kimberly; Fries-Gaither, Jessica

2009-10-01

350

Cross Calibration of TOMS, SBUV/2 and SCIAMACHY Radiances from Ground Observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We have shown that validation of radiances is a very effective means for correcting absolute accuracy and long term drifts of backscatter type satellite measurements. This method by-passes the algorithms used for both satellite and ground based measurements which are normally used to validate and correct the satellite data. A new method for satellite validation is planned which will compliment measurements from the existing ground-based networks. This method will employ very accurate comparisons between ground based zenith sky radiances and satellite nadir radiances. These comparisons will rely heavily on the experience derived from the Shuttle SBUV (SSBUV) program which provided a reference standard of radiance measurements for SBUV/2, TOMS, and GOME. This new measurement program, called 'Skyrad', employs two well established capabilities at the Goddard Space Flight Center, 1) the SSBUV calibration facilities and 2) the radiative transfer codes used for the TOMS and SBUV/2 algorithms and their subsequent refinements. Radiative transfer calculations show that ground based zenith sky and satellite nadir backscatter ultraviolet comparisons can be made very accurately under certain viewing conditions. The Skyrad instruments (SSBUV, Brewer spectrophotometers, and possibly others) will be calibrated and maintained to a precision of a few tenths of a percent. Skyrad data will then enable long term calibration of upcoming satellite instruments such as QuickTOMS, SBUV/2s and SCIAMACHY with a high degree of precision. This technique can be further employed to monitor the performance of future instruments such as GOMEZ, OMI, and OMPS. Additional information is included in the original extended abstract.

Hilsenrath, Ernest; Bhartia, P. K.; Bojkov, B.; Kowaleski, M.; Labow, G.; Ahmad, Z.

2002-01-01

351

Earth-Sun Geometry - Earth Revolution Animation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The representation is an animation of the Earth revolving around the sun. The Earth is shown as a solid green sphere with the equator and arctic circle marked with black lines and the dark side of the Earth shaded. The Earth's axis is shown with a red line. As the Earth revolves around the sun, the axis is shown to always be pointing in the same direction. The positions of Earth at the winter solstice, vernal equinox, summer solstice, and autumnal equinox are labeled.

Dr. Michael Pidwirny

352

Magnetic, fluorescent, and thermo-responsive Fe(3)O(4)/rare earth incorporated poly(St-NIPAM) core-shell colloidal nanoparticles in multimodal optical/magnetic resonance imaging probes.  

PubMed

Multifunctional colloidal nanoparticles which exhibit fluorescence, superparamagnetism, and thermosensitivity are produced by two step seed emulsifier-free emulsion polymerization in the presence of oleic acid (OA) and sodium undecylenate (NaUA) modified Fe(3)O(4) nanoparticles. In the first step, St and NIPAM polymerize the NaUA on the surface of Fe(3)O(4) nanoparticles to form Fe(3)O(4)/poly(St-NIPAM) nanoparticles which act as seeds for the polymerization of Eu(AA)(3)Phen with the remaining St and NIPAM in the second step to form an outer fluorescent layer. The core-shell composite nanoparticles show reversible dimensional changes in response to external temperature stimuli. Fluorescence spectra acquired from the composites exhibit characteristic emission peaks of Eu(3+) at 594 and 619 nm and vivid red luminescence can be observed by 2-photon confocal scanning laser microscopy (CLSM). In vitro cytotoxicity tests based on the MTT assay demonstrate good cytocompatibility and the composites also possess paramagnetic properties with a maximum saturation magnetization of 6.45 emu/g and high transverse relaxivity rates (r(2)) of 411.78 mM(-1) s(-1). In vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies show significant liver and spleen contrast with relative signal intensity reduction of about 86% 10 min after intravenous injection of the composites. These intriguing properties suggest that these nanocarriers have large clinical potential as multimodal optical/MRI probes. PMID:23274069

Zhu, Haie; Tao, Juan; Wang, Wenhao; Zhou, Yingjie; Li, Penghui; Li, Zheng; Yan, Kai; Wu, Shuilin; Yeung, Kelvin W K; Xu, Zushun; Xu, Haibo; Chu, Paul K

2013-03-01

353

Tom O'Connor: His legacy of atmospheric aerosol research in Ireland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dr. Thomas C. (Tom) O'Connor received his foundation in atmospheric aerosols through his M. Sc. work at University College Dublin (with P.J. Nolan) and then as research scholar with Leo W. Pollak at the Dublin Institute of Advanced Studies. On moving to Galway in 1956, a significant legacy was his choosing of a field station site at Mace Head and his pioneering measurements there. He played a pivotal role in the development and progression of the Mace Head Atmospheric Research Station (www.macehead.org) for some 50 years. He passed away peacefully in November 2012.

Jennings, S. Gerard

2013-05-01

354

Concentrations of Tropospheric Ozone from 1979 to 1992 over Tropical Pacific South America from TOMS Data  

PubMed

An estimate of tropospheric ozone concentrations was obtained from the difference in the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) data between the high Andes and the Pacific Ocean. From 1979 to 1992 the tropospheric ozone concentration apparently increased by 1.48 ± 0.40 percent per year or 0.21 ± 0.06 Dobson unit per year over South America and the surrounding oceans. An increase in biomass burning in the Southern Hemisphere can account for this trend in tropospheric ozone concentrations. PMID:8662568

Jiang; Yung

1996-05-01

355

How probes work  

Microsoft Academic Search

'Cultural probes', since first being proposed and described by Bill Gaver and his colleagues, have been adapted and appropriated for a range of purposes within a variety of technology projects. In this paper we critically review different uses of Probes and discuss common aspects of different Probe variants. We also present and critique some of the debate around Probes through

Connor Graham; Mark Rouncefield; Martin R. Gibbs; Frank Vetere; Keith Cheverst

2007-01-01

356

Hydrodynamic ultrasonic probe  

DOEpatents

An improved probe for in-service ultrasonic inspection of long lengths of a workpiece, such as small diameter tubing from the interior. The improved probe utilizes a conventional transducer or transducers configured to inspect the tubing for flaws and/or wall thickness variations. The probe utilizes a hydraulic technique, in place of the conventional mechanical guides or bushings, which allows the probe to move rectilinearly or rotationally while preventing cocking thereof in the tube and provides damping vibration of the probe. The probe thus has lower friction and higher inspection speed than presently known probes.

Day, Robert A. (Livermore, CA); Conti, Armond E. (San Jose, CA)

1980-01-01

357

probeBase  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Microbial Ecology Group of Munich's University of Technology has recently launched probeBase, "a comprehensive database containing published rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probe sequences, DNA microarray layouts and associated information." Users may search for sequences by target organism, which "can assist in the development of new rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes for fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)," or by probe name for rapidly retrieving published probes targeting desired sequences without prior phylogenetic analysis. Researchers are encouraged to submit new or missing probes in efforts to keep probeBase as up-to-date as possible. A list of RNA-related links is also provided.

358

Monitoring Physiological Variables with Membrane Probes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This project has demonstrated the possibility of using membrane probes in rodents to monitor physiological variables for extended periods of time. The utility of these probes in physiological studies of microgravity has been demonstrated. The feasibility of developing on-line sensors has also been demonstrated and allows for the possibility of developing real-time automated monitoring systems which can be used in ground-base physiological research as well as in research and medical monitoring in space. In addition to space applications these techniques can be extended to medical monitoring in critical care situations on earth as well as facilitating research in many human and animal diseases.

Janle, Elsa M.

1997-01-01

359

The influence of alkaline earth ions on the structural organization of acetone probed by the noncoincidence effect of the nu(C=O) band: experimental and quantum chemical results.  

PubMed

We have investigated the Raman noncoincidence effect (NCE = nu(aniso)-nu(iso), where nu(aniso) and nu(iso) are the anisotropic and the isotropic Raman frequencies) of the nu(C=O) band of acetone arising from the interactions of this solvent with the metal ions in acetone electrolytic solutions of alkaline earth metal (Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba) perchlorates. Assisted by the results of ab initio molecular orbital (MO) calculations carried out at the Hartree-Fock (HF) level with the 6-31+G(2df,p) and LanL2DZ basis sets, we have been able to attribute the anisotropic and isotropic components of this band to the formation of acetone-metal ion clusters, (acetone)(n)M(2+), and to interpret its high and negative NCE, opposed to the positive NCE of the bulk liquid, as the consequence of the large separation between the higher frequency of the in-phase mode (active in the Raman isotropic spectrum) and the lower (average) frequency of the n- 1 out-of-phase modes (predominantly active in the Raman anisotropic spectrum). The negative sign of the NCE is compatible with the transition dipole coupling (TDC) mechanism. The comparison between the observed NCE for each electrolytic solution at the concentrations used in this study and those calculated for the different solvation numbers n of each (acetone)(n)M(2+)cluster gives a clear indication of the highest stability of the hexa-coordinated cluster for the Mg(2+) ion, but leaving uncertain (n = 6 or 8) this conclusion for the acetone clusters of the remaining M(2+) ions. We have interpreted the observed and calculated decrease of the magnitude of NCE with the ion size through the ion polarizing power in the light of the ion effective charge and its distance (M(2+)...O=C) from the C=O oscillators. PMID:20024458

Giorgini, Maria Grazia; Torii, Hajime; Musso, Maurizio

2010-01-01

360

Exploring Magnetism on Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This teacher's guide contains four lessons that provide a way for teachers to introduce students to and elaborate on Earth's changing magnetic field. It covers learning to navigate using Earth's magnetic field and compass, Earth's magnetic pole and its motion across Earth's surface, magnetic reversals on Earth, and Earth's currently declining magnetic field. These lessons have been taught primarily in math, geology, and astronomy classes.

2005-01-01

361

Life on Earth. II The Hadean Earth  

E-print Network

Life on Earth. II #12;The Hadean Earth 4.5 - 3.9 Gyr Impacts melt the surface. Volatiles escape cools, rain replenished oceans Life appeared with 100 Myr of end of great bombardment Did life reform stabilized 3.9 Gya - 2.5 Gya #12;First Life What was the first life on Earth? ·The first living things must

Walter, Frederick M.

362

Academic Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Academic Earth provides videos of lectures by top scholars in "Subjects" that range from Astronomy to Entrepreneurship to Religion, from "Universities" as celebrated as MIT, Berkeley, Harvard, and Stanford. Visitors must register to view the lectures, but registration is free. There are over 1500 video lectures available, with more being added everyday. In addition to viewing the lectures available by subject or university, visitors can choose by "Instructors" or by "Playlists". When visitors click on "Playlists" at the top of the homepage, they will see a list of lectures by theme, by several different instructors, and a grade given to the lecture series. A good example is the 6-part lecture entitled "Understanding the Financial Crisis" by four different instructors. The series is given a grade overall, in this case, an A-, and when visitors click on "See all 6 lectures" at the bottom of the series' description, they will be taken to the page with the links to the individual lectures, as well as shown the grade given each individual lecture. Visitors can even keep a playlist of their favorite lectures or download the lectures. Visitors should definitely check out the Frequently Asked Questions page, accessible by the "FAQ" link at the bottom of the website.

363

The Effect of New Ozone Cross Sections Applied to SBUV and TOMS Retrievals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The ozone cross sections as measured by Bass and Paur have been used for processing of SBUV and TOMS data since 1986. While these cross sections were a big improvement over those previously available, there were known minor problems with accuracy for wavelengths longward of 330 nm and with the temperature dependance. Today's requirements to separate stratospheric ozone from tropospheric ozone and for the derivation of minor species such as BrO and N02 place stringent new requirements on the accuracy needed. The ozone cross section measurements of Brion, Daumont, and Malicet (BDM) are being considered for use in UV-based ozone retrievals. They have much better resolution, an extended wavelength range, and a more consistent temperature dependance. Tests show that BDM retrievals exhibit lower retrieval residuals in the satellite data; i.e., they explain our measured atmospheric radiances more accurately. Total column ozone retrieved by the TOMS instruments is about 1.5% higher than before. Ozone profiles retrieved from SBUV using the new cross sections are lower in the upper stratosphere and higher in the lower stratosphere and troposphere.

McPeters, Richard D.; Labow, Gordon J.

2010-01-01

364

The observation of atmospheric structure with TOMS and some potential advancements. [Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An overview is given of the Nimbus 7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) which was designed to observe the spatial characteristics of total ozone that were not resolved by the nadir-viewing Nimbus BUV and SBUV instruments. At the wavelengths suitable for total ozone measurements, the radiance is large enough that the entire daytime atmosphere could be surveyed with about 50-km resolution from a polar orbiting satellite. The resulting high spatial resolution TOMS ozone images are found to reflect the internal dynamic structure of the lower atmosphere. Features which can be identified and tracked include: planetary wave scale troughs and ridges, mesoscale cutoff lows and rapidly moving troughs, jet stream confluence and difluence areas, hurricanes, and polar night lows. These features control the ozone above any given location and account for nearly all the variance in the total ozone. The instrument has been used to track the volcanic eruption clouds from El Chichon, Mount St. Helens, Alaid, and smaller eruptions such as Galunggung. It would be feasible to use a similar instrument on a geostationary platform to obtain half-hourly maps. Determination of the vertical ozone distribution in the lower stratosphere using Radon transform principles would be of importance in measuring jet stream folds and the related troposphere-stratosphere exchange.

Krueger, A. J.

1985-01-01

365

Comparison of recalculated Dobson and TOMS total ozone at Hradec Kralove, Czechoslovakia, 1978-1990  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The reevaluated Dobson total ozone data from Hradec Kralove, Czechoslovakia were compared with independent Total Ozone Mapping Spectrophotometer (TOMS) 'version 6' data set. The comparison was performed by means of the parallel daily averages of ground-based and satellite total ozone pairs of the period November 1978 to December 1990. The comparison showed slight differences between both data series. Their average relative difference is 0.48 percent. The similar results have been reached for subsets of direct sun and zenith types of measurements as well. Their relative differences are 0.61 percent and 0.11 percent respectively. These facts indicate not only good mutual relation of both data sources but also reliability and accuracy of the zenith charts of the spectrophotometer No. 74 used at Hradec Kralove. Preliminary assessment of seasonal MU-dependence of the differences between Dobson and TOMS data was made while using total ozones of winter and summer months representing values of MU=2.70-5.20 and MU = 1.12-1.30 respectively. The results did not show systematic underestimation or overestimation of total ozone due to MU-dependence of the instrument at Hradec Kralove in both seasons.

Stanek, Martin; Vanicek, Karel

1994-01-01

366

Evaluating Ultraviolet Radiation Exposures Determined from TOMS Satellite Data at Sites of Amphibian Declines in Central and South America  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Many amphibian species have experienced substantial population declines, or have disappeared altogether, during the last several decades at a number of amphibian census sites in Central and South America. This study addresses the use of satellite-derived trends in solar ultraviolet-B (UV-B; 280-320 nm) radiation exposures at these sites over the last two decades, and is intended to demonstrate a role for satellite observations in determining whether UV-B radiation is a contributing factor in amphibian declines. UV-B radiation levels at the Earth's surface were derived from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) satellite data, typically acquired daily since 1979. These data were used to calculate the daily erythemal (sunburning) UV-B, or UV-B(sub ery), exposures at the latitude, longitude, and elevation of each of 20 census sites. The annually averaged UV-B(sub ery) dose, as well as the maximum values, have been increasing in both Central and South America, with higher levels received at the Central American sites. The annually averaged UV-B(sub ery) exposures increased significantly from 1979-1998 at all 11 Central American sites examined (r(exp 2) = 0.60 - 0.79; P<=0.015), with smaller but significant increases at five of the nine South American sites (r(exp 2) = 0.24-0.42; P<=0.05). The contribution of the highest UV-B(sub ery) exposure levels (>= 6750 J/sq m*d) to the annual UV-B(sub ery) total has increased from approx. 5% to approx. 15% in Central America over the 19 year period, but actual daily exposures for each species are unknown. Synergy among UV-B radiation and other factors, especially those associated with alterations of water chemistry (e.g., acidification) in aqueous habitats is discussed. These findings justify further research concerning whether UV-B(sub ery) radiation plays a role in amphibian population declines and extinctions.

Middleton, Elizabeth M.; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

367

Self-association and precursor protein binding of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Tom40p, the core component of the protein translocation channel of the mitochondrial outer membrane.  

PubMed Central

The precursor protein translocase of the mitochondrial outer membrane (Tom) is a multi-subunit complex containing receptors and a general import channel, of which the core component is Tom40p. Nuclear-encoded mitochondrial precursor proteins are first recognized by surface receptors and then pass through the import channel. The Tom complex has been purified; however, the protein-protein interactions that drive its assembly and maintain its stability have been difficult to study. Here we show that Saccharomyces cerevisiae Tom40p expressed in bacteria and purified to homogeneity associates efficiently with itself. The self-association is very strong and can withstand up to 4 M urea or 1 M salt. The tight self-association does not require the N-terminal segment of Tom40p. Furthermore, purified Tom40p preferentially recognizes the targeting sequence of mitochondrial precursor proteins. Although the binding of the targeting sequence to Tom40p is inhibited by urea concentrations in excess of 1 M, it is moderately resistant to 1 M salt. Simultaneous self-assembly and precursor protein binding suggest that Tom40p contains at least two different domains mediating these processes. The experimental approach described here should be useful for analysing protein-protein interactions involving individual or groups of components of the mitochondrial import machinery. PMID:11336653

Gordon, D M; Wang, J; Amutha, B; Pain, D

2001-01-01

368

SphagnumSphagnum Production and Decomposition in a Mountain Raised BogProduction and Decomposition in a Mountain Raised Bog TomTomss HHjekjek  

E-print Network

, decomposition and decomposability in six dominant Sphagnum species in a Central European mountain patterned mireSphagnumSphagnum Production and Decomposition in a Mountain Raised BogProduction and Decomposition in a Mountain Raised Bog TomTomásás HHáájekjek The Third International Symposium on the Biology of Sphagnum

Hájek, Tomá�

369

Earth Observation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For pipeline companies, mapping, facilities inventory, pipe inspections, environmental reporting, etc. is a monumental task. An Automated Mapping/Facilities Management/Geographic Information Systems (AM/FM/GIS) is the solution. However, this is costly and time consuming. James W. Sewall Company, an AM/FM/GIS consulting firm proposed an EOCAP project to Stennis Space Center (SSC) to develop a computerized system for storage and retrieval of digital aerial photography. This would provide its customer, Algonquin Gas Transmission Company, with an accurate inventory of rights-of-way locations and pipeline surroundings. The project took four years to complete and an important byproduct was SSC's Digital Aerial Rights-of-Way Monitoring System (DARMS). DARMS saves substantial time and money. EOCAP enabled Sewall to develop new products and expand its customer base. Algonquin now manages regulatory requirements more efficiently and accurately. EOCAP provides government co-funding to encourage private investment in and broader use of NASA remote sensing technology. Because changes on Earth's surface are accelerating, planners and resource managers must assess the consequences of change as quickly and accurately as possible. Pacific Meridian Resources and NASA's Stennis Space Center (SSC) developed a system for monitoring changes in land cover and use, which incorporated the latest change detection technologies. The goal of this EOCAP project was to tailor existing technologies to a system that could be commercialized. Landsat imagery enabled Pacific Meridian to identify areas that had sustained substantial vegetation loss. The project was successful and Pacific Meridian's annual revenues have substantially increased. EOCAP provides government co-funding to encourage private investment in and broader use of NASA remote sensing technology.

1994-01-01

370

Flattening Earth acceleration in atomic fountains  

SciTech Connect

A method to compensate for Earth's gravity tide over an extended axial region is reported. Flattening acceleration is important in experiments where the coupling of the dynamics of free-falling probes to the gravity gradient generates stochastic noise on the measurement. Optimized cylindrically symmetric mass distributions lower Earth's tidal effect over 10 cm by a factor 10{sup 3}. A multimass compensation system with comparable performance is devised for tall atom interferometers. Reducing the gravity gradient is essential in terrestrial experiments based on atom fountain configurations being developed to precisely test general relativity or the neutrality of matter.

Bertoldi, Andrea [Laboratoire Charles Fabry de l'Institut d'Optique, Univ. Paris Sud, Campus Polytechnique RD128, F-91127 Palaiseau (France)

2010-07-15

371

Gravitational experiments on solar probe. [covariance analysis for a solar probe trajectory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A covariance analysis was performed for a solar probe trajectory which encounters the sun at four solar radii. The unknown parameters in the analysis are the six initial cartesian coordinates for the probe, six initial cartesian coordinates for the earth, the astronomical unit, the solar gravitational quadrupole coefficient and two post Newtonian meters (beta, gamma). Errors in the unknown parameters were computed as a function of standard errors on the radio tracking data and on the nongravitational forces which act on the probe. Results were obtained for several tracking geometries and for several orbital inclinations to the ecliptic. The analysis shows that the principal scientific result from the radio tracking of a solar probe would be the determination of the quadrupole moment, which would place a constraint on models of the solar interior.

Anderson, J. D.

1978-01-01

372

Earth's Mineral Evolution  

E-print Network

Earth's Mineral Evolution :: Astrobiology Magazine - earth science - evol...rth science evolution Extreme Life Mars Life Outer Planets Earth's Mineral Evolution Summary (Nov 14, 2008): New research. Display Options: Earth's Mineral Evolution Based on a CIW news release Mineral Kingdom Has Co

Downs, Robert T.

373

Crew Earth Observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Crew Earth Observations (CEO) takes advantage of the crew in space to observe and photograph natural and human-made changes on Earth. The photographs record the Earth's surface changes over time, along with dynamic events such as storms, floods, fires and volcanic eruptions. These images provide researchers on Earth with key data to better understand the planet.

Runco, Susan

2009-01-01

374

Earth Structure Introduction  

E-print Network

Earth Structure Introduction Earth Structure (2nd Edition), 2004 W.W. Norton & Co, New York Slide show by Ben van der Pluijm © WW Norton, unless noted otherwise #12;© EarthStructure (2nd ed) 210/4/2010 Aerial views #12;© EarthStructure (2nd ed) 310/4/2010 http://www.globalchange.umich.edu/Ben/ES/ #12

375

Why Earth Science?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article briefly describes Earth science. The study of Earth science provides the foundation for an understanding of the Earth, its processes, its resources, and its environment. Earth science is the study of the planet in its entirety, how its lithosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere work together as systems and how they affect…

Smith, Michael J.

2004-01-01

376

Cross Calibration of TOMS, SBUV/2 and Sciamachy Radiances from Ground Observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Verification of a stratospheric ozone recovery remains a high priority for environmental research and policy definition. Models predict an ozone recovery at a much lower rate than the measured depletion rate observed to date. Therefore improved precision of the satellite and ground ozone observing systems are required over the long term to verify recovery. We have shown that validation of radiances is the most effective means for correcting absolute accuracy and long term drifts of backscatter type satellite measurements. This method by-passes the algorithms used for both satellite and ground based measurements which are normally used to validate and correct the satellite data. Validation of radiances will also improve all higher level data products derived from the satellite observations. Backscatter algorithms suffer from several errors such as unrepresentative a-priori data and air mass factor corrections. Radiance comparisons employ forward models but are inherently more accurate and than inverse (retrieval) algorithms. A new method for satellite validation is planned which will compliment measurements from the existing ground-based networks. This method will employ very accurate comparisons between ground based zenith sky radiances and satellite nadir radiances. These comparisons will rely heavily on the experience derived from the Shuttle SBUV (SSBUV) program which provided a reference standard of radiance measurements for SBUV/2, TOMS, and GOME. This new measurement program, called "Skyrad", employs two well established capabilities at the Goddard Space Flight Center, 1) the SSBUV calibration facilities and 2) the radiative transfer codes used for the TOMS and SBUV/2 algorithms and their subsequent refinements. Radiative transfer calculations show that ground based zenith sky and satellite nadir backscatter ultraviolet comparisons can be made very accurately under certain viewing conditions. The Skyrad instruments (SSBUV, Brewer spectrophotometers, and possibly others) will be calibrated and maintained to a precision of a few tenths of a percent. Skyrad data will then enable long term calibration of upcoming satellite instruments such as QuickTOMS. SBUV/2s and SCIAMACHY with a high degree of precision. This technique can be further employed to monitor the performance of future instruments such as GOME-2, OMI, and OMPS. Initial ground observations taken from Goddard Space Flight Center compared with radiative transfer calculations has indicated the feasibility of this method.

Hillsenrath, Ernest; Ahmad, Ziauddin; Bhartia, Pawan K. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

377

Exploring Earth from Space  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This set of lithographs from the ISS EarthKAM program contains an educators' guide, student information and worksheets, and several Earth photos taken from the Space Shuttle. Shuttle astronauts and the ISS EarthKAM program provide photos of our planet from the unique perspective of Earth orbit. This resource can enhance students' studies of Earth and space science, geography, social studies, mathematics, and educational technologies.

2002-12-01

378

Earth Observatory Glossary  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Earth Observatory Glossary defines words from space science, ecology and Earth science. It is part of the NASA Earth Observatory site, which provides new satellite imagery and scientific information about Earth with a focus on climate and environmental change. The new glossary mode allows users to browse the Earth Observatory site with special terms highlighted that, when selected, will take you to the appropriate entry in the glossary.

379

Profiles in Online Learning: A Series on Leadership--Tom Layton: Judo and the Art of Technology Innovation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Profiles a high school technology teacher and creator of CyberSchool, a distance learning program of the Eugene (Oregon) School District. Discusses Tom Layton's education, early work experience, establishment of a high school English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) program, integration of computers into the classroom, reputation as a technology leader,…

Danielson, Larry

1998-01-01

380

Factorial structure of the 'ToM Storybooks': A test evaluating multiple components of Theory of Mind.  

PubMed

This study examined the factorial structure of the Theory of Mind (ToM) Storybooks, a comprehensive 93-item instrument tapping the five components in Wellman's model of ToM (emotion recognition, understanding of desire and beliefs, ability to distinguish between physical and mental entities, and awareness of the link between perception and knowledge). A sample of 681 three- to eight-year-old Italian children was divided into three age groups to assess whether factorial structure varied across different age ranges. Partial credit model analysis was applied to the data, leading to the empirical identification of 23 composite variables aggregating the ToM Storybooks items. Confirmatory factor analysis was then conducted on the composite variables, providing support for the theoretical model. There were partial differences in the specific composite variables making up the dimensions for each of the three age groups. A single test evaluating distinct dimensions of ToM is a valuable resource for clinical practice which may be used to define differential profiles for specific populations. PMID:25203522

Bulgarelli, Daniela; Testa, Silvia; Molina, Paola

2014-09-01

381

Web Caching With Request Reordering Tom as Feder Rajeev Motwani y Rina Panigrahy z An Zhu x  

E-print Network

Web Caching With Request Reordering Tom#19;as Feder #3; Rajeev Motwani y Rina Panigrahy z An Zhu x Department of Computer Science, Stanford University, Stan- ford, CA 94305. Supported in part by NSF Grant IIS@cisco.com. x Department of Computer Science, Stanford University, Stan- ford, CA 94305. Supported by a GRPW

Pratt, Vaughan

382

Ecosystem Informatics Strategic Initiative Final Report 2009 Julia Jones, Geosciences; Tom Dietterich, Computer Science; Enrique Thomann, Mathematics; Ed  

E-print Network

Ecosystem Informatics Strategic Initiative Final Report 2009 Julia Jones, Geosciences; Tom over the last five years. The Ecosystem Informatics program at Oregon State University has established a presence here at the University and on a global scale. The OSU Ecosystem Informatics IGERT Program (with

Escher, Christine

383

In Search of Excellence in Libraries : The Management Writings of Tom Peters and Their Implications for Library and Information Services  

Microsoft Academic Search

Examines the four books published by Tom Peters (In Search of Excellence, A Passion for Excellence, Thriving on Chaos, and Liberation Management), a major contemporary contributor to management thinking, and relates these new approaches to the management of Library and Information Services (LIS), using examples from Britain, North America, and Australia. The main areas of enquiry (based on the “prescriptions”

Richard F. Barter

1994-01-01

384

BY/PY 358 Animal Learning & Cognition Spring 2006 Dr. Tom Langen: tlangen@clarkson.edu, phone 268-7933,  

E-print Network

BY/PY 358 Animal Learning & Cognition Spring 2006 Dr. Tom Langen: tlangen@clarkson.edu, phone 268 Hauser: Wild Minds; CDL Wynne Animal Cognition ­ Mental Lives of Animals; JJ Bolhuis, LA Giraldeau: Animal Learning & Cognition is focused on how animals acquire, modify, store, and recall information

Langen, Tom A.

385

Memorials and Memorial Day--Searching for Information: "Super TOM Jr." for Periodical, Newspaper, and Factual Reference.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses students' use of multiple sources for research and describes an automated system, "Super TOM Jr.," designed for middle and junior high school students, that includes citations, indexes, and full text of magazine and newspaper articles and selected reference sources. Research activities relating to Memorial Day and World War II are…

School Library Media Activities Monthly, 1994

1994-01-01

386

On the Viability and Performance of DNS Tom van Leijenhorst, Kwan-Wu Chin and Darryn Lowe  

E-print Network

there have been studies on detecting and preventing DNS tunneling [7], no researchers have reportedOn the Viability and Performance of DNS Tunneling Tom van Leijenhorst, Kwan-Wu Chin and Darryn Lowe Abstract-- DNS tunnels are network covert channels that allow the transmission of arbitrary data using

Chin, Kwan-Wu

387

Error Recovery for a Boiler System with OTS PID Controller Tom Anderson, Mei Feng, Steve Riddle, Alexander Romanovsky  

E-print Network

Error Recovery for a Boiler System with OTS PID Controller Tom Anderson, Mei Feng, Steve Riddle-The-Shelf) item. The case study used a Simulink model of a steam boiler system together with an OTS PID in practice, employing software models of the PID controller and the steam boiler system rather than

Newcastle upon Tyne, University of

388

Error Recovery for a Boiler System with OTS PID Controller Tom Anderson, Mei Feng, Steve Riddle, Alexander Romanovsky  

E-print Network

1 Error Recovery for a Boiler System with OTS PID Controller Tom Anderson, Mei Feng, Steve Riddle employing an OTS (Off-The-Shelf) item. The case study used a Simulink model of a steam boiler system, employing software models of the PID controller and the steam boiler system rather than conducting

Newcastle upon Tyne, University of

389

Economic Impacts of the Aquaculture Industry in Alabama in 2005 Tom Stevens, Alan Hodges, and David Mulkey  

E-print Network

paid by businesses, but do not include taxes on profits or income. It was estimated that $4.0 MEconomic Impacts of the Aquaculture Industry in Alabama in 2005 by Tom Stevens, Alan Hodges of Agriculture Economics and Rural Sociology. #12;i Economic Impacts of the Aquaculture Industry in Alabama, 2005

Florida, University of

390

Design and implementation of an electronic textile jumpsuit Tom Martin, Mark Jones, Justin Chong, Meghan Quirk, Kara Baumann, Leah Passauer  

E-print Network

Design and implementation of an electronic textile jumpsuit Tom Martin, Mark Jones, Justin Chong of an electronic textile jumpsuit with an on-fabric digital network of sensors, including details of the weave of a prototype e-textile jumpsuit for motion capture and context-awareness, focusing on the interaction of weave

391

Language and ToM Development in Autism versus Asperger Syndrome: Contrasting Influences of Syntactic versus Lexical/Semantic Maturity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Theory of mind (ToM) development by a sample of 63 children aged 5-12 years (24 with Asperger syndrome, 19 with high-functioning autism, and 20 age-matched typical developers) was assessed with a five-task false-belief battery in relation to both lexical (vocabulary) and syntactic (grammar) language skills. Contrary to some previous research, no…

Paynter, Jessica; Peterson, Candida

2010-01-01

392

Profiling of melatonin in the model tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) cultivar Micro-Tom.  

PubMed

Melatonin exists in a considerable variety of plant species. However, the physiological roles of melatonin in plants are not well understood. In this study, the distribution and accumulation of melatonin during leaf and fruit development were analyzed in Micro-Tom, a model cultivar of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.). Melatonin was extracted using an acetone-methanol method and measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Melatonin was detected in leaves, stems, roots, flowers, fruits, seedlings and seeds in the range of 1.5-66.6 ng/g fresh weight, with seeds containing the highest concentration of melatonin. In fruits and leaves, melatonin concentrations varied depending on the developmental stage, suggesting that melatonin controls some of the processes involved in plant maturation. PMID:19317796

Okazaki, Masateru; Ezura, Hiroshi

2009-04-01

393

Early Results from the Floating Potential Probe on the International Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation provides information on the Floating Potential Probe (FPP) on the International Space Station (ISS). The FPP measures the body voltage (electric potential) of the, and the measurements are then transmitted to Earth.

Morton, Thomas L.; Ferguson, Dale C.

2001-01-01

394

Heat pipe cooled probe  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The basic heat pipe principle is employed to provide a self-contained passively cooled probe that may be placed into a high temperature environment. The probe consists of an evaporator region of a heat pipe and a sensing instrument. Heat is absorbed as the working fluid evaporates in the probe. The vapor is transported to the vapor space of the condenser region. Heat is dissipated from the condenser region and fins causing condensation of the working fluid, which returns to the probe by gravity and the capillary action of the wick. Working fluid, wick and condenser configurations and structure materials can be selected to maintain the probe within an acceptable temperature range.

Camarda, C. J. (inventor); Couch, L. M.

1984-01-01

395

Ultrafast scanning probe microscopy  

DOEpatents

An ultrafast scanning probe microscopy method is described for achieving subpicosecond-temporal resolution and submicron-spatial resolution of an observation sample. In one embodiment of the present claimed invention, a single short optical pulse is generated and is split into first and second pulses. One of the pulses is delayed using variable time delay means. The first pulse is then directed at an observation sample located proximate to the probe of a scanning probe microscope. The scanning probe microscope produces probe-sample signals indicative of the response of the probe to characteristics of the sample. The second pulse is used to modulate the probe of the scanning probe microscope. The time delay between the first and second pulses is then varied. The probe-sample response signal is recorded at each of the various time delays created between the first and second pulses. The probe-sample response signal is then plotted as a function of time delay to produce a cross-correlation of the probe sample response. In so doing, the present invention provides simultaneous subpicosecond-temporal resolution and submicron-spatial resolution of the sample. 6 Figs.

Weiss, S.; Chemla, D.S.; Ogletree, D.F.; Botkin, D.

1995-05-16

396

The Sounds of Earth Record Cover  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This gold aluminum cover was designed to protect the Voyager 1 and 2 'Sounds of Earth' gold-plated records from micrometeorite bombardment, but also serves a double purpose in providing the finder a key to playing the record. The explanatory diagram appears on both the inner and outer surfaces of the cover, as the outer diagram will be eroded in time. Flying aboard Voyagers 1 and 2 are identical 'golden' records, carrying the story of Earth far into deep space. The 12 inch gold-plated copper discs contain greetings in 60 languages, samples of music from different cultures and eras, and natural and man-made sounds from Earth. They also contain electronic information that an advanced technological civilization could convert into diagrams and photographs. Currently, both Voyager probes are sailing adrift in the black sea of interplanetary space, having left our solar system years ago.

1977-01-01

397

Comparing Earth's atmosphere with other planets  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How does Earth's atmosphere differ from that of Mars and Venus? In this informational piece, part of an interactive laboratory series for grades 8-12, students read how small changes in Earth's atmosphere can change the planet's temperatures and rainfall. In an interactive activity, students launch a probe to collect atmospheric data about temperature and pressure on both Mars and Venus. Students can see graphs of altitude plotted versus temperature or pressure. Multiple-choice questions reinforce the student readings. A second activity provides students additional information and questions on the atmospheres of Mars, Venus, and Earth. As a final review, students respond to questions with written answers, which may be printed. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

University of Utah. Astrophysics Science Project Integrating Research and Education (ASPIRE)

2003-01-01

398

Scientific Value of a Saturn Atmospheric Probe Mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Atmospheric entry probe mISSions to the giant planets can uniquely discriminate between competing theories of solar system formation and the origin and evolution of the giant planets and their atmospheres. This provides for important comparative studies of the gas and ice giants, and to provide a laboratory for studying the atmospheric chemistries, dynamics, and interiors of all the planets including Earth. The giant planets also represent a valuable link to extrasolar planetary systems. As outlined in the recent Planetary Decadal Survey, a Saturn Probe mission - with a shallow probe - ranks as a high priority for a New Frontiers class mission [1].

Simon-Miller, A. A.; Lunine, J. I.; Atreya, S. K.; Spilker, T. R.; Coustenis, A.; Atkinson, D. H.

2012-01-01

399

The Lifeworld Earth and a Modelled Earth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The goal of this paper is to study the question of whether a phenomenological view of the Earth could be empirically endorsed. The phenomenological way of thinking considers the Earth as a material entity, but not as an object as viewed in science. In the learning science tradition, tracking the process of the conceptual change of the shape of the…

Juuti, Kalle

2014-01-01

400

The gravity probe B relativity gyroscope program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The idea of testing general relativity through observations on Earth orbiting gyroscopes was suggested in 1959 to 1960. The direction, it was noted, of spin of a suitably oriented gyroscope should change with respect to the line of sight to a guide star for two reasons: a geodetic effect from the motion of the gyroscope through the curved space-time around the Earth, and a frame-dragging effect from the Earth's rotation. NASA began supporting laboratory research on the experiment, now called Gravity Probe B, in 1964. Technologies for it were progressively established, and an error analysis demonstrated the potential of measuring frame-dragging to 1 to 2 percent and the geodetic effect to 1 part in 10(exp 4). Later analyses, discussed herein, suggest possibilities for further improving those precisions each by a further factor of 10. In 1984, after technical and scientific reviews by the Space Science Board and other bodies, and completion by NASA Marshall Center of a Phase B Study, the NASA Administrator approved the start of a program known as STORE (Shuttle Test Of the Relativity Experiment). The purpose of STORE is to verify the final Gravity Probe B science payload, perform on the Shuttle a 7-day experiment rehearsal (including sophisticated gyro tests in low gravity), and then return the payload to Earth for refurbishment and integration into the Science Mission spacecraft. The payload comprises four gyroscopes, a telescope, and a drag-free proof mass, all mounted in a quartz block assembly within an evacuated magnetically shielded probe, which in turn is inserted into a 10-ft long, 6-ft diameter liquid helium dewar, operating at 1.8 K and maintaining low temperature for 2 years. STORE is manifested on Shuttle OV-105, for launch MSSN 69 in February 1993. The Science Mission is set tentatively for June 1995.

Everitt, C. W. Francis; Parkinson, B. W.; Turneaure, J. P.

1989-01-01

401

Earth on the Move.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides background information on the layers of the earth, the relationship between changes on the surface of the earth and its insides, and plate tectonics. Teaching activities are included, with some containing reproducible worksheets and handouts to accompany them. (TW)

Naturescope, 1987

1987-01-01

402

UV 380 nm Reflectivity of the Earth's Surface  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The 380 nm radiance measurements of TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) have been converted into a global data set of daily (1979 to 1992) Lambert equivalent reflectivities R of the Earth's surface and boundary layer (clouds, aerosols, surface haze, and snow/ice). Since UV surface reflectivity is between 2 and 8% for both land and water during all seasons of the year (except for ice and snow cover), reflectivities larger than the surface value indicates the presence of clouds, haze, or aerosols in the satellite field of view. Statistical analysis of 14 years of daily data show that most snow/ice-free regions of the Earth have their largest fraction of days each year when the reflectivity is low (R less than 10%). The 380 nm reflectivity data shows that the true surface reflectivity is 2 to 3% lower than the most frequently occurring reflectivity value for each TOMS scene. The most likely cause of this could be a combination of frequently occurring boundary-layer water or aerosol haze. For most regions, the observation of extremely clear conditions needed to estimate the surface reflectivity from space is a comparatively rare occurrence. Certain areas (e.g., Australia, southern Africa, portions of northern Africa) are cloud-free more than 80% of the year, which exposes these regions to larger amounts of UV radiation than at comparable latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere. Regions over rain-forests, jungle areas, Europe and Russia, the bands surrounding the Arctic and Antarctic regions, and many ocean areas have significant cloud cover (R greater than 15%) more than half of each year. In the low to middle latitudes, the areas with the heaviest cloud cover (highest reflectivity for most of the year) are the forest areas of northern South America, southern Central America, the jungle areas of equatorial Africa, and high mountain regions such as the Himalayas or the Andes. The TOMS reflectivity data show the presence of large nearly clear ocean areas and the effects of the major ocean currents on cloud production.

Herman, J. R.; Celarier, E.; Larko, D.

2000-01-01

403

Earth System Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Understanding climate requires understanding that Earth is a holistic system of dynamic, interacting components. Furthermore, understanding how the Earth system works is essential for making informed decisions about how to manage, protect, and sustain our planet and its natural resources. This EarthLabs module helps students understand their world as an interconnected living system. Students learn to identify the parts of the Earth system and the processes that connect them, starting locally and gradually expanding their view to regional and global scales.

Bardar, Erin; Haddad, Nick

404

The Dynamic Earth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses how the earth is a dynamic system that maintains itself in a steady state. Areas considered include large/small-scale earth motions, geologic time, rock and hydrologic cycles, and other aspects dealing with the changing face of the earth. (JN)

Siever, Raymond

1983-01-01

405

Mass of the Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners use basic measurements of the Earth and pieces of rock and iron to estimate the mass of the Earth. Learners will calculate mass, volume, and density, convert units, and employ the water displacement method. To calculate an even more accurate estimate of the mass of the Earth, this resource includes optional instructions on how to measure the iron core mass.

Muller, Eric

2010-01-01

406

Exploring Earth Investigations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Exploring Earth Investigations are Internet-based activities that use animations, interactive graphics, and unique imagery to help students gather information about a particular Earth science theme, issue, or concept. Exploring Earth Investigations were created by Houghton-Mifflin/McDougal-Littell in collaboration with TERC.

2008-07-01

407

Interior of the Earth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Basic questions regarding the interior of the Earth in the 1990's are discussed. Research problems in the areas of plate tectonics, the Earth mantle the Earth core, and continental structure are discussed. Observational requirements of the GRAVSAT satellite mission are discussed.

Phillips, R. J.

1984-01-01

408

Galileo Probe Mass Spectrometer Measurements of the Chemical Composition of the Atmosphere of Jupiter  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical and isotopic composition of the Jovian atmosphere was measured by the Galileo Probe Mass Spectrometer (GPMS). This data was obtained on December 7, 1995 over a time period of approximately 1 hour during the probe descent in the 0.5 to 20 bar pressure region and transmitted to Earth over a period of several weeks. The sampling was either

H. B. Niemann; J. A. Haberman; D. N. Harpold; R. E. Hartle; W. T. Kasprzak; P. R. Mahaffy; S. K. Atreya; G. R. Carignan; T. M. Donahue; D. M. Hunten; T. C. Owen; N. W. Spencer

1996-01-01

409

Microneurosurgical water probe.  

PubMed

When constructing the micro-neurosurgical water ball probe, the authors have simply combined the properties of a ball probe with an irrigational function and the supportive role of water current to form a new irrigating ball dissector. The micro-instrument has an outlet mechanism with which the surgeon can regulate the flow of physiological solution into the operational field. Its point has the properties of a ball probe, and the overall bayonet shape facilitates surgical interventions in deep tissues under microscopic control. The water probe therefore enables the surgeon to perform precise mechanical preparation supported by a regulated current of water and a targeted irrigation in the operational field. The physiological solution in the pressure infusion cuff is under minimal pressure and directly connected to the probe. Due to the fact that one device can be used for various purposes the water ball probe represents an advantageous alternative to conventional micro-neurosurgical preparation. PMID:15906209

Pogády, P; Wurm, G

2005-04-01

410

High temperature probe  

DOEpatents

A high temperature probe for sampling, for example, smokestack fumes, and is able to withstand temperatures of 3000.degree. F. The probe is constructed so as to prevent leakage via the seal by placing the seal inside the water jacket whereby the seal is not exposed to high temperature, which destroys the seal. The sample inlet of the probe is also provided with cooling fins about the area of the seal to provide additional cooling to prevent the seal from being destroyed. Also, a heated jacket is provided for maintaining the temperature of the gas being tested as it passes through the probe. The probe includes pressure sensing means for determining the flow velocity of an efficient being sampled. In addition, thermocouples are located in various places on the probe to monitor the temperature of the gas passing there through.

Swan, Raymond A. (Fremont, CA)

1994-01-01

411

Periodontal probing: a review.  

PubMed

Periodontal probes are the main instruments that are used to assess the status of the periodontium, either for screening purposes or to evaluate periodontal changes throughout the treatment process. With increased knowledge and understanding of periodontal disease, the probes have evolved from a unidimensional manual shape into a more sophisticated computerised instrument. This is due to the need to increase the accuracy and reproducibility of readings and to improve efficiency (time, effort, money). Each probe has characteristic features that makes it unique and, in some cases, specific and limited to use. The aim of this paper is to present a brief introduction to periodontal disease and the methodology of measuring it, followed by probing limitations. The paper will also discuss the methodology of reducing probing error, examiner calibration and probing reproducibility. PMID:25198634

Al Shayeb, Kwthar Nassar A; Turner, Wendy; Gillam, David G

2014-08-01

412

Probing the Earth's interior with the LENA detector  

E-print Network

A future large-volume liquid scintillator detector such as the proposed 50 kton LENA (Low Energy Neutrino Astronomy) detector would provide a high-statistics measurement of terrestrial antineutrinos originating from $\\beta$-decays of the uranium and thorium chains. Additionally, the neutron is scattered in the forward direction in the detection reaction $\\bar\

Hochmuth, K A; Fields, B D; Undagoitia, T M; Oberauer, L; Potzel, W; Wurm, M; Hochmuth, Kathrin A.; Feilitzsch, Franz v.; Fields, Brian D.; Undagoitia, Teresa Marrodan; Oberauer, Lothar; Potzel, Walter; Wurm, Michael

2006-01-01

413

Probing the Earth's interior with the LENA detector  

E-print Network

A future large-volume liquid scintillator detector such as the proposed 50 kton LENA (Low Energy Neutrino Astronomy) detector would provide a high-statistics measurement of terrestrial antineutrinos originating from $\\beta$-decays of the uranium and thorium chains. Additionally, the neutron is scattered in the forward direction in the detection reaction $\\bar\

Kathrin A. Hochmuth; Franz v. Feilitzsch; Brian D. Fields; Teresa Marrodan Undagoitia; Lothar Oberauer; Walter Potzel; Michael Wurm

2006-10-04

414

Van Allen Probes: Exploring the Extremes of Space Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a poster about radiation in space. Learners can read about the Van Allen belts and how NASA's Van Allen Probes are investigating the influence of the Sun's energy on Earth. The activity version also includes math problems, a vocabulary matching game, a communication research challenge, and a toolbox of web resources.

2013-07-14

415

Earth Systems Science Earth Systems Science at UNH  

E-print Network

Earth Systems Science Earth Systems Science at UNH THE UNH Institute for the Study of Earth, Oceans, and Space (EOS) Earth Systems Research Center is dedicated to understanding the Earth as an integrative scientists and students study the Earth's ecosystems, atmosphere, water, and ice using field measurements

Pringle, James "Jamie"

416

New Guidelines for Graduate Software-Engineering Education Mark Ardis, mark.ardis@stevens.edu; Tom Hilburn, hilburn@erau.edu; and Art Pyster,  

E-print Network

New Guidelines for Graduate Software-Engineering Education Mark Ardis, mark.ardis@stevens.edu; Tom a landmark report on graduate education in software engineering (Ardis and Ford 1989). Several universities

Ardis, Mark

417

TOMS ozone data compared at mesoscale resolution to tropopause heights from the AVE radiosonde network and to VAS radiances over the south-central United States  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Observations from 1982 are being compared between the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS), the Atmospheric Variability Experiment (AVE), and the VISSR Atmospheric Sounder (VAS) across Texas and Oklahoma. TOMS data show a significant ozone maximum over northeastern Texas. AVE radiosonde analysis shows tropopause heights with the highest pressure (lowest altitudes) over central Oklahoma accompanied by a mid-level jet across northern Mexico exiting above the Texas-Gulf coast. Corresponding VAS radiances show a dry slot in the middle tropopause across central Texas accompanied by a secondary slot over Oklahoma. The maxima are separated by 100 to 500 km. The impact of TOMS data on tropopause analysis is preliminarily seen as insignificant because TOMS data is not registered with respect to AVE tropopause heights.

Chesters, Dennis; Uccellini, Louis; Larko, David

1987-01-01

418

Dr John T Ammons "Tom" or "Doc" to his family and friends 68 years old of Louisville, TN passed away at  

E-print Network

Dr John T Ammons "Tom" or "Doc" to his family and friends 68 years old of Louisville, TN passed of Tennessee. He is survived by his Wife: Tatiana Karpinets of Louisville, TN, Her Son and Daughter in law

Tennessee, University of

419

Earth Science for Society Exhibition  

E-print Network

4th Earth Science for Society Exhibition March 1618, 2014 Big Four............................................................................................................................................ 9 Earth Science for Society Exhibitor Listing.com 3 WelcomeMessage Thank you for participating in Earth Science for Society! Earth Science

de Leon, Alex R.

420

Dear Colleague Letter - Earth Sciences  

NSF Publications Database

... Division of Earth Sciences 16 July, 2004 Dear Colleague; The Division of Earth Sciences (EAR ... Division of Earth Sciences. EAR will now be structured in two Sections: Surface Earth Processes ...

421

Dear Colleague Letter - Earth Sciences  

NSF Publications Database

... of Earth Sciences 16 July, 2004 RE: A NEW STRUCTURE FOR THE ORGANIZATION OF THE DIVISION OF EARTH ... the Earth Sciences community, nor the actual activities within the Sections. The Division of Earth ...

422

Interview with Tom Peters. Father of post-modern corporation speaks out. Interview by Richard D. Brennan, Jr.  

PubMed

Tom Peters has been selected as the opening Keynote speaker at the National Association for Home Care and Hospice's Annual Meeting in Seattle, Washington on October 23-26, 2005. Peters has been described by the Los Angeles Times as the "father of the post-modern corporation." The New Yorker said, "In no small part, what American corporations have become is what Peters has encouraged them to be." Fortune called Tom Peters the top guru of management, and compares him to Ralph Waldo Emerson, Henry David Thoreau, Walt Whitman, and H.L. Mencken. The Economist tagged him the Uber-guru; and BusinessWeek's take on his "unconventional views" led them to label him "business's best friend and worst nightmare." PMID:16035269

Peters, Tom

2005-06-01

423

Continental Effects of 2004 Alaskan Fires (WMS)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Wildfires started by lightning burned more than 80,000 acres in Alaska in June 2004. The effects of these fires can be seen across North America with the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) instrument on the Earth Probe spacecraft. TOMS detects the presence of UV-absorbing tropospheric aerosols across the globe.

Delabeaujardiere, Jeff; Newman, Paul; Bhartia, Pawan

2005-03-14

424

Earth Science Information Center  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An ESIC? An Earth Science Information Center. Don't spell it. Say it. ESIC. It rhymes with seasick. You can find information in an information center, of course, and you'll find earth science information in an ESIC. That means information about the land that is the Earth, the land that is below the Earth, and in some instances, the space surrounding the Earth. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) operates a network of Earth Science Information Centers that sell earth science products and data. There are more than 75 ESIC's. Some are operated by the USGS, but most are in other State or Federal agencies. Each ESIC responds to requests for information received by telephone, letter, or personal visit. Your personal visit.

U.S. Geological Survey

1991-01-01

425

EarthLabs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

EarthLabs is a collection of challenging, lab-based high school Earth science curriculum units, each of which integrates text, hands-on activities, interactive visualizations, video, authentic science data, and data visualization and analysis tools. Each unit highlights the interconnectedness and complexities of the Earth system in the context of a specific content area (including Earth system science, climate, weather, atmosphere, cryosphere, environmental science, hurricanes, drought, fisheries, oceans, carbon cycle), and can be integrated into an existing Earth or environmental science course or used as an independent curriculum unit. In addition to the student portal, EarthLabs provides a separate teacher's guide ("EarthLabs for Educators") that provides background and logistical information, pedagogical guidance, and answers to assessments embedded in the student portal.

426

EarthLabs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

EarthLabs is a collection of challenging, lab-based high school Earth science curriculum units, each of which integrates text, hands-on activities, interactive visualizations, video, authentic science data, and data visualization and analysis tools. Each unit highlights the interconnectedness and complexities of the Earth system in the context of a specific content area (including Earth system science, climate, weather, atmosphere, cryosphere, environmental science, hurricanes, drought, fisheries, oceans, carbon cycle), and can be integrated into an existing Earth or environmental science course or used as an independent curriculum unit. In addition to the student portal, EarthLabs provides a separate teacher's guide ("EarthLabs for Educators") that provides background and logistical information, pedagogical guidance, and answers to assessments embedded in the student portal.

2012-05-31

427

Ancient impact structures on modern continental shelves: The Chesapeake Bay, Montagnais, and Toms Canyon craters, Atlantic margin of North America  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three ancient impact craters (Chesapeake Bay—35.7Ma; Toms Canyon—35.7Ma; Montagnais—51Ma) and one multiring impact basin (Chicxulub—65Ma) are currently known to be buried beneath modern continental shelves. All occur on the passive Atlantic margin of North America in regions extensively explored by seismic reflection surveys in the search for oil and gas reserves. We limit our discussion herein to the three youngest

C. Wylie Poag; Jeffrey B Plescia; Phillip C Molzer

2002-01-01

428

Systematic comparison between the ground based automated Dobson of the Observatory of Haute-Provence and TOMS since 1983  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The total ozone quantity has been obtained since September 1983 at O.H.P. using the conventional AD wavelength technique. An average of 180 measurements per year is obtained with the Dobson n deg 85. Each of these daily total quantities is in fact an average of at least 5 measurements. The preliminary comparison with TOMS data show good agreement. We discuss systematic daily and monthly comparisons.

Merienne, Marie-France; Barbe, Alain; Daconceicao, Pierre

1994-01-01

429

Neutrino exploration of the earth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show how the neutrinos produced by a multi-TeV proton synchotron may be used for purposes of geological research. Project GENIUS (geological exploration by neutrino-induced underground sound) is designed to search for deposits of oil and gas at large distances from the accelerator. It depends upon the coherent sound signal produced at depth by millions of neutrino interactions along the underground neutrino beam. Surface measurements of the acoustic pulse provide a remote underground probe. Project GEMINI (geological exploration with muons induced by neutrino interactions) is designed to search for distant deposits of high- Z ores. It depends upon the surface measurement of neutrino-induced muons which were produced in the last few kilometers of the neutrinos' underground voyage. Project GEOSCAN is a flux-independent procedure to determine the vertical density profile of the Earth, and especially its core. It depends upon the angle and energy dependence of the attenuation as the neutrino beam traverses the whole Earth.

De Rújula, A.; Glashow, S. L.; Wilson, R. R.; Charpak, G.

1983-10-01

430

Initial estimate of NOAA-9 SBUV/2 total ozone drift: Based on comparison with re-calibrated TOMS measurements and pair justification of SBUV/2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Newly recalibrated version 6 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) data are used as a reference measurement in a comparison of monthly means of total ozone in 10 degree latitude zones from SBUV/2 and the nadir measurements from TOMS. These comparisons indicate a roughly linear long-term drift in SBUV/2 total ozone relative to TOMS of about 2.5 Dobson units per year at the equator over the first three years of SBUV/2. The pari justification technique is also applied to the SBUV/2 measurements in a manner similar to that used for SBUV and TOMS. The higher solar zenith angles associated with the afternoon orbit of NOAA-9 and the large changes in solar zenith angle associated with its changing equator crossing time degrade the accuracy of the pair justification method relative to its application to SBUV and TOMS, but the results are consistent with the SBUV/2-TOMS comparisons, and show a roughly linear drift in SBUV/2 of 2.5 to 4.5 Dobson units per year in equatorial ozone.

Wellemeyer, C. G.; Taylor, S. L.; Gu, X. U.; Mcpeters, Richard D.; Hudson, R. D.

1990-01-01

431

Our Planetary System Earth, as viewed by the Voyager spacecraft  

E-print Network

s surface Probes or Landers · Land on surface of another world · Explore surface in detail Sample Return Missions · Land on surface of another world · Gather samples · Spacecraft designed to blast off other world about a world like our Earth by studying it in context with other worlds in the solar system. · Stay

Crenshaw, Michael

432

CHARGED-PARTICLE OBSERVATIONS IN THE EARTH'S OUTER MAGNETOSPHERE  

Microsoft Academic Search

By means of Explorer 14 a comprehensive, homogeneous survey of the spatial distribution of charged particles associated with the geomagnetic field has been made within the geocentric radial distance range 300 to 105,000 km and within the range of sun-earth-probe angle 58 ø to 150 ø . The present paper is concerned principally with the distribution of electrons of E

L. A. Frank; J. A. Van Allen; E. Macagno

1963-01-01

433

Comprehensive Resources for Tomato Functional Genomics Based on the Miniature Model Tomato Micro-Tom  

PubMed Central

Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L., Solanaceae) is an excellent model plant for genomic research of solanaceous plants, as well as for studying the development, ripening, and metabolism of fruit. In 2003, the International Solanaceae Project (SOL, www.sgn.cornell.edu ) was initiated by members from more than 30 countries, and the tomato genome-sequencing project is currently underway. Genome sequence of tomato obtained by this project will provide a firm foundation for forthcoming genomic studies such as the comparative analysis of genes conserved among the Solanaceae species and the elucidation of the functions of unknown tomato genes. To exploit the wealth of the genome sequence information, there is an urgent need for novel resources and analytical tools for tomato functional genomics. Here, we present an overview of the development of genetic and genomic resources of tomato in the last decade, with a special focus on the activities of Japan SOL and the National Bio-Resource Project in the development of functional genomic resources of a model cultivar, Micro-Tom. PMID:19506732

Matsukura, C; Aoki, K; Fukuda, N; Mizoguchi, T; Asamizu, E; Saito, T; Shibata, D; Ezura, H

2008-01-01

434

Magnetically driven filament probe.  

PubMed

A radially movable probe has been developed for studies of filamentary transport in ASDEX Upgrade during edge localized modes (ELMs) by means of Langmuir tips and magnetic pickup coils. The probe is permanently installed at the low field side in the ASDEX Upgrade vacuum vessel and is not subject to limitations in probe size, as, for example, probes on a shared manipulator are. The probe is moved by a magnetic drive, which allows for easy installation in the vessel, and has moderate machine requirements, as it will only require an electric feedthrough and an external power supply. The drive gives a linear motion with a radial range of 5 cm within 50 ms, where range and velocity can be largely scaled according to experimental requirements. The probe has been installed in the outer midplane of the ASDEX Upgrade vessel, where ELM filaments are expected to have their maximum amplitude. Filaments are coherent substructures within an ELM, carrying a fraction of the ELM released energy towards the wall. The new probe allows to measure the structure of these filaments, in particular, parameters such as filament rotation (by time delay measurements) and size (by peak width analysis). Activating the drive moves the probe from a safe position behind the limiter to a position in front of the limiters, i.e., exposes the Langmuir pins to the scrape-off layer plasma. PMID:17552815

Schmid, A; Herrmann, A; Rohde, V; Maraschek, M; Müller, H W

2007-05-01

435

Formative Assessment Probes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Formative assessment probes can be effective tools to help teachers build a bridge between students' initial ideas and scientific ones. In this article, the authors describe how using two formative assessment probes can help teachers determine the extent to which students make similar connections between developing a concept of matter and a…

Eberle, Francis; Keeley, Page

2008-01-01

436

Ecotoxicity of rare earth elements Rare earth elements (REEs) or rare earth metals is the  

E-print Network

Ecotoxicity of rare earth elements Info Sheet Rare earth elements (REEs) or rare earth metals isolated. Actually, most rare earth elements exist in the Earth's crust in higher concentrations than though most people have never heard of rare earth elements, sev- eral of them govern mankind's modern

Wehrli, Bernhard

437

Space and Earth Sciences, Computer Systems, and Scientific Data Analysis Support, Volume 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This Final Progress Report covers the specific technical activities of Hughes STX Corporation for the last contract triannual period of 1 June through 30 Sep. 1993, in support of assigned task activities at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). It also provides a brief summary of work throughout the contract period of performance on each active task. Technical activity is presented in Volume 1, while financial and level-of-effort data is presented in Volume 2. Technical support was provided to all Division and Laboratories of Goddard's Space Sciences and Earth Sciences Directorates. Types of support include: scientific programming, systems programming, computer management, mission planning, scientific investigation, data analysis, data processing, data base creation and maintenance, instrumentation development, and management services. Mission and instruments supported include: ROSAT, Astro-D, BBXRT, XTE, AXAF, GRO, COBE, WIND, UIT, SMM, STIS, HEIDI, DE, URAP, CRRES, Voyagers, ISEE, San Marco, LAGEOS, TOPEX/Poseidon, Pioneer-Venus, Galileo, Cassini, Nimbus-7/TOMS, Meteor-3/TOMS, FIFE, BOREAS, TRMM, AVHRR, and Landsat. Accomplishments include: development of computing programs for mission science and data analysis, supercomputer applications support, computer network support, computational upgrades for data archival and analysis centers, end-to-end management for mission data flow, scientific modeling and results in the fields of space and Earth physics, planning and design of GSFC VO DAAC and VO IMS, fabrication, assembly, and testing of mission instrumentation, and design of mission operations center.

Estes, Ronald H. (editor)

1993-01-01

438

Rare Earth ? See Rare Earth, by Ward and Brownlee  

E-print Network

Rare Earth ? See Rare Earth, by Ward and Brownlee #12;N to date N = N* fs fGHZfp nH fl fi fc L/T ·N Earth is "Just Right" Yes, life on Earth has adapted to Earth, but ... Earth has just the right mass to be ·Tectonically-active ·Retain an atmosphere Earth has had a stable climate The Sun is particularly inactive

Walter, Frederick M.

439

Earth: Inside and Out  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This book of 19 essays, written by Earth scientists, provides insight into the dynamic processes that shape the Earth. The essays are supported by case studies describing a range of research projects (including Looking for Life in Antarctica-and Mars, Mapping Mt. Rainer, and Mapping Hot Springs on the Deep Ocean Floor) and profiles of historically significant Earth scientists (Including Inge Lehmann, Milutin Milankovitch, and Harold C. Urey). The essays, case studies, and profiles are organized along the same themes explored in the American Museum of Natural History (AMNH) Gottesman Hall of Planet Earth, (How do we read the rocks?; How has the Earth evolved?; Why are there ocean basins, mountains and continents?; What causes climate and climate change?; Why is the Earth habitable?) a large, permanent exhibition that opened at the Museum in 1999.

2001-05-01

440

Earth? Mass Variability  

E-print Network

The perturbation of the Earth caused by variability of mass of Earth as additional reason with gravity of celestial bodies and shape of the Earth. The Earth eating and collecting matters from space and loss or eject matters to space through its flying in the space around the Sun. The source of the rising in the global sea level is not closed in global warming and icebergs, but the outer space is the additional important source for this rising. The Earth eats waters from space in unknown mechanism. The mass of the Earth become greater in November i.e. before transit apoapsis two months, and become latter in February i.e. after transit apoapsis to two months.

Ramy Mawad

2014-02-12

441

Variables Affecting Earth's Albedo  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Earth's albedo is the fraction of incoming radiation (sunlight) that is reflected into space. The Earth has an average albedo, which describes how much sunlight is reflected on average for the whole planet and the whole year. The Earth also has a local albedo, which determines how much of the Sun's light is reflected from a particular place at a particular time. The local albedo depends on the particular local surface, which can change seasonally as vegetation changes. It also depends on more rapidly changing things such as snow and clouds. In this lesson, students will investigate one of the variables that affect the Earth's albedo. They will collect and graph data on Earth's albedo from two surface types at the same latitude over a period of two years. They will then use the data to calculate how much difference there is in Earth's albedo between the two locations and suggest reasons for the differences.

442

MicroProbe Small Unmanned Aerial System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The MicroProbe unmanned aerial system (UAS) concept incorporates twin electric motors mounted on the vehicle wing, thus enabling an aerodynamically and environmentally clean nose area for atmospheric sensors. A payload bay is also incorporated in the fuselage to accommodate remote sensing instruments. A key feature of this concept is lightweight construction combined with low flying speeds to minimize kinetic energy and associated hazards, as well as maximizing spatial resolution. This type of aerial platform is needed for Earth science research and environmental monitoring. There were no vehicles of this type known to exist previously.

Bland, Geoffrey; Miles, Ted

2012-01-01

443

EarthWise Journeys  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

EarthWise Journeys is an independent resource for travel adventures worldwide with special emphasis on socially responsible travel, cross-cultural exchange, and the environment. EarthWise Journeys is dedicated to travelers who seek environmental awareness, adventure, personal growth, and discovery of our global community. EarthWise Journeys assists members find fun and rewarding travel adventures, learning opportunities, volunteer trips with non-profits, and personal retreats. In addition to travel planning, members receive newsletters, the discount airfares ...and more.

444

Visible Earth: Biosphere  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site is part of Visible Earth, which is hosted by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and contains a searchable directory of images, visualizations, and animations of the Earth. This section highlights the Earth's biosphere, which includes aquatic habitats, ecological dynamics, microbiota, fungi, terrestrial ecosystems and habitats, vegetation, wetlands, and zoology. Each image is available in a variety of resolutions and sizes, with a brief description, credit, date, and photographing satellite.

445

EarthExplorer  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The EarthExplorer trifold provides basic information for on-line access to remotely-sensed data from the U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center archive. The EarthExplorer (http://earthexplorer.usgs.gov/) client/server interface allows users to search and download aerial photography, satellite data, elevation data, land-cover products, and digitized maps. Minimum computer system requirements and customer service contact information also are included in the brochure.

Houska, Treva

2012-01-01

446

Why Earth Science?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Nearly everything that we do each day is connected in some way to Earth--to its land, oceans, atmosphere, plants, and animals. To fully understand and appreciate our planet, students need to learn about its processes, its resources, and its environment. In 2004, the American Geological Institute (AGI) developed the "Why Earth Science?" brochure to help teachers, parents, and school boards to understand the value of Earth and space science to life, citizenship, and careers.

Smith, Michael J.

2004-05-01

447

Earth Science Week  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Each year, Earth Science Week focuses on a different facet of earth science to help people gain a better understanding and appreciation of the natural world. This website contains information about ways for classrooms to integrate Earth Science Week into their curriculum each year. This includes ways to involve the community, contests, and grade-level appropriate activities surrounding the year's theme. The site also includes a list of links to educational resources related to the current theme.

448

Layering the Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students create a set of flash cards to assist them in learning the structure of the Earth, including the Earth's crust, inner core, outer core, and mantle. The resource includes a template with cut away diagrams of the Earth's interior. It is part of the teacher's guide accompanying the video, NASA SCI Files: The Case of the Shaky Quake. Lesson objectives supported by the video, additional resources, teaching tips and an answer sheet are included in the teacher's guide.

449

The Digital Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Digital Earth is a virtual representation of our planet that enables a person to explore and interact with the vast amounts of natural, cultural, and historical information being gathered about the Earth. This video describes the need for such a system, possible uses of a Digital Earth system, and the technologies and organizations that must come together in order for it to become a reality.

Shirah, Greg; Kekesi, Alex; Snodgrass, Stuart; Allen, Jesse; Maher, Steve; Mitchell, Horace

1999-05-04

450

Gravity Probe B Number 4 Gyro Inspected  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Gravity Probe B (GP-B) is the relativity experiment developed at Stanford University to test two extraordinary predictions of Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity. The experiment will measure, very precisely, the expected tiny changes in the direction of the spin axes of four gyroscopes contained in an Earth-orbiting satellite at a 400-mile altitude. So free are the gyroscopes from disturbance that they will provide an almost perfect space-time reference system. They will measure how space and time are very slightly warped by the presence of the Earth, and, more profoundly, how the Earth's rotation very slightly drags space-time around with it. These effects, though small for the Earth, have far-reaching implications for the nature of matter and the structure of the Universe. In this photograph, Stanford engineer, Chris Gray, is inspecting the number 4 gyro under monochromatic light. GP-B is among the most thoroughly researched programs ever undertaken by NASA. This is the story of a scientific quest in which physicists and engineers have collaborated closely over many years. Inspired by their quest, they have invented a whole range of technologies that are already enlivening other branches of science and engineering. Launched April 20, 2004 , the GP-B program was managed for NASA by the Marshall Space Flight Center. Development of the GP-B is the responsibility of Stanford University along with major subcontractor Lockheed Martin Corporation. (Image credit to Russ Leese, Stanford University.)

2000-01-01

451

Artist's Concept of Gravity Probe-B  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Gravity Probe-B (GP-B) is the relativity experiment being developed at Stanford University to test two extraordinary predictions of Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity. The experiment will measure, very precisely, the expected tiny changes in the direction of the spin axes of four gyroscopes contained in an Earth-orbiting satellite at a 400-mile altitude. So free are the gyroscopes from disturbance that they will provide an almost perfect space-time reference system. They will measure how space and time are very slightly warped by the presence of the Earth, and, more profoundly, how the Earth's rotation very slightly drags space-time around with it. These effects, though small for the Earth, have far-reaching implications for the nature of matter and the structure of the Universe. GP-B is among the most thoroughly researched programs ever undertaken by NASA. This is the story of a scientific quest in which physicists and engineers have collaborated closely over many years. Inspired by their quest, they have invented a whole range of technologies -- technologies that are already enlivening other branches of science and engineering. Scheduled for launch in 2003 and managed for NASA by Marshall Space Flight Center, development of GP-B is the responsibility of Stanford University, with major subcontractor Lockheed Martin Corporation.

2002-01-01

452

Artist's Concept of Gravity Probe-B  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Gravity Probe-B (GP-B) is the relativity experiment being developed at Stanford University to test two extraordinary predictions of Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity. The experiment will measure, very precisely, the expected tiny changes in the direction of the spin axes of four gyroscopes contained in an Earth-orbiting satellite at a 400-mile altitude. So free are the gyroscopes from disturbance that they will provide an almost perfect space-time reference system. They will measure how space and time are very slightly warped by the presence of the Earth, and, more profoundly, how the Earth's rotation very slightly drags space-time around with it. These effects, though small for the Earth, have far-reaching implications for the nature of matter and the structure of the Universe. GP-B is among the most thoroughly researched programs ever undertaken by NASA. This is the story of a scientific quest in which physicists and engineers have collaborated closely over many years. Inspired by their quest, they have invented a whole range of technologies -- technologies that are already enlivening other branches of science and engineering. Scheduled for launch in 2003 and managed for NASA by the Marshall Space Flight Center, development of GP-B is the responsibility of Stanford University, with major subcontractor Lockheed Martin Corporation.

2002-01-01

453

Artist's Concept of Gravity Probe-B  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Gravity Probe-B (GP-B) is the relativity experiment being developed at Stanford University to test two extraordinary predictions of Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity. The experiment will measure, very precisely, the expected tiny changes in the direction of the spin axes of four gyroscopes contained in an Earth-orbiting satellite at a 400-mile altitude. So free are the gyroscopes from disturbance that they will provide an almost perfect space-time reference system. They will measure how space and time are very slightly warped by the presence of the Earth, and, more profoundly, how the Earth's rotation very slightly drags space-time around with it. These effects, though small for the Earth, have far-reaching implications for the nature of matter and the structure of the Universe. GP-B is among the most thoroughly researched programs ever undertaken by NASA. This is the story of a scientific quest in which physicists and engineers have collaborated closely over many years. Inspired by their quest, they have invented a whole range of technologies -- technologies that are already enlivening other branches of science and engineering. Scheduled for launch in 2003 and managed for NASA by Marshall Space Flight Center, development of the GP-B is the responsibility of Stanford University, with major subcontractor Lockheed Martin Corporation.

2002-01-01

454

Gravity Probe B Completed With Solar Arrays  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this photo, the Gravity Probe B (GP-B) space vehicle is completed during the solar array installation. The GP-B is the relativity experiment developed at Stanford University to test two extraordinary predictions of Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity. The experiment will measure, very precisely, the expected tiny changes in the direction of the spin axes of four gyroscopes contained in an Earth-orbiting satellite at a 400-mile altitude. So free are the gyroscopes from disturbance that they will provide an almost perfect space-time reference system. They will measure how space and time are very slightly warped by the presence of the Earth, and, more profoundly, how the Earth's rotation very slightly drags space-time around with it. These effects, though small for the Earth, have far-reaching implications for the nature of matter and the structure of the Universe. GP-B is among the most thoroughly researched programs ever undertaken by NASA. This is the story of a scientific quest in which physicists and engineers have collaborated closely over many years. Inspired by their quest, they have invented a whole range of technologies that are already enlivening other branches of science and engineering. GP-B is scheduled for launch in April 2004 and managed for NASA by the Marshall Space Flight Center. Development of the GP-B is the responsibility of Stanford University along with major subcontractor Lockheed Martin Corporation. (Image credit to Russ Underwood, Lockheed Martin Corporation).

2004-01-01

455

The Gravity Probe B Flight Dewar  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Gravity Probe B (GP-B) is the relativity experiment developed at Stanford University to test two extraordinary predictions of Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity. This photograph is of the Gravity Probe B flight dewar, a metal container made like a vacuum bottle that is used especially for storing liquefied gases, that will maintain the experiment at a temperature just above absolute zero, staying cold for two years. The experiment will measure, very precisely, the expected tiny changes in the direction of the spin axes of four gyroscopes contained in an Earth-orbiting satellite at 400-mile altitude. So free are the gyroscopes from disturbance that they will provide an almost perfect space-time reference system. They will measure how space and time are very slightly warped by the presence of the Earth, and, more profoundly, how the Earth's rotation very slightly drags space-time around with it. These effects, though small for the Earth, have far-reaching implications for the nature of matter and the structure of the Universe. GP-B is among the most thoroughly researched programs ever undertaken by NASA. This is the story of a scientific quest in which physicists and engineers have collaborated closely over many years. Inspired by their quest, they have invented a whole range of technologies -- technologies that are already enlivening other branches of science and engineering. Launched in 2004 and managed for NASA by the Marshall Space Flight Center, development of the GP-B is the responsibility of Stanford University, with major subcontractor Lockheed Martin Corporation. (Photo Credit: Lockheed Martin Corporation/R. Underwood)

2001-01-01

456

Earth - India and Australia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This color image of the Earth was obtained by the Galileo spacecraft on Dec. 11, 1990, when the spacecraft was about 1.5 million miles from the Earth. The color composite used images taken through the red, green and violet filters. India is near the top of the picture, and Australia is to the right of center. The white, sunlit continent of Antarctica is below. Picturesque weather fronts are visible in the South Pacific, lower right. This is a frame of the Galileo Earth spin movie, a 500-frame time-lapse motion picture showing a 25-hour period of Earth's rotation and atmospheric dynamics.

1990-01-01

457

The Flat Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students are exposed to a compelling idea: the Earth really IS flat! They are challenged to provide evidence for a spherical earth, then present evidence (experiences) for a flat Earth, discuss the relative strengths of the evidence, and reach conclusions. They look at the nature of science and pseudoscience and examine the flat Earth idea in that context. The social context of science is also explored, with the roles of collaboration and past experience biases being emphasized. The role of science in exposing illusions in nature is also mentioned.

Jean Beard

458

Earth's Changing Surface  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Overview: The Earth's Changing Surface SciPack explores how Earth's ever-changing surface is due to continuous natural processes such as tectonic activity, earthquakes, volcanic activities, weathering and erosion, and sedimentation and the reformation of rock. The focus is on topics supporting Standards and Benchmarks related to how and why these processes occur, and how elements cycle through the land, oceans, and atmosphere as a result of these processes. This SciPack looks at Earth as a system that exists in dynamic equilibrium. In addition to comprehensive inquiry-based learning materials tied to Science Education Standards and Benchmarks, the SciPack includes the following additional components: Pedagogical Implications section addressing common misconceptions, teaching resources and strand maps linking grade band appropriate content to standards. Access to one-on-one support via e-mail to content "Wizards". Final Assessment which can be used to certify mastery of the concepts. Learning Outcomes: Earth's Changing Surface: Changing Earth From Within Explain that both Earth's surface and interior are in motion and describe the causes the motion. Describe how heat within Earth comes from two main sources: radioactive decay and residual heat (gravitational energy left over from the formation of Earth). Explain the fact that the vast majority of earthquakes and volcanic activities which occur near plate boundaries are caused by the movement of the plates. Describe that changes on Earth's surface also happen on the ocean floor to create forms such as ocean basins, mountains and volcanoes. Earth's Changing Surface: Sculpting the Landscape Distinguish between changes in Earth's surface that are abrupt, such as earthquakes and volcanoes and changes that happen very slowly such as uplift and wearing down of mountains. Identify rates of landscape formation. Infer from present data that the processes that shape the earth today are similar to events that occurred in the past. Identify agents of change as destructive, constructive, or both. Describe how erosion by way of waves, wind, glaciers, gravity, running water, etc., causes change in geological features. Earth's Changing Surface: Humans as Agents of Change Distinguish natural processes that shape the surface of Earth from human impact factors that change the surface of Earth. Explain how human activities such as river control, mining, and deforestation have had an effect on the shape of Earth's surface. Describe how human activities do not create new processes but cause changes in the rate and scale of natural processes.

National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

2008-01-07

459

NASA EarthKAM  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

NASA EarthKAM (Earth Knowledge Acquired by Middle schools) enables students, teachers, and the public to learn about Earth via photographs taken from space. This growing collection of Earth images come from middle school students around the world who used the Internet to target areas of Earth to be photographed with a digital camera onboard the Space Shuttle and International Space Station. These images are available to everyone through a user-friendly data system. Users can search for images of the earth by geographic area, feature, country, mission or school. The collection is wide reaching, and includes land features, water, atmospheric systems, and human impacts. Middle schools (grades 5-8) can apply to join the EarthKAM Community. Community schools use the EarthKAM images in inquiry-based investigations and can even become Flight Certified, which enables them to take their own images of Earth from space. Also included is a section for educators, which provides tips and guides on how to incorporate these images into daily lessons.

Edwards, Teon

2000-09-01

460

Earth and Moon Viewer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

At this site you can view either a map of the Earth showing the day and night regions at this moment, or view the Earth from the Sun, the Moon, the night side of the Earth, above any location on the planet specified by latitude, longitude and altitude, from a satellite in Earth orbit, or above various cities around the globe. Images can be generated based on a full-colour image of the Earth by day and night, a topographical map of the Earth, up-to-date weather satellite imagery, or a composite image of cloud cover superimposed on a map of the Earth, or a color composite which shows clouds, land and sea temperatures, and ice. In addition to the Earth, you can also view the Moon from the Earth, Sun, night side, above named formations on the lunar surface or as a map showing day and night. A related document compares the appearance of the Moon at perigee and apogee, including an interactive Perigee and Apogee Calculator.

Walker, John

1999-03-27

461

A study on diffusion coefficient and diffusion activation energy of rare earth atoms in surface layer of steel rare earth nitrocarburized  

SciTech Connect

Steels, 20CrMnTi and 30CrMnSi, were nitrocarburized at 600 C and 650 C for 5h with rare earths (RE). The experimental results show that the rare earth elements can diffuse into the treated surface layer, in which the concentration profiles of the rare earth La were measured by chemical analysis and ion probe. The diffusion coefficient and activation energy of La have been calculated based on the experimental results mentioned above. The rare earth atoms diffuse mainly along the grain boundaries according to thermodynamic theory and analysis of the calculated data.

Mufu, Y.; Qun, L.; Teqiang, Z.; Yang, C.; Fayi, Z.; Zhiru, L. [Harbin Inst. of Tech. (China)

1995-12-31

462

Carbon nanotube based electromechanical probes  

E-print Network

Electromechanical probing applications continuously require smaller pitches, faster manufacturing and lower electrical resistance. Conventional techniques, such as MEMS based cantilever probes have their shortcomings in ...

Yaglioglu, Onnik, 1976-

2007-01-01

463

EARTH SCIENCE 100 Planet Earth: How it Works  

E-print Network

1 EARTH SCIENCE 100 Planet Earth: How it Works Fall Quarter 2008 Lecture: TR 10 and methods of Earth Science, and its relevance to daily life and the problems of the contemporary world, theories and methods of modern earth science, including: the formation and structure of the earth

Schoenbohm, Lindsay

464

Evolution of Life on Earth EVOLUTION OF LIFE ON EARTH  

E-print Network

Evolution of Life on Earth #12;EVOLUTION OF LIFE ON EARTH #12;Earth ~4.5 billion years ago A bad day .... #12;Old (Archean) Rocks #12;4.4 Billion year old Zircon Earth was temperate and had water 4.4 billion years ago! #12;#12;EVOLUTION OF LIFE ON EARTH #12;Making Organic Molecules : Miller & Urey Famous

Shirley, Yancy

465

The Sun-Earth Connection The Temperature of the Earth  

E-print Network

AST248 The Sun-Earth Connection #12;The Temperature of the Earth The Earth is in equilibrium ­ the heat absorbed from the Sun with ­ the heat radiated by the Earth. Heat in = heat out #12;Heat constant) ­ L is the solar luminosity ­ d is the distance from the Earth to the Sun, 1AU ­ The solar

Walter, Frederick M.

466

Capturing near-Earth asteroids around Earth Zaki Hasnain n  

E-print Network

Capturing near-Earth asteroids around Earth Zaki Hasnain n , Christopher A. Lamb, Shane D. Ross Keywords: Near-Earth asteroids Asteroid capture a b s t r a c t The list of detected near-Earth asteroids metals and semiconducting elements on Earth may be supplemented or even replaced by the reserves floating

Ross, Shane

467

F-8 SCW on ramp with test pilot Tom McMurtry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Vought F-8A Crusader was selected by NASA as the testbed aircraft (designated TF-8A) to install an experimental Supercritical Wing (SCW) in place of the conventional wing. The unique design of the Supercritical Wing reduces the effect of shock waves on the upper surface near Mach 1, which in turn reduces drag. In this photograph the TF-8A Crusader with Supercritical Wing is shown on the ramp with project pilot Tom McMurtry standing beside it. McMurtry received NASA's Exceptional Service Medal for his work on the F-8 SCW aircraft. He also flew the AD-1, F-15 Digital Electronic Engine Control, the KC-130 winglets, the F-8 Digital Fly-By-Wire and other flight research aircraft including the remotely piloted 720 Controlled Impact Demonstration and sub-scale F-15 research projects. In addition, McMurtry was the 747 co-pilot for the Shuttle Approach and Landing Tests and made the last glide flight in the X-24B. McMurtry was Dryden's Director for Flight Operations from 1986 to 1998, when he became Associate Director for Operations at NASA Dryden. In 1982, McMurtry received the Iven C. Kincheloe Award from the Society of Experimental Test Pilots for his contributions as project pilot on the AD-1 Oblique Wing program. In 1998 he was named as one of the honorees at the Lancaster, Calif., ninth Aerospace Walk of Honor ceremonies. In 1999 he was awarded the NASA Distinguished Service Medal. He retired in 1999 after a distinguished career as pilot and manager at Dryden that began in 1967. The F-8 Supercritical Wing was a flight research project designed to test a new wing concept designed by Dr. Richard Whitcomb, chief of the Transonic Aerodynamics Branch, Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia. Compared to a conventional wing, the supercritical wing (SCW) is flatter on the top and rounder on the bottom with a downward curve at the trailing edge. The Supercritical Wing was designed to delay the formation of and reduce the shock wave over the wing just below and above the speed of sound (transonic region of flight). Delaying the shock wave at these speeds results in less drag. Results of the NASA flight research at the Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, (later renamed the Dryden Flight Research Center) demonstrated that aircraft using the supercritical wing concept would have increased cruising speed, improved fuel efficiency, and greater flight range than those using conventional wings. As a result, supercritical wings are now commonplace on virtually every modern subsonic commercial transport. Results of the NASA project showed the SCW had increased the transonic efficiency of the F-8 as much as 15 percent and proved that passenger transports with supercritical wings, versus conventional wings, could save $78 million (in 1974 dollars) per year for a fleet of 280 200-passenger airliners. The F-8 Supercritical Wing (SCW) project flew from 1970 to 1973. Dryden engineer John McTigue was the first SCW program manager and Tom McMurtry was the lead project pilot. The first SCW flight took place on March 9, 1971. The last flight of the Supercritical wing was on May 23, 1973, with Ron Gerdes at the controls. Original wingspan of the F-8 is 35 feet, 2 inches while the wingspan with the supercritical wing was 43 feet, 1 inch. F-8 aircraft were powered by Pratt & Whitney J57 turbojet engines. The TF-8A Crusader was made available to the NASA Flight Research Center by the U.S. Navy. F-8 jet aircraft were built, originally, by LTV Aerospace, Dallas, Texas. Rockwell International's North American Aircraft Division received a $1.8 million contract to fabricate the supercritical wing, which was delivered to NASA in December 1969.

1972-01-01

468

Focus: DNA probes  

SciTech Connect

Progress in the development of DNA probes for the identification and quantitation of specific genetic sequences in biological samples is reviewed. Current research efforts in the development of DNA probes for the diagnosis of a wide variety of bacterial, viral, and other infectious diseases, such as herpes simplex and cytomegalovirus, and inherited genetic diseases such as cystic fibrosis and sickle cell anemia are discussed. Progress in development of DNA probe assays for cancer diagnosis, detection of Salmonella food poisoning, tissue typing (detection of histocompatibility antigens), mutagen screening, and animal diseases, among other applications is included.

Not Available

1986-11-01

469

Scanning Probe Microscopy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Published by the National Nanotechnology Infrastructure Network, this hour-long activity has students "simulate the function of a scanning probe microscope" by creating their own scanning probe microscope (SPM) boxes. The Teacher's Guide contains everything the instructor needs to carry out the lesson: goals and objectives, advanced preparation notes, safety considerations, materials, questions, and even variations for different classrooms. The Student Worksheet walks students through the activity by having them begin by making a prediction, giving the procedures, providing space to record observations, and asking open questions for students to respond to. This is a ready-to-use activity for classrooms looking to explore nanotechnology and scanning probe microscopes.

2009-04-14

470

Chemical sensing flow probe  

DOEpatents

A new chemical probe determines the properties of an analyte using the light absorption of the products of a reagent/analyte reaction. The probe places a small reaction volume in contact with a large analyte volume. Analyte diffuses into the reaction volume. Reagent is selectively supplied to the reaction volume. The light absorption of the reaction in the reaction volume indicates properties of the original analyte. The probe is suitable for repeated use in remote or hostile environments. It does not require physical sampling of the analyte or result in significant regent contamination of the analyte reservoir.

Laguna, George R. (Albuquerque, NM); Peter, Frank J. (Albuquerque, NM); Butler, Michael A. (Albuquerque, NM)

1999-01-01

471

Chemical sensing flow probe  

DOEpatents

A new chemical probe determines the properties of an analyte using the light absorption of the products of a reagent/analyte reaction. The probe places a small reaction volume in contact with a large analyte volume. Analyte diffuses into the reaction volume. Reagent is selectively supplied to the reaction volume. The light absorption of the reaction in the reaction volume indicates properties of the original analyte. The probe is suitable for repeated use in remote or hostile environments. It does not require physical sampling of the analyte or result in significant regent contamination of the analyte reservoir. 7 figs.

Laguna, G.R.; Peter, F.J.; Butler, M.A.

1999-02-16

472

Logic Probe Troubleshooting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This brief interactive activity, by Electromechanical Digital Library and Wisconsin Technical College System faculty member Terry Bartelt, introduces Logic Probe Troubleshooting. The resource begins with an overview, the logic components in an integrated circuit, input/outputs leads to which circuit tracks are connected, how to use a logic probe to determine if proper voltage and signals are present, and a demonstration of how the probe measures circuit operation. There is also a defective integrated circuit example and a troubleshooting problem for students to answer. This is an excellent resource, as are the others in this digital library, for reviewing fundamental concepts for electromechanical devices, systems, and applications.

Bartelt, Terry L.

2009-05-13

473

Specific fluorogenic probes for ozone in biological and atmospheric samples.  

PubMed

Ozone exposure is a growing global health problem, especially in urban areas. While ozone in the stratosphere protects the earth from harmful ultraviolet light, tropospheric or ground-level ozone is toxic and can damage the respiratory tract. It has recently been shown that ozone may be produced endogenously in inflammation and antibacterial responses of the immune system; however, these results have sparked controversy owing to the use of a non-specific colorimetric probe. Here we report the synthesis of fluorescent molecular probes able to unambiguously detect ozone in both biological and atmospheric samples. Unlike other ozone-detection methods, in which interference from different reactive oxygen species is often a problem, these probes are ozone specific. Such probes will prove useful for the study of ozone in environmental science and biology, and so possibly provide some insight into the role of ozone in cells. PMID:20634904

Garner, Amanda L; St Croix, Claudette M; Pitt, Bruce R; Leikauf, George D; Ando, Shin; Koide, Kazunori

2009-07-01

474

Outer planet atmospheric entry probes - An overview of technology readiness  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Entry probe systems for characterizing, by in situ measurements, the atmospheric properties, chemical composition, and cloud structure of the planets Saturn, Uranus, and Jupiter are examined from the standpoint of unique mission requirements, associated subsystem performance, and degree of commonality of design. Past earth entry vehicles (PAET) and current planetary spacecraft (Pioneer Venus probes and Viking lander) are assessed to identify the extent of potential subsystem inheritance, as well as to establish the significant differences, in both form and function, relative to outer planet requirements. Recent research results are presented and reviewed for the most critical probe technology areas, including: science accommodation, telecommunication, and entry heating and thermal protection. Finally presented is a brief discussion of the use of decision analysis techniques for quantifying various probe heat-shield test alternatives and performance risk.

Vojvodich, N. S.; Reynolds, R. T.; Grant, T. L.; Nachtsheim, P. R.

1975-01-01

475

Telluride, Tom Cruise, and Land Use Codes: Science, Policy, and Community Response  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mountain areas throughout the western US have experienced a surge in popularity in the last decade, resulting in degradation of the resources that drew people to the area in the first place. Traditional economic interests, recreational users, and environmentalists all have opposing priorities. Thus, resource managers and planners face increasingly critical and controversial decisions regarding development and protection of watersheds. Best Management Practices (BMPs) are generally an attempt to improve land and water quality after degradation. Here we report on our work with local stakeholders in the San Miguel River drainage-home of Telluride Ski Area and Hollywood moguls such as Tom Cruise-to prevent degradation of headwater catchments while providing for reasonable economic and recreational activities. We developed new tools for resource managers by mapping landscape types and associated water quality parameters so as to develop sensitivity criteria that are displayed visually using GIS maps. Using these results, San Miguel County Commissioners adopted land use codes to restrict development, including an 800-sqft building footprint, and bans on septic systems and winter plowing. This case study lays the foundation for science-based policy at the catchment scale, but is dependent on local culture and politics. Preliminary fieldwork was conducted in the summer of 2003 as the first steps toward similar work in adjacent San Juan County, which has a strong mining heritage. The San Juan County Planning Commission identified priority basins for study, and extensive physical field surveys were conducted in these drainages to map spatial distribution and aerial extent of numerous landscape types. Again, water quality parameters will be associated with different land covers to enable alpine sensitivity analysis at the landscape unit scale. Results will be provided to the San Juan Planning Commission to augment current planning tools. However, because of the different political and cultural climates of the two counties, we show that policy outcomes that ensue in San Juan County will likely differ from those achieved in San Miguel County.

Raby, K. S.; Williams, M. W.

2003-12-01

476

TOMATOMA: A Novel Tomato Mutant Database Distributing Micro-Tom Mutant Collections  

PubMed Central

The tomato is an excellent model for studies of plants bearing berry-type fruits and for experimental studies of the Solanaceae family of plants due to its conserved genetic organization. In this study, a comprehensive mutant tomato population was generated in the background of Micro-Tom, a dwarf, rapid-growth variety. In this and previous studies, a family including 8,598 and 6,422 M2 mutagenized lines was produced by ethylmethane sulfonate (EMS) mutagenesis and ?-ray irradiation, and this study developed and investigated these M2 plants for alteration of visible phenotypes. A total of 9,183 independent M2 families comprising 91,830 M2 plants were inspected for phenotypic alteration, and 1,048 individual mutants were isolated. Subsequently, the observed mutant phenotypes were classified into 15 major categories and 48 subcategories. Overall, 1,819 phenotypic categories were found in 1,048 mutants. Of these mutants, 549 were pleiotropic, whereas 499 were non-pleiotropic. Multiple different mutant alleles per locus were found in the mutant libraries, suggesting that the mutagenized populations were nearly saturated. Additionally, genetic analysis of backcrosses indicated the successful inheritance of the mutations in BC1F2 populations, confirming the reproducibility in the morphological phenotyping of the M2 plants. To integrate and manage the visible phenotypes of mutants and other associated data, we developed the in silico database TOMATOMA, a relational system interfacing modules between mutant line names and phenotypic categories. TOMATOMA is a freely accessible database, and these mutant recourses are available through the TOMATOMA (http://tomatoma.nbrp.jp/index.jsp). PMID:21258066

Saito, Takeshi; Ariizumi, Tohru; Okabe, Yoshihiro; Asamizu, Erika; Hiwasa-Tanase, Kyoko; Fukuda, Naoya; Mizoguchi, Tsuyoshi; Yamazaki, Yukiko; Aoki, Koh; Ezura, Hiroshi

2011-01-01

477

Tom Kibble and the early universe as the ultimate high energy experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tom Kibble pioneered the idea that there were one or more symmetry breaking phase transitions in the very early universe, at which defects like monopoles, strings and domain walls would have formed. In the context of grand unified theories, or their extensions, this idea remains compelling: observing these defects would be one of the very few ways of directly confirming the theories. In contrast, inflationary theory invoked a strongly supercooled transition driving a period of exponential expansion which would sweep all such defects away. If inflation terminated slowly, quantum vacuum fluctuations would be amplified and stretched to cosmological scales, forming density variations of just the character required to explain the formation of galaxies. The ensuing paradigm has dominated cosmology for the last three decades. However, basic problems in the scenario remain unresolved. Extreme tuning both of the initial conditions and of the physical laws are required. There are many different versions, each with slightly different predictions. Finally, inflation brought with it the theory of a "multiverse" — a universe containing infinite number of different, infinite, universes — while providing no "measure" or means of calculating the probability of observing any one of them. I will discuss an alternative to inflation, in which the big bang was a bounce from a previous contracting epoch. The discovery of the Higgs boson at the LHC has provided new evidence for such a picture by showing that, within the minimal standard model, our current vacuum is metastable. This opens the door to a cyclic universe scenario in which the electroweak Higgs plays a central role.

Turok, Neil

2014-03-01

478

Early evolution of a stratospheric volcanic eruption cloud as observed with TOMS and AVHRR  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This paper is a detailed study of remote sensing data from the total ozone mapping spectrometer (TOMS) and the advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) satellite detectors, of the 1982 eruption of El Chicho??n, Mexico. The volcanic cloud/atmosphere interactions in the first four days of this eruption were investigated by combining ultraviolet retrievals to estimate the mass of sulfur dioxide in the volcanic cloud [Krueger et al., 1995] with thermal infrared retrievals of the size, optical depth, and mass of fine-grained (1-10 ??m radius) volcanic ash [Wen and Rose, 1994]. Our study provides the first direct evidence of gravitational separation of ash from a stratospheric, gas-rich, plinian eruption column and documents the marked differences in residence times of volcanic ash and sulfur dioxide in volcanic clouds. The eruption column reached as high as 32 km [Carey and Sigurdsson, 1986] and was injected into an atmosphere with a strong wind shear, which allowed for an observation of the separation of sulfur dioxide and volcanic ash. The upper, more sulfur dioxide-rich part of the cloud was transported to the west in the stratosphere, while the fine-grained ash traveled to the south in the troposphere. The mass of sulfur dioxide released was estimated at 7.1 ?? 109 kg with the mass decreasing by approximately 4% 1 day after the peak. The mass of fine-grained volcanic ash detected was estimated at 6.5 ?? 109 kg, amounting to about 0.7% of the estimated mass of the ash which fell out in the mapped ash blanket close to the volcano. Over the following days, 98% of this remaining fine ash was removed from the volcanic cloud, and the effective radius of ash in the volcanic cloud decreased from about 8 ??m to about 4 ??m. Copyright 1999 by the American Geophysical Union.

Schneider, D.J.; Rose, W.I.; Coke, L.R.; Bluth, G.J.S.; Sprod, I.E.; Krueger, A.J.

1999-01-01

479

Capturing near-Earth asteroids around Earth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The list of detected near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) is constantly growing. NEAs are likely targets for resources to support space industrialization, as they may be the least expensive source of certain needed raw materials. The limited supply of precious metals and semiconducting elements on Earth may be supplemented or even replaced by the reserves floating in the form of asteroids around the solar system. Precious metals make up a significant fraction NEAs by mass, and even one metallic asteroid of ˜1km size and fair enrichment in platinum-group metals would contain twice the tonnage of such metals already harvested on Earth. There are ˜1000 NEAs with a diameter of greater than 1 km. Capturing these asteroids around the Earth would expand the mining industry into an entirely new dimension. Having such resources within easy reach in Earth's orbit could provide an off-world environmentally friendly remedy for impending terrestrial shortages, especially given the need for raw materials in developing nations. In this paper, we develop and implement a conceptually simple algorithm to determine trajectory characteristics necessary to move NEAs into capture orbits around the Earth. Altered trajectories of asteroids are calculated using an ephemeris model. Only asteroids of eccentricity less than 0.1 have been studied and the model is restricted to the ecliptic plane for simplicity. We constrain the time of retrieval to be 10 years or less, based on considerations of the time to return on investment. For the heliocentric phase, constant acceleration is assumed. The acceleration required for transporting these asteroids from their undisturbed orbits to the sphere of influence of the Earth is the primary output, along with the impulse or acceleration necessary to effect capture to a bound orbit once the Earth's sphere of influence is reached. The initial guess for the constant acceleration is provided by a new estimation method, similar in spirit to Edelbaum's. Based on the numerically calculated trajectories, 23 asteroids are recommended for future consideration for capture missions, provided necessary technological developments are made.

Hasnain, Zaki; Lamb, Christopher A.; Ross, Shane D.

2012-12-01

480

The Evolving Space Weather System—Van Allen Probes Contribution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

overarching goal and purpose of the study of space weather is clear—to understand and address the issues caused by solar disturbances on humans and technological systems. Space weather has evolved in the past few decades from a collection of concerned agencies and researchers to a critical function of the National Weather Service of NOAA. The general effects have also evolved from the well-known telegraph disruptions of the mid-1800s to modern day disturbances of the electric power grid, communications and navigation, human spaceflight and spacecraft systems. The last two items in this list, and specifically the effects of penetrating radiation, were the impetus for the space weather broadcast implemented on NASA's Van Allen Probes' twin pair of satellites, launched in August of 2012 and orbiting directly through Earth's severe radiation belts. The Van Allen Probes mission, formerly the Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP), was renamed soon after launch to honor the discoverer of Earth's radiation belts at the beginning of the space age, the late James Van Allen (the spacecraft themselves are still referred to as RBSP-A and RBSP-B). The Van Allen Probes are one part of NASA's Living With a Star program formulated to advance the scientific understanding of the connection between solar disturbances, the resulting heliospheric conditions, and their effects on the geospace and Earth environment.

Zanetti, L. J.; Mauk, B. H.; Fox, N. J.; Barnes, R. J.; Weiss, M.; Sotirelis, T. S.; Raouafi, N.-E.; Kessel, R. L.; Becker, H. N.

2014-10-01

481

Images of Earth and Space II  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This videotape tours the Solar System and outer space using scientific visualizations from Goddard Space Flight Center, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, and the HPCC Earth and Space Sciences Project. At the Sun, simulations investigate processes that create magnetic field and release energetic particles. Earth science begins with the Pacific Ocean, studying the 1997-98 El Nino and Cyclone Susan. Crossing the globe, visualizations trace North Americas East Coast and ocean currents in the North Atlantic Ocean. The lights of the worlds cities then show human impact. Next, two models probe nearby-space phenomena, fluid behavior in microgravity conditions and an asteroid collision. A jaunt to Mars explores the mountains and trenches of its dry, rocky exterior. The video concludes at a binary neutron star system, where two city-sized objects with the Suns mass merge in a titanic explosion.

Kekesi, Alex; Shoan, Wendy; Antiochos, Brendan; Wynn, William; Shirah, Greg; Maher, Steve

1998-10-23

482

carleton.ca Earth Sciences  

E-print Network

carleton.ca Earth Sciences #12;Earth is our home. It is a dynamic planet, integrating and recording spectrometers or electron microprobes--earth scientists investigate Earth's evolution to help understand future today and for the future is enhanced by the expertise of economic geologists. Knowledge of the Earth

Dawson, Jeff W.

483

The gridded electromagnet probe  

E-print Network

We attempted to measure the anisotropy in the electron distribution function in magnetized plasma by exploiting the adiabatic invariance of the electron's magnetic moment with a probe comprising a grid, a collector, and ...

Shadman, K. (Khashayar), 1972-

2003-01-01

484

An Ultrasonographic Periodontal Probe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Periodontal disease, commonly known as gum disease, affects millions of people. The current method of detecting periodontal pocket depth is painful, invasive, and inaccurate. As an alternative to manual probing, an ultrasonographic periodontal probe is being developed to use ultrasound echo waveforms to measure periodontal pocket depth, which is the main measure of periodontal disease. Wavelet transforms and pattern classification techniques are implemented in artificial intelligence routines that can automatically detect pocket depth. The main pattern classification technique used here, called a binary classification algorithm, compares test objects with only two possible pocket depth measurements at a time and relies on dimensionality reduction for the final determination. This method correctly identifies up to 90% of the ultrasonographic probe measurements within the manual probe's tolerance.

Bertoncini, C. A.; Hinders, M. K.

2010-02-01

485

Fiber inspired neural probes  

E-print Network

Limitations in the currently available technology for neural probes impede our progress towards a comprehensive brain activity map. The lack of understanding the brain function leads to limited options for the treatment ...

Canales, Andrés

2013-01-01

486

The Earth's Dynamic Magnetotail  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geomagnetic field lines that are stretched on the nightside of the Earth due to reconnection with the interplanetary magnetic field constitute the Earth's magnetotail. The magnetotail is a dynamic entity where energy imparted from the solar wind is stored and then released to generate disturbance phenomena such as substorms. This paper gives an updated overview on the physics of the

A. Nishida

2000-01-01

487

Earth Science Books  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This OLogy reference list has nine kid-friendly books on Earth science. A short description is given for each title, along with author name and publisher. The list includes illustrated looks at the powerful forces of nature, hands-on science activities for kids that introduce them to how the Earth works, guides to weather, rocks and minerals, the solar system, and more.

488

Earth Science Vocabulary Review  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collection of activities lets students test their knowledge of hundreds of random geologic terms. The activities include games such as hangman (several varieties), flash cards, guessing words or definitions, and matching terms with definitions. Topics include rocks and minerals, Earth dynamics, Earth history, surface processes, weather, and astronomy.

489

Hands On Earth Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication is a collection of 13 hands-on activities that focus on earth science-related activities and involve students in learning about growing crystals, tectonics, fossils, rock and minerals, modeling Ohio geology, geologic time, determining true north, and constructing scale-models of the Earth-moon system. Each activity contains…

Weisgarber, Sherry L.; Van Doren, Lisa; Hackathorn, Merrianne; Hannibal, Joseph T.; Hansgen, Richard

490

Cool Earth Solar  

ScienceCinema

In a public-private partnership that takes full advantage of the Livermore Valley Open Campus (LVOC) for the first time, Sandia National Laboratories and Cool Earth Solar have signed an agreement that could make solar energy more affordable and accessible. In this piece, representatives from Sandia, Cool Earth Solar, and leaders in California government all discuss the unique partnership and its expected impact.

Lamkin, Rob; McIlroy, Andy; Swalwell, Eric; Rajan, Kish

2014-02-26

491

Earth Charter Initiative  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Earth Charter is a declaration of fundamental principles for building a just, sustainable, and peaceful global society in the 21st century. The principles of the Earth Charter reflect extensive international consultations conducted over a period of many years. These principles are also based upon contemporary science, international law, and the insights of philosophy and religion.

492

Guided earth boring tool  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a controllable tool for drilling holes in soft earth. The tool comprising an elongated rigid supporting drill rod or pipe, means supporting the drill rod or pipe for earth boring or piercing movement, including means for moving the drill rod or pipe longitudinally for penetrating the earth, means for rotating the drill rod or pipe while penetrating the earth, and means for controlling the direction of movement of the drill rod or pipe along a straight or curved path. The drill rod or pipe moving and rotating means being constructed to permit addition and removal of supporting drill rod or pipe during earth penetrating operation, an earth piercing member of substantially cylindrical shape. The tool being operable to penetrate the earth upon longitudinal movement of the drill rod or pipe by the longitudinal rod or pipe moving means, and the direction controlling means comprising means causing drill rod or pipe movement in a curved path through the earth when the rod or pipe is not rotated and causing drill rod or pipe straight line movement when the rod or pipe is rotated.

McDonald, W.J.; Pittard, G.T.; Maurer, W.C.; Wasson, M.R.; Herben, W.C.

1989-08-22

493

Earth at Night  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The influence humans have had on their planet can be seen from space. Viewing Earth at night, we see the lights of countless villages, towns, and cities. Fires from slash-and-burn farming and the burn-off of natural gas in oil fields appear in red and yellow. This perspective unveils the breadth of human activity on Earth. It spans the globe.

Alex Kekesi

1999-01-21

494

SCIENCE CHINA Earth Sciences  

E-print Network

SCIENCE CHINA Earth Sciences © Science China Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2010 earth-010-0056-5 Growth characteristics and response to climate change of Larix Miller tree-ring in China SUN Yu1,4 , WANG Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China; 2 Institute

Zhang, Qi-Bin

495

The Earth Needs You!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Celebrated annually on April 22, schools and communities organize numerous activities during Earth Day to promote awareness. To help teachers plan their own initiatives and to learn more about what is happening around the world, they can join the Earth Day Network at: http://network.earthday.net/. Once they have joined, they can create a webpage…

Curriculum Review, 2008

2008-01-01

496

Earth System Science Project  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For several decades, science teachers have used bottles for classroom projects designed to teach students about biology. Bottle projects do not have to just focus on biology, however. These projects can also be used to engage students in Earth science topics. This article describes the Earth System Science Project, which was adapted and developed…

Rutherford, Sandra; Coffman, Margaret

2004-01-01

497

The Changing Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These activities present evidence, illustrations and visualizations for some of the changes in the Earth's crust. Students will learn to categorize materials as either chemically or physically weathered, describe how a glacier can change the crust of the Earth (erratic rocks, hills, scraping), and identify at least five examples of changes in the crust within walking distance of their school.

1998-01-01

498

Jupiter: Earth's Shield  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Jupiter's immense gravity protects Earth from asteroids. In this video segment adapted from NOVA, scientists searching for signs of life in the universe identify solar systems with Jupiter-like planets that may be shielding smaller nearby Earth-like planets from comets and asteroids.

2005-12-17

499

Earth as a System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The representation shows earthquake and volcanic activity corresponds to plate boundaries. This video clip is part of a movie that describes the Earth as a system. The clip referenced in this review begins midway through the video, with the statement "Draining the ocean reveals that the Earth's solid surface..." and concludes with "Like earthquakes, most volcanoes are located near plate boundaries."

500

Employability SchoolofEarth  

E-print Network

Employability atthe SchoolofEarth andEnvironment International reputation Leeds graduates have an excellent reputation amongst employers. The University is one of the top ten `most targeted' universities by the UK's top graduate employers according to the 2011 High Fliers survey. Here at the School of Earth