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1

Fire at Iraqi sulfur plant emits SO2 clouds detected by Earth Probe TOMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fire started at the Al-Mishraq State Sulfur plant near Mosul, Iraq on 24 June 2003 and burned for almost a month. Combustion of elemental sulfur in the fire produced dense clouds of sulfur dioxide (SO2) that were detected from space by the Earth Probe Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (EP TOMS) on 18 days. Estimated daily SO2 production from the

S. A. Carn; A. J. Krueger; N. A. Krotkov; M. A. Gray

2004-01-01

2

Earth Probe Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) Data Product User's Guide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two data products from the Earth Probe Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (EP/TOMS) have been archived at the Distributed Active Archive Center, in the form of Hierarchical Data Format files. The EP/ TOMS began taking measurements on July 15, 1996. The instrument measures backscattered Earth radiance and incoming solar irradiance; their ratio is used in ozone retrievals. Changes in the reflectivity of the solar diffuser used for the irradiance measurement are monitored using a carousel of three diffusers, each exposed to the degrading effects of solar irradiation at different rates. The algorithm to retrieve total column ozone compares measured Earth radiances at sets of three wavelengths with radiances calculated for different total ozone values. The initial error in the absolute scale for TOMS total ozone is 3 percent, the one standard deviation random error is 2 percent, and the drift is less than 0.5 percent over the first year of data. The Level-2 product contains the measured radiances, the derived total ozone amount, and reflectivity information for each scan position. The Level-3 product contains daily total ozone and reflectivity in a 1-degree latitude by 1.25 degrees longitude grid. Level-3 files containing estimates of LTVB at the Earth surface and tropospheric aerosol information are also available, Detailed descriptions of both HDF data-files and the CD-ROM product are provided.

McPeters, R.; Bhartia, P. K.; Krueger, A.; Herman, J.; Wellemeyer, C.; Seftor, C.; Jaross, G.; Torres, O.; Moy, L.; Labow, G.; Byerly, W.; Taylor, S.; Swissler, T.; Cebula, R.

1998-01-01

3

Derivation of tropospheric column ozone from the Earth Probe TOMS\\/GOES co-located data sets using the cloud slicing technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

A recently developed technique called cloud slicing used for deriving upper tropospheric ozone from the Nimbus 7 total ozone mapping spectrometer (TOMS) instrument combined with temperature-humidity and infrared radiometer (THIR) is not applicable to the Earth Probe TOMS (EP TOMS) because this satellite platform does not have an instrument to measure cloud-top temperatures. For continuing monitoring of tropospheric ozone between

C. Ahn; J. R. Ziemke; S. Chandra; P. K. Bhartia

2003-01-01

4

TOMS Data Products at the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences DAAC  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current Total Mapping Ozone Spectrometer (TOMS) was launched aboard the NASA Earth Probe (EP) satellite in July1996 to provide global monitoring of total column atmospheric ozone derived from measurements of backscattered solar ultraviolet radiation. TOMS is a second-generation, ozone-sounding instrument based on the Backscatter Ultraviolet (BUV) Spectrometer flown aboard NASA's Nimbus-4 satellite in 1970. The first TOMS instrument was

S. P. Ahmad; J. E. Johnson; G. N. Serafino; R. D. McPeters

2002-01-01

5

SHADOZ Comparisons with TOMS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One year of balloon-sonde profiles taken from the Southern Hemisphere ADditional OZonesondes (SHADOZ) archive have been compared with data from the Earth Probe Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) by integrating the balloon profiles to obtain total column ozone. The TOMS backscattered ultraviolet measurement loses sensitivity to ozone in the lowest five to ten kilometers of the atmosphere, limiting the accuracy of the TOMS measurement of tropospheric ozone. This is shown by the increased deviation between TOMS total ozone and the sonde total in the tropical Pacific, where tropospheric ozone is known to be lower than the tropical climatological average. The TOMS underestimate is further confirmed by the correlation of deviations between TOMS and the sondes with changes in lower tropospheric ozone. After allowing for the TOMS offset, the sondes appear to underestimate ozone by three to five percent. This is confirmed by a limited number of comparisons with Dobson data.

McPeters, Richard D.; Labow, Gordon J.; Witte, Jacquelyn; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

6

The Tom40 assembly process probed using the attachment of different intramitochondrial sorting signals.  

PubMed

The TOM40 complex is a protein translocator in the mitochondrial outer membrane and consists of several different subunits. Among them, Tom40 is a central subunit that constitutes a protein-conducting channel by forming a ?-barrel structure. To probe the nature of the assembly process of Tom40 in the outer membrane, we attached various mitochondrial presequences to Tom40 that possess sorting information for the intermembrane space (IMS), inner membrane, and matrix and would compete with the inherent Tom40 assembly process. We analyzed the mitochondrial import of those fusion proteins in vitro. Tom40 crossed the outer membrane and/or inner membrane even in the presence of various sorting signals. N-terminal anchorage of the attached presequence to the inner membrane did not prevent Tom40 from associating with the TOB/SAM complex, although it impaired its efficient release from the TOB complex in vitro but not in vivo. The IMS or matrix-targeting presequence attached to Tom40 was effective in substituting for the requirement for small Tim proteins in the IMS for the translocation of Tom40 across the outer membrane. These results provide insight into the mechanism responsible for the precise delivery of ?-barrel proteins to the outer mitochondrial membrane. PMID:22933571

Shiota, Takuya; Maruyama, Miyuki; Miura, Mami; Tamura, Yasushi; Yamano, Koji; Esaki, Masatoshi; Endo, Toshiya

2012-10-01

7

Contribution of TOMS to Earth Science - An Overview  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The TOMS instrument was launched on the Nimbus-7 satellite in Oct 1978 with the goal of understanding the meteorological influences on the ozone column. The nominal lifetime of the instrument was 1 year. However, in response to the concern over possible man-made influences on the ozone layer NASA continued to nurse the instrument for 13.5 years and launched a major program to produce accurate trend quality dataset of ozone. Despite severe optical degradation and other significant anomalies that developed in the instrument over its lifetime, the effort turned out to be a tremendous success. In 1984, TOMS took center stage as the primary provider of Antarctic ozone hole maps to the world community; it continues to play that role until today. An unexpected benefit of the close attention paid to improving the TOMS data quality was that several atmospheric constituents that interfere with ozone measurement were also identified and meticulously converted into long-term datasets of their own. These constituents include clouds, volcanic SO2, aerosols, and ocean phytoplankton. In addition, the high quality of the basic datasets made it possible to produce global maps of surface UV and tropospheric ozone. In most cases there are no other sources of these data sets. Advanced UV instruments currently under development in the US and Europe will continue to exploit the TOMS-developed techniques for several decades.

Bhartia, P. K.

2003-12-01

8

Contribution of TOMS to Earth Science- An Overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The TOMS instrument was launched on the Nimbus-7 satellite in Oct 1978 with the goal of understanding the meteorological influences on the ozone column. The nominal lifetime of the instrument was 1 year. However, in response to the concern over possible man-made influences on the ozone layer NASA continued to nurse the instrument for 13.5 years and launched a major program to produce accurate trend quality dataset of ozone. Despite severe optical degradation and other significant anomalies that developed in the instrument over its lifetime, the effort turned out to be a tremendous success. In 1984, TOMS took center stage as the primary provider of Antarctic ozone hole maps to the world community; it continues to play that role until today. An unexpected benefit of the close attention paid to improving the TOMS data quality was that several atmospheric constituents that interfere with ozone measurement were also identified and meticulously converted into long-term datasets of their own. These constituents include clouds, volcanic S02, aerosols, and ocean phytoplankton. In addition, the high quality of the basic datasets made it possible to produce global maps of surface UV and tropospheric ozone. In most cases there are no other sources of these data sets. Advanced UV instruments currently under development in the US and Europe will continue to exploit the TOMS-developed techniques for several decades.

Bhartia, P. K.

2004-01-01

9

Distribution of UV radiation at the Earth's surface from TOMS-measured UV-backscattered radiances  

Microsoft Academic Search

Daily global maps of monthly integrated UV-erythemal irradiance (290-400 nm) at the Earth's surface are estimated using the ozone amount, cloud transmittance, aerosol amounts, and surface reflectivity from the solar UV radiation backscattered from the Earth's atmosphere as measured by the total ozone mapping spectrometer (TOMS) and independently measured values of the extraterrestrial solar irradiance. The daily irradiance values at

J. R. Herman; N. Krotkov; E. Celarier; D. Larko; G. Labow

1999-01-01

10

Long-term global earth surface ultraviolet radiation exposure derived from ISCCP and TOMS satellite measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

A long-term (1983–2000) global dataset of Earth’s surface daily-integrated UV exposure was developed from a combination of ISCCP-D1 3h reflectance measurements (in order to resolve the diurnal variation of cloud conditions) and TOMS total ozone amount. The inversion algorithm developed in our previous study was employed with modifications addressing the conversion of visible reflectance to UV albedo and narrowband UV

Pubu Ciren; Zhanqing Li

2003-01-01

11

Tropospheric Ozone and Smoke from Earth Probe TOMS: Indian Ocean  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Researchers have discovered that smoke and smog move in different ways through the atmosphere. A series of unusual events several years ago created a blanket of pollution over the Indian Ocean. In this animation, significant smog or tropospheric ozone is represented by red and green and regions of significant smoke index are in shades of white and gray.

Mitchell, Horace; Thompson, Anne

2001-03-06

12

Tropospheric Ozone and Smoke from Earth Probe TOMS: Indonesia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Researchers have discovered that smoke and smog move in different ways through the atmosphere. A series of unusual events several years ago created a blanket of pollution over the Indian Ocean. In this animation, significant smog or tropospheric ozone is represented by red and green and regions of significant smoke index are in shades of white and gray.

Mitchell, Horace; Thompson, Anne

2001-03-06

13

CORRELATION BETWEEN TOMS AEROSOL INDEX AND THE ASTRONOMICAL EXTINCTION  

E-print Network

CORRELATION BETWEEN TOMS AEROSOL INDEX AND THE ASTRONOMICAL EXTINCTION El Arbi Siher a,d , Sergio and Earth Probe observations with CAMC visual extinction over La Palma from 1984 to 1997, to investigate the possibility to calibrate TOMS data in terms of astronomical extinction. The results show that the correlation

Liske, Jochen

14

Small-Scale Tropopause Dynamics and TOMS Total Ozone  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This project used Earth Probe Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (EP TOMS) along-track ozone retrievals, in conjunction with ancillary meteorological fields and modeling studies, for high resolution investigations of upper troposphere and lower stratosphere dynamics. Specifically, high resolution along-track (Level 2) EP TOMS data were used to investigate the beautiful fine-scale structure in constituent and meteorological fields prominent in the evolution of highly non-linear baroclinic storm systems. Comparison was made with high resolution meteorological models. The analyses provide internal consistency checks and validation of the EP TOMS data which are vital for monitoring ozone depletion in both polar and midlatitude regions.

Stanford, John L.

2002-01-01

15

Earth-Based Observations of the Galileo Probe Entry Site  

E-print Network

Earth-Based Observations of the Galileo Probe Entry Site G. Orton, J. L. Ortiz, K. Baines, G, J. Hora, L. Deutsch Earth-based observations of Jupiter indicate that the Galileo probe probably sensing observations of the Galileo probe entry site (PES) near the time of entry were necessary

Stewart, Sarah T.

16

Probing the Earth's Interior with SeismicTomography  

E-print Network

52 Probing the Earth's Interior with SeismicTomography Andrew Curtis Schlumberger Cambridge data recording the oscillations of seismic waves at distinct locations on the Earth's surface can be used to infer variations in elastic properties and density within the Earth. Creating images or models

17

Earth surface reflectivity climatology at 340–380 nm from TOMS data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 340-380 nm (UV) Lambertian equivalent reflectivities (LER) of the Earth's surface, between the latitudes +70 ø , are constructed from 14.5 years of radiances measured by Nimbus-7\\/total ozone mapping spectrometer (November 1978 to May 1993). The surface LER values are obtained from the minimum reflectivity values for each 1 ø x 1.25 ø (latitude x longitude) pixel with statistically

J. R. Herman; E. A. Celarier

1997-01-01

18

Inductive probe to measure the Earth’s magnetic field: a short note  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This experiment provides ‘hands-on’ experience of Faraday’s law. By flipping a coil of wire (the probe) in a horizontal or vertical plane the two components of the Earth’s magnetic field are determined. The signal from the probe is recorded by a Picoscope ADC100.

Thompson, Frank

2014-09-01

19

China Dust Storm seen by Earth Probe-TOMS in April of 2001  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A thick shroud of dust appears over China on April 6 and 7, 2001. The densest portion of the aerosol pollution travels east over China, Russia, Japan, the Pacific Ocean, Canada, and the United States.

Perkins, Lori; Shirah, Greg; Newman, Paul; Bhartia, Pawan

2003-12-03

20

Tropospheric Ozone and Smoke from Earth Probe TOMS: Indian Ocean to Indonesia Zoom  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Researchers have discovered that smoke and smog move in different ways through the atmosphere. A series of unusual events several years ago created a blanket of pollution over the Indian Ocean. In this animation, significant smog or tropospheric ozone is represented by red and green and regions of significant smoke index are in shades of white and gray.

Mitchell, Horace; Thompson, Anne

2001-03-06

21

Electromagnetic wave probing of Earth's environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Polarimetric radar backscattering from anisotropic Earth terrain such as snow-covered ice fields and vegetation fields with row structures provides a challenging modeling problem from the electromagnetic wave point of view. Earth terrain covers are modeled as random media characterized by different dielectric constants and correlation functions. A three-layer model will be used to simulate a vegetation field or a snow-covered ice field with the top layer being snow or leaves, the middle layer being ice of trunks, and the bottom layer being sea water or ground. The volume scattering effects of snow-covered sea ice are studied with a three-layer random medium model for microwave remote sensing. The strong fluctuation theory and the bilocal approximation are applied to calculate the effective permittivities for snow and sea ice. The wave scattering theory in conjunction with the distorted Born approximation is then used to compute bistatic coefficients and backscattering cross sections. Theoretical results are illustrated by matching experimental data for dry snow-covered thick first-year sea ice at Point Barrow. The results derived can also be applied to the passive remote sensing by calculating the emissivity from the bistatic scattering coefficients.

Kong, Jin AU

1988-01-01

22

Earth-Based Observation of Galileo Probe for Jupiter Wind Estimation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Galileo probe transmitted a radio signal to the orbiter during the active life of the probe. The Jupiter wind speed can be deduced from measurements of the Doppler shift of the probe signal. Observation geometry and the accuracy of the wind speed determination is improved by combining the probe-orbiter Doppler data with probe-Earth Doppler data. The probe radio signal

W. M. Folkner; R. A. Preston; J. S. Border; J. Navarro; M. Oestreich; W. Wilson

1996-01-01

23

An earth-isolated optically coupled wideband high voltage probe powered by ambient light  

E-print Network

An earth-isolated optically coupled wideband high voltage probe powered by ambient light Xiang Zhai) An earth-isolated optically coupled wideband high voltage probe powered by ambient light Xiang Zhaia online 9 October 2012) An earth-isolated optically-coupled wideband high voltage probe has been developed

Bellan, Paul M.

24

Probing the Kondo Lattice Model with Alkaline Earth Atoms  

E-print Network

We study transport properties of alkaline-earth atoms governed by the Kondo Lattice Hamiltonian plus a harmonic confining potential, and suggest simple dynamical probes of several different regimes of the phase diagram that can be implemented with current experimental techniques. In particular, we show how Kondo physics at strong coupling, low density, and in the heavy fermion phase is manifest in the dipole oscillations of the conduction band upon displacement of the trap center.

Michael Foss-Feig; Michael Hermele; Ana Maria Rey

2009-12-24

25

TOMS Tropical Tropospheric Ozone Data Sets at the University of Maryland Website  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Since 1997, shortly after the launch of the Earth-Probe TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) satellite instrument, we have been processing data in near-real time to post maps of tropical tropospheric ozone at a website: metosrv2.umd.edu/-tropo. Daily, 3-day and 9-day averages of tropical tropospheric ozone column depth (TTO) are viewable from 10N to 10S. Data can be downloaded (running 9-day means) from 20N-30S. Pollution events are trackable along with dynamically-induced variations in tropospheric ozone column. TOMS smoke aerosol (toms.gsfc.nasa.gov) can be used to interpret biomass burning ozone, as for example, during the extreme ozone and smoke pollution period during the ENSO-related fires of August November 1997. During that time plumes of ozone and smoke were frequently decoupled and ozone from Indonesian fires and from Africa merged in one large feature by late October 1997. In addition to the Earth-Probe TOMS record, data as half-month averages and as daily 9-day means from the Nimbus 7 TOMS instrument are at the metosrv2.umd.edu/-tropo website. A guide to the website and examples of ozone time-series and maps will be shown.

Kochhar, A. K.; Thompson, A. M.; Hudson, R. D.; Frolov, A. D.; Witte, J. C.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

26

A Rare Earth-DOTA-Binding Antibody: Probe Properties and Binding Affinity across the Lanthanide Series  

E-print Network

A Rare Earth-DOTA-Binding Antibody: Probe Properties and Binding Affinity across the Lanthanide affinity and exquisite specificity.1 An antibody that binds rare earth complexes selectively could be used The rare earths are rich in probe properties, such as the paramagnet- ism of Gd, the luminescence of Tb

Fisher, Andrew J.

27

Gravity Probe C(lock) - Probing the gravitomagnetic field of the Earth by means of a clock experiment  

E-print Network

We outline a mission with the aim of directly detecting the gravitomagnetic field of the Earth. This mission is called Gravity Probe C. Gravity Probe C(lock) is based on a recently discovered and surprisingly large gravitomagnetic clock effect. The main idea is to compare the proper time of two standard clocks in direct and retrograde orbits around the Earth. After one orbit the proper time difference of two such clocks is predicted to be of the order of $2\\times 10^{-7}$ s. The conceptual difficulty to perform Gravity Probe C is expected to be comparable to that of the Gravity Probe B--mission.

Frank Gronwald; Eleonora Gruber; Herbert Lichtenegger; Roland A. Puntigam

1997-12-11

28

The Recovery of TOMS-EP  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

On December 13th 1998, the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer - Earth Probe (TOMS-EP) spacecraft experienced a Single Event Upset which caused the system to reconfigure and enter a Safe Mode. This incident occurred two and a half years after the launch of the spacecraft which was designed for a two year life. A combination of factors, including changes in component behavior due to age and extended use, very unfortunate initial conditions and the safe mode processing logic prevented the spacecraft from entering its nominal long term storage mode. The spacecraft remained in a high fuel consumption mode designed for temporary use. By the time the onboard fuel was exhausted, the spacecraft was Sun pointing in a high rate flat spin. Although the uncontrolled spacecraft was initially in a power and thermal safe orientation, it would not stay in this state indefinitely due to a slow precession of its momentum vector. A recovery team was immediately assembled to determine if there was time to develop a method of despinning the vehicle and return it to normal science data collection. A three stage plan was developed that used the onboard magnetic torque rods as actuators. The first stage was designed to reduce the high spin rate to within the linear range of the gyros. The second stage transitioned the spacecraft from sun pointing to orbit reference pointing. The final stage returned the spacecraft to normal science operation. The entire recovery scenario was simulated with a wide range of initial conditions to establish the expected behavior. The recovery sequence was started on December 28th 1998 and completed by December 31st. TOMS-EP was successfully returned to science operations by the beginning of 1999. This paper describes the TOMS-EP Safe Mode design and the factors which led to the spacecraft anomaly and loss of fuel. The recovery and simulation efforts are described. Flight data are presented which show the performance of the spacecraft during its return to science. Finally, lessons learned are presented.

Robertson, Brent; Sabelhaus, Phil; Mendenhall, Todd; Fesq, Lorraine

1998-01-01

29

Participation in TOMS missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the past year we have been investigating a new algorithm for the derivation of column sulfur dioxide, column ozone, and aerosol optical depth from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) High Density TOMS (HDT) archived albedos. Simulations of the measured albedos were made using a radiative transfer model, and a technique developed to separate the effects of the aerosol optical depth from the absorption optical depth. The retrieval adopted obtained values from the three parameters with high accuracy. This retrieval was then applied to the TOMS data.

Hudson, Robert D.

1994-01-01

30

Tropical Tropospheric Ozone: A Multi-Satellite View From TOMS and Other Instruments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

New tropospheric ozone and aerosol products from the TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) satellite instrument can resolve episodic pollution events in the tropics and interannual and seasonal variability. Modified-residual (MR) Nimbus 7 tropical tropospheric ozone (TTO), two maps/month (1979-1992, 1-deg latitude by 2-deg longitude) within the region in which total ozone displays a tropical wave-one pattern (maximum 20S to 20N), are available in digital form at http://metosrv2.umd.edu/tropo. Also available are preliminary 1996-1999 MR-TTO maps based on real-time Earth-Probe (EP)/TOMS observations. Examples of applications are given.

Thompson, Anne M.; Hudson, Robert D.; Guo, Hua; Witte, Jacquelyn C.; Kucsera, Tom L.; Seybold, Matthew G.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

31

Volcanic Eruption Detection by the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) Instruments: a 22-Year Record of Sulfur Dioxide and Ash Emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since their first deployment in November 1978, the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) instruments have provided a unique, robust and near-continuous record of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and ash emissions from active volcanoes worldwide. Data from the four TOMS satellites that have flown to date (Nimbus-7, Meteor-3, ADEOS and Earth Probe) have been incorporated into a TOMS volcanic emissions database that presently covers 22 years of SO2 and ash emissions, representing one of the longest satellite-derived records of volcanic activity in existence. At the beginning of 2002, this database comprised 194 individual eruptive events produced during 100 eruptions from 60 volcanoes, resulting in a total of 666 days of volcanic cloud observations by TOMS. Regular eruptions of the African volcano Nyamuragira (DR Congo) since 1978, accompanied by copious SO2 production (Guth et al., 2002), have alone contributed approximately 20% of the days on which clouds were observed. Indonesian volcanoes have produced over 30% of detected eruptive events, due largely to frequent explosive activity at Galunggung, Soputan and Colo during the 1980s. The latest SO2 retrieval results from Earth Probe (EP) TOMS document a period (1996-2001) lacking large explosive eruptions, and also dominated by SO2 emission from 4 eruptions of Nyamuragira. EP TOMS has detected the SO2 and ash produced during 39 eruptive events from 15 volcanoes to date, with volcanic clouds observed on 128 days. Data from EP TOMS have recently begun to degrade, and its erstwhile successor (QuikTOMS) failed to achieve orbit in 2001. New SO2 algorithms are currently being developed for the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), which will continue the TOMS record of UV remote sensing of volcanic emissions from 2004. OMI will offer SO2 detection limits up to 50 times lower than TOMS and comparable to COSPEC, offering the prospect of regular space-based measurement of passive degassing. Reference: A.L. Guth, G.J.S. Bluth & S.A. Carn (2002). Analyzing sulfur dioxide emissions of Nyamuragira, Abstract (this meeting).

Carn, S. A.; Krueger, A. J.; Bluth, G. J.; Schaefer, S. J.; Krotkov, N. A.; Watson, I. M.; Datta, S.

2002-05-01

32

Ozone retrieval errors associated with clouds in total ozone mapping spectrometer (TOMS) data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study characterizes TOMS Ozone Retrieval Errors (ORES) associated with incorrect Cloud-Top Pressures (CTPs) and with assuming opaque Lambertian clouds, investigates these errors' effects on tropospheric ozone derivation, and analyzes ozone anomalies over TOMS data. Large errors occurring in TOMS assumed CTPs and inaccurate CTP-caused ORES are most significantly from inappropriately added ozone below clouds. Because OREs are usually within the TOMS retrieval precision when Cloud Optical Depth (COD) ? 20, assuming angular-independent cloud reflection is good. Because of In-Cloud Ozone Absorption ENhancement (ICOAEN), assuming opaque clouds can introduce large positive OREs even for optically thick clouds. For a 2--12 km water cloud of COD 40 with 20.8 DU ozone homogeneously distributed inside the cloud, the ORE is 17.8 DU at nadir view. The ICOAEN effect depends strongly on viewing geometry and inter-cloud ozone amount and distribution; it is typically 5--13 DU over the tropical Atlantic and Africa and 1--7 DU over the tropical Pacific for deep convective clouds. The TOMS Partial Cloud Model (PCM) is good because negative PCM effect partly cancels other positive errors. At COD ? 5, the TOMS algorithm retrieves approximately the correct total ozone because of compensating errors. With increasing COD up to 20--40, negative PCM effect decreases more dramatically than positive effects, so overall positive ORE increases and is dominated by the ICOAEN effect. The ICOAEN effect can largely underestimate tropospheric ozone derived from cloudy/clear difference techniques. The convective cloud differential and cloud-clear pair methods use minimum ozone above clouds to cancel positive errors. A Positive or Negative Ozone Anomaly (POA/NOA) is defined to occur if the ozone/reflectivity correlation coefficient in a region is ?0.5 or ?-0.5. Average fractions of OA occurrence are 31.8% and 35.8% in Nimbus-7 and Earth-Probe TOMS data, respectively. Most tropical NOAs result from large cloud-height errors; corrections lead to 50--70% POAs in the tropics because of mainly the ICOAEN effect. POAs with fractions of 30--60% occur in marine stratocumulus regions west of South Africa and South America. ORES over clear and cloudy areas cause about half the ozone/reflectivity slope; greater ozone production from frequent low-altitude clouds and rich ozone precursors may cause the remainder. The knowledge of TOMS OREs has important implications for ozone/trace gas retrieval from other satellites.

Liu, Xiong

33

Probing the Earth's Interior with the LENA Detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A future large-volume liquid scintillator detector such as the proposed 50 kton LENA (Low Energy Neutrino Astronomy) detector would provide a high-statistics measurement of terrestrial antineutrinos originating from ?-decays of the uranium and thorium chains. Additionally, the neutron is scattered in the forward direction in the detection reaction bar{?}_e+prightarrow n+e^+. Henceforth, we investigate to what extent LENA can distinguish between certain geophysical models on the basis of the angular dependence of the geoneutrino flux. Our analysis is based on a Monte-Carlo simulation with different levels of light yield, considering an unloaded PXE scintillator. We find that LENA is able to detect deviations from isotropy of the geoneutrino flux with high significance. However, if only the directional information is used, the time required to distinguish between different geophysical models is of the order of severals decades. Nonetheless, a high-statistics measurement of the total geoneutrino flux and its spectrum still provides an extremely useful glance at the Earth’s interior.

Hochmuth, Kathrin A.; Feilitzsch, Franz V.; Undagoitia, Teresa Marrodán; Oberauer, Lothar; Potzel, Walter; Wurm, Michael; Fields, Brian D.

2006-12-01

34

Tom's Hardware Guide  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Tom's Hardware Guide, by Thomas Pabst, is an excellent compendium of news, reviews, and technical guides pertaining to PC hardware. The hardware news includes product releases, roadmaps, and computer conference news. The reviews focus on motherboards, CPUs, and graphics cards, all of which are thoroughly tested by Tom and his staff. Testing results are graphed, evaluated, and compared. For the PC-users who want to tweak every bit of performance out of their system, there are guides for the system bios and CPU overclocking. This site is a must-visit for almost anyone looking to build or upgrade a computer.

35

Probing Geomagnetic Jerks combining Geomagnetic and Earth Rotation Observations (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geomagnetic jerks, first observed in the late 1970s, are the most rapid variations in the observed geomagnetic field that are believed to be of internal origin. Their occurence has been correlated with a number of different geophysical phenomena. Here we consider simultaneous features in variations in Earth's length of day. Recently, we have provided a simple description of non-atmospheric variations in length of day (LOD), consisting of 3 components: a slowly varying decadal trend, a 5.9-year oscillation, and occasional sudden jumps. Both of the shorter period parts of this correlate with geomagnetic jerks, with peaks in the LOD oscillation being contemporaneous with well-known jerk occurances (for example in 1969, 1972, 1978 and 1982), and jumps in the LOD fitting a jerk observed in satellite data in 2003.5. The simultaneous observation of these two features constrains Earth structure, in particular limiting the electric conductivity of the deep mantle. However, the nature of the LOD changes also may change the paradigm for the study of jerk timings. it is customarily assumed that the jerks represent features in the geomagnetic field that are continuous in the secular variation, but discontinuous in its derivative, the secular acceleration. However, a jump in LOD suggested by the modelling of the data would correspond also to a jump in SV, thus invalidating standard methods for temporal location of a jerk (which will consider the intersection of best-fit straight lines to the secular variation before and after). Olsen and Mandea have localised a jerk in satellite virtual observatory data using flow modelling; this seems the most promising method to investigate whether jerks could have discontinuous secular variation. We apply similar methods to time series of virtual geomagnetic obseratories from satellite data to further explore geomagnetic jerks and their rotational links in the geomagnetic satellite era.

Holme, R. T.; de Viron, O.

2013-12-01

36

Tom Houlton Bearded Thoughts  

E-print Network

Tom Houlton Bearded Thoughts Beards seem to be out of fashion nowadays-- The domain of eccentric by it was the fashion, Sweeney did bad business. You can tell a lot about a man from his beard, so I'm told; His wonders from a bygone age Of yellow Victorian tobacco-stains upon the creamy-white Bernard Shaw

Robertson, Stephen

37

5How to Use the Van Allen Probes to Measure the Mass of Earth! Kepler's Third Law says that the  

E-print Network

5How to Use the Van Allen Probes to Measure the Mass of Earth! Kepler's Third Law says, the proportionality constant for satellites orbiting Earth is just C = 1.7 x 10 -12 M Problem 1 ­ What is the equation described by the paragraph above? Problem 2 ­ Solve the equation for M ­ the mass of Earth. Problem 3

38

Probing the Earth’s interior with a large-volume liquid scintillator detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A future large-volume liquid scintillator detector would provide a high-statistics measurement of terrestrial antineutrinos originating from ?-decays of the uranium and thorium chains. In addition, the forward displacement of the neutron in the detection reaction ?+p?n+e provides directional information. We investigate the requirements on such detectors to distinguish between certain geophysical models on the basis of the angular dependence of the geoneutrino flux. Our analysis is based on a Monte-Carlo simulation with different levels of light yield, considering both unloaded and gadolinium-loaded scintillators. We find that a 50 kt detector such as the proposed LENA (Low Energy Neutrino Astronomy) will detect deviations from isotropy of the geoneutrino flux significantly. However, with an unloaded scintillator the time needed for a useful discrimination between different geophysical models is too large if one uses the directional information alone. A Gd-loaded scintillator improves the situation considerably, although a 50 kt detector would still need several decades to distinguish between a geophysical reference model and one with a large neutrino source in the Earth’s core. However, a high-statistics measurement of the total geoneutrino flux and its spectrum still provides an extremely useful glance at the Earth’s interior.

Hochmuth, Kathrin A.; Feilitzsch, Franz V.; Fields, Brian D.; Undagoitia, Teresa Marrodán; Oberauer, Lothar; Potzel, Walter; Raffelt, Georg G.; Wurm, Michael

2007-02-01

39

Long-Term Variability of Airborne Asian Dust Observed from TOMS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent studies suggest that airborne Asian dust may not only play an important role in the regional radiation budget, but also influence the air quality over North America through long-range transport. In this paper, we use satellite data to investigate the long-term variability of airborne Asian dust as well as the daily variation of the dust aerosol distribution. By combining the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) aerosol index with National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) wind data, our analysis shows a strong correlation between the generation of dust storms in the region and the passage of springtime weather fronts. This is consistent with earlier studies performed by other researchers. According to both the Nimbus-7 and Earth-Probe TOMS data the Takla Makan desert, the Gobi desert, and the and region of Inner Mongolia are major sources of the eastward-flowing airborne Asian dust. Heavily populated areas in eastern China (e.g., Beijing) are often on the primary path of the dust storms originating in these desert regions. The increasing desertification north of the Beijing region has served to exacerbate problems stemming from these storms. The time series derived from 20 years of TOMS aerosol index data shows the first significant satellite evidence of the atmospheric effect of increasing desertification, indicating that the amount of dust blown eastward has increased strongly during the past few years including the year 2000.

Herman, J. R.; Hsu, N. C.; Seftor, C. J.; Holben, B. N.; Holben, B. N.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

40

The magnetospheric disturbance ring current as a source for probing the deep earth electrical conductivity  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Two current rings have been observed in the equatorial plane of the earth at times of high geomagnetic activity. An eastward current exists between about 2 and 3.5 earth radii (Re) distant, and a larger, more variable companion current exists between about 4 and 9 Re. These current regions are loaded during geomagnetic substorms. They decay, almost exponentially, after the cessation of the particle influx that attends the solar wind disturbance. This review focuses upon characteristics needed for intelligent use of the ring current as a source for induction probing of the earth's mantle. Considerable difficulties are found with the assumption that Dst is a ring-current index. ?? 1990 Birkha??user Verlag.

Campbell, W. H.

1990-01-01

41

Dust Storms and Their Impact on Ocean and Human Health: Dust in Earth’s Atmosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

Satellite imagery has greatly influenced our understanding of dust activity on a global scale. A number of different satellites such as NASA’s Earth-Probe Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) and Sea-viewing Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) acquire daily global-scale data used to produce imagery for monitoring dust storm formation and movement. This global-scale imagery has documented the frequent transmission of dust storm-derived soils

Dale W. Griffin; Christina A. Kellogg

2004-01-01

42

The Siple VLF transmitter as a multi-frequency probe of the earth-ionosphere waveguide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Receptions of subionospheric signals radiated from Siple, Antarctic in 1983 to stations at Palmer, Halley, and South Pole are reported which are shown to be strongly dependent upon azimuth and signal frequency. The results indicate that antenna properties favor the endfire direction (toward Halley) at the third harmonic of the antenna half wave resonance frequency, and in general demonstrate greater efficiency at higher frequencies. The present effects provide a means of extending the effective frequency range of the narrowband Siple antenna system and of selectively probing certain regions of the earth-ionosphere waveguide.

Carpenter, D. L.; Bell, T. F.; Smith, A. J.

1988-02-01

43

Probing the Desert with Ultra--Energetic Neutrinos from the Sun and the Earth  

E-print Network

Realistic superstring models generically give rise to exotic matter states, which arise due to the ``Wilson-line'' breaking of the non-Abelian unifying gauge symmetry. Often such states are protected by a gauge or local discrete symmetry and therefore may be stable or meta-stable. We study the possibility of a flux of high energy neutrinos coming from the sun and the earth due to the annihilation of such exotic string states. We also discuss the expected flux for other heavy stable particles -- like the gluino LSP. We comment that the detection of ultra-energetic neutrinos from the sun and the earth imposes model independent constraints on the high energy cutoff, as for example in the recently entertained TeV scale Kaluza-Klein theories. We therefore propose that improved experimental resolution of the energy of the muons in neutrino detectors together with their correlation with neutrinos from the sun and the center of the earth will serve as a probe of the desert in Gravity Unified Theories.

Alon E. Faraggi; Keith A. Olive; Maxim Pospelov

1999-06-11

44

GOCE satellite gravity gradients: a new probe into the Earth's mantle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding the dynamics of the Earth's mantle requires to elucidate its internal structure and composition. Because density anomalies drive mantle flows, information on the mass distribution within the mantle is needed in order to model the deep dynamics. The measurements obtained from the ESA's GOCE satellite mission allow us to determine the tensor of second-order derivatives of the gravity potential as viewed from space, thus providing a new class of observations to probe our planet's deep directional mass structure: gravity gradients. We built the first global anomaly maps of the Earth's gravity gradients along the orbit, and demonstrate their unprecedented capability to image the geometry of mass distribution down to mid-mantle depths. In our maps, we identify signals that reflect the effect of subduction processes and convective instabilities between 1000 and 2500 km depth on mantle structure, also consistent with the distribution of shear-velocities anomalies in global seismic tomographic models. Such a clear detection arises from the correspondence between the directions along which the gradients are computed, and the North-South/East-West global structure of the Earth's deep masses. In particular, along the former Tethyan margin, the gradients maps suggest a stronger East-West directionality of the upper mantle structure than predicted by global seismic tomography. The joint analysis of these new data together with other geophysical data and models thus opens new perspectives to enhance the geometric description of mantle heterogeneities, and decipher their nature.

Panet, I.; Pajot-Métivier, G.; Greff-Lefftz, M.; Métivier, L.; Diament, M.; Mandea, M.; Romanowicz, B. A.

2013-12-01

45

Tom Brownlow Profile Charles City  

E-print Network

in Springfield. They are both 90 and are celebrating their 65th wedding anniversary. Tom has a brother, Mike, who the added cost associated with the project to keep stormwater from a 100 year rainfall at the location where

Weiblen, George D

46

Charlotte Christensen with Tom Quinn,  

E-print Network

Charlotte Christensen with Tom Quinn, Fabio Governato, and the N-Body Shop Department of Astronomy such as � Photo-dissociation from light from young stars, formation on dust grains, and shielding by itself

47

Purduesoybeanresearch onboardhistoricspaceflightby Tom Campbell  

E-print Network

promise to bump it up on the timeline. Vierling's experiment was listed on the manifest for STS-95, Glenn of space, Vierling hoped the bacteria could more easily reach the injured area of the soybeans. On earth

48

Probing the Extraordinary Ends of Ordinary Stars: White Dwarf Seismology with the Whole Earth Telescope  

E-print Network

During the final evolution of most stars, they shed their outer skin and expose their core of the hot ashes of nuclear burning. As these hot and very dense cores cool into white dwarf stars, they go through episodes of multiperiodic, nonradial g-mode pulsation. The tools of stellar seismology allow us to use the pulsation spectra as powerful probes into the deep interiors of these stars. Progress in white dwarf seismology has required significant international cooperation, since another consequence of the complex pulsations of these stars is decoding the true pulsation frequencies requires a coordinated global effort involving high-speed photometric observations. Through one such effort, the Whole Earth Telescope project, we have located subsurface composition changes, detected differential rotation and magnetic fields, and measured fundamental quantities such as stellar mass, luminosity, and distance to extraordinary accuracy.

Steven D. Kawaler

1995-03-15

49

Identification of Tom5 and Tom6 in the preprotein translocase complex of human mitochondrial outer membrane.  

PubMed

The fungal preprotein translocase of the mitochondrial outer membrane (TOM complex) comprises import receptors Tom70, Tom20, and Tom22, import channel Tom40, and small Tom proteins Tom5, Tom6, and Tom7, which regulate TOM complex assembly. These components are conserved in mammals; unlike the other components, however, Tom5 and Tom6 remain unidentified in mammals. We immuno-isolated the TOM complex from HeLa cells expressing hTom22-FLAG and identified the human counterparts of Tom5 and Tom6, together with the other components including Tom7. These small Tom proteins are associated with Tom40 in the TOM complex. Knockdown of Tom7, but not Tom5 and Tom6, strongly compromised stability of the TOM complex. Conversely, knockdown of hTom40 decreased the level of all small Tom proteins. Matrix import of preprotein was affected by double knockdown of any combination of small Tom proteins. These results indicate that human small Tom proteins maintain the structural integrity of the TOM complex. PMID:18331822

Kato, Hiroki; Mihara, Katsuyoshi

2008-05-01

50

TOMS Ozone at the South Pole: October Averages from 1979 through 2000  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The year 2000s Antarctic ozone hole is the largest ever observed. Scientists continue to investigate the phenomenon, and are somewhat surprised by its scale. Using data from NASAs Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) instrument onboard the Earth Probe satellite, researchers can evaluate and compare current conditions over the south pole to readings taken by other instruments in years past. Continued monitoring of polar ozone levels helps researchers gain a better understanding of how the planets climate may be changing. The following animation shows how ozone loss at the south pole has grown since the mid-80s. Early readings over Antarctica indicate little or no ozone depletion beyond naturally predicted levels. But as the 80s and 90s progress, a clear change in atmospheric chemistry takes place at the bottom of the world. The hole starts small in the late 80s and spreads as subsequent winter cycles break apart ozone molecules.

Shirah, Greg; Newman, Paul

2002-10-09

51

TOMS Ozone at the South Pole: September Averages from 1979 through 2000.  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The year 2000s Antarctic ozone hole is the largest ever observed. Scientists continue to investigate the phenomenon, and are somewhat surprised by its scale. Using data from NASAs Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) instrument onboard the Earth Probe satellite, researchers can evaluate and compare current conditions over the south pole to readings taken by other instruments in years past. Continued monitoring of polar ozone levels helps researchers gain a better understanding of how the planets climate may be changing. The following animation shows how ozone loss at the south pole has grown since the mid-80s. Early readings over Antarctica indicate little or no ozone depletion beyond naturally predicted levels. But as the 80s and 90s progress, a clear change in atmospheric chemistry takes place at the bottom of the world. The hole starts small in the late 80s and spreads as subsequent winter cycles break apart ozone molecules.

Shirah, Greg; Newman, Paul

2000-10-03

52

The Radiation Belt Storm Probes Mission: Advancing Our Understanding of the Earth's Radiation Belts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We describe NASA's Radiation Belt Storm Probe (RBSP) mission, whose primary science objective is to understand, ideally to the point of predictability, the dynamics of relativistic electrons and penetrating ions in the Earth's radiation belts resulting from variable solar activity. The overarching scientific questions addressed include: 1. the physical processes that produce radiation belt enhancement events, 2. the dominant mechanisms for relativistic electron loss, and 3. how the ring current and other geomagnetic processes affect radiation belt behavior. The RBSP mission comprises two spacecraft which will be launched during Fall 2012 into low inclination lapping equatorial orbits. The orbit periods are about 9 hours, with perigee altitudes and apogee radial distances of 600 km and 5.8 RE respectively. During the two-year primary mission, the spacecraft orbits precess once around the Earth and lap each other twice in each local time quadrant. The spacecraft are each equipped with identical comprehensive instrumentation packages to measure, electrons, ions and wave electric and magnetic fields. We provide an overview of the RBSP mission, onboard instrumentation and science prospects and invite scientific collaboration.

Sibeck, David; Kanekal, Shrikanth; Kessel, Ramona; Fox, Nicola; Mauk, Barry

2012-01-01

53

Internet Security Seminar Tom Chothia  

E-print Network

Internet Security Seminar Tom Chothia #12;Internet Security Seminar · This will be a seminar series · It is based around studying and discussing the best computer security research papers. #12;How the module in computer security. #12;Requirements · Must really enjoy reading research papers ­ e.g. the set papers from

Chothia, Tom

54

An Interview with Tom Wessels.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Author and environmental educator Tom Wessels discusses how to infer a landscape's history from plants and other clues found on site. Reading the landscape enables people to develop a stronger connection to place. Understanding historic landscape changes is essential to understanding current environmental issues. He also discusses his teaching…

Pryor, Patrick K.; Wessels, Tom

2002-01-01

55

Tom Houlton [The sun flattened  

E-print Network

Tom Houlton [The sun flattened] The sun flattened Outside her window, Hardly touched the panes and grey when It appeared, the sun jumping From cloud to cloud. The world went waterwards again. Her right://poetry.girton.cam.ac.uk #12;A cloud steps aside for a second. The sun hits. 2 #12;

Robertson, Stephen

56

Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site provides information about the TOMS instrument, its mission, space craft, and data products. Visitors can access same-day or archived data on aerosols, ozone, reflectivity, ultraviolet radiation, or volcanic gases. Teachers can choose from a selection of links to activities and lesson plans. Other materials include news articles, movies, and links to related sites.

57

Tom7 regulates Mdm10-mediated assembly of the mitochondrial import channel protein Tom40.  

PubMed

?-barrel membrane proteins in the mitochondrial outer membrane use the TOM40 complex to enter mitochondria and then the TOB/SAM complex to be assembled into the outer membrane. Tom7, a subunit of the TOM40 complex, regulates association of Mdm10 with the TOB complex. Here, we analyzed the role of Tom7 in assembly of ?-barrel proteins, including Tom40, a central channel subunit of the TOM40 complex, and porin. Depletion of Tom7 decreased transient accumulation of Tom40 at the level of the TOB complex and retarded assembly of porin in vitro. On the other hand, overexpression of Tom7 resulted in enhanced accumulation of in vitro imported Tom40 in the TOB complex, yet it did not affect the in vitro assembly of porin. Site-specific photocross-linking in vivo revealed that Tom7 directly interacts with Tom40 through its transmembrane segment and with Mdm10. These results collectively show that Tom7 recruits Mdm10, enhancing its association with the MMM1 complex, to regulate timing of the release of Tom40 from the TOB complex for subsequent assembly into the TOM40 complex. PMID:21036907

Yamano, Koji; Tanaka-Yamano, Sachiko; Endo, Toshiya

2010-12-31

58

ADEOS Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) Data Products User's Guide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two data products from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (ADEOS/TOMS) have been archived at the Distributed Active Archive Center, in the form of Hierarchical Data Format files. The ADEOS/ TOMS began taking measurements on September 11, 1996, and ended on June 29, 1997. The instrument measured backscattered Earth radiance and incoming solar irradiance; their ratio was used in ozone retrievals. Changes in the reflectivity of the solar diffuser used for the irradiance measurement were monitored using a carousel of three diffusers, each exposed to the degrading effects of solar irradiation at different rates. The algorithm to retrieve total column ozone compares measured Earth radiances at sets of three wavelengths with radiances calculated for different total ozone values, solar zenith angles, and optical paths. The initial error in the absolute scale for TOMS total ozone is 3 percent, the one standard deviation random error is 2 percent, and the drift is less than 0.5 percent over the 9-month data record. The Level 2 product contains the measured radiances, the derived total ozone amount, and reflectivity information for each scan position. The Level 3 product contains daily total ozone and reflectivity in a 1-degree latitude by 1.25 degrees longitude grid. The Level 3 files containing estimates of UVB at the Earth surface and tropospheric aerosol information will also be available. Detailed descriptions of both HDF data files and the CDROM product are provided.

Krueger, A.; Bhartia, P. K.; McPeters, R.; Herman, J.; Wellemeyer, C.; Jaross, G.; Seftor, C.; Torres, O.; Labow, G.; Byerly, W.; Moy, L.; Taylor, S.; Swissler, T.; Cebula, R.

1998-01-01

59

Uncle Tom's Cabin & American Culture  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

While it is fairly easy to find electronic full-text versions of Harriet Beecher Stowe's tremendously important work "Uncle Tom's Cabin" online, visitors will want to first take a look at this very thorough exploration not only of the book itself, but also of American culture in the 19th century. Created and maintained by Professor Stephen Railton of the University of Virginia (with funding from the National Endowment for the Humanities), the site allows users to browse through such materials as editorials from the period that respond to the book along with information about how the book has been transformed into a children's book and various plays. Beyond this helpful information, visitors can also look at the covers of different editions of Uncle Tom's Cabin through the years, including one that was published in Yiddish in 1911. For students of American literature or culture, this site could prove to be quite an invaluable resource.

60

Sensing systems for measuring mechanical properties in ground masses. Volume 1: Bore hole shear earth settlement and earth penetrometer probes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An analysis of three in situ testing methods for possible use in tunnel design in soft ground is discussed. These three in situ testing methods, the Bore Hole Shear (BHS), Bore Hole Earth Settlement (BESA) and Bore Hole Electronic Earth Pentrometer (BEEP) are in various stages of refinement. All show promise as practical methods of obtaining soil engineering data in a bored hole. The BHS is presently in commercial production. The BEEP requires only additional instrument research design to become manufacturable, and the BESA requires additional applied research and correlation testing prior to final design and manufacture.

Fox, N. S.

1981-10-01

61

Chemistry Experiments — For Comparative Analyses for Demonstrating Environmental Differences on Venus, Earth, Mars and Titan, — Built on Educational Space Probes Hunveyor and Husar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We compared chemical environments of Venus, Earth, Mars and Titan by experiments planned for selection to realize them on educational space probe landers and rovers (Hunveyor and Husar) built by Hungarian universities and high schools.

Bérczi, Sz.; Róka, A.; Nyíri, Z.; Varga, T.; Fabriczy, A. Sz.; Peták, Cs.; Hudoba, Gy.; Hegyi, S.; Lang, A.; Gyollai, I.; Gucsik, A.

2014-11-01

62

Preprotein translocase of the outer mitochondrial membrane: reconstituted Tom40 forms a characteristic TOM pore.  

PubMed

Tom40 is the central pore-forming component of the translocase of the outer mitochondrial membrane (TOM complex). Different views exist about the secondary structure and electrophysiological characteristics of Tom40 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Neurospora crassa. We have directly compared expressed and renatured Tom40 from both species and find a high content of beta-structure in circular dichroism measurements in agreement with refined secondary structure predictions. The electrophysiological characterization of renatured Tom40 reveals the same characteristics as the purified TOM complex or mitochondrial outer membrane vesicles, with two exceptions. The total conductance of the TOM complex and outer membrane vesicles is twofold higher than the total conductance of renatured Tom40, consistent with the presence of two TOM pores. TOM complex and outer membrane vesicles possess a strongly enhanced sensitivity to a mitochondrial presequence compared to Tom40 alone, in agreement with the presence of several presequence binding sites in the TOM complex, suggesting a role of the non-channel Tom proteins in regulating channel activity. PMID:16213519

Becker, Lars; Bannwarth, Michael; Meisinger, Chris; Hill, Kerstin; Model, Kirstin; Krimmer, Thomas; Casadio, Rita; Truscott, Kaye N; Schulz, Georg E; Pfanner, Nikolaus; Wagner, Richard

2005-11-11

63

A geostationary imaging spectrometer TOMS instrument  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One design for a geostationary Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) with many desirable features is an imaging spectrometer. A preliminary study makes use of a 0.25 m Czerny-Turner spectrometer with which the Earth is imaged on a charge-coupled device (CCD) in dispersed light. The wavelength is determined by a movable grating which can be set arbitrarily by ground control. The signal integration time depends on wavelength but this system allows arbitrary timing by command. Special circumstances such as a requirement to track a low-lying sulfur dioxide cloud or a need to discriminate high level ozone from total ozone at midlatitudes could be obtained by adding a particular wavelength to the normally pre-programmed time sequence. The incident solar irradiance is measured by deploying a diffuser plate in the field of view. Individual detector elements correspond to scene elements in which the several wavelengths are serially sampled and the Earth radiance is compared to the incident sunlight. Thus the problem of uncorrelated drift of multiple detectors is removed.

Krueger, Arlin J.; Maloy, J. Owen; Roeder, H. B.

1987-01-01

64

A Long-term Record of Saharan Dust Aerosol Properties from TOMS Observations: Optical Depth and Single Scattering Albedo  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The interaction between the strong Rayleigh scattering in the near UV spectral region (330-380 nm) and the processes of aerosol absorption and scattering, produce a clear spectral signal in the upwelling radiance at the top of the atmosphere. This interaction is the basis of the TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) aerosol retrieval technique that can be used for their characterization and to differentiate non-absorbing sulfates from strongly UV-absorbing aerosols such as mineral dust. For absorbing aerosols, the characterization is in terms of the optical depth and single scattering albedo with assumptions about the aerosol plume height. The results for non-absorbing aerosols are not dependent on plume height. Although iron compounds represent only between 5% to 8% of desert dust aerosol mass, hematite (Fe2O3) accounts for most of the near UV absorption. Because of the large ultraviolet absorption characteristic of hematite, the near UV method of aerosol sensing is especially suited for the detection and characterization of desert dust aerosols. Using the combined record of near UV measurements by the Nimbus7 (1978-1992) and Earth Probe (1996-present) TOMS instruments, a global longterm climatology of near UV optical depth and single scattering albedo has been produced. The multi-year long record of mineral aerosol properties over the area of influence of the Saharan desert, will be discussed.

Torres, Omar; Bhartia, P. K.; Herman, J. R.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

65

The Ideal Train Timetabling Problem Toms Robenek  

E-print Network

The Ideal Train Timetabling Problem Tomás Robenek Jianghang Chen Michel Bierlaire Transport and Mobility Laboratory, EPFL May 2014 #12;The Ideal Train Timetabling Problem May 2014 Transport and Mobility Laboratory, EPFL The Ideal Train Timetabling Problem Tomás Robenek, Jianghang Chen, Michel Bierlaire

Bierlaire, Michel

66

Probing the coupling of heavy dark matter to nucleons by detecting neutrino signature from the Earth core  

E-print Network

We argue that the detection of neutrino signature from the Earth core is an ideal approach for probing the coupling of heavy dark matter ($m_{\\chi}>10^{4}$ GeV) to nucleons. We first note that direct searches for dark matter (DM) in such a mass range do not provide stringent constraints. Furthermore the energies of neutrinos arising from DM annihilations inside the Sun cannot exceed a few TeV at the Sun surface due to the attenuation effect. Therefore the sensitivity to the heavy DM coupling is lost. Finally, the detection of neutrino signature from galactic halo can only probe DM annihilation cross sections. After presenting the rationale of our studies, we discuss the event rates in IceCube and KM3NeT arising from the neutrino flux produced by annihilations of Earth-captured DM heavier than $10^{4}$ GeV. The IceCube and KM3NeT sensitivities to spin independent DM-proton scattering cross section $\\sigma_{\\chi p}$ and isospin violation effect in this mass range are presented. The implications of our results a...

Lin, Guey-Lin

2014-01-01

67

Probing the coupling of heavy dark matter to nucleons by detecting neutrino signature from the Earth's core  

E-print Network

We argue that the detection of neutrino signature from the Earth's core can effectively probe the coupling of heavy dark matter ($m_{\\chi}>10^{4}$ GeV) to nucleons. We first note that direct searches for dark matter (DM) in such a mass range provide much less stringent constraint than the constraint provided by such searches for $m_{\\chi}\\sim 100$ GeV. Furthermore the energies of neutrinos arising from DM annihilation inside the Sun cannot exceed a few TeVs at the Sun surface due to the attenuation effect. Therefore the sensitivity to the heavy DM coupling is lost. Finally, the detection of neutrino signature from galactic halo can only probe DM annihilation cross sections. We present neutrino event rates in IceCube and KM3NeT arising from the neutrino flux produced by annihilation of Earth-captured DM heavier than $10^{4}$ GeV. The IceCube and KM3NeT sensitivities to spin independent DM-proton scattering cross section $\\sigma_{\\chi p}$ in this mass range are presented for both isospin symmetric and isospin v...

Lin, Guey-Lin; Lee, Fei-Fan

2014-01-01

68

Probing the coupling of heavy dark matter to nucleons by detecting neutrino signature from the Earth's core  

E-print Network

We argue that the detection of neutrino signature from the Earth's core can effectively probe the coupling of heavy dark matter ($m_{\\chi}>10^{4}$ GeV) to nucleons. We first note that direct searches for dark matter (DM) in such a mass range provide much less stringent constraint than the constraint provided by such searches for $m_{\\chi}\\sim 100$ GeV. Furthermore the energies of neutrinos arising from DM annihilation inside the Sun cannot exceed a few TeVs at the Sun surface due to the attenuation effect. Therefore the sensitivity to the heavy DM coupling is lost. Finally, the detection of neutrino signature from galactic halo can only probe DM annihilation cross sections. We present neutrino event rates in IceCube and KM3NeT arising from the neutrino flux produced by annihilation of Earth-captured DM heavier than $10^{4}$ GeV. The IceCube and KM3NeT sensitivities to spin independent DM-proton scattering cross section $\\sigma_{\\chi p}$ in this mass range are presented for both isospin symmetric and isospin violating cases.

Guey-Lin Lin; Yen-Hsun Lin; Fei-Fan Lee

2014-09-10

69

Probing the coupling of heavy dark matter to nucleons by detecting neutrino signature from the Earth core  

E-print Network

We argue that the detection of neutrino signature from the Earth core is an ideal approach for probing the coupling of heavy dark matter ($m_{\\chi}>10^{4}$ GeV) to nucleons. We first note that direct searches for dark matter (DM) in such a mass range do not provide stringent constraints. Furthermore the energies of neutrinos arising from DM annihilations inside the Sun cannot exceed a few TeV at the Sun surface due to the attenuation effect. Therefore the sensitivity to the heavy DM coupling is lost. Finally, the detection of neutrino signature from galactic halo can only probe DM annihilation cross sections. After presenting the rationale of our studies, we discuss the event rates in IceCube and KM3NeT arising from the neutrino flux produced by annihilations of Earth-captured DM heavier than $10^{4}$ GeV. The IceCube and KM3NeT sensitivities to spin independent DM-proton scattering cross section $\\sigma_{\\chi p}$ and isospin violation effect in this mass range are presented. The implications of our results are also discussed.

Guey-Lin Lin; Yen-Hsun Lin

2014-04-02

70

Earth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The following aspects of the planet Earth are discussed: plate tectonics, the interior of the planet, the formation of the Earth, and the evolution of the atmosphere and hydrosphere. The Earth's crust, mantle, and core are examined along with the bulk composition of the planet.

Carr, M. H.

1984-01-01

71

Comparison of Galileo Probe and Earth-Based Translation Rates of Jupiter's Equatorial Clouds  

PubMed

The Doppler wind speeds derived from Galileo probe data are comparable with the maximum translation speeds observed in the equatorial zone by Voyager 1 and the Hubble Space Telescope. Slower published values of east-west winds are based on measurements of larger features and should be interpreted as translation rates of large weather systems interacting with the wind. The nature of the hot-spot region that the Galileo probe entered is compatible with a high-speed jet at 6 degrees north. The hot spot is associated with an equatorial weather system that spans 5 degrees of latitude and translates at 103 meters per second. PMID:8662572

Beebe; Simon; Huber

1996-05-10

72

Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) Level-3 Data Products User's Guide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Data from the TOMS series of instruments span the time period from November 1978, through the present with about a one and a-half year gap from January 1994 through July 1996. A set of four parameters derived from the TOMS measurements have been archived in the form of daily global maps or Level-3 data products. These products are total column ozone, effective surface reflectivity, aerosol index, and erythermal ultraviolet estimated at the Earth surface. A common fixed grid of I degree latitude by 1.25 degree longitude cells over the entire globe is provided daily for each parameter. These data are archived at the Goddard Space Flight Center Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAQ in Hierarchical Data Format (HDF). They are also available in a character format through the TOMS web site at http://toms.gsfc.nasa.gov. The derivations of the parameters, the mapping algorithm, and the data formats are described. The trend uncertainty for individual TOMS instruments is about 1% decade, but additional uncertainty exists in the combined data record due to uncertainty in the relative calibrations of the various TOMS.

McPeters, Richard D.; Bhartia, P. K.; Krueger, Arlin J.; Herman, Jay R.; Wellemeyer, Charles G.; Seftor, Colin J.; Byerly, William; Celarier, Edward A.

2000-01-01

73

Study of generation and probing potentiality of whistlers in earth and Venus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The similarity theory propounded by Golitsyn and Steklov (1973) has been used to study the comparative features of planetary atmospheres. Cloud features show that the lightning process is the main source of low frequency electromagnetic wave generation on the twin planets; the earth and Venus. it is shown that in the case of the nonmagnetic planet Venus, the lightning-generated signals, unlike those of the earth, are mostly trapped in the ionopause-Venus waveguide and propagate round Venus by multiple reflections. Further, it is shown that the VLF waves incident at grazing angles may propagate in the whistler mode whose typical trajectory is along the Venus iosopause.

Singh, R. P.; Singh, R. N.; Das, I. M. L.

74

Probing the blow-off criteria of hydrogen-rich `super-Earths'  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The discovery of transiting `super-Earths' with inflated radii and known masses, such as Kepler-11b-f, GJ 1214b and 55 Cnc e, indicates that these exoplanets did not lose their nebula-captured hydrogen-rich, degassed or impact-delivered protoatmospheres by atmospheric escape processes. Because hydrodynamic blow-off of atmospheric hydrogen atoms is the most efficient atmospheric escape process we apply a time-dependent numerical algorithm which is able to solve the system of 1D fluid equations for mass, momentum and energy conservation to investigate the criteria under which `super-Earths' with hydrogen-dominated upper atmospheres can experience hydrodynamic expansion by heating of the stellar soft X-rays and extreme ultraviolet (XUV) radiation and thermal escape via blow-off. Depending on orbit location, XUV flux, heating efficiency and the planet's mean density our results indicate that the upper atmospheres of all `super-Earths' can expand to large distances, so that except for Kepler-11c all of them experience atmospheric mass-loss due to Roche lobe overflow. The atmospheric mass loss of the studied `super-Earths' is one to two orders of magnitude lower compared to that of `hot Jupiters' such as HD 209458b, so that one can expect that these exoplanets cannot lose their hydrogen envelopes during their remaining lifetimes.

Lammer, H.; Erkaev, N. V.; Odert, P.; Kislyakova, K. G.; Leitzinger, M.; Khodachenko, M. L.

2013-04-01

75

Revealing highly complex elastic nonlinear (anelastic) behavior of Earth materials applying a new probe  

E-print Network

granite, presumably due to microcracks and dislocation-point defect interactions. In sedimentary rocksRevealing highly complex elastic nonlinear (anelastic) behavior of Earth materials applying a new, that include soft bonds dislocations, microcracks, and the modulating influences of water content, temperature

76

Ion probe determinations of the rare earth concentrations of individual meteoritic phosphate grains  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new ion probe method for quantitative measurements of the concentrations of all the REE down to the ppm level in 5-20 micron spots is presented. The first application of the method is the determination of REE abundances in meteoritic phosphates. Results are shown to be in good agreement with previous INAA and ion probe determinations. The merrillites in the St. Severin amphoterite are richer in REE than the apatites (the enrichment factors, for various REE, range from 2.3 to 14.2) in contradiction with the results of Ebihara and Honda (1983). Provided good standards for other mineral phases are found or implanted marker ion techniques are used, the method should find a wide range of applications for the study of both terrestrial and extraterrestrial crystals at the microscopic level.

Crozaz, G.; Zinner, E.

1985-01-01

77

Characteristics of the Galileo probe entry site from Earth-based remote sensing observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

A reassessment of ground-based observations confirms to better than a 98% confidence level that the Galileo probe entered a 5-mum hot spot, a region of unusual clarity and dryness, some 900+\\/-300km north of its southern boundary. Cloud conditions at that point were similar to those in the center of this region, some 600 km further north. At the time of

Glenn S. Orton; Brendan M. Fisher; Kevin H. Baines; Sarah T. Stewart; A. James Friedson; Jose Luis Ortiz; Milena Marinova; Michael Ressler; Aditya Dayal; William Hoffmann; Joseph Hora; Sasha Hinkley; Viswanathan Krishnan; Milan Masanovic; Jelena Tesic; Andreas Tziolas; Kartik C. Parija

1998-01-01

78

Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lithograph depicts a view of Earth taken from Apollo 10 during its journey to the Moon in May 1969. False-color satellite images showing chlorophyll concentration, sea surface temperature, topography, and ozone concentration are also featured. The images are accompanied by a brief description, some statistical facts, and a list of important dates in the history of Earth exploration.

79

Public Attitudes toward Homosexuality Tom W. Smith  

E-print Network

1 Public Attitudes toward Homosexuality Tom W. Smith NORC/University of Chicago September, 2011 Public opinion on homosexual behavior is sharply divided to the opposite judgment that homosexual behavior was "not wrong at all." Just 11% were

Stephens, Matthew

80

October 19, 2007 Tom Karier, Chairman  

E-print Network

October 19, 2007 Tom Karier, Chairman Northwest Power and Conservation Council 851 S.W. Sixth. The paper describes a detailed and technically complex analysis conducted by your staff using state-of-the-art

81

Tom Berlijn Eugene P. Wigner Fellow  

E-print Network

Tom Berlijn Eugene P. Wigner Fellow Nanomaterials Theory Institute Center For Nanophase Materials University Condensed Matter Physics Ph.D. 2011 Professional Experience 2013-present, Eugene P. Wigner Fellow

Pennycook, Steve

82

G. S. MAHUKU1 , TOM HSIANG2  

E-print Network

559 G. S. MAHUKU1 , TOM HSIANG2 * AND L. YANG2 " Agriculture and Agri-food Canada, Charlottetown freezing and damages turf that is dormant or growing slowly due to low temperatures. It is favoured by low

Hsiang, Tom

83

Global time-dependent chorus maps from low-Earth-orbit electron precipitation and Van Allen Probes data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

injected electrons (several-100 s keV) produce whistler-mode chorus waves that are thought to have a major impact on the radiation belts by causing both energization and loss of relativistic electrons in the outer belt. High-altitude measurements, such as those from the Van Allen Probes, provide detailed wave measurements at a few points in the magnetosphere. But physics-based models of radiation-belt dynamics require knowledge of the global distribution of chorus waves. We demonstrate that time-dependent, global distributions of near-equatorial chorus wave intensities can be inferred from low-Earth-orbit (LEO) measurements of precipitating low-energy electrons. We compare in situ observations of near-equatorial chorus waves with LEO observations of precipitating electrons and derive a heuristic formula that relates, quantitatively, electron precipitation fluxes to chorus wave intensities. Finally, we demonstrate how that formula can be applied to LEO precipitation measurements and in situ Van Allen Probes wave measurements to provide global, data-driven inputs for radiation belt models.

Chen, Yue; Reeves, Geoffrey D.; Friedel, Reiner H. W.; Cunningham, Gregory S.

2014-02-01

84

TOMS Ozone at the South Pole: August 1, 2000 to October 2, 2000  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The year 2000s Antarctic ozone hole is the largest ever observed. Scientists continue to investigate the phenomenon, and are somewhat surprised by its scale. Using data from NASAs Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) instrument onboard the Earth Probe satellite, researchers can evaluate and compare current conditions over the south pole to readings taken by other instruments in years past. Continued monitoring of polar ozone levels helps researchers gain a better understanding of how the planets climate may be changing. This animation shows a huge section of the atmosphere around the south pole thats comparatively devoid of ozone. The gap reached a record size of 28.3 million kilometers squared on September 3, 2000. The previous record was 27.2 million square kilometers squared recorded on Sept. 19, 1998. Although current measurements of the ozone hole show that it has stabilized, low value points in the interior continue to decline. The lowest values are typically observed in the late September or early October.

Shirah, Greg; Newman, Paul

2000-10-03

85

TOMS UV Algorithm: Problems and Enhancements. 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Satellite instruments provide global maps of surface ultraviolet (UV) irradiance by combining backscattered radiance measurements with radiative transfer models. The models are limited by uncertainties in input parameters of the atmosphere and the surface. We evaluate the effects of possible enhancements of the current Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) surface UV irradiance algorithm focusing on effects of diurnal variation of cloudiness and improved treatment of snow/ice. The emphasis is on comparison between the results of the current (version 1) TOMS UV algorithm and each of the changes proposed. We evaluate different approaches for improved treatment of pixel average cloud attenuation, with and without snow/ice on the ground. In addition to treating clouds based only on the measurements at the local time of the TOMS observations, the results from other satellites and weather assimilation models can be used to estimate attenuation of the incident UV irradiance throughout the day. A new method is proposed to obtain a more realistic treatment of snow covered terrain. The method is based on a statistical relation between UV reflectivity and snow depth. The new method reduced the bias between the TOMS UV estimations and ground-based UV measurements for snow periods. The improved (version 2) algorithm will be applied to re-process the existing TOMS UV data record (since 1978) and to the future satellite sensors (e.g., Quik/TOMS, GOME, OMI on EOS/Aura and Triana/EPIC).

Krotkov, Nickolay; Herman, Jay; Bhartia, P. K.; Seftor, Colin; Arola, Antti; Kaurola, Jussi; Kroskinen, Lasse; Kalliskota, S.; Taalas, Petteri; Geogdzhaev, I.

2002-01-01

86

Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With three levels to choose from on each page - beginner, intermediate or advanced - this site provides information on our plant Earth. There is a section about water on earth and its many different varities, like freshwater, groundwater, and frozen water. There is information about the chemical make-up of water and many images showing the different water anvironments. There is a section about life in water, such as animals, plants, and plankton.

2008-10-03

87

Origin and cycle of water on Earth as determined by Ion probe H and D/H measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The question of the origin of water on Earth, and of its abundance has been the object of numerous debates, as well as for the other terrestrial planets. Furthermore the presence and amount of water, or more commonly fluids, in the mantle and continental crust are crucial issues for determining their nature and evolution. Ion probe have been a major tool during the last 3 decades to measure in situ water content, D/H ratio and other elements in various terrestrial and extraterrestrial samples of both hydrous and nominally anhydrous minerals. In a first step, the set up of D/H ratio measurements by ion probe on hydrous minerals [1], often to scarce in peridotite samples to be measurable by conventional mass spectrometry, pointed out variations of ?D values in mantle peridotite [2,3] larger than expected (from 0 to -140), both at the mineral grain or regional scales. Such variations point out surface water recycling in the mantle, water exchange during metasomatic reaction and D-H fractionation during mantle processes, and a possible evolution of the Earth mantle D/H ratio through geological time. The determination of D/H ratio in the silicate phases of the matrix and chondrules of primitive meteorites provides new evidences for the source of water in the solar system: the high dD values recorded, up to 3500, implies the uptake of water ice formed in the interstellar media, during the protosolar nebula accretion [3-4]. The D-H budget suggests that up to 10% of Earth and meteorite water originated from interstellar media. The measurements of Martian meteorites [5-6] show contrasted results, with D enriched values associated to the interaction with the Martian surface water and D poor values interpreted as initial values. The development of in situ water content measurements in glasses and nominally anhydrous minerals (NAMs) [7-8] allows a more comprehensive study of the water behavior in the depth Earth. The characterization of its distribution in between the different major phases of the mantle [9-10], or of its content in melt inclusions [11-12], are keys to model its behavior during the formation of the oceanic crust at the mid oceanic ridge or in the subduction factory, the two main interfaces of Earth mantle with the surface layers. These developments are also a key to study the distribution of water in the lower continental crust, and its possible exchange through the mantle-crust interface [13]. [1] Deloule et al, 1991, Special Publication N°3 of the Geochemical Society, 53-62. [2] Deloule et al, 1991, E.P.S.L, 105, 543-53. [3] Deloule & Robert, 1995, G.C.A 59, 4695-4706. [4] Deloule et al, 1998, G.C.A, 62, 3367-3378. [5] Leshin et al, 1996, G.C.A. 60, 2636-2650. [6] Gillet et al, 2002, E.P.S.L. 203, 431-444. [7] Deloule et al, 1995, Chem. Geol., 125, 19-28. [8] Koga et al, 2003, G3, 4. [9] Aubaud et al, 2004, G.R.L., 31. [10] Demouchy et al, 2005, Am. Mineral., 90, 1084-1091. [11] Sobolev & Chaussidon, 1996, E.P.S.L., 137, 45-55. [12] Bouvier et al, 2008. J. Petrol. 49, 1427-1448. [13] Yang et al, 2008, Chem. Geol., 256, 33-45.

Deloule, E.

2009-12-01

88

LILBID-mass spectrometry of the mitochondrial preprotein translocase TOM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present work we applied a novel mass spectrometry method termed laser-induced liquid bead ion desorption mass spectrometry (LILBID-MS) to the outer mitochondrial membrane protein translocon TOM to analyze its subunit composition and stoichiometry. With TOM core complex, purified at high pH, we demonstrate that a TOM core complex of Neurospora crassa is composed of at least two Tom40 and Tom22 molecules, respectively, and more than five small Tom subunits between 5.5 and 6.4 kDa. We show that the multiprotein complex has a total molecular mass higher than 170 depending on the number of Tom5, Tom6 and Tom7 molecules bound.

Mager, Frauke; Sokolova, Lucie; Lintzel, Julia; Brutschy, Bernhard; Nussberger, Stephan

2010-11-01

89

LILBID-mass spectrometry of the mitochondrial preprotein translocase TOM.  

PubMed

In the present work we applied a novel mass spectrometry method termed laser-induced liquid bead ion desorption mass spectrometry (LILBID-MS) to the outer mitochondrial membrane protein translocon TOM to analyze its subunit composition and stoichiometry. With TOM core complex, purified at high pH, we demonstrate that a TOM core complex of Neurospora crassa is composed of at least two Tom40 and Tom22 molecules, respectively, and more than five small Tom subunits between 5.5 and 6.4 kDa. We show that the multiprotein complex has a total molecular mass higher than 170 depending on the number of Tom5, Tom6 and Tom7 molecules bound. PMID:21339618

Mager, Frauke; Sokolova, Lucie; Lintzel, Julia; Brutschy, Bernhard; Nussberger, Stephan

2010-11-17

90

Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) planet profile provides data and images of the planet Earth. These data include planet size, orbit facts, distance from the Sun, rotation and revolution times, temperature, atmospheric composition, density, surface materials and albedo. Images with descriptions show Earth features such as the Ross Ice Shelf in Antarctica, Simpson Desert in Australia, Mt. Etna in Sicily, the Cassiar Mountains in Canada, the Strait of Gibraltar, Mississippi River, Grand Canyon, Wadi Kufra Oasis in Libya, and Moon images such as Hadley Rille, Plum Crater, massifs and Moon rocks. These images were taken with the Galileo Spacecraft and by the Apollo missions.

91

Nimbus-7 TOMS Version 7 Calibration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report describes an improved instrument characterization used for the Version 7 processing of the Nimbus-7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) data record. An improved internal calibration technique referred to as spectral discrimination is used to provide long-term calibration precision of +/- 1%/decade in total column ozone amount. A revised wavelength scale results in a day one calibration that agrees with other satellite and ground-based measurements of total ozone, while a wavelength independent adjustment of the initial radiometric calibration constants provides good agreement with surface reflectivity measured by other satellite-borne ultraviolet measurements. The impact of other aspects of the Nimbus-7 TOMS instrument performance are also discussed. The Version 7 data should be used in all future studies involving the Nimbus-7 TOMS measurements of ozone. The data are available through the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's Distributive Active Archive Center (DAAC).

Wellemeyer, C. G.; Taylor, S. L.; Jaross, G.; DeLand, M. T.; Seftor, C. J.; Labow, G.; Swissler, T. J.; Cebula, R. P.

1996-01-01

92

Chaos, Fractals, and Tom Stoppard's Arcadia Robert L. Devaney  

E-print Network

Chaos, Fractals, and Tom Stoppard's Arcadia Robert L. Devaney Department of Mathematics Boston University Boston, MA 02215 1 #12; Tom Stoppard's wonderful play, Arcadia, o#11;ers teachers of both math

Devaney, Robert L.

93

Microsoft TerraServer: A Spatial Data Warehouse Tom Barclay  

E-print Network

· 1 · Microsoft TerraServer: A Spatial Data Warehouse Tom Barclay Jim Gray Don Slutz June 1999 Microsoft Way Redmond, WA 98052 #12;#12;· 3 · Microsoft TerraServer: A Spatial Data Warehouse Tom Barclay

Mock, Kenrick

94

The TOM Core Complex: The General Protein Import Pore of the Outer Membrane of Mitochondria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Translocation of nuclear-encoded prepro- teins across the outer membrane of mitochondria is me- diated by the multicomponent transmembrane TOM complex. We have isolated the TOM core complex of Neurospora crassa by removing the receptors Tom70 and Tom20 from the isolated TOM holo complex by treatment with the detergent dodecyl maltoside. It con- sists of Tom40, Tom22, and the small Tom

Uwe Ahting; Clemens Thun; Reiner Hegerl; Dieter Typke; Frank E. Nargang; Walter Neupert; Stephan Nussberger

1999-01-01

95

Calibration and postlaunch performance of the Meteor 3/TOMS instrument  

SciTech Connect

Prelaunch and postlaunch calibration results for the Meteor 3/total ozone mapping spectrometer (TOMS) instrument are presented here. Ozone amounts are retrieved from measurements of Earth albedo in the 312- to 380-nm range. The accuracy of albedo measurements is primarily tied to knowledge of the reflective properties of diffusers used in the calibrations and to the instrument`s wavelength selection. These and other important prelaunch calibrations are presented. Their estimated accuracies are within the bounds necessary to determine column ozone to better than 1%. However, postlaunch validation results indicate some prelaunch calibration uncertainties may be larger than originally estimated. Instrument calibrations have been maintained postlaunch to within a corresponding 1% error in retrieved ozone. Onboard calibrations, including wavelength monitoring and a three-diffuser solar measurement system, are described and specific results are presented. Other issues, such as the effects of orbital precession on calibration and recent chopper wheel malfunctions, are also discussed.

Jaross, G.; Krueger, A.; Cebula, R.P.; Seftor, C.; Hartmann, U.; Haring, R.; Burchfield, D. [Hughes STX Corp., Greenbelt, MD (United States)] [Hughes STX Corp., Greenbelt, MD (United States); [NASA, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States); [Orbital Sciences Corp., Pomona, CA (United States)

1995-02-01

96

Steganography using Gibbs random fields Toms Filler  

E-print Network

Steganography using Gibbs random fields Tomás Filler SUNY Binghamton Department of ECE Binghamton naturally from a parallel made between steganography and statistical physics. The Gibbs sampler is the key algorithms. The proposed framework reduces the design of secure steganography in empirical covers

Fridrich, Jessica

97

Spiny Android Tom Tantillo, Abhishek Prakash, and  

E-print Network

Spiny Android Tom Tantillo, Abhishek Prakash, and Daniel Obenshain The original Android logo is from Android.com. #12;Android Phones · Android is a new, popular smartphone platform. · On average, there are 350,000 new Android phones activated per day. · Android phones are reported to be easier to work

Amir, Yair

98

Tom Donahue Environmental Ethics ENVIRONMENTAL ETHICS  

E-print Network

of environmental justice, which were mentioned above. We then turn to considering whether the environmental crisisTom Donahue Environmental Ethics 1 ENVIRONMENTAL ETHICS EPE399/PHIL331/PLSC335 Summer Session: https://sites.google.com/site/tjdonahu/home/environmental-ethics ClassesV2 website with downloadable

99

Estimation in multitype epidemics Tom Britton{  

E-print Network

Estimation in multitype epidemics Tom Britton{ La Trobe University, Bundoora, Australia [Received February 1997. Revised January 1998] Summary. A multitype epidemic model is analysed assuming proportionate for three sets of data: complete data, meaning that the whole epidemic process is observed continuously

Britton, Tom

100

Satellite estimation of spectral UVB irradiance using TOMS derived total ozone and UV reflectivity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method for satellite remote sensing of spectral UVB radiation incident at the earth's surface for snow and/or ice free areas has been developed. Measurements of total ozone and UV reflectively from the Nimbus-7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) instrument have been applied to this technique. Comparison of satellite estimates with ground based measurements of spectral UVB irradiance show differences which are comparable to differences between near simultaneous measurements made with two or more ground based co-located instruments.

Eck, T. F.; Bharita, P. K.; Kerr, J. B.

1995-01-01

101

Assembly of the mitochondrial protein import channel: role of Tom5 in two-stage interaction of Tom40 with the SAM complex.  

PubMed

The preprotein translocase of the outer mitochondrial membrane (TOM) consists of a central ?-barrel channel, Tom40, and six proteins with ?-helical transmembrane segments. The precursor of Tom40 is imported from the cytosol by a pre-existing TOM complex and inserted into the outer membrane by the sorting and assembly machinery (SAM). Tom40 then assembles with ?-helical Tom proteins to the mature TOM complex. The outer membrane protein Mim1 promotes membrane insertion of several ?-helical Tom proteins but also affects the biogenesis of Tom40 by an unknown mechanism. We have identified a novel intermediate in the assembly pathway of Tom40, revealing a two-stage interaction of the precursor with the SAM complex. The second SAM stage represents assembly of Tom5 with the precursor of Tom40. Mim1-deficient mitochondria accumulate Tom40 at the first SAM stage like Tom5-deficient mitochondria. Tom5 promotes formation of the second SAM stage and thus suppresses the Tom40 assembly defect of mim1? mitochondria. We conclude that the assembly of newly imported Tom40 is directly initiated at the SAM complex by its association with Tom5. The involvement of Mim1 in Tom40 biogenesis can be largely attributed to its role in import of Tom5. PMID:20668160

Becker, Thomas; Guiard, Bernard; Thornton, Nicolas; Zufall, Nicole; Stroud, David A; Wiedemann, Nils; Pfanner, Nikolaus

2010-09-15

102

Probes to the inferior planets—A new dawn for NEO and IEO detection technology demonstration from heliocentric orbits interior to the earth's?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent years have seen a renewed interest in exploration of the interior of the solar system. A number of missions are currently under way, in planning as well as in space, with the primary goal to expand our knowledge on the planets Mercury and Venus. Chemical propulsion missions to Mercury in particular require an extended cruise phase prior to arrival at their destination, usually involving multiple planetary fly-by manoeuvres and many revolutions in heliocentric orbit. The difficulties in discovering and tracking small objects interior to Earth's orbit, mainly due to unfavourable viewing geometry as well as atmospheric interference, have long been noted by the solar system science and planetary defence communities. Space probes in the interior of the solar system are in a position to observe objects near or interior to Earth's orbit in favourable opposition geometry. They are also usually free from planet-related interference, at least while in cruise, and often can be while in planetary eclipse. Dedicated search and survey missions to look for Near and Inner Earth Objects (NEO, IEO) from the vicinity of Earth or low Earth orbit are being planned. In this article, the ad-hoc available as well as near-term planned in-situ capabilities of the optical instrument payloads of space probes to Venus and Mercury are compiled from publications by the respective instrument teams. The small-object detection capabilities of cameras and spectrographs in opposition geometry are estimated by a common method, using data from comparable instruments to supplement missing information where necessary. The on-board cameras are classified according to their small-object detection potential in a technology demonstration of asteroid detection from a heliocentric orbit substantially interior to Earth's.

Grundmann, Jan Thimo; Mottola, Stefano; Drentschew, Maximilian; Drobczyk, Martin; Kahle, Ralph; Maiwald, Volker; Quantius, Dominik; Zabel, Paul; van Zoest, Tim

2013-09-01

103

Nimbus-7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) data products user's guide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two tape products from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) aboard the Nimbus-7 have been archived at the National Space Science Data Center. The instrument measures backscattered Earth radiance and incoming solar irradiance; their ratio -- the albedo -- is used in ozone retrievals. In-flight measurements are used to monitor changes in the instrument sensitivity. The algorithm to retrieve total column ozone compares the observed ratios of albedos at pairs of wavelengths with pair ratios calculated for different ozone values, solar zenith angles, and optical paths. The initial error in the absolute scale for TOMS total ozone is 3 percent, the one standard-deviation random error is 2 percent, and the drift is +/- 1.5 percent over 14.5 years. The High Density TOMS (HDTOMS) tape contains the measured albedos, the derived total ozone amount, reflectivity, and cloud-height information for each scan position. It also contains an index of SO2 contamination for each position. The Gridded TOMS (GRIDTOMS) tape contains daily total ozone and reflectivity in roughly equal area grids (110 km in latitude by about 100-150 km in longitude). Detailed descriptions of the tape structure and record formats are provided.

Mcpeters, Richard D.; Krueger, Arlin J.; Bhartia, P. K.; Herman, Jay R.; Oaks, Arnold; Ahmad, Ziuddin; Cebula, Richard P.; Schlesinger, Barry M.; Swissler, Tom; Taylor, Steven L.

1993-01-01

104

What on Earth?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This quiz game from the NASA Earth Science Enterprise features air, water and land categories in round one; and natural hazards, people, and Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) categories in round two. The questions involve the Terra satellite mission, its measurement of aerosols, and what causes aerosols; the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission; movement of the island of Maui, satellite laser ranging, and the Tethys or Mediterranean Sea; TOMS and false-color images; the effect of people on the environment; and tornadoes, hurricanes, earthquakes and volcanoes.

105

Interview with Tom Gallagher by Brien Williams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biographical NoteThomas D. Gallagher was born on September 6, 1954, in Redfield, South Dakota, to Ray and Theresa Gallagher. His father was a lawyer and was active in the Veterans of Foreign Wars, serving as its national commander in 1969-1970. Tom attended the University of South Dakota and later received a master’s degree in public policy from the Kennedy School

Thomas Tom D Gallagher

2009-01-01

106

Participation in the TOMS Science Team  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Because of the nominal funding provided by this grant, some of the relevant research is partially funded by other sources. Research performed for this funding period included the following items: We have investigated errors in TOMS ozone measurements caused by the uncertainty in wavelength calibration, coupled with the ozone cross sections in the Huggins bands and their temperature dependence. Preliminary results show that 0.1 nm uncertainty in TOMS wavelength calibration at the ozone active wavelengths corresponds to approx. 1% systematic error in O3, and thus potential 1% biases among ozone trends from the various TOMS instruments. This conclusion will be revised for absolute O3 Measurements as cross sections are further investigated for inclusion in the HITRAN database at the SAO, but the potential for relative errors remains. In order to aid further comparisons among TOMS and GOME ozone measurements, we have implemented our method of direct fitting of GOME radiances (BOAS) for O3, and now obtain the best fitting precision to date for GOME O3 Columns. This will aid in future comparisons of the actual quantities measured and fitted for the two instrument types. We have made comparisons between GOME ICFA cloud fraction and cloud fraction determined from GOME data using the Ring effect in the Ca II lines. There is a strong correlation, as expected, but there are substantial systematic biases between the determinations. This study will be refined in the near future using the recently-developed GOME Cloud Retrieval Algorithm (GOMECAT). We have improved the SAO Ring effect determination to include better convolution with instrument transfer functions and inclusion of interferences by atmospheric absorbers (e.g., O3). This has been made available to the general community.

Chance, Kelly; Hilsenrath, Ernest (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

107

Effect of mutations in Tom40 on stability of the translocase of the outer mitochondrial membrane (TOM) complex, assembly of Tom40, and import of mitochondrial preproteins.  

PubMed

Mitochondrial preproteins synthesized in the cytosol are imported through the mitochondrial outer membrane by the translocase of the outer mitochondrial membrane (TOM) complex. Tom40 is the major component of the complex and is essential for cell viability. We generated 21 different mutations in conserved regions of the Neurospora crassa Tom40 protein. The mutant genes were transformed into a tom40 null nucleus maintained in a sheltered heterokaryon, and 17 of the mutant genes gave rise to viable strains. All mutations reduced the efficiency of the altered Tom40 molecules to assemble into the TOM complex. Mitochondria isolated from seven of the mutant strains had defects for importing mitochondrial preproteins. Only one strain had a general import defect for all preproteins examined. Another mutation resulted in defects in the import of a matrix-destined preprotein and an outer membrane beta-barrel protein, but import of the ADP/ATP carrier to the inner membrane was unaffected. Five strains showed deficiencies in the import of beta-barrel proteins. The latter results suggest that the TOM complex distinguishes beta-barrel proteins from other classes of preprotein during import. This supports the idea that the TOM complex plays an active role in the transfer of preproteins to subsequent translocases for insertion into the correct mitochondrial subcompartment. PMID:16757481

Sherman, E Laura; Taylor, Rebecca D; Go, Nancy E; Nargang, Frank E

2006-08-11

108

Structural insights into proapoptotic signaling mediated by MTCH2, VDAC2, TOM40 and TOM22.  

PubMed

Mitochondrial Outer Membrane (MOM) Permeabilization (MOMP) is a critical step in the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis and is regulated by the Bcl-2 family of proteins. In vitro studies using cardiolipin-containing liposomes as a MOM model have suggested that a mitochondria-specific phospholipid, cardiolipin, is of crucial importance in MOMP. However, recently it has been found that the MOM contains much less cardiolipin than it is required for liposome permeabilization. Shortly thereafter, several MOM proteins, such as VDAC2, MTCH2, TOM22 and TOM40, have been identified as the Bax, Bak and tBid receptors that are indispensable in MOMP, but the underlying mechanisms are elusive. Here, proapoptotic signaling mediated by these MOM receptors was explored in terms of 3D-structures of interacting proteins using computational modeling. The formation under apoptotic conditions of the TOM40/TOM22/tBid protein complex possessing a fairly high binding affinity towards Bax is predicted, suggesting the recruitment of Bax to mitochondria by this complex in apoptotic cells. Our simulations predict the displacement of Bax from the TOM40/TOM22/tBid/Bax complex by another Bax in auto-catalytic manner and explain, in terms of structure, the tBid-mediated displacement of Bak from the VDAC2/Bak complex. Computational modeling revealed high-affinity binding of Bid to MTCH2 suggesting both a quasi-constitutive residence of Bid in MTCH2-bound state in healthy cells and its caspase-8-mediated cleavage there under apoptotic conditions. Overall, our results provide structural details for important stages of apoptotic signaling mediated by MOM receptors and enrich its mechanistic understanding. PMID:24269536

Veresov, Valery G; Davidovskii, Alexander I

2014-02-01

109

The transmembrane segment of Tom20 is recognized by Mim1 for docking to the mitochondrial TOM complex.  

PubMed

Mitochondria cannot be made de novo. Mitochondrial biogenesis requires that up to 1000 proteins are imported into mitochondria, and the protein import pathway relies on hetero-oligomeric translocase complexes in both the inner and outer mitochondrial membranes. The translocase in the outer membrane, the TOM complex, is composed of a core complex formed from the beta-barrel channel Tom40 and additional subunits each with single, alpha-helical transmembrane segments. How alpha-helical transmembrane segments might be assembled onto a transmembrane beta-barrel in the context of a membrane environment is a question of fundamental importance. The master receptor subunit of the TOM complex, Tom20, recognizes the targeting sequence on incoming mitochondrial precursor proteins, binds these protein ligands, and then transfers them to the core complex for translocation across the outer membrane. Here we show that the transmembrane segment of Tom20 contains critical residues essential for docking the Tom20 receptor into its correct environment within the TOM complex. This crucial docking reaction is catalyzed by the unique assembly factor Mim1/Tom13. Mutations in the transmembrane segment that destabilize Tom20, or deletion of Mim1, prevent Tom20 from functioning as a receptor for protein import into mitochondria. PMID:18187149

Hulett, Joanne M; Lueder, Franziska; Chan, Nickie C; Perry, Andrew J; Wolynec, Peter; Liki?, Vladimir A; Gooley, Paul R; Lithgow, Trevor

2008-02-22

110

Feasibility study of a swept frequency electromagnetic probe (SWEEP) using inductive coupling for the determination of subsurface conductivity of the earth and water prospecting in arid regions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Techniques developed for electromagnetic probing of the lunar interior, and techniques developed for the generation of high power audio frequencies were combined to make practical a magnetic inductive coupling system for the rapid measurement of ground conductivity profiles which are helpful when prospecting for the presence and quality of subsurface water. A system which involves the measurement of the direction, intensity, and time phase of the magnetic field observed near the surface of the earth at a distance from a horizontal coil energized so as to create a field that penetrates the earth was designed and studied to deduce the conductivity and stratification of the subsurface. Theoretical studies and a rudimentary experiment in an arid region showed that the approach is conceptually valid and that this geophysical prospecting technique can be developed for the economical exploration of subterranean water resources.

Latorraca, G. A.; Bannister, L. H.

1974-01-01

111

GRUNDMANN Tom BEES1, Les P'tites Bulles  

E-print Network

GRUNDMANN Tom BEES1, Les P'tites Bulles DETENDEURS N4DETENDEURS N4DETENDEURS N4DETENDEURS N4DETENDEURS N4DETENDEURS N4DETENDEURS N4DETENDEURS N4 #12;GRUNDMANN Tom BEES1, Les P'tites Bulles DETENDEURS N ou débit continu? Principes d'étanchéité #12;GRUNDMANN Tom BEES1, Les P'tites Bulles Principes d

Jacquet, Stéphan

112

Measurements at So TomMeasurements at So Tom Guillaume CHARRIA, Frdric MARIN, Yves DU PENHOAT,  

E-print Network

Meteorological station + tide gauge in the new MoU Available from end 2004 for meteorological data and from end 2000 for tide gauge data Problems to solve: wind intensity and air humidity São Tomé Meteorological station + tide gauge in the new MoU Available from end 2004 for meteorological data and from end 2000

113

Tropical easterly jet located using TOMS data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The formative stages of the onset of the 1979 southwest monsoon was marked by a WNW-ESE oriented band of marine convection over the South Arabian Sea. This convection was first observed on June 10, 1979 using satellite cloud imagery. The marine convection appeared during a major acceleration of the upper troposphere easterly wind field. A composite vertical meridional cross-section of upper level winds for June 11, revealed the core of the Tropical Easterly Jet (TEJ) at 115 mb, 9.5 deg N. Time analysis of the upper level wind field over the Tropical Wind Observing Ship (TWOS) polygon show a lowering of both the pressure level of maximum wind and tropopause level with acceleration of the upper level easterlies. The tropopause was as much as 20 mb lower on the equatorial side of the TEJ. Streamline analysis of the maximum observed easterly winds over India did not reveal the horizontal position of the TEJ. Careful analysis of Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) data for June 11, 1979 showed relatively high values of ozone south of India. It was observed that the latitudinal position of the TEJ on June 11, at approximately 70 deg E coincided with the northern edge of relatively high ozone values. Using this as a reference, the TEJ core was identified as far as NE Bay of Bengal (the limits of the available TOMS data).

Bolhofer, William C.

1987-01-01

114

Data Update for Mt. Tom, Holyoke, MA October 2006  

E-print Network

Data Update for Mt. Tom, Holyoke, MA October 2006 Prepared for Massachusetts Technology Collaborative 75 North Drive, Westborough, MA 01581 By Melissa Elkinton Monthly Data Summary for October 2006 This update summarizes the monthly data results for the Mt. Tom monitoring site in Holyoke, MA, at 42° 14' 59

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

115

Data Update for Mt. Tom, Holyoke, MA August 2006  

E-print Network

Data Update for Mt. Tom, Holyoke, MA August 2006 Prepared for Massachusetts Technology Collaborative 75 North Drive, Westborough, MA 01581 By Melissa Elkinton Monthly Data Summary for August 2006 This update summarizes the monthly data results for the Mt. Tom monitoring site in Holyoke, MA, at 42° 14' 59

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

116

Data Update for Mt. Tom, Holyoke, MA Prepared for  

E-print Network

Data Update for Mt. Tom, Holyoke, MA May 2008 Prepared for Massachusetts Technology Collaborative 75 North Drive, Westborough, MA 01581 By Puneet Malhotra Monthly Data Summary for May 2008 This update summarizes the monthly data results for the Mt. Tom monitoring site in Holyoke, MA, at 42° 14' 59

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

117

Data Update for Mt. Tom, Holyoke, MA Prepared for  

E-print Network

Data Update for Mt. Tom, Holyoke, MA July 2005 Prepared for Massachusetts Technology Collaborative 75 North Drive, Westborough, MA 01581 By Melissa Ray Monthly Data Summary for July 2005 This update summarizes the monthly data results for the Mt. Tom monitoring site in Holyoke, MA, at 42° 14' 59.2" N, 72

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

118

Data Update for Mt. Tom, Holyoke, MA October 2007  

E-print Network

Data Update for Mt. Tom, Holyoke, MA October 2007 Prepared for Massachusetts Technology Collaborative 75 North Drive, Westborough, MA 01581 By Puneet Malhotra Monthly Data Summary for October 2007 This update summarizes the monthly data results for the Mt. Tom monitoring site in Holyoke, MA, at 42° 14' 59

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

119

Data Update for Mt. Tom, Holyoke, MA Prepared for  

E-print Network

Data Update for Mt. Tom, Holyoke, MA July 2006 Prepared for Massachusetts Technology Collaborative 75 North Drive, Westborough, MA 01581 By Melissa Elkinton Monthly Data Summary for July 2006 This update summarizes the monthly data results for the Mt. Tom monitoring site in Holyoke, MA, at 42° 14' 59

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

120

Data Update for Mt. Tom, Holyoke, MA Prepared for  

E-print Network

Data Update for Mt. Tom, Holyoke, MA June 2006 Prepared for Massachusetts Technology Collaborative 75 North Drive, Westborough, MA 01581 By Melissa Elkinton Monthly Data Summary for June 2006 This update summarizes the monthly data results for the Mt. Tom monitoring site in Holyoke, MA, at 42° 14' 59

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

121

Data Update for Mt. Tom, Holyoke, MA November 2005  

E-print Network

Data Update for Mt. Tom, Holyoke, MA November 2005 Prepared for Massachusetts Technology Collaborative 75 North Drive, Westborough, MA 01581 By Melissa Ray Monthly Data Summary for November 2005 This update summarizes the monthly data results for the Mt. Tom monitoring site in Holyoke, MA, at 42° 14' 59

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

122

Data Update for Mt. Tom, Holyoke, MA February 2006  

E-print Network

Data Update for Mt. Tom, Holyoke, MA February 2006 Prepared for Massachusetts Technology Collaborative 75 North Drive, Westborough, MA 01581 By Melissa Ray Monthly Data Summary for February 2005 This update summarizes the monthly data results for the Mt. Tom monitoring site in Holyoke, MA, at 42° 14' 59

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

123

Data Update for Mt. Tom, Holyoke, MA January 2007  

E-print Network

Data Update for Mt. Tom, Holyoke, MA January 2007 Prepared for Massachusetts Technology Collaborative 75 North Drive, Westborough, MA 01581 By Puneet Malhotra Monthly Data Summary for January 2007 This update summarizes the monthly data results for the Mt. Tom monitoring site in Holyoke, MA, at 42° 14' 59

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

124

Data Update for Mt. Tom, Holyoke, MA Prepared for  

E-print Network

Data Update for Mt. Tom, Holyoke, MA June 2007 Prepared for Massachusetts Technology Collaborative 75 North Drive, Westborough, MA 01581 By Puneet Malhotra Monthly Data Summary for June 2007 This update summarizes the monthly data results for the Mt. Tom monitoring site in Holyoke, MA, at 42° 14' 59

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

125

Data Update for Mt. Tom, Holyoke, MA Prepared for  

E-print Network

Data Update for Mt. Tom, Holyoke, MA May 2007 Prepared for Massachusetts Technology Collaborative 75 North Drive, Westborough, MA 01581 By Puneet Malhotra Monthly Data Summary for May 2007 This update summarizes the monthly data results for the Mt. Tom monitoring site in Holyoke, MA, at 42° 14' 59

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

126

Data Update for Mt. Tom, Holyoke, MA Prepared for  

E-print Network

Data Update for Mt. Tom, Holyoke, MA March 2006 Prepared for Massachusetts Technology Collaborative 75 North Drive, Westborough, MA 01581 By Melissa Ray Monthly Data Summary for March 2006 This update summarizes the monthly data results for the Mt. Tom monitoring site in Holyoke, MA, at 42° 14' 59.2" N, 72

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

127

Data Update for Mt. Tom, Holyoke, MA Prepared for  

E-print Network

Data Update for Mt. Tom, Holyoke, MA May 2006 Prepared for Massachusetts Technology Collaborative 75 North Drive, Westborough, MA 01581 By Melissa Ray Monthly Data Summary for May 2006 This update summarizes the monthly data results for the Mt. Tom monitoring site in Holyoke, MA, at 42° 14' 59.2" N, 72

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

128

Data Update for Mt. Tom, Holyoke, MA January 2006  

E-print Network

Data Update for Mt. Tom, Holyoke, MA January 2006 Prepared for Massachusetts Technology Collaborative 75 North Drive, Westborough, MA 01581 By Melissa Ray Monthly Data Summary for December 2005 This update summarizes the monthly data results for the Mt. Tom monitoring site in Holyoke, MA, at 42° 14' 59

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

129

Data Update for Mt. Tom, Holyoke, MA February 2008  

E-print Network

Data Update for Mt. Tom, Holyoke, MA February 2008 Prepared for Massachusetts Technology Collaborative 75 North Drive, Westborough, MA 01581 By Puneet Malhotra Monthly Data Summary for February 2008 This update summarizes the monthly data results for the Mt. Tom monitoring site in Holyoke, MA, at 42° 14' 59

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

130

Data Update for Mt. Tom, Holyoke, MA August 2007  

E-print Network

Data Update for Mt. Tom, Holyoke, MA August 2007 Prepared for Massachusetts Technology Collaborative 75 North Drive, Westborough, MA 01581 By Puneet Malhotra Monthly Data Summary for August 2007 This update summarizes the monthly data results for the Mt. Tom monitoring site in Holyoke, MA, at 42° 14' 59

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

131

Data Update for Mt. Tom, Holyoke, MA Prepared for  

E-print Network

Data Update for Mt. Tom, Holyoke, MA March 2007 Prepared for Massachusetts Technology Collaborative 75 North Drive, Westborough, MA 01581 By Puneet Malhotra Monthly Data Summary for March 2007 This update summarizes the monthly data results for the Mt. Tom monitoring site in Holyoke, MA, at 42° 14' 59

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

132

Data Update for Mt. Tom, Holyoke, MA September 2007  

E-print Network

Data Update for Mt. Tom, Holyoke, MA September 2007 Prepared for Massachusetts Technology Collaborative 75 North Drive, Westborough, MA 01581 By Puneet Malhotra Monthly Data Summary for September 2007 This update summarizes the monthly data results for the Mt. Tom monitoring site in Holyoke, MA, at 42° 14' 59

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

133

Data Update for Mt. Tom, Holyoke, MA February 2007  

E-print Network

Data Update for Mt. Tom, Holyoke, MA February 2007 Prepared for Massachusetts Technology Collaborative 75 North Drive, Westborough, MA 01581 By Puneet Malhotra Monthly Data Summary for February 2007 This update summarizes the monthly data results for the Mt. Tom monitoring site in Holyoke, MA, at 42° 14' 59

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

134

Data Update for Mt. Tom, Holyoke, MA Prepared for  

E-print Network

Data Update for Mt. Tom, Holyoke, MA July 2007 Prepared for Massachusetts Technology Collaborative 75 North Drive, Westborough, MA 01581 By Puneet Malhotra Monthly Data Summary for July 2007 This update summarizes the monthly data results for the Mt. Tom monitoring site in Holyoke, MA, at 42° 14' 59

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

135

Data Update for Mt. Tom, Holyoke, MA September 2006  

E-print Network

Data Update for Mt. Tom, Holyoke, MA September 2006 Prepared for Massachusetts Technology Collaborative 75 North Drive, Westborough, MA 01581 By Melissa Elkinton Monthly Data Summary for September 2006 This update summarizes the monthly data results for the Mt. Tom monitoring site in Holyoke, MA, at 42° 14' 59

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

136

Data Update for Mt. Tom, Holyoke, MA Prepared for  

E-print Network

Data Update for Mt. Tom, Holyoke, MA March 2008 Prepared for Massachusetts Technology Collaborative 75 North Drive, Westborough, MA 01581 By Puneet Malhotra Monthly Data Summary for March 2008 This update summarizes the monthly data results for the Mt. Tom monitoring site in Holyoke, MA, at 42° 14' 59

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

137

Data Update for Mt. Tom, Holyoke, MA January 2008  

E-print Network

Data Update for Mt. Tom, Holyoke, MA January 2008 Prepared for Massachusetts Technology Collaborative 75 North Drive, Westborough, MA 01581 By Puneet Malhotra Monthly Data Summary for January 2008 This update summarizes the monthly data results for the Mt. Tom monitoring site in Holyoke, MA, at 42° 14' 59

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

138

Data Update for Mt. Tom, Holyoke, MA September 2005  

E-print Network

Data Update for Mt. Tom, Holyoke, MA September 2005 Prepared for Massachusetts Technology Collaborative 75 North Drive, Westborough, MA 01581 By Melissa Ray Monthly Data Summary for September 2005 This update summarizes the monthly data results for the Mt. Tom monitoring site in Holyoke, MA, at 42° 14' 59

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

139

Data Update for Mt. Tom, Holyoke, MA December 2005  

E-print Network

Data Update for Mt. Tom, Holyoke, MA December 2005 Prepared for Massachusetts Technology Collaborative 75 North Drive, Westborough, MA 01581 By Melissa Ray Monthly Data Summary for December 2005 This update summarizes the monthly data results for the Mt. Tom monitoring site in Holyoke, MA, at 42° 14' 59

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

140

Data Update for Mt. Tom, Holyoke, MA Prepared for  

E-print Network

Data Update for Mt. Tom, Holyoke, MA April 2007 Prepared for Massachusetts Technology Collaborative 75 North Drive, Westborough, MA 01581 By Puneet Malhotra Monthly Data Summary for April 2007 This update summarizes the monthly data results for the Mt. Tom monitoring site in Holyoke, MA, at 42° 14' 59

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

141

Data Update for Mt. Tom, Holyoke, MA Prepared for  

E-print Network

Data Update for Mt. Tom, Holyoke, MA April 2006 Prepared for Massachusetts Technology Collaborative 75 North Drive, Westborough, MA 01581 By Melissa Ray Monthly Data Summary for April 2006 This update summarizes the monthly data results for the Mt. Tom monitoring site in Holyoke, MA, at 42° 14' 59.2" N, 72

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

142

Data Update for Mt. Tom, Holyoke, MA August 2005  

E-print Network

Data Update for Mt. Tom, Holyoke, MA August 2005 Prepared for Massachusetts Technology Collaborative 75 North Drive, Westborough, MA 01581 By Melissa Ray Monthly Data Summary for August 2005 This update summarizes the monthly data results for the Mt. Tom monitoring site in Holyoke, MA, at 42° 14' 59

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

143

Data Update for Mt. Tom, Holyoke, MA Prepared for  

E-print Network

Data Update for Mt. Tom, Holyoke, MA April 2008 Prepared for Massachusetts Technology Collaborative 75 North Drive, Westborough, MA 01581 By Puneet Malhotra Monthly Data Summary for April 2008 This update summarizes the monthly data results for the Mt. Tom monitoring site in Holyoke, MA, at 42° 14' 59

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

144

Data Update for Mt. Tom, Holyoke, MA November 2007  

E-print Network

Data Update for Mt. Tom, Holyoke, MA November 2007 Prepared for Massachusetts Technology Collaborative 75 North Drive, Westborough, MA 01581 By Puneet Malhotra Monthly Data Summary for November 2007 This update summarizes the monthly data results for the Mt. Tom monitoring site in Holyoke, MA, at 42° 14' 59

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

145

Data Update for Mt. Tom, Holyoke, MA Prepared for  

E-print Network

Data Update for Mt. Tom, Holyoke, MA June 2005 Prepared for Massachusetts Technology Collaborative 75 North Drive, Westborough, MA 01581 By Melissa Ray Monthly Data Summary for June 2005 This update summarizes the monthly data results for the Mt. Tom monitoring site in Holyoke, MA, at 42° 14' 59.2" N, 72

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

146

Data Update for Mt. Tom, Holyoke, MA October 2005  

E-print Network

Data Update for Mt. Tom, Holyoke, MA October 2005 Prepared for Massachusetts Technology Collaborative 75 North Drive, Westborough, MA 01581 By Melissa Ray Monthly Data Summary for October 2005 This update summarizes the monthly data results for the Mt. Tom monitoring site in Holyoke, MA, at 42° 14' 59

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

147

Data Update for Mt. Tom, Holyoke, MA November 2006  

E-print Network

Data Update for Mt. Tom, Holyoke, MA November 2006 Prepared for Massachusetts Technology Collaborative 75 North Drive, Westborough, MA 01581 By Melissa Elkinton Monthly Data Summary for November 2006 This update summarizes the monthly data results for the Mt. Tom monitoring site in Holyoke, MA, at 42° 14' 59

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

148

Island Grammar-based Parsing using GLL and Tom  

E-print Network

Island Grammar-based Parsing using GLL and Tom Ali Afroozeh1 , Jean-Christophe Bach2,3,4 , Mark van a language by embedding within it another lan- guage presents significant parsing challenges, especially is complex and diffi- cult to maintain. In this paper, we describe how Tom can be parsed using island

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

149

Island Grammar-based Parsing using GLL and Tom  

E-print Network

Island Grammar-based Parsing using GLL and Tom Ali Afroozeh1 , Jean-Christophe Bach2,3 , Mark van a language by embedding within it another lan- guage presents significant parsing challenges, especially- plex and difficult to maintain. In this paper, we describe how Tom can be parsed using island grammars

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

150

Near-real-time detection and monitoring of dust events by satellite (SeaWiFS, MODIS, and TOMS)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the last few years satellites have given us increasingly detailed information on the size, location, and duration of dust events around the world. These data not only provide valuable feedback to the modelling community as to the fidelity of their aerosol models but are also finding increasing use in near real-time applications. In particular, the ability to locate and track the development of aerosol dust clouds on a near real-time basis is being used by scientists and government to provide warning of air pollution episodes over major urban area. This ability has also become a crucial component of recent coordinated campaigns to study the characteristics of tropospheric aerosols such as dust and their effect on climate. One such recent campaign was ACE-Asia, which was designed to obtain the comprehensive set of ground, aircraft, and satellite data necessary to provide a detailed understanding of atmospheric aerosol particles over the Asian-Pacific region. As part of ACE-Asia, we developed a near real-time data processing and access system to provide satellite data from the polar-orbiting instruments Earth Probe TOMS (in the form of absorbing aerosol index) and SeaWiFS (in the form of aerosol optical thickness, AOT, and Angstrom exponent). The results were available via web access. The location and movement information provided by these data were used both in support of the day-to-day flight planning of ACE-Asia and as input into aerosol transport models. While near real-time SeaWiFS data processing can be performed using either the normal global data product or data obtained via direct broadcast to recieving stations close to the area of interest, near real-time MODIS processing of data to provide aerosol retrievals is currently only available using its direct broadcast capability. In this paper, we will briefly discuss the algorithms used to generate these data. The retrieved aerosol optical thickness and Angstrom exponent from SeaWiFS will be compared with those obtained from various AERONET sites over the Asian-Pacific region. The TOMS aerosol index will also be compared with AERONET aerosol optical thickness over different aerosol conditions, and comparisons between the MODIS and SeaWiFS data will also be presented. Finally, we will discuss the climate implication of our studies using the combined satellite and AERONET observations.

Hsu, N.; Tsay, S.; Herman, J. R.; Chu, D.; Kaufman, Y.

2002-12-01

151

Synergic use of TOMS and AERONET observations for characterization of aerosol absorption  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The role of aerosol absorption on the radiative transfer balance of the earth-atmosphere system is one of the largest sources of uncertainty in the analysis of global climate change. Global measurements of aerosol single scattering albedo are, therefore, necessary to properly assess the radiative forcing effect of aerosols. Remote sensing of aerosol absorption is currently carried out using both ground (Aerosol Robotic Network) and space (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) based observations. The satellite technique uses measurements of backscattered near ultraviolet radiation. Carbonaceous aerosols, resulting from the combustion of biomass, are one of the most predominant absorbing aerosol types in the atmosphere. In this presentation, TOMS and AERONET retrievals of single scattering albedo of carbonaceous aerosols, are compared for different environmental conditions: agriculture related biomass burning in South America and Africa and peat fires in Eastern Europe. The AERONET and TOMS derived aerosol absorption information are in good quantitative agreement. The most absorbing smoke is detected over the African Savanna. Aerosol absorption over the Brazilian rain forest is less absorbing. Absorption by aerosol particles resulting from peat fires in Eastern Europe is weaker than the absorption measured in Africa and South America. This analysis shows that the near UV satellite method of aerosol absorption characterization has the sensitivity to distinguish different levels of aerosol absorption. The analysis of the combined AERONET-TOMS observations shows a high degree of synergy between satellite and ground based observations.

Torres, O.; Sinyuk, A.; Bhartia, P. K.; Dubovik, O.; Holben, B.

2003-04-01

152

BOREAS RSS-10 TOMS Circumpolar One-Degree PAR Images  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) Remote Sensing Science (RSS)-10 team investigated the magnitude of daily, seasonal, and yearly variations of Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR) from ground and satellite observations. This data set contains satellite estimates of surface-incident PAR (400-700 nm, MJ/sq m) at one-degree spatial resolution. The spatial coverage is circumpolar from latitudes of 41 to 66 degrees north. The temporal coverage is from May through September for years 1979 through 1989. Eleven-year statistics are also provided: (1) mean, (2) standard deviation, and (3) coefficient of variation for 1979-89. The PAR estimates were derived from the global gridded ultraviolet reflectivity data product (average of 360, 380 nm) from the Nimbus-7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS). Image mask data are provided for identifying the boreal forest zone, and ocean/land and snow/ice-covered areas. The data are available as binary image format data files. The PAR data are available from the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884).

Dye, Dennis G.; Holben, Brent; Nickeson, Jaime (Editor); Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

153

TOMS and Volcanic SO2: an Important aid to the Understanding of Volcanism and the Atmosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is impossible to measure gas fluxes from the ground in a major volcanic event, but the TOMS instrument provided the first quantitative measurements of individual stratospheric eruptions, because SO2 could be measured as well as O3. The measurements were quickly noticed by scientists, because the masses of sulfur erupted often far exceeded what they expected to find, based on petrology and its supposed constraints, by surprising factors of 10 to 100. This result is still not well understood, and is an important driving idea for volcanologic research. TOMS was applied globally and the explosive volcanic flux of SO2 to the atmosphere was compiled for the first time using direct measurements --an important input to earth systems analysis. Comparison of TOMS volcanic cloud SO2 maps with infrared volcanic ash cloud maps showed that there is often spatial separation of gas-rich volcanic clouds emplaced higher in the atmosphere and ash-rich clouds which are lower and which drift in different directions because of windshears. Sequential examination of TOMS data showed that SO2 masses in volcanic clouds increases for 24 hours or more after eruption. The best explanation of this increase is that ice which forms early in volcanic clouds captures SO2 which is then released again as the stratospheric ice sublimes. The presentation will document all of the best examples of the discoveries listed above. Volcanologists and those interested in the mitigation of volcanic cloud hazards have repeatedly suggested that geostationary SO2 and ash sensing capability at higher spatial resolution would provide important new science opportunities. The sensors of the next remote sensing era (MODIS, ASTER, SEVIRI, OMI, ABI) bring us closer to achieving these goals.

Rose, W. I.; Bluth, G. J.

2003-12-01

154

The Tom Regan Animal Rights Archive  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Tom Regan has taught at North Carolina State University since 1967, and he is well-known for his work in the field of animal rights within the discipline of philosophy. In 2000, the North Carolina State University Libraries received a large gift to establish an archive of his personal papers and books, and since then, they have also created this online collection for the general public. First-time visitors can perform an advanced search on the documents contained here, or they may also want to browse through categories that include animal rights legislation, animals in the news, diet ethics, and farmed animals. Within each section, visitors can view a list of related web sites and also learn about other external resources. Additionally, visitors can also learn about research opportunities at the Center.

Regan, Tom

155

The role of small-scale ion injections in the buildup of Earth's ring current pressure: Van Allen Probes observations of the 17 March 2013 storm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

particle transport into the inner magnetosphere during geomagnetic storms is responsible for significant plasma pressure enhancement, which is the driver of large-scale currents that control the global electrodynamics within the magnetosphere-ionosphere system. Therefore, understanding the transport of plasma from the tail deep into the near-Earth magnetosphere, as well as the energization processes associated with this transport, is essential for a comprehensive knowledge of the near-Earth space environment. During the main phase of a geomagnetic storm on 17 March 2013 (minimum Dst ~ -137 nT), the Radiation Belt Storm Probes Ion Composition Experiment (RBSPICE) instrument on the Van Allen Probes observed frequent, small-scale proton injections deep into the inner nightside magnetosphere in the region L ~ 4 - 6. Although isolated injections have been previously reported inside geosynchronous orbit, the large number of small-scale injections observed in this event suggests that, during geomagnetic storms injections provide a robust mechanism for transporting energetic ions deep into the inner magnetosphere. In order to understand the role that these injections play in the ring current dynamics, we determine the following properties for each injection: (i) associated pressure enhancement, (ii) the time duration of this enhancement, and (iii) the lowest and highest energy channels exhibiting a sharp increase in their intensities. Based on these properties, we estimate the effect of these small-scale injections on the pressure buildup during the storm. We find that this mode of transport could make a substantial contribution to the total energy gain in the storm time inner magnetosphere.

Gkioulidou, Matina; Ukhorskiy, A. Y.; Mitchell, D. G.; Sotirelis, T.; Mauk, B. H.; Lanzerotti, L. J.

2014-09-01

156

Impact Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This planetarium show teaches about meteors, meteorites, asteroids, and comets. It includes results from NASA missions and about the dangers they can pose to life on Earth. It is created for full-dome theaters but can also be shown in flat version for TVs and computer monitors. Shows the effects of the Chixulub and Tungusta events, plus the Pallasite impact that resulted in the Brenham meteorite fall. Describes ways that asteroid hunters seek new objects in the Solar System, and how ground-penetrating radar is used to find meteorites that have reached the Earth's surface and ancient craters under the desert. Narrated by astronaut Tom Jones, it also discusses ways that humans might try to deflect an asteroid or comet that is on a collision course with Earth. Created for informal science venues (digital planetariums), it is also useful as ancillary material for middle school science. Created under NASA Cooperative Agreement NCC5-316 to Rice University in conjunction with the Houston Museum of Natural Science as part of the "Immersive Earth" project, part of the REASoN program.

Reiff, Patricia

2009-05-01

157

Direct measurements of tropospheric ozone using TOMS data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fishman and Larsen have proposed a new algorithm, called 'tropospheric residual method,' which retrieves the climatological tropospheric ozone by using SAGE (Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment) and TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) data. In this paper, we will examine the feasibility of detection for tropospheric ozone using only TOMS data. From a case study over the Atlantic Ocean off the coast of west Africa, it has been found that total ozone in the archived TOMS data has been overestimated over a region of marine-stratocumulus clouds.

Hudson, Robert D.; Kim, Jae-Hwan

1994-01-01

158

Dust storms and their impact on ocean and human health: dust in Earth's atmosphere  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Satellite imagery has greatly influenced our understanding of dust activity on a global scale. A number of different satellites such as NASA's Earth-Probe Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) and Se-viewing Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) acquire daily global-scale data used to produce imagery for monitoring dust storm formation and movement. This global-scale imagery has documented the frequent transmission of dust storm-derived soils through Earth's atmosphere and the magnitude of many of these events. While various research projects have been undertaken to understand this normal planetary process, little has been done to address its impact on ocean and human health. This review will address the ability of dust storms to influence marine microbial population densities and transport of soil-associated toxins and pathogenic microorganisms to marine environments. The implications of dust on ocean and human health in this emerging scientific field will be discussed.

Griffin, Dale W.; Kellog, Christina A.

2004-01-01

159

Global Mapping of Earth-like Exoplanets from Scattered Light Curves as a Probe of the Habitat  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the next step after the recent discoveries of exoplanets in habitable zones, it is desirable to develop techniques to investigate them farther to determine whether or not they really harbor life. In this context, it is valuable to consider a well-defined question how we would know about the habitat if we were to observe an Earth-twin at an astronomical distance. In principle, the scattered light of planets contains rich information of planetary surface and the atmosphere, and indeed the new instruments for direct imaging in optical/near-IR are actively proposed. However, interpretation of the spatially unresolved light from the planets can be complicated especially in the case of highly inhomogeneous planets like our own Earth. Here we demonstrate the 2-dimensional mapping of the surface from the scattered light variation assuming a continuous observation for 1 year (Kawahara and Fujii, 2010, 2011). We create mock light curves of the Earth including the realistic cloud cover and the seasonal variation, and invert them to the surface inhomogeneity by making the most of the spin rotation and orbital motion of the planet and using the technique of tomography. The recovered map successfully traces the actual cloud distribution, continents, and even the localized red-edge feature of vegetation. Therefore, such long observations of scattered light will give us the access to the landscape of exoplanets with diverse surface components. Another consequence of this tomography is the measurement of the planetary obliquity, which is a key parameter both for habitability and to constrain the formation scenario. We discuss the detectability of obliquity assuming a realistic instrumental design.

Fujii, Yuka; Kawahara, H.

2011-09-01

160

ISS Update: Orion Recovery and Rescue Lead Tom Walker  

NASA Video Gallery

NASA Public Affairs Officer Brandi Dean talks with Tom Walker, Orion Recovery and Rescue Lead, about how the Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL) is being used to train rescue and recovery personnel f...

161

Whitewashing the Fence: Revisiting "The Adventures of Tom Sawyer."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the story lines in "The Adventures of Tom Sawyer," how the characters in the book reflected people in Twain's childhood, the famous whitewashing scene, and Twain's racial attitudes. Appends suggestions for stimulating student response to the novel. (RS)

Griswold, Jerry

1995-01-01

162

Colorado Forestry Advisory Board Members: Don Ament Tom Stone  

E-print Network

#12;Colorado Forestry Advisory Board Members: Don Ament Tom Stone Commissioner of Agriculture As Chairperson of Colorado's newly created Forestry Advisory Board, I would like to thank you for taking the time

163

Magneto-Seebeck effect in R FeAsO (R =rare earth) compounds: Probing the magnon drag scenario  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the Seebeck effect in R FeAsO (R =rare earth) compounds as a function of temperature and magnetic field up to 30 T. The Seebeck curves are characterized by a broad negative bump around 50 K, which is sample dependent and strongly enhanced by the application of a magnetic field. A model for the temperature and field dependence of the magnon drag contribution to the Seebeck effect by antiferromagnetic (AFM) spin fluctuation is developed. It accounts for the magnitude and scaling properties of such bump feature in our experimental data in LaFeAsO. This analysis accounts for the apparent inconsistency of literature Seebeck effect data on these compounds and has the potential to extract precious information on the coupling between electrons and AFM spin fluctuations in these parent compound systems, with implications on the pairing mechanism of the related superconducting compounds.

Caglieris, F.; Braggio, A.; Pallecchi, I.; Provino, A.; Pani, M.; Lamura, G.; Jost, A.; Zeitler, U.; Galleani D'Agliano, E.; Manfrinetti, P.; Putti, M.

2014-10-01

164

Some rhetorical functions of Fielding's narrator in Tom Jones  

E-print Network

SOME RHETORICAL FUNCTIONS OF FIELDING' S NARRATOR IN TOM JONES A Thesis by MARY JO HOFFMAN Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A8cM University in partial fulfillment of toe requirement for the degree of MASTER OF ARTS December 1971... Rhetorical Punotions of Fielding's Narrator in Tom Jones. (December 1971) Mary Jo Hoffman, B. Aes Mary Hardin-Baylor College Directed by: Dr. Harry P. Kroitor Examination of instances of the appearance of Pieldingts narrator at chapter ends...

Hoffman, Mary Jo

2012-06-07

165

Daily variations in TOMS total ozone data  

SciTech Connect

The spatial and seasonal distributions of daily fluctuations in total ozone from 60{degree}N to 60{degree}S are analyzed by using 14.5 years of total ozone mapping spectrometer (TOMS) data on a 5{degree} latitude by 15{degree} longitude grid. Root mean square day to day differences maximize near 30 Dobson units (DU) in the midlatitudes of both hemispheres from late fall to early spring. The contributions of these fluctuations due to planetary- and medium-scale waves are analyzed using sinusoidal zonal wave filtering. Daily midlatitude variations from planetary-scale waves are smaller than those from medium-scale waves and mainly occur from late fall to early spring, while strong medium-scale variations persist throughout fall, winter, and spring. An exception is the southern hemisphere high latitudes, where contortions and breakup of the polar vortex cause large daily variations on planetary scales during September and October. Tropical total ozone fluctuations due to planetary-scale waves are slightly larger than those due to medium-scale waves in all seasons. A climatological table of monthly RMS day to day total ozone changes is provided as a reference.{copyright} 1997 American Geophysical Union

Allen, D.R.; Reck, R.A. [Global Climate Change Program, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois (United States)] [Global Climate Change Program, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois (United States)

1997-06-01

166

Nimbus-7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) Data Products User's Guide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two data products from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) onboard Nimbus-7 have been archived at the Distributed Active Archive Center, in the form of Hierarchical Data Format files. The instrument measures backscattered Earth radiance and incoming solar irradiance; their ratio is used in ozone retrievals. Changes in the instrument sensitivity are monitored by a spectral discrimination technique using measurements of the intrinsically stable wavelength dependence of derived surface reflectivity. The algorithm to retrieve total column ozone compares measured Earth radiances at sets of three wavelengths with radiances calculated for different total ozone values, solar zenith angles, and optical paths. The initial error in the absolute scale for TOMS total ozone is 3 percent, the one standard deviation random error is 2 percent, and drift is less than 1.0 percent per decade. The Level-2 product contains the measured radiances, the derived total ozone amount, and reflectivity information for each scan position. The Level-3 product contains daily total ozone amount and reflectivity in a I - degree latitude by 1.25 degrees longitude grid. The Level-3 product also is available on CD-ROM. Detailed descriptions of both HDF data files and the CD-ROM product are provided.

McPeters, Richard D.; Bhartia, P. K.; Krueger, Arlin J.; Herman, Jay R.; Schlesinger, Barry M.; Wellemeyer, Charles G.; Seftor, Colin J.; Jaross, Glen; Taylor, Steven L.; Swissler, Tom; Torres, Omar; Labow, Gordon; Byerly, William; Cebula, Richard P.

1996-01-01

167

Impact Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This 24 minute planetarium show teaches about meteors, meteorites, asteroids, and comets. The show was created for fulldome theaters, but is also available on DVD to be shown in flat version for TVs and computer monitors, and can be freely viewed online. It shows the effects of the Chixulub and Tungusta events, plus the Pallasite impact that resulted in the Brenham meteorite fall, and describes ways that asteroid hunters seek new objects in the solar system, and how ground penetrating radar is used to find meteorites that have survived to the Earth's surface. Narrated by astronaut Tom Jones, it also discusses ways that humans might try to deflect an asteroid or comet that is on a collision course with Earth. The show was created for informal science venues (digital planetariums); it is also useful as supplemental material for middle school science. Impact Earth is available for free if presented directly from the Space Update site (widescreen or fisheye views linked from YouTube). Otherwise, a DVD of the show can be purchased for $10.

168

Mitochondrial targeting of cytochrome P450 proteins containing NH2-terminal chimeric signals involves an unusual TOM20/TOM22 bypass mechanism.  

PubMed

Previously we showed that xenobiotic inducible cytochrome P450 (CYP) proteins are bimodally targeted to the endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria. In this study, we investigated the mechanism of delivery of chimeric signal containing CYP proteins to the peripheral and channel-forming mitochondrial outer membrane translocases (TOMs). CYP+33/1A1 and CYP2B1 did not require peripheral TOM70, TOM20, or TOM22 for translocation through the channel-forming TOM40 protein. In contrast, CYP+5/1A1 and CYP2E1 were able to bypass TOM20 and TOM22 but required TOM70. CYP27, which contains a canonical cleavable mitochondrial signal, required all of the peripheral TOMs for its mitochondrial translocation. We investigated the underlying mechanisms of bypass of peripheral TOMs by CYPs with chimeric signals. The results suggested that interaction of CYPs with Hsp70, a cytosolic chaperone involved in the mitochondrial import, alone was sufficient for the recognition of chimeric signals by peripheral TOMs. However, sequential interaction of chimeric signal containing CYPs with Hsp70 and Hsp90 resulted in the bypass of peripheral TOMs, whereas CYP27A1 interacted only with Hsp70 and was not able to bypass peripheral TOMs. Our results also show that delivery of a chimeric signal containing client protein by Hsp90 required the cytosol-exposed NH(2)-terminal 143 amino acids of TOM40. TOM40 devoid of this domain was unable to import CYP proteins. These results suggest that compared with the unimodal mitochondrial targeting signals, the chimeric mitochondrial targeting signals are highly evolved and dynamic in nature. PMID:19401463

Anandatheerthavarada, Hindupur K; Sepuri, Naresh Babu V; Avadhani, Narayan G

2009-06-19

169

An unusual TOM20/TOM22 bypass mechanism for the mitochondrial targeting of cytochrome P450 proteins containing N-terminal chimeric signals.  

PubMed

Previously we showed that xenobiotic-inducible cytochrome P450 (CYP) proteins are bimodally targeted to the endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria. In the present study, we investigated the mechanism of delivery of chimeric signal-containing CYP proteins to the peripheral and channel-forming mitochondrial outer membrane translocases (TOMs). CYP+33/1A1 and CYP2B1 did not require peripheral TOM70, TOM20, or TOM22 for translocation through the channel-forming TOM40 protein. In contrast, CYP+5/1A1 and CYP2E1 were able to bypass TOM20 and TOM22 but required TOM70. CYP27, which contains a canonical cleavable mitochondrial signal, required all of the peripheral TOMs for its mitochondrial translocation. We investigated the underlying mechanisms of bypass of peripheral TOMs by CYPs with chimeric signals. The results suggested that interaction of CYPs with Hsp70, a cytosolic chaperone involved in the mitochondrial import, alone was sufficient for the recognition of chimeric signals by peripheral TOMs. However, sequential interaction of chimeric signal-containing CYPs with Hsp70 and Hsp90 resulted in the bypass of peripheral TOMs, whereas CYP27 interacted only with Hsp70 and was not able to bypass peripheral TOMs. Our results also show that delivery of chimeric signal-containing client proteins by Hsp90 required the cytosol-exposed N-terminal 143 amino acids of TOM40. TOM40 devoid of this domain was unable to bind CYP proteins. These results suggest that, compared with the unimodal mitochondria-targeting signals, the chimeric mitochondria-targeting signals are highly evolved and dynamic in nature. PMID:18480056

Anandatheerthavarada, Hindupur K; Sepuri, Naresh Babu V; Biswas, Gopa; Avadhani, Narayan G

2008-07-11

170

The Gravity Probe B `Niobium bird' experiment: Verifying the data reduction scheme for estimating the relativistic precession of Earth-orbiting gyroscopes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Gravity Probe B (GP-B) is a relatively gyroscope experiment begun at Stanford University in 1960 and supported by NASA since 1963. This experiment will check, for the first time, the relativistic precession of an Earth-orbiting gyroscope that was predicted by Einstein's General Theory of Relativity, to an accuracy of 1 milliarcsecond per year or better. A drag-free satellite will carry four gyroscopes in a polar orbit to observe their relativistic precession. The primary sensor for measuring the direction of gyroscope spin axis is the SQUID (superconducting quantum interference device) magnetometer. The data reduction scheme designed for the GP-B program processes the signal from the SQUID magnetometer and estimates the relativistic precession rates. We formulated the data reduction scheme and designed the Niobium bird experiment to verify the performance of the data reduction scheme experimentally with an actual SQUID magnetometer within the test loop. This paper reports the results from the first phase of the Niobium bird experiment, which used a commercially available SQUID magnetometer as its primary sensor, and adresses the issues they raised. The first phase resulted in a large, temperature-dependent bias drift in the insensitive design and a temperature regulation scheme.

Uemaatsu, Hirohiko; Parkinson, Bradford W.; Lockhart, James M.; Muhlfelder, Barry

1993-01-01

171

Tom70 is essential for PINK1 import into mitochondria.  

PubMed

PTEN induced kinase 1 (PINK1) is a serine/threonine kinase in the outer membrane of mitochondria (OMM), and known as a responsible gene of Parkinson's disease (PD). The precursor of PINK1 is synthesized in the cytosol and then imported into the mitochondria via the translocase of the OMM (TOM) complex. However, a large part of PINK1 import mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we examined using cell-free system the mechanism by which PINK1 is targeted to and assembled into mitochondria. Surprisingly, the main component of the import channel, Tom40 was not necessary for PINK1 import. Furthermore, we revealed that the import receptor Tom70 is essential for PINK1 import. In addition, we observed that although PINK1 has predicted mitochondrial targeting signal, it was not processed by the mitochondrial processing peptidase. Thus, our results suggest that PINK1 is imported into mitochondria by a unique pathway that is independent of the TOM core complex but crucially depends on the import receptor Tom70. PMID:23472196

Kato, Hiroki; Lu, Qiping; Rapaport, Doron; Kozjak-Pavlovic, Vera

2013-01-01

172

Tom70 Is Essential for PINK1 Import into Mitochondria  

PubMed Central

PTEN induced kinase 1 (PINK1) is a serine/threonine kinase in the outer membrane of mitochondria (OMM), and known as a responsible gene of Parkinson's disease (PD). The precursor of PINK1 is synthesized in the cytosol and then imported into the mitochondria via the translocase of the OMM (TOM) complex. However, a large part of PINK1 import mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we examined using cell-free system the mechanism by which PINK1 is targeted to and assembled into mitochondria. Surprisingly, the main component of the import channel, Tom40 was not necessary for PINK1 import. Furthermore, we revealed that the import receptor Tom70 is essential for PINK1 import. In addition, we observed that although PINK1 has predicted mitochondrial targeting signal, it was not processed by the mitochondrial processing peptidase. Thus, our results suggest that PINK1 is imported into mitochondria by a unique pathway that is independent of the TOM core complex but crucially depends on the import receptor Tom70. PMID:23472196

Rapaport, Doron; Kozjak-Pavlovic, Vera

2013-01-01

173

Single molecule tracking fluorescence microscopy in mitochondria reveals highly dynamic but confined movement of Tom40.  

PubMed

Tom40 is an integral protein of the mitochondrial outer membrane, which as the central component of the Translocase of the Outer Membrane (TOM) complex forms a channel for protein import. We characterize the diffusion properties of individual Tom40 molecules fused to the photoconvertable fluorescent protein Dendra2 with millisecond temporal resolution. By imaging individual Tom40 molecules in intact isolated yeast mitochondria using photoactivated localization microscopy with sub-diffraction limited spatial precision, we demonstrate that Tom40 movement in the outer mitochondrial membrane is highly dynamic but confined in nature, suggesting anchoring of the TOM complex as a whole. PMID:22355710

Kuzmenko, Anton; Tankov, Stoyan; English, Brian P; Tarassov, Ivan; Tenson, Tanel; Kamenski, Piotr; Elf, Johan; Hauryliuk, Vasili

2011-01-01

174

Single molecule tracking fluorescence microscopy in mitochondria reveals highly dynamic but confined movement of Tom40  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tom40 is an integral protein of the mitochondrial outer membrane, which as the central component of the Translocase of the Outer Membrane (TOM) complex forms a channel for protein import. We characterize the diffusion properties of individual Tom40 molecules fused to the photoconvertable fluorescent protein Dendra2 with millisecond temporal resolution. By imaging individual Tom40 molecules in intact isolated yeast mitochondria using photoactivated localization microscopy with sub-diffraction limited spatial precision, we demonstrate that Tom40 movement in the outer mitochondrial membrane is highly dynamic but confined in nature, suggesting anchoring of the TOM complex as a whole.

Kuzmenko, Anton; Tankov, Stoyan; English, Brian P.; Tarassov, Ivan; Tenson, Tanel; Kamenski, Piotr; Elf, Johan; Hauryliuk, Vasili

2011-12-01

175

Direct measurements of tropospheric ozone from TOMS data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the past year, we have made measurements of the tropospheric total column of ozone during the biomass burning season in Africa (August to October). Fishman et. al. had reported previously that by taking a time average of the low spatial resolution data from TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) on Nimbus-7 (referred to as the Grid-T data set), during the biomass burning season in Africa, a plume of ozone extends from the East coast of Africa into the Atlantic. In this report, we present an analysis that we have made using the measured TOMS radiances taken from the High Density TOMS data set (referred as the HDT data set), which examines this plume in more detail.

Hudson, Robert D.

1993-01-01

176

Tropospheric Chemistry Studies using Observations from GOME and TOMS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Studies to quantitatively determine trace gas and aerosol amounts from the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) and the Total Ozone Monitoring Experiment (TOMS) and to perform chemical modeling studies which utilize these results are given. This includes: 1. Analysis of measurements from the GOME and TOMS instruments for troposphere distributions of O3 and HCHO; troposphere enhancements of SO2, NO2 and aerosols associated with major sources; and springtime events of elevated BrO in the lower Arctic troposphere. 2. Application of a global 3-dimensional model of troposphere chemistry to interpret the GOME observations in terms of the factors controlling the abundances of troposphere ozone and OH.

Chance, Kelly; Spurr, Robert J. D.; Kurosu, Thomas P.; Jacob, Daniel J.; Gleason, James F.

2003-01-01

177

Gordon And Mike's ICT Podcast: China And TOM-Skype  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Gordon and Mike's ICT Podcast offers perspectives on the information and communication technologies (ICT) industries from Gordon Snyder and Mike Qaissaunee.In this audio podcast, Gordon and Mike discuss the report âÂÂBreaching Trust: An analysis of surveillance and security practices on ChinaâÂÂs TOM-Skype platformâ as well as confidentiality and security issues with TOM-Skype, the Chinese version of Skype. Running time: 25:21. This podcast is available for direct download in mp3 format from the Libsyn site, or click here to subscribe to the whole series in iTunes.

Qaissaunee, Michael; Snyder, Gordon F.

2010-05-04

178

Biogenesis of mitochondria: dual role of Tom7 in modulating assembly of the preprotein translocase of the outer membrane.  

PubMed

Biogenesis of the translocase of the outer mitochondrial membrane (TOM complex) involves the assembly of the central ?-barrel forming protein Tom40 with six different subunits that are embedded in the membrane via ?-helical transmembrane segments. The sorting and assembly machinery (SAM complex) of the outer membrane plays a central role in this process. The SAM complex mediates the membrane integration of ?-barrel precursor proteins including Tom40. The small Tom proteins Tom5 and Tom6 associate with the precursor of Tom40 at the SAM complex at an early stage of the assembly process and play a stimulatory role in the formation of the mature TOM complex. A fraction of the SAM components interacts with the outer membrane protein mitochondrial distribution and morphology protein 10 (Mdm10) to form the SAM-Mdm10 machinery; however, different views exist on the function of the SAM-Mdm10 complex. We report here that the third small Tom protein, Tom7, plays an inhibitory role at two distinct steps in the biogenesis of the TOM complex. First, Tom7 plays an antagonistic role to Tom5 and Tom6 at the early stage of Tom40 assembly at the SAM complex. Second, Tom7 interacts with Mdm10 that is not bound to the SAM complex, and thus promotes dissociation of the SAM-Mdm10 complex. Since the SAM-Mdm10 complex is required for the biogenesis of Tom22, Tom7 delays the assembly of Tom22 with Tom40 at a late stage of assembly of the TOM complex. Thus, Tom7 modulates the biogenesis of topologically different proteins, the ?-barrel forming protein Tom40 and Tom22 that contains a transmembrane ?-helix. PMID:21059357

Becker, Thomas; Wenz, Lena-Sophie; Thornton, Nicolas; Stroud, David; Meisinger, Chris; Wiedemann, Nils; Pfanner, Nikolaus

2011-01-01

179

Earth Sciences Earth Sciences  

E-print Network

Earth Sciences Earth Sciences Undergraduate Studies #12;Department of Earth Sciences2 Royal;3Department of Earth Sciences Earth Sciences The Department of Earth Sciences at Royal Holloway.ac.uk/studyhere Contents Why study Earth Sciences? 4 Earth Sciences at Royal Holloway 5 Admissions and entry requirements 6

Royal Holloway, University of London

180

Type-safe Distributed Programming with ML5 Tom Murphy VII, Karl Crary, and Robert Harper  

E-print Network

Type-safe Distributed Programming with ML5 Tom Murphy VII, Karl Crary, and Robert Harper Department of Computer Science Carnegie Mellon University Pittsburgh, PA, USA tom7,crary,rwh@cs.cmu.edu Abstract We

Harper, Robert

181

ON ANTICYCLOTOMIC -INVARIANTS OF MODULAR FORMS ROBERT POLLACK AND TOM WESTON  

E-print Network

ON ANTICYCLOTOMIC µ-INVARIANTS OF MODULAR FORMS ROBERT POLLACK AND TOM WESTON Abstract. We prove;2 ROBERT POLLACK AND TOM WESTON be deduced from the work of Vatsal and Bertolini­Darmon. Precisely, [32

Pollack, Robert

182

Protein translocase of the outer mitochondrial membrane: role of import receptors in the structural organization of the TOM complex.  

PubMed

The mitochondrial outer membrane contains a multi-subunit machinery responsible for the specific recognition and translocation of precursor proteins. This translocase of the outer membrane (TOM) consists of three receptor proteins, Tom20, Tom22 and Tom70, the channel protein Tom40, and several small Tom proteins. Single-particle electron microscopy analysis of the Neurospora TOM complex has led to different views with two or three stain-filled centers resembling channels. Based on biochemical and electron microscopy studies of the TOM complex isolated from yeast mitochondria, we have discovered the molecular reason for the different number of channel-like structures. The TOM complex from wild-type yeast contains up to three stain-filled centers, while from a mutant yeast selectively lacking Tom20, the TOM complex particles contain only two channel-like structures. From mutant mitochondria lacking Tom22, native electrophoresis separates an approximately 80 kDa subcomplex that consists of Tom40 only and is functional for accumulation of a precursor protein. We conclude that while Tom40 forms the import channels, the two receptors Tom22 and Tom20 are required for the organization of Tom40 dimers into larger TOM structures. PMID:11866524

Model, Kirstin; Prinz, Thorsten; Ruiz, Teresa; Radermacher, Michael; Krimmer, Thomas; Kühlbrandt, Werner; Pfanner, Nikolaus; Meisinger, Chris

2002-02-22

183

Biogenesis of the mitochondrial TOM complex: Mim1 promotes insertion and assembly of signal-anchored receptors.  

PubMed

The translocase of the outer membrane (TOM complex) is the central entry gate for nuclear-encoded mitochondrial precursor proteins. All Tom proteins are also encoded by nuclear genes and synthesized as precursors in the cytosol. The channel-forming beta-barrel protein Tom40 is targeted to mitochondria via Tom receptors and inserted into the outer membrane by the sorting and assembly machinery (SAM complex). A further outer membrane protein, Mim1, plays a less defined role in assembly of Tom40 into the TOM complex. The three receptors Tom20, Tom22, and Tom70 are anchored in the outer membrane by a single transmembrane alpha-helix, located at the N terminus in the case of Tom20 and Tom70 (signal-anchored) or in the C-terminal portion in the case of Tom22 (tail-anchored). Insertion of the precursor of Tom22 into the outer membrane requires pre-existing Tom receptors while the import pathway of the precursors of Tom20 and Tom70 is only poorly understood. We report that Mim1 is required for efficient membrane insertion and assembly of Tom20 and Tom70, but not Tom22. We show that Mim1 associates with SAM(core) components to a large SAM complex, explaining its role in late steps of the assembly pathway of Tom40. We conclude that Mim1 is not only required for biogenesis of the beta-barrel protein Tom40 but also for membrane insertion and assembly of signal-anchored Tom receptors. Thus, Mim1 plays an important role in the efficient assembly of the mitochondrial TOM complex. PMID:17974559

Becker, Thomas; Pfannschmidt, Sylvia; Guiard, Bernard; Stojanovski, Diana; Milenkovic, Dusanka; Kutik, Stephan; Pfanner, Nikolaus; Meisinger, Chris; Wiedemann, Nils

2008-01-01

184

Alternative function for the mitochondrial SAM complex in biogenesis of alpha-helical TOM proteins.  

PubMed

The mitochondrial outer membrane contains two preprotein translocases: the general translocase of outer membrane (TOM) and the beta-barrel-specific sorting and assembly machinery (SAM). TOM functions as the central entry gate for nuclear-encoded proteins. The channel-forming Tom40 is a beta-barrel protein, whereas all Tom receptors and small Tom proteins are membrane anchored by a transmembrane alpha-helical segment in their N- or C-terminal portion. Synthesis of Tom precursors takes place in the cytosol, and their import occurs via preexisting TOM complexes. The precursor of Tom40 is then transferred to SAM for membrane insertion and assembly. Unexpectedly, we find that the biogenesis of alpha-helical Tom proteins with a membrane anchor in the C-terminal portion is SAM dependent. Each SAM protein is necessary for efficient membrane integration of the receptor Tom22, whereas assembly of the small Tom proteins depends on Sam37. Thus, the substrate specificity of SAM is not restricted to beta-barrel proteins but also includes the majority of alpha-helical Tom proteins. PMID:18039934

Stojanovski, Diana; Guiard, Bernard; Kozjak-Pavlovic, Vera; Pfanner, Nikolaus; Meisinger, Chris

2007-12-01

185

Nanoscale distribution of mitochondrial import receptor Tom20 is adjusted to cellular conditions  

E-print Network

of the clusters correlates to the mitochondrial membrane potential. The distributions of clusters of Tom20 for review May 17, 2011) The translocase of the mitochondrial outer membrane (TOM) complex is the main importNanoscale distribution of mitochondrial import receptor Tom20 is adjusted to cellular conditions

Hell, Stefan W.

186

Measuring Theory of Mind in Children. Psychometric Properties of the ToM Storybooks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although research on Theory-of-Mind (ToM) is often based on single task measurements, more comprehensive instruments result in a better understanding of ToM development. The ToM Storybooks is a new instrument measuring basic ToM-functioning and associated aspects. There are 34 tasks, tapping various emotions, beliefs, desires and mental-physical…

Blijd-Hoogewys, E. M. A.; van Geert, P. L. C.; Serra, M.; Minderaa, R. B.

2008-01-01

187

Preliminary Results from Pyroelectric Crystal Accelerator Tom Anderson1  

E-print Network

Preliminary Results from Pyroelectric Crystal Accelerator Tom Anderson1 , Ronald Edwards1 , Kevin and Nuclear Engineering at USMA are using pyroelectric crystals to ionize and accelerate residual gas trapped: Pyroelectric Crystal Accelerator, Educational Accelerator, Nuclear Fusion, Neutrons PACS: 24.90+d INTRODUCTION

Danon, Yaron

188

Good Guys Finish Last: "Tom Brown's School Days" and "Flashman."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Instructors and students of literature should look to George McDonald Fraser's "Flashman: From the Flashman Papers, 1839-1842" for a clever critique of 19th-century notions of character, virtue, and moral teleology. Written to criticize Thomas Hughes's famous 19th-century novel, "Tom Brown's School Days," Fraser's 20th-century novel turns on end…

Riga, Frank P.

189

Tutorial 4: Comparisons of Groups Tom Miller and Jason Pienaar  

E-print Network

Tutorial 4: Comparisons of Groups Tom Miller and Jason Pienaar Statistics with R: the t interest for this course is using R to help statistically evaluate data, so this tutorial will cover using is the Student's t-test and this tutorial will also include an introduction to using ANOVA, which is a much more

Miller, Thomas E.

190

TOM software toolbox: acquisition and analysis for electron tomography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automated data acquisition procedures have changed the perspectives of electron tomography (ET) in a profound manner. Elaborate data acquisition schemes with autotuning functions minimize exposure of the specimen to the electron beam and sophisticated image analysis routines retrieve a maximum of information from noisy data sets. ‘TOM software toolbox’ integrates established algorithms and new concepts tailored to the special needs

Stephan Nickell; Friedrich Förster; Alexandros Linaroudis; William Del Net; Florian Beck; Reiner Hegerl; Wolfgang Baumeister; Jürgen M. Plitzko

2005-01-01

191

Challenge without Threat: An Interview with Tom Dewell  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents an interview with Tom Dewell, a professional physical educator with 28 years of experience and a fixture in Dallas physical education. Dewell has melded a background in movement education and adapted physical education with early childhood theory, including Montessori. The bulk of his experience has been in private, parochial…

Stork, Steve

2005-01-01

192

Towards a Taxonomy of Software Evolution Tom Mens Jim Buckley  

E-print Network

Towards a Taxonomy of Software Evolution Tom Mens Jim Buckley Vrije Universiteit Brussel Pleinlaan taxonomies of software evolution have focused on the purpose of the change (i.e., the why) rather than the underlying mechanisms. This paper proposes a taxonomy of software evolution based on the characterizing

Zenger, Matthias

193

Herbert Toms (1874–1940), Witch Stones, and Porosphaera Beads  

Microsoft Academic Search

After early employment with the archaeologist, General Pitt Rivers, Herbert Samuel Toms (1874–1940) was a curator in the Brighton Museum. Amassing a significant folklore archive, including specimens, photographs, and records of interviews from Sussex and adjoining counties, his particular interest was naturally perforated flints (witch stones or hagstones), used to protect households against witches, domestic animals from the ravages of

Christopher J. Duffin

2011-01-01

194

Open Sensor Web Architecture: Stateful Web Tom Kobialka 1  

E-print Network

Open Sensor Web Architecture: Stateful Web Services Tom Kobialka 1 , Rajkumar Buyya 2 , Christopher As sensor networks become more pervasive there emerges a need for interfacing applications to perform common operations and transformations on sensor data. Web Services provide an interoperable and platform independent

Melbourne, University of

195

Random walks in random environment Tom Schmitz (MPI Leipzig)  

E-print Network

Random walks in random environment Tom Schmitz (MPI Leipzig) The model of random walks in random environment (RWRE) originates from physical and biological sciences and describes a random motion random variables, creating thus a "random environment" for the walker. More specifically, we only allow

Thalmaier, Anton

196

Tom Green County Library Literacy Project. Final Performance Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The final report of the Tom Green Country Library System (Texas) literacy project details progress toward achievement of 11 objectives. Objectives of the literacy outreach program were to: (1) increase Hispanic enrollment; (2) increase Black enrollment; (3) provide free child care for 4 students to attend 50 tutoring sessions; (4) provide…

Vavricka, D. Karen

197

Brains, Meaning and Corpus Statistics Tom M. Mitchell  

E-print Network

Carnegie Mellon University May, 2009 "Predicting Human Brain Activity Associated with the Meanings of Nouns Conference on Human Brain Mapping. June 2007. · "Using fMRI Brain Activation to Identify Cognitive StatesBrains, Meaning and Corpus Statistics Tom M. Mitchell and collaborators Machine Learning Department

Murphy, Robert F.

198

Aerosol Absorption Effects in the TOMS UV Algorithm  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The availability of global long-term estimates of surface UV radiation is very important, not only for preventive medicine considerations, but also as an important tool to monitor the effects of the stratospheric ozone recovery expected to occur in the next few decades as a result of the decline of the stratospheric chlorine levels. In addition to the modulating effects of ozone and clouds, aerosols also affect the levels of UV-A and W-B radiation reaching the surface. Oscillations in surface W associated with the effects of aerosol absorption may be comparable in magnitude to variations associated with the stratospheric ozone recovery. Thus, the accurate calculation of surface W radiation requires that both the scattering and absorption effects of tropospheric aerosols be taken into account. Although absorption effects of dust and elevated carbonaceous aerosols are already accounted for using Aerosol Index technique, this approach does not work for urban/industrial aerosols in the planetary boundary layer. The use of the new TOMS long-term global data record on UV aerosol absorption optical depth, can improve the accuracy of TOMS spectral UV products, by properly including the spectral attenuation effects of carbonaceous, urban/industrial and mineral aerosols. The TOMS data set on aerosol properties will be discussed, and results of its use in the TOMS surface W algorithm will be presented.

Torres, O.; Krotkov, N.; Bhartia, P. K.

2004-01-01

199

Detection of biomass burning smoke from TOMS measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 14.5 year gridded data set of tropospheric absorbing aerosol index was derived from the Nimbus-7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) reflectivity difference between 340 and 380 nm channels. Based upon radiative transfer calculations, the reflectivity anomaly between these two UV wavelength channels is very sensitive to smoke and soot aerosols from biomass burning and forest fires, volcanic ash clouds

N. C. Hsu; C. J. Seftor; O. Torres; T. F. Eck; A. M. Thompson; J. F. Gleason; B. N. Holben

1996-01-01

200

Architektura GIS z pohledu tok dat Mgr. Toms Skopal  

E-print Network

1 Architektura GIS z pohledu tok dat Mgr. Tomás Skopal Katedra informatiky, FEI VSB ­ Technická This article introduces original model of open software architecture for GIS, which should hit the intent ­ accelerate and improve GIS applications design. First part deals with the solution motivation, second part

Skopal, Tomas

201

Tom Stewart Interview (Part I): Registrar and SPEEDE's Champion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

At AACRAO's Annual Meeting in April 2003, Tom Stewart was presented with the APEX Award for Achieving Professional Excellence in his field. He was recognized for his tireless work and commitment to SPEEDE, the electronic transmission of records. Over the almost 40-year span of his career, he has earned the SACRAO and AACRAO Distinguished Service…

Stones, David

2004-01-01

202

Deliberate Practice of Humanistic Tom McNalley, MD, MA  

E-print Network

Deliberate Practice of Humanistic Medicine Tom McNalley, MD, MA Rehabilitation Medicine April 6, 2013 Big Sky Faculty Development Conference #12;Objectives · Contemplate connection between humanistic medicine and deliberate practice · Recognize the importance of humanistic medicine · Describe barriers

Maxwell, Bruce D.

203

Tom Garvin, Mancur Olson and Irish Economic Growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Preventing the Future: Why Ireland was so poor for so long? Tom Garvin attempts to explain the development of the independent Irish state from an economic, political and cultural perspective. The starting point of Garvin's argument is the theory developed by Mancur Olson. Garvin finds that Olson's work can only partially explain Irish economic growth. This is because unfortunately,

John Considine; Robert Butler

204

Objects of Wonderment: Hullabaloo Eric Paulos Tom Jenkins  

E-print Network

Objects of Wonderment: Hullabaloo Eric Paulos Tom Jenkins Intel Research 2150 Shattuck Avenue #1300 experiences ­ from improving productivity and efficiency to promoting wonderment and daydreaming. We present early work in this area with Hullabaloo ­ a prototype Object of Wonderment. INTRODUCTION The industrial

Paulos, Eric

205

Team Leader: Tom Peters--TAP Information Services  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tom Peters packs 36 hours of work into the confines of a 24-hour day. Without breaking a sweat, he juggles multiple collaborative projects, which currently include an Illinois academic library shared storage facility; a multistate virtual reference and instruction service for blind and visually impaired individuals (InfoEyes); a virtual meeting…

Library Journal, 2005

2005-01-01

206

Edge Landmarks in Monocular SLAM Ethan Eade and Tom Drummond  

E-print Network

Edge Landmarks in Monocular SLAM Ethan Eade and Tom Drummond Cambridge University {ee231, twd20}@cam.ac.uk Abstract While many visual simultaneous localisation and mapping (SLAM) systems use point features as landmarks, few take advantage of the edge information in images. Those SLAM systems that do

Cambridge, University of

207

A Genetic Algorithm for Simultaneous Localization and Mapping Tom Duckett  

E-print Network

://www.aass.oru.se Abstract--- This paper addresses the problem of simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) by a mobileA Genetic Algorithm for Simultaneous Localization and Mapping Tom Duckett Centre for Applied data must be used for both mapping and localization. We can separate two major sources of uncertainty

Duckett, Tom

208

A Genetic Algorithm for Simultaneous Localization and Mapping Tom Duckett  

E-print Network

://www.aass.oru.se Abstract-- This paper addresses the problem of simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) by a mobileA Genetic Algorithm for Simultaneous Localization and Mapping Tom Duckett Centre for Applied data must be used for both mapping and localization. We can separate two major sources of uncertainty

Duckett, Tom

209

The Bostonian: Tom Payzant's Focused Approach to School Reform  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article features Boston superintendent Tom Payzant. In a national landscape dotted with dysfunctional urban systems and short-lived superintendents, Payzant stands out. With over a decade at the helm, Payzant is arguably the best big-city school leader in the nation and Boston the most improved urban district. The success side of the Payzant…

Russo, Alexander

2006-01-01

210

Plasticity of TOM complex assembly in skeletal muscle mitochondria in response to chronic contractile activity.  

PubMed

We investigated the assembly of the TOM complex within skeletal muscle under conditions of chronic contractile activity-induced mitochondrial biogenesis. Tom40 import into mitochondria was increased by chronic contractile activity, as was its time-dependent assembly into the TOM complex. These changes coincided with contractile activity-induced augmentations in the expression of key protein import machinery components Tim17, Tim23, and Tom22, as well as the cytosolic chaperone Hsp90. These data indicate the adaptability of the TOM protein import complex and suggest a regulatory role for the assembly of this complex in exercise-induced mitochondrial biogenesis. PMID:22142511

Joseph, Anna-Maria; Hood, David A

2012-03-01

211

Genetic and functional interactions between the mitochondrial outer membrane proteins Tom6 and Sam37.  

PubMed

The TOM complex is the general mitochondrial entry site for newly synthesized proteins. Precursors of beta-barrel proteins initially follow this common pathway and are then relayed to the SAM/TOB complex, which mediates their integration into the outer membrane. Three proteins, Sam50 (Tob55), Sam35 (Tob38/Tom38), and Sam37 (Mas37), have been identified as the core constituents of the latter complex. Sam37 is essential for growth at elevated temperatures, but the function of the protein is currently unresolved. To identify interacting partners of Sam37 and thus shed light on its function, we screened for multicopy suppressors of sam37Delta. We identified the small subunit of the TOM complex, Tom6, as such a suppressor and found a tight genetic interaction between the two proteins. Overexpression of SAM37 suppresses the growth phenotype of tom6Delta, and cells lacking both genes are not viable. The ability of large amounts of Tom6 to suppress the sam37Delta phenotype can be linked to the capacity of Tom6 to stabilize Tom40, an essential beta-barrel protein which is the central component of the TOM complex. Our results suggest that Sam37 is required for growth at higher temperatures, since it enhances the biogenesis of Tom40, and this requirement can be overruled by improved stability of newly synthesized Tom40 molecules. PMID:19797086

Dukanovic, Jovana; Dimmer, Kai S; Bonnefoy, Nathalie; Krumpe, Katrin; Rapaport, Doron

2009-11-01

212

Dual role of the receptor Tom20 in specificity and efficiency of protein import into mitochondria.  

PubMed

Mitochondria import most of their resident proteins from the cytosol, and the import receptor Tom20 of the outer-membrane translocator TOM40 complex plays an essential role in specificity of mitochondrial protein import. Here we analyzed the effects of Tom20 binding on NMR spectra of a long mitochondrial presequence and found that it contains two distinct Tom20-binding elements. In vitro import and cross-linking experiments revealed that, although the N-terminal Tom20-binding element is essential for targeting to mitochondria, the C-terminal element increases efficiency of protein import in the step prior to translocation across the inner membrane. Therefore Tom20 has a dual role in protein import into mitochondria: recognition of the targeting signal in the presequence and tethering the presequence to the TOM40 complex to increase import efficiency. PMID:21173275

Yamamoto, Hayashi; Itoh, Nobuka; Kawano, Shin; Yatsukawa, Yoh-ichi; Momose, Takaki; Makio, Tadashi; Matsunaga, Mayumi; Yokota, Mihoko; Esaki, Masatoshi; Shodai, Toshihiro; Kohda, Daisuke; Hobbs, Alyson E Aiken; Jensen, Robert E; Endo, Toshiya

2011-01-01

213

Protein translocation through Tom40: kinetics of peptide release.  

PubMed

Mitochondrial proteins are almost exclusively imported into mitochondria from the cytosol in an unfolded or partially folded conformation. Regardless of whether they are destined for the outer or inner membrane, the intermembrane space, or the matrix, proteins begin the importation process by crossing the mitochondrial outer membrane via a specialized protein import machinery whose main component is the Tom40 channel. High-resolution ion conductance measurements through the Tom40 channel in the presence of the mitochondrial presequence peptide pF(1)? revealed the kinetics of peptide binding. Here we show that the rates for association k(on) and dissociation k(off) strongly depend on the applied transmembrane voltage. Both kinetic constants increase with an increase in the applied voltage. The increase of k(off) with voltage provides strong evidence of peptide translocation. This allows us to distinguish quantitatively between substrate blocking and permeation. PMID:22225796

Mahendran, Kozhinjampara R; Romero-Ruiz, Mercedes; Schlösinger, Andrea; Winterhalter, Mathias; Nussberger, Stephan

2012-01-01

214

Nimbus-7 TOMS Antarctic ozone atlas: August through November, 1989  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Because of the great environmental significance of ozone and to support continuing research at the Antarctic and other Southern Hemisphere stations, the development of the 1989 ozone hole was monitored using data from the Nimbus-7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) instrument, produced in near-real-time. This Atlas provides a complete set of daily polar orthographic projections of the TOMS total ozone measurements over the Southern Hemisphere for the period August 1 through November 30, 1989. The 1989 ozone hole developed in a manner similar to that of 1987, reaching a comparable depth in early October. This was in sharp contrast to the much weaker hole of 1988. The 1989 ozone hole remained at polar latitudes as it filled in November, in contrast to other recent years when the hole drifted to mid-latitudes before disappearing. Daily ozone values above selected Southern Hemisphere stations are presented, along with comparisons of the 1989 ozone distribution to that of other years.

Krueger, Arlin J.; Penn, Lanning M.; Larko, David E.; Doiron, Scott D.; Guimaraes, Patricia T.

1990-01-01

215

Protein Translocation through Tom40: Kinetics of Peptide Release  

PubMed Central

Mitochondrial proteins are almost exclusively imported into mitochondria from the cytosol in an unfolded or partially folded conformation. Regardless of whether they are destined for the outer or inner membrane, the intermembrane space, or the matrix, proteins begin the importation process by crossing the mitochondrial outer membrane via a specialized protein import machinery whose main component is the Tom40 channel. High-resolution ion conductance measurements through the Tom40 channel in the presence of the mitochondrial presequence peptide pF1? revealed the kinetics of peptide binding. Here we show that the rates for association kon and dissociation koff strongly depend on the applied transmembrane voltage. Both kinetic constants increase with an increase in the applied voltage. The increase of koff with voltage provides strong evidence of peptide translocation. This allows us to distinguish quantitatively between substrate blocking and permeation. PMID:22225796

Mahendran, Kozhinjampara R.; Romero-Ruiz, Mercedes; Schlosinger, Andrea; Winterhalter, Mathias; Nussberger, Stephan

2012-01-01

216

Global ozone data from the meteor-3/TOMS ultraviolet spectrometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new TOMS instrument (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) was launched from the Plesetsk Cosomodrome, Russia on August 15, 1991. The purpose of the joint project between the U.S. and Russia was to continue the long-term record of ozone measurements from Nimbus-7/TOMS (launched in October 1978). Ozone data from the two satellites compare very closely. When the orbital positions were nearly the same, the comparison over the entire globe showed an offset of 2 percent with a standard deviation of 5 percent. Comparisons were made with several ground based M124 and Dobson stations showing good agreement in absolute value and with the day-to-day variations seen by the ground stations.

Herman, J. R.; Krueger, Arlin; Cote, C.; Ahmad, Zia; Forman, M.; Wellemeyer, C.; Byerly, W.; Pan, L.; Jaross, Glen; Hudson, R.

1994-01-01

217

Critical Error: Tom Daschle's Blurred Health Care Vision  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tom Daschle's new book, Critical: What Can We Do About the Health-Care Crisis, confirms that advocates for a complete government takeover of American health care have learned an important lesson: Don't try it in one big bite. Here Daschle and co-author Jeanne Lambrew have direct experience. Mr. Daschle was a Democratic leader in the Senate during the push for \\

John R. Graham

218

STS-70 Commander Terence 'Tom' Henricks suits up  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-70 Commander Terence 'Tom' Henricks is donning his launch/entry suit in the Operations and Checkout Building with help from a suit technician. Henricks, who is about to make his third trip into space, and four crew members will depart shortly for Launch Pad 39B, where the Space Shuttle Discovery is undergoing final preparations for a liftoff scheduled during a two and a half hour launch window opening at 9:41 a.m. EDT.

1995-01-01

219

On the Study of Richard Tom Robert Identity  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to estimate the average speed of mosquitoes, a simple experiment was designed by Richard (Lu-Hsing Tsai), Tom (Po-Yu Tsai) and Robert (Hung-Ming Tsai). The result of the experiment was posted in the science exhibitions Taichung Taiwan 1993. The average speed of mosquitoes is inferred by the simple relation that is obtained easily. In this paper, we will show

Yeong-Shyeong Tsai

2008-01-01

220

Jumpin' Tom Thumb: Charles Stratton Onstage at the American Museum  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1847, nine-year-old child star Charles Sherwood Stratton, better known to an adoring European public as 'General Tom Thumb,' returned to the United States from a wildly successful three-year European tour. That year he would begin a meteoric rise to a stardom in the United States that would be unequalled by any actor in his lifetime. His debut on the

Michael M. Chemers

221

Gravity Probe B  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This broadcast reports on Gravity Probe B, a satellite designed to test the frame dragging prediction of Einstein's theory of general relativity, where a spinning object such as the Earth will push spacetime in front of it. Gravity Probe B uses gyroscopes which will shift direction while orbiting the Earth (if general relativity is correct). The broadcast contains comments from a scientist who has worked on the Gravity Probe B mission for over 44 years. There is a brief explanation of the difference between the behavior of gravity in Newtonian physics and general relativity. The broadcast also discusses why it took so long to build the satellite (a dozen technologies had to be invented first), the cost involved, and whether the plug would be pulled on the mission; however, Gravity Probe B was finally launched on April 20, 2004. The broadcast is 30 minutes in length.

222

In vivo protein-interaction mapping of a mitochondrial translocator protein Tom22 at work.  

PubMed

Mitochondrial protein import requires cooperation of the machineries called translocators in the outer and inner mitochondrial membranes. Here we analyze the interactions of Tom22, a multifunctional subunit of the outer membrane translocator TOM40 complex, with other translocator subunits such as Tom20, Tom40, and Tim50 and with substrate precursor proteins at a spatial resolution of the amino acid residue by in vivo and in organello site-specific photocross-linking. Changes in cross-linking patterns caused by excess substrate precursor proteins or presequence peptides indicate how the cytosolic receptor domain of Tom22 accepts substrate proteins and how the intermembrane space domain of Tom22 transfers them to Tim50 of the inner-membrane translocator. PMID:21896724

Shiota, Takuya; Mabuchi, Hide; Tanaka-Yamano, Sachiko; Yamano, Koji; Endo, Toshiya

2011-09-13

223

Cognitive, Affective, and Conative Theory of Mind (ToM) in Children with Traumatic Brain Injury  

PubMed Central

We studied three forms of dyadic communication involving theory of mind (ToM) in 82 children with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and 61 children with orthopedic injury (OI): Cognitive (concerned with false belief), Affective (concerned with expressing socially deceptive facial expressions), and Conative (concerned with influencing another’s thoughts or feelings). We analyzed the pattern of brain lesions in the TBI group and conducted voxel-based morphometry for all participants in five large-scale functional brain networks, and related lesion and volumetric data to ToM outcomes. Children with TBI exhibited difficulty with Cognitive, Affective, and Conative ToM. The perturbation threshold for Cognitive ToM is higher than that for Affective and Conative ToM, in that Severe TBI disturbs Cognitive ToM but even Mild-Moderate TBI disrupt Affective and Conative ToM. Childhood TBI was associated with damage to all five large-scale brain networks. Lesions in the Mirror Neuron Empathy network predicted lower Conative ToM involving ironic criticism and empathic praise. Conative ToM was significantly and positively related to the package of Default Mode, Central Executive, and Mirror Neuron Empathy networks and, more specifically, to two hubs of the Default Mode network, the posterior cingulate/retrosplenial cortex and the hippocampal formation, including entorhinal cortex and parahippocampal cortex. PMID:23291312

Dennis, Maureen; Simic, Nevena; Bigler, Erin D.; Abildskov, Tracy; Agostino, Alba; Taylor, H. Gerry; Rubin, Kenneth; Vannatta, Kathryn; Gerhardt, Cynthia A.; Stancin, Terry; Yeates, Keith Owen

2012-01-01

224

Presequence recognition by the tom40 channel contributes to precursor translocation into the mitochondrial matrix.  

PubMed

More than 70% of mitochondrial proteins utilize N-terminal presequences as targeting signals. Presequence interactions with redundant cytosolic receptor domains of the translocase of the outer mitochondrial membrane (TOM) are well established. However, after the presequence enters the protein-conducting Tom40 channel, the recognition events that occur at the trans side leading up to the engagement of the presequence with inner membrane-bound receptors are less well defined. Using a photoaffinity-labeling approach with modified presequence peptides, we identified Tom40 as a presequence interactor of the TOM complex. Utilizing mass spectrometry, we mapped Tom40's presequence-interacting regions to both sides of the ?-barrel. Analysis of a phosphorylation site within one of the presequence-interacting regions revealed altered translocation kinetics along the presequence pathway. Our analyses assess the relation between the identified presequence-binding region of Tom40 and the intermembrane space domain of Tom22. The identified presequence-interacting region of Tom40 is capable of functioning independently of the established trans-acting TOM presequence-binding domain during matrix import. PMID:25002531

Melin, Jonathan; Schulz, Christian; Wrobel, Lidia; Bernhard, Olaf; Chacinska, Agnieszka; Jahn, Olaf; Schmidt, Bernhard; Rehling, Peter

2014-09-15

225

Cognitive, affective, and conative theory of mind (ToM) in children with traumatic brain injury.  

PubMed

We studied three forms of dyadic communication involving theory of mind (ToM) in 82 children with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and 61 children with orthopedic injury (OI): Cognitive (concerned with false belief), Affective (concerned with expressing socially deceptive facial expressions), and Conative (concerned with influencing another's thoughts or feelings). We analyzed the pattern of brain lesions in the TBI group and conducted voxel-based morphometry for all participants in five large-scale functional brain networks, and related lesion and volumetric data to ToM outcomes. Children with TBI exhibited difficulty with Cognitive, Affective, and Conative ToM. The perturbation threshold for Cognitive ToM is higher than that for Affective and Conative ToM, in that Severe TBI disturbs Cognitive ToM but even Mild-Moderate TBI disrupt Affective and Conative ToM. Childhood TBI was associated with damage to all five large-scale brain networks. Lesions in the Mirror Neuron Empathy network predicted lower Conative ToM involving ironic criticism and empathic praise. Conative ToM was significantly and positively related to the package of Default Mode, Central Executive, and Mirror Neuron Empathy networks and, more specifically, to two hubs of the Default Mode Network, the posterior cingulate/retrosplenial cortex and the hippocampal formation, including entorhinal cortex and parahippocampal cortex. PMID:23291312

Dennis, Maureen; Simic, Nevena; Bigler, Erin D; Abildskov, Tracy; Agostino, Alba; Taylor, H Gerry; Rubin, Kenneth; Vannatta, Kathryn; Gerhardt, Cynthia A; Stancin, Terry; Yeates, Keith Owen

2013-07-01

226

Molecular Chaperone Hsp70/Hsp90 Prepares the Mitochondrial Outer Membrane Translocon Receptor Tom71 for Preprotein Loading  

SciTech Connect

The preproteins targeted to the mitochondria are transported through the translocase of the outer membrane complex. Tom70/Tom71 is a major surface receptor of the translocase of the outer membrane complex for mitochondrial preproteins. The preproteins are escorted to Tom70/Tom71 by molecular chaperones Hsp70 and Hsp90. Here we present the high resolution crystal structures of Tom71 and the protein complexes between Tom71 and the Hsp70/Hsp90 C terminus. The crystal structures indicate that Tom70/Tom71 may exhibit two distinct states. In the closed state, the N-terminal domain of Tom70/Tom71 partially blocks the preprotein-binding pocket. In the open state, the N-terminal domain moves away, and the preprotein-binding pocket is fully exposed. The complex formation between the C-terminal EEVD motif of Hsp70/Hsp90 and Tom71 could lock Tom71 in the open state where the preprotein-binding pocket of Tom71 is ready to receive preproteins. The interactions between Hsp70/Hsp90 and Tom71 N-terminal domain generate conformational changes that may increase the volume of the preprotein-binding pocket. The complex formation of Hsp70/Hsp90 and Tom71 also generates significant domain rearrangement within Tom71, which may position the preprotein-binding pocket closer to Hsp70/Hsp90 to facilitate the preprotein transfer from the molecular chaperone to Tom71. Therefore, molecular chaperone Hsp70/Hsp90 may function to prepare the mitochondrial outer membrane receptor Tom71 for preprotein loading.

Li, Jingzhi; Qian, Xinguo; Hu, Junbin; Sha, Bingdong; (UAB)

2010-11-03

227

Electromagnetic deep-probing (100-1000 KMS) of the Earth's interior from artificial satellites: Constraints on the regional emplacement of crustal resources  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An algorithm was developed to address the problem of electromagnetic coupling of ionospheric current systems to both a homogeneous Earth having finite conductivity, and to an Earth having gross lateral variations in its conductivity structure, e.g., the ocean-land interface. Typical results from the model simulation for ionospheric currents flowing parallel to a representative geologic discontinuity are shown. Although the total magnetic field component at the satellite altitude is an order of magnitude smaller than at the Earth's surface (because of cancellation effects from the source current), the anomalous behavior of the satellite observations as the vehicle passes over the geologic contact is relatively more important pronounced. The results discriminate among gross lithospheric structures because of difference in electrical conductivity.

Hermance, J. F. (principal investigator)

1981-01-01

228

Bridging the Gap: Physics in the Plays of Tom Stoppard  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The idea of a communication gap between the sciences and the arts is persistent in academia. To help bridge this gap, I created an Honors course that attempts to make connections between physics and drama: Physics in the Plays of Tom Stoppard. Three of Stoppard's plays explicitly incorporate physics into their plots. The topics included in the plays span the syllabus of a typical conceptual physics course, from Galileo's experiments with freely falling balls to quantum indeterminacy. A descriptive physics text is used along with the plays to supply the necessary background and continuity. The structure of the course, and student reactions, are described.

Carroll, Bradley

2010-10-01

229

Probes, Exploration and Application  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson examines some of the benefits of the space program to our life on Earth. The activities introduce students to what probes are, how they are designed, what they do, and how they provide information about surfaces without allowing us to actually see it (remote sensing).

230

The protein import pore Tom40 in the microsporidian Nosema bombycis.  

PubMed

Microsporidia, an unusual group of unicellular parasites related to fungi, possess a highly reduced mitochondrion known as the mitosome. Since mitosomes lack an organellar genome, their proteins must be translated in the cytosol before being imported into the mitosome via translocases. We have identified a Tom40 gene (NbTom40), the main component of the translocase of the outer mitochondrial membrane, in the genome of the microsporidian Nosema bombycis. NbTom40 is reduced in size, but it is predicted to form a ?-barrel structure composed of 19 ?-strands. Phylogenetic analysis confirms that NbTom40 forms a clade with Tom40 sequences from other species, distinct from a related clade of voltage-dependent anion channels (VDACs). The NbTom40 contains a ?-signal motif that the polar residue is substituted by glycine. Furthermore, we show that expression of NbTom40, as a GFP fusion protein within yeast cells, directs GFP to mitochondria of yeast. These findings suggest that NbTom40 may serve as an import channel of the microsporidian mitosome and facilitate protein translocation into this organelle. PMID:22486892

Lin, Lipeng; Pan, Guoqing; Li, Tian; Dang, Xiaoqun; Deng, Yuanhong; Ma, Cheng; Chen, Jie; Luo, Jie; Zhou, Zeyang

2012-01-01

231

Tom Hoff, Clean Power Research Richard Perez, State University of New York at Albany  

E-print Network

Tom Hoff, Clean Power Research Richard Perez, State University of New York at Albany JP Ross, Sungevity Mike Taylor, Solar Electric Power Association May 2008 PHOTOVOLTAIC CAPACITY VALUATION METHODS University of New York ­ Albany and by the Solar Electric Power Association. We wish to thank Tom Hansen

Perez, Richard R.

232

Has Tom Peters lost the plot? A timely review of a celebrated management guru  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper has been timed to coincide with the 25th anniversary of the publication of In Search of Excellence. Observing this anniversary, the paper aims to offer a critical review of the works of Tom Peters – a man vaunted as the guru of management. Reviewers have observed that Tom Peters' narratives of business build and depend upon

David Collins

2008-01-01

233

TOMS Data Showing the Ozone Hole over Antarctica (8-20-92 - 10-19-92)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

TOMS Ozone over Antarctica from 8-20-92 to 10-19-92. The ozone hole is indicated in shades of blue. The missing data region over the south pole is due to the inability of the TOMS instrument to measure data during the polar night.

Allen, Jesse; Schoeberl, Mark

1999-04-09

234

Exploring Hierarchical User Feedback in Email Clustering Yifen Huang and Tom M. Mitchell  

E-print Network

Exploring Hierarchical User Feedback in Email Clustering Yifen Huang and Tom M. Mitchell Carnegie Mellon University 5000 Forbes Ave Pittsburgh, PA 15217, USA {hyifen, tom.mitchell}@cs.cmu.edu Abstract) de- termining types of feedback that users will find natural to provide, (b) developing hierarchical

Mitchell, Tom

235

74 Scientific American, April 2011 Illustration by Tom Whalen Earthquake early-warning networks  

E-print Network

74 Scientific American, April 2011 Illustration by Tom Whalen SEISMOLOGY Earthquake early earthquake early- warning system that could be extended to all of California. April 2011, ScientificAmerican.com 75 #12;76 Scientific American, April 2011 Illustrations by Emily Cooper and Tom Whalen (icons) Over

Allen, Richard M.

236

The TOM complex is involved in the release of superoxide anion from mitochondria.  

PubMed

Available data indicate that superoxide anion (O(2)(*-) ) is released from mitochondria, but apart from VDAC (voltage dependent anion channel), the proteins involved in its transport across the mitochondrial outer membrane still remain elusive. Using mitochondria of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutant depleted of VDAC (Deltapor1 mutant) and the isogenic wild type, we studied the role of the TOM complex (translocase of the outer membrane) in the efflux of O(2)(*-) from the mitochondria. We found that blocking the TOM complex with the fusion protein pb(2)-DHFR decreased O(2)(*-) release, particularly in the case of Deltapor1 mitochondria. We also observed that the effect of the TOM complex blockage on O(2)(*-) release from mitochondria coincided with the levels of O(2)(*-) release as well as with levels of Tom40 expression in the mitochondria. Thus, we conclude that the TOM complex participates in O(2)(*-) release from mitochondria. PMID:19690949

Budzi?ska, Ma?gorzata; Ga?ga?ska, Hanna; Karachitos, Andonis; Wojtkowska, Ma?gorzata; Kmita, Hanna

2009-08-01

237

Tom, a new aromatic degradative plasmid from Burkholderia (Pseudomonas) cepacia G4  

SciTech Connect

Burkholderia (Pseudomonas) cepacia PR1{sub 23} has been shown to constitutively express a toluene catabolic pathway distinguished by a unique toluene ortho-monooxygenase (Tom). This strain has also been shown to contain two extrachromosomal elements of <70 and> 100 kb. A derivative strain cured of the largest plasmid, PR1{sub 23} Cure, was unable to grow on phenol or toluene as the sole source of carbon and energy, which requires expression of the Tom pathway. Transfer of the larger plasmid from strain G4 J(the parent strain inducible for Tom) enabled PR1{sub 23} Cure to grow on toluene or phenol via inducible Tom pathway expression. Conjugal transfer of TOM{sub 23c} from PR1{sub 23} to an antibiotic-resistant derivative of PR1{sub 23} Cure enabled the transconjugant to grow with either phenol or toluene as the sole source of carbon and energy through constitutive expression of the Tom pathway. A cloned 11.2-kb EcoRI restriction fragment of Tom{sub 23c} resulted in the expression of both Tom and catechol 2,3-dioxygenase in Escherichia coli, as evidenced by its ability to oxidize trichloroethylene, toluene, m-cresol, o-cresol, phenol, and catechol. The largest resident plasmid of PR1 was identified as the source of these genes by DNA hybridization. These results indicate that the genes which encode Tom and catechol 2,3-dioxygenase are located on TOM, an approximately 108-kb degradative plasmid of B. cepacia G4. 35 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

Shields, M.S.; Reagin, J.J.; Campbell, R. [Univ. of West Florida, Pensacola, FL (United States)] [and others

1995-04-01

238

Identification and characterization of a new tom40 isoform, a central component of mitochondrial outer membrane translocase.  

PubMed

Newly synthesized precursors are transported into mitochondria through an outer membrane translocase, TOM. Tom40, a central pore-forming component, interacts directly with precursors to help them translocate across the outer membrane. We identified a new isoform of rat Tom40, Tom40B, which is conserved among mammals and exhibits significant similarities to Tom40 in other eukaryotes. Tom40B is an integral protein localized on the mitochondrial outer membrane, and expressed widely in all tissues examined except testis. Deletion mutant analysis revealed that the 28 amino acid residues at the carboxyl terminus were crucial for the mitochondrial targeting of Tom40B. Tom40B co-precipitated with other Tom components and formed a large protein complex. Furthermore, Tom40B directly bound to precursors of the matrix-targeted proteins with high affinities, comparable to those of Tom40A, a previously identified isoform. These findings indicate that Tom40B is a functional component of mitochondrial outer membrane translocase. PMID:17437969

Kinoshita, Jun-Ya; Mihara, Katsuyoshi; Oka, Toshihiko

2007-06-01

239

User's guide for SBUV/TOMS ozone derivative products  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A series of products are available derived from the total-ozone and ozone vertical profile results for the Solar Backscattered Ultraviolet/Total-Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (SBUV/TOMS) Nimbus-7 operation. Products available are (1) orbital height-latitude cross sections of the SBUV profile data, (2) daily global total ozone contours in polar coordinates, (3) daily averages of total ozone in global 5x5 degree latitude-longitude grid, (4) daily, monthly and quarterly averages of total ozone and profile data in 10 degree latitude zones, (5) tabular presentation of zonal means, (6) daily global total ozone and profile contours in polar coordinates. The ""Derivative Products User's Guide'' describes each of these products in detail, including their derivation and presentation format. Information is provided on how to order the tapes and microfilm from the National Space Science Data Center.

Fleig, A. J.; Wellemeyer, C.; Oslik, N.; Lee, D.; Miller, J.; Magatani, R.

1984-01-01

240

Preliminary Results from an Assimilation of Saharan Dust Using TOMS Radiances and the GOCART Model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

At NASA Goddard we are developing a global aerosol data assimilation system that combines advances in remote sensing and modeling of atmospheric aerosols. The goal is to provide high resolution, 3-D aerosol distributions to the research community. Our first step is to develop a simple assimilation system for Saharan mineral aerosol. The Goddard Chemistry and Aerosol Radiation model (GOCART) provides accurate 3-D mineral aerosol size distributions. Surface mobilization, wet and dry deposition, convective and long-range transport are all driven by assimilated fields from the Goddard Earth Observing System Data Assimilation System, GEOS-DAS. Our version of GOCART transports sizes from .08-10 microns and only simulates Saharan dust. We draw the assimilation to two observables in this study: the TOMS aerosol index (Al) which is directly related to the ratio of the 340 and 380 radiances and the 380 radiance alone. The forward model that simulates the observables requires the aerosol optical thickness, the single scattering albedo and the height of the aerosol layer from the GOCART fields. The forward model also requires a refractive index for the dust. We test three index values to see which best fits the TOMS observables. These are 1) for Saharan dust reported by Patterson, 2) for a mixture of Saharan dust and a highly reflective material (sea salt or sulfate) and 3) for pure illite. The assimilation works best assuming either pure illite or the dust mixture. Our assimilation cycle first determines values of the aerosol index (Al) and the radiance at 380 nm based on the GOCART aerosol fields. Differences between the observed and GOCART model calculated Al and 380 nm radiance are first analyzed horizontally using the Physical-space Statistical Analysis System (PSAS). A quasi-Newton iteration is then performed to produce analyzed 3D aerosol fields according to parameterized background and observation error covariances. We only assimilate observations into the the GOCART model over regions of Africa and the Atlantic where mineral aerosols are dominant and carbonaceous aerosols are minimal.

Weaver, C. J.; daSilva, Arlindo; Ginoux, Paul; Torres, Omar; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

241

Biogenesis of the preprotein translocase of the outer mitochondrial membrane: protein kinase A phosphorylates the precursor of Tom40 and impairs its import.  

PubMed

The preprotein translocase of the outer mitochondrial membrane (TOM) functions as the main entry gate for the import of nuclear-encoded proteins into mitochondria. The major subunits of the TOM complex are the three receptors Tom20, Tom22, and Tom70 and the central channel-forming protein Tom40. Cytosolic kinases have been shown to regulate the biogenesis and activity of the Tom receptors. Casein kinase 2 stimulates the biogenesis of Tom22 and Tom20, whereas protein kinase A (PKA) impairs the receptor function of Tom70. Here we report that PKA exerts an inhibitory effect on the biogenesis of the ?-barrel protein Tom40. Tom40 is synthesized as precursor on cytosolic ribosomes and subsequently imported into mitochondria. We show that PKA phosphorylates the precursor of Tom40. The phosphorylated Tom40 precursor is impaired in import into mitochondria, whereas the nonphosphorylated precursor is efficiently imported. We conclude that PKA plays a dual role in the regulation of the TOM complex. Phosphorylation by PKA not only impairs the receptor activity of Tom70, but it also inhibits the biogenesis of the channel protein Tom40. PMID:22419819

Rao, Sanjana; Schmidt, Oliver; Harbauer, Angelika B; Schönfisch, Birgit; Guiard, Bernard; Pfanner, Nikolaus; Meisinger, Chris

2012-05-01

242

Quality of the rare earth aluminum borate crystals for laser applications, probed by high-resolution spectroscopy of the Yb3+ ion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A comparative study was performed of the low-temperature high-resolution absorption spectra of the Yb3+ probe in R1-xYbxAl3(BO3)4 (R = Y, Tm, Lu) crystals grown by flux technique independently in four different laboratories using different solvents. We show that the incorporation of solvent components into the crystal in the course of crystallization gives rise to spectral satellites of the Yb3+ 0(2F7/2) ? 0'(2F5/2) absorption lines and assign particular satellites to the Yb3+ centers near the bismuth and molybdenum impurities (which decrease the transparency of YAB in the UV spectral range). We suggest this spectroscopic method for a rapid analysis of the quality of UV laser crystals and for improvement of growth technologies.

Boldyrev, K. N.; Popova, M. N.; Bettinelli, M.; Temerov, V. L.; Gudim, I. A.; Bezmaternykh, L. N.; Loiseau, P.; Aka, G.; Leonyuk, N. I.

2012-09-01

243

Contributions of Nimbus 7 TOMS Data to Volcanic Study and Hazard Mitigation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nimbus TOMS data have led to advancements among many volcano-related scientific disciplines, from the initial ability to quantify SO2 clouds leading to derivations of eruptive S budgets and fluxes, to tracking of individual clouds, assessing global volcanism and atmospheric impacts. Some of the major aspects of TOMS-related research, listed below, will be reviewed and updated: (1) Measurement of volcanic SO2 clouds: Nimbus TOMS observed over 100 individual SO2 clouds during its mission lifetime; large explosive eruptions are now routinely and reliably measured by satellite. (2) Eruption processes: quantification of SO2 emissions have allowed assessments of eruption sulfur budgets, the evaluation of "excess" sulfur, and inferences of H2S emissions. (3) Detection of ash: TOMS data are now used to detect volcanic particulates in the atmosphere, providing complementary analyses to infrared methods of detection. Paired TOMS and AVHRR studies have provided invaluable information on volcanic cloud compositions and processes. (4) Cloud tracking and hazard mitigation: volcanic clouds can be considered gigantic tracers in the atmosphere, and studies of the fates of these clouds have led to new knowledge of their physical and chemical dispersion in the atmosphere for predictive models. (5) Global trends: the long term data set has provided researchers an unparalleled record of explosive volcanism, and forms a key component in assessing annual to decadal trends in global S emissions. (6) Atmospheric impacts: TOMS data have been linked to independent records of atmospheric change, in order to compare cause and effect processes following a massive injection of SO2 into the atmosphere. (7) Future TOMS instruments and applications: Nimbus TOMS has given way to new satellite platforms, with several wavelength and resolution modifications. New efforts to launch a geostationary TOMS could provide unprecedented observations of volcanic activity.

Krueger, Arlin J.; Bluth, G. J. S.; Schaefer, S. A.

1998-01-01

244

Molecular Probes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Supported commercially by Molecular Probes, this site provides an overview of molecular probe technology as well as a searchable bibliography, a list of related literature, and an outstanding photo gallery with examples of probe applications. The Gallery contains 22 different categories, from Actin and Tubulin Probes to Yeast and Other Fungi Stains, with several images provided for each category. A help link provides tips on using some of the probes and stains, a list of FAQs, and a list of more general technical questions related to probe technology.

1998-01-01

245

Mitochondrial protein sorting: differentiation of beta-barrel assembly by Tom7-mediated segregation of Mdm10.  

PubMed

The mitochondrial outer membrane contains two distinct machineries for protein import and protein sorting that function in a sequential manner: the general translocase of the outer membrane (TOM complex) and the sorting and assembly machinery (SAM complex), which is dedicated to beta-barrel proteins. The SAM(core) complex consists of three subunits, Sam35, Sam37, and Sam50, that can associate with a fourth subunit, the morphology component Mdm10, to form the SAM(holo) complex. Whereas the SAM(core) complex is required for the biogenesis of all beta-barrel proteins, Mdm10 and the SAM(holo) complex play a selective role in beta-barrel biogenesis by promoting assembly of Tom40 but not of porin. We report that Tom7, a conserved subunit of the TOM complex, functions in an antagonistic manner to Mdm10 in biogenesis of Tom40 and porin. We show that Tom7 promotes segregation of Mdm10 from the SAM(holo) complex into a low molecular mass form. Upon deletion of Tom7, the fraction of Mdm10 in the SAM(holo) complex is significantly increased, explaining the opposing functions of Tom7 and Mdm10 in beta-barrel sorting. Thus the role of Tom7 is not limited to the TOM complex. Tom7 functions in mitochondrial protein biogenesis by a new mechanism, segregation of a sorting component, leading to a differentiation of beta-barrel assembly. PMID:16760475

Meisinger, Chris; Wiedemann, Nils; Rissler, Michael; Strub, Andreas; Milenkovic, Dusanka; Schönfisch, Birgit; Müller, Hanne; Kozjak, Vera; Pfanner, Nikolaus

2006-08-11

246

Spectrophotometric probe  

DOEpatents

A support structure bearing at least one probe for making spectrophotometric measurements of a fluid using a source of light and a spectrophotometer. The probe includes a housing with two optical fibers and a planoconvex lens. A sleeve bearing a mirror surrounds the housing. The lens is separated from the mirror by a fixed distance, defining an interior space for receiving a volume of the fluid sample. A plurality of throughholes extending through the sleeve communicate between the sample volume and the exterior of the probe, all but one hole bearing a screen. A protective jacket surrounds the probe. A hollow conduit bearing a tube is formed in the wall of the probe for venting any air in the interior space when fluid enters. The probe is held at an acute angle so the optic fibers carrying the light to and from the probe are not bent severely on emergence from the probe.

Prather, William S. (Augusta, GA); O'Rourke, Patrick E. (Martinez, GA)

1994-01-01

247

33 CFR 80.170 - Sandy Hook, NJ to Tom's River, NJ.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Atlantic Coast § 80.170 Sandy Hook, NJ to Tom's River, NJ. (a) A line drawn from Shark River Inlet North Breakwater Light 2 to Shark River Inlet South Breakwater Light 1. (b) A line drawn from Manasquan Inlet North...

2012-07-01

248

33 CFR 80.170 - Sandy Hook, NJ to Tom's River, NJ.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Atlantic Coast § 80.170 Sandy Hook, NJ to Tom's River, NJ. (a) A line drawn from Shark River Inlet North Breakwater Light 2 to Shark River Inlet South Breakwater Light 1. (b) A line drawn from Manasquan Inlet North...

2011-07-01

249

33 CFR 80.170 - Sandy Hook, NJ to Tom's River, NJ.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Atlantic Coast § 80.170 Sandy Hook, NJ to Tom's River, NJ. (a) A line drawn from Shark River Inlet North Breakwater Light 2 to Shark River Inlet South Breakwater Light 1. (b) A line drawn from Manasquan Inlet North...

2013-07-01

250

Lateral release of proteins from the TOM complex into the outer membrane of mitochondria  

PubMed Central

The TOM complex of the outer membrane of mitochondria is the entry gate for the vast majority of precursor proteins that are imported into the mitochondria. It is made up by receptors and a protein conducting channel. Although precursor proteins of all subcompartments of mitochondria use the TOM complex, it is not known whether its channel can only mediate passage across the outer membrane or also lateral release into the outer membrane. To study this, we have generated fusion proteins of GFP and Tim23 which are inserted into the inner membrane and, at the same time, are spanning either the TOM complex or are integrated into the outer membrane. Our results demonstrate that the TOM complex, depending on sequence determinants in the precursors, can act both as a protein conducting pore and as an insertase mediating lateral release into the outer membrane. PMID:21765393

Harner, Max; Neupert, Walter; Deponte, Marcel

2011-01-01

251

33 CFR 80.170 - Sandy Hook, NJ to Tom's River, NJ.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Atlantic Coast § 80.170 Sandy Hook, NJ to Tom's River, NJ. (a) A line drawn from Shark River Inlet North Breakwater Light 2 to Shark River Inlet South Breakwater Light 1. (b) A line drawn from Manasquan Inlet North...

2010-07-01

252

The Relativistic Electron-Proton Telescope (REPT) Instrument on Board the Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP) Spacecraft: Characterization of Earth's Radiation Belt High-Energy Particle Populations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Particle acceleration and loss in the million electron Volt (MeV) energy range (and above) is the least understood aspect of radiation belt science. In order to measure cleanly and separately both the energetic electron and energetic proton components, there is a need for a carefully designed detector system. The Relativistic Electron-Proton Telescope (REPT) on board the Radiation Belt Storm Probe (RBSP) pair of spacecraft consists of a stack of high-performance silicon solid-state detectors in a telescope configuration, a collimation aperture, and a thick case surrounding the detector stack to shield the sensors from penetrating radiation and bremsstrahlung. The instrument points perpendicular to the spin axis of the spacecraft and measures high-energy electrons (up to ˜20 MeV) with excellent sensitivity and also measures magnetospheric and solar protons to energies well above E=100 MeV. The instrument has a large geometric factor ( g=0.2 cm2 sr) to get reasonable count rates (above background) at the higher energies and yet will not saturate at the lower energy ranges. There must be fast enough electronics to avert undue dead-time limitations and chance coincidence effects. The key goal for the REPT design is to measure the directional electron intensities (in the range 10-2-106 particles/cm2 s sr MeV) and energy spectra (? E/ E˜25 %) throughout the slot and outer radiation belt region. Present simulations and detailed laboratory calibrations show that an excellent design has been attained for the RBSP needs. We describe the engineering design, operational approaches, science objectives, and planned data products for REPT.

Baker, D. N.; Kanekal, S. G.; Hoxie, V. C.; Batiste, S.; Bolton, M.; Li, X.; Elkington, S. R.; Monk, S.; Reukauf, R.; Steg, S.; Westfall, J.; Belting, C.; Bolton, B.; Braun, D.; Cervelli, B.; Hubbell, K.; Kien, M.; Knappmiller, S.; Wade, S.; Lamprecht, B.; Stevens, K.; Wallace, J.; Yehle, A.; Spence, H. E.; Friedel, R.

2013-11-01

253

Gravity Probe B Inspection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The space vehicle Gravity Probe B (GP-B) is the relativity experiment developed at Stanford University to test two extraordinary predictions of Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity. The experiment will measure, very precisely, the expected tiny changes in the direction of the spin axes of four gyroscopes contained in an Earth-orbiting satellite at a 400-mile altitude. So free are the gyroscopes from disturbance that they will provide an almost perfect space-time reference system. They will measure how space and time are very slightly warped by the presence of the Earth, and, more profoundly, how the Earth's rotation very slightly drags space-time around with it. These effects, though small for the Earth, have far-reaching implications for the nature of matter and the structure of the Universe. GP-B is among the most thoroughly researched programs ever undertaken by NASA. This is the story of a scientific quest in which physicists and engineers have collaborated closely over many years. Inspired by their quest, they have invented a whole range of technologies that are already enlivening other branches of science and engineering. In this photograph, engineer Gary Reynolds is inspecting the inside of the probe neck during probe thermal repairs. GP-B is scheduled for launch in April 2004 and managed for NASA by the Marshall Space Flight Center. Development of the GP-B is the responsibility of Stanford University along with major subcontractor Lockheed Martin Corporation. (Image credit to Russ Leese, Gravity Probe B, Stanford University)

2000-01-01

254

Seasonal and interannual variability of Asian desert aerosols from Nimbus 7\\/TOMS data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seasonal and interannual variability of Asian desert aerosols are observed using Nimbus 7\\/Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) aerosol index for the years 1979-1993. It is assumed that dust aerosols can be observed if the TOMS aerosol index (AI) is greater than 1.0. According to the monthly mean from 1979 to 1993, dust aerosols originating from the arid deserts of Mongolia

Hyo-Suk Lim; Gi-Hyuk Choi

2002-01-01

255

Novel TPR-containing subunit of TOM complex functions as cytosolic receptor for Entamoeba mitosomal transport.  

PubMed

Under anaerobic environments, the mitochondria have undergone remarkable reduction and transformation into highly reduced structures, referred as mitochondrion-related organelles (MROs), which include mitosomes and hydrogenosomes. In agreement with the concept of reductive evolution, mitosomes of Entamoeba histolytica lack most of the components of the TOM (translocase of the outer mitochondrial membrane) complex, which is required for the targeting and membrane translocation of preproteins into the canonical aerobic mitochondria. Here we showed, in E. histolytica mitosomes, the presence of a 600-kDa TOM complex composed of Tom40, a conserved pore-forming subunit, and Tom60, a novel lineage-specific receptor protein. Tom60, containing multiple tetratricopeptide repeats, is localized to the mitosomal outer membrane and the cytosol, and serves as a receptor of both mitosomal matrix and membrane preproteins. Our data indicate that Entamoeba has invented a novel lineage-specific shuttle receptor of the TOM complex as a consequence of adaptation to an anaerobic environment. PMID:23350036

Makiuchi, Takashi; Mi-ichi, Fumika; Nakada-Tsukui, Kumiko; Nozaki, Tomoyoshi

2013-01-01

256

Novel TPR-containing subunit of TOM complex functions as cytosolic receptor for Entamoeba mitosomal transport  

PubMed Central

Under anaerobic environments, the mitochondria have undergone remarkable reduction and transformation into highly reduced structures, referred as mitochondrion-related organelles (MROs), which include mitosomes and hydrogenosomes. In agreement with the concept of reductive evolution, mitosomes of Entamoeba histolytica lack most of the components of the TOM (translocase of the outer mitochondrial membrane) complex, which is required for the targeting and membrane translocation of preproteins into the canonical aerobic mitochondria. Here we showed, in E. histolytica mitosomes, the presence of a 600-kDa TOM complex composed of Tom40, a conserved pore-forming subunit, and Tom60, a novel lineage-specific receptor protein. Tom60, containing multiple tetratricopeptide repeats, is localized to the mitosomal outer membrane and the cytosol, and serves as a receptor of both mitosomal matrix and membrane preproteins. Our data indicate that Entamoeba has invented a novel lineage-specific shuttle receptor of the TOM complex as a consequence of adaptation to an anaerobic environment. PMID:23350036

Makiuchi, Takashi; Mi-ichi, Fumika; Nakada-Tsukui, Kumiko; Nozaki, Tomoyoshi

2013-01-01

257

Radiation belt probes launched  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Storms on Earth delayed by only a few days the launch of NASA's Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP), which blasted off on 30 August for a 2-year tour to explore the Van Allen radiation belts. The two satellites will help scientists learn about the processes that affect electrons and ions in the donut-shaped belts and how the belts change in the context of geomagnetic storms. “The information collected from these probes will benefit the public by allowing us to better protect our satellites and understand how space weather affects communications and technology on Earth,” said John Grunsfeld, associate administrator for NASA's Science Mission Directorate. Each probe carries an identical suite of instruments, including an Energetic Particle, Composition, and Thermal Plasma Suite; Electric and Magnetic Field Instrument Suite and Integrated Science; Electric Field and Waves Suite; Radiation Belt Storm Probes Ion Composition Experiment; and Relativistic Proton Spectrometer. RBSP is part of NASA's Living With a Star program and is managed for NASA by the Johns Hopkins University's Applied Physics Laboratory. For more information, see http://rbsp.jhuapl.edu.

Showstack, Randy

2012-09-01

258

Bcl-2 and porin follow different pathways of TOM-dependent insertion into the mitochondrial outer membrane.  

PubMed

The bcl-2 gene encodes a 26kDa protein which functions as a central regulator of apoptosis. Here we investigated the pathway of Bcl-2alpha into the mitochondrial outer membrane using the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model organism. We found that interactions of Bcl-2alpha with the mitochondrial import receptor Tom20 are dependent on two positively charged lysine residues in the immediate vicinity of the carboxy-terminal hydrophobic membrane anchor. The targeting function of these residues is independent of Tom22. Subsequent insertion of Bcl-2alpha into the mitochondrial outer membrane does not require Tom5 or Tom40, indicating that Bcl-2alpha bypasses the general import pore (GIP). Bcl-2alpha shows a unique pattern of interactions with the components of the mitochondrial TOM complex, demonstrating that at least two different pathways lead from the import receptor Tom20 into the mitochondrial outer membrane. PMID:12419260

Motz, Christian; Martin, Heiko; Krimmer, Thomas; Rassow, Joachim

2002-11-01

259

Prevention of the ischemia-induced decrease in mitochondrial Tom20 content by ischemic preconditioning.  

PubMed

Preserved mitochondrial function (respiration, calcium handling) and integrity (cytochrome c release) is central for cell survival following ischemia/reperfusion. Mitochondrial function also requires import of proteins from the cytosol via the translocase of the outer and inner membrane (TOM and TIM complexes). Since mitochondrial function following ischemia/reperfusion is better preserved by ischemic preconditioning (IP), we now investigated whether expression of parts of the import machinery is affected by ischemia/reperfusion without or with IP in vivo. We analyzed the mitochondrial content of the presequence receptor Tom20, the pore forming unit Tom40 and Tim23. Goettinger minipigs were subjected to 90 min of low-flow ischemia without or with preconditioning by 10 min ischemia and 15 min reperfusion. Mitochondria were isolated from the ischemic or preconditioned anterior wall of the left ventricle and from the control posterior wall. Infarct size was significantly reduced by IP (20.1 +/- 1.6% of area at risk (non-preconditioned) vs. 6.5 +/- 2.5% of area at risk (IP)). Using Western blot analysis, the ratio of Tom20 (normalized to Ponceau S) between mitochondria isolated from the anterior ischemic and posterior control wall was reduced (0.72 +/- 0.11, a.u., n = 8), whereas the mitochondrial Tom20 content was preserved by IP (1.17 +/- 0.16 a.u., n = 7, P < 0.05). The mitochondrial Tom40, Tim23 and adenine nucleotide transporter (ANT) contents were not significantly different between non-preconditioned and preconditioned myocardium. The preservation of the mitochondrial Tom20 protein level may contribute to the improved mitochondrial function after IP. PMID:16828795

Boengler, Kerstin; Gres, Petra; Cabestrero, Alberto; Ruiz-Meana, Marisol; Garcia-Dorado, David; Heusch, Gerd; Schulz, Rainer

2006-09-01

260

Huygens probe on target  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In October 1997, a Titan/Centaur rocket lifting-off from Cape Canaveral will boost the spacecraft into a 6.7 year trajectory to reach Saturn. The trajectory will use two swing-bys of Venus in April 1998 and June 1999, followed by an Earth swing-by in August 1999 and a Jupiter swing-by in December 2000 to boost speed and reach Saturn in July 2004. A few months after going into orbit around Saturn, the Cassini spacecraft will release the Huygens probe for its descent through the atmosphere of Titan, the largest satellite of Saturn. The Huygens probe will measure the abundance of elements and compounds in Titan's atmosphere, the distribution of trace gases and aerosols, winds, temperature, pressure and surface state and its composition. A multi-spectral camera on the probe will provide images of the landscape of Titan. Titan is a unique planetary body in the solar system. It has an atmosphere which is primarily nitrogen. but is also rich in hydrocarbons. Due to the vast distance of the Saturnian system from the Sun, this atmosphere is at a very low temperature, thus greatly slowing down all the chemical processes. A study of this atmosphere will throw light on the development of our own atmosphere and contribute to our understanding of the origins of life on Earth. The Huygens probe is being developed by ESA with Aerospatiale (F) as the industrial prime contractor. Since the start of the programme in April 1990, very good progress has been made in design and hardware development. The entry into the Titan atmosphere will result in a very high surface temperature on the probe, generated as it decelerates due to the friction of the upper atmospheric layers. After the probe has slowed down sufficiently, a system of parachutes ensures a slow descent to the surface of Titan in approximately two and a half hours. The scientific measurements can only begin after the heat shield, which is needed to protect the probe during the high temperature entry phase, has been ejected. This occurs at an altitude of around 170 km above Titan's surface. In order to validate this complex sequence, a Balloon Drop Test was recently carried out on a full size model of the probe. The balloon carried the probe to an altitude of 36 km above the test range (ESRANGE) near Kiruna in Sweden. The probe was automatically released and all the descent control systems were operated. This test was completely successfully and the Descent Module was recovered on ground intact and functioning (pictures are available upon request). In addition, all the environmental testing has been carried out on another model to prove the structural and thermal integrity of the probe. The Structure Thermal and Pyro Model (SIAM) of the Huygens probe was delivered to NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) on 5 th July, 1995 for combined testing with the Cassini spacecraft. For the electrical systems, a special Engineering Model has been subjected to functional testing and the results to date are successful. This model will also be delivered to JPL for combined testing in the near future. Currently-, the Flight Model hardware is being delivered to Daimler Benz in Munich, by the industrial subcontractors, where integration of the Flight Probe will take place. "The design and the production of this complex system in a relatively short time of four years has proceeded very smoothly thanks to the motivation of the European space industry", said Huygens ESA Project Manager Hamid Hassan. The Flight Probe will be delivered to NASA/JPL in early 1997 for a launch of Cassini-Huygens on a Titan IV/Centaur rocket in October 1997.

1995-07-01

261

TOM40 Mediates Mitochondrial Dysfunction Induced by ?-Synuclein Accumulation in Parkinson's Disease  

PubMed Central

Alpha-synuclein (?-Syn) accumulation/aggregation and mitochondrial dysfunction play prominent roles in the pathology of Parkinson’s disease. We have previously shown that postmortem human dopaminergic neurons from PD brains accumulate high levels of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) deletions. We now addressed the question, whether alterations in a component of the mitochondrial import machinery -TOM40- might contribute to the mitochondrial dysfunction and damage in PD. For this purpose, we studied levels of TOM40, mtDNA deletions, oxidative damage, energy production, and complexes of the respiratory chain in brain homogenates as well as in single neurons, using laser-capture-microdissection in transgenic mice overexpressing human wildtype ?-Syn. Additionally, we used lentivirus-mediated stereotactic delivery of a component of this import machinery into mouse brain as a novel therapeutic strategy. We report here that TOM40 is significantly reduced in the brain of PD patients and in ?-Syn transgenic mice. TOM40 deficits were associated with increased mtDNA deletions and oxidative DNA damage, and with decreased energy production and altered levels of complex I proteins in ?-Syn transgenic mice. Lentiviral-mediated overexpression of Tom40 in ?-Syn-transgenic mice brains ameliorated energy deficits as well as oxidative burden. Our results suggest that alterations in the mitochondrial protein transport machinery might contribute to mitochondrial impairment in ?-Synucleinopathies. PMID:23626796

Rockenstein, Edward; Adame, Anthony; Elstner, Matthias; Laub, Christoph; Mueller, Sarina; Koob, Andrew O.; Mante, Michael; Pham, Emily; Klopstock, Thomas; Masliah, Eliezer

2013-01-01

262

TOM40 mediates mitochondrial dysfunction induced by ?-synuclein accumulation in Parkinson's disease.  

PubMed

Alpha-synuclein (?-Syn) accumulation/aggregation and mitochondrial dysfunction play prominent roles in the pathology of Parkinson's disease. We have previously shown that postmortem human dopaminergic neurons from PD brains accumulate high levels of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) deletions. We now addressed the question, whether alterations in a component of the mitochondrial import machinery--TOM40--might contribute to the mitochondrial dysfunction and damage in PD. For this purpose, we studied levels of TOM40, mtDNA deletions, oxidative damage, energy production, and complexes of the respiratory chain in brain homogenates as well as in single neurons, using laser-capture-microdissection in transgenic mice overexpressing human wildtype ?-Syn. Additionally, we used lentivirus-mediated stereotactic delivery of a component of this import machinery into mouse brain as a novel therapeutic strategy. We report here that TOM40 is significantly reduced in the brain of PD patients and in ?-Syn transgenic mice. TOM40 deficits were associated with increased mtDNA deletions and oxidative DNA damage, and with decreased energy production and altered levels of complex I proteins in ?-Syn transgenic mice. Lentiviral-mediated overexpression of Tom40 in ?-Syn-transgenic mice brains ameliorated energy deficits as well as oxidative burden. Our results suggest that alterations in the mitochondrial protein transport machinery might contribute to mitochondrial impairment in ?-Synucleinopathies. PMID:23626796

Bender, Andreas; Desplats, Paula; Spencer, Brian; Rockenstein, Edward; Adame, Anthony; Elstner, Matthias; Laub, Christoph; Mueller, Sarina; Koob, Andrew O; Mante, Michael; Pham, Emily; Klopstock, Thomas; Masliah, Eliezer

2013-01-01

263

Earth's Three  

E-print Network

Broadcast Transcript: From Mongolia, land of fermented mare's milk, comes this beguiling morsel of nomadic oral tradition. It's called yertonciin gorav or Earth's Three. Earth's three what? Well, Earth's three top things in a number of categories...

Hacker, Randi

2010-11-17

264

Earth's Atmosphere  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This problem set is about the methods scientists use to compare the abundance of the different elements in Earth's atmosphere. Answer key is provided. This is part of Earth Math: A Brief Mathematical Guide to Earth Science and Climate Change.

265

Earth Sciences Environmental Earth Sciences,  

E-print Network

84 Earth Sciences­ Environmental Earth Sciences, Geology MGeol (Single Honours Degrees) Earth Sciences BSc (Single Honours Degrees) Environmental Earth Sciences Geology BSc (Joint Honours Degrees Sciences offers BSc Honours degrees in Geology and Environmental Earth Sciences, and your degree choice

Brierley, Andrew

266

Earth Sciences Environmental Earth Sciences,  

E-print Network

94 Earth Sciences­ Environmental Earth Sciences, Geology Degree options MGeol (Single Honours Degrees) Earth Sciences BSc (Single Honours Degrees) Environmental Earth Sciences Geology BSc (Joint placement. * The Geology and Environmental Earth Sciences degrees are accredited by the Geological Society

Brierley, Andrew

267

Satellite Mapping of the Earth's Ozone and Sulfur Dioxide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) instruments are spatially-scanning UV spectrometers that have produced daily global images of total ozone over the last 21 years since the launch of the Nimbus 7 satellite. The instruments use a total ozone retrieval algorithm pioneered by J.V. Dave and C. L. Mateer for the Nimbus 4 Backscatter Ultraviolet (BUV) instrument, designed by D.F. Heath. The TOMS ozone maps have revealed the relations between total ozone and atmospheric dynamics, and shown the dramatic losses of ozone in the Antarctic ozone hole and the Northern hemisphere. The accepted long-term trends in global, regional, and local ozone are derived from data from the Nimbus 7 TOMS and three successive TOMS flights on Russian, Japanese, and American satellites. The next TOMS flight will be launched in 2000. The contiguous mapping design and fortuitous choice of TOMS wavelengths bands also permitted imaging of a second atmospheric gas, sulfur dioxide, which is transient due to its short lifetime. The importance of this measurement was first realized after the eruption of El Chichon volcano in 1982. The extreme range of sizes of volcanic eruptions and the 'associated danger require observations from a distant observing platform. The first quantitative time series of the input of sulfur dioxide by explosive volcanic eruptions into the atmosphere thus was developed from the TOMS missions. Finally, the Rayleigh and aerosol scattering spectral characteristic and reflectivity complete the four dominant pieces of information in the near UV albedo of the Earth. The four parameters are derived with a linear algorithm, the absorption coefficients of the gases, and effective paths computed from radiative transfer tables. Absorbing aerosol clouds (smoke, dust, volcanic ash) are readily identified by their deviation from a Rayleigh signature. The greatest shortcoming of the TOMS dataset is the 24 hour time resolution that is produced by the polar orbit of the satellite. Dynamic phenomena, such as upper air fronts that modulate total ozone and volcanic eruptions of sulfur dioxide and ash, cannot be adequately resolved. It is hoped that UV observations from geostationary satellites will soon be made to test the value of this unique information in weather forecasting and aviation safety.

Krueger, Arlin; Bhartia, P. K.

2000-01-01

268

Satellite Mapping of the Earth's Ozone and Sulfur Dioxide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) instruments are spatially-scanning UV spectrometers that have produced daily global images of total ozone over the last 21 years since the launch of the Nimbus 7 satellite. The instruments use a total ozone retrieval algorithm pioneered by J.V. Dave and C. L. Mateer for the Nimbus 4 Backscatter Ultraviolet (BUV) instrument, designed by D.F. Heath. The TOMS ozone maps have revealed the relations between total ozone and atmospheric dynamics, and shown the dramatic losses of ozone in the Antarctic ozone hole and the Northern hemisphere. The accepted long-term trends in global, regional, and local ozone are derived from data from the Nimbus 7 TOMS and three successive TOMS flights on Russian, Japanese, and American satellites. The next TOMS flight will be launched in 2000. The contiguous mapping design and fortuitous choice of TOMS wavelengths bands also permitted imaging of a second atmospheric gas, sulfur dioxide, which is transient due to its short lifetime. The importance of this measurement was first realized after the eruption of El Chichon volcano in 1982. The extreme range of sizes of volcanic eruptions and the associated danger require observations from a distant observing platform. The first quantitative time series of the input of sulfur dioxide by explosive volcanic eruptions into the atmosphere thus was developed from the TOMS missions. Finally, the Rayleigh and aerosol scattering spectral characteristic and reflectivity complete the four dominant pieces of information in the near UV albedo of the Earth. The four parameters are derived with a linear algorithm, the absorption coefficients of the gases, and effective paths computed from radiative transfer tables. Absorbing aerosol clouds (smoke, dust, volcanic ash) are readily identified by their deviation from a Rayleigh signature. The greatest shortcoming of the TOMS dataset is the 24 hour time resolution that is produced by the polar orbit of the satellite. Dynamic phenomena, such as upper air fronts that modulate total ozone and volcanic eruptions of sulfur dioxide and ash, cannot be adequately resolved. It is hoped that UV observations from geostationary satellites will soon be made to test the value of this unique information in weather forecasting and aviation safety.

Krueger, Arlin; Bhartia, P. K.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

269

Genome-wide analysis of intraspecific DNA polymorphism in 'Micro-Tom', a model cultivar of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum).  

PubMed

Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is regarded as a model plant of the Solanaceae family. The genome sequencing of the tomato cultivar 'Heinz 1706' was recently completed. To accelerate the progress of tomato genomics studies, systematic bioresources, such as mutagenized lines and full-length cDNA libraries, have been established for the cultivar 'Micro-Tom'. However, these resources cannot be utilized to their full potential without the completion of the genome sequencing of 'Micro-Tom'. We undertook the genome sequencing of 'Micro-Tom' and here report the identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and insertion/deletions (indels) between 'Micro-Tom' and 'Heinz 1706'. The analysis demonstrated the presence of 1.23 million SNPs and 0.19 million indels between the two cultivars. The density of SNPs and indels was high in chromosomes 2, 5 and 11, but was low in chromosomes 6, 8 and 10. Three known mutations of 'Micro-Tom' were localized on chromosomal regions where the density of SNPs and indels was low, which was consistent with the fact that these mutations were relatively new and introgressed into 'Micro-Tom' during the breeding of this cultivar. We also report SNP analysis for two 'Micro-Tom' varieties that have been maintained independently in Japan and France, both of which have served as standard lines for 'Micro-Tom' mutant collections. Approximately 28,000 SNPs were identified between these two 'Micro-Tom' lines. These results provide high-resolution DNA polymorphic information on 'Micro-Tom' and represent a valuable contribution to the 'Micro-Tom'-based genomics resources. PMID:24319074

Kobayashi, Masaaki; Nagasaki, Hideki; Garcia, Virginie; Just, Daniel; Bres, Cécile; Mauxion, Jean-Philippe; Le Paslier, Marie-Christine; Brunel, Dominique; Suda, Kunihiro; Minakuchi, Yohei; Toyoda, Atsushi; Fujiyama, Asao; Toyoshima, Hiromi; Suzuki, Takayuki; Igarashi, Kaori; Rothan, Christophe; Kaminuma, Eli; Nakamura, Yasukazu; Yano, Kentaro; Aoki, Koh

2014-02-01

270

Seven years of total ozone from the TOMS instrument - A report on data quality  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Seven years of TOMS total ozone data are currently available. Recently a new ozone retrieval algorithm based on improved ozone absorption cross section was implemented that has introduced 6-7 percent discontinuity in the archived data sets at the end of the fifth year of instrument operation. Until all data are reprocessed with the new algorithm users can use a table of correction factors given in this paper to make the data set internally consistent. This paper also presents a comparison of TOMS results with Amundsen Scott Dobson station. Though the agrement in most years is good, in 1983-84 the Dobson station reported unusually high values of ozone while TOMS saw the very low ozone values associated with the Antarctica ozone hole.

Fleig, Albert J.; Bhartia, Pawan K.; Wellemeyer, Charles G.; Silberstein, David S.

1986-01-01

271

Functional refolding and characterization of two Tom40 isoforms from human mitochondria.  

PubMed

Tom40 proteins represent an essential class of molecules which facilitate translocation of unfolded proteins from the cytosol into the mitochondrial intermembrane space. They are part of a high-molecular mass complex that forms the protein-conducting channel in outer mitochondrial membranes. This study concerns the recombinant expression, purification and folding of amino-terminally truncated variants of the two human Tom40 isoforms for structural biology experiments. Both CD and FTIR secondary structure analysis revealed a dominant beta-sheet structure and a short alpha-helical part for both proteins together with a high thermal stability. Two secondary structure elements can be denatured independently. Reconstitution of the recombinant protein into planar lipid bilayers demonstrated ion channel activity similar to Tom40 purified from Neurospora crassa mitochondrial membranes, but conductivity fingerprints differ from the structurally closely related VDAC proteins. PMID:21717124

Mager, Frauke; Gessmann, Dennis; Nussberger, Stephan; Zeth, Kornelius

2011-07-01

272

The 1989 Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition Nimbus-7 TOMS data atlas  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Over the past several years, world scientific attention was focused on the rapid and unanticipated decrease in the abundance of ozone over Antarctica during the Austral spring. A major aircraft campaign was conducted from December 1988 to February 1989 in response to the recently published Ozone Trends Panel Report which found that the largest decreases in Arctic ozone occurred during January to February at latitudes near the edge of the Arctic vortex. This atlas provides a complete set of TOMS ozone measurements over Europe and the North Atlantic for the duration of the experiment. These were the orbital TOMS measurements provided to the experimenters in near-real-time. In addition, a set of Northern Hemisphere TOMS ozone measurements for the period December 26, 1988 to March 20, 1989 is presented. A comparison of January and February 1989 mean ozone values to prior years is also presented.

Krueger, Arlin J.; Penn, Lanning M.; Larko, David E.; Doiron, Scott D.; Guimaraes, Patricia T.

1989-01-01

273

The effect of toe trimming on production characteristics of heavy turkey toms.  

PubMed

Trimming the 3 anterior toes on both feet at day of hatch to remove the claws, reduce bird scratching, and improve carcass grades is a common practice in the turkey industry. Changes in the method of trimming and the growth potential of turkeys since the majority of research on this topic was completed motivated this study with the objective of establishing the effects of microwave toe treatment on production characteristics of tom turkeys. Turkey toms (306 in total) were either toe trimmed at the hatchery using a microwave claw processor (T) or were sham treated only (NT). Poults were randomly assigned to 1 of 9 replicate pens for each treatment. Average BW, feed consumption, and feed efficiency were determined from BW and feed intake measured by pen on d 0, 7, 21, 42, 56, 70, 91, 126, and 140. On d 140, toms were sent to a commercial processing facility where 5 carcasses from each pen were examined for scratching and other externally visible damage. Average BW was higher for NT toms on d 91, 126, and 140, with final weights of 21.70 and 21.15 kg for NT and T birds, respectively. The T birds had lower feed consumption than their NT counterparts during the first and last week of production, but feed efficiency was unaffected. Carcass scratching (T, 13.33% of carcasses scratched vs. NT, 15.56%) and other carcass damages were not affected by treatment. Although overall mortality was not affected by treatment, the incidence of mortality due to skeletal causes, especially rotated tibia, was increased in T toms. Negative effects on performance and no effect on carcass quality suggest that toe trimming may not be required or recommended for heavy tom turkeys. PMID:25002552

Fournier, J; Schwean-Lardner, K; Knezacek, T D; Gomis, S; Classen, H L

2014-09-01

274

Estimation of 3-D Cloud Effects on TOMS Satellite Retrieval of Surface UV Irradiance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To improve surface UV irradiance retrieval from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) we simulate errors of the TOMS cloud correction algorithm for summertime broken cloud conditions. Cloud scenes (50 km by 50 km) are modeled by a normal random (Gaussian) field with a fixed lower boundary and conservative scattering. The model relates stochastic field characteristics with the cloud amount, mean cloud diameter and aspect ratio. Clouds are embedded into Rayleigh atmosphere with standard ozone profile. Radiative transfer calculations of the radiance at the top of the atmosphere and irradiance at the surface were performed using 3-D Monte Carlo (MC) code. The results are averaged over the satellite field of view on the surface (50 km by 50 km) and compared with TOMS predicted surface irradiance for the same scene reflectance. The TOMS algorithm assumes horizontally homogeneous Cl-type cloud between 3 km and 5.5 km. The effective optical depth is determined by fitting observed (MC) radiance at 380 nm. Having the same radiance at the satellite the homogeneous and broken cloud models predict different average irradiances at the surface. This is due to the differences in Bidirectional Reflection Distribution Function (BRDF) for homogeneous and broken cloud scenes with the same hemispherical albedo. For typical TOMS observational geometry at mid-latitudes the simulated single pixels errors may be as large as +/- 20%. Qualitatively these errors are due to the dominance of the non-horizontal cloud surfaces, which are not accounted for in the homogeneous cloud model. However, due to high variability of the real cloud shapes and types it is unclear how these single pixel errors would affect TOMS time-integrated UV exposure over extended periods (weeks to months) for different regions.

Krotkov, Nickolay A.; Geogdzhayev, I.; Herman, J. R.

1998-01-01

275

Probing the Proteome on Earth and Beyond  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Less than a decade ago, protein sequencing was the bane of paleobiology. Since that time researchers have completely sequenced proteins in >50 Ka fossils, been dazzled by reports of collagen peptides in dinosaur bones, and witnessed the development of phylogenetic trees from ancient protein sequences. Enlisting proteomics as biosignature is now in our grasp. In this talk the pitfalls and challenges of mass spectrometric approaches to protein sequencing will be illustrated and phylogenetic applications will be discussed. Work on extinct organisms at Michigan State University, University of Michigan and York University will provide a vantage point to assess methodologies, explore diagenetic alterations, evaluate mass spectra and illustrate issues associated with data base searching. Challenges encountered in the study of paleoproteomics, such as the absence of sequences for extinct organisms in commercially available databases, protein diagenesis and low concentrations of target are parallel to those that will be encountered when protein sequencing is extended to extreme and extraterrestrial environments. Thus, lessons learned from interrogating the ancient proteome are important and necessary step in developing proteomics as a biosignature tools.

Ostrom, P.

2008-12-01

276

Study of Air Pollution from Space Using TOMS: Challenges and Promises for Future Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A series of TOMS instruments built by NASA has flown on US, Russian, and Japanese satellites in the last 24 years. These instruments are well known for producing spectacular maps of the ozone hole that forms over Antarctica each spring. However, it is less well known that these instruments also provided first evidence that space-based measurements in UV of sufficiently high precision and accuracy can provide valuable information to study global air quality. We will use the TOMS experience to highlight the promises and challenges of future space-based missions designed specifically for air quality studies.

Bhartia, Pawan K.

2002-01-01

277

Effect of stratospheric aerosol layers on the TOMS/SBUV ozone retrieval  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An evaluation of the optical effects of stratospheric aerosol layers on total ozone retrieval from space by the TOMS/SBUV type instruments is presented here. Using the Dave radiative transfer model we estimate the magnitude of the errors in the retrieved ozone when polar stratospheric clouds (PSC's) or volcanic aerosol layers interfere with the measurements. The largest errors are produced by optically thick water ice PSC's. Results of simulation experiments on the effect of the Pinatubo aerosol cloud on the Nimbus-7 and Meteor-3 TOMS products are presented.

Torres, O.; Ahmad, Zia; Pan, L.; Herman, J. R.; Bhartia, P. K.; Mcpeters, R.

1994-01-01

278

Venus Transit Live on June 5 Experts, Karen Kinemuchi, Tom Barclay, Jonathan Cirtain, Renee Weber, Melissa McGrath and  

E-print Network

Venus Transit Live on June 5 Experts, Karen Kinemuchi, Tom Barclay, Jonathan Cirtain, Renee Weber _____________________________________________________________________________________ Moderator_Brooke: Welcome to the Venus Transit chat. The first portion of our chat focuses on the KeplerHunters group. Timothyjav: why will Venus seem to be so small? Tom: It's because relative to the Sun, Venus

279

Gravity Probe B: Testing Einstein's Universe  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Gravity Probe B is the relativity gyroscope experiment being developed by NASA and Stanford University to test two extraordinary, unverified predictions of Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity. The experiment will use changes in the direction of spin of four gyroscopes contained in an Earth satellite to measure how space and time are warped by the presence of the Earth, and, more profoundly, how the Earth's rotation drags spacetime around with it.

Everitt, C. W.

2003-10-10

280

Earth\\'s Surface  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

You have already learned about the four major parts of Earth\\'s system: atmosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere, and geosphere. Go to the following sites to learn more about rocks and minerals, continental drift, and geologic time. When you finish viewing all the sites, you will participate in a problem-based learning activity, \\"The Case of the Disappearing Dirt.\\" Topographic Maps All About Geology Answer the questions on the handout. Erosion and Weathering Summarize what your learned about erosion and weathering. Examine a landscape formed by erosion Observe the effects of mechanical weathering Plate Tectonics FAQ s About Rocks and Fossils Igneous Rocks Rocks and Minerals Slide Show Rock Cycle Observe an animation of metamorphic rocks forming Continental Drift Mineralogy 4 kids : rockin Internet site : the best place to learn about rocks and minerals Draw a picture of the rock cycle. Coasting Away ...

Mathis, Ms.

2008-01-11

281

'Spider' in Earth Orbit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

View of the Apollo 9 Lunar Module 'Spider' in a lunar landing configuration photographed by Command Module pilot David Scott inside the Command/Service Module 'Gumdrop' on the fifth day of the Apollo 9 earth-orbital mission. The landing gear on 'Spider' has been deployed. lunar surface probes (sensors) extend out from the landing gear foot pads. Inside the 'Spider' were astronauts James A. McDivitt, Apollo 9 Commander; and Russell L. Schweickart, Lunar Module pilot.

1969-01-01

282

Gravity Probe B Encapsulated  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this photo, the Gravity Probe B (GP-B) space vehicle is being encapsulated atop the Delta II launch vehicle. The GP-B is the relativity experiment developed at Stanford University to test two extraordinary predictions of Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity. The experiment will measure, very precisely, the expected tiny changes in the direction of the spin axes of four gyroscopes contained in an Earth-orbiting satellite at a 400-mile altitude. So free are the gyroscopes from disturbance that they will provide an almost perfect space-time reference system. They will measure how space and time are very slightly warped by the presence of the Earth, and, more profoundly, how the Earth's rotation very slightly drags space-time around with it. These effects, though small for the Earth, have far-reaching implications for the nature of matter and the structure of the Universe. GP-B is among the most thoroughly researched programs ever undertaken by NASA. This is the story of a scientific quest in which physicists and engineers have collaborated closely over many years. Inspired by their quest, they have invented a whole range of technologies that are already enlivening other branches of science and engineering. Launched April 20, 2004 , the GP-B program was managed for NASA by the Marshall Space Flight Center. Development of the GP-B is the responsibility of Stanford University along with major subcontractor Lockheed Martin Corporation. (Image credit to Russ Underwood, Lockheed Martin Corporation).

2004-01-01

283

Gibbs Construction in Steganography Toms Filler, Student Member, IEEE and Jessica Fridrich, Member, IEEE  

E-print Network

1 Gibbs Construction in Steganography Tomás Filler, Student Member, IEEE and Jessica Fridrich, Member, IEEE Abstract--We make a connection between steganography de- sign by minimizing embedding- duces the design of secure steganography in empirical covers to the problem of finding local potentials

Fridrich, Jessica

284

Removal of meterological synoptic-scale disturbances from TOMS total ozone fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is expected from theoretical considerations that synoptic-scale variations in total ozone should be correlated with the absolute vorticity field near the tropopause. A similar correlation is expected with potential vorticity on larger scale and comparisons between these two correlations can provide an insight into stratospheric dynamics. This paper uses TOMS total ozone fields and vorticity derived from ECMWF analyses

J. D. Price; A. Howells; G. Vaughan

1994-01-01

285

MT5759 L17 13/04/2011 Tom Kelsey 1  

E-print Network

is the state of the art? This talk focuses on Biomedical data Replace with Economics, Physics, ... Don" science Where do the hypotheses come from? New results New insights New technologies Lots of time for testing by "normal" scientists 13 April 2011 Tom Kelsey - MT5759 - L17 7 Examples Cross-species genomics

St Andrews, University of

286

Camus' Actor as Tom Stoppard's Player; A Key to Interpreting "Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Dead."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An examination of Albert Camus' definition of the actor in "The Myth on Sisyphus" helps to illuminate the character and role of The Player in Tom Stoppard's play and, hence, to bring light to an understanding of the philosophy of the play itself. The actor, for Camus, reveals our mortality in the face of the absurdity of our mortality, but also…

Zivanovic, Judith

287

On the design of the ECMAScript Reflection API TOM VAN CUTSEM, Vrije Universiteit Brussel  

E-print Network

A On the design of the ECMAScript Reflection API TOM VAN CUTSEM, Vrije Universiteit Brussel MARK S. MILLER, Google Research We describe in detail the new reflection API of the upcoming Javascript standard. The most prominent feature of this new API is its support for creating proxies: virtual objects that behave

Steels, Luc

288

Managing a Large Database of Camera Fingerprints Miroslav Goljan, Jessica Fridrich, Toms Filler  

E-print Network

Managing a Large Database of Camera Fingerprints Miroslav Goljan, Jessica Fridrich, Tomás Filler-6000 {mgoljan,fridrich,tfiller}@binghamton.edu ABSTRACT Sensor fingerprint is a unique noise-like pattern caused. The fingerprint can be used to prove that an image came from a specific digital camera. The presence of a camera

Fridrich, Jessica

289

Tom Beaver, Creek Television Reporter. With Teacher's Guide. Native Americans of the Twentieth Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A biography for elementary school students presents an account of an American Indian television reporter, Tom Beaver (Creek), and includes a map of Oklahoma showing the location of Indian tribes. A teacher's guide following the biography contains information about the Creek tribe and the history of television, learning objectives and directions…

Minneapolis Public Schools, MN.

290

Sensor Relocation in Mobile Sensor Networks Guiling Wang, Guohong Cao, Tom La Porta, and Wensheng Zhang  

E-print Network

Sensor Relocation in Mobile Sensor Networks Guiling Wang, Guohong Cao, Tom La Porta, and Wensheng of research on using mobility in sensor networks to assist in the initial deployment of nodes. Mobile sensors. This paper explores the motion capability to relocate sensors to deal with sensor failure or respond to new

Zhang, Wensheng

291

Software Documents: Comparison and Measurement Tom Arbuckle, Adam Balaban, Dennis K. Peters and Mark Lawford  

E-print Network

Software Documents: Comparison and Measurement Tom Arbuckle, Adam Balaban, Dennis K. Peters of Newfoundland, St. John's NL, Canada A1B 3X5. Email: dpeters@engr.mun.ca §Department of Computing and Software@mcmaster.ca Abstract-- For some time now, researchers have been seeking to place software measurement on a more firmly

Lawford, Mark

292

SIR epidemics on random graphs with a fixed degree sequence Tom Bohman # Michael Picollelli +  

E-print Network

SIR epidemics on random graphs with a fixed degree sequence Tom Bohman # Michael Picollelli a small number of nodes, or an epidemic spreads to infect a linear number of nodes. Conditioning on the event that more than a small number of nodes are infected, the epidemic is likely to follow a trajectory

Bohman, Tom

293

Issues in Comparative Fungal Genomics Tom Hsiang1 and David L. Baillie2  

E-print Network

Issues in Comparative Fungal Genomics Tom Hsiang1 and David L. Baillie2 1 Department. By the middle of 2005, there were almost 300 complete genomes that were publicly accessible. Most of these were archeal or bacterial since prokaryotic genomes are much smaller than eukaryotic genomes. Among eukaryotes

Hsiang, Tom

294

Static stress change from the 8 October, 2005 M = 7.6 Kashmir Tom Parsons,1  

E-print Network

Static stress change from the 8 October, 2005 M = 7.6 Kashmir earthquake Tom Parsons,1 Robert S February 2006; published 21 March 2006. [1] We calculated static stress changes from the devastating M = 7 termination near the Kashmir basin. Citation: Parsons, T., R. S. Yeats, Y. Yagi, and A. Hussain (2006), Static

295

Environmental Impact of Wastewater Disposal in the Florida Keys, Monroe County Tom Higginbotham  

E-print Network

Environmental Impact of Wastewater Disposal in the Florida Keys, Monroe County Tom Higginbotham University of Florida Soil and Water Science #12;Environmental Impact of Wastewater Disposal in the Florida affecting the normally oligotrophic marine waters. Typical methods of wastewater disposal include large

Ma, Lena

296

Tom Green County Library's Literacy Grant, October, 1992-September, 1993, Final Performance Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes and evaluates an adult and family literacy education program at the Tom Green County Library (Texas). The project's objectives were to: provide a full-time library staff member to establish, coordinate, and promote an information, referral, and follow-up support system for literacy students; offer two in-service sessions in…

Vavricka, D. Karen

297

Pullman's Weather and Air Quality Station James O'Malley, Brian Lamb, Tom Jobson  

E-print Network

Pullman's Weather and Air Quality Station James O'Malley, Brian Lamb, Tom Jobson Thanks, and to Dr. Shelley N. Pressley. To monitor air quality in Pullman, the Laboratory for Atmospheric Research in the department of civil and environmental engineering, as well as providing a long-term record of air quality

Collins, Gary S.

298

An Officer and a Librarian: Tom Rink--Tulsa Police Department  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tom Rink may be the only librarian who is also a police officer. After years of the Tulsa police force, he was ready for a change. When a career exploration course showed he was ideally suited to be a librarian, he was amused. The son of two librarians, he had never even considered it. He did enjoy researching, writing, and exploring all kinds of…

Library Journal, 2005

2005-01-01

299

Crowdsourcing Semantics for Big Data in Geoscience Applications Tom Narock1  

E-print Network

Crowdsourcing Semantics for Big Data in Geoscience Applications Tom Narock1 and Pascal Hitzler 1 the potential to overcome some of the issues currently surrounding Big Data. Semantic technologies, and complexity of data sources ­ the very definition of Big Data. Yet, for some tasks, semantic algorithms do

Hitzler, Pascal

300

ELECTRONIC TEXTILES FOR IN SITU BIOMECHANICAL MEASUREMENTS Tom Martin*, Thurmon Lockhart, Mark Jones, and Josh Edmison  

E-print Network

ELECTRONIC TEXTILES FOR IN SITU BIOMECHANICAL MEASUREMENTS Tom Martin*, Thurmon Lockhart, Mark textile (e-textile) system capable of assessing a suite of biomechanical measures. Unlike laboratory conditions. A prototype e-textile developed at Virginia Tech has already shown promising results in the area

301

A Service Backplane for E-Textile Applications Mark Jones, Tom Martin, and Zahi Nakad  

E-print Network

A Service Backplane for E-Textile Applications Mark Jones, Tom Martin, and Zahi Nakad Electrical and Computer Engineering, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg VA 24061-0111 Abstract. E-textile technology is rapidly textiles. Efficient development of applications on e- textiles will require significant software services

302

The Future of the Digital Library: An Interview with Tom Peters  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents an interview with Tom Peters, an academic librarian and founder of TAP Information Services, a firm that provides consulting services to libraries and other organizations in the information industry. Peters also serves as a consultant to LibraryCity, an ambitious project that seeks to make thousands of e-books in easy-to-use…

Morrison, James L.; Peters, Tom

2005-01-01

303

Scalable Neural Networks for Board Games Tom Schaul and Jurgen Schmidhuber  

E-print Network

Scalable Neural Networks for Board Games Tom Schaul and J¨urgen Schmidhuber IDSIA Galleria 2, Manno in solving large instances. Unfortunately, most neural network architectures do not exhibit this form scratch up to the level of human beginners, without using domain knowledge. Key words: recurrent neural

Schmidhuber, Juergen

304

IMPROVING SPEECH RECOGNITION BY EXPLICIT MODELING OF PHONE DELETIONS Tom Ko, Brian Mak  

E-print Network

of Computer Science and Engineering The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology Clear Water Bay, HongIMPROVING SPEECH RECOGNITION BY EXPLICIT MODELING OF PHONE DELETIONS Tom Ko, Brian Mak Department is about 1%. The finding prompted a new research direction of syllable modeling for speech recognition

Mak, Brian Kan-Wing

305

Distinct Forms of Mitochondrial TOM-TIM Supercomplexes Define Signal-Dependent States of Preprotein Sorting?  

PubMed Central

Mitochondrial import of cleavable preproteins occurs at translocation contact sites, where the translocase of the outer membrane (TOM) associates with the presequence translocase of the inner membrane (TIM23) in a supercomplex. Different views exist on the mechanism of how TIM23 mediates preprotein sorting to either the matrix or inner membrane. On the one hand, two TIM23 forms were proposed, a matrix transport form containing the presequence translocase-associated motor (PAM; TIM23-PAM) and a sorting form containing Tim21 (TIM23SORT). On the other hand, it was reported that TIM23 and PAM are permanently associated in a single-entity translocase. We have accumulated distinct transport intermediates of preproteins to analyze the translocases in their active, preprotein-carrying state. We identified two different forms of active TOM-TIM23 supercomplexes, TOM-TIM23SORT and TOM-TIM23-PAM. These two supercomplexes do not represent separate pathways but are in dynamic exchange during preprotein translocation and sorting. Depending on the signals of the preproteins, switches between the different forms of supercomplex and TIM23 are required for the completion of preprotein import. PMID:19884344

Chacinska, Agnieszka; van der Laan, Martin; Mehnert, Carola S.; Guiard, Bernard; Mick, David U.; Hutu, Dana P.; Truscott, Kaye N.; Wiedemann, Nils; Meisinger, Chris; Pfanner, Nikolaus; Rehling, Peter

2010-01-01

306

Indonesia 82 (October 2006) Tom Boellstorff. The Gay Archipelago: Sexuality and Nation in Indonesia.  

E-print Network

Indonesia 82 (October 2006) Tom Boellstorff. The Gay Archipelago: Sexuality and Nation in Indonesia expression and social enactments of nationhood in postcolonial Indonesia often find themselves, implicitly, too, in the anthropological literature on Indonesia an emphasis on difference has always served

Brody, James P.

307

Calibration For Augmented Reality Experimental Testbeds Valerie A. Summers*& Kellogg S. Booth Tom Calvert  

E-print Network

Calibration For Augmented Reality Experimental Testbeds Valerie A. Summers*& Kellogg S. Booth Tom.3.7[ComputerGraphics]: Three-Dimensional GraphicsandRealism-virtual reality Keywords: augmentedreality "augment" theuser's view of thereal 3D world with computer-generatedvirtual objects. Thesevirtual

308

Mapping the Condition of Diporeia: Insights into Mechanisms of Primary Investigator: Tom Nalepa -NOAA GLERL (Emeritus)  

E-print Network

Mapping the Condition of Diporeia: Insights into Mechanisms of Declines Primary Investigator: Tom will evaluate the general hypothesis that physiological condition and genetic diversity of Diporeia varies to collect Diporeia from throughout the Great Lakes region and map their physiological condition and genetic

309

UC Davis Weed Science 1 Brad Hanson, Tom Lanini, and Lynn Sosnoskie, UC Davis Weed Science  

E-print Network

2/21/2012 2012 CWSS UC Davis Weed Science 1 Brad Hanson, Tom Lanini, and Lynn Sosnoskie, UC Davis Weed Science bhanson@ucdavis.edu Cuttings first brought to North America from France in 1856 floors are managed for a number of reasons Facilitate crop production and harvest practices Weed

Hanson, Brad

310

AFFINE GRASSMANN CODES PETER BEELEN, SUDHIR R. GHORPADE, AND TOM HOHOLDT  

E-print Network

AFFINE GRASSMANN CODES PETER BEELEN, SUDHIR R. GHORPADE"orr and Willems [11] as well as Berger and Charpin [1] on the automorphisms of Reed-Muller codes. In geometric #12; 2 PETER BEELEN, SUDHIR R. GHORPADE, AND TOM HOHOLDT introduce the following

Ghorpade, Sudhir

311

ExplanationBased Learning for Mobile Robot Perception Tom M. Mitchell  

E-print Network

Explanation­Based Learning for Mobile Robot Perception Tom M. Mitchell Joseph O'Sullivan 1. In these experiments, a mobile robot traveling down a hallway corridor learns to recognize distant doors based on color that recognizes nearby doors, and a second network that predicts the state of the world after travelling forward

Thrun, Sebastian

312

Sensitivity of TOMS aerosol index to boundary layer height: Implications for detection of mineral aerosol sources  

E-print Network

(using a threshold of 0.7, except over North Africa, the Middle East and Central Asia where the thresholdSensitivity of TOMS aerosol index to boundary layer height: Implications for detection of mineral) is proposed as a powerful tool in determining the sources of mineral aerosols. The sensitivity of the AI

Mahowald, Natalie

313

TOM: a web-based integrated approach for identification of candidate disease genes  

E-print Network

TOM: a web-based integrated approach for identification of candidate disease genes Simona Rossi and Stefano Volinia Functional Genomics Laboratory and Telethon Facility, DAMA Data Mining for Analysis of DNA (omic) data repos- itories, the strongest urgency of the post-genomic era is now to interrelate various

Nardini, Christine

314

The Toms Canyon structure, New Jersey outer continental shelf: A possible late Eocene impact crater  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Toms Canyon structure [~20-22 km wide] is located on the New Jersey outer continental shelf beneath 80-100 m of water, and is buried by ~1 km of upper Eocene to Holocene sedimentary strata. The structure displays several characteristics typical of terrestrial impact craters (flat floor; upraised faulted rim: brecciated sedimentary fill), but several other characteristics are atypical (an unusually thin ejecta blanket; lack of an inner basin, peak ring, or central peak; bearing nearly completely filled with breccia). Seismostratigraphic and biostratigraphic analyses show that the structure formed during planktonic foraminiferal biochron P15 of the early to middle late Eocene. The fill unit is stratigraphically correlating with impact ejecta cored nearby at Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) Site 612 and at Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Sites 903 and 904 (22-35 km southeast of the Toms Canyon structure). The Toms Canyon fill unit also correlates with the Exmore breccia, which fills the much larger Chesapeake Bay impact crater (90-km diameter; 335 km to the southwest). On the basis of our analyses, we postulate that the Toms Canyon structure is an impact crater, formed when a cluster of relatively small meteorites approached the target site bearing ~N 50 E, and struck the sea floor obliquely.

Poag, C. W.; Poppe, L. J.

1998-01-01

315

A single-frame visual gyroscope Georg Klein and Tom Drummond  

E-print Network

A single-frame visual gyroscope Georg Klein and Tom Drummond {gswk2|twd20}@eng.cam.ac.uk Department employ additional sensors to provide robustness to rapid #12;rotations. Rate gyroscopes, which provide-based alternative to the use of rate gyroscopes. We describe a novel algorithm which can compute rotational velocity

Drummond, Tom

316

A Multigrid Approach for Accelerating Relaxation-based SLAM Udo Frese Tom Duckett  

E-print Network

A Multigrid Approach for Accelerating Relaxation-based SLAM Udo Frese Tom Duckett DLR of simulta- neous localisation and mapping (SLAM) by a mobile robot. An incremental SLAM algo- rithm of its own position. The SLAM problem is hard because the same sensor data must be used for both mapping

Duckett, Tom

317

DISTRIBUTED SYSTEMS MANAGEMENT AS A GROUP ACTIVITY Graham Dean, Tom Rodden, Ian Sommerville and David Hutchison  

E-print Network

DISTRIBUTED SYSTEMS MANAGEMENT AS A GROUP ACTIVITY Graham Dean, Tom Rodden, Ian Sommerville@comp.lancs.ac.uk It is important to consider systems management as part of a whole organisational management strategy and, as such within the terms of reference associated with systems management. INTRODUCTION Traditionally, network

Sommerville, Ian

318

Tom Baker Lab objec.ves: understanding insect olfac.on and behavior  

E-print Network

OfMosquitoes(95%C.!) Upwind flight attraction to spores of different fungal species Fungus Control ****** *** B.on and control Tom Baker Department of Entomology Penn State University #12;Tens of thousands of olfactory hairsGc Compounds on Flies in the Behavioral Bioassay #12;BASF "Vector 960" Fruit Fly Trap #12;Fungal

Dennis, Nancy

319

Mobile Multi-Layered IPsec Heesook Choi, Hui Song, Guohong Cao, and Tom La Porta  

E-print Network

Mobile Multi-Layered IPsec Heesook Choi, Hui Song, Guohong Cao, and Tom La Porta Department cannot be provided if data sessions are protected using end-to-end encryption as with IPsec, because therefore not be used by the access routers. A previously proposed protocol, called Multi-layered IPsec (ML-IPsec

Yener, Aylin

320

Mobile Multi-Layered IPSec Advisors: Prof. Tom La Porta and Prof. Guohong Cao  

E-print Network

Mobile Multi-Layered IPSec Advisors: Prof. Tom La Porta and Prof. Guohong Cao Heesook Choi & Hui in Wireless Networks End-to-end security (IPSec) Prevents performance enhancements in the intermediate nodes Multi-layered IPSec (ML-IPSec) Allows the intermediate nodes to do performance enhancements Manual

Yener, Aylin

321

The Swallowing of Earth's Ocean Floors  

NSF Publications Database

... Ocean Drilling Program Scientists Probe 'Recycling' of Oceanic Crust Near Costa Rica October 23 ... key role in recycling surface material to great depths within the Earth." The recycling of this ...

322

Evidence supporting the 19 ?-strand model for Tom40 from cysteine scanning and protease site accessibility studies.  

PubMed

Most proteins found in mitochondria are translated in the cytosol and enter the organelle via the TOM complex (translocase of the outer mitochondrial membrane). Tom40 is the pore forming component of the complex. Although the three-dimensional structure of Tom40 has not been determined, the structure of porin, a related protein, has been shown to be a ?-barrel containing 19 membrane spanning ?-strands and an N-terminal ?-helical region. The evolutionary relationship between the two proteins has allowed modeling of Tom40 into a similar structure by several laboratories. However, it has been suggested that the 19-strand porin structure does not represent the native form of the protein. If true, modeling of Tom40 based on the porin structure would also be invalid. We have used substituted cysteine accessibility mapping to identify several potential ?-strands in the Tom40 protein in isolated mitochondria. These data, together with protease accessibility studies, support the 19 ?-strand model for Tom40 with the C-terminal end of the protein localized to the intermembrane space. PMID:24947507

Lackey, Sebastian W K; Taylor, Rebecca D; Go, Nancy E; Wong, Annie; Sherman, E Laura; Nargang, Frank E

2014-08-01

323

Pollution Probe.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book is written as a statement of concern about pollution by members of Pollution Probe, a citizens' anti-pollution group in Canada. Its purpose is to create public awareness and pressure for the eventual solution to pollution problems. The need for effective government policies to control the population explosion, conserve natural resources,…

Chant, Donald A.

324

Moon Probe  

E-print Network

launched something a good deal larger than a potato: Chang 'e 1, a moon probe named for the Chinese goddess of the moon. At a cost of 1.4 billion Yuan--or $175 million dollars--it seems lunacy to spend this sum on this celestial body. What with skies dim...

Hacker, Randi; Tsutsui, William

2007-11-26

325

Structural elements of the mitochondrial preprotein-conducting channel Tom40 dissolved by bioinformatics and mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Most mitochondrial proteins are imported into mitochondria from the cytosolic compartment. Proteins destined for the outer or inner membrane, the inter-membrane space, or the matrix are recognized and translocated by the TOM machinery containing the specialized protein import channel Tom40. The latter is a protein with ?-barrel shape, which is suggested to have evolved from a porin-type protein. To obtain structural insights in the absence of a crystal structure the membrane topology of Tom40 from Neurospora crassa was determined by limited proteolysis combined with mass spectrometry. The results were interpreted on the basis of a structural model that has been generated for NcTom40 by using the structure of mouse VDAC-1 as a template and amino acid sequence information of approximately 270 different Tom40 and approximately 480 VDAC amino acid sequences for refinement. The model largely explains the observed accessible cleavage sites and serves as a structural basis for the investigation of physicochemical properties of the ensemble of our Tom40 sequence data set. By this means we discovered two conserved polar slides in the pore interior. One is possibly involved in the positioning of a pore-inserted helix; the other one might be important for mitochondrial pre-sequence peptide binding as it is only present in Tom40 but not in VDAC proteins. The outer surface of the Tom40 barrel reveals two conserved amino acid clusters. They may be involved in binding other components of the TOM complex or bridging components of the TIM machinery of the mitochondrial inner membrane. PMID:21888892

Gessmann, Dennis; Flinner, Nadine; Pfannstiel, Jens; Schlösinger, Andrea; Schleiff, Enrico; Nussberger, Stephan; Mirus, Oliver

2011-12-01

326

Google Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Google Earth has gone underwater with this latest iteration of their popular Earth-roaming application. Along with traveling the usual roads provided by previous versions of Google Earth, visitors can now visit the bottom of the Mariana Trench, learn about ocean observations, and even discover new places to surf and dive. On the Google Earth homepage, visitors can take a guided tour of all these new features. This version is compatible with all operating systems.

2009-01-01

327

Snowball Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Audio program from the University of Wisconsin's Earthwatch Radio discusses the notion of the entire planet covered with ice. Doug Macdougall is an earth scientist at the University of California-San Diego and author of a new book called "Frozen Earth." He says the planet-wide freeze is known as "Snowball Earth."

328

Earth Changes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These activities give students a hands-on feeling for the relationships between the Earth's structural layers and aid them in understanding the world around them. They will be able to identify (by modeling) the Earth's structure (core, mantle and crust) and also (by experiment and demonstration) the forces within the Earth that cause constant changes on the surface (earthquakes).

1998-01-01

329

Planet Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For those interested in a global view of the weather, Planet Earth is a "real-time 3-D model of the Earth with continuously updating night shadows and clouds." Cloud images are provided by the University of Wisconsin-Madison Space Science and Engineering Center. Planet Earth is shareware with a fee of $29.95.

330

Interpretation of TOMS Observations of Tropical Tropospheric Ozone with a Global Model and In Situ Observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We interpret the distribution of tropical tropospheric ozone columns (TTOCs) from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) by using a global three-dimensional model of tropospheric chemistry (GEOS-CHEM) and additional information from in situ observations. The GEOS-CHEM TTOCs capture 44% of the variance of monthly mean TOMS TTOCs from the convective cloud differential method (CCD) with no global bias. Major discrepancies are found over northern Africa and south Asia where the TOMS TTOCs do not capture the seasonal enhancements from biomass burning found in the model and in aircraft observations. A characteristic feature of these northern topical enhancements, in contrast to southern tropical enhancements, is that they are driven by the lower troposphere where the sensitivity of TOMS is poor due to Rayleigh scattering. We develop an efficiency correction to the TOMS retrieval algorithm that accounts for the variability of ozone in the lower troposphere. This efficiency correction increases TTOC's over biomass burning regions by 3-5 Dobson units (DU) and decreases them by 2-5 DU over oceanic regions, improving the agreement between CCD TTOCs and in situ observations. Applying the correction to CCD TTOCs reduces by approximately DU the magnitude of the "tropical Atlantic paradox" [Thompson et al, 2000], i.e. the presence of a TTOC enhancement over the southern tropical Atlantic during the northern African biomass burning season in December-February. We reproduce the remainder of the paradox in the model and explain it by the combination of upper tropospheric ozone production from lightning NOx, peristent subsidence over the southern tropical Atlantic as part of the Walker circulation, and cross-equatorial transport of upper tropospheric ozone from northern midlatitudes in the African "westerly duct." These processes in the model can also account for the observed 13-17 DU persistent wave-1 pattern in TTOCs with a maximum above the tropical Atlantic and a minimum over the tropical Pacific during all seasons. The photochemical effects of mineral dust have only a minor role on the modeled distribution of TTOCs, including over northern Africa, due to multiple competing effects. The photochemical effects of mineral dust globally decease annual mean OH concentrations by 9%. A global lightning NOx source of 6 Tg N yr(sup -1) in the model produces a simulation that is most consistent with TOMS and in situ observations.

Martin, Randall V.; Jacob, Daniel J.; Logan, Jennifer A.; Bey, Isabelle; Yantosca, Robert M.; Staudt, Amanda C.; Fiore, Arlene M.; Duncan, Bryan N.; Liu, Hongyu; Ginoux, Paul

2004-01-01

331

Biogenesis of Porin of the Outer Mitochondrial Membrane Involves an Import Pathway via Receptors and the General Import Pore of the Tom Complex  

PubMed Central

Porin, also termed the voltage-dependent anion channel, is the most abundant protein of the mitochondrial outer membrane. The process of import and assembly of the protein is known to be dependent on the surface receptor Tom20, but the requirement for other mitochondrial proteins remains controversial. We have used mitochondria from Neurospora crassa and Saccharomyces cerevisiae to analyze the import pathway of porin. Import of porin into isolated mitochondria in which the outer membrane has been opened is inhibited despite similar levels of Tom20 as in intact mitochondria. A matrix-destined precursor and the porin precursor compete for the same translocation sites in both normal mitochondria and mitochondria whose surface receptors have been removed, suggesting that both precursors utilize the general import pore. Using an assay established to monitor the assembly of in vitro–imported porin into preexisting porin complexes we have shown that besides Tom20, the biogenesis of porin depends on the central receptor Tom22, as well as Tom5 and Tom7 of the general import pore complex (translocase of the outer mitochondrial membrane [TOM] core complex). The characterization of two new mutant alleles of the essential pore protein Tom40 demonstrates that the import of porin also requires a functional Tom40. Moreover, the porin precursor can be cross-linked to Tom20, Tom22, and Tom40 on its import pathway. We conclude that import of porin does not proceed through the action of Tom20 alone, but requires an intact outer membrane and involves at least four more subunits of the TOM machinery, including the general import pore. PMID:11266446

Krimmer, Thomas; Rapaport, Doron; Ryan, Michael T.; Meisinger, Chris; Kassenbrock, C. Kenneth; Blachly-Dyson, Elizabeth; Forte, Michael; Douglas, Michael G.; Neupert, Walter; Nargang, Frank E.; Pfanner, Nikolaus

2001-01-01

332

Biogenesis of porin of the outer mitochondrial membrane involves an import pathway via receptors and the general import pore of the TOM complex.  

PubMed

Porin, also termed the voltage-dependent anion channel, is the most abundant protein of the mitochondrial outer membrane. The process of import and assembly of the protein is known to be dependent on the surface receptor Tom20, but the requirement for other mitochondrial proteins remains controversial. We have used mitochondria from Neurospora crassa and Saccharomyces cerevisiae to analyze the import pathway of porin. Import of porin into isolated mitochondria in which the outer membrane has been opened is inhibited despite similar levels of Tom20 as in intact mitochondria. A matrix-destined precursor and the porin precursor compete for the same translocation sites in both normal mitochondria and mitochondria whose surface receptors have been removed, suggesting that both precursors utilize the general import pore. Using an assay established to monitor the assembly of in vitro-imported porin into preexisting porin complexes we have shown that besides Tom20, the biogenesis of porin depends on the central receptor Tom22, as well as Tom5 and Tom7 of the general import pore complex (translocase of the outer mitochondrial membrane [TOM] core complex). The characterization of two new mutant alleles of the essential pore protein Tom40 demonstrates that the import of porin also requires a functional Tom40. Moreover, the porin precursor can be cross-linked to Tom20, Tom22, and Tom40 on its import pathway. We conclude that import of porin does not proceed through the action of Tom20 alone, but requires an intact outer membrane and involves at least four more subunits of the TOM machinery, including the general import pore. PMID:11266446

Krimmer, T; Rapaport, D; Ryan, M T; Meisinger, C; Kassenbrock, C K; Blachly-Dyson, E; Forte, M; Douglas, M G; Neupert, W; Nargang, F E; Pfanner, N

2001-01-22

333

Nuclear magnetic resonance in rare earth metals  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes the study, by nuclear magnetic resonance, of both static and dynamical aspects of the hyperfine interaction in rare earth metals, and illustrates the categories of information that can be obtained by using nuclei as microscopic probes in metallic media. The systems discussed include not only the pure rare earth metals but also their alloys and their metallic

M. A. H. McCausland; I. S. Mackenzie

1979-01-01

334

Probing recursion.  

PubMed

The experimental probing of recursion in human performance is faced with non-trivial problems. Here, I analyse three case studies from the literature and argue that they tell us little about the underlying mental processes at play within each of these domains: (a) the question of whether experimental participants employ recursive rules in parsing artificial strings of nonsense syllables; (b) the role of self-embedded structures in reasoning and general cognition; and (c) the reputed connection between structural features of a given object and the corresponding, recursive rules needed to represent/generate it. I then outline what a recursive process would actually look like and how one could go about probing its presence in human behaviour, concluding, however, that recursive processes in performance are very unlikely, at least as far as fast, mandatory, and automatic modular processes are concerned. PMID:24817314

Lobina, David J

2014-11-01

335

Comparative analysis of UVB exposure between Nimbus 7/TOMS satellite estimates and ground-based measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study describes the patterns of variation in ultraviolet (UV) exposure across time and space using two continental scale data sets on UV radiation and conducts a comparative analysis of two sources of noontime UV-B exposure data across the continental US. One dataset was collected from 37 ground-based stations equipped with broadband UV-B-1 Pyranometers across North America whereas the other dataset was of synchronous satellite data collected from the Nimbus-7/TOMS sensor. Comparisons of these datasets confirmed agreement between the ground-based measurements and the TOMS satellite estimates with correlation coefficients of 0.87 and 0.95 for daily and monthly UV Index time series (i.e., a common metric of UV radiation exposure), respectively.

Gao, Zhiqiang; Gao, Wei

2010-08-01

336

Nimbus-7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) Antarctic ozone atlas: August through November 1991  

SciTech Connect

Because of the great environmental significance of stratospheric ozone, and to support continuing research at the Antarctic Southern Hemisphere stations, the development of the 1991 ozone hole was monitored using data from the Nimbus-7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) instrument, produced in near-real-time. This atlas provides a complete set of daily polar orthographic projections of the TOMS total ozone measurements over the Southern Hemisphere for the period August 1 through November 30, 1991. The 1991 ozone hole developed in a manner similar to that of the 1987, 1989, and 1990 holes, reaching a comparable depth in early October. However, the 1991 ozone hole filled far more rapidly than in 1987 or 1989, and nearly 4 weeks earlier than in 1990.

Krueger, A.J.; Penn, L.M.; Scott, C.J.; Larko, D.E.

1992-08-01

337

Comparison of TOMS and AVHRR volcanic ssh retrievals from the August 1992 eruption of Mt. Spurr  

USGS Publications Warehouse

On August 19, 1992, the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) onboard NOAA-12 and NASA's Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) onboard the Nimbus-7 satellite simultaneously detected and mapped the ash cloud from the eruption of Mt. Spurr, Alaska. The spatial extent and geometry of the cloud derived from the two datasets are in good agreement and both AVHRR split window IR (11-12??m brightness temperature difference) and the TOMS UV Aerosol Index (0.34-0.38??m ultraviolet backscattering and absorption) methods give the same range of total cloud ash mass. Redundant methods for determination of ash masses in drifting volcanic clouds offer many advantages for potential application to the mitigation of aircraft hazards.

Krotkov, N. A.; Torres, O.; Seftor, C.; Krueger, A. J.; Kostinski, A.; Rose, W. I.; Bluth, G. J. S.; Schneider, D.; Schaefer, S. J.

1999-01-01

338

Atlas of TOMS ozone data collected during the Genesis of Atlantic Lows Experiment (GALE), 1986  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Data from the TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) instrument aboard the Nimbus-7 satellite were collected daily in real time during the GALE (Genesis of Atlantic Lows Experiment) from January 15 through March 15, l986. The TOMS ozone data values were processed into GEMPAK format and transferred from the Goddard Space Flight Center to GALE operations in Raleigh-Durham, NC, in as little as three hours for use, in part, to direct aircraft research flights recording in situ measurements of ozone and water vapor in areas of interest. Once in GEMPAK format, the ozone values were processed into gridded form using the Barnes objective analysis scheme and contour plots of the ozone created. This atlas provides objectively analyzed contour plots of the ozone for each of the sixty days of GALE as well as four-panel presentations of the ozone analysis combined on the basis of GALE Intensive Observing Periods (IOP's).

Larko, David E.; Uccellini, Louis W.; Krueger, Arlin J.

1986-01-01

339

Earth orbiting technologies for understanding global change  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper considers the technology requirements needed to support the Mission to Planet Earth concept, which will consist of several sun synchronous polar platforms; a series of low-earth orbit equatorial missions, such as Space Shuttle payloads, Space-Station-attached payloads, and the Explorer-class Earth Probes; and five geostationary platforms. In particular, the technology requirements in the areas of space-based observation, data/information, and spacecraft operation are examined.

Harris, Leonard A.; Johnston, Gordon I.; Hudson, Wayne R.; Couch, Lana M.

1989-01-01

340

Gravity Probe B Assembled  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this photo, the Gravity Probe B (GP-B) space vehicle is being assembled at the Sunnyvale, California location of the Lockheed Martin Corporation. The GP-B is the relativity experiment developed at Stanford University to test two extraordinary predictions of Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity. The experiment will measure, very precisely, the expected tiny changes in the direction of the spin axes of four gyroscopes contained in an Earth-orbiting satellite at a 400-mile altitude. So free are the gyroscopes from disturbance that they will provide an almost perfect space-time reference system. They will measure how space and time are very slightly warped by the presence of the Earth, and, more profoundly, how the Earth's rotation very slightly drags space-time around with it. These effects, though small for the Earth, have far-reaching implications for the nature of matter and the structure of the Universe. GP-B is among the most thoroughly researched programs ever undertaken by NASA. This is the story of a scientific quest in which physicists and engineers have collaborated closely over many years. Inspired by their quest, they have invented a whole range of technologies that are already enlivening other branches of science and engineering. Launched April 20, 2004 , the GP-B program was managed for NASA by the Marshall Space Flight Center. Development of the GP-B is the responsibility of Stanford University along with major subcontractor Lockheed Martin Corporation. (Image credit to Russ Underwood, Lockheed Martin Corporation).

2000-01-01

341

Discover Earth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Discover Earth is a NASA-sponsored project for teachers of grades 5-12, designed to: (1) enhance understanding of the Earth as an integrated system; (2) enhance the interdisciplinary approach to science instruction; and (3) provide classroom materials that focus on those goals. Discover Earth is conducted by the Institute for Global Environmental Strategies in collaboration with Dr. Eric Barron, Director, Earth System Science Center, The Pennsylvania State University; and Dr. Robert Hudson, Chair, the Department of Meteorology, University of Maryland at College Park. The enclosed materials: (1) represent only part of the Discover Earth materials; (2) were developed by classroom teachers who are participating in the Discover Earth project; (3) utilize an investigative approach and on-line data; and (4) can be effectively adjusted to classrooms with greater/without technology access. The Discover Earth classroom materials focus on the Earth system and key issues of global climate change including topics such as the greenhouse effect, clouds and Earth's radiation balance, surface hydrology and land cover, and volcanoes and climate change. All the materials developed to date are available on line at (http://www.strategies.org) You are encouraged to submit comments and recommendations about these materials to the Discover Earth project manager, contact information is listed below. You are welcome to duplicate all these materials.

Steele, Colleen

1998-01-01

342

Satellite Detection of Smoke Aerosols Over a Snow/Ice Surface by TOMS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) satellite data demonstrates the recently developed technique of using satellite UV radiance measurements to detect absorbing tropospheric aerosols is effective over snow/ice surfaces. Instead of the traditional single wavelength (visible or infrared) method of measuring tropospheric aerosols, this method takes advantage of the wavelength dependent reduction in the backscattered radiance due to the presence of absorbing aerosols over snow/ice surfaces. An example of the resulting aerosol distribution derived from TOMS data is shown for an August 1998 event in which smoke generated by Canadian forest fires drifts over and across Greenland. As the smoke plume moved over Greenland, the TOMS observed 380 nm reflectivity over the snow/ice surface dropped drastically from 90-100% down to 30-40%. To study the effects of this smoke plume in both the UV and visible regions of the spectrum, we compared a smoke-laden spectrum taken over Greenland by the high spectral resolution (300 to 800 nm) GOME instrument with one that is aerosol-free. We also discuss the results of modeling the darkening effects of various types of absorbing aerosols over snow/ice surfaces using a radiative transfer code. Finally, we investigated the history of such events by looking at the nearly twenty year record of TOMS aerosol index measurements and found that there is a large interannual variability in the amount of smoke aerosols observed over Greenland. This information will be available for studies of radiation and transport properties in the Arctic.

Hsu, N. Christina; Herman, Jay R.; Gleason, J. F.; Torres, O.; Seftor, C. J.

1998-01-01

343

Clarifying Blackness in Anglo-Native Fictions: Tom Spanbauers Cross-Ethnic Borrowings  

Microsoft Academic Search

: Anglo writer Tom Spanbauer’s The Man Who Fell in Love with the Moon (1991) and American-Indian author Sherman Alexie’s Reservation Blues (1995) illustrate how contemporary multicultural literature uses Jim Crow figures as reference points for sorting intricate social lines among other ethnic groups. Spanbauer also illustrates the related dangers of cross-ethnic pilfering. Résumé:The Man Who Fell in Love with

Brian Norman

2010-01-01

344

Exploratory study of the association between insight and Theory of Mind (ToM) in stable schizophrenia patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Poor insight and impairment in Theory of Mind (ToM) reasoning are common in schizophrenia, predicting poorer clinical and functional outcomes. The present study aimed to explore the relationship between these phenomena.Methods. 61 individuals with a DSM-IV diagnosis of schizophrenia during a stable phase were included. ToM was assessed using a picture sequencing task developed by Langdon and Coltheart (1999),

Esther Pousa; Rosó Duñó; J. Blas Navarro; Ada I. Ruiz; Jordi E. Obiols; Anthony S. David

2008-01-01

345

Identification of nodX , a gene that allows Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar viciae strain TOM to nodulate Afghanistan peas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gene(s) conferring the ability of Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar viciae strain TOM to nodulate primitive peas (cultivar Afghanistan) had been located in a 2.0 kb region of its sym plasmid, pRL5JI. In this DNA, a single open reading frame of 1101 bp, corresponding to a gene, nodX was found. nodX is downstream of nodJ which is present in strain TOM and

Elaine O. Davis; Ian J. Evans; Andrew W. B. Johnston

1988-01-01

346

Tropospheric ozone during the TRACE-P mission: Comparison between TOMS satellite retrievals and aircraft lidar data, March 2001  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past several years, we have developed two new tropospheric ozone retrievals from the TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) satellite instrument that are of sufficient resolution to follow pollution episodes. The modified-residual technique [Hudson and Thompson, 1998; Thompson and Hudson, 1999] uses v.7 TOMS total ozone and is applicable to tropical regimes in which the wave-one pattern in total

A. Frolov; A. M. Thompson; R. D. Hudson; E. V. Browell; S. J. Oltmans; J. C. Witte

2002-01-01

347

Environmental Characterization of Global Sources of Atmospheric Soil Dust Identified with the NIMBUS7 TOMS Absorbing Aerosol Product  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) sensor provides information on the global distribution of absorbing aerosol, i.e., mineral dust and smoke. We use the TOMS absorbing aerosol data obtained on the NIMBUS-7 satellite over the period 1980-1992 to map the global distribution of major atmospheric dust sources with the goal of identifying common environmental characteristics. The largest and most persistent

O. Torres; J. M. Prospero; P. Ginoux; S. E. Nicholson; T. E. Gill

2001-01-01

348

RNAi screen in Drosophila cells reveals the involvement of the Tom complex in Chlamydia infection.  

PubMed

Chlamydia spp. are intracellular obligate bacterial pathogens that infect a wide range of host cells. Here, we show that C. caviae enters, replicates, and performs a complete developmental cycle in Drosophila SL2 cells. Using this model system, we have performed a genome-wide RNA interference screen and identified 54 factors that, when depleted, inhibit C. caviae infection. By testing the effect of each candidate's knock down on L. monocytogenes infection, we have identified 31 candidates presumably specific of C. caviae infection. We found factors expected to have an effect on Chlamydia infection, such as heparansulfate glycosaminoglycans and actin and microtubule remodeling factors. We also identified factors that were not previously described as involved in Chlamydia infection. For instance, we identified members of the Tim-Tom complex, a multiprotein complex involved in the recognition and import of nuclear-encoded proteins to the mitochondria, as required for C. caviae infection of Drosophila cells. Finally, we confirmed that depletion of either Tom40 or Tom22 also reduced C. caviae infection in mammalian cells. However, C. trachomatis infection was not affected, suggesting that the mechanism involved is C. caviae specific. PMID:17967059

Derré, Isabelle; Pypaert, Marc; Dautry-Varsat, Alice; Agaisse, Hervé

2007-10-26

349

Ocean Color and Evidence of Chlorophyll Signature in the TOMS Minimum Reflectivity Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Analysis of the TOMS minimum reflectivity data for 380 nm channel (R380) show regions of high reflectivity values (approx. 7 to 8%) over Sargasso Sea in the Northern Atlantic, anti-cyclonic region in the Southern Atlantic, and a large part of the ocean in the Southern Pacific, and low values (5 approx. 6 %) over the rest of the open ocean. Through radiative transfer simulations we show that these features are highly correlated with the distribution of chlorophyll in the ocean. Theoretical minimum reflectivity values derived with the help of CZCS chlorophyll concentration data as input into a vector ocean-atmosphere radiative transfer code developed by Ahmad and Fraser show very good agreement with TOMS minimum reflectivity data for the winter season of year 1980. For the summer season of year 1980, good qualitative agreement is observed in the equatorial and northern hemisphere but not as good in the southern hemisphere. Also, for cloud-free conditions, we find a very strong correlation between R340 minus R380 values and the chlorophyll concentration in the ocean. Results on the possible effects of absorbing and non-absorbing aerosols on the TOMS minimum reflectivity will also be presented. The results also imply that ocean color will affect the aerosol retrieval over oceans unless corrected.

Ahmad, Z.; Herman, J. R.; Bhartia, P. K.

2003-01-01

350

The validation of a new TOMS ozone retrieval algorithm using ground -based measurement during DARGON campaing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new version 9 TOMS algorithm has been proposed to provide more information about error bars and degree of freedom (DFS) of the retrieval, and simplify the retrieval process that results in clarifying the retrieval for user. The V9 algorithm has three retrieval processes. Residuals are calculated with a simple aerosol correction in Step-1. The Step-2 applies an optimal estimation method to get ozone profiles with conventional three TOMS wavelengths where sufficient ozone information is obtained. The outcome of this step will give information about error bars and DFS of retrieved ozone which allow users to accurately compare the ozone with other measurements. In Step-3, it makes corrections for clouds, which it actually doesn't consider in Step-1 and 2. The algorithm will do this process in a way that mathematically appropriate and so it can properly update the error and mathematical operators provided by Step-2. In this work, we want to show the validation study of the V9 TOMS total ozone by comparing with ground-based measurements from PANDORA, ozonesounding, and Brewer during the massive 2012 Dragon Campaign.

Baek, K.; Kim, J. H.; Haffner, D. P.

2013-12-01

351

Tropospheric Ozone during the TRACE-P Mission: Comparison between TOMS Satellite Retrievals and Aircraft Lidar Data, March 2001  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Over the past several years, we have developed two new tropospheric ozone retrievals from the TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) satellite instrument that are of sufficient resolution to follow pollution episodes. The modified-residual technique uses v. 7 TOMS total ozone and is applicable to tropical regimes in which the wave-one pattern in total ozone is observed. The TOMS-direct method ('TDOT' = TOMS Direct Ozone in the Troposphere) represents a new algorithm that uses TOMS radiances directly to extract tropospheric ozone in regions of constant stratospheric ozone. It is not geographically restricted, using meteorological regimes as the basis for classifying TOMS radiances and for selecting appropriate comparison data. TDOT is useful where tropospheric ozone displays high mixing ratios and variability characteristic of pollution. Some of these episodes were observed downwind of Asian biomass burning during the TRACE-P (Transport and Atmospheric Chemical Evolution-Pacific) field experiment in March 2001. This paper features comparisons among TDOT tropospheric ozone column depth, integrated uv-DIAL measurements made from NASA's DC-8, and ozonesonde data.

Frolov, A. D.; Thompson, A. M.; Hudson, R. D.; Browell, E. V.; Oltmans, S. J.; Witte, J. C.; Bhartia, P. K. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

352

Earth's Interior  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website contains class notes from a Geology 101 (physical geology) course. It discusses the composition and structure of the Earth's interior. Each layer, the inner core, outer core, mantle, and crust, is covered. Details about each layer explain their composition, temperature, depth, and state. Also covered is how scientists discovered what the interior of the Earth is made of through the use of seismic waves, plate tectonics, and the Earth's magnetic field.

Louie, John

353

Earth Floor  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Classroom of the Future (COTF) website highlights information about the Earth and its development through time. Spheres discusses layers of the Earth's environment such as the hydrosphere, Cycles discusses rock and water cycles, and Diversity illustrates different species and genetic variations that have emerged on Earth. Also covered are biomes, adaptation, geologic time, and plate tectonics. Each of these sections is an in-depth tutorial on these specific topics.

354

X-24B with Test Pilot Tom McMurtry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this 1975 photo, research pilot Thomas C. McMurtry stands in front of the X-24B on Rogers Dry lake, adjacent to the NASA Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. A former U.S. Navy pilot and graduate of the U.S. Navy Test Pilot School, Patuxent River, Maryland, McMurtry was a consultant for Lockheed Corporation before joining NASA in 1967. The X-24B was the last aircraft to fly in Dryden's manned lifting body program. The X-24B is on public display at the Air Force Museum, Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio. The X-24 was one of a group of lifting bodies flown by the NASA Flight Research Center (now Dryden Flight Research Center), Edwards, California, in a joint program with the U.S. Air Force at Edwards Air Force Base from 1963 to 1975. The lifting bodies were used to demonstrate the ability of pilots to maneuver and safely land wingless vehicles designed to fly back to Earth from space and be landed like an airplane at a predetermined site. Lifting bodies' aerodynamic lift, essential to flight in the atmosphere, was obtained from their shape. The addition of fins and control surfaces allowed the pilots to stabilize and control the vehicles and regulate their flight paths. Built by Martin Aircraft Company, Maryland, for the U.S. Air Force, the X-24A was a bulbous vehicle shaped like a teardrop with three vertical fins at the rear for directional control. It weighed 6,270 pounds, was 24.5 feet long and 11.5 feet wide (measuring just the fuselage, not the distance between the tips of the outboard fins). Its first unpowered glide flight was on April 17, 1969, with Air Force Maj. Jerauld Gentry at the controls. Gentry also piloted its first powered flight on March 19, 1970. The X-24A was flown 28 times in the program that, like the HL-10, validated the concept that a Space Shuttle vehicle could be landed unpowered. The fastest speed achieved by the X-24A was 1,036 miles per hour (mph-Mach 1.6). Its maximum altitude was 71,400 feet. It was powered by an XLR-11 rocket engine with a maximum theoretical vacuum thrust of 8,480 pounds. The X-24A was later modified into the X-24B. The bulbous shape of the X-24A was converted into a 'flying flatiron' shape with a rounded top, flat bottom, and double delta platform that ended in a pointed nose. The X-24B demonstrated that accurate unpowered reentry vehicle landings were operationally feasible. Top speed achieved by the X-24B was 1,164 mph and the highest altitude it reached was 74,130 feet. The vehicle is on display at the Air Force Museum, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio. The pilot on the last powered flight of the X-24B was Bill Dana, who also flew the last X-15 flight about seven years earlier. The X-24A shape was later borrowed for the X-38 Crew Return Vehicle (CRV) technology demonstrator for the International Space Station.

1975-01-01

355

Earth Force  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"Earth Force engages young people as active citizens who improve the environment and their communities now and in the future." Educators can learn about Earth Force's three programs: Community Action and Problem solving (CAPS), the Global Rivers Environmental Education Network (GREEN), and Earth Force After School. Users can discover students' many accomplishments such as creating reusable fabric grocery bags, recycling cell phones and ink cartridges to earn money, and cleaning up litter. The Tools for Teachers section offers evaluation results, a quality rubric, and a description of the six-step Earth Force community action and problem-solving process.

356

The Sounds of Earth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Flying board Voyagers 1 and 2 are identical 'golden' records, carrying the story of Earth far into deep space. The 12 inch gold-plated copper discs contain greetings in 60 languages, samples of music from different cultures and eras, and natural and man-made sounds from Earth. They also contain electronic information that an advanced technological civilization could convert into diagrams and photographs. The cover of each gold plated aluminum jacket, designed to protect the record from micrometeorite bombardment, also serves a double purpose in providing the finder a key to playing the record. The explanatory diagram appears on both the inner and outer surfaces of the cover, as the outer diagram will be eroded in time. Currently, both Voyager probes are sailing adrift in the black sea of interplanetary space, having left our solar system years ago.

1977-01-01

357

Earth\\'s Mass Variability  

E-print Network

The perturbation of the Earth caused by variability of mass of Earth as additional reason with gravity of celestial bodies and shape of the Earth. The Earth eating and collecting matters from space and loss or eject matters to space through its flying in the space around the Sun. The source of the rising in the global sea level is not closed in global warming and icebergs, but the outer space is the additional important source for this rising. The Earth eats waters from space in unknown mechanism. The mass of the Earth become greater in November i.e. before transit apoapsis two months, and become latter in February i.e. after transit apoapsis to two months.

Mawad, Ramy

2014-01-01

358

Earth Impact  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity poses the question: What would happen if a meteor or comet impacted Earth? Students simulate an impact in a container of sand using various-sized rocks, all while measuring, recording and graphing results and conclusions. Then students brainstorm ways to prevent an object from hitting the Earth.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

359

Rainbow Earth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The environment is a great concern in the 1990s, and everyone needs to work at maintaining our planet. The 1992 Arizona State Library Reading Program, "Rainbow Earth," provides children with many techniques they can use to help the Earth. This reading program guide provides information on the following: goals, objectives, and evaluation; getting…

Arizona State Dept. of Library and Archives, Phoenix.

360

Tropospheric Ozone Pollution Transport Traced from the TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) Instrument During the Nashville-1999 Campaign  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Over the past several years, we have developed two new tropospheric ozone retrievals from the TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) satellite instrument that are of sufficient resolution to follow pollution episodes. The modified-residual technique [Hudson and Thompson, 1998; Thompson and Hudson, 1999] uses v. 7 TOMS total ozone and is applicable to tropical regimes in which the wave-one pattern in total ozone is observed. The TOMS-direct method [("TDOT" = TOMS Direct Ozone in the Troposphere; Frolov et al., 2000] represents a new algorithm that uses TOMS radiances directly (i.e., not previously processed for TOMS ozone) to extract tropospheric ozone in regions of constant stratospheric ozone and tropospheric ozone displaying high mixing ratios and variability characteristic of pollution. These events tend to occur in certain meteorological regimes. For example, mid-latitude pollution usually occurs on the backside of subtropical fronts, as low pv, usually moist air intrudes to the extra-tropics. July 1999 was a month characterized by robust pollution in the eastern US, with high ozone, as detected by TOMS, originating over south central states and moving up the Atlantic seaboard. This corresponds to 50-80 DU in tropospheric ozone column depth. In most cases, further transport occurred to the North Atlantic, with ozone plumes traveling to western Europe in 4-5 days. Examples of high ozone and transit across boundaries within the US, as well as US->Europe, give a regional context for model results and field measurements taken in the SE US during the Nashville-1999 campaign period. Validation of the TDOT maps is made with ozonesondes taken during that time. TDOT maps also show ozone pollution from Asia traveling to the western US in July 1999.

Thompson, Anne M.; Frolov, A. D.; Hudson, R. D.; Witte, J. C.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

361

Roles of the Mdm10, Tom7, Mdm12, and Mmm1 proteins in the assembly of mitochondrial outer membrane proteins in Neurospora crassa.  

PubMed

The Mdm10, Mdm12, and Mmm1 proteins have been implicated in several mitochondrial functions including mitochondrial distribution and morphology, assembly of beta-barrel proteins such as Tom40 and porin, association of mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum, and maintaining lipid composition of mitochondrial membranes. Here we show that loss of any of these three proteins in Neurospora crassa results in the formation of large mitochondrial tubules and reduces the assembly of porin and Tom40 into the outer membrane. We have also investigated the relationship of Mdm10 and Tom7 in the biogenesis of beta-barrel proteins. Previous work showed that mitochondria lacking Tom7 assemble Tom40 more efficiently, and porin less efficiently, than wild-type mitochondria. Analysis of mdm10 and tom7 single and double mutants, has demonstrated that the effects of the two mutations are additive. Loss of Tom7 partially compensates for the decrease in Tom40 assembly resulting from loss of Mdm10, whereas porin assembly is more severely reduced in the double mutant than in either single mutant. The additive effects observed in the double mutant suggest that different steps in beta-barrel assembly are affected in the individual mutants. Many aspects of Tom7 and Mdm10 function in N. crassa are different from those of their homologues in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. PMID:20335503

Wideman, Jeremy G; Go, Nancy E; Klein, Astrid; Redmond, Erin; Lackey, Sebastian W K; Tao, Tan; Kalbacher, Hubert; Rapaport, Doron; Neupert, Walter; Nargang, Frank E

2010-05-15

362

Planet Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How does the Earth work? What is its relationship to the other planets? These are but a few important questions answered by this creative instructional series created by WQED in Pittsburgh, in association with the National Academy of Sciences. The series was designed to present information about "our solar system and Earth's oceans, climate, and mineral and energy sources." The Annenberg Media group has placed this entire series online, and visitors can view all seven installments here. The programs include "The Climate Puzzle", "Gifts from the Earth", and "The Solar Sea". Teachers will note that the site also contains links to other educational resources, reviews, and related resources from the Annenberg Media organization.

1986-01-01

363

Visible Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

NASA's Visible Earth is a searchable directory of images, visualizations, and animations of Earth science-related images being produced by several NASA projects including Terra and SeaWiFS. Images are categorized by location, satellite, and topic, and are also searchable using a full-text search engine. Resources include agriculture, atmosphere, biosphere, cryosphere, human dimensions, hydrosphere, land surface, oceans, radiance or imagery, and solid earth. Accompanying each image are credits, data about the image, the satellite it was taken from, a description of what is shown, and a high-resolution viewable image.

364

Detecting solar axions using Earth's magnetic field  

E-print Network

We show that solar axion conversion to photons in the Earth's magnetosphere can produce an x-ray flux, with average energy \\sim 4 keV, which is measurable on the dark side of the Earth. The smallness of the Earth's magnetic field is compensated by a large magnetized volume. For axion masses Earth-orbit x-ray detector with an effective area of 10^4 cm^2, pointed at the solar core, can probe the photon-axion coupling down to 10^{-11} GeV^{-1}, in one year. Thus, the sensitivity of this new approach will be an order of magnitude beyond current laboratory limits.

Hooman Davoudiasl; Patrick Huber

2005-09-26

365

Mitochondrial translocation contact sites: separation of dynamic and stabilizing elements in formation of a TOM-TIM-preprotein supercomplex  

PubMed Central

Preproteins with N-terminal presequences are imported into mitochondria at translocation contact sites that include the translocase of the outer membrane (TOM complex) and the presequence translocase of the inner membrane (TIM23 complex). Little is known about the functional cooperation of these translocases. We have characterized translocation contact sites by a productive TOM–TIM–preprotein supercomplex to address the role of three translocase subunits that expose domains to the intermembrane space (IMS). The IMS domain of the receptor Tom22 is required for stabilization of the translocation contact site supercomplex. Surprisingly, the N-terminal segment of the channel Tim23, which tethers the TIM23 complex to the outer membrane, is dispensable for both protein import and generation of the TOM–TIM supercomplex. Tim50, with its large IMS domain, is crucial for generation but not for stabilization of the supercomplex. Thus, Tim50 functions as a dynamic factor and the IMS domain of Tom22 represents a stabilizing element in formation of a productive translocation contact site supercomplex. PMID:14532110

Chacinska, Agnieszka; Rehling, Peter; Guiard, Bernard; Frazier, Ann E.; Schulze-Specking, Agnes; Pfanner, Nikolaus; Voos, Wolfgang; Meisinger, Chris

2003-01-01

366

Mdm10 as a dynamic constituent of the TOB/SAM complex directs coordinated assembly of Tom40.  

PubMed

The mitochondrial outer membrane contains two protein translocators: the TOM40 and TOB/SAM complexes. Mdm10 is distributed in the TOB complex for beta-barrel protein assembly and in the MMM1 complex for tethering of the endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria. Here, we establish a system in which the Mdm10 level in the TOB complex--but not in the MMM1 complex--is altered to analyse its part in beta-barrel protein assembly. A decrease in the Mdm10 level results in accumulation of in vitro imported Tom40, which is a beta-barrel protein, at the level of the TOB complex. An increase in the Mdm10 level inhibits association not only of Tom40 but also of other beta-barrel proteins with the TOB complex. These results show that Mdm10 regulates the timing of release of unassembled Tom40 from the TOB complex, to facilitate its coordinated assembly into the TOM40 complex. PMID:20111053

Yamano, Koji; Tanaka-Yamano, Sachiko; Endo, Toshiya

2010-03-01

367

Empathy, ToM, and self-other differentiation: an fMRI study of internal states.  

PubMed

This study used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine the neural substrates of empathy, Theory of Mind (ToM), and self-other differentiation involved in the adaptive understanding of people's internal states. Three conditions were distinguished in both sad and neutral (no obvious emotion) contexts. The empathy condition involved imagining what another person is feeling while the more cognitively loaded ToM condition involved imagining what would make another person feel better. The self-reference condition required participants to imagine how they would feel in someone else's situation. Areas previously implicated in empathy, ToM, and self-other differentiation were identified within the different conditions, regardless of emotional context. Specifically, the frontal and temporal poles responded more strongly for ToM than for empathy. The self-reference condition was associated with stronger dorsolateral prefrontal response than the empathy condition, while the reverse comparison revealed a stronger role for right frontal pole. Activations in frontal pole and orbitofrontal cortex were shared between the three conditions. Contrasts of parameter estimates demonstrated modulation by emotional context. The findings of common and differential patterns of responding observed in prefrontal and temporal regions suggest that within the social cognition network empathy, ToM and self-other differentiation have distinct roles that are responsive to context. PMID:24294841

Reniers, Renate L E P; Völlm, Birgit A; Elliott, Rebecca; Corcoran, Rhiannon

2014-02-01

368

Discover Earth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Discover Earth is a NASA-funded project for teachers of grades 5-12 who want to expand their knowledge of the Earth system, and prepare to become master teachers who promote Earth system science in their own schools, counties, and throughout their state. Participants from the following states are invited to apply: Connecticut, Delaware, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont, and Washington, DC. Teachers selected for the project participate in a two-week summer workshop conducted at the University of Maryland, College Park; develop classroom-ready materials during the workshop for broad dissemination; conduct a minimum of two peer training activities during the coming school year; and participate in other enrichment/education opportunities as available and desired. Discover Earth is a team effort that utilizes expertise from a range of contributors, and balances science content with hands-on classroom applications.

Steele, Colleen

1996-01-01

369

Earth's Surface  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This self-contained module on Earth's crust includes a range of fun activities that students can perform in the classroom and at home with family members. They impart important concepts such as observation, identification, measurement, and differentiation.

Science, Houghton M.

370

Earth Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This self-contained module on Earth systems includes a range of fun activities that students can perform in the classroom and at home with family members. They impart important concepts such as observation, identification, measurement, and differentiation.

Science, Houghton M.

371

Discover Earth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Discover Earth is a NASA-funded project for teachers of grades 5-12 who want to expand their knowledge of the Earth system, and prepare to become master teachers who promote Earth system science in their own schools, counties, and throughout their state. Participants from the following states are invited to apply: Connecticut, Delaware, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont, and Washington, DC. Teachers selected for the project participate in a two-week summer workshop conducted at the University of Maryland, College Park; develop classroom-ready materials during the workshop for broad dissemination; conduct a minimum of two peer training activities during the coming school year; and participate in other enrichment/education opportunities as available and desired. Discover Earth is a team effort that utilizes expertise from a range of contributors, and balances science content with hands-on classroom applications.

1997-01-01

372

Reinterpreting funerals and pastoral care: a pastoral theology response to Tom Long's Accompany Them with Singing.  

PubMed

This article addresses Tom Long's (2009) criticism that a traditional pastoral care approach to funerals is responsible for significant distortions in contemporary Christian funeral practices in the United States. The article will show that his criticism should be affirmed but that his solution for a contemporary understanding of pastoral care and funerals is not adequate. A critique and reinterpretation of pastoral care and funerals will show that Long's reform of Christian funerals needs to incorporate a contemporary understanding of caring for the bereaved in funerals. PMID:23045757

Fowler, Gene

2012-03-01

373

Toms Creek integrated gasification combined cycle demonstration project. Quarterly report, April 1--June 30, 1993  

SciTech Connect

The quarterly technical progress report for the period ending June 30, 1993, summarizes the work done to date by Tampella Power Corporation and Enviropower, Inc. Enviropower Inc.`s efforts were concentrated on the Toms Creek PDS (Preliminary Design and Studies). Tampella Power Corporation`s efforts were concentrated on site specific heat and material balances to provide the basis for evaluating alternate locations for the Project. Enviropower, Inc. is nearing completion of the PDS (Preliminary Design and Studies). The status of the design of the equipment for the Gasifier Island, not covered in the previous technical progress report, is given.

Feher, G.; Schmid, M.

1993-09-01

374

Comparing Earth to Other Planets  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How do the atmospheres of Mars, Earth, and Venus compare? This activity, part of an interactive laboratory series for grades 8-12, provides students opportunities to collect atmospheric data from Mars and Venus. Students launch animated data-collecting probes and view two sets of data that compare temperature and pressure from Mars and Venus with that of Earth. Colorful plots of the data are available. Using the information from the data tables and plots, students then answer multiple-choice questions to assess their learning.

University of Utah. Astrophysics Science Project Integrating Research and Education (ASPIRE)

2003-01-01

375

Earth materials and earth dynamics  

SciTech Connect

In the project ''Earth Materials and Earth Dynamics'' we linked fundamental and exploratory, experimental, theoretical, and computational research programs to shed light on the current and past states of the dynamic Earth. Our objective was to combine different geological, geochemical, geophysical, and materials science analyses with numerical techniques to illuminate active processes in the Earth. These processes include fluid-rock interactions that form and modify the lithosphere, non-linear wave attenuations in rocks that drive plate tectonics and perturb the earth's surface, dynamic recrystallization of olivine that deforms the upper mantle, development of texture in high-pressure olivine polymorphs that create anisotropic velocity regions in the convecting upper mantle and transition zone, and the intense chemical reactions between the mantle and core. We measured physical properties such as texture and nonlinear elasticity, equation of states at simultaneous pressures and temperatures, magnetic spins and bonding, chemical permeability, and thermal-chemical feedback to better characterize earth materials. We artificially generated seismic waves, numerically modeled fluid flow and transport in rock systems and modified polycrystal plasticity theory to interpret measured physical properties and integrate them into our understanding of the Earth. This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL).

Bennett, K; Shankland, T. [and others

2000-11-01

376

Global Lifetime Measurements of Highly-Deformed and Other Rotational Structures in the A~135 Light Rare-Earth Region: Probing the Single-Particle Motion in a Rotating Potential  

E-print Network

It has been possible, using GAMMASPHERE plus Microball,to extract differential lifetime measurements free from common systematic errors for over 15 different nuclei (various isotopes of Ce, Pr, Nd, Pm, and Sm) at high spin within a single experiment. This comprehensive study establishes the effective single-particle quadrupole moments in the A~135 light rare-earth region. Detailed comparisons are made with calculations using the self-consistent cranked mean-field theory.

M. A. Riley; R. W. Laird; F. G. Kondev; D. J. Hartley; D. E. Archer; T. B. Brown; R. M. Clark; M. D evlin; P. Fallon; I. M. Hibbert; D. T. Joss; D. R. LaFosse; P. J. Nolan; N. J. O'Brien; E. S. Paul; J. Pfohl; D. G. Sarantites; R. K. Sheline; S. L. Shepherd; J. Simpson; R. Wadsworth; M. T. Matev; A. V. Afanasjev; J. Dobaczewski; G. A. Lalazissis; W. Nazarewicz; W. Satula

2001-05-15

377

Earth: Earth Science and Health  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A major new NASA initiative on environmental change and health has been established to promote the application of Earth science remote sensing data, information, observations, and technologies to issues of human health. NASA's Earth Sciences suite of Earth observing instruments are now providing improved observations science, data, and advanced technologies about the Earth's land, atmosphere, and oceans. These new space-based resources are being combined with other agency and university resources, data integration and fusion technologies, geographic information systems (GIS), and the spectrum of tools available from the public health community, making it possible to better understand how the environment and climate are linked to specific diseases, to improve outbreak prediction, and to minimize disease risk. This presentation is an overview of NASA's tools, capabilities, and research advances in this initiative.

Maynard, Nancy G.

2001-01-01

378

The three domains of the mitochondrial outer membrane protein Mim1 have discrete functions in assembly of the TOM complex.  

PubMed

The assembly of mitochondrial outer membrane proteins is an essential process, mediated by the SAM complex and a set of additional protein modules. We show that one of these, Mim1, is anchored in the outer membrane with its N-terminus exposed to the cytosol and its C-terminus in the mitochondrial intermembrane space. Using an in vitro assay to measure the multi-step pathway for assembly of Tom40 into the TOM complex, we find that an "early reaction" mediated by the SAM complex is regulated by the N-terminal domain of Mim1. In addition, a "late reaction" catalysed by the Sam37 subunit of the SAM complex is also influenced by Mim1. Thus, Mim1 participates at multiple stages in the assembly of the TOM complex. PMID:19345216

Lueder, Franziska; Lithgow, Trevor

2009-05-01

379

Autophagy-receptors link myosin VI to autophagosomes to mediate Tom1-dependent autophagosome maturation and fusion with the lysosome  

PubMed Central

Autophagy targets pathogens, damaged organelles and protein aggregates for lysosomal degradation. These ubiquitinated cargoes are recognised by specific autophagy receptors, which recruit LC3-positive membranes to form autophagosomes. Subsequently, autophagosomes fuse with endosomes and lysosomes, thus facilitating degradation of their content, however, the machinery that targets and mediates fusion of these organelles with autophagosomes remains to be established. Here we demonstrate that myosin VI, in concert with its adaptor proteins NDP52, optineurin, T6BP and Tom1, plays a crucial role in autophagy. We identify Tom1 as a myosin VI binding partner on endosomes and demonstrate that their loss reduces autophagosomal delivery of endocytic cargo and causes a block in autophagosome-lysosome fusion. We propose that myosin VI delivers endosomal membranes containing Tom1 to autophagosomes by docking to NDP52, T6BP and optineurin thereby promoting autophagosome maturation and thus driving fusion with lysosomes. PMID:23023224

Tumbarello, David A.; Waxse, Bennett J.; Arden, Susan D.; Bright, Nicholas A.; Kendrick-Jones, John; Buss, Folma

2012-01-01

380

Biogenesis of the mitochondrial Tom40 channel in skeletal muscle from aged animals and its adaptability to chronic contractile activity.  

PubMed

Evidence exists that mitochondrial content and/or function is reduced in muscle of aging individuals. The purposes of this study were to investigate the contribution of outer membrane protein import and assembly processes to this decline and to determine whether the assembly process could adapt to chronic contractile activity (CCA). Tom40 assembly into the translocases of the outer membrane (TOM complex) was measured in subsarcolemmal mitochondria obtained from young (6 mo old) and aged (36 mo old) Fischer 344 x Brown Norway animals. While the initial import of Tom40 did not differ between young and aged animals, its subsequent assembly into the final approximately 380 kDa complex was 2.2-fold higher (P < 0.05) in mitochondria from aged compared with young animals. This was associated with a higher abundance of Tom22, a protein vital for the assembly process. CCA induced a greater initial import and subsequent assembly of Tom40 in mitochondria from young animals, resulting in a CCA-induced 75% increase (P < 0.05) in Tom40 within mitochondria. This effect of CCA was attenuated in mitochondria from old animals. These data suggest that the import and assembly of proteins into the outer membrane do not contribute to reduced mitochondrial content or function in aged animals. Indeed, the greater assembly rate in mitochondria from aged animals may be a compensatory mechanism attempting to offset any decrements in mitochondrial content or function within aged muscle. Our data also indicate the potential of CCA to contribute to increased mitochondrial biogenesis in muscle through changes in the outer membrane import and assembly pathway. PMID:20107041

Joseph, Anna-Maria; Ljubicic, Vladimir; Adhihetty, Peter J; Hood, David A

2010-06-01

381

Toms Creek Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle Demonstration Project. Annual report, [January 1, 1993--December 31, 1993  

SciTech Connect

The first Annual Technical Progress Report for the period ending December 31, 1993, summarizes the work done to date by Tampella Power Corporation and Enviropower Inc. Enviropower Inc.`s efforts were concentrated on the Toms Creek PDS (Preliminary Design and Studies). The PDS was based on a Gasification Island size providing coal gas to General Electric`s frame 6(B) gas turbine. During the course of the project, the scope of the PDS was expanded to include heat and material balances and selected equipment sizing for an IGCC plant size incorporating General Electric`s newly introduced 6(FA) gas turbine. The reasons for this revision were improved plant economics and performance. Tampella Power Corporation`s efforts were also concentrated on Toms Creek design. Information provided by Enviropower Inc. was used to generate more detailed heat and material balances; P&IDs; equipment and system design; and economic evaluation data. Tampella Power Corporation also performed several site specific heat and material balance calculations and economic analyses to provide the basis for evaluating alternate locations for the Project.

Feher, G.

1994-03-01

382

Computer controlled cryo-electron microscopy--TOM² a software package for high-throughput applications.  

PubMed

Automated data acquisition expedites structural studies by electron microscopy and it allows to collect data sets of unprecedented size and consistent quality. In electron tomography it greatly facilitates the systematic exploration of large cellular landscapes and in single particle analysis it allows to generate data sets for an exhaustive classification of coexisting molecular states. Here we describe a novel software philosophy and architecture that can be used for a great variety of automated data acquisition scenarios. Based on our original software package TOM, the new TOM(2) package has been designed in an object-oriented way. The whole program can be seen as a collection of self-sufficient modules with defined relationships acting in a concerted manner. It subdivides data acquisition into a set of hierarchical tasks, bonding data structure and the operations to be performed tightly together. To demonstrate its capacity for high-throughput data acquisition it has been used in conjunction with instrumentation combining the latest technological achievements in electron optics, cryogenics and robotics. Its performance is demonstrated with a single particle analysis case study and with a batch tomography application. PMID:21704708

Korinek, Andreas; Beck, Florian; Baumeister, Wolfgang; Nickell, Stephan; Plitzko, Jürgen M

2011-09-01

383

The observation of atmospheric structure with TOMS and some potential advancements. [Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An overview is given of the Nimbus 7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) which was designed to observe the spatial characteristics of total ozone that were not resolved by the nadir-viewing Nimbus BUV and SBUV instruments. At the wavelengths suitable for total ozone measurements, the radiance is large enough that the entire daytime atmosphere could be surveyed with about 50-km resolution from a polar orbiting satellite. The resulting high spatial resolution TOMS ozone images are found to reflect the internal dynamic structure of the lower atmosphere. Features which can be identified and tracked include: planetary wave scale troughs and ridges, mesoscale cutoff lows and rapidly moving troughs, jet stream confluence and difluence areas, hurricanes, and polar night lows. These features control the ozone above any given location and account for nearly all the variance in the total ozone. The instrument has been used to track the volcanic eruption clouds from El Chichon, Mount St. Helens, Alaid, and smaller eruptions such as Galunggung. It would be feasible to use a similar instrument on a geostationary platform to obtain half-hourly maps. Determination of the vertical ozone distribution in the lower stratosphere using Radon transform principles would be of importance in measuring jet stream folds and the related troposphere-stratosphere exchange.

Krueger, A. J.

1985-01-01

384

The Toms River Childhood Cancer Cluster: Coupled Groundwater and Water Distribution System Modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Toms River, New Jersey is the location of a statistically significant childhood cancer cluster. A 1995 cancer investigation indicated that relative to the state, the Toms River section of Dover Township had excess childhood cancer incidence for all malignant cancers combined, brain and central nervous system (CNS) cancers, and leukemia. Children under the age of five were found to have a seven-fold increase in brain and CNS cancer. The community's concern focused on the possibility that exposure to environmental contaminants may be related to the incidence of these childhood cancers. Two Superfund sites in Dover Township were implicated as having a possible impact on the local water supply. One of these, the Reich Farm site, is a source of contaminants to the aquifer that serves a major well field for Toms River. Contaminants in the aquifer include TCE, PCE and styrene-acrylonitrile (SAN) trimer. In 1997, the New Jersey Department of Health and Senior Services and the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry began an epidemiology study to evaluate the relationship between the environmental exposure pathways and the elevated childhood cancer incidence. Toxicity studies for the SAN trimer were also initiated. Groundwater modeling was undertaken to establish the historical relationship between the Reich Farm site and the municipal well field and to aid in the management and protection of the aquifer and well field to ensure both water quality and quantity. The modeling of the water distribution system for Toms River was also part of the study. Groundwater flow from the Reich Farm Superfund site to the municipal well field for Toms River was modeled for a thirty-year time period using MODFLOW. To account for the growth and development of the well field within the modeling domain, a transient model was constructed. The use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and databases to manage, maintain, and compile field observations for model input and calibration was an important part of the work. GIS and databases were important tools in assessing the quality of the data, discovering and correcting errors in the field data (including surveying inconsistencies), as well as providing an efficient and automated means to visualize the data. Model calibration exercises indicated that a more physically based spatial and temporally variable recharge was necessary to account for dramatic fluctuations in water levels due to seasonal variations. The accurate simulation of the transient groundwater flow system was essential for the subsequent prediction of contaminant migration from the superfund site to the municipal wells and then subsequently into the modeled water distribution system. The independent estimation of the adsorption parameters of the SAN trimer on the porous media of the aquifer was an important aspect of the determination of both the average travel time and the breakthrough of the chemical at the municipal well field. The modeling methodology included an uncertainty analysis of the estimated exposure concentration in the water distribution system given uncertain groundwater parameters. Distributed computing with a Monte Carlo analysis was used for this work. The results of the modeling study were used to assist in the definition of the temporal integration periods in the epidemiology study. The predicted historical breakthrough curve of the SAN trimer in the municipal wells correlates with the period with the excess childhood cancer incidence.

Sykes, J. F.; Normani, S. D.

2003-12-01

385

Self-association and precursor protein binding of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Tom40p, the core component of the protein translocation channel of the mitochondrial outer membrane.  

PubMed Central

The precursor protein translocase of the mitochondrial outer membrane (Tom) is a multi-subunit complex containing receptors and a general import channel, of which the core component is Tom40p. Nuclear-encoded mitochondrial precursor proteins are first recognized by surface receptors and then pass through the import channel. The Tom complex has been purified; however, the protein-protein interactions that drive its assembly and maintain its stability have been difficult to study. Here we show that Saccharomyces cerevisiae Tom40p expressed in bacteria and purified to homogeneity associates efficiently with itself. The self-association is very strong and can withstand up to 4 M urea or 1 M salt. The tight self-association does not require the N-terminal segment of Tom40p. Furthermore, purified Tom40p preferentially recognizes the targeting sequence of mitochondrial precursor proteins. Although the binding of the targeting sequence to Tom40p is inhibited by urea concentrations in excess of 1 M, it is moderately resistant to 1 M salt. Simultaneous self-assembly and precursor protein binding suggest that Tom40p contains at least two different domains mediating these processes. The experimental approach described here should be useful for analysing protein-protein interactions involving individual or groups of components of the mitochondrial import machinery. PMID:11336653

Gordon, D M; Wang, J; Amutha, B; Pain, D

2001-01-01

386

UCSD Shipping Rate Quote Please fill out this form completely. Print and Fax to: Tom Pugh, Shipping Coordinator, (858) 693-0864.  

E-print Network

UCSD Shipping Rate Quote Please fill out this form completely. Print and Fax to: Tom Pugh, Shipping Coordinator, (858) 693-0864. Please Note: This is not a Shipping Memo; it is only a quote request. Shipper: ________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________ Questions? Please contact Tom Pugh, Shipping Coordinator, (858) 536-3225 x244. Print Form #12;

Russell, Lynn

387

SphagnumSphagnum Production and Decomposition in a Mountain Raised BogProduction and Decomposition in a Mountain Raised Bog TomTomss HHjekjek  

E-print Network

, decomposition and decomposability in six dominant Sphagnum species in a Central European mountain patterned mireSphagnumSphagnum Production and Decomposition in a Mountain Raised BogProduction and Decomposition in a Mountain Raised Bog TomTomásás HHáájekjek The Third International Symposium on the Biology of Sphagnum

Hájek, Tomá�

388

Amnon H. Eden, Tom Mens. "Measuring Software Flexibility." IEE Software, Vol. 153, No. 3 (Jun. 2006), pp. 113126. London, UK: The Institution of Engineering and Technology.  

E-print Network

Amnon H. Eden, Tom Mens. "Measuring Software Flexibility." IEE Software, Vol. 153, No. 3 (Jun. 2006 1744-8050, 2005. Measuring Software Flexibility Amnon H. Eden (1), Tom Mens (2) Abstract. Flexibility flexible than others but stop short of suggesting objective criteria for quantifying such claims

Eden, Amnon

389

Sahara mineral dust measurements from TOMS: Comparison to surface observations over the Middle East for the extreme dust storm, March 14-17, 1998  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comparison of the TOMS aerosol index (AI) with both measurements of dust concentrations and synoptic data over the Middle East for the extremely heavy dust storm of March 14-17, 1998, is performed. Time series over Algeria, Libya, and Israel yield the following findings: The peak values in both surface concentrations and TOMS data suggest that AI values of 2.5

P. Alpert; E. Ganor

2001-01-01

390

Asian-Style Shrimp Noodle Soup with Lemongrass and Coconut Milk By Tom McNary of Carried Away, Aptos, CA  

E-print Network

Asian-Style Shrimp Noodle Soup with Lemongrass and Coconut Milk By Tom McNary of Carried Away teaspoon salt 2 tablespoons fish sauce 1 can coconut milk 1¼ pounds gulf shrimp, peeled Chef Tom Mc juice, salt, fish sauce, coconut milk and shrimp. Simmer for about 5 minutes until shrimp is pink

California at Santa Cruz, University of

391

Scorched Earth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For the past three years, leading scientists from more than 40 countries have been conducting a physical of the planet. They have monitored its vital signs, probed its parts, taken its temperature, measured its bodily fluids. This article deals with the global-warming report for the United Nations released by a panel of 1,200 scientists at a news…

Monastersky, Richard

2007-01-01

392

Gravity Probe B Gyroscope Rotor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Gravity Probe B (GP-B) is the relativity experiment developed at Stanford University to test two extraordinary predictions of Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity. The experiment will measure, very precisely, the expected tiny changes in the direction of the spin axes of four gyroscopes contained in an Earth-orbiting satellite at a 400-mile altitude. So free are the gyroscopes from disturbance that they will provide an almost perfect space-time reference system. They will measure how space and time are very slightly warped by the presence of the Earth, and, more profoundly, how the Earth's rotation very slightly drags space-time around with it. These effects, though small for the Earth, have far-reaching implications for the nature of matter and the structure of the Universe. This photograph is a close up of a niobium-coated gyroscope motor and its housing halves. GP-B is among the most thoroughly researched programs ever undertaken by NASA. This is the story of a scientific quest in which physicists and engineers have collaborated closely over many years. Inspired by their quest, they have invented a whole range of technologies that are already enlivening other branches of science and engineering. Launched April 20, 2004 , the GP-B program was managed for NASA by the Marshall Space Flight Center. Development of the GP-B is the responsibility of Stanford University along with major subcontractor Lockheed Martin Corporation. (Image credit to Don Harley.)

2003-01-01

393

Gravity Probe B Space Vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The space vehicle for Gravity Probe B (GP-B) arrives at the launch site at Vandenburg Air Force Base. GP-B is the relativity experiment being developed at Stanford University to test two extraordinary predictions of Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity. The experiment will measure, very precisely, the expected tiny changes in the direction of the spin axes of four gyroscopes contained in an Earth-orbiting satellite at a 400-mile altitude. So free are the gyroscopes from disturbance that they will provide an almost perfect space-time reference system. They will measure how space and time are very slightly warped by the presence of the Earth, and, more profoundly, how the Earth's rotation very slightly drags space-time around with it. These effects, though small for the Earth, have far-reaching implications for the nature of matter and the structure of the Universe. GP-B is among the most thoroughly researched programs ever undertaken by NASA. This is the story of a scientific quest in which physicists and engineers have collaborated closely over many years. Inspired by their quest, they have invented a whole range of technologies that are already enlivening other branches of science and engineering. Scheduled for launch in 2003 and managed for NASA by the Marshall Space Flight Center, development of the GP-B is the responsibility of Stanford University, with major subcontractor Lockheed Martin Corporation.

2003-01-01

394

Determination of the UV solar risk in Argentina with high-resolution maps calculated using TOMS ozone climatology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The connection between ultraviolet (UV) radiation and various skin diseases is well known. In this work, we present the computer program "UVARG", developed in order to prevent the risk of getting sunburn for persons exposed to solar UV radiation in Argentina, a country that extends from low (tropical) to high southern hemisphere latitudes. The software calculates the so-called "erythemal irradiance", i.e., the spectral irradiance weighted by the McKinlay and Diffey action spectrum for erythema and integrated in wavelength. The erythemal irradiance depends mainly on the following geophysical parameters: solar elevation, total ozone column, surface altitude, surface albedo, total aerosol optical depth and Sun-Earth distance. Minor corrections are due to the variability in the vertical ozone, aerosol, pressure, humidity and temperature profiles and the extraterrestrial spectral solar UV irradiance. Key parameter in the software is a total ozone column climatology incorporating monthly averages, standard deviations and tendencies for the particular geographical situation of Argentina that was obtained from TOMS/NASA satellite data from 1978 to 2000. Different skin types are considered in order to determine the sunburn risk at any time of the day and any day of the year, with and without sunscreen protection. We present examples of the software for three different regions: the high altitude tropical Puna of Atacama desert in the North-West, Tierra del Fuego in the South when the ozone hole event overpasses and low summertime ozone conditions over Buenos Aires, the largest populated city in the country. In particular, we analyzed the maximum time for persons having different skin types during representative days of the year (southern hemisphere equinoxes and solstices). This work was made possible by the collaboration between the Argentine Skin Cancer Foundation, the Institute of Physics Rosario (CONICET-National University of Rosario, Argentina) and the Institute of Medical Physics, University of Innsbruck, Austria. With the teamwork of physicians and physicists, a scientifically reliable and easy-to-handle tool was developed to predict the risk of solar exposure in Argentina. It can be used by dermatologists as well as health authorities and educators in order to prevent health problems induced by solar UV radiation.

Piacentini, Rubén D.; Cede, Alexander; Luccini, Eduardo; Stengel, Fernando

2004-01-01

395

Evaluating Ultraviolet Radiation Exposures Determined from TOMS Satellite Data at Sites of Amphibian Declines in Central and South America  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Many amphibian species have experienced substantial population declines, or have disappeared altogether, during the last several decades at a number of amphibian census sites in Central and South America. This study addresses the use of satellite-derived trends in solar ultraviolet-B (UV-B; 280-320 nm) radiation exposures at these sites over the last two decades, and is intended to demonstrate a role for satellite observations in determining whether UV-B radiation is a contributing factor in amphibian declines. UV-B radiation levels at the Earth's surface were derived from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) satellite data, typically acquired daily since 1979. These data were used to calculate the daily erythemal (sunburning) UV-B, or UV-B(sub ery), exposures at the latitude, longitude, and elevation of each of 20 census sites. The annually averaged UV-B(sub ery) dose, as well as the maximum values, have been increasing in both Central and South America, with higher levels received at the Central American sites. The annually averaged UV-B(sub ery) exposures increased significantly from 1979-1998 at all 11 Central American sites examined (r(exp 2) = 0.60 - 0.79; P<=0.015), with smaller but significant increases at five of the nine South American sites (r(exp 2) = 0.24-0.42; P<=0.05). The contribution of the highest UV-B(sub ery) exposure levels (>= 6750 J/sq m*d) to the annual UV-B(sub ery) total has increased from approx. 5% to approx. 15% in Central America over the 19 year period, but actual daily exposures for each species are unknown. Synergy among UV-B radiation and other factors, especially those associated with alterations of water chemistry (e.g., acidification) in aqueous habitats is discussed. These findings justify further research concerning whether UV-B(sub ery) radiation plays a role in amphibian population declines and extinctions.

Middleton, Elizabeth M.; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

396

How probes work  

Microsoft Academic Search

'Cultural probes', since first being proposed and described by Bill Gaver and his colleagues, have been adapted and appropriated for a range of purposes within a variety of technology projects. In this paper we critically review different uses of Probes and discuss common aspects of different Probe variants. We also present and critique some of the debate around Probes through

Connor Graham; Mark Rouncefield; Martin R. Gibbs; Frank Vetere; Keith Cheverst

2007-01-01

397

Digital Earth - A sustainable Earth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

All life, particularly human, cannot be sustainable, unless complimented with shelter, poverty reduction, provision of basic infrastructure and services, equal opportunities and social justice. Yet, in the context of cities, it is believed that they can accommodate more and more people, endlessly, regardless to their carrying capacity and increasing ecological footprint. The 'inclusion', for bringing more and more people in the purview of development is often limited to social and economic inclusion rather than spatial and ecological inclusion. Economic investment decisions are also not always supported with spatial planning decisions. Most planning for a sustainable Earth, be at a level of rural settlement, city, region, national or Global, fail on the capacity and capability fronts. In India, for example, out of some 8,000 towns and cities, Master Plans exist for only about 1,800. A chapter on sustainability or environment is neither statutorily compulsory nor a norm for these Master Plans. Geospatial technologies including Remote Sensing, GIS, Indian National Spatial Data Infrastructure (NSDI), Indian National Urban Information Systems (NUIS), Indian Environmental Information System (ENVIS), and Indian National GIS (NGIS), etc. have potential to map, analyse, visualize and take sustainable developmental decisions based on participatory social, economic and social inclusion. Sustainable Earth, at all scales, is a logical and natural outcome of a digitally mapped, conceived and planned Earth. Digital Earth, in fact, itself offers a platform to dovetail the ecological, social and economic considerations in transforming it into a sustainable Earth.

Mahavir

2014-02-01

398

Hydrodynamic ultrasonic probe  

DOEpatents

An improved probe for in-service ultrasonic inspection of long lengths of a workpiece, such as small diameter tubing from the interior. The improved probe utilizes a conventional transducer or transducers configured to inspect the tubing for flaws and/or wall thickness variations. The probe utilizes a hydraulic technique, in place of the conventional mechanical guides or bushings, which allows the probe to move rectilinearly or rotationally while preventing cocking thereof in the tube and provides damping vibration of the probe. The probe thus has lower friction and higher inspection speed than presently known probes.

Day, Robert A. (Livermore, CA); Conti, Armond E. (San Jose, CA)

1980-01-01

399

Observations of triboelectric charging effects on Langmuir-type probes in dusty plasma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigation of Earth's mesosphere using sounding rockets equipped with a myriad of instruments has been a highly active field in the last 2 decades. This paper presents data from three separate instruments: an RF impedance probe, a DC fixed bias Langmuir probe, and an electric field probe, that were flown on a mesospheric sounding rocket flight investigating the presence of

Aroh Barjatya; Charles M. Swenson

2006-01-01

400

Rare earths  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Global mine production of rare earths was estimated to have declined slightly in 2012 relative to 2011 (Fig. 1). Production in China was estimated to have decreased to 95 from 105 kt (104,700 from 115,700 st) in 2011, while new mine production in the United States and Australia increased.

Gambogi, J.

2013-01-01

401

Spaceship Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, from Science NetLinks, students will develop an understanding of our planet as a system by designing a very-long-duration space mission in which the life-support system is patterned after that of earth.

Science Netlinks;

2002-09-10

402

Earth's Potentiosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

Viscoelastic fluid theory suggests that Earth's upper mantle and transition zone comprise a coherent thermomechanical boundary layer. Based on the remarkable correspondence between theoretical predictions and observable seismic features in the upper mantle, this finding has important ramifications for global tectonics. The theory, parameterized in terms of Weissenberg number (Wi) and scaled using the average thickness of the mechanical lithosphere

R. L. Patton

2001-01-01

403

Earth Walk  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this hands-on and feet-on excursion, learners take a science walk to visualize the planet's immense size and numerous structures, without the usual scale and ratio dimensions found in most textbooks. Learners also compare their body's height to a scaled-down Earth.

Muller, Eric

1995-01-01

404

Comparisons Between Ground Measurements of Broadband UV Irradiance (300-380 nm) and TOMS UV Estimates at Moscow for 1979-2000  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We show the comparisons between ground-based measurements of spectrally integrated (300 nm to 380 nm) ultraviolet (UV) irradiance with satellite estimates from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) total ozone and reflectivity data for the whole period of TOMS measurements (1979-2000) over the Meteorological Observatory of Moscow State University (MO MSU), Moscow, Russia. Several aspects of the comparisons are analyzed, including effects of cloudiness, aerosol, and snow cover. Special emphasis is given to the effect of different spatial and temporal averaging of ground-based data when comparing with low-resolution satellite measurements (TOMS footprint area 50-200 sq km). The comparisons in cloudless scenes with different aerosol loading have revealed TOMS irradiance overestimates from +5% to +20%. A-posteriori correction of the TOMS data accounting for boundary layer aerosol absorption (single scattering albedo of 0.92) eliminates the bias for cloud-free conditions. The single scattering albedo was independently verified using CIMEL sun and sky-radiance measurements at MO MSU in September 2001. The mean relative difference between TOMS UV estimates and ground UV measurements mainly lies within 1 10% for both snow-free and snow period with a tendency to TOMS overestimation in snow-free period especially at overcast conditions when the positive bias reaches 15-17%. The analysis of interannual UV variations shows quite similar behavior for both TOMS and ground measurements (correlation coefficient r=0.8). No long-term trend in the annual mean bias was found for both clear-sky and all-sky conditions with snow and without snow. Both TOMS and ground data show positive trend in UV irradiance between 1979 and 2000. The UV trend is attributed to decreases in both cloudiness and aerosol optical thickness during the late 1990's over Moscow region. However, if the analyzed period is extended to include pre-TOMS era (1968-2000 period), no trend in ground UV irradiance is detected.

Yurova, Alla Y.; Krotkov, Nicholay A.; Herman, Jay R.; Bhartia, P. K. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

405

Cross Calibration of TOMS, SBUV/2 and Sciamachy Radiances from Ground Observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Verification of a stratospheric ozone recovery remains a high priority for environmental research and policy definition. Models predict an ozone recovery at a much lower rate than the measured depletion rate observed to date. Therefore improved precision of the satellite and ground ozone observing systems are required over the long term to verify recovery. We have shown that validation of radiances is the most effective means for correcting absolute accuracy and long term drifts of backscatter type satellite measurements. This method by-passes the algorithms used for both satellite and ground based measurements which are normally used to validate and correct the satellite data. Validation of radiances will also improve all higher level data products derived from the satellite observations. Backscatter algorithms suffer from several errors such as unrepresentative a-priori data and air mass factor corrections. Radiance comparisons employ forward models but are inherently more accurate and than inverse (retrieval) algorithms. A new method for satellite validation is planned which will compliment measurements from the existing ground-based networks. This method will employ very accurate comparisons between ground based zenith sky radiances and satellite nadir radiances. These comparisons will rely heavily on the experience derived from the Shuttle SBUV (SSBUV) program which provided a reference standard of radiance measurements for SBUV/2, TOMS, and GOME. This new measurement program, called "Skyrad", employs two well established capabilities at the Goddard Space Flight Center, 1) the SSBUV calibration facilities and 2) the radiative transfer codes used for the TOMS and SBUV/2 algorithms and their subsequent refinements. Radiative transfer calculations show that ground based zenith sky and satellite nadir backscatter ultraviolet comparisons can be made very accurately under certain viewing conditions. The Skyrad instruments (SSBUV, Brewer spectrophotometers, and possibly others) will be calibrated and maintained to a precision of a few tenths of a percent. Skyrad data will then enable long term calibration of upcoming satellite instruments such as QuickTOMS. SBUV/2s and SCIAMACHY with a high degree of precision. This technique can be further employed to monitor the performance of future instruments such as GOME-2, OMI, and OMPS. Initial ground observations taken from Goddard Space Flight Center compared with radiative transfer calculations has indicated the feasibility of this method.

Hillsenrath, Ernest; Ahmad, Ziauddin; Bhartia, Pawan K. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

406

Profiles in Online Learning: A Series on Leadership--Tom Layton: Judo and the Art of Technology Innovation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Profiles a high school technology teacher and creator of CyberSchool, a distance learning program of the Eugene (Oregon) School District. Discusses Tom Layton's education, early work experience, establishment of a high school English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) program, integration of computers into the classroom, reputation as a technology leader,…

Danielson, Larry

1998-01-01

407

Tom Frank's research interests Remote Sensing Science and applications of GIS to environmental problems in arid lands  

E-print Network

Mojave Rattlesnake This is one of the most dangerous of rattlesnakes in the Mojave Desert. Its venom, which it uses call again! Tom #12;TarantulaTarantula spiderspider Tarantulas are very large spiders, often with a leg span of six inches. They are usually black and are covered with hair. This imposing appearance has

Frank, Thomas D.

408

Pocc. AKaJ{. HaYK MaTeM. C60PHHK TOM 183 (1992), N16  

E-print Network

Pocc. AKaJ{. HaYK MaTeM. C60PHHK TOM 183 (1992), N16 Russian Acad. Sci. Sb. Math. Vol. 76 (1993 the condenser(E, F). This capacity can be defined in severaldifferent ways. The one adopted by Goncharenabledhim

Saff, E. B.

409

Seasonal Characteristics of Tropical Ozone Profiles using the SHADOZ Ozonesonde Data Set: Comparisons with TOMS Tropical Ozone Climatology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Advances in tropospheric ozone data products being developed for tropical and subtropical regions using TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) and other satellites are motivating efforts to renew and expand the collection of balloon-borne ozonesonde observations. The SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere ADditional OZonesondes) project is a web-based archive established since 1998. It's goals are to support validation of TOMS and SBUV (Solar Backscatter UV) satellite ozone measurements and to improve remote sensing techniques for estimating tropical and subtropical ozone. Profile data are taken from balloon-borne ozonesondes, currently at 11 stations coordinating weekly to bi-weekly launches. Station data are publically available at a central location via the internet: . Since the start of the project, the SHADOZ archive has accumulated over 1500 ozonesonde profiles. Data also includes measurements from various SHADOZ supported field campaigns, such as, the Indian Ocean Experiment (INDOEX), Sounding of Ozone and Water in the Equatorial Region (SOWER) and Aerosols99 Atlantic Cruise. Using data from the archive, profile climatologies from selected stations will be shown to 1/characterize the variability of tropospheric tropical ozone among stations, 2/illustrate the seasonal offsets with respect to the tropical profile used in the TOMS v7 algorithm, and 3/estimate the potential error in TOMS retrieval estimates of the tropospheric portion of the atmosphere.

Witte, J. C.; Thompson, A. M.; Bhartia, P. K. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

410

Oregon State University Student Branch Chapter Inaugurated in March, Prof. Tom Lee Presents a History of Radio  

Microsoft Academic Search

As its inaugural activity, the Oregon State University (OSU) SSCS Student Branch Chapter hosted a presentation by SSCS distinguished lecturer Tom H. Lee on the history of radio. The OSU SSCS student chapter was founded in 2007 to help students interact and communicate with experts and to promote membership in SSCS by demonstrating what we do and what we intend

Sunwoo Kwon; David Gubbins; Pavan Kumar Hanumolu

2008-01-01

411

Editor, Times Union Tom Friedman in his October 21 article, speaks of getting green starting at the top, with  

E-print Network

be green and use the best pollution control technologies, and use alternate waste fuels to reduce ourEditor, Times Union Albany NY Tom Friedman in his October 21 article, speaks of getting green starting at the top, with green governmental leaders. He illustrates this with a New York City taxi story

Columbia University

412

Error Recovery for a Boiler System with OTS PID Controller Tom Anderson, Mei Feng, Steve Riddle, Alexander Romanovsky  

E-print Network

1 Error Recovery for a Boiler System with OTS PID Controller Tom Anderson, Mei Feng, Steve Riddle employing an OTS (Off-The-Shelf) item. The case study used a Simulink model of a steam boiler system, employing software models of the PID controller and the steam boiler system rather than conducting

Newcastle upon Tyne, University of

413

Error Recovery for a Boiler System with OTS PID Controller Tom Anderson, Mei Feng, Steve Riddle, Alexander Romanovsky  

E-print Network

Error Recovery for a Boiler System with OTS PID Controller Tom Anderson, Mei Feng, Steve Riddle-The-Shelf) item. The case study used a Simulink model of a steam boiler system together with an OTS PID in practice, employing software models of the PID controller and the steam boiler system rather than

Newcastle upon Tyne, University of

414

A unique gun application for both high velocity and low velocity projectiles in a standard 155mm long tom gun  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Terminal Ballistics Facility at Sandia National Laboratores in Albuquerque, New Mexico has developed an inexpensive and reliable capability for environmental testing of nuclear and kinetic energy weapon systems using the standard military 155 mm long tom gun. An unusual priming technique and charge configuration developed by Sandia National laboratories provides repeatable results such that payloads may be launched outside

1990-01-01

415

transfer from vision to olfaction (Fig. 3E, bot-tom). Data for all memory transfer experiments  

E-print Network

transfer from vision to olfaction (Fig. 3E, bot- tom). Data for all memory transfer experiments), and CAS (KJCX1-09-03). We thank M.-m. Poo for in- valuable advice, Y.-q. Peng for programming, and C-Saavedra,2 Eugene Berezikov,1 Ewart de Bruijn,1 H. Robert Horvitz,2 Sakari Kauppinen,4 Ronald H. A. Plasterk1

Horvitz, H. Robert

416

ProxTom lymphatic vessel reporter mice reveal Prox1 expression in the adrenal medulla, megakaryocytes, and platelets.  

PubMed

Lymphatic vessels (LVs) are important structures for antigen presentation, for lipid metabolism, and as conduits for tumor metastases, but they have been difficult to visualize in vivo. Prox1 is a transcription factor that is necessary for lymphangiogenesis in ontogeny and the maintenance of LVs. To visualize LVs in the lymph node of a living mouse in real time, we made the ProxTom transgenic mouse in a C57BL/6 background using red fluorescent LVs that are suitable for in vivo imaging. The ProxTom transgene contained all Prox1 regulatory sequences and was faithfully expressed in LVs coincident with endogenous Prox1 expression. The progenies of a ProxTom × Hec6stGFP cross were imaged using two-photon laser scanning microscopy, allowing the simultaneous visualization of LVs and high endothelial venules in a lymph node of a living mouse for the first time. We confirmed the expression of Prox1 in the adult liver, lens, and dentate gyrus. These intensely fluorescent mice revealed the expression of Prox1 in three novel sites: the neuroendocrine cells of the adrenal medulla, megakaryocytes, and platelets. The novel sites identified herein suggest previously unknown roles for Prox1. The faithful expression of the fluorescent reporter in ProxTom LVs indicates that these mice have potential utility in the study of diseases as diverse as lymphedema, filariasis, transplant rejection, obesity, and tumor metastasis. PMID:22310467

Truman, Lucy A; Bentley, Kevin L; Smith, Elenoe C; Massaro, Stephanie A; Gonzalez, David G; Haberman, Ann M; Hill, Myriam; Jones, Dennis; Min, Wang; Krause, Diane S; Ruddle, Nancy H

2012-04-01

417

ProxTom Lymphatic Vessel Reporter Mice Reveal Prox1 Expression in the Adrenal Medulla, Megakaryocytes, and Platelets  

PubMed Central

Lymphatic vessels (LVs) are important structures for antigen presentation, for lipid metabolism, and as conduits for tumor metastases, but they have been difficult to visualize in vivo. Prox1 is a transcription factor that is necessary for lymphangiogenesis in ontogeny and the maintenance of LVs. To visualize LVs in the lymph node of a living mouse in real time, we made the ProxTom transgenic mouse in a C57BL/6 background using red fluorescent LVs that are suitable for in vivo imaging. The ProxTom transgene contained all Prox1 regulatory sequences and was faithfully expressed in LVs coincident with endogenous Prox1 expression. The progenies of a ProxTom × Hec6stGFP cross were imaged using two-photon laser scanning microscopy, allowing the simultaneous visualization of LVs and high endothelial venules in a lymph node of a living mouse for the first time. We confirmed the expression of Prox1 in the adult liver, lens, and dentate gyrus. These intensely fluorescent mice revealed the expression of Prox1 in three novel sites: the neuroendocrine cells of the adrenal medulla, megakaryocytes, and platelets. The novel sites identified herein suggest previously unknown roles for Prox1. The faithful expression of the fluorescent reporter in ProxTom LVs indicates that these mice have potential utility in the study of diseases as diverse as lymphedema, filariasis, transplant rejection, obesity, and tumor metastasis. PMID:22310467

Truman, Lucy A.; Bentley, Kevin L.; Smith, Elenoe C.; Massaro, Stephanie A.; Gonzalez, David G.; Haberman, Ann M.; Hill, Myriam; Jones, Dennis; Min, Wang; Krause, Diane S.; Ruddle, Nancy H.

2012-01-01

418

Invasion by alien species and size and location of nature reserves Petr PYSEK\\ Toms KUCERA1 and Vojtech JAROSK2  

E-print Network

Invasion by alien species and size and location of nature reserves Petr PYSEK\\ Tomás KUCERA1 in the landscape arfect the probability that it will be exposed to invasion by alien species? ODe of the most species than would a single reserve of equal total area (the SLOSS model). Arguments have been accumulated

Kratochvíl, Lukas

419

Entropy production in irreversible systems described by a Fokker-Planck equation Tnia Tom and Mrio J. de Oliveira  

E-print Network

Entropy production in irreversible systems described by a Fokker-Planck equation Tânia Tomé and the entropy production in nonequilibrium interacting particle systems described by a Fokker-Planck equation by the use of a suitable master equation representation. The irreversible character is provided either

de Oliveira, Mário José

420

Ground-based assessment of Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) data for dust transport over the northeastern Mediterranean  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiyear daily surface aerosol aluminum (Al) concentration and sunphotometer measurements at Erdemli (Turkey) sampling station were used to assess the performance of Absorbing Aerosol Index (AAI) and Aerosol Optical Thickness (AOT) retrieved from the daily Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) over the northeastern Mediterranean. A total of 98 moderate-to-high intensity dust events with durations from 1 day to 1 week

Nilgün Kubilay; Temel Oguz; Mustafa Koçak; Omar Torres

2005-01-01

421

Temporal and spatial variability of total ozone column using TOMS satellite observations and comparison with measurements from the Dobson network  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents a detailed analysis of seasonal and interannual variability of total ozone content (TOC) at 16 different stations in Africa using Nimbus-7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) data for a period of 14 years (January 1979–December 1992). The analysis provides not only an estimate of the long-term annual and seasonal trends but also statistics of means and variability

K. O. Ogunjobi

2011-01-01

422

Ecosystem Informatics Strategic Initiative Final Report 2009 Julia Jones, Geosciences; Tom Dietterich, Computer Science; Enrique Thomann, Mathematics; Ed  

E-print Network

Ecosystem Informatics Strategic Initiative Final Report 2009 Julia Jones, Geosciences; Tom over the last five years. The Ecosystem Informatics program at Oregon State University has established a presence here at the University and on a global scale. The OSU Ecosystem Informatics IGERT Program (with

Escher, Christine

423

Expunging Father Time: The Search for Temporal Transcendence in the Novels of Aldous Huxley and Tom Robbins  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explores the connection between the time concepts of Aldous Huxley and Tom Robbins. For both authors, time imprisons man on two fronts, or in two cages, if you will. The smaller of these cages is society's concept of time, clock time, which constrains the activities of man, forcing him to submit to his fate as a mere drone

Stephanie Abigail Taylor

2009-01-01

424

Toward the problem of oil and gas bearing capacity of the East Tom-Kolyvan structural zone (Western Siberia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The vast depression in the east Tom-Kolyvan folded zone (West Siberia) has been identified by the geophysical data. The well which uncovered 4000 m deep profile of the Jurassic and Paleozoic deposits has been drilled. The relevance of the research is the oil\\gas-bearing capacity evaluation of the discovered depression in this West Siberia area.

Stolbova, N. F.; Maerkov, P. O.

2014-08-01

425

Impact: Earth!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What would happen if a large meteorite or other object hit the Earth? It's something that has engaged the minds and talents of astrophysicists (and students of all ages) for decades. Now the generally curious can create their own simulated impact with Purdue University's "Impact Earth" website. Visitors can browse the Famous Craters area to get started. This part includes some "classics," such as the Ries Crater and the Tunguska Fireball. Of course, visitors really must use the handy interface to craft their own impact, projectile, and target parameters to get the full effect on how such an event plays out. Also, the site includes a complete Documentation file (a peer-reviewed article) and a detailed glossary.

2013-01-01

426

Earth plasmas  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Fusion is the focus of this section of a tutorial about plasma, one of the four states of matter. This section deals with plasmas on Earth. There is little naturally-occurring plasma here because of the Earth's relatively cool (by universe standards) temperature, but human-made plasma is produced for industry and research purposes. The section explores the use of plasmas in experimental fusion reactors, pointing out three categories of significant unresolved issues that stand in the way of fusion becoming a viable energy source. The use of electromagnets to confine plasmas is discussed. Enlargeable images of fusion reactors are provided, and an explanation of the difference between fission and fusion is supplemented by animations of the two reaction types. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Institute, Space S.

2005-01-01

427

Earth Math  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This text explores a few of the many concepts that frequently come up in the study of Earth systems and global climate change. Students will be exposed to many problems involving unit conversion. Global climate change reports involve terms such as kilowatt-hour, megawatt-hour, and gigawatt-hour, as well as megatons and gigatons. Students will become versed in converting units where appropriate, and through the calculations, will work with the concept of significant figures. Creating linear equations from graphical and tabular information is covered, as well as forecasting. The text is meant to be used as a companion to standard Earth science and mathematics courses, and presents enough application problems to allow students to quantitatively understand typical media reports about global climate change.

2009-01-01

428

Earth Lab  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Earth Lab is a database of fossils, minerals and rocks from the UK. A photograph is displayed for each specimen selected, as well as the scientific name, location and properties or age of the specimen. The fossils can be searched by area, age, and group; minerals by area, element, group, and property; and rocks by area, geological age, and type of rock. A series of questions allows users to identify their own specimens.

429

Earth's Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The total amount of water on Earth, the places in which it is found and the percentages of fresh vs. salt are examined in this lesson. A short demonstration allows students to visualize the percentage differences and a coloring exercise illustrates locations. This lesson uses the 5E instructional model. All background information, student worksheets and images/photographs/data are included in these downloadable sections: Teacher's Guide, Student Capture Sheet and PowerPoint Presentation.

430

Earth's Biomes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What are the characteristics of Earth's biomes? First, open the Biomes Graphic Organizer Now read through Information on Aquatic Biome (Freshwater) and fill in 5 characterestics of a freshwater biome in your graphic organizer. Now read through Information on Desert and fill in 5 characteristics of a desert biome in your graphic organizer. Now read through Information on Rainforest and fill in 5 characteristics of rainforest biome in your graphic organizer. Now ...

Allman, Ms.

2012-04-05

431

Earth Day  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Wow! Endagered species are everywhere! Just understanding the needs of animals will help them to survive longer. Find out how much your use of energy leaves a 'carbon' footprint on the earth. We all need to use our limited resources wisely. Reduce your footprint! Find out how and take the carbon footrpint quiz here. Carbon Footprint Watch the following YouTube video to hear a special message from Carl Hiaasen, the ...

Datwyler, Mrs.

2010-04-19

432

Earth Observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This document is concentrates on a couple of the missions where the Spacelab hardware was used to do Earth science. The Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science (ATLAS) series of missions and the Lidar in-Space Technology Experiment (LITE) mission, the ATLAS being a series of three Shuttle missions that were very much Spacelab missions, are described. A little bit about the history, what the missions were, some of the instruments that were on them, and results are given.

Kaye, Jack

2000-01-01

433

Monitoring Physiological Variables with Membrane Probes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This project has demonstrated the possibility of using membrane probes in rodents to monitor physiological variables for extended periods of time. The utility of these probes in physiological studies of microgravity has been demonstrated. The feasibility of developing on-line sensors has also been demonstrated and allows for the possibility of developing real-time automated monitoring systems which can be used in ground-base physiological research as well as in research and medical monitoring in space. In addition to space applications these techniques can be extended to medical monitoring in critical care situations on earth as well as facilitating research in many human and animal diseases.

Janle, Elsa M.

1997-01-01

434

Some aspects of plasmapause probing by whistlers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A guide to the whistler literature is presented, with emphasis on whistler probing of plasma structure and motions near the plasmapause. Whistler probing experiments have identified several types of variations in plasmasphere radius with local time, including (1) variations of a few tenths of an earth radius over about 20 deg longitude that appear to originate on the nightside of the earth during substorms; (2) a secondary maximum in plasmasphere radius near noon; and (3) the duskside plasmasphere bulge. A variety of remarkable, and as yet incompletely understood, VLF propagation effects occur in the vicinity of the plasmapause, including a decrease in received whistler activity outside the boundary and unusual propagation features such as echoing above the half-equatorial gyrofrequency on paths just outside the plasmapause. Whistlers provide important information on magnetospheric conditions during wave-particle interaction periods, for example, on equatorial electron densities and path magnetic shell parameters needed in modeling studies of observed interactions.

Carpenter, D. L.

1983-12-01

435

Precipitation probes intercomparison  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two versions of precipitation probes were mounted on a C-130 E aircraft. Correlation flights, simultaneous aircraft, and radar measurements were made over Kwajalein in September and October, 1974. The two probes differed primarily in their resolution and the maximum measurable crystal size. The narrow-arm version of the probes had a 150 micrometer size resolution and was able to measure crystals

E. S. Lobl

1978-01-01

436

Galileo Probe Battery System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The conclusions of the Galileo probe battery system are: the battery performance met mission requirements with margin; extensive ground-based and flight tests of batteries prior to probe separation from orbiter provided good prediction of actual entry performance at Jupiter; and the Li-SO2 battery was an important choice for the probe's main power.

Dagarin, B. P.; Taenaka, R. K.; Stofel, E. J.

1997-01-01

437

Full Earth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

View of the Earth as seen by the Apollo 17 crew traveling toward the Moon. This translunar coast photograph extends from the Mediterranean Sea area to the Antarctica South polar ice cap. This is the first time the Apollo trajectory made it possible to photograph the South polar ice cap. Note the heavy cloud cover in the Southern Hemisphere. Almost the entire coastline of Africa is clearly visible. The Arabian Peninsula can be seen at the Northeastern edge of Africa. The large island off the coast of Africa is the Malagasy Republic. The Asian mainland is on the horizon toward the Northeast.

1972-01-01

438

Earth 911  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Earth 911 is an organization focused on empowering the public with community-specific resources to improve their quality of life. To accomplish this goal, they provide information on a wide range of environmental topics including recycling (several types of materials), household hazardous waste, water quality, composting, air pollution prevention, fire prevention, green shopping tips, and mercury pollution. Environmental news links, games and activities for kids, and local news and events are also included. Users may enter a zip code to obtain information on environmental issues specific to where they live.

2004-01-01

439

The Gravity Probe B Science Instrument  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Gravity Probe B (GP-B) experiment employs a unique state-of-the-art science instrument to measure the geodetic and frame-dragging precessions predicted by Einstein's theory of general relativity for gyroscopes orbiting a massive spinning body, in this case the Earth. The GP-B instrument comprises four electrostatically suspended gyroscopes, each of which is independently subject to both the geodetic and frame-dragging precessions, and

John Turneaure

2007-01-01

440

Surface reflections of Pioneer Venus probe signals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As the four Pioneer Venus probes fell within the atmosphere toward the surface of Venus, each of them transmitted a radio signal directly to earth. Because of the relatively broad antenna beamwidth of these small probes, some of the transmitted power went down to the surface of Venus. This paper reports the discovery that the radio signals scattered off the surface are not only detectable but that their characteristics can be determined with a surprising degree of certainty. From these characteristics one can determine parameters of the Venusian atmospheric winds and of the surface that promise to be useful. Most of the scattered energy is that which originally radiated from the probes in a near-horizontal direction; the downward-directed radiation is detectable but much weaker. Refraction in the atmosphere of Venus clearly plays a significant role in establishing both the strength of scatter and its Doppler shift.

Croft, T. A.

1980-01-01

441

Sulfur Earth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Variations in surface tension affect the buoyancy of objects floating in a liquid. Thus an object floating in water will sink deeper in the presence of dishwater fluid. This is a very minor but measurable effect. It causes for instance ducks to drown in aqueous solutions with added surfactant. The surface tension of liquid iron is very strongly affected by the presence of sulfur which acts as a surfactant in this system varying between 1.9 and 0.4 N/m at 10 mass percent Sulfur (Lee & Morita (2002), This last value is inferred to be the maximum value for Sulfur inferred to be present in the liquid outer core. Venting of Sulfur from the liquid core manifests itself on the Earth surface by the 105 to 106 ton of sulfur vented into the atmosphere annually (Wedepohl, 1984). Inspection of surface Sulfur emission indicates that venting is non-homogeneously distributed over the Earth's surface. The implication of such large variation in surface tension in the liquid outer core are that at locally low Sulfur concentration, the liquid outer core does not wet the predominantly MgSiO3 matrix with which it is in contact. However at a local high in Sulfur, the liquid outer core wets this matrix which in the fluid state has a surface tension of 0.4 N/m (Bansal & Doremus, 1986), couples with it, and causes it to sink. This differential and diapiric movement is transmitted through the essentially brittle mantle (1024 Pa.s, Lambeck & Johnson, 1998; the maximum value for ice being about 1030 Pa.s at 0 K, in all likely hood representing an upper bound of viscosity for all materials) and manifests itself on the surface by the roughly 20 km differentiation, about 0.1 % of the total mantle thickness, between topographical heights and lows with concomitant lateral movement in the crust and upper mantle resulting in thin skin tectonics. The brittle nature of the medium though which this movement is transmitted suggests that the extremes in topography of the D" layer are similar in range to those observed on the Earth's surface and are mimicked by lows under the oceans and highs under the altiplanos. Careful and area selective S wave core mantle ellipsometry might be able to discern these core-mantle topographic variations. As such this process demonstrates the validity of the Gaia hypothesis enunciated by Baas Becking(1931) that no ecological niche on our planet is closed off from other niches "nothing in the world is single".

de Jong, B. H.

2007-12-01

442

Solar System: The Earth in Space  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Science Object is the first of four Science Objects in the Solar System SciPack. It provides an understanding of where Earth is located in space and explores evidence used by astronomers to place Earth at this location. Earth is a relatively small planet and the third from the Sun in our solar system. The Sun is the central and largest body in the solar system. Our still-growing knowledge of the solar system comes to us in part by direct observation from Earth, including the use of optical, radio, and x-ray telescopes that are sensitive to a broad spectrum of information coming to us from space; computers that can undertake increasingly complicated calculations, find patterns in data, and support or reject theories about the origins of the solar system; and space probes that send back detailed pictures and other data from distant planets. Learning Outcomes:� Explain that we discovered and learn about the other planets through the use of various kinds of telescopes, space probes, and other technologies.� Relate observations of the motion of objects in the sky to a Sun-centric model of the solar system, including observations of the "wandering" stars (planets) from Earth's frame of reference.� Recognize that Earth is one of the planets in the solar system, that it orbits the Sun just as the other planets do.

National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

2006-11-01

443

Interview with Tom Peters. Father of post-modern corporation speaks out. Interview by Richard D. Brennan, Jr.  

PubMed

Tom Peters has been selected as the opening Keynote speaker at the National Association for Home Care and Hospice's Annual Meeting in Seattle, Washington on October 23-26, 2005. Peters has been described by the Los Angeles Times as the "father of the post-modern corporation." The New Yorker said, "In no small part, what American corporations have become is what Peters has encouraged them to be." Fortune called Tom Peters the top guru of management, and compares him to Ralph Waldo Emerson, Henry David Thoreau, Walt Whitman, and H.L. Mencken. The Economist tagged him the Uber-guru; and BusinessWeek's take on his "unconventional views" led them to label him "business's best friend and worst nightmare." PMID:16035269

Peters, Tom

2005-06-01

444

The outer membrane form of the mitochondrial protein Mcr1 follows a TOM-independent membrane insertion pathway.  

PubMed

The yeast gene MCR1 encodes two isoforms of the mitochondrial NADH-cytochrome b5 reductase. One form is embedded in the outer membrane whereas the other is located in the intermembrane space (IMS). In the present work we investigated the biogenesis of the outer membrane form. We demonstrate that while the IMS form crosses the outer membrane via the translocase of the outer mitochondrial membrane (TOM) complex, the other form is integrated into the outer membrane by a process that does not require any of the known import components at the outer membrane. Thus, the import pathways of the two forms diverge in a stage before the encounter with the TOM complex and their mechanism of biogenesis represents a unique example how to achieve dual localization within one organelle. PMID:18279676

Meineke, Birthe; Engl, Gertraud; Kemper, Christian; Vasiljev-Neumeyer, Andreja; Paulitschke, Hanka; Rapaport, Doron

2008-03-19

445

GOOGLE EARTH QUICK GUIDE (1)Google Earth Features  

E-print Network

GOOGLE EARTH QUICK GUIDE (1)Google Earth Features The Google Earth of the Google Earth window. Often when opening up the Google Earth program, the view screen will be a view of the entire Earth from space. Navigation bar

Smith-Konter, Bridget

446

Effect of Gibberellin and Auxin on Parthenocarpic Fruit Growth Induction in the cv Micro-Tom of Tomato  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of applied gibberellin (GA) and auxin on fruit-set and growth has been investigated in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) cv Micro-Tom. It was found that to prevent competition between developing fruits only one fruit per truss should be left\\u000a on the plant. Unpollinated ovaries responded to GA3 and to different auxins [indol-3-acetic acid, naphthaleneacetic acid, and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D)],

Juan C. Serrani; Mariano Fos; Alejandro Atarés; José L. García-Martínez

2007-01-01

447

Asymmetric Earth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The net rotation, or so-called W-ward drift of the lithosphere, implies a decoupling of the plates relative to the underlying asthenosphere, and a relative "E-ward" mantle flow. This polarized flow can account for a number of asymmetries. When comparing the W-directed versus the E- to NE-directed subduction zones, as a general observation, they have the subduction hinge diverging versus converging relative to the upper plate; low versus high topography and structural elevation respectively; deep versus shallow trenches and foreland basins; shallow versus deep decollement; low versus high basement involvement; high versus low heat flow and gravity anomaly; shallow versus deep asthenosphere; etc. The western limbs of rift zones show S-waves faster in the lithosphere and slower in the asthenosphere with respect to the eastern limb. The asymmetry can be recognized when moving along the "tectonic equator", which describes the fastest flow of plates relative to the mantle, and it undulates relative to the geographic equator. In our reconstructions, the best fit for the tectonic equator has a pole of rotation at latitude -56.4° and longitude 136.7°, with an angular velocity of 1.2036°/Ma. Shear-wave splitting alignments tend to parallel the tectonic flow, apart along the subduction zones where they become orthogonal, as a flow encountering an obstacle. The tectonic equator lies close to the revolution plane of the Moon about the Earth. All these data and interpretations point for an asymmetric Earth, whose nature appears to be related to the rotation and its tidal despinning, combined with the thermal cooling of the planet. However, this model has been questioned on the basis of the high viscosity so far inferred in the asthenosphere. Preliminary modelling shows that the tidal oscillation can generate gravitational wave propagation in the lithosphere, and the wave velocity can increase with the decrease of the asthenospheric viscosity.

Doglioni, Carlo; Carminati, Eugenio; Crespi, Mattia; Cuffaro, Marco; Ismail-Zadeh, Alik; Levshin, Anatoli; Panza, Giuliano F.; Riguzzi, Federica

2010-05-01

448

TOM-independent complex formation of Bax and Bak in mammalian mitochondria during TNFalpha-induced apoptosis.  

PubMed

The Bcl-2 family proteins Bax and Bak are activated in response to many apoptotic stimuli. As a consequence of activation, Bax and Bak oligomerize and permeabilize the outer mitochondrial membrane to permit the release of apoptosis-inducing factors. It still remains unclear whether these proteins require components of the mitochondrial protein import machinery for their function at the mitochondria. Here, we addressed this question by using inducible RNA interference for the study of protein import in mammalian mitochondria. After induction of apoptosis, we could not detect any impact of the absence of Tom22, Tom70, Tom40, Sam50 or metaxins on the translocation of Bax and formation of Bax and Bak complexes in mitochondria. In in vitro import studies, loss of these import and assembly proteins had no or only slight effect on the formation of complexes by radiolabeled Bax and Bak. We conclude that the import and assembly machineries of mammalian mitochondria have no impact on the translocation and complex assembly of Bax and Bak upon apoptosis induction. PMID:19165229

Ross, K; Rudel, T; Kozjak-Pavlovic, V

2009-05-01

449

Probe Station Antenna Range  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This summer I was given the task of programming a Probe Station to collect near field antenna patterns and convert them to far field patterns. The purpose of this project is to provide NASA with another means of antenna characterizing. Currently, NASA Glenn can measure near field and far field patterns of many different types of antennas. The antennas targeted for this lab are small patch antennas at high frequencies that require probe biasing. The Probe Station contains two probes for RF signals and another two for DC Biasing. The way this lab works is as follows: A patch antenna is placed on the probe station and biased properly for testing. This antenna is known as the Antenna Under Test (AUT). The AUT is supplied with an RF signal from a probe that is connected to a network analyzer. Above the AUT hangs a probe for measuring the electric field emitted by the AUT. The probe is controlled by four axis. The axis of movements for this probe are back and forth, left and right, up and down, and rotation. The network analyzer and axis controllers are tied into a computer for reading commands and recording data. The probe scans a rectangular pattern above the AUT to measure the electric field emitted by the AUT. This data is then recorded and analyzed back at the computer.

Zaman, Afroz

2004-01-01

450

Negotiating international bioethics: a response to Tom Beauchamp and Ruth Macklin.  

PubMed

Can the bioethical theories that have served American bioethics so well, serve international bioethics as well? In two papers in the previous issue of the Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal, I contend that the form of principlist fundamentalism endorsed by American bioethicists like Tom Beauchamp and Ruth Macklin will not play on an international stage. Deploying techniques of postmodern scholarship, I argue that principlist fundamentalism justifies neither the condemnation of the Nazi doctors at Nuremberg, nor, as the Report of the Advisory Committee on the Human Radiation Experiments (ACHRE) demonstrates, condemnation of Cold War radiation researchers. Principlist fundamentalism thus appears to be philosophy bankrupt. In this issue of the Journal, Beauchamp and Macklin reject this claim, arguing that I have misread the ACHRE report and misunderstood Nazism. They also argue that the form of post-postmodern negotiated human rights theory that I proffer is adequate only insofar as it is itself really fundamentalist; insofar as I take postmodernism seriously, however, I mire international bioethics in relativism. In this response, I reaffirm my anti-fundamentalism, provide further evidence in support of my reading of the ACHRE report, and defend my post-postmodern version of rights theory. I also develop criteria for a minimally adequate theoretical framework for international bioethics. PMID:11657321

Baker, Robert

1998-12-01

451

Earth-Sun Geometry - Earth Revolution Animation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The representation is an animation of the Earth revolving around the sun. The Earth is shown as a solid green sphere with the equator and arctic circle marked with black lines and the dark side of the Earth shaded. The Earth's axis is shown with a red line. As the Earth revolves around the sun, the axis is shown to always be pointing in the same direction. The positions of Earth at the winter solstice, vernal equinox, summer solstice, and autumnal equinox are labeled.

Pidwirny, Michael; Okanagan, Scott J.

452

Langmuir probe measurements in the ionosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electric probes have been the primary instruments for the in situ investigation of plasma parameters in the Earth's ionosphere. This dissertation is a compendium of three papers, each dealing with a separate spacecraft that carried one or more instruments based on the electric probe technique. The first paper presents data from the Sudden Atom Layer sounding rocket that carried an RF impedance Probe, a DC fixed-bias Langmuir Probe (DCP), and an Electric Field Probe. The combined dataset indicates a case of payload surface charging, the causes of which are investigated within the paper. A generic circuit, model is developed to analyze payload charging and behavior of Langmuir-type instruments. Our analysis indicates that the anomalous charging event was an outcome of triboelectrification of the payload surface from neutral dust particles present in the Earth's mesosphere. These results suggest caution in interpreting observations from the Langmuir class of instrumentation within dusty environments. The second paper presents data from the Floating Potential Measurement Unit (FPMU) that is deployed on the International Space Station. The FPMU instrument suite consists of three different Langmuir-type probes and a Plasma Impedance Probe (PIP). We first give a brief overview of the instrumentation, and then describe the algorithm used to reduce Langmuir probe I-V curves to plasma parameters. It is shown that the derived temperatures agree well with International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) model, while the derived density matches better with the USU-Global Assimilation of Ionospheric Measurement model. The third paper presents the dataset from the EQUIS II sounding rocket campaign. The rocket payloads carried a PIP, a DCP, and an internally heated Sweeping Langmuir Probe. The ratio of the payload surface area to the cumulative area of the instrument and its guard was about 250. We show that on small sounding rocket payloads the DCP technique of relative electron density measurement is not very accurate. We further show that the ion saturation region analysis of the I-V curve produces absolute ion density that matches very well with the absolute electron density derived from the PIP, and the derived temperatures agree reasonably well with the IRI model.

Barjatya, Aroh

453

High temperature probe  

DOEpatents

A high temperature probe for sampling, for example, smokestack fumes, and is able to withstand temperatures of 3000.degree. F. The probe is constructed so as to prevent leakage via the seal by placing the seal inside the water jacket whereby the seal is not exposed to high temperature, which destroys the seal. The sample inlet of the probe is also provided with cooling fins about the area of the seal to provide additional cooling to prevent the seal from being destroyed. Also, a heated jacket is provided for maintaining the temperature of the gas being tested as it passes through the probe. The probe includes pressure sensing means for determining the flow velocity of an efficient being sampled. In addition, thermocouples are located in various places on the probe to monitor the temperature of the gas passing there through.

Swan, Raymond A. (Fremont, CA)

1994-01-01

454

Ancient impact structures on modern continental shelves: The Chesapeake Bay, Montagnais, and Toms Canyon craters, Atlantic margin of North America  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Three ancient impact craters (Chesapeake Bay - 35.7 Ma; Toms Canyon - 35.7 Ma; Montagnais - 51 Ma) and one multiring impact basin (Chicxulub - 65 Ma) are currently known to be buried beneath modern continental shelves. All occur on the passive Atlantic margin of North America in regions extensively explored by seismic reflection surveys in the search for oil and gas reserves. We limit our discussion herein to the three youngest structures. These craters were created by submarine impacts, which produced many structural and morphological features similar in construction, composition, and variability to those documented in well-preserved subaerial and planetary impact craters. The subcircular Chesapeake Bay (diameter 85 km) and ovate Montagnais (diameter 45-50 km) structures display outer-rim scarps, annular troughs, peak rings, inner basins, and central peaks similar to those incorporated in the widely cited conceptual model of complex impact craters. These craters differ in several respects from the model, however. For example, the Montagnais crater lacks a raised lip on the outer rim, the Chesapeake Bay crater displays only small remnants of a raised lip, and both craters contain an unusually thick body of impact breccia. The subtriangular Toms Canyon crater (diameter 20-22 km), on the other hand, contains none of the internal features of a complex crater, nor is it typical of a simple crater. It displays a prominent raised lip on the outer rim, but the lip is present only on the western side of the crater. In addition, each of these craters contains some distinct features, which are not present in one or both of the others. For example, the central peak at Montagnais rises well above the elevation of the outer rim, whereas at Chesapeake Bay, the outer rim is higher than the central peak. The floor of the Toms Canyon crater is marked by parallel deep troughs and linear ridges formed of sedimentary rocks, whereas at Chesapeake Bay, the crater floor contains concentric faults and compression ridges formed in rocks of the crystalline basement. The Chesapeake Bay crater is distinguished further by its cluster of at least 23 adjacent secondary craters. The North American tektite strewn field, a widespread deposit of distal ejecta, is thought to be derived from the Chesapeake Bay impact, perhaps with a small contribution from the Toms Canyon impact. No ejecta field is known to be associated with the Montagnais impact. No immediate major extinction event is directly linked to any of these three impacts. There is evidence, however, that the Chesapeake Bay and Toms Canyon impacts helped initiate a long-term pulse of warm global climate, whose eventual dissipation coincided with an early Oligocene mass extinction event, 2 Ma after the impacts.

Poag, C. Wylie; Plescia, J.B.; Molzer, P.C.

2002-01-01

455

Atom probe tomography  

SciTech Connect

This introductory tutorial describes the technique of atom probe tomography for materials characterization at the atomic level. The evolution of the technique from the initial atom probe field ion microscope to today's state-of-the-art three dimensional atom probe is outlined. An introduction is presented on the basic physics behind the technique, the operation of the instrument, and the reconstruction of the three-dimensional data. The common methods for analyzing the three-dimensional atom probe data, including atom maps, isoconcentration surfaces, proximity histograms, maximum separation methods, and concentration frequency distributions, are described.

Miller, M.K., E-mail: millermk@ornl.gov [Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37871-6136 (United States); Forbes, R.G., E-mail: R.Forbes@surrey.ac.uk [Advanced Technology Institute, Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey, GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)

2009-06-15

456

Advanced scanning probe lithography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nanoscale control afforded by scanning probe microscopes has prompted the development of a wide variety of scanning-probe-based patterning methods. Some of these methods have demonstrated a high degree of robustness and patterning capabilities that are unmatched by other lithographic techniques. However, the limited throughput of scanning probe lithography has prevented its exploitation in technological applications. Here, we review the fundamentals of scanning probe lithography and its use in materials science and nanotechnology. We focus on robust methods, such as those based on thermal effects, chemical reactions and voltage-induced processes, that demonstrate a potential for applications.

Garcia, Ricardo; Knoll, Armin W.; Riedo, Elisa

2014-08-01

457

Atom Probe Tomography  

SciTech Connect

This introductory tutorial describes the technique of atom probe tomography for materials characterization at the atomic level. The evolution of the technique from the initial atom probe field ion microscope to today s state-of-the-art three dimensional atom probe is outlined. An introduction is presented on the basic physics behind the technique, the operation of the instrument, and the reconstruction of the three-dimensional data. The common methods for analyzing the three-dimensional atom probe data, including atom maps, isoconcentration surfaces, proximity histograms, maximum separation methods, and concentration frequency distributions, are described.

Miller, Michael K [ORNL; Forbes, Richard [University of Surrey, UK

2009-01-01

458

Dear Colleague Letter - Earth Sciences  

NSF Publications Database

... Sections: Surface Earth Processes Section and Deep Earth Processes Section. The Surface Earth ... and human interactions with the geosphere. The Deep Earth Processes Section will support research on ...

459

Academic Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Academic Earth provides videos of lectures by top scholars in "Subjects" that range from Astronomy to Entrepreneurship to Religion, from "Universities" as celebrated as MIT, Berkeley, Harvard, and Stanford. Visitors must register to view the lectures, but registration is free. There are over 1500 video lectures available, with more being added everyday. In addition to viewing the lectures available by subject or university, visitors can choose by "Instructors" or by "Playlists". When visitors click on "Playlists" at the top of the homepage, they will see a list of lectures by theme, by several different instructors, and a grade given to the lecture series. A good example is the 6-part lecture entitled "Understanding the Financial Crisis" by four different instructors. The series is given a grade overall, in this case, an A-, and when visitors click on "See all 6 lectures" at the bottom of the series' description, they will be taken to the page with the links to the individual lectures, as well as shown the grade given each individual lecture. Visitors can even keep a playlist of their favorite lectures or download the lectures. Visitors should definitely check out the Frequently Asked Questions page, accessible by the "FAQ" link at the bottom of the website.

460

Exploring Magnetism on Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This teacher's guide contains four lessons that provide a way for teachers to introduce students to and elaborate on Earth's changing magnetic field. It covers learning to navigate using Earth's magnetic field and compass, Earth's magnetic pole and its motion across Earth's surface, magnetic reversals on Earth, and Earth's currently declining magnetic field. These lessons have been taught primarily in math, geology, and astronomy classes.

2005-01-01

461

Life on Earth. II The Hadean Earth  

E-print Network

Life on Earth. II #12;The Hadean Earth 4.5 - 3.9 Gyr Impacts melt the surface. Volatiles escape this dating #12;#12;The Hadean Earth Details: ·Large imacts (200+ km) occurred ~ every 100 million years

Walter, Frederick M.

462

The gravity probe B relativity gyroscope program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The idea of testing general relativity through observations on Earth orbiting gyroscopes was suggested in 1959 to 1960. The direction, it was noted, of spin of a suitably oriented gyroscope should change with respect to the line of sight to a guide star for two reasons: a geodetic effect from the motion of the gyroscope through the curved space-time around the Earth, and a frame-dragging effect from the Earth's rotation. NASA began supporting laboratory research on the experiment, now called Gravity Probe B, in 1964. Technologies for it were progressively established, and an error analysis demonstrated the potential of measuring frame-dragging to 1 to 2 percent and the geodetic effect to 1 part in 104. Later analyses, discussed herein, suggest possibilities for further improving those precisions each by a further factor of 10. In 1984, after technical and scientific reviews by the Space Science Board and other bodies, and completion by NASA Marshall Center of a Phase B Study, the NASA Administrator approved the start of a program known as STORE (Shuttle Test Of the Relativity Experiment). The purpose of STORE is to verify the final Gravity Probe B science payload, perform on the Shuttle a 7-day experiment rehearsal (including sophisticated gyro tests in low gravity), and then return the payload to Earth for refurbishment and integration into the Science Mission spacecraft. The payload comprises four gyroscopes, a telescope, and a drag-free proof mass, all mounted in a quartz block assembly within an evacuated magnetically shielded probe, which in turn is inserted into a 10-ft long, 6-ft diameter liquid helium dewar, operating at 1.8 K and maintaining low temperature for 2 years. STORE is manifested on Shuttle OV-105, for launch MSSN 69 in February 1993. The Science Mission is set tentatively for June 1995.

Everitt, C. W. Francis; Parkinson, B. W.; Turneaure, J. P.

1989-08-01

463

The gravity probe B relativity gyroscope program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The idea of testing general relativity through observations on Earth orbiting gyroscopes was suggested in 1959 to 1960. The direction, it was noted, of spin of a suitably oriented gyroscope should change with respect to the line of sight to a guide star for two reasons: a geodetic effect from the motion of the gyroscope through the curved space-time around the Earth, and a frame-dragging effect from the Earth's rotation. NASA began supporting laboratory research on the experiment, now called Gravity Probe B, in 1964. Technologies for it were progressively established, and an error analysis demonstrated the potential of measuring frame-dragging to 1 to 2 percent and the geodetic effect to 1 part in 10(exp 4). Later analyses, discussed herein, suggest possibilities for further improving those precisions each by a further factor of 10. In 1984, after technical and scientific reviews by the Space Science Board and other bodies, and completion by NASA Marshall Center of a Phase B Study, the NASA Administrator approved the start of a program known as STORE (Shuttle Test Of the Relativity Experiment). The purpose of STORE is to verify the final Gravity Probe B science payload, perform on the Shuttle a 7-day experiment rehearsal (including sophisticated gyro tests in low gravity), and then return the payload to Earth for refurbishment and integration into the Science Mission spacecraft. The payload comprises four gyroscopes, a telescope, and a drag-free proof mass, all mounted in a quartz block assembly within an evacuated magnetically shielded probe, which in turn is inserted into a 10-ft long, 6-ft diameter liquid helium dewar, operating at 1.8 K and maintaining low temperature for 2 years. STORE is manifested on Shuttle OV-105, for launch MSSN 69 in February 1993. The Science Mission is set tentatively for June 1995.

Everitt, C. W. Francis; Parkinson, B. W.; Turneaure, J. P.

1989-01-01

464

Tom Kibble and the early universe as the ultimate high energy experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tom Kibble pioneered the idea that there were one or more symmetry breaking phase transitions in the very early universe, at which defects like monopoles, strings and domain walls would have formed. In the context of grand unified theories, or their extensions, this idea remains compelling: observing these defects would be one of the very few ways of directly confirming the theories. In contrast, inflationary theory invoked a strongly supercooled transition driving a period of exponential expansion which would sweep all such defects away. If inflation terminated slowly, quantum vacuum fluctuations would be amplified and stretched to cosmological scales, forming density variations of just the character required to explain the formation of galaxies. The ensuing paradigm has dominated cosmology for the last three decades. However, basic problems in the scenario remain unresolved. Extreme tuning both of the initial conditions and of the physical laws are required. There are many different versions, each with slightly different predictions. Finally, inflation brought with it the theory of a "multiverse" — a universe containing infinite number of different, infinite, universes — while providing no "measure" or means of calculating the probability of observing any one of them. I will discuss an alternative to inflation, in which the big bang was a bounce from a previous contracting epoch. The discovery of the Higgs boson at the LHC has provided new evidence for such a picture by showing that, within the minimal standard model, our current vacuum is metastable. This opens the door to a cyclic universe scenario in which the electroweak Higgs plays a central role.

Turok, Neil

2014-03-01

465

TOMATOMA: a novel tomato mutant database distributing Micro-Tom mutant collections.  

PubMed

The tomato is an excellent model for studies of plants bearing berry-type fruits and for experimental studies of the Solanaceae family of plants due to its conserved genetic organization. In this study, a comprehensive mutant tomato population was generated in the background of Micro-Tom, a dwarf, rapid-growth variety. In this and previous studies, a family including 8,598 and 6,422 M(2) mutagenized lines was produced by ethylmethane sulfonate (EMS) mutagenesis and ?-ray irradiation, and this study developed and investigated these M(2) plants for alteration of visible phenotypes. A total of 9,183 independent M(2) families comprising 91,830 M(2) plants were inspected for phenotypic alteration, and 1,048 individual mutants were isolated. Subsequently, the observed mutant phenotypes were classified into 15 major categories and 48 subcategories. Overall, 1,819 phenotypic categories were found in 1,048 mutants. Of these mutants, 549 were pleiotropic, whereas 499 were non-pleiotropic. Multiple different mutant alleles per locus were found in the mutant libraries, suggesting that the mutagenized populations were nearly saturated. Additionally, genetic analysis of backcrosses indicated the successful inheritance of the mutations in BC(1)F(2) populations, confirming the reproducibility in the morphological phenotyping of the M(2) plants. To integrate and manage the visible phenotypes of mutants and other associated data, we developed the in silico database TOMATOMA, a relational system interfacing modules between mutant line names and phenotypic categories. TOMATOMA is a freely accessible database, and these mutant recourses are available through the TOMATOMA (http://tomatoma.nbrp.jp/index.jsp). PMID:21258066

Saito, Takeshi; Ariizumi, Tohru; Okabe, Yoshihiro; Asamizu, Erika; Hiwasa-Tanase, Kyoko; Fukuda, Naoya; Mizoguchi, Tsuyoshi; Yamazaki, Yukiko; Aoki, Koh; Ezura, Hiroshi

2011-02-01

466

Formative Assessment Probes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Formative assessment probes can be effective tools to help teachers build a bridge between students' initial ideas and scientific ones. In this article, the authors describe how using two formative assessment probes can help teachers determine the extent to which students make similar connections between developing a concept of matter and a…

Eberle, Francis; Keeley, Page

2008-01-01

467

Probe tests microweld strength  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Probe is developed to test strength of soldered, brazed or microwelded joints. It consists of a spring which may be adjusted to the desired test pressure by means of a threaded probe head, and an indicator lamp. Device may be used for electronic equipment testing.

1965-01-01

468

Flattening Earth acceleration in atomic fountains  

SciTech Connect

A method to compensate for Earth's gravity tide over an extended axial region is reported. Flattening acceleration is important in experiments where the coupling of the dynamics of free-falling probes to the gravity gradient generates stochastic noise on the measurement. Optimized cylindrically symmetric mass distributions lower Earth's tidal effect over 10 cm by a factor 10{sup 3}. A multimass compensation system with comparable performance is devised for tall atom interferometers. Reducing the gravity gradient is essential in terrestrial experiments based on atom fountain configurations being developed to precisely test general relativity or the neutrality of matter.

Bertoldi, Andrea [Laboratoire Charles Fabry de l'Institut d'Optique, Univ. Paris Sud, Campus Polytechnique RD128, F-91127 Palaiseau (France)

2010-07-15

469

Application of probe manipulator to repair probe cards  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We fabricated an apparatus for manipulation and welding of fine metal objects using a probe. The apparatus is composed of a work probe of a tungsten alloy needle, stages, a DC power supply, and an observation system. The work probe is held vertically above a gold substrate placed on stages to control the relative position against the work probe. The DC power supply is equipped to apply voltage of 0-10kV between the work probe and the substrate. One application of the apparatus is to repair probe cards. Thousands of contact probes (needles) are mounted on the printed circuit board (PCB) in the probe card. The contact probes are mounted one by one by the hands. Recently, an array of the contact probe on the PCB is produced by the LIGA process in response to narrower semiconductor pitch length. The problem is that there are no methods to repair a wrong contact probe. Whole of the contact probes should be a waste owing to one wrong contact probe. We propose to replace a wrong contact probe with a good one using our apparatus. Experiments to remove a contact probe by the apparatus is carried out using the specimen of a mimic probe card, where a cantilever type contact probes are arranged with a pitch of 25 micrometers. Removal of the wrong contact probe is carried out by a non-contact discharge and a contact discharge using the apparatus. High voltage of about 1-2kV is applied after the work probe is moved to above the target contact probe for the non-contact discharge. While high voltage of about10kV is applied after the work probe