Science.gov

Sample records for earth probe toms

  1. Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) Derived Data, Global Earth Coverage (GEC) from NASA's Earth Probe Satellite

    DOE Data Explorer

    This is data from an external datastream processed through the ARM External Data Center (XDC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The XDC identifies sources and acquires data, called "external data", to augment the data being generated within the ARM program. The external data acquired are usually converted from native format to either netCDF or HDF formats. The GEC collection contains global data derived from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) instrument on the Earth Probe satellite, consisting of daily values of aerosol index, ozone and reflectivity remapped into a regular 1x1.25 deg grid. Data are available from July 25, 1996 - December 31, 2005, but have been updated or replaced as of September 2007. See the explanation on the ARM web site at http://www.arm.gov/xds/static/toms.stm and the information at the NASA/TOMS web site: http://toms.gsfc.nasa.gov/ (Registration required)

  2. Earth Probe Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) Data Product User's Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McPeters, R.; Bhartia, P. K.; Krueger, A.; Herman, J.; Wellemeyer, C.; Seftor, C.; Jaross, G.; Torres, O.; Moy, L.; Labow, G.; Byerly, W.; Taylor, S.; Swissler, T.; Cebula, R.

    1998-01-01

    Two data products from the Earth Probe Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (EP/TOMS) have been archived at the Distributed Active Archive Center, in the form of Hierarchical Data Format files. The EP/ TOMS began taking measurements on July 15, 1996. The instrument measures backscattered Earth radiance and incoming solar irradiance; their ratio is used in ozone retrievals. Changes in the reflectivity of the solar diffuser used for the irradiance measurement are monitored using a carousel of three diffusers, each exposed to the degrading effects of solar irradiation at different rates. The algorithm to retrieve total column ozone compares measured Earth radiances at sets of three wavelengths with radiances calculated for different total ozone values. The initial error in the absolute scale for TOMS total ozone is 3 percent, the one standard deviation random error is 2 percent, and the drift is less than 0.5 percent over the first year of data. The Level-2 product contains the measured radiances, the derived total ozone amount, and reflectivity information for each scan position. The Level-3 product contains daily total ozone and reflectivity in a 1-degree latitude by 1.25 degrees longitude grid. Level-3 files containing estimates of LTVB at the Earth surface and tropospheric aerosol information are also available, Detailed descriptions of both HDF data-files and the CD-ROM product are provided.

  3. Contingency maneuver strategies for the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer-Earth Probe (TOMS-EP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kestler, James; Walls, Donna

    1995-01-01

    The Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer-Earth Probe (TOMS-EP) is a polar-orbiting spacecraft designed to measure total ozone levels in the Earth's atmosphere. The nominal mission orbit is a 955-kilometer circular Sun-synchronous orbit with an ascending node mean local crossing time (MLT) between 11:02 a.m. and 11:25 a.m. These two mean local ascending node times constitute the boundaries of the MLT box for this mission. The MLT boundaries were chosen to maintain the Sun-to-Earth-to-vehicle orbit-normal (SVN) angle within a preselected set of seasonally independent boundaries. Because the SVN angle is seasonally dependent, but the MLT is not, contingency options for correcting the MLT of orbital states that fall outside of the required MLT range become time dependent. This paper focuses on contingency orbit adjustment strategies developed at the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Flight Dynamics Division (FDD) during the mission planning phase of TOMS-EP. Time-dependent delta-V strategies are presented for correcting mission orbit states lying outside of the MLT range. Typically, passive control of the MLT drift rate can be used to restore the orbit state to the required MLT before a seasonal violation of SVN angle constraints can occur. Passive control of the MLT drift rate is obtained through adjustment of the semimajor axis and/or the inclination. The time between initial arrival on orbit at an 'out-of-the box' MLT state and violation of the SVN angle constraints is always less than or equal to 1 year. The choice of which parameter(s) to adjust is dictated by the duration of this time period, the desired mission lifetime, the delta-V cost, and operational constraints.

  4. Tropical Tropospheric Ozone (TTO) Maps from Nimbus 7 and Earth-Probe TOMS by the Modified-Residual Method. 1; Validation, Evaluation and Trends based on Atlantic Regional Time Series

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Anne M.; Hudson, Robert D.

    1998-01-01

    The well-known wave-one pattern seen in tropical total ozone [Shiotani, 1992; Ziemke et al., 1996, 1998] has been used to develop a modified-residual (MR) method for retrieving time-averaged stratospheric ozone and tropospheric ozone column amount from TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) over the 14 complete calendar years of Nimbus 7 observations (1979-1992) and from TOMS on the Earth-Probe (1996-present) and ADEOS platforms (1996- 1997). Nine- to sixteen-day averaged tropical tropospheric ozone (TTO) maps, validated with ozonesondes, show a seasonality expected from dynamical and chemical influences. The maps may be viewed on a homepage: http://metosrv2.umd.edu/tropo. Stratospheric column ozone, which is also derived by the modified-residual method, compares well with sondes (to within 6-7 DU) and with stratospheric ozone column derived from other satellites (within 8-10 DU). Validation of the TTO time-series is presently limited to ozonesonde comparisons with Atlantic stations and sites on the adjacent continents (Ascension Island, Natal, Brazil; Brazzaville); for the sounding periods, TTO at all locations agrees with the sonde record to +/-7 DU. TTO time-series and the magnitude of the wave-one pattern show ENSO signals in the strongest El Nifio periods from 1979-1998. From 12degN and 12degS, zonally averaged tropospheric ozone shows no significant trend from 1980-1990. Trends are also not significant during this period in localized regions, e.g. from just west of South America across to southern Africa. This is consistent with the ozonesonde record at Natal, Brazil (the only tropical ozone data publicly available for the 1980's), which shows a not statistically significant increase. The lack of trend in tropospheric ozone agrees with a statistical analysis based on another method for deriving TTO from TOMS, the so-called Convective-Cloud-Differential approach of Ziemke et al. [1998].

  5. Contribution of TOMS to Earth Science - An Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhartia, P. K.

    2003-12-01

    The TOMS instrument was launched on the Nimbus-7 satellite in Oct 1978 with the goal of understanding the meteorological influences on the ozone column. The nominal lifetime of the instrument was 1 year. However, in response to the concern over possible man-made influences on the ozone layer NASA continued to nurse the instrument for 13.5 years and launched a major program to produce accurate trend quality dataset of ozone. Despite severe optical degradation and other significant anomalies that developed in the instrument over its lifetime, the effort turned out to be a tremendous success. In 1984, TOMS took center stage as the primary provider of Antarctic ozone hole maps to the world community; it continues to play that role until today. An unexpected benefit of the close attention paid to improving the TOMS data quality was that several atmospheric constituents that interfere with ozone measurement were also identified and meticulously converted into long-term datasets of their own. These constituents include clouds, volcanic SO2, aerosols, and ocean phytoplankton. In addition, the high quality of the basic datasets made it possible to produce global maps of surface UV and tropospheric ozone. In most cases there are no other sources of these data sets. Advanced UV instruments currently under development in the US and Europe will continue to exploit the TOMS-developed techniques for several decades.

  6. Contribution of TOMS to Earth Science- An Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhartia, P. K.

    2004-01-01

    The TOMS instrument was launched on the Nimbus-7 satellite in Oct 1978 with the goal of understanding the meteorological influences on the ozone column. The nominal lifetime of the instrument was 1 year. However, in response to the concern over possible man-made influences on the ozone layer NASA continued to nurse the instrument for 13.5 years and launched a major program to produce accurate trend quality dataset of ozone. Despite severe optical degradation and other significant anomalies that developed in the instrument over its lifetime, the effort turned out to be a tremendous success. In 1984, TOMS took center stage as the primary provider of Antarctic ozone hole maps to the world community; it continues to play that role until today. An unexpected benefit of the close attention paid to improving the TOMS data quality was that several atmospheric constituents that interfere with ozone measurement were also identified and meticulously converted into long-term datasets of their own. These constituents include clouds, volcanic S02, aerosols, and ocean phytoplankton. In addition, the high quality of the basic datasets made it possible to produce global maps of surface UV and tropospheric ozone. In most cases there are no other sources of these data sets. Advanced UV instruments currently under development in the US and Europe will continue to exploit the TOMS-developed techniques for several decades.

  7. Data Validation for Earth Probe-Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanford, John L.

    1995-01-01

    This presentation represents the final report for the NASA grant project. The goal of this project was to provide scientific analysis to aid in validation fo data sets used in detection of long term global trends of total ozone. Ozone data from the Earth Probe Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer instrument was compared for validation purposes with features in previous TOMS data. Atmospheric dynamic concepts were used in the analysis. The publications sponsored by the grant are listed along with abstracts.

  8. Direct Communication to Earth from Probes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolton, Scott J.; Folkner, William M.; Abraham, Douglas S.

    2005-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on outer planetary probe communications to Earth is shown. The topics include: 1) Science Rational for Atmospheric Probes to the Outer Planets; 2) Controlling the Scientific Appetite; 3) Learning more about Jupiter before we send more probes; 4) Sample Microwave Scan From Juno; 5) Jupiter s Deep Interior; 6) The Square Kilometer Array (SKA): A Breakthrough for Radio Astronomy; 7) Deep Space Array-based Network (DSAN); 8) Probe Direct-to-Earth Data Rate Calculations; 9) Summary; and 10) Enabling Ideas.

  9. Small-Scale Tropopause Dynamics and TOMS Total Ozone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanford, John L.

    2002-01-01

    This project used Earth Probe Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (EP TOMS) along-track ozone retrievals, in conjunction with ancillary meteorological fields and modeling studies, for high resolution investigations of upper troposphere and lower stratosphere dynamics. Specifically, high resolution along-track (Level 2) EP TOMS data were used to investigate the beautiful fine-scale structure in constituent and meteorological fields prominent in the evolution of highly non-linear baroclinic storm systems. Comparison was made with high resolution meteorological models. The analyses provide internal consistency checks and validation of the EP TOMS data which are vital for monitoring ozone depletion in both polar and midlatitude regions.

  10. The Antarctic Ozone Hole: Initial Results from Aura / OMI Compared with TOMS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McPeters, R.; Bhartia, P. K.; Newman, P.

    2004-01-01

    A series of TOMS instruments (on November 7 , Meteor 3, and Earth Probe) has been monitoring the annual development of the Antarctic ozone hole since the 1980s. The ozone mapping instrument on Aura, OMI, is expected to take over this record of observation from the aging Earth Probe TOMS instrument. The area of the ozone hole can be taken as a sensitive indicator of the magnitude of ozone destruction each year. The timing of initial formation of the ozone hole and its duration are sensitive to the atmospheric dynamics of the southern polar regions. The entire TOMS data record (1978 - 2004) has recently been reprocessed with the new version 8 algorithm, which includes a revised calibration. The effect has been to slightly increase ozone hole area over earlier estimates, but only by 23%. OMI (ozone monitoring instrument) on Aura is a hyperspectral imaging instrument that operates in a pushbroom mode to measure solar backscattered radiation in the ultraviolet and visible. OMI has higher spatial resolution than TOMS - 14 x 24 km versus 38 km x 38 km from TOMS. OMI has now begin mapping total column ozone on a global basis in a measurement similar to TOMS. The ozone hole measurements for 2003 are compared with those from Earth Probe TOMS.

  11. A Comparison of TOMS Version 8 Total Column Ozone Data with Data from Groundstations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Labow, G. J.; McPeters, R. D.; Bhartia, P. K.

    2004-01-01

    The Nimbus-7 and Earth Probe Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) data have been reprocessed with a new retrieval algorithm, (Version 8) and an updated calibration procedure. These data have been systematically compared to total ozone data from Brewer and Dobson spectrophotometers for 73 individual ground stations. The comparisons were made as a function of latitude, solar zenith angle, reflectivity and total ozone. Results show that the accuracy of the TOMS retrieval'is much improved when aerosols are present in the atmosphere, when snow/ice and sea glint are present, and when ozone in the northern hemisphere is extremely low. TOMS overpass data are derived from the single TOMS best match measurement, almost always located within one degree of the ground station and usually made within an hour of local noon. The version 8 Earth Probe TOMS ozone values have decreased by an average of about 1% due to a much better understanding of the calibration of the instrument. The remaining differences between TOMS and ground stations suggest that there are still small errors in the TOMS retrievals. But if TOMS is used as a transfer standard to compare ground stations, the large station-to-station differences suggest the possibility of significant instrument errors at some ground stations.

  12. Twenty five years of TOMS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krueger, A.

    The Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) was conceived as a satellite instrument to measure the contiguous, daily, global horizontal distribution of the total ozone field. Prior information about spatial variations in total ozone from the Dobson spectrophotometer network was limited by station density and calibration errors. TOMS uses the methods of UV radiative transfer and retrieval pioneered by J.V. Dave and C.L. Mateer and an instrument design patterned after the Nimbus 4 BUV, developed by D.F. Heath. The first TOMS was launched on Nimbus 7 in October 1978 and continued to take data for 14.5 years. The data record was extended to the present with new launches in 1991on Meteor-3, and in 1996 on ADEOS I and Earth Probe spacecraft. The TOMS ozone data precision is comparable to Dobson spectrophotometers. Thus, it became possible to observe the full effect of meteorological processes on total ozone. TOMS is noted for its images of the Antarctic Ozone Hole that when combined with ozone trend data from TOMS, persuaded the public of the damaging effects of CFC's on ozone, thus leading to the Montreal Protocol. The ozone trends from TOMS are accepted as definitive due, in part, to the lack of sampling error in its global coverage. TOMS' contiguous spatial coverage produced unexpected products, namely images of sulfur dioxide clouds from volcanic eruptions and maps of absorbing aerosol clouds. A 25-year inventory of SO2 from all eruption sizes greater than 10 ktons is now available. Aerosols are measured over land and ocean by contrast with Rayleigh scattering. Thus, dust clouds from African and Asian deserts can now be tracked from their sources and smoke from fires identified as it is lofted to the free troposphere. Another important product from TOMS is tropospheric ozone, inferred by subtracting the stratospheric overburden measured by other instruments, such as SBUV or MLS, from the total ozone. This permits ozone from air pollution or from biomass

  13. Tom Finery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverstein, Barbara

    2004-01-01

    It is always interesting to observe a wide range of creative results when students begin a project with the same subject and materials. The lesson described in this article on stitching challenges students to design a turkey on burlap using colorful yarns and a small variety of materials. Each feathered Tom emerges with a unique personality, which…

  14. Deep drilling; Probing beneath the earth's surface

    SciTech Connect

    Rosen, J.250

    1991-06-01

    This paper reports on boreholes from 4.5 to greater than 10 kilometers deep that are pushing back the boundaries of earth science as they yield information that is used to refine seismic surveys, chart the evolution of sedimentary basins and shield volcanos, and uncover important clues on the origin and migration of mantle-derived water and gas.

  15. Electromagnetic wave probing of Earth's environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kong, Jin AU

    1988-01-01

    Polarimetric radar backscattering from anisotropic Earth terrain such as snow-covered ice fields and vegetation fields with row structures provides a challenging modeling problem from the electromagnetic wave point of view. Earth terrain covers are modeled as random media characterized by different dielectric constants and correlation functions. A three-layer model will be used to simulate a vegetation field or a snow-covered ice field with the top layer being snow or leaves, the middle layer being ice of trunks, and the bottom layer being sea water or ground. The volume scattering effects of snow-covered sea ice are studied with a three-layer random medium model for microwave remote sensing. The strong fluctuation theory and the bilocal approximation are applied to calculate the effective permittivities for snow and sea ice. The wave scattering theory in conjunction with the distorted Born approximation is then used to compute bistatic coefficients and backscattering cross sections. Theoretical results are illustrated by matching experimental data for dry snow-covered thick first-year sea ice at Point Barrow. The results derived can also be applied to the passive remote sensing by calculating the emissivity from the bistatic scattering coefficients.

  16. Comparison of TOMS, SBW & SBUV/2 Version 8 Total Column Ozone Data with Data from Groundstations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Labow, G. J.; McPeters, R. D.; Bhartia, P. K.

    2004-01-01

    The Nimbus-7 and Earth Probe Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) data as well as SBUV and SBUV/2 data have been reprocessed with a new retrieval algorithm (Version 8) and an updated calibration procedure. An overview will be presented systematically comparing ozone values to an ensemble of Brewer and Dobson spectrophotometers. The comparisons were made as a function of latitude, solar zenith angle, reflectivity and total ozone. Results show that the accuracy of the TOMS retrieval has been improved when aerosols are present in the atmosphere, when snow/ice and sea glint are present, and when ozone in the northern hemisphere is extremely low. TOMS overpass data are derived from the single TOMS best match measurement, almost always located within one degree of the ground station and usually made within an hour of local noon. The Version 8 Earth Probe TOMS ozone values have decreased by an average of about 1% due to a much better understanding of the calibration of the instrument. N-7 SBUV as well as the series of NOAA SBUV/2 column ozone values have also been processed with the Version 8 algorithm and have been compared to values from an ensemble of groundstations. Results show that the SBW column ozone values agree well with the groundstations and the datasets are useful for trend studies.

  17. Merged Long-Term Data Sets from TOMS and SBUV Total Ozone Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stolarski, Richard; McPeters, Richard; Labow, Gordon J.; Hollandsworth, Stacey; Flynn, Larry; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Total ozone has been measured by a series of nadir-viewing satellite instruments. These measurements begin with the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) and Solar Backscatter UltraViolet (SBUV) instruments on Nimbus 7, launched in late 1978. The measurements have continued with the Meteor 3 TOMS, Earth Probe TOMS, and NOAA 9,11,14 SBUV/2 instruments. The problem for producing a long-term data set is establishing the relative calibration of the various instruments to better than 1%. There was a nearly two year gap between the Meteor 3 TOMS and the Earth Probe TOMS. This gap is filled by the NOAA 9 and 11 SBUV/2 instruments, but they were in drifting orbits that result in effective gaps in the record when the equator crossing time occurs at large solar zenith angle. We have used recently re-derived calibrations of the SBUV instruments using the D-pair (306/313 nm wavelengths) data at the equator. These equatorial D-pair measurements should maintain the internal calibration of each instrument better than previous approaches. We then use the comparisons between instruments during their overlap periods to establish a consistent calibration over the entire data set. The resulting merged ozone data set is independent of the ground-based Dobson/Brewer network.

  18. TOMS Tropical Tropospheric Ozone Data Sets at the University of Maryland Website

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kochhar, A. K.; Thompson, A. M.; Hudson, R. D.; Frolov, A. D.; Witte, J. C.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Since 1997, shortly after the launch of the Earth-Probe TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) satellite instrument, we have been processing data in near-real time to post maps of tropical tropospheric ozone at a website: metosrv2.umd.edu/-tropo. Daily, 3-day and 9-day averages of tropical tropospheric ozone column depth (TTO) are viewable from 10N to 10S. Data can be downloaded (running 9-day means) from 20N-30S. Pollution events are trackable along with dynamically-induced variations in tropospheric ozone column. TOMS smoke aerosol (toms.gsfc.nasa.gov) can be used to interpret biomass burning ozone, as for example, during the extreme ozone and smoke pollution period during the ENSO-related fires of August November 1997. During that time plumes of ozone and smoke were frequently decoupled and ozone from Indonesian fires and from Africa merged in one large feature by late October 1997. In addition to the Earth-Probe TOMS record, data as half-month averages and as daily 9-day means from the Nimbus 7 TOMS instrument are at the metosrv2.umd.edu/-tropo website. A guide to the website and examples of ozone time-series and maps will be shown.

  19. The Tom Core Complex

    PubMed Central

    Ahting, Uwe; Thun, Clemens; Hegerl, Reiner; Typke, Dieter; Nargang, Frank E.; Neupert, Walter; Nussberger, Stephan

    1999-01-01

    Translocation of nuclear-encoded preproteins across the outer membrane of mitochondria is mediated by the multicomponent transmembrane TOM complex. We have isolated the TOM core complex of Neurospora crassa by removing the receptors Tom70 and Tom20 from the isolated TOM holo complex by treatment with the detergent dodecyl maltoside. It consists of Tom40, Tom22, and the small Tom components, Tom6 and Tom7. This core complex was also purified directly from mitochondria after solubilization with dodecyl maltoside. The TOM core complex has the characteristics of the general insertion pore; it contains high-conductance channels and binds preprotein in a targeting sequence-dependent manner. It forms a double ring structure that, in contrast to the holo complex, lacks the third density seen in the latter particles. Three-dimensional reconstruction by electron tomography exhibits two open pores traversing the complex with a diameter of ∼2.1 nm and a height of ∼7 nm. Tom40 is the key structural element of the TOM core complex. PMID:10579717

  20. Geo-Neutrinos as Probes for Deep Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zavatarelli, Sandra

    2015-03-01

    The knowledge of the radiogenic heat contribution to the total Earth surface heat flux is essential to understand processes such as the plate tectonics, the mantle convection, the geo-dynamo as well as the Earth formation itself. The electron antineutrinos released in the decays of radioactive elements inside the Earth are unique probes to constrain this quantity since their fluxes are in a well fixed ratio with the total mass of radiogenic heat producing elements (HPE). The geo-neutrino signal has now been robustly detected (at ˜4.8σ C.L.) by two experiments, KamLAND in Japan and Borexino in Italy and a new generation of scintillator detectors having geo-neutrinos among their goals is incoming. The status-of-art in this field is overviewed and the future perspectives discussed.

  1. Combined Characterisation of GOME and TOMS Total Ozone Using Ground-Based Observations from the NDSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambert, J.-C.; VanRoozendael, M.; Simon, P. C.; Pommereau, J.-P.; Goutail, F.; Andersen, S. B.; Arlander, D. W.; BuiVan, N. A.; Claude, H.; deLaNoee, J.; DeMaziere, M.; Dorokhov, V.; Eriksen, P.; Gleason, J. F.; Tornkvist, K. Karlsen; Hoiskar, B. A. Kastad; Kyroe, E.; Leveau, J.; Merienne, M.-F.; Milinevsky, G.

    1998-01-01

    Several years of total ozone measured from space by the ERS-2 GOME, the Earth Probe Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS), and the ADEOS TOMS, are compared with high-quality ground-based observations associated with the Network for the Detection of Stratospheric Change (NDSC), over an extended latitude range and a variety of geophysical conditions. The comparisons with each spaceborne sensor are combined altogether for investigating their respective solar zenith angle (SZA) dependence, dispersion, and difference of sensitivity. The space- and ground-based data are found to agree within a few percent on average. However, the analysis highlights for both Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) and TOMS several sources of discrepancies, including a dependence on the SZA at high latitudes and internal inconsistencies.

  2. Probing the Compositions of Two Habitable Zone Super-Earths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benneke, Bjorn; Knutson, Heather; Crossfield, Ian; Deck, Katherine; Greene, Tom; Rogers, Leslie; Vanderburg, Andrew; Barman, Travis; Morley, Caroline; Lothringer, Josh; Werner, Michael; Beichman, Charles

    2015-10-01

    The recent discovery of two super-Earths orbiting in the habitable zones of nearby M stars have provided us with an unprecedented new opportunity to characterize the properties of small and potentially habitable planets outside of the solar system. Here, we propose to probe their atmospheric compositions, search for escaping hydrogen, and obtain the first bulk mass and densities estimate of a habitable zone super-Earth. The proposed observations will complement our approved HST WFC3 observations of K2-18b (15-orbits, GO13665, PI Benneke) as well as the approved HST STIS/MAMA observations of K2-18b by PI Ehrenreich. These observations will determine whether or not these two planets have primarily rocky or volatile-rich compositions, and in the volatile-rich case would enable the first studies of atmospheric chemistry in this regime. Mass loss also plays a critical role in the evolution of hydrogen-rich atmospheres on small planets, and our obsevations will provide the first constraints on the stability of these atmospheres.

  3. The Recovery of TOMS-EP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, Brent; Sabelhaus, Phil; Mendenhall, Todd; Fesq, Lorraine

    1998-01-01

    On December 13th 1998, the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer - Earth Probe (TOMS-EP) spacecraft experienced a Single Event Upset which caused the system to reconfigure and enter a Safe Mode. This incident occurred two and a half years after the launch of the spacecraft which was designed for a two year life. A combination of factors, including changes in component behavior due to age and extended use, very unfortunate initial conditions and the safe mode processing logic prevented the spacecraft from entering its nominal long term storage mode. The spacecraft remained in a high fuel consumption mode designed for temporary use. By the time the onboard fuel was exhausted, the spacecraft was Sun pointing in a high rate flat spin. Although the uncontrolled spacecraft was initially in a power and thermal safe orientation, it would not stay in this state indefinitely due to a slow precession of its momentum vector. A recovery team was immediately assembled to determine if there was time to develop a method of despinning the vehicle and return it to normal science data collection. A three stage plan was developed that used the onboard magnetic torque rods as actuators. The first stage was designed to reduce the high spin rate to within the linear range of the gyros. The second stage transitioned the spacecraft from sun pointing to orbit reference pointing. The final stage returned the spacecraft to normal science operation. The entire recovery scenario was simulated with a wide range of initial conditions to establish the expected behavior. The recovery sequence was started on December 28th 1998 and completed by December 31st. TOMS-EP was successfully returned to science operations by the beginning of 1999. This paper describes the TOMS-EP Safe Mode design and the factors which led to the spacecraft anomaly and loss of fuel. The recovery and simulation efforts are described. Flight data are presented which show the performance of the spacecraft during its return to science

  4. Probing the Earth's core with magnetic field observations from Swarm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finlay, Christopher; Olsen, Nils; Kotsiaros, Stavros; Gillet, Nicolas; Tøffner-Clausen, Lars

    2016-07-01

    By far the largest part of the Earth's magnetic field is generated by motions taking place within our planet's liquid metal outer core. Variations of this core-generated field thus provide a unique means of probing the dynamics taking place in the deepest reaches of the Earth. In this contribution we present a new high resolution model of the core-generated magnetic field, and its recent time changes, derived from a dataset that includes more two years of observations from the Swarm mission. Resulting inferences regarding the underlying core flow, its dynamics, and the nature of the geodynamo process will be discussed. The CHAOS-6 geomagnetic field model, covering the interval 1999-2016, is derived from magnetic data collected by the three Swarm missions, as well as the earlier CHAMP and Oersted satellites, and monthly means data collected from 160 ground observatories. Advantage is taken of the constellation aspect of the Swarm mission by ingesting both scalar and vector field differences along-track and across track between the lower pair of Swarm satellites. The internal part of the model consists of a spherical harmonic (SH) expansion, time-dependent for degrees 20 and below. The model coefficients are estimated using a regularized, iteratively reweighted, least squares scheme involving Huber weights. At Earth's surface, CHAOS-6 shows evidence for positive acceleration of the field intensity in 2015 over a broad area around longitude 90deg E that is also seen at ground observatories such as Novosibirsk. At the core surface, we are able to map the secular variation (linear trend in the magnetic field) up to SH degree 16. The radial field acceleration at the core surface in 2015 is found be largest at low latitudes under the India-South East Asia region and under the region of northern South America, as well as at high northern latitudes under Alaska and Siberia. Surprisingly, there is also evidence for some acceleration in the central Pacific region, for example

  5. Assembly of Tom6 and Tom7 into the TOM core complex of Neurospora crassa.

    PubMed

    Dembowski, M; Kunkele, K P; Nargang, F E; Neupert, W; Rapaport, D

    2001-05-25

    Translocation of preproteins across the mitochondrial outer membrane is mediated by the translocase of the outer mitochondrial membrane (TOM) complex. We report the molecular identification of Tom6 and Tom7, two small subunits of the TOM core complex in the fungus Neurospora crassa. Cross-linking experiments showed that both proteins were found to be in direct contact with the major component of the pore, Tom40. In addition, Tom6 was observed to interact with Tom22 in a manner that depends on the presence of preproteins in transit. Precursors of both proteins are able to insert into the outer membrane in vitro and are assembled into authentic TOM complexes. The insertion pathway of these proteins shares a common binding site with the general import pathway as the assembly of both Tom6 and Tom7 was competed by a matrix-destined precursor protein. This assembly was dependent on the integrity of receptor components of the TOM machinery and is highly specific as in vitro-synthesized yeast Tom6 was not assembled into N. crassa TOM complex. The targeting and assembly information within the Tom6 sequence was found to be located in the transmembrane segment and a flanking segment toward the N-terminal, cytosolic side. A hybrid protein composed of the C-terminal domain of yeast Tom6 and the cytosolic domain of N. crassa Tom6 was targeted to the mitochondria but was not taken up into TOM complexes. Thus, both segments are required for assembly into the TOM complex. A model for the topogenesis of the small Tom subunits is discussed. PMID:11278536

  6. Tropical Tropospheric Ozone: A Multi-Satellite View From TOMS and Other Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Anne M.; Hudson, Robert D.; Guo, Hua; Witte, Jacquelyn C.; Kucsera, Tom L.; Seybold, Matthew G.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    New tropospheric ozone and aerosol products from the TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) satellite instrument can resolve episodic pollution events in the tropics and interannual and seasonal variability. Modified-residual (MR) Nimbus 7 tropical tropospheric ozone (TTO), two maps/month (1979-1992, 1-deg latitude by 2-deg longitude) within the region in which total ozone displays a tropical wave-one pattern (maximum 20S to 20N), are available in digital form at http://metosrv2.umd.edu/tropo. Also available are preliminary 1996-1999 MR-TTO maps based on real-time Earth-Probe (EP)/TOMS observations. Examples of applications are given.

  7. Earth-Based Radio Tracking of the Galileo Probe for Jupiter Wind Estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Folkner, W. M.; Preston, R. A.; Border, J. S.; Navarro, J.; Wilson, W. E.; Oestreich, M.

    1997-01-01

    Although the Galileo probe was designed to communicate only to the orbiter, the probe radio signal was detected at two Earth-based radio observatories where the signal was a billion times weaker. The measured signal frequency was used to derive a vertical profile of the jovian zonal wind speed. Due to the mission geometry, the Earth-based wind estimates are less sensitive to descent trajectory errors than estimates based on probe-orbiter Doppler measurements. The two estimates of wind profiles agree qualitatively; both show high wind speeds at all depths sampled.

  8. Earth-Based Radio Tracking of the Galileo Probe for Jupiter Wind Estimation

    PubMed

    Folkner; Preston; Border; Navarro; Wilson; Oestreich

    1997-01-31

    Although the Galileo probe was designed to communicate only to the orbiter, the probe radio signal was detected at two Earth-based radio observatories where the signal was a billion times weaker. The measured signal frequency was used to derive a vertical profile of the jovian zonal wind speed. Due to the mission geometry, the Earth-based wind estimates are less sensitive to descent trajectory errors than estimates based on probe-orbiter Doppler measurements. The two estimates of wind profiles agree qualitatively; both show high wind speeds at all depths sampled. PMID:9005845

  9. Depth Probing Soft X-ray Microprobe (DPSXRM) for High Resolution Probing of Earth's Microstructural Samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dikedi, P. N.

    2015-12-01

    The Cambrian explosion; occurrence of landslides in very dry weather conditions; rockslides; dead, shriveled-up and crumbled leaves possessing fossil records with the semblance of well preserved, flat leaves; abundance of trilobite tracks in lower and higher rock layers; and sailing stones are enigmas demanding demystifications. These enigmas could be elucidated when data on soil structure, texture and strength are provided by some device with submicrometre accuracy; for these and other reasons, the design of a Depth Probing Soft X-ray Microprobe (DPSXRM), is being proposed; it is expected to deliver soft X-rays, at spatial resolution, ϛ≥600nm and to probe at the depth of 0.5m in 17s. The microprobe is portable compared to a synchrotron radiation facility (Diamond Light Source has land size of 43,300m2); spatial resolution,ϛ , of the DPSXRM surpasses those of the X-ray Fluorescence microanalysis (10µm), electron microprobe (1-3µm) and ion microprobe (5->30µm); the DPSXRM has allowance for multiple targets. Vanadium and Manganese membranes are proposed owing to respective 4.952KeV VKα1 and 5.899KeV MnKα1 X-rays emitted, which best suits micro-probing of Earth's microstructural samples. Compound systems like the Kirk-Patrick and Baez and Wolter optics, aspheric mirrors like elliptical and parabolic optics, small apertures and Abbe sine condition are employed to reduce or remove astigmatism, obliquity, comatic and spherical aberrations—leading to good image quality. Results show that 5.899KeV MnKα1 and 4.952KeV VKα1 soft X-rays will travel a distance of 2.75mm to form circular patches of radii 2.2mm and 2.95mm respectively. Zone plate with nth zone radius of 1.5mm must be positioned 1.5mm and 2mm from the electron gun if circular patches must be formed from 4.952KeV VKα1 and 5.899KeV MnKα1 soft X-rays respectively. The focal lengths of 0.25μm≤ƒ≤1.50μm and 0.04μm≤ƒ≤0.2μm covered by 4.952KeV VKα1 and 5.899KeV Mn Kα1 soft X-Rays, will

  10. Probing iron at Super-Earth core conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Amadou, N.; Brambrink, E.; Vinci, T.; Benuzzi-Mounaix, A.; Huser, G.; Brygoo, S.; Morard, G.; Guyot, F.; Resseguier, T. de; Mazevet, S.; Miyanishi, K.; Ozaki, N.; Kodama, R.; Henry, O.; Raffestin, D.; Boehly, T.; and others

    2015-02-15

    In this paper, we report on the quasi-isentropic compression of an iron sample using ramp shaped laser irradiation. This technique allows us to quasi-isentropically compress iron up to 700 GPa and 8500 K. To our knowledge, these data are the highest pressures reached on iron in off-Hugoniot conditions and the closest to the thermodynamic states thought to exist in Earth-like planetary cores. The experiment was performed on the Ligne d'Intégration laser facility at CESTA, Bordeaux, France.

  11. Probing Geomagnetic Jerks combining Geomagnetic and Earth Rotation Observations (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holme, R. T.; de Viron, O.

    2013-12-01

    Geomagnetic jerks, first observed in the late 1970s, are the most rapid variations in the observed geomagnetic field that are believed to be of internal origin. Their occurence has been correlated with a number of different geophysical phenomena. Here we consider simultaneous features in variations in Earth's length of day. Recently, we have provided a simple description of non-atmospheric variations in length of day (LOD), consisting of 3 components: a slowly varying decadal trend, a 5.9-year oscillation, and occasional sudden jumps. Both of the shorter period parts of this correlate with geomagnetic jerks, with peaks in the LOD oscillation being contemporaneous with well-known jerk occurances (for example in 1969, 1972, 1978 and 1982), and jumps in the LOD fitting a jerk observed in satellite data in 2003.5. The simultaneous observation of these two features constrains Earth structure, in particular limiting the electric conductivity of the deep mantle. However, the nature of the LOD changes also may change the paradigm for the study of jerk timings. it is customarily assumed that the jerks represent features in the geomagnetic field that are continuous in the secular variation, but discontinuous in its derivative, the secular acceleration. However, a jump in LOD suggested by the modelling of the data would correspond also to a jump in SV, thus invalidating standard methods for temporal location of a jerk (which will consider the intersection of best-fit straight lines to the secular variation before and after). Olsen and Mandea have localised a jerk in satellite virtual observatory data using flow modelling; this seems the most promising method to investigate whether jerks could have discontinuous secular variation. We apply similar methods to time series of virtual geomagnetic obseratories from satellite data to further explore geomagnetic jerks and their rotational links in the geomagnetic satellite era.

  12. Long-Term Variability of Airborne Asian Dust Observed from TOMS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herman, J. R.; Hsu, N. C.; Seftor, C. J.; Holben, B. N.; Holben, B. N.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that airborne Asian dust may not only play an important role in the regional radiation budget, but also influence the air quality over North America through long-range transport. In this paper, we use satellite data to investigate the long-term variability of airborne Asian dust as well as the daily variation of the dust aerosol distribution. By combining the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) aerosol index with National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) wind data, our analysis shows a strong correlation between the generation of dust storms in the region and the passage of springtime weather fronts. This is consistent with earlier studies performed by other researchers. According to both the Nimbus-7 and Earth-Probe TOMS data the Takla Makan desert, the Gobi desert, and the and region of Inner Mongolia are major sources of the eastward-flowing airborne Asian dust. Heavily populated areas in eastern China (e.g., Beijing) are often on the primary path of the dust storms originating in these desert regions. The increasing desertification north of the Beijing region has served to exacerbate problems stemming from these storms. The time series derived from 20 years of TOMS aerosol index data shows the first significant satellite evidence of the atmospheric effect of increasing desertification, indicating that the amount of dust blown eastward has increased strongly during the past few years including the year 2000.

  13. The Ozone Hole of 2002 as Measured by TOMS.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stolarski, Richard S.; McPeters, Richard D.; Newman, Paul A.

    2005-03-01

    Since its discovery in 1985, the ozone hole has been regularly mapped using the data from Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) instruments on several satellites. The current TOMS, on the Earth Probe satellite, has been taking measurements since 1996. The ozone hole first appeared during the 1980s. Since 1990, the hole has consistently developed during each Antarctic spring over a broad area with the minimum total ozone value reaching about 100 Dobson units (DU; 1 DU = 2.69 × 1016 molecules cm-2) in late September or early October. The year 2002 was markedly different from the past 12 years. A series of strong wave events weakened the South Polar vortex. In late September, a major stratospheric warming took place, reversing the direction of the polar flow and the latitudinal temperature gradient. This warming resulted in a division of the ozone hole into two pieces, one that migrated to lower latitudes and disappeared and one that reformed over the Pole in a weakened form. The development of this year's unusual ozone hole is shown here and is contrasted to a climatology of the years since 1990. Minimum daily values of total ozone barely reached 150 DU in contrast to values nearer to 100. The area of the ozone hole briefly reached 18 × 106 km2, then dropped rapidly to only 2 × 106 km2, and finally recovered to about 8 × 106 km2 before disappearing in early November. The positive anomaly compared with the last 12 yr near the Pole was accompanied by a smaller negative anomaly north of 45°S.

  14. Tropospheric Ozone Pollution from Space: New Views from the TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Anne M.; Hudson, Robert D.; Frolov, Alexander D.; Witte, Jacquelyn C.; Kucsera, Tom L.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    New products from the TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) >satellite instrument can resolve pollution events in tropical and mid-latitudes, Over the past several years, we have developed tropospheric ozone data sets by two methods. The modified-residual technique [Hudson and Thompson, 1998; Thompson and Hudson, 1999] uses v. 7 TOMS total ozone and is applicable to tropical regimes in which the wave-one pattern in total ozone is observed. The TOMSdirect method [Hudson et at., 2000] represents a new algorithm that uses TOMS radiances to extract tropospheric ozone in regions of constant stratospheric ozone and tropospheric ozone displaying high mixing ratios and variability characteristic of pollution, Absorbing aerosols (dust and smoke; Herman et at., 1997 Hsu et al., 1999), a standard TOMS product, provide transport and/or source marker information to interpret tropospheric ozone. For the Nimbus 7/TOMS observing period (1979-1992), modified-residual TTO (tropical tropospheric ozone) appears as two maps/month at I-degree latitude 2-degree longitude resolution at a homepage and digital data are available (20S to 20N) by ftp at http://metosrv2. umd.edu/tropo/ 14y_data.d. Preliminary modified-residual TTO data from the operational Earth-Probe/TOMS (1996- present) are posted in near-real-time at the same website. Analyses with the new tropospheric ozone and aerosol data are illustrated by the following (I)Signals in tropical tropospheric ozone column and smoke amount during ENSO (El Nino-Southern Oscillation) events, e.g. 1982-1983 and the intense ENSO induced biomass fires of 1997-1998 over the Indonesian region [Thompson et a[, 2000a, Thompson and Hudson, 1999]. (2) Trends in tropospheric ozone and smoke aerosols in various tropical regions (Atlantic, Pacific, Africa, Brazil). No significant trends were found for ozone from1980-1990 [Thompson and Hudson, 19991 although smoke aerosols increased during the period [Hsu et al.,1999]. (3) Temporal and spatial offsets

  15. A video atlas of TOMS ozone data, 1978-88

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chesters, D.; Krueger, A. J.

    1989-12-01

    The Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS), on-board NASA's Nimbus-7 weather satellite, has been observing ozone over the earth once daily for the last 10 yr. A time-lapse atlas of 3440 color-coded images drawn from the TOMS archive from 1978 to 1988 has been visualized on a standard VHS videotape that is now available from NASA. The rapid and complex ozone variations presented demonstrate the difficulty of separating man-induced climate changes from natural variability. This article presents a few images from the atlas and describes interesting features in the animation, such as the correlation between ozone and 'the weather', and the recent deepening of the annual ozone hole over the South Pole. Originally intended as a browsing tool for the TOMS digital database, the videotape is a vivid presentation of the earth's atmospheric dynamics and chemistry that is recommended for scientists, educators, policy makers, and citizens concerned about the global environment.

  16. A video atlas of TOMS ozone data, 1978-88

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chesters, D.; Krueger, A. J.

    1989-01-01

    The Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS), on-board NASA's Nimbus-7 weather satellite, has been observing ozone over the earth once daily for the last 10 yr. A time-lapse atlas of 3440 color-coded images drawn from the TOMS archive from 1978 to 1988 has been visualized on a standard VHS videotape that is now available from NASA. The rapid and complex ozone variations presented demonstrate the difficulty of separating man-induced climate changes from natural variability. This article presents a few images from the atlas and describes interesting features in the animation, such as the correlation between ozone and 'the weather', and the recent deepening of the annual ozone hole over the South Pole. Originally intended as a browsing tool for the TOMS digital database, the videotape is a vivid presentation of the earth's atmospheric dynamics and chemistry that is recommended for scientists, educators, policy makers, and citizens concerned about the global environment.

  17. The magnetospheric disturbance ring current as a source for probing the deep earth electrical conductivity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Campbell, W.H.

    1990-01-01

    Two current rings have been observed in the equatorial plane of the earth at times of high geomagnetic activity. An eastward current exists between about 2 and 3.5 earth radii (Re) distant, and a larger, more variable companion current exists between about 4 and 9 Re. These current regions are loaded during geomagnetic substorms. They decay, almost exponentially, after the cessation of the particle influx that attends the solar wind disturbance. This review focuses upon characteristics needed for intelligent use of the ring current as a source for induction probing of the earth's mantle. Considerable difficulties are found with the assumption that Dst is a ring-current index. ?? 1990 Birkha??user Verlag.

  18. Tom20 and Tom22 share the common signal recognition pathway in mitochondrial protein import.

    PubMed

    Yamano, Koji; Yatsukawa, Yoh-Ichi; Esaki, Masatoshi; Hobbs, Alyson E Aiken; Jensen, Robert E; Endo, Toshiya

    2008-02-15

    Precise targeting of mitochondrial precursor proteins to mitochondria requires receptor functions of Tom20, Tom22, and Tom70 on the mitochondrial surface. Tom20 is a major import receptor that recognizes preferentially mitochondrial presequences, and Tom70 is a specialized receptor that recognizes presequence-less inner membrane proteins. The cytosolic domain of Tom22 appears to function as a receptor in cooperation with Tom20, but how its substrate specificity differs from that of Tom20 remains unclear. To reveal possible differences in substrate specificities between Tom20 and Tom22, if any, we deleted the receptor domain of Tom20 or Tom22 in mitochondria in vitro by introducing cleavage sites for a tobacco etch virus protease between the receptor domains and transmembrane segments of Tom20 and Tom22. Then mitochondria without the receptor domain of Tom20 or Tom22 were analyzed for their abilities to import various mitochondrial precursor proteins targeted to different mitochondrial subcompartments in vitro. The effects of deletion of the receptor domains on the import of different mitochondrial proteins for different import pathways were quite similar between Tom20 and Tom22. Therefore Tom20 and Tom22 are apparently involved in the same step or sequential steps along the same pathway of targeting signal recognition in import. PMID:18063580

  19. Ultrafast pump-probe dynamics of iron oxide based earth pigments for applications to ancient pottery manufacture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villafana, Tana E.; Brown, William; Warren, Warren S.; Fischer, Martin

    2015-06-01

    We demonstrate that ultrafast pump-probe microscopy provides unique dynamics for natural iron oxide and iron hydroxide earth pigments, despite their chemical similarity. First, we conducted a pump-probe spectroscopy study on heat-treated hematite (the pure red iron oxide mineral) and found the pump-probe dynamics to be temperature dependent. Second, we investigated pottery fired under known conditions and observed firing dependent pump-probe dynamics. Finally, we imaged a New World potshard from the North Carolina Museum of Art. Our results indicate that pump-probe microscopy could be a useful tool in elucidating pottery manufacture.

  20. Volcanic eruption detection with TOMS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krueger, Arlin J.

    1987-01-01

    The Nimbus 7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) is designed for mapping of the atmospheric ozone distribution. Absorption by sulfur dioxide at the same ultraviolet spectral wavelengths makes it possible to observe and resolve the size of volcanic clouds. The sulfur dioxide absorption is discriminated from ozone and water clouds in the data processing by their spectral signatures. Thus, the sulfur dioxide can serve as a tracer which appears in volcanic eruption clouds because it is not present in other clouds. The detection limit with TOMS is close to the theoretical limit due to telemetry signal quantization of 1000 metric tons (5-sigma threshold) within the instrument field of view (50 by 50 km near the nadir). Requirements concerning the use of TOMS in detection of eruptions, geochemical cycles, and volcanic climatic effects are discussed.

  1. Fluorescent probes and bioimaging: alkali metals, alkaline earth metals and pH.

    PubMed

    Yin, Jun; Hu, Ying; Yoon, Juyoung

    2015-07-21

    All living species and life forms have an absolute requirement for bio-functional metals and acid-base equilibrium chemistry owing to the critical roles they play in biological processes. Hence, a great need exists for efficient methods to detect and monitor biometals and acids. In the last few years, great attention has been paid to the development of organic molecule based fluorescent chemosensors. The availability of new synthetic fluorescent probes has made fluorescence microscopy an indispensable tool for tracing biologically important molecules and in the area of clinical diagnostics. This review highlights the recent advances that have been made in the design and bioimaging applications of fluorescent probes for alkali metals and alkaline earth metal cations, including lithium, sodium and potassium, magnesium and calcium, and for pH determination within biological systems. PMID:25317749

  2. SinoProbe - A Multidisciplinary Research Program of Earth Sciences in China (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, S.; Li, T.

    2010-12-01

    China occupies a large region of central and eastern Asia and holds keys to resolving several first-order problems in Earth Sciences. Besides the importance in Earth Science research, the rapid growth of Chinese economy also demands a comprehensive and systematic evaluation of its natural resources and the impacts of geohazards on its societal development. In order to address the above issues, the Chinese government had initiated a new multidisciplinary research project in Earth Sciences - the SinoProbe Program. Its fundamental goal is to determine the three-dimensional structure, composition distribution, and geological evolution of the Chinese continental lithosphere. The results of the SinoProbe Program are expected to have broad impacts on the Chinese society and economy. In particular, the program will greatly enhance our current understanding on (1) the forming and distribution of mineral resources in the nation, (2) the locations and recurrence histories of major active fault zones capable of generating large earthquakes in highly populated regions, and (3) the distribution of major hazard-prone regions induced by geological processes. In 2009, more than 720 investigators and 70 engineers from Chinese institutions are currently involved with the research program. Sinoprobe hope that the joint forces by Chinese and international researchers will bring in modern approaches, new analytical tools, and advanced exploration technology into the successful operation of the program. In past year, 1,960km long seismic reflection profiling with broadband seismological studies and MT surveys separated from 6 profiles in China continent have completed. MT array coved the North China craton by 1°×1° network and 3-D exploration in larger ore deposits in selected area were carried out. A scientific drilling area operated in Tibet. We started to establish a geochemical reference framework for the values of 76 elements in a grid network with data-point spacing of 160 km in

  3. An Interview with Tom Wessels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pryor, Patrick K.; Wessels, Tom

    2002-01-01

    Author and environmental educator Tom Wessels discusses how to infer a landscape's history from plants and other clues found on site. Reading the landscape enables people to develop a stronger connection to place. Understanding historic landscape changes is essential to understanding current environmental issues. He also discusses his teaching…

  4. Plasma Wave Measurements in Earth's Magnetosphere by Juno, Van Allen Probes, and Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurth, W. S.; Hospodarsky, G. B.; Bolton, S. J.; Gurnett, D. A.; Santolik, O.; Kletzing, C.; Thorne, R. M.; Pickett, J. S.

    2013-12-01

    On October 9, 2013, Juno will fly within about 550 km of Earth in the process of executing a gravity assist on its way to its eventual arrival at Jupiter in July 2016. Since this will be the only magnetospheric plasma regime Juno will sample prior to arrival at Jupiter, it presents both engineering and scientific opportunities. One of the scientific opportunities is to make observations in the inner magnetosphere at the same time as the twin Van Allen Probes and Cluster. During the Juno flyby, which is on the dusk side at closest approach, the Van Allen Probes' apoapsis is also in the dusk sector. The Cluster orbits favor comparisons on the nightside after Juno's closest approach. Models of the radiation belts suggest that Juno will traverse both the inner and outer belts, albeit at higher latitudes than the low-inclination Van Allen Probes while the Cluster spacecraft are in a rather high inclination orbit. The Waves instrument on Juno utilizes a single electric dipole antenna and a single search coil sensor for measurements of the electric and magnetic components of plasma waves, consequently it will provide wave spectra and brief bursts of waveforms. The Waves instrument on Van Allen Probes, on the other hand makes triaxial electric and magnetic measurements of plasma waves, hence, can determine the propagation characteristics of waves such as the wave-normal angle, Poynting flux, and polarization characteristics of the waves. The Wideband Instrument on Cluster can be configured to capture single axis (electric or magnetic) waveforms at selected times to coincide with Juno and Van Allen Probes burst observations. We will compare observations of whistler-mode emissions and electron cyclotron harmonic emissions in and near the radiation belts from the vantage points of these spacecraft.

  5. Q&A with Tom Snyder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLester, Susan

    2005-01-01

    In this article, an interview with Tom Snyder, founder of Tom Snyder Productions in 1980, is presented. One of the topics discussed here is Snyder's biggest turning point in education technology over the past 25 years.

  6. GOCE satellite gravity gradients: a new probe into the Earth's mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panet, I.; Pajot-Métivier, G.; Greff-Lefftz, M.; Métivier, L.; Diament, M.; Mandea, M.; Romanowicz, B. A.

    2013-12-01

    Understanding the dynamics of the Earth's mantle requires to elucidate its internal structure and composition. Because density anomalies drive mantle flows, information on the mass distribution within the mantle is needed in order to model the deep dynamics. The measurements obtained from the ESA's GOCE satellite mission allow us to determine the tensor of second-order derivatives of the gravity potential as viewed from space, thus providing a new class of observations to probe our planet's deep directional mass structure: gravity gradients. We built the first global anomaly maps of the Earth's gravity gradients along the orbit, and demonstrate their unprecedented capability to image the geometry of mass distribution down to mid-mantle depths. In our maps, we identify signals that reflect the effect of subduction processes and convective instabilities between 1000 and 2500 km depth on mantle structure, also consistent with the distribution of shear-velocities anomalies in global seismic tomographic models. Such a clear detection arises from the correspondence between the directions along which the gradients are computed, and the North-South/East-West global structure of the Earth's deep masses. In particular, along the former Tethyan margin, the gradients maps suggest a stronger East-West directionality of the upper mantle structure than predicted by global seismic tomography. The joint analysis of these new data together with other geophysical data and models thus opens new perspectives to enhance the geometric description of mantle heterogeneities, and decipher their nature.

  7. Functional network macroscopes for probing past and present Earth system dynamics (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donges, J. F.

    2013-12-01

    probing past and present Earth system dynamics: Complex hierarchical interactions, tipping points, and beyond" by J.F. Donges, Humboldt University, Berlin, Germany, 2012. URL: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:kobv:11-100207126.

  8. Measurements of the RF characteristics of earth lightning with the Galileo probe lightning experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rinnert, K.; Lanzerotti, L. J.; Dehmel, G.; Gliem, F. O.; Krider, E. P.; Uman, M. A.

    1985-01-01

    The results of some measurements of earth lightning made with the functional unit of the Galileo probe RF lightning experiment are presented. The frequency range used is about 100 Hz to 100 kHz. The measurements were carried out in conjunction with simultaneous studies of lightning sources made by the University of Florida lightning research group. It is found that the typical RF pulse duration times are less than 30 microsec, independent of lightning source distance (less than 250 km). It is also found that the time between successive pulses is either quite short (less than 64 microsec), corresponding to the time between intracloud pulses and to the time between bipolar pulses, or occur around 100 ms, corresponding to the time between return strokes in ground discharges. The RF spectra are found to become less steep (relatively more power at the higher frequencies) during an interval of intense, nearby (less than 150 km) storms.

  9. Recognition of mitochondrial targeting sequences by the import receptors Tom20 and Tom22.

    PubMed

    Rimmer, Kieran A; Foo, Jung Hock; Ng, Alicia; Petrie, Emma J; Shilling, Patrick J; Perry, Andrew J; Mertens, Haydyn D T; Lithgow, Trevor; Mulhern, Terrence D; Gooley, Paul R

    2011-01-21

    The Tom20 and Tom22 receptor subunits of the TOM (translocase of the outer mitochondrial membrane) complex recognize N-terminal presequences of proteins that are to be imported into the mitochondrion. In plants, Tom20 is C-terminally anchored in the mitochondrial membrane, whereas Tom20 is N-terminally anchored in animals and fungi. Furthermore, the cytosolic domain of Tom22 in plants is smaller than its animal/fungal counterpart and contains fewer acidic residues. Here, NMR spectroscopy was used to explore presequence interactions with the cytosolic regions of receptors from the plant Arabidopsis thaliana and the fungus Saccharomyces cerevisiae (i.e., AtTom20, AtTom22, and ScTom22). It was found that AtTom20 possesses a discontinuous bidentate hydrophobic binding site for presequences. The presequences on plant mitochondrial proteins comprise two or more hydrophobic binding regions to match this bidentate site. NMR data suggested that while these presequences bind to ScTom22, they do not bind to AtTom22. AtTom22, however, binds to AtTom20 at the same binding site as presequences, suggesting that this domain competes with the presequences of imported proteins, thereby enabling their progression along the import pathway. PMID:21087612

  10. Mitochondrial import receptors Tom20 and Tom22 have chaperone-like activity.

    PubMed

    Yano, Masato; Terada, Kazutoyo; Mori, Masataka

    2004-03-12

    Mitochondrial preproteins are synthesized in the cytosol with N-terminal signal sequences (presequences) or internal targeting signals. Generally, preproteins with presequences are initially recognized by Tom20 (translocase of the outer membrane) and, subsequently, by Tom22, whereas hydrophobic preproteins with internal targeting signals are first recognized by Tom70. Recent studies suggest that Tom70 associates with molecular chaperones, thereby maintaining their substrate preproteins in an import-competent state. However, such a function has not been reported for other Tom component(s). Here, we investigated a role for Tom20 in preventing substrate preproteins from aggregating. In vitro binding assays showed that Tom20 binds to guanidinium chloride unfolded substrate proteins regardless of the presence or absence of presequences. This suggests that Tom20 functions as a receptor not only for presequences but also for mature portions exposed in unfolded preproteins. Aggregation suppression assays on citrate synthase showed that the cytosolic domain of Tom20 has a chaperone-like activity to prevent this protein from aggregating. This activity was inhibited by a presequence peptide, suggesting that the binding site of Tom20 for presequence is identical or close to the active site for the chaperone-like activity. The cytosolic domain of Tom22 also showed a similar activity for citrate synthase, whereas Tom70 did not. These results suggest that the cytosolic domains of Tom20 and Tom22 function to maintain their substrate preproteins unfolded and prevent them from aggregating on the mitochondrial surface. PMID:14699115

  11. ADEOS Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) Data Products User's Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krueger, A.; Bhartia, P. K.; McPeters, R.; Herman, J.; Wellemeyer, C.; Jaross, G.; Seftor, C.; Torres, O.; Labow, G.; Byerly, W.; Moy, L.; Taylor, S.; Swissler, T.; Cebula, R.

    1998-01-01

    Two data products from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (ADEOS/TOMS) have been archived at the Distributed Active Archive Center, in the form of Hierarchical Data Format files. The ADEOS/ TOMS began taking measurements on September 11, 1996, and ended on June 29, 1997. The instrument measured backscattered Earth radiance and incoming solar irradiance; their ratio was used in ozone retrievals. Changes in the reflectivity of the solar diffuser used for the irradiance measurement were monitored using a carousel of three diffusers, each exposed to the degrading effects of solar irradiation at different rates. The algorithm to retrieve total column ozone compares measured Earth radiances at sets of three wavelengths with radiances calculated for different total ozone values, solar zenith angles, and optical paths. The initial error in the absolute scale for TOMS total ozone is 3 percent, the one standard deviation random error is 2 percent, and the drift is less than 0.5 percent over the 9-month data record. The Level 2 product contains the measured radiances, the derived total ozone amount, and reflectivity information for each scan position. The Level 3 product contains daily total ozone and reflectivity in a 1-degree latitude by 1.25 degrees longitude grid. The Level 3 files containing estimates of UVB at the Earth surface and tropospheric aerosol information will also be available. Detailed descriptions of both HDF data files and the CDROM product are provided.

  12. The Radiation Belt Storm Probes Mission: Advancing Our Understanding of the Earth's Radiation Belts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sibeck, David; Kanekal, Shrikanth; Kessel, Ramona; Fox, Nicola; Mauk, Barry

    2012-01-01

    We describe NASA's Radiation Belt Storm Probe (RBSP) mission, whose primary science objective is to understand, ideally to the point of predictability, the dynamics of relativistic electrons and penetrating ions in the Earth's radiation belts resulting from variable solar activity. The overarching scientific questions addressed include: 1. the physical processes that produce radiation belt enhancement events, 2. the dominant mechanisms for relativistic electron loss, and 3. how the ring current and other geomagnetic processes affect radiation belt behavior. The RBSP mission comprises two spacecraft which will be launched during Fall 2012 into low inclination lapping equatorial orbits. The orbit periods are about 9 hours, with perigee altitudes and apogee radial distances of 600 km and 5.8 RE respectively. During the two-year primary mission, the spacecraft orbits precess once around the Earth and lap each other twice in each local time quadrant. The spacecraft are each equipped with identical comprehensive instrumentation packages to measure, electrons, ions and wave electric and magnetic fields. We provide an overview of the RBSP mission, onboard instrumentation and science prospects and invite scientific collaboration.

  13. Composition of the earth's atmosphere by shock-layer radiometry during the PAET entry probe experiment.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whiting, E. E.; Arnold, J. O.; Page, W. A.; Reynolds, R. M.

    1973-01-01

    A determination of the composition of the earth's atmosphere obtained from onboard radiometer measurements of the spectra emitted from the bow shock layer of a high-speed entry probe is reported. The N2, O2, CO2, and noble gas concentrations in the earth's atmosphere were determined to good accuracy by this technique. The results demonstrate unequivocally the feasibility of determining the composition of an unknown planetary atmosphere by means of a multichannel radiometer viewing optical emission from the heated atmospheric gases in the region between the bow shock wave and the vehicle surface. The spectral locations in this experiment were preselected to enable the observation of CN violet, N2(+) first negative and atomic oxygen emission at 3870, 3910, and 7775 A, respectively. The atmospheric gases were heated and compressed by the shock wave to a peak temperature of about 6100 K and a corresponding pressure of 0.4 atm. Complete descriptions of the data analysis technique and the onboard radiometer and its calibration are given.

  14. An energy balance simulation tool for TOMS-EP

    SciTech Connect

    Mackowski, M.J.; Martin, D.K.

    1996-12-31

    A computer analysis tool has been developed to perform energy balance simulations of a spacecraft power subsystem. The purpose of the tool is to predict the battery state-of-charge as a function of time for different mission scenarios, particularly during the first few orbits. The load profile (power use versus time) and the solar array power available for charging the battery were both time-varying functions that were different for each scenario. Therefore an analysis tool was needed that could easily make changes to the load profile and select different levels of solar array power. This was accomplished by developing a simple spreadsheet that defined the load profiles, which would then be imported into another spreadsheet that performed the energy balance calculations, including the adjustments to the solar array output. The development of these relatively simple spreadsheets replaced a laborious manual process of defining the load profiles which were then sued in a less sophisticated spreadsheet.The improved version also added a capability to include loads prior to satellite separation from the launch vehicle. A more elaborate simulation program had also been used in the past, but it was inconvenient to use and was not as precise as the new spreadsheet. In summary, the new tool made it easy to quickly develop and evaluate many different operational scenarios. This process has been used to evaluate responses to various failure modes and to develop contingency plans for the first few orbits of the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer--Earth Probe (TOMS-EP) mission.

  15. In Their Own Words: Tom Simon

    NASA Video Gallery

    Tom Simon, a contracting officer's representative for NASA's Commercial Crew Program, discusses the importance of certifying commercial transportation systems are safe to carry NASA astronauts to t...

  16. Protein import channel of the outer mitochondrial membrane: a highly stable Tom40-Tom22 core structure differentially interacts with preproteins, small tom proteins, and import receptors.

    PubMed

    Meisinger, C; Ryan, M T; Hill, K; Model, K; Lim, J H; Sickmann, A; Müller, H; Meyer, H E; Wagner, R; Pfanner, N

    2001-04-01

    The preprotein translocase of the yeast mitochondrial outer membrane (TOM) consists of the initial import receptors Tom70 and Tom20 and a approximately 400-kDa (400 K) general import pore (GIP) complex that includes the central receptor Tom22, the channel Tom40, and the three small Tom proteins Tom7, Tom6, and Tom5. We report that the GIP complex is a highly stable complex with an unusual resistance to urea and alkaline pH. Under mild conditions for mitochondrial lysis, the receptor Tom20, but not Tom70, is quantitatively associated with the GIP complex, forming a 500K to 600K TOM complex. A preprotein, stably arrested in the GIP complex, is released by urea but not high salt, indicating that ionic interactions are not essential for keeping the preprotein in the GIP complex. Under more stringent detergent conditions, however, Tom20 and all three small Tom proteins are released, while the preprotein remains in the GIP complex. Moreover, purified outer membrane vesicles devoid of translocase components of the intermembrane space and inner membrane efficiently accumulate the preprotein in the GIP complex. Together, Tom40 and Tom22 thus represent the functional core unit that stably holds accumulated preproteins. The GIP complex isolated from outer membranes exhibits characteristic TOM channel activity with two coupled conductance states, each corresponding to the activity of purified Tom40, suggesting that the complex contains two simultaneously active and coupled channel pores. PMID:11259583

  17. Transient Luminous Events: optical emissions from high altitudes to probe the Earth's upper atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luque, A.; Gordillo-Vázquez, F. J.

    2012-04-01

    Transient Luminous Events are short but intense optical emissions from the upper terrestrial atmosphere, driven by the electric fields generated by a tropospheric electric storm. They were first observed in 1989 [1] but they had been predicted by C.T.R. Wilson already in 1925 [2]. Wilson argued that the electric field needed to initiate a discharge (the breakdown field) is proportional to the atmospheric density and therefore decreases exponentially with altitude; meanwhile the electric field created by a charged cloud is roughly dipolar and decays slower. Therefore there exists an altitude where the cloud field surpasses the breakdown field and an electric discharge is initiated. The combination of modeling and observations of TLEs allows us to quantify their influence in the global atmospheric chemistry and the global electric circuit that connects the surface of the Earth with the ionosphere. But, equally importantly, TLEs serve as natural probes to remotely investigate the atmosphere that surrounds them. In this talk we will survey some recent results on the modelling of TLEs. 1. Sprite beads provide an example of a possible use of TLEs to remotely probe the Earth's mesosphere. Sprites are filamentary discharges, some tens of kilometers wide, appearing at altitudes from about 50 to about 85 km. Sometimes, in the wake of a sprite, luminous spots (beads) persist much longer than the main emissions. These sprite beads reveal underlying inhomogeneities in the atmospheric conductivity [4] whose precise origin is still uncertain. 2. Another path to investigate the mesosphere through TLE observations is to compare observed spectra with kinetic models [5] combined with electrodynamic simulations [6]. For that purpose, we have modeled emissions from terrestrial TLEs: we calculated the expected emissions in the ultraviolet (Lyman-Birge-Hopfield band of molecular nitrogen), in the near UV and visible blue (second positive system of N2) and in the red and near infrared

  18. Van Allen Probes Mission Space Academy: Educating middle school students about Earth's mysterious radiation belts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, L.; Turney, D.; Matiella Novak, A.; Smith, D.; Simon, M.

    2013-12-01

    How's the weather in space? Why on Earth did NASA send two satellites above Earth to study radiation belts and space weather? To learn the answer to questions about NASA's Van Allen Probes mission, 450 students and their teachers from Maryland middle schools attended Space Academy events highlighting the Van Allen Probes mission. Sponsored by the Applied Physics Laboratory (APL) and Discovery Education, the events are held at the APL campus in Laurel, MD. Space Academies take students and teachers on behind-the-scenes exploration of how spacecraft are built, what they are designed to study, and introduces them to the many professionals that work together to create some of NASA's most exciting projects. Moderated by a public relations representative in the format of an official NASA press conference, the daylong event includes a student press conference with students as reporters and mission experts as panelists. Lunch with mission team members gives students a chance to ask more questions. After lunch, students don souvenir clean room suits, enjoy interactive science demonstrations, and tour APL facilities where the Van Allen Probes were built and tested before launch. Students may even have an opportunity to peek inside a clean room to view spacecraft being assembled. Prior to the event, teachers are provided with classroom activities, lesson plans, and videos developed by APL and Discovery Education to help prepare students for the featured mission. The activities are aligned to National Science Education Standards and appropriate for use in the classroom. Following their visit, student journalists are encouraged to write a short article about their field trip; selections are posted on the Space Academy web site. Designed to engage, inspire, and influence attitudes about space science and STEM careers, Space Academies provide an opportunity to attract underserved populations and emphasize that space science is for everyone. Exposing students to a diverse group of

  19. Toms Creek IGCC Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Virr, M.J.

    1992-01-01

    The Toms Creek Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) Demonstration Project was selected by DOE in September 1991 to participate in Round Four of the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program. The project will demonstrate a simplified IGCC process consisting of an air-blown, fluidized-bed gasifier (Tampella U-Gas), a gas cooler/steam generator, and a hot gas cleanup system in combination with a gas turbine modified for use with a low-Btu content fuel and a conventional steam bottoming cycle. The demonstration plant will be located at the Toms Creek coal mine near Coeburn, Wise County, Virginia. Participants in the project are Tampella Power Corporation and Coastal Power Production Company. The plant will use 430 tons per day of locally mined bituminous coal to produce 55 MW of power from the gasification section of the project. A modern pulverized coal fired unit will be located adjacent to the Demonstration Project producing an additional 150 MW. A total 190 MW of power will be delivered to the electric grid at the completion of the project. In addition, 50,000 pounds per hour of steam will be exported to be used in the nearby coal preparation plant. Dolomite is used for in-bed gasifier sulfur capture and downs cleanup is accomplished in a fluidized-bed of regenerative zinc titanate. Particulate clean-up, before the gas turbine, will be performed by high temperature candle filters (1020[degree]F). The demonstration plant heat rate is estimated to be 8,700 Btu/kWh. The design of the project goes through mid 1995, with site construction activities commencing late in 1995 and leading to commissioning and start-up by the end of 1997. This is followed by a three year demonstration period.

  20. Toms Creek IGCC Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Virr, M.J.

    1992-11-01

    The Toms Creek Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) Demonstration Project was selected by DOE in September 1991 to participate in Round Four of the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program. The project will demonstrate a simplified IGCC process consisting of an air-blown, fluidized-bed gasifier (Tampella U-Gas), a gas cooler/steam generator, and a hot gas cleanup system in combination with a gas turbine modified for use with a low-Btu content fuel and a conventional steam bottoming cycle. The demonstration plant will be located at the Toms Creek coal mine near Coeburn, Wise County, Virginia. Participants in the project are Tampella Power Corporation and Coastal Power Production Company. The plant will use 430 tons per day of locally mined bituminous coal to produce 55 MW of power from the gasification section of the project. A modern pulverized coal fired unit will be located adjacent to the Demonstration Project producing an additional 150 MW. A total 190 MW of power will be delivered to the electric grid at the completion of the project. In addition, 50,000 pounds per hour of steam will be exported to be used in the nearby coal preparation plant. Dolomite is used for in-bed gasifier sulfur capture and downs cleanup is accomplished in a fluidized-bed of regenerative zinc titanate. Particulate clean-up, before the gas turbine, will be performed by high temperature candle filters (1020{degree}F). The demonstration plant heat rate is estimated to be 8,700 Btu/kWh. The design of the project goes through mid 1995, with site construction activities commencing late in 1995 and leading to commissioning and start-up by the end of 1997. This is followed by a three year demonstration period.

  1. Entry-probe studies of the atmospheres of earth, Mars, and Venus - A review (Von Karman Lecture)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seiff, Alvin

    1990-01-01

    This paper overviews the history (since 1963) of the exploration of planetary atmospheres by use of entry probes. The techniques used to measure the compositions of the atmospheres of the earth, Mars, and Venus are described together with the key results obtained. Attention is also given to the atmosphere-structure experiment aboard the Galileo Mission, launched on October 17, 1989 and now under way on its 6-yr trip to Jupiter, and to future experiments.

  2. A Long-term Record of Saharan Dust Aerosol Properties from TOMS Observations: Optical Depth and Single Scattering Albedo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torres, Omar; Bhartia, P. K.; Herman, J. R.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The interaction between the strong Rayleigh scattering in the near UV spectral region (330-380 nm) and the processes of aerosol absorption and scattering, produce a clear spectral signal in the upwelling radiance at the top of the atmosphere. This interaction is the basis of the TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) aerosol retrieval technique that can be used for their characterization and to differentiate non-absorbing sulfates from strongly UV-absorbing aerosols such as mineral dust. For absorbing aerosols, the characterization is in terms of the optical depth and single scattering albedo with assumptions about the aerosol plume height. The results for non-absorbing aerosols are not dependent on plume height. Although iron compounds represent only between 5% to 8% of desert dust aerosol mass, hematite (Fe2O3) accounts for most of the near UV absorption. Because of the large ultraviolet absorption characteristic of hematite, the near UV method of aerosol sensing is especially suited for the detection and characterization of desert dust aerosols. Using the combined record of near UV measurements by the Nimbus7 (1978-1992) and Earth Probe (1996-present) TOMS instruments, a global longterm climatology of near UV optical depth and single scattering albedo has been produced. The multi-year long record of mineral aerosol properties over the area of influence of the Saharan desert, will be discussed.

  3. Updating the Micro-Tom TILLING platform.

    PubMed

    Okabe, Yoshihiro; Ariizumi, Tohru; Ezura, Hiroshi

    2013-03-01

    The dwarf tomato variety Micro-Tom is regarded as a model system for functional genomics studies in tomato. Various tomato genomic tools in the genetic background of Micro-Tom have been established, such as mutant collections, genome information and a metabolomic database. Recent advances in tomato genome sequencing have brought about a significant need for reverse genetics tools that are accessible to the larger community, because a great number of gene sequences have become available from public databases. To meet the requests from the tomato research community, we have developed the Micro-Tom Targeting-Induced Local Lesions IN Genomes (TILLING) platform, which is comprised of more than 5000 EMS-mutagenized lines. The platform serves as a reverse genetics tool for efficiently identifying mutant alleles in parallel with the development of Micro-Tom mutant collections. The combination of Micro-Tom mutant libraries and the TILLING approach enables researchers to accelerate the isolation of desirable mutants for unraveling gene function or breeding. To upgrade the genomic tool of Micro-Tom, the development of a new mutagenized population is underway. In this paper, the current status of the Micro-Tom TILLING platform and its future prospects are described. PMID:23641180

  4. Impact of atmospheric refraction: how deeply can we probe exo-earth's atmospheres during primary eclipse observations?

    SciTech Connect

    Bétrémieux, Yan; Kaltenegger, Lisa

    2014-08-10

    Most models used to predict or fit exoplanet transmission spectra do not include all the effects of atmospheric refraction. Namely, the angular size of the star with respect to the planet can limit the lowest altitude, or highest density and pressure, probed during primary eclipses as no rays passing below this critical altitude can reach the observer. We discuss this geometrical effect of refraction for all exoplanets and tabulate the critical altitude, density, and pressure for an exoplanet identical to Earth with a 1 bar N{sub 2}/O{sub 2} atmosphere as a function of both the incident stellar flux (Venus, Earth, and Mars-like) at the top of the atmosphere and the spectral type (O5-M9) of the host star. We show that such a habitable exo-Earth can be probed to a surface pressure of 1 bar only around the coolest stars. We present 0.4-5.0 μm model transmission spectra of Earth's atmosphere viewed as a transiting exoplanet, and show how atmospheric refraction modifies the transmission spectrum depending on the spectral type of the host star. We demonstrate that refraction is another phenomenon that can potentially explain flat transmission spectra over some spectral regions.

  5. Nimbus/TOMS Science Data Operations Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Childs, Jeff

    1998-01-01

    1. Participate in and provide analysis of laboratory and in-flight calibration of UV sensors used for space observations of backscattered UV radiation. 2. Provide support to the TOMS Science Operations Center, including generating instrument command lists and analysis of TOMS health and safety data. 3. Develop and maintain software and algorithms designed to capture and process raw spacecraft and instrument data, convert the instrument output into measured radiance and irradiances, and produce scientifically valid products. 4. Process the TOMS data into Level 1, Level 2, and Level 3 data products. 5. Provide analysis of the science data products in support of NASA GSFC Code 916's research.

  6. Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) Level-3 Data Products User's Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McPeters, Richard D.; Bhartia, P. K.; Krueger, Arlin J.; Herman, Jay R.; Wellemeyer, Charles G.; Seftor, Colin J.; Byerly, William; Celarier, Edward A.

    2000-01-01

    Data from the TOMS series of instruments span the time period from November 1978, through the present with about a one and a-half year gap from January 1994 through July 1996. A set of four parameters derived from the TOMS measurements have been archived in the form of daily global maps or Level-3 data products. These products are total column ozone, effective surface reflectivity, aerosol index, and erythermal ultraviolet estimated at the Earth surface. A common fixed grid of I degree latitude by 1.25 degree longitude cells over the entire globe is provided daily for each parameter. These data are archived at the Goddard Space Flight Center Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAQ in Hierarchical Data Format (HDF). They are also available in a character format through the TOMS web site at http://toms.gsfc.nasa.gov. The derivations of the parameters, the mapping algorithm, and the data formats are described. The trend uncertainty for individual TOMS instruments is about 1% decade, but additional uncertainty exists in the combined data record due to uncertainty in the relative calibrations of the various TOMS.

  7. Chemistry Experiments — For Comparative Analyses for Demonstrating Environmental Differences on Venus, Earth, Mars and Titan, — Built on Educational Space Probes Hunveyor and Husar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bérczi, Sz.; Róka, A.; Nyíri, Z.; Varga, T.; Fabriczy, A. Sz.; Peták, Cs.; Hudoba, Gy.; Hegyi, S.; Lang, A.; Gyollai, I.; Gucsik, A.

    2014-11-01

    We compared chemical environments of Venus, Earth, Mars and Titan by experiments planned for selection to realize them on educational space probe landers and rovers (Hunveyor and Husar) built by Hungarian universities and high schools.

  8. Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carr, M. H.

    1984-01-01

    The following aspects of the planet Earth are discussed: plate tectonics, the interior of the planet, the formation of the Earth, and the evolution of the atmosphere and hydrosphere. The Earth's crust, mantle, and core are examined along with the bulk composition of the planet.

  9. Effect of marine stratocumulus in TOMS ozone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, A. M.; Mcnamara, D. P.; Pickering, K. E.; Mcpeters, R. D.

    1993-01-01

    The algorithm used to correct total O3 from the total ozone mapping spectrometer (TOMS) for cloud effects is based on the measured reflectivity, a climatological cloud top height, and an assumed tropospheric O3 column amount below clouds. In regions of persistent subtropical marine stratocumulus it is assumed that this introduces a positive error into total O3 because these clouds are lower than the assumed mean cloud height used in the algorithm. This appears to be confirmed by high correlation between Nimbus 7 TOMS total O3 and reflectivity data for typical regimes of persistent stratus, as identified by the international satellite cloud climatology project (ISCCP) observations. The TOMS total O3 overestimate has been computed using Nimbus 7/solar backscattered ultraviolet total O3 derived using temperature humidity infrared radiometer (THIR) data for years 1979-1984. A functional relationship between the THIR/non-THIR total O3 difference and reflectivity is used with TOMS reflectivity to modify Nimbus 7 TOMS O3 data for selected regions and periods. The correction diminishes or eliminates a number of apparent O3 maxima, with reductions of up to 20 Dobson units (DU) in total O3 on daily maps and approximately 5 DU on monthly mean O3 maps. Significant correlation between corrected TOMS O3 and reflectivity data remains because low-altitude O3 is retrieved more efficiently over a high-albedo surface. It is also possible that dynamical influences leading to stratocumulus formation bring O3-enriched air into the area. These results imply that although good arguments can be made for the use of TOMS total O3 as a proxy for tropospheric O3 in the tropics, caution must be exercised in the use of daily and even monthly O3 maps in the vicinity of clouds. Further research into the TOMS algorithm in cloudy regions is required to derive reliable estimates of tropospheric O3.

  10. TOMS UV Algorithm: Problems and Enhancements. 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krotkov, Nickolay; Herman, Jay; Bhartia, P. K.; Seftor, Colin; Arola, Antti; Kaurola, Jussi; Kroskinen, Lasse; Kalliskota, S.; Taalas, Petteri; Geogdzhaev, I.

    2002-01-01

    Satellite instruments provide global maps of surface ultraviolet (UV) irradiance by combining backscattered radiance measurements with radiative transfer models. The models are limited by uncertainties in input parameters of the atmosphere and the surface. We evaluate the effects of possible enhancements of the current Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) surface UV irradiance algorithm focusing on effects of diurnal variation of cloudiness and improved treatment of snow/ice. The emphasis is on comparison between the results of the current (version 1) TOMS UV algorithm and each of the changes proposed. We evaluate different approaches for improved treatment of pixel average cloud attenuation, with and without snow/ice on the ground. In addition to treating clouds based only on the measurements at the local time of the TOMS observations, the results from other satellites and weather assimilation models can be used to estimate attenuation of the incident UV irradiance throughout the day. A new method is proposed to obtain a more realistic treatment of snow covered terrain. The method is based on a statistical relation between UV reflectivity and snow depth. The new method reduced the bias between the TOMS UV estimations and ground-based UV measurements for snow periods. The improved (version 2) algorithm will be applied to re-process the existing TOMS UV data record (since 1978) and to the future satellite sensors (e.g., Quik/TOMS, GOME, OMI on EOS/Aura and Triana/EPIC).

  11. Global Surface Ultraviolet Radiation Climatology from TOMS and ERBE Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lubin, Dan

    1998-01-01

    The overall goal of this project has been to develop a method for calculating the distribution of solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) over most of the earth's surface using NASA's Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) and Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) data, and to use this method to develop a UVR climatology that is useful in the context of the global ozone depletion issue. The research carried out with this support has resulted the following accomplishments: (1) a radioactive transfer method. based on the delta-Eddington approximation, was successfully developed; (2) the method was applied to the five years of overlapping TOMS and ERBE Monthly-Hourly data to examine the impact of global variability in cloud cover on trends in surface UVR; (3) a presentation was made on effects of stratospheric ozone depletion; (4) the radioactive transfer model was finally applied to all daylight hours to make a through study of the global effect of cloud cover;and (6) a five-year global climatology of surface UVR based on all of the research has been prepared for general distribution.

  12. Changes in Cloud and Aerosol Cover (1980-2006) from Reflectivity Time Series Using SeaWiFS, N7-TOMS, EP-TOMS, SBUV-2, and OMI Radiance Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herman, J. R.; Labow, G.; Hsu, N. C.; Larko, D.

    2009-01-01

    The amount of solar radiation reflected back to space or reaching the Earth's surface is primarily governed by the amount of cloud cover and, to a much lesser extent, by Rayleigh scatteri ng, aerosols, and various absorbing gases (e.g., O3, NO2, H2O). A useful measure of the effect of cloud plus aerosol cover is given by the amount that the 331 run Lambert Equivalent Reflectivity (LER) ofa scene exceeds the surfuce reflectivity for snow/ice-free scenes after Rayleigh scattering has been removed. Twenty-eight years of reflectivity data are available by overlapping data from several satellites: N7 (Nimbus 7, TOMS; 331 nm) from 1979 to 1992, SBUV-2 series (Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet, NOAA; 331 nm) 1985 to 2007, EP (Earth-Probe, TOMS; 331 nm) 1997 to 2006, SW (SeaWiFS; 412 nm) 1998 to 2006, and OMI (Ozone Measuring Instrument; 331 nm) 2004-2007. Only N7 and SW have a sufficiently long data record, Sun-synchronous orbits, and are adequately calibrated for long-term reflectivity trend estimation. Reflectivity data derived from these instruments and the SBUV-2 series are compared during the overlapping years. Key issues in determining long-term reflecti vity changes that have occurred during the N7 and SW operating periods are discussed. The largest reflectivity changes in the 412 nm SW LER and 331 nm EP LER are found to occur near the equator and are associated with a large EI Nino-Southern Oscillation event. Most other changes that have occurred are regional, such as the apparent cloud decrease over northern Europe since 1998. The fractional occurrence (fraction of days) of high reflectivity values over Hudson Bay, Canada (snow/ice and clouds) appears to have decreased when comparing reflectivity data from 1980 to 1992 to 1997-2006, suggesting shorter duration of ice in Hudson Bay since 1980.

  13. Tom40, the pore-forming component of the protein-conducting TOM channel in the outer membrane of mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Ahting, U; Thieffry, M; Engelhardt, H; Hegerl, R; Neupert, W; Nussberger, S

    2001-06-11

    Tom40 is the main component of the preprotein translocase of the outer membrane of mitochondria (TOM complex). We have isolated Tom40 of Neurospora crassa by removing the receptor Tom22 and the small Tom components Tom6 and Tom7 from the purified TOM core complex. Tom40 is organized in a high molecular mass complex of approximately 350 kD. It forms a high conductance channel. Mitochondrial presequence peptides interact specifically with Tom40 reconstituted into planar lipid membranes and decrease the ion flow through the pores in a voltage-dependent manner. The secondary structure of Tom40 comprises approximately 31% beta-sheet, 22% alpha-helix, and 47% remaining structure as determined by circular dichroism measurements and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Electron microscopy of purified Tom40 revealed particles primarily with one center of stain accumulation. They presumably represent an open pore with a diameter of approximately 2.5 nm, similar to the pores found in the TOM complex. Thus, Tom40 is the core element of the TOM translocase; it forms the protein-conducting channel in an oligomeric assembly. PMID:11402060

  14. LILBID-mass spectrometry of the mitochondrial preprotein translocase TOM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mager, Frauke; Sokolova, Lucie; Lintzel, Julia; Brutschy, Bernhard; Nussberger, Stephan

    2010-11-01

    In the present work we applied a novel mass spectrometry method termed laser-induced liquid bead ion desorption mass spectrometry (LILBID-MS) to the outer mitochondrial membrane protein translocon TOM to analyze its subunit composition and stoichiometry. With TOM core complex, purified at high pH, we demonstrate that a TOM core complex of Neurospora crassa is composed of at least two Tom40 and Tom22 molecules, respectively, and more than five small Tom subunits between 5.5 and 6.4 kDa. We show that the multiprotein complex has a total molecular mass higher than 170 depending on the number of Tom5, Tom6 and Tom7 molecules bound.

  15. A simple method for verifying the deployment of the TOMS-EP solar arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koppersmith, James R.; Ketchum, Eleanor

    1995-01-01

    The Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer-Earth Probe (TOMS-EP) mission relies upon a successful deployment of the spacecraft's solar arrays. Several methods of verification are being employed to ascertain the solar array deployment status, with each requiring differing amounts of data. This paper describes a robust attitude-independent verification method that utilizes telemetry from the coarse Sun sensors (CSS's) and the three-axis magnetometers (TAM's) to determine the solar array deployment status - and it can do so with only a few, not necessarily contiguous, points of data. The method developed assumes that the solar arrays are deployed. Telemetry data from the CSS and TAM are converted to the Sun and magnetic field vectors in spacecraft body coordinates, and the angle between them is calculated. Deployment is indicated if this angle is within a certain error tolerance of the angle between the reference Sun and magnetic field vectors. Although several other methods can indicate a non-deployed state, with this method there is a 70% confidence level in confirming deployment as well as a nearly 100% certainty in confirming a non-deployed state. In addition, the spacecraft attitude (which is not known during the first orbit after launch) is not needed for this algorithm because the angle between the Sun and magnetic field vectors is independent of the spacecraft attitude. This technique can be applied to any spacecraft with a TAM and with CSS's mounted on the solar array(s).

  16. Comparison of Galileo Probe and Earth-Based Translation Rates of Jupiter's Equatorial Clouds

    PubMed

    Beebe; Simon; Huber

    1996-05-10

    The Doppler wind speeds derived from Galileo probe data are comparable with the maximum translation speeds observed in the equatorial zone by Voyager 1 and the Hubble Space Telescope. Slower published values of east-west winds are based on measurements of larger features and should be interpreted as translation rates of large weather systems interacting with the wind. The nature of the hot-spot region that the Galileo probe entered is compatible with a high-speed jet at 6 degrees north. The hot spot is associated with an equatorial weather system that spans 5 degrees of latitude and translates at 103 meters per second. PMID:8662572

  17. Nimbus-7 TOMS Version 7 Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wellemeyer, C. G.; Taylor, S. L.; Jaross, G.; DeLand, M. T.; Seftor, C. J.; Labow, G.; Swissler, T. J.; Cebula, R. P.

    1996-01-01

    This report describes an improved instrument characterization used for the Version 7 processing of the Nimbus-7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) data record. An improved internal calibration technique referred to as spectral discrimination is used to provide long-term calibration precision of +/- 1%/decade in total column ozone amount. A revised wavelength scale results in a day one calibration that agrees with other satellite and ground-based measurements of total ozone, while a wavelength independent adjustment of the initial radiometric calibration constants provides good agreement with surface reflectivity measured by other satellite-borne ultraviolet measurements. The impact of other aspects of the Nimbus-7 TOMS instrument performance are also discussed. The Version 7 data should be used in all future studies involving the Nimbus-7 TOMS measurements of ozone. The data are available through the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's Distributive Active Archive Center (DAAC).

  18. Nimbus/TOMS Science Data Operations Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Projected goals include the following: (1) Participate in and provide analysis of laboratory and in-flight calibration of LTV sensors used for space observations of backscattered LTV radiation; (2) Provide support to the TOMS Science Operations Center, including generating instrument command lists and analysis of TOMS health and safety data; (3) Develop and maintain software and algorithms designed to capture and process raw spacecraft and instrument data, convert the instrument output into measured radiance and irradiances, and produce scientifically valid products; (4) Process the TOMS data into Level 1, Level 2, and Level 3 data products; (5) Provide analysis of the science data products in support of NASA GSFC Code 916's research.

  19. Scientific and Operational Requirements for TOMS Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krueger, Arlin J. (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    Global total ozone and sulfur dioxide data from the Nimbus 7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) instrument have applications in a broad range of disciplines. The presentations of 29 speakers who are using the data in research or who have operational needs for the data are summarized. Five sessions addressed topics in stratospheric processes, tropospheric dynamics and chemistry, remote sensing, volcanology, and future instrument requirements. Stratospheric and some volcanology requirements can be met by a continuation of polar orbit satellites using a slightly modified TOMS but weather related research, tropospheric sulfur budget studies, and most operational needs require the time resolution of a geostationary instrument.

  20. TOMS Near Realtime System design document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Puccinelli, E. F.

    1981-01-01

    The System Design Document for the TOMS (Total Mapping Spectrometer) Near Realtime System provides detailed definition of the system functions and records the system history from a data processing and development point-of-view. The system was designed to produce map products displaying ozone concentrations over the United States as measured by the TOMS flown on the NIMBUS 7 satellite. The maps were produced and delivered to the user within six hours of round receipt of the satellite data for the period March 1, 1981 through May 15, 1981 on a daily basis. Sample system products are shown and data archival locations are listed.

  1. The long-term global record on Aerosol Absorption Optical Depth from TOMS and OMI observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, O.; Bhartia, P.; Ahn, C.; Veefkind, P.

    2006-12-01

    Carbonaceous aerosols from biomass burning and boreal forest fires, and desert dust lofted by the winds from the world major arid and semi-arid areas are among the most long-lived aerosol types in the Earth's atmosphere, since they often reach the free troposphere and are sometimes transported thousands of kilometers from their original sources. A lot has been learned about the global distribution of aerosol sources, and the transport patterns of these aerosol types since the development of the near-UV methods of aerosol detection and characterization using data from the TOMS series of instruments. Because both smoke and desert dust aerosols absorb UV-radiation, the TOMS aerosol sensing technique is specially suited for tracking these aerosol types over variety of surfaces including clouds and snow. TOMS aerosol observations, for instance, have been fundamental in discovering that carbonaceous aerosols associated with wild fires at mid and high latitudes often reach the lower stratosphere, and travel as far as the remote polar regions. We have recently completed the development of an improved algorithm to derive quantitative information about aerosol absorption optical depth using near-UV data. We will discuss the multi- decadal global record on aerosol absorption optical depth produced using TOMS and OMI sensors, and review the multiple contributions of the TOMS-OMI record to the current understanding of the factors that govern the observed temporal and spatial distribution of smoke and desert dust aerosols.

  2. Swept-frequency UHF radiometer for deep probes of earth - A concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koppl, W.

    1970-01-01

    Radiometer, developed for use on moon or planets, could be used to - determine layering and structure as deep as 100 feet below earth surface, determine physical properties of subsurface by variation of dielectric constants, identify types of materials including ore bodies and oil, and locate subsurface deposits of moisture.

  3. Recent near-Earth supernovae probed by global deposition of interstellar radioactive (60)Fe.

    PubMed

    Wallner, A; Feige, J; Kinoshita, N; Paul, M; Fifield, L K; Golser, R; Honda, M; Linnemann, U; Matsuzaki, H; Merchel, S; Rugel, G; Tims, S G; Steier, P; Yamagata, T; Winkler, S R

    2016-04-01

    The rate of supernovae in our local Galactic neighbourhood within a distance of about 100 parsecs from Earth is estimated to be one every 2-4 million years, based on the total rate in the Milky Way (2.0 ± 0.7 per century). Recent massive-star and supernova activity in Earth's vicinity may be traced by radionuclides with half-lives of up to 100 million years, if trapped in interstellar dust grains that penetrate the Solar System. One such radionuclide is (60)Fe (with a half-life of 2.6 million years), which is ejected in supernova explosions and winds from massive stars. Here we report that the (60)Fe signal observed previously in deep-sea crusts is global, extended in time and of interstellar origin from multiple events. We analysed deep-sea archives from all major oceans for (60)Fe deposition via the accretion of interstellar dust particles. Our results reveal (60)Fe interstellar influxes onto Earth at 1.5-3.2 million years ago and at 6.5-8.7 million years ago. The signal measured implies that a few per cent of fresh (60)Fe was captured in dust and deposited on Earth. Our findings indicate multiple supernova and massive-star events during the last ten million years at distances of up to 100 parsecs. PMID:27078565

  4. GeoSystems: Probing Climate and Linked Systems of Earth's Deep-Time Dark Ages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soreghan, G. S.

    2004-12-01

    GeoSystems is a developing community-based initiative that focuses on the importance of the deep-time perspective for understanding the complexities of Earth's atmosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere and surficial lithosphere using climate as the focus. Earth's climate operates on a continuum of temporal, spatial and parametric scales. The deep-time geologic record preserves the results of multiple large-scale experiments in climate and broader environmental change, many of which are far more extreme than those archived in instrumental, historical, or Quaternary records, but are potentially repeatable on human time scales. Indeed, aspects of our modern climate are now returning to a state last known from "deep" time. Understanding the ranges, rates, and processes responsible for these "alternative Earth" extremes in global systems behavior is critical for developing a holistic knowledge of our planet's climate system and constraining predictions of future scenarios. Processes such as extinction and evolution of species, orogenic and magmatic events, sea-level change, and the like operate over a variety of time scales and are complexly entwined with climatic trends, many of which also operate over a variety of time scales and must be viewed within the context of the deep-time perspective. Recent research on Earth's climate and linked systems behavior in deep time is shattering previous preconceptions and interpretations by reconstructing, with increasing rigor and resolution, key parameters such as atmospheric CO2, sea-surface temperatures, rates and modes of ocean circulation, ocean state (anoxia, nutrient status, biological productivity), winds, seasonality, and even diurnal terrestrial temperatures from records dating from millions of years in the past. Beyond this, these same records are simultaneously teaching us how the climate system interacted with Earth's biosphere, lithosphere, and hydrosphere in ways previously unimagined.

  5. Changes in Earth 360 380 nm Reflectivity: 1980 2000

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herman, J. R.; Ziemke, G.; Larko, D.

    2002-01-01

    The Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) reflectivity time series 1980 to 1992 and 1997 to 2000 have been combined to estimate change that have occurred over a 21 year period. The relative calibration of the two TOMS (Nimbus-7, N7 and Earth-Probe, EP) has been adjusted using the measured minimum reflectivity over mid-latitude ocean and land locations (50o). The result is that the N7 reflectivity has been decreased by 0.02 to match the better-calibrated Earth-Probe/TOMS. Most of the local trend features seen in the N7 time series (1980 to 1992) have been continued in the combined time series, but the overall zonal average and global trends have changed. The correlation of cloud cover with solar activity (measured by the 10.7 cm solar radiation) that was present during the Nimbus-7 period (1980 to 1992) is no longer evident for the period 1980 to 2000. The UV reflectivity data are compared with changes in the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) Outgoing Long-wavelength Radiation (OLR) and show an expected anti-correlation with cloud-cover changes over the same period for many, but not all, features. The key results include a continuing decrease in cloud cover over Europe and North America and an increase in reflectivity near climatology should be reduced by 0.02. The TOMS reflectivity time series 1980 to 1992 and 1997 to 2000 have been Antarctica. This also means that the previously published N7 UV surface reflectivity.

  6. Optical probes for the detection of protons, and alkali and alkaline earth metal cations.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Graham R C; Sahoo, Suban K; Kamila, Sukanta; Singh, Narinder; Kaur, Navneet; Hyland, Barry W; Callan, John F

    2015-07-01

    Luminescent sensors and switches continue to play a key role in shaping our understanding of key biochemical processes, assist in the diagnosis of disease and contribute to the design of new drugs and therapies. Similarly, their contribution to the environment cannot be understated as they offer a portable means to undertake field testing for hazardous chemicals and pollutants such as heavy metals. From a physiological perspective, the Group I and II metal ions are among the most important in the periodic table with blood plasma levels of H(+), Na(+) and Ca(2+) being indicators of several possible disease states. In this review, we examine the progress that has been made in the development of luminescent probes for Group I and Group II ions as well as protons. The potential applications of these probes and the mechanism involved in controlling their luminescent response upon analyte binding will also be discussed. PMID:25742963

  7. Ion probe determinations of the rare earth concentrations of individual meteoritic phosphate grains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crozaz, G.; Zinner, E.

    1985-01-01

    A new ion probe method for quantitative measurements of the concentrations of all the REE down to the ppm level in 5-20 micron spots is presented. The first application of the method is the determination of REE abundances in meteoritic phosphates. Results are shown to be in good agreement with previous INAA and ion probe determinations. The merrillites in the St. Severin amphoterite are richer in REE than the apatites (the enrichment factors, for various REE, range from 2.3 to 14.2) in contradiction with the results of Ebihara and Honda (1983). Provided good standards for other mineral phases are found or implanted marker ion techniques are used, the method should find a wide range of applications for the study of both terrestrial and extraterrestrial crystals at the microscopic level.

  8. Recognition of preproteins by the isolated TOM complex of mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Stan, T; Ahting, U; Dembowski, M; Künkele, K P; Nussberger, S; Neupert, W; Rapaport, D

    2000-09-15

    A multisubunit complex in the mitochondrial outer membrane, the TOM complex, mediates targeting and membrane translocation of nuclear-encoded preproteins. We have isolated the TOM holo complex, containing the preprotein receptor components Tom70 and Tom20, and the TOM core complex, which lacks these receptors. The interaction of recombinant mitochondrial preproteins with both types of soluble TOM complex was analyzed. Preproteins bound efficiently in a specific manner to the isolated complexes in the absence of chaperones and lipids in a bilayer structure. Using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, a dissociation constant in the nanomolar range was determined. The affinity was lower when the preprotein was stabilized in its folded conformation. Following the initial binding, the presequence was transferred into the translocation pore in a step that required unfolding of the mature part of the preprotein. This translocation step was also mediated by protease-treated TOM holo complex, which contains almost exclusively Tom40. Thus, the TOM core complex, consisting of Tom40, Tom22, Tom6 and Tom7, is a molecular machine that can recognize and partially translocate mitochondrial precursor proteins. PMID:10990453

  9. Characterization of Neurospora crassa Tom40-deficient mutants and effect of specific mutations on Tom40 assembly.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Rebecca D; McHale, Bryan J; Nargang, Frank E

    2003-01-10

    The TOM complex (Translocase of the Outer mitochondrial Membrane) is responsible for the recognition of mitochondrial preproteins synthesized in the cytosol and for their translocation across or into the outer mitochondrial membrane. Tom40 is the major component of the TOM complex and forms the translocation pore. We have created a tom40 mutant of Neurospora crassa and have demonstrated that the gene is essential for the viability of the organism. Mitochondria with reduced levels of Tom40 were deficient for import of mitochondrial preproteins and contained reduced levels of the TOM complex components Tom22 and Tom6, suggesting that the import and/or stability of these proteins is dependent on the presence of Tom40. Mutant Tom40 preproteins were analyzed for their ability to be assembled into the TOM complex. In vitro import assays revealed that conserved regions near the N terminus (residues 51-60) and the C terminus (residues 321-323) of the 349-amino acid protein were required for assembly beyond a 250-kDa intermediate form. Mutant strains expressing Tom40 with residues 51-60 deleted were viable but exhibited growth defects. Slow growing mutants expressing Tom40, where residues 321-323 were changed to Ala residues, were isolated but showed TOM complex defects, whereas strains in which residues 321-323 were deleted could not be isolated. Analysis of the assembly of mutant Tom40 precursors in vitro supported a previous model in which Tom40 precursors progress from the 250-kDa intermediate to a 100-kDa form and then assemble into the 400-kDa TOM complex. Surprisingly, when wild type mitochondria containing Tom40 precursors arrested at the 250-kDa intermediate were treated with sodium carbonate, further assembly of intermediates into the TOM complex occurred, suggesting that disruption of protein-protein interactions may facilitate assembly. Import of wild type Tom40 precursor into mitochondria containing a mutant Tom40 lacking residues 40-48 revealed an alternate

  10. Toms River Drivers Manual 1984-1985.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Patricia

    The procedures in this manual are designed to establish stability and continuity within the student transportation department of the Toms River Regional Schools in New Jersey. The manual is divided into three sections. Section 1 provides driver and aide specific information. It includes directives related to time clock, spare buses, and…

  11. Tom Wolfe and the Uses of Argument.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kallan, Richard A.

    Tom Wolfe is widely regarded as the leading theorist and practitioner of New Journalism, the journalistic genre that combines the stylistic features of fiction and the reportorial obligations of journalism to produce a "novelistic sounding" but nonetheless factual literature. The saliency of Wolfe's stylistic boldness has prompted many to conclude…

  12. 05-NIF Dedication: Tom D'Agostino

    SciTech Connect

    Tom D'Agostino,

    2009-07-02

    The National Ignition Facility, the world's largest laser system, was dedicated at a ceremony on May 29, 2009 at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. These are the remarks by Tom D'Agostino, the administrator of the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration.

  13. Probing the absolute density of the Earth's core using a vertical neutrino beam

    SciTech Connect

    Winter, Walter

    2005-08-01

    We demonstrate that one could measure the absolute matter density of the Earth's core with a vertical neutrino factory baseline at the per cent level for sin{sup 2}2{theta}{sub 13} > or approx. 0.01, where we include all correlations with the oscillation parameters in the analysis. We discuss the geographical feasibility of such an approach, and illustrate how the results change as a function of the detector location. We point out the complementarity to geophysics.

  14. Antiferromagnetic Spin Coupling between Rare Earth Adatoms and Iron Islands Probed by Spin-Polarized Tunneling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coffey, David; Diez-Ferrer, José Luis; Serrate, David; Ciria, Miguel; Fuente, César De La; Arnaudas, José Ignacio

    2015-09-01

    High-density magnetic storage or quantum computing could be achieved using small magnets with large magnetic anisotropy, a requirement that rare-earth iron alloys fulfill in bulk. This compelling property demands a thorough investigation of the magnetism in low dimensional rare-earth iron structures. Here, we report on the magnetic coupling between 4f single atoms and a 3d magnetic nanoisland. Thulium and lutetium adatoms deposited on iron monolayer islands pseudomorphically grown on W(110) have been investigated at low temperature with scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy. The spin-polarized current indicates that both kind of adatoms have in-plane magnetic moments, which couple antiferromagnetically with their underlying iron islands. Our first-principles calculations explain the observed behavior, predicting an antiparallel coupling of the induced 5d electrons magnetic moment of the lanthanides with the 3d magnetic moment of iron, as well as their in-plane orientation, and pointing to a non-contribution of 4f electrons to the spin-polarized tunneling processes in rare earths.

  15. Recent near-Earth supernovae probed by global deposition of interstellar radioactive 60Fe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallner, A.; Feige, J.; Kinoshita, N.; Paul, M.; Fifield, L. K.; Golser, R.; Honda, M.; Linnemann, U.; Matsuzaki, H.; Merchel, S.; Rugel, G.; Tims, S. G.; Steier, P.; Yamagata, T.; Winkler, S. R.

    2016-04-01

    The rate of supernovae in our local Galactic neighbourhood within a distance of about 100 parsecs from Earth is estimated to be one every 2-4 million years, based on the total rate in the Milky Way (2.0 ± 0.7 per century). Recent massive-star and supernova activity in Earth’s vicinity may be traced by radionuclides with half-lives of up to 100 million years, if trapped in interstellar dust grains that penetrate the Solar System. One such radionuclide is 60Fe (with a half-life of 2.6 million years), which is ejected in supernova explosions and winds from massive stars. Here we report that the 60Fe signal observed previously in deep-sea crusts is global, extended in time and of interstellar origin from multiple events. We analysed deep-sea archives from all major oceans for 60Fe deposition via the accretion of interstellar dust particles. Our results reveal 60Fe interstellar influxes onto Earth at 1.5-3.2 million years ago and at 6.5-8.7 million years ago. The signal measured implies that a few per cent of fresh 60Fe was captured in dust and deposited on Earth. Our findings indicate multiple supernova and massive-star events during the last ten million years at distances of up to 100 parsecs.

  16. Antiferromagnetic Spin Coupling between Rare Earth Adatoms and Iron Islands Probed by Spin-Polarized Tunneling

    PubMed Central

    Coffey, David; Diez-Ferrer, José Luis; Serrate, David; Ciria, Miguel; Fuente, César de la; Arnaudas, José Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    High-density magnetic storage or quantum computing could be achieved using small magnets with large magnetic anisotropy, a requirement that rare-earth iron alloys fulfill in bulk. This compelling property demands a thorough investigation of the magnetism in low dimensional rare-earth iron structures. Here, we report on the magnetic coupling between 4f single atoms and a 3d magnetic nanoisland. Thulium and lutetium adatoms deposited on iron monolayer islands pseudomorphically grown on W(110) have been investigated at low temperature with scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy. The spin-polarized current indicates that both kind of adatoms have in-plane magnetic moments, which couple antiferromagnetically with their underlying iron islands. Our first-principles calculations explain the observed behavior, predicting an antiparallel coupling of the induced 5d electrons magnetic moment of the lanthanides with the 3d magnetic moment of iron, as well as their in-plane orientation, and pointing to a non-contribution of 4f electrons to the spin-polarized tunneling processes in rare earths. PMID:26333417

  17. Antiferromagnetic Spin Coupling between Rare Earth Adatoms and Iron Islands Probed by Spin-Polarized Tunneling.

    PubMed

    Coffey, David; Diez-Ferrer, José Luis; Serrate, David; Ciria, Miguel; de la Fuente, César; Arnaudas, José Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    High-density magnetic storage or quantum computing could be achieved using small magnets with large magnetic anisotropy, a requirement that rare-earth iron alloys fulfill in bulk. This compelling property demands a thorough investigation of the magnetism in low dimensional rare-earth iron structures. Here, we report on the magnetic coupling between 4f single atoms and a 3d magnetic nanoisland. Thulium and lutetium adatoms deposited on iron monolayer islands pseudomorphically grown on W(110) have been investigated at low temperature with scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy. The spin-polarized current indicates that both kind of adatoms have in-plane magnetic moments, which couple antiferromagnetically with their underlying iron islands. Our first-principles calculations explain the observed behavior, predicting an antiparallel coupling of the induced 5d electrons magnetic moment of the lanthanides with the 3d magnetic moment of iron, as well as their in-plane orientation, and pointing to a non-contribution of 4f electrons to the spin-polarized tunneling processes in rare earths. PMID:26333417

  18. Tropospheric Ozone from the TOMS TDOT (TOMS-Direct-Ozone-in-Troposphere) Technique During SAFARI-2000

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, J. B.; Thompson, A. M.; Frolov, A. D.; Hudson, R. D.; Bhartia, P. K. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    There are a number of published residual-type methods for deriving tropospheric ozone from TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer). The basic concept of these methods is that within a zone of constant stratospheric ozone, the tropospheric ozone column can be computed by subtracting stratospheric ozone from the TOMS Level 2 total ozone column, We used the modified-residual method for retrieving tropospheric ozone during SAFARI-2000 and found disagreements with in-situ ozone data over Africa in September 2000. Using the newly developed TDOT (TOMS-Direct-Ozone-in-Troposphere) method that uses TOMS radiances and a modified lookup table based on actual profiles during high ozone pollution periods, new maps were prepared and found to compare better to soundings over Lusaka, Zambia (15.5 S, 28 E), Nairobi and several African cities where MOZAIC aircraft operated in September 2000. The TDOT technique and comparisons are described in detail.

  19. Probing Core Processes in the Earth and Small Bodies Using Paleomagnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, R. R.; Weiss, B. P.; Lima, E. A.; Glenn, D. R.; Kehayias, P.; Walsworth, R. L.

    2015-12-01

    Convective motion in the cores of differentiated metal-silicate bodies may sustain a global dynamo magnetic field. Progressive crystallization in a dynamo-generating core is expected to play a central role in determining the observable properties of the hosted magnetic field. Importantly, the release of light elements and latent heat during core crystallization is a key source of entropy for sustaining core convection. Therefore, the persistence and intensity of a dynamo magnetic field depend directly on the extent and style of core crystallization. We present and discuss paleomagnetic data from the Earth and asteroid-sized bodies to characterize internally generated magnetic fields during the early histories of these objects. In the case of the Earth, recent and ongoing paleomagnetic experiments of zircons from the Jack Hills of Australia can potentially constrain the existence and intensity of the geodynamo before 3.5 Ga. If robust, such measurements hold strong implications for the energy budget of the Earth's early core and the dynamics of the early mantle. We will discuss both recently published and preliminary results and assess carefully the challenges and uncertainties of paleomagnetic experimentation on ancient zircon samples. In the case of small bodies, several classes of meteorites record ancient magnetic fields likely produced by core dynamos on their parent bodies. Data from the CV carbonaceous chondrites and pallasites indicate that dynamos in planetesimal-sized bodies persisted for a broad range of timescales between ~10 My and >100 My. Meanwhile, measurements of the angrite group of achondrites show that their earliest-forming members crystallized in an almost non-magnetic environment, suggesting a delayed onset of the planetesimal dynamo until several My after initial differentiation. We will discuss the possible causes for this observed diversity of small body dynamo properties, including the role of core crystallization and the distribution of

  20. Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes (SHADOZ) 1998-2000 tropical ozone climatology 1. Comparison with Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) and ground-based measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Anne M.; Witte, Jacquelyn C.; McPeters, Richard D.; Oltmans, Samuel J.; Schmidlin, Francis J.; Logan, Jennifer A.; Fujiwara, Masatomo; Kirchhoff, Volker W. J. H.; Posny, FrançOise; Coetzee, Gert J. R.; Hoegger, Bruno; Kawakami, Shuji; Ogawa, Toshihiro; Johnson, Bryan J.; VöMel, Holger; Labow, Gordon

    2003-01-01

    A network of 10 southern hemisphere tropical and subtropical stations, designated the Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes (SHADOZ) project and established from operational sites, provided over 1000 ozone profiles during the period 1998-2000. Balloon-borne electrochemical concentration cell (ECC) ozonesondes, combined with standard radiosondes for pressure, temperature, and relative humidity measurements, collected profiles in the troposphere and lower to midstratosphere at: Ascension Island; Nairobi, Kenya; Irene, South Africa; Réunion Island; Watukosek, Java; Fiji; Tahiti; American Samoa; San Cristóbal, Galapagos; and Natal, Brazil. The archived data are available at: . In this paper, uncertainties and accuracies within the SHADOZ ozone data set are evaluated by analyzing: (1) imprecisions in profiles and in methods of extrapolating ozone above balloon burst; (2) comparisons of column-integrated total ozone from sondes with total ozone from the Earth-Probe/Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) satellite and ground-based instruments; and (3) possible biases from station to station due to variations in ozonesonde characteristics. The key results are the following: (1) Ozonesonde precision is 5%. (2) Integrated total ozone column amounts from the sondes are usually to within 5% of independent measurements from ground-based instruments at five SHADOZ sites and overpass measurements from the TOMS satellite (version 7 data). (3) Systematic variations in TOMS-sonde offsets and in ground-based-sonde offsets from station to station reflect biases in sonde technique as well as in satellite retrieval. Discrepancies are present in both stratospheric and tropospheric ozone. (4) There is evidence for a zonal wave-one pattern in total and tropospheric ozone, but not in stratospheric ozone.

  1. Calibration and postlaunch performance of the Meteor 3/TOMS instrument

    SciTech Connect

    Jaross, G.; Krueger, A.; Cebula, R.P.; Seftor, C.; Hartmann, U.; Haring, R.; Burchfield, D. ||

    1995-02-01

    Prelaunch and postlaunch calibration results for the Meteor 3/total ozone mapping spectrometer (TOMS) instrument are presented here. Ozone amounts are retrieved from measurements of Earth albedo in the 312- to 380-nm range. The accuracy of albedo measurements is primarily tied to knowledge of the reflective properties of diffusers used in the calibrations and to the instrument`s wavelength selection. These and other important prelaunch calibrations are presented. Their estimated accuracies are within the bounds necessary to determine column ozone to better than 1%. However, postlaunch validation results indicate some prelaunch calibration uncertainties may be larger than originally estimated. Instrument calibrations have been maintained postlaunch to within a corresponding 1% error in retrieved ozone. Onboard calibrations, including wavelength monitoring and a three-diffuser solar measurement system, are described and specific results are presented. Other issues, such as the effects of orbital precession on calibration and recent chopper wheel malfunctions, are also discussed.

  2. Changes in Earth 360 to 380 nm Reflectivity: 1980 to 2000

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herman, J. R.; Ziemke, G.; Larko, D.

    2002-01-01

    The TOMS reflectivity time series 1980 to 1992 and 1997 to 2000 have been combined to estimate change that have occurred over a 21 year period. The relative calibration of the two TOMS (Nimbus-7, N7 and Earth-Probe, EP) has been adjusted using the measured minimum reflectivity over mid-latitude ocean and land locations (50 deg.). The result is that the N7 reflectivity has been decreased by 0.02 to match the better-calibrated Earth-Probe/TOMS. Most of the local trend features seen in the N7 time series (1980 to 1992) have been continued in the combined time series, but the overall zonal average and global trends have changed. The correlation of cloud cover with solar activity (measured by the 10.7 cm solar radiation) that was present during the Nimbus-7 period (1980 to 1992) is no longer evident for the period 1980 to 2000. The UV reflectivity data are compared with changes in the AVHRR outgoing long-wavelength radiation (OLR) and show an expected anti-correlation with cloud-cover changes over the same period for many, but not all, features. The key results include a continuing decrease in cloud cover over Europe and North America and an increase in reflectivity near Antarctica. This also means that the previously published N7 UV surface reflectivity climatology should be reduced by 0.02.

  3. Origin and cycle of water on Earth as determined by Ion probe H and D/H measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deloule, E.

    2009-12-01

    The question of the origin of water on Earth, and of its abundance has been the object of numerous debates, as well as for the other terrestrial planets. Furthermore the presence and amount of water, or more commonly fluids, in the mantle and continental crust are crucial issues for determining their nature and evolution. Ion probe have been a major tool during the last 3 decades to measure in situ water content, D/H ratio and other elements in various terrestrial and extraterrestrial samples of both hydrous and nominally anhydrous minerals. In a first step, the set up of D/H ratio measurements by ion probe on hydrous minerals [1], often to scarce in peridotite samples to be measurable by conventional mass spectrometry, pointed out variations of δD values in mantle peridotite [2,3] larger than expected (from 0 to -140), both at the mineral grain or regional scales. Such variations point out surface water recycling in the mantle, water exchange during metasomatic reaction and D-H fractionation during mantle processes, and a possible evolution of the Earth mantle D/H ratio through geological time. The determination of D/H ratio in the silicate phases of the matrix and chondrules of primitive meteorites provides new evidences for the source of water in the solar system: the high dD values recorded, up to 3500, implies the uptake of water ice formed in the interstellar media, during the protosolar nebula accretion [3-4]. The D-H budget suggests that up to 10% of Earth and meteorite water originated from interstellar media. The measurements of Martian meteorites [5-6] show contrasted results, with D enriched values associated to the interaction with the Martian surface water and D poor values interpreted as initial values. The development of in situ water content measurements in glasses and nominally anhydrous minerals (NAMs) [7-8] allows a more comprehensive study of the water behavior in the depth Earth. The characterization of its distribution in between the

  4. ACM TOMS replicated computational results initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Heroux, Michael Allen

    2015-06-03

    In this study, the scientific community relies on the peer review process for assuring the quality of published material, the goal of which is to build a body of work we can trust. Computational journals such as The ACM Transactions on Mathematical Software (TOMS) use this process for rigorously promoting the clarity and completeness of content, and citation of prior work. At the same time, it is unusual to independently confirm computational results.

  5. Dr. Tom Lawrence: a life in chiropractic

    PubMed Central

    Keating, Joseph C

    2005-01-01

    He dwelt within the chiropractic orbit from the cradle to the grave. Second-generation chiropractor Tom Lawrence was a successful professional and family man who followed in his father’s footsteps and fought the good fight to improve chiropractic within his state and nation. His passing closes a chapter of living memory of the middle years of the first chiropractic century. PMID:17549212

  6. ACM TOMS replicated computational results initiative

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Heroux, Michael Allen

    2015-06-03

    In this study, the scientific community relies on the peer review process for assuring the quality of published material, the goal of which is to build a body of work we can trust. Computational journals such as The ACM Transactions on Mathematical Software (TOMS) use this process for rigorously promoting the clarity and completeness of content, and citation of prior work. At the same time, it is unusual to independently confirm computational results.

  7. TOMS as a monitor of the ultraviolet radiation environment: Applications to photobiology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frederick, John E.

    1987-01-01

    The flux of biologically relevant ultraviolet radiation that reaches the surface of the Earth varies with the ozone amount, surface reflectivity, and cloudcover. The Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) provides information relevant to all three items. A recent application of satellite-based ozone measurements has been to develop climatologies of the biologically significant UV-B radiation reaching the Earth's surface. A growing body of research suggests that UV-B radiation tends to suppress the immune system of laboratory mice. At tropical latitudes, it is likely that parasitical diseases develop most readily in people who have experienced immune system suppression from UV-B exposure. The computed distribution of surface radiation combined with information on disease incidence may clarify the role of UV-B as a suppressor of the human immune system. TOMS used in conjunction with radiative transfer calculations can provide information of relevance in photobiology.

  8. A comprehensive mission to planet Earth: Woods Hole Space Science and Applications Advisory Committee Planning Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The NASA program Mission to Planet Earth (MTPE) is described in this set of visuals presented in Massachusetts on July 29, 1991. The problem presented in this document is that the earth system is changing and that human activity accelerates the rate of change resulting in increased greenhouse gases, decreasing levels of stratospheric ozone, acid rain, deforestation, decreasing biodiversity, and overpopulation. Various national and international organizations are coordinating global change research. The complementary space observations for this activity are sun-synchronous polar orbits, low-inclination, low altitude orbits, geostationary orbits, and ground measurements. The Geostationary Earth Observatory is the major proposed mission of MTPE. Other proposed missions are EOS Synthetic Aperture Radar, ARISTOTELES Magnetic Field Experiment, and the Global Topography Mission. Use of the NASA DC-8 aircraft is outlined as carrying out the Airborne Science and Applications Program. Approved Earth Probes Program include the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS). Other packages for earth observation are described.

  9. Nimbus-7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) data products user's guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcpeters, Richard D.; Krueger, Arlin J.; Bhartia, P. K.; Herman, Jay R.; Oaks, Arnold; Ahmad, Ziuddin; Cebula, Richard P.; Schlesinger, Barry M.; Swissler, Tom; Taylor, Steven L.

    1993-01-01

    Two tape products from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) aboard the Nimbus-7 have been archived at the National Space Science Data Center. The instrument measures backscattered Earth radiance and incoming solar irradiance; their ratio -- the albedo -- is used in ozone retrievals. In-flight measurements are used to monitor changes in the instrument sensitivity. The algorithm to retrieve total column ozone compares the observed ratios of albedos at pairs of wavelengths with pair ratios calculated for different ozone values, solar zenith angles, and optical paths. The initial error in the absolute scale for TOMS total ozone is 3 percent, the one standard-deviation random error is 2 percent, and the drift is +/- 1.5 percent over 14.5 years. The High Density TOMS (HDTOMS) tape contains the measured albedos, the derived total ozone amount, reflectivity, and cloud-height information for each scan position. It also contains an index of SO2 contamination for each position. The Gridded TOMS (GRIDTOMS) tape contains daily total ozone and reflectivity in roughly equal area grids (110 km in latitude by about 100-150 km in longitude). Detailed descriptions of the tape structure and record formats are provided.

  10. Van Allen Probe Observations: Near-Earth injections of Mev Electrons Associated with Intense Substorm Electric Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, L.; Wygant, J. R.; Bonnell, J. W.; Cattell, C. A.; Kletzing, C.; Baker, D. N.; Li, X.; Malaspina, D.; Blake, J. B.; Fennell, J.; Claudepierre, S. G.; Takahashi, K.; Funsten, H. O.; Reeves, G. D.; Spence, H. E.; Angelopoulos, V.; Glassmeier, K. H.; Turner, D. L.; Thaller, S. A.; Breneman, A. W.; Kersten, K.; Tang, X.; Tao, X.

    2014-12-01

    With their unique orbit, the Van Allen Probes (RBSP) spacecraft are well suited to investigate near-Earth substorm injections that penetrate into the heart of outer radiation belts. Substorms are generally conceived to inject 10s-100s keV electrons but intense substorm electric fields have been shown capable of injecting ~MeV electrons as well at the geosynchronous altitude. An intriguing question is whether such MeV electron injections can penetrate to lower L shells and directly contribute to the relativistic electron population of the outer radiation belt. In this talk, we present RBSP observations of near-Earth substorm injection of MeV relativistic particles and associated intense dipolarization electric field at L ~5.5. The substorm injection occurred during a moderate storm (DST~-30 to -20) with steady solar wind conditions. RBSP-A observed dispersionless injection of electrons from 10s keV up to 3 MeV in the pre-mid night sector (MLT=22UT). The injection was associated with unusually large (60mV/m) dipolarization electric fields that lasted 1 minute. At about the same time, THEMIS-D observed energy-dispersive injection of electrons at energies as high as at least 720keV at L~6.8 in the pre-dawn sector. Injection of energetic protons (~1MeV) and proton drift echos were observed at RBSP-A as well. RBSP-A observed a broad spectrum of nonlinear electric field structures but no whistler waves at the injection. The properties of the observed dipolarization electric field constrain the acceleration mechanism responsible for the MeV electron injection. We will discuss the implications of these observations on the direct impact of substorms on the outer radiation belt.

  11. Structural insights into proapoptotic signaling mediated by MTCH2, VDAC2, TOM40 and TOM22.

    PubMed

    Veresov, Valery G; Davidovskii, Alexander I

    2014-02-01

    Mitochondrial Outer Membrane (MOM) Permeabilization (MOMP) is a critical step in the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis and is regulated by the Bcl-2 family of proteins. In vitro studies using cardiolipin-containing liposomes as a MOM model have suggested that a mitochondria-specific phospholipid, cardiolipin, is of crucial importance in MOMP. However, recently it has been found that the MOM contains much less cardiolipin than it is required for liposome permeabilization. Shortly thereafter, several MOM proteins, such as VDAC2, MTCH2, TOM22 and TOM40, have been identified as the Bax, Bak and tBid receptors that are indispensable in MOMP, but the underlying mechanisms are elusive. Here, proapoptotic signaling mediated by these MOM receptors was explored in terms of 3D-structures of interacting proteins using computational modeling. The formation under apoptotic conditions of the TOM40/TOM22/tBid protein complex possessing a fairly high binding affinity towards Bax is predicted, suggesting the recruitment of Bax to mitochondria by this complex in apoptotic cells. Our simulations predict the displacement of Bax from the TOM40/TOM22/tBid/Bax complex by another Bax in auto-catalytic manner and explain, in terms of structure, the tBid-mediated displacement of Bak from the VDAC2/Bak complex. Computational modeling revealed high-affinity binding of Bid to MTCH2 suggesting both a quasi-constitutive residence of Bid in MTCH2-bound state in healthy cells and its caspase-8-mediated cleavage there under apoptotic conditions. Overall, our results provide structural details for important stages of apoptotic signaling mediated by MOM receptors and enrich its mechanistic understanding. PMID:24269536

  12. The application of GNSS in the near-Earth navigation of China’s lunar probe CE-5T1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yong; Fan, Min; Hu, Xiaogong; Li, Peijia

    2015-08-01

    After CE-1, CE-2 and CE-3, China’s fourth lunar probe CE-5T1 was launched on 23 Oct., 2014, which goal is to test the returning capability of the lunar probe. On 31 Oct., the landing portion of CE-5T1 successfully landed in the North China. CE-5T1 is a high eccentricity orbit with apogee of about 413 thousand km. A GNSS receiver was installed in CE-5T1 to test the ability of GNSS navigation for a High Earth Orbit (HEO) spacecraft. The receiver performed well and GPS side lobe signals have been tracked when the probe was at an altitude from 10000 to 60000 km during about two 3-hours periods, and most of time it is above the altitude of the GPS constellation. In these two periods, the average GPS satellites tracked is about 8-9, and the GDOP is from 1 to 30. We processed these GNSS data after the mission, and the noise level of the differenced pseudo-range is less than 10 m. We used the GNSS data to determine the orbit of CE-5T1, compared with the use of ground based tracking data including range, Doppler and VLBI. The results are encouraging, and the position difference between orbit determination (OD) with GNSS data and ground based data is less than 100 m. In CE-5T1 mission, the separation point is about 5000 km altitude, where the lander will separate from the orbiter then return to the ground. The separation point prediction accuracy directly affects the landing position. As plan there is a maneuver about 5 hours before the separation (canceled in fact), so there is only 3-4 hours tracking data to be used to predict the separation point. Analysis shows that combination of two types of data can improve the orbit accuracy as well as the accuracy of the predicted orbit. CE-5T1 made a successful test of the GNSS using for HEO spacecraft. Obviously, GNSS can be used as a low-cost OD sensor and the use of GNSS technique can reduce the observing pressure of the ground antenna in the lunar and deep space exploration.

  13. Evolution of the Southern Hemisphere ozone hole as seen by TOMS from August 1979 to December 1991. (Videotape)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    The computerized color images of the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) showed the ozone distribution and levels in the Earth's southern hemisphere from August 1979 to December 1991 in this video. The annual variations were presented in a monthly format and the ozone levels were measured in Dobson units.

  14. Solar EUV index for aeronomical studies at earth from Langmuir probe photoelectron measurements on the Pioneer Venus orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoegy, W. R.; Mahajan, K. K.

    1992-01-01

    A solar EUV index for aeronomical studies at earth, obtained from the Langmuir probe measurement of photoelectron current on the Pioneer Venus orbiter, is presented. To examine the potential of E sub EUV as a solar EUV flux index, the behavior of ionospheric parameters f sub 0 E, f sub 0 F1, and f sub 0 F2 are studied at midlatitude stations, and their relationship with E sub EUV and with the 10.7-cm solar radio flux is compared. f sub 0 F1 and f sub 0 F2 are found to be better correlated with E sub EUV than with the 10.7-cm flux. F sub 0 E is better correlated with the 10.7-cm flux, because the 10.7-cm flux is also a proxy for soft X-rays, which are an important ionizing source in the E region. A table is also presented for the EUV index, E sub EUV, for the period February 12, 1979, through most of 1991.

  15. Hydrodynamic Aspects of the Toms Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strel‧nikova, S. A.; Tkachenko, G. V.; Uryukov, B. A.

    2015-11-01

    The physicomathematical model of migration of polymers in a liquid turbulent flow in a pipe is based on a comparison of forces transverse to the motion of the mainstream flow: the Saffman, Magnus, and turbophoresis forces. It has been shown that the polymer particles are grouped near a certain boundary within the limits of the boundary layer. On this basis, the authors have made assumptions on the mechanism of suppression of turbulent pulsations and decrease in the viscous friction near the wall, which makes up the Toms effect. The proposed model satisfies, at least, qualitatively, various actually observed manifestations of the effect.

  16. The 1991 Antarctic ozone hole - TOMS observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krueger, Arlin; Schoeberl, Mark; Newman, Paul; Stolarski, Richard

    1992-01-01

    The 1991 Antarctic springtime ozone decline, as measured by the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS), was similar to those of earlier deep ozone hole years, 1987, 1989, and 1990. The minimum total ozone value was recorded on October 5, 1991 at 108 Dobson units near the South Pole. This was 8 DU lower than in any of the earlier years. Four of the last five years have exhibited an extensive, deep ozone hole. The area of the hole was about the same as in 1987, 1989, and 1990. The recovery of the low total ozone values occurred in mid-November as the polar vortex broke up.

  17. Solar UV irradiance measured at ground and compared with satellite TOMS/NASA derived data at different locations in Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfram, W.; Quel, E.; Paladini, A.; Orce, V.; Piacentini, R. D.

    The solar UV radiation incident on different and distant places of Argentina (Ushuaia, Puerto Madryn, Buenos Aires and Jujuy) obtained at 305, 320, 340 and 380 nm with a GUV-511/Biospherical narrowband radiometer of the CONICET Latitudinal UV-PAR radiation monitoring network, were compared with TUV model calculations in order to derive the effective aerosol optical depths in the locations indicated above. The adjusted spectral curve is employed in order to determine, -with the inclusion of the erythemal action spectrum, the corresponding integrated dose for each day. This value, usually called exposure, is compared with the data derived at noon from those taken by the satellite instrument TOMS/NASA on board of Earth Probe. Other biological UV irradiances like carcinogenesis and ADN and plant damages are also analyzed. In particular, the signals produced by the ozone hole and minihole events (with values lowers or equal to 220 DU) are clearly distinguished in the biological actions that depend strongly on the most energetic UVB radiations.

  18. Nonphotochemical hole burning of organic dyes and rare earth ions in polymers and glasses: a probe of the amorphous state

    SciTech Connect

    Fearey, B.L.

    1986-01-01

    New and in depth studies of amorphous materials (e.g., glasses and polymers) probed via the low temperature optical technique of nonphotochemical hole burning (NPHB) are presented. An extensive review of the phenomena itself, along with selected topics involving the use of persistent hole burning techniques, is given. In addition, a semi-complete tabulation of essentially all hole burning systems to date is included. The deuteration dependence in an amorphous host is examined for the system of tetracene in an ethanol/methanol mixture. The results illustrate the importance of hydrogen bonding in the hole burning process. The discovery of a highly efficient (or facile) class of hole burning systems, i.e., ionic dyes in hydroxylated polymers (i.e., poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVOH) and poly(acrylic acid) (PAA)), is presented and discussed. Ultrafast relaxation processes (i.e., dephasing) are studied for the system of cresyl violet perchlorate (CV) in PVOH. Further, for the first time, NPHB of rare earth ions, specifically Pr/sup +3/ and Nd/sup +3/, in a soft organic glass (i.e., PVOH) is discussed briefly. Detailed experimental results of two related phenomena, spontaneous hole filling (SPHF) and laser induced hole filling (LIHF), are presented and discussed for several systems: rhodamine 560 perchlorate (R560), rhodamine 640 perchlorate (R640), CV, Pr/sup +3/ and Nd..mu../sup 3/ in either PVOH or PAA. A theoretical model is developed for SPHF. The model invokes a correlated feedback mechanism from the anti-hole, which is able to account for the fact that no line broadening is observed. A tentative model is also presented for the phenomenon of LIHF.

  19. Estimation of errors in the TOMS total ozone measurement during the Antarctica ozone campaign of August/September 1987

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhartia, P. K.; Krueger, Arlin J.; Taylor, S.; Wellemeyer, C.

    1988-01-01

    The Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) instrument on the Nimbus-7 satellite provides the primary source of total ozone data for the study of total ozone in the polar regions of the earth. There are two types of instrument related errors: a slowly developing drift in the instrument calibration since the launch of the instrument in October 1978 and an increase in the measurement noise beginning April, 1984. It is estimated that by October 1987, the accumulated error in the TOMS total ozone measurement due to instrument drift is about 6 m-atm-cm. The sign of the error is such that the TOMS is slightly overpredicting the long-term decrease of the Antarctica ozone. The increase in the measurement noise is more difficult to quantify, affecting some measurements by as much as 10 D.U. and others not at all. A detailed analysis of this error and its potential impact on the studies of total ozone from TOMS will be provided. There are three categories of algorithmic errors: (1) error due the unusual shape of the ozone profile in the ozone hole; (2) error caused by very low atmospheric temperatures in the ozone hole affecting the ozone absorption cross-sections at the TOMS wavelengths; and (3) errors resulting from occasionally thick stratospheric clouds that sometimes reach to 20 km in the ozone hole.

  20. 78 FR 12307 - Taylor, G. Tom; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Taylor, G. Tom; Notice of Filing Take notice that on February 14, 2013, G. Tom Taylor filed an application to hold interlocking positions pursuant to section 305(b) of...

  1. Targeting and assembly of rat mitochondrial translocase of outer membrane 22 (TOM22) into the TOM complex.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Yasuhiko; Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Sakaguchi, Masao; Mihara, Katsuyoshi

    2004-05-14

    Tom22 is a preprotein receptor and organizer of the mitochondrial outer membrane translocase complex (TOM complex). Rat Tom22 (rTOM22) is a 142-residue protein, embedded in the outer membrane through the internal transmembrane domain (TMD) with 82 N-terminal residues in the cytosol and 41 C-terminal residues in the intermembrane space. We analyzed the signals that target rTOM22 to the mitochondrial outer membrane and assembly into the TOM complex in cultured mammalian cells. Deletions or mutations were systematically introduced into the molecule, and the intracellular localization of the mutant constructs in HeLa cells was examined by confocal microscopy and cell fractionation. Their assembly into the TOM complex was also examined using blue native gel electrophoresis. These experiments revealed three separate structural elements: a cytoplasmic 10-residue segment with an acidic alpha-helical structure located 30 residues upstream of the TMD (the import sequence), TMD with an appropriate hydrophobicity, and a 20-residue C-terminal segment located 22 residues downstream of the TMD (C-tail signal). The import sequence and TMD were both essential for targeting and integration into the TOM complex, whereas the C-tail signal affected the import efficiency. The import sequence combined with foreign TMD functioned as a mitochondrial targeting and anchor signal but failed to integrate the construct into the TOM complex. Thus, the mitochondrial-targeting and TOM integration signal could be discriminated. A yeast two-hybrid assay revealed that the import sequence interacted with two intramolecular elements, the TMD and C-tail signal, and that it also interacted with the import receptor Tom20. PMID:14985332

  2. BOREAS RSS-10 TOMS Circumpolar One-Degree PAR Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dye, Dennis G.; Holben, Brent; Nickeson, Jaime (Editor); Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) Remote Sensing Science (RSS)-10 team investigated the magnitude of daily, seasonal, and yearly variations of Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR) from ground and satellite observations. This data set contains satellite estimates of surface-incident PAR (400-700 nm, MJ/sq m) at one-degree spatial resolution. The spatial coverage is circumpolar from latitudes of 41 to 66 degrees north. The temporal coverage is from May through September for years 1979 through 1989. Eleven-year statistics are also provided: (1) mean, (2) standard deviation, and (3) coefficient of variation for 1979-89. The PAR estimates were derived from the global gridded ultraviolet reflectivity data product (average of 360, 380 nm) from the Nimbus-7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS). Image mask data are provided for identifying the boreal forest zone, and ocean/land and snow/ice-covered areas. The data are available as binary image format data files. The PAR data are available from the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884).

  3. Probes to the Inferior Planets - A New Dawn for NEO and IEO Detection Technology Demonstration from Heliocentric Orbits Interior to the Earth's?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grundmann, J. T.; Mottola, S.; Drentschew, M.; Drobczyk, M.; Kahle, R.; Maiwald, V.; Quantius, D.; Zabel, P.; Van Zoest, T.

    2011-11-01

    With the launch of MESSENGER and VENUS EXPRESS, a new wave of exploration of the inner solar system has begun. Noting the growing number of probes to the inner solar system, it is proposed to connect the expertise of the respective spacecraft teams and the NEO and IEO survey community to best utilize the extended cruise phases and to provide additional data return in support of pure science as well as planetary defence. Several missions to Venus and Mercury are planned to follow in this decade. Increased interest in the inferior planets is accompanied by several missions designed to study the Sun and the interplanetary medium (IPM) from a position near or in Earth orbit, such as the STEREO probes and SDO. These augment established solar observation capabilities at the Sun-Earth L1 Lagrangian point such as the SOHO spacecraft. Thus, three distinct classes of spacecraft operate or observe interior to Earth's orbit. All these spacecraft carry powerful multispectral cameras optimized for their respective primary targets. MESSENGER is scheduled to end its six-year interplanetary cruise in March 2011 to enter Mercury orbit, but a similarly extended cruise with several gravity-assists awaits the European Mercury mission BEPICOLOMBO. Unfortunately, the automatic abort of the orbit insertion manoeuvre has also left AKATSUKI (a.k.a. Venus Climate Orbiter (VCO), Planet-C) stranded in heliocentric orbit. After an unintended fly-by, the probe will catch up with Venus in approximately six years. Meanwhile, it stays mostly interior to Venus in a planet-leading orbit. In addition to the study of comets and their interaction with the IPM, observations of small bodies akin to those carried out by outer solar system probes are occasionally attempted with the equipment available. The study of structures in the interplanetary dust (IPD) cloud has been a science objective during the cruise phase of the Japanese Venus probe AKATSUKI from Earth to Venus. IPD observations in the

  4. Synergic use of TOMS and Aeronet Observations for Characterization of Aerosol Absorption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torres, O.; Bhartia, P. K.; Dubovik, O.; Holben, B.; Siniuk, A.

    2003-01-01

    The role of aerosol absorption on the radiative transfer balance of the earth-atmosphere system is one of the largest sources of uncertainty in the analysis of global climate change. Global measurements of aerosol single scattering albedo are, therefore, necessary to properly assess the radiative forcing effect of aerosols. Remote sensing of aerosol absorption is currently carried out using both ground (Aerosol Robotic Network) and space (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) based observations. The satellite technique uses measurements of backscattered near ultraviolet radiation. Carbonaceous aerosols, resulting from the combustion of biomass, are one of the most predominant absorbing aerosol types in the atmosphere. In this presentation, TOMS and AERONET retrievals of single scattering albedo of carbonaceous aerosols, are compared for different environmental conditions: agriculture related biomass burning in South America and Africa and peat fires in Eastern Europe. The AERONET and TOMS derived aerosol absorption information are in good quantitative agreement. The most absorbing smoke is detected over the African Savanna. Aerosol absorption over the Brazilian rain forest is less absorbing. Absorption by aerosol particles resulting from peat fires in Eastern Europe is weaker than the absorption measured in Africa and South America. This analysis shows that the near UV satellite method of aerosol absorption characterization has the sensitivity to distinguish different levels of aerosol absorption. The analysis of the combined AERONET-TOMS observations shows a high degree of synergy between satellite and ground based observations.

  5. Climatology of the Earth's inner magnetosphere as observed by the Radiation Belt Storm Probes Ion Composition Experiment (RBSPICE) instrument on the Van Allen Probes spacecraft.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manweiler, J. W.; Patterson, J. D.; Manweiler, R. M.; Gerrard, A. J.; Mitchell, D. G.; Lanzerotti, L. J.

    2014-12-01

    The Radiation Belt Storm Probes Ion Composition Experiment (RBSPICE) instrument on the Van Allen Probes spacecraft measures energetic ion and electron particle populations in a species dependent energy range of 10's of KeV up to an MeV. The instrument separates the ion population into component species of protons, helium, and oxygen. This paper presents a climatological survey of RBSPICE measurements over the life of the mission to date. A comparison of spectrographs of the energetic particle populations (e, p, He, and O) is shown against key standard geomagnetic indices. Also shown is a summary of key electron and ion lower energy events based upon a systematic characterization of the type of event. The analyses of these events provide verification of the difference between electron and ion drift orbits and, based upon characterization schemes, show how the different event categories can vary as a function of L and MLT.

  6. Near-Real-Time Detection and Monitoring of Dust Events by Satellite (SeaWIFS, MODIS, and TOMS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, N. Christina; Tsay, Si-Chee; Herman, Jay R.; Kaufman, Yoram

    2002-01-01

    Over the last few years satellites have given us increasingly detailed information on the size, location, and duration of dust events around the world. These data not only provide valuable feedback to the modelling community as to the fidelity of their aerosol models but are also finding increasing use in near real-time applications. In particular, the ability to locate and track the development of aerosol dust clouds on a near real-time basis is being used by scientists and government to provide warning of air pollution episodes over major urban area. This ability has also become a crucial component of recent coordinated campaigns to study the characteristics of tropospheric aerosols such as dust and their effect on climate. One such recent campaign was ACE-Asia, which was designed to obtain the comprehensive set of ground, aircraft, and satellite data necessary to provide a detailed understanding of atmospheric aerosol particles over the Asian-Pacific region. As part of ACE-Asia, we developed a near real-time data processing and access system to provide satellite data from the polar-orbiting instruments Earth Probe TOMS (in the form of absorbing aerosol index) and SeaWiFS (in the form of aerosol optical thickness, AOT, and Angstrom exponent). The results were available via web access. The location and movement information provided by these data were used both in support of the day-to-day flight planning of ACE-Asia and as input into aerosol transport models. While near real-time SeaWiFS data processing can be performed using either the normal global data product or data obtained via direct broadcast to receiving stations close to the area of interest, near real-time MODIS processing of data to provide aerosol retrievals is currently only available using its direct broadcast capability. In this paper, we will briefly discuss the algorithms used to generate these data. The retrieved aerosol optical thickness and Angstrom exponent from SeaWiFS will be compared with

  7. Feasibility study of a swept frequency electromagnetic probe (SWEEP) using inductive coupling for the determination of subsurface conductivity of the earth and water prospecting in arid regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Latorraca, G. A.; Bannister, L. H.

    1974-01-01

    Techniques developed for electromagnetic probing of the lunar interior, and techniques developed for the generation of high power audio frequencies were combined to make practical a magnetic inductive coupling system for the rapid measurement of ground conductivity profiles which are helpful when prospecting for the presence and quality of subsurface water. A system which involves the measurement of the direction, intensity, and time phase of the magnetic field observed near the surface of the earth at a distance from a horizontal coil energized so as to create a field that penetrates the earth was designed and studied to deduce the conductivity and stratification of the subsurface. Theoretical studies and a rudimentary experiment in an arid region showed that the approach is conceptually valid and that this geophysical prospecting technique can be developed for the economical exploration of subterranean water resources.

  8. ISS Update: Progress 50 Launch and Docking with Tom Erkenswick

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Rob Navias conducts an interview with Visiting Vehicle Officer Tom Erkenswick about the launch of the ISS Progress 50 resupply ship and its docking to the International ...

  9. Whitewashing the Fence: Revisiting "The Adventures of Tom Sawyer."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griswold, Jerry

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the story lines in "The Adventures of Tom Sawyer," how the characters in the book reflected people in Twain's childhood, the famous whitewashing scene, and Twain's racial attitudes. Appends suggestions for stimulating student response to the novel. (RS)

  10. ISS Update: Orion Recovery and Rescue Lead Tom Walker

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Brandi Dean talks with Tom Walker, Orion Recovery and Rescue Lead, about how the Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL) is being used to train rescue and recovery personnel f...

  11. Nimbus-7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) Data Products User`s Guide

    SciTech Connect

    Mcpeters, R.D.; Bhartia, P.K.; Krueger, A.J.; Herman, J.R.; Schlesinger, B.M.; Wellemeyer, C.G.; Seftor, C.J.; Jaross, G.; Taylor, S.L.; Swissler, T.

    1996-04-01

    Two data products from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) onboard Nimbus-7 have been archived at the Distributed Active Archive Center, in the form of Hierarchical Data Format files. The instrument measures backscattered Earth radiance and incoming solar irradiance; their ratio is used in ozone retrievals. Changes in the instrument sensitivity are monitored by a spectral discrimination technique using measurements of the intrinsically stable wavelength dependence of derived surface reflectivity. The algorithm to retrieve total column ozone compares measured Earth radiances at sets of three wavelengths with radiances calculated for different total ozone values, solar zenith angles, and optical paths. The initial error in the absolute scale for TOMS total ozone is 3 percent, the one standard deviation random error is 2 percent, and drift is less than 1.0 percent per decade. The Level-2 product contains the measured radiances, the derived total ozone amount, and reflectivity information for each scan position. The Level-3 product contains daily total ozone amount and reflectivity in a 1 - degree latitude by 1.25 degrees longitude grid. The Level-3 product also is available on CD-ROM. Detailed descriptions of both HDF data files and the CD-ROM product are provided.

  12. Nimbus-7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) Data Products User's Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McPeters, Richard D.; Bhartia, P. K.; Krueger, Arlin J.; Herman, Jay R.; Schlesinger, Barry M.; Wellemeyer, Charles G.; Seftor, Colin J.; Jaross, Glen; Taylor, Steven L.; Swissler, Tom; Torres, Omar; Labow, Gordon; Byerly, William; Cebula, Richard P.

    1996-01-01

    Two data products from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) onboard Nimbus-7 have been archived at the Distributed Active Archive Center, in the form of Hierarchical Data Format files. The instrument measures backscattered Earth radiance and incoming solar irradiance; their ratio is used in ozone retrievals. Changes in the instrument sensitivity are monitored by a spectral discrimination technique using measurements of the intrinsically stable wavelength dependence of derived surface reflectivity. The algorithm to retrieve total column ozone compares measured Earth radiances at sets of three wavelengths with radiances calculated for different total ozone values, solar zenith angles, and optical paths. The initial error in the absolute scale for TOMS total ozone is 3 percent, the one standard deviation random error is 2 percent, and drift is less than 1.0 percent per decade. The Level-2 product contains the measured radiances, the derived total ozone amount, and reflectivity information for each scan position. The Level-3 product contains daily total ozone amount and reflectivity in a I - degree latitude by 1.25 degrees longitude grid. The Level-3 product also is available on CD-ROM. Detailed descriptions of both HDF data files and the CD-ROM product are provided.

  13. What on Earth is D”?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garnero, Ed; Wysession, Michael

    Studied in earnest for 50 years time Is Earth's deep layer called Dee Double Prime. Exotic hypotheses new papers chime, But evasive big pictures halt reason or rhyme.Even before the first nuclear bomb, People like Gutenberg, Bullen, and Dahm And probably others: Dick, Harry, and Tom Proposed this new layer to address a qualm.

  14. Tom70 Is Essential for PINK1 Import into Mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Rapaport, Doron; Kozjak-Pavlovic, Vera

    2013-01-01

    PTEN induced kinase 1 (PINK1) is a serine/threonine kinase in the outer membrane of mitochondria (OMM), and known as a responsible gene of Parkinson's disease (PD). The precursor of PINK1 is synthesized in the cytosol and then imported into the mitochondria via the translocase of the OMM (TOM) complex. However, a large part of PINK1 import mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we examined using cell-free system the mechanism by which PINK1 is targeted to and assembled into mitochondria. Surprisingly, the main component of the import channel, Tom40 was not necessary for PINK1 import. Furthermore, we revealed that the import receptor Tom70 is essential for PINK1 import. In addition, we observed that although PINK1 has predicted mitochondrial targeting signal, it was not processed by the mitochondrial processing peptidase. Thus, our results suggest that PINK1 is imported into mitochondria by a unique pathway that is independent of the TOM core complex but crucially depends on the import receptor Tom70. PMID:23472196

  15. Analysis of error in TOMS total ozone as a function of orbit and attitude parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregg, W. W.; Ardanuy, P. E.; Braun, W. C.; Vallette, B. J.; Bhartia, P. K.; Ray, S. N.

    1991-01-01

    Computer simulations of orbital scenarios were performed to examine the effects of orbital altitude, equator crossing time, attitude uncertainty, and orbital eccentricity on ozone observations by future satellites. These effects were assessed by determining changes in solar and viewing geometry and earth daytime coverage loss. The importance of these changes on ozone retrieval was determined by simulating uncertainties in the TOMS ozone retrieval algorithm. The major findings are as follows: (1) Drift of equator crossing time from local noon would have the largest effect on the quality of ozone derived from TOMS. The most significant effect of this drift is the loss of earth daytime coverage in the winter hemisphere. The loss in coverage increases from 1 degree latitude for + or - 1 hour from noon, 6 degrees for + or - 3 hours from noon, to 53 degrees for + or - 6 hours from noon. An additional effect is the increase in ozone retrieval errors due to high solar zenith angles. (2) To maintain contiguous earth coverage, the maximum scan angle of the sensor must be increased with decreasing orbital altitude. The maximum scan angle required for full coverage at the equator varies from 60 degrees at 600 km altitude to 45 degrees at 1200 km. This produces an increase in spacecraft zenith angle, theta, which decreases the ozone retrieval accuracy. The range in theta was approximately 72 degrees for 600 km to approximately 57 degrees at 1200 km. (3) The effect of elliptical orbits is to create gaps in coverage along the subsatellite track. An elliptical orbit with a 200 km perigee and 1200 km apogee produced a maximum earth coverage gap of about 45 km at the perigee at nadir. (4) An attitude uncertainty of 0.1 degree in each axis (pitch, roll, yaw) produced a maximum scan angle to view the pole, and maximum solar zenith angle).

  16. An unusual TOM20/TOM22 bypass mechanism for the mitochondrial targeting of cytochrome P450 proteins containing N-terminal chimeric signals.

    PubMed

    Anandatheerthavarada, Hindupur K; Sepuri, Naresh Babu V; Biswas, Gopa; Avadhani, Narayan G

    2008-07-11

    Previously we showed that xenobiotic-inducible cytochrome P450 (CYP) proteins are bimodally targeted to the endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria. In the present study, we investigated the mechanism of delivery of chimeric signal-containing CYP proteins to the peripheral and channel-forming mitochondrial outer membrane translocases (TOMs). CYP+33/1A1 and CYP2B1 did not require peripheral TOM70, TOM20, or TOM22 for translocation through the channel-forming TOM40 protein. In contrast, CYP+5/1A1 and CYP2E1 were able to bypass TOM20 and TOM22 but required TOM70. CYP27, which contains a canonical cleavable mitochondrial signal, required all of the peripheral TOMs for its mitochondrial translocation. We investigated the underlying mechanisms of bypass of peripheral TOMs by CYPs with chimeric signals. The results suggested that interaction of CYPs with Hsp70, a cytosolic chaperone involved in the mitochondrial import, alone was sufficient for the recognition of chimeric signals by peripheral TOMs. However, sequential interaction of chimeric signal-containing CYPs with Hsp70 and Hsp90 resulted in the bypass of peripheral TOMs, whereas CYP27 interacted only with Hsp70 and was not able to bypass peripheral TOMs. Our results also show that delivery of chimeric signal-containing client proteins by Hsp90 required the cytosol-exposed N-terminal 143 amino acids of TOM40. TOM40 devoid of this domain was unable to bind CYP proteins. These results suggest that, compared with the unimodal mitochondria-targeting signals, the chimeric mitochondria-targeting signals are highly evolved and dynamic in nature. PMID:18480056

  17. Mitochondrial targeting of cytochrome P450 proteins containing NH2-terminal chimeric signals involves an unusual TOM20/TOM22 bypass mechanism.

    PubMed

    Anandatheerthavarada, Hindupur K; Sepuri, Naresh Babu V; Avadhani, Narayan G

    2009-06-19

    Previously we showed that xenobiotic inducible cytochrome P450 (CYP) proteins are bimodally targeted to the endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria. In this study, we investigated the mechanism of delivery of chimeric signal containing CYP proteins to the peripheral and channel-forming mitochondrial outer membrane translocases (TOMs). CYP+33/1A1 and CYP2B1 did not require peripheral TOM70, TOM20, or TOM22 for translocation through the channel-forming TOM40 protein. In contrast, CYP+5/1A1 and CYP2E1 were able to bypass TOM20 and TOM22 but required TOM70. CYP27, which contains a canonical cleavable mitochondrial signal, required all of the peripheral TOMs for its mitochondrial translocation. We investigated the underlying mechanisms of bypass of peripheral TOMs by CYPs with chimeric signals. The results suggested that interaction of CYPs with Hsp70, a cytosolic chaperone involved in the mitochondrial import, alone was sufficient for the recognition of chimeric signals by peripheral TOMs. However, sequential interaction of chimeric signal containing CYPs with Hsp70 and Hsp90 resulted in the bypass of peripheral TOMs, whereas CYP27A1 interacted only with Hsp70 and was not able to bypass peripheral TOMs. Our results also show that delivery of a chimeric signal containing client protein by Hsp90 required the cytosol-exposed NH(2)-terminal 143 amino acids of TOM40. TOM40 devoid of this domain was unable to import CYP proteins. These results suggest that compared with the unimodal mitochondrial targeting signals, the chimeric mitochondrial targeting signals are highly evolved and dynamic in nature. PMID:19401463

  18. A presequence-binding groove in Tom70 supports import of Mdl1 into mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Melin, Jonathan; Kilisch, Markus; Neumann, Piotr; Lytovchenko, Oleksandr; Gomkale, Ridhima; Schendzielorz, Alexander; Schmidt, Bernhard; Liepold, Thomas; Ficner, Ralf; Jahn, Olaf; Rehling, Peter; Schulz, Christian

    2015-08-01

    The translocase of the outer mitochondrial membrane (TOM complex) is the general entry gate into mitochondria for almost all imported proteins. A variety of specific receptors allow the TOM complex to recognize targeting signals of various precursor proteins that are transported along different import pathways. Aside from the well-characterized presequence receptors Tom20 and Tom22 a third TOM receptor, Tom70, binds proteins of the carrier family containing multiple transmembrane segments. Here we demonstrate that Tom70 directly binds to presequence peptides using a dedicated groove. A single point mutation in the cavity of this pocket (M551R) reduces the presequence binding affinity of Tom70 ten-fold and selectively impairs import of the presequence-containing precursor Mdl1 but not the ADP/ATP carrier (AAC). Hence Tom70 contributes to the presequence import pathway by recognition of the targeting signal of the Mdl1 precursor. PMID:25958336

  19. Direct measurements of tropospheric ozone from TOMS data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudson, Robert D.

    1993-01-01

    In the past year, we have made measurements of the tropospheric total column of ozone during the biomass burning season in Africa (August to October). Fishman et. al. had reported previously that by taking a time average of the low spatial resolution data from TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) on Nimbus-7 (referred to as the Grid-T data set), during the biomass burning season in Africa, a plume of ozone extends from the East coast of Africa into the Atlantic. In this report, we present an analysis that we have made using the measured TOMS radiances taken from the High Density TOMS data set (referred as the HDT data set), which examines this plume in more detail.

  20. Near-Earth injection of MeV electrons associated with intense dipolarization electric fields: Van Allen Probes observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Lei; Wang, Chi; Duan, Suping; He, Zhaohai; Wygant, John R.; Cattell, Cynthia A.; Tao, Xin; Su, Zhenpeng; Kletzing, Craig; Baker, Daniel N.; Li, Xinlin; Malaspina, David; Blake, J. Bernard; Fennell, Joseph; Claudepierre, Seth; Turner, Drew L.; Reeves, Geoffrey D.; Funsten, Herbert O.; Spence, Harlan E.; Angelopoulos, Vassilis; Fruehauff, Dennis; Chen, Lunjin; Thaller, Scott; Breneman, Aaron; Tang, Xiangwei

    2015-08-01

    Substorms generally inject tens to hundreds of keV electrons, but intense substorm electric fields have been shown to inject MeV electrons as well. An intriguing question is whether such MeVelectron injections can populate the outer radiation belt. Here we present observations of a substorm injection of MeV electrons into the inner magnetosphere. In the premidnight sector at L ˜ 5.5, Van Allen Probes (Radiation Belt Storm Probes)-A observed a large dipolarization electric field (50 mV/m) over ˜40 s and a dispersionless injection of electrons up to ˜3 MeV. Pitch angle observations indicated betatron acceleration of MeV electrons at the dipolarization front. Corresponding signals of MeV electron injection were observed at LANL-GEO, THEMIS-D, and GOES at geosynchronous altitude. Through a series of dipolarizations, the injections increased the MeV electron phase space density by 1 order of magnitude in less than 3 h in the outer radiation belt (L > 4.8). Our observations provide evidence that deep injections can supply significant MeV electrons.

  1. Hyperfine local probe study of alkaline-earth manganites SrMnO₃ and BaMnO₃.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, J N; Amaral, V S; Correia, J G; Lopes, A M L; Araújo, J P; Tavares, P B

    2014-05-28

    We report perturbed angular correlation measurements with (111m)Cd/(111)Cd and (111)In/(111)Cd probes, at the ISOLDE-CERN facility, in the manganite compounds BaMnO3, with the 6H and 15R polymorphs, and SrMnO3, with the 4H polymorph. The electric field gradient (EFG) is measured, and found approximately constant in a large temperature range for all the compounds. The EFG is also calculated from first principles with density functional theory, and compared with experimental results by considering diluted substitutional Cd impurities. Based on the results, we assign as sites for the probes the Ba (for BaMnO3-6H, 15R) and Sr (for SrMnO3-4H) sites, apart from fractions of undetermined origin in the case of BaMnO3-6H. We predict the hyperfine parameters in the recently synthesized multiferroic manganite Sr(0.5)Ba(0.5)MnO3, and its variation with the structure and electric polarization, which is found to be very small. PMID:24787139

  2. Near-earth injection of MeV electrons associated with intense dipolarization electric fields: Van Allen Probes observations

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Dai, Lei; Wang, Chi; Duan, Suping; He, Zhaohai; Wygant, John R.; Cattell, Cynthia A.; Tao, Xin; Su, Zhenpeng; Kletzing, Craig; Baker, Daniel N.; et al

    2015-08-10

    Substorms generally inject tens to hundreds of keV electrons, but intense substorm electric fields have been shown to inject MeV electrons as well. An intriguing question is whether such MeV electron injections can populate the outer radiation belt. Here we present observations of a substorm injection of MeV electrons into the inner magnetosphere. In the premidnight sector at L~5.5, Van Allen Probes (Radiation Belt Storm Probes)-A observed a large dipolarization electric field (50 mV/m) over ~40 s and a dispersionless injection of electrons up to ~3 MeV. Pitch angle observations indicated betatron acceleration of MeV electrons at the dipolarization front.more » Corresponding signals of MeV electron injection were observed at LANL-GEO, THEMIS-D, and GOES at geosynchronous altitude. Through a series of dipolarizations, the injections increased the MeV electron phase space density by 1 order of magnitude in less than 3 h in the outer radiation belt (L > 4.8). Our observations provide evidence that deep injections can supply significant MeV electrons.« less

  3. Near-earth injection of MeV electrons associated with intense dipolarization electric fields: Van Allen Probes observations

    SciTech Connect

    Dai, Lei; Wang, Chi; Duan, Suping; He, Zhaohai; Wygant, John R.; Cattell, Cynthia A.; Tao, Xin; Su, Zhenpeng; Kletzing, Craig; Baker, Daniel N.; Li, Xinlin; Malaspina, David; Blake, J. Bernard; Fennell, Joseph; Claudepierre, Seth; Turner, Drew L.; Reeves, Geoffrey D.; Funsten, Herbert O.; Spence, Harlan E.; Angelopoulos, Vassilis; Fruehauff, Dennis; Chen, Lunjin; Thaller, Scott; Breneman, Aaron; Tang, Xiangwei

    2015-08-10

    Substorms generally inject tens to hundreds of keV electrons, but intense substorm electric fields have been shown to inject MeV electrons as well. An intriguing question is whether such MeV electron injections can populate the outer radiation belt. Here we present observations of a substorm injection of MeV electrons into the inner magnetosphere. In the premidnight sector at L~5.5, Van Allen Probes (Radiation Belt Storm Probes)-A observed a large dipolarization electric field (50 mV/m) over ~40 s and a dispersionless injection of electrons up to ~3 MeV. Pitch angle observations indicated betatron acceleration of MeV electrons at the dipolarization front. Corresponding signals of MeV electron injection were observed at LANL-GEO, THEMIS-D, and GOES at geosynchronous altitude. Through a series of dipolarizations, the injections increased the MeV electron phase space density by 1 order of magnitude in less than 3 h in the outer radiation belt (L > 4.8). Our observations provide evidence that deep injections can supply significant MeV electrons.

  4. TOMS total ozone trends in potential vorticity coordinates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Randel, William J.; Wu, Fei

    1995-01-01

    Global total ozone measurements from the Nimbus 7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) are analyzed using potential vorticity (PV) as an approximate vortex-following coordinate. We analyze the time period November 1978-May 1991, prior to the volcanic eruption of Mt. Pinatubo. The TOMS data are remapped into PV coordinates and trends are calculated, thereby characterizing ozone losses inside and outside the winter polar vortices. These analyses show large regions of ozone loss outside of the vortex in both hemispheres. Furthermore, these data suggest that midlatitude losses in the NH during winter-spring do not result solely from the transport of ozone depleted air from inside to outside the vortex.

  5. Tropospheric Chemistry Studies using Observations from GOME and TOMS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chance, Kelly; Spurr, Robert J. D.; Kurosu, Thomas P.; Jacob, Daniel J.; Gleason, James F.

    2003-01-01

    Studies to quantitatively determine trace gas and aerosol amounts from the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) and the Total Ozone Monitoring Experiment (TOMS) and to perform chemical modeling studies which utilize these results are given. This includes: 1. Analysis of measurements from the GOME and TOMS instruments for troposphere distributions of O3 and HCHO; troposphere enhancements of SO2, NO2 and aerosols associated with major sources; and springtime events of elevated BrO in the lower Arctic troposphere. 2. Application of a global 3-dimensional model of troposphere chemistry to interpret the GOME observations in terms of the factors controlling the abundances of troposphere ozone and OH.

  6. Single molecule tracking fluorescence microscopy in mitochondria reveals highly dynamic but confined movement of Tom40

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzmenko, Anton; Tankov, Stoyan; English, Brian P.; Tarassov, Ivan; Tenson, Tanel; Kamenski, Piotr; Elf, Johan; Hauryliuk, Vasili

    2011-12-01

    Tom40 is an integral protein of the mitochondrial outer membrane, which as the central component of the Translocase of the Outer Membrane (TOM) complex forms a channel for protein import. We characterize the diffusion properties of individual Tom40 molecules fused to the photoconvertable fluorescent protein Dendra2 with millisecond temporal resolution. By imaging individual Tom40 molecules in intact isolated yeast mitochondria using photoactivated localization microscopy with sub-diffraction limited spatial precision, we demonstrate that Tom40 movement in the outer mitochondrial membrane is highly dynamic but confined in nature, suggesting anchoring of the TOM complex as a whole.

  7. Single molecule tracking fluorescence microscopy in mitochondria reveals highly dynamic but confined movement of Tom40

    PubMed Central

    Kuzmenko, Anton; Tankov, Stoyan; English, Brian P.; Tarassov, Ivan; Tenson, Tanel; Kamenski, Piotr; Elf, Johan; Hauryliuk, Vasili

    2011-01-01

    Tom40 is an integral protein of the mitochondrial outer membrane, which as the central component of the Translocase of the Outer Membrane (TOM) complex forms a channel for protein import. We characterize the diffusion properties of individual Tom40 molecules fused to the photoconvertable fluorescent protein Dendra2 with millisecond temporal resolution. By imaging individual Tom40 molecules in intact isolated yeast mitochondria using photoactivated localization microscopy with sub-diffraction limited spatial precision, we demonstrate that Tom40 movement in the outer mitochondrial membrane is highly dynamic but confined in nature, suggesting anchoring of the TOM complex as a whole. PMID:22355710

  8. The cytosolic domain of human Tom22 modulates human Bax mitochondrial translocation and conformation in yeast.

    PubMed

    Renault, Thibaud T; Grandier-Vazeille, Xavier; Arokium, Hubert; Velours, Gisèle; Camougrand, Nadine; Priault, Muriel; Teijido, Oscar; Dejean, Laurent M; Manon, Stéphen

    2012-01-20

    The role of the mitochondrial protein receptor Tom22p in the interaction of pro-apoptotic protein Bax with yeast mitochondria was investigated. Co-immunoprecipitation assays showed that human Bax interacted with different TOM subunits, including Tom22p. Expression of the cytosolic receptor domain of human Tom22 increased Bax mitochondrial localization, but decreased the proportion of active Bax. BN-PAGE showed that the cytosolic domain of Tom22 interfered with the oligomerization of Bax. These data suggest that the interaction with the cytosolic domain of Tom22 helps Bax to acquire a conformation able to interact with the outer mitochondrial membrane. PMID:22198199

  9. MIDL: A Demonstration of Multi-Mission Analysis of Charged Particle Data From Van Allen Probes and the Juno Earth Flyby

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, L. E.; Mitchell, D. G.; Paranicas, C.; Mauk, B.; Lanzerotti, L. J.; Vandegriff, J. D.

    2013-12-01

    At the present time, a fleet of heliosphere spacecraft is producing an unprecedented number of measurements of charged particles and magnetic fields throughout the solar system - from Mercury to the local interstellar medium. It is vital to have a flexible and efficient data browsing, discovery, and analysis environment to navigate this wealth of information. We present a multi-mission tool for quick look data viewing and analysis. In addition to a rich tool and feature set, MIDL3 (Mission Independent Data Layer - 3rd version) provides environments to cater to different user classes from instrument team engineers, to team scientists, to the general science community. Furthermore, MIDL3 adds a new, highly interactive, end-user visualization environment for rapid browsing and exploration of science and engineering data. Like AMDA and MAPSVIEW, MIDL has functioned for Cassini plasma and particle data as a highly successful platform for inter-comparing different instruments/sensors with minimal preparation work on the part of the user. We present a demonstration of simultaneous analysis of the JUNO Earth flyby (October 9, 2013) data from the JEDI instruments and Van Allen Probes data from the RBSPICE instruments. Since these two instrument sets share a very similar design (see presentations by C Paranicas, et al. and J Manwiler, et al. at this conference for details) we anticipate important results from this unique opportunity to compare measurements of energetic electrons and ions made by six telescopes each for the five similar instruments on three spacecraft within Earth's magnetosphere.

  10. Dust storms and their impact on ocean and human health: dust in Earth's atmosphere

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Griffin, Dale W.; Kellog, Christina A.

    2004-01-01

    Satellite imagery has greatly influenced our understanding of dust activity on a global scale. A number of different satellites such as NASA's Earth-Probe Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) and Se-viewing Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) acquire daily global-scale data used to produce imagery for monitoring dust storm formation and movement. This global-scale imagery has documented the frequent transmission of dust storm-derived soils through Earth's atmosphere and the magnitude of many of these events. While various research projects have been undertaken to understand this normal planetary process, little has been done to address its impact on ocean and human health. This review will address the ability of dust storms to influence marine microbial population densities and transport of soil-associated toxins and pathogenic microorganisms to marine environments. The implications of dust on ocean and human health in this emerging scientific field will be discussed.

  11. The TOM core complex: the general protein import pore of the outer membrane of mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Ahting, U; Thun, C; Hegerl, R; Typke, D; Nargang, F E; Neupert, W; Nussberger, S

    1999-11-29

    Translocation of nuclear-encoded preproteins across the outer membrane of mitochondria is mediated by the multicomponent transmembrane TOM complex. We have isolated the TOM core complex of Neurospora crassa by removing the receptors Tom70 and Tom20 from the isolated TOM holo complex by treatment with the detergent dodecyl maltoside. It consists of Tom40, Tom22, and the small Tom components, Tom6 and Tom7. This core complex was also purified directly from mitochondria after solubilization with dodecyl maltoside. The TOM core complex has the characteristics of the general insertion pore; it contains high-conductance channels and binds preprotein in a targeting sequence-dependent manner. It forms a double ring structure that, in contrast to the holo complex, lacks the third density seen in the latter particles. Three-dimensional reconstruction by electron tomography exhibits two open pores traversing the complex with a diameter of approximately 2.1 nm and a height of approximately 7 nm. Tom40 is the key structural element of the TOM core complex. PMID:10579717

  12. Probing the maximally deformed light rare-earth region around the drip-line nucleus 130Sm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petri, M.; Paul, E. S.; Nolan, P. J.; Boston, A. J.; Cooper, R. J.; Dimmock, M. R.; Gros, S.; McGuirk, B. M.; Scraggs, H. C.; Turk, G.; Rossé, B.; Meyer, M.; Redon, N.; Schmitt, Ch; Stézowski, O.; Guinet, D.; Lautesse, Ph; DeFrance, G.; Bhattachasyya, S.; Mukherjee, G.; Rejmund, F.; Rejmund, M.; Savajols, H.; Scheurer, J. N.; Astier, A.; Deloncle, I.; Prévost, A.; Nyakó, B. M.; Gál, J.; Molnár, J.; Timár, J.; Zolnai, L.; Juhász, K.; Pucknell, V. F. E.; Wadsworth, R.; Joshi, P.; La Rana, G.; Moro, R.; Trotta, M.; Vardaci, E.; Hackman, G.; Ball, G.

    2006-07-01

    The neutron deficient rare-earth nuclei of the A~130 region are of particular interest since highly deformed prolate ground states are expected. Indeed these nuclei are predicted to show maximal ground-state deformations of β2 ~ 0.40 (axis ratio of 3:2), comparable to the deformation deduced for superdeformed cerium isotopes at high spin. A fusion-evaporation experiment was performed with radioactive ion beams at GANIL in October 2004 which had the goal to reach very proton-rich exotic nuclei located near the proton drip-line. A radioactive 76Kr beam, delivered by the SPIRAL facility, was used to bombard a thin 58Ni target. Emitted γ-rays were detected by the EXOGAM γ-ray spectrometer which was, for the first time, coupled with both the DIAMANT charged-particle array and the VAMOS spectrometer.

  13. Aerosol Absorption Effects in the TOMS UV Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torres, O.; Krotkov, N.; Bhartia, P. K.

    2004-01-01

    The availability of global long-term estimates of surface UV radiation is very important, not only for preventive medicine considerations, but also as an important tool to monitor the effects of the stratospheric ozone recovery expected to occur in the next few decades as a result of the decline of the stratospheric chlorine levels. In addition to the modulating effects of ozone and clouds, aerosols also affect the levels of UV-A and W-B radiation reaching the surface. Oscillations in surface W associated with the effects of aerosol absorption may be comparable in magnitude to variations associated with the stratospheric ozone recovery. Thus, the accurate calculation of surface W radiation requires that both the scattering and absorption effects of tropospheric aerosols be taken into account. Although absorption effects of dust and elevated carbonaceous aerosols are already accounted for using Aerosol Index technique, this approach does not work for urban/industrial aerosols in the planetary boundary layer. The use of the new TOMS long-term global data record on UV aerosol absorption optical depth, can improve the accuracy of TOMS spectral UV products, by properly including the spectral attenuation effects of carbonaceous, urban/industrial and mineral aerosols. The TOMS data set on aerosol properties will be discussed, and results of its use in the TOMS surface W algorithm will be presented.

  14. Team Leader: Tom Peters--TAP Information Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Library Journal, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Tom Peters packs 36 hours of work into the confines of a 24-hour day. Without breaking a sweat, he juggles multiple collaborative projects, which currently include an Illinois academic library shared storage facility; a multistate virtual reference and instruction service for blind and visually impaired individuals (InfoEyes); a virtual meeting…

  15. New Whole-House Solutions Case Study: Tom Walsh & Co.

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2013-02-01

    Tom Walsh & Company’s homes in an urban infill project in Portland achieved meets 2012 IECC insulation requirements in the marine climate with R-21 fiberglass batt walls, R-25 slab insulation and R-49 spray foam and cellulose attic floors.

  16. Challenge without Threat: An Interview with Tom Dewell

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stork, Steve

    2005-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Tom Dewell, a professional physical educator with 28 years of experience and a fixture in Dallas physical education. Dewell has melded a background in movement education and adapted physical education with early childhood theory, including Montessori. The bulk of his experience has been in private, parochial…

  17. Tom Green County Library Literacy Project. Final Performance Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vavricka, D. Karen

    The final report of the Tom Green Country Library System (Texas) literacy project details progress toward achievement of 11 objectives. Objectives of the literacy outreach program were to: (1) increase Hispanic enrollment; (2) increase Black enrollment; (3) provide free child care for 4 students to attend 50 tutoring sessions; (4) provide…

  18. Good Guys Finish Last: "Tom Brown's School Days" and "Flashman."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riga, Frank P.

    Instructors and students of literature should look to George McDonald Fraser's "Flashman: From the Flashman Papers, 1839-1842" for a clever critique of 19th-century notions of character, virtue, and moral teleology. Written to criticize Thomas Hughes's famous 19th-century novel, "Tom Brown's School Days," Fraser's 20th-century novel turns on end…

  19. Biogenesis of mitochondria: dual role of Tom7 in modulating assembly of the preprotein translocase of the outer membrane.

    PubMed

    Becker, Thomas; Wenz, Lena-Sophie; Thornton, Nicolas; Stroud, David; Meisinger, Chris; Wiedemann, Nils; Pfanner, Nikolaus

    2011-01-01

    Biogenesis of the translocase of the outer mitochondrial membrane (TOM complex) involves the assembly of the central β-barrel forming protein Tom40 with six different subunits that are embedded in the membrane via α-helical transmembrane segments. The sorting and assembly machinery (SAM complex) of the outer membrane plays a central role in this process. The SAM complex mediates the membrane integration of β-barrel precursor proteins including Tom40. The small Tom proteins Tom5 and Tom6 associate with the precursor of Tom40 at the SAM complex at an early stage of the assembly process and play a stimulatory role in the formation of the mature TOM complex. A fraction of the SAM components interacts with the outer membrane protein mitochondrial distribution and morphology protein 10 (Mdm10) to form the SAM-Mdm10 machinery; however, different views exist on the function of the SAM-Mdm10 complex. We report here that the third small Tom protein, Tom7, plays an inhibitory role at two distinct steps in the biogenesis of the TOM complex. First, Tom7 plays an antagonistic role to Tom5 and Tom6 at the early stage of Tom40 assembly at the SAM complex. Second, Tom7 interacts with Mdm10 that is not bound to the SAM complex, and thus promotes dissociation of the SAM-Mdm10 complex. Since the SAM-Mdm10 complex is required for the biogenesis of Tom22, Tom7 delays the assembly of Tom22 with Tom40 at a late stage of assembly of the TOM complex. Thus, Tom7 modulates the biogenesis of topologically different proteins, the β-barrel forming protein Tom40 and Tom22 that contains a transmembrane α-helix. PMID:21059357

  20. Alpha-particle and proton probes of nuclear shapes in the rare earth and mass 80 regions

    SciTech Connect

    Sarantites, D.G.; Nicolis, N.G.; Abenante, V.; Majka, Z.; Semkow, T.M.; Baktash, C.; Beene, J.R.; Garcia-Bermudez, G.; Halbert, M.L.; Hensley, D.C.; Johnson, N.R.; Lee, I.Y.; McGowan, F.K.; Riley, M.A.; Virtanen, A.; Griffin, H.C.; Oak Ridge National Lab., TN; Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI )

    1989-01-01

    Low emission barriers and large subbarrier anisotropies in the alpha-particle decay with respect to the spin direction, of Sn and rare earth compound nuclei, are examined in the light of recent calculations incorporating deformation. To explore the possibility of a correlation between the proton emission barriers and nuclear deformation, we studied proton spectra from the {sup 52}Cr({sup 34}S,2p2n){sup 82}Sr reaction. The proton spectra were observed with the Dwarf-Ball 4{pi} CsI(Tl) array, in coincidence with 18 Compton suppressed Ge detectors operated in conjunction with the Spin Spectrometer, a 4{pi} NaI(Tl) array. We found significant changes and shifts in the proton energy spectra as we selected gating transitions from bands of different moments of inertia or transitions from states of different spin in the same band. Substantial differences were also seen as a function of the {gamma}-ray multiplicity. These results are discussed in terms of statistical model calculations incorporating deformation and structure effects of the emitting system. 20 refs., 9 figs.

  1. Modeling Loss and Rebuilding of the Earth's Outer Zone Electrons and Comparison with Van Allen Probes Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudson, M. K.; Kress, B. T.; Li, Z.; Paral, J.; Wiltberger, M. J.

    2014-12-01

    Quantifying the competition between radiation belt electron energization due to radial transport and loss to the magnetopause and to the atmosphere is critical to understanding the dynamic changes in outer zone radiation belt electron flux response to solar wind drivers. Plasmasheet electron injection, both due to enhanced convection and substorm dipolarization, provides a source population for generation of whistler mode chorus and seed population for local acceleration. We now have available ~22 months of unprecedented measurements in energy and pitch angle resolution of electrons spanning the energy range from injected plasmasheet to multi-MeV electrons from the twin Van Allen Probes spacecraft in near-equatorial plane elliptical orbits, with apogee at 5.8 Re; and two Balloon Array for Relativistic Radiation Belt Electron Losses (BARREL) campaigns during January-February 2013 and 2014, each establishing a longitudinal array of precipitation measurements extending to relativistic energies via measured Bremsstrahlung x-rays. In addition to this arsenal of data, a set of modeling tools has been developed to examine dynamics of electrons in the magnetosphere. These tools calculate electron trajectories in time-dependent magnetohydrodyanmic (MHD) fields using the Lyon-Fedder-Mobarry global MHD model coupled with the Rice Convection Model to determine the E and B field response to solar wind drivers. With these tools we can follow electron dynamics including response to Ultra Low Frequency (ULF) waves which cause radial transport and energization for inward radial gradient as well as enhanced loss to the magnetopause for outward gradient. These tools have been applied to date to the large equinoctial storms of fall 2012, spring and fall 2013, in addition to moderate storms during BARREL balloon campaigns in both winters 2013 and 2014. Isolated substorm response can clearly be identified for the latter, while plasmasheet injection of electrons during periods of strong

  2. Protein translocase of the outer mitochondrial membrane: role of import receptors in the structural organization of the TOM complex.

    PubMed

    Model, Kirstin; Prinz, Thorsten; Ruiz, Teresa; Radermacher, Michael; Krimmer, Thomas; Kühlbrandt, Werner; Pfanner, Nikolaus; Meisinger, Chris

    2002-02-22

    The mitochondrial outer membrane contains a multi-subunit machinery responsible for the specific recognition and translocation of precursor proteins. This translocase of the outer membrane (TOM) consists of three receptor proteins, Tom20, Tom22 and Tom70, the channel protein Tom40, and several small Tom proteins. Single-particle electron microscopy analysis of the Neurospora TOM complex has led to different views with two or three stain-filled centers resembling channels. Based on biochemical and electron microscopy studies of the TOM complex isolated from yeast mitochondria, we have discovered the molecular reason for the different number of channel-like structures. The TOM complex from wild-type yeast contains up to three stain-filled centers, while from a mutant yeast selectively lacking Tom20, the TOM complex particles contain only two channel-like structures. From mutant mitochondria lacking Tom22, native electrophoresis separates an approximately 80 kDa subcomplex that consists of Tom40 only and is functional for accumulation of a precursor protein. We conclude that while Tom40 forms the import channels, the two receptors Tom22 and Tom20 are required for the organization of Tom40 dimers into larger TOM structures. PMID:11866524

  3. Measuring Theory of Mind in Children. Psychometric Properties of the ToM Storybooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blijd-Hoogewys, E. M. A.; van Geert, P. L. C.; Serra, M.; Minderaa, R. B.

    2008-01-01

    Although research on Theory-of-Mind (ToM) is often based on single task measurements, more comprehensive instruments result in a better understanding of ToM development. The ToM Storybooks is a new instrument measuring basic ToM-functioning and associated aspects. There are 34 tasks, tapping various emotions, beliefs, desires and mental-physical…

  4. The relationship between growth of commercial toms and linear skeletal development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An experiment was conducted to study the relationship between the growth of commercial toms (Nicholas) and linear skeletal development. All toms were fed a commercial turkey starter diet for the entire experiment. At two week intervals, 10 toms were randomly selected and weighed. The right half of t...

  5. Alternative function for the mitochondrial SAM complex in biogenesis of alpha-helical TOM proteins.

    PubMed

    Stojanovski, Diana; Guiard, Bernard; Kozjak-Pavlovic, Vera; Pfanner, Nikolaus; Meisinger, Chris

    2007-12-01

    The mitochondrial outer membrane contains two preprotein translocases: the general translocase of outer membrane (TOM) and the beta-barrel-specific sorting and assembly machinery (SAM). TOM functions as the central entry gate for nuclear-encoded proteins. The channel-forming Tom40 is a beta-barrel protein, whereas all Tom receptors and small Tom proteins are membrane anchored by a transmembrane alpha-helical segment in their N- or C-terminal portion. Synthesis of Tom precursors takes place in the cytosol, and their import occurs via preexisting TOM complexes. The precursor of Tom40 is then transferred to SAM for membrane insertion and assembly. Unexpectedly, we find that the biogenesis of alpha-helical Tom proteins with a membrane anchor in the C-terminal portion is SAM dependent. Each SAM protein is necessary for efficient membrane integration of the receptor Tom22, whereas assembly of the small Tom proteins depends on Sam37. Thus, the substrate specificity of SAM is not restricted to beta-barrel proteins but also includes the majority of alpha-helical Tom proteins. PMID:18039934

  6. Comparison of daily UV doses estimated from Nimbus 7/TOMS measurements and ground-based spectroradiometric data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalliskota, Sari; Kaurola, Jussi; Taalas, Petteri; Herman, Jay R.; Celarier, Edward A.; Krotkov, Nikolay A.

    2000-02-01

    During recent years, methods have been developed for estimating UV irradiance reaching the Earth's surface using satellite-measured backscattered UV radiances. The NASA-developed method is based on radiative transfer calculations and satellite measurements of parameters affecting UV radiation: extraterrestrial solar irradiance, atmospheric ozone, cloud reflectivity, aerosol amounts, and ground albedo. In this work a comparison is made between daily UV erythemal doses estimated from Nimbus-7/TOMS measurements (from 1991 to May 1993) and those calculated from ground-based spectroradiometer data. Three stations operated by the National Science Foundation were chosen for this comparison: Ushuaia, Argentina (for 573 days), Palmer, Antarctica (for 450 days), and San Diego, California, (for 149 days). These stations were selected to illustrate the differences between ground-based measurements using the same type of instrument, SUV-100 double monochromator spectroradiometers, and satellite estimates of surface UV irradiance under three different environmental conditions (mountains and snow, nearly continuous snow cover, and midlatitude urban sea level conditions). Averaging the measured and TOMS-estimated doses over periods from 1 week to 1 month improves the agreement. The daily or monthly mean bias increases during months when there is snow/ice on the surface. TOMS has a larger estimate of the UV irradiance by 25% at San Diego (no snow), in agreement with the summer-month analysis of Toronto irradiances [Herman et al., 1999]. TOMS underestimates the average daily-UV dose at Ushuaia (monthly mean bias of -13%) and at Palmer (-35%) consistent with snow/ice with cloud effects not being properly accounted for in the TOMS algorithm. When the reflectivity at all three sites is low (no snow), the TOMS irradiance estimate is larger than the SUV-100 measurements consistent with previously analyzed Brewer data at Toronto. The effects of local fog or clouds smaller than the

  7. Probing a highly efficient dual mode: down-upconversion luminescence and temperature sensing performance of rare-earth oxide phosphors.

    PubMed

    Singh, A K; Singh, S K; Gupta, Bipin Kumar; Prakash, Rajiv; Rai, S B

    2013-01-28

    A dual mode rare-earth based oxide phosphor (Y(0.977)Yb(0.02)Er(0.003)NbO(4)), demonstrating both down conversion (DC) and upconversion (UC) emission, has been developed using a facile solid state reaction method which can be easily scaled-up for large quantities. In the DC studies, the material exhibits a strong blue emission with a long decay time (4.36 μs), corresponding to the charge transfer band of [NbO(4)](3-) under UV excitation (262 nm), and a green emission of the Er(3+) ions under blue (379 nm) excitation. Furthermore, it has been noticed that under infrared (976 nm) excitation, this phosphor shows strong green and red emission along with relatively weak emission bands in the UV-blue and IR regions, which confirm the compatibility of this phosphor for UC too. In the UC emission, the (2)H(11/2) → (4)I(15/2) and (4)S(3/2) → (4)I(15/2) transitions of the Er(3+) ion portray a temperature dependent behaviour and have been used for temperature sensing (optical thermometry) using the fluorescence intensity ratio (FIR) method. The maximum sensitivity is found to be 0.0073 K(-1) at 473 K, which is better in comparison with other host matrixs reported so far. The results suggest that this dual mode phosphor could be an exceptional choice for next generation luminescence-based temperature sensing devices as well as in advanced display devices. PMID:23114691

  8. Biogenesis of the mitochondrial TOM complex: Mim1 promotes insertion and assembly of signal-anchored receptors.

    PubMed

    Becker, Thomas; Pfannschmidt, Sylvia; Guiard, Bernard; Stojanovski, Diana; Milenkovic, Dusanka; Kutik, Stephan; Pfanner, Nikolaus; Meisinger, Chris; Wiedemann, Nils

    2008-01-01

    The translocase of the outer membrane (TOM complex) is the central entry gate for nuclear-encoded mitochondrial precursor proteins. All Tom proteins are also encoded by nuclear genes and synthesized as precursors in the cytosol. The channel-forming beta-barrel protein Tom40 is targeted to mitochondria via Tom receptors and inserted into the outer membrane by the sorting and assembly machinery (SAM complex). A further outer membrane protein, Mim1, plays a less defined role in assembly of Tom40 into the TOM complex. The three receptors Tom20, Tom22, and Tom70 are anchored in the outer membrane by a single transmembrane alpha-helix, located at the N terminus in the case of Tom20 and Tom70 (signal-anchored) or in the C-terminal portion in the case of Tom22 (tail-anchored). Insertion of the precursor of Tom22 into the outer membrane requires pre-existing Tom receptors while the import pathway of the precursors of Tom20 and Tom70 is only poorly understood. We report that Mim1 is required for efficient membrane insertion and assembly of Tom20 and Tom70, but not Tom22. We show that Mim1 associates with SAM(core) components to a large SAM complex, explaining its role in late steps of the assembly pathway of Tom40. We conclude that Mim1 is not only required for biogenesis of the beta-barrel protein Tom40 but also for membrane insertion and assembly of signal-anchored Tom receptors. Thus, Mim1 plays an important role in the efficient assembly of the mitochondrial TOM complex. PMID:17974559

  9. Hindered rotations probed by rare earths in crystals: Er3+ and Tm3+ in BaY2F8

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baraldi, A.; Buffagni, E.; Capelletti, R.; Mazzera, M.; Magnani, N.; Carini, G., Jr.; D'Angelo, G.

    2009-10-01

    The sharpness of absorption lines induced by crystal-field (CF) transitions of rare earths (RE) can be exploited to disclose the rotational structure usually hidden under the more common broad electronic absorptions. In the present work the effectiveness of such an approach is proved by the analysis of the fine structure (FS) accompanying the Er3+ and Tm3+ CF lines in BaY2F8 single crystals. Sequences of weak, very narrow (0.03-0.1cm-1) , closely spaced (˜0.2-0.8cm-1) lines were monitored in high-resolution (as fine as 0.01cm-1 ), low-temperature (9 K) absorption spectra in the 2000-24000cm-1 range. The FS covers a few cm-1 on both sides of the narrowest among the RE-CF lines and is tightly associated with them, as proved by the amplitude dependence on the RE concentration (in the 0.5-20at.% range) and by linear dichroism measurements. The FS lines vanishing at temperatures as low as 40-60 K and the close spacing suggest that they may be ascribed to the simultaneous excitation of both RE-CF electronic transition and hindered rotation (or libration) mode of RE3+-F- group. The attribution is supported both by the specific structure of the host matrix which allows some F- mobility and by the very small line spacing which is in excellent agreement with the RE3+-F- rotational constant (2B=0.39cm-1) . Complementary specific-heat measurements in the temperature range 1.5-25 K show that Er3+ -doped samples display contributions, in addition to the vibrational one of a pure sample, which scale with the Er3+ concentration. The extra specific heat is interpreted in terms of Schottky anomalies; that peaking at ˜17K accounts for electronic transitions between the lowest sublevels of the I415/2 ground manifold, in agreement with the CF spectroscopy results while those occurring below 3.5 K are consistent with level pairs separated by 0.55 and 0.36cm-1 , in agreement with the FS line spacing.

  10. Structure of the GAT domain of the endosomal adapter protein Tom1

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Shuyan; Ellena, Jeffrey F.; Armstrong, Geoffrey S.; Capelluto, Daniel G.S.

    2016-01-01

    Cellular homeostasis requires correct delivery of cell-surface receptor proteins (cargo) to their target subcellular compartments. The adapter proteins Tom1 and Tollip are involved in sorting of ubiquitinated cargo in endosomal compartments. Recruitment of Tom1 to the endosomal compartments is mediated by its GAT domain’s association to Tollip’s Tom1-binding domain (TBD). In this data article, we report the solution NMR-derived structure of the Tom1 GAT domain. The estimated protein structure exhibits a bundle of three helical elements. We compare the Tom1 GAT structure with those structures corresponding to the Tollip TBD- and ubiquitin-bound states. PMID:26977434

  11. Structure of the GAT domain of the endosomal adapter protein Tom1.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Shuyan; Ellena, Jeffrey F; Armstrong, Geoffrey S; Capelluto, Daniel G S

    2016-06-01

    Cellular homeostasis requires correct delivery of cell-surface receptor proteins (cargo) to their target subcellular compartments. The adapter proteins Tom1 and Tollip are involved in sorting of ubiquitinated cargo in endosomal compartments. Recruitment of Tom1 to the endosomal compartments is mediated by its GAT domain's association to Tollip's Tom1-binding domain (TBD). In this data article, we report the solution NMR-derived structure of the Tom1 GAT domain. The estimated protein structure exhibits a bundle of three helical elements. We compare the Tom1 GAT structure with those structures corresponding to the Tollip TBD- and ubiquitin-bound states. PMID:26977434

  12. The mitochondrial TOM complex modulates bax-induced apoptosis in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Colin, J; Garibal, J; Mignotte, B; Guénal, I

    2009-02-20

    Bax is a pro-apoptotic member of the Bcl-2 family proteins involved in the release of apoptogenic factors from mitochondria to the cytosol. Recently, it has been shown both in mammals and yeast that Bax insertion in the mitochondrial outer membrane involves at least two distinct mechanisms, one of which uses the TOM complex. Here, we show that in Drosophila, heterozygous loss of function mutations of Tom22 or Tom70, two receptors of the TOM complex, attenuates bax-induced phenotypes in vivo. These results argue that the TOM complex may be used as a mitochondrial Bax receptor in Drosophila. PMID:19138672

  13. Plasticity of TOM complex assembly in skeletal muscle mitochondria in response to chronic contractile activity.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Anna-Maria; Hood, David A

    2012-03-01

    We investigated the assembly of the TOM complex within skeletal muscle under conditions of chronic contractile activity-induced mitochondrial biogenesis. Tom40 import into mitochondria was increased by chronic contractile activity, as was its time-dependent assembly into the TOM complex. These changes coincided with contractile activity-induced augmentations in the expression of key protein import machinery components Tim17, Tim23, and Tom22, as well as the cytosolic chaperone Hsp90. These data indicate the adaptability of the TOM protein import complex and suggest a regulatory role for the assembly of this complex in exercise-induced mitochondrial biogenesis. PMID:22142511

  14. Insertion and assembly of human tom7 into the preprotein translocase complex of the outer mitochondrial membrane.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Amelia J; Hoogenraad, Joan; Dougan, David A; Truscott, Kaye N; Yano, Masato; Mori, Masataka; Hoogenraad, Nicholas J; Ryan, Michael T

    2002-11-01

    Tom7 is a component of the translocase of the outer mitochondrial membrane (TOM) and assembles into a general import pore complex that translocates preproteins into mitochondria. We have identified the human Tom7 homolog and characterized its import and assembly into the mammalian TOM complex. Tom7 is imported into mitochondria in a nucleotide-independent manner and is anchored to the outer membrane with its C terminus facing the intermembrane space. Unlike studies in fungi, we found that human Tom7 assembles into an approximately 120-kDa import intermediate in HeLa cell mitochondria. To detect subunits within this complex, we employed a novel supershift analysis whereby mitochondria containing newly imported Tom7 were incubated with antibodies specific for individual TOM components prior to separation by blue native electrophoresis. We found that the 120-kDa complex contains Tom40 and lacks receptor components. This intermediate can be chased to the stable approximately 380-kDa mammalian TOM complex that additionally contains Tom22. Overexpression of Tom22 in HeLa cells results in the rapid assembly of Tom7 into the 380-kDa complex indicating that Tom22 is rate-limiting for TOM complex formation. These results indicate that the levels of Tom22 within mitochondria dictate the assembly of TOM complexes and hence may regulate its biogenesis. PMID:12198123

  15. The Gravity Probe B `Niobium bird' experiment: Verifying the data reduction scheme for estimating the relativistic precession of Earth-orbiting gyroscopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uemaatsu, Hirohiko; Parkinson, Bradford W.; Lockhart, James M.; Muhlfelder, Barry

    1993-01-01

    Gravity Probe B (GP-B) is a relatively gyroscope experiment begun at Stanford University in 1960 and supported by NASA since 1963. This experiment will check, for the first time, the relativistic precession of an Earth-orbiting gyroscope that was predicted by Einstein's General Theory of Relativity, to an accuracy of 1 milliarcsecond per year or better. A drag-free satellite will carry four gyroscopes in a polar orbit to observe their relativistic precession. The primary sensor for measuring the direction of gyroscope spin axis is the SQUID (superconducting quantum interference device) magnetometer. The data reduction scheme designed for the GP-B program processes the signal from the SQUID magnetometer and estimates the relativistic precession rates. We formulated the data reduction scheme and designed the Niobium bird experiment to verify the performance of the data reduction scheme experimentally with an actual SQUID magnetometer within the test loop. This paper reports the results from the first phase of the Niobium bird experiment, which used a commercially available SQUID magnetometer as its primary sensor, and adresses the issues they raised. The first phase resulted in a large, temperature-dependent bias drift in the insensitive design and a temperature regulation scheme.

  16. Protein Translocation through Tom40: Kinetics of Peptide Release

    PubMed Central

    Mahendran, Kozhinjampara R.; Romero-Ruiz, Mercedes; Schlösinger, Andrea; Winterhalter, Mathias; Nussberger, Stephan

    2012-01-01

    Mitochondrial proteins are almost exclusively imported into mitochondria from the cytosol in an unfolded or partially folded conformation. Regardless of whether they are destined for the outer or inner membrane, the intermembrane space, or the matrix, proteins begin the importation process by crossing the mitochondrial outer membrane via a specialized protein import machinery whose main component is the Tom40 channel. High-resolution ion conductance measurements through the Tom40 channel in the presence of the mitochondrial presequence peptide pF1β revealed the kinetics of peptide binding. Here we show that the rates for association kon and dissociation koff strongly depend on the applied transmembrane voltage. Both kinetic constants increase with an increase in the applied voltage. The increase of koff with voltage provides strong evidence of peptide translocation. This allows us to distinguish quantitatively between substrate blocking and permeation. PMID:22225796

  17. Nimbus-7 TOMS Antarctic ozone atlas: August through November, 1989

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krueger, Arlin J.; Penn, Lanning M.; Larko, David E.; Doiron, Scott D.; Guimaraes, Patricia T.

    1990-01-01

    Because of the great environmental significance of ozone and to support continuing research at the Antarctic and other Southern Hemisphere stations, the development of the 1989 ozone hole was monitored using data from the Nimbus-7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) instrument, produced in near-real-time. This Atlas provides a complete set of daily polar orthographic projections of the TOMS total ozone measurements over the Southern Hemisphere for the period August 1 through November 30, 1989. The 1989 ozone hole developed in a manner similar to that of 1987, reaching a comparable depth in early October. This was in sharp contrast to the much weaker hole of 1988. The 1989 ozone hole remained at polar latitudes as it filled in November, in contrast to other recent years when the hole drifted to mid-latitudes before disappearing. Daily ozone values above selected Southern Hemisphere stations are presented, along with comparisons of the 1989 ozone distribution to that of other years.

  18. Global ozone data from the meteor-3/TOMS ultraviolet spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herman, J. R.; Krueger, Arlin; Cote, C.; Ahmad, Zia; Forman, M.; Wellemeyer, C.; Byerly, W.; Pan, L.; Jaross, Glen; Hudson, R.

    1994-01-01

    A new TOMS instrument (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) was launched from the Plesetsk Cosomodrome, Russia on August 15, 1991. The purpose of the joint project between the U.S. and Russia was to continue the long-term record of ozone measurements from Nimbus-7/TOMS (launched in October 1978). Ozone data from the two satellites compare very closely. When the orbital positions were nearly the same, the comparison over the entire globe showed an offset of 2 percent with a standard deviation of 5 percent. Comparisons were made with several ground based M124 and Dobson stations showing good agreement in absolute value and with the day-to-day variations seen by the ground stations.

  19. Highlights of TOMS Version 9 Total Ozone Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhartia, Pawan; Haffner, David

    2012-01-01

    The fundamental basis of TOMS total ozone algorithm was developed some 45 years ago by Dave and Mateer. It was designed to estimate total ozone from satellite measurements of the backscattered UV radiances at few discrete wavelengths in the Huggins ozone absorption band (310-340 nm). Over the years, as the need for higher accuracy in measuring total ozone from space has increased, several improvements to the basic algorithms have been made. They include: better correction for the effects of aerosols and clouds, an improved method to account for the variation in shape of ozone profiles with season, latitude, and total ozone, and a multi-wavelength correction for remaining profile shape errors. These improvements have made it possible to retrieve total ozone with just 3 spectral channels of moderate spectral resolution (approx. 1 nm) with accuracy comparable to state-of-the-art spectral fitting algorithms like DOAS that require high spectral resolution measurements at large number of wavelengths. One of the deficiencies of the TOMS algorithm has been that it doesn't provide an error estimate. This is a particular problem in high latitudes when the profile shape errors become significant and vary with latitude, season, total ozone, and instrument viewing geometry. The primary objective of the TOMS V9 algorithm is to account for these effects in estimating the error bars. This is done by a straightforward implementation of the Rodgers optimum estimation method using a priori ozone profiles and their error covariances matrices constructed using Aura MLS and ozonesonde data. The algorithm produces a vertical ozone profile that contains 1-2.5 pieces of information (degrees of freedom of signal) depending upon solar zenith angle (SZA). The profile is integrated to obtain the total column. We provide information that shows the altitude range in which the profile is best determined by the measurements. One can use this information in data assimilation and analysis. A side

  20. Preliminary X-ray crystallographic studies of yeast mitochondrial protein Tom70p

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Yunkun; McCombs, Debbie; Nagy, Lisa; DeLucas, Lawrence; Sha, Bingdong

    2006-03-01

    Tom70p is an important translocase of the outer membrane complex member and a major surface receptor of the protein-translocation machinery in the outer mitochondrial membrane. To investigate the mechanism by which Tom70p functions to deliver the mitochondrial protein precursors, the cytosolic fragment of yeast Tom70p (cTom70p) has been crystallized. Protein translocations across mitochondrial membranes play critical roles in mitochondrion biogenesis. Protein transport from the cell cytosol to the mitochondrial matrix is carried out by the translocase of the outer membrane (TOM) complex and the translocase of the inner membrane (TIM) complexes. Tom70p is an important TOM-complex member and a major surface receptor of the protein-translocation machinery in the outer mitochondrial membrane. To investigate the mechanism by which Tom70p functions to deliver the mitochondrial protein precursors, the cytosolic fragment of yeast Tom70p (cTom70p) was crystallized. The crystals diffract to 3.2 Å using a synchrotron X-ray source and belong to space group P2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 44.89, b = 168.78, c = 83.41 Å, α = 90.00, β = 102.74, γ = 90.00°. There are two Tom70p molecules in one asymmetric unit, which corresponds to a solvent content of approximately 51%. Structure determination by MAD methods is under way.

  1. Identification and functional analysis of human Tom22 for protein import into mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Yano, M; Hoogenraad, N; Terada, K; Mori, M

    2000-10-01

    Mitochondria have a receptor complex in the outer membrane which recognizes and translocates mitochondrial proteins synthesized in the cytosol. We report here the identification and functional analysis of human Tom22 (hTom22). hTom22 has an N-terminal negatively charged region exposed to the cytosol, a putative transmembrane region, and a C-terminal intermembrane space region with little negative charge. Tom22 forms a complex with Tom20, and its cytosolic domain functions as an import receptor as in fungi. An import inhibition assay, using pre-ornithine transcarbamylase (pOTC) derivatives and a series of hTom22 deletion mutants, showed that the C-terminal segment of the cytosolic domain is important for presequence binding, whereas the N-terminal domain is important for binding to the mature portion of pOTC. No evidence for pOTC interaction with the Tom22 intermembrane space domain was obtained. Binding studies revealed that the presequence is critical for pOTC binding to Tom20, whereas both the presequence and mature portion are important for binding to Tom22. A cell-free immunoprecipitation assay indicated that an internal segment of the Tom22 cytosolic domain is important for interaction with Tom20. PMID:10982837

  2. Biogenesis of yeast mitochondrial cytochrome c: a unique relationship to the TOM machinery.

    PubMed

    Wiedemann, Nils; Kozjak, Vera; Prinz, Thorsten; Ryan, Michael T; Meisinger, Chris; Pfanner, Nikolaus; Truscott, Kaye N

    2003-03-21

    The import of cytochrome c into the mitochondrial intermembrane space is not understood at a mechanistic level. While the precursor apocytochrome c can insert into protein-free lipid bilayers, the purified translocase of the outer membrane (TOM) complex supports the translocation of apocytochrome c into proteoliposomes. We report an in organello analysis of cytochrome c import into yeast mitochondria from wild-type cells and different mutants cells, each defective in one of the seven Tom proteins. The import of cytochrome c is not affected by removal of the receptor Tom20 or Tom70. Moreover, neither the transfer protein Tom5 nor the assembly factors Tom6 and Tom7 are needed for import of cytochrome c. When the general import pore (GIP)-protein Tom40 is blocked, the import of cytochrome c is moderately affected. Mitochondria lacking the central receptor and organizing protein Tom22 contain greatly reduced levels of cytochrome c. We conclude that up to two components of the TOM complex, Tom22 and possibly the GIP, are involved in the biogenesis of cytochrome c. PMID:12628251

  3. Derivation of Tropospheric Ozone Climatology and Trends from TOMS Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newchurch, Michael J.; McPeters, Rich; Logan, Jennifer; Kim, Jae-Hwan

    2002-01-01

    This research addresses the following three objectives: (1) Derive tropospheric ozone columns from the TOMS instruments by computing the difference between total-ozone columns over cloudy areas and over clear areas in the tropics; (2) Compute secular trends in Nimbus-7 derived tropospheric Ozone column amounts and associated potential trends in the decadal-scale tropical cloud climatology; (3) Explain the occurrence of anomalously high ozone retrievals over high ice clouds.

  4. Heterometallic Alkaline Earth-Lanthanide Ba(II)-La(III) Microporous Metal-Organic Framework as Bifunctional Luminescent Probes of Al(3+) and MnO4(.).

    PubMed

    Ding, Bin; Liu, Shi Xin; Cheng, Yue; Guo, Chao; Wu, Xiang Xia; Guo, Jian Hua; Liu, Yuan Yuan; Li, Yan

    2016-05-01

    In this work a rigid asymmetrical tricarboxylate ligand p-terphenyl-3,4″,5-tricarboxylic acid (H3L) has been employed, and a unique heterometallic alkaline earth-lanthanide microporous luminescent metal-organic framework (MOF) {[Ba3La0.5(μ3-L)2.5(H2O)3(DMF)]·(3DMF)}n (1·3DMF) (DMF = dimethylformamide) has been isolated under solvothermal conditions. Single-crystal X-ray structural analysis demonstrates that 2D inorganic Ba-O-La connectivity can be observed in 1, which are further bridged via rigid terphenyl backbones of L(3-), forming a unique I(2)O(1)-type microporous luminescent framework. A 1D microporous channel with dimensionality of 9.151(3) Å × 10.098(1) Å can be observed along the crystallographic a axis. PXRD patterns have been investigated indicating pure phases of 1. The luminescence explorations demonstrated that 1 exhibits highly selective and sensitive sensing for Al(3+) over other cations with high quenching efficiency Ksv value of 1.445 × 10(4) L·mol(-1) and low detection limit (1.11 μM (S/N = 3)). Meanwhile 1 also exhibits highly selective and sensitive sensing for MnO4(-) over other anions with quenching efficiency Ksv = 7.73 × 10(3) L·mol(-1) and low detection limit (0.28 μM (S/N = 3)). It is noted that, when different concentrations of MnO4(-) solutions (0.5 to 100 μM) were dropped into the suspension of 1, the bright blue luminescence of the suspension observed under UV light can gradually change into pink color, indicating visually luminescent sensing, which makes the detection process of MnO4(-) more convenient in practical. The result also reveals that 1 represents the first example of bifunctional heterometallic alkaline earth-lanthanide MOF-based luminescent probes for selectively detecting Al(3+) and MnO4(-) in the water solutions. PMID:27088966

  5. Tom22 is a multifunctional organizer of the mitochondrial preprotein translocase.

    PubMed

    van Wilpe, S; Ryan, M T; Hill, K; Maarse, A C; Meisinger, C; Brix, J; Dekker, P J; Moczko, M; Wagner, R; Meijer, M; Guiard, B; Hönlinger, A; Pfanner, N

    1999-09-30

    Mitochondrial preproteins are imported by a multisubunit translocase of the outer membrane (TOM), including receptor proteins and a general import pore. The central receptor Tom22 binds preproteins through both its cytosolic domain and its intermembrane space domain and is stably associated with the channel protein Tom40 (refs 11-13). Here we report the unexpected observation that a yeast strain can survive without Tom22, although it is strongly reduced in growth and the import of mitochondrial proteins. Tom22 is a multifunctional protein that is required for the higher-level organization of the TOM machinery. In the absence of Tom22, the translocase dissociates into core complexes, representing the basic import units, but lacks a tight control of channel gating. The single membrane anchor of Tom22 is required for a stable interaction between the core complexes, whereas its cytosolic domain serves as docking point for the peripheral receptors Tom20 and Tom70. Thus a preprotein translocase can combine receptor functions with distinct organizing roles in a multidomain protein. PMID:10519552

  6. The Phytosiderophore Efflux Transporter TOM2 Is Involved in Metal Transport in Rice.

    PubMed

    Nozoye, Tomoko; Nagasaka, Seiji; Kobayashi, Takanori; Sato, Yuki; Uozumi, Nobuyuki; Nakanishi, Hiromi; Nishizawa, Naoko K

    2015-11-13

    Iron is an essential metal element for all living organisms. Graminaceous plants produce and secrete mugineic acid family phytosiderophores from their roots to acquire iron in the soil. Phytosiderophores chelate and solubilize insoluble iron hydroxide in the soil. Subsequently, plants take up iron-phytosiderophore complexes through specific transporters on the root cell membrane. Phytosiderophores are also thought to be important for the internal transport of various transition metals, including iron. In this study, we analyzed TOM2 and TOM3, rice homologs of transporter of mugineic acid family phytosiderophores 1 (TOM1), a crucial efflux transporter directly involved in phytosiderophore secretion into the soil. Transgenic rice analysis using promoter-β-glucuronidase revealed that TOM2 was expressed in tissues involved in metal translocation, whereas TOM3 was expressed only in restricted parts of the plant. Strong TOM2 expression was observed in developing tissues during seed maturation and germination, whereas TOM3 expression was weak during seed maturation. Transgenic rice in which TOM2 expression was repressed by RNA interference showed growth defects compared with non-transformants and TOM3-repressed rice. Xenopus laevis oocytes expressing TOM2 released (14)C-labeled deoxymugineic acid, the initial phytosiderophore compound in the biosynthetic pathway in rice. In onion epidermal and rice root cells, the TOM2-GFP fusion protein localized to the cell membrane, indicating that the TOM2 protein is a transporter for phytosiderophore efflux to the cell exterior. Our results indicate that TOM2 is involved in the internal transport of deoxymugineic acid, which is required for normal plant growth. PMID:26432636

  7. Tom70 serves as a molecular switch to determine pathological cardiac hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jun; Qi, Man; Li, Changming; Shi, Dan; Zhang, Dasheng; Xie, Duanyang; Yuan, Tianyou; Feng, Jing; Liu, Yi; Liang, Dandan; Xu, Xinran; Chen, Jinjin; Xu, Liang; Zhang, Hong; Ye, Jiangchuan; Lv, Fei; Huang, Jian; Peng, Luying; Chen, Yi-Han

    2014-01-01

    Pathological cardiac hypertrophy is an inevitable forerunner of heart failure. Regardless of the etiology of cardiac hypertrophy, cardiomyocyte mitochondrial alterations are always observed in this context. The translocases of mitochondrial outer membrane (Tom) complex governs the import of mitochondrial precursor proteins to maintain mitochondrial function under pathophysiological conditions; however, its role in the development of pathological cardiac hypertrophy remains unclear. Here, we showed that Tom70 was downregulated in pathological hypertrophic hearts from humans and experimental animals. The reduction in Tom70 expression produced distinct pathological cardiomyocyte hypertrophy both in vivo and in vitro. The defective mitochondrial import of Tom70-targeted optic atrophy-1 triggered intracellular oxidative stress, which led to a pathological cellular response. Importantly, increased Tom70 levels provided cardiomyocytes with full resistance to diverse pro-hypertrophic insults. Together, these results reveal that Tom70 acts as a molecular switch that orchestrates hypertrophic stresses and mitochondrial responses to determine pathological cardiac hypertrophy. PMID:25022898

  8. Implementation of the TOMS contamination control requirements in the former USSR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abrams, Eve M.

    1992-01-01

    The American Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) was integrated with the Russian Meteor-3 spacecraft and launched on August 15, 1991. Although the TOMS instrument was sensitive to both particulate and molecular contamination, the program for Meteor-3 had not formerly addressed contamination control in ground operations. In order to accommodate the TOMS cleanliness requirements, a contamination control program was successfully established from inception at both the Meteor-3 spacecraft plant near Moscow and at the launch site in Plesetsk.

  9. Presequence Recognition by the Tom40 Channel Contributes to Precursor Translocation into the Mitochondrial Matrix

    PubMed Central

    Melin, Jonathan; Schulz, Christian; Wrobel, Lidia; Bernhard, Olaf; Chacinska, Agnieszka; Jahn, Olaf; Schmidt, Bernhard

    2014-01-01

    More than 70% of mitochondrial proteins utilize N-terminal presequences as targeting signals. Presequence interactions with redundant cytosolic receptor domains of the translocase of the outer mitochondrial membrane (TOM) are well established. However, after the presequence enters the protein-conducting Tom40 channel, the recognition events that occur at the trans side leading up to the engagement of the presequence with inner membrane-bound receptors are less well defined. Using a photoaffinity-labeling approach with modified presequence peptides, we identified Tom40 as a presequence interactor of the TOM complex. Utilizing mass spectrometry, we mapped Tom40's presequence-interacting regions to both sides of the β-barrel. Analysis of a phosphorylation site within one of the presequence-interacting regions revealed altered translocation kinetics along the presequence pathway. Our analyses assess the relation between the identified presequence-binding region of Tom40 and the intermembrane space domain of Tom22. The identified presequence-interacting region of Tom40 is capable of functioning independently of the established trans-acting TOM presequence-binding domain during matrix import. PMID:25002531

  10. Presequence recognition by the tom40 channel contributes to precursor translocation into the mitochondrial matrix.

    PubMed

    Melin, Jonathan; Schulz, Christian; Wrobel, Lidia; Bernhard, Olaf; Chacinska, Agnieszka; Jahn, Olaf; Schmidt, Bernhard; Rehling, Peter

    2014-09-15

    More than 70% of mitochondrial proteins utilize N-terminal presequences as targeting signals. Presequence interactions with redundant cytosolic receptor domains of the translocase of the outer mitochondrial membrane (TOM) are well established. However, after the presequence enters the protein-conducting Tom40 channel, the recognition events that occur at the trans side leading up to the engagement of the presequence with inner membrane-bound receptors are less well defined. Using a photoaffinity-labeling approach with modified presequence peptides, we identified Tom40 as a presequence interactor of the TOM complex. Utilizing mass spectrometry, we mapped Tom40's presequence-interacting regions to both sides of the β-barrel. Analysis of a phosphorylation site within one of the presequence-interacting regions revealed altered translocation kinetics along the presequence pathway. Our analyses assess the relation between the identified presequence-binding region of Tom40 and the intermembrane space domain of Tom22. The identified presequence-interacting region of Tom40 is capable of functioning independently of the established trans-acting TOM presequence-binding domain during matrix import. PMID:25002531

  11. Korea Earth Observation Satellite Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baek, Myung-Jin; Kim, Zeen-Chul

    via Korea Aerospace Research Institute (KARI) as the prime contractor in the area of Korea earth observation satellite program to enhance Korea's space program development capability. In this paper, Korea's on-going and future earth observation satellite programs are introduced: KOMPSAT- 1 (Korea Multi Purpose Satellite-1), KOMPSAT-2 and Communication, Broadcasting and Meteorological Satellite (CBMS) program. KOMPSAT-1 satellite successfully launched in December 1999 with Taurus launch vehicle. Since launch, KOMPSAT-1 is downlinking images of Korea Peninsular every day. Until now, KOMPSAT-1 has been operated more than 2 and half years without any major hardware malfunction for the mission operation. KOMPSAT-1 payload has 6.6m panchromatic spatial resolution at 685 km on-orbit and the spacecraft bus had NASA TOMS-EP (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer-Earth Probe) spacecraft bus heritage designed and built by TRW, U.S.A.KOMPSAT-1 program was international co-development program between KARI and TRW funded by Korean Government. be launched in 2004. Main mission objective is to provide geo-information products based on the multi-spectral high resolution sensor called Multi-Spectral Camera (MSC) which will provide 1m panchromatic and 4m multi-spectral high resolution images. ELOP of Israel is the prime contractor of the MSC payload system and KARI is the total system prime contractor including spacecraft bus development and ground segment. KARI also has the contract with Astrium of Europe for the purpose of technical consultation and hardware procurement. Based on the experience throughout KOMPSAT-1 and KOMPSAT-2 space system development, Korea is expecting to establish the infrastructure of developing satellite system. Currently, KOMPSAT-2 program is in the critical design stage. are scheduled to launch in 2008 and in 2014, respectively. The mission of CBMS consists of two areas. One is of space technology test for the communications mission, and the other is of a real

  12. Nimbus-7 TOMS Antarctic ozone atlas: August - December 1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krueger, Arlin J.; Penn, Lanning M.; Guimaraes, Patricia T.; Scott, Courtney J.; Larko, David E.; Doiron, Scott D.

    1991-01-01

    Because of the great environmental significance of ozone and to support continuing research at the Antarctic and other Southern Hemisphere stations, the development of the 1990 ozone hole was monitored using data from the Nimbus-7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) instrument, produced in near-real-time. This Atlas provides a complete set of daily polar orthographic projections of the TOMS total ozone measurements over the Southern Hemisphere for the period 1 Aug. through 31 Dec. 1990. The 1990 ozone hole developed in a manner similar to that of 1987 and 1989, reaching a comparable depth in early October. This was in sharp contrast to the much weaker hold of 1988. The 1990 ozone hole remained at polar latitudes as it filled in Nov., in contrast to other recent years when the hold drifted to mid-latitudes before disappearing. Daily ozone values above selected Southern Hemisphere stations are presented, along with comparisons of the 1990 ozone distribution to that of other years. A new calibration scheme (Version 6) was used to process 1990 ozone values, as well as to reprocess those of previous years.

  13. The 1988 Antarctic ozone monitoring Nimbus-7 TOMS data atlas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krueger, Arlin J.; Penn, Lanning M.; Larko, David E.; Doiron, Scott D.; Guimaraes, Patricia T.

    1989-01-01

    Because of the great environmental significance of ozone and to support continuing research at McMurdo, Syowa, and other Southern Hemisphere stations, the development of the 1988 ozone hole was monitored using data from the Nimbus-7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) instrument, produced in near-real-time. This Atlas provides a complete set of daily polar orthographic projections of the TOMS total ozone measurements over the Southern Hemisphere for the period August 1 through November 17, 1988. Although total ozone in mini-holes briefly dropped below 150 DU in late August, the main ozone hole is seen to be much less pronounced than in 1987. Minimum values, observed in late September and early October 1988, were seldom less than 175 DU. Compared with the same period in 1987, when a pronounced ozone hole whose minimum value of 109 Dobson Units (DU) was the lowest total ozone ever observed, the 1988 ozone hole is displaced from the South Pole, opposing a persistent maximum with values consistently above 500 DU. Daily ozone values above selected Southern Hemisphere stations are presented, along with comparisons of the 1988 ozone distribution to that of other years.

  14. Molecular Chaperone Hsp70/Hsp90 Prepares the Mitochondrial Outer Membrane Translocon Receptor Tom71 for Preprotein Loading

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Jingzhi; Qian, Xinguo; Hu, Junbin; Sha, Bingdong

    2010-11-03

    The preproteins targeted to the mitochondria are transported through the translocase of the outer membrane complex. Tom70/Tom71 is a major surface receptor of the translocase of the outer membrane complex for mitochondrial preproteins. The preproteins are escorted to Tom70/Tom71 by molecular chaperones Hsp70 and Hsp90. Here we present the high resolution crystal structures of Tom71 and the protein complexes between Tom71 and the Hsp70/Hsp90 C terminus. The crystal structures indicate that Tom70/Tom71 may exhibit two distinct states. In the closed state, the N-terminal domain of Tom70/Tom71 partially blocks the preprotein-binding pocket. In the open state, the N-terminal domain moves away, and the preprotein-binding pocket is fully exposed. The complex formation between the C-terminal EEVD motif of Hsp70/Hsp90 and Tom71 could lock Tom71 in the open state where the preprotein-binding pocket of Tom71 is ready to receive preproteins. The interactions between Hsp70/Hsp90 and Tom71 N-terminal domain generate conformational changes that may increase the volume of the preprotein-binding pocket. The complex formation of Hsp70/Hsp90 and Tom71 also generates significant domain rearrangement within Tom71, which may position the preprotein-binding pocket closer to Hsp70/Hsp90 to facilitate the preprotein transfer from the molecular chaperone to Tom71. Therefore, molecular chaperone Hsp70/Hsp90 may function to prepare the mitochondrial outer membrane receptor Tom71 for preprotein loading.

  15. The Impact of Withholding Observations from TOMS or SBUV Instruments on the GEOS Ozone Data Assimilation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stajner, Ovanka; Riishojgaard, Lars Peter; Rood, Richard B.

    2000-01-01

    In a data assimilation system (DAS), model forecast atmospheric fields, observations and their respective statistics are combined in an attempt to produce the best estimate of these fields. Ozone observations from two instruments are assimilated in the Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) ozone DAS: the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) and the Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet (SBUV) instrument. The assimilated observations are complementary; TOMS provides a global daily coverage of total column ozone, without profile information, while SBUV measures ozone profiles and total column ozone at nadir only. The purpose of this paper is to examine the performance of the ozone assimilation system in the absence of observations from one of the instruments as it can happen in the event of a failure of an instrument or when there are problems with an instrument for a limited time. Our primary concern is for the performance of the GEOS ozone DAS when it is used in the operational mode to provide near real time analyzed ozone fields in support of instruments on the Terra satellite. In addition, we are planning to produce a longer term ozone record by assimilating historical data. We want to quantify the differences in the assimilated ozone fields that are caused by the changes in the TOMS or SBUV observing network. Our primary interest is in long term and large scale features visible in global statistics of analysis fields, such as differences in the zonal mean of assimilated ozone fields or comparisons with independent observations, While some drifts in assimilated fields occur immediately, after assimilating just one day of different observations, the others develop slowly over several months. Thus, we are also interested in the length of time, which is determined from time series, that is needed for significant changes to take place.

  16. The TOM Complex of Amoebozoans: the Cases of the Amoeba Acanthamoeba castellanii and the Slime Mold Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Wojtkowska, Małgorzata; Buczek, Dorota; Stobienia, Olgierd; Karachitos, Andonis; Antoniewicz, Monika; Slocinska, Małgorzata; Makałowski, Wojciech; Kmita, Hanna

    2015-07-01

    Protein import into mitochondria requires a wide variety of proteins, forming complexes in both mitochondrial membranes. The TOM complex (translocase of the outer membrane) is responsible for decoding of targeting signals, translocation of imported proteins across or into the outer membrane, and their subsequent sorting. Thus the TOM complex is regarded as the main gate into mitochondria for imported proteins. Available data indicate that mitochondria of representative organisms from across the major phylogenetic lineages of eukaryotes differ in subunit organization of the TOM complex. The subunit organization of the TOM complex in the Amoebozoa is still elusive, so we decided to investigate its organization in the soil amoeba Acanthamoeba castellanii and the slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum. They represent two major subclades of the Amoebozoa: the Lobosa and Conosa, respectively. Our results confirm the presence of Tom70, Tom40 and Tom7 in the A. castellanii and D. discoideum TOM complex, while the presence of Tom22 and Tom20 is less supported. Interestingly, the Tom proteins display the highest similarity to Opisthokonta cognate proteins, with the exception of Tom40. Thus representatives of two major subclades of the Amoebozoa appear to be similar in organization of the TOM complex, despite differences in their lifestyle. PMID:26074248

  17. The protein import pore Tom40 in the microsporidian Nosema bombycis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Lipeng; Pan, Guoqing; Li, Tian; Dang, Xiaoqun; Deng, Yuanhong; Ma, Cheng; Chen, Jie; Luo, Jie; Zhou, Zeyang

    2012-01-01

    Microsporidia, an unusual group of unicellular parasites related to fungi, possess a highly reduced mitochondrion known as the mitosome. Since mitosomes lack an organellar genome, their proteins must be translated in the cytosol before being imported into the mitosome via translocases. We have identified a Tom40 gene (NbTom40), the main component of the translocase of the outer mitochondrial membrane, in the genome of the microsporidian Nosema bombycis. NbTom40 is reduced in size, but it is predicted to form a β-barrel structure composed of 19 β-strands. Phylogenetic analysis confirms that NbTom40 forms a clade with Tom40 sequences from other species, distinct from a related clade of voltage-dependent anion channels (VDACs). The NbTom40 contains a β-signal motif that the polar residue is substituted by glycine. Furthermore, we show that expression of NbTom40, as a GFP fusion protein within yeast cells, directs GFP to mitochondria of yeast. These findings suggest that NbTom40 may serve as an import channel of the microsporidian mitosome and facilitate protein translocation into this organelle. PMID:22486892

  18. 33 CFR 80.170 - Sandy Hook, NJ to Tom's River, NJ.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sandy Hook, NJ to Tom's River, NJ. 80.170 Section 80.170 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Atlantic Coast § 80.170 Sandy Hook, NJ to Tom's...

  19. 33 CFR 80.170 - Sandy Hook, NJ to Tom's River, NJ.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sandy Hook, NJ to Tom's River, NJ. 80.170 Section 80.170 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Atlantic Coast § 80.170 Sandy Hook, NJ to Tom's...

  20. Tom Stewart Interview (Part II): A Little Bit About the Man Behind SPEEDE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winarski, Kathy

    2004-01-01

    Although admittedly shy and more comfortable as an attentive listener, Tom Stewart is also friendly and accommodating. He graciously agreed to share his thoughts about some of the important experiences in his life. Tom is that rare bird, a native Floridian, from West Palm Beach, 68 miles north of his Miami home. He received a Bachelor of Chemical…

  1. User's guide for SBUV/TOMS ozone derivative products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleig, A. J.; Wellemeyer, C.; Oslik, N.; Lee, D.; Miller, J.; Magatani, R.

    1984-01-01

    A series of products are available derived from the total-ozone and ozone vertical profile results for the Solar Backscattered Ultraviolet/Total-Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (SBUV/TOMS) Nimbus-7 operation. Products available are (1) orbital height-latitude cross sections of the SBUV profile data, (2) daily global total ozone contours in polar coordinates, (3) daily averages of total ozone in global 5x5 degree latitude-longitude grid, (4) daily, monthly and quarterly averages of total ozone and profile data in 10 degree latitude zones, (5) tabular presentation of zonal means, (6) daily global total ozone and profile contours in polar coordinates. The ""Derivative Products User's Guide'' describes each of these products in detail, including their derivation and presentation format. Information is provided on how to order the tapes and microfilm from the National Space Science Data Center.

  2. How does the TOM complex mediate insertion of precursor proteins into the mitochondrial outer membrane?

    PubMed Central

    Rapaport, Doron

    2005-01-01

    A multisubunit translocase of the outer mitochondrial membrane (TOM complex) mediates both the import of mitochondrial precursor proteins into the internal compartments of the organelle and the insertion of proteins residing in the mitochondrial outer membrane. The proposed β-barrel structure of Tom40, the pore-forming component of the translocase, raises the question of how the apparent uninterrupted β-barrel topology can be compatible with a role of Tom40 in releasing membrane proteins into the lipid core of the bilayer. In this review, I discuss insertion mechanisms of proteins into the outer membrane and present alternative models based on the opening of a multisubunit β-barrel TOM structure or on the interaction of outer membrane precursors with the outer face of the Tom40 β-barrel structure. PMID:16260501

  3. Electromagnetic deep-probing (100-1000 kms) of the Earth's interior from artificial satellites: Constraints on the regional emplacement of crustal resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hermance, J. F.

    1983-01-01

    The reconnaissance phase of using satellite observtions to studying electromagnetic induction in the solid earth is summarized. Several points are made: (1) satellite data apparently suffer far less from the effects of near surface lateral heterogeneities in the earth than do ground-based data; (2) zonal ionospheric currents during the recovery phase of major magnetic storms appear to be minimal, at least in the dawn and dusk sectors wher MAGSAT was flown; hence the internal contributions that satellites observe during these times is in fact due primarily to induction in the Earth with little or no contribution from ionospheric currents; and (3) the interpretation of satellite data in terms of primitive electromagnetic response functions, while grossly over-simplified, results in a surprisingly well-resolved radius for an equivalent super-conductor representing the conductivity region of the Earth's interior (5,370 + or - 120 km).

  4. Electromagnetic deep-probing (100-1000 KMS) of the Earth's interior from artificial satellites: Constraints on the regional emplacement of crustal resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hermance, J. F. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    Model simulations show that induction in a spherical Earth by distant magnetospheric sources can contribute magnetic field fluctuations at MAGSAT altitudes which are 30 to 40 percent of the external field amplitudes. When the characteristic dimensions (e.g. depth of penetration, etc) of a particular situations are small compared with the Earth's radius, the Earth can be approximated by a plane horizontal half space. In this case, electromagnetic energy is reflected with close to 100 percent efficiency from the Earth's surface. This implies that the total horizontal field is twice the source field when the source is above the satellite, but is reduced to values which are much smaller than the source field when the source is below the satellite. This latter effect tends to enhance the signature of gross electrical discontinuities in the lithosphere when observed at satellite altitudes.

  5. Preliminary Results from an Assimilation of Saharan Dust Using TOMS Radiances and the GOCART Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weaver, C. J.; daSilva, Arlindo; Ginoux, Paul; Torres, Omar; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    At NASA Goddard we are developing a global aerosol data assimilation system that combines advances in remote sensing and modeling of atmospheric aerosols. The goal is to provide high resolution, 3-D aerosol distributions to the research community. Our first step is to develop a simple assimilation system for Saharan mineral aerosol. The Goddard Chemistry and Aerosol Radiation model (GOCART) provides accurate 3-D mineral aerosol size distributions. Surface mobilization, wet and dry deposition, convective and long-range transport are all driven by assimilated fields from the Goddard Earth Observing System Data Assimilation System, GEOS-DAS. Our version of GOCART transports sizes from .08-10 microns and only simulates Saharan dust. We draw the assimilation to two observables in this study: the TOMS aerosol index (Al) which is directly related to the ratio of the 340 and 380 radiances and the 380 radiance alone. The forward model that simulates the observables requires the aerosol optical thickness, the single scattering albedo and the height of the aerosol layer from the GOCART fields. The forward model also requires a refractive index for the dust. We test three index values to see which best fits the TOMS observables. These are 1) for Saharan dust reported by Patterson, 2) for a mixture of Saharan dust and a highly reflective material (sea salt or sulfate) and 3) for pure illite. The assimilation works best assuming either pure illite or the dust mixture. Our assimilation cycle first determines values of the aerosol index (Al) and the radiance at 380 nm based on the GOCART aerosol fields. Differences between the observed and GOCART model calculated Al and 380 nm radiance are first analyzed horizontally using the Physical-space Statistical Analysis System (PSAS). A quasi-Newton iteration is then performed to produce analyzed 3D aerosol fields according to parameterized background and observation error covariances. We only assimilate observations into the the GOCART

  6. Global and Seasonal Aerosol Optical Depths Derived From Ultraviolet Observations by Satellites (TOMS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herman, J. R.; Torres, O.

    1999-01-01

    North America and Europe. Comparisons of the estimated TOMS aerosol optical depths show good agreement in magnitude and seasonal dependence with sun-photometer optical depths obtained at Goddard Space Flight Center (39degN 76.88degW) in the U.S. and in Lille (50.63degN 3.07degE) in France. The study of these aerosols is important for detecting the sources of industrial pollution and its redistribution by winds on a global basis, as well as its effect on reducing the UV irradiance at the Earth's surface.

  7. Mitochondrial protein import: recognition of internal import signals of BCS1 by the TOM complex.

    PubMed

    Stan, Tincuta; Brix, Jan; Schneider-Mergener, Jens; Pfanner, Nikolaus; Neupert, Walter; Rapaport, Doron

    2003-04-01

    BCS1, a component of the inner membrane of mitochondria, belongs to the group of proteins with internal, noncleavable import signals. Import and intramitochondrial sorting of BCS1 are encoded in the N-terminal 126 amino acid residues. Three sequence elements were identified in this region, namely, the transmembrane domain (amino acid residues 51 to 68), a presequence type helix (residues 69 to 83), and an import auxiliary region (residues 84 to 126). The transmembrane domain is not required for stable binding to the TOM complex. The Tom receptors (Tom70, Tom22 and Tom20), as determined by peptide scan analysis, interact with the presequence-like helix, yet the highest binding was to the third sequence element. We propose that the initial recognition of BCS1 precursor at the surface of the organelle mainly depends on the auxiliary region and does not require the transmembrane domain. This essential region represents a novel type of signal with targeting and sorting functions. It is recognized by all three known mitochondrial import receptors, demonstrating their capacity to decode various targeting signals. We suggest that the BCS1 precursor crosses the TOM complex as a loop structure and that once the precursor emerges from the TOM complex, all three structural elements are essential for the intramitochondrial sorting to the inner membrane. PMID:12640110

  8. Analysis of individual mitochondria via fluorescent immunolabeling with Anti-TOM22 antibodies.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Thane H; Frost, Nicholas W; Bowser, Michael T; Arriaga, Edgar A

    2014-02-01

    Mitochondria are responsible for maintaining a variety of cellular functions. One such function is the interaction and subsequent import of proteins into these organelles via the translocase of outer membrane (TOM) complex. Antibodies have been used to analyze the presence and function of proteins comprising this complex, but have not been used to investigate variations in the abundance of TOM complex in mitochondria. Here, we report on the feasibility of using capillary cytometry with laser-induced fluorescence to detect mitochondria labeled with antibodies targeting the TOM complex and to estimate the number of antibodies that bind to these organelles. Mitochondria were fluorescently labeled with DsRed2, while antibodies targeting the TOM22 protein, one of nine proteins comprising the TOM complex, were conjugated to the Atto-488 fluorophore. At typical labeling conditions, 94% of DsRed2 mitochondria were also immunofluorescently labeled with Atto-488 Anti-TOM22 antibodies. The calculated median number of Atto-488 Anti-TOM22 antibodies bound to the surface of mitochondria was ∼2,000 per mitochondrion. The combination of fluorescent immunolabeling and capillary cytometry could be further developed to include multicolor labeling experiments, which enable monitoring several molecular targets at the same time in the same or different organelle types. PMID:24481619

  9. Contributions of Nimbus 7 TOMS Data to Volcanic Study and Hazard Mitigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krueger, Arlin J.; Bluth, G. J. S.; Schaefer, S. A.

    1998-01-01

    Nimbus TOMS data have led to advancements among many volcano-related scientific disciplines, from the initial ability to quantify SO2 clouds leading to derivations of eruptive S budgets and fluxes, to tracking of individual clouds, assessing global volcanism and atmospheric impacts. Some of the major aspects of TOMS-related research, listed below, will be reviewed and updated: (1) Measurement of volcanic SO2 clouds: Nimbus TOMS observed over 100 individual SO2 clouds during its mission lifetime; large explosive eruptions are now routinely and reliably measured by satellite. (2) Eruption processes: quantification of SO2 emissions have allowed assessments of eruption sulfur budgets, the evaluation of "excess" sulfur, and inferences of H2S emissions. (3) Detection of ash: TOMS data are now used to detect volcanic particulates in the atmosphere, providing complementary analyses to infrared methods of detection. Paired TOMS and AVHRR studies have provided invaluable information on volcanic cloud compositions and processes. (4) Cloud tracking and hazard mitigation: volcanic clouds can be considered gigantic tracers in the atmosphere, and studies of the fates of these clouds have led to new knowledge of their physical and chemical dispersion in the atmosphere for predictive models. (5) Global trends: the long term data set has provided researchers an unparalleled record of explosive volcanism, and forms a key component in assessing annual to decadal trends in global S emissions. (6) Atmospheric impacts: TOMS data have been linked to independent records of atmospheric change, in order to compare cause and effect processes following a massive injection of SO2 into the atmosphere. (7) Future TOMS instruments and applications: Nimbus TOMS has given way to new satellite platforms, with several wavelength and resolution modifications. New efforts to launch a geostationary TOMS could provide unprecedented observations of volcanic activity.

  10. The Broad Impact of TOM40 on Neurodegenerative Diseases in Aging

    PubMed Central

    Gottschalk, William K.; Lutz, Michael W.; He, Yu Ting; Saunders, Ann M.; Burns, Daniel K.; Roses, Allen D.; Chiba-Falek, Ornit

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction is an important factor in the pathogenesis of age-related diseases, including neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s spectrum disorders. A polymorphism in Translocase of the Outer Mitochondrial Membrane – 40 kD (TOMM40) is associated with risk and age-of onset of late-onset AD, and is the only nuclear- encoded gene identified in genetic studies to date that presumably contributes to LOAD-related mitochondria dysfunction. In this review, we describe the TOM40-mediated mitochondrial protein import mechanism, and discuss the evidence linking TOM40 with Alzheimer’s (AD) and Parkinson’s (PD) diseases. All but 36 of the >~1,500 mitochondrial proteins are encoded by the nucleus and are synthesized on cytoplasmic ribosomes, and most of these are imported into mitochondria through the TOM complex, of which TOM40 is the central pore, mediating communication between the cytoplasm and the mitochondrial interior. APP enters and obstructs the TOM40 pore, inhibiting import of OXPHOS-related proteins and disrupting the mitochondrial redox balance. Other pathogenic proteins, such as Aβ and alpha-synuclein, readily pass through the pore and cause toxic effects by directly inhibiting mitochondrial enzymes. Healthy mitochondria normally import and degrade the PD-related protein Pink1, but Pink1 exits mitochondria if the membrane potential collapses and initiates Parkin-mediated mitophagy. Under normal circumstances, this process helps clear dysfunctional mitochondria and contributes to cellular health, but PINK1 mutations associated with PD exit mitochondria with intact membrane potentials, disrupting mitochondrial dynamics, leading to pathology. Thus, TOM40 plays a central role in the mitochondrial dysfunction that underlies age-related neurodegenerative diseases. Learning about the factors that control TOM40 levels and activity, and how TOM40, specifically, and the TOM complex, generally, interacts with potentially pathogenic

  11. Meteor 3/TOMS launch of 15 August 1991 in Plesetsk, USSR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1994-08-01

    The TOMS launch of August 15, 1991, was a joint effort between the U.S.S.R. and the United States. The pre-launch briefing, a tour of the TOMS storage site, it's delivery and setup at the launch site, and the actual launch were viewed in this video, along with a post-launch conference and a dinner. The launch occurred in Plesetsk, U.S.S.R., with the TOMS payload being launched on a Soviet Meteor. Officials from NASA were present for the launch.

  12. Electromagnetic deep-probing (100-1000 KMS) of the Earth's interior from artificial satellites: Constraints on the regional emplacement of crustal resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hermance, J. F. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    An algorithm was developed to address the problem of electromagnetic coupling of ionospheric current systems to both a homogeneous Earth having finite conductivity, and to an Earth having gross lateral variations in its conductivity structure, e.g., the ocean-land interface. Typical results from the model simulation for ionospheric currents flowing parallel to a representative geologic discontinuity are shown. Although the total magnetic field component at the satellite altitude is an order of magnitude smaller than at the Earth's surface (because of cancellation effects from the source current), the anomalous behavior of the satellite observations as the vehicle passes over the geologic contact is relatively more important pronounced. The results discriminate among gross lithospheric structures because of difference in electrical conductivity.

  13. Biogenesis of the preprotein translocase of the outer mitochondrial membrane: protein kinase A phosphorylates the precursor of Tom40 and impairs its import.

    PubMed

    Rao, Sanjana; Schmidt, Oliver; Harbauer, Angelika B; Schönfisch, Birgit; Guiard, Bernard; Pfanner, Nikolaus; Meisinger, Chris

    2012-05-01

    The preprotein translocase of the outer mitochondrial membrane (TOM) functions as the main entry gate for the import of nuclear-encoded proteins into mitochondria. The major subunits of the TOM complex are the three receptors Tom20, Tom22, and Tom70 and the central channel-forming protein Tom40. Cytosolic kinases have been shown to regulate the biogenesis and activity of the Tom receptors. Casein kinase 2 stimulates the biogenesis of Tom22 and Tom20, whereas protein kinase A (PKA) impairs the receptor function of Tom70. Here we report that PKA exerts an inhibitory effect on the biogenesis of the β-barrel protein Tom40. Tom40 is synthesized as precursor on cytosolic ribosomes and subsequently imported into mitochondria. We show that PKA phosphorylates the precursor of Tom40. The phosphorylated Tom40 precursor is impaired in import into mitochondria, whereas the nonphosphorylated precursor is efficiently imported. We conclude that PKA plays a dual role in the regulation of the TOM complex. Phosphorylation by PKA not only impairs the receptor activity of Tom70, but it also inhibits the biogenesis of the channel protein Tom40. PMID:22419819

  14. Straight talk with... Tom Inglesby. Interview by Kevin Jiang.

    PubMed

    Inglesby, Tom

    2013-06-01

    When letters containing anthrax spores were mailed to several US senators and media offices in September 2001, just one week after the 9/11 attacks, bioterrorism catapulted to the national stage. Political leaders and public health officials, desperate for guidance on this once-theoretical scenario, turned to experts including Tom Inglesby, then deputy director of the Johns Hopkins Center for Civilian Biodefense Strategies, a bioterrorism research and analysis think tank in Baltimore. In the years that followed, Inglesby and his colleagues ran exercises to simulate bioterror incidents, established a peer-reviewed journal on biodefense and advised government agencies on how to reduce the public health impact of biological threats.Today, he continues his work with the think tank, which moved to the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center (UPMC) in 2003 (although it stayed headquartered in Baltimore) and which was recently renamed the UPMC Center for Health Security. As director and chief executive officer for the past four years, Inglesby has expanded the center's focus toward preventing public health crises arising from infectious diseases, pandemics and major natural disasters, in addition to biological, chemical and nuclear accidents or threats. Inglesby spoke with Kevin Jiang about how responses to bioterrorism, pandemics and natural disasters aren't all that different. PMID:23744137

  15. Electromagnetic deep-probing (100-1000 kms) of the Earth's interior from artificial satellites: Constraints on the regional emplacement of crustal resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hermance, J. F. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    Efforts continue in the development of a computer program for looking at the coupling of finite dimensioned source fields with a laterally heterogeneous Earth. An algorithm for calculating a time-varying reference field using ground-based magnetic observatory data is also under development as part of the production of noise-free estimates of global electromagnetic response functions using Magsat data.

  16. Nanoscale distribution of mitochondrial import receptor Tom20 is adjusted to cellular conditions and exhibits an inner-cellular gradient.

    PubMed

    Wurm, Christian A; Neumann, Daniel; Lauterbach, Marcel A; Harke, Benjamin; Egner, Alexander; Hell, Stefan W; Jakobs, Stefan

    2011-08-16

    The translocase of the mitochondrial outer membrane (TOM) complex is the main import pore for nuclear-encoded proteins into mitochondria, yet little is known about its spatial distribution within the outer membrane. Super-resolution stimulated emission depletion microscopy was used to determine quantitatively the nanoscale distribution of Tom20, a subunit of the TOM complex, in more than 1,000 cells. We demonstrate that Tom20 is located in clusters whose nanoscale distribution is finely adjusted to the cellular growth conditions as well as to the specific position of a cell within a microcolony. The density of the clusters correlates to the mitochondrial membrane potential. The distributions of clusters of Tom20 and of Tom22 follow an inner-cellular gradient from the perinuclear to the peripheral mitochondria. We conclude that the nanoscale distribution of the TOM complex is finely adjusted to the cellular conditions, resulting in distribution gradients both within single cells and between adjacent cells. PMID:21799113

  17. America's Prosperity: The Academic Success of Hispanics. Tomás Rivera Lecture Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donado, Yvette

    2014-01-01

    In the 2014 Tomás Rivera lecture, Yvette Donado, Senior Vice President and Chief Administrative Officer of Educational Testing Service, discusses the need to create educational opportunities for Hispanic Americans in order to create prosperity for all Americans.

  18. Investigating geomagnetic activity dependent sources of 100s of keV electrons in Earth's inner radiation belt using Van Allen Probes observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, D. L.; O'Brien, T. P., III; Fennell, J. F.; Claudepierre, S. G.; Blake, J. B.; Baker, D. N.; Henderson, M. G.; Reeves, G. D.

    2015-12-01

    By providing an unprecedented level of reliability in particle flux observations at low L-shells, NASA's Van Allen Probes mission has yielded a series of discoveries and unanswered questions concerning the inner electron radiation belt. Two such discoveries are: 1) a sharp cutoff in the energy distribution of electrons at ~900 keV, such that fluxes of electrons with energies greater than ~900 keV are below the detectability threshold of the Van Allen Probes' MagEIS instruments and consistent with upper flux limits of multi-MeV electrons calculated using the Van Allen Probes' REPT instruments, and 2) that impulsive injections of up to several hundred keV electrons may act as an activity-dependent source of electrons in the slot and inner radiation belt. In this presentation, we discuss results from phase space density (PSD) analysis of inner zone electrons. Such analysis, which examines PSD as a function of the three adiabatic invariants, effectively removes adiabatic variations in the particle observations allowing one to better identify source and loss processes ongoing in the system. We demonstrate that impulsive injections do indeed act as a source of inner radiation belt electrons and, when combined with losses in the slot region, can result in peaked radial distributions of electron PSD in the inner zone. We briefly discuss the nature of these low-L injections, which penetrate inside the plasmasphere and display strong energy and species dependencies. By examining such injections throughout the Van Allen Probes era, we also i) determine the occurrence rate of injections as a function of electron energy (and first adiabatic invariant), geomagnetic activity level, and L-shell; ii) estimate the contribution of such injections to the inner belt population; and iii) investigate how such injections disrupt coherent banded flux structures in the inner zone known as "zebra stripes".

  19. Highlights of the Version 8 SBUV and TOMS Datasets Released at this Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhartia, Pawan K.; McPeters, Richard D.; Flynn, Lawrence E.; Wellemeyer, Charles G.

    2004-01-01

    Last October was the 25th anniversary of the launch of the SBUV and TOMS instruments on NASA's Nimbus-7 satellite. Total Ozone and ozone profile datasets produced by these and following instruments have produced a quarter century long record. Over time we have released several versions of these datasets to incorporate advances in UV radiative transfer, inverse modeling, and instrument characterization. In this meeting we are releasing datasets produced from the version 8 algorithms. They replace the previous versions (V6 SBUV, and V7 TOMS) released about a decade ago. About a dozen companion papers in this meeting provide details of the new algorithms and intercomparison of the new data with external data. In this paper we present key features of the new algorithm, and discuss how the new results differ from those released previously. We show that the new datasets have better internal consistency and also agree better with external datasets. A key feature of the V8 SBUV algorithm is that the climatology has no influence on inter-annual variability and trends; it only affects the mean values and, to a limited extent, the seasonal dependence. By contrast, climatology does have some influence on TOMS total O3 trends, particularly at large solar zenith angles. For this reason, and also because TOMS record has gaps, md EP/TOMS is suffering from data quality problems, we recommend using SBUV total ozone data for applications where the high spatial resolution of TOMS is not essential.

  20. Immunolocalization of Tom1 in relation to protein degradation systems in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Makioka, Kouki; Yamazaki, Tsuneo; Takatama, Masamitsu; Ikeda, Masaki; Murayama, Shigeo; Okamoto, Koichi; Ikeda, Yoshio

    2016-06-15

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an age-related neurodegenerative disorder. Its pathological hallmarks are senile plaques (SPs), which contain extracellular deposits of amyloid β (Aβ) protein fibrils and dystrophic neurites (DNs), and neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) containing hyperphosphorylated tau. Impairment of protein-degradation systems, including the ubiquitin-proteasome and the autophagy-lysosome systems, has been proposed as one of the causes of the accumulation of these aberrant proteins in AD brains. Tom1 (target of Myb1) was originally identified by the induction of its expression by the v-Myb oncogene and is a part of two major protein-degradation systems. The present study was conducted by immunohistochemical and immunofluorescent stainings to show that Tom1 was localized in DNs, perisomatic granules (PSGs), and NFTs in AD brains. Moreover, in DNs, Tom1 colocalized with ubiquitin, lysosomal proteins, and Tom1-related proteins (Tollip and myosin VI), which act in both protein-degradation systems via Tom1. These results indicate that Tom1 plays important roles in protein-degradation systems in AD pathogenesis. PMID:27206884

  1. GOME Total Ozone and Calibration Error Derived Usign Version 8 TOMS Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gleason, J.; Wellemeyer, C.; Qin, W.; Ahn, C.; Gopalan, A.; Bhartia, P.

    2003-01-01

    The Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) is a hyper-spectral satellite instrument measuring the ultraviolet backscatter at relatively high spectral resolution. GOME radiances have been slit averaged to emulate measurements of the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) made at discrete wavelengths and processed using the new TOMS Version 8 Ozone Algorithm. Compared to Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) techniques based on local structure in the Huggins Bands, the TOMS uses differential absorption between a pair of wavelengths including the local stiucture as well as the background continuum. This makes the TOMS Algorithm more sensitive to ozone, but it also makes the algorithm more sensitive to instrument calibration errors. While calibration adjustments are not needed for the fitting techniques like the DOAS employed in GOME algorithms, some adjustment is necessary when applying the TOMS Algorithm to GOME. Using spectral discrimination at near ultraviolet wavelength channels unabsorbed by ozone, the GOME wavelength dependent calibration drift is estimated and then checked using pair justification. In addition, the day one calibration offset is estimated based on the residuals of the Version 8 TOMS Algorithm. The estimated drift in the 2b detector of GOME is small through the first four years and then increases rapidly to +5% in normalized radiance at 331 nm relative to 385 nm by mid 2000. The lb detector appears to be quite well behaved throughout this time period.

  2. Alpha-particles as probes of nuclear shape in the rare earths and structure effects on proton emission in the mass 80 region

    SciTech Connect

    Sarantites, D.G.; Nicolis, N.G.; Abenante, V.; Majka, Z.; Semkow, T.M. . Dept. of Internal Medicine); Baktash, C.; Beene, J.R.; Garcia-Bermudez, G.; Halbert, M.L.; Hensley, D.C.; Johnson, N.R.; Lee, I.Y.; McGowan, F.K.; Riley, M.A.; Virtanen, A. ); Griffin, H.C. )

    1989-01-01

    Low emission barriers and large subbarrier anisotropies in the alpha-particle decay with respect to the spin direction, of Sn and rare earth compound nuclei, are examined in the light of recent calculations incorporating deformation. For the rare earth systems deformation which increases with spin is necessary to explain the data. Energy spectra and angular correlations of evaporated protons from the {sup 52}Cr({sup 34}S, 2p2n){sup 82}Sr reaction were measured in coincidence with discrete transition. Large changes in the shape of the proton spectra were observed when high spin states in different rotation al bands are populated. These effects cannot be explained by phase space arguments in the deexcitation process. They are interpreted as due to near-yrast to near-yrast stretched proton emission, which preferentially populates the yrast band by subbarrier protons. 20 refs., 8 figs.

  3. Tom22', an 8-kDa trans-site receptor in plants and protozoans, is a conserved feature of the TOM complex that appeared early in the evolution of eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Maćasev, Diana; Whelan, James; Newbigin, Ed; Silva-Filho, Marcio C; Mulhern, Terrence D; Lithgow, Trevor

    2004-08-01

    One of the earliest events in the evolution of mitochondria was the development a means to translocate proteins made in the cytosol into the "protomitochondrion." How this was achieved remains uncertain, and the nature of the earliest version of the protein translocation machinery is not known. Comparative sequence analysis suggests three subunits, Tom40, Tom7, and Tom22 as common elements of the protein translocase in the mitochondrial outer membrane in diverse extant eukaryotes. Tom22, the 22-kDa subunit, plays a critical role in the function of this complex in fungi and animals, and we show that an 8-kDa subunit of the plant translocase is a truncated form of Tom22. It has a single transmembrane segment conforming in sequence to the same region of Tom22 from other eukaryotic lineages and a short carboxy-terminal trans domain located in the mitochondrial intermembrane space. The trans domain from the Arabidopsis thaliana protein functions in yeast lacking their own Tom22 by complementing protein import defects and restoring cell growth. Moreover, we have identified orthologs of Tom22, Tom7, and Tom40 in diverse eukaryotes such as the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum, the amoebic slime Dictyostelium discoideum, and the protozoan parasite Plasmodium falciparum. This finding strongly suggests these subunits as the core of the protein translocase in the earliest mitochondria. PMID:15155803

  4. Electromagnetic deep-probing (100-1000 KMS) of the Earth's interior from artificial satellites: Constraints on the regional emplacement of crustal resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hermance, J. F. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    The applicability of electromagnetic deep sounding experiments using natural sources in the magnetosphere by incorporating Magsat data with other geophysical data was evaluated. Magsat satellite data, ground based magnetic observations, appropriate reference field models, and other satellite data was analyzed. The optimal combination of observations which lead first to a global and then to a regional characterization of the conductivity of the Earth's upper mantle is sought.

  5. Using PlayDoh Astronomy for Understanding the Size and Scale of the Earth-Moon System and as a Probe for Spatial Translation Ability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grundstrom, Erika

    2013-01-01

    To help students love science more and to help them understand the vast distances that pervade astronomy, we use kinesthetic modeling of the Earth-Moon system using PlayDoh. When coupled with discussion, we found (in a pilot study) that students of all ages (children up through adults) acquired a more accurate mental representation of the Earth-Moon system. During early September 2012, we devised and implemented a curriculum unit that focused on the Earth-Moon system and how that relates to eclipses for six middle-Tennessee 6th grade public school classrooms. For this unit, we used PlayDoh as the kinesthetic modeling tool. First, we evaluated what the students knew about the size and scale prior to this intervention using paper and model pre-tests. Second, we used the PlayDoh to model the Earth-Moon system and when possible, conducted an immediate post-test. The students then engaged with the PlayDoh model to help them understand eclipses. Third, we conducted a one-month-later delayed post-test. One thing to note is that about half of the students had experienced the PlayDoh modeling part of a 5th grade pilot lesson during May 2012 therefore the pre-test acted as a four-month-later delayed post-test for these students. We find, among other things, that students retain relative size information more readily than relative distance information. We also find differences in how consistent students are when trying to translate the size/scale they have in their heads to the different modes of assessment utilized.

  6. Probe assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Avera, C.J.

    1981-01-06

    A hand-held probe assembly, suitable for monitoring a radioactive fibrinogen tracer, is disclosed comprising a substantially cylindrically shaped probe handle having an open end. The probe handle is adapted to be interconnected with electrical circuitry for monitoring radioactivity that is sensed or detected by the probe assembly. Mounted within the probe handle is a probe body assembly that includes a cylindrically shaped probe body inserted through the open end of the probe handle. The probe body includes a photomultiplier tube that is electrically connected with a male connector positioned at the rearward end of the probe body. Mounted at the opposite end of the probe body is a probe head which supports an optical coupler therewithin. The probe head is interconnected with a probe cap which supports a detecting crystal. The probe body assembly, which consists of the probe body, the probe head, and the probe cap is supported within the probe handle by means of a pair of compressible o-rings which permit the probe assembly to be freely rotatable, preferably through 360*, within the probe handle and removable therefrom without requiring any disassembly.

  7. The Radiation Belt Storm Probes

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Radiation Belt Storm Probe mission (RBSP) will explore the Van Allen Radiation Belts in the Earth's magnetosphere. The charge particles in these regions can be hazardous to both spacecraft and ...

  8. The 1987 Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment: the Nimbus-7 TOMS Data Atlas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krueger, Arlin J.; Ardanuy, Philip E.; Sechrist, Frank S.; Penn, Lanning M.; Larko, David E.; Doiron, Scott D.; Galimore, Reginald N.

    1988-01-01

    Total ozone data taken by the Nimbus-7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) played a central role in the successful outcome of the 1987 Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment. The near-real-time TOMS total ozone observations were suppled within hours of real time to the operations center in Punta Arenas, Chile, over a telecommunications network designed specifically for this purpose. The TOMS data preparation and method of transfer over the telecommunications links are reviewed. This atlas includes a complete set of the near-real-time TOMS orbital overpass data over regions around the Palmer Peninsula of Antarctica for the period of August 8 through September 29, 1987. Also provided are daily polar orthographic projections of TOMS total ozone measurements over the Southern Hemisphere from August through November 1987. In addition, a chronology of the salient points of the experiment, along with some latitudinal cross sections and time series at locations of interest of the TOMS total ozone observations are presented. The TOMS total ozone measurements are evaluated along the flight tracks of each of the ER-2 and DC-8 missions during the experiment. The ozone hole is shown here to develop in a monotonic progression throughout late August and September. The minimum total ozone amount was found on 5 October, when its all-time lowest value of 109 DU is recorded. The hole remains well defined, but fills gradually from mid-October through mid-November. The hole's dissolution is observed here to begin in mid-November, when it elongates and begins to rotate. By the end of November, the south pole is no longer located within the ozone hole.

  9. Coordination and ion-ion interactions of chromium centers in alkaline earth zinc borate glasses probed by electron paramagnetic resonance and optical spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumalatha, B.; Omkaram, I.; Rajavardana Rao, T.; Linga Raju, Ch

    2013-05-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), optical absorption and FT-IR studies have been carried out on chromium ions incorporated in alkaline earth zinc borate glasses. The EPR spectra exhibit two resonance signals with effective g values at g ≈ 1.99 and ≈1.97. The resonance signal at g ≈ 1.99 is attributed to the contribution from both the exchange coupled Cr3+-Cr3+ ion pairs and the isolated Cr3+ ions and the resonance signal at g ≈ 1.97 is due to Cr5+ ions. The paramagnetic susceptibility (χ) was calculated from the EPR data at various (123-303 K) temperatures and the Curie temperature (θp) was calculated from the 1/χ-T graph. The optical absorption spectra exhibit three bands at ˜360 nm, ˜440 nm and a broad band at ˜615 nm characteristic of Cr3+ ions in an octahedral symmetry. From the observed band positions, the crystal-field splitting parameter Dq and the Racah parameters (B and C) have been evaluated. From the ultraviolet edges, the optical band gap energies (Eopt) and Urbach energy (ΔE) are calculated. The theoretical optical basicity (Λth) of these glasses has also been evaluated. Chromium ions doped alkaline earth zinc borate glasses show BO3 and BO4 structural units in the FT-IR studies.

  10. Training preschoolers on first-order false belief understanding: transfer on advanced ToM skills and metamemory.

    PubMed

    Lecce, Serena; Bianco, Federica; Demicheli, Patrizia; Cavallini, Elena

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the relation between theory of mind (ToM) and metamemory knowledge using a training methodology. Sixty-two 4- to 5-year-old children were recruited and randomly assigned to one of two training conditions: A first-order false belief (ToM) and a control condition. Intervention and control groups were equivalent at pretest for age, parents' education, verbal ability, inhibition, and ToM. Results showed that after the intervention children in the ToM group improved in their first-order false belief understanding significantly more than children in the control condition. Crucially, the positive effect of the ToM intervention was stable over 2 months and generalized to more complex ToM tasks and metamemory. PMID:25040788

  11. Bcl-2 and porin follow different pathways of TOM-dependent insertion into the mitochondrial outer membrane.

    PubMed

    Motz, Christian; Martin, Heiko; Krimmer, Thomas; Rassow, Joachim

    2002-11-01

    The bcl-2 gene encodes a 26kDa protein which functions as a central regulator of apoptosis. Here we investigated the pathway of Bcl-2alpha into the mitochondrial outer membrane using the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model organism. We found that interactions of Bcl-2alpha with the mitochondrial import receptor Tom20 are dependent on two positively charged lysine residues in the immediate vicinity of the carboxy-terminal hydrophobic membrane anchor. The targeting function of these residues is independent of Tom22. Subsequent insertion of Bcl-2alpha into the mitochondrial outer membrane does not require Tom5 or Tom40, indicating that Bcl-2alpha bypasses the general import pore (GIP). Bcl-2alpha shows a unique pattern of interactions with the components of the mitochondrial TOM complex, demonstrating that at least two different pathways lead from the import receptor Tom20 into the mitochondrial outer membrane. PMID:12419260

  12. Probing the Solar System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, John

    2013-01-01

    Humans have always had the vision to one day live on other planets. This vision existed even before the first person was put into orbit. Since the early space missions of putting humans into orbit around Earth, many advances have been made in space technology. We have now sent many space probes deep into the Solar system to explore the planets and…

  13. Three dimensional data-assimilative VERB-code simulations of the Earth's radiation belts: Reanalysis during the Van Allen Probe era, and operational forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kellerman, Adam; Shprits, Yuri; Podladchikova, Tatiana; Kondrashov, Dmitri

    2016-04-01

    The Versatile Electron Radiation Belt (VERB) code 2.0 models the dynamics of radiation-belt electron phase space density (PSD) in Earth's magnetosphere. Recently, a data-assimilative version of this code has been developed, which utilizes a split-operator Kalman-filtering approach to solve for electron PSD in terms of adiabatic invariants. A new dataset based on the TS07d magnetic field model is presented, which may be utilized for analysis of past geomagnetic storms, and for initial and boundary conditions in running simulations. Further, a data-assimilative forecast model is introduced, which has the capability to forecast electron PSD several days into the future, given a forecast Kp index. The model assimilates an empirical model capable of forecasting the conditions at geosynchronous orbit. The model currently runs in real time and a forecast is available to view online http://rbm.epss.ucla.edu.

  14. TOMS total ozone data compared with northern latitude Dobson ground stations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heese, B.; Barthel, K.; Hov, O.

    1994-01-01

    Ozone measurements from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer on the Nimbus 7 satellite are compared with ground-based measurements from five Dobson stations at northern latitudes to evaluate the accuracy of the TOMS data, particularly in regions north of 50 deg N. The measurements from the individual stations show mean differences from -2.5 percent up to plus 8.3 percent relative to TOMS measurements and two of the ground stations, Oslo and Longyearbyen, show a significant drift of plus 1.2 percent and plus 3.7 percent per year, respectively. It can be shown from nearly simultaneous measurements in two different wavelength double pairs at Oslo that at least 2 percent of the differences result from the use of the CC' wavelength double pair instead of the standard AD wavelength double pair. Since all Norwegian stations used the CC' wavelength double pair exclusively a similar error can be assumed for Tromso and Longyearbyren. A comparison between the tropospheric ozone content in TOMS data and from ECC ozonesonde measurements at Ny-Alesund and Bear Island shows that the amount of tropospheric ozone in the standard profiles used in the TOMS algorithm is too low, which leads to an error of about 2 percent in total ozone. Particularly at high solar zenith angles (greater than 80 deg), Dobson measurements become unreliable. They are up to 20 percent lower than TOMS measurements averaged over solar zenith angles of 88 deg to 89 deg.

  15. TOM40 Mediates Mitochondrial Dysfunction Induced by α-Synuclein Accumulation in Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Rockenstein, Edward; Adame, Anthony; Elstner, Matthias; Laub, Christoph; Mueller, Sarina; Koob, Andrew O.; Mante, Michael; Pham, Emily; Klopstock, Thomas; Masliah, Eliezer

    2013-01-01

    Alpha-synuclein (α-Syn) accumulation/aggregation and mitochondrial dysfunction play prominent roles in the pathology of Parkinson’s disease. We have previously shown that postmortem human dopaminergic neurons from PD brains accumulate high levels of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) deletions. We now addressed the question, whether alterations in a component of the mitochondrial import machinery -TOM40- might contribute to the mitochondrial dysfunction and damage in PD. For this purpose, we studied levels of TOM40, mtDNA deletions, oxidative damage, energy production, and complexes of the respiratory chain in brain homogenates as well as in single neurons, using laser-capture-microdissection in transgenic mice overexpressing human wildtype α-Syn. Additionally, we used lentivirus-mediated stereotactic delivery of a component of this import machinery into mouse brain as a novel therapeutic strategy. We report here that TOM40 is significantly reduced in the brain of PD patients and in α-Syn transgenic mice. TOM40 deficits were associated with increased mtDNA deletions and oxidative DNA damage, and with decreased energy production and altered levels of complex I proteins in α-Syn transgenic mice. Lentiviral-mediated overexpression of Tom40 in α-Syn-transgenic mice brains ameliorated energy deficits as well as oxidative burden. Our results suggest that alterations in the mitochondrial protein transport machinery might contribute to mitochondrial impairment in α-Synucleinopathies. PMID:23626796

  16. α-Synuclein binds to TOM20 and inhibits mitochondrial protein import in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Di Maio, Roberto; Barrett, Paul J; Hoffman, Eric K; Barrett, Caitlyn W; Zharikov, Alevtina; Borah, Anupom; Hu, Xiaoping; McCoy, Jennifer; Chu, Charleen T; Burton, Edward A; Hastings, Teresa G; Greenamyre, J Timothy

    2016-06-01

    α-Synuclein accumulation and mitochondrial dysfunction have both been strongly implicated in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD), and the two appear to be related. Mitochondrial dysfunction leads to accumulation and oligomerization of α-synuclein, and increased levels of α-synuclein cause mitochondrial impairment, but the basis for this bidirectional interaction remains obscure. We now report that certain posttranslationally modified species of α-synuclein bind with high affinity to the TOM20 (translocase of the outer membrane 20) presequence receptor of the mitochondrial protein import machinery. This binding prevented the interaction of TOM20 with its co-receptor, TOM22, and impaired mitochondrial protein import. Consequently, there were deficient mitochondrial respiration, enhanced production of reactive oxygen species, and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential. Examination of postmortem brain tissue from PD patients revealed an aberrant α-synuclein-TOM20 interaction in nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons that was associated with loss of imported mitochondrial proteins, thereby confirming this pathogenic process in the human disease. Modest knockdown of endogenous α-synuclein was sufficient to maintain mitochondrial protein import in an in vivo model of PD. Furthermore, in in vitro systems, overexpression of TOM20 or a mitochondrial targeting signal peptide had beneficial effects and preserved mitochondrial protein import. This study characterizes a pathogenic mechanism in PD, identifies toxic species of wild-type α-synuclein, and reveals potential new therapeutic strategies for neuroprotection. PMID:27280685

  17. Correlations of TOMS total ozone data (Nimbus-7 satellite) with tropopause height

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munteanu, Marie-Jeanne

    1987-01-01

    Two correlation studies of Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) data with tropopause height from radiosondes performed over Europe showed a correlation coefficient of 0.94 and 0.96. As a result, the rms error in the prediction of tropopause height from total ozone was found to be 20 mb. Correlation between tropopause height and TOMS data was the highest of all the other correlations with variables directly derived from radiosondes or simulated thermal radiances over the location of radiosondes. Comparing the two dimensional fields of TOMS, tropopause height from radiosondes and tropopause height field from TIROS-N retrievals, we can say that the first field is much closer to the true field from radiosondes than the third. The correlation coefficient for a ten-day study between TOMS data and tropopause height from radiosondes is between 0.85 and 0.9 for 30-70N. Tropopause analysis provided by GLA model also shows a very high correlation with TOMS data.

  18. TOM40 mediates mitochondrial dysfunction induced by α-synuclein accumulation in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Bender, Andreas; Desplats, Paula; Spencer, Brian; Rockenstein, Edward; Adame, Anthony; Elstner, Matthias; Laub, Christoph; Mueller, Sarina; Koob, Andrew O; Mante, Michael; Pham, Emily; Klopstock, Thomas; Masliah, Eliezer

    2013-01-01

    Alpha-synuclein (α-Syn) accumulation/aggregation and mitochondrial dysfunction play prominent roles in the pathology of Parkinson's disease. We have previously shown that postmortem human dopaminergic neurons from PD brains accumulate high levels of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) deletions. We now addressed the question, whether alterations in a component of the mitochondrial import machinery--TOM40--might contribute to the mitochondrial dysfunction and damage in PD. For this purpose, we studied levels of TOM40, mtDNA deletions, oxidative damage, energy production, and complexes of the respiratory chain in brain homogenates as well as in single neurons, using laser-capture-microdissection in transgenic mice overexpressing human wildtype α-Syn. Additionally, we used lentivirus-mediated stereotactic delivery of a component of this import machinery into mouse brain as a novel therapeutic strategy. We report here that TOM40 is significantly reduced in the brain of PD patients and in α-Syn transgenic mice. TOM40 deficits were associated with increased mtDNA deletions and oxidative DNA damage, and with decreased energy production and altered levels of complex I proteins in α-Syn transgenic mice. Lentiviral-mediated overexpression of Tom40 in α-Syn-transgenic mice brains ameliorated energy deficits as well as oxidative burden. Our results suggest that alterations in the mitochondrial protein transport machinery might contribute to mitochondrial impairment in α-Synucleinopathies. PMID:23626796

  19. Cooperation of TOM and TIM23 complexes during translocation of proteins into mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Waegemann, Karin; Popov-Čeleketić, Dušan; Neupert, Walter; Azem, Abdussalam; Mokranjac, Dejana

    2015-03-13

    Translocation of the majority of mitochondrial proteins from the cytosol into mitochondria requires the cooperation of TOM and TIM23 complexes in the outer and inner mitochondrial membranes. The molecular mechanisms underlying this cooperation remain largely unknown. Here, we present biochemical and genetic evidence that at least two contacts from the side of the TIM23 complex play an important role in TOM-TIM23 cooperation in vivo. Tim50, likely through its very C-terminal segment, interacts with Tom22. This interaction is stimulated by translocating proteins and is independent of any other TOM-TIM23 contact known so far. Furthermore, the exposure of Tim23 on the mitochondrial surface depends not only on its interaction with Tim50 but also on the dynamics of the TOM complex. Destabilization of the individual contacts reduces the efficiency of import of proteins into mitochondria and destabilization of both contacts simultaneously is not tolerated by yeast cells. We conclude that an intricate and coordinated network of protein-protein interactions involving primarily Tim50 and also Tim23 is required for efficient translocation of proteins across both mitochondrial membranes. PMID:25083920

  20. Glucose-induced regulation of protein import receptor Tom22 by cytosolic and mitochondria-bound kinases.

    PubMed

    Gerbeth, Carolin; Schmidt, Oliver; Rao, Sanjana; Harbauer, Angelika B; Mikropoulou, Despina; Opalińska, Magdalena; Guiard, Bernard; Pfanner, Nikolaus; Meisinger, Chris

    2013-10-01

    Most mitochondrial proteins are imported by the translocase of the outer mitochondrial membrane (TOM). Tom22 functions as central receptor and transfers preproteins to the import pore. Casein kinase 2 (CK2) constitutively phosphorylates the cytosolic precursor of Tom22 at Ser44 and Ser46 and, thus, promotes its import. It is unknown whether Tom22 is regulated under different metabolic conditions. We report that CK1, which is involved in glucose-induced signal transduction, is bound to mitochondria. CK1 phosphorylates Tom22 at Thr57 and stimulates the assembly of Tom22 and Tom20. In contrast, protein kinase A (PKA), which is also activated by the addition of glucose, phosphorylates the precursor of Tom22 at Thr76 and impairs its import. Thus, PKA functions in an opposite manner to CK1 and CK2. Our results reveal that three kinases regulate the import and assembly of Tom22, demonstrating that the central receptor is a major target for the posttranslational regulation of mitochondrial protein import. PMID:24093680

  1. Some Long-Standing Issues Arising From Comparisons Between TOMS and The Ground-Based Ozone Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Labow, Gordon J.; McPeters, Richard; Stolarski, Richard; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Data from the series of Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometers (TOMS) have been compared to column ozone measurements taken by ground-based systems (Dobsons, Brewers and Filtermeters). On average, the comparisons show good agreement, with approximately 80% of the ground stations having less than a 2.5% standard deviation when compared to TOMS on a monthly mean basis. There are, however, differences that imply possible errors either in the TOMS ozone retrieval algorithm or in the basic assumptions used by the ground-based instruments. Some of the issues arising from these differences are: What are the relative calibrations of TOMS instruments? Why do the calibrations of the ground-based stations vary as much as they do with respect to TOMS as a transfer standard? Why are the TOMS data so much larger (approximately 6%) than the ground-based data in Antarctica and other ice-covered locations? Why is there seasonality in the difference between TOMS and ground-based stations in the Southern Hemisphere? Why are the differences a function of total ozone? Where and why are the differences a function of reflectivity? Why do some terrain and land-sea boundary features appear in the TOMS ozone data? The above issues will be highlighted by using data from TOMS and the ground stations. Plots of the individual station differences will be available.

  2. The 1989 Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition Nimbus-7 TOMS data atlas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krueger, Arlin J.; Penn, Lanning M.; Larko, David E.; Doiron, Scott D.; Guimaraes, Patricia T.

    1989-01-01

    Over the past several years, world scientific attention was focused on the rapid and unanticipated decrease in the abundance of ozone over Antarctica during the Austral spring. A major aircraft campaign was conducted from December 1988 to February 1989 in response to the recently published Ozone Trends Panel Report which found that the largest decreases in Arctic ozone occurred during January to February at latitudes near the edge of the Arctic vortex. This atlas provides a complete set of TOMS ozone measurements over Europe and the North Atlantic for the duration of the experiment. These were the orbital TOMS measurements provided to the experimenters in near-real-time. In addition, a set of Northern Hemisphere TOMS ozone measurements for the period December 26, 1988 to March 20, 1989 is presented. A comparison of January and February 1989 mean ozone values to prior years is also presented.

  3. The Application of TOMS Ozone, Aerosol and UV-B Data to Madagascar Air Quality Determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aikin, A.C.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) data products for the area of Madagascar are presented. In addition to total ozone, aerosols and UV-B tropospheric ozone results are shown from 1979 to the present. Tropospheric ozone over Africa and Madagascar is enhanced by 10 to 15 DU in October. This maximum coincides with the time of maximum biomass area burning in Africa and Madagascar. Ozone observations were made from 1979 to 1999 using the TOMS tropospheric ozone convective cloud differential method. As a result of easterly trade winds, ozone originating on Madagascar is transported to the west over the Mozambique Channel. In El Nino years higher level westerly winds descend to transport low level ozone easterly. This results in African continental ozone being transported east of Madagascar. Long range transport of African ozone is observed during El Nino periods. The potential of TOMS and other space data for use in public education and research on Madagascar air quality is demonstrated.

  4. Seven years of total ozone from the TOMS instrument - A report on data quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleig, Albert J.; Bhartia, Pawan K.; Wellemeyer, Charles G.; Silberstein, David S.

    1986-01-01

    Seven years of TOMS total ozone data are currently available. Recently a new ozone retrieval algorithm based on improved ozone absorption cross section was implemented that has introduced 6-7 percent discontinuity in the archived data sets at the end of the fifth year of instrument operation. Until all data are reprocessed with the new algorithm users can use a table of correction factors given in this paper to make the data set internally consistent. This paper also presents a comparison of TOMS results with Amundsen Scott Dobson station. Though the agrement in most years is good, in 1983-84 the Dobson station reported unusually high values of ozone while TOMS saw the very low ozone values associated with the Antarctica ozone hole.

  5. Electromagnetic deep-probing (100-1000 kms) of the Earth's interior from artificial satellites: Constraints on the regional emplacement of crustal resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hermance, J. F. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    A spherical harmonic analysis program is being tested which takes magnetic data in universal time from a set of arbitrarily space observatories and calculates a value for the instantaneous magnetic field at any point on the globe. The calculation is done as a least mean-squares value fit to a set of spherical harmonics up to any desired order. The program accepts as a set of input the orbit position of a satellite coordinates it with ground-based magnetic data for a given time. The output is a predicted time series for the magnetic field on the Earth's surface at the (r, theta) position directly under the hypothetically orbiting satellite for the duration of the time period of the input data set. By tracking the surface magnetic field beneath the satellite, narrow-band averages crosspowers between the spatially coordinated satellite and the ground-based data sets are computed. These crosspowers are used to calculate field transfer coefficients with minimum noise distortion. The application of this technique to calculating the vector response function W is discussed.

  6. The pro-apoptotic BH3-only protein Bim interacts with components of the translocase of the outer mitochondrial membrane (TOM).

    PubMed

    Frank, Daniel O; Dengjel, Jörn; Wilfling, Florian; Kozjak-Pavlovic, Vera; Häcker, Georg; Weber, Arnim

    2015-01-01

    The pro-apoptotic Bcl-2-family protein Bim belongs to the BH3-only proteins known as initiators of apoptosis. Recent data show that Bim is constitutively inserted in the outer mitochondrial membrane via a C-terminal transmembrane anchor from where it can activate the effector of cytochrome c-release, Bax. To identify regulators of Bim-activity, we conducted a search for proteins interacting with Bim at mitochondria. We found an interaction of Bim with Tom70, Tom20 and more weakly with Tom40, all components of the Translocase of the Outer Membrane (TOM). In vitro import assays performed on tryptically digested yeast mitochondria showed reduced Bim insertion into the outer mitochondrial membrane (OMM) indicating that protein receptors may be involved in the import process. However, RNAi against components of TOM (Tom40, Tom70, Tom22 or Tom20) by siRNA, individually or in combination, did not consistently change the amount of Bim on HeLa mitochondria, either at steady state or upon de novo-induction. In support of this, the individual or combined knock-downs of TOM receptors also failed to alter the susceptibility of HeLa cells to Bim-induced apoptosis. In isolated yeast mitochondria, lack of Tom70 or the TOM-components Tom20 or Tom22 alone did not affect the import of Bim into the outer mitochondrial membrane. In yeast, expression of Bim can sensitize the cells to Bax-dependent killing. This sensitization was unaffected by the absence of Tom70 or by an experimental reduction in Tom40. Although thus the physiological role of the Bim-TOM-interaction remains unclear, TOM complex components do not seem to be essential for Bim insertion into the OMM. Nevertheless, this association should be noted and considered when the regulation of Bim in other cells and situations is investigated. PMID:25875815

  7. The Pro-Apoptotic BH3-Only Protein Bim Interacts with Components of the Translocase of the Outer Mitochondrial Membrane (TOM)

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Daniel O.; Dengjel, Jörn; Wilfling, Florian; Kozjak-Pavlovic, Vera; Häcker, Georg; Weber, Arnim

    2015-01-01

    The pro-apoptotic Bcl-2-family protein Bim belongs to the BH3-only proteins known as initiators of apoptosis. Recent data show that Bim is constitutively inserted in the outer mitochondrial membrane via a C-terminal transmembrane anchor from where it can activate the effector of cytochrome c-release, Bax. To identify regulators of Bim-activity, we conducted a search for proteins interacting with Bim at mitochondria. We found an interaction of Bim with Tom70, Tom20 and more weakly with Tom40, all components of the Translocase of the Outer Membrane (TOM). In vitro import assays performed on tryptically digested yeast mitochondria showed reduced Bim insertion into the outer mitochondrial membrane (OMM) indicating that protein receptors may be involved in the import process. However, RNAi against components of TOM (Tom40, Tom70, Tom22 or Tom20) by siRNA, individually or in combination, did not consistently change the amount of Bim on HeLa mitochondria, either at steady state or upon de novo-induction. In support of this, the individual or combined knock-downs of TOM receptors also failed to alter the susceptibility of HeLa cells to Bim-induced apoptosis. In isolated yeast mitochondria, lack of Tom70 or the TOM-components Tom20 or Tom22 alone did not affect the import of Bim into the outer mitochondrial membrane. In yeast, expression of Bim can sensitize the cells to Bax-dependent killing. This sensitization was unaffected by the absence of Tom70 or by an experimental reduction in Tom40. Although thus the physiological role of the Bim-TOM-interaction remains unclear, TOM complex components do not seem to be essential for Bim insertion into the OMM. Nevertheless, this association should be noted and considered when the regulation of Bim in other cells and situations is investigated. PMID:25875815

  8. The Relativistic Electron-Proton Telescope (REPT) Instrument on Board the Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP) Spacecraft: Characterization of Earth's Radiation Belt High-Energy Particle Populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, D. N.; Kanekal, S. G.; Hoxie, V. C.; Batiste, S.; Bolton, M.; Li, X.; Elkington, S. R.; Monk, S.; Reukauf, R.; Steg, S.; Westfall, J.; Belting, C.; Bolton, B.; Braun, D.; Cervelli, B.; Hubbell, K.; Kien, M.; Knappmiller, S.; Wade, S.; Lamprecht, B.; Stevens, K.; Wallace, J.; Yehle, A.; Spence, H. E.; Friedel, R.

    2013-11-01

    Particle acceleration and loss in the million electron Volt (MeV) energy range (and above) is the least understood aspect of radiation belt science. In order to measure cleanly and separately both the energetic electron and energetic proton components, there is a need for a carefully designed detector system. The Relativistic Electron-Proton Telescope (REPT) on board the Radiation Belt Storm Probe (RBSP) pair of spacecraft consists of a stack of high-performance silicon solid-state detectors in a telescope configuration, a collimation aperture, and a thick case surrounding the detector stack to shield the sensors from penetrating radiation and bremsstrahlung. The instrument points perpendicular to the spin axis of the spacecraft and measures high-energy electrons (up to ˜20 MeV) with excellent sensitivity and also measures magnetospheric and solar protons to energies well above E=100 MeV. The instrument has a large geometric factor ( g=0.2 cm2 sr) to get reasonable count rates (above background) at the higher energies and yet will not saturate at the lower energy ranges. There must be fast enough electronics to avert undue dead-time limitations and chance coincidence effects. The key goal for the REPT design is to measure the directional electron intensities (in the range 10-2-106 particles/cm2 s sr MeV) and energy spectra (Δ E/ E˜25 %) throughout the slot and outer radiation belt region. Present simulations and detailed laboratory calibrations show that an excellent design has been attained for the RBSP needs. We describe the engineering design, operational approaches, science objectives, and planned data products for REPT.

  9. Study of Air Pollution from Space Using TOMS: Challenges and Promises for Future Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhartia, Pawan K.

    2002-01-01

    A series of TOMS instruments built by NASA has flown on US, Russian, and Japanese satellites in the last 24 years. These instruments are well known for producing spectacular maps of the ozone hole that forms over Antarctica each spring. However, it is less well known that these instruments also provided first evidence that space-based measurements in UV of sufficiently high precision and accuracy can provide valuable information to study global air quality. We will use the TOMS experience to highlight the promises and challenges of future space-based missions designed specifically for air quality studies.

  10. Effect of stratospheric aerosol layers on the TOMS/SBUV ozone retrieval

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torres, O.; Ahmad, Zia; Pan, L.; Herman, J. R.; Bhartia, P. K.; Mcpeters, R.

    1994-01-01

    An evaluation of the optical effects of stratospheric aerosol layers on total ozone retrieval from space by the TOMS/SBUV type instruments is presented here. Using the Dave radiative transfer model we estimate the magnitude of the errors in the retrieved ozone when polar stratospheric clouds (PSC's) or volcanic aerosol layers interfere with the measurements. The largest errors are produced by optically thick water ice PSC's. Results of simulation experiments on the effect of the Pinatubo aerosol cloud on the Nimbus-7 and Meteor-3 TOMS products are presented.

  11. Studies of rare-earth stannates by sup 119 Sn MAS NMR. The use of paramagnetic shift probes in the solid state

    SciTech Connect

    Grey, C.P.; Dobson, C.M.; Cheetham, A.K.; Jakeman, R.J.B. )

    1989-01-18

    {sup 119}Sn MAS NMR spectra have been obtained from members of a series of rare-earth stannates Ln{sub 2}Sn{sub 2}O{sub 7} (Ln = La, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tm, Yb, Lu, and Y), all of which adopt the pyrochlore structure. Apart from La{sub 2}Sn{sub 2}O{sub 7}, Lu{sub 2}Sn{sub 2}O{sub 7}, and Y{sub 2}Sn{sub 2}O{sub 7}, these compounds are paramagnetic and exhibit a very large variation in {sup 119}Sn chemical shifts (from approximately +5,400 to {minus}4,200 ppm), which can be attributed principally to a Fermi contact shift mechanism. The spectra from the paramagnetic samples have large overall line widths associated with the substantial anisotropy of the shift, but the individual peaks within the spinning sideband manifolds remain sharp. Several tin pyrochlore solid solutions have also been studied (namely Y{sub 2-y}Ln{sub y}Sn{sub 2}O{sub 7} where Ln = Sm, Nd, Pr, and Eu and La{sub 2-y}Nd{sub y}Sn{sub 2}O{sub u}) by {sup 119}Sn MAS NMR. When the short relaxation times of nuclei close to paramagnetic centers were exploited, a series of peaks were observed, associated with the substitution of paramagnetic for diamagnetic lanthanide ions in the local coordination around a tin atom. For Y{sub 2-y}Sm{sub y}Sn{sub 2}O{sub 7} the composition of the solid solution could be determined from the intensities of these peaks. In the solid solutions the {sup 119}Sn nuclei were found to be sensitive not only to neighboring paramagnetic ions but also to paramagnetic ions in the second and third coordination spheres. The shifts induced in these cases arise primarily from a through-space dipolar pseudocontact mechanism and can be interpreted with a model for the site symmetry based on the crystal structure. 30 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. More than a Dream: Expanding Educational Achievement in the Latino Community. Tomás Rivera Lecture Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ubinas, Luis A.

    2012-01-01

    Each year a distinguished scholar or prominent leader is selected to present the Tomás Rivera Lecture. Named in honor of the late Dr. Tomás Rivera, professor, scholar, poet and former president of the University of California, Riverside, in the tradition of the former Hispanic Caucus of the American Association for Higher Education, AAHHE is…

  13. Training Preschoolers on First-Order False Belief Understanding: Transfer on Advanced ToM Skills and Metamemory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lecce, Serena; Bianco, Federica; Demicheli, Patrizia; Cavallini, Elena

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the relation between theory of mind (ToM) and metamemory knowledge using a training methodology. Sixty-two 4- to 5-year-old children were recruited and randomly assigned to one of two training conditions: A first-order false belief (ToM) and a control condition. Intervention and control groups were equivalent at pretest for…

  14. Functional analysis of human metaxin in mitochondrial protein import in cultured cells and its relationship with the Tom complex.

    PubMed

    Abdul, K M; Terada, K; Yano, M; Ryan, M T; Streimann, I; Hoogenraad, N J; Mori, M

    2000-10-01

    Metaxin is an outer membrane protein of mammalian mitochondria which is suggested to be involved in protein import into the organelle. RNA blot analysis showed that distribution of metaxin mRNA in human tissues differs from that of mRNA for the translocase component Tom20. Effect of overexpression of human metaxin on mitochondrial preprotein import and processing in COS-7 cells was studied. Overexpression of metaxin resulted in impaired mitochondrial import of natural and chimeric preproteins and in their accumulation. We previously reported that overexpression of Tom20 in cultured cells causes inhibition of import of mitochondrial preprotein. Coexpression of metaxin with Tom20 had no further effect on the preprotein import. Overexpression of the cytosolic domain of metaxin also caused inhibition of preprotein import, although less strongly than the full-length metaxin. In blue native PAGE, Tom40, Tom22, and a portion of Tom20 migrated as a complex of approximately 400 kDa, and the other portion of Tom20 migrated in smaller forms of approximately 100 and approximately 40 kDa. On the other hand, metaxin migrated at a position of approximately 50 kDa. These results confirm earlier in vitro results that metaxin participates in preprotein import into mammalian mitochondria, and indicates that it does not associate with the Tom complex. PMID:11027586

  15. TOM1, an Arabidopsis gene required for efficient multiplication of a tobamovirus, encodes a putative transmembrane protein.

    PubMed

    Yamanaka, T; Ohta, T; Takahashi, M; Meshi, T; Schmidt, R; Dean, C; Naito, S; Ishikawa, M

    2000-08-29

    Host-encoded factors play an important role in virus multiplication, acting in concert with virus-encoded factors. However, information regarding the host factors involved in this process is limited. Here we report the map-based cloning of an Arabidopsis thaliana gene, TOM1, which is necessary for the efficient multiplication of tobamoviruses, positive-strand RNA viruses infecting a wide variety of plants. The TOM1 mRNA is suggested to encode a 291-aa polypeptide that is predicted to be a multipass transmembrane protein. The Sos recruitment assay supported the hypothesis that TOM1 is associated with membranes, and in addition, that TOM1 interacts with the helicase domain of tobamovirus-encoded replication proteins. Taken into account that the tobamovirus replication complex is associated with membranes, we propose that TOM1 participates in the in vivo formation of the replication complex by serving as a membrane anchor. PMID:10944200

  16. Samuel Langhorne Clemens: A Centennial for Tom Sawyer; An Annotated, Selected Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haviland, Virginia, Comp.; Coughlan, Margaret N., Comp.

    This annotated bibliography, prepared by the Children's Book Section of the Library of Congress to celebrate the centennial of "The Adventures of Tom Sawyer," lists editions of the Mark Twain classics most widely read by young people, biographical or autobiographical and travel works significant for relevent background, and miscellaneous items…

  17. High-School Reading and Junior-High Hope: The Tom Sawyer Solution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VandeStaay, Steven

    1994-01-01

    Shows how Mark Twain's fictional adolescent Tom Sawyer shares many characteristics with the typical young adult readers of today. Considers the challenge of getting students interested and enthusiastic about reading. Claims that young adult novels are suitable for engaging high school students. (HB)

  18. The "Seductive Outside" and the "Sacred Precincts": Boundaries and Transgressions in "The Adventures of Tom Sawyer."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Neil

    1994-01-01

    Analyzes Mark Twain's novel, "The Adventures of Tom Sawyer," to determine the ways in which the masculine is constructed by a series of forces or discourses. Argues that this novel articulates the social construction of gender in a manner similar to Michel Foucault's theory of disciplinary discourses. (HB)

  19. The Future of the Digital Library: An Interview with Tom Peters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, James L.; Peters, Tom

    2005-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Tom Peters, an academic librarian and founder of TAP Information Services, a firm that provides consulting services to libraries and other organizations in the information industry. Peters also serves as a consultant to LibraryCity, an ambitious project that seeks to make thousands of e-books in easy-to-use…

  20. The Toms Canyon structure, New Jersey outer continental shelf: A possible late Eocene impact crater

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Poag, C.W.; Poppe, L.J.

    1998-01-01

    The Toms Canyon structure [~20-22 km wide] is located on the New Jersey outer continental shelf beneath 80-100 m of water, and is buried by ~1 km of upper Eocene to Holocene sedimentary strata. The structure displays several characteristics typical of terrestrial impact craters (flat floor; upraised faulted rim: brecciated sedimentary fill), but several other characteristics are atypical (an unusually thin ejecta blanket; lack of an inner basin, peak ring, or central peak; bearing nearly completely filled with breccia). Seismostratigraphic and biostratigraphic analyses show that the structure formed during planktonic foraminiferal biochron P15 of the early to middle late Eocene. The fill unit is stratigraphically correlating with impact ejecta cored nearby at Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) Site 612 and at Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Sites 903 and 904 (22-35 km southeast of the Toms Canyon structure). The Toms Canyon fill unit also correlates with the Exmore breccia, which fills the much larger Chesapeake Bay impact crater (90-km diameter; 335 km to the southwest). On the basis of our analyses, we postulate that the Toms Canyon structure is an impact crater, formed when a cluster of relatively small meteorites approached the target site bearing ~N 50 E, and struck the sea floor obliquely.

  1. Microsoft's Tom Corddry on Multimedia, the Information Superhighway and the Future of Online.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herther, Nancy K.

    1994-01-01

    Tom Corddry, Microsoft Corporation's Creative Director for the Consumer Division, is interviewed about the Microsoft Home line of products and the development of related CD-ROM and multimedia products. Reasons for Microsoft's entry into the content market and its challenges, the market's future, and the company's interest in developing online…

  2. TOM1 is a PI5P effector involved in the regulation of endosomal maturation.

    PubMed

    Boal, Frédéric; Mansour, Rana; Gayral, Marion; Saland, Estelle; Chicanne, Gaëtan; Xuereb, Jean-Marie; Marcellin, Marlène; Burlet-Schiltz, Odile; Sansonetti, Philippe J; Payrastre, Bernard; Tronchère, Hélène

    2015-02-15

    Phosphoinositides represent a major class of lipids specifically involved in the organization of signaling cascades, maintenance of the identity of organelles and regulation of multiple intracellular trafficking steps. We previously reported that phosphatidylinositol 5-monophosphate (PI5P), produced by the Shigella flexneri phosphatase IpgD, is implicated in the endosomal sorting of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Here, we show that the adaptor protein TOM1 is a new direct binding partner of PI5P. We identify the domain of TOM1 involved in this interaction and characterize the binding motif. Finally, we demonstrate that the recruitment of TOM1 by PI5P on signaling endosomes is responsible for the delay in EGFR degradation and fluid-phase bulk endocytosis. Taken together, our data strongly suggest that PI5P enrichment in signaling endosomes prevents endosomal maturation through the recruitment of TOM1, and point to a new function of PI5P in regulating discrete maturation steps in the endosomal system. PMID:25588840

  3. An Officer and a Librarian: Tom Rink--Tulsa Police Department

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Library Journal, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Tom Rink may be the only librarian who is also a police officer. After years of the Tulsa police force, he was ready for a change. When a career exploration course showed he was ideally suited to be a librarian, he was amused. The son of two librarians, he had never even considered it. He did enjoy researching, writing, and exploring all kinds of…

  4. Passive Microwave Radiometry of Land:Contributions of Tom Schmugge and Anatoli Shutko

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent advances and the state of the art of land surface remote sensing using passive microwave techniques owes its heritage to the contributions of Tom Schmugge and Anatolij Shutko over the last 30 years. These contributions cover a range of activities including fundamental theory, controlled condi...

  5. The Decade Ahead: Inquire, Innovate, Impact. Tomás Rivera Lecture Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pacheco, Manuel T.

    2015-01-01

    In the 2015 Tomás Rivera lecture, Manuel T. Pacheco, President Emeritus of the University of Missouri System and the University of Arizona, discusses the importance of representing the Hispanic American population proportionately among college students, faculty, staff, and administration in higher education.

  6. Tom Beaver, Creek Television Reporter. With Teacher's Guide. Native Americans of the Twentieth Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minneapolis Public Schools, MN.

    A biography for elementary school students presents an account of an American Indian television reporter, Tom Beaver (Creek), and includes a map of Oklahoma showing the location of Indian tribes. A teacher's guide following the biography contains information about the Creek tribe and the history of television, learning objectives and directions…

  7. How to Teach for Social Justice: Lessons from "Uncle Tom's Cabin" and Cognitive Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracher, Mark

    2009-01-01

    The author explains how principles of cognitive science can help teachers of literature use texts as a means of increasing students' commitment to social justice. Applying these principles to a particular work, Uncle Tom's Cabin, he calls particular attention to the relationship between cognitive science and literary schemes for building reader…

  8. Best Practices Case Study: Tom Walsh and Co. - New Columbus, Portland, OR

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2010-09-01

    Case study of Tom Walsh, who achieved 50% in heating and cooling energy savings over the 2004 IECC with advanced framing, superior air sealing, extra insulation, and ducts in conditioned space. Surface water runoff in the large urban rebuild development was handled with pervious pavers, swales, retention of existing trees, and green spaces.

  9. Commentary to "Multiple Grammars and Second Language Representation," by Luiz Amaral and Tom Roeper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pérez-Leroux, Ana T.

    2014-01-01

    In this commentary, the author defends the Multiple Grammars (MG) theory proposed by Luiz Amaral and Tom Roepe (A&R) in the present issue. Topics discussed include second language acquisition, the concept of developmental optionality, and the idea that structural decisions involve the lexical dimension. The author states that A&R's…

  10. Tom Green County Library's Literacy Grant, October, 1992-September, 1993, Final Performance Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vavricka, D. Karen

    This report describes and evaluates an adult and family literacy education program at the Tom Green County Library (Texas). The project's objectives were to: provide a full-time library staff member to establish, coordinate, and promote an information, referral, and follow-up support system for literacy students; offer two in-service sessions in…

  11. Collateral Damage: Veterans and Domestic Violence in Mari Sandoz's "The Tom-Walker"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahr, Kathy

    2010-01-01

    "The Tom-Walker" combines the best of Sandoz's realism with her worst attempts at moralizing. Unable to divine exactly what political configuration right-wing post-World War II sentiments might take, Sandoz nevertheless feared a fascist uprising in this country. Perhaps because these concerns dominated her thoughts at the time, she allowed her…

  12. An Open Letter to Suzanne deCastell and Tom Walker.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Assinck, Beverly Belvin

    1993-01-01

    Responds to "Identity, Metamorphosis, and Ethnographic Research: What Kind of Story Is Ways with Words?" by Suzanne deCastell and Tom Walker (1991). Describes the author's reaction to "Ways with Words--Language, Life and Work in Communities and Classrooms" by Shirley Brice Heath (1983). (SLD)

  13. Mitochondrial presequence translocase: switching between TOM tethering and motor recruitment involves Tim21 and Tim17.

    PubMed

    Chacinska, Agnieszka; Lind, Maria; Frazier, Ann E; Dudek, Jan; Meisinger, Chris; Geissler, Andreas; Sickmann, Albert; Meyer, Helmut E; Truscott, Kaye N; Guiard, Bernard; Pfanner, Nikolaus; Rehling, Peter

    2005-03-25

    The presequence translocase of the inner mitochondrial membrane (TIM23 complex) operates at a central junction of protein import. It accepts preproteins from the outer membrane TOM complex and directs them to inner membrane insertion or, in cooperation with the presequence translocase-associated motor (PAM), to the matrix. Little is known of how the TIM23 complex coordinates these tasks. We have identified Tim21 (YGR033c) that interacts with the TOM complex. Tim21 is specific for a TIM23 form that cooperates with TOM and promotes inner membrane insertion. Protein translocation into the matrix requires a switch to a Tim21-free, PAM bound presequence translocase. Tim17 is crucial for the switch by performing two separable functions: promotion of inner membrane insertion and binding of Pam18 to form the functional TIM-PAM complex. Thus, the presequence translocase is not a static complex but switches between TOM tethering and PAM binding in a reaction cycle involving Tim21 and Tim17. PMID:15797382

  14. Apocytochrome c requires the TOM complex for translocation across the mitochondrial outer membrane.

    PubMed

    Diekert, K; de Kroon, A I; Ahting, U; Niggemeyer, B; Neupert, W; de Kruijff, B; Lill, R

    2001-10-15

    The import of proteins into the mitochondrial intermembrane space differs in various aspects from the classical import pathway into the matrix. Apocytochrome c defines one of several pathways known to reach the intermembrane space, yet the components and pathways involved in outer membrane translocation are poorly defined. Here, we report the reconstitution of the apocytochrome c import reaction using proteoliposomes harbouring purified components. Import specifically requires the protease-resistant part of the TOM complex and is driven by interactions of the apoprotein with internal parts of the complex (involving Tom40) and the 'trans-side receptor' cytochrome c haem lyase. Despite the necessity of TOM complex function, the translocation pathway of apocytochrome c does not overlap with that of presequence-containing preproteins. We conclude that the TOM complex is a universal preprotein translocase that mediates membrane passage of apocytochrome c and other preproteins along distinct pathways. Apocytochrome c may provide a paradigm for the import of other small proteins into the intermembrane space such as factors used in apoptosis and protection from stress. PMID:11598006

  15. Toward a Latino Attainment Agenda: Shaping Our Own Destiny. Tomás Rivera Lecture Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cigarroa, Francisco G.

    2013-01-01

    In the 2013 Tomás Rivera lecture, Francisco Cigarroa, chancellor of the University of Texas system, discusses how a major shift in the demographics of the United States is having a profound effect on K-12 and higher education.

  16. Wake Up, It Is 2013! Commentary on Luiz Amaral and Tom Roeper's Article

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muysken, Pieter

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the Multiple Grammars (MG) theory proposed by Luiz Amaral and Tom Roeper in the present issue and presents a critique of the research that went into the theory. Topics discussed include the allegation that the bilinguals and second language learners in the original article are primarily students in an academic setting, Amaral…

  17. Pioneer III Probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1961-01-01

    Looking more like surgeons, these technicians wearing 'cleanroom' attire inspect the Pioneer III probe before shipping it to Cape Canaveral, Florida. Pioneer III was launched on December 6, 1958 aboard a Juno II rocket at the Atlantic Missile Range, Cape Canaveral, Florida. The mission objectives were to measure the radiation intensity of the Van Allen radiation belt, test long range communication systems, the launch vehicle and other subsystems. The Juno II failed to reach proper orbital escape velocity. The probe re-entered the Earth's atmosphere on December 7th ending its brief mission.

  18. Spectrophotometric probe

    DOEpatents

    Prather, W.S.; O'Rourke, P.E.

    1994-08-02

    A support structure is described bearing at least one probe for making spectrophotometric measurements of a fluid using a source of light and a spectrophotometer. The probe includes a housing with two optical fibers and a planoconvex lens. A sleeve bearing a mirror surrounds the housing. The lens is separated from the mirror by a fixed distance, defining an interior space for receiving a volume of the fluid sample. A plurality of throughholes extending through the sleeve communicate between the sample volume and the exterior of the probe, all but one hole bearing a screen. A protective jacket surrounds the probe. A hollow conduit bearing a tube is formed in the wall of the probe for venting any air in the interior space when fluid enters. The probe is held at an acute angle so the optic fibers carrying the light to and from the probe are not bent severely on emergence from the probe. 3 figs.

  19. Spectrophotometric probe

    DOEpatents

    Prather, William S.; O'Rourke, Patrick E.

    1994-01-01

    A support structure bearing at least one probe for making spectrophotometric measurements of a fluid using a source of light and a spectrophotometer. The probe includes a housing with two optical fibers and a planoconvex lens. A sleeve bearing a mirror surrounds the housing. The lens is separated from the mirror by a fixed distance, defining an interior space for receiving a volume of the fluid sample. A plurality of throughholes extending through the sleeve communicate between the sample volume and the exterior of the probe, all but one hole bearing a screen. A protective jacket surrounds the probe. A hollow conduit bearing a tube is formed in the wall of the probe for venting any air in the interior space when fluid enters. The probe is held at an acute angle so the optic fibers carrying the light to and from the probe are not bent severely on emergence from the probe.

  20. Azoospermia with variable testicular histology after 7 months of treatment with a deslorelin implant in toms.

    PubMed

    Novotny, R; Vitasek, R; Bartoskova, A; Cizek, P; Prinosilova, P; Novakova, K

    2015-04-15

    The main aim of the study was to assess whether the longer use of a GnRH-agonist implant (deslorelin 4.7 mg, Suprelorin) in toms would lead to the suppression of spermatogenesis comparable with histologic appearance in juvenile animals as was previously described in dogs. The other aims were to monitor the progression of the testes size decrease and development of azoospermia 5 to 7 months after treatment with a GnRH-agonist implant. In animals, 5, 6, and 7 months after GnRH-agonist implant insertion, variable histological appearance of germinal epithelium was found, when tubules with elongating spermatids, round spermatids, spermatocytes, and spermatogonia as the most developed germinal cells were found in each group of toms. In all male cats, 5, 6, and 7 months after implant insertion, testosterone concentrations and testes size significantly differed between the first and the last visit. All animals, except one tom castrated 5 months after implant insertion, developed complete azoospermia. However, in this tom, all spermatozoa were immotile. Treatment with the subcutaneous GnRH-agonist implant was well tolerated, and no treatment-related adverse effects were noted. These results reported the efficacy of 4.7-mg deslorelin implant (Suprelorin) during its 7 months of use. The complete azoospermia confirms its contraceptive effect. However, the histologic evaluation revealed a great individual variability in the degree of spermatogenic suppression. The question as to whether spermatogenesis in toms can be suppressed in all males to the level of spermatogonia/primary spermatocytes after prolonged exposure to deslorelin has yet to be answered. PMID:25617987

  1. Determination of Radiative Forcing of Saharan Dust using Combined TOMS and ERBE Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, N. Christina; Herman, Jay R.; Weaver, Clark

    1999-01-01

    The direct radiative forcing of Saharan dust aerosols has been determined by combining aerosol information derived from Nimbus-7 TOMS with radiation measurements observed at the top of atmosphere (TOA) by NOAA-9 ERBE made during February-July 1985. Cloud parameters and precipitable water derived from the NOAA-9 HIRS2 instrument were used to aid in screening for clouds and water vapor in the analyses. Our results indicate that under "cloud-free" and "dry" conditions there is a good correlation between the ERBE TOA outgoing longwave fluxes and the TOMS aerosol index measurements over both land and ocean in areas under the influence of airborne Saharan dust. The ERBE TOA outgoing shortwave fluxes were also found to correlate well with the dust loading derived from TOMS over ocean. However, the calculated shortwave forcing of Saharan dust aerosols is very weak and noisy over land for the range of solar zenith angle viewed by the NOAA-9 ERBE in 1985. Sensitivity factors of the TOA outgoing fluxes to changes in aerosol index were estimated using a linear regression fit to the ERBE and TOMS measurements. The ratio of the shortwave-to-longwave response to changes in dust loading over the ocean is found to be roughly 2 to 3, but opposite in sign. The monthly averaged "clear-sky" TOA direct forcing of airborne Saharan dust was also calculated by multiplying these sensitivity factors by the TOMS monthly averaged "clear-sky" aerosol index. Both the observational and theoretical analyses indicate that the dust layer height, ambient moisture content as well as the presence of cloud all play an important role in determining the TOA direct radiative forcing due to mineral aerosols.

  2. Gravity Probe B Inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The space vehicle Gravity Probe B (GP-B) is the relativity experiment developed at Stanford University to test two extraordinary predictions of Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity. The experiment will measure, very precisely, the expected tiny changes in the direction of the spin axes of four gyroscopes contained in an Earth-orbiting satellite at a 400-mile altitude. So free are the gyroscopes from disturbance that they will provide an almost perfect space-time reference system. They will measure how space and time are very slightly warped by the presence of the Earth, and, more profoundly, how the Earth's rotation very slightly drags space-time around with it. These effects, though small for the Earth, have far-reaching implications for the nature of matter and the structure of the Universe. GP-B is among the most thoroughly researched programs ever undertaken by NASA. This is the story of a scientific quest in which physicists and engineers have collaborated closely over many years. Inspired by their quest, they have invented a whole range of technologies that are already enlivening other branches of science and engineering. In this photograph, engineer Gary Reynolds is inspecting the inside of the probe neck during probe thermal repairs. GP-B is scheduled for launch in April 2004 and managed for NASA by the Marshall Space Flight Center. Development of the GP-B is the responsibility of Stanford University along with major subcontractor Lockheed Martin Corporation. (Image credit to Russ Leese, Gravity Probe B, Stanford University)

  3. Satellite Mapping of the Earth's Ozone and Sulfur Dioxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krueger, Arlin; Bhartia, P. K.

    2000-01-01

    The Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) instruments are spatially-scanning UV spectrometers that have produced daily global images of total ozone over the last 21 years since the launch of the Nimbus 7 satellite. The instruments use a total ozone retrieval algorithm pioneered by J.V. Dave and C. L. Mateer for the Nimbus 4 Backscatter Ultraviolet (BUV) instrument, designed by D.F. Heath. The TOMS ozone maps have revealed the relations between total ozone and atmospheric dynamics, and shown the dramatic losses of ozone in the Antarctic ozone hole and the Northern hemisphere. The accepted long-term trends in global, regional, and local ozone are derived from data from the Nimbus 7 TOMS and three successive TOMS flights on Russian, Japanese, and American satellites. The next TOMS flight will be launched in 2000. The contiguous mapping design and fortuitous choice of TOMS wavelengths bands also permitted imaging of a second atmospheric gas, sulfur dioxide, which is transient due to its short lifetime. The importance of this measurement was first realized after the eruption of El Chichon volcano in 1982. The extreme range of sizes of volcanic eruptions and the 'associated danger require observations from a distant observing platform. The first quantitative time series of the input of sulfur dioxide by explosive volcanic eruptions into the atmosphere thus was developed from the TOMS missions. Finally, the Rayleigh and aerosol scattering spectral characteristic and reflectivity complete the four dominant pieces of information in the near UV albedo of the Earth. The four parameters are derived with a linear algorithm, the absorption coefficients of the gases, and effective paths computed from radiative transfer tables. Absorbing aerosol clouds (smoke, dust, volcanic ash) are readily identified by their deviation from a Rayleigh signature. The greatest shortcoming of the TOMS dataset is the 24 hour time resolution that is produced by the polar orbit of the satellite

  4. Satellite Mapping of the Earth's Ozone and Sulfur Dioxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krueger, Arlin; Bhartia, P. K.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) instruments are spatially-scanning UV spectrometers that have produced daily global images of total ozone over the last 21 years since the launch of the Nimbus 7 satellite. The instruments use a total ozone retrieval algorithm pioneered by J.V. Dave and C. L. Mateer for the Nimbus 4 Backscatter Ultraviolet (BUV) instrument, designed by D.F. Heath. The TOMS ozone maps have revealed the relations between total ozone and atmospheric dynamics, and shown the dramatic losses of ozone in the Antarctic ozone hole and the Northern hemisphere. The accepted long-term trends in global, regional, and local ozone are derived from data from the Nimbus 7 TOMS and three successive TOMS flights on Russian, Japanese, and American satellites. The next TOMS flight will be launched in 2000. The contiguous mapping design and fortuitous choice of TOMS wavelengths bands also permitted imaging of a second atmospheric gas, sulfur dioxide, which is transient due to its short lifetime. The importance of this measurement was first realized after the eruption of El Chichon volcano in 1982. The extreme range of sizes of volcanic eruptions and the associated danger require observations from a distant observing platform. The first quantitative time series of the input of sulfur dioxide by explosive volcanic eruptions into the atmosphere thus was developed from the TOMS missions. Finally, the Rayleigh and aerosol scattering spectral characteristic and reflectivity complete the four dominant pieces of information in the near UV albedo of the Earth. The four parameters are derived with a linear algorithm, the absorption coefficients of the gases, and effective paths computed from radiative transfer tables. Absorbing aerosol clouds (smoke, dust, volcanic ash) are readily identified by their deviation from a Rayleigh signature. The greatest shortcoming of the TOMS dataset is the 24 hour time resolution that is produced by the polar orbit of the satellite

  5. TOM1L1 drives membrane delivery of MT1-MMP to promote ERBB2-induced breast cancer cell invasion

    PubMed Central

    Chevalier, Clément; Collin, Guillaume; Descamps, Simon; Touaitahuata, Heiani; Simon, Valérie; Reymond, Nicolas; Fernandez, Laurent; Milhiet, Pierre-Emmanuel; Georget, Virginie; Urbach, Serge; Lasorsa, Laurence; Orsetti, Béatrice; Boissière-Michot, Florence; Lopez-Crapez, Evelyne; Theillet, Charles; Roche, Serge; Benistant, Christine

    2016-01-01

    ERBB2 overexpression in human breast cancer leads to invasive carcinoma but the mechanism is not clearly understood. Here we report that TOM1L1 is co-amplified with ERBB2 and defines a subgroup of HER2+/ER+ tumours with early metastatic relapse. TOM1L1 encodes a GAT domain-containing trafficking protein and is a SRC substrate that negatively regulates tyrosine kinase signalling. We demonstrate that TOM1L1 upregulation enhances the invasiveness of ERBB2-transformed cells. This pro-tumoural function does not involve SRC, but implicates membrane-bound membrane-type 1 MMP (MT1-MMP)-dependent activation of invadopodia, membrane protrusions specialized in extracellular matrix degradation. Mechanistically, ERBB2 elicits the indirect phosphorylation of TOM1L1 on Ser321. The phosphorylation event promotes GAT-dependent association of TOM1L1 with the sorting protein TOLLIP and trafficking of the metalloprotease MT1-MMP from endocytic compartments to invadopodia for tumour cell invasion. Collectively, these results show that TOM1L1 is an important element of an ERBB2-driven proteolytic invasive programme and that TOM1L1 amplification potentially enhances the metastatic progression of ERBB2-positive breast cancers. PMID:26899482

  6. An Outer Mitochondrial Translocase, Tom22, Is Crucial for Inner Mitochondrial Steroidogenic Regulation in Adrenal and Gonadal Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Rajapaksha, Maheshinie; Kaur, Jasmeet; Prasad, Manoj; Pawlak, Kevin J.; Marshall, Brendan; Perry, Elizabeth W.; Whittal, Randy M.

    2016-01-01

    After cholesterol is transported into the mitochondria of steroidogenic tissues, the first steroid, pregnenolone, is synthesized in adrenal and gonadal tissues to initiate steroid synthesis by catalyzing the conversion of pregnenolone to progesterone, which is mediated by the inner mitochondrial enzyme 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 2 (3βHSD2). We report that the mitochondrial translocase Tom22 is essential for metabolic conversion, as its knockdown by small interfering RNA (siRNA) completely ablated progesterone conversion in both steroidogenic mouse Leydig MA-10 and human adrenal NCI cells. Tom22 forms a 500-kDa complex with mitochondrial proteins associated with 3βHSD2. Although the absence of Tom22 did not inhibit mitochondrial import of cytochrome P450scc (cytochrome P450 side chain cleavage enzyme) and aldosterone synthase, it did inhibit 3βHSD2 expression. Electron microscopy showed that Tom22 is localized at the outer mitochondrial membrane (OMM), while 3βHSD2 is localized at the inner mitochondrial space (IMS), where it interacts through a specific region with Tom22 with its C-terminal amino acids and a small amino acid segment of Tom22 exposed to the IMS. Therefore, Tom22 is a critical regulator of steroidogenesis, and thus, it is essential for mammalian survival. PMID:26787839

  7. Evidence supporting the 19 β-strand model for Tom40 from cysteine scanning and protease site accessibility studies.

    PubMed

    Lackey, Sebastian W K; Taylor, Rebecca D; Go, Nancy E; Wong, Annie; Sherman, E Laura; Nargang, Frank E

    2014-08-01

    Most proteins found in mitochondria are translated in the cytosol and enter the organelle via the TOM complex (translocase of the outer mitochondrial membrane). Tom40 is the pore forming component of the complex. Although the three-dimensional structure of Tom40 has not been determined, the structure of porin, a related protein, has been shown to be a β-barrel containing 19 membrane spanning β-strands and an N-terminal α-helical region. The evolutionary relationship between the two proteins has allowed modeling of Tom40 into a similar structure by several laboratories. However, it has been suggested that the 19-strand porin structure does not represent the native form of the protein. If true, modeling of Tom40 based on the porin structure would also be invalid. We have used substituted cysteine accessibility mapping to identify several potential β-strands in the Tom40 protein in isolated mitochondria. These data, together with protease accessibility studies, support the 19 β-strand model for Tom40 with the C-terminal end of the protein localized to the intermembrane space. PMID:24947507

  8. An Outer Mitochondrial Translocase, Tom22, Is Crucial for Inner Mitochondrial Steroidogenic Regulation in Adrenal and Gonadal Tissues.

    PubMed

    Rajapaksha, Maheshinie; Kaur, Jasmeet; Prasad, Manoj; Pawlak, Kevin J; Marshall, Brendan; Perry, Elizabeth W; Whittal, Randy M; Bose, Himangshu S

    2016-03-01

    After cholesterol is transported into the mitochondria of steroidogenic tissues, the first steroid, pregnenolone, is synthesized in adrenal and gonadal tissues to initiate steroid synthesis by catalyzing the conversion of pregnenolone to progesterone, which is mediated by the inner mitochondrial enzyme 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 2 (3βHSD2). We report that the mitochondrial translocase Tom22 is essential for metabolic conversion, as its knockdown by small interfering RNA (siRNA) completely ablated progesterone conversion in both steroidogenic mouse Leydig MA-10 and human adrenal NCI cells. Tom22 forms a 500-kDa complex with mitochondrial proteins associated with 3βHSD2. Although the absence of Tom22 did not inhibit mitochondrial import of cytochrome P450scc (cytochrome P450 side chain cleavage enzyme) and aldosterone synthase, it did inhibit 3βHSD2 expression. Electron microscopy showed that Tom22 is localized at the outer mitochondrial membrane (OMM), while 3βHSD2 is localized at the inner mitochondrial space (IMS), where it interacts through a specific region with Tom22 with its C-terminal amino acids and a small amino acid segment of Tom22 exposed to the IMS. Therefore, Tom22 is a critical regulator of steroidogenesis, and thus, it is essential for mammalian survival. PMID:26787839

  9. Evidence Supporting the 19 β-Strand Model for Tom40 from Cysteine Scanning and Protease Site Accessibility Studies*

    PubMed Central

    Lackey, Sebastian W. K.; Taylor, Rebecca D.; Go, Nancy E.; Wong, Annie; Sherman, E. Laura; Nargang, Frank E.

    2014-01-01

    Most proteins found in mitochondria are translated in the cytosol and enter the organelle via the TOM complex (translocase of the outer mitochondrial membrane). Tom40 is the pore forming component of the complex. Although the three-dimensional structure of Tom40 has not been determined, the structure of porin, a related protein, has been shown to be a β-barrel containing 19 membrane spanning β-strands and an N-terminal α-helical region. The evolutionary relationship between the two proteins has allowed modeling of Tom40 into a similar structure by several laboratories. However, it has been suggested that the 19-strand porin structure does not represent the native form of the protein. If true, modeling of Tom40 based on the porin structure would also be invalid. We have used substituted cysteine accessibility mapping to identify several potential β-strands in the Tom40 protein in isolated mitochondria. These data, together with protease accessibility studies, support the 19 β-strand model for Tom40 with the C-terminal end of the protein localized to the intermembrane space. PMID:24947507

  10. Theory of mind broad and narrow: reasoning about social exchange engages ToM areas, precautionary reasoning does not.

    PubMed

    Ermer, Elsa; Guerin, Scott A; Cosmides, Leda; Tooby, John; Miller, Michael B

    2006-01-01

    Baron-Cohen (1995) proposed that the theory of mind (ToM) inference system evolved to promote strategic social interaction. Social exchange--a form of co-operation for mutual benefit--involves strategic social interaction and requires ToM inferences about the contents of other individuals' mental states, especially their desires, goals, and intentions. There are behavioral and neuropsychological dissociations between reasoning about social exchange and reasoning about equivalent problems tapping other, more general content domains. It has therefore been proposed that social exchange behavior is regulated by social contract algorithms: a domain-specific inference system that is functionally specialized for reasoning about social exchange. We report an fMRI study using the Wason selection task that provides further support for this hypothesis. Precautionary rules share so many properties with social exchange rules--they are conditional, deontic, and involve subjective utilities--that most reasoning theories claim they are processed by the same neurocomputational machinery. Nevertheless, neuroimaging shows that reasoning about social exchange activates brain areas not activated by reasoning about precautionary rules, and vice versa. As predicted, neural correlates of ToM (anterior and posterior temporal cortex) were activated when subjects interpreted social exchange rules, but not precautionary rules (where ToM inferences are unnecessary). We argue that the interaction between ToM and social contract algorithms can be reciprocal: social contract algorithms requires ToM inferences, but their functional logic also allows ToM inferences to be made. By considering interactions between ToM in the narrower sense (belief-desire reasoning) and all the social inference systems that create the logic of human social interaction--ones that enable as well as use inferences about the content of mental states--a broader conception of ToM may emerge: a computational model embodying

  11. Interpretation of TOMS Observations of Tropical Tropospheric Ozone with a Global Model and In Situ Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Randall V.; Jacob, Daniel J.; Logan, Jennifer A.; Bey, Isabelle; Yantosca, Robert M.; Staudt, Amanda C.; Fiore, Arlene M.; Duncan, Bryan N.; Liu, Hongyu; Ginoux, Paul

    2004-01-01

    We interpret the distribution of tropical tropospheric ozone columns (TTOCs) from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) by using a global three-dimensional model of tropospheric chemistry (GEOS-CHEM) and additional information from in situ observations. The GEOS-CHEM TTOCs capture 44% of the variance of monthly mean TOMS TTOCs from the convective cloud differential method (CCD) with no global bias. Major discrepancies are found over northern Africa and south Asia where the TOMS TTOCs do not capture the seasonal enhancements from biomass burning found in the model and in aircraft observations. A characteristic feature of these northern topical enhancements, in contrast to southern tropical enhancements, is that they are driven by the lower troposphere where the sensitivity of TOMS is poor due to Rayleigh scattering. We develop an efficiency correction to the TOMS retrieval algorithm that accounts for the variability of ozone in the lower troposphere. This efficiency correction increases TTOC's over biomass burning regions by 3-5 Dobson units (DU) and decreases them by 2-5 DU over oceanic regions, improving the agreement between CCD TTOCs and in situ observations. Applying the correction to CCD TTOCs reduces by approximately DU the magnitude of the "tropical Atlantic paradox" [Thompson et al, 2000], i.e. the presence of a TTOC enhancement over the southern tropical Atlantic during the northern African biomass burning season in December-February. We reproduce the remainder of the paradox in the model and explain it by the combination of upper tropospheric ozone production from lightning NOx, peristent subsidence over the southern tropical Atlantic as part of the Walker circulation, and cross-equatorial transport of upper tropospheric ozone from northern midlatitudes in the African "westerly duct." These processes in the model can also account for the observed 13-17 DU persistent wave-1 pattern in TTOCs with a maximum above the tropical Atlantic and a minimum

  12. [Mechanisms for miniature dwarf characteristics of Mi-cro-Tom tomato and its application in plant functional genomics studies.].

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao-Hua; Zhang, Lan-Lan; Zhu, Chang-Qing; Chen, Kun-Song; Xu, Chang-Jie

    2008-10-01

    Micro-Tom is a miniature dwarf tomato, which can grow at a high density, has a short life cycle, and can be transformed efficiently. As a result, it became a new model plant for functional genomics study. The origin and biological characteristics of Micro-Tom were summarized. Recent advances in the mechanisms involved in the miniature dwarf trait, as well as the application of Micro-Tom in plant functional genomics study and the improved genetic transformation systems were reviewed. PMID:18930884

  13. X-24B with Test Pilot Tom McMurtry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    In this 1975 photo, research pilot Thomas C. McMurtry stands in front of the X-24B on Rogers Dry lake, adjacent to the NASA Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. A former U.S. Navy pilot and graduate of the U.S. Navy Test Pilot School, Patuxent River, Maryland, McMurtry was a consultant for Lockheed Corporation before joining NASA in 1967. The X-24B was the last aircraft to fly in Dryden's manned lifting body program. The X-24B is on public display at the Air Force Museum, Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio. The X-24 was one of a group of lifting bodies flown by the NASA Flight Research Center (now Dryden Flight Research Center), Edwards, California, in a joint program with the U.S. Air Force at Edwards Air Force Base from 1963 to 1975. The lifting bodies were used to demonstrate the ability of pilots to maneuver and safely land wingless vehicles designed to fly back to Earth from space and be landed like an airplane at a predetermined site. Lifting bodies' aerodynamic lift, essential to flight in the atmosphere, was obtained from their shape. The addition of fins and control surfaces allowed the pilots to stabilize and control the vehicles and regulate their flight paths. Built by Martin Aircraft Company, Maryland, for the U.S. Air Force, the X-24A was a bulbous vehicle shaped like a teardrop with three vertical fins at the rear for directional control. It weighed 6,270 pounds, was 24.5 feet long and 11.5 feet wide (measuring just the fuselage, not the distance between the tips of the outboard fins). Its first unpowered glide flight was on April 17, 1969, with Air Force Maj. Jerauld Gentry at the controls. Gentry also piloted its first powered flight on March 19, 1970. The X-24A was flown 28 times in the program that, like the HL-10, validated the concept that a Space Shuttle vehicle could be landed unpowered. The fastest speed achieved by the X-24A was 1,036 miles per hour (mph-Mach 1.6). Its maximum altitude was 71,400 feet. It was powered by an XLR-11 rocket

  14. Nimbus-7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) Antarctic ozone atlas: August through November 1991

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krueger, Arlin J.; Penn, Lanning M.; Scott, Courtney J.; Larko, David E.

    1992-01-01

    Because of the great environmental significance of stratospheric ozone, and to support continuing research at the Antarctic Southern Hemisphere stations, the development of the 1991 ozone hole was monitored using data from the Nimbus-7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) instrument, produced in near-real-time. This atlas provides a complete set of daily polar orthographic projections of the TOMS total ozone measurements over the Southern Hemisphere for the period August 1 through November 30, 1991. The 1991 ozone hole developed in a manner similar to that of the 1987, 1989, and 1990 holes, reaching a comparable depth in early October. However, the 1991 ozone hole filled far more rapidly than in 1987 or 1989, and nearly 4 weeks earlier than in 1990.

  15. Atlas of TOMS ozone data collected during the Genesis of Atlantic Lows Experiment (GALE), 1986

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larko, David E.; Uccellini, Louis W.; Krueger, Arlin J.

    1986-01-01

    Data from the TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) instrument aboard the Nimbus-7 satellite were collected daily in real time during the GALE (Genesis of Atlantic Lows Experiment) from January 15 through March 15, l986. The TOMS ozone data values were processed into GEMPAK format and transferred from the Goddard Space Flight Center to GALE operations in Raleigh-Durham, NC, in as little as three hours for use, in part, to direct aircraft research flights recording in situ measurements of ozone and water vapor in areas of interest. Once in GEMPAK format, the ozone values were processed into gridded form using the Barnes objective analysis scheme and contour plots of the ozone created. This atlas provides objectively analyzed contour plots of the ozone for each of the sixty days of GALE as well as four-panel presentations of the ozone analysis combined on the basis of GALE Intensive Observing Periods (IOP's).

  16. Comparison of TOMS and AVHRR volcanic ssh retrievals from the August 1992 eruption of Mt. Spurr

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krotkov, N.A.; Torres, O.; Seftor, C.; Krueger, A.J.; Kostinski, A.; Rose, William I., Jr.; Bluth, G.J.S.; Schneider, D.; Schaefer, S.J.

    1999-01-01

    On August 19, 1992, the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) onboard NOAA-12 and NASA's Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) onboard the Nimbus-7 satellite simultaneously detected and mapped the ash cloud from the eruption of Mt. Spurr, Alaska. The spatial extent and geometry of the cloud derived from the two datasets are in good agreement and both AVHRR split window IR (11-12??m brightness temperature difference) and the TOMS UV Aerosol Index (0.34-0.38??m ultraviolet backscattering and absorption) methods give the same range of total cloud ash mass. Redundant methods for determination of ash masses in drifting volcanic clouds offer many advantages for potential application to the mitigation of aircraft hazards.

  17. TOM22, a core component of the mitochondria outer membrane protein translocation pore, is a mitochondrial receptor for the proapoptotic protein Bax.

    PubMed

    Bellot, G; Cartron, P-F; Er, E; Oliver, L; Juin, P; Armstrong, L C; Bornstein, P; Mihara, K; Manon, S; Vallette, F M

    2007-04-01

    The association of Bax with mitochondria is an essential step in the implementation of apoptosis. By using a bacterial two-hybrid assay and crosslinking strategies, we have identified TOM22, a component of the translocase of the outer mitochondrial membrane (TOM), as a mitochondrial receptor of Bax. Peptide mapping showed that the interaction of Bax with TOM22 involved the first alpha helix of Bax and possibly two central alpha helices, which are homologous to the pore forming domains of some toxins. Antibodies directed against TOM22 or an antisense knockdown of the expression of TOM22 specifically inhibited the association of Bax with mitochondria and prevented Bax-dependent apoptosis. In yeast, a haploid strain for TOM22 exhibited a decreased expression of TOM22 and mitochondrial association of ectopically expressed human Bax. Our data provide a new perspective on the mechanism of association of Bax with mitochondria as it involves a classical import pathway. PMID:17096026

  18. Satellite Detection of Smoke Aerosols Over a Snow/Ice Surface by TOMS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, N. Christina; Herman, Jay R.; Gleason, J. F.; Torres, O.; Seftor, C. J.

    1998-01-01

    The use of TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) satellite data demonstrates the recently developed technique of using satellite UV radiance measurements to detect absorbing tropospheric aerosols is effective over snow/ice surfaces. Instead of the traditional single wavelength (visible or infrared) method of measuring tropospheric aerosols, this method takes advantage of the wavelength dependent reduction in the backscattered radiance due to the presence of absorbing aerosols over snow/ice surfaces. An example of the resulting aerosol distribution derived from TOMS data is shown for an August 1998 event in which smoke generated by Canadian forest fires drifts over and across Greenland. As the smoke plume moved over Greenland, the TOMS observed 380 nm reflectivity over the snow/ice surface dropped drastically from 90-100% down to 30-40%. To study the effects of this smoke plume in both the UV and visible regions of the spectrum, we compared a smoke-laden spectrum taken over Greenland by the high spectral resolution (300 to 800 nm) GOME instrument with one that is aerosol-free. We also discuss the results of modeling the darkening effects of various types of absorbing aerosols over snow/ice surfaces using a radiative transfer code. Finally, we investigated the history of such events by looking at the nearly twenty year record of TOMS aerosol index measurements and found that there is a large interannual variability in the amount of smoke aerosols observed over Greenland. This information will be available for studies of radiation and transport properties in the Arctic.

  19. Magnétométrie à hélium par pompage laser: le bilan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilles, H.; Hamel, J.; Monfort, Y.

    2002-06-01

    Depuis 1986, l'équipe Physique Atomique et Capteurs du CIRIL-ISMRA de Caen étudie les magnétomètres à hélium par pompage laser. On présente ici le bilan de ces travaux de recherche et les performances des deux prototypes (hélium4 et hélium3) réalisés au Laboratoire.

  20. Total Ozone from the Ozone Monitoring System (OMI) using TOMS and DOAS Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veefkind, J. P.; Bhartia, P. K.; Gleason, J.; deHaan, J. F.; Wellemeyer, C.; Levelt, P. F.

    2003-01-01

    The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) is the Dutch-Finnish contribution to NASA's EOS-Aura satellite scheduled for launch in January 2004. OMI is an imaging spectrometer that will measure the back-scattered Solar radiance in the wavelength range of 270 to 500 nm. The instrument provides near global coverage in one day with a spatial resolution of 13x24 square kilometers. OMI is a new instrument, with a heritage from TOMS, SBW, GOME, GOMOS and SCIAMACHY. OMI'S unique capabilities for measuring important trace gases and aerosols with a small footprint and daily global coverage, in conjunction with the other Aura instruments, will make a major contribution to our understanding of stratospheric and tropospheric chemistry and climate change. OMI will provide data continuity with the 23-year ozone record of TOMS. There are three ozone products planned for OMI: total column ozone, ozone profile and tropospheric column ozone. We are developing two different algorithms for total column ozone: one similar to the algorithm currently being used to process the TOMS data, and the other an improved version of the differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) method, which has been applied to GOME and SCIAMACHY data. The main reasons for starting with two algorithms for total ozone have to do with heritage and past experience; our long-term goal is to combine the two to develop a more accurate and reliable total ozone product for OMI. We will compare the performance of these two algorithms by applying both of them to the GOME data. We will examine where and how the results differ, and use the extensive TOMS-Dobson comparison studies to assess the performance of the DOAS algorithm.

  1. Ocean Color and Evidence of Chlorophyll Signature in the TOMS Minimum Reflectivity Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahmad, Z.; Herman, J. R.; Bhartia, P. K.

    2003-01-01

    Analysis of the TOMS minimum reflectivity data for 380 nm channel (R380) show regions of high reflectivity values (approx. 7 to 8%) over Sargasso Sea in the Northern Atlantic, anti-cyclonic region in the Southern Atlantic, and a large part of the ocean in the Southern Pacific, and low values (5 approx. 6 %) over the rest of the open ocean. Through radiative transfer simulations we show that these features are highly correlated with the distribution of chlorophyll in the ocean. Theoretical minimum reflectivity values derived with the help of CZCS chlorophyll concentration data as input into a vector ocean-atmosphere radiative transfer code developed by Ahmad and Fraser show very good agreement with TOMS minimum reflectivity data for the winter season of year 1980. For the summer season of year 1980, good qualitative agreement is observed in the equatorial and northern hemisphere but not as good in the southern hemisphere. Also, for cloud-free conditions, we find a very strong correlation between R340 minus R380 values and the chlorophyll concentration in the ocean. Results on the possible effects of absorbing and non-absorbing aerosols on the TOMS minimum reflectivity will also be presented. The results also imply that ocean color will affect the aerosol retrieval over oceans unless corrected.

  2. Highlights from a Decade of OMI-TOMS Total Ozone Observations on EOS Aura

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haffner, David P.; Bhartia, Pawan K.; McPeters, Richard D.; Joiner, Joanna; Ziemke, Jerald R.; Vassilkov, Alexander; Labow, Gordon J.; Chiou, Er-Woon

    2014-01-01

    Total ozone measurements from OMI have been instrumental in meeting Aura science objectives. In the last decade, OMI has extended the length of the TOMS total ozone record to over 35 years to monitor stratospheric ozone recovery. OMI-TOMS total ozone measurements have also been combined synergistically with measurements from other Aura instruments and MLS in particular, which provides vertically resolved information that complements the total O3 mapping capability of OMI. With this combined approach, the EOS Aura platform has produced more accurate and detailed measurements of tropospheric ozone. This has led in turn to greater understanding of the sources and transport of tropospheric ozone as well as its radiative forcing effect. The combined use of OMI and MLS data was also vital to the analysis of the severe Arctic ozone depletion event of 2011. The quality of OMI-TOMS total O3 data used in these studies is the result of several factors: a mature and well-validated algorithm, the striking stability of the OMI instrument, and OMI's hyperspectral capabilities used to derive cloud pressures. The latter has changed how we think about the effects of clouds on total ozone retrievals. We will discuss the evolution of the operational V8.5 algorithm and provide an overview and motivation for V9. After reviewing results and developments of the past decade, we finally highlight how ozone observations from EOS Aura are playing an important role in new ozone mapping missions.

  3. Near-real-time TOMS, telecommunications and meteorological support for the 1987 Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ardanuy, P.; Victorine, J.; Sechrist, F.; Feiner, A.; Penn, L.

    1988-01-01

    The goal of the 1987 Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment was to improve the understanding of the mechanisms involved in the formation of the Antarctic ozone hole. Total ozone data taken by the Nimbus-7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) played a central role in the successful outcome of the experiment. During the experiment, the near-real-time TOMS total ozone observations were supplied within hours of real time to the operations center in Punta Arenas, Chile. The final report summarizes the role which Research and Data Systems (RDS) Corporation played in the support of the experiment. The RDS provided telecommunications to support the science and operations efforts for the Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment, and supplied near real-time weather information to ensure flight and crew safety; designed and installed the telecommunications network to link NASA-GSFC, the United Kingdom Meteorological Office (UKMO), Palmer Station, the European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) to the operation at Punta Arenas; engineered and installed stations and other stand-alone systems to collect data from designated low-orbiting polar satellites and beacons; provided analyses of Nimbus-7 TOMS data and backup data products to Punta Arenas; and provided synoptic meteorological data analysis and reduction.

  4. Peeping at TOMs-Diverse Entry Gates to Mitochondria Provide Insights into the Evolution of Eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Mani, Jan; Meisinger, Chris; Schneider, André

    2016-02-01

    Mitochondria are essential for eukaryotic life and more than 95% of their proteins are imported as precursors from the cytosol. The targeting signals for this posttranslational import are conserved in all eukaryotes. However, this conservation does not hold true for the protein translocase of the mitochondrial outer membrane that serves as entry gate for essentially all precursor proteins. Only two of its subunits, Tom40 and Tom22, are conserved and thus likely were present in the last eukaryotic common ancestor. Tom7 is found in representatives of all supergroups except the Excavates. This suggests that it was added to the core of the translocase after the Excavates segregated from all other eukaryotes. A comparative analysis of the biochemically and functionally characterized outer membrane translocases of yeast, plants, and trypanosomes, which represent three eukaryotic supergroups, shows that the receptors that recognize the conserved import signals differ strongly between the different systems. They present a remarkable example of convergent evolution at the molecular level. The structural diversity of the functionally conserved import receptors therefore provides insight into the early evolutionary history of mitochondria. PMID:26474847

  5. RNAi screen in Drosophila cells reveals the involvement of the Tom complex in Chlamydia infection.

    PubMed

    Derré, Isabelle; Pypaert, Marc; Dautry-Varsat, Alice; Agaisse, Hervé

    2007-10-26

    Chlamydia spp. are intracellular obligate bacterial pathogens that infect a wide range of host cells. Here, we show that C. caviae enters, replicates, and performs a complete developmental cycle in Drosophila SL2 cells. Using this model system, we have performed a genome-wide RNA interference screen and identified 54 factors that, when depleted, inhibit C. caviae infection. By testing the effect of each candidate's knock down on L. monocytogenes infection, we have identified 31 candidates presumably specific of C. caviae infection. We found factors expected to have an effect on Chlamydia infection, such as heparansulfate glycosaminoglycans and actin and microtubule remodeling factors. We also identified factors that were not previously described as involved in Chlamydia infection. For instance, we identified members of the Tim-Tom complex, a multiprotein complex involved in the recognition and import of nuclear-encoded proteins to the mitochondria, as required for C. caviae infection of Drosophila cells. Finally, we confirmed that depletion of either Tom40 or Tom22 also reduced C. caviae infection in mammalian cells. However, C. trachomatis infection was not affected, suggesting that the mechanism involved is C. caviae specific. PMID:17967059

  6. 'Spider' in Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    View of the Apollo 9 Lunar Module 'Spider' in a lunar landing configuration photographed by Command Module pilot David Scott inside the Command/Service Module 'Gumdrop' on the fifth day of the Apollo 9 earth-orbital mission. The landing gear on 'Spider' has been deployed. lunar surface probes (sensors) extend out from the landing gear foot pads. Inside the 'Spider' were astronauts James A. McDivitt, Apollo 9 Commander; and Russell L. Schweickart, Lunar Module pilot.

  7. Biogenesis of porin of the outer mitochondrial membrane involves an import pathway via receptors and the general import pore of the TOM complex.

    PubMed

    Krimmer, T; Rapaport, D; Ryan, M T; Meisinger, C; Kassenbrock, C K; Blachly-Dyson, E; Forte, M; Douglas, M G; Neupert, W; Nargang, F E; Pfanner, N

    2001-01-22

    Porin, also termed the voltage-dependent anion channel, is the most abundant protein of the mitochondrial outer membrane. The process of import and assembly of the protein is known to be dependent on the surface receptor Tom20, but the requirement for other mitochondrial proteins remains controversial. We have used mitochondria from Neurospora crassa and Saccharomyces cerevisiae to analyze the import pathway of porin. Import of porin into isolated mitochondria in which the outer membrane has been opened is inhibited despite similar levels of Tom20 as in intact mitochondria. A matrix-destined precursor and the porin precursor compete for the same translocation sites in both normal mitochondria and mitochondria whose surface receptors have been removed, suggesting that both precursors utilize the general import pore. Using an assay established to monitor the assembly of in vitro-imported porin into preexisting porin complexes we have shown that besides Tom20, the biogenesis of porin depends on the central receptor Tom22, as well as Tom5 and Tom7 of the general import pore complex (translocase of the outer mitochondrial membrane [TOM] core complex). The characterization of two new mutant alleles of the essential pore protein Tom40 demonstrates that the import of porin also requires a functional Tom40. Moreover, the porin precursor can be cross-linked to Tom20, Tom22, and Tom40 on its import pathway. We conclude that import of porin does not proceed through the action of Tom20 alone, but requires an intact outer membrane and involves at least four more subunits of the TOM machinery, including the general import pore. PMID:11266446

  8. Atmospheric probes: needs and prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owen, Tobias

    2004-02-01

    There is only one Rosetta Stone in the Solar System; it's in the British Museum. We cannot understand the inner planets by simply studying the Earth, nor can we apprehend the giants by examining only Jupiter. Despite the stunning successes of previous probes to Venus and the Galileo probe to Jupiter, our knowledge of the atmospheres of even these two planets remains tantalizingly incomplete. We must therefore return to Venus and consider the challenge of exploring all of the outer planets with a family of identical probes, a project that could commemorater the vision of multiple worlds championed by Giordano Bruno.

  9. Investigations of Desert Dust and Smoke in the North Atlantic in Support of the TOMS Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toon, Owen B.

    2005-01-01

    During the initial period of the work we concentrated on Saharan dust storms and published a sequence of papers (Colarco et a1 2002,2003a,b, Toon, 2004). The U.S. Air Force liked the dust model so well that they appropriated it for operational dust storm forecasting (Barnum et al., 2004). The Air Force has used it for about 5 yrs in the Middle East where dust storms cause significant operational problems. The student working on this project, Peter Colarco, has graduated and is now a civil servant at Goddard where he continues to interact with the TOMS team. This work helped constrain the optical properties of dust at TOMS wavelengths, which is useful for climate simulations and for TOMS retrievals of dust properties such as optical depth. We also used TOMS data to constrain the sources of dust in Africa and the Middle East, to determine the actual paths taken by Saharan dust storms, to learn more about the mechanics of variations in the optical depths, and to learn more about the mechanisms controlling the altitudes of the dust. During the last two years we have been working on smoke from fires. Black carbon aerosols are one of the leading factors in radiative forcing. The US Climate Change Science Program calls this area out for specific study. It has been suggested by Jim Hansen, and Mark Jacobsen among others, that by controlling emissions of black carbon we might reduce greenhouse radiative forcing in a relatively painless manner. However, we need a greatly improved understanding of the amount of black carbon in the atmosphere, where it is located, where it comes from, how it is mixed with other particles, what its actual optical properties are, and how it evolves. In order to learn about these issues we are using a numerical model of smoke. We have applied this model to the SAFARI field program data, and used the TOMS satellite observations in that period (Sept. 2000). Our goal is to constrain source function estimates for black carbon, and smoke optical

  10. Identification of mammalian TOM22 as a subunit of the preprotein translocase of the mitochondrial outer membrane.

    PubMed

    Saeki, K; Suzuki, H; Tsuneoka, M; Maeda, M; Iwamoto, R; Hasuwa, H; Shida, S; Takahashi, T; Sakaguchi, M; Endo, T; Miura, Y; Mekada, E; Mihara, K

    2000-10-13

    A mitochondrial outer membrane protein of approximately 22 kDa (1C9-2) was purified from Vero cells assessing immunoreactivity with a monoclonal antibody, and the cDNA was cloned based on the partial amino acid sequence of the trypsin-digested fragments. 1C9-2 had 19-20% sequence identity to fungal Tom22, a component of the preprotein translocase of the outer membrane (the TOM complex) with receptor and organizer functions. Despite such a low sequence identity, both shared a remarkable structural similarity in the hydrophobicity profile, membrane topology in the Ncyt-Cin orientation through a transmembrane domain in the middle of the molecule, and the abundant acidic amino acid residues in the N-terminal domain. The antibodies against 1C9-2 inhibited the import of a matrix-targeted preprotein into isolated mitochondria. Blue native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of digitonin-solubilized outer membranes revealed that 1C9-2 is firmly associated with TOM40 in the approximately 400-kDa complex, with a size and composition similar to those of the fungal TOM core complex. Furthermore, 1C9-2 complemented the defects of growth and mitochondrial protein import in Deltatom22 yeast cells. Taken together, these results demonstrate that 1C9-2 is a functional homologue of fungal Tom22 and functions as a component of the TOM complex. PMID:10900208

  11. Earth Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewer, Tom

    1970-01-01

    Reviews some of the more concerted, large-scale efforts in the earth resources areas" in order to help the computer community obtain insights into the activities it can jointly particpate in withthe earth resources community." (Author)

  12. Samara Probe For Remote Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, James D.

    1989-01-01

    Imaging probe descends through atmosphere of planet, obtaining images of ground surface as it travels. Released from aircraft over Earth or from spacecraft over another planet. Body and single wing shaped like samara - winged seed like those of maple trees. Rotates as descends, providing panoramic view of terrain below. Radio image obtained by video camera to aircraft or spacecraft overhead.

  13. Optical probe

    DOEpatents

    Hencken, Kenneth; Flower, William L.

    1999-01-01

    A compact optical probe is disclosed particularly useful for analysis of emissions in industrial environments. The instant invention provides a geometry for optically-based measurements that allows all optical components (source, detector, rely optics, etc.) to be located in proximity to one another. The geometry of the probe disclosed herein provides a means for making optical measurements in environments where it is difficult and/or expensive to gain access to the vicinity of a flow stream to be measured. Significantly, the lens geometry of the optical probe allows the analysis location within a flow stream being monitored to be moved while maintaining optical alignment of all components even when the optical probe is focused on a plurality of different analysis points within the flow stream.

  14. Tropospheric Ozone Pollution Transport Traced from the TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) Instrument During the Nashville-1999 Campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Anne M.; Frolov, A. D.; Hudson, R. D.; Witte, J. C.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Over the past several years, we have developed two new tropospheric ozone retrievals from the TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) satellite instrument that are of sufficient resolution to follow pollution episodes. The modified-residual technique [Hudson and Thompson, 1998; Thompson and Hudson, 1999] uses v. 7 TOMS total ozone and is applicable to tropical regimes in which the wave-one pattern in total ozone is observed. The TOMS-direct method [("TDOT" = TOMS Direct Ozone in the Troposphere; Frolov et al., 2000] represents a new algorithm that uses TOMS radiances directly (i.e., not previously processed for TOMS ozone) to extract tropospheric ozone in regions of constant stratospheric ozone and tropospheric ozone displaying high mixing ratios and variability characteristic of pollution. These events tend to occur in certain meteorological regimes. For example, mid-latitude pollution usually occurs on the backside of subtropical fronts, as low pv, usually moist air intrudes to the extra-tropics. July 1999 was a month characterized by robust pollution in the eastern US, with high ozone, as detected by TOMS, originating over south central states and moving up the Atlantic seaboard. This corresponds to 50-80 DU in tropospheric ozone column depth. In most cases, further transport occurred to the North Atlantic, with ozone plumes traveling to western Europe in 4-5 days. Examples of high ozone and transit across boundaries within the US, as well as US->Europe, give a regional context for model results and field measurements taken in the SE US during the Nashville-1999 campaign period. Validation of the TDOT maps is made with ozonesondes taken during that time. TDOT maps also show ozone pollution from Asia traveling to the western US in July 1999.

  15. Discover Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steele, Colleen

    1998-01-01

    Discover Earth is a NASA-sponsored project for teachers of grades 5-12, designed to: (1) enhance understanding of the Earth as an integrated system; (2) enhance the interdisciplinary approach to science instruction; and (3) provide classroom materials that focus on those goals. Discover Earth is conducted by the Institute for Global Environmental Strategies in collaboration with Dr. Eric Barron, Director, Earth System Science Center, The Pennsylvania State University; and Dr. Robert Hudson, Chair, the Department of Meteorology, University of Maryland at College Park. The enclosed materials: (1) represent only part of the Discover Earth materials; (2) were developed by classroom teachers who are participating in the Discover Earth project; (3) utilize an investigative approach and on-line data; and (4) can be effectively adjusted to classrooms with greater/without technology access. The Discover Earth classroom materials focus on the Earth system and key issues of global climate change including topics such as the greenhouse effect, clouds and Earth's radiation balance, surface hydrology and land cover, and volcanoes and climate change. All the materials developed to date are available on line at (http://www.strategies.org) You are encouraged to submit comments and recommendations about these materials to the Discover Earth project manager, contact information is listed below. You are welcome to duplicate all these materials.

  16. Synergy Between probes and Orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Richard E.

    2005-01-01

    There are many ways in which the science return from a planetary mission is considerably enhanced by interactions between entry probes and a mission orbiter. Mission configuration aspects that are desirable include delivery of entry probes by the orbiter, and communication between probe and orbiter. Both of these mission aspects could greatly enhance access to key scientific sites that might not otherwise be accessible using delivery from say, a flyby, or employing direct communication from probes to Earth. Examples for Venus and Jupiter will be discussed. A second class of orbiter-probe interaction could better be termed direct probe-orbiter science collaboration. That would include, determining the global context of the entry probe sites from the orbiter, obtaining ground truth from the probe for remote sensing observations from the orbiter, observing the global and vertical distribution of key atmospheric trace species, and measuring the global and vertical distribution of clouds and winds. The importance of each of these items will be illustrated by particular examples.

  17. Astronaut Terence T. (Tom) Henricks, mission commander, shines a tiny flashlight onto some cables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    STS-78 ONBOARD VIEW --- Among the Inflight Maintenance (IFM) chores that were handled by the crew members during their almost 17 days in space aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia was one that involved going into the bay beneath the floor of the Life and Microgravity Spacelab (LMS-1) Science Module. Astronaut Terence T. (Tom) Henricks, mission commander, shines a tiny flashlight onto some cables related to LMS-1 supported computer systems. As in the case of the other IFM chores, Henricks efforts were successful. He was joined by four other NASA astronauts and two international payload specialists for the Space Shuttle duration record-setting mission.

  18. Gravity Probe B Encapsulated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    In this photo, the Gravity Probe B (GP-B) space vehicle is being encapsulated atop the Delta II launch vehicle. The GP-B is the relativity experiment developed at Stanford University to test two extraordinary predictions of Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity. The experiment will measure, very precisely, the expected tiny changes in the direction of the spin axes of four gyroscopes contained in an Earth-orbiting satellite at a 400-mile altitude. So free are the gyroscopes from disturbance that they will provide an almost perfect space-time reference system. They will measure how space and time are very slightly warped by the presence of the Earth, and, more profoundly, how the Earth's rotation very slightly drags space-time around with it. These effects, though small for the Earth, have far-reaching implications for the nature of matter and the structure of the Universe. GP-B is among the most thoroughly researched programs ever undertaken by NASA. This is the story of a scientific quest in which physicists and engineers have collaborated closely over many years. Inspired by their quest, they have invented a whole range of technologies that are already enlivening other branches of science and engineering. Launched April 20, 2004 , the GP-B program was managed for NASA by the Marshall Space Flight Center. Development of the GP-B is the responsibility of Stanford University along with major subcontractor Lockheed Martin Corporation. (Image credit to Russ Underwood, Lockheed Martin Corporation).

  19. Overexpression of a host factor TOM1 inhibits tomato mosaic virus propagation and suppression of RNA silencing.

    PubMed

    Hagiwara-Komoda, Yuka; Hirai, Katsuyuki; Mochizuki, Atsuko; Nishiguchi, Masamichi; Meshi, Tetsuo; Ishikawa, Masayuki

    2008-06-20

    A plant integral membrane protein TOM1 is involved in the multiplication of Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV). TOM1 interacts with ToMV replication proteins and has been suggested to tether the replication proteins to the membranes where the viral RNA synthesis takes place. We have previously demonstrated that inactivation of TOM1 results in reduced ToMV multiplication. In the present study, we show that overexpression of TOM1 in tobacco also inhibits ToMV propagation. TOM1 overexpression led to a decreased accumulation of the soluble form of the replication proteins and interfered with the ability of the replication protein to suppress RNA silencing. The reduced accumulation of the soluble replication proteins was also observed in a silencing suppressor-defective ToMV mutant. Based on these results, we propose that RNA silencing suppression is executed by the soluble form of the replication proteins and that efficient ToMV multiplication requires balanced accumulation of the soluble and membrane-bound replication proteins. PMID:18440043

  20. Mitochondrial translocation contact sites: separation of dynamic and stabilizing elements in formation of a TOM-TIM-preprotein supercomplex.

    PubMed

    Chacinska, Agnieszka; Rehling, Peter; Guiard, Bernard; Frazier, Ann E; Schulze-Specking, Agnes; Pfanner, Nikolaus; Voos, Wolfgang; Meisinger, Chris

    2003-10-15

    Preproteins with N-terminal presequences are imported into mitochondria at translocation contact sites that include the translocase of the outer membrane (TOM complex) and the presequence translocase of the inner membrane (TIM23 complex). Little is known about the functional cooperation of these translocases. We have characterized translocation contact sites by a productive TOM-TIM-preprotein supercomplex to address the role of three translocase subunits that expose domains to the intermembrane space (IMS). The IMS domain of the receptor Tom22 is required for stabilization of the translocation contact site supercomplex. Surprisingly, the N-terminal segment of the channel Tim23, which tethers the TIM23 complex to the outer membrane, is dispensable for both protein import and generation of the TOM-TIM supercomplex. Tim50, with its large IMS domain, is crucial for generation but not for stabilization of the supercomplex. Thus, Tim50 functions as a dynamic factor and the IMS domain of Tom22 represents a stabilizing element in formation of a productive translocation contact site supercomplex. PMID:14532110

  1. Investigating the Genetic Basis of Theory of Mind (ToM): The Role of Catechol-O-Methyltransferase (COMT) Gene Polymorphisms

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Haiwei; Wu, Nan; Su, Yanjie

    2012-01-01

    The ability to deduce other persons' mental states and emotions which has been termed ‘theory of mind (ToM)’ is highly heritable. First molecular genetic studies focused on some dopamine-related genes, while the genetic basis underlying different components of ToM (affective ToM and cognitive ToM) remain unknown. The current study tested 7 candidate polymorphisms (rs4680, rs4633, rs2020917, rs2239393, rs737865, rs174699 and rs59938883) on the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene. We investigated how these polymorphisms relate to different components of ToM. 101 adults participated in our study; all were genetically unrelated, non-clinical and healthy Chinese subjects. Different ToM tasks were applied to detect their theory of mind ability. The results showed that the COMT gene rs2020917 and rs737865 SNPs were associated with cognitive ToM performance, while the COMT gene rs5993883 SNP was related to affective ToM, in which a significant gender-genotype interaction was found (p = 0.039). Our results highlighted the contribution of DA-related COMT gene on ToM performance. Moreover, we found out that the different SNP at the same gene relates to the discriminative aspect of ToM. Our research provides some preliminary evidence to the genetic basis of theory of mind which still awaits further studies. PMID:23209597

  2. Comparison of recalculated Dobson and TOMS total ozone at Hradec Kralove, Czechoslovakia, 1978-1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanek, Martin; Vanicek, Karel

    1994-01-01

    The reevaluated Dobson total ozone data from Hradec Kralove, Czechoslovakia were compared with independent Total Ozone Mapping Spectrophotometer (TOMS) 'version 6' data set. The comparison was performed by means of the parallel daily averages of ground-based and satellite total ozone pairs of the period November 1978 to December 1990. The comparison showed slight differences between both data series. Their average relative difference is 0.48 percent. The similar results have been reached for subsets of direct sun and zenith types of measurements as well. Their relative differences are 0.61 percent and 0.11 percent respectively. These facts indicate not only good mutual relation of both data sources but also reliability and accuracy of the zenith charts of the spectrophotometer No. 74 used at Hradec Kralove. Preliminary assessment of seasonal MU-dependence of the differences between Dobson and TOMS data was made while using total ozones of winter and summer months representing values of MU=2.70-5.20 and MU = 1.12-1.30 respectively. The results did not show systematic underestimation or overestimation of total ozone due to MU-dependence of the instrument at Hradec Kralove in both seasons.

  3. The observation of atmospheric structure with TOMS and some potential advancements. [Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krueger, A. J.

    1985-01-01

    An overview is given of the Nimbus 7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) which was designed to observe the spatial characteristics of total ozone that were not resolved by the nadir-viewing Nimbus BUV and SBUV instruments. At the wavelengths suitable for total ozone measurements, the radiance is large enough that the entire daytime atmosphere could be surveyed with about 50-km resolution from a polar orbiting satellite. The resulting high spatial resolution TOMS ozone images are found to reflect the internal dynamic structure of the lower atmosphere. Features which can be identified and tracked include: planetary wave scale troughs and ridges, mesoscale cutoff lows and rapidly moving troughs, jet stream confluence and difluence areas, hurricanes, and polar night lows. These features control the ozone above any given location and account for nearly all the variance in the total ozone. The instrument has been used to track the volcanic eruption clouds from El Chichon, Mount St. Helens, Alaid, and smaller eruptions such as Galunggung. It would be feasible to use a similar instrument on a geostationary platform to obtain half-hourly maps. Determination of the vertical ozone distribution in the lower stratosphere using Radon transform principles would be of importance in measuring jet stream folds and the related troposphere-stratosphere exchange.

  4. Seasonal trend analysis of published ground-based and TOMS total ozone data through 1991

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinsel, Gregory C.; Tiao, George C.; Wuebbles, Donald J.; Kerr, James B.; Miller, Alvin J.; Nagatani, Ronald M.; Bishop, Lane; Ying, Lisa H.

    1994-01-01

    A seasonal trend analysis of published Dobson (including stations' newly revised and Brewer-simulated Dobson) total ozone data through 1991 from a network of 56 stations has been performed, using three different data periods. The trend results for the longest data period 1964 - 1991 indicate substantial negative trends in ozone in the higher northern latitudes during the winter and spring seasons, some evidence of negative trend in the higher southern latitudes (30 deg S - 55 deg S) during all seasons, and trends close to zero for all seasons over the 30 deg S - 30 deg N latitude range. For the shortest data period, November 1978 through 1991, there is a clear indication that trends have become more negative in the higher northern latitudes, especially during the winter and spring seasons, and also in the higher southern latitudes in all seasons. A seasonal trend analysis of zonal averages of total ozone mapping spectrometer (TOMS) satellite total ozone data for the comparable period November 1978 through 1991 has also been performed, and moderately good agreement is found between trends in Dobson and TOMS data over this period.

  5. The 1989 Antarctic ozone hole as observed by TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer)

    SciTech Connect

    Stolarski, R.S.; Schoeberl, M.R.; McPeters, R.D.; Krueger, A.J. ); Newman, P.A. )

    1990-08-01

    In 1989 the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) aboard the Nimbus 7 satellite observed the springtime decrease in Antarctic total ozone for the 11th consecutive year. The 1989 minimum values of total ozone measured by TOMS declined throughout the month of September a6t a rate nearly identical to 1987. The National Meteorological Center analysis of lower stratospheric temperatures in August and September 1989 also showed conditions similar to those observed in 1987. A minimum in total ozone of 111 DU was reached on October 7, 1989. Within uncertainties this is the same as previously observed minimum on October 5, 1987. The area of the ozone hole as defined by the 220 DU contour grew rapidly during early September. It reached a mid-September peak of 7.5% of the southern hemisphere or 19 million square kilometers, essentially the same as observed in 1987. From mid October through November 1989, minimum polar total ozone values increased and the are within the 220 DU contour decreased more rapidly than during the comparable period of 1987. The more rapid erosion of the 1989 ozone hole resulted from strong wave number one perturbations of the vortex dynamics in late October.

  6. [Radiance Simulation of BUV Hyperspectral Sensor on Multi Angle Observation, and Improvement to Initial Total Ozone Estimating Model of TOMS V8 Total Ozone Algorithm].

    PubMed

    Lü, Chun-guang; Wang, Wei-he; Yang, Wen-bo; Tian, Qing-iju; Lu, Shan; Chen, Yun

    2015-11-01

    New hyperspectral sensor to detect total ozone is considered to be carried on geostationary orbit platform in the future, because local troposphere ozone pollution and diurnal variation of ozone receive more and more attention. Sensors carried on geostationary satellites frequently obtain images on the condition of larger observation angles so that it has higher requirements of total ozone retrieval on these observation geometries. TOMS V8 algorithm is developing and widely used in low orbit ozone detecting sensors, but it still lack of accuracy on big observation geometry, therefore, how to improve the accuracy of total ozone retrieval is still an urgent problem that demands immediate solution. Using moderate resolution atmospheric transmission, MODT-RAN, synthetic UV backscatter radiance in the spectra region from 305 to 360 nm is simulated, which refers to clear sky, multi angles (12 solar zenith angles and view zenith angles) and 26 standard profiles, moreover, the correlation and trends between atmospheric total ozone and backward scattering of the earth UV radiation are analyzed based on the result data. According to these result data, a new modified initial total ozone estimation model in TOMS V8 algorithm is considered to be constructed in order to improve the initial total ozone estimating accuracy on big observation geometries. The analysis results about total ozone and simulated UV backscatter radiance shows: Radiance in 317.5 nm (R₃₁₇.₅) decreased as the total ozone rise. Under the small solar zenith Angle (SZA) and the same total ozone, R₃₁₇.₅ decreased with the increase of view zenith Angle (VZA) but increased on the large SZA. Comparison of two fit models shows: without the condition that both SZA and VZA are large (> 80°), exponential fitting model and logarithm fitting model all show high fitting precision (R² > 0.90), and precision of the two decreased as the SZA and VZA rise. In most cases, the precision of logarithm fitting

  7. Rainbow Earth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona State Dept. of Library and Archives, Phoenix.

    The environment is a great concern in the 1990s, and everyone needs to work at maintaining our planet. The 1992 Arizona State Library Reading Program, "Rainbow Earth," provides children with many techniques they can use to help the Earth. This reading program guide provides information on the following: goals, objectives, and evaluation; getting…

  8. Earth Wisdom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Matre, Steve

    1985-01-01

    In our human-centered ignorance and arrogance we are rapidly destroying the earth. We must start helping people understand the big picture of ecological concepts. What these concepts mean for our own lives and how we must begin to change our lifestyles in order to live more harmoniously with the earth. (JHZ)

  9. Earth tides

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, J.C.

    1984-01-01

    Nineteen papers on gravity, tilt, and strain tides are compiled into this volume. Detailed chapters cover the calculation of the tidal forces and of the Earth's response to them, as well as actual observations of earth tides. Partial Contents: On Earth tides. The tidal forces: Tidal Forces. New Computations of the Tide-Generating Potential. Corrected Tables of Tidal Harmonics. The Theory of Tidal Deformations. Body Tides on an Elliptical, Rotating, Elastic and Oceanless Earth, Deformation of the Earth by Surface Loads. Gravimetric Tidal Loading Computed from Integrated Green's Functions. Tidal Friction in the Solid Earth. Loading Tides Versus Body Tides. Lunar Tidal Acceleration from Earth Satellite Orbit Analysis. Observations: gravity. Tidal Gravity in Britain: Tidal Loading and the Spatial Distribution of the Marine Tide. Tidal Loading along a Profile Europe-East Africa-South Asia-Australia and the Pacific Ocean. Detailed Gravity-Tide Spectrum between One and Four Cycles per Day. Observations: tilt and strain. Cavity and Topographic Effects in Tilt and Strain Measurement. Observations of Local Elastic Effects on Earth Tide Tilts and Strains.

  10. The Toms River Childhood Cancer Cluster: Coupled Groundwater and Water Distribution System Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sykes, J. F.; Normani, S. D.

    2003-12-01

    Toms River, New Jersey is the location of a statistically significant childhood cancer cluster. A 1995 cancer investigation indicated that relative to the state, the Toms River section of Dover Township had excess childhood cancer incidence for all malignant cancers combined, brain and central nervous system (CNS) cancers, and leukemia. Children under the age of five were found to have a seven-fold increase in brain and CNS cancer. The community's concern focused on the possibility that exposure to environmental contaminants may be related to the incidence of these childhood cancers. Two Superfund sites in Dover Township were implicated as having a possible impact on the local water supply. One of these, the Reich Farm site, is a source of contaminants to the aquifer that serves a major well field for Toms River. Contaminants in the aquifer include TCE, PCE and styrene-acrylonitrile (SAN) trimer. In 1997, the New Jersey Department of Health and Senior Services and the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry began an epidemiology study to evaluate the relationship between the environmental exposure pathways and the elevated childhood cancer incidence. Toxicity studies for the SAN trimer were also initiated. Groundwater modeling was undertaken to establish the historical relationship between the Reich Farm site and the municipal well field and to aid in the management and protection of the aquifer and well field to ensure both water quality and quantity. The modeling of the water distribution system for Toms River was also part of the study. Groundwater flow from the Reich Farm Superfund site to the municipal well field for Toms River was modeled for a thirty-year time period using MODFLOW. To account for the growth and development of the well field within the modeling domain, a transient model was constructed. The use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and databases to manage, maintain, and compile field observations for model input and calibration was

  11. Conductivity Probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The Thermal and Electrical Conductivity Probe (TECP) for NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander took measurements in Martian soil and in the air.

    The needles on the end of the instrument were inserted into the Martian soil, allowing TECP to measure the propagation of both thermal and electrical energy. TECP also measured the humidity in the surrounding air.

    The needles on the probe are 15 millimeters (0.6 inch) long.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  12. Accuracy Assessments and Validation of an Expanded UV Irradiance Database from Satellite Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krotkov, N. A.; Herman, J.; Fioletov, V.; Seftor, C.; Larko, D.; Vasilkov, A.

    2004-01-01

    The TOMS UV irradiance database (1978 to 2000) has been expanded to include 5 new products (noon irradiance at 305, 310, 324, and 380 nm, and noon erythemal-weighted irradiance), in addition to the existing erythemal daily exposure, which permit direct Comparisons with ground-based measurements from UV spectrometers. Sensitivity studies are conducted to estimate uncertainties of the new TOMS UV irradiance data due to algorithm apriori assumptions. Comparisons with Brewer spectrometers as well as filter radiometers are used to review of the sources of known errors. Inability to distinguish between snow and cloud cover using only TOMS data results in large errors in estimating surface UV using snow climatology. A correction is suggested for the case when the regional snow albedo is known from an independent source. The summer-time positive bias between TOMS UV estimations and Brewer measurements can be seen at all wavelengths. This suggests the difference is not related to ozone absorption effects. We emphasize that uncertainty of boundary layer UV aerosol absorption properties remains a major source of error in modeling UV irradiance in clear sky conditions. Neglecting aerosol absorption by the present TOMS algorithm results in a positive summertime bias in clear-sky UV estimations over many locations. Due to high aerosol variability the bias is strongly site dependent. Data from UV-shadow-band radiometer and well-calibrated CIMEL sun-sky radiometer are used to quantify the bias at NASA/GSFC site in Greenbelt, MD. Recommendations are given to enable potential users to better account for local conditions by combining standard TOMS UV data with ancillary ground measurements.

  13. Biogenesis of the mitochondrial Tom40 channel in skeletal muscle from aged animals and its adaptability to chronic contractile activity.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Anna-Maria; Ljubicic, Vladimir; Adhihetty, Peter J; Hood, David A

    2010-06-01

    Evidence exists that mitochondrial content and/or function is reduced in muscle of aging individuals. The purposes of this study were to investigate the contribution of outer membrane protein import and assembly processes to this decline and to determine whether the assembly process could adapt to chronic contractile activity (CCA). Tom40 assembly into the translocases of the outer membrane (TOM complex) was measured in subsarcolemmal mitochondria obtained from young (6 mo old) and aged (36 mo old) Fischer 344 x Brown Norway animals. While the initial import of Tom40 did not differ between young and aged animals, its subsequent assembly into the final approximately 380 kDa complex was 2.2-fold higher (P < 0.05) in mitochondria from aged compared with young animals. This was associated with a higher abundance of Tom22, a protein vital for the assembly process. CCA induced a greater initial import and subsequent assembly of Tom40 in mitochondria from young animals, resulting in a CCA-induced 75% increase (P < 0.05) in Tom40 within mitochondria. This effect of CCA was attenuated in mitochondria from old animals. These data suggest that the import and assembly of proteins into the outer membrane do not contribute to reduced mitochondrial content or function in aged animals. Indeed, the greater assembly rate in mitochondria from aged animals may be a compensatory mechanism attempting to offset any decrements in mitochondrial content or function within aged muscle. Our data also indicate the potential of CCA to contribute to increased mitochondrial biogenesis in muscle through changes in the outer membrane import and assembly pathway. PMID:20107041

  14. Earth orbiting technologies for understanding global change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, Leonard A.; Johnston, Gordon I.; Hudson, Wayne R.; Couch, Lana M.

    1989-01-01

    This paper considers the technology requirements needed to support the Mission to Planet Earth concept, which will consist of several sun synchronous polar platforms; a series of low-earth orbit equatorial missions, such as Space Shuttle payloads, Space-Station-attached payloads, and the Explorer-class Earth Probes; and five geostationary platforms. In particular, the technology requirements in the areas of space-based observation, data/information, and spacecraft operation are examined.

  15. Pollution Probe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chant, Donald A.

    This book is written as a statement of concern about pollution by members of Pollution Probe, a citizens' anti-pollution group in Canada. Its purpose is to create public awareness and pressure for the eventual solution to pollution problems. The need for effective government policies to control the population explosion, conserve natural resources,…

  16. The Sounds of Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Flying board Voyagers 1 and 2 are identical 'golden' records, carrying the story of Earth far into deep space. The 12 inch gold-plated copper discs contain greetings in 60 languages, samples of music from different cultures and eras, and natural and man-made sounds from Earth. They also contain electronic information that an advanced technological civilization could convert into diagrams and photographs. The cover of each gold plated aluminum jacket, designed to protect the record from micrometeorite bombardment, also serves a double purpose in providing the finder a key to playing the record. The explanatory diagram appears on both the inner and outer surfaces of the cover, as the outer diagram will be eroded in time. Currently, both Voyager probes are sailing adrift in the black sea of interplanetary space, having left our solar system years ago.

  17. Using neutrinos to study the earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolich, Nikolai

    2008-04-01

    Mantle convection and earthquakes are generally thought to be driven by the heat produced from uranium and thorium decays inside the earth. The KamLAND experiment has recently observed neutrinos originating from these decays, pioneering a new way to probe the earth's interior. While this measurement is consistent with earth models based on the chemical composition of meteorites and heat flow measurements on the earth's surface, it is not precise enough to constrain those models. It is interesting to note that we still know less about the nuclear reactions within the earth, just below out feet, than within the sun, an object 92 million miles away. More precise future measurements of neutrinos from the earth will have a significant impact on our understanding of the earth by constraining mantle convection and earth formation models. I will discuss my dissertation geoneutrino measurement with KamLAND, and plans for future experiments.

  18. Cross Calibration of TOMS, SBUV/2 and Sciamachy Radiances from Ground Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hillsenrath, Ernest; Ahmad, Ziauddin; Bhartia, Pawan K. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Verification of a stratospheric ozone recovery remains a high priority for environmental research and policy definition. Models predict an ozone recovery at a much lower rate than the measured depletion rate observed to date. Therefore improved precision of the satellite and ground ozone observing systems are required over the long term to verify recovery. We have shown that validation of radiances is the most effective means for correcting absolute accuracy and long term drifts of backscatter type satellite measurements. This method by-passes the algorithms used for both satellite and ground based measurements which are normally used to validate and correct the satellite data. Validation of radiances will also improve all higher level data products derived from the satellite observations. Backscatter algorithms suffer from several errors such as unrepresentative a-priori data and air mass factor corrections. Radiance comparisons employ forward models but are inherently more accurate and than inverse (retrieval) algorithms. A new method for satellite validation is planned which will compliment measurements from the existing ground-based networks. This method will employ very accurate comparisons between ground based zenith sky radiances and satellite nadir radiances. These comparisons will rely heavily on the experience derived from the Shuttle SBUV (SSBUV) program which provided a reference standard of radiance measurements for SBUV/2, TOMS, and GOME. This new measurement program, called "Skyrad", employs two well established capabilities at the Goddard Space Flight Center, 1) the SSBUV calibration facilities and 2) the radiative transfer codes used for the TOMS and SBUV/2 algorithms and their subsequent refinements. Radiative transfer calculations show that ground based zenith sky and satellite nadir backscatter ultraviolet comparisons can be made very accurately under certain viewing conditions. The Skyrad instruments (SSBUV, Brewer spectrophotometers, and

  19. Discover Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Discover Earth is a NASA-funded project for teachers of grades 5-12 who want to expand their knowledge of the Earth system, and prepare to become master teachers who promote Earth system science in their own schools, counties, and throughout their state. Participants from the following states are invited to apply: Connecticut, Delaware, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont, and Washington, DC. Teachers selected for the project participate in a two-week summer workshop conducted at the University of Maryland, College Park; develop classroom-ready materials during the workshop for broad dissemination; conduct a minimum of two peer training activities during the coming school year; and participate in other enrichment/education opportunities as available and desired. Discover Earth is a team effort that utilizes expertise from a range of contributors, and balances science content with hands-on classroom applications.

  20. Discover Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steele, Colleen

    1996-01-01

    Discover Earth is a NASA-funded project for teachers of grades 5-12 who want to expand their knowledge of the Earth system, and prepare to become master teachers who promote Earth system science in their own schools, counties, and throughout their state. Participants from the following states are invited to apply: Connecticut, Delaware, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont, and Washington, DC. Teachers selected for the project participate in a two-week summer workshop conducted at the University of Maryland, College Park; develop classroom-ready materials during the workshop for broad dissemination; conduct a minimum of two peer training activities during the coming school year; and participate in other enrichment/education opportunities as available and desired. Discover Earth is a team effort that utilizes expertise from a range of contributors, and balances science content with hands-on classroom applications.

  1. Determination of the UV solar risk in Argentina with high-resolution maps calculated using TOMS ozone climatology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piacentini, Rubén D.; Cede, Alexander; Luccini, Eduardo; Stengel, Fernando

    2004-01-01

    The connection between ultraviolet (UV) radiation and various skin diseases is well known. In this work, we present the computer program "UVARG", developed in order to prevent the risk of getting sunburn for persons exposed to solar UV radiation in Argentina, a country that extends from low (tropical) to high southern hemisphere latitudes. The software calculates the so-called "erythemal irradiance", i.e., the spectral irradiance weighted by the McKinlay and Diffey action spectrum for erythema and integrated in wavelength. The erythemal irradiance depends mainly on the following geophysical parameters: solar elevation, total ozone column, surface altitude, surface albedo, total aerosol optical depth and Sun-Earth distance. Minor corrections are due to the variability in the vertical ozone, aerosol, pressure, humidity and temperature profiles and the extraterrestrial spectral solar UV irradiance. Key parameter in the software is a total ozone column climatology incorporating monthly averages, standard deviations and tendencies for the particular geographical situation of Argentina that was obtained from TOMS/NASA satellite data from 1978 to 2000. Different skin types are considered in order to determine the sunburn risk at any time of the day and any day of the year, with and without sunscreen protection. We present examples of the software for three different regions: the high altitude tropical Puna of Atacama desert in the North-West, Tierra del Fuego in the South when the ozone hole event overpasses and low summertime ozone conditions over Buenos Aires, the largest populated city in the country. In particular, we analyzed the maximum time for persons having different skin types during representative days of the year (southern hemisphere equinoxes and solstices). This work was made possible by the collaboration between the Argentine Skin Cancer Foundation, the Institute of Physics Rosario (CONICET-National University of Rosario, Argentina) and the Institute of

  2. Evaluating Ultraviolet Radiation Exposures Determined from TOMS Satellite Data at Sites of Amphibian Declines in Central and South America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Middleton, Elizabeth M.; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Many amphibian species have experienced substantial population declines, or have disappeared altogether, during the last several decades at a number of amphibian census sites in Central and South America. This study addresses the use of satellite-derived trends in solar ultraviolet-B (UV-B; 280-320 nm) radiation exposures at these sites over the last two decades, and is intended to demonstrate a role for satellite observations in determining whether UV-B radiation is a contributing factor in amphibian declines. UV-B radiation levels at the Earth's surface were derived from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) satellite data, typically acquired daily since 1979. These data were used to calculate the daily erythemal (sunburning) UV-B, or UV-B(sub ery), exposures at the latitude, longitude, and elevation of each of 20 census sites. The annually averaged UV-B(sub ery) dose, as well as the maximum values, have been increasing in both Central and South America, with higher levels received at the Central American sites. The annually averaged UV-B(sub ery) exposures increased significantly from 1979-1998 at all 11 Central American sites examined (r(exp 2) = 0.60 - 0.79; P<=0.015), with smaller but significant increases at five of the nine South American sites (r(exp 2) = 0.24-0.42; P<=0.05). The contribution of the highest UV-B(sub ery) exposure levels (>= 6750 J/sq m*d) to the annual UV-B(sub ery) total has increased from approx. 5% to approx. 15% in Central America over the 19 year period, but actual daily exposures for each species are unknown. Synergy among UV-B radiation and other factors, especially those associated with alterations of water chemistry (e.g., acidification) in aqueous habitats is discussed. These findings justify further research concerning whether UV-B(sub ery) radiation plays a role in amphibian population declines and extinctions.

  3. Earth Rotation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickey, Jean O.

    1995-01-01

    The study of the Earth's rotation in space (encompassing Universal Time (UT1), length of day, polar motion, and the phenomena of precession and nutation) addresses the complex nature of Earth orientation changes, the mechanisms of excitation of these changes and their geophysical implications in a broad variety of areas. In the absence of internal sources of energy or interactions with astronomical objects, the Earth would move as a rigid body with its various parts (the crust, mantle, inner and outer cores, atmosphere and oceans) rotating together at a constant fixed rate. In reality, the world is considerably more complicated, as is schematically illustrated. The rotation rate of the Earth's crust is not constant, but exhibits complicated fluctuations in speed amounting to several parts in 10(exp 8) [corresponding to a variation of several milliseconds (ms) in the Length Of the Day (LOD) and about one part in 10(exp 6) in the orientation of the rotation axis relative to the solid Earth's axis of figure (polar motion). These changes occur over a broad spectrum of time scales, ranging from hours to centuries and longer, reflecting the fact that they are produced by a wide variety of geophysical and astronomical processes. Geodetic observations of Earth rotation changes thus provide insights into the geophysical processes illustrated, which are often difficult to obtain by other means. In addition, these measurements are required for engineering purposes. Theoretical studies of Earth rotation variations are based on the application of Euler's dynamical equations to the problem of finding the response of slightly deformable solid Earth to variety of surface and internal stresses.

  4. Earth materials and earth dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, K; Shankland, T.

    2000-11-01

    In the project ''Earth Materials and Earth Dynamics'' we linked fundamental and exploratory, experimental, theoretical, and computational research programs to shed light on the current and past states of the dynamic Earth. Our objective was to combine different geological, geochemical, geophysical, and materials science analyses with numerical techniques to illuminate active processes in the Earth. These processes include fluid-rock interactions that form and modify the lithosphere, non-linear wave attenuations in rocks that drive plate tectonics and perturb the earth's surface, dynamic recrystallization of olivine that deforms the upper mantle, development of texture in high-pressure olivine polymorphs that create anisotropic velocity regions in the convecting upper mantle and transition zone, and the intense chemical reactions between the mantle and core. We measured physical properties such as texture and nonlinear elasticity, equation of states at simultaneous pressures and temperatures, magnetic spins and bonding, chemical permeability, and thermal-chemical feedback to better characterize earth materials. We artificially generated seismic waves, numerically modeled fluid flow and transport in rock systems and modified polycrystal plasticity theory to interpret measured physical properties and integrate them into our understanding of the Earth. This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL).

  5. Trends in column ozone based on TOMS data - Dependence on month, latitude, and longitude

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niu, Xufeng; Frederick, John E.; Stein, Michael L.; Tiao, George C.

    1992-01-01

    On the basis of the TOMS satellite column ozone data in latitudes 70 deg S-70 deg N from November 1978 to May 1990, a statistical model is used to estimate the trends in ozone as a function of latitude, longitude, and month. The trends in the TOMS ozone data are highly seasonal and dependent on location. Near the equator, the estimated monthly trends are not significantly different from zero. For high latitudes, most of the estimated monthly trends are negative. In January, February, and March, there are some positive trend estimates in the western hemisphere around latitude 60 deg N. The most negative trends for these three months also appear in the high latitudes of the northern hemisphere. Starting in June, more negative trends appear in the latitudes 50 deg S-70 deg S than the trends in the rest of the world considered. A large depletion develops during the spring time (September to November) in the southern high-latitude region, and the area of peak ozone decline is moving eastward during the period. The largest negative trends (about -29 percent per decade) for the area considered in this study appear in October around the latitude 70 deg S and longitudes 20 deg W-100 deg W region. For the northern hemisphere, the year-round trend estimates for latitudes 30 deg N-70 deg N range from -0.96 percent to -7.43 percent per decade. In the latitudes 30 deg N-50 deg N, the winter trend estimates are more negative than those for the summer and the fall. However, this pattern did not hold for latitudes 50 deg N-70 deg N.

  6. Modeling the Effects of Connecting Side Channels to the Long Tom River, Oregon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appleby, C.; McDowell, P. F.

    2015-12-01

    The lower Long Tom River is a heavily managed, highly modified stream in the southwestern Willamette Valley with many opportunities for habitat improvements and river restoration. In the 1940s and 1950s, the US Army Corps of Engineers dramatically altered this river system by constructing the Fern Ridge Dam and three, large drop structures, converting the River from a highly sinuous channel to a straight, channelized stream that is interrupted by these grade control structures, and removed the majority of the riparian vegetation. As a result, juvenile spring Chinook salmon are no longer found in the Watershed and the local population of coastal cutthroat trout face limited aquatic habitat. When the river was channelized, long sections of the historical channel were left abandoned on the floodplain. Reconnecting these historical channels as side channels may improve the quality and quantity of aquatic habitat and could allow fish passage around current barriers. However, such construction may also lead to undesirable threats to infrastructure and farmland. This study uses multiple HEC-RAS models to determine the impact of reconnecting two historical channels to the lower Long Tom River by quantifying the change in area of flood inundation and identifying infrastructure in jeapordy given current and post-restoration conditions for 1.5, 5, 10, and 25-year flood discharges. Bathymetric data from ADCP and RTK-GPS surveys has been combined with LiDAR-derived topographic data to create continuous elevation models. Several types of side channel connections are modeled in order to determine which type of connection will result in both the greatest quantity of accessible habitat and the fewest threats to public and private property. In the future, this study will also consider the change in the quantity of physical salmonid habitat and map the areas prone to sedimentation and erosion using CEASAR and PHABSIM tools.

  7. U.S. EPA’s Technical Support for the Reich Farm (Toms River, NJ) Superfund Site Remediation

    EPA Science Inventory

    PowerPoint slide file that gives a brief history of the SAN Trimer contamination in Toms River, NJ as well as the EPA's provided technical support, specifically the development and application of the Provisional Peer-Reviewed Toxicity Value (PPRTV) assessment for SAN Trimer.

  8. Language and ToM Development in Autism versus Asperger Syndrome: Contrasting Influences of Syntactic versus Lexical/Semantic Maturity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paynter, Jessica; Peterson, Candida

    2010-01-01

    Theory of mind (ToM) development by a sample of 63 children aged 5-12 years (24 with Asperger syndrome, 19 with high-functioning autism, and 20 age-matched typical developers) was assessed with a five-task false-belief battery in relation to both lexical (vocabulary) and syntactic (grammar) language skills. Contrary to some previous research, no…

  9. Seasonal Characteristics of Tropical Ozone Profiles using the SHADOZ Ozonesonde Data Set: Comparisons with TOMS Tropical Ozone Climatology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witte, J. C.; Thompson, A. M.; Bhartia, P. K. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Advances in tropospheric ozone data products being developed for tropical and subtropical regions using TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) and other satellites are motivating efforts to renew and expand the collection of balloon-borne ozonesonde observations. The SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere ADditional OZonesondes) project is a web-based archive established since 1998. It's goals are to support validation of TOMS and SBUV (Solar Backscatter UV) satellite ozone measurements and to improve remote sensing techniques for estimating tropical and subtropical ozone. Profile data are taken from balloon-borne ozonesondes, currently at 11 stations coordinating weekly to bi-weekly launches. Station data are publically available at a central location via the internet: . Since the start of the project, the SHADOZ archive has accumulated over 1500 ozonesonde profiles. Data also includes measurements from various SHADOZ supported field campaigns, such as, the Indian Ocean Experiment (INDOEX), Sounding of Ozone and Water in the Equatorial Region (SOWER) and Aerosols99 Atlantic Cruise. Using data from the archive, profile climatologies from selected stations will be shown to 1/characterize the variability of tropospheric tropical ozone among stations, 2/illustrate the seasonal offsets with respect to the tropical profile used in the TOMS v7 algorithm, and 3/estimate the potential error in TOMS retrieval estimates of the tropospheric portion of the atmosphere.

  10. From the External to the Internal: Behavior Clarifications Facilitate Theory of Mind (ToM) Development in Chinese Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Yanchun; Wang, Yijie; Luo, Rufan; Su, Yanjie

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated how Chinese children develop theory of mind (ToM) in a language environment with limited mental state talk that is rich in behavior discourse. In Study 1, 60 mothers shared a wordless storybook with their 3-4-year-olds. The children completed two false-belief tasks and the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Revised at…

  11. Water quality study at the Congaree Swamp National monument of Myers Creek, Reeves Creek and Toms Creek. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Rikard, M.

    1991-11-01

    The Congaree Swamp National Monument is one of the last significant near virgin tracts of bottom land hardwood forests in the Southeast United States. The study documents a water quality monitoring program on Myers Creek, Reeves Creek and Toms Creek. Basic water quality parameters were analyzed. High levels of aluminum and iron were found, and recommendations were made for further monitoring.

  12. Profiles in Online Learning: A Series on Leadership--Tom Layton: Judo and the Art of Technology Innovation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danielson, Larry

    1998-01-01

    Profiles a high school technology teacher and creator of CyberSchool, a distance learning program of the Eugene (Oregon) School District. Discusses Tom Layton's education, early work experience, establishment of a high school English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) program, integration of computers into the classroom, reputation as a technology leader,…

  13. Earth: Earth Science and Health

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maynard, Nancy G.

    2001-01-01

    A major new NASA initiative on environmental change and health has been established to promote the application of Earth science remote sensing data, information, observations, and technologies to issues of human health. NASA's Earth Sciences suite of Earth observing instruments are now providing improved observations science, data, and advanced technologies about the Earth's land, atmosphere, and oceans. These new space-based resources are being combined with other agency and university resources, data integration and fusion technologies, geographic information systems (GIS), and the spectrum of tools available from the public health community, making it possible to better understand how the environment and climate are linked to specific diseases, to improve outbreak prediction, and to minimize disease risk. This presentation is an overview of NASA's tools, capabilities, and research advances in this initiative.

  14. Active Near Earth Asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenniskens, Peter

    2015-08-01

    Past activity from Near Earth Asteroids is recorded in the meteoroid streams that cause our meteor showers. Automated meteoroid orbit surveys by photographic, low-light video, specular radar, and head-echo radar reflections are providing the first maps of meteor shower activity at different particle sizes. There are distinct differences in particle size distributions among streams. The underlaying mechanisms that created these streams are illuminated: fragmentation from spin-up or thermal stresses, meteoroid ejection by water vapor drag, and ejection of icy particles by CO and CO2 sublimation. The distribution of the meteoroid orbital elements probe the subsequent evolution by planetary perturbations and sample the range of dynamical processes to which Near Earth Asteroids are exposed. The non-stream "sporadic" meteors probe early stages in the evolution from meteoroid streams into the zodiacal dust cloud. We see that the lifetime of large meteoroids is generally not limited by collisions. Results obtained by the CAMS video survey of meteoroid orbits are compared to those from other orbit surveys. Since October 2010, over 200,000 meteoroid orbits have been measured. First results from an expansion into the southern hemisphere are also presented, as are first results from the measurement of main element compositions. Among the many streams detected so far, the Geminid and Sextantid showers stand out by having a relatively high particle density and derive from parent bodies that appear to have originated in the main belt.

  15. Comparisons Between Ground Measurements of Broadband UV Irradiance (300-380 nm) and TOMS UV Estimates at Moscow for 1979-2000

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yurova, Alla Y.; Krotkov, Nicholay A.; Herman, Jay R.; Bhartia, P. K. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We show the comparisons between ground-based measurements of spectrally integrated (300 nm to 380 nm) ultraviolet (UV) irradiance with satellite estimates from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) total ozone and reflectivity data for the whole period of TOMS measurements (1979-2000) over the Meteorological Observatory of Moscow State University (MO MSU), Moscow, Russia. Several aspects of the comparisons are analyzed, including effects of cloudiness, aerosol, and snow cover. Special emphasis is given to the effect of different spatial and temporal averaging of ground-based data when comparing with low-resolution satellite measurements (TOMS footprint area 50-200 sq km). The comparisons in cloudless scenes with different aerosol loading have revealed TOMS irradiance overestimates from +5% to +20%. A-posteriori correction of the TOMS data accounting for boundary layer aerosol absorption (single scattering albedo of 0.92) eliminates the bias for cloud-free conditions. The single scattering albedo was independently verified using CIMEL sun and sky-radiance measurements at MO MSU in September 2001. The mean relative difference between TOMS UV estimates and ground UV measurements mainly lies within 1 10% for both snow-free and snow period with a tendency to TOMS overestimation in snow-free period especially at overcast conditions when the positive bias reaches 15-17%. The analysis of interannual UV variations shows quite similar behavior for both TOMS and ground measurements (correlation coefficient r=0.8). No long-term trend in the annual mean bias was found for both clear-sky and all-sky conditions with snow and without snow. Both TOMS and ground data show positive trend in UV irradiance between 1979 and 2000. The UV trend is attributed to decreases in both cloudiness and aerosol optical thickness during the late 1990's over Moscow region. However, if the analyzed period is extended to include pre-TOMS era (1968-2000 period), no trend in ground UV irradiance is

  16. Gravity Probe B Assembled

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    In this photo, the Gravity Probe B (GP-B) space vehicle is being assembled at the Sunnyvale, California location of the Lockheed Martin Corporation. The GP-B is the relativity experiment developed at Stanford University to test two extraordinary predictions of Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity. The experiment will measure, very precisely, the expected tiny changes in the direction of the spin axes of four gyroscopes contained in an Earth-orbiting satellite at a 400-mile altitude. So free are the gyroscopes from disturbance that they will provide an almost perfect space-time reference system. They will measure how space and time are very slightly warped by the presence of the Earth, and, more profoundly, how the Earth's rotation very slightly drags space-time around with it. These effects, though small for the Earth, have far-reaching implications for the nature of matter and the structure of the Universe. GP-B is among the most thoroughly researched programs ever undertaken by NASA. This is the story of a scientific quest in which physicists and engineers have collaborated closely over many years. Inspired by their quest, they have invented a whole range of technologies that are already enlivening other branches of science and engineering. Launched April 20, 2004 , the GP-B program was managed for NASA by the Marshall Space Flight Center. Development of the GP-B is the responsibility of Stanford University along with major subcontractor Lockheed Martin Corporation. (Image credit to Russ Underwood, Lockheed Martin Corporation).

  17. Scorched Earth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monastersky, Richard

    2007-01-01

    For the past three years, leading scientists from more than 40 countries have been conducting a physical of the planet. They have monitored its vital signs, probed its parts, taken its temperature, measured its bodily fluids. This article deals with the global-warming report for the United Nations released by a panel of 1,200 scientists at a news…

  18. Comparison of Landsat-7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) and Earth Observing One (EO-1) Advanced Land Imager

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pedelty, Jeffrey A.; Morisette, Jeffrey T.; Smith, James A.

    2004-01-01

    We compare images from the Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) sensor on Landsat-7 and the Advanced Land Imager (ALI) instrument on Earth Observing One (EO-1) over a test site in Rochester, New York. The site contains a variety of features, ranging from water of varying depths, deciduous/coniferous forest, and grass fields, to urban areas. Nearly coincident cloud-free images were collected one minute apart on 25 August 2001. We also compare images of a forest site near Howland, Maine, that were collected on 7 September, 2001. We atmospherically corrected each pair of images with the Second Simulation of the Satellite Signal in the Solar Spectrum (6S) atmosphere model, using aerosol optical thickness and water vapor column density measured by in situ Cimel sun photometers within the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET), along with ozone density derived from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) on the Earth Probe satellite. We present true-color composites from each instrument that show excellent qualitative agreement between the multispectral sensors, along with grey-scale images that demonstrate a significantly improved ALI panchromatic band. We quantitatively compare ALI and ETM+ reflectance spectra of a grassy field in Rochester and find < or equal to 6% differences in the visible/near infrared and approx. 2% differences in the short wave infrared. Spectral comparisons of forest sites in Rochester and Howland yield similar percentage agreement except for band 1, which has very low reflectance. Principal component analyses and comparison of normalized difference vegetation index histograms for each sensor indicate that the ALI is able to reproduce the information content in the ETM+ but with superior signal-to-noise performance due to its increased 12-bit quantization.

  19. Digital Earth - A sustainable Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahavir

    2014-02-01

    All life, particularly human, cannot be sustainable, unless complimented with shelter, poverty reduction, provision of basic infrastructure and services, equal opportunities and social justice. Yet, in the context of cities, it is believed that they can accommodate more and more people, endlessly, regardless to their carrying capacity and increasing ecological footprint. The 'inclusion', for bringing more and more people in the purview of development is often limited to social and economic inclusion rather than spatial and ecological inclusion. Economic investment decisions are also not always supported with spatial planning decisions. Most planning for a sustainable Earth, be at a level of rural settlement, city, region, national or Global, fail on the capacity and capability fronts. In India, for example, out of some 8,000 towns and cities, Master Plans exist for only about 1,800. A chapter on sustainability or environment is neither statutorily compulsory nor a norm for these Master Plans. Geospatial technologies including Remote Sensing, GIS, Indian National Spatial Data Infrastructure (NSDI), Indian National Urban Information Systems (NUIS), Indian Environmental Information System (ENVIS), and Indian National GIS (NGIS), etc. have potential to map, analyse, visualize and take sustainable developmental decisions based on participatory social, economic and social inclusion. Sustainable Earth, at all scales, is a logical and natural outcome of a digitally mapped, conceived and planned Earth. Digital Earth, in fact, itself offers a platform to dovetail the ecological, social and economic considerations in transforming it into a sustainable Earth.

  20. Earth Algebra.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaufele, Christopher; Zumoff, Nancy

    Earth Algebra is an entry level college algebra course that incorporates the spirit of the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) Curriculum and Evaluation Standards for School Mathematics at the college level. The context of the course places mathematics at the center of one of the major current concerns of the world. Through…

  1. Earth Flats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohlin, R. C.; Mack, J.; Hartig, G.; Sirianni, M.

    2005-10-01

    Since the last ISR 2003-02 on the use of Earth observations for a source of flat field illumination, several hundred more observations have been obtained with the full set of HRC standard filters and four narrow band WFC filters. While most of these observation show streaks or other nonuniform illumination, a significant subset are defect free and can be used to construct complete LP-flats. Many of the existing pipeline flats are confirmed to a precision of ~1%, which validates the stellar L-flat technique. Exceptions are the WFC, where a shutter light leak causes a systematic central contamination of a few percent and limits the verification accuracy to ~2%. Other exceptions are the four longest wavelength HRC filters, which show systematic differences with the pipeline flats. This discrepancy is apparently caused by stray light originating from the detector surface, where most of the longest wavelength photons are reflected and then scattered back from nearby focal plane structures. Because this complete set of HRC Earth flats is more appropriate than the pipeline flats for large diffuse objects such as the Moon, Jupiter, or the Orion Nebula, the set is now available on the STScI/ACS website. Earth flats also measure the small and intermediate scale P-flat structure. Due to slight deviations from OTA like illumination in the lab, the flat field corrections in the dust mote regions are 1-2% better with Earth flats. The trend found in ACS ISR 2005-09 for an increase toward the UV for more pixels with non-Poisson statistical distributions is confirmed for the F330W Earth flats, where up to 3% of the pixels are in error by >1%. Most of this newly discovered population of deviant pixels are dark with low responses; however, the effect of these erroneous P-flat values on stellar photometry is less than 0.1%.

  2. Earth meandering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asadiyan, H.; Zamani, A.

    2009-04-01

    In this paper we try to put away current Global Tectonic Model to look the tectonic evolution of the earth from new point of view. Our new dynamic model is based on study of river meandering (RM) which infer new concept as Earth meandering(EM). In a universal gravitational field if we consider a clockwise spiral galaxy model rotate above Ninety East Ridge (geotectonic axis GA), this system with applying torsion field (likes geomagnetic field) in side direction from Rocky Mt. (west geotectonic pole WGP) to Tibetan plateau TP (east geotectonic pole EGP),it seems that pulled mass from WGP and pushed it in EGP due to it's rolling dynamics. According to this idea we see in topographic map that North America and Green land like a tongue pulled from Pacific mouth toward TP. Actually this system rolled or meander the earth over itself fractaly from small scale to big scale and what we see in the river meandering and Earth meandering are two faces of one coin. River transport water and sediments from high elevation to lower elevation and also in EM, mass transport from high altitude-Rocky Mt. to lower altitude Himalaya Mt. along 'S' shape geodetic line-optimum path which connect points from high altitude to lower altitude as kind of Euler Elastica(EE). These curves are responsible for mass spreading (source) and mass concentration (sink). In this regard, tiltness of earth spin axis plays an important role, 'S' are part of sigmoidal shape which formed due to intersection of Earth rolling with the Earth glob and actual feature of transform fault and river meandering. Longitudinal profile in mature rivers as a part of 'S' curve also is a kind of EE. 'S' which bound the whole earth is named S-1(S order 1) and cube corresponding to this which represent Earth fracturing in global scale named C-1(cube order 1 or side vergence cube SVC), C-1 is a biggest cycle of spiral polygon, so it is not completely closed and it has separation about diameter of C-7. Inside SVC we introduce cone

  3. [Human intestinal parasites in Subsaharan Africa. II. Sao Tomé and Principe].

    PubMed

    Pampiglione, S; Visconti, S; Pezzino, G

    1987-04-01

    In 1983 the authors carried out a survey in the Democratic Republic of São Tomé and Principe, analysing 1050 specimens of stools collected among the population from apparently healthy subjects chosen at random and in a number proportional to the distribution of the population in the regions of the country (about 1% of the population was examined). The examined subjects were divided into 3 age groups (0-3, 4-12, more than 12 years old), to have homogeneous groups in relation principally to modalities of life and nutritional patterns. There were 488 male subjects and 562 females. The survey was preceded by a sensitization of the people to the problem of intestinal parasites and by two preliminary surveys about the number of existing latrines and about people's believes and attitudes in relation to helmintiasis. The tests were made according to the modified Ritchie technique on fecal specimens preserved with 10% formol solution. The following results were found: a) Protozoa: Entamoeba coli, 43.0%; Iodamoeba buetschlii, 9.0%; Giardia intestinalis, 8.8%; Endolimax nana, 7.0%; E. histolytica, 5.5%; E. hartmanni, 2.5%; Chilomastix mesnili, 2.3%; Trichomonas intestinalis, 0.2%; Balantidium coli, 0.1%. b) Helminths: Trichuris trichiura, 87.7%; Ascaris lumbricoides, 64.3%; Ancylostomatidae, 40.5%; Strongyloides stercoralis, 6.8%; Hymenolepis diminuta, 0.3%; H. nana, 0.2%; Schistosoma haematobium, 0.2%. In 28.2% of the specimens (with more than 50% of subjects in some villages) eggs of Heterophyidae were found, very similar to Metagonimus yokogawai, but not yet identified by us, with the following characteristics: elliptical shape, average size 25 mu (22.2-27.7) X 18.5 mu (17-21), thick wall, operculum difficult to see, not sticking out from the outline but visible by focusing being in a different refractiveness, presence of a small polar knob, colour slightly brownish, asymmetric miracidium. Further investigations are necessary to identify the species of this trematode and

  4. Dementia and well-being: A conceptual framework based on Tom Kitwood's model of needs.

    PubMed

    Kaufmann, Elke G; Engel, Sabine A

    2016-07-01

    The topic of well-being is becoming increasingly significant as a key outcome measure in dementia care. Previous work on personhood of individuals with dementia suggests that their subjective well-being can be described in terms of comfort, inclusion, identity, occupation and attachment The study aimed to examine Tom Kitwood's model of psychological needs and well-being in dementia based on the self-report of individuals with moderate or severe dementia and to differentiate and elaborate this model in the light of the empirical qualitative data. Nineteen inhabitants of a special long-term care unit were interviewed using a semi-structured interview. Data were analysed using content analysis. Thirty components within Kitwood's model have been identified. A conceptual framework of subjective well-being in dementia was developed based on a theoretical background. The study was able to find indications that Kitwood's model has empirical relevance. Nevertheless, it requires to be extended by the domain agency. Furthermore, the study suggests that individuals with dementia are important informants of their subjective well-being. PMID:24948470

  5. Negotiating international bioethics: a response to Tom Beauchamp and Ruth Macklin.

    PubMed

    Baker, Robert

    1998-12-01

    Can the bioethical theories that have served American bioethics so well, serve international bioethics as well? In two papers in the previous issue of the Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal, I contend that the form of principlist fundamentalism endorsed by American bioethicists like Tom Beauchamp and Ruth Macklin will not play on an international stage. Deploying techniques of postmodern scholarship, I argue that principlist fundamentalism justifies neither the condemnation of the Nazi doctors at Nuremberg, nor, as the Report of the Advisory Committee on the Human Radiation Experiments (ACHRE) demonstrates, condemnation of Cold War radiation researchers. Principlist fundamentalism thus appears to be philosophy bankrupt. In this issue of the Journal, Beauchamp and Macklin reject this claim, arguing that I have misread the ACHRE report and misunderstood Nazism. They also argue that the form of post-postmodern negotiated human rights theory that I proffer is adequate only insofar as it is itself really fundamentalist; insofar as I take postmodernism seriously, however, I mire international bioethics in relativism. In this response, I reaffirm my anti-fundamentalism, provide further evidence in support of my reading of the ACHRE report, and defend my post-postmodern version of rights theory. I also develop criteria for a minimally adequate theoretical framework for international bioethics. PMID:11657321

  6. Comprehensive Resources for Tomato Functional Genomics Based on the Miniature Model Tomato Micro-Tom

    PubMed Central

    Matsukura, C; Aoki, K; Fukuda, N; Mizoguchi, T; Asamizu, E; Saito, T; Shibata, D; Ezura, H

    2008-01-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L., Solanaceae) is an excellent model plant for genomic research of solanaceous plants, as well as for studying the development, ripening, and metabolism of fruit. In 2003, the International Solanaceae Project (SOL, www.sgn.cornell.edu ) was initiated by members from more than 30 countries, and the tomato genome-sequencing project is currently underway. Genome sequence of tomato obtained by this project will provide a firm foundation for forthcoming genomic studies such as the comparative analysis of genes conserved among the Solanaceae species and the elucidation of the functions of unknown tomato genes. To exploit the wealth of the genome sequence information, there is an urgent need for novel resources and analytical tools for tomato functional genomics. Here, we present an overview of the development of genetic and genomic resources of tomato in the last decade, with a special focus on the activities of Japan SOL and the National Bio-Resource Project in the development of functional genomic resources of a model cultivar, Micro-Tom. PMID:19506732

  7. Re-processing TOMS UV Measurements to Retrieve SO2 Emissions From Volcanic Eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, B. L.; Krotkov, N. A.; Bhartia, P. K.; Li, C.; Haffner, D. P.; Leonard, P.; Carn, S. A.; Telling, J. W.

    2015-12-01

    The SO2 Monitoring Group at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center is producing a new multi-satellite long term data set of volcanic SO2 column amounts and heights (MSVOLSO2L4) as part of the NASA MEaSUREs Program. Here we present re-analysis of the UV measurements (BUV) from the NASA Nimbus 7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (N7 TOMS: 1978-1993). Ozone is the dominant atmospheric absorber in the BUV spectrum, but volcanic eruptions can produce enough SO2 to be distinguished from ozone background. Quantitative retrieval of volcanic SO2 requires:1) Separation of the O3 and SO2 absorption in BUV radiances;2) Close to zero mean SO2 background;3) RT forward model that accounts for the presence of volcanic ash in the plume; 4) A priori knowledge of the ozone and SO2 vertical profiles.Our iterative retrieval algorithm returns O3 and SO2 column amounts, effective reflectivity and its spectral slope. The retrieval model also generates a 4 x 4 gain matrix for the SO2 free regions that is used to soft calibrate the measured 340 nm BUV radiance. The spectral slope implicitly accounts for the interference of volcanic ash, but more explicit ash treatment is required to better quantify SO2 errors in volcanic plumes heavily loaded with ash. This presentation will discuss the methods used to characterize the error sources and assess the quality of this unique long-term SO2 data set.

  8. Spectrometry of the Earth using neutrino oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taketa, Akimichi; Rott, Carsten

    2016-04-01

    Neutrinos have favorable properties for measuring the elemental composition deep inside the earth's interior. First, they propagate a long distance almost undisturbed through the earth due to their weak interactions with matter. Secondly, neutrino oscillations in matter are sensitive to the electron density of the medium traversed by them. Therefore, neutrinos can be used for a probe to determine the average atomic mass ratio Z/A of the earth's core by comparing with the earth's nucleus density distribution that is inferred from seismic observations. There is a little uncertainty in densities of the earth's core, but our knowledge of its main light element is still not fixed. With the advent of the new-generation megaton neutrino detectors, neutrino oscillation mass spectrometry will allow us to constrain directly the light elements in the earth's outer core. We report the detail of this novel technic and the sensitivity study.

  9. Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) observations of increases in Asian aerosol in winter from 1979 to 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Massie, Steven T.; Torres, O.; Smith, Steven J.

    2004-12-01

    Emission inventories indicate that the largest increases in SO{sub 2} emissions have occurred in Asia during the last 20 years. By inference, largest increases in aerosol, produced primarily by the conversion of SO{sub 2} to sulfate, should have occurred in Asia during the same time period. Decadal changes in regional aerosol optical depths are calculated by analyzing Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) vertical aerosol optical depths (converted to 550 nm) from 1979 to 2000 on a 1{sup o} by 1{sup o} global grid. The anthropogenic component of the TOMS aerosol record is maximized by examining the seasonal cycles of desert dust and Boreal fire smoke, and identifying the months of the year for which the desert dust and Boreal fire smoke are least conspicuous. Gobi and Taklimakan desert dust in Asia is prevalent in the TOMS record during spring, and eastern Siberian smoke from Boreal forest fires is prevalent during summer. Aerosol trends are calculated on a regional basis during winter (November-February) to maximize the anthropogenic component of the aerosol record. Large increases in aerosol optical depths between 1979 and 2000 are present over the China coastal plain and the Ganges river basin in India. Aerosol increased by 17% per decade during winter over the China coastal plain, while SO{sub 2} emissions over the same geographical region increased by 33% per decade.

  10. TOM-independent complex formation of Bax and Bak in mammalian mitochondria during TNFalpha-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Ross, K; Rudel, T; Kozjak-Pavlovic, V

    2009-05-01

    The Bcl-2 family proteins Bax and Bak are activated in response to many apoptotic stimuli. As a consequence of activation, Bax and Bak oligomerize and permeabilize the outer mitochondrial membrane to permit the release of apoptosis-inducing factors. It still remains unclear whether these proteins require components of the mitochondrial protein import machinery for their function at the mitochondria. Here, we addressed this question by using inducible RNA interference for the study of protein import in mammalian mitochondria. After induction of apoptosis, we could not detect any impact of the absence of Tom22, Tom70, Tom40, Sam50 or metaxins on the translocation of Bax and formation of Bax and Bak complexes in mitochondria. In in vitro import studies, loss of these import and assembly proteins had no or only slight effect on the formation of complexes by radiolabeled Bax and Bak. We conclude that the import and assembly machineries of mammalian mitochondria have no impact on the translocation and complex assembly of Bax and Bak upon apoptosis induction. PMID:19165229

  11. TOMS ozone data compared at mesoscale resolution to tropopause heights from the AVE radiosonde network and to VAS radiances over the south-central United States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chesters, Dennis; Uccellini, Louis; Larko, David

    1987-01-01

    Observations from 1982 are being compared between the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS), the Atmospheric Variability Experiment (AVE), and the VISSR Atmospheric Sounder (VAS) across Texas and Oklahoma. TOMS data show a significant ozone maximum over northeastern Texas. AVE radiosonde analysis shows tropopause heights with the highest pressure (lowest altitudes) over central Oklahoma accompanied by a mid-level jet across northern Mexico exiting above the Texas-Gulf coast. Corresponding VAS radiances show a dry slot in the middle tropopause across central Texas accompanied by a secondary slot over Oklahoma. The maxima are separated by 100 to 500 km. The impact of TOMS data on tropopause analysis is preliminarily seen as insignificant because TOMS data is not registered with respect to AVE tropopause heights.

  12. The early Earth Observing System reference handbook: Earth Science and Applications Division missions, 1990-1997

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Prior to the launch of the Earth Observing System (EOS) series, NASA will launch and operate a wide variety of new earth science satellites and instruments, as well as undertake several efforts collecting and using the data from existing and planned satellites from other agencies and nations. These initiatives will augment the knowledge base gained from ongoing Earth Science and Applications Division (ESAD) programs. This volume describes three sets of ESAD activities -- ongoing exploitation of operational satellite data, research missions with upcoming launches between now and the first launch of EOS, and candidate earth probes.

  13. Ancient impact structures on modern continental shelves: The Chesapeake Bay, Montagnais, and Toms Canyon craters, Atlantic margin of North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Poag, C. Wylie; Plescia, J.B.; Molzer, P.C.

    2002-01-01

    Three ancient impact craters (Chesapeake Bay - 35.7 Ma; Toms Canyon - 35.7 Ma; Montagnais - 51 Ma) and one multiring impact basin (Chicxulub - 65 Ma) are currently known to be buried beneath modern continental shelves. All occur on the passive Atlantic margin of North America in regions extensively explored by seismic reflection surveys in the search for oil and gas reserves. We limit our discussion herein to the three youngest structures. These craters were created by submarine impacts, which produced many structural and morphological features similar in construction, composition, and variability to those documented in well-preserved subaerial and planetary impact craters. The subcircular Chesapeake Bay (diameter 85 km) and ovate Montagnais (diameter 45-50 km) structures display outer-rim scarps, annular troughs, peak rings, inner basins, and central peaks similar to those incorporated in the widely cited conceptual model of complex impact craters. These craters differ in several respects from the model, however. For example, the Montagnais crater lacks a raised lip on the outer rim, the Chesapeake Bay crater displays only small remnants of a raised lip, and both craters contain an unusually thick body of impact breccia. The subtriangular Toms Canyon crater (diameter 20-22 km), on the other hand, contains none of the internal features of a complex crater, nor is it typical of a simple crater. It displays a prominent raised lip on the outer rim, but the lip is present only on the western side of the crater. In addition, each of these craters contains some distinct features, which are not present in one or both of the others. For example, the central peak at Montagnais rises well above the elevation of the outer rim, whereas at Chesapeake Bay, the outer rim is higher than the central peak. The floor of the Toms Canyon crater is marked by parallel deep troughs and linear ridges formed of sedimentary rocks, whereas at Chesapeake Bay, the crater floor contains

  14. F-8 SCW on ramp with test pilot Tom McMurtry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    A Vought F-8A Crusader was selected by NASA as the testbed aircraft (designated TF-8A) to install an experimental Supercritical Wing (SCW) in place of the conventional wing. The unique design of the Supercritical Wing reduces the effect of shock waves on the upper surface near Mach 1, which in turn reduces drag. In this photograph the TF-8A Crusader with Supercritical Wing is shown on the ramp with project pilot Tom McMurtry standing beside it. McMurtry received NASA's Exceptional Service Medal for his work on the F-8 SCW aircraft. He also flew the AD-1, F-15 Digital Electronic Engine Control, the KC-130 winglets, the F-8 Digital Fly-By-Wire and other flight research aircraft including the remotely piloted 720 Controlled Impact Demonstration and sub-scale F-15 research projects. In addition, McMurtry was the 747 co-pilot for the Shuttle Approach and Landing Tests and made the last glide flight in the X-24B. McMurtry was Dryden's Director for Flight Operations from 1986 to 1998, when he became Associate Director for Operations at NASA Dryden. In 1982, McMurtry received the Iven C. Kincheloe Award from the Society of Experimental Test Pilots for his contributions as project pilot on the AD-1 Oblique Wing program. In 1998 he was named as one of the honorees at the Lancaster, Calif., ninth Aerospace Walk of Honor ceremonies. In 1999 he was awarded the NASA Distinguished Service Medal. He retired in 1999 after a distinguished career as pilot and manager at Dryden that began in 1967. The F-8 Supercritical Wing was a flight research project designed to test a new wing concept designed by Dr. Richard Whitcomb, chief of the Transonic Aerodynamics Branch, Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia. Compared to a conventional wing, the supercritical wing (SCW) is flatter on the top and rounder on the bottom with a downward curve at the trailing edge. The Supercritical Wing was designed to delay the formation of and reduce the shock wave over the wing just below and above the

  15. TOMATOMA: a novel tomato mutant database distributing Micro-Tom mutant collections.

    PubMed

    Saito, Takeshi; Ariizumi, Tohru; Okabe, Yoshihiro; Asamizu, Erika; Hiwasa-Tanase, Kyoko; Fukuda, Naoya; Mizoguchi, Tsuyoshi; Yamazaki, Yukiko; Aoki, Koh; Ezura, Hiroshi

    2011-02-01

    The tomato is an excellent model for studies of plants bearing berry-type fruits and for experimental studies of the Solanaceae family of plants due to its conserved genetic organization. In this study, a comprehensive mutant tomato population was generated in the background of Micro-Tom, a dwarf, rapid-growth variety. In this and previous studies, a family including 8,598 and 6,422 M(2) mutagenized lines was produced by ethylmethane sulfonate (EMS) mutagenesis and γ-ray irradiation, and this study developed and investigated these M(2) plants for alteration of visible phenotypes. A total of 9,183 independent M(2) families comprising 91,830 M(2) plants were inspected for phenotypic alteration, and 1,048 individual mutants were isolated. Subsequently, the observed mutant phenotypes were classified into 15 major categories and 48 subcategories. Overall, 1,819 phenotypic categories were found in 1,048 mutants. Of these mutants, 549 were pleiotropic, whereas 499 were non-pleiotropic. Multiple different mutant alleles per locus were found in the mutant libraries, suggesting that the mutagenized populations were nearly saturated. Additionally, genetic analysis of backcrosses indicated the successful inheritance of the mutations in BC(1)F(2) populations, confirming the reproducibility in the morphological phenotyping of the M(2) plants. To integrate and manage the visible phenotypes of mutants and other associated data, we developed the in silico database TOMATOMA, a relational system interfacing modules between mutant line names and phenotypic categories. TOMATOMA is a freely accessible database, and these mutant recourses are available through the TOMATOMA (http://tomatoma.nbrp.jp/index.jsp). PMID:21258066

  16. Tom Kibble and the early universe as the ultimate high energy experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turok, Neil

    2014-02-01

    Tom Kibble pioneered the idea that there were one or more symmetry breaking phase transitions in the very early universe, at which defects like monopoles, strings and domain walls would have formed. In the context of grand unified theories, or their extensions, this idea remains compelling: observing these defects would be one of the very few ways of directly confirming the theories. In contrast, inflationary theory invoked a strongly supercooled transition driving a period of exponential expansion which would sweep all such defects away. If inflation terminated slowly, quantum vacuum fluctuations would be amplified and stretched to cosmological scales, forming density variations of just the character required to explain the formation of galaxies. The ensuing paradigm has dominated cosmology for the last three decades. However, basic problems in the scenario remain unresolved. Extreme tuning both of the initial conditions and of the physical laws are required. There are many different versions, each with slightly different predictions. Finally, inflation brought with it the theory of a "multiverse" — a universe containing infinite number of different, infinite, universes — while providing no "measure" or means of calculating the probability of observing any one of them. I will discuss an alternative to inflation, in which the big bang was a bounce from a previous contracting epoch. The discovery of the Higgs boson at the LHC has provided new evidence for such a picture by showing that, within the minimal standard model, our current vacuum is metastable. This opens the door to a cyclic universe scenario in which the electroweak Higgs plays a central role.

  17. TOMATOMA: A Novel Tomato Mutant Database Distributing Micro-Tom Mutant Collections

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Takeshi; Ariizumi, Tohru; Okabe, Yoshihiro; Asamizu, Erika; Hiwasa-Tanase, Kyoko; Fukuda, Naoya; Mizoguchi, Tsuyoshi; Yamazaki, Yukiko; Aoki, Koh; Ezura, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    The tomato is an excellent model for studies of plants bearing berry-type fruits and for experimental studies of the Solanaceae family of plants due to its conserved genetic organization. In this study, a comprehensive mutant tomato population was generated in the background of Micro-Tom, a dwarf, rapid-growth variety. In this and previous studies, a family including 8,598 and 6,422 M2 mutagenized lines was produced by ethylmethane sulfonate (EMS) mutagenesis and γ-ray irradiation, and this study developed and investigated these M2 plants for alteration of visible phenotypes. A total of 9,183 independent M2 families comprising 91,830 M2 plants were inspected for phenotypic alteration, and 1,048 individual mutants were isolated. Subsequently, the observed mutant phenotypes were classified into 15 major categories and 48 subcategories. Overall, 1,819 phenotypic categories were found in 1,048 mutants. Of these mutants, 549 were pleiotropic, whereas 499 were non-pleiotropic. Multiple different mutant alleles per locus were found in the mutant libraries, suggesting that the mutagenized populations were nearly saturated. Additionally, genetic analysis of backcrosses indicated the successful inheritance of the mutations in BC1F2 populations, confirming the reproducibility in the morphological phenotyping of the M2 plants. To integrate and manage the visible phenotypes of mutants and other associated data, we developed the in silico database TOMATOMA, a relational system interfacing modules between mutant line names and phenotypic categories. TOMATOMA is a freely accessible database, and these mutant recourses are available through the TOMATOMA (http://tomatoma.nbrp.jp/index.jsp). PMID:21258066

  18. Early evolution of a stratospheric volcanic eruption cloud as observed with TOMS and AVHRR

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schneider, D.J.; Rose, William I., Jr.; Coke, L.R.; Bluth, G.J.S.; Sprod, I.E.; Krueger, A.J.

    1999-01-01

    This paper is a detailed study of remote sensing data from the total ozone mapping spectrometer (TOMS) and the advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) satellite detectors, of the 1982 eruption of El Chicho??n, Mexico. The volcanic cloud/atmosphere interactions in the first four days of this eruption were investigated by combining ultraviolet retrievals to estimate the mass of sulfur dioxide in the volcanic cloud [Krueger et al., 1995] with thermal infrared retrievals of the size, optical depth, and mass of fine-grained (1-10 ??m radius) volcanic ash [Wen and Rose, 1994]. Our study provides the first direct evidence of gravitational separation of ash from a stratospheric, gas-rich, plinian eruption column and documents the marked differences in residence times of volcanic ash and sulfur dioxide in volcanic clouds. The eruption column reached as high as 32 km [Carey and Sigurdsson, 1986] and was injected into an atmosphere with a strong wind shear, which allowed for an observation of the separation of sulfur dioxide and volcanic ash. The upper, more sulfur dioxide-rich part of the cloud was transported to the west in the stratosphere, while the fine-grained ash traveled to the south in the troposphere. The mass of sulfur dioxide released was estimated at 7.1 ?? 109 kg with the mass decreasing by approximately 4% 1 day after the peak. The mass of fine-grained volcanic ash detected was estimated at 6.5 ?? 109 kg, amounting to about 0.7% of the estimated mass of the ash which fell out in the mapped ash blanket close to the volcano. Over the following days, 98% of this remaining fine ash was removed from the volcanic cloud, and the effective radius of ash in the volcanic cloud decreased from about 8 ??m to about 4 ??m. Copyright 1999 by the American Geophysical Union.

  19. Ecologization of water-land property matters on the territory of the Tom lower course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, V. K.; Kozina, M. V.; Levak, Yu Yu; Shvagrukova, E. V.

    2016-03-01

    In the present paper the water-land property complex is considered as a strategic resource of the city development. The formulated question is expounded through the example of water-land property complex usage on the territory of the Tom lower course for land-use planning and developing the systems of water recourses management and land tenure. Consequences of liquid radioactive waste (LRW) landfilling are investigated in terms of arable farming. Also, forming a water budget of the soils spread on the area of the Tomsk underground water supply cone of depression and its role in the development of agricultural industry are studied. The main aspect of the analysis is the incorporation of social, economic, and ecological requirements for the system of life-supporting branches of municipal economy and social services. As far as the system of land tax payments plays an important role in land property complex management, the common issues and tendencies are specified in the paper. These problems are concerned with the inadequate incorporation of an ecological constituent in the methods of cadastral valuation of lands, as well as the situation of the narrow area of its results usage in the Russian Federation. Natural factors (hydrological, territorial, geological (geomorphologic) territory conditions) are combined by the authors into a special group. These factors should be reflected in the results of cadastral valuation. Also, in order to protect the interests of water consumers, it is offered to establish the Water Consumers Association based on the international experience of such countries as Spain and Uzbekistan.

  20. Portable optical fiber probe for in vivo brain temperature measurements.

    PubMed

    Musolino, Stefan; Schartner, Erik P; Tsiminis, Georgios; Salem, Abdallah; Monro, Tanya M; Hutchinson, Mark R

    2016-08-01

    This work reports on the development of an optical fiber based probe for in vivo measurements of brain temperature. By utilizing a thin layer of rare-earth doped tellurite glass on the tip of a conventional silica optical fiber a robust probe, suitable for long-term in vivo measurements of temperature can be fabricated. This probe can be interrogated using a portable optical measurement setup, allowing for measurements to be performed outside of standard optical laboratories. PMID:27570698

  1. Portable optical fiber probe for in vivo brain temperature measurements

    PubMed Central

    Musolino, Stefan; Schartner, Erik P.; Tsiminis, Georgios; Salem, Abdallah; Monro, Tanya M.; Hutchinson, Mark R.

    2016-01-01

    This work reports on the development of an optical fiber based probe for in vivo measurements of brain temperature. By utilizing a thin layer of rare-earth doped tellurite glass on the tip of a conventional silica optical fiber a robust probe, suitable for long-term in vivo measurements of temperature can be fabricated. This probe can be interrogated using a portable optical measurement setup, allowing for measurements to be performed outside of standard optical laboratories. PMID:27570698

  2. Sulfur Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Jong, B. H.

    2007-12-01

    Variations in surface tension affect the buoyancy of objects floating in a liquid. Thus an object floating in water will sink deeper in the presence of dishwater fluid. This is a very minor but measurable effect. It causes for instance ducks to drown in aqueous solutions with added surfactant. The surface tension of liquid iron is very strongly affected by the presence of sulfur which acts as a surfactant in this system varying between 1.9 and 0.4 N/m at 10 mass percent Sulfur (Lee & Morita (2002), This last value is inferred to be the maximum value for Sulfur inferred to be present in the liquid outer core. Venting of Sulfur from the liquid core manifests itself on the Earth surface by the 105 to 106 ton of sulfur vented into the atmosphere annually (Wedepohl, 1984). Inspection of surface Sulfur emission indicates that venting is non-homogeneously distributed over the Earth's surface. The implication of such large variation in surface tension in the liquid outer core are that at locally low Sulfur concentration, the liquid outer core does not wet the predominantly MgSiO3 matrix with which it is in contact. However at a local high in Sulfur, the liquid outer core wets this matrix which in the fluid state has a surface tension of 0.4 N/m (Bansal & Doremus, 1986), couples with it, and causes it to sink. This differential and diapiric movement is transmitted through the essentially brittle mantle (1024 Pa.s, Lambeck & Johnson, 1998; the maximum value for ice being about 1030 Pa.s at 0 K, in all likely hood representing an upper bound of viscosity for all materials) and manifests itself on the surface by the roughly 20 km differentiation, about 0.1 % of the total mantle thickness, between topographical heights and lows with concomitant lateral movement in the crust and upper mantle resulting in thin skin tectonics. The brittle nature of the medium though which this movement is transmitted suggests that the extremes in topography of the D" layer are similar in range to

  3. Gravity Probe B Gyroscope Rotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The Gravity Probe B (GP-B) is the relativity experiment developed at Stanford University to test two extraordinary predictions of Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity. The experiment will measure, very precisely, the expected tiny changes in the direction of the spin axes of four gyroscopes contained in an Earth-orbiting satellite at a 400-mile altitude. So free are the gyroscopes from disturbance that they will provide an almost perfect space-time reference system. They will measure how space and time are very slightly warped by the presence of the Earth, and, more profoundly, how the Earth's rotation very slightly drags space-time around with it. These effects, though small for the Earth, have far-reaching implications for the nature of matter and the structure of the Universe. This photograph is a close up of a niobium-coated gyroscope motor and its housing halves. GP-B is among the most thoroughly researched programs ever undertaken by NASA. This is the story of a scientific quest in which physicists and engineers have collaborated closely over many years. Inspired by their quest, they have invented a whole range of technologies that are already enlivening other branches of science and engineering. Launched April 20, 2004 , the GP-B program was managed for NASA by the Marshall Space Flight Center. Development of the GP-B is the responsibility of Stanford University along with major subcontractor Lockheed Martin Corporation. (Image credit to Don Harley.)

  4. Gravity Probe B Space Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The space vehicle for Gravity Probe B (GP-B) arrives at the launch site at Vandenburg Air Force Base. GP-B is the relativity experiment being developed at Stanford University to test two extraordinary predictions of Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity. The experiment will measure, very precisely, the expected tiny changes in the direction of the spin axes of four gyroscopes contained in an Earth-orbiting satellite at a 400-mile altitude. So free are the gyroscopes from disturbance that they will provide an almost perfect space-time reference system. They will measure how space and time are very slightly warped by the presence of the Earth, and, more profoundly, how the Earth's rotation very slightly drags space-time around with it. These effects, though small for the Earth, have far-reaching implications for the nature of matter and the structure of the Universe. GP-B is among the most thoroughly researched programs ever undertaken by NASA. This is the story of a scientific quest in which physicists and engineers have collaborated closely over many years. Inspired by their quest, they have invented a whole range of technologies that are already enlivening other branches of science and engineering. Scheduled for launch in 2003 and managed for NASA by the Marshall Space Flight Center, development of the GP-B is the responsibility of Stanford University, with major subcontractor Lockheed Martin Corporation.

  5. Hydrodynamic ultrasonic probe

    DOEpatents

    Day, Robert A.; Conti, Armond E.

    1980-01-01

    An improved probe for in-service ultrasonic inspection of long lengths of a workpiece, such as small diameter tubing from the interior. The improved probe utilizes a conventional transducer or transducers configured to inspect the tubing for flaws and/or wall thickness variations. The probe utilizes a hydraulic technique, in place of the conventional mechanical guides or bushings, which allows the probe to move rectilinearly or rotationally while preventing cocking thereof in the tube and provides damping vibration of the probe. The probe thus has lower friction and higher inspection speed than presently known probes.

  6. J. W. Goethe - poet engaged in Earth sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemec, Vaclav

    2014-05-01

    The famous German poet Johann Wolfgang Goethe (1749 - 1832) was a man of an outstanding interest for the Earth sciences. In the Czech geological dictionary his own biography remembers his frequent visits to the famous West Bohemian health resorts. In this region he was focusing his attention to the geological history, petrography and mineralogy, genesis of mineral water springs etc. Some of his studies were published. His geological points of view were not always correct (as seen from a recent knowledge) but his efforts to deepen studies of this territory cannot be forgotten. - In his rich correspondence with the count Kaspar Maria Sternberg (1761 - 1838) - founder of the (nowadays) National Museum in Prague - the author of this article has recently discovered in the Prague archives a letter written just one week before the death of the poet. It is a confession of his deep relation especially to the region if West Bohemia where he found lot of enjoyment and new knowledge in the course of numerous visits and stays. - Goethe had the largest private collection of minerals in all of Europe (17800 rock samples). A mineral goethite has been named after him. - The Czech composer Václav Jan Tomášek (1774 - 1850) describing his visit paid to Goethe in Cheb (Eger) in 1822 remembers also mineralogical interest of the poet and his excursions to the region for collecting local minerals. The main reason for personal contact in this case was the art (Tomášek composed songs using Goethe's poems). But Tomášek described also his frequent talks on science with the famous Swedish chemist Jöns Jacob Berzelius (1779 - 1848) in Karlsbad (1822). From other sources a common stay of Berzelius, Goethe and Sternberg in Marienbad (also 1822) is reported.

  7. Lower-Tropospheric Ozone (LTO) derived from TOMS near mountainous regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newchurch, M. J.; Liu, X.; Kim, J. H.

    2001-01-01

    Using Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) version-7 level-2 clear-sky (reflectivity ≤ 20%) ozone measurements corrected for aerosol effects and sea-glint errors, we derived Lower Tropospheric Ozone (LTO) west and east of the Andes, the Mexican and Rocky Mountains, the mountains in Africa and the Arabian Peninsula, New Guinea, and the Himalayan Mountains. The derived results agree reasonably well with the seasonality of LTO from ozonesonde observations at Boulder, Cristobal, Fiji, Java, and Tahiti. The LTO seasonality found in the biomass burning seasons characterized by the ATSR World Fire Atlas west and east of the Andes (23°S-2°N), east of the Mexican Mountains (15°-23°N), South Sudan (6°-14°N), South Africa (30°-28°S), and west of New Guinea is consistent with the influence of biomass burning on the formation of tropospheric ozone in these regions. The significant El Niño influence on LTO west of New Guinea is evident throughout several El Niño cycles. The spring maximum in ozone west of the Mexican Mountains, in western China, and west of the Andes (32°-23°S) is consistent with a stratospheric intrusion source. East of the Mexican Mountains (23°-30°N), both west and east of the Rocky Mountains, in north Sudan and Iraq, and in western China, high concentrations of ozone are found in these continental and coastal regions which are affected by anthropogenic sources. The maximum ozone in these regions usually occurs in the summer due to photochemical ozone production. A summer LTO minimum occurs in coastal regions west of the Andes and west of Mexico, due to ozone destruction in low NOx and high H2O marine environment. A summer minimum also occurs in south Sudan in the rainy season. The LTO in the northern tropics of South America (4°-10°N), Africa (1°S-2°N), and east of New Guinea (7°-3°S) experiences little seasonal variation.

  8. The TOMS V9 Algorithm for OMPS Nadir Mapper Total Ozone: An Enhanced Design That Ensures Data Continuity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haffner, D. P.; McPeters, R. D.; Bhartia, P. K.; Labow, G. J.

    2015-12-01

    The TOMS V9 total ozone algorithm will be applied to the OMPS Nadir Mapper instrument to supersede the exisiting V8.6 data product in operational processing and re-processing for public release. Becuase the quality of the V8.6 data is already quite high, enchancements in V9 are mainly with information provided by the retrieval and simplifcations to the algorithm. The design of the V9 algorithm has been influenced by improvements both in our knowledge of atmospheric effects, such as those of clouds made possible by studies with OMI, and also limitations in the V8 algorithms applied to both OMI and OMPS. But the namesake instruments of the TOMS algorithm are substantially more limited in their spectral and noise characterisitics, and a requirement of our algorithm is to also apply the algorithm to these discrete band spectrometers which date back to 1978. To achieve continuity for all these instruments, the TOMS V9 algorithm continues to use radiances in discrete bands, but now uses Rodgers optimal estimation to retrieve a coarse profile and provide uncertainties for each retrieval. The algorithm remains capable of achieving high accuracy results with a small number of discrete wavelengths, and in extreme cases, such as unusual profile shapes and high solar zenith angles, the quality of the retrievals is improved. Despite the intended design to use limited wavlenegths, the algorithm can also utilitze additional wavelengths from hyperspectral sensors like OMPS to augment the retreival's error detection and information content; for example SO2 detection and correction of Ring effect on atmospheric radiances. We discuss these and other aspects of the V9 algorithm as it will be applied to OMPS, and will mention potential improvements which aim to take advantage of a synergy with OMPS Limb Profiler and Nadir Mapper to further improve the quality of total ozone from the OMPS instrument.

  9. Earth Observation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    For pipeline companies, mapping, facilities inventory, pipe inspections, environmental reporting, etc. is a monumental task. An Automated Mapping/Facilities Management/Geographic Information Systems (AM/FM/GIS) is the solution. However, this is costly and time consuming. James W. Sewall Company, an AM/FM/GIS consulting firm proposed an EOCAP project to Stennis Space Center (SSC) to develop a computerized system for storage and retrieval of digital aerial photography. This would provide its customer, Algonquin Gas Transmission Company, with an accurate inventory of rights-of-way locations and pipeline surroundings. The project took four years to complete and an important byproduct was SSC's Digital Aerial Rights-of-Way Monitoring System (DARMS). DARMS saves substantial time and money. EOCAP enabled Sewall to develop new products and expand its customer base. Algonquin now manages regulatory requirements more efficiently and accurately. EOCAP provides government co-funding to encourage private investment in and broader use of NASA remote sensing technology. Because changes on Earth's surface are accelerating, planners and resource managers must assess the consequences of change as quickly and accurately as possible. Pacific Meridian Resources and NASA's Stennis Space Center (SSC) developed a system for monitoring changes in land cover and use, which incorporated the latest change detection technologies. The goal of this EOCAP project was to tailor existing technologies to a system that could be commercialized. Landsat imagery enabled Pacific Meridian to identify areas that had sustained substantial vegetation loss. The project was successful and Pacific Meridian's annual revenues have substantially increased. EOCAP provides government co-funding to encourage private investment in and broader use of NASA remote sensing technology.

  10. Cross-sex hormone use, functional health and mental well-being among transgender men (Toms) and Transgender Women (Kathoeys) in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Gooren, Louis J; Sungkaew, Tanapong; Giltay, Erik J; Guadamuz, Thomas E

    2015-01-01

    There exists limited understanding of cross-sex hormone use and mental well-being among transgender women and, particularly, among transgender men. Moreover, most studies of transgender people have taken place in the Global North and often in the context of HIV. This exploratory study compared 60 transgender men (toms) with 60 transgender women (kathoeys) regarding their use of cross-sex hormones, mental well-being and acceptance by their family. Participants also completed a dispositional optimism scale (the Life Orientation Test Revised), the Social Functioning Questionnaire and the Short Form Health Survey 36 assessing their profile of functional health and mental well-being. Cross-sex hormones were used by 35% of toms and 73% of kathoeys and were largely unsupervised by health-related personnel. There were no differences in functional health and mental well-being among toms and kathoeys. However, toms currently using cross-sex hormones scored on average poorer on bodily pain and mental health, compared to non-users. Furthermore, compared to non-users, cross-sex hormone users were about eight times and five times more likely to be associated with poor parental acceptance among toms and kathoeys, respectively. This study was the first to compare cross-sex hormone use, functional health and mental well-being among transgender women and transgender men in Southeast Asia. PMID:25270637

  11. Cross-Sex Hormone Use, Functional Health and Mental Well-Being among Transgender Men (Toms) and Transgender Women (Kathoeys) in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Gooren, Louis J.; Sungkaew, Tanapong; Giltay, Erik J.; Guadamuz, Thomas E.

    2014-01-01

    There exists limited understanding of cross-sex hormone use and mental well-being among transgender women and, particularly, among transgender men. Moreover, most studies of transgender people have taken place in the Global North and often in the context of HIV. This exploratory study compared 60 transgender men (toms) with 60 transgender women (kathoeys) regarding their use of cross-sex hormones, mental well-being and acceptance by their family. Participants also completed a dispositional optimism scale (Life Orientation Test Revised; LOT-R), the Social Functioning Questionnaire (SFQ) and the Short Form Health Survey 36 (SF-36) assessing the profile of functional health and mental well-being. Cross-sex hormones were used by 35% of toms and 73% of kathoeys and were largely unsupervised by health-related personnel. There were no differences in functional health and mental well-being among toms and kathoeys. However, toms currently using cross-sex hormones scored on average poorer on bodily pain and mental health, compared to non-users. Further, compared to non-users, cross-sex hormone users were about 8 times and 5 times more likely to be associated with poor parental acceptance among toms and kathoeys, respectively. This study was the first to compare cross-sex hormone use, functional health and mental well-being among transgender women and transgender men in Southeast Asia. PMID:25270637

  12. The Lifeworld Earth and a Modelled Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juuti, Kalle

    2014-08-01

    The goal of this paper is to study the question of whether a phenomenological view of the Earth could be empirically endorsed. The phenomenological way of thinking considers the Earth as a material entity, but not as an object as viewed in science. In the learning science tradition, tracking the process of the conceptual change of the shape of the Earth, science's view of the Earth as an object—a celestial body—has been applied. I reanalysed data published in Vosniadou and Brewer's (Cognit psychol 24:535-585, 1992) seminal paper. According to my reanalysis of their interview material, it is plausible to conclude that the Earth as an infinite surface is the way to experience the Earth. Further, the `dual Earth model' is the first model of the Earth as an object. I conclude that experiences in the lifeworld need to be taken into consideration more seriously in science education research.

  13. Solar probe: an engineering study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedini, P.; Potocki, K.

    2003-04-01

    Solar Probe, a program to study the origins of the solar wind and the heating of the Sun’s corona, is currently a mission under study in NASA’s Sun-Earth Connection Theme. The availability of the Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle (EELV) and Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators has enabled the development of an implementable Solar Probe mission concept that now offers substantial resources (55 kg and 47 W) for its science payload. The mission design assumes a launch on an EELV and uses a direct Jupiter Gravity Assist to reach a perihelion of 4 RS. The mission affords two polar solar passes with Earth in quadrature within 7.1 years from launch. A large (2.7-m diameter × 5.1-m), conical Carbon-Carbon thermal protection system harbors a complement of in situ and remote-sensing instruments (based on the 1999 Solar Probe Science Definition Team straw-man payload). A Ka-band telecommunications system allows uninterrupted real-time data downlink at perihelion (p) despite coronal scintillation effects, providing > 25 kbps even at closest approach. The 43.2 Gbits of data down-linked during each pass (p -- 10 days through p + 10 days) is augmented by as much as another 128 Gbits of data recorded on redundant solid-state recorders for post-perihelion playback. The capability exists to download cruise mode science as well. Fault tolerance is achieved using redundant avionics and a dedicated attitude control unit to assure that the proper orientation of the spacecraft is maintained throughout the passes. Viable opportunities begin with a 2010 launch, provided new start authority is obtained in FY-05.

  14. Solar probe: an engineering solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedini, P.; Potocki, K.

    2003-04-01

    Solar Probe, a program to study the origins of the solar wind and the heating of the Sun's corona, is currently a mission under study in NASA's Sun-Earth Connection Theme. The availability of the Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle (EELV) and Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators has enabled the development of an implementable Solar Probe mission concept that now offers substantial resources (55 kg and 47 W) for its science payload. The mission design assumes a launch on an EELV and uses a direct Jupiter Gravity Assist to reach a perihelion of 4 RS. The mission affords two polar solar passes with Earth in quadrature within 7.1 years from launch. A large (2.7-m diameter x 5.1-m), conical Carbon-Carbon thermal protection system harbors a complement of in situ and remote-sensing instruments (based on the 1999 Solar Probe Science Definition Team straw-man payload). A Ka-band telecommunications system allows uninterrupted real-time data downlink at perihelion (p) despite coronal scintillation effects, providing > 25 kbps even at closest approach. The 43.2 Gbits of data down-linked during each pass (p - 10 days through p + 10 days) is augmented by as much as another 128 Gbits of data recorded on redundant solid-state recorders for post-perihelion playback. The capability exists to download cruise mode science as well. Fault tolerance is achieved using redundant avionics and a dedicated attitude control unit to assure that the proper orientation of the spacecraft is maintained throughout the passes. Viable opportunities begin with a 2010 launch, provided new start authority is obtained in FY-05.

  15. Monitoring Physiological Variables with Membrane Probes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janle, Elsa M.

    1997-01-01

    This project has demonstrated the possibility of using membrane probes in rodents to monitor physiological variables for extended periods of time. The utility of these probes in physiological studies of microgravity has been demonstrated. The feasibility of developing on-line sensors has also been demonstrated and allows for the possibility of developing real-time automated monitoring systems which can be used in ground-base physiological research as well as in research and medical monitoring in space. In addition to space applications these techniques can be extended to medical monitoring in critical care situations on earth as well as facilitating research in many human and animal diseases.

  16. Rapid phenotyping of the tomato fruit model, Micro-Tom, with a portable VIS-NIR spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Ecarnot, Martin; Bączyk, Paulina; Tessarotto, Lydie; Chervin, Christian

    2013-09-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) quality traits such as juice soluble solid content (Brix), juice pH, color parameters (Hue and Chroma), firmness and water content, are critical factors for fruit quality assessment. The need for screening very large numbers of fruit has led to the development of a high-throughput method using visible-near infrared (VIS-NIR) spectrometry. We are reporting here a set of results obtained with a portable spectrometer using the 350-2500 nm range, showing good prediction of the quality traits cited above, over a wide range of developmental stages from immature green to ripe tomato fruit, cv. Micro-Tom. This is a rather good set of quality traits compared to previous publications predicting tomato quality with VIS-NIR spectrometry, and the prediction is robust, as it was obtained by grouping sets of different operators. This would be a useful tool to phenotype hundreds of Micro-Tom per day, making it possible to follow the dynamics of the described parameters on growing fruits. Thus the method can be used to study the biochemistry and physiology of fruit development in planta. PMID:23774377

  17. Fine-Scale Comparison of TOMS Total Ozone Data with Model Analysis of an Intense Midwestern Cyclone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olsen, Mark A.; Gallus, William A., Jr.; Stanford, John L.; Brown, John M.

    2000-01-01

    High-resolution (approx. 40 km) along-track total column ozone data from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) instrument are compared with a high-resolution mesoscale numerical model analysis of an intense cyclone in the Midwestern United States. Total ozone increased by 100 DU (nearly 38%) as the TOMS instrument passed over the associated tropopause fold region. Complex structure is seen in the meteorological fields and compares well with the total ozone observations. Ozone data support the meteorological analysis showing that stratospheric descent was confined to levels above approx. 600 hPa; significant positive potential vorticity at lower levels is attributable to diabetic processes. Likewise, meteorological fields show that two pronounced ozone streamers extending north and northeastward into Canada at high levels are not bands of stratospheric air feeding into the cyclone; one is a channel of exhaust downstream from the system, and the other apparently previously connected the main cyclonic circulation to a southward intrusion of polar stratospheric air and advected eastward as the cut-off cyclone evolved. Good agreement between small-scale features in the model output and total ozone data underscores the latter's potential usefulness in diagnosing upper tropospheric/lower stratospheric dynamics and kinematics.

  18. Galileo Probe Battery System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dagarin, B. P.; Taenaka, R. K.; Stofel, E. J.

    1997-01-01

    The conclusions of the Galileo probe battery system are: the battery performance met mission requirements with margin; extensive ground-based and flight tests of batteries prior to probe separation from orbiter provided good prediction of actual entry performance at Jupiter; and the Li-SO2 battery was an important choice for the probe's main power.

  19. Earth transportation node requirements and design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hook, W. Ray; Ayers, J. Kirk; Cirillo, William M.

    1988-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to establish the requirements for an inhabited earth orbiting transportation node and to develop design concepts for such a facility. The use of an earth orbiting transportation node is required to support many of the space flight projects proposed for the beginning of the 21st century. The requirements for such an orbiting facility are derived from the missions which they support. Future missions investigated include automated and human exploration of the solar system, support of a lunar base, and missions to planet earth. Design concepts are presented for transportation nodes based on a variation of the current Space Station Freedom design. Designs accommodate a variety of earth-to-orbit, orbit-to-orbit, and deep-space probe transportation systems. Finally, the technology needed to develop such a transportation node is summarized.

  20. Detecting Solar Axions Using Earth's Magnetic Field

    SciTech Connect

    Davoudiasl, Hooman; Huber, Patrick

    2006-10-06

    We show that solar axion conversion to photons in the Earth's magnetosphere can produce an x-ray flux, with average energy <{omega}>{approx_equal}4 keV, which is measurable on the dark side of the Earth. The smallness of the Earth's magnetic field is compensated by a large magnetized volume. For axion masses m{sub a}(less-or-similar sign)10{sup -4} eV, a low-Earth-orbit x-ray detector with an effective area of 10{sup 4} cm{sup 2}, pointed at the solar core, can probe the photon-axion coupling down to 10{sup -11} GeV{sup -1}, in 1 yr. Thus, the sensitivity of this new approach will be an order of magnitude beyond current laboratory limits.

  1. Draft genome sequence of the first acid-tolerant sulfate-reducing deltaproteobacterium Desulfovibrio sp. TomC having potential for minewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Karnachuk, Olga V; Mardanov, Andrey V; Avakyan, Marat R; Kadnikov, Vitaly V; Vlasova, Maria; Beletsky, Alexey V; Gerasimchuk, Anna L; Ravin, Nikolai V

    2015-02-01

    The sulfidogenic bacterium Desulfovibrio sp. TomC was isolated from acidic waste at the abandoned gold ore mining site in the Martaiga gold ore belt, Western Siberia. This bacterium, being the first reported acid-tolerant gram-negative sulfate-reducer of the order Deltaproteobacteria, is able to grow at pH as low as 2.5 and is resistant to high concentrations of metals. The draft 5.3 Mb genome sequence of Desulfovibrio sp. TomC has been established and provides the genetic basis for application of this microorganism in bioreactors and other bioremediation schemes for the treatment of metal-containing wastewater. PMID:25724779

  2. Heat pipe cooled probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Camarda, C. J. (Inventor); Couch, L. M.

    1984-01-01

    The basic heat pipe principle is employed to provide a self-contained passively cooled probe that may be placed into a high temperature environment. The probe consists of an evaporator region of a heat pipe and a sensing instrument. Heat is absorbed as the working fluid evaporates in the probe. The vapor is transported to the vapor space of the condenser region. Heat is dissipated from the condenser region and fins causing condensation of the working fluid, which returns to the probe by gravity and the capillary action of the wick. Working fluid, wick and condenser configurations and structure materials can be selected to maintain the probe within an acceptable temperature range.

  3. Why Earth Science?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    This article briefly describes Earth science. The study of Earth science provides the foundation for an understanding of the Earth, its processes, its resources, and its environment. Earth science is the study of the planet in its entirety, how its lithosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere work together as systems and how they affect…

  4. Crew Earth Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Runco, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Crew Earth Observations (CEO) takes advantage of the crew in space to observe and photograph natural and human-made changes on Earth. The photographs record the Earth's surface changes over time, along with dynamic events such as storms, floods, fires and volcanic eruptions. These images provide researchers on Earth with key data to better understand the planet.

  5. Ultrafast scanning probe microscopy

    DOEpatents

    Weiss, Shimon; Chemla, Daniel S.; Ogletree, D. Frank; Botkin, David

    1995-01-01

    An ultrafast scanning probe microscopy method for achieving subpicosecond-temporal resolution and submicron-spatial resolution of an observation sample. In one embodiment of the present claimed invention, a single short optical pulse is generated and is split into first and second pulses. One of the pulses is delayed using variable time delay means. The first pulse is then directed at an observation sample located proximate to the probe of a scanning probe microscope. The scanning probe microscope produces probe-sample signals indicative of the response of the probe to characteristics of the sample. The second pulse is used to modulate the probe of the scanning probe microscope. The time delay between the first and second pulses is then varied. The probe-sample response signal is recorded at each of the various time delays created between the first and second pulses. The probe-sample response signal is then plotted as a function of time delay to produce a cross-correlation of the probe sample response. In so doing, the present invention provides simultaneous subpicosecond-temporal resolution and submicron-spatial resolution of the sample.

  6. Traversing probe system

    DOEpatents

    Mashburn, Douglas N.; Stevens, Richard H.; Woodall, Harold C.

    1977-01-01

    This invention comprises a rotatable annular probe-positioner which carries at least one radially disposed sensing probe, such as a Pitot tube having a right-angled tip. The positioner can be coaxially and rotatably mounted within a compressor casing or the like and then actuated to orient the sensing probe as required to make measurements at selected stations in the annulus between the positioner and compressor casing. The positioner can be actuated to (a) selectively move the probe along its own axis, (b) adjust the yaw angle of the right-angled probe tip, and (c) revolve the probe about the axis common to the positioner and casing. A cam plate engages a cam-follower portion of the probe and normally rotates with the positioner. The positioner includes a first-motor-driven ring gear which effects slidable movement of the probe by rotating the positioner at a time when an external pneumatic cylinder is actuated to engage the cam plate and hold it stationary. When the pneumatic cylinder is not actuated, this ring gear can be driven to revolve the positioner and thus the probe to a desired circumferential location about the above-mentioned common axis. A second motor-driven ring gear included in the positioner can be driven to rotate the probe about its axis, thus adjusting the yaw angle of the probe tip. The positioner can be used in highly corrosive atmosphere, such as gaseous uranium hexafluoride.

  7. Ultrafast scanning probe microscopy

    DOEpatents

    Weiss, S.; Chemla, D.S.; Ogletree, D.F.; Botkin, D.

    1995-05-16

    An ultrafast scanning probe microscopy method is described for achieving subpicosecond-temporal resolution and submicron-spatial resolution of an observation sample. In one embodiment of the present claimed invention, a single short optical pulse is generated and is split into first and second pulses. One of the pulses is delayed using variable time delay means. The first pulse is then directed at an observation sample located proximate to the probe of a scanning probe microscope. The scanning probe microscope produces probe-sample signals indicative of the response of the probe to characteristics of the sample. The second pulse is used to modulate the probe of the scanning probe microscope. The time delay between the first and second pulses is then varied. The probe-sample response signal is recorded at each of the various time delays created between the first and second pulses. The probe-sample response signal is then plotted as a function of time delay to produce a cross-correlation of the probe sample response. In so doing, the present invention provides simultaneous subpicosecond-temporal resolution and submicron-spatial resolution of the sample. 6 Figs.

  8. Electrical resistivity probes

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Ki Ha; Becker, Alex; Faybishenko, Boris A.; Solbau, Ray D.

    2003-10-21

    A miniaturized electrical resistivity (ER) probe based on a known current-voltage (I-V) electrode structure, the Wenner array, is designed for local (point) measurement. A pair of voltage measuring electrodes are positioned between a pair of current carrying electrodes. The electrodes are typically about 1 cm long, separated by 1 cm, so the probe is only about 1 inch long. The electrodes are mounted to a rigid tube with electrical wires in the tube and a sand bag may be placed around the electrodes to protect the electrodes. The probes can be positioned in a borehole or on the surface. The electrodes make contact with the surrounding medium. In a dual mode system, individual probes of a plurality of spaced probes can be used to measure local resistance, i.e. point measurements, but the system can select different probes to make interval measurements between probes and between boreholes.

  9. A computer program for the determination of the solar risk in Argentina by dermatologists employing NASA TOMS satellite ozone data as a key geophysical variable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piacentini, R.; Cede, A.; Luccini, E.; Stengel, F.

    The connection between skin cancer and solar ultraviolet radiation has been well documented (i.e., UNEP report "Environmental Effects of Ozone Depletion. 1998 Assessment"). In this work wepresent a computer software that can be used by dermatologists for determining the risk of persons that are exposed to solar UV radiation incident in Argentina, a country largely extended from low (tropical) to high southern hemisphere latitudes. In particular, its spectral distribution weighted by the CIE standard erythemal action spectrum and integrated in wavelength usually called "erythemal irradiance", is calculated including the following geophysical variables: ozone, solar elevation, Sun-Earth distance, altitude, aerosol and albedo. Other variables that have less influence in the final results are the vertical ozone, aerosol, pressure and temperature profiles, the extraterrestrial spectral solar UV irradiance and the ozone photoabsorption cross section. The ozone total column was obtained from the corresponding seasonal and latitudinal climatological NASA TOMS satellite data, including monthly averages, standard deviations and tendencies for the particular geographical situation of Argentina. The program considers also the different skin types, in order to determine the skin risk without or with a sunscreen protection at each moment of the day and for different days of the year. We present the program output for typical examples of persons exposed in extreme conditions, like in the high altitude tropical Puna of Atacama desert in the North- West, or when the ozone hole event overpasses Ushuaia in the South, as well as in Buenos Aires, the largest populated city in the country and one of the megacities of the world. The availability of a large satellite ozone data set gives us the possibility to make a clear sky day solar risk forecast for all the year, that can be applied in all places of the country. This work was made possible through a collaboration between the Argentina

  10. Earth Observing System, Introduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Much is known about the Earth, but the unifying concepts are still only beginning to be established. An exposition of the key issues in Earth science is neither simple or concise. From the scientific questions at hand there are many interconnections among them and the view of the Earth as a system is essential to their solution. The Earth science goals for the 1990's are presented for the following areas: hydrologic cycle; biogeochemical cycles; climatological processes; geophysical processes; oceanography; and solid earth.

  11. Flattening Earth acceleration in atomic fountains

    SciTech Connect

    Bertoldi, Andrea

    2010-07-15

    A method to compensate for Earth's gravity tide over an extended axial region is reported. Flattening acceleration is important in experiments where the coupling of the dynamics of free-falling probes to the gravity gradient generates stochastic noise on the measurement. Optimized cylindrically symmetric mass distributions lower Earth's tidal effect over 10 cm by a factor 10{sup 3}. A multimass compensation system with comparable performance is devised for tall atom interferometers. Reducing the gravity gradient is essential in terrestrial experiments based on atom fountain configurations being developed to precisely test general relativity or the neutrality of matter.

  12. Eddy-induced upwelling off Cape São Tomé (22°S, Brazil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calado, L.; da Silveira, I. C. A.; Gangopadhyay, A.; de Castro, B. M.

    2010-06-01

    The regional ocean off southeast Brazil (20°S-28°S) is known as a current-eddy-upwelling region. The proximity of the Brazil Current to the coast in the Cape São Tomé vicinities, as well as of its quasi-stationary unstable meanders, suggests the possibility of background eddy-induced upwelling. Such phenomenon can intensify the prevalent coastal upwelling due to wind and topographic effects. In this paper, with the help of a numerical simulation, we provide evidence that eddy-induced upwelling in the absence of wind is possible in this region. The simulation was conducted with a regional configuration of the 3-D Princeton Ocean Model initialized by a feature-based implementation of the Brazil Current and Cape Frio eddy, blended with climatology.

  13. TOMS Validation Based on Profiles of Aerosol Properties in the Lower Troposphere as Obtained with Light Aircraft Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prospero, Joseph M.; Maring, Hal; Savoie, Dennis

    2003-01-01

    The goal of the University of Miami Aerosol Group (UMAG) in this project was to make measurements of vertical profiles of aerosol properties and aerosol optical depth using a light aircraft. The UMAG developed a light aircraft aerosol package (LAAP) that was used in light aircraft (Cessna 172) during the Puerto Rico Dust Experiment (PRIDE). This field campaign took place on Puerto Rico during July 2000. Design details and results from the use of the LAAP were presented at TOMS Science team meetings on April 1998, April 1999, and May 2000. Results from the LAAP collected during the PRIDE Experiment were presented at the Fall Meeting of the American Geophysical Union, December 2000. Some of the results from the LAAP collected during the PRIDE Experiment have been accepted for publication in the Journal of Geophysical Research in a "topical section" made up of papers from the PRIDE Program.

  14. Development of Advanced Earth Observing Satellite (ADEOS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuzuki, Toshiyuki; Iwasaki, Nobuo; Hara, Norikazu

    ADEOS ia a large satellite which could be called a polar orbiting platform. The weight is 3.5 tons and power is 4.5 KW at the end of three years of mission life. It is scheduled to be launched in early 1995 by the H-II launch vehicle from Tanegashima Space Center. ADEOS carries two core sensors and six Announcement Opportunity (AO) sensors. The core sensors are called the Ocean Color and Temperature Scanner (OCTS) and the Advanced Visible and Near Infrared Radiometer (ANVIR), which are being developed by NASDA. The AO sensors are the NASA Scatterometer (NSCAT), the NASA Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS), the Polarization and Directionality of Earth's Reflectances of CNES, the Interferometric Monitor for Greenhouse gases of MITI, the Improved Limb Atmospheric Spectrometer of Environment Agency (EA) of the Japanese government, and the EA Retroreflector In Space. This paper discusses the present status of the design and development of ADEOS putting emphasis on several features incorporated in the ADEOS bus system and several issues imposed at the system Preliminary Design Review.

  15. Global Mapping of Underwater UV Irradiances and DNA-Weighted Exposures using TOMS and SeaWiFS Data Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vasilkov, Alexander; Krotkov, Nickolay; Herman, Jay; McClain, Charles; Arrigo, Kevin; Robinson, Wayne

    1999-01-01

    The global stratospheric ozone-layer depletion results In an increase in biologically harmful ultraviolet (UV) radiation reaching the surface and penetrating to ecologically significant depths in natural waters. Such an increase can be estimated on a global scale by combining satellite estimates of UV irradiance at the ocean surface from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) satellite instrument with the SeaWIFS satellite ocean-color measurements in the visible spectral region. In this paper we propose a model of seawater optical properties in the UV spectral region based on the Case I water model in the visible range. The inputs to the model are standard monthly SeaWiFS products: chlorophyll concentration and the diffuse attenuation coefficient at 490nm. Penetration of solar UV radiation to different depths in open ocean waters is calculated using the RT (radiative transfer) quasi-single scattering approximation (QSSA). The accuracy of the QSSA approximation in the water is tested using more accurate codes. The sensitivity study of the underwater UV irradiance to atmospheric and oceanic optical properties have shown that the main environmental parameters controlling the absolute levels of the UVB (280-320nm) and DNA-weighted irradiance underwater are: solar-zenith angle, cloud transmittance, water optical properties, and total ozone. Weekly maps of underwater UV irradiance and DNA-weighted exposure are calculated using monthly-mean SeaWiFS chlorophyll and diffuse attenuation coefficient products, daily SeaWiFS cloud fraction data, and the TOMS-derived surface UV irradiance daily maps. The final products include global maps of weekly-average UVB irradiance and DNA-weighted daily exposures at 3m and 10m, and depths where the UVB irradiance and DNA-weighted dose rate at local noon are equal to 10% of their surface values.

  16. Probing the Earth's Interior with the LENA Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hochmuth, Kathrin A.; Feilitzsch, Franz V.; Undagoitia, Teresa Marrodán; Oberauer, Lothar; Potzel, Walter; Wurm, Michael; Fields, Brian D.

    2006-12-01

    A future large-volume liquid scintillator detector such as the proposed 50 kton LENA (Low Energy Neutrino Astronomy) detector would provide a high-statistics measurement of terrestrial antineutrinos originating from β-decays of the uranium and thorium chains. Additionally, the neutron is scattered in the forward direction in the detection reaction bar{ν}_e+prightarrow n+e^+. Henceforth, we investigate to what extent LENA can distinguish between certain geophysical models on the basis of the angular dependence of the geoneutrino flux. Our analysis is based on a Monte-Carlo simulation with different levels of light yield, considering an unloaded PXE scintillator. We find that LENA is able to detect deviations from isotropy of the geoneutrino flux with high significance. However, if only the directional information is used, the time required to distinguish between different geophysical models is of the order of severals decades. Nonetheless, a high-statistics measurement of the total geoneutrino flux and its spectrum still provides an extremely useful glance at the Earth’s interior.

  17. Modified rare earth semiconductor oxide as a new nucleotide probe.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, S; Mills, C E; Lewington, J; Tsang, S C

    2006-12-28

    Recent rapid developments in biological analysis, medical diagnosis, pharmaceutical industry, and environmental control fuel the urgent need for recognition of particular DNA sequences from samples. Currently, DNA detection techniques use radiochemical, enzymatic, fluorescent, or electrochemiluminescent methods; however, these techniques require costly labeled DNA and highly skilled and cumbersome procedure, which prohibit any in-situ monitoring. Here, we report that hybridization of surface-immobilized single-stranded oligonucleotide on praseodymium oxide (evaluated as a biosensor surface for the first time) with complimentary strands in solution provokes a significant shift of electrical impedance curve. This shift is attributed to a change in electrical characteristics through modification of surface charge of the underlying modified praseodymium oxide upon hybridization with the complementary oligonucelotide strand. On the other hand, using a noncomplementary single strand in solution does not create an equivalent change in the impedance value. This result clearly suggests that a new and simple electrochemical technique based on the change in electrical properties of the modified praseodymium oxide semiconductor surface upon recognition and transduction of a biological event without using labeled species is revealed. PMID:17181200

  18. Probing the Earth's magnetosphere with an electron gun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delzanno, Gian Luca; Camporeale, Enrico; Hogan, Erik; Moulton, J. David; Borovsky, Joseph; MacDonald, Elizabeth; Thomsen, Michelle

    2013-10-01

    The ability to unambiguously connect different parts of magnetosphere and ionosphere through magnetic field line tracing is critical to the understanding of the coupling between these two systems. A possible way to achieve this goal could use a magnetospheric spacecraft to emit an energetic electron beam along the local magnetic field and detect the emission optically at the magnetic foot-point in the ionosphere. In this idea it is critical to keep the spacecraft charging under control by emitting a contactor plasma before firing the beam. We present an overview of our effort to tackle this complex problem. We will focus on: (1) the further development of the Particle-In-Cell (PIC) code CPIC used for this study. CPIC couples the standard PIC algorithm with the generation and adaptation of the computational grid; (2) the widely-used static modeling of the contactor plasma and its inadequacy in some parameter regimes; (3) the PIC modeling of the contactor plasma injected across a static magnetic field and the possible development of instabilities at the edges of the contactor cloud, complemented by a simplified linear stability analysis to highlight the physics of these instabilities.

  19. UV 380 nm Reflectivity of the Earth's Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herman, J. R.; Celarier, E.; Larko, D.

    2000-01-01

    The 380 nm radiance measurements of TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) have been converted into a global data set of daily (1979 to 1992) Lambert equivalent reflectivities R of the Earth's surface and boundary layer (clouds, aerosols, surface haze, and snow/ice). Since UV surface reflectivity is between 2 and 8% for both land and water during all seasons of the year (except for ice and snow cover), reflectivities larger than the surface value indicates the presence of clouds, haze, or aerosols in the satellite field of view. Statistical analysis of 14 years of daily data show that most snow/ice-free regions of the Earth have their largest fraction of days each year when the reflectivity is low (R less than 10%). The 380 nm reflectivity data shows that the true surface reflectivity is 2 to 3% lower than the most frequently occurring reflectivity value for each TOMS scene. The most likely cause of this could be a combination of frequently occurring boundary-layer water or aerosol haze. For most regions, the observation of extremely clear conditions needed to estimate the surface reflectivity from space is a comparatively rare occurrence. Certain areas (e.g., Australia, southern Africa, portions of northern Africa) are cloud-free more than 80% of the year, which exposes these regions to larger amounts of UV radiation than at comparable latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere. Regions over rain-forests, jungle areas, Europe and Russia, the bands surrounding the Arctic and Antarctic regions, and many ocean areas have significant cloud cover (R greater than 15%) more than half of each year. In the low to middle latitudes, the areas with the heaviest cloud cover (highest reflectivity for most of the year) are the forest areas of northern South America, southern Central America, the jungle areas of equatorial Africa, and high mountain regions such as the Himalayas or the Andes. The TOMS reflectivity data show the presence of large nearly clear ocean areas and the effects

  20. Theory of Mind (ToM) in Children with Autism or Typical Development: Links between Eye-Reading and False Belief Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Candida C.; Slaughter, Virginia

    2009-01-01

    Previous research shows that high-functioning children with autism are slow to pass "litmus" false belief tests of ToM but how this may relate to other aspects of mindreading (e.g., discerning thoughts from facial expressions) is less clear, partly for methodological reasons. Thus the joint methodological and conceptual goals of this study were:…

  1. Group IVA Cytosolic Phospholipase A2 Regulates the G2-to-M Transition by Modulating the Activity of Tumor Suppressor SIRT2

    PubMed Central

    Movahedi Naini, Said; Sheridan, Alice M.; Force, Thomas; Shah, Jagesh V.

    2015-01-01

    The G2-to-M transition (or prophase) checkpoint of the cell cycle is a critical regulator of mitotic entry. SIRT2, a tumor suppressor gene, contributes to the control of this checkpoint by blocking mitotic entry under cellular stress. However, the mechanism underlying both SIRT2 activation and regulation of the G2-to-M transition remains largely unknown. Here, we report the formation of a multiprotein complex at the G2-to-M transition in vitro and in vivo. Group IVA cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2α) acts as a bridge in this complex to promote binding of SIRT2 to cyclin A-Cdk2. Cyclin A-Cdk2 then phosphorylates SIRT2 at Ser331. This phosphorylation reduces SIRT2 catalytic activity and its binding affinity to centrosomes and mitotic spindles, promoting G2-to-M transition. We show that the inhibitory effect of cPLA2α on SIRT2 activity impacts various cellular processes, including cellular levels of histone H4 acetylated at K16 (Ac-H4K16) and Ac-α-tubulin. This regulatory effect of cPLA2α on SIRT2 defines a novel function of cPLA2α independent of its phospholipase activity and may have implications for the impact of SIRT2-related effects on tumorigenesis and age-related diseases. PMID:26303530

  2. Role of PINK1 binding to the TOM complex and alternate intracellular membranes in recruitment and activation of the E3 ligase Parkin

    PubMed Central

    Lazarou, Michael; Jin, Seok Min; Kane, Lesley A.; Youle, Richard J.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Mutations in the mitochondrial kinase PINK1 and the cytosolic E3 ligase Parkin can cause Parkinson’s disease. Damaged mitochondria accumulate PINK1 on the outer membrane where, dependent on kinase activity, it recruits and activates Parkin to induce mitophagy, potentially maintaining organelle fidelity. How PINK1 recruits Parkin is unknown. We show that endogenous PINK1 forms a 700 kDa complex with the translocase of the outer membrane (TOM) selectively on depolarized mitochondria whereas PINK1 ectopically targeted to the outer membrane retains association with TOM on polarized mitochondria. Inducibly targeting PINK1 to peroxisomes or lysosomes, which lack a TOM complex, recruits Parkin and activates ubiquitin ligase activity on the respective organelles. Once there, Parkin induces organelle selective autophagy of peroxisomes but not lysosomes. We propose that the association of PINK1 with the TOM complex allows rapid re-import of PINK1 to rescue repolarized mitochondria from mitophagy, and discount mitochondrial-specific factors for Parkin translocation and activation. PMID:22280891

  3. Role of PINK1 binding to the TOM complex and alternate intracellular membranes in recruitment and activation of the E3 ligase Parkin.

    PubMed

    Lazarou, Michael; Jin, Seok Min; Kane, Lesley A; Youle, Richard J

    2012-02-14

    Mutations in the mitochondrial kinase PINK1 and the cytosolic E3 ligase Parkin can cause Parkinson's disease. Damaged mitochondria accumulate PINK1 on the outer membrane where, dependent on kinase activity, it recruits and activates Parkin to induce mitophagy, potentially maintaining organelle fidelity. How PINK1 recruits Parkin is unknown. We show that endogenous PINK1 forms a 700 kDa complex with the translocase of the outer membrane (TOM) selectively on depolarized mitochondria whereas PINK1 ectopically targeted to the outer membrane retains association with TOM on polarized mitochondria. Inducibly targeting PINK1 to peroxisomes or lysosomes, which lack a TOM complex, recruits Parkin and activates ubiquitin ligase activity on the respective organelles. Once there, Parkin induces organelle selective autophagy of peroxisomes but not lysosomes. We propose that the association of PINK1 with the TOM complex allows rapid reimport of PINK1 to rescue repolarized mitochondria from mitophagy, and discount mitochondrial-specific factors for Parkin translocation and activation. PMID:22280891

  4. Magnetic TRAnsition Region Probe (MTRAP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, R. L.; Davis, John; Hathaway, David; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    MTRAP (Magnetic Transition Region Probe) will reveal the fine-scale physical processes in the Sun's magnetic transition region, the complex layer from the upper photosphere to the upper chromosphere/lower transition region. In the magnetic transition region plasma forces and magnetic forces are of comparable strength, which results in complex interplay of the two, which interplay governs the coupling of the convectively-driven deeper layers to the magnetically-driven upper transition region and inner corona. The fine-scale magnetic structure, processes, and events in the magnetic transition region are key to the genesis of the Sun's entire hot, dynamic outer atmosphere and to the initiation of large eruptive events. MTRAP will be a single spacecraft in Sun-synchronous Earth orbit. Because MTRAP will probe and measure the 3-D structure and dynamics of the magnetic field and plasma in the chromosphere and transition region with unprecedented resolution, the required telescope size and telemetry rates dictate that MTRAP be in Earth orbit, not in deep space. The observations will feature visible and infrared maps of vector magnetic and velocity fields in the magnetic transition region and photosphere. These will have large field of view (greater than 100,000 km), high resolution (greater than 100 km), and high sensitivity (greater than 30 G in transverse field). These observations of the lower atmosphere will be complemented by UV maps of the structure, velocity, and magnetic field (including the full vector field if technically feasible) higher up, in the upper chromosphere and lower transition region. MTRAP will also have an EUV imaging spectrograph observing coronal structure and dynamics in the same field of view with comparable resolution. Specific phenomena to be analyzed include spicules, bright points, jets, the base of plumes, and the triggering of eruptive flares and coronal mass ejections. Additional information is included in the original extended abstract.

  5. Functional probes for scanning probe microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasegawa, Yukio; Akiyama, Kotone; Hamada, Masayuki; Eguchi, Toyoaki; An, Toshu; Fujikawa, Yasunori; Sakurai, Toshio

    2008-03-01

    Inspite of importance of the probe in scanning probe microscopy (SPM), little attention was paid for the SPM probes for most of the measurements of SPM. We developed sharp metal-tip cantilevers with a typical curvature radius better than 5nm using focused ion beam (FIB) suitable for Kelvin probe force microscopy (KFM)^1. We obtained atomically resolved KFM images with an energy resolution less than 3meV with the probe^2. We also developed a glass-coated tungsten tip for synchrotron radiation-scanning tunneling microscopy with the FIB method^3 and obtained elementally resolved images in a resolution less than 20nm^4. We are now developing a precise atomic force microscope (AFM) lithography^5 with the FIB-milled tip attached to a quartz tuning fork controlled by noncontact AFM. We will present recent results of our AFM lithography, such as an Au line with a width of 20˜30 nm and characters drawn with Au nano dots on a Si surface. 1 K. Akiyama et al., RSI 76, 033705 (2005) 2 T. Eguchi, K. Akiyama et al., PRL 93, 266102 (2004) 3 K. Akiyama et al., RSI 76, 083711 (2005) 4 T. Eguchi, K. Akiyama et al., APL 89, 243119 (2006) 5 K. Akiyama et al., JP 61, 22 (2007).

  6. Periodontal probing: a review.

    PubMed

    Al Shayeb, Kwthar Nassar A; Turner, Wendy; Gillam, David G

    2014-08-01

    Periodontal probes are the main instruments that are used to assess the status of the periodontium, either for screening purposes or to evaluate periodontal changes throughout the treatment process. With increased knowledge and understanding of periodontal disease, the probes have evolved from a unidimensional manual shape into a more sophisticated computerised instrument. This is due to the need to increase the accuracy and reproducibility of readings and to improve efficiency (time, effort, money). Each probe has characteristic features that makes it unique and, in some cases, specific and limited to use. The aim of this paper is to present a brief introduction to periodontal disease and the methodology of measuring it, followed by probing limitations. The paper will also discuss the methodology of reducing probing error, examiner calibration and probing reproducibility. PMID:25198634

  7. High temperature probe

    DOEpatents

    Swan, Raymond A.

    1994-01-01

    A high temperature probe for sampling, for example, smokestack fumes, and is able to withstand temperatures of 3000.degree. F. The probe is constructed so as to prevent leakage via the seal by placing the seal inside the water jacket whereby the seal is not exposed to high temperature, which destroys the seal. The sample inlet of the probe is also provided with cooling fins about the area of the seal to provide additional cooling to prevent the seal from being destroyed. Also, a heated jacket is provided for maintaining the temperature of the gas being tested as it passes through the probe. The probe includes pressure sensing means for determining the flow velocity of an efficient being sampled. In addition, thermocouples are located in various places on the probe to monitor the temperature of the gas passing there through.

  8. The Lifeworld Earth and a Modelled Earth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juuti, Kalle

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to study the question of whether a phenomenological view of the Earth could be empirically endorsed. The phenomenological way of thinking considers the Earth as a material entity, but not as an object as viewed in science. In the learning science tradition, tracking the process of the conceptual change of the shape of the…

  9. Can REDD+ Help the Conservation of Restricted-Range Island Species? Insights from the Endemism Hotspot of São Tomé

    PubMed Central

    de Lima, Ricardo Faustino; Olmos, Fábio; Dallimer, Martin; Atkinson, Philip W.; Barlow, Jos

    2013-01-01

    REDD+ aims to offset greenhouse gas emissions through “Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation”. Some authors suggest that REDD+ can bring additional benefits for biodiversity, namely for the conservation of extinction-prone restricted-range species. Here, we assess this claim, using São Tomé Island (Democratic Republic of São Tomé and Príncipe) as a case study. We quantified the abundance of bird and tree species, and calculated the aboveground carbon stocks across a gradient of land-use intensity. We found a strong spatial congruence between carbon and the presence and abundance of endemic species, supporting the potential of REDD+ to protect these taxa. We then assessed if REDD+ could help protect the forests of São Tomé and Príncipe. To do so, we used OSIRIS simulations to predict country-level deforestation under two different REDD+ designs. These simulations showed that REDD+ could promote the loss of forests in São Tomé and Príncipe through leakage. This happened even when additional payments for biodiversity were included in the simulations, and despite São Tomé and Príncipe having the fourth highest carbon stocks per land area and the second highest biodiversity values according to the OSIRIS database. These results show weaknesses of OSIRIS as a planning tool, and demonstrate that the benefits that REDD+ might bring for biodiversity are strongly dependent on its careful implementation. We recommend that payment for ecosystem services programmes such as REDD+ develop safeguards to ensure that biodiversity co-benefits are met and perverse outcomes are avoided across all tropical countries. In particular, we advise specific safeguards regarding the conservation of extinction-prone groups, such as island restricted-range species. PMID:24066109

  10. Can REDD+ help the conservation of restricted-range island species? Insights from the endemism hotspot of São Tomé.

    PubMed

    de Lima, Ricardo Faustino; Olmos, Fábio; Dallimer, Martin; Atkinson, Philip W; Barlow, Jos

    2013-01-01

    REDD+ aims to offset greenhouse gas emissions through "Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation". Some authors suggest that REDD+ can bring additional benefits for biodiversity, namely for the conservation of extinction-prone restricted-range species. Here, we assess this claim, using São Tomé Island (Democratic Republic of São Tomé and Príncipe) as a case study. We quantified the abundance of bird and tree species, and calculated the aboveground carbon stocks across a gradient of land-use intensity. We found a strong spatial congruence between carbon and the presence and abundance of endemic species, supporting the potential of REDD+ to protect these taxa. We then assessed if REDD+ could help protect the forests of São Tomé and Príncipe. To do so, we used OSIRIS simulations to predict country-level deforestation under two different REDD+ designs. These simulations showed that REDD+ could promote the loss of forests in São Tomé and Príncipe through leakage. This happened even when additional payments for biodiversity were included in the simulations, and despite São Tomé and Príncipe having the fourth highest carbon stocks per land area and the second highest biodiversity values according to the OSIRIS database. These results show weaknesses of OSIRIS as a planning tool, and demonstrate that the benefits that REDD+ might bring for biodiversity are strongly dependent on its careful implementation. We recommend that payment for ecosystem services programmes such as REDD+ develop safeguards to ensure that biodiversity co-benefits are met and perverse outcomes are avoided across all tropical countries. In particular, we advise specific safeguards regarding the conservation of extinction-prone groups, such as island restricted-range species. PMID:24066109

  11. Titan Probe navigation analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vijayaraghavan, A.; Wood, L. J.

    1986-01-01

    In the proposed Cassini mission, a combined Saturn Orbiter/Titan Probe spacecraft will be launched from the Space Shuttle to arrive at Saturn around 2002, by means of a delta-VEGA trajectory. After Saturn-orbit insertion and a pericrone raise maneuver, the probe will be released to enter the Titan atmosphere and impact onto its surface. During its descent phase and impact onto Titan, the probe will maintain radio contact with the orbiter. Since the Titan-probe experimental phase lasts for only about four hours, probe-orbiter geometry and probe-delivery accuracy are critical to successful completion of this part of the mission. From a preliminary navigation analysis for probe delivery accuracy, it seems feasible to deliver the probe within 50 km (1-sigma value) of the desired aim-point in the Titan B-plane. The covariance study, however, clearly indicates the need for optical data, in addition to radio metric data. A Monte Carlo study indicates that a Delta-V capability of 98 m/sec for trajectory correction maneuvers will be sufficient to cover 99 percent of all contingencies during the segment from Saturn-orbit insertion to Titan-probe release.

  12. Magnetic nanostructures: radioactive probes and recent developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prandolini, M. J.

    2006-05-01

    The miniaturization of magnetic sensors and storage devices down to the nano-scale leads to drastic changes in magnetic phenomena compared with the same devices with a larger size. Excited-nuclear-probe (radioactive probe) techniques are ideal for investigating these new magnetic nanostructures. By observing the magnetic hyperfine fields (and in some cases the electric-field-gradients (EFGs)) at the nuclei of radioactive probes, microscopic information about the magnetic environment of the probes is acquired. The magnetic hyperfine field is particularly sensitive to the s-spin polarization of the conduction electrons and to the orbital magnetic moment of the probe atom. Three methods of inserting radioactive probes into magnetic nanostructures are presented; neutron activation, recoil implantation and 'soft-landing', followed by descriptions of their application to selected examples. In some cases, these methods offer the simultaneous creation and observation of new magnetic materials at the atomic scale. This review focuses firstly on the induced magnetism in noble-metal spacer layers between either ferromagnetic (FM) or FM/antiferromagnetic (AFM) layers in a trilayer structure. Using the method of low-temperature nuclear orientation, the s-spin polarization of noble-metal probes was measured and was found to be very sensitive to the magnetic properties at both the FM and AFM interfaces. Secondly, the recoil implantation of radioactive Fe probes into rare-earth hosts and d-band alloys and subsequent measurement using time-differential perturbed angular distribution offer the possibility of controlling the chemical composition and number of nearest-neighbours. This method was used to prepare local 3d-magnetic clusters in a non-magnetic matrix and to observe their magnetic behaviour. Finally, non-magnetic radioactive probes were 'soft-landed' onto Ni surfaces and extremely lattice-expanded ultrathin Ni films. By measuring the magnetic hyperfine fields and EFGs at

  13. Radio frequency-compensated Langmuir probe with auxiliary double probes

    SciTech Connect

    Oh, Se-Jin; Oh, Seung-Ju; Chung, Chin-Wook

    2010-09-15

    A radio frequency (rf) compensation design using auxiliary double probes connected in parallel with a main measurement probe was developed for Langmuir probe diagnostics. This probe structure can reduce the sheath impedance of the main probe. In our probe design, the sheath capacitance of the probe can be increased and its sheath resistance can be decreased with increasing dc bias differential voltage between the auxiliary double probes. The I-V characteristic curve and electron energy distribution functions measured by our probe system had sufficient rf compensation performance in inductively coupled plasmas.

  14. Radio frequency-compensated Langmuir probe with auxiliary double probes.

    PubMed

    Oh, Se-Jin; Oh, Seung-Ju; Chung, Chin-Wook

    2010-09-01

    A radio frequency (rf) compensation design using auxiliary double probes connected in parallel with a main measurement probe was developed for Langmuir probe diagnostics. This probe structure can reduce the sheath impedance of the main probe. In our probe design, the sheath capacitance of the probe can be increased and its sheath resistance can be decreased with increasing dc bias differential voltage between the auxiliary double probes. The I-V characteristic curve and electron energy distribution functions measured by our probe system had sufficient rf compensation performance in inductively coupled plasmas. PMID:20886976

  15. Earth on the Move.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naturescope, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Provides background information on the layers of the earth, the relationship between changes on the surface of the earth and its insides, and plate tectonics. Teaching activities are included, with some containing reproducible worksheets and handouts to accompany them. (TW)

  16. Earth's changeable atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2016-06-01

    Billions of years ago, high atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations were vital to life's tenuous foothold on Earth. Despite new constraints, the composition and evolution of Earth's early atmosphere remains hazy.

  17. The gravity probe B relativity gyroscope program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Everitt, C. W. Francis; Parkinson, B. W.; Turneaure, J. P.

    1989-01-01

    The idea of testing general relativity through observations on Earth orbiting gyroscopes was suggested in 1959 to 1960. The direction, it was noted, of spin of a suitably oriented gyroscope should change with respect to the line of sight to a guide star for two reasons: a geodetic effect from the motion of the gyroscope through the curved space-time around the Earth, and a frame-dragging effect from the Earth's rotation. NASA began supporting laboratory research on the experiment, now called Gravity Probe B, in 1964. Technologies for it were progressively established, and an error analysis demonstrated the potential of measuring frame-dragging to 1 to 2 percent and the geodetic effect to 1 part in 10(exp 4). Later analyses, discussed herein, suggest possibilities for further improving those precisions each by a further factor of 10. In 1984, after technical and scientific reviews by the Space Science Board and other bodies, and completion by NASA Marshall Center of a Phase B Study, the NASA Administrator approved the start of a program known as STORE (Shuttle Test Of the Relativity Experiment). The purpose of STORE is to verify the final Gravity Probe B science payload, perform on the Shuttle a 7-day experiment rehearsal (including sophisticated gyro tests in low gravity), and then return the payload to Earth for refurbishment and integration into the Science Mission spacecraft. The payload comprises four gyroscopes, a telescope, and a drag-free proof mass, all mounted in a quartz block assembly within an evacuated magnetically shielded probe, which in turn is inserted into a 10-ft long, 6-ft diameter liquid helium dewar, operating at 1.8 K and maintaining low temperature for 2 years. STORE is manifested on Shuttle OV-105, for launch MSSN 69 in February 1993. The Science Mission is set tentatively for June 1995.

  18. Scientific Value of a Saturn Atmospheric Probe Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon-Miller, A. A.; Lunine, J. I.; Atreya, S. K.; Spilker, T. R.; Coustenis, A.; Atkinson, D. H.

    2012-01-01

    Atmospheric entry probe mISSions to the giant planets can uniquely discriminate between competing theories of solar system formation and the origin and evolution of the giant planets and their atmospheres. This provides for important comparative studies of the gas and ice giants, and to provide a laboratory for studying the atmospheric chemistries, dynamics, and interiors of all the planets including Earth. The giant planets also represent a valuable link to extrasolar planetary systems. As outlined in the recent Planetary Decadal Survey, a Saturn Probe mission - with a shallow probe - ranks as a high priority for a New Frontiers class mission [1].

  19. Synergies of space exploration and Earth science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Y.; Ehrenfreund, P.; Rummel, J.; Peter, N.

    2009-04-01

    A more flexible policy basis from which to manage our planet in the 21st century is desirable. As one contribution, we note that synergies between space exploration and the preservation of our habitat do exist, and that protecting life on Earth requires similar concepts and information as investigations of life beyond the Earth, including the expansion of human presence in space. Instrumentation and data handling to observe both planetary objects and planet Earth are based on similar techniques. Moreover, while planetary surface operations are conducted under different conditions, the technology to probe the surface and subsurface of both the Earth and other planets requires similar tools, such as radar, seismometers, and drilling devices. The Earth observation community has developed some exemplary tools and has featured a successful international cooperation in data handling and sharing that could be equally well applied to robotic planetary exploration. Likewise, the education and awareness of society can benefit tremendously from knowledge of the overall habitability of our Solar System, including steps taken to prevent biological cross-contamination (planetary protection). Here we propose a network involving both communities that will enable the interchange of scientific insights and the development of new policies and management strategies. Those tools can provide a vital forum through which the management of this planet can be assisted, and in which a new bridge between the Earth-centric and space-centric communities can be built.

  20. Seismic Earth: Array Analysis of Broadband Seismograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levander, Alan; Nolet, Guust

    Seismology is one of the few means available to Earth scientists for probing the mechanical structure of the Earth's interior. The advent of modern seismic instrumentation at the end of the 19th century and its installation across the globe was shortly followed by mankind's first general understanding of the Earth's interior: The Croatian seismologist Andrija Mohorovičić discovered the crust-mantle boundary in central Europe in 1909, the German Beno Gutenberg determined the radius of the Earth's core in 1913, Great Britian's Sir Harold Jeffreys established its fluid character by 1926, and the Dane Inge Lehman discovered the solid inner core in 1936. It is notable that seismology, even in its earliest days, was an international science. Unlike much of the Earth sciences, seismology has its roots in physics, notably optics (many university seismology programs are, or initially were, attached to meteorology, astronomy, or physics departments), and draws from the literatures of imaging systems and statistical communications theory developed by, or employed in, astronomy, electrical engineering, medicine, ocean acoustics, and nondestructive materials testing. Seismology has close ties to petro-physics and mineral physics, the measurements of the disciplines being compared to infer the chemical and physical structure of the Earth's interior.

  1. Early Results from the Floating Potential Probe on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morton, Thomas L.; Ferguson, Dale C.

    2001-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides information on the Floating Potential Probe (FPP) on the International Space Station (ISS). The FPP measures the body voltage (electric potential) of the, and the measurements are then transmitted to Earth.

  2. The Dynamic Earth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siever, Raymond

    1983-01-01

    Discusses how the earth is a dynamic system that maintains itself in a steady state. Areas considered include large/small-scale earth motions, geologic time, rock and hydrologic cycles, and other aspects dealing with the changing face of the earth. (JN)

  3. Earth Science, K-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finson, Kevin D.; Enochs, Larry G.

    1987-01-01

    Argues that the teaching of earth science is largely neglected in the elementary science curriculum. Provides examples of how more instruction in the earth sciences at all levels can enhance decision-making skills. Discusses the relationship between various learning theories and certain instructional strategies in earth science. (TW)

  4. Interior of the Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, R. J.

    1984-01-01

    Basic questions regarding the interior of the Earth in the 1990's are discussed. Research problems in the areas of plate tectonics, the Earth mantle the Earth core, and continental structure are discussed. Observational requirements of the GRAVSAT satellite mission are discussed.

  5. Goddard earth models (5 and 6)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lerch, F. J.; Wagner, C. A.; Richardson, J. A.; Brownd, J. E.

    1974-01-01

    A comprehensive earth model has been developed that consists of two complementary gravitational fields and center-of-mass locations for 134 tracking stations on the earth's surface. One gravitational field is derived solely from satellite tracking data. This data on 27 satellite orbits is the most extensive used for such a solution. A second solution uses this data with 13,400 simultaneous events from satellite camera observations and surface gravimetric anomalies. The satellite-only solution as a whole is accurate to about 4.5 milligals as judged by the surface gravity data. The majority of the station coordinates are accurate to better than 10 meters as judged by independent results from geodetic surveys and by Doppler tracking of both distant space probes and near earth orbits.

  6. The Sounds of Earth Record Cover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    This gold aluminum cover was designed to protect the Voyager 1 and 2 'Sounds of Earth' gold-plated records from micrometeorite bombardment, but also serves a double purpose in providing the finder a key to playing the record. The explanatory diagram appears on both the inner and outer surfaces of the cover, as the outer diagram will be eroded in time. Flying aboard Voyagers 1 and 2 are identical 'golden' records, carrying the story of Earth far into deep space. The 12 inch gold-plated copper discs contain greetings in 60 languages, samples of music from different cultures and eras, and natural and man-made sounds from Earth. They also contain electronic information that an advanced technological civilization could convert into diagrams and photographs. Currently, both Voyager probes are sailing adrift in the black sea of interplanetary space, having left our solar system years ago.

  7. Multiple seismic reflectors in Earth's lowermost mantle.

    PubMed

    Shang, Xuefeng; Shim, Sang-Heon; de Hoop, Maarten; van der Hilst, Robert

    2014-02-18

    The modern view of Earth's lowermost mantle considers a D″ region of enhanced (seismologically inferred) heterogeneity bounded by the core-mantle boundary and an interface some 150-300 km above it, with the latter often attributed to the postperovskite phase transition (in MgSiO3). Seismic exploration of Earth's deep interior suggests, however, that this view needs modification. So-called ScS and SKKS waves, which probe the lowermost mantle from above and below, respectively, reveal multiple reflectors beneath Central America and East Asia, two areas known for subduction of oceanic plates deep into Earth's mantle. This observation is inconsistent with expectations from a thermal response of a single isochemical postperovskite transition, but some of the newly observed structures can be explained with postperovskite transitions in differentiated slab materials. Our results imply that the lowermost mantle is more complex than hitherto thought and that interfaces and compositional heterogeneity occur beyond the D″ region sensu stricto. PMID:24550266

  8. Formative Assessment Probes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eberle, Francis; Keeley, Page

    2008-01-01

    Formative assessment probes can be effective tools to help teachers build a bridge between students' initial ideas and scientific ones. In this article, the authors describe how using two formative assessment probes can help teachers determine the extent to which students make similar connections between developing a concept of matter and a…

  9. Magnetically driven filament probe.

    PubMed

    Schmid, A; Herrmann, A; Rohde, V; Maraschek, M; Müller, H W

    2007-05-01

    A radially movable probe has been developed for studies of filamentary transport in ASDEX Upgrade during edge localized modes (ELMs) by means of Langmuir tips and magnetic pickup coils. The probe is permanently installed at the low field side in the ASDEX Upgrade vacuum vessel and is not subject to limitations in probe size, as, for example, probes on a shared manipulator are. The probe is moved by a magnetic drive, which allows for easy installation in the vessel, and has moderate machine requirements, as it will only require an electric feedthrough and an external power supply. The drive gives a linear motion with a radial range of 5 cm within 50 ms, where range and velocity can be largely scaled according to experimental requirements. The probe has been installed in the outer midplane of the ASDEX Upgrade vessel, where ELM filaments are expected to have their maximum amplitude. Filaments are coherent substructures within an ELM, carrying a fraction of the ELM released energy towards the wall. The new probe allows to measure the structure of these filaments, in particular, parameters such as filament rotation (by time delay measurements) and size (by peak width analysis). Activating the drive moves the probe from a safe position behind the limiter to a position in front of the limiters, i.e., exposes the Langmuir pins to the scrape-off layer plasma. PMID:17552815

  10. PDV Probe Alignment Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Whitworth, T L; May, C M; Strand, O T

    2007-10-26

    This alignment technique was developed while performing heterodyne velocimetry measurements at LLNL. There are a few minor items needed, such as a white card with aperture in center, visible alignment laser, IR back reflection meter, and a microscope to view the bridge surface. The work was performed on KCP flyers that were 6 and 8 mils wide. The probes used were Oz Optics manufactured with focal distances of 42mm and 26mm. Both probes provide a spot size of approximately 80?m at 1550nm. The 42mm probes were specified to provide an internal back reflection of -35 to -40dB, and the probe back reflections were measured to be -37dB and -33dB. The 26mm probes were specified as -30dB and both measured -30.5dB. The probe is initially aligned normal to the flyer/bridge surface. This provides a very high return signal, up to -2dB, due to the bridge reflectivity. A white card with a hole in the center as an aperture can be used to check the reflected beam position relative to the probe and launch beam, and the alignment laser spot centered on the bridge, see Figure 1 and Figure 2. The IR back reflection meter is used to measure the dB return from the probe and surface, and a white card or similar object is inserted between the probe and surface to block surface reflection. It may take several iterations between the visible alignment laser and the IR back reflection meter to complete this alignment procedure. Once aligned normal to the surface, the probe should be tilted to position the visible alignment beam as shown in Figure 3, and the flyer should be translated in the X and Y axis to reposition the alignment beam onto the flyer as shown in Figure 4. This tilting of the probe minimizes the amount of light from the bridge reflection into the fiber within the probe while maintaining the alignment as near normal to the flyer surface as possible. When the back reflection is measured after the tilt adjustment, the level should be about -3dB to -6dB higher than the probes

  11. Circumferential pressure probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, Harlan K. (Inventor); Moore, Thomas C. (Inventor); Fantl, Andrew J. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A probe for measuring circumferential pressure inside a body cavity is disclosed. In the preferred embodiment, a urodynamic pressure measurement probe for evaluating human urinary sphincter function is disclosed. Along the length of the probe are disposed a multiplicity of deformable wall sensors which typically comprise support tube sections with flexible side wall areas. These are arranged along the length of the probe in two areas, one just proximal to the tip for the sensing of fluid pressure inside the bladder, and five in the sensing section which is positioned within the urethra at the point at which the urinary sphincter constricts to control the flow of urine. The remainder of the length of the probe comprises multiple rigid support tube sections interspersed with flexible support tube sections in the form of bellows to provide flexibility.

  12. Space and Earth Sciences, Computer Systems, and Scientific Data Analysis Support, Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estes, Ronald H. (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    This Final Progress Report covers the specific technical activities of Hughes STX Corporation for the last contract triannual period of 1 June through 30 Sep. 1993, in support of assigned task activities at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). It also provides a brief summary of work throughout the contract period of performance on each active task. Technical activity is presented in Volume 1, while financial and level-of-effort data is presented in Volume 2. Technical support was provided to all Division and Laboratories of Goddard's Space Sciences and Earth Sciences Directorates. Types of support include: scientific programming, systems programming, computer management, mission planning, scientific investigation, data analysis, data processing, data base creation and maintenance, instrumentation development, and management services. Mission and instruments supported include: ROSAT, Astro-D, BBXRT, XTE, AXAF, GRO, COBE, WIND, UIT, SMM, STIS, HEIDI, DE, URAP, CRRES, Voyagers, ISEE, San Marco, LAGEOS, TOPEX/Poseidon, Pioneer-Venus, Galileo, Cassini, Nimbus-7/TOMS, Meteor-3/TOMS, FIFE, BOREAS, TRMM, AVHRR, and Landsat. Accomplishments include: development of computing programs for mission science and data analysis, supercomputer applications support, computer network support, computational upgrades for data archival and analysis centers, end-to-end management for mission data flow, scientific modeling and results in the fields of space and Earth physics, planning and design of GSFC VO DAAC and VO IMS, fabrication, assembly, and testing of mission instrumentation, and design of mission operations center.

  13. Pioneer Jupiter orbiter probe mission 1980, probe description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Defrees, R. E.

    1974-01-01

    The adaptation of the Saturn-Uranus Atmospheric Entry Probe (SUAEP) to a Jupiter entry probe is summarized. This report is extracted from a comprehensive study of Jovian missions, atmospheric model definitions and probe subsystem alternatives.

  14. Mission to Planet Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilford, Shelby G.; Asrar, Ghassem; Backlund, Peter W.

    1994-01-01

    Mission to Planet Earth (MTPE) is NASA's concept for an international science program to produce the understanding needed to predict changes in the Earth's environment. NASA and its interagency and international partners will place satellites carrying advanced sensors in strategic Earth orbits to gather multidisciplinary data. A sophisticated data system will process and archive an unprecedented amount of information about the Earth and how it works as a system. Increased understanding of the Earth system is a basic human responsibility, a prerequisite to informed management of the planet's resources and to the preservation of the global environment.

  15. Mission to Planet Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Gregory S.; Backlund, Peter W.

    1992-01-01

    Mission to Planet Earth (MTPE) is NASA's concept for an international science program to produce the understanding needed to predict changes in the earth's environment. NASA and its interagency and international partners will place satellites carrying advanced sensors in strategic earth orbits to gather multidisciplinary data. A sophisticated data system will process and archive an unprecedented amount of information about the earth and how it works as a system. Increased understanding of the earth system is a basic human responsibility, a prerequisite to informed management of the planet's resources and to the preservation of the global environment.

  16. Earth - Pacific Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This color image of the Earth was obtained by the Galileo spacecraft early Dec. 12, 1990, when the spacecraft was about 1.6 million miles from the Earth. The color composite used images taken through the red, green and violet filters. The Pacific Ocean covers virtually all of the visible disk of the Earth in this picture. The glint of the Sun reflected from smooth water is near the center. This is a frame of the Galileo Earth spin movie, a 500-frame time-lapse motion picture showing a 25-hour period of Earths rotation and atmospheric dynamics.

  17. Clear-Sky UV-B trends over Northern Midlatitudes derived from TOMS Low-Reflectivity Footprint Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ziemke, Jerry; Chandra, Sushil; Varotsos, C.

    1998-01-01

    This study investigates the distribution of clear-sky ultraviolet-B (UV-B, wavelengths 290-320 nm) trends in northern midlatitudes using 1979-1991 Nimbus 7 total ozone mapping spectrometer (TOMS) version 7 low-reflectivity (R<0.2) total ozone footprint measurements. The incorporation of essentially cloud-free ozone data from TOMS provides a direct method for separating transient cloud effects from anthropogenic and other dynamical factors present in UV-B. This study has also included both National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) microwave sounding unit channel 4 (MSU4) and National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) 500 hPa temperature (T500) fields in our trend models to improve UV-Index (UVI) trend statistics and to investigate the effects of interannual changes in UVI caused by synoptic-scale (horizontal wavelengths 4000-8000 km) and planetary-scale (horizontal wavelengths greater than 8000 km) dynamical events. Clear-sky UVI trends in the northern midlatitudes show large increases (exceeding 10 % per decade) and distinct regional variability especially during winter-spring months which can be attributed to topography and dynamical forcing effects. In the UV-important summer-autumn months, these trends are more uniformly distributed and still statistically significant, although smaller at around +2 to +3 % per decade. Specifically, during April largest increases in midlatitude UVI are seen to extend from near the dateline eastward across North America. In June months largest UVI increases occur over the east Asian continent with values around +5 to +6 % per decade. These increases in UVI over both the Pacific and Asian continent regions persist through summer into Autumn. In the the European sector, statistically significant increases in clear-sky UVI are found over central Europe with values around +2 to +3 % per decade and +8 to +9 % per decade during summer and winter-spring months, respectively. Over the nearby Mediterranean region

  18. A Comparison of Seasonal and Interannual Variability of Soil Dust Aerosols Over the Atlantic Ocean as Inferred by the Toms AI and AVHRR AOT Retrievals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cakmur, R. V.; Miller, R. L.; Tegen, Ina; Hansen, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The seasonal cycle and interannual variability of two estimates of soil (or 'mineral') dust aerosols are compared: Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) aerosol optical thickness (AOT) and Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) aerosol index (AI), Both data sets, comprising more than a decade of global, daily images, are commonly used to evaluate aerosol transport models. The present comparison is based upon monthly averages, constructed from daily images of each data set for the period between 1984 and 1990, a period that excludes contamination from volcanic eruptions. The comparison focuses upon the Northern Hemisphere subtropical Atlantic Ocean, where soil dust aerosols make the largest contribution to the aerosol load, and are assumed to dominate the variability of each data set. While each retrieval is sensitive to a different aerosol radiative property - absorption for the TOMS AI versus reflectance for the AVHRR AOT - the seasonal cycles of dust loading implied by each retrieval are consistent, if seasonal variations in the height of the aerosol layer are taken into account when interpreting the TOMS AI. On interannual time scales, the correlation is low at most locations. It is suggested that the poor interannual correlation is at least partly a consequence of data availability. When the monthly averages are constructed using only days common to both data sets, the correlation is substantially increased: this consistency suggests that both TOMS and AVHRR accurately measure the aerosol load in any given scene. However, the two retrievals have only a few days in common per month so that these restricted monthly averages have a large uncertainty. Calculations suggest that at least 7 to 10 daily images are needed to estimate reliably the average dust load during any particular month, a threshold that is rarely satisfied by the AVHRR AOT due to the presence of clouds in the domain. By rebinning each data set onto a coarser grid, the availability of

  19. Focus: DNA probes

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-11-01

    Progress in the development of DNA probes for the identification and quantitation of specific genetic sequences in biological samples is reviewed. Current research efforts in the development of DNA probes for the diagnosis of a wide variety of bacterial, viral, and other infectious diseases, such as herpes simplex and cytomegalovirus, and inherited genetic diseases such as cystic fibrosis and sickle cell anemia are discussed. Progress in development of DNA probe assays for cancer diagnosis, detection of Salmonella food poisoning, tissue typing (detection of histocompatibility antigens), mutagen screening, and animal diseases, among other applications is included.

  20. ALEX neutral beam probe

    SciTech Connect

    Pourrezaei, K.

    1982-01-01

    A neutral beam probe capable of measuring plasma space potential in a fully 3-dimensional magnetic field geometry has been developed. This neutral beam was successfully used to measure an arc target plasma contained within the ALEX baseball magnetic coil. A computer simulation of the experiment was performed to refine the experimental design and to develop a numerical model for scaling the ALEX neutral beam probe to other cases of fully 3-dimensional magnetic field. Based on this scaling a 30 to 50 keV neutral cesium beam probe capable of measuring space potential in the thermal barrier region of TMX Upgrade was designed.

  1. Foldable polymers as probes

    DOEpatents

    Li, Alexander D. Q.; Wang, Wei

    2007-07-03

    Disclosed herein are novel probes, which can be used to detect and identify target molecules of interest in a sample. The disclosed probes can be used to monitor conformational changes induced by molecular recognition events in addition to providing signaling the presence and/or identity of a target molecule. Methods, including solid phase synthesis techniques, for making probe molecules that exhibit changes in their optical properties upon target molecule binding are described in the disclosure. Also disclosed herein are novel chromophore moieties, which have tailored fluorescent emission spectra.

  2. Foldable polymers as probes

    DOEpatents

    Li, Alexander D. Q.; Wang, Wei

    2009-07-07

    Disclosed herein are novel probes, which can be used to detect and identify target molecules of interest in a sample. The disclosed probes can be used to monitor conformational changes induced by molecular recognition events in addition to providing signaling the presence and/or identity of a target molecule. Methods, including solid phase synthesis techniques, for making probe molecules that exhibit changes in their optical properties upon target molecule binding are described in the disclosure. Also disclosed herein are novel chromophore moieties, which have tailored fluorescent emission spectra.

  3. Chemical sensing flow probe

    DOEpatents

    Laguna, George R.; Peter, Frank J.; Butler, Michael A.

    1999-01-01

    A new chemical probe determines the properties of an analyte using the light absorption of the products of a reagent/analyte reaction. The probe places a small reaction volume in contact with a large analyte volume. Analyte diffuses into the reaction volume. Reagent is selectively supplied to the reaction volume. The light absorption of the reaction in the reaction volume indicates properties of the original analyte. The probe is suitable for repeated use in remote or hostile environments. It does not require physical sampling of the analyte or result in significant regent contamination of the analyte reservoir.

  4. Chemical sensing flow probe

    DOEpatents

    Laguna, G.R.; Peter, F.J.; Butler, M.A.

    1999-02-16

    A new chemical probe determines the properties of an analyte using the light absorption of the products of a reagent/analyte reaction. The probe places a small reaction volume in contact with a large analyte volume. Analyte diffuses into the reaction volume. Reagent is selectively supplied to the reaction volume. The light absorption of the reaction in the reaction volume indicates properties of the original analyte. The probe is suitable for repeated use in remote or hostile environments. It does not require physical sampling of the analyte or result in significant regent contamination of the analyte reservoir. 7 figs.

  5. BEAM CONTROL PROBE

    DOEpatents

    Chesterman, A.W.

    1959-03-17

    A probe is described for intercepting a desired portion of a beam of charged particles and for indicating the spatial disposition of the beam. The disclosed probe assembly includes a pair of pivotally mounted vanes moveable into a single plane with adjacent edges joining and a calibrated mechanical arrangement for pivoting the vancs apart. When the probe is disposed in the path of a charged particle beam, the vanes may be adjusted according to the beam current received in each vane to ascertain the dimension of the beam.

  6. Exospheric cleaning of the Earth Radiation Budget solar radiometer during solar maximum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Predmore, R. E.; Jacobowitz, H.; Hickey, J. R.

    1983-01-01

    Anomalous behavior of the Earth Sensor Assemblies (ESA) had been observed on the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) 5D/1 satellites and the Tiros-N satellite. The present investigation is concerned with the reasons for the observed phenomena. Degradation of the Earth Radiation Budget (ERB) solar channels and the Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet and Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (SBUV/TOMS) diffuser plate is attributed to transmission or reflection loss originating from the growth of an organic film by photolytic polymerization. Simultaneous degradation of the ESA interference filter coated lenses facing the flight direction and the recovery of the ERB solar channels on Nimbus 6 and 7 is caused by a reaction with the increase in the exospheric atmospheric density caused by solar maximum.

  7. Essential oil composition and antimicrobial activity of three Zingiberaceae from S.Tomé e Príncipe.

    PubMed

    Martins, A P; Salgueiro, L; Gonçalves, M J; da Cunha, A P; Vila, R; Cañigueral, S; Mazzoni, V; Tomi, F; Casanova, J

    2001-08-01

    The essential oil composition of three Zingiberaceae widely used as medicinal aromatic plants from S. Tomé and Príncipe: Aframomum danielli (Hook. f.) K. Schum., Curcuma longa L. and Zingiber officinale Rosc. was studied. Two samples of the essential oils from fruit of A. danielli and from rhizomes of the other two species, were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC, GC-MS, and (13)C-NMR. The essential oil from fruits of A. danielli has been studied for the first time and was characterised by its high content of monoterpenes, with 1,8-cineole (25.5 - 34.4 %) the major constituent, followed by beta-pinene (14.1 - 15.2 %) and alpha-terpineol (9.9 - 12.1 %). Essential oils from the rhizomes of C. longa contained a lower content of ar-turmerone (4.0 - 12.8 %) than those reported in the literature for C. longa from other origins (24.7 - 31.4 %), whereas the results for Z. officinale essential oils were in accordance with the literature data. The essential oils of A. danielli and Z. officinale showed antimicrobial activity against all Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria tested, as well as against yeasts and filamentous fungi, using the agar diffusion method. PMID:11509990

  8. Upper Tropospheric Ozone Between Latitudes 60S and 60N Derived from Nimbus 7 TOMS/THIR Cloud Slicing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ziemke, Jerald R.; Chandra, Sushil; Bhartia, P. K.

    2002-01-01

    This study evaluates the spatial distributions and seasonal cycles in upper tropospheric ozone (pressure range 200-500 hPa) from low to high latitudes (60S to 60N) derived from the satellite retrieval method called "Cloud Slicing." Cloud Slicing is a unique technique for determining ozone profile information in the troposphere by combining co-located measurements of cloud-top, pressure and above-cloud column ozone. For upper tropospheric ozone, co-located measurements of Nimbus 7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) above-cloud column ozone, and Nimbus 7 Temperature Humidity Infrared Radiometer (THIR) cloud-top pressure during 1979-1984 were incorporated. In the tropics, upper tropospheric ozone shows year-round enhancement in the Atlantic region and evidence of a possible semiannual variability. Upper tropospheric ozone outside the tropics shows greatest abundance in winter and spring seasons in both hemispheres with largest seasonal and largest amounts in the NH. These characteristics are similar to lower stratospheric ozone. Comparisons of upper tropospheric column ozone with both stratospheric ozone and a proxy of lower stratospheric air mass (i.e., tropopause pressure) from National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) suggest that stratosphere-troposphere exchange (STE) may be a significant source for the seasonal variability of upper tropospheric ozone almost everywhere between 60S and 60N except in low latitudes around 10S to 25N where other sources (e.g., tropospheric transport, biomass burning, aerosol effects, lightning, etc.) may have a greater role.

  9. Increased Vacuolar ATPase Activity Correlated With CAM Induction in Mesembryanthemum crystallinum and Kalanchoë blossfeldiana cv. Tom Thumb.

    PubMed

    Struve, I; Weber, A; Lüttge, U; Ball, E; Smith, J A

    1985-01-01

    Vacuolar ATPase activities were determined by differential inhibition of homogenates of isolated protoplasts (using the inhibitors molybdate for acid phosphatases, vanadate for plasmalemma ATPase, azide for mitochondrial ATPase, and phlorizin for chloroplast ATPase) and in preparations of isolated vacuoles of Mesembryanthemum crystallinum and Kalanchoë blossfeldiana cv. Tom Thumb. Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) was induced in M. crystallinum by NaCl-salinity and in K. blossfeldiana by short-day treatments. Vacuolar ATPase activities increased several-fold during the transition from C(3) photosynthesis to CAM. The increase was quantitatively related to the rates of nocturnal maliacid accumulation in CAM assuming a stoichiometry of 2 H(+) pumped into the vacuole for 1 ATP hydrolyzed and 1 malate(2-) anion transported by secondary flux coupling. In M. crystallinum increased vacuolar ATPase activities were truly correlated with the degree of CAM expressed and not with NaCl accumulation due to the salinity treatment. Some properties of the vacuolar A TPase of M. crystallinum characterized in vacuole preparations were a pH-optimum near 8.0, an apparent K(m) (MgATP(2-)) of 0.20 to 0.29 mM, and an approximately 70 % inhibition by 50 mM nitrate. PMID:23195866

  10. Functional Probes for Scanning Probe Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akiyama, Kotone; Eguchi, Toyoaki; An, Toshu; Fujikawa, Yasunori; Hasegawa, Yukio; Sakurai, Toshio

    2007-03-01

    For superior performance of scanning probe microscopy, we are working to fabricate functional probes. For Kelvin probe force microscopy, we fabricated a metal-tip cantilever by attaching a thin metal wire to a regular Si cantilever and milling it by focused ion beam (FIB)^1. By using the W tip with a curvature radius of 3.5 nm, we obtained the potential profile of Ge/Si(105) surface in atomic resolution with the energy resolution better than 3 meV^2. For synchrotron-radiation-light-irradiated scanning tunneling microscopy which aims at atomically resolved elemental analysis, we fabricated a glass-coated W tip using FIB^3. It is found that the glass coating blocks the unwanted secondary electrons, which come from large area of the sample, by a factor of 40 with respect to the case no coating. Using the tip to detect the electrons emitted just below the tip, we obtained element specific images with a spatial resolution better than 20 nm under the photo irradiation whose energy is just above the adsorption edge of the element^4. 1 K. Akiyama et al., RSI 76, 033705 (2005) 2 T. Eguchi, K. Akiyama et al., PRL 93, 266102 (2004) 3 K. Akiyama et al., RSI 76, 083711 (2005) 4 T. Eguchi, K. Akiyama et al., APL, in press

  11. Pico Reentry Probes: Affordable Options for Reentry Measurements and Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ailor, William H.; Kapoor, Vinod B.; Allen, Gay A., Jr.; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj; Arnold, James O.; Rasky, Daniel J.

    2005-01-01

    It is generally very costly to perform in-space and atmospheric entry experiments. This paper presents a new platform - the Pico Reentry Probe (PREP) - that we believe will make targeted flight-tests and planetary atmospheric probe science missions considerably more affordable. Small, lightweight, self-contained, it is designed as a "launch and forget" system, suitable for experiments that require no ongoing communication with the ground. It contains a data recorder, battery, transmitter, and user-customized instrumentation. Data recorded during reentry or space operations is returned at end-of-mission via transmission to Iridium satellites (in the case of earth-based operations) or a similar orbiting communication system for planetary missions. This paper discusses possible applications of this concept for Earth and Martian atmospheric entry science. Two well-known heritage aerodynamic shapes are considered as candidates for PREP: the shape developed for the Planetary Atmospheric Experiment Test (PAET) and that for the Deep Space II Mars Probe.

  12. Investigation of the effect of atmospheric dust on the determination of total ozone from the earth's ultraviolet reflectivity measurements, 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dave, J. V.

    1976-01-01

    Results of a detailed analysis of the simulated measurements for the BUV (Nimbus-4) configuration are described by using a total-ozone estimation procedure. A set of recommendations are discussed for increasing the accuracy and confidence level of the total ozone values estimated from the measurements of the earth's ultraviolet reflectivity at five different wavelengths (BUV configuration). A tentative procedure is also considered for the estimation of total ozone from measurements of reflectivity at six different wavelengths specified in the SBUV/TOMS (Nimbus-G) configuration.

  13. Technology for Entry Probes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cutts, James A.; Arnold, James; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj; Kolawa, Elizabeth; Munk, Michelle; Wercinski, Paul; Laub, Bernard

    2005-01-01

    A viewgraph describing technologies for entry probes is presented. The topics include: 1) Entry Phase; 2) Descent Phase; 3) Long duration atmospheric observations; 4) Survivability at high temperatures; and 5) Summary.

  14. An Ultrasonographic Periodontal Probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertoncini, C. A.; Hinders, M. K.

    2010-02-01

    Periodontal disease, commonly known as gum disease, affects millions of people. The current method of detecting periodontal pocket depth is painful, invasive, and inaccurate. As an alternative to manual probing, an ultrasonographic periodontal probe is being developed to use ultrasound echo waveforms to measure periodontal pocket depth, which is the main measure of periodontal disease. Wavelet transforms and pattern classification techniques are implemented in artificial intelligence routines that can automatically detect pocket depth. The main pattern classification technique used here, called a binary classification algorithm, compares test objects with only two possible pocket depth measurements at a time and relies on dimensionality reduction for the final determination. This method correctly identifies up to 90% of the ultrasonographic probe measurements within the manual probe's tolerance.

  15. Validation of the OMI-TOMS and OMI-DOAS total ozone column data using ground-based observations over China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Mingliang; Shi, Runhe; Gao, Wei

    2015-09-01

    This study evaluates the accuracy of total ozone column derived from Ozone Monitoring Instruments (OMI) with two algorithms: OMI Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (OMI-TOMS) and OMI Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (OMI-DOAS), compared to ground-based Brewer and Dobson spectrophotometers located at eight China stations from July 2009 to December 2013, including Xianghe, Kunming, Mt.Waliguan, Lhasa, Taipei, Chengkung, Cape D'Aguilar and Longfengshan. Results showed that the agreement between OMI ozone data and ground-based measurements is excellent. Total ozone columns from both OMI-TOMS and OMI-DOAS data are on average about 1.5% lower than ground-based data. For both OMI ozone data products the SZA dependence of the mean relative differences (RD) between satellite data and the ground-based data is relative obvious when the SZA is larger than 50°. Similar to the SZA, the satellite view zenith angle (VZA) dependence of the mean relative differences (RD) between satellite and ground is relatively markedly when the VZA is smaller than 10° in eight stations. Finally, the dependence of the mean relative differences (RD) (-4.28% to 0.818%) between OMI-DOAS data and ground-based data for the total ozone column is remarkable. While for OMI-TOMS data the dependence is not obvious (the RD value varies from -3.30% to -0.676%).

  16. Efficient isolation of pure and functional mitochondria from mouse tissues using automated tissue disruption and enrichment with anti-TOM22 magnetic beads.

    PubMed

    Franko, Andras; Baris, Olivier R; Bergschneider, Eva; von Toerne, Christine; Hauck, Stefanie M; Aichler, Michaela; Walch, Axel K; Wurst, Wolfgang; Wiesner, Rudolf J; Johnston, Ian C D; de Angelis, Martin Hrabĕ

    2013-01-01

    To better understand molecular mechanisms regulating changes in metabolism, as observed e.g. in diabetes or neuronal disorders, the function of mitochondria needs to be precisely determined. The usual isolation methods such as differential centrifugation result in isolates of highly variable quality and quantity. To fulfill the need of a reproducible isolation method from solid tissues, which is suitable to handle parallel samples simultaneously, we developed a protocol based on anti-TOM22 (translocase of outer mitochondrial membrane 22 homolog) antibody-coupled magnetic beads. To measure oxygen consumption rate in isolated mitochondria from various mouse tissues, a traditional Clark electrode and the high-throughput XF Extracellular Flux Analyzer were used. Furthermore, Western blots, transmission electron microscopic and proteomic studies were performed to analyze the purity and integrity of the mitochondrial preparations. Mitochondrial fractions isolated from liver, brain and skeletal muscle by anti-TOM22 magnetic beads showed oxygen consumption capacities comparable to previously reported values and little contamination with other organelles. The purity and quality of isolated mitochondria using anti-TOM22 magnetic beads was compared to traditional differential centrifugation protocol in liver and the results indicated an obvious advantage of the magnetic beads method compared to the traditional differential centrifugation technique. PMID:24349272

  17. People and the Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, John James William; Feiss, P. Geoffrey

    1998-03-01

    People and the Earth examines the numerous ways in which this planet enhances and limits our lifestyles. Written with wit and remarkable insight, and illustrated with numerous case histories, it provides a balanced view of the complex environmental issues facing our civilization. The authors look at the geologic restrictions on our ability to withdraw resources--food, water, energy, and minerals--from the earth, the effect human activity has on the earth, and the lingering damage caused by natural disasters. People and the Earth examines the basic components of our interaction with this planet, provides a lucid, scientific discussion of each issue, and speculates on what the future may hold. It provides the fundamental concepts that will enable us to make wise and conscientious choices on how to live our day-to-day lives. People and the Earth is an ideal introductory textbook and will also appeal to anyone concerned with our evolving relationship to the earth.

  18. Reflections on Electric Probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braithwaite, Nicholas

    2007-10-01

    One of the more immediate temptations for an experimental plasma physicist is to insert some kind of refractory, conducting material into a plasma, as a simple means of probing its charge composition. Irvine Langmuir tried it in the 1920s and was one of the first to develop an electrical probe method in his early work on electrical discharge plasmas. There are now numerous variations on the theme including planar, cylindrical and spherical geometry with single, double and triple probes. There are also probes that resonate, propagate and reciprocate. Some probes are electrostatic and others are electromagnetic; some are effectively wireless; most absorb but some emit. All types can be used in steady and transient plasmas, while special schemes have been devised for RF plasmas, using passive and active compensation. Magnetised plasmas pose further challenges. Each configuration is accompanied by assumptions that constrain both their applicability and the analytical methods that translate the measured currents and voltages variously into charge densities, space potentials, particle fluxes, energy distributions and measures of collisionality. This talk will take a broad look at the options and opportunities for electric probes, principally in the environment of non-equilibrium plasma.

  19. Uderstanding Snowball Earth Deglaciation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbot, D. S.

    2012-12-01

    Earth, a normally clement planet comfortably in its star's habitable zone, suffered global or nearly global glaciation at least twice during the Neoproterozoic era (at about 635 and 710 million years ago). Viewed in the context of planetary evolution, these pan-global glaciations (Snowball Earth events) were extremely rapid, lasting only a few million years. The dramatic effect of the Snowball Earth events on the development of the planet can be seen through their link to rises in atmospheric oxygen and evolutionary innovations. These potential catastrophes on an otherwise clement planet can be used to gain insight into planetary habitability more generally. Since Earth is not currently a Snowball, a sound deglaciation mechanism is crucial for the viability of the Snowball Earth hypothesis. The traditional deglaciation mechanism is a massive build up of CO2 due to reduced weathering during Snowball Earth events until tropical surface temperatures reach the melting point. Once initiated, such a deglaciation might happen on a timescale of only dozens of thousands of years and would thrust Earth from the coldest climate in its history to the warmest. Therefore embedded in Snowball Earth events is an even more rapid and dramatic environmental change. Early global climate model simulations raised doubt about whether Snowball Earth deglaciation could be achieved at a CO2 concentration low enough to be consistent with geochemical data, which represented a potential challenge to the Snowball Earth hypothesis. Over the past few years dust and clouds have emerged as the essential missing additional processes that would allow Snowball Earth deglaciation at a low enough CO2 concentration. I will discuss the dust and cloud mechanisms and the modeling behind these ideas. This effort is critical for the broader implications of Snowball Earth events because understanding the specific deglaciation mechanism determines whether similar processes could happen on other planets.

  20. Earth - India and Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This color image of the Earth was obtained by the Galileo spacecraft on Dec. 11, 1990, when the spacecraft was about 1.5 million miles from the Earth. The color composite used images taken through the red, green and violet filters. India is near the top of the picture, and Australia is to the right of center. The white, sunlit continent of Antarctica is below. Picturesque weather fronts are visible in the South Pacific, lower right. This is a frame of the Galileo Earth spin movie, a 500-frame time-lapse motion picture showing a 25-hour period of Earth's rotation and atmospheric dynamics.

  1. Capturing near-Earth asteroids around Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasnain, Zaki; Lamb, Christopher A.; Ross, Shane D.

    2012-12-01

    The list of detected near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) is constantly growing. NEAs are likely targets for resources to support space industrialization, as they may be the least expensive source of certain needed raw materials. The limited supply of precious metals and semiconducting elements on Earth may be supplemented or even replaced by the reserves floating in the form of asteroids around the solar system. Precious metals make up a significant fraction NEAs by mass, and even one metallic asteroid of ˜1km size and fair enrichment in platinum-group metals would contain twice the tonnage of such metals already harvested on Earth. There are ˜1000 NEAs with a diameter of greater than 1 km. Capturing these asteroids around the Earth would expand the mining industry into an entirely new dimension. Having such resources within easy reach in Earth's orbit could provide an off-world environmentally friendly remedy for impending terrestrial shortages, especially given the need for raw materials in developing nations. In this paper, we develop and implement a conceptually simple algorithm to determine trajectory characteristics necessary to move NEAs into capture orbits around the Earth. Altered trajectories of asteroids are calculated using an ephemeris model. Only asteroids of eccentricity less than 0.1 have been studied and the model is restricted to the ecliptic plane for simplicity. We constrain the time of retrieval to be 10 years or less, based on considerations of the time to return on investment. For the heliocentric phase, constant acceleration is assumed. The acceleration required for transporting these asteroids from their undisturbed orbits to the sphere of influence of the Earth is the primary output, along with the impulse or acceleration necessary to effect capture to a bound orbit once the Earth's sphere of influence is reached. The initial guess for the constant acceleration is provided by a new estimation method, similar in spirit to Edelbaum's. Based on the

  2. MicroProbe Small Unmanned Aerial System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bland, Geoffrey; Miles, Ted

    2012-01-01

    The MicroProbe unmanned aerial system (UAS) concept incorporates twin electric motors mounted on the vehicle wing, thus enabling an aerodynamically and environmentally clean nose area for atmospheric sensors. A payload bay is also incorporated in the fuselage to accommodate remote sensing instruments. A key feature of this concept is lightweight construction combined with low flying speeds to minimize kinetic energy and associated hazards, as well as maximizing spatial resolution. This type of aerial platform is needed for Earth science research and environmental monitoring. There were no vehicles of this type known to exist previously.

  3. The Gravity Probe B Flight Dewar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Gravity Probe B (GP-B) is the relativity experiment developed at Stanford University to test two extraordinary predictions of Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity. This photograph is of the Gravity Probe B flight dewar, a metal container made like a vacuum bottle that is used especially for storing liquefied gases, that will maintain the experiment at a temperature just above absolute zero, staying cold for two years. The experiment will measure, very precisely, the expected tiny changes in the direction of the spin axes of four gyroscopes contained in an Earth-orbiting satellite at 400-mile altitude. So free are the gyroscopes from disturbance that they will provide an almost perfect space-time reference system. They will measure how space and time are very slightly warped by the presence of the Earth, and, more profoundly, how the Earth's rotation very slightly drags space-time around with it. These effects, though small for the Earth, have far-reaching implications for the nature of matter and the structure of the Universe. GP-B is among the most thoroughly researched programs ever undertaken by NASA. This is the story of a scientific quest in which physicists and engineers have collaborated closely over many years. Inspired by their quest, they have invented a whole range of technologies -- technologies that are already enlivening other branches of science and engineering. Launched in 2004 and managed for NASA by the Marshall Space Flight Center, development of the GP-B is the responsibility of Stanford University, with major subcontractor Lockheed Martin Corporation. (Photo Credit: Lockheed Martin Corporation/R. Underwood)

  4. Large-scale analysis of full-length cDNAs from the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) cultivar Micro-Tom, a reference system for the Solanaceae genomics

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The Solanaceae family includes several economically important vegetable crops. The tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is regarded as a model plant of the Solanaceae family. Recently, a number of tomato resources have been developed in parallel with the ongoing tomato genome sequencing project. In particular, a miniature cultivar, Micro-Tom, is regarded as a model system in tomato genomics, and a number of genomics resources in the Micro-Tom-background, such as ESTs and mutagenized lines, have been established by an international alliance. Results To accelerate the progress in tomato genomics, we developed a collection of fully-sequenced 13,227 Micro-Tom full-length cDNAs. By checking redundant sequences, coding sequences, and chimeric sequences, a set of 11,502 non-redundant full-length cDNAs (nrFLcDNAs) was generated. Analysis of untranslated regions demonstrated that tomato has longer 5'- and 3'-untranslated regions than most other plants but rice. Classification of functions of proteins predicted from the coding sequences demonstrated that nrFLcDNAs covered a broad range of functions. A comparison of nrFLcDNAs with genes of sixteen plants facilitated the identification of tomato genes that are not found in other plants, most of which did not have known protein domains. Mapping of the nrFLcDNAs onto currently available tomato genome sequences facilitated prediction of exon-intron structure. Introns of tomato genes were longer than those of Arabidopsis and rice. According to a comparison of exon sequences between the nrFLcDNAs and the tomato genome sequences, the frequency of nucleotide mismatch in exons between Micro-Tom and the genome-sequencing cultivar (Heinz 1706) was estimated to be 0.061%. Conclusion The collection of Micro-Tom nrFLcDNAs generated in this study will serve as a valuable genomic tool for plant biologists to bridge the gap between basic and applied studies. The nrFLcDNA sequences will help annotation of the tomato whole-genome sequence

  5. Gravity Probe B Completed With Solar Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    In this photo, the Gravity Probe B (GP-B) space vehicle is completed during the solar array installation. The GP-B is the relativity experiment developed at Stanford University to test two extraordinary predictions of Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity. The experiment will measure, very precisely, the expected tiny changes in the direction of the spin axes of four gyroscopes contained in an Earth-orbiting satellite at a 400-mile altitude. So free are the gyroscopes from disturbance that they will provide an almost perfect space-time reference system. They will measure how space and time are very slightly warped by the presence of the Earth, and, more profoundly, how the Earth's rotation very slightly drags space-time around with it. These effects, though small for the Earth, have far-reaching implications for the nature of matter and the structure of the Universe. GP-B is among the most thoroughly researched programs ever undertaken by NASA. This is the story of a scientific quest in which physicists and engineers have collaborated closely over many years. Inspired by their quest, they have invented a whole range of technologies that are already enlivening other branches of science and engineering. GP-B is scheduled for launch in April 2004 and managed for NASA by the Marshall Space Flight Center. Development of the GP-B is the responsibility of Stanford University along with major subcontractor Lockheed Martin Corporation. (Image credit to Russ Underwood, Lockheed Martin Corporation).

  6. Gravity Probe B Number 4 Gyro Inspected

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The Gravity Probe B (GP-B) is the relativity experiment developed at Stanford University to test two extraordinary predictions of Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity. The experiment will measure, very precisely, the expected tiny changes in the direction of the spin axes of four gyroscopes contained in an Earth-orbiting satellite at a 400-mile altitude. So free are the gyroscopes from disturbance that they will provide an almost perfect space-time reference system. They will measure how space and time are very slightly warped by the presence of the Earth, and, more profoundly, how the Earth's rotation very slightly drags space-time around with it. These effects, though small for the Earth, have far-reaching implications for the nature of matter and the structure of the Universe. In this photograph, Stanford engineer, Chris Gray, is inspecting the number 4 gyro under monochromatic light. GP-B is among the most thoroughly researched programs ever undertaken by NASA. This is the story of a scientific quest in which physicists and engineers have collaborated closely over many years. Inspired by their quest, they have invented a whole range of technologies that are already enlivening other branches of science and engineering. Launched April 20, 2004 , the GP-B program was managed for NASA by the Marshall Space Flight Center. Development of the GP-B is the responsibility of Stanford University along with major subcontractor Lockheed Martin Corporation. (Image credit to Russ Leese, Stanford University.)

  7. Artist's Concept of Gravity Probe-B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Gravity Probe-B (GP-B) is the relativity experiment being developed at Stanford University to test two extraordinary predictions of Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity. The experiment will measure, very precisely, the expected tiny changes in the direction of the spin axes of four gyroscopes contained in an Earth-orbiting satellite at a 400-mile altitude. So free are the gyroscopes from disturbance that they will provide an almost perfect space-time reference system. They will measure how space and time are very slightly warped by the presence of the Earth, and, more profoundly, how the Earth's rotation very slightly drags space-time around with it. These effects, though small for the Earth, have far-reaching implications for the nature of matter and the structure of the Universe. GP-B is among the most thoroughly researched programs ever undertaken by NASA. This is the story of a scientific quest in which physicists and engineers have collaborated closely over many years. Inspired by their quest, they have invented a whole range of technologies -- technologies that are already enlivening other branches of science and engineering. Scheduled for launch in 2003 and managed for NASA by Marshall Space Flight Center, development of GP-B is the responsibility of Stanford University, with major subcontractor Lockheed Martin Corporation.

  8. Artist's Concept of Gravity Probe-B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Gravity Probe-B (GP-B) is the relativity experiment being developed at Stanford University to test two extraordinary predictions of Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity. The experiment will measure, very precisely, the expected tiny changes in the direction of the spin axes of four gyroscopes contained in an Earth-orbiting satellite at a 400-mile altitude. So free are the gyroscopes from disturbance that they will provide an almost perfect space-time reference system. They will measure how space and time are very slightly warped by the presence of the Earth, and, more profoundly, how the Earth's rotation very slightly drags space-time around with it. These effects, though small for the Earth, have far-reaching implications for the nature of matter and the structure of the Universe. GP-B is among the most thoroughly researched programs ever undertaken by NASA. This is the story of a scientific quest in which physicists and engineers have collaborated closely over many years. Inspired by their quest, they have invented a whole range of technologies -- technologies that are already enlivening other branches of science and engineering. Scheduled for launch in 2003 and managed for NASA by Marshall Space Flight Center, development of the GP-B is the responsibility of Stanford University, with major subcontractor Lockheed Martin Corporation.

  9. Artist's Concept of Gravity Probe-B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Gravity Probe-B (GP-B) is the relativity experiment being developed at Stanford University to test two extraordinary predictions of Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity. The experiment will measure, very precisely, the expected tiny changes in the direction of the spin axes of four gyroscopes contained in an Earth-orbiting satellite at a 400-mile altitude. So free are the gyroscopes from disturbance that they will provide an almost perfect space-time reference system. They will measure how space and time are very slightly warped by the presence of the Earth, and, more profoundly, how the Earth's rotation very slightly drags space-time around with it. These effects, though small for the Earth, have far-reaching implications for the nature of matter and the structure of the Universe. GP-B is among the most thoroughly researched programs ever undertaken by NASA. This is the story of a scientific quest in which physicists and engineers have collaborated closely over many years. Inspired by their quest, they have invented a whole range of technologies -- technologies that are already enlivening other branches of science and engineering. Scheduled for launch in 2003 and managed for NASA by the Marshall Space Flight Center, development of GP-B is the responsibility of Stanford University, with major subcontractor Lockheed Martin Corporation.

  10. Model for resonant plasma probe.

    SciTech Connect

    Warne, Larry Kevin; Johnson, William Arthur; Hebner, Gregory Albert; Jorgenson, Roy E.; Coats, Rebecca Sue

    2007-04-01

    This report constructs simple circuit models for a hairpin shaped resonant plasma probe. Effects of the plasma sheath region surrounding the wires making up the probe are determined. Electromagnetic simulations of the probe are compared to the circuit model results. The perturbing effects of the disc cavity in which the probe operates are also found.

  11. Rare Earth Nanoprobes for Functional Biomolecular Imaging and Theranostics

    PubMed Central

    Naczynski, Dominik J.; Tan, Mei Chee; Riman, Richard E.; Moghe, Prabhas V.

    2014-01-01

    Contrast agents designed to visualize the molecular mechanisms underlying cancer pathogenesis and progression have deepened our understanding of disease complexity and accelerated the development of enhanced drug strategies targeted to specific biochemical pathways. For the next generation probes and imaging systems to be viable, they must exhibit enhanced sensitivity and robust quantitation of morphologic and contrast features, while offering the ability to resolve the disease-specific molecular signatures that may be critical to reconstitute a more comprehensive portrait of pathobiology. This feature article provides an overview on the design and advancements of emerging biomedical optical probes in general and evaluates the promise of rare earth nanoprobes, in particular, for molecular imaging and theranostics. Combined with new breakthroughs in nanoscale probe configurations, and improved dopant compositions, and multimodal infrared optical imaging, rare-earth nanoprobes can be used to address a wide variety of biomedical challenges, including deep tissue imaging, real-time drug delivery tracking and multispectral molecular profiling. PMID:24921049

  12. Linear and nonlinear interactions between the earth tide and a tectonically stressed earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beaumont, C.

    1978-01-01

    In the vincinity of earthquake focal regions, conditions may not be equal. Crustal rocks stressed to more than approximately 0.6 of their failure strength exhibit material properties over and above that of linear elasticity. Interactions between the earth tide and crustal rocks that are under high tectonic stress are discussed in terms of simple phenomenological models. In particular, the difference between a nonlinear elastic model of dilatancy and a dilatancy model that exhibits hysteresis is noted. It is concluded that the small changes in stress produced by the earth tide act as a probe of the properties of crustal rocks. Observations of earth tide tilts and strains in such high stress zones may, therefore, provide keys to the constitutive properties and the tectonic stress rate tensor of these zones.

  13. High tech the old-fashioned way. An interview with Tom Siebel of Siebel Systems. Interview by Bronwyn Fryer.

    PubMed

    Siebel, T

    2001-03-01

    There is a growing awareness among corporations that the quality of the customer experience they provide directly affects their bottom line. Many are turning to high-flying software maker Siebel Systems for help in managing those relationships. The young company holds a leadership position in an explosive market-enterprise application software. But customer satisfaction, not dot-com chic, is foremost on the mind of Siebel Systems' founder, chairman, and CEO, Tom Siebel. The buttoned-down Siebel rejects the freewheeling management style and culture that characterize many Silicon Valley companies. As the former CEO of Gain Technology and a former executive at Oracle, Siebel believes in putting customers ahead of technology, discipline ahead of inspiration. In this interview, conducted at the company's San Mateo, California, headquarters, Siebel describes how this obsessive focus on customer satisfaction has been the driving force behind the company's success. He talks about how the organization remains true to its core values: a deep commitment to providing customer satisfaction; responsible fiscal practices that have created a cash-positive business amid today's cash-negative dot-coms; and general professionalism. "The notion of dressing in jeans and a T-shirt to greet the CEO of a major financial institution who just got off the plane from Munich is not acceptable," he says. Siebel Systems rejects the concept of going to war with rivals; instead, the CEO says, the company has forged an ecosystem of partnerships that allows it to support and integrate its own systems with other companies' software products and ultimately ease the customer's software installations. Indeed, Siebel says, the CEO's most important job is to understand what customers need and deliver that. PMID:11246919

  14. Geology and potential hazards of the continental slope between Lindenkohl and South Toms canyons, offshore Mid-Atlantic United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robb, James M.; Hampson, John C., Jr.; Kirby, John R.; Twichell, David C.

    1981-01-01

    Because sediment instability, or slumping, has been identified as a potential hazard to petroleum development of the east-coast Continental Slope, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Bureau of Land Management, began a detailed study of a segment of the Continental Slope between Lindenkohl and South Toms Canyons off New Jersey. This 40-km x 35-km area was chosen for study because it lies within the area of high interest for petroleum development (Lease sales 49 and 59), and because it includes several wells which provide stratigraphic control. This report discusses the results of geologic mapping, using seismic-reflection data acquired in 1978 and 1979. Some initial results from more recently acquired data are included. The Continental Slope in the study area has a complex surface with ridges, canyons, and valleys. Three slump or slide features were observed in the heads and on the walls of canyons and valleys, and two slides were identified on an intercanyon area. The identified slumps or slides are found in Quaternary sediments and total about 1.3 percent of the Continental Slope area mapped. The slope is generally mantled by less than 2 m of Holocene sediments. Pleistocene sediment (primarily silty clay) is about 450 m thick at the top of the slope and thins to nearly zero or is absent on much of the mid and lower slope, where sediments of Miocene to Eocene age are exposed. Ridges on the midslope (water depths of 800-1,500 m) and parts of the lowr slope (1,500-2,150 m) result primarily from Pleistocene and older deposition. The intervening valleys show evidence of erosion along the deepest parts of their courses. Mid-range sidescan-sonar data show evidence that processes of bottom-current erosion and downcanyon transport of material may be active in the present day. However, major features of the sea floor appear to be unchanged since late-Pleistocene time.

  15. Multiple 40-kDa Heat-Shock Protein Chaperones Function in Tom70-dependent Mitochondrial Import

    PubMed Central

    Bhangoo, Melanie K.; Tzankov, Stefan; Fan, Anna C.Y.; Dejgaard, Kurt; Thomas, David Y.

    2007-01-01

    Mitochondrial preproteins that are imported via the translocase of the mitochondrial outer membrane (Tom)70 receptor are complexed with cytosolic chaperones before targeting to the mitochondrial outer membrane. The adenine nucleotide transporter (ANT) follows this pathway, and its purified mature form is identical to the preprotein. Purified ANT was reconstituted with chaperones in reticulocyte lysate, and bound proteins were identified by mass spectrometry. In addition to 70-kDa heat-shock cognate protein (Hsc70) and 90-kDa heat-shock protein (Hsp90), a specific subset of cochaperones were found, but no mitochondria-specific targeting factors were found. Interestingly, three different Hsp40-related J-domain proteins were identified: DJA1, DJA2, and DJA4. The DJAs bound preproteins to different extents through their C-terminal regions. DJA dominant-negative mutants lacking the N-terminal J-domains impaired mitochondrial import. The mutants blocked the binding of Hsc70 to preprotein, but with varying efficiency. The DJAs also showed significant differences in activation of the Hsc70 ATPase and Hsc70-dependent protein refolding. In HeLa cells, the DJAs increased new protein folding and mitochondrial import, although to different extents. No single DJA was superior to the others in all aspects, but each had a profile of partial specialization. The Hsp90 cochaperones p23 and Aha1 also regulated Hsp90–preprotein interactions. We suggest that multiple cochaperones with similar yet partially specialized properties cooperate in optimal chaperone–preprotein complexes. PMID:17596514

  16. Synoptic study of the seasonal variability of dust cases observed by the TOMS satellite over northern Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awad, Adel M.; Mashat, Abdul-Wahab S.; Alamoudi, Ahmad O.; Assiri, Mazen E.

    2016-05-01

    The aerosol index (AI) from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) satellite and meteorological parameters from National Center for Environmental Prediction and the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP/NCAR) reanalysis datasets were used to examine seasonal dust cases in northern Saudi Arabia. Considering all seasons, winter has the fewest dust cases, whereas summer has the most dust cases. Synoptically, surface high-pressure systems in the eastern and western regions are important for the occurrence of dust cases over the northern Arabian Peninsula. When the eastern high pressure prevails, the effects of the Indian low-pressure system on the Arabian Peninsula are weakened or become nonexistent. The extension of the western high-pressure system toward the southeast provides an opportunity for a low-pressure system over Southeast Africa to connect with the Indian low-pressure system, which increases the width of the low-pressure trough and affects the Arabian Peninsula by increasing the amount of dust over the region. At 850 hPa, the weather systems typically rotate clockwise between winter and autumn. In winter, cyclonic systems prevail in the northern region, while anticyclonic systems prevail in the south. The systems are oriented toward the northeast in spring, the west in summer, and the southeast in autumn. Moreover, northern cyclones at 500 hPa shrink as they move northward and the maximum wind speed at 250 hPa decreases from winter to summer. Furthermore, the case study confirms that a change in the relative strength of the pressure systems and a change in the orientation of the isobars (contours) affect the amount of dust over the area. When the orientation of the isobar (contour) lines become strictly north to south or east to west, the amount of dust decreases and vice versa.

  17. Meteterakis saotomensis n. sp. (Nematoda: Heterakidae) from Schistometopum thomense (Bocage) (Gymnophiona: Dermophiidae) on São Tomé Island.

    PubMed

    Junker, Kerstin; Mariaux, Jean; Measey, G John; Mutafchiev, Yasen

    2015-10-01

    Meteterakis saotomensis n. sp. is described from Schistometopum thomense (Bocage), a gymnophionan endemic to the oceanic island of São Tomé in the Gulf of Guinea. The specimens were assigned to Meteterakis Karve, 1930, based on the possession of a head with three rounded lips, not set-off from the body, the absence of interlabia and cordons, females with a long vagina and males with a preanal sucker, surrounded by a cuticularised rim and caudal alae that are supported by fleshy papillae. The new species is characterised by: body length 4.2-4.5 mm (males) and 5.1-6.4 mm (females); total length of oesophagus, including pharyngeal portion and oesophageal bulb, 820-856 µm (males) and 898-1,070 µm (females); length of pharynx 57-58 µm (males) and 65-68 µm (females); spicules equal, 410-521 µm long, with tessellated ornamentation throughout their length and alae, and with bevelled tip; gubernaculum or 'gubernacular mass' absent; tail length 164-176 µm (males) and 214-239 µm (females), with elongated tip; vulva at 2.3-2.8 mm from anterior end, with anterior lip forming small flap. This is the second species of Meteterakis reported from gymnophionan hosts and the first from the Afrotropical region. Selected comparative morphological data for Meteterakis spp. are presented, and data on host range and geographic distribution are updated. The name M. striaturus Oshmarin & Demshin, 1972 is corrected to M. striatura to reflect the female gender of the genus name. PMID:26358072

  18. Population Genetics of the São Tomé Caecilian (Gymnophiona: Dermophiidae: Schistometopum thomense) Reveals Strong Geographic Structuring

    PubMed Central

    Stoelting, Ricka E.; Measey, G. John; Drewes, Robert C.

    2014-01-01

    Islands provide exciting opportunities for exploring ecological and evolutionary mechanisms. The oceanic island of São Tomé in the Gulf of Guinea exhibits high diversity of fauna including the endemic caecilian amphibian, Schistometopum thomense. Variation in pigmentation, morphology and size of this taxon over its c. 45 km island range is extreme, motivating a number of taxonomic, ecological, and evolutionary hypotheses to explain the observed diversity. We conducted a population genetic study of S. thomense using partial sequences of two mitochondrial DNA genes (ND4 and 16S), together with morphological examination, to address competing hypotheses of taxonomic or clinal variation. Using Bayesian phylogenetic analysis and Spatial Analysis of Molecular Variance, we found evidence of four geographic clades, whose range and approximated age (c. 253 Kya – 27 Kya) are consistent with the spread and age of recent volcanic flows. These clades explained 90% of variation in ND4 (φCT = 0.892), and diverged by 4.3% minimum pairwise distance at the deepest node. Most notably, using Mismatch Distributions and Mantel Tests, we identified a zone of population admixture that dissected the island. In the northern clade, we found evidence of recent population expansion (Fu's Fs = −13.08 and Tajima's D = −1.80) and limited dispersal (Mantel correlation coefficient = 0.36, p = 0.01). Color assignment to clades was not absolute. Paired with multinomial regression of chromatic data, our analyses suggested that the genetic groups and a latitudinal gradient together describe variation in color of S. thomense. We propose that volcanism and limited dispersal ability are the likely proximal causes of the observed genetic structure. This is the first population genetic study of any caecilian and demonstrates that these animals have deep genetic divisions over very small areas in accordance with previous speculations of low dispersal abilities. PMID:25171066

  19. Ground-based tracking of the Huygens Probe during the Titan descent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Folkner, W. M.; Border, J. S.; Lowe, S. T.; Preston, R. A.; Bird, M. K.

    2004-02-01

    The radio signal from the Huygens Probe will be received using radio tracking stations on Earth as it descends through the atmosphere of Titan. The recording will be used to determine the Doppler shift of the signal and hence the velocity of the Probe in the direction of Earth. These velocity measurements will be used to determine the Titan wind speed as a function of altitude, thereby complementing the Huygens signal measurements on the Cassini Orbiter (DWE - Doppler Wind Experiment), which yield a velocity measurement in a different direction. The combined measurements will provide confirmation of the basic wind profile and most probably allow a separation of the wind speed into its meridional and zonal components. The signal strength received at Earth from Huygens will be comparable to that from a similar experiment performed with the Galileo Probe at Jupiter, and will thus probably be too weak to detect in real time because of the modulation by the (then) unknown telemetry. Instead, wide-band recordings of the Probe signal will be made throughout the three-hour descent. After the Probe telemetry is relayed from Cassini to Earth, the recorded signal is processed against a telemetry template, enabling signal integration over several seconds for determining the Probe frequency. Technical aspects and some anticipated results of the Earth-based DWE are presented.

  20. Cool Earth Solar

    ScienceCinema

    Lamkin, Rob; McIlroy, Andy; Swalwell, Eric; Rajan, Kish

    2014-02-26

    In a public-private partnership that takes full advantage of the Livermore Valley Open Campus (LVOC) for the first time, Sandia National Laboratories and Cool Earth Solar have signed an agreement that could make solar energy more affordable and accessible. In this piece, representatives from Sandia, Cool Earth Solar, and leaders in California government all discuss the unique partnership and its expected impact.