Science.gov

Sample records for earth probe toms

  1. Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) Derived Data, Global Earth Coverage (GEC) from NASA's Earth Probe Satellite

    DOE Data Explorer

    This is data from an external datastream processed through the ARM External Data Center (XDC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The XDC identifies sources and acquires data, called "external data", to augment the data being generated within the ARM program. The external data acquired are usually converted from native format to either netCDF or HDF formats. The GEC collection contains global data derived from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) instrument on the Earth Probe satellite, consisting of daily values of aerosol index, ozone and reflectivity remapped into a regular 1x1.25 deg grid. Data are available from July 25, 1996 - December 31, 2005, but have been updated or replaced as of September 2007. See the explanation on the ARM web site at http://www.arm.gov/xds/static/toms.stm and the information at the NASA/TOMS web site: http://toms.gsfc.nasa.gov/ (Registration required)

  2. Earth Probe Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) Data Product User's Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McPeters, R.; Bhartia, P. K.; Krueger, A.; Herman, J.; Wellemeyer, C.; Seftor, C.; Jaross, G.; Torres, O.; Moy, L.; Labow, G.; Byerly, W.; Taylor, S.; Swissler, T.; Cebula, R.

    1998-01-01

    Two data products from the Earth Probe Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (EP/TOMS) have been archived at the Distributed Active Archive Center, in the form of Hierarchical Data Format files. The EP/ TOMS began taking measurements on July 15, 1996. The instrument measures backscattered Earth radiance and incoming solar irradiance; their ratio is used in ozone retrievals. Changes in the reflectivity of the solar diffuser used for the irradiance measurement are monitored using a carousel of three diffusers, each exposed to the degrading effects of solar irradiation at different rates. The algorithm to retrieve total column ozone compares measured Earth radiances at sets of three wavelengths with radiances calculated for different total ozone values. The initial error in the absolute scale for TOMS total ozone is 3 percent, the one standard deviation random error is 2 percent, and the drift is less than 0.5 percent over the first year of data. The Level-2 product contains the measured radiances, the derived total ozone amount, and reflectivity information for each scan position. The Level-3 product contains daily total ozone and reflectivity in a 1-degree latitude by 1.25 degrees longitude grid. Level-3 files containing estimates of LTVB at the Earth surface and tropospheric aerosol information are also available, Detailed descriptions of both HDF data-files and the CD-ROM product are provided.

  3. Tropical Tropospheric Ozone From Nimbus 7 and Earth-Probe Toms: Validation, ENSO Signals and Trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Anne M.

    1998-01-01

    The well-known wave-one pattern seen in tropical total ozone has been used to develop a modified-residual (MR) method for retrieving time-averaged stratospheric ozone and tropospheric ozone column amount from TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) over the 14 complete years of Nimbus 7 observations (1979-1992) and from Earth-Probe (1996-present) and ADEOS/TOMS (1996-1997). Nine- to sixteen-day averaged tropical tropospheric ozone (TTO) maps show a seasonality expected from dynamical and chemical influences. Validation of the TTO time-series is presently limited to Atlantic sounding stations, notably Ascension Island, Natal, Brazil, and Brazzaville, Congo. Stratospheric column ozone, which is also derived from the modified-residual method, compares well with sondes and with stratospheric ozone column derived from other satellites.

  4. Contingency maneuver strategies for the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer-Earth Probe (TOMS-EP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kestler, James; Walls, Donna

    1995-01-01

    The Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer-Earth Probe (TOMS-EP) is a polar-orbiting spacecraft designed to measure total ozone levels in the Earth's atmosphere. The nominal mission orbit is a 955-kilometer circular Sun-synchronous orbit with an ascending node mean local crossing time (MLT) between 11:02 a.m. and 11:25 a.m. These two mean local ascending node times constitute the boundaries of the MLT box for this mission. The MLT boundaries were chosen to maintain the Sun-to-Earth-to-vehicle orbit-normal (SVN) angle within a preselected set of seasonally independent boundaries. Because the SVN angle is seasonally dependent, but the MLT is not, contingency options for correcting the MLT of orbital states that fall outside of the required MLT range become time dependent. This paper focuses on contingency orbit adjustment strategies developed at the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Flight Dynamics Division (FDD) during the mission planning phase of TOMS-EP. Time-dependent delta-V strategies are presented for correcting mission orbit states lying outside of the MLT range. Typically, passive control of the MLT drift rate can be used to restore the orbit state to the required MLT before a seasonal violation of SVN angle constraints can occur. Passive control of the MLT drift rate is obtained through adjustment of the semimajor axis and/or the inclination. The time between initial arrival on orbit at an 'out-of-the box' MLT state and violation of the SVN angle constraints is always less than or equal to 1 year. The choice of which parameter(s) to adjust is dictated by the duration of this time period, the desired mission lifetime, the delta-V cost, and operational constraints.

  5. Tropical Tropospheric Ozone (TTO) Maps from Nimbus 7 and Earth-Probe TOMS by the Modified-Residual Method. 1; Validation, Evaluation and Trends based on Atlantic Regional Time Series

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Anne M.; Hudson, Robert D.

    1998-01-01

    The well-known wave-one pattern seen in tropical total ozone [Shiotani, 1992; Ziemke et al., 1996, 1998] has been used to develop a modified-residual (MR) method for retrieving time-averaged stratospheric ozone and tropospheric ozone column amount from TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) over the 14 complete calendar years of Nimbus 7 observations (1979-1992) and from TOMS on the Earth-Probe (1996-present) and ADEOS platforms (1996- 1997). Nine- to sixteen-day averaged tropical tropospheric ozone (TTO) maps, validated with ozonesondes, show a seasonality expected from dynamical and chemical influences. The maps may be viewed on a homepage: http://metosrv2.umd.edu/tropo. Stratospheric column ozone, which is also derived by the modified-residual method, compares well with sondes (to within 6-7 DU) and with stratospheric ozone column derived from other satellites (within 8-10 DU). Validation of the TTO time-series is presently limited to ozonesonde comparisons with Atlantic stations and sites on the adjacent continents (Ascension Island, Natal, Brazil; Brazzaville); for the sounding periods, TTO at all locations agrees with the sonde record to +/-7 DU. TTO time-series and the magnitude of the wave-one pattern show ENSO signals in the strongest El Nifio periods from 1979-1998. From 12degN and 12degS, zonally averaged tropospheric ozone shows no significant trend from 1980-1990. Trends are also not significant during this period in localized regions, e.g. from just west of South America across to southern Africa. This is consistent with the ozonesonde record at Natal, Brazil (the only tropical ozone data publicly available for the 1980's), which shows a not statistically significant increase. The lack of trend in tropospheric ozone agrees with a statistical analysis based on another method for deriving TTO from TOMS, the so-called Convective-Cloud-Differential approach of Ziemke et al. [1998].

  6. Contribution of TOMS to Earth Science - An Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhartia, P. K.

    2003-12-01

    The TOMS instrument was launched on the Nimbus-7 satellite in Oct 1978 with the goal of understanding the meteorological influences on the ozone column. The nominal lifetime of the instrument was 1 year. However, in response to the concern over possible man-made influences on the ozone layer NASA continued to nurse the instrument for 13.5 years and launched a major program to produce accurate trend quality dataset of ozone. Despite severe optical degradation and other significant anomalies that developed in the instrument over its lifetime, the effort turned out to be a tremendous success. In 1984, TOMS took center stage as the primary provider of Antarctic ozone hole maps to the world community; it continues to play that role until today. An unexpected benefit of the close attention paid to improving the TOMS data quality was that several atmospheric constituents that interfere with ozone measurement were also identified and meticulously converted into long-term datasets of their own. These constituents include clouds, volcanic SO2, aerosols, and ocean phytoplankton. In addition, the high quality of the basic datasets made it possible to produce global maps of surface UV and tropospheric ozone. In most cases there are no other sources of these data sets. Advanced UV instruments currently under development in the US and Europe will continue to exploit the TOMS-developed techniques for several decades.

  7. Distribution of UV radiation at the Earth's surface from TOMS-measured UV-backscattered radiances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herman, J. R.; Krotkov, N.; Celarier, E.; Larko, D.; Labow, G.

    1999-05-01

    Daily global maps of monthly integrated UV-erythemal irradiance (290-400 nm) at the Earth's surface are estimated using the ozone amount, cloud transmittance, aerosol amounts, and surface reflectivity from the solar UV radiation backscattered from the Earth's atmosphere as measured by the total ozone mapping spectrometer (TOMS) and independently measured values of the extraterrestrial solar irradiance. The daily irradiance values at a given location show that short-term variability (daily to annual) in the amount of UV radiation, 290-400 nm, reaching the Earth's surface is caused by (1) partially reflecting cloud cover, (2) haze and absorbing aerosols (dust and smoke), and (3) ozone. The reductions of UV irradiance estimated from TOMS data can exceed 50 12% underneath the absorbing aerosol plumes in Africa and South America (desert dust and smoke from biomass burning) and exceeded 70 12% during the Indonesian fires in September 1997 and again during March 1998. Recent biomass burning in Mexico and Guatemala have caused large smoke plumes extending into Canada with UV reductions of 50% in Mexico and 20% in Florida, Louisiana, and Texas. Where available, ground-based Sun photometer data show similar UV irradiance reductions caused by absorbing aerosol plumes of dust and smoke. Even though terrain height is a major factor in increasing the amount of UV exposure compared to sea level, the presence of prolonged clear-sky conditions can lead to UV exposures at sea level rivaling those at cloudier higher altitudes. In the equatorial regions, 20, the UV exposures during the March equinox are larger than during the September equinox because of increased cloudiness during September. Extended land areas with the largest erythemal exposure are in Australia and South Africa where there is a larger proportion of clear-sky days. The large short-term variations in ozone amount which occur at high latitudes in the range 65 cause changes in UV irradiance comparable to clouds and aerosols for wavelengths between 280 nm and 300 nm that are strongly absorbed by ozone. The absolute accuracy of the TOMS monthly erythemal exposure estimates over a TOMS field of view is within 6%, except under UV-absorbing aerosol plumes (dust and smoke) where the accuracy is within 12%. The error caused by aerosols can be reduced if the height of the aerosol plume is more accurately known. The TOMS estimated irradiances are compared with ground-based Brewer spectroradiometer data obtained at Toronto, Canada. The Brewer irradiances are systematically 20% smaller than TOMS irradiance estimates during the summer months. An accounting of systematic errors brings the Brewer and TOMS irradiances into approximate agreement within the estimated instrumental uncertainties for both instruments.

  8. Ionizing radiation environment for the TOMS mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauriente, M.; Maloy, J. O.; Vampola, A. L.

    1992-01-01

    The Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) will fly on several different spacecraft, each having an orbit which is approximately polar and 800-980 km in altitude. A description is given of the computer-based tools used for characterizing the spacecraft interactions with the ionizing radiation environment in orbit and the susceptibility requirements for ionizing radiation compatibility. The peak flux from the model was used to derive the expected radiation-induced noise in the South Atlantic Anomaly for the new TOMS instruments intended to fly on Advanced Earth Observatory System and Earth Probe.

  9. The Contribution of TOMS and UARS Data to Our Understanding of Ozone Change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhartia, Pawan K.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Both TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) and UARS (Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite) have operated over an extended period, and generated data sets of sufficient accuracy to be of use in determining ozone change (TOMS) and some of the underlying causes (UARS). The basic scientific products have been used for model validation and assimilation to extend our understanding of stratospheric processes. TOMS on Nimbus-7, Earth-Probe, and QuikTOMS, and UARS have led to the next generation of instruments onboard the EOS platforms. Algorithms used for TOMS and UARS are being applied to the new data sets and extended to analysis of European satellite data (e.g., GOME)

  10. Small-Scale Tropopause Dynamics and TOMS Total Ozone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanford, John L.

    2002-01-01

    This project used Earth Probe Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (EP TOMS) along-track ozone retrievals, in conjunction with ancillary meteorological fields and modeling studies, for high resolution investigations of upper troposphere and lower stratosphere dynamics. Specifically, high resolution along-track (Level 2) EP TOMS data were used to investigate the beautiful fine-scale structure in constituent and meteorological fields prominent in the evolution of highly non-linear baroclinic storm systems. Comparison was made with high resolution meteorological models. The analyses provide internal consistency checks and validation of the EP TOMS data which are vital for monitoring ozone depletion in both polar and midlatitude regions.

  11. The Antarctic Ozone Hole: Initial Results from Aura / OMI Compared with TOMS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McPeters, R.; Bhartia, P. K.; Newman, P.

    2004-01-01

    A series of TOMS instruments (on November 7 , Meteor 3, and Earth Probe) has been monitoring the annual development of the Antarctic ozone hole since the 1980s. The ozone mapping instrument on Aura, OMI, is expected to take over this record of observation from the aging Earth Probe TOMS instrument. The area of the ozone hole can be taken as a sensitive indicator of the magnitude of ozone destruction each year. The timing of initial formation of the ozone hole and its duration are sensitive to the atmospheric dynamics of the southern polar regions. The entire TOMS data record (1978 - 2004) has recently been reprocessed with the new version 8 algorithm, which includes a revised calibration. The effect has been to slightly increase ozone hole area over earlier estimates, but only by 23%. OMI (ozone monitoring instrument) on Aura is a hyperspectral imaging instrument that operates in a pushbroom mode to measure solar backscattered radiation in the ultraviolet and visible. OMI has higher spatial resolution than TOMS - 14 x 24 km versus 38 km x 38 km from TOMS. OMI has now begin mapping total column ozone on a global basis in a measurement similar to TOMS. The ozone hole measurements for 2003 are compared with those from Earth Probe TOMS.

  12. A Comparison of TOMS Version 8 Total Column Ozone Data with Data from Groundstations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Labow, G. J.; McPeters, R. D.; Bhartia, P. K.

    2004-01-01

    The Nimbus-7 and Earth Probe Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) data have been reprocessed with a new retrieval algorithm, (Version 8) and an updated calibration procedure. These data have been systematically compared to total ozone data from Brewer and Dobson spectrophotometers for 73 individual ground stations. The comparisons were made as a function of latitude, solar zenith angle, reflectivity and total ozone. Results show that the accuracy of the TOMS retrieval'is much improved when aerosols are present in the atmosphere, when snow/ice and sea glint are present, and when ozone in the northern hemisphere is extremely low. TOMS overpass data are derived from the single TOMS best match measurement, almost always located within one degree of the ground station and usually made within an hour of local noon. The version 8 Earth Probe TOMS ozone values have decreased by an average of about 1% due to a much better understanding of the calibration of the instrument. The remaining differences between TOMS and ground stations suggest that there are still small errors in the TOMS retrievals. But if TOMS is used as a transfer standard to compare ground stations, the large station-to-station differences suggest the possibility of significant instrument errors at some ground stations.

  13. Deep drilling; Probing beneath the earth's surface

    SciTech Connect

    Rosen, J.250

    1991-06-01

    This paper reports on boreholes from 4.5 to greater than 10 kilometers deep that are pushing back the boundaries of earth science as they yield information that is used to refine seismic surveys, chart the evolution of sedimentary basins and shield volcanos, and uncover important clues on the origin and migration of mantle-derived water and gas.

  14. Satellite probes plasma processes in earth orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christensen, Andrew B.; Reasoner, David L.

    1992-01-01

    The mission of the DOD/NASA Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES) is to deepen understanding of the earth's near-space environment, including the radiation belts and the ionosphere; this will help spacecraft designers protect against radiation-belt particles that affect onboard electronics, solar panel arrays, and crewmembers. Attention is presently given to CRRES's study of ionospheric plasma processes through releases of Ba, Ca, Sr, and Li at altitudes of 400-36,000 km.

  15. Satellite probes plasma processes in earth orbit

    SciTech Connect

    Christensen, A.B.; Reasoner, D.L. NASA, Washington, DC )

    1992-01-01

    The mission of the DOD/NASA Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES) is to deepen understanding of the earth's near-space environment, including the radiation belts and the ionosphere; this will help spacecraft designers protect against radiation-belt particles that affect onboard electronics, solar panel arrays, and crewmembers. Attention is presently given to CRRES's study of ionospheric plasma processes through releases of Ba, Ca, Sr, and Li at altitudes of 400-36,000 km. 4 refs.

  16. Merged Long-Term Data Sets from TOMS and SBUV Total Ozone Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stolarski, Richard; McPeters, Richard; Labow, Gordon J.; Hollandsworth, Stacey; Flynn, Larry; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Total ozone has been measured by a series of nadir-viewing satellite instruments. These measurements begin with the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) and Solar Backscatter UltraViolet (SBUV) instruments on Nimbus 7, launched in late 1978. The measurements have continued with the Meteor 3 TOMS, Earth Probe TOMS, and NOAA 9,11,14 SBUV/2 instruments. The problem for producing a long-term data set is establishing the relative calibration of the various instruments to better than 1%. There was a nearly two year gap between the Meteor 3 TOMS and the Earth Probe TOMS. This gap is filled by the NOAA 9 and 11 SBUV/2 instruments, but they were in drifting orbits that result in effective gaps in the record when the equator crossing time occurs at large solar zenith angle. We have used recently re-derived calibrations of the SBUV instruments using the D-pair (306/313 nm wavelengths) data at the equator. These equatorial D-pair measurements should maintain the internal calibration of each instrument better than previous approaches. We then use the comparisons between instruments during their overlap periods to establish a consistent calibration over the entire data set. The resulting merged ozone data set is independent of the ground-based Dobson/Brewer network.

  17. Comparison of TOMS, SBW & SBUV/2 Version 8 Total Column Ozone Data with Data from Groundstations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Labow, G. J.; McPeters, R. D.; Bhartia, P. K.

    2004-01-01

    The Nimbus-7 and Earth Probe Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) data as well as SBUV and SBUV/2 data have been reprocessed with a new retrieval algorithm (Version 8) and an updated calibration procedure. An overview will be presented systematically comparing ozone values to an ensemble of Brewer and Dobson spectrophotometers. The comparisons were made as a function of latitude, solar zenith angle, reflectivity and total ozone. Results show that the accuracy of the TOMS retrieval has been improved when aerosols are present in the atmosphere, when snow/ice and sea glint are present, and when ozone in the northern hemisphere is extremely low. TOMS overpass data are derived from the single TOMS best match measurement, almost always located within one degree of the ground station and usually made within an hour of local noon. The Version 8 Earth Probe TOMS ozone values have decreased by an average of about 1% due to a much better understanding of the calibration of the instrument. N-7 SBUV as well as the series of NOAA SBUV/2 column ozone values have also been processed with the Version 8 algorithm and have been compared to values from an ensemble of groundstations. Results show that the SBW column ozone values agree well with the groundstations and the datasets are useful for trend studies.

  18. TOMS Tropical Tropospheric Ozone Data Sets at the University of Maryland Website

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kochhar, A. K.; Thompson, A. M.; Hudson, R. D.; Frolov, A. D.; Witte, J. C.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Since 1997, shortly after the launch of the Earth-Probe TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) satellite instrument, we have been processing data in near-real time to post maps of tropical tropospheric ozone at a website: metosrv2.umd.edu/-tropo. Daily, 3-day and 9-day averages of tropical tropospheric ozone column depth (TTO) are viewable from 10N to 10S. Data can be downloaded (running 9-day means) from 20N-30S. Pollution events are trackable along with dynamically-induced variations in tropospheric ozone column. TOMS smoke aerosol (toms.gsfc.nasa.gov) can be used to interpret biomass burning ozone, as for example, during the extreme ozone and smoke pollution period during the ENSO-related fires of August November 1997. During that time plumes of ozone and smoke were frequently decoupled and ozone from Indonesian fires and from Africa merged in one large feature by late October 1997. In addition to the Earth-Probe TOMS record, data as half-month averages and as daily 9-day means from the Nimbus 7 TOMS instrument are at the metosrv2.umd.edu/-tropo website. A guide to the website and examples of ozone time-series and maps will be shown.

  19. Radiative Transfer in the Lower Atmosphere Based on TOMS/ADEOS Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frederick, John E.

    1996-01-01

    The long-term objective of this research is to develop and apply methods to compute the solar ultraviolet (UV) spectral irradiance at the earth's surface using information to be provided by the TOMS/ADEOS data set. The broad philosophy is to view the TOMS measurements as a probe of the radiative transfer properties of the earth's atmosphere. Prior to the launch of ADEOS, we have focused on analysis of the Nimbus 7 TOMS data base as well as the development of numerical models for eventual use with ADEOS measurements. The emphasis of recent work has been on numerical modeling of the radiative effects of cloudy skies in the UV part of the spectrum.

  20. Geo-Neutrinos as Probes for Deep Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zavatarelli, Sandra

    2015-03-01

    The knowledge of the radiogenic heat contribution to the total Earth surface heat flux is essential to understand processes such as the plate tectonics, the mantle convection, the geo-dynamo as well as the Earth formation itself. The electron antineutrinos released in the decays of radioactive elements inside the Earth are unique probes to constrain this quantity since their fluxes are in a well fixed ratio with the total mass of radiogenic heat producing elements (HPE). The geo-neutrino signal has now been robustly detected (at ˜4.8σ C.L.) by two experiments, KamLAND in Japan and Borexino in Italy and a new generation of scintillator detectors having geo-neutrinos among their goals is incoming. The status-of-art in this field is overviewed and the future perspectives discussed.

  1. Ozone, Aerosols and other Atmospheric Products from Version-8 TOMS Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, S. P.; Bhartia, P. K.; McPeters, R. D.; Herman, J. R.; Wellemeyer, C. G.; Torres, O.; Krueger, A. J.; Johnson, J. E.

    2003-12-01

    NASA has provided scientists with high resolution daily global maps of total column ozone obtained from a series of Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer(TOMS) instruments flown on Nimbus-7 in 1978, Meteor-3 in 1991, the Advanced Earth Observing Satellite (ADEOS) and Earth Probe (EP) satellites in 1996. EP-TOMS (launched a few months prior to ADEOS-TOMS), is the currently operating TOMS instrument providing the ozone data continuity and key information on ozone trends. TOMS instruments have also been used for monitoring dust plumes, smoke from biomass burning, and ash and sulfur dioxide from volcanoes. The V8 TOMS algorithm is the most recent version of the buv (backscattered ultraviolet) radiance based total ozone retrieval algorithms. The TOMS algorithm has undergone more than two decades of progressive refinement. It enhances the previous version (V7) ozone retrievals by taking care of several small errors that were discovered by extensive error studies using radiative transfer models and by comparison with ground-based instruments. We estimate that the new TOMS algorithm is capable of producing total ozone with rms error of about 2 percent. This algorithm will also be used for retrieval of total column ozone from the buv measurements of Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) to be flown on the Aura spacecraft (early 2004) that will provide continuity to the long time series of total column ozone retrieved using almost the same algorithm (to be consistent) for the study of ozone trend. The Goddard Earth Sciences Data Active Archive Center(GES DAAC) has been responsible for archiving the high quality ozone and other related products derived from the TOMS UV radiances and making it available to users. Additional products include effective Lambertian surface reflectivity, effective cloud fraction, a sun glint index, aerosol characteristics, an SO2 index, surface spectral UV and erythemal weighted irradiance. This presentation will provide some highlights of the standard products retrieved from the new V8 algorithm and examples of some new TOMS research products such as aerosol optical thickness and atmospheric single scattering albedo produced by the NASA/Goddard Ozone Processing Team (OPT). Information on data support and services provided by the GES DAAC Upper Atmosphere Data Support Team will also be presented.

  2. Combined Characterisation of GOME and TOMS Total Ozone Using Ground-Based Observations from the NDSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambert, J.-C.; VanRoozendael, M.; Simon, P. C.; Pommereau, J.-P.; Goutail, F.; Andersen, S. B.; Arlander, D. W.; BuiVan, N. A.; Claude, H.; deLaNoee, J.; DeMaziere, M.; Dorokhov, V.; Eriksen, P.; Gleason, J. F.; Tornkvist, K. Karlsen; Hoiskar, B. A. Kastad; Kyroe, E.; Leveau, J.; Merienne, M.-F.; Milinevsky, G.

    1998-01-01

    Several years of total ozone measured from space by the ERS-2 GOME, the Earth Probe Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS), and the ADEOS TOMS, are compared with high-quality ground-based observations associated with the Network for the Detection of Stratospheric Change (NDSC), over an extended latitude range and a variety of geophysical conditions. The comparisons with each spaceborne sensor are combined altogether for investigating their respective solar zenith angle (SZA) dependence, dispersion, and difference of sensitivity. The space- and ground-based data are found to agree within a few percent on average. However, the analysis highlights for both Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) and TOMS several sources of discrepancies, including a dependence on the SZA at high latitudes and internal inconsistencies.

  3. Probing the Compositions of Two Habitable Zone Super-Earths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benneke, Bjorn; Knutson, Heather; Crossfield, Ian; Deck, Katherine; Greene, Tom; Rogers, Leslie; Vanderburg, Andrew; Barman, Travis; Morley, Caroline; Lothringer, Josh; Werner, Michael; Beichman, Charles

    2015-10-01

    The recent discovery of two super-Earths orbiting in the habitable zones of nearby M stars have provided us with an unprecedented new opportunity to characterize the properties of small and potentially habitable planets outside of the solar system. Here, we propose to probe their atmospheric compositions, search for escaping hydrogen, and obtain the first bulk mass and densities estimate of a habitable zone super-Earth. The proposed observations will complement our approved HST WFC3 observations of K2-18b (15-orbits, GO13665, PI Benneke) as well as the approved HST STIS/MAMA observations of K2-18b by PI Ehrenreich. These observations will determine whether or not these two planets have primarily rocky or volatile-rich compositions, and in the volatile-rich case would enable the first studies of atmospheric chemistry in this regime. Mass loss also plays a critical role in the evolution of hydrogen-rich atmospheres on small planets, and our obsevations will provide the first constraints on the stability of these atmospheres.

  4. The Recovery of TOMS-EP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, Brent; Sabelhaus, Phil; Mendenhall, Todd; Fesq, Lorraine

    1998-01-01

    On December 13th 1998, the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer - Earth Probe (TOMS-EP) spacecraft experienced a Single Event Upset which caused the system to reconfigure and enter a Safe Mode. This incident occurred two and a half years after the launch of the spacecraft which was designed for a two year life. A combination of factors, including changes in component behavior due to age and extended use, very unfortunate initial conditions and the safe mode processing logic prevented the spacecraft from entering its nominal long term storage mode. The spacecraft remained in a high fuel consumption mode designed for temporary use. By the time the onboard fuel was exhausted, the spacecraft was Sun pointing in a high rate flat spin. Although the uncontrolled spacecraft was initially in a power and thermal safe orientation, it would not stay in this state indefinitely due to a slow precession of its momentum vector. A recovery team was immediately assembled to determine if there was time to develop a method of despinning the vehicle and return it to normal science data collection. A three stage plan was developed that used the onboard magnetic torque rods as actuators. The first stage was designed to reduce the high spin rate to within the linear range of the gyros. The second stage transitioned the spacecraft from sun pointing to orbit reference pointing. The final stage returned the spacecraft to normal science operation. The entire recovery scenario was simulated with a wide range of initial conditions to establish the expected behavior. The recovery sequence was started on December 28th 1998 and completed by December 31st. TOMS-EP was successfully returned to science operations by the beginning of 1999. This paper describes the TOMS-EP Safe Mode design and the factors which led to the spacecraft anomaly and loss of fuel. The recovery and simulation efforts are described. Flight data are presented which show the performance of the spacecraft during its return to science. Finally, lessons learned are presented.

  5. Tropical Tropospheric Ozone: A Multi-Satellite View From TOMS and Other Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Anne M.; Hudson, Robert D.; Guo, Hua; Witte, Jacquelyn C.; Kucsera, Tom L.; Seybold, Matthew G.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    New tropospheric ozone and aerosol products from the TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) satellite instrument can resolve episodic pollution events in the tropics and interannual and seasonal variability. Modified-residual (MR) Nimbus 7 tropical tropospheric ozone (TTO), two maps/month (1979-1992, 1-deg latitude by 2-deg longitude) within the region in which total ozone displays a tropical wave-one pattern (maximum 20S to 20N), are available in digital form at http://metosrv2.umd.edu/tropo. Also available are preliminary 1996-1999 MR-TTO maps based on real-time Earth-Probe (EP)/TOMS observations. Examples of applications are given.

  6. Relationship between errors in AVHRR-derived sea surface temperature and the TOMS aerosol index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz, J. P.; Arbelo, M.; Expsito, F. J.; Podest, G.; Prospero, J. M.; Evans, R.

    We investigate the effects of various types of atmospheric aerosols on satellite-derived sea surface temperature (SST) retrievals. The association between aerosol presence identified by the Earth Probe Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) aerosol index (AI) and systematic errors in Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) Pathfinder SST retrievals is explored. We find a significant increase in systematic PFSST errors in the presence of dust aerosols. Average errors range from 0.34C for AI values between 0.5 and 1.0 to 1.74C for AI ? 1.5. The bias is introduced by the AVHRR channel brightness temperature difference (T4-T5) which is intended to correct for atmospheric absorption normally due primarily to water vapor. Our study shows that (T4- T5) is sensitive to the dust aerosols (i.e., TOMS AI values). In contrast, smoke aerosols do not seem to have a significant effect on PFSST errors.

  7. Earth-Based Radio Tracking of the Galileo Probe for Jupiter Wind Estimation

    PubMed

    Folkner; Preston; Border; Navarro; Wilson; Oestreich

    1997-01-31

    Although the Galileo probe was designed to communicate only to the orbiter, the probe radio signal was detected at two Earth-based radio observatories where the signal was a billion times weaker. The measured signal frequency was used to derive a vertical profile of the jovian zonal wind speed. Due to the mission geometry, the Earth-based wind estimates are less sensitive to descent trajectory errors than estimates based on probe-orbiter Doppler measurements. The two estimates of wind profiles agree qualitatively; both show high wind speeds at all depths sampled. PMID:9005845

  8. Earth's Plasmasphere Seen by the Mutual Impedance Probe Onboard the Rosetta Spacecraft During its Third Earth fly-by

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trotignon, Jean Gabriel

    To reach Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko in 2014, the European Space Agency's Rosetta spacecraft must undergo four planet gravity assistances. The fourth one, an Earth fly-by, occurred in mid-November 2009. At closest approach, on 13 November at 07:45 U.T., Rosetta passed at about 2500 km over a point off the south coast of the Indonesian island of Java, at about 109E and 8S. The mutual impedance probe, MIP, and the 4 other instruments of the Rosetta Plasma Consortium, RPC, were switched on during the event. Calibration and general testing were the main objectives, nevertheless valuable observations of the Earth's space environment have actually been made, in particular by the MIP in the plasmasphere, the high electron-density region dominated by the Earth's magnetic field. An alternating current, I, with a frequency lying in the frequency range that contains the plasma frequency resonance, is driven through a transmitting electrode. The induced difference in voltage, V, measured on open circuit between two receiving electrodes is fed into a high input impedance amplifier. The mutual impedance, Z, which is computed onboard, is equal to the ratio of V to I. As Z depends essentially on the properties of the surrounding plasma, the frequency response of the mutual impedance probe may then be used for plasma diagnosis. As the CLUSTER/WHISPER relaxation sounder probed the Earth's plasmasphere just before and after the ROSETTA visit, the WHISPER observations are also presented.

  9. Argon isotopic composition of Archaean atmosphere probes early Earth geodynamics.

    PubMed

    Pujol, Magali; Marty, Bernard; Burgess, Ray; Turner, Grenville; Philippot, Pascal

    2013-06-01

    Understanding the growth rate of the continental crust through time is a fundamental issue in Earth sciences. The isotopic signatures of noble gases in the silicate Earth (mantle, crust) and in the atmosphere afford exceptional insight into the evolution through time of these geochemical reservoirs. However, no data for the compositions of these reservoirs exists for the distant past, and temporal exchange rates between Earth's interior and its surface are severely under-constrained owing to a lack of samples preserving the original signature of the atmosphere at the time of their formation. Here, we report the analysis of argon in Archaean (3.5-billion-year-old) hydrothermal quartz. Noble gases are hosted in primary fluid inclusions containing a mixture of Archaean freshwater and hydrothermal fluid. Our analysis reveals Archaean atmospheric argon with a (40)Ar/(36)Ar value of 143 ± 24, lower than the present-day value of 298.6 (for which (40)Ar has been produced by the radioactive decay of the potassium isotope (40)K, with a half-life of 1.25 billion years; (36)Ar is primordial in origin). This ratio is consistent with an early development of the felsic crust, which might have had an important role in climate variability during the first half of Earth's history. PMID:23739427

  10. Probing iron at Super-Earth core conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Amadou, N.; Brambrink, E.; Vinci, T.; Benuzzi-Mounaix, A.; Huser, G.; Brygoo, S.; Morard, G.; Guyot, F.; Resseguier, T. de; Mazevet, S.; Miyanishi, K.; Ozaki, N.; Kodama, R.; Henry, O.; Raffestin, D.; Boehly, T.; and others

    2015-02-15

    In this paper, we report on the quasi-isentropic compression of an iron sample using ramp shaped laser irradiation. This technique allows us to quasi-isentropically compress iron up to 700 GPa and 8500 K. To our knowledge, these data are the highest pressures reached on iron in off-Hugoniot conditions and the closest to the thermodynamic states thought to exist in Earth-like planetary cores. The experiment was performed on the Ligne d'Intégration laser facility at CESTA, Bordeaux, France.

  11. Probing the Earth from space - The Aristoteles mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuyer, M.; Silvestrin, P.; Aguirre, M.

    1992-11-01

    The Aristoteles mission has been under study by the Agency since 1987. Its aim is to provide global models of the Earth's gravitational and magnetic fields with high spatial resolution and accuracy. Following earlier discussions, in 1990 NASA confirmed its intention to participate in the mission with the provision of a dedicated launch and of additional instruments. This has made it possible to enhance the scientific and application-orientated value of the mission and to optimize the spacecraft design. This article reviews the new joint ESA-NASA Aristoteles mission, as well as the status of the system definition and of the associated technological pre-development activities.

  12. Long-Term Variability of Airborne Asian Dust Observed from TOMS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herman, J. R.; Hsu, N. C.; Seftor, C. J.; Holben, B. N.; Holben, B. N.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that airborne Asian dust may not only play an important role in the regional radiation budget, but also influence the air quality over North America through long-range transport. In this paper, we use satellite data to investigate the long-term variability of airborne Asian dust as well as the daily variation of the dust aerosol distribution. By combining the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) aerosol index with National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) wind data, our analysis shows a strong correlation between the generation of dust storms in the region and the passage of springtime weather fronts. This is consistent with earlier studies performed by other researchers. According to both the Nimbus-7 and Earth-Probe TOMS data the Takla Makan desert, the Gobi desert, and the and region of Inner Mongolia are major sources of the eastward-flowing airborne Asian dust. Heavily populated areas in eastern China (e.g., Beijing) are often on the primary path of the dust storms originating in these desert regions. The increasing desertification north of the Beijing region has served to exacerbate problems stemming from these storms. The time series derived from 20 years of TOMS aerosol index data shows the first significant satellite evidence of the atmospheric effect of increasing desertification, indicating that the amount of dust blown eastward has increased strongly during the past few years including the year 2000.

  13. Tropospheric Ozone Pollution from Space: New Views from the TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Anne M.; Hudson, Robert D.; Frolov, Alexander D.; Witte, Jacquelyn C.; Kucsera, Tom L.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    New products from the TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) >satellite instrument can resolve pollution events in tropical and mid-latitudes, Over the past several years, we have developed tropospheric ozone data sets by two methods. The modified-residual technique [Hudson and Thompson, 1998; Thompson and Hudson, 1999] uses v. 7 TOMS total ozone and is applicable to tropical regimes in which the wave-one pattern in total ozone is observed. The TOMSdirect method [Hudson et at., 2000] represents a new algorithm that uses TOMS radiances to extract tropospheric ozone in regions of constant stratospheric ozone and tropospheric ozone displaying high mixing ratios and variability characteristic of pollution, Absorbing aerosols (dust and smoke; Herman et at., 1997 Hsu et al., 1999), a standard TOMS product, provide transport and/or source marker information to interpret tropospheric ozone. For the Nimbus 7/TOMS observing period (1979-1992), modified-residual TTO (tropical tropospheric ozone) appears as two maps/month at I-degree latitude 2-degree longitude resolution at a homepage and digital data are available (20S to 20N) by ftp at http://metosrv2. umd.edu/tropo/ 14y_data.d. Preliminary modified-residual TTO data from the operational Earth-Probe/TOMS (1996- present) are posted in near-real-time at the same website. Analyses with the new tropospheric ozone and aerosol data are illustrated by the following (I)Signals in tropical tropospheric ozone column and smoke amount during ENSO (El Nino-Southern Oscillation) events, e.g. 1982-1983 and the intense ENSO induced biomass fires of 1997-1998 over the Indonesian region [Thompson et a[, 2000a, Thompson and Hudson, 1999]. (2) Trends in tropospheric ozone and smoke aerosols in various tropical regions (Atlantic, Pacific, Africa, Brazil). No significant trends were found for ozone from1980-1990 [Thompson and Hudson, 19991 although smoke aerosols increased during the period [Hsu et al.,1999]. (3) Temporal and spatial offsets ("paradoxes") in tropical tropospheric ozone and smoke aerosol in regions of greatest tropical biomass burning [Thompson et at., 1996;2000b]. (4) Trans-boundary pollution tracking. With an air parcel (trajectory) model, smoke aerosol and ozone and dust plumes can be tracked across oceans (e.g., Asia to North America; North America to Europe) and national boundaries, e.g. Indonesia to Singapore and Malaysia during the 1997 ENSO fires.

  14. A video atlas of TOMS ozone data, 1978-88

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chesters, D.; Krueger, A. J.

    1989-12-01

    The Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS), on-board NASA's Nimbus-7 weather satellite, has been observing ozone over the earth once daily for the last 10 yr. A time-lapse atlas of 3440 color-coded images drawn from the TOMS archive from 1978 to 1988 has been visualized on a standard VHS videotape that is now available from NASA. The rapid and complex ozone variations presented demonstrate the difficulty of separating man-induced climate changes from natural variability. This article presents a few images from the atlas and describes interesting features in the animation, such as the correlation between ozone and 'the weather', and the recent deepening of the annual ozone hole over the South Pole. Originally intended as a browsing tool for the TOMS digital database, the videotape is a vivid presentation of the earth's atmospheric dynamics and chemistry that is recommended for scientists, educators, policy makers, and citizens concerned about the global environment.

  15. Unravelling the Complexities of the Earth's Radiation Belts: Findings from the Van Allen Probes mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauk, Barry; Fox, Nicola; Kessel, Ramona; Sibeck, David; Kanekal, Shri

    2014-05-01

    Within the first year of Van Allen Probe operations, team members made a series of highly publicized decisive discoveries concerning the structure and evolution of the Earth's radiation belts, the processes that energize particles there, and the locations where they operate. Nevertheless, much more extensive and less publicized findings from the Van Allen Probes suggest that Earth's radiation belts regions remain a highly complex and puzzling place. Although the relation between magnetic storm and radiation belt enhancements and loss has been emphasized, dynamics during non-storm periods has occasionally been shown to be dramatic. While emphasis has been placed on new findings regarding local non-adiabatic energization mechanisms, adiabatic mechanisms have also been shown to be important. Furthermore, the interplay between, and relative importance of, these and other energization processes remain uncertain. The role of seed populations has been highlighted, with some studies pointing to localized mechanisms and others pointing to the role of substorms in transporting and injecting such populations. Here we review some of the less publicized findings and future objectives of the Van Allen Probes mission to get a broader and in-depth view of present understanding of Earth's inner magnetosphere.

  16. The Pilot Warm Spitzer Near Earth Object Survey: Probing the size distribution of the most abundant Near Earth Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trilling, David; Delbo, Marco; Emery, Joshua; Fazio, Giovanni; Fuentes, Cesar; Harris, Alan; Hora, Joseph; Mommert, Michael; Mueller, Michael; Smith, Howard

    2012-12-01

    We propose a Warm Spitzer search for Near Earth Objects (NEOs), bodies whose orbits bring them close to the Earth's orbit. Previous work has measured the properties of larger NEOs, but the physical properties of the smallest and most numerous NEOs are poorly constrained. We will capitalize on Spitzer's unparalleled sensitivity and unique geometry to measure the size distribution of NEOs down to 100 meters, where completeness from previous surveys is poor. This allows us to probe the dynamical history of near-Earth space and meet the Congressional mandate to determine the impact threat from objects >140 m. This project will also serve as a scientific and technical pathfinder for a future large Spitzer proposal that will increase our knowledge of the small NEO size distribution by another order of magnitude. Both projects will also be sensitive to previously unseen NEO populations. This proposed work significantly surpasses recent results from both our ExploreNEOS program and NEOWISE. Future ground- and space-based missions have been proposed to carry out similar work at costs of $500M or more, but this fundamental work can be done now, with Spitzer, for far less money. Our team has unmatched scientific and technical expertise in observations and modeling of Spitzer-observed NEOs.

  17. Thermal Plasma Measurements in the Earth's Plasmasphere by the Mutual Impedance Probe Onboard the Rosetta Spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trotignon, J.; Lagoutte, D.; Michau, J.; Grimald, S.; Décréau, P. M.; Randriamboarison, O.; Robert, P.; Lebreton, J.; Hamelin, M.; Mazelle, C.

    2005-12-01

    To reach Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko in 2014, the European Space Agency's Rosetta spacecraft must undergo four planet gravity assistances. The first one, an Earth fly-by, occurred in early March 2005. At closest approach, on 4 March at 22:09 U.T., Rosetta passed at about 1950 km over the Pacific Ocean just west of Mexico. It was thus the closest-ever Earth fly-by made by an ESA's spacecraft. The mutual impedance probe, MIP, and the 4 other instruments of the Rosetta Plasma Consortium, RPC, were switched on during the event. Calibration and general testing were the main objectives, nevertheless valuable observations of the Earth's space environment have actually been made, in particular by the MIP in the plasmasphere, the high electron-density region dominated by the Earth's magnetic field. An alternating current, I, with a frequency lying in the frequency range that contains the plasma frequency resonance, is driven through a transmitting electrode. The induced difference in voltage, V, measured on open circuit between two receiving electrodes is fed into a high input impedance amplifier. The mutual impedance, Z, which is computed onboard, is equal to the ratio of V to I. As Z depends essentially on the properties of the surrounding plasma, the frequency response of the mutual impedance probe may then be used for plasma diagnosis, in particular the electron plasma density and temperature can be accurately and reliably determined.

  18. The magnetospheric disturbance ring current as a source for probing the deep earth electrical conductivity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Campbell, W.H.

    1990-01-01

    Two current rings have been observed in the equatorial plane of the earth at times of high geomagnetic activity. An eastward current exists between about 2 and 3.5 earth radii (Re) distant, and a larger, more variable companion current exists between about 4 and 9 Re. These current regions are loaded during geomagnetic substorms. They decay, almost exponentially, after the cessation of the particle influx that attends the solar wind disturbance. This review focuses upon characteristics needed for intelligent use of the ring current as a source for induction probing of the earth's mantle. Considerable difficulties are found with the assumption that Dst is a ring-current index. ?? 1990 Birkha??user Verlag.

  19. Ultrafast pump-probe dynamics of iron oxide based earth pigments for applications to ancient pottery manufacture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villafana, Tana E.; Brown, William; Warren, Warren S.; Fischer, Martin

    2015-06-01

    We demonstrate that ultrafast pump-probe microscopy provides unique dynamics for natural iron oxide and iron hydroxide earth pigments, despite their chemical similarity. First, we conducted a pump-probe spectroscopy study on heat-treated hematite (the pure red iron oxide mineral) and found the pump-probe dynamics to be temperature dependent. Second, we investigated pottery fired under known conditions and observed firing dependent pump-probe dynamics. Finally, we imaged a New World potshard from the North Carolina Museum of Art. Our results indicate that pump-probe microscopy could be a useful tool in elucidating pottery manufacture.

  20. Volcanic eruption detection with TOMS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krueger, Arlin J.

    1987-01-01

    The Nimbus 7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) is designed for mapping of the atmospheric ozone distribution. Absorption by sulfur dioxide at the same ultraviolet spectral wavelengths makes it possible to observe and resolve the size of volcanic clouds. The sulfur dioxide absorption is discriminated from ozone and water clouds in the data processing by their spectral signatures. Thus, the sulfur dioxide can serve as a tracer which appears in volcanic eruption clouds because it is not present in other clouds. The detection limit with TOMS is close to the theoretical limit due to telemetry signal quantization of 1000 metric tons (5-sigma threshold) within the instrument field of view (50 by 50 km near the nadir). Requirements concerning the use of TOMS in detection of eruptions, geochemical cycles, and volcanic climatic effects are discussed.

  1. Fluorescent probes and bioimaging: alkali metals, alkaline earth metals and pH.

    PubMed

    Yin, Jun; Hu, Ying; Yoon, Juyoung

    2015-07-21

    All living species and life forms have an absolute requirement for bio-functional metals and acid-base equilibrium chemistry owing to the critical roles they play in biological processes. Hence, a great need exists for efficient methods to detect and monitor biometals and acids. In the last few years, great attention has been paid to the development of organic molecule based fluorescent chemosensors. The availability of new synthetic fluorescent probes has made fluorescence microscopy an indispensable tool for tracing biologically important molecules and in the area of clinical diagnostics. This review highlights the recent advances that have been made in the design and bioimaging applications of fluorescent probes for alkali metals and alkaline earth metal cations, including lithium, sodium and potassium, magnesium and calcium, and for pH determination within biological systems. PMID:25317749

  2. SinoProbe - A Multidisciplinary Research Program of Earth Sciences in China (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, S.; Li, T.

    2010-12-01

    China occupies a large region of central and eastern Asia and holds keys to resolving several first-order problems in Earth Sciences. Besides the importance in Earth Science research, the rapid growth of Chinese economy also demands a comprehensive and systematic evaluation of its natural resources and the impacts of geohazards on its societal development. In order to address the above issues, the Chinese government had initiated a new multidisciplinary research project in Earth Sciences - the SinoProbe Program. Its fundamental goal is to determine the three-dimensional structure, composition distribution, and geological evolution of the Chinese continental lithosphere. The results of the SinoProbe Program are expected to have broad impacts on the Chinese society and economy. In particular, the program will greatly enhance our current understanding on (1) the forming and distribution of mineral resources in the nation, (2) the locations and recurrence histories of major active fault zones capable of generating large earthquakes in highly populated regions, and (3) the distribution of major hazard-prone regions induced by geological processes. In 2009, more than 720 investigators and 70 engineers from Chinese institutions are currently involved with the research program. Sinoprobe hope that the joint forces by Chinese and international researchers will bring in modern approaches, new analytical tools, and advanced exploration technology into the successful operation of the program. In past year, 1,960km long seismic reflection profiling with broadband seismological studies and MT surveys separated from 6 profiles in China continent have completed. MT array coved the North China craton by 1°×1° network and 3-D exploration in larger ore deposits in selected area were carried out. A scientific drilling area operated in Tibet. We started to establish a geochemical reference framework for the values of 76 elements in a grid network with data-point spacing of 160 km in China. Some stress monitoring were centered in the Beijing and the southeastern margin of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau regions. Also, SinoProbe begin to establish a high-performance calculation platform that will consider coupling processes between deformation and thermal evolution in the lithosphere. Meanwhile, data integration and data dissemination is going to stored. Finally, SinoProbe will also devote to develop new technologies, innovative methods, data integration platforms, and modern equipments for deep Earth and mineral-deposit explorations. In summary, SinoProbe is a multi-year and multidisciplinary research program to be carried in China with 9 projects and 49 sub-projects. It will integrate geological, geophysical, geochemical, and modern exploration technology to examine the deep Earth structures and their evolution in China. The results will undoubtedly contribute to the improvement of our current understanding of the Eurasia continent in particular and the Earth in general.

  3. Plasma Wave Measurements in Earth's Magnetosphere by Juno, Van Allen Probes, and Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurth, W. S.; Hospodarsky, G. B.; Bolton, S. J.; Gurnett, D. A.; Santolik, O.; Kletzing, C.; Thorne, R. M.; Pickett, J. S.

    2013-12-01

    On October 9, 2013, Juno will fly within about 550 km of Earth in the process of executing a gravity assist on its way to its eventual arrival at Jupiter in July 2016. Since this will be the only magnetospheric plasma regime Juno will sample prior to arrival at Jupiter, it presents both engineering and scientific opportunities. One of the scientific opportunities is to make observations in the inner magnetosphere at the same time as the twin Van Allen Probes and Cluster. During the Juno flyby, which is on the dusk side at closest approach, the Van Allen Probes' apoapsis is also in the dusk sector. The Cluster orbits favor comparisons on the nightside after Juno's closest approach. Models of the radiation belts suggest that Juno will traverse both the inner and outer belts, albeit at higher latitudes than the low-inclination Van Allen Probes while the Cluster spacecraft are in a rather high inclination orbit. The Waves instrument on Juno utilizes a single electric dipole antenna and a single search coil sensor for measurements of the electric and magnetic components of plasma waves, consequently it will provide wave spectra and brief bursts of waveforms. The Waves instrument on Van Allen Probes, on the other hand makes triaxial electric and magnetic measurements of plasma waves, hence, can determine the propagation characteristics of waves such as the wave-normal angle, Poynting flux, and polarization characteristics of the waves. The Wideband Instrument on Cluster can be configured to capture single axis (electric or magnetic) waveforms at selected times to coincide with Juno and Van Allen Probes burst observations. We will compare observations of whistler-mode emissions and electron cyclotron harmonic emissions in and near the radiation belts from the vantage points of these spacecraft.

  4. Functional network macroscopes for probing past and present Earth system dynamics (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donges, J. F.

    2013-12-01

    The Earth, as viewed from a physicist's perspective, is a dynamical system of great complexity. Functional complex networks are inferred from observational data and model runs or constructed on the basis of theoretical considerations. Representing statistical interdependencies or causal interactions between objects (e.g., Earth system subdomains, processes, or local field variables), functional complex networks are conceptually well-suited for naturally addressing some of the fundamental questions of Earth system analysis concerning, among others, major dynamical patterns, teleconnections, and feedback loops in the planetary machinery, as well as critical elements such as thresholds, bottlenecks, and switches. The first part of this talk concerns complex network theory and network-based time series analysis. Regarding complex network theory, the novel contributions include consistent frameworks for analyzing the topology of (i) general networks of interacting networks and (ii) networks with vertices of heterogeneously distributed weights, as well as (iii) an analytical theory for describing spatial networks. In the realm of time series analysis, (i) recurrence network analysis is put forward as a theoretically founded, nonlinear technique for the study of single, but possibly multivariate time series. (ii) Coupled climate networks are introduced as an exploratory tool of data analysis for quantitatively characterizing the intricate statistical interdependency structure within and between several fields of time series. The second part presents applications for detecting dynamical transitions (tipping points) in time series and studying bottlenecks in the atmosphere's general circulation structure. The analysis of paleoclimate data reveals a possible influence of large-scale shifts in Plio-Pleistocene African climate variability on events in human evolution. This presentation summarizes the contents of the dissertation titled "Functional network macroscopes for probing past and present Earth system dynamics: Complex hierarchical interactions, tipping points, and beyond" by J.F. Donges, Humboldt University, Berlin, Germany, 2012. URL: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:kobv:11-100207126.

  5. Aerosol variability over Thessaloniki using ground based remote sensing observations and the TOMS aerosol index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koukouli, M. E.; Balis, D. S.; Amiridis, V.; Kazadzis, S.; Bais, A.; Nickovic, S.; Torres, O.

    The main aim of this work is to assess the performance of the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) on board the Earth Probe satellite aerosol index (AI) version 8.0 retrieved from the daily measurements of the TOMS instrument as an indicator of the presence of absorbing aerosols in the atmosphere. The analysis is carried out over the region of Northern Greece, an area exposed to various aerosol types from different sources. The aerosol optical depth (AOD) measured by a Brewer spectroradiometer situated in the centre of the city of Thessaloniki, at 40.6N, 22.9E, was employed as a measure of the aerosol loading in the atmosphere during the Earth Probe overpass. Discrete aerosol episodes that affect the area, such as biomass burning and Saharan dust events, have been isolated and studied in order to assess the effectiveness of using the TOMS AI in this highly complex atmospheric environment. The yearly values for the AOD measured at 355 nm range from 0.03 to 1.97 with a mean of 0.580.32 and for the AI from -1.67 to 3.06, with a mean of 0.220.73. This wide range of values results from the co-existence of urban, continental, marine and dust aerosols over Thessaloniki, a fact that makes it complicated to segregate optical effects on the observed radiation depending on different aerosol types. A total of 223 biomass burning events that affected Thessaloniki showed a correlation of 0.67 between the AOD and AI values whereas a correlation of 0.57 was deduced for the 37 cases of Saharan dust loading. A cluster analysis on the back-trajectories was performed in order to study the origins of the air masses over Thessaloniki, which permitted that the optical depth and AI were analysed depending on the possible source of the aerosols. The highest AOD values coupled with the highest AI values were seen for trajectories that transport air from the Saharan desert over Thessaloniki and those that bring polluted air from Eastern Europe and the Balkan regions. Even though some deductions were made vis--vis the origin and importance of different aerosol types over the city corroborating the usefulness of the AI in climatological or global climate studies, auxiliary information is essential for studying in detail the effects of the atmospheric aerosol loading over a local point of interest.

  6. Composition of the earth's atmosphere by shock-layer radiometry during the PAET entry probe experiment.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whiting, E. E.; Arnold, J. O.; Page, W. A.; Reynolds, R. M.

    1973-01-01

    A determination of the composition of the earth's atmosphere obtained from onboard radiometer measurements of the spectra emitted from the bow shock layer of a high-speed entry probe is reported. The N2, O2, CO2, and noble gas concentrations in the earth's atmosphere were determined to good accuracy by this technique. The results demonstrate unequivocally the feasibility of determining the composition of an unknown planetary atmosphere by means of a multichannel radiometer viewing optical emission from the heated atmospheric gases in the region between the bow shock wave and the vehicle surface. The spectral locations in this experiment were preselected to enable the observation of CN violet, N2(+) first negative and atomic oxygen emission at 3870, 3910, and 7775 A, respectively. The atmospheric gases were heated and compressed by the shock wave to a peak temperature of about 6100 K and a corresponding pressure of 0.4 atm. Complete descriptions of the data analysis technique and the onboard radiometer and its calibration are given.

  7. ADEOS Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) Data Products User's Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krueger, A.; Bhartia, P. K.; McPeters, R.; Herman, J.; Wellemeyer, C.; Jaross, G.; Seftor, C.; Torres, O.; Labow, G.; Byerly, W.; Moy, L.; Taylor, S.; Swissler, T.; Cebula, R.

    1998-01-01

    Two data products from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (ADEOS/TOMS) have been archived at the Distributed Active Archive Center, in the form of Hierarchical Data Format files. The ADEOS/ TOMS began taking measurements on September 11, 1996, and ended on June 29, 1997. The instrument measured backscattered Earth radiance and incoming solar irradiance; their ratio was used in ozone retrievals. Changes in the reflectivity of the solar diffuser used for the irradiance measurement were monitored using a carousel of three diffusers, each exposed to the degrading effects of solar irradiation at different rates. The algorithm to retrieve total column ozone compares measured Earth radiances at sets of three wavelengths with radiances calculated for different total ozone values, solar zenith angles, and optical paths. The initial error in the absolute scale for TOMS total ozone is 3 percent, the one standard deviation random error is 2 percent, and the drift is less than 0.5 percent over the 9-month data record. The Level 2 product contains the measured radiances, the derived total ozone amount, and reflectivity information for each scan position. The Level 3 product contains daily total ozone and reflectivity in a 1-degree latitude by 1.25 degrees longitude grid. The Level 3 files containing estimates of UVB at the Earth surface and tropospheric aerosol information will also be available. Detailed descriptions of both HDF data files and the CDROM product are provided.

  8. Global surface ultraviolet radiation climatology from TOMS and ERBE data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubin, Dan; Jensen, Elsa H.; Gies, H. Peter

    1998-10-01

    A global climatology of biologically active solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) at the Earth's surface is derived using NASA total ozone mapping spectrometer (TOMS) measurements of column ozone abundance and NASA Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) measurements of solar reflectance from the Earth-atmosphere system. These two sources of satellite data are used as input to a delta-Eddington radiative transfer model to estimate climatological cloud opacity and thereby demonstrate how surface UVR varies with geography and season. The surface UVR fluxes are spectrally resolved to enable weighted integration with any biological action spectrum. Solar elevation is shown to be more important than total column ozone abundance in governing the variability of surface UVR over large geographic areas, although some regions with pronounced local minima in ozone (30 Dobson units or more) will cause noticeable enhancements of integrated UV-B (280-315 nm) flux relative to UV-A (315-400 nm). The greatest variability in surface UVR within a given climate zone is induced by cloud cover. During summer, regions that show lower surface UVR fluxes relative to their surrounding regions include the eastern United States (versus the western United States), India, China (in the vicinity of the Yangtze River), and Japan (relative to the surrounding oceans). Cloud cover over tropical rainforest areas reduces the surface UVR flux relative to ocean areas at the same latitudes. The UVR cloud transmission derived from the TOMS and ERBE data correlates with an independent climatology of global cloud coverage. The UVR mapping method, based on the TOMS and ERBE data, allows a direct investigation of diurnal variability and a rigorous calculation of the biologically relevant integrated daily dose of UVR. However, it is shown that a UVR mapping method based on TOMS data alone, which is limited to only local noon satellite measurements, can make defensible estimates of the integrated daily UVR dose and the instantaneous local noon UVR surface flux.

  9. Van Allen Probes Mission Space Academy: Educating middle school students about Earth's mysterious radiation belts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, L.; Turney, D.; Matiella Novak, A.; Smith, D.; Simon, M.

    2013-12-01

    How's the weather in space? Why on Earth did NASA send two satellites above Earth to study radiation belts and space weather? To learn the answer to questions about NASA's Van Allen Probes mission, 450 students and their teachers from Maryland middle schools attended Space Academy events highlighting the Van Allen Probes mission. Sponsored by the Applied Physics Laboratory (APL) and Discovery Education, the events are held at the APL campus in Laurel, MD. Space Academies take students and teachers on behind-the-scenes exploration of how spacecraft are built, what they are designed to study, and introduces them to the many professionals that work together to create some of NASA's most exciting projects. Moderated by a public relations representative in the format of an official NASA press conference, the daylong event includes a student press conference with students as reporters and mission experts as panelists. Lunch with mission team members gives students a chance to ask more questions. After lunch, students don souvenir clean room suits, enjoy interactive science demonstrations, and tour APL facilities where the Van Allen Probes were built and tested before launch. Students may even have an opportunity to peek inside a clean room to view spacecraft being assembled. Prior to the event, teachers are provided with classroom activities, lesson plans, and videos developed by APL and Discovery Education to help prepare students for the featured mission. The activities are aligned to National Science Education Standards and appropriate for use in the classroom. Following their visit, student journalists are encouraged to write a short article about their field trip; selections are posted on the Space Academy web site. Designed to engage, inspire, and influence attitudes about space science and STEM careers, Space Academies provide an opportunity to attract underserved populations and emphasize that space science is for everyone. Exposing students to a diverse group of scientists and engineers may alleviate some common stereotypes about these careers. When students engage with the scientists and engineers at APL, they see first-hand that successful science and engineering requires a diverse team with multi-disciplinary backgrounds. Activities throughout the day develop student understanding about science and technology, and address the fundamental concepts that fall under the National Science Education Content Standards. Students are immersed in a hands-on experience designed to facilitate understanding of the History and Nature of Science. Throughout the day students interact with people of diverse backgrounds and interests while hearing about the specific ways various individuals and teams of people contribute to the science and technology of the mission, addressing the concepts which fall under the headings of Science as a Human Endeavor, Nature of Science, and History of Science. Getting students outside the classroom to visit APL is an exclusive opportunity; evaluations have indicated that students became interested in learning more about space science and STEM careers after attending a Space Academy event.

  10. A Long-term Record of Saharan Dust Aerosol Properties from TOMS Observations: Optical Depth and Single Scattering Albedo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torres, Omar; Bhartia, P. K.; Herman, J. R.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The interaction between the strong Rayleigh scattering in the near UV spectral region (330-380 nm) and the processes of aerosol absorption and scattering, produce a clear spectral signal in the upwelling radiance at the top of the atmosphere. This interaction is the basis of the TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) aerosol retrieval technique that can be used for their characterization and to differentiate non-absorbing sulfates from strongly UV-absorbing aerosols such as mineral dust. For absorbing aerosols, the characterization is in terms of the optical depth and single scattering albedo with assumptions about the aerosol plume height. The results for non-absorbing aerosols are not dependent on plume height. Although iron compounds represent only between 5% to 8% of desert dust aerosol mass, hematite (Fe2O3) accounts for most of the near UV absorption. Because of the large ultraviolet absorption characteristic of hematite, the near UV method of aerosol sensing is especially suited for the detection and characterization of desert dust aerosols. Using the combined record of near UV measurements by the Nimbus7 (1978-1992) and Earth Probe (1996-present) TOMS instruments, a global longterm climatology of near UV optical depth and single scattering albedo has been produced. The multi-year long record of mineral aerosol properties over the area of influence of the Saharan desert, will be discussed.

  11. Updating the Micro-Tom TILLING platform.

    PubMed

    Okabe, Yoshihiro; Ariizumi, Tohru; Ezura, Hiroshi

    2013-03-01

    The dwarf tomato variety Micro-Tom is regarded as a model system for functional genomics studies in tomato. Various tomato genomic tools in the genetic background of Micro-Tom have been established, such as mutant collections, genome information and a metabolomic database. Recent advances in tomato genome sequencing have brought about a significant need for reverse genetics tools that are accessible to the larger community, because a great number of gene sequences have become available from public databases. To meet the requests from the tomato research community, we have developed the Micro-Tom Targeting-Induced Local Lesions IN Genomes (TILLING) platform, which is comprised of more than 5000 EMS-mutagenized lines. The platform serves as a reverse genetics tool for efficiently identifying mutant alleles in parallel with the development of Micro-Tom mutant collections. The combination of Micro-Tom mutant libraries and the TILLING approach enables researchers to accelerate the isolation of desirable mutants for unraveling gene function or breeding. To upgrade the genomic tool of Micro-Tom, the development of a new mutagenized population is underway. In this paper, the current status of the Micro-Tom TILLING platform and its future prospects are described. PMID:23641180

  12. Impact of atmospheric refraction: how deeply can we probe exo-earth's atmospheres during primary eclipse observations?

    SciTech Connect

    Bétrémieux, Yan; Kaltenegger, Lisa

    2014-08-10

    Most models used to predict or fit exoplanet transmission spectra do not include all the effects of atmospheric refraction. Namely, the angular size of the star with respect to the planet can limit the lowest altitude, or highest density and pressure, probed during primary eclipses as no rays passing below this critical altitude can reach the observer. We discuss this geometrical effect of refraction for all exoplanets and tabulate the critical altitude, density, and pressure for an exoplanet identical to Earth with a 1 bar N{sub 2}/O{sub 2} atmosphere as a function of both the incident stellar flux (Venus, Earth, and Mars-like) at the top of the atmosphere and the spectral type (O5-M9) of the host star. We show that such a habitable exo-Earth can be probed to a surface pressure of 1 bar only around the coolest stars. We present 0.4-5.0 μm model transmission spectra of Earth's atmosphere viewed as a transiting exoplanet, and show how atmospheric refraction modifies the transmission spectrum depending on the spectral type of the host star. We demonstrate that refraction is another phenomenon that can potentially explain flat transmission spectra over some spectral regions.

  13. Impact of Atmospheric Refraction: How Deeply can We Probe Exo-Earth's Atmospheres during Primary Eclipse Observations?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bétrémieux, Yan; Kaltenegger, Lisa

    2014-08-01

    Most models used to predict or fit exoplanet transmission spectra do not include all the effects of atmospheric refraction. Namely, the angular size of the star with respect to the planet can limit the lowest altitude, or highest density and pressure, probed during primary eclipses as no rays passing below this critical altitude can reach the observer. We discuss this geometrical effect of refraction for all exoplanets and tabulate the critical altitude, density, and pressure for an exoplanet identical to Earth with a 1 bar N2/O2 atmosphere as a function of both the incident stellar flux (Venus, Earth, and Mars-like) at the top of the atmosphere and the spectral type (O5-M9) of the host star. We show that such a habitable exo-Earth can be probed to a surface pressure of 1 bar only around the coolest stars. We present 0.4-5.0 μm model transmission spectra of Earth's atmosphere viewed as a transiting exoplanet, and show how atmospheric refraction modifies the transmission spectrum depending on the spectral type of the host star. We demonstrate that refraction is another phenomenon that can potentially explain flat transmission spectra over some spectral regions.

  14. Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) Level-3 Data Products User's Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McPeters, Richard D.; Bhartia, P. K.; Krueger, Arlin J.; Herman, Jay R.; Wellemeyer, Charles G.; Seftor, Colin J.; Byerly, William; Celarier, Edward A.

    2000-01-01

    Data from the TOMS series of instruments span the time period from November 1978, through the present with about a one and a-half year gap from January 1994 through July 1996. A set of four parameters derived from the TOMS measurements have been archived in the form of daily global maps or Level-3 data products. These products are total column ozone, effective surface reflectivity, aerosol index, and erythermal ultraviolet estimated at the Earth surface. A common fixed grid of I degree latitude by 1.25 degree longitude cells over the entire globe is provided daily for each parameter. These data are archived at the Goddard Space Flight Center Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAQ in Hierarchical Data Format (HDF). They are also available in a character format through the TOMS web site at http://toms.gsfc.nasa.gov. The derivations of the parameters, the mapping algorithm, and the data formats are described. The trend uncertainty for individual TOMS instruments is about 1% decade, but additional uncertainty exists in the combined data record due to uncertainty in the relative calibrations of the various TOMS.

  15. Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carr, M. H.

    1984-01-01

    The following aspects of the planet Earth are discussed: plate tectonics, the interior of the planet, the formation of the Earth, and the evolution of the atmosphere and hydrosphere. The Earth's crust, mantle, and core are examined along with the bulk composition of the planet.

  16. TOMS UV Algorithm: Problems and Enhancements. 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krotkov, Nickolay; Herman, Jay; Bhartia, P. K.; Seftor, Colin; Arola, Antti; Kaurola, Jussi; Kroskinen, Lasse; Kalliskota, S.; Taalas, Petteri; Geogdzhaev, I.

    2002-01-01

    Satellite instruments provide global maps of surface ultraviolet (UV) irradiance by combining backscattered radiance measurements with radiative transfer models. The models are limited by uncertainties in input parameters of the atmosphere and the surface. We evaluate the effects of possible enhancements of the current Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) surface UV irradiance algorithm focusing on effects of diurnal variation of cloudiness and improved treatment of snow/ice. The emphasis is on comparison between the results of the current (version 1) TOMS UV algorithm and each of the changes proposed. We evaluate different approaches for improved treatment of pixel average cloud attenuation, with and without snow/ice on the ground. In addition to treating clouds based only on the measurements at the local time of the TOMS observations, the results from other satellites and weather assimilation models can be used to estimate attenuation of the incident UV irradiance throughout the day. A new method is proposed to obtain a more realistic treatment of snow covered terrain. The method is based on a statistical relation between UV reflectivity and snow depth. The new method reduced the bias between the TOMS UV estimations and ground-based UV measurements for snow periods. The improved (version 2) algorithm will be applied to re-process the existing TOMS UV data record (since 1978) and to the future satellite sensors (e.g., Quik/TOMS, GOME, OMI on EOS/Aura and Triana/EPIC).

  17. Global Surface Ultraviolet Radiation Climatology from TOMS and ERBE Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lubin, Dan

    1998-01-01

    The overall goal of this project has been to develop a method for calculating the distribution of solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) over most of the earth's surface using NASA's Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) and Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) data, and to use this method to develop a UVR climatology that is useful in the context of the global ozone depletion issue. The research carried out with this support has resulted the following accomplishments: (1) a radioactive transfer method. based on the delta-Eddington approximation, was successfully developed; (2) the method was applied to the five years of overlapping TOMS and ERBE Monthly-Hourly data to examine the impact of global variability in cloud cover on trends in surface UVR; (3) a presentation was made on effects of stratospheric ozone depletion; (4) the radioactive transfer model was finally applied to all daylight hours to make a through study of the global effect of cloud cover;and (6) a five-year global climatology of surface UVR based on all of the research has been prepared for general distribution.

  18. Changes in Cloud and Aerosol Cover (1980-2006) from Reflectivity Time Series Using SeaWiFS, N7-TOMS, EP-TOMS, SBUV-2, and OMI Radiance Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herman, J. R.; Labow, G.; Hsu, N. C.; Larko, D.

    2009-01-01

    The amount of solar radiation reflected back to space or reaching the Earth's surface is primarily governed by the amount of cloud cover and, to a much lesser extent, by Rayleigh scatteri ng, aerosols, and various absorbing gases (e.g., O3, NO2, H2O). A useful measure of the effect of cloud plus aerosol cover is given by the amount that the 331 run Lambert Equivalent Reflectivity (LER) ofa scene exceeds the surfuce reflectivity for snow/ice-free scenes after Rayleigh scattering has been removed. Twenty-eight years of reflectivity data are available by overlapping data from several satellites: N7 (Nimbus 7, TOMS; 331 nm) from 1979 to 1992, SBUV-2 series (Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet, NOAA; 331 nm) 1985 to 2007, EP (Earth-Probe, TOMS; 331 nm) 1997 to 2006, SW (SeaWiFS; 412 nm) 1998 to 2006, and OMI (Ozone Measuring Instrument; 331 nm) 2004-2007. Only N7 and SW have a sufficiently long data record, Sun-synchronous orbits, and are adequately calibrated for long-term reflectivity trend estimation. Reflectivity data derived from these instruments and the SBUV-2 series are compared during the overlapping years. Key issues in determining long-term reflecti vity changes that have occurred during the N7 and SW operating periods are discussed. The largest reflectivity changes in the 412 nm SW LER and 331 nm EP LER are found to occur near the equator and are associated with a large EI Nino-Southern Oscillation event. Most other changes that have occurred are regional, such as the apparent cloud decrease over northern Europe since 1998. The fractional occurrence (fraction of days) of high reflectivity values over Hudson Bay, Canada (snow/ice and clouds) appears to have decreased when comparing reflectivity data from 1980 to 1992 to 1997-2006, suggesting shorter duration of ice in Hudson Bay since 1980.

  19. The Mutual Impedance Probe Technique for Plasma Parameters Measurements: the ROSETTA RPC/MIP Results during the Earth's Flybys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trotignon, J.; Lebreton, J.; Rauch, J.

    2010-12-01

    The Mutual Impedance Probe technique, used in geophysical prospection to measure the ground permittivity since the early 1900, has been successfully transposed to measure space plasma properties in the 70s. This technique has been used in space for many years on sounding rockets and spacecraft: GEOS-1, GEOS-2, VIKING, MARS-96, ARCAD/AUREOL-3, and Huygens. The basic principle of the technique is to measure the self impedance of a single electric antenna or the mutual impedance between two sets of E-field dipoles. Since the impedance of the probe depends on the dielectric properties of the medium in which the probe is immersed, some characteristics of the medium can be determined. Space plasma parameters such as the density and temperature of thermal electrons may thus be reliably and accurately deduced. As a bonus, using only the receiving part of the probe, natural waves can also be investigated in a large frequency range. An E-field impedance probe is currently flying onboard ESA’s comet Chaser ROSETTA and one such probe is in development for BepiColombo. The most common configuration of a mutual impedance probe uses a dipole for transmitting a frequency-controlled signal and a second dipole for receiving the induced signal. Transmitting electrodes are fed with a signal generator, in series with a current meter if necessary, while the receiving electrodes are connected to a voltmeter with a very high input impedance. The transmitted current I and the received voltage V being known, the mutual impedance Z is by definition Z = V/I. Both the imaginary and the real parts of Z may then be interpreted to deduce plasma properties. The capabilities of this technique are illustrated with in-flight calibration results obtained by the Mutual Impedance Probe, MIP, which is one instrument of the ROSETTA plasma package. MIP and the four other instruments of the ROSETTA Plasma Consortium, RPC, were switched on during the three Earth swingbys (March 2005, November 2007, and November 2009). Calibration and general testing were the main objectives, nevertheless valuable observations of the Earth’s plasmasphere have been made by the MIP instrument. While MIP itself has been designed to measure plasma properties in the Debye length range: 0.5-20 cm, a special configuration uses a second instrument of the RPC, the Langmuir Probe (LAP), as a transmitter to allow measuring the plasma properties in the long Debye length range: 0.1-2 m, thus allowing to investigate a wide range of plasma conditions expected to be met by ROSETTA. The results obtained during the Earth flybys will be shown and the performance of the instrument discussed. The application of the technique to probe the environment of Callisto and Ganymede is discussed and the strength of this measurement approach as a potential sensor onboard one of the two spacecraft of the Europa Jupiter System Mission, the Jupiter Ganymede Orbiter, is highlighted.

  20. Nimbus-7 TOMS Version 7 Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wellemeyer, C. G.; Taylor, S. L.; Jaross, G.; DeLand, M. T.; Seftor, C. J.; Labow, G.; Swissler, T. J.; Cebula, R. P.

    1996-01-01

    This report describes an improved instrument characterization used for the Version 7 processing of the Nimbus-7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) data record. An improved internal calibration technique referred to as spectral discrimination is used to provide long-term calibration precision of +/- 1%/decade in total column ozone amount. A revised wavelength scale results in a day one calibration that agrees with other satellite and ground-based measurements of total ozone, while a wavelength independent adjustment of the initial radiometric calibration constants provides good agreement with surface reflectivity measured by other satellite-borne ultraviolet measurements. The impact of other aspects of the Nimbus-7 TOMS instrument performance are also discussed. The Version 7 data should be used in all future studies involving the Nimbus-7 TOMS measurements of ozone. The data are available through the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's Distributive Active Archive Center (DAAC).

  1. Scientific and Operational Requirements for TOMS Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krueger, Arlin J. (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    Global total ozone and sulfur dioxide data from the Nimbus 7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) instrument have applications in a broad range of disciplines. The presentations of 29 speakers who are using the data in research or who have operational needs for the data are summarized. Five sessions addressed topics in stratospheric processes, tropospheric dynamics and chemistry, remote sensing, volcanology, and future instrument requirements. Stratospheric and some volcanology requirements can be met by a continuation of polar orbit satellites using a slightly modified TOMS but weather related research, tropospheric sulfur budget studies, and most operational needs require the time resolution of a geostationary instrument.

  2. TOMS Near Realtime System design document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Puccinelli, E. F.

    1981-01-01

    The System Design Document for the TOMS (Total Mapping Spectrometer) Near Realtime System provides detailed definition of the system functions and records the system history from a data processing and development point-of-view. The system was designed to produce map products displaying ozone concentrations over the United States as measured by the TOMS flown on the NIMBUS 7 satellite. The maps were produced and delivered to the user within six hours of round receipt of the satellite data for the period March 1, 1981 through May 15, 1981 on a daily basis. Sample system products are shown and data archival locations are listed.

  3. Scientific and Operational Requirements for TOMS Data

    SciTech Connect

    Krueger, A.J.

    1987-12-01

    Global total ozone and sulfur dioxide data from the Nimbus 7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) instrument have applications in a broad range of disciplines. The presentations of 29 speakers who are using the data in research or who have operational needs for the data are summarized. Five sessions addressed topics in stratospheric processes, tropospheric dynamics and chemistry, remote sensing, volcanology, and future instrument requirements. Stratospheric and some volcanology requirements can be met by a continuation of polar orbit satellites using a slightly modified TOMS but weather related research, tropospheric sulfur budget studies, and most operational needs require the time resolution of a geostationary instrument.

  4. Recent near-Earth supernovae probed by global deposition of interstellar radioactive (60)Fe.

    PubMed

    Wallner, A; Feige, J; Kinoshita, N; Paul, M; Fifield, L K; Golser, R; Honda, M; Linnemann, U; Matsuzaki, H; Merchel, S; Rugel, G; Tims, S G; Steier, P; Yamagata, T; Winkler, S R

    2016-04-01

    The rate of supernovae in our local Galactic neighbourhood within a distance of about 100 parsecs from Earth is estimated to be one every 2-4 million years, based on the total rate in the Milky Way (2.0 ± 0.7 per century). Recent massive-star and supernova activity in Earth's vicinity may be traced by radionuclides with half-lives of up to 100 million years, if trapped in interstellar dust grains that penetrate the Solar System. One such radionuclide is (60)Fe (with a half-life of 2.6 million years), which is ejected in supernova explosions and winds from massive stars. Here we report that the (60)Fe signal observed previously in deep-sea crusts is global, extended in time and of interstellar origin from multiple events. We analysed deep-sea archives from all major oceans for (60)Fe deposition via the accretion of interstellar dust particles. Our results reveal (60)Fe interstellar influxes onto Earth at 1.5-3.2 million years ago and at 6.5-8.7 million years ago. The signal measured implies that a few per cent of fresh (60)Fe was captured in dust and deposited on Earth. Our findings indicate multiple supernova and massive-star events during the last ten million years at distances of up to 100 parsecs. PMID:27078565

  5. Ion probe determinations of the rare earth concentrations of individual meteoritic phosphate grains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crozaz, G.; Zinner, E.

    1985-01-01

    A new ion probe method for quantitative measurements of the concentrations of all the REE down to the ppm level in 5-20 micron spots is presented. The first application of the method is the determination of REE abundances in meteoritic phosphates. Results are shown to be in good agreement with previous INAA and ion probe determinations. The merrillites in the St. Severin amphoterite are richer in REE than the apatites (the enrichment factors, for various REE, range from 2.3 to 14.2) in contradiction with the results of Ebihara and Honda (1983). Provided good standards for other mineral phases are found or implanted marker ion techniques are used, the method should find a wide range of applications for the study of both terrestrial and extraterrestrial crystals at the microscopic level.

  6. Optical probes for the detection of protons, and alkali and alkaline earth metal cations.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Graham R C; Sahoo, Suban K; Kamila, Sukanta; Singh, Narinder; Kaur, Navneet; Hyland, Barry W; Callan, John F

    2015-07-01

    Luminescent sensors and switches continue to play a key role in shaping our understanding of key biochemical processes, assist in the diagnosis of disease and contribute to the design of new drugs and therapies. Similarly, their contribution to the environment cannot be understated as they offer a portable means to undertake field testing for hazardous chemicals and pollutants such as heavy metals. From a physiological perspective, the Group I and II metal ions are among the most important in the periodic table with blood plasma levels of H(+), Na(+) and Ca(2+) being indicators of several possible disease states. In this review, we examine the progress that has been made in the development of luminescent probes for Group I and Group II ions as well as protons. The potential applications of these probes and the mechanism involved in controlling their luminescent response upon analyte binding will also be discussed. PMID:25742963

  7. Changes in Earth 360 380 nm Reflectivity: 1980 2000

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herman, J. R.; Ziemke, G.; Larko, D.

    2002-01-01

    The Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) reflectivity time series 1980 to 1992 and 1997 to 2000 have been combined to estimate change that have occurred over a 21 year period. The relative calibration of the two TOMS (Nimbus-7, N7 and Earth-Probe, EP) has been adjusted using the measured minimum reflectivity over mid-latitude ocean and land locations (50o). The result is that the N7 reflectivity has been decreased by 0.02 to match the better-calibrated Earth-Probe/TOMS. Most of the local trend features seen in the N7 time series (1980 to 1992) have been continued in the combined time series, but the overall zonal average and global trends have changed. The correlation of cloud cover with solar activity (measured by the 10.7 cm solar radiation) that was present during the Nimbus-7 period (1980 to 1992) is no longer evident for the period 1980 to 2000. The UV reflectivity data are compared with changes in the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) Outgoing Long-wavelength Radiation (OLR) and show an expected anti-correlation with cloud-cover changes over the same period for many, but not all, features. The key results include a continuing decrease in cloud cover over Europe and North America and an increase in reflectivity near climatology should be reduced by 0.02. The TOMS reflectivity time series 1980 to 1992 and 1997 to 2000 have been Antarctica. This also means that the previously published N7 UV surface reflectivity.

  8. Toms River Drivers Manual 1984-1985.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Patricia

    The procedures in this manual are designed to establish stability and continuity within the student transportation department of the Toms River Regional Schools in New Jersey. The manual is divided into three sections. Section 1 provides driver and aide specific information. It includes directives related to time clock, spare buses, and…

  9. Tom Wolfe and the Uses of Argument.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kallan, Richard A.

    Tom Wolfe is widely regarded as the leading theorist and practitioner of New Journalism, the journalistic genre that combines the stylistic features of fiction and the reportorial obligations of journalism to produce a "novelistic sounding" but nonetheless factual literature. The saliency of Wolfe's stylistic boldness has prompted many to conclude…

  10. STS-98 Crew Interview: Tom Jones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The STS-98 Mission Specialist Tom Jones is seen being interviewed. He answers questions about his inspiration to become an astronaut, his career path, and his training. He gives details on the mission's goals and significance, and the payload and hardware it brings to the International Space Station (ISS). Mr. Jones discusses his role in the mission's spacewalks and activities.

  11. Toms River Drivers Manual 1984-1985.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Patricia

    The procedures in this manual are designed to establish stability and continuity within the student transportation department of the Toms River Regional Schools in New Jersey. The manual is divided into three sections. Section 1 provides driver and aide specific information. It includes directives related to time clock, spare buses, and

  12. Antiferromagnetic Spin Coupling between Rare Earth Adatoms and Iron Islands Probed by Spin-Polarized Tunneling

    PubMed Central

    Coffey, David; Diez-Ferrer, José Luis; Serrate, David; Ciria, Miguel; Fuente, César de la; Arnaudas, José Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    High-density magnetic storage or quantum computing could be achieved using small magnets with large magnetic anisotropy, a requirement that rare-earth iron alloys fulfill in bulk. This compelling property demands a thorough investigation of the magnetism in low dimensional rare-earth iron structures. Here, we report on the magnetic coupling between 4f single atoms and a 3d magnetic nanoisland. Thulium and lutetium adatoms deposited on iron monolayer islands pseudomorphically grown on W(110) have been investigated at low temperature with scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy. The spin-polarized current indicates that both kind of adatoms have in-plane magnetic moments, which couple antiferromagnetically with their underlying iron islands. Our first-principles calculations explain the observed behavior, predicting an antiparallel coupling of the induced 5d electrons magnetic moment of the lanthanides with the 3d magnetic moment of iron, as well as their in-plane orientation, and pointing to a non-contribution of 4f electrons to the spin-polarized tunneling processes in rare earths. PMID:26333417

  13. Recent near-Earth supernovae probed by global deposition of interstellar radioactive 60Fe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallner, A.; Feige, J.; Kinoshita, N.; Paul, M.; Fifield, L. K.; Golser, R.; Honda, M.; Linnemann, U.; Matsuzaki, H.; Merchel, S.; Rugel, G.; Tims, S. G.; Steier, P.; Yamagata, T.; Winkler, S. R.

    2016-04-01

    The rate of supernovae in our local Galactic neighbourhood within a distance of about 100 parsecs from Earth is estimated to be one every 2-4 million years, based on the total rate in the Milky Way (2.0 ± 0.7 per century). Recent massive-star and supernova activity in Earth’s vicinity may be traced by radionuclides with half-lives of up to 100 million years, if trapped in interstellar dust grains that penetrate the Solar System. One such radionuclide is 60Fe (with a half-life of 2.6 million years), which is ejected in supernova explosions and winds from massive stars. Here we report that the 60Fe signal observed previously in deep-sea crusts is global, extended in time and of interstellar origin from multiple events. We analysed deep-sea archives from all major oceans for 60Fe deposition via the accretion of interstellar dust particles. Our results reveal 60Fe interstellar influxes onto Earth at 1.5-3.2 million years ago and at 6.5-8.7 million years ago. The signal measured implies that a few per cent of fresh 60Fe was captured in dust and deposited on Earth. Our findings indicate multiple supernova and massive-star events during the last ten million years at distances of up to 100 parsecs.

  14. Antiferromagnetic Spin Coupling between Rare Earth Adatoms and Iron Islands Probed by Spin-Polarized Tunneling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coffey, David; Diez-Ferrer, Jos Luis; Serrate, David; Ciria, Miguel; Fuente, Csar De La; Arnaudas, Jos Ignacio

    2015-09-01

    High-density magnetic storage or quantum computing could be achieved using small magnets with large magnetic anisotropy, a requirement that rare-earth iron alloys fulfill in bulk. This compelling property demands a thorough investigation of the magnetism in low dimensional rare-earth iron structures. Here, we report on the magnetic coupling between 4f single atoms and a 3d magnetic nanoisland. Thulium and lutetium adatoms deposited on iron monolayer islands pseudomorphically grown on W(110) have been investigated at low temperature with scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy. The spin-polarized current indicates that both kind of adatoms have in-plane magnetic moments, which couple antiferromagnetically with their underlying iron islands. Our first-principles calculations explain the observed behavior, predicting an antiparallel coupling of the induced 5d electrons magnetic moment of the lanthanides with the 3d magnetic moment of iron, as well as their in-plane orientation, and pointing to a non-contribution of 4f electrons to the spin-polarized tunneling processes in rare earths.

  15. Antiferromagnetic Spin Coupling between Rare Earth Adatoms and Iron Islands Probed by Spin-Polarized Tunneling.

    PubMed

    Coffey, David; Diez-Ferrer, José Luis; Serrate, David; Ciria, Miguel; de la Fuente, César; Arnaudas, José Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    High-density magnetic storage or quantum computing could be achieved using small magnets with large magnetic anisotropy, a requirement that rare-earth iron alloys fulfill in bulk. This compelling property demands a thorough investigation of the magnetism in low dimensional rare-earth iron structures. Here, we report on the magnetic coupling between 4f single atoms and a 3d magnetic nanoisland. Thulium and lutetium adatoms deposited on iron monolayer islands pseudomorphically grown on W(110) have been investigated at low temperature with scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy. The spin-polarized current indicates that both kind of adatoms have in-plane magnetic moments, which couple antiferromagnetically with their underlying iron islands. Our first-principles calculations explain the observed behavior, predicting an antiparallel coupling of the induced 5d electrons magnetic moment of the lanthanides with the 3d magnetic moment of iron, as well as their in-plane orientation, and pointing to a non-contribution of 4f electrons to the spin-polarized tunneling processes in rare earths. PMID:26333417

  16. Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes (SHADOZ) 1998-2000 tropical ozone climatology 1. Comparison with Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) and ground-based measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Anne M.; Witte, Jacquelyn C.; McPeters, Richard D.; Oltmans, Samuel J.; Schmidlin, Francis J.; Logan, Jennifer A.; Fujiwara, Masatomo; Kirchhoff, Volker W. J. H.; Posny, FrançOise; Coetzee, Gert J. R.; Hoegger, Bruno; Kawakami, Shuji; Ogawa, Toshihiro; Johnson, Bryan J.; VöMel, Holger; Labow, Gordon

    2003-01-01

    A network of 10 southern hemisphere tropical and subtropical stations, designated the Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes (SHADOZ) project and established from operational sites, provided over 1000 ozone profiles during the period 1998-2000. Balloon-borne electrochemical concentration cell (ECC) ozonesondes, combined with standard radiosondes for pressure, temperature, and relative humidity measurements, collected profiles in the troposphere and lower to midstratosphere at: Ascension Island; Nairobi, Kenya; Irene, South Africa; Réunion Island; Watukosek, Java; Fiji; Tahiti; American Samoa; San Cristóbal, Galapagos; and Natal, Brazil. The archived data are available at: . In this paper, uncertainties and accuracies within the SHADOZ ozone data set are evaluated by analyzing: (1) imprecisions in profiles and in methods of extrapolating ozone above balloon burst; (2) comparisons of column-integrated total ozone from sondes with total ozone from the Earth-Probe/Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) satellite and ground-based instruments; and (3) possible biases from station to station due to variations in ozonesonde characteristics. The key results are the following: (1) Ozonesonde precision is 5%. (2) Integrated total ozone column amounts from the sondes are usually to within 5% of independent measurements from ground-based instruments at five SHADOZ sites and overpass measurements from the TOMS satellite (version 7 data). (3) Systematic variations in TOMS-sonde offsets and in ground-based-sonde offsets from station to station reflect biases in sonde technique as well as in satellite retrieval. Discrepancies are present in both stratospheric and tropospheric ozone. (4) There is evidence for a zonal wave-one pattern in total and tropospheric ozone, but not in stratospheric ozone.

  17. Calibration and postlaunch performance of the Meteor 3/TOMS instrument

    SciTech Connect

    Jaross, G.; Krueger, A.; Cebula, R.P.; Seftor, C.; Hartmann, U.; Haring, R.; Burchfield, D.

    1995-02-01

    Prelaunch and postlaunch calibration results for the Meteor 3/total ozone mapping spectrometer (TOMS) instrument are presented here. Ozone amounts are retrieved from measurements of Earth albedo in the 312- to 380-nm range. The accuracy of albedo measurements is primarily tied to knowledge of the reflective properties of diffusers used in the calibrations and to the instrument`s wavelength selection. These and other important prelaunch calibrations are presented. Their estimated accuracies are within the bounds necessary to determine column ozone to better than 1%. However, postlaunch validation results indicate some prelaunch calibration uncertainties may be larger than originally estimated. Instrument calibrations have been maintained postlaunch to within a corresponding 1% error in retrieved ozone. Onboard calibrations, including wavelength monitoring and a three-diffuser solar measurement system, are described and specific results are presented. Other issues, such as the effects of orbital precession on calibration and recent chopper wheel malfunctions, are also discussed.

  18. Trajectory and atmospheric structure from entry probes: Demonstration of a real-time reconstruction technique using a simple direct-to-Earth radio link

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Withers, Paul

    2010-12-01

    The reconstruction of the trajectory and atmospheric structure associated with an entry probe has traditionally relied upon onboard accelerometer measurements. Here we outline an equivalent reconstruction technique that uses Doppler-shifted direct-to-Earth transmissions instead. A critical assumption is that the entry probe's angle of attack is zero. The technique is successfully demonstrated on the atmospheric entry of the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity, terminating at parachute deployment. This technique can be applied in real-time, which supports mission operations and public engagement. It can also be applied to entry probes that fail during their high-risk atmospheric entry.

  19. Trajectory And Atmospheric Structure From Entry Probes: Demonstration Of A Real-time Reconstruction Technique Using A Simple Direct-to-earth Radio Link

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Withers, Paul

    2010-10-01

    The reconstruction of the trajectory and atmospheric structure associated with an entry probe has traditionally relied upon onboard accelerometer measurements. Here we outline an equivalent reconstruction technique that uses Doppler-shifted direct-to-Earth transmissions instead. A critical assumption is that the entry probe's angle of attack is zero. The technique is successfully demonstrated on the atmospheric entry of the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity, terminating at parachute deployment. This technique can be applied in real-time, which supports mission operations and public engagement. It can also be applied to entry probes that fail during their high-risk atmospheric entry.

  20. Origin and cycle of water on Earth as determined by Ion probe H and D/H measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deloule, E.

    2009-12-01

    The question of the origin of water on Earth, and of its abundance has been the object of numerous debates, as well as for the other terrestrial planets. Furthermore the presence and amount of water, or more commonly fluids, in the mantle and continental crust are crucial issues for determining their nature and evolution. Ion probe have been a major tool during the last 3 decades to measure in situ water content, D/H ratio and other elements in various terrestrial and extraterrestrial samples of both hydrous and nominally anhydrous minerals. In a first step, the set up of D/H ratio measurements by ion probe on hydrous minerals [1], often to scarce in peridotite samples to be measurable by conventional mass spectrometry, pointed out variations of δD values in mantle peridotite [2,3] larger than expected (from 0 to -140), both at the mineral grain or regional scales. Such variations point out surface water recycling in the mantle, water exchange during metasomatic reaction and D-H fractionation during mantle processes, and a possible evolution of the Earth mantle D/H ratio through geological time. The determination of D/H ratio in the silicate phases of the matrix and chondrules of primitive meteorites provides new evidences for the source of water in the solar system: the high dD values recorded, up to 3500, implies the uptake of water ice formed in the interstellar media, during the protosolar nebula accretion [3-4]. The D-H budget suggests that up to 10% of Earth and meteorite water originated from interstellar media. The measurements of Martian meteorites [5-6] show contrasted results, with D enriched values associated to the interaction with the Martian surface water and D poor values interpreted as initial values. The development of in situ water content measurements in glasses and nominally anhydrous minerals (NAMs) [7-8] allows a more comprehensive study of the water behavior in the depth Earth. The characterization of its distribution in between the different major phases of the mantle [9-10], or of its content in melt inclusions [11-12], are keys to model its behavior during the formation of the oceanic crust at the mid oceanic ridge or in the subduction factory, the two main interfaces of Earth mantle with the surface layers. These developments are also a key to study the distribution of water in the lower continental crust, and its possible exchange through the mantle-crust interface [13]. [1] Deloule et al, 1991, Special Publication N°3 of the Geochemical Society, 53-62. [2] Deloule et al, 1991, E.P.S.L, 105, 543-53. [3] Deloule & Robert, 1995, G.C.A 59, 4695-4706. [4] Deloule et al, 1998, G.C.A, 62, 3367-3378. [5] Leshin et al, 1996, G.C.A. 60, 2636-2650. [6] Gillet et al, 2002, E.P.S.L. 203, 431-444. [7] Deloule et al, 1995, Chem. Geol., 125, 19-28. [8] Koga et al, 2003, G3, 4. [9] Aubaud et al, 2004, G.R.L., 31. [10] Demouchy et al, 2005, Am. Mineral., 90, 1084-1091. [11] Sobolev & Chaussidon, 1996, E.P.S.L., 137, 45-55. [12] Bouvier et al, 2008. J. Petrol. 49, 1427-1448. [13] Yang et al, 2008, Chem. Geol., 256, 33-45.

  1. ACM TOMS replicated computational results initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Heroux, Michael Allen

    2015-06-03

    In this study, the scientific community relies on the peer review process for assuring the quality of published material, the goal of which is to build a body of work we can trust. Computational journals such as The ACM Transactions on Mathematical Software (TOMS) use this process for rigorously promoting the clarity and completeness of content, and citation of prior work. At the same time, it is unusual to independently confirm computational results.

  2. ACM TOMS replicated computational results initiative

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Heroux, Michael Allen

    2015-06-03

    In this study, the scientific community relies on the peer review process for assuring the quality of published material, the goal of which is to build a body of work we can trust. Computational journals such as The ACM Transactions on Mathematical Software (TOMS) use this process for rigorously promoting the clarity and completeness of content, and citation of prior work. At the same time, it is unusual to independently confirm computational results.

  3. Dr. Tom Lawrence: a life in chiropractic

    PubMed Central

    Keating, Joseph C

    2005-01-01

    He dwelt within the chiropractic orbit from the cradle to the grave. Second-generation chiropractor Tom Lawrence was a successful professional and family man who followed in his father’s footsteps and fought the good fight to improve chiropractic within his state and nation. His passing closes a chapter of living memory of the middle years of the first chiropractic century. PMID:17549212

  4. Tom Cruise is dangerous and irresponsible

    PubMed Central

    Neill, Ushma S.

    2005-01-01

    Yes, even the JCI can weigh in on celebrity gossip, but hopefully without becoming a tabloid. Rather, we want to shine a light on the reckless comments actor Tom Cruise has recently made that psychiatry is a “quack” field and his belief that postpartum depression cannot be treated pharmacologically. We can only hope that his influence as a celebrity does not hold back those in need of psychiatric treatment. PMID:16075033

  5. Changes in Earth 360 to 380 nm Reflectivity: 1980 to 2000

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herman, J. R.; Ziemke, G.; Larko, D.

    2002-01-01

    The TOMS reflectivity time series 1980 to 1992 and 1997 to 2000 have been combined to estimate change that have occurred over a 21 year period. The relative calibration of the two TOMS (Nimbus-7, N7 and Earth-Probe, EP) has been adjusted using the measured minimum reflectivity over mid-latitude ocean and land locations (50 deg.). The result is that the N7 reflectivity has been decreased by 0.02 to match the better-calibrated Earth-Probe/TOMS. Most of the local trend features seen in the N7 time series (1980 to 1992) have been continued in the combined time series, but the overall zonal average and global trends have changed. The correlation of cloud cover with solar activity (measured by the 10.7 cm solar radiation) that was present during the Nimbus-7 period (1980 to 1992) is no longer evident for the period 1980 to 2000. The UV reflectivity data are compared with changes in the AVHRR outgoing long-wavelength radiation (OLR) and show an expected anti-correlation with cloud-cover changes over the same period for many, but not all, features. The key results include a continuing decrease in cloud cover over Europe and North America and an increase in reflectivity near Antarctica. This also means that the previously published N7 UV surface reflectivity climatology should be reduced by 0.02.

  6. TOMS as a monitor of the ultraviolet radiation environment: Applications to photobiology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frederick, John E.

    1987-01-01

    The flux of biologically relevant ultraviolet radiation that reaches the surface of the Earth varies with the ozone amount, surface reflectivity, and cloudcover. The Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) provides information relevant to all three items. A recent application of satellite-based ozone measurements has been to develop climatologies of the biologically significant UV-B radiation reaching the Earth's surface. A growing body of research suggests that UV-B radiation tends to suppress the immune system of laboratory mice. At tropical latitudes, it is likely that parasitical diseases develop most readily in people who have experienced immune system suppression from UV-B exposure. The computed distribution of surface radiation combined with information on disease incidence may clarify the role of UV-B as a suppressor of the human immune system. TOMS used in conjunction with radiative transfer calculations can provide information of relevance in photobiology.

  7. A comprehensive mission to planet Earth: Woods Hole Space Science and Applications Advisory Committee Planning Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The NASA program Mission to Planet Earth (MTPE) is described in this set of visuals presented in Massachusetts on July 29, 1991. The problem presented in this document is that the earth system is changing and that human activity accelerates the rate of change resulting in increased greenhouse gases, decreasing levels of stratospheric ozone, acid rain, deforestation, decreasing biodiversity, and overpopulation. Various national and international organizations are coordinating global change research. The complementary space observations for this activity are sun-synchronous polar orbits, low-inclination, low altitude orbits, geostationary orbits, and ground measurements. The Geostationary Earth Observatory is the major proposed mission of MTPE. Other proposed missions are EOS Synthetic Aperture Radar, ARISTOTELES Magnetic Field Experiment, and the Global Topography Mission. Use of the NASA DC-8 aircraft is outlined as carrying out the Airborne Science and Applications Program. Approved Earth Probes Program include the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS). Other packages for earth observation are described.

  8. Nimbus-7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) data products user's guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcpeters, Richard D.; Krueger, Arlin J.; Bhartia, P. K.; Herman, Jay R.; Oaks, Arnold; Ahmad, Ziuddin; Cebula, Richard P.; Schlesinger, Barry M.; Swissler, Tom; Taylor, Steven L.

    1993-01-01

    Two tape products from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) aboard the Nimbus-7 have been archived at the National Space Science Data Center. The instrument measures backscattered Earth radiance and incoming solar irradiance; their ratio -- the albedo -- is used in ozone retrievals. In-flight measurements are used to monitor changes in the instrument sensitivity. The algorithm to retrieve total column ozone compares the observed ratios of albedos at pairs of wavelengths with pair ratios calculated for different ozone values, solar zenith angles, and optical paths. The initial error in the absolute scale for TOMS total ozone is 3 percent, the one standard-deviation random error is 2 percent, and the drift is +/- 1.5 percent over 14.5 years. The High Density TOMS (HDTOMS) tape contains the measured albedos, the derived total ozone amount, reflectivity, and cloud-height information for each scan position. It also contains an index of SO2 contamination for each position. The Gridded TOMS (GRIDTOMS) tape contains daily total ozone and reflectivity in roughly equal area grids (110 km in latitude by about 100-150 km in longitude). Detailed descriptions of the tape structure and record formats are provided.

  9. The application of GNSS in the near-Earth navigation of China’s lunar probe CE-5T1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yong; Fan, Min; Hu, Xiaogong; Li, Peijia

    2015-08-01

    After CE-1, CE-2 and CE-3, China’s fourth lunar probe CE-5T1 was launched on 23 Oct., 2014, which goal is to test the returning capability of the lunar probe. On 31 Oct., the landing portion of CE-5T1 successfully landed in the North China. CE-5T1 is a high eccentricity orbit with apogee of about 413 thousand km. A GNSS receiver was installed in CE-5T1 to test the ability of GNSS navigation for a High Earth Orbit (HEO) spacecraft. The receiver performed well and GPS side lobe signals have been tracked when the probe was at an altitude from 10000 to 60000 km during about two 3-hours periods, and most of time it is above the altitude of the GPS constellation. In these two periods, the average GPS satellites tracked is about 8-9, and the GDOP is from 1 to 30. We processed these GNSS data after the mission, and the noise level of the differenced pseudo-range is less than 10 m. We used the GNSS data to determine the orbit of CE-5T1, compared with the use of ground based tracking data including range, Doppler and VLBI. The results are encouraging, and the position difference between orbit determination (OD) with GNSS data and ground based data is less than 100 m. In CE-5T1 mission, the separation point is about 5000 km altitude, where the lander will separate from the orbiter then return to the ground. The separation point prediction accuracy directly affects the landing position. As plan there is a maneuver about 5 hours before the separation (canceled in fact), so there is only 3-4 hours tracking data to be used to predict the separation point. Analysis shows that combination of two types of data can improve the orbit accuracy as well as the accuracy of the predicted orbit. CE-5T1 made a successful test of the GNSS using for HEO spacecraft. Obviously, GNSS can be used as a low-cost OD sensor and the use of GNSS technique can reduce the observing pressure of the ground antenna in the lunar and deep space exploration.

  10. Evolution of the Southern Hemisphere ozone hole as seen by TOMS from August 1979 to December 1991. (Videotape)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    The computerized color images of the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) showed the ozone distribution and levels in the Earth's southern hemisphere from August 1979 to December 1991 in this video. The annual variations were presented in a monthly format and the ozone levels were measured in Dobson units.

  11. Evolution of the Southern Hemisphere ozone hole as seen by TOMS from August 1979 to December 1991

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The computerized color images of the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) showed the ozone distribution and levels in the Earth's southern hemisphere from August 1979 to December 1991 in this video. The annual variations were presented in a monthly format and the ozone levels were measured in Dobson units.

  12. Solar EUV index for aeronomical studies at earth from Langmuir probe photoelectron measurements on the Pioneer Venus orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoegy, W. R.; Mahajan, K. K.

    1992-01-01

    A solar EUV index for aeronomical studies at earth, obtained from the Langmuir probe measurement of photoelectron current on the Pioneer Venus orbiter, is presented. To examine the potential of E sub EUV as a solar EUV flux index, the behavior of ionospheric parameters f sub 0 E, f sub 0 F1, and f sub 0 F2 are studied at midlatitude stations, and their relationship with E sub EUV and with the 10.7-cm solar radio flux is compared. f sub 0 F1 and f sub 0 F2 are found to be better correlated with E sub EUV than with the 10.7-cm flux. F sub 0 E is better correlated with the 10.7-cm flux, because the 10.7-cm flux is also a proxy for soft X-rays, which are an important ionizing source in the E region. A table is also presented for the EUV index, E sub EUV, for the period February 12, 1979, through most of 1991.

  13. Hydrodynamic Aspects of the Toms Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strel‧nikova, S. A.; Tkachenko, G. V.; Uryukov, B. A.

    2015-11-01

    The physicomathematical model of migration of polymers in a liquid turbulent flow in a pipe is based on a comparison of forces transverse to the motion of the mainstream flow: the Saffman, Magnus, and turbophoresis forces. It has been shown that the polymer particles are grouped near a certain boundary within the limits of the boundary layer. On this basis, the authors have made assumptions on the mechanism of suppression of turbulent pulsations and decrease in the viscous friction near the wall, which makes up the Toms effect. The proposed model satisfies, at least, qualitatively, various actually observed manifestations of the effect.

  14. The 1991 Antarctic ozone hole - TOMS observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krueger, Arlin; Schoeberl, Mark; Newman, Paul; Stolarski, Richard

    1992-01-01

    The 1991 Antarctic springtime ozone decline, as measured by the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS), was similar to those of earlier deep ozone hole years, 1987, 1989, and 1990. The minimum total ozone value was recorded on October 5, 1991 at 108 Dobson units near the South Pole. This was 8 DU lower than in any of the earlier years. Four of the last five years have exhibited an extensive, deep ozone hole. The area of the hole was about the same as in 1987, 1989, and 1990. The recovery of the low total ozone values occurred in mid-November as the polar vortex broke up.

  15. Solar UV irradiance measured at ground and compared with satellite TOMS/NASA derived data at different locations in Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfram, W.; Quel, E.; Paladini, A.; Orce, V.; Piacentini, R. D.

    The solar UV radiation incident on different and distant places of Argentina (Ushuaia, Puerto Madryn, Buenos Aires and Jujuy) obtained at 305, 320, 340 and 380 nm with a GUV-511/Biospherical narrowband radiometer of the CONICET Latitudinal UV-PAR radiation monitoring network, were compared with TUV model calculations in order to derive the effective aerosol optical depths in the locations indicated above. The adjusted spectral curve is employed in order to determine, -with the inclusion of the erythemal action spectrum, the corresponding integrated dose for each day. This value, usually called exposure, is compared with the data derived at noon from those taken by the satellite instrument TOMS/NASA on board of Earth Probe. Other biological UV irradiances like carcinogenesis and ADN and plant damages are also analyzed. In particular, the signals produced by the ozone hole and minihole events (with values lowers or equal to 220 DU) are clearly distinguished in the biological actions that depend strongly on the most energetic UVB radiations.

  16. Early Adolescents' Participation in Bullying: Is ToM Involved?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caravita, Simona C. S.; Di Blasio, Paola; Salmivalli, Christina

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigated the role of theory of mind (ToM) skills in three forms of involvement in bullying: ringleader bullying, defending the victim(s), and victimization. Individual (affective empathy) and interpersonal variables (social preference and perceived popularity) were assumed to moderate the associations between ToM and the ways…

  17. BOREAS RSS-10 TOMS Circumpolar One-Degree PAR Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dye, Dennis G.; Holben, Brent; Nickeson, Jaime (Editor); Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) Remote Sensing Science (RSS)-10 team investigated the magnitude of daily, seasonal, and yearly variations of Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR) from ground and satellite observations. This data set contains satellite estimates of surface-incident PAR (400-700 nm, MJ/sq m) at one-degree spatial resolution. The spatial coverage is circumpolar from latitudes of 41 to 66 degrees north. The temporal coverage is from May through September for years 1979 through 1989. Eleven-year statistics are also provided: (1) mean, (2) standard deviation, and (3) coefficient of variation for 1979-89. The PAR estimates were derived from the global gridded ultraviolet reflectivity data product (average of 360, 380 nm) from the Nimbus-7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS). Image mask data are provided for identifying the boreal forest zone, and ocean/land and snow/ice-covered areas. The data are available as binary image format data files. The PAR data are available from the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884).

  18. Probes to the Inferior Planets - A New Dawn for NEO and IEO Detection Technology Demonstration from Heliocentric Orbits Interior to the Earth's?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grundmann, J. T.; Mottola, S.; Drentschew, M.; Drobczyk, M.; Kahle, R.; Maiwald, V.; Quantius, D.; Zabel, P.; Van Zoest, T.

    2011-11-01

    With the launch of MESSENGER and VENUS EXPRESS, a new wave of exploration of the inner solar system has begun. Noting the growing number of probes to the inner solar system, it is proposed to connect the expertise of the respective spacecraft teams and the NEO and IEO survey community to best utilize the extended cruise phases and to provide additional data return in support of pure science as well as planetary defence. Several missions to Venus and Mercury are planned to follow in this decade. Increased interest in the inferior planets is accompanied by several missions designed to study the Sun and the interplanetary medium (IPM) from a position near or in Earth orbit, such as the STEREO probes and SDO. These augment established solar observation capabilities at the Sun-Earth L1 Lagrangian point such as the SOHO spacecraft. Thus, three distinct classes of spacecraft operate or observe interior to Earth's orbit. All these spacecraft carry powerful multispectral cameras optimized for their respective primary targets. MESSENGER is scheduled to end its six-year interplanetary cruise in March 2011 to enter Mercury orbit, but a similarly extended cruise with several gravity-assists awaits the European Mercury mission BEPICOLOMBO. Unfortunately, the automatic abort of the orbit insertion manoeuvre has also left AKATSUKI (a.k.a. Venus Climate Orbiter (VCO), Planet-C) stranded in heliocentric orbit. After an unintended fly-by, the probe will catch up with Venus in approximately six years. Meanwhile, it stays mostly interior to Venus in a planet-leading orbit. In addition to the study of comets and their interaction with the IPM, observations of small bodies akin to those carried out by outer solar system probes are occasionally attempted with the equipment available. The study of structures in the interplanetary dust (IPD) cloud has been a science objective during the cruise phase of the Japanese Venus probe AKATSUKI from Earth to Venus. IPD observations in the astronomical H-band (1.65 μm) are supported by its IR2 camera down to 1.5 μW/m2sr in single 2 minute exposures. In the same setting, point sources of 13 mag can be detected. Obviously, a number of large asteroids exceed this threshold. The EARTHGUARD-I study, completed in 2003 by the DLR Institute of Planetary Research and Kayser-Threde under ESA contract, proposed a dedicated steerable 020...35 cm telescope and CCD camera payload on a probe to the inner solar system, to detect Near-Earth and Inner-Earth Objects (NEOs, IEOs) in favourable opposition geometry. A ride- share on a Mercury orbiter and a dedicated low-thrust propulsion spacecraft to a heliocentric 0.5 AU orbit were studied. A similar-sized telescope is presently being developed for the ASTEROIDFINDER satellite of DLR. Therefore, the technical feasibility of a number of asteroid observation scenarios involving spacecraft and targets interior to Earth's orbit is assessed based on the latest available spacecraft information and asteroid population models. A rough estimate of the required effort in terms of ground-based spacecraft operations and on-board resources is given for selected representative scenarios.

  19. Synergic use of TOMS and Aeronet Observations for Characterization of Aerosol Absorption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torres, O.; Bhartia, P. K.; Dubovik, O.; Holben, B.; Siniuk, A.

    2003-01-01

    The role of aerosol absorption on the radiative transfer balance of the earth-atmosphere system is one of the largest sources of uncertainty in the analysis of global climate change. Global measurements of aerosol single scattering albedo are, therefore, necessary to properly assess the radiative forcing effect of aerosols. Remote sensing of aerosol absorption is currently carried out using both ground (Aerosol Robotic Network) and space (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) based observations. The satellite technique uses measurements of backscattered near ultraviolet radiation. Carbonaceous aerosols, resulting from the combustion of biomass, are one of the most predominant absorbing aerosol types in the atmosphere. In this presentation, TOMS and AERONET retrievals of single scattering albedo of carbonaceous aerosols, are compared for different environmental conditions: agriculture related biomass burning in South America and Africa and peat fires in Eastern Europe. The AERONET and TOMS derived aerosol absorption information are in good quantitative agreement. The most absorbing smoke is detected over the African Savanna. Aerosol absorption over the Brazilian rain forest is less absorbing. Absorption by aerosol particles resulting from peat fires in Eastern Europe is weaker than the absorption measured in Africa and South America. This analysis shows that the near UV satellite method of aerosol absorption characterization has the sensitivity to distinguish different levels of aerosol absorption. The analysis of the combined AERONET-TOMS observations shows a high degree of synergy between satellite and ground based observations.

  20. Climatology of the Earth's inner magnetosphere as observed by the Radiation Belt Storm Probes Ion Composition Experiment (RBSPICE) instrument on the Van Allen Probes spacecraft.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manweiler, J. W.; Patterson, J. D.; Manweiler, R. M.; Gerrard, A. J.; Mitchell, D. G.; Lanzerotti, L. J.

    2014-12-01

    The Radiation Belt Storm Probes Ion Composition Experiment (RBSPICE) instrument on the Van Allen Probes spacecraft measures energetic ion and electron particle populations in a species dependent energy range of 10's of KeV up to an MeV. The instrument separates the ion population into component species of protons, helium, and oxygen. This paper presents a climatological survey of RBSPICE measurements over the life of the mission to date. A comparison of spectrographs of the energetic particle populations (e, p, He, and O) is shown against key standard geomagnetic indices. Also shown is a summary of key electron and ion lower energy events based upon a systematic characterization of the type of event. The analyses of these events provide verification of the difference between electron and ion drift orbits and, based upon characterization schemes, show how the different event categories can vary as a function of L and MLT.

  1. Test, Construction, and Calibration of a Fast Valve Driver Unit (FVDU) and an Earth-isolated High Voltage Probe (HV probe) for a pulsed plasma experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamikawa, Yu; von der Linden, Jens; You, Setthivoine

    2013-10-01

    A fast valve driver unit (FVDU) and an optically isolated high voltage probe (HV probe) were built for an experiment to generate laboratory astrophysical jets with a triple electrode plasma gun. The FVDU controls fast pulse gas valves (Parker P/N: 9S4-A1-P2-9B13, 090-0270-090) by converting an optical trigger input into a square 6 V pulse output of a desired duration (100 μs to 1ms) with an initial 250 V shot pulse. A potentiometer controls the duration of the square pulse, corresponding to the open time of the valve. The solar cell powered HV probe measures, once triggered by an optical pulse, the voltage across the electrodes without exposing sensitive data acquisition instruments to high voltage. A custom made capacitive voltage divider couples the signal to a solar powered LED, which optically transmit the signal to a receiver circuit. The voltage across the electrodes controls the current driven across the jet and the azimuthal rotation of the jet. This work was sponsored in part by the US DOE Grant DE-SC0010340.

  2. Near-Real-Time Detection and Monitoring of Dust Events by Satellite (SeaWIFS, MODIS, and TOMS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, N. Christina; Tsay, Si-Chee; Herman, Jay R.; Kaufman, Yoram

    2002-01-01

    Over the last few years satellites have given us increasingly detailed information on the size, location, and duration of dust events around the world. These data not only provide valuable feedback to the modelling community as to the fidelity of their aerosol models but are also finding increasing use in near real-time applications. In particular, the ability to locate and track the development of aerosol dust clouds on a near real-time basis is being used by scientists and government to provide warning of air pollution episodes over major urban area. This ability has also become a crucial component of recent coordinated campaigns to study the characteristics of tropospheric aerosols such as dust and their effect on climate. One such recent campaign was ACE-Asia, which was designed to obtain the comprehensive set of ground, aircraft, and satellite data necessary to provide a detailed understanding of atmospheric aerosol particles over the Asian-Pacific region. As part of ACE-Asia, we developed a near real-time data processing and access system to provide satellite data from the polar-orbiting instruments Earth Probe TOMS (in the form of absorbing aerosol index) and SeaWiFS (in the form of aerosol optical thickness, AOT, and Angstrom exponent). The results were available via web access. The location and movement information provided by these data were used both in support of the day-to-day flight planning of ACE-Asia and as input into aerosol transport models. While near real-time SeaWiFS data processing can be performed using either the normal global data product or data obtained via direct broadcast to receiving stations close to the area of interest, near real-time MODIS processing of data to provide aerosol retrievals is currently only available using its direct broadcast capability. In this paper, we will briefly discuss the algorithms used to generate these data. The retrieved aerosol optical thickness and Angstrom exponent from SeaWiFS will be compared with those obtained from various AERONET sites over the Asian-Pacific region. The TOMS aerosol index will also be compared with AERONET aerosol optical thickness over different aerosol conditions, and comparisons between the MODIS and SeaWiFS data will also be presented. Finally, we will discuss the climate implication of our studies using the combined satellite and AERONET observations.

  3. Feasibility study of a swept frequency electromagnetic probe (SWEEP) using inductive coupling for the determination of subsurface conductivity of the earth and water prospecting in arid regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Latorraca, G. A.; Bannister, L. H.

    1974-01-01

    Techniques developed for electromagnetic probing of the lunar interior, and techniques developed for the generation of high power audio frequencies were combined to make practical a magnetic inductive coupling system for the rapid measurement of ground conductivity profiles which are helpful when prospecting for the presence and quality of subsurface water. A system which involves the measurement of the direction, intensity, and time phase of the magnetic field observed near the surface of the earth at a distance from a horizontal coil energized so as to create a field that penetrates the earth was designed and studied to deduce the conductivity and stratification of the subsurface. Theoretical studies and a rudimentary experiment in an arid region showed that the approach is conceptually valid and that this geophysical prospecting technique can be developed for the economical exploration of subterranean water resources.

  4. Probing the Conductivity, Composition, and Differentiation of Ultra-short-period Super-Earths with Magnetized Host Stars.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Douglas NC

    2015-12-01

    The omnipresence of super Earths around nearby stars stimulates the quest to characterize their internal structure. In addition to the average density and atmospheric composition, we show that the mantle conductivity and composition can be determined for a class of short- period super Earths which magnetically interact with their host stars. As an example, we analyze the observed properties of Kepler-78b to place limits on its Ohmic dissipation rate and to estimate the electric conductivity in its mantle. We show that its surface is primarily composed of molten/condensed rock on the day/night sides and its iron may have differentiated to its core.

  5. Nimbus-7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) Data Products User's Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McPeters, Richard D.; Bhartia, P. K.; Krueger, Arlin J.; Herman, Jay R.; Schlesinger, Barry M.; Wellemeyer, Charles G.; Seftor, Colin J.; Jaross, Glen; Taylor, Steven L.; Swissler, Tom; Torres, Omar; Labow, Gordon; Byerly, William; Cebula, Richard P.

    1996-01-01

    Two data products from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) onboard Nimbus-7 have been archived at the Distributed Active Archive Center, in the form of Hierarchical Data Format files. The instrument measures backscattered Earth radiance and incoming solar irradiance; their ratio is used in ozone retrievals. Changes in the instrument sensitivity are monitored by a spectral discrimination technique using measurements of the intrinsically stable wavelength dependence of derived surface reflectivity. The algorithm to retrieve total column ozone compares measured Earth radiances at sets of three wavelengths with radiances calculated for different total ozone values, solar zenith angles, and optical paths. The initial error in the absolute scale for TOMS total ozone is 3 percent, the one standard deviation random error is 2 percent, and drift is less than 1.0 percent per decade. The Level-2 product contains the measured radiances, the derived total ozone amount, and reflectivity information for each scan position. The Level-3 product contains daily total ozone amount and reflectivity in a I - degree latitude by 1.25 degrees longitude grid. The Level-3 product also is available on CD-ROM. Detailed descriptions of both HDF data files and the CD-ROM product are provided.

  6. Analysis of error in TOMS total ozone as a function of orbit and attitude parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregg, W. W.; Ardanuy, P. E.; Braun, W. C.; Vallette, B. J.; Bhartia, P. K.; Ray, S. N.

    1991-01-01

    Computer simulations of orbital scenarios were performed to examine the effects of orbital altitude, equator crossing time, attitude uncertainty, and orbital eccentricity on ozone observations by future satellites. These effects were assessed by determining changes in solar and viewing geometry and earth daytime coverage loss. The importance of these changes on ozone retrieval was determined by simulating uncertainties in the TOMS ozone retrieval algorithm. The major findings are as follows: (1) Drift of equator crossing time from local noon would have the largest effect on the quality of ozone derived from TOMS. The most significant effect of this drift is the loss of earth daytime coverage in the winter hemisphere. The loss in coverage increases from 1 degree latitude for + or - 1 hour from noon, 6 degrees for + or - 3 hours from noon, to 53 degrees for + or - 6 hours from noon. An additional effect is the increase in ozone retrieval errors due to high solar zenith angles. (2) To maintain contiguous earth coverage, the maximum scan angle of the sensor must be increased with decreasing orbital altitude. The maximum scan angle required for full coverage at the equator varies from 60 degrees at 600 km altitude to 45 degrees at 1200 km. This produces an increase in spacecraft zenith angle, theta, which decreases the ozone retrieval accuracy. The range in theta was approximately 72 degrees for 600 km to approximately 57 degrees at 1200 km. (3) The effect of elliptical orbits is to create gaps in coverage along the subsatellite track. An elliptical orbit with a 200 km perigee and 1200 km apogee produced a maximum earth coverage gap of about 45 km at the perigee at nadir. (4) An attitude uncertainty of 0.1 degree in each axis (pitch, roll, yaw) produced a maximum scan angle to view the pole, and maximum solar zenith angle).

  7. Mitochondrial targeting of cytochrome P450 proteins containing NH2-terminal chimeric signals involves an unusual TOM20/TOM22 bypass mechanism.

    PubMed

    Anandatheerthavarada, Hindupur K; Sepuri, Naresh Babu V; Avadhani, Narayan G

    2009-06-19

    Previously we showed that xenobiotic inducible cytochrome P450 (CYP) proteins are bimodally targeted to the endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria. In this study, we investigated the mechanism of delivery of chimeric signal containing CYP proteins to the peripheral and channel-forming mitochondrial outer membrane translocases (TOMs). CYP+33/1A1 and CYP2B1 did not require peripheral TOM70, TOM20, or TOM22 for translocation through the channel-forming TOM40 protein. In contrast, CYP+5/1A1 and CYP2E1 were able to bypass TOM20 and TOM22 but required TOM70. CYP27, which contains a canonical cleavable mitochondrial signal, required all of the peripheral TOMs for its mitochondrial translocation. We investigated the underlying mechanisms of bypass of peripheral TOMs by CYPs with chimeric signals. The results suggested that interaction of CYPs with Hsp70, a cytosolic chaperone involved in the mitochondrial import, alone was sufficient for the recognition of chimeric signals by peripheral TOMs. However, sequential interaction of chimeric signal containing CYPs with Hsp70 and Hsp90 resulted in the bypass of peripheral TOMs, whereas CYP27A1 interacted only with Hsp70 and was not able to bypass peripheral TOMs. Our results also show that delivery of a chimeric signal containing client protein by Hsp90 required the cytosol-exposed NH(2)-terminal 143 amino acids of TOM40. TOM40 devoid of this domain was unable to import CYP proteins. These results suggest that compared with the unimodal mitochondrial targeting signals, the chimeric mitochondrial targeting signals are highly evolved and dynamic in nature. PMID:19401463

  8. A presequence-binding groove in Tom70 supports import of Mdl1 into mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Melin, Jonathan; Kilisch, Markus; Neumann, Piotr; Lytovchenko, Oleksandr; Gomkale, Ridhima; Schendzielorz, Alexander; Schmidt, Bernhard; Liepold, Thomas; Ficner, Ralf; Jahn, Olaf; Rehling, Peter; Schulz, Christian

    2015-08-01

    The translocase of the outer mitochondrial membrane (TOM complex) is the general entry gate into mitochondria for almost all imported proteins. A variety of specific receptors allow the TOM complex to recognize targeting signals of various precursor proteins that are transported along different import pathways. Aside from the well-characterized presequence receptors Tom20 and Tom22 a third TOM receptor, Tom70, binds proteins of the carrier family containing multiple transmembrane segments. Here we demonstrate that Tom70 directly binds to presequence peptides using a dedicated groove. A single point mutation in the cavity of this pocket (M551R) reduces the presequence binding affinity of Tom70 ten-fold and selectively impairs import of the presequence-containing precursor Mdl1 but not the ADP/ATP carrier (AAC). Hence Tom70 contributes to the presequence import pathway by recognition of the targeting signal of the Mdl1 precursor. PMID:25958336

  9. Hyperfine local probe study of alkaline-earth manganites SrMnO₃ and BaMnO₃.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, J N; Amaral, V S; Correia, J G; Lopes, A M L; Araújo, J P; Tavares, P B

    2014-05-28

    We report perturbed angular correlation measurements with (111m)Cd/(111)Cd and (111)In/(111)Cd probes, at the ISOLDE-CERN facility, in the manganite compounds BaMnO3, with the 6H and 15R polymorphs, and SrMnO3, with the 4H polymorph. The electric field gradient (EFG) is measured, and found approximately constant in a large temperature range for all the compounds. The EFG is also calculated from first principles with density functional theory, and compared with experimental results by considering diluted substitutional Cd impurities. Based on the results, we assign as sites for the probes the Ba (for BaMnO3-6H, 15R) and Sr (for SrMnO3-4H) sites, apart from fractions of undetermined origin in the case of BaMnO3-6H. We predict the hyperfine parameters in the recently synthesized multiferroic manganite Sr(0.5)Ba(0.5)MnO3, and its variation with the structure and electric polarization, which is found to be very small. PMID:24787139

  10. Near-earth injection of MeV electrons associated with intense dipolarization electric fields: Van Allen Probes observations

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Dai, Lei; Wang, Chi; Duan, Suping; He, Zhaohai; Wygant, John R.; Cattell, Cynthia A.; Tao, Xin; Su, Zhenpeng; Kletzing, Craig; Baker, Daniel N.; et al

    2015-08-10

    Substorms generally inject tens to hundreds of keV electrons, but intense substorm electric fields have been shown to inject MeV electrons as well. An intriguing question is whether such MeV electron injections can populate the outer radiation belt. Here we present observations of a substorm injection of MeV electrons into the inner magnetosphere. In the premidnight sector at L~5.5, Van Allen Probes (Radiation Belt Storm Probes)-A observed a large dipolarization electric field (50 mV/m) over ~40 s and a dispersionless injection of electrons up to ~3 MeV. Pitch angle observations indicated betatron acceleration of MeV electrons at the dipolarization front.more » Corresponding signals of MeV electron injection were observed at LANL-GEO, THEMIS-D, and GOES at geosynchronous altitude. Through a series of dipolarizations, the injections increased the MeV electron phase space density by 1 order of magnitude in less than 3 h in the outer radiation belt (L > 4.8). Our observations provide evidence that deep injections can supply significant MeV electrons.« less

  11. Near-Earth injection of MeV electrons associated with intense dipolarization electric fields: Van Allen Probes observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Lei; Wang, Chi; Duan, Suping; He, Zhaohai; Wygant, John R.; Cattell, Cynthia A.; Tao, Xin; Su, Zhenpeng; Kletzing, Craig; Baker, Daniel N.; Li, Xinlin; Malaspina, David; Blake, J. Bernard; Fennell, Joseph; Claudepierre, Seth; Turner, Drew L.; Reeves, Geoffrey D.; Funsten, Herbert O.; Spence, Harlan E.; Angelopoulos, Vassilis; Fruehauff, Dennis; Chen, Lunjin; Thaller, Scott; Breneman, Aaron; Tang, Xiangwei

    2015-08-01

    Substorms generally inject tens to hundreds of keV electrons, but intense substorm electric fields have been shown to inject MeV electrons as well. An intriguing question is whether such MeVelectron injections can populate the outer radiation belt. Here we present observations of a substorm injection of MeV electrons into the inner magnetosphere. In the premidnight sector at L ˜ 5.5, Van Allen Probes (Radiation Belt Storm Probes)-A observed a large dipolarization electric field (50 mV/m) over ˜40 s and a dispersionless injection of electrons up to ˜3 MeV. Pitch angle observations indicated betatron acceleration of MeV electrons at the dipolarization front. Corresponding signals of MeV electron injection were observed at LANL-GEO, THEMIS-D, and GOES at geosynchronous altitude. Through a series of dipolarizations, the injections increased the MeV electron phase space density by 1 order of magnitude in less than 3 h in the outer radiation belt (L > 4.8). Our observations provide evidence that deep injections can supply significant MeV electrons.

  12. Near-earth injection of MeV electrons associated with intense dipolarization electric fields: Van Allen Probes observations

    SciTech Connect

    Dai, Lei; Wang, Chi; Duan, Suping; He, Zhaohai; Wygant, John R.; Cattell, Cynthia A.; Tao, Xin; Su, Zhenpeng; Kletzing, Craig; Baker, Daniel N.; Li, Xinlin; Malaspina, David; Blake, J. Bernard; Fennell, Joseph; Claudepierre, Seth; Turner, Drew L.; Reeves, Geoffrey D.; Funsten, Herbert O.; Spence, Harlan E.; Angelopoulos, Vassilis; Fruehauff, Dennis; Chen, Lunjin; Thaller, Scott; Breneman, Aaron; Tang, Xiangwei

    2015-08-10

    Substorms generally inject tens to hundreds of keV electrons, but intense substorm electric fields have been shown to inject MeV electrons as well. An intriguing question is whether such MeV electron injections can populate the outer radiation belt. Here we present observations of a substorm injection of MeV electrons into the inner magnetosphere. In the premidnight sector at L~5.5, Van Allen Probes (Radiation Belt Storm Probes)-A observed a large dipolarization electric field (50 mV/m) over ~40 s and a dispersionless injection of electrons up to ~3 MeV. Pitch angle observations indicated betatron acceleration of MeV electrons at the dipolarization front. Corresponding signals of MeV electron injection were observed at LANL-GEO, THEMIS-D, and GOES at geosynchronous altitude. Through a series of dipolarizations, the injections increased the MeV electron phase space density by 1 order of magnitude in less than 3 h in the outer radiation belt (L > 4.8). Our observations provide evidence that deep injections can supply significant MeV electrons.

  13. Tropospheric Chemistry Studies using Observations from GOME and TOMS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chance, Kelly; Spurr, Robert J. D.; Kurosu, Thomas P.; Jacob, Daniel J.; Gleason, James F.

    2003-01-01

    Studies to quantitatively determine trace gas and aerosol amounts from the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) and the Total Ozone Monitoring Experiment (TOMS) and to perform chemical modeling studies which utilize these results are given. This includes: 1. Analysis of measurements from the GOME and TOMS instruments for troposphere distributions of O3 and HCHO; troposphere enhancements of SO2, NO2 and aerosols associated with major sources; and springtime events of elevated BrO in the lower Arctic troposphere. 2. Application of a global 3-dimensional model of troposphere chemistry to interpret the GOME observations in terms of the factors controlling the abundances of troposphere ozone and OH.

  14. TOMS total ozone trends in potential vorticity coordinates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Randel, William J.; Wu, Fei

    1995-01-01

    Global total ozone measurements from the Nimbus 7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) are analyzed using potential vorticity (PV) as an approximate vortex-following coordinate. We analyze the time period November 1978-May 1991, prior to the volcanic eruption of Mt. Pinatubo. The TOMS data are remapped into PV coordinates and trends are calculated, thereby characterizing ozone losses inside and outside the winter polar vortices. These analyses show large regions of ozone loss outside of the vortex in both hemispheres. Furthermore, these data suggest that midlatitude losses in the NH during winter-spring do not result solely from the transport of ozone depleted air from inside to outside the vortex.

  15. The cytosolic domain of human Tom22 modulates human Bax mitochondrial translocation and conformation in yeast.

    PubMed

    Renault, Thibaud T; Grandier-Vazeille, Xavier; Arokium, Hubert; Velours, Gisèle; Camougrand, Nadine; Priault, Muriel; Teijido, Oscar; Dejean, Laurent M; Manon, Stéphen

    2012-01-20

    The role of the mitochondrial protein receptor Tom22p in the interaction of pro-apoptotic protein Bax with yeast mitochondria was investigated. Co-immunoprecipitation assays showed that human Bax interacted with different TOM subunits, including Tom22p. Expression of the cytosolic receptor domain of human Tom22 increased Bax mitochondrial localization, but decreased the proportion of active Bax. BN-PAGE showed that the cytosolic domain of Tom22 interfered with the oligomerization of Bax. These data suggest that the interaction with the cytosolic domain of Tom22 helps Bax to acquire a conformation able to interact with the outer mitochondrial membrane. PMID:22198199

  16. Estimations of the Global Distribution and Time Series of UV Noontime Irradiance (305, 310, 324, 380 nm, and Erythemal) from TOMS and SeaWiFS Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herman, J.

    2004-01-01

    The amount of UV irradiance reaching the Earth's surface is estimated from the measured cloud reflectivity, ozone, aerosol amounts, and surface reflectivity time series from 1980 to 1992 and 1997 to 2000 to estimate changes that have occurred over a 21-year period. Recent analysis of the TOMS data shows that there has been an apparent increase in reflectivity (decrease in W) in the Southern Hemisphere that is related to a calibration error in EP-TOMS. Data from the well-calibrated SeaWiFS satellite instrument have been used to correct the EP-TOMS reflectivity and UV time series. After correction, some of the local trend features seen in the N7 time series (1980 to 1992) have been continued in the combined time series, but the overall zonal average and global trends have changed. In addition to correcting the EP-TOMS radiance calibration, the use of SeaWiFS cloud data permits estimation of UV irradiance at higher spatial resolution (1 to 4 km) than is available from TOMS (100 km) under the assumption that ozone is slowly varying over a scale of 100 km. The key results include a continuing decrease in cloud cover over Europe and North America with a corresponding increase in UV and a decrease in UV irradiance near Antarctica.

  17. Dust storms and their impact on ocean and human health: dust in Earth's atmosphere

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Griffin, Dale W.; Kellog, Christina A.

    2004-01-01

    Satellite imagery has greatly influenced our understanding of dust activity on a global scale. A number of different satellites such as NASA's Earth-Probe Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) and Se-viewing Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) acquire daily global-scale data used to produce imagery for monitoring dust storm formation and movement. This global-scale imagery has documented the frequent transmission of dust storm-derived soils through Earth's atmosphere and the magnitude of many of these events. While various research projects have been undertaken to understand this normal planetary process, little has been done to address its impact on ocean and human health. This review will address the ability of dust storms to influence marine microbial population densities and transport of soil-associated toxins and pathogenic microorganisms to marine environments. The implications of dust on ocean and human health in this emerging scientific field will be discussed.

  18. Changes in Earth 360 380 nm Reflectivity: 1980-2000

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herman, J. R.; Weatherhead, B.; Chubarova, N.; Ziemke, G.; Hsu, C.; Larki, D.; Bhartia, P. K. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) reflectively time series 1980 to 1992 and 1997 to 2000 have been combined to estimate change that have occurred over a 21 year period. The relative calibration of the two TOMS (Nimbus-7, N7 and Earth-Probe, EP) has been validated using the measured reflectivity R over Hudson Bay, Canada and found to be within 1 RU (R=0.01). Some of the local trend features seen in the N7 time series (1980 to 1992) have been continued in the combined time series, but the overall zonal average and global trends have changed. The UV (ultraviolet) reflectivity data are compared with changes in the AVHRR outgoing long-wavelength radiation (OLR) and show an expected anti-correlation with cloud-cover changes over the same period for many, but not all, features. The key results include a continuing decrease in cloud cover over Europe and North America and an increase in reflectivity near Antarctica.

  19. Probing the maximally deformed light rare-earth region around the drip-line nucleus 130Sm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petri, M.; Paul, E. S.; Nolan, P. J.; Boston, A. J.; Cooper, R. J.; Dimmock, M. R.; Gros, S.; McGuirk, B. M.; Scraggs, H. C.; Turk, G.; Rossé, B.; Meyer, M.; Redon, N.; Schmitt, Ch; Stézowski, O.; Guinet, D.; Lautesse, Ph; DeFrance, G.; Bhattachasyya, S.; Mukherjee, G.; Rejmund, F.; Rejmund, M.; Savajols, H.; Scheurer, J. N.; Astier, A.; Deloncle, I.; Prévost, A.; Nyakó, B. M.; Gál, J.; Molnár, J.; Timár, J.; Zolnai, L.; Juhász, K.; Pucknell, V. F. E.; Wadsworth, R.; Joshi, P.; La Rana, G.; Moro, R.; Trotta, M.; Vardaci, E.; Hackman, G.; Ball, G.

    2006-07-01

    The neutron deficient rare-earth nuclei of the A~130 region are of particular interest since highly deformed prolate ground states are expected. Indeed these nuclei are predicted to show maximal ground-state deformations of β2 ~ 0.40 (axis ratio of 3:2), comparable to the deformation deduced for superdeformed cerium isotopes at high spin. A fusion-evaporation experiment was performed with radioactive ion beams at GANIL in October 2004 which had the goal to reach very proton-rich exotic nuclei located near the proton drip-line. A radioactive 76Kr beam, delivered by the SPIRAL facility, was used to bombard a thin 58Ni target. Emitted γ-rays were detected by the EXOGAM γ-ray spectrometer which was, for the first time, coupled with both the DIAMANT charged-particle array and the VAMOS spectrometer.

  20. Luminescent Cu2+ probes based on rare-earth (Eu3+ and Tb3+) emissive transparent cellulose hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Tan, Chaoliang; Wang, Qianming

    2012-11-01

    Cellulose hydrogels are biodegradable materials that can be applied as accommodating hosts for various species. Here we report the preparation of novel thin films based on luminescent cellulose hydrogels. The spectroscopic behavior of these soft materials and their sensing effects are investigated. Interestingly, we found that these films only give selective signal changes in the presence of Cu(2+) in water in comparison with Na(+), K(+), Ag(+), Mn(2+), Co(2+), Ca(2+), Cd(2+), Hg(2+), Pd(2+), Mg(2+), Ni(2+), Fe(2+), and Fe(3+). High visible-light transmittance and good flexibility for these films can be observed. More importantly, the thermal stability of rare-earth complexes could be significantly enhanced in aqueous solution as result of the protection by hydrogel matrix. PMID:22752434

  1. Tom Green County Library Literacy Project. Final Performance Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vavricka, D. Karen

    The final report of the Tom Green Country Library System (Texas) literacy project details progress toward achievement of 11 objectives. Objectives of the literacy outreach program were to: (1) increase Hispanic enrollment; (2) increase Black enrollment; (3) provide free child care for 4 students to attend 50 tutoring sessions; (4) provide…

  2. Aerosol Absorption Effects in the TOMS UV Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torres, O.; Krotkov, N.; Bhartia, P. K.

    2004-01-01

    The availability of global long-term estimates of surface UV radiation is very important, not only for preventive medicine considerations, but also as an important tool to monitor the effects of the stratospheric ozone recovery expected to occur in the next few decades as a result of the decline of the stratospheric chlorine levels. In addition to the modulating effects of ozone and clouds, aerosols also affect the levels of UV-A and W-B radiation reaching the surface. Oscillations in surface W associated with the effects of aerosol absorption may be comparable in magnitude to variations associated with the stratospheric ozone recovery. Thus, the accurate calculation of surface W radiation requires that both the scattering and absorption effects of tropospheric aerosols be taken into account. Although absorption effects of dust and elevated carbonaceous aerosols are already accounted for using Aerosol Index technique, this approach does not work for urban/industrial aerosols in the planetary boundary layer. The use of the new TOMS long-term global data record on UV aerosol absorption optical depth, can improve the accuracy of TOMS spectral UV products, by properly including the spectral attenuation effects of carbonaceous, urban/industrial and mineral aerosols. The TOMS data set on aerosol properties will be discussed, and results of its use in the TOMS surface W algorithm will be presented.

  3. Challenge without Threat: An Interview with Tom Dewell

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stork, Steve

    2005-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Tom Dewell, a professional physical educator with 28 years of experience and a fixture in Dallas physical education. Dewell has melded a background in movement education and adapted physical education with early childhood theory, including Montessori. The bulk of his experience has been in private, parochial…

  4. 78 FR 12307 - Taylor, G. Tom; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-22

    ... submission of protests and interventions in lieu of paper using the ``eFiling'' link at http://www.ferc.gov... filing is accessible on-line at http://www.ferc.gov , using the ``eLibrary'' link and is available for... Energy Regulatory Commission Taylor, G. Tom; Notice of Filing Take notice that on February 14, 2013,...

  5. New Whole-House Solutions Case Study: Tom Walsh & Co.

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2013-02-01

    Tom Walsh & Company’s homes in an urban infill project in Portland achieved meets 2012 IECC insulation requirements in the marine climate with R-21 fiberglass batt walls, R-25 slab insulation and R-49 spray foam and cellulose attic floors.

  6. Team Leader: Tom Peters--TAP Information Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Library Journal, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Tom Peters packs 36 hours of work into the confines of a 24-hour day. Without breaking a sweat, he juggles multiple collaborative projects, which currently include an Illinois academic library shared storage facility; a multistate virtual reference and instruction service for blind and visually impaired individuals (InfoEyes); a virtual meeting…

  7. Culture of the Tomato Micro-Tom Cultivar in Greenhouse.

    PubMed

    Rothan, Christophe; Just, Daniel; Fernandez, Lucie; Atienza, Isabelle; Ballias, Patricia; Lemaire-Chamley, Martine

    2016-01-01

    Micro-Tom tomato cultivar is particularly adapted to the development of genomic approaches in tomato. Here, we describe the culture of this plant in greenhouse, including climate regulation, seed sowing and watering, vegetative development, plant maintenance, including treatment of phytosanitary problems, and reproductive development. PMID:26577781

  8. Measuring Theory of Mind in Children. Psychometric Properties of the ToM Storybooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blijd-Hoogewys, E. M. A.; van Geert, P. L. C.; Serra, M.; Minderaa, R. B.

    2008-01-01

    Although research on Theory-of-Mind (ToM) is often based on single task measurements, more comprehensive instruments result in a better understanding of ToM development. The ToM Storybooks is a new instrument measuring basic ToM-functioning and associated aspects. There are 34 tasks, tapping various emotions, beliefs, desires and mental-physical…

  9. The relationship between growth of commercial toms and linear skeletal development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An experiment was conducted to study the relationship between the growth of commercial toms (Nicholas) and linear skeletal development. All toms were fed a commercial turkey starter diet for the entire experiment. At two week intervals, 10 toms were randomly selected and weighed. The right half of t...

  10. Probing a highly efficient dual mode: down-upconversion luminescence and temperature sensing performance of rare-earth oxide phosphors.

    PubMed

    Singh, A K; Singh, S K; Gupta, Bipin Kumar; Prakash, Rajiv; Rai, S B

    2013-01-28

    A dual mode rare-earth based oxide phosphor (Y(0.977)Yb(0.02)Er(0.003)NbO(4)), demonstrating both down conversion (DC) and upconversion (UC) emission, has been developed using a facile solid state reaction method which can be easily scaled-up for large quantities. In the DC studies, the material exhibits a strong blue emission with a long decay time (4.36 ?s), corresponding to the charge transfer band of [NbO(4)](3-) under UV excitation (262 nm), and a green emission of the Er(3+) ions under blue (379 nm) excitation. Furthermore, it has been noticed that under infrared (976 nm) excitation, this phosphor shows strong green and red emission along with relatively weak emission bands in the UV-blue and IR regions, which confirm the compatibility of this phosphor for UC too. In the UC emission, the (2)H(11/2) ? (4)I(15/2) and (4)S(3/2) ? (4)I(15/2) transitions of the Er(3+) ion portray a temperature dependent behaviour and have been used for temperature sensing (optical thermometry) using the fluorescence intensity ratio (FIR) method. The maximum sensitivity is found to be 0.0073 K(-1) at 473 K, which is better in comparison with other host matrixs reported so far. The results suggest that this dual mode phosphor could be an exceptional choice for next generation luminescence-based temperature sensing devices as well as in advanced display devices. PMID:23114691

  11. Rare Earth Elemental Signatures in Fungal Fruiting Bodies as Probes into Mineral Breakdown Reactions in Post-glacial Landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryce, J. G.; Hobbie, E. A.

    2008-12-01

    The application of rare earth element (REE) abundances in low temperature geochemistry and biogeochemistry has improved our understanding of the cycling of various micro- and macronutrients from the bedrock into terrestrial ecosystems. In many continental rocks, REEs are concentrated in accessory phases such as apatite and monazite. These phosphate mineral phases break down readily and may be especially important nutrient sources, particularly for P and Ca, in recently glaciated terrains. Several studies (e.g., 1-3) have suggested that the presence of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi, due to the organic acids they secrete, may play an especially important role in this weathering process. A field-based experiment implementing mesh bags doped with specific mineral compositions confirmed that ECM fungal tissues do record the REE signatures of the minerals they break down (4). In an effort to understand the relative role different ECM fungi may play in mineral breakdown reactions, we have measured REE abundances in tissues of several ECM fruiting bodies. Our preliminary data include Russula, Suillus Americana, Leccinum and Lactarius ECM fungi from three postglacial landscapes. At a given site, the relative abundance of REEs varies between the different ECM fungi. Interestingly, we found distinctions in tissue La/Ce values at two of the sites. Leccinum, a deep rooter, shows much lower La/Ce than the companion Russula and Lactarius samples from the same site. Similarly Suillus tissues demonstrated lower La/Ce when compared to Russula growing nearby. Lower La/Ce is consistent with enhanced dissolution of the mineral apatite, a common accessory phase. While the influence of symbiotic host (beech vs. oak vs. pine) may play some role in the distinctive REE signatures recorded by the fruiting bodies, we attribute the observed differences to organic acid production and tendency to colonize in different horizons of the soil profile. (1) Wallander, Plant and Soil, 2000; (2) Blum et al., Nature, 2002; (3) Hoffland et al., Front Ecol Environ., 2003; (4) Hagerburg et al., Plant and Soil, 2003.

  12. Comparison of daily UV doses estimated from Nimbus 7/TOMS measurements and ground-based spectroradiometric data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalliskota, Sari; Kaurola, Jussi; Taalas, Petteri; Herman, Jay R.; Celarier, Edward A.; Krotkov, Nikolay A.

    2000-02-01

    During recent years, methods have been developed for estimating UV irradiance reaching the Earth's surface using satellite-measured backscattered UV radiances. The NASA-developed method is based on radiative transfer calculations and satellite measurements of parameters affecting UV radiation: extraterrestrial solar irradiance, atmospheric ozone, cloud reflectivity, aerosol amounts, and ground albedo. In this work a comparison is made between daily UV erythemal doses estimated from Nimbus-7/TOMS measurements (from 1991 to May 1993) and those calculated from ground-based spectroradiometer data. Three stations operated by the National Science Foundation were chosen for this comparison: Ushuaia, Argentina (for 573 days), Palmer, Antarctica (for 450 days), and San Diego, California, (for 149 days). These stations were selected to illustrate the differences between ground-based measurements using the same type of instrument, SUV-100 double monochromator spectroradiometers, and satellite estimates of surface UV irradiance under three different environmental conditions (mountains and snow, nearly continuous snow cover, and midlatitude urban sea level conditions). Averaging the measured and TOMS-estimated doses over periods from 1 week to 1 month improves the agreement. The daily or monthly mean bias increases during months when there is snow/ice on the surface. TOMS has a larger estimate of the UV irradiance by 25% at San Diego (no snow), in agreement with the summer-month analysis of Toronto irradiances [Herman et al., 1999]. TOMS underestimates the average daily-UV dose at Ushuaia (monthly mean bias of -13%) and at Palmer (-35%) consistent with snow/ice with cloud effects not being properly accounted for in the TOMS algorithm. When the reflectivity at all three sites is low (no snow), the TOMS irradiance estimate is larger than the SUV-100 measurements consistent with previously analyzed Brewer data at Toronto. The effects of local fog or clouds smaller than the satellite field of view and undetected UV-absorbing aerosols near the ground are discussed. In addition to uncertainties in radiometric calibrations of the spectrometers, none of the SUV-100 data are corrected for deviations of diffuser-transmittance from true cosine response.

  13. Structure of the GAT domain of the endosomal adapter protein Tom1.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Shuyan; Ellena, Jeffrey F; Armstrong, Geoffrey S; Capelluto, Daniel G S

    2016-06-01

    Cellular homeostasis requires correct delivery of cell-surface receptor proteins (cargo) to their target subcellular compartments. The adapter proteins Tom1 and Tollip are involved in sorting of ubiquitinated cargo in endosomal compartments. Recruitment of Tom1 to the endosomal compartments is mediated by its GAT domain's association to Tollip's Tom1-binding domain (TBD). In this data article, we report the solution NMR-derived structure of the Tom1 GAT domain. The estimated protein structure exhibits a bundle of three helical elements. We compare the Tom1 GAT structure with those structures corresponding to the Tollip TBD- and ubiquitin-bound states. PMID:26977434

  14. Structure of the GAT domain of the endosomal adapter protein Tom1

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Shuyan; Ellena, Jeffrey F.; Armstrong, Geoffrey S.; Capelluto, Daniel G.S.

    2016-01-01

    Cellular homeostasis requires correct delivery of cell-surface receptor proteins (cargo) to their target subcellular compartments. The adapter proteins Tom1 and Tollip are involved in sorting of ubiquitinated cargo in endosomal compartments. Recruitment of Tom1 to the endosomal compartments is mediated by its GAT domain’s association to Tollip’s Tom1-binding domain (TBD). In this data article, we report the solution NMR-derived structure of the Tom1 GAT domain. The estimated protein structure exhibits a bundle of three helical elements. We compare the Tom1 GAT structure with those structures corresponding to the Tollip TBD- and ubiquitin-bound states. PMID:26977434

  15. The Gravity Probe B `Niobium bird' experiment: Verifying the data reduction scheme for estimating the relativistic precession of Earth-orbiting gyroscopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uemaatsu, Hirohiko; Parkinson, Bradford W.; Lockhart, James M.; Muhlfelder, Barry

    1993-01-01

    Gravity Probe B (GP-B) is a relatively gyroscope experiment begun at Stanford University in 1960 and supported by NASA since 1963. This experiment will check, for the first time, the relativistic precession of an Earth-orbiting gyroscope that was predicted by Einstein's General Theory of Relativity, to an accuracy of 1 milliarcsecond per year or better. A drag-free satellite will carry four gyroscopes in a polar orbit to observe their relativistic precession. The primary sensor for measuring the direction of gyroscope spin axis is the SQUID (superconducting quantum interference device) magnetometer. The data reduction scheme designed for the GP-B program processes the signal from the SQUID magnetometer and estimates the relativistic precession rates. We formulated the data reduction scheme and designed the Niobium bird experiment to verify the performance of the data reduction scheme experimentally with an actual SQUID magnetometer within the test loop. This paper reports the results from the first phase of the Niobium bird experiment, which used a commercially available SQUID magnetometer as its primary sensor, and adresses the issues they raised. The first phase resulted in a large, temperature-dependent bias drift in the insensitive design and a temperature regulation scheme.

  16. TOMS total ozone trends in potential vorticity coordinates

    SciTech Connect

    Randel, W.J.; Wu, F.

    1995-03-15

    Global total ozone measurements from the Nimbus 7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) are analyzed using potential vorticity (PV) as an approximate vortex-following coordinate. We analyze the time period November 1978-May 1991, prior to the volcanic eruption of Mt. Pinatubo. The TOMS data are remapped into PV coordinates and trends are calculated, thereby characterizing ozone losses inside and outside the winter polar vortices. These analyses show large regions of ozone loss outside of the vortex in both hemispheres. Furthermore, these data suggest that midlatitude losses in the NH during winter-spring do not result solely from the transport of ozone depleted air from inside to outside the vortex. 26 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  17. The 1989 Antarctic ozone hole as observed by TOMS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stolarski, Richard S.; Schoeberl, Mark R.; Mcpeters, Richard D.; Krueger, Arlin J.; Newman, Paul A.

    1990-01-01

    In 1989 the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) aboard the Nimbus 7 satellite observed the springtime decrease in Antarctic total ozone for the 11th consecutive year. The 1989 minimum values of total ozone measured by TOMS declined throughout the month of September at a rate nearly identical to 1987. The area of the ozone hole as defined by the 220 DU contour grew rapidly during early September. It reached a mid-September peak of 7.5 percent of the Southern Hemisphere, or 19 million square kilometers, essentially the same as observed in 1987. From mid-October through November 1989, minimum polar total ozone values increased and the area within the 220 DU contour decreased more rapidly than during the comparable period of 1987. The more rapid erosion of the 1989 ozone hole resulted from strong wave number one perturbations of the vortex dynamics in late October.

  18. Nimbus-7 TOMS Antarctic ozone atlas: August through November, 1989

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krueger, Arlin J.; Penn, Lanning M.; Larko, David E.; Doiron, Scott D.; Guimaraes, Patricia T.

    1990-01-01

    Because of the great environmental significance of ozone and to support continuing research at the Antarctic and other Southern Hemisphere stations, the development of the 1989 ozone hole was monitored using data from the Nimbus-7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) instrument, produced in near-real-time. This Atlas provides a complete set of daily polar orthographic projections of the TOMS total ozone measurements over the Southern Hemisphere for the period August 1 through November 30, 1989. The 1989 ozone hole developed in a manner similar to that of 1987, reaching a comparable depth in early October. This was in sharp contrast to the much weaker hole of 1988. The 1989 ozone hole remained at polar latitudes as it filled in November, in contrast to other recent years when the hole drifted to mid-latitudes before disappearing. Daily ozone values above selected Southern Hemisphere stations are presented, along with comparisons of the 1989 ozone distribution to that of other years.

  19. Preliminary X-ray crystallographic studies of yeast mitochondrial protein Tom70p

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Yunkun; McCombs, Debbie; Nagy, Lisa; DeLucas, Lawrence; Sha, Bingdong

    2006-03-01

    Tom70p is an important translocase of the outer membrane complex member and a major surface receptor of the protein-translocation machinery in the outer mitochondrial membrane. To investigate the mechanism by which Tom70p functions to deliver the mitochondrial protein precursors, the cytosolic fragment of yeast Tom70p (cTom70p) has been crystallized. Protein translocations across mitochondrial membranes play critical roles in mitochondrion biogenesis. Protein transport from the cell cytosol to the mitochondrial matrix is carried out by the translocase of the outer membrane (TOM) complex and the translocase of the inner membrane (TIM) complexes. Tom70p is an important TOM-complex member and a major surface receptor of the protein-translocation machinery in the outer mitochondrial membrane. To investigate the mechanism by which Tom70p functions to deliver the mitochondrial protein precursors, the cytosolic fragment of yeast Tom70p (cTom70p) was crystallized. The crystals diffract to 3.2 Å using a synchrotron X-ray source and belong to space group P2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 44.89, b = 168.78, c = 83.41 Å, α = 90.00, β = 102.74, γ = 90.00°. There are two Tom70p molecules in one asymmetric unit, which corresponds to a solvent content of approximately 51%. Structure determination by MAD methods is under way.

  20. TOMS: The Antarctic ozone hole and ozone trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stolarski, Richard S.

    1987-01-01

    The Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) instrument aboard Nimbus 7 has proved invaluable for the investigation of the recent rapid decline in the springtime total ozone over the Antarctic. The principle problem discussed is that of observing the atmosphere over long periods of time to determine whether or not trends and/or slow oscillations are taking place. Total ozone is an excellent summary parameter for the state of the stratosphere. It responds to temperature changes, and in the long term, is expected to respond to chemical changes. Thus, when changes take place in total ozone, such as the springtime Antarctic decrease it is a clear indication of an important problem, both because of environmental potential and scientific importance. TOMS is actually an overkill for this problem. Significantly more data is taken than is necessary. Tests have shown that maps produced on a 2 by 4 degree grid are essentially equivalent to those produced from the entire gridded data set. Because the critical aspect of the search for changes in ozone is continuous data, reflight of a polar orbiting TOMS is important. Included in the flight should be a stratospheric temperature sensor and, if possible, a modification to obtain some ozone altitude information. A critical aspect of the problem is timeliness of the data. This is the only drawback of the existing TOMS. It is expected that in the very near future the processing will be done within two weeks of real time. This is critical to the process of discovery of phenomena such as the Antarctic ozone hole.

  1. Ozone Climatological Profiles for Version 8 TOMS and SBUV Retrievals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McPeters, R. D.; Logan, J. A.; Labow, G. J.

    2003-12-01

    A new altitude dependent ozone climatology has been produced for use with the latest Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) and Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet (SBUV) retrieval algorithms. The climatology consists of monthly average profiles for ten degree latitude zones covering from 0 to 60 km. The climatology was formed by combining data from SAGE II (1988 to 2000) and MLS (1991-1999) with data from balloon sondes (1988-2002). Ozone below about 20 km is based on balloons sondes, while ozone above 30 km is based on satellite measurements. The profiles join smoothly between 20 and 30 km. The ozone climatology in the southern hemisphere and tropics has been greatly enhanced in recent years by the addition of balloon sonde stations under the SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes) program. A major source of error in the TOMS and SBUV retrieval of total column ozone comes from their reduced sensitivity to ozone in the lower troposphere. An accurate climatology for the retrieval a priori is important for reducing this error on the average. The new climatology follows the seasonal behavior of tropospheric ozone and reflects its hemispheric asymmetry. Comparisons of TOMS version 8 ozone with ground stations show an improvement due in part to the new climatology.

  2. Heterometallic Alkaline Earth-Lanthanide Ba(II)-La(III) Microporous Metal-Organic Framework as Bifunctional Luminescent Probes of Al(3+) and MnO4(.).

    PubMed

    Ding, Bin; Liu, Shi Xin; Cheng, Yue; Guo, Chao; Wu, Xiang Xia; Guo, Jian Hua; Liu, Yuan Yuan; Li, Yan

    2016-05-01

    In this work a rigid asymmetrical tricarboxylate ligand p-terphenyl-3,4″,5-tricarboxylic acid (H3L) has been employed, and a unique heterometallic alkaline earth-lanthanide microporous luminescent metal-organic framework (MOF) {[Ba3La0.5(μ3-L)2.5(H2O)3(DMF)]·(3DMF)}n (1·3DMF) (DMF = dimethylformamide) has been isolated under solvothermal conditions. Single-crystal X-ray structural analysis demonstrates that 2D inorganic Ba-O-La connectivity can be observed in 1, which are further bridged via rigid terphenyl backbones of L(3-), forming a unique I(2)O(1)-type microporous luminescent framework. A 1D microporous channel with dimensionality of 9.151(3) Å × 10.098(1) Å can be observed along the crystallographic a axis. PXRD patterns have been investigated indicating pure phases of 1. The luminescence explorations demonstrated that 1 exhibits highly selective and sensitive sensing for Al(3+) over other cations with high quenching efficiency Ksv value of 1.445 × 10(4) L·mol(-1) and low detection limit (1.11 μM (S/N = 3)). Meanwhile 1 also exhibits highly selective and sensitive sensing for MnO4(-) over other anions with quenching efficiency Ksv = 7.73 × 10(3) L·mol(-1) and low detection limit (0.28 μM (S/N = 3)). It is noted that, when different concentrations of MnO4(-) solutions (0.5 to 100 μM) were dropped into the suspension of 1, the bright blue luminescence of the suspension observed under UV light can gradually change into pink color, indicating visually luminescent sensing, which makes the detection process of MnO4(-) more convenient in practical. The result also reveals that 1 represents the first example of bifunctional heterometallic alkaline earth-lanthanide MOF-based luminescent probes for selectively detecting Al(3+) and MnO4(-) in the water solutions. PMID:27088966

  3. Global distribution of UV-absorbing aerosols from Nimbus 7/TOMS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herman, J. R.; Bhartia, P. K.; Torres, O.; Hsu, C.; Seftor, C.; Celarier, E.

    1997-07-01

    Global distributions of UV-absorbing aerosols are obtained using measured differences between the 340 and the 380 nm radiances from the Nimbus 7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) for the years 1979-1993. Time series are shown for major sources of biomass burning and desert dust giving the frequency of occurrence and areal coverage over land and oceans. Minor sources of UV-absorbing aerosols in the atmosphere are also discussed (volcanic ash and oil fires). Relative values of year-to-year variability of UV-absorbing aerosol amounts are shown for major aerosol source regions: (1) central South America (Brazil) near 10°S latitude; (2) Africa near 0°-20°S and 0° to 10°N latitude; (3) Saharan Desert and sub-Saharan region (Sahel), Arabian Peninsula, and the northern border region of India; (4) agricultural burning in Indonesia, Eastern China, and Indochina, and near the mouth of the Amazon River; and (5) coal burning and dust in northeastern China. The first three of these regions dominate the injection of UV-absorbing aerosols into the atmosphere each year and cover areas far outside of their source regions from advection of UV-absorbing particulates by atmospheric wind systems. During the peak months, smoke and dust from these sources are transported at altitudes above 1 km with an optical depth of at least 0.1 and can cover about 10% of the Earth's surface. Boundary layer absorbing aerosols are not readily seen by TOMS because the small amount of underlying Rayleigh scattering leads to a small signal. Significant portions of the observed dust originate from agricultural regions frequently within arid areas, such as in the Sahel region of Africa, especially from the dry lake-bed near Lake Chad (13.5°N, 14°E), and intermittently dry drainage areas and streams. In addition to drought cycle effects, this suggests there may be an anthropogenic component to the amount of dust injected into the atmosphere each year. Detection of absorbing aerosols and calculation of optical depths are affected by the presence of large-scale and subpixel clouds in the TOMS field of view.

  4. The Phytosiderophore Efflux Transporter TOM2 Is Involved in Metal Transport in Rice.

    PubMed

    Nozoye, Tomoko; Nagasaka, Seiji; Kobayashi, Takanori; Sato, Yuki; Uozumi, Nobuyuki; Nakanishi, Hiromi; Nishizawa, Naoko K

    2015-11-13

    Iron is an essential metal element for all living organisms. Graminaceous plants produce and secrete mugineic acid family phytosiderophores from their roots to acquire iron in the soil. Phytosiderophores chelate and solubilize insoluble iron hydroxide in the soil. Subsequently, plants take up iron-phytosiderophore complexes through specific transporters on the root cell membrane. Phytosiderophores are also thought to be important for the internal transport of various transition metals, including iron. In this study, we analyzed TOM2 and TOM3, rice homologs of transporter of mugineic acid family phytosiderophores 1 (TOM1), a crucial efflux transporter directly involved in phytosiderophore secretion into the soil. Transgenic rice analysis using promoter-β-glucuronidase revealed that TOM2 was expressed in tissues involved in metal translocation, whereas TOM3 was expressed only in restricted parts of the plant. Strong TOM2 expression was observed in developing tissues during seed maturation and germination, whereas TOM3 expression was weak during seed maturation. Transgenic rice in which TOM2 expression was repressed by RNA interference showed growth defects compared with non-transformants and TOM3-repressed rice. Xenopus laevis oocytes expressing TOM2 released (14)C-labeled deoxymugineic acid, the initial phytosiderophore compound in the biosynthetic pathway in rice. In onion epidermal and rice root cells, the TOM2-GFP fusion protein localized to the cell membrane, indicating that the TOM2 protein is a transporter for phytosiderophore efflux to the cell exterior. Our results indicate that TOM2 is involved in the internal transport of deoxymugineic acid, which is required for normal plant growth. PMID:26432636

  5. Surficial geology of the Mount Tom quadrangle, Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larsen, Fredrick D.

    1972-01-01

    Movement of the last ice sheet in the Mount Tom quadrangle was due south during time of major advance as indicated by striations, drumlins, and indicator stones. Erratics of the Belchertown Tonalite, derived from the northeast portion of the Easthampton quadrangle, have been carried southward a distance of at least 16 miles. The presence of tonalite boulders on the summit of Mount Tom, elevation 1,205 feet, testifies to uplift of erratics through a vertical distance of 1,000 feet. Three tills are recognized on the basis of color, grainsize parameters, and location: (1) a reddish-brown sandy till occurs west of the Holyoke Basalt ridge, (2) a brown silty till lies east of the basalt ridge, and (3) a grayish-brown till-with intermediate grain size occurs in the Easthampton quadrangle and the north-central portion of the Mount Tom quadrangle. The three tills are the same age and are equivalent to the upper till of southern New England. During deglaciation, readvance occurred from the northeast over a minimum distance of 3.5 miles in the southeast portion of the quadrangle. Evidence for readvance consists of (1) till over stratified drift, (2) southwest-oriented till fabrics on south-trending drumlins, (3) west-southwest-trending striations cutting south-trending striations, (4) southwest-oriented glaciotectonic structures, and (5) data from borings. West of the basalt ridge, northward retreat of an active ice margin was punctuated by four stillstands, during which outwash deltas were deposited in proglacial lakes. From oldest to youngest the deposits associated with the four stillstands are named: (1) Paper Mills delta, (2) Barnes delta, (3) Pomeroy Street delta, and (4) White Brook delta. East of the basalt ridge a series of small ice-contact deltas were deposited in high proglacial Lake Hitchcock, which expanded northward with the retreating ice margin. Deposition culminated along the upper east margin of the quadrangle with the formation of a large ice-contact delta named the Holyoke delta. Continued northward retreat of the ice margin both east and west of the basalt ridge permitted water of Lake Hitchcock to extend through the Holyoke Narrows and into the valleys of the Manhan River and Broad Brook in the north-central portion of the Mount Tom quadrangle. Drainage of Lake Hitchcock 10,700 years ago (Flint, 1956) initiated rapid downcutting by streams, as shown by numerous stream terraces along the Connecticut, Westfield, and Manhan Rivers, and along lesser tributaries.

  6. Tom70 serves as a molecular switch to determine pathological cardiac hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jun; Qi, Man; Li, Changming; Shi, Dan; Zhang, Dasheng; Xie, Duanyang; Yuan, Tianyou; Feng, Jing; Liu, Yi; Liang, Dandan; Xu, Xinran; Chen, Jinjin; Xu, Liang; Zhang, Hong; Ye, Jiangchuan; Lv, Fei; Huang, Jian; Peng, Luying; Chen, Yi-Han

    2014-01-01

    Pathological cardiac hypertrophy is an inevitable forerunner of heart failure. Regardless of the etiology of cardiac hypertrophy, cardiomyocyte mitochondrial alterations are always observed in this context. The translocases of mitochondrial outer membrane (Tom) complex governs the import of mitochondrial precursor proteins to maintain mitochondrial function under pathophysiological conditions; however, its role in the development of pathological cardiac hypertrophy remains unclear. Here, we showed that Tom70 was downregulated in pathological hypertrophic hearts from humans and experimental animals. The reduction in Tom70 expression produced distinct pathological cardiomyocyte hypertrophy both in vivo and in vitro. The defective mitochondrial import of Tom70-targeted optic atrophy-1 triggered intracellular oxidative stress, which led to a pathological cellular response. Importantly, increased Tom70 levels provided cardiomyocytes with full resistance to diverse pro-hypertrophic insults. Together, these results reveal that Tom70 acts as a molecular switch that orchestrates hypertrophic stresses and mitochondrial responses to determine pathological cardiac hypertrophy. PMID:25022898

  7. Implementation of the TOMS contamination control requirements in the former USSR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abrams, Eve M.

    1992-01-01

    The American Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) was integrated with the Russian Meteor-3 spacecraft and launched on August 15, 1991. Although the TOMS instrument was sensitive to both particulate and molecular contamination, the program for Meteor-3 had not formerly addressed contamination control in ground operations. In order to accommodate the TOMS cleanliness requirements, a contamination control program was successfully established from inception at both the Meteor-3 spacecraft plant near Moscow and at the launch site in Plesetsk.

  8. Cognitive, Affective, and Conative Theory of Mind (ToM) in Children with Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Dennis, Maureen; Simic, Nevena; Bigler, Erin D.; Abildskov, Tracy; Agostino, Alba; Taylor, H. Gerry; Rubin, Kenneth; Vannatta, Kathryn; Gerhardt, Cynthia A.; Stancin, Terry; Yeates, Keith Owen

    2012-01-01

    We studied three forms of dyadic communication involving theory of mind (ToM) in 82 children with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and 61 children with orthopedic injury (OI): Cognitive (concerned with false belief), Affective (concerned with expressing socially deceptive facial expressions), and Conative (concerned with influencing another’s thoughts or feelings). We analyzed the pattern of brain lesions in the TBI group and conducted voxel-based morphometry for all participants in five large-scale functional brain networks, and related lesion and volumetric data to ToM outcomes. Children with TBI exhibited difficulty with Cognitive, Affective, and Conative ToM. The perturbation threshold for Cognitive ToM is higher than that for Affective and Conative ToM, in that Severe TBI disturbs Cognitive ToM but even Mild-Moderate TBI disrupt Affective and Conative ToM. Childhood TBI was associated with damage to all five large-scale brain networks. Lesions in the Mirror Neuron Empathy network predicted lower Conative ToM involving ironic criticism and empathic praise. Conative ToM was significantly and positively related to the package of Default Mode, Central Executive, and Mirror Neuron Empathy networks and, more specifically, to two hubs of the Default Mode network, the posterior cingulate/retrosplenial cortex and the hippocampal formation, including entorhinal cortex and parahippocampal cortex. PMID:23291312

  9. In Their Own Words: Tom Simon - Duration: 4 minutes, 21 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    Tom Simon, a contracting officer's representative for NASA's Commercial Crew Program, discusses the importance of certifying commercial transportation systems are safe to carry NASA astronauts to t...

  10. Korea Earth Observation Satellite Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baek, Myung-Jin; Kim, Zeen-Chul

    via Korea Aerospace Research Institute (KARI) as the prime contractor in the area of Korea earth observation satellite program to enhance Korea's space program development capability. In this paper, Korea's on-going and future earth observation satellite programs are introduced: KOMPSAT- 1 (Korea Multi Purpose Satellite-1), KOMPSAT-2 and Communication, Broadcasting and Meteorological Satellite (CBMS) program. KOMPSAT-1 satellite successfully launched in December 1999 with Taurus launch vehicle. Since launch, KOMPSAT-1 is downlinking images of Korea Peninsular every day. Until now, KOMPSAT-1 has been operated more than 2 and half years without any major hardware malfunction for the mission operation. KOMPSAT-1 payload has 6.6m panchromatic spatial resolution at 685 km on-orbit and the spacecraft bus had NASA TOMS-EP (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer-Earth Probe) spacecraft bus heritage designed and built by TRW, U.S.A.KOMPSAT-1 program was international co-development program between KARI and TRW funded by Korean Government. be launched in 2004. Main mission objective is to provide geo-information products based on the multi-spectral high resolution sensor called Multi-Spectral Camera (MSC) which will provide 1m panchromatic and 4m multi-spectral high resolution images. ELOP of Israel is the prime contractor of the MSC payload system and KARI is the total system prime contractor including spacecraft bus development and ground segment. KARI also has the contract with Astrium of Europe for the purpose of technical consultation and hardware procurement. Based on the experience throughout KOMPSAT-1 and KOMPSAT-2 space system development, Korea is expecting to establish the infrastructure of developing satellite system. Currently, KOMPSAT-2 program is in the critical design stage. are scheduled to launch in 2008 and in 2014, respectively. The mission of CBMS consists of two areas. One is of space technology test for the communications mission, and the other is of a real- time environmental observation for meteorological mission on the geosynchronous orbit for public services. The CBMS is expected to weigh about 2 ~ 2.5 tons, and 6 channels of Ka-band and S- band transponder are equipped for communications service and observation payloads such as meteorological and ocean sensors. To increase the reliability of the first CBMS, a cooperative development with advanced foreign companies of the space business is being considered.

  11. Molecular Chaperone Hsp70/Hsp90 Prepares the Mitochondrial Outer Membrane Translocon Receptor Tom71 for Preprotein Loading

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Jingzhi; Qian, Xinguo; Hu, Junbin; Sha, Bingdong

    2010-11-03

    The preproteins targeted to the mitochondria are transported through the translocase of the outer membrane complex. Tom70/Tom71 is a major surface receptor of the translocase of the outer membrane complex for mitochondrial preproteins. The preproteins are escorted to Tom70/Tom71 by molecular chaperones Hsp70 and Hsp90. Here we present the high resolution crystal structures of Tom71 and the protein complexes between Tom71 and the Hsp70/Hsp90 C terminus. The crystal structures indicate that Tom70/Tom71 may exhibit two distinct states. In the closed state, the N-terminal domain of Tom70/Tom71 partially blocks the preprotein-binding pocket. In the open state, the N-terminal domain moves away, and the preprotein-binding pocket is fully exposed. The complex formation between the C-terminal EEVD motif of Hsp70/Hsp90 and Tom71 could lock Tom71 in the open state where the preprotein-binding pocket of Tom71 is ready to receive preproteins. The interactions between Hsp70/Hsp90 and Tom71 N-terminal domain generate conformational changes that may increase the volume of the preprotein-binding pocket. The complex formation of Hsp70/Hsp90 and Tom71 also generates significant domain rearrangement within Tom71, which may position the preprotein-binding pocket closer to Hsp70/Hsp90 to facilitate the preprotein transfer from the molecular chaperone to Tom71. Therefore, molecular chaperone Hsp70/Hsp90 may function to prepare the mitochondrial outer membrane receptor Tom71 for preprotein loading.

  12. The Impact of Withholding Observations from TOMS or SBUV Instruments on the GEOS Ozone Data Assimilation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stajner, Ovanka; Riishojgaard, Lars Peter; Rood, Richard B.

    2000-01-01

    In a data assimilation system (DAS), model forecast atmospheric fields, observations and their respective statistics are combined in an attempt to produce the best estimate of these fields. Ozone observations from two instruments are assimilated in the Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) ozone DAS: the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) and the Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet (SBUV) instrument. The assimilated observations are complementary; TOMS provides a global daily coverage of total column ozone, without profile information, while SBUV measures ozone profiles and total column ozone at nadir only. The purpose of this paper is to examine the performance of the ozone assimilation system in the absence of observations from one of the instruments as it can happen in the event of a failure of an instrument or when there are problems with an instrument for a limited time. Our primary concern is for the performance of the GEOS ozone DAS when it is used in the operational mode to provide near real time analyzed ozone fields in support of instruments on the Terra satellite. In addition, we are planning to produce a longer term ozone record by assimilating historical data. We want to quantify the differences in the assimilated ozone fields that are caused by the changes in the TOMS or SBUV observing network. Our primary interest is in long term and large scale features visible in global statistics of analysis fields, such as differences in the zonal mean of assimilated ozone fields or comparisons with independent observations, While some drifts in assimilated fields occur immediately, after assimilating just one day of different observations, the others develop slowly over several months. Thus, we are also interested in the length of time, which is determined from time series, that is needed for significant changes to take place.

  13. 33 CFR 80.501 - Tom's River, NJ to Cape May, NJ.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tom's River, NJ to Cape May, NJ. 80.501 Section 80.501 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Fifth District § 80.501 Tom's River, NJ to Cape May,...

  14. 33 CFR 80.170 - Sandy Hook, NJ to Tom's River, NJ.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sandy Hook, NJ to Tom's River, NJ. 80.170 Section 80.170 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Atlantic Coast § 80.170 Sandy Hook, NJ to Tom's...

  15. Tom Stewart Interview (Part II): A Little Bit About the Man Behind SPEEDE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winarski, Kathy

    2004-01-01

    Although admittedly shy and more comfortable as an attentive listener, Tom Stewart is also friendly and accommodating. He graciously agreed to share his thoughts about some of the important experiences in his life. Tom is that rare bird, a native Floridian, from West Palm Beach, 68 miles north of his Miami home. He received a Bachelor of Chemical…

  16. The TOM Complex of Amoebozoans: the Cases of the Amoeba Acanthamoeba castellanii and the Slime Mold Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Wojtkowska, Ma?gorzata; Buczek, Dorota; Stobienia, Olgierd; Karachitos, Andonis; Antoniewicz, Monika; Slocinska, Ma?gorzata; Maka?owski, Wojciech; Kmita, Hanna

    2015-07-01

    Protein import into mitochondria requires a wide variety of proteins, forming complexes in both mitochondrial membranes. The TOM complex (translocase of the outer membrane) is responsible for decoding of targeting signals, translocation of imported proteins across or into the outer membrane, and their subsequent sorting. Thus the TOM complex is regarded as the main gate into mitochondria for imported proteins. Available data indicate that mitochondria of representative organisms from across the major phylogenetic lineages of eukaryotes differ in subunit organization of the TOM complex. The subunit organization of the TOM complex in the Amoebozoa is still elusive, so we decided to investigate its organization in the soil amoeba Acanthamoeba castellanii and the slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum. They represent two major subclades of the Amoebozoa: the Lobosa and Conosa, respectively. Our results confirm the presence of Tom70, Tom40 and Tom7 in the A. castellanii and D. discoideum TOM complex, while the presence of Tom22 and Tom20 is less supported. Interestingly, the Tom proteins display the highest similarity to Opisthokonta cognate proteins, with the exception of Tom40. Thus representatives of two major subclades of the Amoebozoa appear to be similar in organization of the TOM complex, despite differences in their lifestyle. PMID:26074248

  17. The global distribution on total ozone - Toms satellite measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krueger, Arlin J.

    1989-01-01

    The general behavior of total ozone by season and latitude was known before 1930 through the pioneering observations by Dobson. The ozone record at Oxford and other European stations was dominated by an annual cycle and by irregular short term fluctuations. The amplitude and phase of the annual cycle were determined at representative latitudes in both hemispheres. However, the short term variations appeared to be meteorological origin, although the specific cause could not be identified. Data from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) on the Nimbus 7 spacecraft, with global coverage at an average spatial resolution of 66 km, can now be used to completely map the total ozone field. These maps demonstrate that troughs and ridges in the upper troposphere are responsible for the large, short term ozone variations found at middle latitudes, while in the tropics, the steady, low ozone levels show broad scale structure associated with the Hadley circulation.

  18. User's guide for SBUV/TOMS ozone derivative products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleig, A. J.; Wellemeyer, C.; Oslik, N.; Lee, D.; Miller, J.; Magatani, R.

    1984-01-01

    A series of products are available derived from the total-ozone and ozone vertical profile results for the Solar Backscattered Ultraviolet/Total-Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (SBUV/TOMS) Nimbus-7 operation. Products available are (1) orbital height-latitude cross sections of the SBUV profile data, (2) daily global total ozone contours in polar coordinates, (3) daily averages of total ozone in global 5x5 degree latitude-longitude grid, (4) daily, monthly and quarterly averages of total ozone and profile data in 10 degree latitude zones, (5) tabular presentation of zonal means, (6) daily global total ozone and profile contours in polar coordinates. The ""Derivative Products User's Guide'' describes each of these products in detail, including their derivation and presentation format. Information is provided on how to order the tapes and microfilm from the National Space Science Data Center.

  19. Tom, a new aromatic degradative plasmid from Burkholderia (Pseudomonas) cepacia G4

    SciTech Connect

    Shields, M.S.; Reagin, J.J.; Campbell, R.

    1995-04-01

    Burkholderia (Pseudomonas) cepacia PR1{sub 23} has been shown to constitutively express a toluene catabolic pathway distinguished by a unique toluene ortho-monooxygenase (Tom). This strain has also been shown to contain two extrachromosomal elements of <70 and> 100 kb. A derivative strain cured of the largest plasmid, PR1{sub 23} Cure, was unable to grow on phenol or toluene as the sole source of carbon and energy, which requires expression of the Tom pathway. Transfer of the larger plasmid from strain G4 J(the parent strain inducible for Tom) enabled PR1{sub 23} Cure to grow on toluene or phenol via inducible Tom pathway expression. Conjugal transfer of TOM{sub 23c} from PR1{sub 23} to an antibiotic-resistant derivative of PR1{sub 23} Cure enabled the transconjugant to grow with either phenol or toluene as the sole source of carbon and energy through constitutive expression of the Tom pathway. A cloned 11.2-kb EcoRI restriction fragment of Tom{sub 23c} resulted in the expression of both Tom and catechol 2,3-dioxygenase in Escherichia coli, as evidenced by its ability to oxidize trichloroethylene, toluene, m-cresol, o-cresol, phenol, and catechol. The largest resident plasmid of PR1 was identified as the source of these genes by DNA hybridization. These results indicate that the genes which encode Tom and catechol 2,3-dioxygenase are located on TOM, an approximately 108-kb degradative plasmid of B. cepacia G4. 35 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Electromagnetic deep-probing (100-1000 kms) of the Earth's interior from artificial satellites: Constraints on the regional emplacement of crustal resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hermance, J. F.

    1983-01-01

    The reconnaissance phase of using satellite observtions to studying electromagnetic induction in the solid earth is summarized. Several points are made: (1) satellite data apparently suffer far less from the effects of near surface lateral heterogeneities in the earth than do ground-based data; (2) zonal ionospheric currents during the recovery phase of major magnetic storms appear to be minimal, at least in the dawn and dusk sectors wher MAGSAT was flown; hence the internal contributions that satellites observe during these times is in fact due primarily to induction in the Earth with little or no contribution from ionospheric currents; and (3) the interpretation of satellite data in terms of primitive electromagnetic response functions, while grossly over-simplified, results in a surprisingly well-resolved radius for an equivalent super-conductor representing the conductivity region of the Earth's interior (5,370 + or - 120 km).

  1. Electromagnetic deep-probing (100-1000 KMS) of the Earth's interior from artificial satellites: Constraints on the regional emplacement of crustal resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hermance, J. F. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    Model simulations show that induction in a spherical Earth by distant magnetospheric sources can contribute magnetic field fluctuations at MAGSAT altitudes which are 30 to 40 percent of the external field amplitudes. When the characteristic dimensions (e.g. depth of penetration, etc) of a particular situations are small compared with the Earth's radius, the Earth can be approximated by a plane horizontal half space. In this case, electromagnetic energy is reflected with close to 100 percent efficiency from the Earth's surface. This implies that the total horizontal field is twice the source field when the source is above the satellite, but is reduced to values which are much smaller than the source field when the source is below the satellite. This latter effect tends to enhance the signature of gross electrical discontinuities in the lithosphere when observed at satellite altitudes.

  2. Preliminary Results from an Assimilation of Saharan Dust Using TOMS Radiances and the GOCART Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weaver, C. J.; daSilva, Arlindo; Ginoux, Paul; Torres, Omar; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    At NASA Goddard we are developing a global aerosol data assimilation system that combines advances in remote sensing and modeling of atmospheric aerosols. The goal is to provide high resolution, 3-D aerosol distributions to the research community. Our first step is to develop a simple assimilation system for Saharan mineral aerosol. The Goddard Chemistry and Aerosol Radiation model (GOCART) provides accurate 3-D mineral aerosol size distributions. Surface mobilization, wet and dry deposition, convective and long-range transport are all driven by assimilated fields from the Goddard Earth Observing System Data Assimilation System, GEOS-DAS. Our version of GOCART transports sizes from .08-10 microns and only simulates Saharan dust. We draw the assimilation to two observables in this study: the TOMS aerosol index (Al) which is directly related to the ratio of the 340 and 380 radiances and the 380 radiance alone. The forward model that simulates the observables requires the aerosol optical thickness, the single scattering albedo and the height of the aerosol layer from the GOCART fields. The forward model also requires a refractive index for the dust. We test three index values to see which best fits the TOMS observables. These are 1) for Saharan dust reported by Patterson, 2) for a mixture of Saharan dust and a highly reflective material (sea salt or sulfate) and 3) for pure illite. The assimilation works best assuming either pure illite or the dust mixture. Our assimilation cycle first determines values of the aerosol index (Al) and the radiance at 380 nm based on the GOCART aerosol fields. Differences between the observed and GOCART model calculated Al and 380 nm radiance are first analyzed horizontally using the Physical-space Statistical Analysis System (PSAS). A quasi-Newton iteration is then performed to produce analyzed 3D aerosol fields according to parameterized background and observation error covariances. We only assimilate observations into the the GOCART model over regions of Africa and the Atlantic where mineral aerosols are dominant and carbonaceous aerosols are minimal.

  3. Global and Seasonal Aerosol Optical Depths Derived From Ultraviolet Observations by Satellites (TOMS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herman, J. R.; Torres, O.

    1999-01-01

    It has been shown that absorbing aerosols (dust, smoke, volcanic ash) can be detected in the ultraviolet wavelengths (331 nm to 380 nm) from satellite observations (TOMS, Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) over both land and water. The theoretical basis for these observations and their conversions to optical depths is discussed in terms of an aerosol index AI or N-value residue (assigned positive for absorbing aerosols). The theoretical considerations show that negative values of the AI frequently represent the presence of non-absorbing aerosols (NA) in the troposphere (mostly pollution in the form of sulfates, hydrocarbons, etc., and some natural sulfate aerosols) with particle sizes near 0.1 to 0.2 microns or less. The detection of small-particle non-absorbing aerosols from the measured backscattered radiances is based on the observed wavelength dependence from Mie scattering after the background Rayleigh scattering is subtracted. The Mie scattering from larger particles, 1 micron or more (e.g., cloud water droplets) has too small a wavelength dependence to be detected by this method. In regions that are mostly cloud free, aerosols of all sizes can be seen in the single channel 380 nm or 360 nm radiance data. The most prominent Al feature observed is the strong asymmetry in aerosol amount between the Northern and Southern Hemispheres, with the large majority of NA occurring above 20degN latitude. The maximum values of non-absorbing aerosols are observed over the eastern U.S. and most of western Europe corresponding to the areas of highest industrial pollution. Annual cycles in the amount of NA are observed over Europe and North America with maxima occurring in the summer corresponding to times of minimum wind transport. Similarly, the maxima in the winter over the Atlantic Ocean occurs because of wind borne transport from the land. Most regions of the world have the maximum amount of non-absorbing aerosol in the December to January period except for the eastern North America and Europe. Comparisons of the estimated TOMS aerosol optical depths show good agreement in magnitude and seasonal dependence with sun-photometer optical depths obtained at Goddard Space Flight Center (39degN 76.88degW) in the U.S. and in Lille (50.63degN 3.07degE) in France. The study of these aerosols is important for detecting the sources of industrial pollution and its redistribution by winds on a global basis, as well as its effect on reducing the UV irradiance at the Earth's surface.

  4. Ultrastructure of the domestic tom cat (Felis domestica ) and tiger (Panthera tigris altaica ) spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Schmehl, M L; Graham, E F

    1989-04-01

    The ultrastructure of spermatozoa from the domestic tom cat and the Siberian tiger was studied. Semen was collected from anesthetized tom cats and Siberian tigers by electroejaculation. Spermatozoa were fixed and processed for examination by transmission electron microscopy. The principle differences between the spermatozoa from the two species were the head shape, mitochondrial organization in the neck area and structure of the fibrous sheath. Tom cat spermatozoa had an elongated oval-shaped head, while tiger spermatozoa had a more rounded head shape. Circularly oriented mitochondria in the neck area, near the proximal centriole, were frequently observed in tiger cells but rarely observed in tom cat cells. The semicircular ribs of tom cat spermatozoa were larger than the ribs of tiger spermatozoa. Also, the dense fibers (Numbers 3 and 8) of the corresponding microtubule doublets were fused or connected to the longitudinal columns in tiger spermatozoa but showed only occasional attachment in tom cat spermatozoa. These differences could influence results when the tom cat is used as a model for studying tiger semen. PMID:16726601

  5. Contributions of Nimbus 7 TOMS Data to Volcanic Study and Hazard Mitigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krueger, Arlin J.; Bluth, G. J. S.; Schaefer, S. A.

    1998-01-01

    Nimbus TOMS data have led to advancements among many volcano-related scientific disciplines, from the initial ability to quantify SO2 clouds leading to derivations of eruptive S budgets and fluxes, to tracking of individual clouds, assessing global volcanism and atmospheric impacts. Some of the major aspects of TOMS-related research, listed below, will be reviewed and updated: (1) Measurement of volcanic SO2 clouds: Nimbus TOMS observed over 100 individual SO2 clouds during its mission lifetime; large explosive eruptions are now routinely and reliably measured by satellite. (2) Eruption processes: quantification of SO2 emissions have allowed assessments of eruption sulfur budgets, the evaluation of "excess" sulfur, and inferences of H2S emissions. (3) Detection of ash: TOMS data are now used to detect volcanic particulates in the atmosphere, providing complementary analyses to infrared methods of detection. Paired TOMS and AVHRR studies have provided invaluable information on volcanic cloud compositions and processes. (4) Cloud tracking and hazard mitigation: volcanic clouds can be considered gigantic tracers in the atmosphere, and studies of the fates of these clouds have led to new knowledge of their physical and chemical dispersion in the atmosphere for predictive models. (5) Global trends: the long term data set has provided researchers an unparalleled record of explosive volcanism, and forms a key component in assessing annual to decadal trends in global S emissions. (6) Atmospheric impacts: TOMS data have been linked to independent records of atmospheric change, in order to compare cause and effect processes following a massive injection of SO2 into the atmosphere. (7) Future TOMS instruments and applications: Nimbus TOMS has given way to new satellite platforms, with several wavelength and resolution modifications. New efforts to launch a geostationary TOMS could provide unprecedented observations of volcanic activity.

  6. Electromagnetic deep-probing (100-1000 KMS) of the Earth's interior from artificial satellites: Constraints on the regional emplacement of crustal resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hermance, J. F. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    An algorithm was developed to address the problem of electromagnetic coupling of ionospheric current systems to both a homogeneous Earth having finite conductivity, and to an Earth having gross lateral variations in its conductivity structure, e.g., the ocean-land interface. Typical results from the model simulation for ionospheric currents flowing parallel to a representative geologic discontinuity are shown. Although the total magnetic field component at the satellite altitude is an order of magnitude smaller than at the Earth's surface (because of cancellation effects from the source current), the anomalous behavior of the satellite observations as the vehicle passes over the geologic contact is relatively more important pronounced. The results discriminate among gross lithospheric structures because of difference in electrical conductivity.

  7. Comparison of ground based and TOMS measurements of SO2 from volcanic emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerr, James B.; Evans, Wayne J.

    1987-01-01

    The Brewer Ozone Spectrometer is being used in the World Ozone Network to monitor ozone and SO sub 2. SO sub 2 from natural as well as anthropogenic sources are measured. It has been demonstrated that SO sub 2 interferes with total ozone values as measured by the Dobson Spectrophotometer and the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS). A small amount of manmade SO sub 2 is difficult to detect and quantify by TOMS because it is located near the surface. However, larger amounts of SO sub 2 injected into the stratosphere from volcanic emissions are detected by TOMS.

  8. Straight talk with... Tom Inglesby. Interview by Kevin Jiang.

    PubMed

    Inglesby, Tom

    2013-06-01

    When letters containing anthrax spores were mailed to several US senators and media offices in September 2001, just one week after the 9/11 attacks, bioterrorism catapulted to the national stage. Political leaders and public health officials, desperate for guidance on this once-theoretical scenario, turned to experts including Tom Inglesby, then deputy director of the Johns Hopkins Center for Civilian Biodefense Strategies, a bioterrorism research and analysis think tank in Baltimore. In the years that followed, Inglesby and his colleagues ran exercises to simulate bioterror incidents, established a peer-reviewed journal on biodefense and advised government agencies on how to reduce the public health impact of biological threats.Today, he continues his work with the think tank, which moved to the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center (UPMC) in 2003 (although it stayed headquartered in Baltimore) and which was recently renamed the UPMC Center for Health Security. As director and chief executive officer for the past four years, Inglesby has expanded the center's focus toward preventing public health crises arising from infectious diseases, pandemics and major natural disasters, in addition to biological, chemical and nuclear accidents or threats. Inglesby spoke with Kevin Jiang about how responses to bioterrorism, pandemics and natural disasters aren't all that different. PMID:23744137

  9. Trajectory modeling of aerosol clouds observed by TOMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, D. R.; Schoeberl, M. R.; Herman, J. R.

    1999-11-01

    An aerosol trajectory model (ATM), which couples TOMS aerosol index (AI) measurements with multiple-level parcel trajectories, is presented for determining the three-dimensional (3-D) distribution of a tropospheric aerosol cloud. The ATM is illustrated with an idealized 2-D (height-longitude) cloud in linear vertical shear. The half width of the vertical parcel distribution (an indicator of how well the cloud is resolved) is inversely proportional to time and to vertical shear. The degree to which a cloud can be resolved is limited by an "uncertainty principle," whereby model precision improves with time, while accuracy degrades with time because of accumulating trajectory errors. ATM is applied to the ash cloud from the September 1992 eruption of Mount Spurr, Alaska. Disagreement in the predicted cloud structure occurs between 3-day ATM runs using United Kingdom Meteorological Office (UKMO) and National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) winds. This is due to significant differences in the UKMO and NCEP zonal wind speed near the tropopause, which cause large trajectory separations over 3 days. The UKMO-predicted cloud range (310-390 K) agrees well with radar and pilot observations of the ash cloud, while the NCEP-predicted range shows strong disagreement with observations in the region of the jet maximum. This indicates the potential (when independent observations are available) for using ATM to partially validate wind fields.

  10. Biogenesis of the preprotein translocase of the outer mitochondrial membrane: protein kinase A phosphorylates the precursor of Tom40 and impairs its import

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Sanjana; Schmidt, Oliver; Harbauer, Angelika B.; Schönfisch, Birgit; Guiard, Bernard; Pfanner, Nikolaus; Meisinger, Chris

    2012-01-01

    The preprotein translocase of the outer mitochondrial membrane (TOM) functions as the main entry gate for the import of nuclear-encoded proteins into mitochondria. The major subunits of the TOM complex are the three receptors Tom20, Tom22, and Tom70 and the central channel-forming protein Tom40. Cytosolic kinases have been shown to regulate the biogenesis and activity of the Tom receptors. Casein kinase 2 stimulates the biogenesis of Tom22 and Tom20, whereas protein kinase A (PKA) impairs the receptor function of Tom70. Here we report that PKA exerts an inhibitory effect on the biogenesis of the β-barrel protein Tom40. Tom40 is synthesized as precursor on cytosolic ribosomes and subsequently imported into mitochondria. We show that PKA phosphorylates the precursor of Tom40. The phosphorylated Tom40 precursor is impaired in import into mitochondria, whereas the nonphosphorylated precursor is efficiently imported. We conclude that PKA plays a dual role in the regulation of the TOM complex. Phosphorylation by PKA not only impairs the receptor activity of Tom70, but it also inhibits the biogenesis of the channel protein Tom40. PMID:22419819

  11. Electromagnetic deep-probing (100-1000 kms) of the Earth's interior from artificial satellites: Constraints on the regional emplacement of crustal resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hermance, J. F. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    Efforts continue in the development of a computer program for looking at the coupling of finite dimensioned source fields with a laterally heterogeneous Earth. An algorithm for calculating a time-varying reference field using ground-based magnetic observatory data is also under development as part of the production of noise-free estimates of global electromagnetic response functions using Magsat data.

  12. A new species of Phallus from São Tomé, Africa.

    PubMed

    Desjardin, Dennis E; Perry, Brian A

    2009-01-01

    A new lignicolous species of phalloid fungi, discovered recently on the western African island of São Tomé, is described as Phallus drewesii. A comprehensive description, photographs and comparison with phenetically similar species are provided. PMID:19623935

  13. ISS Update: Progress 50 Launch and Docking with Tom Erkenswick - Duration: 12 minutes.

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Rob Navias conducts an interview with Visiting Vehicle Officer Tom Erkenswick about the launch of the ISS Progress 50 resupply ship and its docking to the International ...

  14. ISS Update: Orion Recovery and Rescue Lead Tom Walker - Duration: 5 minutes, 3 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Brandi Dean talks with Tom Walker, Orion Recovery and Rescue Lead, about how the Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL) is being used to train rescue and recovery personnel f...

  15. America's Prosperity: The Academic Success of Hispanics. Tomás Rivera Lecture Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donado, Yvette

    2014-01-01

    In the 2014 Tomás Rivera lecture, Yvette Donado, Senior Vice President and Chief Administrative Officer of Educational Testing Service, discusses the need to create educational opportunities for Hispanic Americans in order to create prosperity for all Americans.

  16. SCIAMACHY Absorbing Aerosol Index: The Scientific Product Compared to the Operational Product and TOMS Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Graaf, M.; Tilstra, L. G.; Stammes, P.

    2004-08-01

    The KNMI scientific Absorbing Aerosol Index (AAI) product from SCIAMACHY is presented. It is compared to the operational SCIAMACHY level-2 AAI product and to the TOMS AAI on the basis of a recent dust outbreak on 5 April 2004 over the Sahara. The scientific AAI product is still very sensitive to calibration errors in the reflectance, but its values are in the right range compared to TOMS AAI and it produces physically meaningful results

  17. Probing a continuum of macro-molecular assembly models with graph templates of complexes.

    PubMed

    Dreyfus, Tom; Doye, Valérie; Cazals, Frédéric

    2013-11-01

    Reconstruction by data integration is an emerging trend to reconstruct large protein assemblies, but uncertainties on the input data yield average models whose quantitative interpretation is challenging. This article presents methods to probe fuzzy models of large assemblies against atomic resolution models of subsystems. Consider a toleranced model (TOM) of a macromolecular assembly, namely a continuum of nested shapes representing the assembly at multiple scales. Also consider a template namely an atomic resolution 3D model of a subsystem (a complex) of this assembly. We present graph-based algorithms performing a multi-scale assessment of the complexes of the TOM, by comparing the pairwise contacts which appear in the TOM against those of the template. We apply this machinery on TOM derived from an average model of the nuclear pore complex, to explore the connections among members of its well-characterized Y-complex. PMID:23609891

  18. Variations of total ozone in the north polar region as seen by TOMS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stolarski, Richard S.; Krueger, Arlin J.

    1988-01-01

    Data from the TOMS instrument has been used to follow the course of development of the Antarctic ozone springtime minimum since 1979. Addressed is the question of possible north polar region changes which might be deduced from the nine years of TOMS measurements of total ozone. Total ozone is a much more variable quantity in the Northern Hemisphere than in the Southern Hemisphere. This makes the search for trends more difficult and the interpretation of results more uncertain. The 9-yr time series of TOMS data at high latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere is examined. Because the TOMS measurements have drifted by 3 to 4 percent with respect to closely collocated Dobson measurements, it was chosen in this study to adopt the Dobson normalization and adjust the TOMS measurements accordingly. The difference between the last two years (1986 and 1987) of the TOMS record, and the first two years of the record (1979 and 1980) are shown. The difference in percent is given as a function of latitude and time of year. The Antarctic springtime decrease is clearly seen as well as a smaller change which extends to about 50 degrees south latitude at all seasons. Changes in the Northern Hemisphere are less dramatic and are concentrated near the polar night where solar zenith angles are very large. These data are now being examined in more detail and updated results will be presented at the Workshop.

  19. Immunolocalization of Tom1 in relation to protein degradation systems in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Makioka, Kouki; Yamazaki, Tsuneo; Takatama, Masamitsu; Ikeda, Masaki; Murayama, Shigeo; Okamoto, Koichi; Ikeda, Yoshio

    2016-06-15

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an age-related neurodegenerative disorder. Its pathological hallmarks are senile plaques (SPs), which contain extracellular deposits of amyloid β (Aβ) protein fibrils and dystrophic neurites (DNs), and neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) containing hyperphosphorylated tau. Impairment of protein-degradation systems, including the ubiquitin-proteasome and the autophagy-lysosome systems, has been proposed as one of the causes of the accumulation of these aberrant proteins in AD brains. Tom1 (target of Myb1) was originally identified by the induction of its expression by the v-Myb oncogene and is a part of two major protein-degradation systems. The present study was conducted by immunohistochemical and immunofluorescent stainings to show that Tom1 was localized in DNs, perisomatic granules (PSGs), and NFTs in AD brains. Moreover, in DNs, Tom1 colocalized with ubiquitin, lysosomal proteins, and Tom1-related proteins (Tollip and myosin VI), which act in both protein-degradation systems via Tom1. These results indicate that Tom1 plays important roles in protein-degradation systems in AD pathogenesis. PMID:27206884

  20. Highlights of the Version 8 SBUV and TOMS Datasets Released at this Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhartia, Pawan K.; McPeters, Richard D.; Flynn, Lawrence E.; Wellemeyer, Charles G.

    2004-01-01

    Last October was the 25th anniversary of the launch of the SBUV and TOMS instruments on NASA's Nimbus-7 satellite. Total Ozone and ozone profile datasets produced by these and following instruments have produced a quarter century long record. Over time we have released several versions of these datasets to incorporate advances in UV radiative transfer, inverse modeling, and instrument characterization. In this meeting we are releasing datasets produced from the version 8 algorithms. They replace the previous versions (V6 SBUV, and V7 TOMS) released about a decade ago. About a dozen companion papers in this meeting provide details of the new algorithms and intercomparison of the new data with external data. In this paper we present key features of the new algorithm, and discuss how the new results differ from those released previously. We show that the new datasets have better internal consistency and also agree better with external datasets. A key feature of the V8 SBUV algorithm is that the climatology has no influence on inter-annual variability and trends; it only affects the mean values and, to a limited extent, the seasonal dependence. By contrast, climatology does have some influence on TOMS total O3 trends, particularly at large solar zenith angles. For this reason, and also because TOMS record has gaps, md EP/TOMS is suffering from data quality problems, we recommend using SBUV total ozone data for applications where the high spatial resolution of TOMS is not essential.

  1. GOME Total Ozone and Calibration Error Derived Usign Version 8 TOMS Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gleason, J.; Wellemeyer, C.; Qin, W.; Ahn, C.; Gopalan, A.; Bhartia, P.

    2003-01-01

    The Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) is a hyper-spectral satellite instrument measuring the ultraviolet backscatter at relatively high spectral resolution. GOME radiances have been slit averaged to emulate measurements of the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) made at discrete wavelengths and processed using the new TOMS Version 8 Ozone Algorithm. Compared to Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) techniques based on local structure in the Huggins Bands, the TOMS uses differential absorption between a pair of wavelengths including the local stiucture as well as the background continuum. This makes the TOMS Algorithm more sensitive to ozone, but it also makes the algorithm more sensitive to instrument calibration errors. While calibration adjustments are not needed for the fitting techniques like the DOAS employed in GOME algorithms, some adjustment is necessary when applying the TOMS Algorithm to GOME. Using spectral discrimination at near ultraviolet wavelength channels unabsorbed by ozone, the GOME wavelength dependent calibration drift is estimated and then checked using pair justification. In addition, the day one calibration offset is estimated based on the residuals of the Version 8 TOMS Algorithm. The estimated drift in the 2b detector of GOME is small through the first four years and then increases rapidly to +5% in normalized radiance at 331 nm relative to 385 nm by mid 2000. The lb detector appears to be quite well behaved throughout this time period.

  2. Electromagnetic deep-probing (100-1000 KMS) of the Earth's interior from artificial satellites: Constraints on the regional emplacement of crustal resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hermance, J. F. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    The applicability of electromagnetic deep sounding experiments using natural sources in the magnetosphere by incorporating Magsat data with other geophysical data was evaluated. Magsat satellite data, ground based magnetic observations, appropriate reference field models, and other satellite data was analyzed. The optimal combination of observations which lead first to a global and then to a regional characterization of the conductivity of the Earth's upper mantle is sought.

  3. Using PlayDoh Astronomy for Understanding the Size and Scale of the Earth-Moon System and as a Probe for Spatial Translation Ability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grundstrom, Erika

    2013-01-01

    To help students love science more and to help them understand the vast distances that pervade astronomy, we use kinesthetic modeling of the Earth-Moon system using PlayDoh. When coupled with discussion, we found (in a pilot study) that students of all ages (children up through adults) acquired a more accurate mental representation of the Earth-Moon system. During early September 2012, we devised and implemented a curriculum unit that focused on the Earth-Moon system and how that relates to eclipses for six middle-Tennessee 6th grade public school classrooms. For this unit, we used PlayDoh as the kinesthetic modeling tool. First, we evaluated what the students knew about the size and scale prior to this intervention using paper and model pre-tests. Second, we used the PlayDoh to model the Earth-Moon system and when possible, conducted an immediate post-test. The students then engaged with the PlayDoh model to help them understand eclipses. Third, we conducted a one-month-later delayed post-test. One thing to note is that about half of the students had experienced the PlayDoh modeling part of a 5th grade pilot lesson during May 2012 therefore the pre-test acted as a four-month-later delayed post-test for these students. We find, among other things, that students retain relative size information more readily than relative distance information. We also find differences in how consistent students are when trying to translate the size/scale they have in their heads to the different modes of assessment utilized.

  4. Probe assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Avera, C.J.

    1981-01-06

    A hand-held probe assembly, suitable for monitoring a radioactive fibrinogen tracer, is disclosed comprising a substantially cylindrically shaped probe handle having an open end. The probe handle is adapted to be interconnected with electrical circuitry for monitoring radioactivity that is sensed or detected by the probe assembly. Mounted within the probe handle is a probe body assembly that includes a cylindrically shaped probe body inserted through the open end of the probe handle. The probe body includes a photomultiplier tube that is electrically connected with a male connector positioned at the rearward end of the probe body. Mounted at the opposite end of the probe body is a probe head which supports an optical coupler therewithin. The probe head is interconnected with a probe cap which supports a detecting crystal. The probe body assembly, which consists of the probe body, the probe head, and the probe cap is supported within the probe handle by means of a pair of compressible o-rings which permit the probe assembly to be freely rotatable, preferably through 360*, within the probe handle and removable therefrom without requiring any disassembly.

  5. The 1987 Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment: the Nimbus-7 TOMS Data Atlas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krueger, Arlin J.; Ardanuy, Philip E.; Sechrist, Frank S.; Penn, Lanning M.; Larko, David E.; Doiron, Scott D.; Galimore, Reginald N.

    1988-01-01

    Total ozone data taken by the Nimbus-7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) played a central role in the successful outcome of the 1987 Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment. The near-real-time TOMS total ozone observations were suppled within hours of real time to the operations center in Punta Arenas, Chile, over a telecommunications network designed specifically for this purpose. The TOMS data preparation and method of transfer over the telecommunications links are reviewed. This atlas includes a complete set of the near-real-time TOMS orbital overpass data over regions around the Palmer Peninsula of Antarctica for the period of August 8 through September 29, 1987. Also provided are daily polar orthographic projections of TOMS total ozone measurements over the Southern Hemisphere from August through November 1987. In addition, a chronology of the salient points of the experiment, along with some latitudinal cross sections and time series at locations of interest of the TOMS total ozone observations are presented. The TOMS total ozone measurements are evaluated along the flight tracks of each of the ER-2 and DC-8 missions during the experiment. The ozone hole is shown here to develop in a monotonic progression throughout late August and September. The minimum total ozone amount was found on 5 October, when its all-time lowest value of 109 DU is recorded. The hole remains well defined, but fills gradually from mid-October through mid-November. The hole's dissolution is observed here to begin in mid-November, when it elongates and begins to rotate. By the end of November, the south pole is no longer located within the ozone hole.

  6. Investigation of the effect of atmospheric dust on the determination of total ozone from the earth's ultraviolet reflectivity measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dave, J. V.

    1977-01-01

    Results are presented on the effect of atmospheric aerosols on the value of total ozone, in an atmospheric column of the terrestrial atmosphere, estimated from the simulated measurements of the ultraviolet radiation back scattered by the earth atmosphere models. Simulated measurements were used in five (configuration of the BUV experiment of Nimbus-4 satellite), and in six (configuration of the TOMS section of the SBUV/TOMS experiment on Nimbus-G) narrow spectral regions in the ultraviolet part of the spectrum.

  7. Probing the Solar System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, John

    2013-01-01

    Humans have always had the vision to one day live on other planets. This vision existed even before the first person was put into orbit. Since the early space missions of putting humans into orbit around Earth, many advances have been made in space technology. We have now sent many space probes deep into the Solar system to explore the planets and

  8. Probing the Solar System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, John

    2013-01-01

    Humans have always had the vision to one day live on other planets. This vision existed even before the first person was put into orbit. Since the early space missions of putting humans into orbit around Earth, many advances have been made in space technology. We have now sent many space probes deep into the Solar system to explore the planets and…

  9. Training preschoolers on first-order false belief understanding: transfer on advanced ToM skills and metamemory.

    PubMed

    Lecce, Serena; Bianco, Federica; Demicheli, Patrizia; Cavallini, Elena

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the relation between theory of mind (ToM) and metamemory knowledge using a training methodology. Sixty-two 4- to 5-year-old children were recruited and randomly assigned to one of two training conditions: A first-order false belief (ToM) and a control condition. Intervention and control groups were equivalent at pretest for age, parents' education, verbal ability, inhibition, and ToM. Results showed that after the intervention children in the ToM group improved in their first-order false belief understanding significantly more than children in the control condition. Crucially, the positive effect of the ToM intervention was stable over 2 months and generalized to more complex ToM tasks and metamemory. PMID:25040788

  10. Numerical simulations of positively-biased probes and dielectric-conductor disks in a plasma. [for low earth orbit plasma densities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandon, S. T.; Kessel, R. L.; Enoch, J.; Armstrong, T. P.

    1984-01-01

    Plasma densities in the low-earth orbit range may be sufficient to cause difficulties for spacecraft operating at high voltages in this environment. The present investigation is concerned with the results of a continuing effort to develop a particle-in-cell (PIC), cylindrically-symmetric, 2-1/2 dimensional, self-consistent numerical simulation code. The simulation has the objective to explore the interactions of an ambient plasma with a conducting disk, which may be partially covered by a dielectric material. The disk and the surrounding dielectric material represent a hole in an insulator covering a conductor. Attention is given to a review of the simulation model, plain disk calculations, the disk and dielectric configuration, and the 'pinhole' effect.

  11. TOMS total ozone data compared with northern latitude Dobson ground stations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heese, B.; Barthel, K.; Hov, O.

    1994-01-01

    Ozone measurements from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer on the Nimbus 7 satellite are compared with ground-based measurements from five Dobson stations at northern latitudes to evaluate the accuracy of the TOMS data, particularly in regions north of 50 deg N. The measurements from the individual stations show mean differences from -2.5 percent up to plus 8.3 percent relative to TOMS measurements and two of the ground stations, Oslo and Longyearbyen, show a significant drift of plus 1.2 percent and plus 3.7 percent per year, respectively. It can be shown from nearly simultaneous measurements in two different wavelength double pairs at Oslo that at least 2 percent of the differences result from the use of the CC' wavelength double pair instead of the standard AD wavelength double pair. Since all Norwegian stations used the CC' wavelength double pair exclusively a similar error can be assumed for Tromso and Longyearbyren. A comparison between the tropospheric ozone content in TOMS data and from ECC ozonesonde measurements at Ny-Alesund and Bear Island shows that the amount of tropospheric ozone in the standard profiles used in the TOMS algorithm is too low, which leads to an error of about 2 percent in total ozone. Particularly at high solar zenith angles (greater than 80 deg), Dobson measurements become unreliable. They are up to 20 percent lower than TOMS measurements averaged over solar zenith angles of 88 deg to 89 deg.

  12. TOM40 mediates mitochondrial dysfunction induced by α-synuclein accumulation in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Bender, Andreas; Desplats, Paula; Spencer, Brian; Rockenstein, Edward; Adame, Anthony; Elstner, Matthias; Laub, Christoph; Mueller, Sarina; Koob, Andrew O; Mante, Michael; Pham, Emily; Klopstock, Thomas; Masliah, Eliezer

    2013-01-01

    Alpha-synuclein (α-Syn) accumulation/aggregation and mitochondrial dysfunction play prominent roles in the pathology of Parkinson's disease. We have previously shown that postmortem human dopaminergic neurons from PD brains accumulate high levels of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) deletions. We now addressed the question, whether alterations in a component of the mitochondrial import machinery--TOM40--might contribute to the mitochondrial dysfunction and damage in PD. For this purpose, we studied levels of TOM40, mtDNA deletions, oxidative damage, energy production, and complexes of the respiratory chain in brain homogenates as well as in single neurons, using laser-capture-microdissection in transgenic mice overexpressing human wildtype α-Syn. Additionally, we used lentivirus-mediated stereotactic delivery of a component of this import machinery into mouse brain as a novel therapeutic strategy. We report here that TOM40 is significantly reduced in the brain of PD patients and in α-Syn transgenic mice. TOM40 deficits were associated with increased mtDNA deletions and oxidative DNA damage, and with decreased energy production and altered levels of complex I proteins in α-Syn transgenic mice. Lentiviral-mediated overexpression of Tom40 in α-Syn-transgenic mice brains ameliorated energy deficits as well as oxidative burden. Our results suggest that alterations in the mitochondrial protein transport machinery might contribute to mitochondrial impairment in α-Synucleinopathies. PMID:23626796

  13. Correlations of TOMS total ozone data (Nimbus-7 satellite) with tropopause height

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munteanu, Marie-Jeanne

    1987-01-01

    Two correlation studies of Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) data with tropopause height from radiosondes performed over Europe showed a correlation coefficient of 0.94 and 0.96. As a result, the rms error in the prediction of tropopause height from total ozone was found to be 20 mb. Correlation between tropopause height and TOMS data was the highest of all the other correlations with variables directly derived from radiosondes or simulated thermal radiances over the location of radiosondes. Comparing the two dimensional fields of TOMS, tropopause height from radiosondes and tropopause height field from TIROS-N retrievals, we can say that the first field is much closer to the true field from radiosondes than the third. The correlation coefficient for a ten-day study between TOMS data and tropopause height from radiosondes is between 0.85 and 0.9 for 30-70N. Tropopause analysis provided by GLA model also shows a very high correlation with TOMS data.

  14. Can the total ozone mapping spectrometer (TOMS) measure ozone depletion in rocket plumes. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Syage, J.A.

    1995-06-01

    The question whether the total ozone mapping spectrometer (TOMS) is capable of measuring ozone levels in a rocket plume is examined. Simulated measurements were computed for four plume scenarios corresponding to 20 and 30 km altitude and 10(exp 3) and 10(exp 4) s elapsed time. For each scenario, we considered plume constituents consisting of the chemical species calculated by Brady and Martin, and three different particle size distributions. For comparison, we also made simulated measurements of ozone total in the absence of particles and in the absence of particles and plume species. Plume measurements by TOMS suffer from two main problems: the detection field of view is typically larger than the column area for ozone loss, and the plume constituents distort the ozone measurement. Another issue limiting sensitivity is that TOMS measures attenuation of solar radiation transmitted through and then backscattered out of the atmosphere; however, only one of these two paths is likely to cross with the plume, unless TOMS is exactly aligned with the plume and the sun. Our simulated TOMS measurements indicate that large errors are caused by interfering absorptions by plume constituents; however, the error decreases to acceptable levels at 10(exp 4) s.

  15. Micro-Tom Tomato as an Alternative Plant Model System: Mutant Collection and Efficient Transformation.

    PubMed

    Shikata, Masahito; Ezura, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Tomato is a model plant for fruit development, a unique feature that classical model plants such as Arabidopsis and rice do not have. The tomato genome was sequenced in 2012 and tomato is becoming very popular as an alternative system for plant research. Among many varieties of tomato, Micro-Tom has been recognized as a model cultivar for tomato research because it shares some key advantages with Arabidopsis including its small size, short life cycle, and capacity to grow under fluorescent lights at a high density. Mutants and transgenic plants are essential materials for functional genomics research, and therefore, the availability of mutant resources and methods for genetic transformation are key tools to facilitate tomato research. Here, we introduce the Micro-Tom mutant database "TOMATOMA" and an efficient transformation protocol for Micro-Tom. PMID:26577780

  16. The Application of TOMS Ozone, Aerosol and UV-B Data to Madagascar Air Quality Determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aikin, A.C.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) data products for the area of Madagascar are presented. In addition to total ozone, aerosols and UV-B tropospheric ozone results are shown from 1979 to the present. Tropospheric ozone over Africa and Madagascar is enhanced by 10 to 15 DU in October. This maximum coincides with the time of maximum biomass area burning in Africa and Madagascar. Ozone observations were made from 1979 to 1999 using the TOMS tropospheric ozone convective cloud differential method. As a result of easterly trade winds, ozone originating on Madagascar is transported to the west over the Mozambique Channel. In El Nino years higher level westerly winds descend to transport low level ozone easterly. This results in African continental ozone being transported east of Madagascar. Long range transport of African ozone is observed during El Nino periods. The potential of TOMS and other space data for use in public education and research on Madagascar air quality is demonstrated.

  17. Electromagnetic deep-probing (100-1000 kms) of the Earth's interior from artificial satellites: Constraints on the regional emplacement of crustal resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hermance, J. F. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    A spherical harmonic analysis program is being tested which takes magnetic data in universal time from a set of arbitrarily space observatories and calculates a value for the instantaneous magnetic field at any point on the globe. The calculation is done as a least mean-squares value fit to a set of spherical harmonics up to any desired order. The program accepts as a set of input the orbit position of a satellite coordinates it with ground-based magnetic data for a given time. The output is a predicted time series for the magnetic field on the Earth's surface at the (r, theta) position directly under the hypothetically orbiting satellite for the duration of the time period of the input data set. By tracking the surface magnetic field beneath the satellite, narrow-band averages crosspowers between the spatially coordinated satellite and the ground-based data sets are computed. These crosspowers are used to calculate field transfer coefficients with minimum noise distortion. The application of this technique to calculating the vector response function W is discussed.

  18. The Pro-Apoptotic BH3-Only Protein Bim Interacts with Components of the Translocase of the Outer Mitochondrial Membrane (TOM)

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Daniel O.; Dengjel, Jörn; Wilfling, Florian; Kozjak-Pavlovic, Vera; Häcker, Georg; Weber, Arnim

    2015-01-01

    The pro-apoptotic Bcl-2-family protein Bim belongs to the BH3-only proteins known as initiators of apoptosis. Recent data show that Bim is constitutively inserted in the outer mitochondrial membrane via a C-terminal transmembrane anchor from where it can activate the effector of cytochrome c-release, Bax. To identify regulators of Bim-activity, we conducted a search for proteins interacting with Bim at mitochondria. We found an interaction of Bim with Tom70, Tom20 and more weakly with Tom40, all components of the Translocase of the Outer Membrane (TOM). In vitro import assays performed on tryptically digested yeast mitochondria showed reduced Bim insertion into the outer mitochondrial membrane (OMM) indicating that protein receptors may be involved in the import process. However, RNAi against components of TOM (Tom40, Tom70, Tom22 or Tom20) by siRNA, individually or in combination, did not consistently change the amount of Bim on HeLa mitochondria, either at steady state or upon de novo-induction. In support of this, the individual or combined knock-downs of TOM receptors also failed to alter the susceptibility of HeLa cells to Bim-induced apoptosis. In isolated yeast mitochondria, lack of Tom70 or the TOM-components Tom20 or Tom22 alone did not affect the import of Bim into the outer mitochondrial membrane. In yeast, expression of Bim can sensitize the cells to Bax-dependent killing. This sensitization was unaffected by the absence of Tom70 or by an experimental reduction in Tom40. Although thus the physiological role of the Bim-TOM-interaction remains unclear, TOM complex components do not seem to be essential for Bim insertion into the OMM. Nevertheless, this association should be noted and considered when the regulation of Bim in other cells and situations is investigated. PMID:25875815

  19. The effect of toe trimming on production characteristics of heavy turkey toms.

    PubMed

    Fournier, J; Schwean-Lardner, K; Knezacek, T D; Gomis, S; Classen, H L

    2014-09-01

    Trimming the 3 anterior toes on both feet at day of hatch to remove the claws, reduce bird scratching, and improve carcass grades is a common practice in the turkey industry. Changes in the method of trimming and the growth potential of turkeys since the majority of research on this topic was completed motivated this study with the objective of establishing the effects of microwave toe treatment on production characteristics of tom turkeys. Turkey toms (306 in total) were either toe trimmed at the hatchery using a microwave claw processor (T) or were sham treated only (NT). Poults were randomly assigned to 1 of 9 replicate pens for each treatment. Average BW, feed consumption, and feed efficiency were determined from BW and feed intake measured by pen on d 0, 7, 21, 42, 56, 70, 91, 126, and 140. On d 140, toms were sent to a commercial processing facility where 5 carcasses from each pen were examined for scratching and other externally visible damage. Average BW was higher for NT toms on d 91, 126, and 140, with final weights of 21.70 and 21.15 kg for NT and T birds, respectively. The T birds had lower feed consumption than their NT counterparts during the first and last week of production, but feed efficiency was unaffected. Carcass scratching (T, 13.33% of carcasses scratched vs. NT, 15.56%) and other carcass damages were not affected by treatment. Although overall mortality was not affected by treatment, the incidence of mortality due to skeletal causes, especially rotated tibia, was increased in T toms. Negative effects on performance and no effect on carcass quality suggest that toe trimming may not be required or recommended for heavy tom turkeys. PMID:25002552

  20. Geological assessment probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, E. R. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A probe is described which can be installed in a side hole that extends from a bore hole in the Earth, to assess the permeability of the strata surrounding the borehole. The probe is elongated and has a plurality of seals spaced therealong and sealed to the walls of the side hole to form a plurality of chambers sealed from one another. A tracer fluid injector on the probe can inject a tracer fluid into one of the chambers, while a tracer fluid detector located in another chamber can detect the tracer fluid, to thereby sense the permeability of the strata surrounding the side hole. The probe can include a train of modules, with each module having an inflatable packer which is inflated by the difference between the borehole pressure and the strata pressure.

  1. Study of Air Pollution from Space Using TOMS: Challenges and Promises for Future Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhartia, Pawan K.

    2002-01-01

    A series of TOMS instruments built by NASA has flown on US, Russian, and Japanese satellites in the last 24 years. These instruments are well known for producing spectacular maps of the ozone hole that forms over Antarctica each spring. However, it is less well known that these instruments also provided first evidence that space-based measurements in UV of sufficiently high precision and accuracy can provide valuable information to study global air quality. We will use the TOMS experience to highlight the promises and challenges of future space-based missions designed specifically for air quality studies.

  2. Effect of stratospheric aerosol layers on the TOMS/SBUV ozone retrieval

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torres, O.; Ahmad, Zia; Pan, L.; Herman, J. R.; Bhartia, P. K.; Mcpeters, R.

    1994-01-01

    An evaluation of the optical effects of stratospheric aerosol layers on total ozone retrieval from space by the TOMS/SBUV type instruments is presented here. Using the Dave radiative transfer model we estimate the magnitude of the errors in the retrieved ozone when polar stratospheric clouds (PSC's) or volcanic aerosol layers interfere with the measurements. The largest errors are produced by optically thick water ice PSC's. Results of simulation experiments on the effect of the Pinatubo aerosol cloud on the Nimbus-7 and Meteor-3 TOMS products are presented.

  3. Response of the climatic temperature to dust forcing, inferred from total ozone mapping spectrometer (TOMS) aerosol index and the NASA assimilation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alpert, P.; Herman, J.; Kaufman, Y. J.; Carmona, I.

    Recently, Alpert et al. (Alpert, P., Shay-El, Y., Kaufman, Y.J., Tanre, D., DaSilva, A., Schubert, S., Joseph, J.H., 1998. Quantification of dust-forced heating of the lower troposphere, Nature 395 (6700), 367-370, (24 September).) suggested an indirect measure of the tropospheric temperature response to dust aerosols by using model updates — roughly speaking model errors — of the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System version No. 1 (GEOS-1) data assimilation system. They have shown that these updates, which provide information about missing physical processes not included in the predictive model, have monthly mean patterns, which bear a striking similarity to patterns of dust over the Atlantic. This similarity in the number of dusty days was used to estimate the atmospheric response to dust. Here, the study is extended for all the major subtropical deserts over Africa and Asia using the total ozone mapping spectrometer (TOMS) aerosol index ( AI) for dust recently derived by Herman et al. (Herman, J.R., Bhartia, P.K., Torres, O., Hsu, C., Seftor, C., Celarier, E., 1997. Global distribution of UV-absorbing aerosols from Nimbus 7/TOMS data, J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16911-16922.). It is shown that the TOMS dust is highly correlated with the model errors with a maximum at the altitude of about 580 hPa and for the month of June with average correlation coefficient of 0.69 reaching up to 0.8 for specific months. In contrast to the previous study where only dust over ocean was employed, here, much higher dust concentrations are detected and the linear heating for weak dust becomes quickly saturated for AI above 1.5, then drops for very high values of AI that exceed about 3. This result is consistent with the theoretical predictions.

  4. Solid Earth: Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rummel, R.

    1991-10-01

    The principles of the solid Earth program are introduced. When considering the study of solid Earth from space, satellites are used as beacons, inertial references, free fall probes and carrying platforms. The phenomenon measured by these satellites and the processes which can be studied as a result of these measurements are tabulated. The NASA solid Earth program focusses on research into surface kinematics, Earth rotation, land, ice, and ocean monitoring. The ESA solid Earth program identifies as its priority the Aristoteles mission for determining the gravity and magnetic field globally, with high spatial resolution and high accuracy. The Aristoteles mission characteristics and goals are listed. The benefits of the improved gravity information that will be provided by this mission are highlighted. This information will help in the following research: geodesy, orbit mechanics, geodynamics, oceanography, climate sea level, and the atmosphere.

  5. Training Preschoolers on First-Order False Belief Understanding: Transfer on Advanced ToM Skills and Metamemory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lecce, Serena; Bianco, Federica; Demicheli, Patrizia; Cavallini, Elena

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the relation between theory of mind (ToM) and metamemory knowledge using a training methodology. Sixty-two 4- to 5-year-old children were recruited and randomly assigned to one of two training conditions: A first-order false belief (ToM) and a control condition. Intervention and control groups were equivalent at pretest for…

  6. More than a Dream: Expanding Educational Achievement in the Latino Community. Tomás Rivera Lecture Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ubinas, Luis A.

    2012-01-01

    Each year a distinguished scholar or prominent leader is selected to present the Tomás Rivera Lecture. Named in honor of the late Dr. Tomás Rivera, professor, scholar, poet and former president of the University of California, Riverside, in the tradition of the former Hispanic Caucus of the American Association for Higher Education, AAHHE is…

  7. Training Preschoolers on First-Order False Belief Understanding: Transfer on Advanced ToM Skills and Metamemory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lecce, Serena; Bianco, Federica; Demicheli, Patrizia; Cavallini, Elena

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the relation between theory of mind (ToM) and metamemory knowledge using a training methodology. Sixty-two 4- to 5-year-old children were recruited and randomly assigned to one of two training conditions: A first-order false belief (ToM) and a control condition. Intervention and control groups were equivalent at pretest for

  8. TOM1, an Arabidopsis gene required for efficient multiplication of a tobamovirus, encodes a putative transmembrane protein.

    PubMed

    Yamanaka, T; Ohta, T; Takahashi, M; Meshi, T; Schmidt, R; Dean, C; Naito, S; Ishikawa, M

    2000-08-29

    Host-encoded factors play an important role in virus multiplication, acting in concert with virus-encoded factors. However, information regarding the host factors involved in this process is limited. Here we report the map-based cloning of an Arabidopsis thaliana gene, TOM1, which is necessary for the efficient multiplication of tobamoviruses, positive-strand RNA viruses infecting a wide variety of plants. The TOM1 mRNA is suggested to encode a 291-aa polypeptide that is predicted to be a multipass transmembrane protein. The Sos recruitment assay supported the hypothesis that TOM1 is associated with membranes, and in addition, that TOM1 interacts with the helicase domain of tobamovirus-encoded replication proteins. Taken into account that the tobamovirus replication complex is associated with membranes, we propose that TOM1 participates in the in vivo formation of the replication complex by serving as a membrane anchor. PMID:10944200

  9. Best Practices Case Study: Tom Walsh and Co. - New Columbus, Portland, OR

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2010-09-01

    Case study of Tom Walsh, who achieved 50% in heating and cooling energy savings over the 2004 IECC with advanced framing, superior air sealing, extra insulation, and ducts in conditioned space. Surface water runoff in the large urban rebuild development was handled with pervious pavers, swales, retention of existing trees, and green spaces.

  10. Wake Up, It Is 2013! Commentary on Luiz Amaral and Tom Roeper's Article

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muysken, Pieter

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the Multiple Grammars (MG) theory proposed by Luiz Amaral and Tom Roeper in the present issue and presents a critique of the research that went into the theory. Topics discussed include the allegation that the bilinguals and second language learners in the original article are primarily students in an academic setting, Amaral…

  11. The Future of the Digital Library: An Interview with Tom Peters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, James L.; Peters, Tom

    2005-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Tom Peters, an academic librarian and founder of TAP Information Services, a firm that provides consulting services to libraries and other organizations in the information industry. Peters also serves as a consultant to LibraryCity, an ambitious project that seeks to make thousands of e-books in easy-to-use…

  12. Tom Beaver, Creek Television Reporter. With Teacher's Guide. Native Americans of the Twentieth Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minneapolis Public Schools, MN.

    A biography for elementary school students presents an account of an American Indian television reporter, Tom Beaver (Creek), and includes a map of Oklahoma showing the location of Indian tribes. A teacher's guide following the biography contains information about the Creek tribe and the history of television, learning objectives and directions…

  13. Commentary to "Multiple Grammars and Second Language Representation," by Luiz Amaral and Tom Roeper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pérez-Leroux, Ana T.

    2014-01-01

    In this commentary, the author defends the Multiple Grammars (MG) theory proposed by Luiz Amaral and Tom Roepe (A&R) in the present issue. Topics discussed include second language acquisition, the concept of developmental optionality, and the idea that structural decisions involve the lexical dimension. The author states that A&R's…

  14. Collateral Damage: Veterans and Domestic Violence in Mari Sandoz's "The Tom-Walker"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahr, Kathy

    2010-01-01

    "The Tom-Walker" combines the best of Sandoz's realism with her worst attempts at moralizing. Unable to divine exactly what political configuration right-wing post-World War II sentiments might take, Sandoz nevertheless feared a fascist uprising in this country. Perhaps because these concerns dominated her thoughts at the time, she allowed her…

  15. Toward a Latino Attainment Agenda: Shaping Our Own Destiny. Tomás Rivera Lecture Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cigarroa, Francisco G.

    2013-01-01

    In the 2013 Tomás Rivera lecture, Francisco Cigarroa, chancellor of the University of Texas system, discusses how a major shift in the demographics of the United States is having a profound effect on K-12 and higher education.

  16. The "Seductive Outside" and the "Sacred Precincts": Boundaries and Transgressions in "The Adventures of Tom Sawyer."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Neil

    1994-01-01

    Analyzes Mark Twain's novel, "The Adventures of Tom Sawyer," to determine the ways in which the masculine is constructed by a series of forces or discourses. Argues that this novel articulates the social construction of gender in a manner similar to Michel Foucault's theory of disciplinary discourses. (HB)

  17. Samuel Langhorne Clemens: A Centennial for Tom Sawyer; An Annotated, Selected Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haviland, Virginia, Comp.; Coughlan, Margaret N., Comp.

    This annotated bibliography, prepared by the Children's Book Section of the Library of Congress to celebrate the centennial of "The Adventures of Tom Sawyer," lists editions of the Mark Twain classics most widely read by young people, biographical or autobiographical and travel works significant for relevent background, and miscellaneous items…

  18. High-School Reading and Junior-High Hope: The Tom Sawyer Solution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VandeStaay, Steven

    1994-01-01

    Shows how Mark Twain's fictional adolescent Tom Sawyer shares many characteristics with the typical young adult readers of today. Considers the challenge of getting students interested and enthusiastic about reading. Claims that young adult novels are suitable for engaging high school students. (HB)

  19. An Interview Forum on Interlibrary Loan/Document Delivery with Lynn Wiley and Tom Delaney

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hasty, Douglas F.

    2003-01-01

    The Virginia Boucher-OCLC Distinguished ILL Librarian Award is the most prestigious commendation given to practitioners in the field. The following questions about ILL were posed to the two most recent recipients of the Boucher Award: Tom Delaney (2002), Coordinator of Interlibrary Loan Services at Colorado State University and Lynn Wiley (2001),…

  20. An Open Letter to Suzanne deCastell and Tom Walker.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Assinck, Beverly Belvin

    1993-01-01

    Responds to "Identity, Metamorphosis, and Ethnographic Research: What Kind of Story Is Ways with Words?" by Suzanne deCastell and Tom Walker (1991). Describes the author's reaction to "Ways with Words--Language, Life and Work in Communities and Classrooms" by Shirley Brice Heath (1983). (SLD)

  1. Passive Microwave Radiometry of Land:Contributions of Tom Schmugge and Anatoli Shutko

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent advances and the state of the art of land surface remote sensing using passive microwave techniques owes its heritage to the contributions of Tom Schmugge and Anatolij Shutko over the last 30 years. These contributions cover a range of activities including fundamental theory, controlled condi...

  2. Camus' Actor as Tom Stoppard's Player; A Key to Interpreting "Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Dead."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zivanovic, Judith

    An examination of Albert Camus' definition of the actor in "The Myth on Sisyphus" helps to illuminate the character and role of The Player in Tom Stoppard's play and, hence, to bring light to an understanding of the philosophy of the play itself. The actor, for Camus, reveals our mortality in the face of the absurdity of our mortality, but also…

  3. The Decade Ahead: Inquire, Innovate, Impact. Tomás Rivera Lecture Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pacheco, Manuel T.

    2015-01-01

    In the 2015 Tomás Rivera lecture, Manuel T. Pacheco, President Emeritus of the University of Missouri System and the University of Arizona, discusses the importance of representing the Hispanic American population proportionately among college students, faculty, staff, and administration in higher education.

  4. Spectrophotometric probe

    DOEpatents

    Prather, William S. (Augusta, GA); O'Rourke, Patrick E. (Martinez, GA)

    1994-01-01

    A support structure bearing at least one probe for making spectrophotometric measurements of a fluid using a source of light and a spectrophotometer. The probe includes a housing with two optical fibers and a planoconvex lens. A sleeve bearing a mirror surrounds the housing. The lens is separated from the mirror by a fixed distance, defining an interior space for receiving a volume of the fluid sample. A plurality of throughholes extending through the sleeve communicate between the sample volume and the exterior of the probe, all but one hole bearing a screen. A protective jacket surrounds the probe. A hollow conduit bearing a tube is formed in the wall of the probe for venting any air in the interior space when fluid enters. The probe is held at an acute angle so the optic fibers carrying the light to and from the probe are not bent severely on emergence from the probe.

  5. Spectrophotometric probe

    DOEpatents

    Prather, W.S.; O'Rourke, P.E.

    1994-08-02

    A support structure is described bearing at least one probe for making spectrophotometric measurements of a fluid using a source of light and a spectrophotometer. The probe includes a housing with two optical fibers and a planoconvex lens. A sleeve bearing a mirror surrounds the housing. The lens is separated from the mirror by a fixed distance, defining an interior space for receiving a volume of the fluid sample. A plurality of throughholes extending through the sleeve communicate between the sample volume and the exterior of the probe, all but one hole bearing a screen. A protective jacket surrounds the probe. A hollow conduit bearing a tube is formed in the wall of the probe for venting any air in the interior space when fluid enters. The probe is held at an acute angle so the optic fibers carrying the light to and from the probe are not bent severely on emergence from the probe. 3 figs.

  6. Azoospermia with variable testicular histology after 7 months of treatment with a deslorelin implant in toms.

    PubMed

    Novotny, R; Vitasek, R; Bartoskova, A; Cizek, P; Prinosilova, P; Novakova, K

    2015-04-15

    The main aim of the study was to assess whether the longer use of a GnRH-agonist implant (deslorelin 4.7 mg, Suprelorin) in toms would lead to the suppression of spermatogenesis comparable with histologic appearance in juvenile animals as was previously described in dogs. The other aims were to monitor the progression of the testes size decrease and development of azoospermia 5 to 7 months after treatment with a GnRH-agonist implant. In animals, 5, 6, and 7 months after GnRH-agonist implant insertion, variable histological appearance of germinal epithelium was found, when tubules with elongating spermatids, round spermatids, spermatocytes, and spermatogonia as the most developed germinal cells were found in each group of toms. In all male cats, 5, 6, and 7 months after implant insertion, testosterone concentrations and testes size significantly differed between the first and the last visit. All animals, except one tom castrated 5 months after implant insertion, developed complete azoospermia. However, in this tom, all spermatozoa were immotile. Treatment with the subcutaneous GnRH-agonist implant was well tolerated, and no treatment-related adverse effects were noted. These results reported the efficacy of 4.7-mg deslorelin implant (Suprelorin) during its 7 months of use. The complete azoospermia confirms its contraceptive effect. However, the histologic evaluation revealed a great individual variability in the degree of spermatogenic suppression. The question as to whether spermatogenesis in toms can be suppressed in all males to the level of spermatogonia/primary spermatocytes after prolonged exposure to deslorelin has yet to be answered. PMID:25617987

  7. Determination of Radiative Forcing of Saharan Dust using Combined TOMS and ERBE Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, N. Christina; Herman, Jay R.; Weaver, Clark

    1999-01-01

    The direct radiative forcing of Saharan dust aerosols has been determined by combining aerosol information derived from Nimbus-7 TOMS with radiation measurements observed at the top of atmosphere (TOA) by NOAA-9 ERBE made during February-July 1985. Cloud parameters and precipitable water derived from the NOAA-9 HIRS2 instrument were used to aid in screening for clouds and water vapor in the analyses. Our results indicate that under "cloud-free" and "dry" conditions there is a good correlation between the ERBE TOA outgoing longwave fluxes and the TOMS aerosol index measurements over both land and ocean in areas under the influence of airborne Saharan dust. The ERBE TOA outgoing shortwave fluxes were also found to correlate well with the dust loading derived from TOMS over ocean. However, the calculated shortwave forcing of Saharan dust aerosols is very weak and noisy over land for the range of solar zenith angle viewed by the NOAA-9 ERBE in 1985. Sensitivity factors of the TOA outgoing fluxes to changes in aerosol index were estimated using a linear regression fit to the ERBE and TOMS measurements. The ratio of the shortwave-to-longwave response to changes in dust loading over the ocean is found to be roughly 2 to 3, but opposite in sign. The monthly averaged "clear-sky" TOA direct forcing of airborne Saharan dust was also calculated by multiplying these sensitivity factors by the TOMS monthly averaged "clear-sky" aerosol index. Both the observational and theoretical analyses indicate that the dust layer height, ambient moisture content as well as the presence of cloud all play an important role in determining the TOA direct radiative forcing due to mineral aerosols.

  8. Gravity Probe B Inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The space vehicle Gravity Probe B (GP-B) is the relativity experiment developed at Stanford University to test two extraordinary predictions of Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity. The experiment will measure, very precisely, the expected tiny changes in the direction of the spin axes of four gyroscopes contained in an Earth-orbiting satellite at a 400-mile altitude. So free are the gyroscopes from disturbance that they will provide an almost perfect space-time reference system. They will measure how space and time are very slightly warped by the presence of the Earth, and, more profoundly, how the Earth's rotation very slightly drags space-time around with it. These effects, though small for the Earth, have far-reaching implications for the nature of matter and the structure of the Universe. GP-B is among the most thoroughly researched programs ever undertaken by NASA. This is the story of a scientific quest in which physicists and engineers have collaborated closely over many years. Inspired by their quest, they have invented a whole range of technologies that are already enlivening other branches of science and engineering. In this photograph, engineer Gary Reynolds is inspecting the inside of the probe neck during probe thermal repairs. GP-B is scheduled for launch in April 2004 and managed for NASA by the Marshall Space Flight Center. Development of the GP-B is the responsibility of Stanford University along with major subcontractor Lockheed Martin Corporation. (Image credit to Russ Leese, Gravity Probe B, Stanford University)

  9. Evidence Supporting the 19 β-Strand Model for Tom40 from Cysteine Scanning and Protease Site Accessibility Studies*

    PubMed Central

    Lackey, Sebastian W. K.; Taylor, Rebecca D.; Go, Nancy E.; Wong, Annie; Sherman, E. Laura; Nargang, Frank E.

    2014-01-01

    Most proteins found in mitochondria are translated in the cytosol and enter the organelle via the TOM complex (translocase of the outer mitochondrial membrane). Tom40 is the pore forming component of the complex. Although the three-dimensional structure of Tom40 has not been determined, the structure of porin, a related protein, has been shown to be a β-barrel containing 19 membrane spanning β-strands and an N-terminal α-helical region. The evolutionary relationship between the two proteins has allowed modeling of Tom40 into a similar structure by several laboratories. However, it has been suggested that the 19-strand porin structure does not represent the native form of the protein. If true, modeling of Tom40 based on the porin structure would also be invalid. We have used substituted cysteine accessibility mapping to identify several potential β-strands in the Tom40 protein in isolated mitochondria. These data, together with protease accessibility studies, support the 19 β-strand model for Tom40 with the C-terminal end of the protein localized to the intermembrane space. PMID:24947507

  10. TOM1L1 drives membrane delivery of MT1-MMP to promote ERBB2-induced breast cancer cell invasion

    PubMed Central

    Chevalier, Clément; Collin, Guillaume; Descamps, Simon; Touaitahuata, Heiani; Simon, Valérie; Reymond, Nicolas; Fernandez, Laurent; Milhiet, Pierre-Emmanuel; Georget, Virginie; Urbach, Serge; Lasorsa, Laurence; Orsetti, Béatrice; Boissière-Michot, Florence; Lopez-Crapez, Evelyne; Theillet, Charles; Roche, Serge; Benistant, Christine

    2016-01-01

    ERBB2 overexpression in human breast cancer leads to invasive carcinoma but the mechanism is not clearly understood. Here we report that TOM1L1 is co-amplified with ERBB2 and defines a subgroup of HER2+/ER+ tumours with early metastatic relapse. TOM1L1 encodes a GAT domain-containing trafficking protein and is a SRC substrate that negatively regulates tyrosine kinase signalling. We demonstrate that TOM1L1 upregulation enhances the invasiveness of ERBB2-transformed cells. This pro-tumoural function does not involve SRC, but implicates membrane-bound membrane-type 1 MMP (MT1-MMP)-dependent activation of invadopodia, membrane protrusions specialized in extracellular matrix degradation. Mechanistically, ERBB2 elicits the indirect phosphorylation of TOM1L1 on Ser321. The phosphorylation event promotes GAT-dependent association of TOM1L1 with the sorting protein TOLLIP and trafficking of the metalloprotease MT1-MMP from endocytic compartments to invadopodia for tumour cell invasion. Collectively, these results show that TOM1L1 is an important element of an ERBB2-driven proteolytic invasive programme and that TOM1L1 amplification potentially enhances the metastatic progression of ERBB2-positive breast cancers. PMID:26899482

  11. TOM1L1 drives membrane delivery of MT1-MMP to promote ERBB2-induced breast cancer cell invasion.

    PubMed

    Chevalier, Clment; Collin, Guillaume; Descamps, Simon; Touaitahuata, Heiani; Simon, Valrie; Reymond, Nicolas; Fernandez, Laurent; Milhiet, Pierre-Emmanuel; Georget, Virginie; Urbach, Serge; Lasorsa, Laurence; Orsetti, Batrice; Boissire-Michot, Florence; Lopez-Crapez, Evelyne; Theillet, Charles; Roche, Serge; Benistant, Christine

    2016-01-01

    ERBB2 overexpression in human breast cancer leads to invasive carcinoma but the mechanism is not clearly understood. Here we report that TOM1L1 is co-amplified with ERBB2 and defines a subgroup of HER2(+)/ER(+) tumours with early metastatic relapse. TOM1L1 encodes a GAT domain-containing trafficking protein and is a SRC substrate that negatively regulates tyrosine kinase signalling. We demonstrate that TOM1L1 upregulation enhances the invasiveness of ERBB2-transformed cells. This pro-tumoural function does not involve SRC, but implicates membrane-bound membrane-type 1 MMP (MT1-MMP)-dependent activation of invadopodia, membrane protrusions specialized in extracellular matrix degradation. Mechanistically, ERBB2 elicits the indirect phosphorylation of TOM1L1 on Ser321. The phosphorylation event promotes GAT-dependent association of TOM1L1 with the sorting protein TOLLIP and trafficking of the metalloprotease MT1-MMP from endocytic compartments to invadopodia for tumour cell invasion. Collectively, these results show that TOM1L1 is an important element of an ERBB2-driven proteolytic invasive programme and that TOM1L1 amplification potentially enhances the metastatic progression of ERBB2-positive breast cancers. PMID:26899482

  12. Radiation belt probes launched

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-09-01

    Storms on Earth delayed by only a few days the launch of NASA's Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP), which blasted off on 30 August for a 2-year tour to explore the Van Allen radiation belts. The two satellites will help scientists learn about the processes that affect electrons and ions in the donut-shaped belts and how the belts change in the context of geomagnetic storms. “The information collected from these probes will benefit the public by allowing us to better protect our satellites and understand how space weather affects communications and technology on Earth,” said John Grunsfeld, associate administrator for NASA's Science Mission Directorate. Each probe carries an identical suite of instruments, including an Energetic Particle, Composition, and Thermal Plasma Suite; Electric and Magnetic Field Instrument Suite and Integrated Science; Electric Field and Waves Suite; Radiation Belt Storm Probes Ion Composition Experiment; and Relativistic Proton Spectrometer. RBSP is part of NASA's Living With a Star program and is managed for NASA by the Johns Hopkins University's Applied Physics Laboratory. For more information, see http://rbsp.jhuapl.edu.

  13. Satellite Mapping of the Earth's Ozone and Sulfur Dioxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krueger, Arlin; Bhartia, P. K.

    2000-01-01

    The Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) instruments are spatially-scanning UV spectrometers that have produced daily global images of total ozone over the last 21 years since the launch of the Nimbus 7 satellite. The instruments use a total ozone retrieval algorithm pioneered by J.V. Dave and C. L. Mateer for the Nimbus 4 Backscatter Ultraviolet (BUV) instrument, designed by D.F. Heath. The TOMS ozone maps have revealed the relations between total ozone and atmospheric dynamics, and shown the dramatic losses of ozone in the Antarctic ozone hole and the Northern hemisphere. The accepted long-term trends in global, regional, and local ozone are derived from data from the Nimbus 7 TOMS and three successive TOMS flights on Russian, Japanese, and American satellites. The next TOMS flight will be launched in 2000. The contiguous mapping design and fortuitous choice of TOMS wavelengths bands also permitted imaging of a second atmospheric gas, sulfur dioxide, which is transient due to its short lifetime. The importance of this measurement was first realized after the eruption of El Chichon volcano in 1982. The extreme range of sizes of volcanic eruptions and the 'associated danger require observations from a distant observing platform. The first quantitative time series of the input of sulfur dioxide by explosive volcanic eruptions into the atmosphere thus was developed from the TOMS missions. Finally, the Rayleigh and aerosol scattering spectral characteristic and reflectivity complete the four dominant pieces of information in the near UV albedo of the Earth. The four parameters are derived with a linear algorithm, the absorption coefficients of the gases, and effective paths computed from radiative transfer tables. Absorbing aerosol clouds (smoke, dust, volcanic ash) are readily identified by their deviation from a Rayleigh signature. The greatest shortcoming of the TOMS dataset is the 24 hour time resolution that is produced by the polar orbit of the satellite. Dynamic phenomena, such as upper air fronts that modulate total ozone and volcanic eruptions of sulfur dioxide and ash, cannot be adequately resolved. It is hoped that UV observations from geostationary satellites will soon be made to test the value of this unique information in weather forecasting and aviation safety.

  14. Satellite Mapping of the Earth's Ozone and Sulfur Dioxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krueger, Arlin; Bhartia, P. K.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) instruments are spatially-scanning UV spectrometers that have produced daily global images of total ozone over the last 21 years since the launch of the Nimbus 7 satellite. The instruments use a total ozone retrieval algorithm pioneered by J.V. Dave and C. L. Mateer for the Nimbus 4 Backscatter Ultraviolet (BUV) instrument, designed by D.F. Heath. The TOMS ozone maps have revealed the relations between total ozone and atmospheric dynamics, and shown the dramatic losses of ozone in the Antarctic ozone hole and the Northern hemisphere. The accepted long-term trends in global, regional, and local ozone are derived from data from the Nimbus 7 TOMS and three successive TOMS flights on Russian, Japanese, and American satellites. The next TOMS flight will be launched in 2000. The contiguous mapping design and fortuitous choice of TOMS wavelengths bands also permitted imaging of a second atmospheric gas, sulfur dioxide, which is transient due to its short lifetime. The importance of this measurement was first realized after the eruption of El Chichon volcano in 1982. The extreme range of sizes of volcanic eruptions and the associated danger require observations from a distant observing platform. The first quantitative time series of the input of sulfur dioxide by explosive volcanic eruptions into the atmosphere thus was developed from the TOMS missions. Finally, the Rayleigh and aerosol scattering spectral characteristic and reflectivity complete the four dominant pieces of information in the near UV albedo of the Earth. The four parameters are derived with a linear algorithm, the absorption coefficients of the gases, and effective paths computed from radiative transfer tables. Absorbing aerosol clouds (smoke, dust, volcanic ash) are readily identified by their deviation from a Rayleigh signature. The greatest shortcoming of the TOMS dataset is the 24 hour time resolution that is produced by the polar orbit of the satellite. Dynamic phenomena, such as upper air fronts that modulate total ozone and volcanic eruptions of sulfur dioxide and ash, cannot be adequately resolved. It is hoped that UV observations from geostationary satellites will soon be made to test the value of this unique information in weather forecasting and aviation safety.

  15. Interpretation of TOMS Observations of Tropical Tropospheric Ozone with a Global Model and In Situ Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Randall V.; Jacob, Daniel J.; Logan, Jennifer A.; Bey, Isabelle; Yantosca, Robert M.; Staudt, Amanda C.; Fiore, Arlene M.; Duncan, Bryan N.; Liu, Hongyu; Ginoux, Paul

    2004-01-01

    We interpret the distribution of tropical tropospheric ozone columns (TTOCs) from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) by using a global three-dimensional model of tropospheric chemistry (GEOS-CHEM) and additional information from in situ observations. The GEOS-CHEM TTOCs capture 44% of the variance of monthly mean TOMS TTOCs from the convective cloud differential method (CCD) with no global bias. Major discrepancies are found over northern Africa and south Asia where the TOMS TTOCs do not capture the seasonal enhancements from biomass burning found in the model and in aircraft observations. A characteristic feature of these northern topical enhancements, in contrast to southern tropical enhancements, is that they are driven by the lower troposphere where the sensitivity of TOMS is poor due to Rayleigh scattering. We develop an efficiency correction to the TOMS retrieval algorithm that accounts for the variability of ozone in the lower troposphere. This efficiency correction increases TTOC's over biomass burning regions by 3-5 Dobson units (DU) and decreases them by 2-5 DU over oceanic regions, improving the agreement between CCD TTOCs and in situ observations. Applying the correction to CCD TTOCs reduces by approximately DU the magnitude of the "tropical Atlantic paradox" [Thompson et al, 2000], i.e. the presence of a TTOC enhancement over the southern tropical Atlantic during the northern African biomass burning season in December-February. We reproduce the remainder of the paradox in the model and explain it by the combination of upper tropospheric ozone production from lightning NOx, peristent subsidence over the southern tropical Atlantic as part of the Walker circulation, and cross-equatorial transport of upper tropospheric ozone from northern midlatitudes in the African "westerly duct." These processes in the model can also account for the observed 13-17 DU persistent wave-1 pattern in TTOCs with a maximum above the tropical Atlantic and a minimum over the tropical Pacific during all seasons. The photochemical effects of mineral dust have only a minor role on the modeled distribution of TTOCs, including over northern Africa, due to multiple competing effects. The photochemical effects of mineral dust globally decease annual mean OH concentrations by 9%. A global lightning NOx source of 6 Tg N yr(sup -1) in the model produces a simulation that is most consistent with TOMS and in situ observations.

  16. Probing the Proteome on Earth and Beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostrom, P.

    2008-12-01

    Less than a decade ago, protein sequencing was the bane of paleobiology. Since that time researchers have completely sequenced proteins in >50 Ka fossils, been dazzled by reports of collagen peptides in dinosaur bones, and witnessed the development of phylogenetic trees from ancient protein sequences. Enlisting proteomics as biosignature is now in our grasp. In this talk the pitfalls and challenges of mass spectrometric approaches to protein sequencing will be illustrated and phylogenetic applications will be discussed. Work on extinct organisms at Michigan State University, University of Michigan and York University will provide a vantage point to assess methodologies, explore diagenetic alterations, evaluate mass spectra and illustrate issues associated with data base searching. Challenges encountered in the study of paleoproteomics, such as the absence of sequences for extinct organisms in commercially available databases, protein diagenesis and low concentrations of target are parallel to those that will be encountered when protein sequencing is extended to extreme and extraterrestrial environments. Thus, lessons learned from interrogating the ancient proteome are important and necessary step in developing proteomics as a biosignature tools.

  17. Comparison of TOMS and AVHRR volcanic ash retrievals from the August 1992 eruption of Mt. Spurr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krotkov, N. A.; Torres, O.; Seftor, C.; Krueger, A. J.; Kostinski, A.; Rose, W. I.; Bluth, G. J. S.; Schneider, D.; Schaefer, S. J.

    On August 19, 1992, the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) onboard NOAA-12 and NASA's Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) onboard the Nimbus-7 satellite simultaneously detected and mapped the ash cloud from the eruption of Mt. Spurr, Alaska. The spatial extent and geometry of the cloud derived from the two datasets are in good agreement and both AVHRR split window IR (11-12µm brightness temperature difference) and the TOMS UV Aerosol Index (0.34-0.38µm ultraviolet backscattering and absorption) methods give the same range of total cloud ash mass. Redundant methods for determination of ash masses in drifting volcanic clouds offer many advantages for potential application to the mitigation of aircraft hazards.

  18. Atlas of TOMS ozone data collected during the Genesis of Atlantic Lows Experiment (GALE), 1986

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larko, David E.; Uccellini, Louis W.; Krueger, Arlin J.

    1986-01-01

    Data from the TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) instrument aboard the Nimbus-7 satellite were collected daily in real time during the GALE (Genesis of Atlantic Lows Experiment) from January 15 through March 15, l986. The TOMS ozone data values were processed into GEMPAK format and transferred from the Goddard Space Flight Center to GALE operations in Raleigh-Durham, NC, in as little as three hours for use, in part, to direct aircraft research flights recording in situ measurements of ozone and water vapor in areas of interest. Once in GEMPAK format, the ozone values were processed into gridded form using the Barnes objective analysis scheme and contour plots of the ozone created. This atlas provides objectively analyzed contour plots of the ozone for each of the sixty days of GALE as well as four-panel presentations of the ozone analysis combined on the basis of GALE Intensive Observing Periods (IOP's).

  19. Nimbus-7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) Antarctic ozone atlas: August through November 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Krueger, A.J.; Penn, L.M.; Scott, C.J.; Larko, D.E.

    1992-08-01

    Because of the great environmental significance of stratospheric ozone, and to support continuing research at the Antarctic Southern Hemisphere stations, the development of the 1991 ozone hole was monitored using data from the Nimbus-7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) instrument, produced in near-real-time. This atlas provides a complete set of daily polar orthographic projections of the TOMS total ozone measurements over the Southern Hemisphere for the period August 1 through November 30, 1991. The 1991 ozone hole developed in a manner similar to that of the 1987, 1989, and 1990 holes, reaching a comparable depth in early October. However, the 1991 ozone hole filled far more rapidly than in 1987 or 1989, and nearly 4 weeks earlier than in 1990.

  20. Comparison of TOMS and AVHRR volcanic ssh retrievals from the August 1992 eruption of Mt. Spurr

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krotkov, N.A.; Torres, O.; Seftor, C.; Krueger, A.J.; Kostinski, A.; Rose, William I., Jr.; Bluth, G.J.S.; Schneider, D.; Schaefer, S.J.

    1999-01-01

    On August 19, 1992, the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) onboard NOAA-12 and NASA's Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) onboard the Nimbus-7 satellite simultaneously detected and mapped the ash cloud from the eruption of Mt. Spurr, Alaska. The spatial extent and geometry of the cloud derived from the two datasets are in good agreement and both AVHRR split window IR (11-12??m brightness temperature difference) and the TOMS UV Aerosol Index (0.34-0.38??m ultraviolet backscattering and absorption) methods give the same range of total cloud ash mass. Redundant methods for determination of ash masses in drifting volcanic clouds offer many advantages for potential application to the mitigation of aircraft hazards.

  1. Satellite Detection of Smoke Aerosols Over a Snow/Ice Surface by TOMS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, N. Christina; Herman, Jay R.; Gleason, J. F.; Torres, O.; Seftor, C. J.

    1998-01-01

    The use of TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) satellite data demonstrates the recently developed technique of using satellite UV radiance measurements to detect absorbing tropospheric aerosols is effective over snow/ice surfaces. Instead of the traditional single wavelength (visible or infrared) method of measuring tropospheric aerosols, this method takes advantage of the wavelength dependent reduction in the backscattered radiance due to the presence of absorbing aerosols over snow/ice surfaces. An example of the resulting aerosol distribution derived from TOMS data is shown for an August 1998 event in which smoke generated by Canadian forest fires drifts over and across Greenland. As the smoke plume moved over Greenland, the TOMS observed 380 nm reflectivity over the snow/ice surface dropped drastically from 90-100% down to 30-40%. To study the effects of this smoke plume in both the UV and visible regions of the spectrum, we compared a smoke-laden spectrum taken over Greenland by the high spectral resolution (300 to 800 nm) GOME instrument with one that is aerosol-free. We also discuss the results of modeling the darkening effects of various types of absorbing aerosols over snow/ice surfaces using a radiative transfer code. Finally, we investigated the history of such events by looking at the nearly twenty year record of TOMS aerosol index measurements and found that there is a large interannual variability in the amount of smoke aerosols observed over Greenland. This information will be available for studies of radiation and transport properties in the Arctic.

  2. Total Ozone from the Ozone Monitoring System (OMI) using TOMS and DOAS Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veefkind, J. P.; Bhartia, P. K.; Gleason, J.; deHaan, J. F.; Wellemeyer, C.; Levelt, P. F.

    2003-01-01

    The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) is the Dutch-Finnish contribution to NASA's EOS-Aura satellite scheduled for launch in January 2004. OMI is an imaging spectrometer that will measure the back-scattered Solar radiance in the wavelength range of 270 to 500 nm. The instrument provides near global coverage in one day with a spatial resolution of 13x24 square kilometers. OMI is a new instrument, with a heritage from TOMS, SBW, GOME, GOMOS and SCIAMACHY. OMI'S unique capabilities for measuring important trace gases and aerosols with a small footprint and daily global coverage, in conjunction with the other Aura instruments, will make a major contribution to our understanding of stratospheric and tropospheric chemistry and climate change. OMI will provide data continuity with the 23-year ozone record of TOMS. There are three ozone products planned for OMI: total column ozone, ozone profile and tropospheric column ozone. We are developing two different algorithms for total column ozone: one similar to the algorithm currently being used to process the TOMS data, and the other an improved version of the differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) method, which has been applied to GOME and SCIAMACHY data. The main reasons for starting with two algorithms for total ozone have to do with heritage and past experience; our long-term goal is to combine the two to develop a more accurate and reliable total ozone product for OMI. We will compare the performance of these two algorithms by applying both of them to the GOME data. We will examine where and how the results differ, and use the extensive TOMS-Dobson comparison studies to assess the performance of the DOAS algorithm.

  3. TOMS and AVHRR observations of drifting volcanic clouds from the August 1991 eruptions of Cerro Hudson

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Constantine, Emily K.; Bluth, Gregg J. S.; Rose, William I.

    Clouds of fine volcanic ash (1-15 μm) and sulfur dioxide gas from Cerro Hudson's three August 1991 eruptions were measured with the infrared advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) and the ultraviolet total ozone mapping spectrometer (TOMS). TOMS data show that the first eruption released 700 kT SO2 on August 8, a second eruption on August 12 produced about 600 kT, and the third on August 15 released about 2700 kT SO2. Following the third eruption, the SO2 and ash appear to have separated, with the ash residing at lower levels near the tropopause and losing 90% of its mass within a few days, while the SO2 was stratospheric, losing only two-thirds of its mass over the first week. A fragment of the volcanic cloud drifted across Australia on August 19-20 where it was characterized by both TOMS and AVHRR; because this cloud was a significant concern to aviation, it offers a successful test of long-term cloud detection by satellites.

  4. Ocean Color and Evidence of Chlorophyll Signature in the TOMS Minimum Reflectivity Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahmad, Z.; Herman, J. R.; Bhartia, P. K.

    2003-01-01

    Analysis of the TOMS minimum reflectivity data for 380 nm channel (R380) show regions of high reflectivity values (approx. 7 to 8%) over Sargasso Sea in the Northern Atlantic, anti-cyclonic region in the Southern Atlantic, and a large part of the ocean in the Southern Pacific, and low values (5 approx. 6 %) over the rest of the open ocean. Through radiative transfer simulations we show that these features are highly correlated with the distribution of chlorophyll in the ocean. Theoretical minimum reflectivity values derived with the help of CZCS chlorophyll concentration data as input into a vector ocean-atmosphere radiative transfer code developed by Ahmad and Fraser show very good agreement with TOMS minimum reflectivity data for the winter season of year 1980. For the summer season of year 1980, good qualitative agreement is observed in the equatorial and northern hemisphere but not as good in the southern hemisphere. Also, for cloud-free conditions, we find a very strong correlation between R340 minus R380 values and the chlorophyll concentration in the ocean. Results on the possible effects of absorbing and non-absorbing aerosols on the TOMS minimum reflectivity will also be presented. The results also imply that ocean color will affect the aerosol retrieval over oceans unless corrected.

  5. Highlights from a Decade of OMI-TOMS Total Ozone Observations on EOS Aura

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haffner, David P.; Bhartia, Pawan K.; McPeters, Richard D.; Joiner, Joanna; Ziemke, Jerald R.; Vassilkov, Alexander; Labow, Gordon J.; Chiou, Er-Woon

    2014-01-01

    Total ozone measurements from OMI have been instrumental in meeting Aura science objectives. In the last decade, OMI has extended the length of the TOMS total ozone record to over 35 years to monitor stratospheric ozone recovery. OMI-TOMS total ozone measurements have also been combined synergistically with measurements from other Aura instruments and MLS in particular, which provides vertically resolved information that complements the total O3 mapping capability of OMI. With this combined approach, the EOS Aura platform has produced more accurate and detailed measurements of tropospheric ozone. This has led in turn to greater understanding of the sources and transport of tropospheric ozone as well as its radiative forcing effect. The combined use of OMI and MLS data was also vital to the analysis of the severe Arctic ozone depletion event of 2011. The quality of OMI-TOMS total O3 data used in these studies is the result of several factors: a mature and well-validated algorithm, the striking stability of the OMI instrument, and OMI's hyperspectral capabilities used to derive cloud pressures. The latter has changed how we think about the effects of clouds on total ozone retrievals. We will discuss the evolution of the operational V8.5 algorithm and provide an overview and motivation for V9. After reviewing results and developments of the past decade, we finally highlight how ozone observations from EOS Aura are playing an important role in new ozone mapping missions.

  6. Peeping at TOMs-Diverse Entry Gates to Mitochondria Provide Insights into the Evolution of Eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Mani, Jan; Meisinger, Chris; Schneider, André

    2016-02-01

    Mitochondria are essential for eukaryotic life and more than 95% of their proteins are imported as precursors from the cytosol. The targeting signals for this posttranslational import are conserved in all eukaryotes. However, this conservation does not hold true for the protein translocase of the mitochondrial outer membrane that serves as entry gate for essentially all precursor proteins. Only two of its subunits, Tom40 and Tom22, are conserved and thus likely were present in the last eukaryotic common ancestor. Tom7 is found in representatives of all supergroups except the Excavates. This suggests that it was added to the core of the translocase after the Excavates segregated from all other eukaryotes. A comparative analysis of the biochemically and functionally characterized outer membrane translocases of yeast, plants, and trypanosomes, which represent three eukaryotic supergroups, shows that the receptors that recognize the conserved import signals differ strongly between the different systems. They present a remarkable example of convergent evolution at the molecular level. The structural diversity of the functionally conserved import receptors therefore provides insight into the early evolutionary history of mitochondria. PMID:26474847

  7. Instrument Drift Uncertainties and the Long-Term TOMS/SBUV Total Ozone Record

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solarski, Richard S.; Frith, Stacey

    2005-01-01

    Long-term climate records from satellites are often constructed from the measurements of a sequence of instruments launched at different times. Each of these instruments is calibrated prior to launch. After launch they are subjected to potential offsets and slow drifts in calibration. We illustrate these issues in the construction of a merged total ozone record from two TOMS and three SBUV instruments. This record extends from late 1978 through the present. The question is "How good are these records?". We have examined the uncertainty in determining the relative calibration of two instruments during an overlap period in their measurements. When comparing a TOMS instrument, such as that on Nimbus 7, with an SBUV instrument, also on Nimbus 7, we find systematic differences and random differences. We have combined these findings with estimates of individual instrument drift into a monte- carlo uncertainty propagation model. We estimate an instrument drift uncertainty of a little larger than 1 percent per decade over the 25-year history of the TOMS/SBUV measurements. We make an independent estimate of the drift uncertainty in the ground-based network of total ozone measurements and find it to be of similar, but slightly smaller magnitude. The implications of these uncertainties for trend and recovery determination will be discussed.

  8. Near-real-time TOMS, telecommunications and meteorological support for the 1987 Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ardanuy, P.; Victorine, J.; Sechrist, F.; Feiner, A.; Penn, L.

    1988-01-01

    The goal of the 1987 Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment was to improve the understanding of the mechanisms involved in the formation of the Antarctic ozone hole. Total ozone data taken by the Nimbus-7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) played a central role in the successful outcome of the experiment. During the experiment, the near-real-time TOMS total ozone observations were supplied within hours of real time to the operations center in Punta Arenas, Chile. The final report summarizes the role which Research and Data Systems (RDS) Corporation played in the support of the experiment. The RDS provided telecommunications to support the science and operations efforts for the Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment, and supplied near real-time weather information to ensure flight and crew safety; designed and installed the telecommunications network to link NASA-GSFC, the United Kingdom Meteorological Office (UKMO), Palmer Station, the European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) to the operation at Punta Arenas; engineered and installed stations and other stand-alone systems to collect data from designated low-orbiting polar satellites and beacons; provided analyses of Nimbus-7 TOMS data and backup data products to Punta Arenas; and provided synoptic meteorological data analysis and reduction.

  9. The validation of a new TOMS ozone retrieval algorithm using ground -based measurement during DARGON campaing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baek, K.; Kim, J. H.; Haffner, D. P.

    2013-12-01

    A new version 9 TOMS algorithm has been proposed to provide more information about error bars and degree of freedom (DFS) of the retrieval, and simplify the retrieval process that results in clarifying the retrieval for user. The V9 algorithm has three retrieval processes. Residuals are calculated with a simple aerosol correction in Step-1. The Step-2 applies an optimal estimation method to get ozone profiles with conventional three TOMS wavelengths where sufficient ozone information is obtained. The outcome of this step will give information about error bars and DFS of retrieved ozone which allow users to accurately compare the ozone with other measurements. In Step-3, it makes corrections for clouds, which it actually doesn't consider in Step-1 and 2. The algorithm will do this process in a way that mathematically appropriate and so it can properly update the error and mathematical operators provided by Step-2. In this work, we want to show the validation study of the V9 TOMS total ozone by comparing with ground-based measurements from PANDORA, ozonesounding, and Brewer during the massive 2012 Dragon Campaign.

  10. 'Spider' in Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    View of the Apollo 9 Lunar Module 'Spider' in a lunar landing configuration photographed by Command Module pilot David Scott inside the Command/Service Module 'Gumdrop' on the fifth day of the Apollo 9 earth-orbital mission. The landing gear on 'Spider' has been deployed. lunar surface probes (sensors) extend out from the landing gear foot pads. Inside the 'Spider' were astronauts James A. McDivitt, Apollo 9 Commander; and Russell L. Schweickart, Lunar Module pilot.

  11. Huygens probe on target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-07-01

    In October 1997, a Titan/Centaur rocket lifting-off from Cape Canaveral will boost the spacecraft into a 6.7 year trajectory to reach Saturn. The trajectory will use two swing-bys of Venus in April 1998 and June 1999, followed by an Earth swing-by in August 1999 and a Jupiter swing-by in December 2000 to boost speed and reach Saturn in July 2004. A few months after going into orbit around Saturn, the Cassini spacecraft will release the Huygens probe for its descent through the atmosphere of Titan, the largest satellite of Saturn. The Huygens probe will measure the abundance of elements and compounds in Titan's atmosphere, the distribution of trace gases and aerosols, winds, temperature, pressure and surface state and its composition. A multi-spectral camera on the probe will provide images of the landscape of Titan. Titan is a unique planetary body in the solar system. It has an atmosphere which is primarily nitrogen. but is also rich in hydrocarbons. Due to the vast distance of the Saturnian system from the Sun, this atmosphere is at a very low temperature, thus greatly slowing down all the chemical processes. A study of this atmosphere will throw light on the development of our own atmosphere and contribute to our understanding of the origins of life on Earth. The Huygens probe is being developed by ESA with Aerospatiale (F) as the industrial prime contractor. Since the start of the programme in April 1990, very good progress has been made in design and hardware development. The entry into the Titan atmosphere will result in a very high surface temperature on the probe, generated as it decelerates due to the friction of the upper atmospheric layers. After the probe has slowed down sufficiently, a system of parachutes ensures a slow descent to the surface of Titan in approximately two and a half hours. The scientific measurements can only begin after the heat shield, which is needed to protect the probe during the high temperature entry phase, has been ejected. This occurs at an altitude of around 170 km above Titan's surface. In order to validate this complex sequence, a Balloon Drop Test was recently carried out on a full size model of the probe. The balloon carried the probe to an altitude of 36 km above the test range (ESRANGE) near Kiruna in Sweden. The probe was automatically released and all the descent control systems were operated. This test was completely successfully and the Descent Module was recovered on ground intact and functioning (pictures are available upon request). In addition, all the environmental testing has been carried out on another model to prove the structural and thermal integrity of the probe. The Structure Thermal and Pyro Model (SIAM) of the Huygens probe was delivered to NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) on 5 th July, 1995 for combined testing with the Cassini spacecraft. For the electrical systems, a special Engineering Model has been subjected to functional testing and the results to date are successful. This model will also be delivered to JPL for combined testing in the near future. Currently-, the Flight Model hardware is being delivered to Daimler Benz in Munich, by the industrial subcontractors, where integration of the Flight Probe will take place. "The design and the production of this complex system in a relatively short time of four years has proceeded very smoothly thanks to the motivation of the European space industry", said Huygens ESA Project Manager Hamid Hassan. The Flight Probe will be delivered to NASA/JPL in early 1997 for a launch of Cassini-Huygens on a Titan IV/Centaur rocket in October 1997.

  12. Constructing a coherent long-term global total ozone climatology from the BUV, MFR, and SBUV/TOMS data sets

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, J.S.; Luther, F.M.

    1986-02-01

    The backscatter ultraviolet spectrometer (BUV) aboard the NIMBUS 4 satellite provided global ozone data until mid-1977. The Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) and Solar Backscattered Ultraviolet (SBUV) instrument aboard the NIMBUS 7 satellite began providing global ozone in November 1978. The only satellite derived global total ozone data available between the termination of the BUV data and the startup of the SBUV/TOMS data is that from the Multichannel Filter Radiometer (MFR) instrument aboard the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) series of satellites. The MFR and the SBUV/TOMS data are compared during the data overlap period in order to determine how well the MFR data might be used to represent the SBUV/TOMS and BUV data during the data gap period. 5 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Biogenesis of Porin of the Outer Mitochondrial Membrane Involves an Import Pathway via Receptors and the General Import Pore of the Tom Complex

    PubMed Central

    Krimmer, Thomas; Rapaport, Doron; Ryan, Michael T.; Meisinger, Chris; Kassenbrock, C. Kenneth; Blachly-Dyson, Elizabeth; Forte, Michael; Douglas, Michael G.; Neupert, Walter; Nargang, Frank E.; Pfanner, Nikolaus

    2001-01-01

    Porin, also termed the voltage-dependent anion channel, is the most abundant protein of the mitochondrial outer membrane. The process of import and assembly of the protein is known to be dependent on the surface receptor Tom20, but the requirement for other mitochondrial proteins remains controversial. We have used mitochondria from Neurospora crassa and Saccharomyces cerevisiae to analyze the import pathway of porin. Import of porin into isolated mitochondria in which the outer membrane has been opened is inhibited despite similar levels of Tom20 as in intact mitochondria. A matrix-destined precursor and the porin precursor compete for the same translocation sites in both normal mitochondria and mitochondria whose surface receptors have been removed, suggesting that both precursors utilize the general import pore. Using an assay established to monitor the assembly of in vitro–imported porin into preexisting porin complexes we have shown that besides Tom20, the biogenesis of porin depends on the central receptor Tom22, as well as Tom5 and Tom7 of the general import pore complex (translocase of the outer mitochondrial membrane [TOM] core complex). The characterization of two new mutant alleles of the essential pore protein Tom40 demonstrates that the import of porin also requires a functional Tom40. Moreover, the porin precursor can be cross-linked to Tom20, Tom22, and Tom40 on its import pathway. We conclude that import of porin does not proceed through the action of Tom20 alone, but requires an intact outer membrane and involves at least four more subunits of the TOM machinery, including the general import pore. PMID:11266446

  14. Investigations of Desert Dust and Smoke in the North Atlantic in Support of the TOMS Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toon, Owen B.

    2005-01-01

    During the initial period of the work we concentrated on Saharan dust storms and published a sequence of papers (Colarco et a1 2002,2003a,b, Toon, 2004). The U.S. Air Force liked the dust model so well that they appropriated it for operational dust storm forecasting (Barnum et al., 2004). The Air Force has used it for about 5 yrs in the Middle East where dust storms cause significant operational problems. The student working on this project, Peter Colarco, has graduated and is now a civil servant at Goddard where he continues to interact with the TOMS team. This work helped constrain the optical properties of dust at TOMS wavelengths, which is useful for climate simulations and for TOMS retrievals of dust properties such as optical depth. We also used TOMS data to constrain the sources of dust in Africa and the Middle East, to determine the actual paths taken by Saharan dust storms, to learn more about the mechanics of variations in the optical depths, and to learn more about the mechanisms controlling the altitudes of the dust. During the last two years we have been working on smoke from fires. Black carbon aerosols are one of the leading factors in radiative forcing. The US Climate Change Science Program calls this area out for specific study. It has been suggested by Jim Hansen, and Mark Jacobsen among others, that by controlling emissions of black carbon we might reduce greenhouse radiative forcing in a relatively painless manner. However, we need a greatly improved understanding of the amount of black carbon in the atmosphere, where it is located, where it comes from, how it is mixed with other particles, what its actual optical properties are, and how it evolves. In order to learn about these issues we are using a numerical model of smoke. We have applied this model to the SAFARI field program data, and used the TOMS satellite observations in that period (Sept. 2000). Our goal is to constrain source function estimates for black carbon, and smoke optical properties.

  15. Current to a moving cylindrical electrostatic probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoegy, W. R.; Wharton, L. E.

    1972-01-01

    The current collection characteristics of a moving cylindrical Langmuir probe are evaluated for a range of probe speeds and potentials which are applicable to earth and planetary measurements. The current expressions derived include the cases of the general accelerated current, sheath area limited current, orbital motion limited current, and retarded current. For the orbital motion limited current, a simple algebraic expression is obtained which includes and generalizes the Mott-Smith and Langmuir expressions for both a stationary probe and a rapidly moving probe. For a rapidly moving probe a single formula adequately represents both the accelerated and the retarded current.

  16. Current to a moving cylindrical electrostatic probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoegy, W. R.; Wharton, L. E.

    1973-01-01

    The current collection characteristics of a moving cylindrical Langmuir probe are evaluated for a range of probe speeds and potentials which are applicable to earth and planetary measurements. The current expressions derived include the cases of the general accelerated current, sheath area limited current, orbital motion limited current, and retarded current. For the orbital motion limited current, a simple algebric expression is obtained which includes and generalizes the Mott-Smith and Langmuir expressions for both a stationary probe and a rapidly moving probe. For a rapidly moving probe, a single formula adequately represents both the accelerated and the retarded current.

  17. Comparison of Pch313 (pTOM13 Homolog) RNA Accumulation during Fruit Softening and Wounding of Two Phenotypically Different Peach Cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Callahan, Ann M.; Morgens, Peter H.; Wright, Paul; Nichols, Kenneth E.

    1992-01-01

    Pch313 was isolated as a cDNA whose RNA accumulated during the softening period of peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) fruit development. To better understand the role of the gene, we compared the amount of pch313-related RNA detected during fruit softening and tissue wounding between cultivars with different softening characteristics. The cultivar that softened faster, “Bailey,” had a significantly higher amount of pch313-related RNA accumulate during softening than the slower-softening cultivar, “Suncrest.” Pch313 was sequenced and found to be related to a tomato fruit cDNA clone, pTOM13, which has been shown to encode the ethylene-forming enzyme. The derived amino acid sequence of pch313 is 74 to 83% identical to the pTOM13-related sequences. A pch313-3′ noncoding region probe was used to demonstrate that pch313 is related to both a wound-induced RNA transcript and the major fruit-softening transcript. The relationship of pch313 RNA accumulation and ethylene evolution was examined upon wounding and appeared to be both tissue and cultivar specific. When leaves were wounded, more pch313-related RNA was detected in Bailey and the rate of ethylene evolved was also higher in Bailey. When fruits were wounded, the levels of ethylene evolved were nearly identical but Suncrest accumulated more pch313-related RNA. Southern analysis of the DNA indicated a small number of related genes. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:16652987

  18. Samara Probe For Remote Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, James D.

    1989-01-01

    Imaging probe descends through atmosphere of planet, obtaining images of ground surface as it travels. Released from aircraft over Earth or from spacecraft over another planet. Body and single wing shaped like samara - winged seed like those of maple trees. Rotates as descends, providing panoramic view of terrain below. Radio image obtained by video camera to aircraft or spacecraft overhead.

  19. Spin of Planetary Probes in Atmospheric Flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz, R. D.

    Probes that enter planetary atmospheres are often spun during entry or descent for a variety of reasons. Their spin rate histories are influenced by often subtle effects. The spin requirements, control methods and flight experience from planetary and earth entry missions are reviewed. An interaction of the probe aerodynamic wake with a drogue parachute, observed in Gemini wind tunnel tests, is discussed in connection with the anomalous spin behaviour of the Huygens probe.

  20. Optical probe

    DOEpatents

    Hencken, Kenneth; Flower, William L.

    1999-01-01

    A compact optical probe is disclosed particularly useful for analysis of emissions in industrial environments. The instant invention provides a geometry for optically-based measurements that allows all optical components (source, detector, rely optics, etc.) to be located in proximity to one another. The geometry of the probe disclosed herein provides a means for making optical measurements in environments where it is difficult and/or expensive to gain access to the vicinity of a flow stream to be measured. Significantly, the lens geometry of the optical probe allows the analysis location within a flow stream being monitored to be moved while maintaining optical alignment of all components even when the optical probe is focused on a plurality of different analysis points within the flow stream.

  1. Subsurface Ice Probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hecht, Michael; Carsey, Frank

    2005-01-01

    The subsurface ice probe (SIPR) is a proposed apparatus that would bore into ice to depths as great as hundreds of meters by melting the ice and pumping the samples of meltwater to the surface. Originally intended for use in exploration of subsurface ice on Mars and other remote planets, the SIPR could also be used on Earth as an alternative to coring, drilling, and melting apparatuses heretofore used to sample Arctic and Antarctic ice sheets. The SIPR would include an assembly of instrumentation and electronic control equipment at the surface, connected via a tether to a compact assembly of boring, sampling, and sensor equipment in the borehole (see figure). Placing as much equipment as possible at the surface would help to attain primary objectives of minimizing power consumption, sampling with high depth resolution, and unobstructed imaging of the borehole wall. To the degree to which these requirements would be satisfied, the SIPR would offer advantages over the aforementioned ice-probing systems.

  2. Tropospheric Ozone Pollution Transport Traced from the TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) Instrument During the Nashville-1999 Campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Anne M.; Frolov, A. D.; Hudson, R. D.; Witte, J. C.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Over the past several years, we have developed two new tropospheric ozone retrievals from the TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) satellite instrument that are of sufficient resolution to follow pollution episodes. The modified-residual technique [Hudson and Thompson, 1998; Thompson and Hudson, 1999] uses v. 7 TOMS total ozone and is applicable to tropical regimes in which the wave-one pattern in total ozone is observed. The TOMS-direct method [("TDOT" = TOMS Direct Ozone in the Troposphere; Frolov et al., 2000] represents a new algorithm that uses TOMS radiances directly (i.e., not previously processed for TOMS ozone) to extract tropospheric ozone in regions of constant stratospheric ozone and tropospheric ozone displaying high mixing ratios and variability characteristic of pollution. These events tend to occur in certain meteorological regimes. For example, mid-latitude pollution usually occurs on the backside of subtropical fronts, as low pv, usually moist air intrudes to the extra-tropics. July 1999 was a month characterized by robust pollution in the eastern US, with high ozone, as detected by TOMS, originating over south central states and moving up the Atlantic seaboard. This corresponds to 50-80 DU in tropospheric ozone column depth. In most cases, further transport occurred to the North Atlantic, with ozone plumes traveling to western Europe in 4-5 days. Examples of high ozone and transit across boundaries within the US, as well as US->Europe, give a regional context for model results and field measurements taken in the SE US during the Nashville-1999 campaign period. Validation of the TDOT maps is made with ozonesondes taken during that time. TDOT maps also show ozone pollution from Asia traveling to the western US in July 1999.

  3. Discover Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steele, Colleen

    1998-01-01

    Discover Earth is a NASA-sponsored project for teachers of grades 5-12, designed to: (1) enhance understanding of the Earth as an integrated system; (2) enhance the interdisciplinary approach to science instruction; and (3) provide classroom materials that focus on those goals. Discover Earth is conducted by the Institute for Global Environmental Strategies in collaboration with Dr. Eric Barron, Director, Earth System Science Center, The Pennsylvania State University; and Dr. Robert Hudson, Chair, the Department of Meteorology, University of Maryland at College Park. The enclosed materials: (1) represent only part of the Discover Earth materials; (2) were developed by classroom teachers who are participating in the Discover Earth project; (3) utilize an investigative approach and on-line data; and (4) can be effectively adjusted to classrooms with greater/without technology access. The Discover Earth classroom materials focus on the Earth system and key issues of global climate change including topics such as the greenhouse effect, clouds and Earth's radiation balance, surface hydrology and land cover, and volcanoes and climate change. All the materials developed to date are available on line at (http://www.strategies.org) You are encouraged to submit comments and recommendations about these materials to the Discover Earth project manager, contact information is listed below. You are welcome to duplicate all these materials.

  4. A re-evaluation of the 1991 Pinatubo SO{2} emission using TOMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, S.; Bluth, G. J.; Watson, I. M.; Rose, W. I.

    2001-12-01

    Explosive volcanic eruptions influence the atmosphere and environment from days to years depending on the amount of sulfur species and ash erupted. Large volcanic eruptions, such as Pinatubo, have much stronger effects on the atmospheric chemistry and global climate change since huge amounts of SO{2} are directly erupted into the stratosphere. The June 1991 Pinatubo eruption is the largest eruption of the satellite era, and accurate retrievals of emitted sulfur and ash species are therefore crucial in understanding its atmospheric impacts. The Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) is routinely used to map and quantify SO{2} for volcanic eruptions. Column amounts of SO{2} and aerosol indices (AI, which represents the ash and aerosol amount qualitatively) for each pixel can be retrieved and then a total mass of SO{2} within the volcanic cloud can be calculated. The SO{2} cloud from the Pinatubo eruption has been studied by Bluth et al. (GRL, Vol. 19, No. 2, 1992). Uncertainties from missing data, saturation, gaps and overlap between neighboring pixels may bring errors in the estimation of initially erupted SO{2} amounts and SO{2} removal rate. An iterative SO{2} algorithm, which was developed by scientists from NASA, is used for getting a more accurate result of total column SO{2} in each pixel. The gap and overlap problem of neighboring pixels is addressed by resampling the data into grids using a nearest neighbor method. Missing data problems in the TOMS datasets due to periodic transmission interruptions are treated by a variety of interpolation models. We have been analyzing the accuracy of a variety of reconstruction methods. The goals of this project include revised tonnage values for daily cloud images; this information will be used to derive a more accurate emitted sulfur dioxide mass and removal rate. Studies of gas and particle separation in the TOMS UV dataset will be supplemented by and compared to IR data analyses.

  5. Comparisons between TOMS, TOVS and DOBSON observations - Satellite and surface views of total column ozone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chesters, Dennis; Neuendorffer, Arthur

    1990-01-01

    The reliability of the ozone retrievals by the TIROS-N Operational Vertical Sounder (TOVS) calculated with the newly developed physical algorithm is investigated by comparing the quality of the TOVS total ozone soundings to the corresponding values obtained by the Nimbus-7 TOMS and by the ground-based DOBSON network. The three-way comparison concentrates on observations during the last 4 months of 1987, the period of the great Antarctic 'ozone hole'. It is shown that each instrument has characteristic strengths and weaknesses, and that each of the three systems makes serious errors under some conditions.

  6. Tom O'Connor: His legacy of atmospheric aerosol research in Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jennings, S. Gerard

    2013-05-01

    Dr. Thomas C. (Tom) O'Connor received his foundation in atmospheric aerosols through his M. Sc. work at University College Dublin (with P.J. Nolan) and then as research scholar with Leo W. Pollak at the Dublin Institute of Advanced Studies. On moving to Galway in 1956, a significant legacy was his choosing of a field station site at Mace Head and his pioneering measurements there. He played a pivotal role in the development and progression of the Mace Head Atmospheric Research Station (www.macehead.org) for some 50 years. He passed away peacefully in November 2012.

  7. Toms Creek integrated gasification combined cycle demonstration project. Quarterly report, April 1--June 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Feher, G.; Schmid, M.

    1993-09-01

    The quarterly technical progress report for the period ending June 30, 1993, summarizes the work done to date by Tampella Power Corporation and Enviropower, Inc. Enviropower Inc.`s efforts were concentrated on the Toms Creek PDS (Preliminary Design and Studies). Tampella Power Corporation`s efforts were concentrated on site specific heat and material balances to provide the basis for evaluating alternate locations for the Project. Enviropower, Inc. is nearing completion of the PDS (Preliminary Design and Studies). The status of the design of the equipment for the Gasifier Island, not covered in the previous technical progress report, is given.

  8. Gravity Probe B Encapsulated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    In this photo, the Gravity Probe B (GP-B) space vehicle is being encapsulated atop the Delta II launch vehicle. The GP-B is the relativity experiment developed at Stanford University to test two extraordinary predictions of Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity. The experiment will measure, very precisely, the expected tiny changes in the direction of the spin axes of four gyroscopes contained in an Earth-orbiting satellite at a 400-mile altitude. So free are the gyroscopes from disturbance that they will provide an almost perfect space-time reference system. They will measure how space and time are very slightly warped by the presence of the Earth, and, more profoundly, how the Earth's rotation very slightly drags space-time around with it. These effects, though small for the Earth, have far-reaching implications for the nature of matter and the structure of the Universe. GP-B is among the most thoroughly researched programs ever undertaken by NASA. This is the story of a scientific quest in which physicists and engineers have collaborated closely over many years. Inspired by their quest, they have invented a whole range of technologies that are already enlivening other branches of science and engineering. Launched April 20, 2004 , the GP-B program was managed for NASA by the Marshall Space Flight Center. Development of the GP-B is the responsibility of Stanford University along with major subcontractor Lockheed Martin Corporation. (Image credit to Russ Underwood, Lockheed Martin Corporation).

  9. Tom1 Modulates Binding of Tollip to Phosphatidylinositol 3-Phosphate via a Coupled Folding and Binding Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Shuyan; Brannon, Mary K; Zhao, Xiaolin; Fread, Kristen I; Ellena, Jeffrey F; Bushweller, John H; Finkielstein, Carla V; Armstrong, Geoffrey S; Capelluto, Daniel G S

    2015-10-01

    Early endosomes represent the first sorting station for vesicular ubiquitylated cargo. Tollip, through its C2 domain, associates with endosomal phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PtdIns(3)P) and binds ubiquitylated cargo in these compartments via its C2 and CUE domains. Tom1, through its GAT domain, is recruited to endosomes by binding to the Tollip Tom1-binding domain (TBD) through an unknown mechanism. Nuclear magnetic resonance data revealed that Tollip TBD is a natively unfolded domain that partially folds at its N terminus when bound to Tom1 GAT through high-affinity hydrophobic contacts. Furthermore, this association abrogates binding of Tollip to PtdIns(3)P by additionally targeting its C2 domain. Tom1 GAT is also able to bind ubiquitin and PtdIns(3)P at overlapping sites, albeit with modest affinity. We propose that association with Tom1 favors the release of Tollip from endosomal membranes, allowing Tollip to commit to cargo trafficking. PMID:26320582

  10. Overexpression of a host factor TOM1 inhibits tomato mosaic virus propagation and suppression of RNA silencing.

    PubMed

    Hagiwara-Komoda, Yuka; Hirai, Katsuyuki; Mochizuki, Atsuko; Nishiguchi, Masamichi; Meshi, Tetsuo; Ishikawa, Masayuki

    2008-06-20

    A plant integral membrane protein TOM1 is involved in the multiplication of Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV). TOM1 interacts with ToMV replication proteins and has been suggested to tether the replication proteins to the membranes where the viral RNA synthesis takes place. We have previously demonstrated that inactivation of TOM1 results in reduced ToMV multiplication. In the present study, we show that overexpression of TOM1 in tobacco also inhibits ToMV propagation. TOM1 overexpression led to a decreased accumulation of the soluble form of the replication proteins and interfered with the ability of the replication protein to suppress RNA silencing. The reduced accumulation of the soluble replication proteins was also observed in a silencing suppressor-defective ToMV mutant. Based on these results, we propose that RNA silencing suppression is executed by the soluble form of the replication proteins and that efficient ToMV multiplication requires balanced accumulation of the soluble and membrane-bound replication proteins. PMID:18440043

  11. Investigating the Genetic Basis of Theory of Mind (ToM): The Role of Catechol-O-Methyltransferase (COMT) Gene Polymorphisms

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Haiwei; Wu, Nan; Su, Yanjie

    2012-01-01

    The ability to deduce other persons' mental states and emotions which has been termed ‘theory of mind (ToM)’ is highly heritable. First molecular genetic studies focused on some dopamine-related genes, while the genetic basis underlying different components of ToM (affective ToM and cognitive ToM) remain unknown. The current study tested 7 candidate polymorphisms (rs4680, rs4633, rs2020917, rs2239393, rs737865, rs174699 and rs59938883) on the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene. We investigated how these polymorphisms relate to different components of ToM. 101 adults participated in our study; all were genetically unrelated, non-clinical and healthy Chinese subjects. Different ToM tasks were applied to detect their theory of mind ability. The results showed that the COMT gene rs2020917 and rs737865 SNPs were associated with cognitive ToM performance, while the COMT gene rs5993883 SNP was related to affective ToM, in which a significant gender-genotype interaction was found (p = 0.039). Our results highlighted the contribution of DA-related COMT gene on ToM performance. Moreover, we found out that the different SNP at the same gene relates to the discriminative aspect of ToM. Our research provides some preliminary evidence to the genetic basis of theory of mind which still awaits further studies. PMID:23209597

  12. The observation of atmospheric structure with TOMS and some potential advancements. [Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krueger, A. J.

    1985-01-01

    An overview is given of the Nimbus 7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) which was designed to observe the spatial characteristics of total ozone that were not resolved by the nadir-viewing Nimbus BUV and SBUV instruments. At the wavelengths suitable for total ozone measurements, the radiance is large enough that the entire daytime atmosphere could be surveyed with about 50-km resolution from a polar orbiting satellite. The resulting high spatial resolution TOMS ozone images are found to reflect the internal dynamic structure of the lower atmosphere. Features which can be identified and tracked include: planetary wave scale troughs and ridges, mesoscale cutoff lows and rapidly moving troughs, jet stream confluence and difluence areas, hurricanes, and polar night lows. These features control the ozone above any given location and account for nearly all the variance in the total ozone. The instrument has been used to track the volcanic eruption clouds from El Chichon, Mount St. Helens, Alaid, and smaller eruptions such as Galunggung. It would be feasible to use a similar instrument on a geostationary platform to obtain half-hourly maps. Determination of the vertical ozone distribution in the lower stratosphere using Radon transform principles would be of importance in measuring jet stream folds and the related troposphere-stratosphere exchange.

  13. Spectral analyses, climatology, and interannual variability of Nimbus-7 TOMS version 6 total column ozone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanford, J. L.; Ziemke, J. R.; Mcpeters, R. D.; Krueger, A. J.; Bhartia, P. K.

    1995-01-01

    This reference publication presents selected results from space-time spectral analyses of 13 years of version 6 daily global ozone fields from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS). One purpose is to illustrate more quantitatively the well-known richness of structure and variation in total ozone. A second purpose is to provide, for use by modelers and for comparison with other analysts' work, quantitative measures of zonal waves 1, 2, 3, and medium-scale waves 4-7 in total ozone. Their variations throughout the year and at a variety of latitudes are presented, from equatorial to polar regions. The 13-year averages are given, along with selected individual years which illustrate year-to-year variability. The largest long wave amplitudes occur in the polar winters and early springs of each hemisphere, and are related to strong wave amplification during major warning events. In low attitudes total ozone wave amplitudes are an order of magnitude smaller than at high latitudes. However, TOMS fields contain a number of equatorial dynamical features, including Rossby-gravity and Kelvin waves.

  14. TOMATOMA Update: Phenotypic and Metabolite Information in the Micro-Tom Mutant Resource.

    PubMed

    Shikata, Masahito; Hoshikawa, Ken; Ariizumi, Tohru; Fukuda, Naoya; Yamazaki, Yukiko; Ezura, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    TOMATOMA (http://tomatoma.nbrp.jp/) is a tomato mutant database providing visible phenotypic data of tomato mutant lines generated by ethylmethane sulfonate (EMS) treatment or γ-ray irradiation in the genetic background of Micro-Tom, a small and rapidly growing variety. To increase mutation efficiency further, mutagenized M3 seeds were subjected to a second round of EMS treatment; M3M1 populations were generated. These plants were self-pollinated, and 4,952 lines of M3M2 mutagenized seeds were generated. We checked for visible phenotypes in the M3M2 plants, and 618 mutant lines with 1,194 phenotypic categories were identified. In addition to the phenotypic information, we investigated Brix values and carotenoid contents in the fruits of individual mutants. Of 466 samples from 171 mutant lines, Brix values and carotenoid contents were between 3.2% and 11.6% and 6.9 and 37.3 µg g(-1) FW, respectively. This metabolite information concerning the mutant fruits would be useful in breeding programs as well as for the elucidation of metabolic regulation. Researchers are able to browse and search this phenotypic and metabolite information and order seeds of individual mutants via TOMATOMA. Our new Micro-Tom double-mutagenized populations and the metabolic information could provide a valuable genetic toolkit to accelerate tomato research and potential breeding programs. PMID:26719120

  15. The 1989 Antarctic ozone hole as observed by TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer)

    SciTech Connect

    Stolarski, R.S.; Schoeberl, M.R.; McPeters, R.D.; Krueger, A.J. ); Newman, P.A. )

    1990-08-01

    In 1989 the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) aboard the Nimbus 7 satellite observed the springtime decrease in Antarctic total ozone for the 11th consecutive year. The 1989 minimum values of total ozone measured by TOMS declined throughout the month of September a6t a rate nearly identical to 1987. The National Meteorological Center analysis of lower stratospheric temperatures in August and September 1989 also showed conditions similar to those observed in 1987. A minimum in total ozone of 111 DU was reached on October 7, 1989. Within uncertainties this is the same as previously observed minimum on October 5, 1987. The area of the ozone hole as defined by the 220 DU contour grew rapidly during early September. It reached a mid-September peak of 7.5% of the southern hemisphere or 19 million square kilometers, essentially the same as observed in 1987. From mid October through November 1989, minimum polar total ozone values increased and the are within the 220 DU contour decreased more rapidly than during the comparable period of 1987. The more rapid erosion of the 1989 ozone hole resulted from strong wave number one perturbations of the vortex dynamics in late October.

  16. Comparison of recalculated Dobson and TOMS total ozone at Hradec Kralove, Czechoslovakia, 1978-1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanek, Martin; Vanicek, Karel

    1994-01-01

    The reevaluated Dobson total ozone data from Hradec Kralove, Czechoslovakia were compared with independent Total Ozone Mapping Spectrophotometer (TOMS) 'version 6' data set. The comparison was performed by means of the parallel daily averages of ground-based and satellite total ozone pairs of the period November 1978 to December 1990. The comparison showed slight differences between both data series. Their average relative difference is 0.48 percent. The similar results have been reached for subsets of direct sun and zenith types of measurements as well. Their relative differences are 0.61 percent and 0.11 percent respectively. These facts indicate not only good mutual relation of both data sources but also reliability and accuracy of the zenith charts of the spectrophotometer No. 74 used at Hradec Kralove. Preliminary assessment of seasonal MU-dependence of the differences between Dobson and TOMS data was made while using total ozones of winter and summer months representing values of MU=2.70-5.20 and MU = 1.12-1.30 respectively. The results did not show systematic underestimation or overestimation of total ozone due to MU-dependence of the instrument at Hradec Kralove in both seasons.

  17. [Radiance Simulation of BUV Hyperspectral Sensor on Multi Angle Observation, and Improvement to Initial Total Ozone Estimating Model of TOMS V8 Total Ozone Algorithm].

    PubMed

    Lü, Chun-guang; Wang, Wei-he; Yang, Wen-bo; Tian, Qing-iju; Lu, Shan; Chen, Yun

    2015-11-01

    New hyperspectral sensor to detect total ozone is considered to be carried on geostationary orbit platform in the future, because local troposphere ozone pollution and diurnal variation of ozone receive more and more attention. Sensors carried on geostationary satellites frequently obtain images on the condition of larger observation angles so that it has higher requirements of total ozone retrieval on these observation geometries. TOMS V8 algorithm is developing and widely used in low orbit ozone detecting sensors, but it still lack of accuracy on big observation geometry, therefore, how to improve the accuracy of total ozone retrieval is still an urgent problem that demands immediate solution. Using moderate resolution atmospheric transmission, MODT-RAN, synthetic UV backscatter radiance in the spectra region from 305 to 360 nm is simulated, which refers to clear sky, multi angles (12 solar zenith angles and view zenith angles) and 26 standard profiles, moreover, the correlation and trends between atmospheric total ozone and backward scattering of the earth UV radiation are analyzed based on the result data. According to these result data, a new modified initial total ozone estimation model in TOMS V8 algorithm is considered to be constructed in order to improve the initial total ozone estimating accuracy on big observation geometries. The analysis results about total ozone and simulated UV backscatter radiance shows: Radiance in 317.5 nm (R₃₁₇.₅) decreased as the total ozone rise. Under the small solar zenith Angle (SZA) and the same total ozone, R₃₁₇.₅ decreased with the increase of view zenith Angle (VZA) but increased on the large SZA. Comparison of two fit models shows: without the condition that both SZA and VZA are large (> 80°), exponential fitting model and logarithm fitting model all show high fitting precision (R² > 0.90), and precision of the two decreased as the SZA and VZA rise. In most cases, the precision of logarithm fitting mode is about 0.9% higher than exponential fitting model. With the increasing of VZA or SZA, the fitting precision gradually lower, and the fall is more in the larger VZA or SZA. In addition, the precision of fitting mode exist a plateau in the small SZA range. The modified initial total ozone estimating model (ln(I) vs. Ω) is established based on logarithm fitting mode, and compared with traditional estimating model (I vs. ln(Ω)), that shows: the RMSE of ln(I) vs. Ω and I vs. ln(Ω) all have the down trend with the rise of total ozone. In the low region of total ozone (175-275 DU), the RMSE is obvious higher than high region (425-525 DU), moreover, a RMSE peak and a trough exist in 225 and 475 DU respectively. With the increase of VZA and SZA, the RMSE of two initial estimating models are overall rise, and the upraising degree is ln(I) vs. Ω obvious with the growing of SZA and VZA. The estimating result by modified model is better than traditional model on the whole total ozone range (RMSE is 0.087%-0.537% lower than traditional model), especially on lower total ozone region and large observation geometries. Traditional estimating model relies on the precision of exponential fitting model, and modified estimating model relies on the precision of logarithm fitting model. The improvement of the estimation accuracy by modified initial total ozone estimating model expand the application range of TOMS V8 algorithm. For sensor carried on geostationary orbit platform, there is no doubt that the modified estimating model can help improve the inversion accuracy on wide spatial and time range This modified model could give support and reference to TOMS algorithm update in the future. PMID:26978892

  18. Earth tides

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, J.C.

    1984-01-01

    Nineteen papers on gravity, tilt, and strain tides are compiled into this volume. Detailed chapters cover the calculation of the tidal forces and of the Earth's response to them, as well as actual observations of earth tides. Partial Contents: On Earth tides. The tidal forces: Tidal Forces. New Computations of the Tide-Generating Potential. Corrected Tables of Tidal Harmonics. The Theory of Tidal Deformations. Body Tides on an Elliptical, Rotating, Elastic and Oceanless Earth, Deformation of the Earth by Surface Loads. Gravimetric Tidal Loading Computed from Integrated Green's Functions. Tidal Friction in the Solid Earth. Loading Tides Versus Body Tides. Lunar Tidal Acceleration from Earth Satellite Orbit Analysis. Observations: gravity. Tidal Gravity in Britain: Tidal Loading and the Spatial Distribution of the Marine Tide. Tidal Loading along a Profile Europe-East Africa-South Asia-Australia and the Pacific Ocean. Detailed Gravity-Tide Spectrum between One and Four Cycles per Day. Observations: tilt and strain. Cavity and Topographic Effects in Tilt and Strain Measurement. Observations of Local Elastic Effects on Earth Tide Tilts and Strains.

  19. The Toms River Childhood Cancer Cluster: Coupled Groundwater and Water Distribution System Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sykes, J. F.; Normani, S. D.

    2003-12-01

    Toms River, New Jersey is the location of a statistically significant childhood cancer cluster. A 1995 cancer investigation indicated that relative to the state, the Toms River section of Dover Township had excess childhood cancer incidence for all malignant cancers combined, brain and central nervous system (CNS) cancers, and leukemia. Children under the age of five were found to have a seven-fold increase in brain and CNS cancer. The community's concern focused on the possibility that exposure to environmental contaminants may be related to the incidence of these childhood cancers. Two Superfund sites in Dover Township were implicated as having a possible impact on the local water supply. One of these, the Reich Farm site, is a source of contaminants to the aquifer that serves a major well field for Toms River. Contaminants in the aquifer include TCE, PCE and styrene-acrylonitrile (SAN) trimer. In 1997, the New Jersey Department of Health and Senior Services and the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry began an epidemiology study to evaluate the relationship between the environmental exposure pathways and the elevated childhood cancer incidence. Toxicity studies for the SAN trimer were also initiated. Groundwater modeling was undertaken to establish the historical relationship between the Reich Farm site and the municipal well field and to aid in the management and protection of the aquifer and well field to ensure both water quality and quantity. The modeling of the water distribution system for Toms River was also part of the study. Groundwater flow from the Reich Farm Superfund site to the municipal well field for Toms River was modeled for a thirty-year time period using MODFLOW. To account for the growth and development of the well field within the modeling domain, a transient model was constructed. The use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and databases to manage, maintain, and compile field observations for model input and calibration was an important part of the work. GIS and databases were important tools in assessing the quality of the data, discovering and correcting errors in the field data (including surveying inconsistencies), as well as providing an efficient and automated means to visualize the data. Model calibration exercises indicated that a more physically based spatial and temporally variable recharge was necessary to account for dramatic fluctuations in water levels due to seasonal variations. The accurate simulation of the transient groundwater flow system was essential for the subsequent prediction of contaminant migration from the superfund site to the municipal wells and then subsequently into the modeled water distribution system. The independent estimation of the adsorption parameters of the SAN trimer on the porous media of the aquifer was an important aspect of the determination of both the average travel time and the breakthrough of the chemical at the municipal well field. The modeling methodology included an uncertainty analysis of the estimated exposure concentration in the water distribution system given uncertain groundwater parameters. Distributed computing with a Monte Carlo analysis was used for this work. The results of the modeling study were used to assist in the definition of the temporal integration periods in the epidemiology study. The predicted historical breakthrough curve of the SAN trimer in the municipal wells correlates with the period with the excess childhood cancer incidence.

  20. Technical Note: Adjoint formulation of the TOMCAT atmospheric transport scheme in the Eulerian backtracking framework (RETRO-TOM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haines, P. E.; Esler, J. G.; Carver, G. D.

    2014-01-01

    A new methodology for the formulation of an adjoint to the transport component of the chemistry transport model TOMCAT is described and implemented in a new model RETRO-TOM. The Eulerian backtracking method is used, allowing the forward advection scheme (Prather's second-order moments), to be efficiently exploited in the backward adjoint calculations. Prather's scheme is shown to be time-symmetric suggesting the possibility of high accuracy. To attain this accuracy, however, it is necessary to make a careful treatment of the "density inconsistency" problem inherent to offline transport models. The results are verified using a series of test experiments. These demonstrate the high accuracy of RETRO-TOM when compared with direct forward sensitivity calculations, at least for problems in which flux-limiters in the advection scheme are not required. RETRO-TOM therefore combines the flexibility and stability of a "finite difference of adjoint" formulation with the accuracy of an "adjoint of finite difference" formulation.

  1. Technical Note: Adjoint formulation of the TOMCAT atmospheric transport scheme in the Eulerian backtracking framework (RETRO-TOM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haines, P. E.; Esler, J. G.; Carver, G. D.

    2014-06-01

    A new methodology for the formulation of an adjoint to the transport component of the chemistry transport model TOMCAT is described and implemented in a new model, RETRO-TOM. The Eulerian backtracking method is used, allowing the forward advection scheme (Prather's second-order moments) to be efficiently exploited in the backward adjoint calculations. Prather's scheme is shown to be time symmetric, suggesting the possibility of high accuracy. To attain this accuracy, however, it is necessary to make a careful treatment of the "density inconsistency" problem inherent to offline transport models. The results are verified using a series of test experiments. These demonstrate the high accuracy of RETRO-TOM when compared with direct forward sensitivity calculations, at least for problems in which flux limiters in the advection scheme are not required. RETRO-TOM therefore combines the flexibility and stability of a "finite difference of adjoint" formulation with the accuracy of an "adjoint of finite difference" formulation.

  2. Accuracy Assessments and Validation of an Expanded UV Irradiance Database from Satellite Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krotkov, N. A.; Herman, J.; Fioletov, V.; Seftor, C.; Larko, D.; Vasilkov, A.

    2004-01-01

    The TOMS UV irradiance database (1978 to 2000) has been expanded to include 5 new products (noon irradiance at 305, 310, 324, and 380 nm, and noon erythemal-weighted irradiance), in addition to the existing erythemal daily exposure, which permit direct Comparisons with ground-based measurements from UV spectrometers. Sensitivity studies are conducted to estimate uncertainties of the new TOMS UV irradiance data due to algorithm apriori assumptions. Comparisons with Brewer spectrometers as well as filter radiometers are used to review of the sources of known errors. Inability to distinguish between snow and cloud cover using only TOMS data results in large errors in estimating surface UV using snow climatology. A correction is suggested for the case when the regional snow albedo is known from an independent source. The summer-time positive bias between TOMS UV estimations and Brewer measurements can be seen at all wavelengths. This suggests the difference is not related to ozone absorption effects. We emphasize that uncertainty of boundary layer UV aerosol absorption properties remains a major source of error in modeling UV irradiance in clear sky conditions. Neglecting aerosol absorption by the present TOMS algorithm results in a positive summertime bias in clear-sky UV estimations over many locations. Due to high aerosol variability the bias is strongly site dependent. Data from UV-shadow-band radiometer and well-calibrated CIMEL sun-sky radiometer are used to quantify the bias at NASA/GSFC site in Greenbelt, MD. Recommendations are given to enable potential users to better account for local conditions by combining standard TOMS UV data with ancillary ground measurements.

  3. Pollution Probe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chant, Donald A.

    This book is written as a statement of concern about pollution by members of Pollution Probe, a citizens' anti-pollution group in Canada. Its purpose is to create public awareness and pressure for the eventual solution to pollution problems. The need for effective government policies to control the population explosion, conserve natural resources,…

  4. Pollution Probe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chant, Donald A.

    This book is written as a statement of concern about pollution by members of Pollution Probe, a citizens' anti-pollution group in Canada. Its purpose is to create public awareness and pressure for the eventual solution to pollution problems. The need for effective government policies to control the population explosion, conserve natural resources,

  5. The Sounds of Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Flying board Voyagers 1 and 2 are identical 'golden' records, carrying the story of Earth far into deep space. The 12 inch gold-plated copper discs contain greetings in 60 languages, samples of music from different cultures and eras, and natural and man-made sounds from Earth. They also contain electronic information that an advanced technological civilization could convert into diagrams and photographs. The cover of each gold plated aluminum jacket, designed to protect the record from micrometeorite bombardment, also serves a double purpose in providing the finder a key to playing the record. The explanatory diagram appears on both the inner and outer surfaces of the cover, as the outer diagram will be eroded in time. Currently, both Voyager probes are sailing adrift in the black sea of interplanetary space, having left our solar system years ago.

  6. Toms Creek Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle Demonstration Project. Final quarterly technical progress report for the period ending March 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Feher, G.

    1993-05-24

    This Quarterly Technical Progress Report for the period ending March 31, 1993 summarizes the work done to data by Tampella Power Corporation and Enviropower, Inc. on the integrated combined-cycle power plant project. Efforts were concentrated on the Toms Creek PDS (Preliminary Design and Studies). Tampella Power Corporation`s efforts were concentrated on the Toms Creek Preliminary Process Flow Diagram (PFD) and Piping and Instrument Diagrams (P&IDs). Tampella Power Corporation also prepared Heat and Material Balances (H&MBs) for different site-specific cases.

  7. Cross Calibration of TOMS, SBUV/2 and Sciamachy Radiances from Ground Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hillsenrath, Ernest; Ahmad, Ziauddin; Bhartia, Pawan K. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Verification of a stratospheric ozone recovery remains a high priority for environmental research and policy definition. Models predict an ozone recovery at a much lower rate than the measured depletion rate observed to date. Therefore improved precision of the satellite and ground ozone observing systems are required over the long term to verify recovery. We have shown that validation of radiances is the most effective means for correcting absolute accuracy and long term drifts of backscatter type satellite measurements. This method by-passes the algorithms used for both satellite and ground based measurements which are normally used to validate and correct the satellite data. Validation of radiances will also improve all higher level data products derived from the satellite observations. Backscatter algorithms suffer from several errors such as unrepresentative a-priori data and air mass factor corrections. Radiance comparisons employ forward models but are inherently more accurate and than inverse (retrieval) algorithms. A new method for satellite validation is planned which will compliment measurements from the existing ground-based networks. This method will employ very accurate comparisons between ground based zenith sky radiances and satellite nadir radiances. These comparisons will rely heavily on the experience derived from the Shuttle SBUV (SSBUV) program which provided a reference standard of radiance measurements for SBUV/2, TOMS, and GOME. This new measurement program, called "Skyrad", employs two well established capabilities at the Goddard Space Flight Center, 1) the SSBUV calibration facilities and 2) the radiative transfer codes used for the TOMS and SBUV/2 algorithms and their subsequent refinements. Radiative transfer calculations show that ground based zenith sky and satellite nadir backscatter ultraviolet comparisons can be made very accurately under certain viewing conditions. The Skyrad instruments (SSBUV, Brewer spectrophotometers, and possibly others) will be calibrated and maintained to a precision of a few tenths of a percent. Skyrad data will then enable long term calibration of upcoming satellite instruments such as QuickTOMS. SBUV/2s and SCIAMACHY with a high degree of precision. This technique can be further employed to monitor the performance of future instruments such as GOME-2, OMI, and OMPS. Initial ground observations taken from Goddard Space Flight Center compared with radiative transfer calculations has indicated the feasibility of this method.

  8. Evaluating Ultraviolet Radiation Exposures Determined from TOMS Satellite Data at Sites of Amphibian Declines in Central and South America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Middleton, Elizabeth M.; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Many amphibian species have experienced substantial population declines, or have disappeared altogether, during the last several decades at a number of amphibian census sites in Central and South America. This study addresses the use of satellite-derived trends in solar ultraviolet-B (UV-B; 280-320 nm) radiation exposures at these sites over the last two decades, and is intended to demonstrate a role for satellite observations in determining whether UV-B radiation is a contributing factor in amphibian declines. UV-B radiation levels at the Earth's surface were derived from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) satellite data, typically acquired daily since 1979. These data were used to calculate the daily erythemal (sunburning) UV-B, or UV-B(sub ery), exposures at the latitude, longitude, and elevation of each of 20 census sites. The annually averaged UV-B(sub ery) dose, as well as the maximum values, have been increasing in both Central and South America, with higher levels received at the Central American sites. The annually averaged UV-B(sub ery) exposures increased significantly from 1979-1998 at all 11 Central American sites examined (r(exp 2) = 0.60 - 0.79; P<=0.015), with smaller but significant increases at five of the nine South American sites (r(exp 2) = 0.24-0.42; P<=0.05). The contribution of the highest UV-B(sub ery) exposure levels (>= 6750 J/sq m*d) to the annual UV-B(sub ery) total has increased from approx. 5% to approx. 15% in Central America over the 19 year period, but actual daily exposures for each species are unknown. Synergy among UV-B radiation and other factors, especially those associated with alterations of water chemistry (e.g., acidification) in aqueous habitats is discussed. These findings justify further research concerning whether UV-B(sub ery) radiation plays a role in amphibian population declines and extinctions.

  9. Determination of the UV solar risk in Argentina with high-resolution maps calculated using TOMS ozone climatology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piacentini, Rubén D.; Cede, Alexander; Luccini, Eduardo; Stengel, Fernando

    2004-01-01

    The connection between ultraviolet (UV) radiation and various skin diseases is well known. In this work, we present the computer program "UVARG", developed in order to prevent the risk of getting sunburn for persons exposed to solar UV radiation in Argentina, a country that extends from low (tropical) to high southern hemisphere latitudes. The software calculates the so-called "erythemal irradiance", i.e., the spectral irradiance weighted by the McKinlay and Diffey action spectrum for erythema and integrated in wavelength. The erythemal irradiance depends mainly on the following geophysical parameters: solar elevation, total ozone column, surface altitude, surface albedo, total aerosol optical depth and Sun-Earth distance. Minor corrections are due to the variability in the vertical ozone, aerosol, pressure, humidity and temperature profiles and the extraterrestrial spectral solar UV irradiance. Key parameter in the software is a total ozone column climatology incorporating monthly averages, standard deviations and tendencies for the particular geographical situation of Argentina that was obtained from TOMS/NASA satellite data from 1978 to 2000. Different skin types are considered in order to determine the sunburn risk at any time of the day and any day of the year, with and without sunscreen protection. We present examples of the software for three different regions: the high altitude tropical Puna of Atacama desert in the North-West, Tierra del Fuego in the South when the ozone hole event overpasses and low summertime ozone conditions over Buenos Aires, the largest populated city in the country. In particular, we analyzed the maximum time for persons having different skin types during representative days of the year (southern hemisphere equinoxes and solstices). This work was made possible by the collaboration between the Argentine Skin Cancer Foundation, the Institute of Physics Rosario (CONICET-National University of Rosario, Argentina) and the Institute of Medical Physics, University of Innsbruck, Austria. With the teamwork of physicians and physicists, a scientifically reliable and easy-to-handle tool was developed to predict the risk of solar exposure in Argentina. It can be used by dermatologists as well as health authorities and educators in order to prevent health problems induced by solar UV radiation.

  10. Discover Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Discover Earth is a NASA-funded project for teachers of grades 5-12 who want to expand their knowledge of the Earth system, and prepare to become master teachers who promote Earth system science in their own schools, counties, and throughout their state. Participants from the following states are invited to apply: Connecticut, Delaware, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont, and Washington, DC. Teachers selected for the project participate in a two-week summer workshop conducted at the University of Maryland, College Park; develop classroom-ready materials during the workshop for broad dissemination; conduct a minimum of two peer training activities during the coming school year; and participate in other enrichment/education opportunities as available and desired. Discover Earth is a team effort that utilizes expertise from a range of contributors, and balances science content with hands-on classroom applications.

  11. Earth Rotation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickey, Jean O.

    1995-01-01

    The study of the Earth's rotation in space (encompassing Universal Time (UT1), length of day, polar motion, and the phenomena of precession and nutation) addresses the complex nature of Earth orientation changes, the mechanisms of excitation of these changes and their geophysical implications in a broad variety of areas. In the absence of internal sources of energy or interactions with astronomical objects, the Earth would move as a rigid body with its various parts (the crust, mantle, inner and outer cores, atmosphere and oceans) rotating together at a constant fixed rate. In reality, the world is considerably more complicated, as is schematically illustrated. The rotation rate of the Earth's crust is not constant, but exhibits complicated fluctuations in speed amounting to several parts in 10(exp 8) [corresponding to a variation of several milliseconds (ms) in the Length Of the Day (LOD) and about one part in 10(exp 6) in the orientation of the rotation axis relative to the solid Earth's axis of figure (polar motion). These changes occur over a broad spectrum of time scales, ranging from hours to centuries and longer, reflecting the fact that they are produced by a wide variety of geophysical and astronomical processes. Geodetic observations of Earth rotation changes thus provide insights into the geophysical processes illustrated, which are often difficult to obtain by other means. In addition, these measurements are required for engineering purposes. Theoretical studies of Earth rotation variations are based on the application of Euler's dynamical equations to the problem of finding the response of slightly deformable solid Earth to variety of surface and internal stresses.

  12. Earth materials and earth dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, K; Shankland, T.

    2000-11-01

    In the project ''Earth Materials and Earth Dynamics'' we linked fundamental and exploratory, experimental, theoretical, and computational research programs to shed light on the current and past states of the dynamic Earth. Our objective was to combine different geological, geochemical, geophysical, and materials science analyses with numerical techniques to illuminate active processes in the Earth. These processes include fluid-rock interactions that form and modify the lithosphere, non-linear wave attenuations in rocks that drive plate tectonics and perturb the earth's surface, dynamic recrystallization of olivine that deforms the upper mantle, development of texture in high-pressure olivine polymorphs that create anisotropic velocity regions in the convecting upper mantle and transition zone, and the intense chemical reactions between the mantle and core. We measured physical properties such as texture and nonlinear elasticity, equation of states at simultaneous pressures and temperatures, magnetic spins and bonding, chemical permeability, and thermal-chemical feedback to better characterize earth materials. We artificially generated seismic waves, numerically modeled fluid flow and transport in rock systems and modified polycrystal plasticity theory to interpret measured physical properties and integrate them into our understanding of the Earth. This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL).

  13. Probing recursion.

    PubMed

    Lobina, David J

    2014-11-01

    The experimental probing of recursion in human performance is faced with non-trivial problems. Here, I analyse three case studies from the literature and argue that they tell us little about the underlying mental processes at play within each of these domains: (a) the question of whether experimental participants employ recursive rules in parsing artificial strings of nonsense syllables; (b) the role of self-embedded structures in reasoning and general cognition; and (c) the reputed connection between structural features of a given object and the corresponding, recursive rules needed to represent/generate it. I then outline what a recursive process would actually look like and how one could go about probing its presence in human behaviour, concluding, however, that recursive processes in performance are very unlikely, at least as far as fast, mandatory, and automatic modular processes are concerned. PMID:24817314

  14. Digital Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de La Beaujardiere, J.

    2001-05-01

    Digital Earth (DE) seeks to make geospatial information broadly and easily available. Vast amounts of natural and cultural information are gathered about the Earth, but it is often difficult to find needed data, to share knowledge across disciplines, and to combine information from several sources. DE defines a framework for interoperability by selecting relevant open standards from the information technology community. These standards specify the technical means by which publishers can provide or sell their data, and by which client applications can find and access data in an automated fashion. The standardized DE framework enables many types of clients--from web browsers to museum kiosks to research-grade virtual environments--to use a common geospatial information infrastructure. Digital Earth can benefit Earth system education in general, and DLESE in particular, in several ways. First, educators, students and creators of instructional material will benefit from standardized access to georeferenced data. Secondly, educational lesson plans that focus on a region or aspect of the Earth can themselves be considered geospatial information resources that could be cataloged and retrieved through DE. Finally, general public knowledge about our planet will by increased by Digital Earth.

  15. Perirenal hemorrhage syndrome in market turkey toms: effect of management factors.

    PubMed

    Frank, R K; Noll, S L; el Halawani, M; Newman, J A; Halvorson, D A; Ruth, G R

    1990-01-01

    Differences in the overall mortality rates and mortality due to perirenal hemorrhage syndrome (PHS) were compared in large white Nicholas tom turkeys. The study evaluated the effects of 1) four different light and temperature treatments; 2) three feed additives proposed to have anti-stress effects (reserpine, acetylsalicylic acid, and increased calcium); 3) toe-clipping on mortality, various disease conditions, and production parameters. Mortality varied from 0.60% to 3.57% among groups. Increased room temperature (21 C), toe-clipping, step-up/step-down lighting, and dietary reserpine reduced the incidence of PHS as compared with lower room temperature (13 C), no toe-clipping, intermittent lighting (2 hours light, 4 hours dark), and no dietary reserpine. Dietary aspirin or elevated calcium levels had no effect on PHS incidence. Overall mortality was greatest in the warmer rooms. PMID:2282013

  16. Components of interannual ozone change based on Nimbus 7 TOMS data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hood, Lon L.; Mccormack, John P.

    1992-01-01

    A multiple regression statistical model is applied to estimate the latitude and seasonal dependences of the solar cycle, quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO), and anthropogenic trend components of stratospheric total ozone change using 13.2 years of Nimbus 7 TOMS data. The characteristics of the linear trend component are in agreement with earlier studies. The QBO regression coefficient is significantly different from zero at high southern latitudes in the Austral spring supporting earlier evidence that the Antarctic ozone depletion is modulated by the QBO. The existence of a solar cycle component is indicated by empirical studies of model residuals and by the approximate agreement of the derived global mean solar coefficient amplitude with photochemical calculations. Initial estimates for the latitude dependence of the solar coefficient suggest higher amplitudes with increasing latitude, especially in the Southern Hemisphere in spring. The statistical model predicts a return to more rapid ozone depletions during the next 4 years as solar minimum is approached.

  17. TOMS and SBUV Data: Comparison to 3D Chemical-Transport Model Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stolarski, Richard S.; Douglass, Anne R.; Steenrod, Steve; Frith, Stacey

    2003-01-01

    We have updated our merged ozone data (MOD) set using the TOMS data from the new version 8 algorithm. We then analyzed these data for contributions from solar cycle, volcanoes, QBO, and halogens using a standard statistical time series model. We have recently completed a hindcast run of our 3D chemical-transport model for the same years. This model uses off-line winds from the finite-volume GCM, a full stratospheric photochemistry package, and time-varying forcing due to halogens, solar uv, and volcanic aerosols. We will report on a parallel analysis of these model results using the same statistical time series technique as used for the MOD data.

  18. Epilogue on a Computer-optimized Remediation Design at Toms River New Jersey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinder, G. F.; Guarnaccia, J. F.

    2008-12-01

    The Ciba-Geigy site at Toms River New Jersey was one of the first to which optimal remedial design methodology was applied. A model was constructed of the site and calibrated against available data. The model was used in conjunction with an optimization algorithm to determine where remedial wells should be located and what pumping rates should be employed to minimize cost while assuring a suitable inward gradient around the perimeter of the plume. The optimal system was installed and implemented. The resulting response of the system is now compared to that forecast by the model. Engineering design modifications to the optimized pumping strategy have been made as a result of field observations.

  19. Trends in column ozone based on TOMS data - Dependence on month, latitude, and longitude

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niu, Xufeng; Frederick, John E.; Stein, Michael L.; Tiao, George C.

    1992-01-01

    On the basis of the TOMS satellite column ozone data in latitudes 70 deg S-70 deg N from November 1978 to May 1990, a statistical model is used to estimate the trends in ozone as a function of latitude, longitude, and month. The trends in the TOMS ozone data are highly seasonal and dependent on location. Near the equator, the estimated monthly trends are not significantly different from zero. For high latitudes, most of the estimated monthly trends are negative. In January, February, and March, there are some positive trend estimates in the western hemisphere around latitude 60 deg N. The most negative trends for these three months also appear in the high latitudes of the northern hemisphere. Starting in June, more negative trends appear in the latitudes 50 deg S-70 deg S than the trends in the rest of the world considered. A large depletion develops during the spring time (September to November) in the southern high-latitude region, and the area of peak ozone decline is moving eastward during the period. The largest negative trends (about -29 percent per decade) for the area considered in this study appear in October around the latitude 70 deg S and longitudes 20 deg W-100 deg W region. For the northern hemisphere, the year-round trend estimates for latitudes 30 deg N-70 deg N range from -0.96 percent to -7.43 percent per decade. In the latitudes 30 deg N-50 deg N, the winter trend estimates are more negative than those for the summer and the fall. However, this pattern did not hold for latitudes 50 deg N-70 deg N.

  20. From the External to the Internal: Behavior Clarifications Facilitate Theory of Mind (ToM) Development in Chinese Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Yanchun; Wang, Yijie; Luo, Rufan; Su, Yanjie

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated how Chinese children develop theory of mind (ToM) in a language environment with limited mental state talk that is rich in behavior discourse. In Study 1, 60 mothers shared a wordless storybook with their 3-4-year-olds. The children completed two false-belief tasks and the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Revised at…

  1. Language and ToM Development in Autism versus Asperger Syndrome: Contrasting Influences of Syntactic versus Lexical/Semantic Maturity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paynter, Jessica; Peterson, Candida

    2010-01-01

    Theory of mind (ToM) development by a sample of 63 children aged 5-12 years (24 with Asperger syndrome, 19 with high-functioning autism, and 20 age-matched typical developers) was assessed with a five-task false-belief battery in relation to both lexical (vocabulary) and syntactic (grammar) language skills. Contrary to some previous research, no…

  2. 'Apostates' and 'Uncle Tom's': Accusations of Betrayal in the History of Mixed Colleges in the 1960s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyhouse, Carol

    2002-01-01

    Explores reasons for the bitter controversy over coeducation in British universities. Focuses on male 'apostates' at the University of England (Bedford) women's college and female 'Uncle Tom's' at the University of Oxford. States politics and academic higher education relationships with each group were characterized by mistrust. (KDR)

  3. Seasonal characteristics of tropical ozone profiles using the SHADOZ ozonesonde data set: Comparisons with TOMS tropical ozone climatology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witte, J. C.; Thompson, A. M.

    2002-05-01

    Advances in tropospheric ozone data products being developed for tropical and subtropical regions using TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) and other satellites are motivating efforts to renew and expand the collection of balloon-borne ozonesonde observations. The SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere ADditional OZonesondes) project is a web-based archive established since 1998. Its' goals are to support validation of TOMS and SBUV (Solar Backscatter UV) satellite ozone measurements and to improve remote sensing techniques for estimating tropical and subtropical ozone. Profile data are taken from balloon-borne ozonesondes, currently at 11 stations coordinating weekly to bi-weekly launches. Station data are publically available at a central location via the internet: . Since the start of the project, the SHADOZ archive has accumulated over 1500 ozonesonde profiles. Data also includes measurements from various SHADOZ supported field campaigns, such as, the Indian Ocean Experiment (INDOEX), Sounding of Ozone and Water in the Equatorial Region (SOWER) and Aerosols99 Atlantic Cruise. Using data from the archive, profile climatologies from selected stations will be shown to 1/ characterize the variability of tropospheric tropical ozone among stations, 2/ illustrate the seasonal offsets with respect to the tropical profile used in the TOMS v.7 algorithm, and 3/ estimate the potential error in TOMS retrieval estimates of the tropospheric portion of the atmosphere.

  4. Profiles in Online Learning: A Series on Leadership--Tom Layton: Judo and the Art of Technology Innovation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danielson, Larry

    1998-01-01

    Profiles a high school technology teacher and creator of CyberSchool, a distance learning program of the Eugene (Oregon) School District. Discusses Tom Layton's education, early work experience, establishment of a high school English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) program, integration of computers into the classroom, reputation as a technology leader,…

  5. U.S. EPAs Technical Support for the Reich Farm (Toms River, NJ) Superfund Site Remediation

    EPA Science Inventory

    PowerPoint slide file that gives a brief history of the SAN Trimer contamination in Toms River, NJ as well as the EPA's provided technical support, specifically the development and application of the Provisional Peer-Reviewed Toxicity Value (PPRTV) assessment for SAN Trimer.

  6. Seasonal Characteristics of Tropical Ozone Profiles using the SHADOZ Ozonesonde Data Set: Comparisons with TOMS Tropical Ozone Climatology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witte, J. C.; Thompson, A. M.; Bhartia, P. K. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Advances in tropospheric ozone data products being developed for tropical and subtropical regions using TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) and other satellites are motivating efforts to renew and expand the collection of balloon-borne ozonesonde observations. The SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere ADditional OZonesondes) project is a web-based archive established since 1998. It's goals are to support validation of TOMS and SBUV (Solar Backscatter UV) satellite ozone measurements and to improve remote sensing techniques for estimating tropical and subtropical ozone. Profile data are taken from balloon-borne ozonesondes, currently at 11 stations coordinating weekly to bi-weekly launches. Station data are publically available at a central location via the internet: . Since the start of the project, the SHADOZ archive has accumulated over 1500 ozonesonde profiles. Data also includes measurements from various SHADOZ supported field campaigns, such as, the Indian Ocean Experiment (INDOEX), Sounding of Ozone and Water in the Equatorial Region (SOWER) and Aerosols99 Atlantic Cruise. Using data from the archive, profile climatologies from selected stations will be shown to 1/characterize the variability of tropospheric tropical ozone among stations, 2/illustrate the seasonal offsets with respect to the tropical profile used in the TOMS v7 algorithm, and 3/estimate the potential error in TOMS retrieval estimates of the tropospheric portion of the atmosphere.

  7. Toward the problem of oil and gas bearing capacity of the East Tom-Kolyvan structural zone (Western Siberia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stolbova, N. F.; Maerkov, P. O.

    2014-08-01

    The vast depression in the east Tom-Kolyvan folded zone (West Siberia) has been identified by the geophysical data. The well which uncovered 4000 m deep profile of the Jurassic and Paleozoic deposits has been drilled. The relevance of the research is the oil\\gas-bearing capacity evaluation of the discovered depression in this West Siberia area.

  8. U.S. EPA’s Technical Support for the Reich Farm (Toms River, NJ) Superfund Site Remediation

    EPA Science Inventory

    PowerPoint slide file that gives a brief history of the SAN Trimer contamination in Toms River, NJ as well as the EPA's provided technical support, specifically the development and application of the Provisional Peer-Reviewed Toxicity Value (PPRTV) assessment for SAN Trimer.

  9. From the External to the Internal: Behavior Clarifications Facilitate Theory of Mind (ToM) Development in Chinese Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Yanchun; Wang, Yijie; Luo, Rufan; Su, Yanjie

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated how Chinese children develop theory of mind (ToM) in a language environment with limited mental state talk that is rich in behavior discourse. In Study 1, 60 mothers shared a wordless storybook with their 3-4-year-olds. The children completed two false-belief tasks and the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Revised at

  10. Water quality study at the Congaree Swamp National monument of Myers Creek, Reeves Creek and Toms Creek. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Rikard, M.

    1991-11-01

    The Congaree Swamp National Monument is one of the last significant near virgin tracts of bottom land hardwood forests in the Southeast United States. The study documents a water quality monitoring program on Myers Creek, Reeves Creek and Toms Creek. Basic water quality parameters were analyzed. High levels of aluminum and iron were found, and recommendations were made for further monitoring.

  11. Active Near Earth Asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenniskens, Peter

    2015-08-01

    Past activity from Near Earth Asteroids is recorded in the meteoroid streams that cause our meteor showers. Automated meteoroid orbit surveys by photographic, low-light video, specular radar, and head-echo radar reflections are providing the first maps of meteor shower activity at different particle sizes. There are distinct differences in particle size distributions among streams. The underlaying mechanisms that created these streams are illuminated: fragmentation from spin-up or thermal stresses, meteoroid ejection by water vapor drag, and ejection of icy particles by CO and CO2 sublimation. The distribution of the meteoroid orbital elements probe the subsequent evolution by planetary perturbations and sample the range of dynamical processes to which Near Earth Asteroids are exposed. The non-stream "sporadic" meteors probe early stages in the evolution from meteoroid streams into the zodiacal dust cloud. We see that the lifetime of large meteoroids is generally not limited by collisions. Results obtained by the CAMS video survey of meteoroid orbits are compared to those from other orbit surveys. Since October 2010, over 200,000 meteoroid orbits have been measured. First results from an expansion into the southern hemisphere are also presented, as are first results from the measurement of main element compositions. Among the many streams detected so far, the Geminid and Sextantid showers stand out by having a relatively high particle density and derive from parent bodies that appear to have originated in the main belt.

  12. Earth: Earth Science and Health

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maynard, Nancy G.

    2001-01-01

    A major new NASA initiative on environmental change and health has been established to promote the application of Earth science remote sensing data, information, observations, and technologies to issues of human health. NASA's Earth Sciences suite of Earth observing instruments are now providing improved observations science, data, and advanced technologies about the Earth's land, atmosphere, and oceans. These new space-based resources are being combined with other agency and university resources, data integration and fusion technologies, geographic information systems (GIS), and the spectrum of tools available from the public health community, making it possible to better understand how the environment and climate are linked to specific diseases, to improve outbreak prediction, and to minimize disease risk. This presentation is an overview of NASA's tools, capabilities, and research advances in this initiative.

  13. Comparisons Between Ground Measurements of Broadband UV Irradiance (300-380 nm) and TOMS UV Estimates at Moscow for 1979-2000

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yurova, Alla Y.; Krotkov, Nicholay A.; Herman, Jay R.; Bhartia, P. K. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We show the comparisons between ground-based measurements of spectrally integrated (300 nm to 380 nm) ultraviolet (UV) irradiance with satellite estimates from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) total ozone and reflectivity data for the whole period of TOMS measurements (1979-2000) over the Meteorological Observatory of Moscow State University (MO MSU), Moscow, Russia. Several aspects of the comparisons are analyzed, including effects of cloudiness, aerosol, and snow cover. Special emphasis is given to the effect of different spatial and temporal averaging of ground-based data when comparing with low-resolution satellite measurements (TOMS footprint area 50-200 sq km). The comparisons in cloudless scenes with different aerosol loading have revealed TOMS irradiance overestimates from +5% to +20%. A-posteriori correction of the TOMS data accounting for boundary layer aerosol absorption (single scattering albedo of 0.92) eliminates the bias for cloud-free conditions. The single scattering albedo was independently verified using CIMEL sun and sky-radiance measurements at MO MSU in September 2001. The mean relative difference between TOMS UV estimates and ground UV measurements mainly lies within 1 10% for both snow-free and snow period with a tendency to TOMS overestimation in snow-free period especially at overcast conditions when the positive bias reaches 15-17%. The analysis of interannual UV variations shows quite similar behavior for both TOMS and ground measurements (correlation coefficient r=0.8). No long-term trend in the annual mean bias was found for both clear-sky and all-sky conditions with snow and without snow. Both TOMS and ground data show positive trend in UV irradiance between 1979 and 2000. The UV trend is attributed to decreases in both cloudiness and aerosol optical thickness during the late 1990's over Moscow region. However, if the analyzed period is extended to include pre-TOMS era (1968-2000 period), no trend in ground UV irradiance is detected.

  14. Gravity Probe B Assembled

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    In this photo, the Gravity Probe B (GP-B) space vehicle is being assembled at the Sunnyvale, California location of the Lockheed Martin Corporation. The GP-B is the relativity experiment developed at Stanford University to test two extraordinary predictions of Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity. The experiment will measure, very precisely, the expected tiny changes in the direction of the spin axes of four gyroscopes contained in an Earth-orbiting satellite at a 400-mile altitude. So free are the gyroscopes from disturbance that they will provide an almost perfect space-time reference system. They will measure how space and time are very slightly warped by the presence of the Earth, and, more profoundly, how the Earth's rotation very slightly drags space-time around with it. These effects, though small for the Earth, have far-reaching implications for the nature of matter and the structure of the Universe. GP-B is among the most thoroughly researched programs ever undertaken by NASA. This is the story of a scientific quest in which physicists and engineers have collaborated closely over many years. Inspired by their quest, they have invented a whole range of technologies that are already enlivening other branches of science and engineering. Launched April 20, 2004 , the GP-B program was managed for NASA by the Marshall Space Flight Center. Development of the GP-B is the responsibility of Stanford University along with major subcontractor Lockheed Martin Corporation. (Image credit to Russ Underwood, Lockheed Martin Corporation).

  15. Plan for future study of the deep Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Subir K.; Merrill, Ronald T.

    We would like members of AGU's Geomagnetism and Paleomagnetism Section to start thinking how the discipline can contribute to interdisciplinary and inter-institution projects under a Cooperative Study of the Earth's Deep Interior (CSEDI) umbrella. About 100 geophysicists and geochemists took part in a workshop from September 11-12, 1992, at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, to discuss and approve a plan for a nationwide CSEDI.Starting with the 1991 Vienna IUGG meeting, a ten-member ad hoc group led by Tom Jordan of MIT, Dave Loper of the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Institute, Tallahassee, Fla., and Rick O'Connell of Harvard University met four times to devise a mechanism to encourage scientists from different disciplines within the Earth sciences to focus their efforts on solving the major unresolved problems related to the deep structure, energetics, and dynamics of the deep Earth, problems that express themselves through plate tectonics and other surface observations.

  16. Scorched Earth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monastersky, Richard

    2007-01-01

    For the past three years, leading scientists from more than 40 countries have been conducting a physical of the planet. They have monitored its vital signs, probed its parts, taken its temperature, measured its bodily fluids. This article deals with the global-warming report for the United Nations released by a panel of 1,200 scientists at a news

  17. Scorched Earth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monastersky, Richard

    2007-01-01

    For the past three years, leading scientists from more than 40 countries have been conducting a physical of the planet. They have monitored its vital signs, probed its parts, taken its temperature, measured its bodily fluids. This article deals with the global-warming report for the United Nations released by a panel of 1,200 scientists at a news…

  18. Comparison of Landsat-7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) and Earth Observing One (EO-1) Advanced Land Imager

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pedelty, Jeffrey A.; Morisette, Jeffrey T.; Smith, James A.

    2004-01-01

    We compare images from the Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) sensor on Landsat-7 and the Advanced Land Imager (ALI) instrument on Earth Observing One (EO-1) over a test site in Rochester, New York. The site contains a variety of features, ranging from water of varying depths, deciduous/coniferous forest, and grass fields, to urban areas. Nearly coincident cloud-free images were collected one minute apart on 25 August 2001. We also compare images of a forest site near Howland, Maine, that were collected on 7 September, 2001. We atmospherically corrected each pair of images with the Second Simulation of the Satellite Signal in the Solar Spectrum (6S) atmosphere model, using aerosol optical thickness and water vapor column density measured by in situ Cimel sun photometers within the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET), along with ozone density derived from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) on the Earth Probe satellite. We present true-color composites from each instrument that show excellent qualitative agreement between the multispectral sensors, along with grey-scale images that demonstrate a significantly improved ALI panchromatic band. We quantitatively compare ALI and ETM+ reflectance spectra of a grassy field in Rochester and find < or equal to 6% differences in the visible/near infrared and approx. 2% differences in the short wave infrared. Spectral comparisons of forest sites in Rochester and Howland yield similar percentage agreement except for band 1, which has very low reflectance. Principal component analyses and comparison of normalized difference vegetation index histograms for each sensor indicate that the ALI is able to reproduce the information content in the ETM+ but with superior signal-to-noise performance due to its increased 12-bit quantization.

  19. Digital Earth - A sustainable Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahavir

    2014-02-01

    All life, particularly human, cannot be sustainable, unless complimented with shelter, poverty reduction, provision of basic infrastructure and services, equal opportunities and social justice. Yet, in the context of cities, it is believed that they can accommodate more and more people, endlessly, regardless to their carrying capacity and increasing ecological footprint. The 'inclusion', for bringing more and more people in the purview of development is often limited to social and economic inclusion rather than spatial and ecological inclusion. Economic investment decisions are also not always supported with spatial planning decisions. Most planning for a sustainable Earth, be at a level of rural settlement, city, region, national or Global, fail on the capacity and capability fronts. In India, for example, out of some 8,000 towns and cities, Master Plans exist for only about 1,800. A chapter on sustainability or environment is neither statutorily compulsory nor a norm for these Master Plans. Geospatial technologies including Remote Sensing, GIS, Indian National Spatial Data Infrastructure (NSDI), Indian National Urban Information Systems (NUIS), Indian Environmental Information System (ENVIS), and Indian National GIS (NGIS), etc. have potential to map, analyse, visualize and take sustainable developmental decisions based on participatory social, economic and social inclusion. Sustainable Earth, at all scales, is a logical and natural outcome of a digitally mapped, conceived and planned Earth. Digital Earth, in fact, itself offers a platform to dovetail the ecological, social and economic considerations in transforming it into a sustainable Earth.

  20. Earth Algebra.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaufele, Christopher; Zumoff, Nancy

    Earth Algebra is an entry level college algebra course that incorporates the spirit of the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) Curriculum and Evaluation Standards for School Mathematics at the college level. The context of the course places mathematics at the center of one of the major current concerns of the world. Through…

  1. Earth meandering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asadiyan, H.; Zamani, A.

    2009-04-01

    In this paper we try to put away current Global Tectonic Model to look the tectonic evolution of the earth from new point of view. Our new dynamic model is based on study of river meandering (RM) which infer new concept as Earth meandering(EM). In a universal gravitational field if we consider a clockwise spiral galaxy model rotate above Ninety East Ridge (geotectonic axis GA), this system with applying torsion field (likes geomagnetic field) in side direction from Rocky Mt. (west geotectonic pole WGP) to Tibetan plateau TP (east geotectonic pole EGP),it seems that pulled mass from WGP and pushed it in EGP due to it's rolling dynamics. According to this idea we see in topographic map that North America and Green land like a tongue pulled from Pacific mouth toward TP. Actually this system rolled or meander the earth over itself fractaly from small scale to big scale and what we see in the river meandering and Earth meandering are two faces of one coin. River transport water and sediments from high elevation to lower elevation and also in EM, mass transport from high altitude-Rocky Mt. to lower altitude Himalaya Mt. along 'S' shape geodetic line-optimum path which connect points from high altitude to lower altitude as kind of Euler Elastica(EE). These curves are responsible for mass spreading (source) and mass concentration (sink). In this regard, tiltness of earth spin axis plays an important role, 'S' are part of sigmoidal shape which formed due to intersection of Earth rolling with the Earth glob and actual feature of transform fault and river meandering. Longitudinal profile in mature rivers as a part of 'S' curve also is a kind of EE. 'S' which bound the whole earth is named S-1(S order 1) and cube corresponding to this which represent Earth fracturing in global scale named C-1(cube order 1 or side vergence cube SVC), C-1 is a biggest cycle of spiral polygon, so it is not completely closed and it has separation about diameter of C-7. Inside SVC we introduce cone vergence cube (CVC or geotectonic equator GE) which rotate 45 degree counterclockwise with respect to SVC. Every cube from big scale to small scale fractalize in order of 23 and every '8' shape from big scale to small scale also fractalize in the same order. Three dimensional and fractoscopic imagination about understanding the changing on earth is very important so we should imagine '8' as curved surface, sea floor spreading happened in maximum curvature of these surfaces. '8' formed from pair 'S' string with opposite direction. '8' oscillate in Pole-Pole and Side-Side direction and have saddle geometry with two 'U' path along perpendicular saddle (e.g. Lut/Jazmurian and Helmand/Mashkal basin in Iran actually intersection of this saddle shape with the earth surface and Iceland /Black Sea and CapeVerde/Victoria Lake are also In/Out (small scale polygon) of 'U' shape conduit which followed axial saddle of Side-'S-2' and Okhotsk Sea /Balkhash Lake followed axial saddle conduit of Pole-'S-2' actually intersection of this perpendicular conduit with surface make spot-like-lakes/volcanoes or basin. Global EM in Side-S-1 bounded compression region-TP inside and tension region-East African Rift offside).This is a interesting competing between two kinematic geometry - spherical and isometrical geometry by using the interaction of them we can analyze the earth face in past, present and future apart of the forces that cause this face. C-1 in two dimensional look like six sided big tent which speared over Tibet and main rod driven along GA. Pair S-1 curve. have seven component(fold) and six segment in between,S-7 exactly located on TP(center of S-1). Between two successive fold we have complex geology(e.g. eastern Iran and Afghanistan)mass dragged from North America and Siberian and accumulated gradually during six step in Earth Foundation(Tibet),S-7 bounded Takla Makan Desert (in smaller loop) and TP (in bigger loop) S-7 alter the earth balance and responsible for earth disturbing, another sample of 'S' curve we see around Australia and Kermadec/Tonga Trench, Aleutian ridge and Mackenzie Mt. and central Iran which are well obvious in topographic map, we find many samples converge in to this unified model.

  2. Bimodal magnetic-fluorescent probes for bioimaging.

    PubMed

    Jańczewski, Dominik; Zhang, Yan; Das, Gautom Kumar; Yi, Dong Kee; Padmanabhan, Parasuraman; Bhakoo, Kishore K; Tan, Timothy Thatt Yang; Selvan, Subramanian Tamil

    2011-07-01

    Fluorescent optical probes have been intensively used in the area of bio-imaging. In this review article, we describe the recent advancements in the synthesis and application of bimodal magnetic-fluorescent probes for bioimaging. The bimodal probes consist of fluorescent [semiconducting quantum dots (e.g., CdSe/ZnS) or rare-earth doped (e.g., NaYF(4) :Yb,Er)] nanoparticles (NPs) and magnetic (iron oxide or gadolinium based) NPs for optical and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. PMID:20734412

  3. The Radiation Belt Storm Probes - Duration: 3 minutes, 26 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Radiation Belt Storm Probe mission (RBSP) will explore the Van Allen Radiation Belts in the Earth's magnetosphere. The charge particles in these regions can be hazardous to both spacecraft and ...

  4. Dr. Tom Chalmers, 1917-1995: the tribulations of a trialist. Interview by Malcolm Maclure.

    PubMed

    Chalmers, T C

    1996-10-01

    This article is the second part of an interview Dr. Malcolm Maclure had with Dr. Thomas Chalmers shortly before Chalmers' death late in 1995. It probes his role as a champion of randomized clinical trials. PMID:8837551

  5. Evidence of Stratosphere-to-Troposphere Transport Within a Mesoscale Model and TOMS Total Ozone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olsen, Mark A.; Stanford, John L.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We present evidence for stratospheric mass transport into, and remaining in, the troposphere in an intense midlatitude cyclone. Mesoscale forecast model analysis fields from the Mesoscale Analysis and Prediction System (MAPS) were compared with total ozone observations from the Total Ozone Measurement Spectrometer (TOMS). Coupled with parcel back-trajectory calculations, the analyses suggest two mechanisms contributed to the mass exchange: (1) A region of dynamical ly-induced exchange occurred on the cyclone's southern edge. Parcels originally in the stratosphere crossed the jet core and experienced dilution by turbulent mixing with tropospheric air. (2) Diabatic effects reduced parcel potential vorticity (PV) for trajectories traversing precipitation regions, resulting in a "PV-hole" signature in the cyclone center. Air with lower-stratospheric values of ozone and water vapor was left in the troposphere. The strength of the latter process may be atypical. These results, combined with other research, suggest that precipitation-induced diabatic effects can significantly modify, (either decreasing or increasing) parcel potential vorticity, depending on parcel trajectory configuration with respect to jet core and maximum heating regions. In addition, these results underscore the importance of using not only PV but also chemical constituents for diagnoses of stratosphere-troposphere exchange (STE).

  6. Toms Creek IGCC Demonstration Project. Comprehensive report to Congress, Clean coal technology program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    In response to the PON, 33 proposals were received by DOE in May 1991. One of the nine is a project proposed by Tampella Power Corporation (Tampella) and Coastal Power Production Company (Coastal) for the design, construction, and operation of a pressurized, air-blown, fluidized-bed, integrated gasification, combined-cycle, (IGCC) demonstration project. The project, entitled the Toms Creek IGCC Demonstration Project, will consume 430 tons per day of bituminous coal and generate 55 megawatts (MK) of power for the electric grid and steam for use in a nearby coal preparation plant. The project site is located near Coeburn in Wise County, Virginia. The project, including the demonstration phase, will last 99 months at a total cost of $196,570,000. DOE`S share of the project cost will be 48.3%, or $95,000,000. The objective of the proposed project is to demonstrate an advanced IGCC system based upon the air-blown, pressurized fluidized-bed U-Gas gasifier developed by the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) with in-bed desulfurization using a calcium-based sorbent and an external zinc titanate sulfur removal system.

  7. Relationship of osteomyelitis and associated soft-tissue lesions with green liver discoloration in tom turkeys.

    PubMed

    Clark, S R; Barnes, H J; Bickford, A A; Chin, R P; Droual, R

    1991-01-01

    Tom turkey carcasses with partial green discolored livers (n = 191) or normal livers (n = 198) were examined for osteomyelitis and/or associated soft-tissue lesions. Seventy-nine turkeys with green discolored livers had osteomyelitis and/or associated soft-tissue lesions (41.4%), including 53 with just osteomyelitis (27.7%), while 112 (59.6%) had no osteomyelitis and/or soft-tissue lesions. Only five turkeys (2.5%) with normal livers had osteomyelitis. Discolored livers were significantly heavier, but carcasses with discolored livers weighed significantly less than carcasses with normal livers. Bacteria were isolated from 54 of 61 osteomyelitis lesions (88.5%); most frequently staphylococci (50.8%) followed by Escherichia coli (14.8%), Streptococcus sp. (13.1%), and occasional other organisms. Most associated soft-tissue lesions and livers were sterile (74.7%). These finding indicate that although turkey carcasses with green discolored livers are more likely to have osteomyelitis and/or associated soft-tissue lesions than turkey carcasses with normal livers, there is also an approximately equal chance they will not have these lesions. PMID:2029248

  8. Negotiating international bioethics: a response to Tom Beauchamp and Ruth Macklin.

    PubMed

    Baker, Robert

    1998-12-01

    Can the bioethical theories that have served American bioethics so well, serve international bioethics as well? In two papers in the previous issue of the Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal, I contend that the form of principlist fundamentalism endorsed by American bioethicists like Tom Beauchamp and Ruth Macklin will not play on an international stage. Deploying techniques of postmodern scholarship, I argue that principlist fundamentalism justifies neither the condemnation of the Nazi doctors at Nuremberg, nor, as the Report of the Advisory Committee on the Human Radiation Experiments (ACHRE) demonstrates, condemnation of Cold War radiation researchers. Principlist fundamentalism thus appears to be philosophy bankrupt. In this issue of the Journal, Beauchamp and Macklin reject this claim, arguing that I have misread the ACHRE report and misunderstood Nazism. They also argue that the form of post-postmodern negotiated human rights theory that I proffer is adequate only insofar as it is itself really fundamentalist; insofar as I take postmodernism seriously, however, I mire international bioethics in relativism. In this response, I reaffirm my anti-fundamentalism, provide further evidence in support of my reading of the ACHRE report, and defend my post-postmodern version of rights theory. I also develop criteria for a minimally adequate theoretical framework for international bioethics. PMID:11657321

  9. Test-retest reliability and validity of the Sniffin' TOM odor memory test.

    PubMed

    Croy, Ilona; Zehner, Cora; Larsson, Maria; Zucco, Gesualdo M; Hummel, Thomas

    2015-03-01

    Few attempts have been made to develop an olfactory test that captures episodic retention of olfactory information. Assessment of episodic odor memory is of particular interest in aging and in the cognitively impaired as both episodic memory deficits and olfactory loss have been targeted as reliable hallmarks of cognitive decline and impending dementia. Here, 96 healthy participants (18-92 years) and an additional 19 older people with mild cognitive impairment were tested (73-82 years). Participants were presented with 8 common odors with intentional encoding instructions that were followed by a yes-no recognition test. After recognition completion, participants were asked to identify all odors by means of free or cued identification. A retest of the odor memory test (Sniffin' TOM = test of odor memory) took place 17 days later. The results revealed satisfactory test-retest reliability (0.70) of odor recognition memory. Both recognition and identification performance were negatively affected by age and more pronounced among the cognitively impaired. In conclusion, the present work presents a reliable, valid, and simple test of episodic odor recognition memory that may be used in clinical groups where both episodic memory deficits and olfactory loss are prevalent preclinically such as Alzheimer's disease. PMID:25550307

  10. Petrology of ultramafic nodules from São Tomé Island, Cameroon Volcanic Line (oceanic sector)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caldeira, R.; Munhá, J. M.

    2002-05-01

    Ultramafic xenoliths were found in recent alkali basalts from São Tomé Island. These include spinel peridotites (lherzolites, harzburgites and dunites) and pyroxenites (orthopyroxenites and clinopyroxenites). Textures and mineral compositions indicate that pyroxenites originated from crystal/liquid separation processes operating on magmas similar to those giving rise to their present host rocks whereas spinel peridotite xenoliths had an accidental origin; Fo (>89) and Ni (>0.36 wt.%) contents in olivines, Mg# (91-95) of orthopyroxenes and low Ti in clinopyroxene (primary crystals: TiO 2<0.06 wt.%) and in spinel (TiO 2<0.1 wt.%) are within the range reported for abyssal peridotites, indicating São Tomé spinel peridotites represent refractory residues of melting. Nevertheless, the lack of correlation between mineral chemistry and modal composition suggests that spinel peridotite xenoliths are not simple residues and were affected by infiltration of fluid/melts within the mantle. The wide temperature range obtained for spinel peridotites (700 to >1150 °C) is compatible with a long period of pre-entrainment cooling supporting Fitton's [Tectonophysics 94 (1983) 473] hypothesis that proposes oceanic lithosphere uprising in the Cameroon Volcanic Line prior to the initiation of the current thermal regime, related to São Tomé magmatism. The association of upper mantle (peridotite) xenoliths with igneous cumulates (pyroxenites) suggests that the spinel peridotite suite originated in the uppermost mantle above the São Tomé magma storage zone(s), probably in a region of high strain rate, near the boundary between the mantle and the overlying oceanic crust.

  11. TOMS ozone data compared at mesoscale resolution to tropopause heights from the AVE radiosonde network and to VAS radiances over the south-central United States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chesters, Dennis; Uccellini, Louis; Larko, David

    1987-01-01

    Observations from 1982 are being compared between the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS), the Atmospheric Variability Experiment (AVE), and the VISSR Atmospheric Sounder (VAS) across Texas and Oklahoma. TOMS data show a significant ozone maximum over northeastern Texas. AVE radiosonde analysis shows tropopause heights with the highest pressure (lowest altitudes) over central Oklahoma accompanied by a mid-level jet across northern Mexico exiting above the Texas-Gulf coast. Corresponding VAS radiances show a dry slot in the middle tropopause across central Texas accompanied by a secondary slot over Oklahoma. The maxima are separated by 100 to 500 km. The impact of TOMS data on tropopause analysis is preliminarily seen as insignificant because TOMS data is not registered with respect to AVE tropopause heights.

  12. The early Earth Observing System reference handbook: Earth Science and Applications Division missions, 1990-1997

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Prior to the launch of the Earth Observing System (EOS) series, NASA will launch and operate a wide variety of new earth science satellites and instruments, as well as undertake several efforts collecting and using the data from existing and planned satellites from other agencies and nations. These initiatives will augment the knowledge base gained from ongoing Earth Science and Applications Division (ESAD) programs. This volume describes three sets of ESAD activities -- ongoing exploitation of operational satellite data, research missions with upcoming launches between now and the first launch of EOS, and candidate earth probes.

  13. Ancient impact structures on modern continental shelves: The Chesapeake Bay, Montagnais, and Toms Canyon craters, Atlantic margin of North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Poag, C. Wylie; Plescia, J.B.; Molzer, P.C.

    2002-01-01

    Three ancient impact craters (Chesapeake Bay - 35.7 Ma; Toms Canyon - 35.7 Ma; Montagnais - 51 Ma) and one multiring impact basin (Chicxulub - 65 Ma) are currently known to be buried beneath modern continental shelves. All occur on the passive Atlantic margin of North America in regions extensively explored by seismic reflection surveys in the search for oil and gas reserves. We limit our discussion herein to the three youngest structures. These craters were created by submarine impacts, which produced many structural and morphological features similar in construction, composition, and variability to those documented in well-preserved subaerial and planetary impact craters. The subcircular Chesapeake Bay (diameter 85 km) and ovate Montagnais (diameter 45-50 km) structures display outer-rim scarps, annular troughs, peak rings, inner basins, and central peaks similar to those incorporated in the widely cited conceptual model of complex impact craters. These craters differ in several respects from the model, however. For example, the Montagnais crater lacks a raised lip on the outer rim, the Chesapeake Bay crater displays only small remnants of a raised lip, and both craters contain an unusually thick body of impact breccia. The subtriangular Toms Canyon crater (diameter 20-22 km), on the other hand, contains none of the internal features of a complex crater, nor is it typical of a simple crater. It displays a prominent raised lip on the outer rim, but the lip is present only on the western side of the crater. In addition, each of these craters contains some distinct features, which are not present in one or both of the others. For example, the central peak at Montagnais rises well above the elevation of the outer rim, whereas at Chesapeake Bay, the outer rim is higher than the central peak. The floor of the Toms Canyon crater is marked by parallel deep troughs and linear ridges formed of sedimentary rocks, whereas at Chesapeake Bay, the crater floor contains concentric faults and compression ridges formed in rocks of the crystalline basement. The Chesapeake Bay crater is distinguished further by its cluster of at least 23 adjacent secondary craters. The North American tektite strewn field, a widespread deposit of distal ejecta, is thought to be derived from the Chesapeake Bay impact, perhaps with a small contribution from the Toms Canyon impact. No ejecta field is known to be associated with the Montagnais impact. No immediate major extinction event is directly linked to any of these three impacts. There is evidence, however, that the Chesapeake Bay and Toms Canyon impacts helped initiate a long-term pulse of warm global climate, whose eventual dissipation coincided with an early Oligocene mass extinction event, 2 Ma after the impacts.

  14. Initial estimate of NOAA-9 SBUV/2 total ozone drift: Based on comparison with re-calibrated TOMS measurements and pair justification of SBUV/2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wellemeyer, C. G.; Taylor, S. L.; Gu, X. U.; Mcpeters, Richard D.; Hudson, R. D.

    1990-01-01

    Newly recalibrated version 6 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) data are used as a reference measurement in a comparison of monthly means of total ozone in 10 degree latitude zones from SBUV/2 and the nadir measurements from TOMS. These comparisons indicate a roughly linear long-term drift in SBUV/2 total ozone relative to TOMS of about 2.5 Dobson units per year at the equator over the first three years of SBUV/2. The pari justification technique is also applied to the SBUV/2 measurements in a manner similar to that used for SBUV and TOMS. The higher solar zenith angles associated with the afternoon orbit of NOAA-9 and the large changes in solar zenith angle associated with its changing equator crossing time degrade the accuracy of the pair justification method relative to its application to SBUV and TOMS, but the results are consistent with the SBUV/2-TOMS comparisons, and show a roughly linear drift in SBUV/2 of 2.5 to 4.5 Dobson units per year in equatorial ozone.

  15. Early evolution of a stratospheric volcanic eruption cloud as observed with TOMS and AVHRR

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schneider, D.J.; Rose, William I., Jr.; Coke, L.R.; Bluth, G.J.S.; Sprod, I.E.; Krueger, A.J.

    1999-01-01

    This paper is a detailed study of remote sensing data from the total ozone mapping spectrometer (TOMS) and the advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) satellite detectors, of the 1982 eruption of El Chicho??n, Mexico. The volcanic cloud/atmosphere interactions in the first four days of this eruption were investigated by combining ultraviolet retrievals to estimate the mass of sulfur dioxide in the volcanic cloud [Krueger et al., 1995] with thermal infrared retrievals of the size, optical depth, and mass of fine-grained (1-10 ??m radius) volcanic ash [Wen and Rose, 1994]. Our study provides the first direct evidence of gravitational separation of ash from a stratospheric, gas-rich, plinian eruption column and documents the marked differences in residence times of volcanic ash and sulfur dioxide in volcanic clouds. The eruption column reached as high as 32 km [Carey and Sigurdsson, 1986] and was injected into an atmosphere with a strong wind shear, which allowed for an observation of the separation of sulfur dioxide and volcanic ash. The upper, more sulfur dioxide-rich part of the cloud was transported to the west in the stratosphere, while the fine-grained ash traveled to the south in the troposphere. The mass of sulfur dioxide released was estimated at 7.1 ?? 109 kg with the mass decreasing by approximately 4% 1 day after the peak. The mass of fine-grained volcanic ash detected was estimated at 6.5 ?? 109 kg, amounting to about 0.7% of the estimated mass of the ash which fell out in the mapped ash blanket close to the volcano. Over the following days, 98% of this remaining fine ash was removed from the volcanic cloud, and the effective radius of ash in the volcanic cloud decreased from about 8 ??m to about 4 ??m. Copyright 1999 by the American Geophysical Union.

  16. Ecologization of water-land property matters on the territory of the Tom lower course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, V. K.; Kozina, M. V.; Levak, Yu Yu; Shvagrukova, E. V.

    2016-03-01

    In the present paper the water-land property complex is considered as a strategic resource of the city development. The formulated question is expounded through the example of water-land property complex usage on the territory of the Tom lower course for land-use planning and developing the systems of water recourses management and land tenure. Consequences of liquid radioactive waste (LRW) landfilling are investigated in terms of arable farming. Also, forming a water budget of the soils spread on the area of the Tomsk underground water supply cone of depression and its role in the development of agricultural industry are studied. The main aspect of the analysis is the incorporation of social, economic, and ecological requirements for the system of life-supporting branches of municipal economy and social services. As far as the system of land tax payments plays an important role in land property complex management, the common issues and tendencies are specified in the paper. These problems are concerned with the inadequate incorporation of an ecological constituent in the methods of cadastral valuation of lands, as well as the situation of the narrow area of its results usage in the Russian Federation. Natural factors (hydrological, territorial, geological (geomorphologic) territory conditions) are combined by the authors into a special group. These factors should be reflected in the results of cadastral valuation. Also, in order to protect the interests of water consumers, it is offered to establish the Water Consumers Association based on the international experience of such countries as Spain and Uzbekistan.

  17. Tom Kibble and the early universe as the ultimate high energy experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turok, Neil

    2014-02-01

    Tom Kibble pioneered the idea that there were one or more symmetry breaking phase transitions in the very early universe, at which defects like monopoles, strings and domain walls would have formed. In the context of grand unified theories, or their extensions, this idea remains compelling: observing these defects would be one of the very few ways of directly confirming the theories. In contrast, inflationary theory invoked a strongly supercooled transition driving a period of exponential expansion which would sweep all such defects away. If inflation terminated slowly, quantum vacuum fluctuations would be amplified and stretched to cosmological scales, forming density variations of just the character required to explain the formation of galaxies. The ensuing paradigm has dominated cosmology for the last three decades. However, basic problems in the scenario remain unresolved. Extreme tuning both of the initial conditions and of the physical laws are required. There are many different versions, each with slightly different predictions. Finally, inflation brought with it the theory of a "multiverse" — a universe containing infinite number of different, infinite, universes — while providing no "measure" or means of calculating the probability of observing any one of them. I will discuss an alternative to inflation, in which the big bang was a bounce from a previous contracting epoch. The discovery of the Higgs boson at the LHC has provided new evidence for such a picture by showing that, within the minimal standard model, our current vacuum is metastable. This opens the door to a cyclic universe scenario in which the electroweak Higgs plays a central role.

  18. Telluride, Tom Cruise, and Land Use Codes: Science, Policy, and Community Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raby, K. S.; Williams, M. W.

    2003-12-01

    Mountain areas throughout the western US have experienced a surge in popularity in the last decade, resulting in degradation of the resources that drew people to the area in the first place. Traditional economic interests, recreational users, and environmentalists all have opposing priorities. Thus, resource managers and planners face increasingly critical and controversial decisions regarding development and protection of watersheds. Best Management Practices (BMPs) are generally an attempt to improve land and water quality after degradation. Here we report on our work with local stakeholders in the San Miguel River drainage-home of Telluride Ski Area and Hollywood moguls such as Tom Cruise-to prevent degradation of headwater catchments while providing for reasonable economic and recreational activities. We developed new tools for resource managers by mapping landscape types and associated water quality parameters so as to develop sensitivity criteria that are displayed visually using GIS maps. Using these results, San Miguel County Commissioners adopted land use codes to restrict development, including an 800-sqft building footprint, and bans on septic systems and winter plowing. This case study lays the foundation for science-based policy at the catchment scale, but is dependent on local culture and politics. Preliminary fieldwork was conducted in the summer of 2003 as the first steps toward similar work in adjacent San Juan County, which has a strong mining heritage. The San Juan County Planning Commission identified priority basins for study, and extensive physical field surveys were conducted in these drainages to map spatial distribution and aerial extent of numerous landscape types. Again, water quality parameters will be associated with different land covers to enable alpine sensitivity analysis at the landscape unit scale. Results will be provided to the San Juan Planning Commission to augment current planning tools. However, because of the different political and cultural climates of the two counties, we show that policy outcomes that ensue in San Juan County will likely differ from those achieved in San Miguel County.

  19. TOMATOMA: a novel tomato mutant database distributing Micro-Tom mutant collections.

    PubMed

    Saito, Takeshi; Ariizumi, Tohru; Okabe, Yoshihiro; Asamizu, Erika; Hiwasa-Tanase, Kyoko; Fukuda, Naoya; Mizoguchi, Tsuyoshi; Yamazaki, Yukiko; Aoki, Koh; Ezura, Hiroshi

    2011-02-01

    The tomato is an excellent model for studies of plants bearing berry-type fruits and for experimental studies of the Solanaceae family of plants due to its conserved genetic organization. In this study, a comprehensive mutant tomato population was generated in the background of Micro-Tom, a dwarf, rapid-growth variety. In this and previous studies, a family including 8,598 and 6,422 M(2) mutagenized lines was produced by ethylmethane sulfonate (EMS) mutagenesis and γ-ray irradiation, and this study developed and investigated these M(2) plants for alteration of visible phenotypes. A total of 9,183 independent M(2) families comprising 91,830 M(2) plants were inspected for phenotypic alteration, and 1,048 individual mutants were isolated. Subsequently, the observed mutant phenotypes were classified into 15 major categories and 48 subcategories. Overall, 1,819 phenotypic categories were found in 1,048 mutants. Of these mutants, 549 were pleiotropic, whereas 499 were non-pleiotropic. Multiple different mutant alleles per locus were found in the mutant libraries, suggesting that the mutagenized populations were nearly saturated. Additionally, genetic analysis of backcrosses indicated the successful inheritance of the mutations in BC(1)F(2) populations, confirming the reproducibility in the morphological phenotyping of the M(2) plants. To integrate and manage the visible phenotypes of mutants and other associated data, we developed the in silico database TOMATOMA, a relational system interfacing modules between mutant line names and phenotypic categories. TOMATOMA is a freely accessible database, and these mutant recourses are available through the TOMATOMA (http://tomatoma.nbrp.jp/index.jsp). PMID:21258066

  20. Journey to the Center of the Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevenson, David

    2014-03-01

    The center of Earth is at about the temperature of the surface of the Sun (about 6000K) but frozen because of the extreme pressure. I will place the Earth in a more general context of planets (including exoplanets) and explain how it is that the materials deep in Earth can behave differently from the same composition at low pressure.I will describe the sequence of layers and materials and conditions as one travels in a hypothetical probe from the surface to the center, emphasizing the things we do not understand well. I will talk about he extent to which Earth's mantle is imperfectly mixed and may have a bottom layer above the core that is different in composition. I will discuss the Urey number puzzle (what explains Earth's heat flow?). I will focus on the puzzle that Earth's magnetic field presents: How is it generated and how has this worked for billions of years? It seems that we need another energy source. I will talk about how Earth has a memory of how it formed, in particulate the high temperatures resulting from events such as the giant impact that led to our Moon. I will end with a discussion of what to do about the remaining puzzles, in particular the possible value of the geoneutrino experiment and attempts to directly probe the interior.

  1. Gravity Probe B Gyroscope Rotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The Gravity Probe B (GP-B) is the relativity experiment developed at Stanford University to test two extraordinary predictions of Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity. The experiment will measure, very precisely, the expected tiny changes in the direction of the spin axes of four gyroscopes contained in an Earth-orbiting satellite at a 400-mile altitude. So free are the gyroscopes from disturbance that they will provide an almost perfect space-time reference system. They will measure how space and time are very slightly warped by the presence of the Earth, and, more profoundly, how the Earth's rotation very slightly drags space-time around with it. These effects, though small for the Earth, have far-reaching implications for the nature of matter and the structure of the Universe. This photograph is a close up of a niobium-coated gyroscope motor and its housing halves. GP-B is among the most thoroughly researched programs ever undertaken by NASA. This is the story of a scientific quest in which physicists and engineers have collaborated closely over many years. Inspired by their quest, they have invented a whole range of technologies that are already enlivening other branches of science and engineering. Launched April 20, 2004 , the GP-B program was managed for NASA by the Marshall Space Flight Center. Development of the GP-B is the responsibility of Stanford University along with major subcontractor Lockheed Martin Corporation. (Image credit to Don Harley.)

  2. Gravity Probe B Space Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The space vehicle for Gravity Probe B (GP-B) arrives at the launch site at Vandenburg Air Force Base. GP-B is the relativity experiment being developed at Stanford University to test two extraordinary predictions of Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity. The experiment will measure, very precisely, the expected tiny changes in the direction of the spin axes of four gyroscopes contained in an Earth-orbiting satellite at a 400-mile altitude. So free are the gyroscopes from disturbance that they will provide an almost perfect space-time reference system. They will measure how space and time are very slightly warped by the presence of the Earth, and, more profoundly, how the Earth's rotation very slightly drags space-time around with it. These effects, though small for the Earth, have far-reaching implications for the nature of matter and the structure of the Universe. GP-B is among the most thoroughly researched programs ever undertaken by NASA. This is the story of a scientific quest in which physicists and engineers have collaborated closely over many years. Inspired by their quest, they have invented a whole range of technologies that are already enlivening other branches of science and engineering. Scheduled for launch in 2003 and managed for NASA by the Marshall Space Flight Center, development of the GP-B is the responsibility of Stanford University, with major subcontractor Lockheed Martin Corporation.

  3. Hydrodynamic ultrasonic probe

    DOEpatents

    Day, Robert A.; Conti, Armond E.

    1980-01-01

    An improved probe for in-service ultrasonic inspection of long lengths of a workpiece, such as small diameter tubing from the interior. The improved probe utilizes a conventional transducer or transducers configured to inspect the tubing for flaws and/or wall thickness variations. The probe utilizes a hydraulic technique, in place of the conventional mechanical guides or bushings, which allows the probe to move rectilinearly or rotationally while preventing cocking thereof in the tube and provides damping vibration of the probe. The probe thus has lower friction and higher inspection speed than presently known probes.

  4. Evaluation of phytase concentration needed for growing-finishing commercial turkey toms.

    PubMed

    Roberson, K D; Klunzinger, M W; Charbeneau, R A; Orth, M W

    2005-08-01

    1. Growth performance, serum bone markers, and bone strength and mineralisation were determined in tom turkeys grown from 9 to 17 weeks of age. 2. Dietary non-phytate phosphorus was formulated to be reduced by 1.0 g/kg in the low phosphorus diet compared to a control diet and phytase was added to provide 0, 150, 300, 450 or 600 units/kg activity to the low phosphorus diet. 3. From 9 to 12 weeks of age, body weight and gain:food were reduced by the low phosphorus diet without added phytase, compared to the adequate phosphorus diet. Increasing the concentration of phytase linearly increased these growth parameters. There were no significant growth responses at 17 weeks of age. 4. Serum osteocalcin was reduced by increasing dietary phosphorus at 12 weeks of age when growth was affected, but not at later ages. Serum pyridinoline was reduced by higher dietary phosphorus and decreased linearly with increasing phytase activity at 17 weeks of age. 5. Fracture force of the ulna and femur increased linearly with increasing phytase activity but bone strength was not affected when corrected for bone cross-sectional area. Bone strength of the ulna and ash concentration of the ulna and tibia were increased by higher dietary phosphorus. Humerus and ulna ash increased linearly with increasing phytase activity. 6. Water-soluble phosphorus content of the litter was increased by higher dietary phosphorus and addition of phytase to the low phosphorus diet. The increase in water-soluble phosphorus content of the litter when phytase was fed may indicate that phosphorus could be fed at a lower concentration than used in this trial, at least in the finisher diet when phytase is added to the food. 7. Bone fracture force, strength and ash were generally optimised when 450 units/kg phytase activity was added to the low phosphorus diet. However, growth performance was best in the grower I (9 to 12 weeks) phase when 600 units/kg phytase was added to the diet. PMID:16268105

  5. From frozen Super Earth to habitable Earth via microlensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaulieu, J.-P.; Fouqu, P.; Batista, V.; Cassan, A.; Coutures, C.; Kubas, D.; Marquette, J.-B.

    2010-10-01

    In the last fifteen years, astronomers have found over 415 exoplanets including some in systems that resemble our very own solar system. These discoveries have already challenged and revolutionized our theories of planet formation and dynamical evolution. Several different methods have been used to discover exoplanets, including radial velocity, stellar transits, direct imaging, pulsar timing, astrometry, and gravitational microlensing which is based on Einstein's theory of general relativity. So far 10 exoplanets have been published with this method. While this number is relatively modest compared with that discovered by the radial velocity method, microlensing probes a part of the parameter space (host separation vs. planet mass) not accessible in the medium term to other methods. The mass distribution of microlensing exoplanets has already revealed that cold super-Earths (at or beyond the "snow line" and with a mass of around 5 to 15 Earth mass appear to be common (Beaulieu et al., 2006, Gould et al., 2006, Sumi et al. 2010) . We detected a scale 1/2 model of our solar system (Gaudi et al., 2008), several hot Neptunes/Super Earth, shown that our detection efficiencies extends to 1 Earth mass planets (Batista et al., 2009). We have made the first measurement of the frequency of ice and gas giants beyond the snow line, and have shown that this is about 7 times higher than closer-in systems probed by the Doppler method (Gould et al. 2010). This comparison provides strong evidence that most giant planets do not migrate very far (Gould et al. 2010). Microlensing is currently capable of detecting cool planets of super-Earth mass from the ground (and on favourable circumstances down to 1 Earth), with a network of wide-field telescopes strategically located around the world, could routinely detect planets with mass as low as the Earth. I will stress the importance of high angular resolution using adaptive optics on 8m class telescopes during microlensing events in order to nail down the physical parameters of the star and planet systems to 10%.

  6. J. W. Goethe - poet engaged in Earth sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemec, Vaclav

    2014-05-01

    The famous German poet Johann Wolfgang Goethe (1749 - 1832) was a man of an outstanding interest for the Earth sciences. In the Czech geological dictionary his own biography remembers his frequent visits to the famous West Bohemian health resorts. In this region he was focusing his attention to the geological history, petrography and mineralogy, genesis of mineral water springs etc. Some of his studies were published. His geological points of view were not always correct (as seen from a recent knowledge) but his efforts to deepen studies of this territory cannot be forgotten. - In his rich correspondence with the count Kaspar Maria Sternberg (1761 - 1838) - founder of the (nowadays) National Museum in Prague - the author of this article has recently discovered in the Prague archives a letter written just one week before the death of the poet. It is a confession of his deep relation especially to the region if West Bohemia where he found lot of enjoyment and new knowledge in the course of numerous visits and stays. - Goethe had the largest private collection of minerals in all of Europe (17800 rock samples). A mineral goethite has been named after him. - The Czech composer Václav Jan Tomášek (1774 - 1850) describing his visit paid to Goethe in Cheb (Eger) in 1822 remembers also mineralogical interest of the poet and his excursions to the region for collecting local minerals. The main reason for personal contact in this case was the art (Tomášek composed songs using Goethe's poems). But Tomášek described also his frequent talks on science with the famous Swedish chemist Jöns Jacob Berzelius (1779 - 1848) in Karlsbad (1822). From other sources a common stay of Berzelius, Goethe and Sternberg in Marienbad (also 1822) is reported.

  7. The surprising optimist: why Tom Daschle believes that the country is ready for comprehensive health reform. Interview by Robert Galvin.

    PubMed

    Daschle, Tom

    2006-01-01

    When Tom Daschle was last a private citizen, Jimmy Carter was president, and the country was embroiled in a debate about how to control health care costs. After a distinguished twenty-six-year career in Congress, Daschle has a lot to say about not only health care costs but overall system reform. With his deep understanding of the inner workings of Congress, Daschle breaks from the prevailing belief that incrementalism is the right approach; comments on the novel use of budget reconciliation to pass reform; and argues that the country, including some business leaders, is ready for comprehensive change with a bigger role for government. PMID:16449307

  8. Cross-Sex Hormone Use, Functional Health and Mental Well-Being among Transgender Men (Toms) and Transgender Women (Kathoeys) in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Gooren, Louis J.; Sungkaew, Tanapong; Giltay, Erik J.; Guadamuz, Thomas E.

    2014-01-01

    There exists limited understanding of cross-sex hormone use and mental well-being among transgender women and, particularly, among transgender men. Moreover, most studies of transgender people have taken place in the Global North and often in the context of HIV. This exploratory study compared 60 transgender men (toms) with 60 transgender women (kathoeys) regarding their use of cross-sex hormones, mental well-being and acceptance by their family. Participants also completed a dispositional optimism scale (Life Orientation Test Revised; LOT-R), the Social Functioning Questionnaire (SFQ) and the Short Form Health Survey 36 (SF-36) assessing the profile of functional health and mental well-being. Cross-sex hormones were used by 35% of toms and 73% of kathoeys and were largely unsupervised by health-related personnel. There were no differences in functional health and mental well-being among toms and kathoeys. However, toms currently using cross-sex hormones scored on average poorer on bodily pain and mental health, compared to non-users. Further, compared to non-users, cross-sex hormone users were about 8 times and 5 times more likely to be associated with poor parental acceptance among toms and kathoeys, respectively. This study was the first to compare cross-sex hormone use, functional health and mental well-being among transgender women and transgender men in Southeast Asia. PMID:25270637

  9. Validation of Four Total Ozone Values From The Satellite Instruments Gome and Ep-toms With Measurements From The Dobson Network 1996A~é­2000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bramstedt, K.; Gleason, J.; Bracher, A.; Weber, M.; Loyola, D.; Burrows, J. P.

    Over the last 3 decades, satellite data have been used to monitor long-term global changes in stratospheric ozone. The TOMS series and GOME are two very important instruments in this context. Here, TOMS total ozone and three approaches to derive ozone column from GOME measurements are validated with the ground-based Dob- son network data. Beyond the operational products of both instruments, e.g. TOMS Version 7 and GOME Data Processor Version 2.7, total ozone is calculated by integrat- ing FURM ozone profiles and by applying the TOMS algorithm to the GOME spec- tra. All algorithm show in general good agreement with ground-based measurements. The operational GOME total ozone shows seasonal variations, most likely introduced by difficulties in the derivation of the airmass factor. Some small seasonal variations observed within all GOME datasets are shown to be caused by instrument effects. The TOMS algorithm estimates on average 2 % higher total ozone in the Southern hemisphere than in the Northern for both instrument, indicating that the source of the problems has to be part of the algorithm.

  10. Earth Observation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    For pipeline companies, mapping, facilities inventory, pipe inspections, environmental reporting, etc. is a monumental task. An Automated Mapping/Facilities Management/Geographic Information Systems (AM/FM/GIS) is the solution. However, this is costly and time consuming. James W. Sewall Company, an AM/FM/GIS consulting firm proposed an EOCAP project to Stennis Space Center (SSC) to develop a computerized system for storage and retrieval of digital aerial photography. This would provide its customer, Algonquin Gas Transmission Company, with an accurate inventory of rights-of-way locations and pipeline surroundings. The project took four years to complete and an important byproduct was SSC's Digital Aerial Rights-of-Way Monitoring System (DARMS). DARMS saves substantial time and money. EOCAP enabled Sewall to develop new products and expand its customer base. Algonquin now manages regulatory requirements more efficiently and accurately. EOCAP provides government co-funding to encourage private investment in and broader use of NASA remote sensing technology. Because changes on Earth's surface are accelerating, planners and resource managers must assess the consequences of change as quickly and accurately as possible. Pacific Meridian Resources and NASA's Stennis Space Center (SSC) developed a system for monitoring changes in land cover and use, which incorporated the latest change detection technologies. The goal of this EOCAP project was to tailor existing technologies to a system that could be commercialized. Landsat imagery enabled Pacific Meridian to identify areas that had sustained substantial vegetation loss. The project was successful and Pacific Meridian's annual revenues have substantially increased. EOCAP provides government co-funding to encourage private investment in and broader use of NASA remote sensing technology.

  11. The Lifeworld Earth and a Modelled Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juuti, Kalle

    2014-08-01

    The goal of this paper is to study the question of whether a phenomenological view of the Earth could be empirically endorsed. The phenomenological way of thinking considers the Earth as a material entity, but not as an object as viewed in science. In the learning science tradition, tracking the process of the conceptual change of the shape of the Earth, science's view of the Earth as an object—a celestial body—has been applied. I reanalysed data published in Vosniadou and Brewer's (Cognit psychol 24:535-585, 1992) seminal paper. According to my reanalysis of their interview material, it is plausible to conclude that the Earth as an infinite surface is the way to experience the Earth. Further, the `dual Earth model' is the first model of the Earth as an object. I conclude that experiences in the lifeworld need to be taken into consideration more seriously in science education research.

  12. Solar probe: an engineering solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedini, P.; Potocki, K.

    2003-04-01

    Solar Probe, a program to study the origins of the solar wind and the heating of the Sun's corona, is currently a mission under study in NASA's Sun-Earth Connection Theme. The availability of the Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle (EELV) and Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators has enabled the development of an implementable Solar Probe mission concept that now offers substantial resources (55 kg and 47 W) for its science payload. The mission design assumes a launch on an EELV and uses a direct Jupiter Gravity Assist to reach a perihelion of 4 RS. The mission affords two polar solar passes with Earth in quadrature within 7.1 years from launch. A large (2.7-m diameter x 5.1-m), conical Carbon-Carbon thermal protection system harbors a complement of in situ and remote-sensing instruments (based on the 1999 Solar Probe Science Definition Team straw-man payload). A Ka-band telecommunications system allows uninterrupted real-time data downlink at perihelion (p) despite coronal scintillation effects, providing > 25 kbps even at closest approach. The 43.2 Gbits of data down-linked during each pass (p - 10 days through p + 10 days) is augmented by as much as another 128 Gbits of data recorded on redundant solid-state recorders for post-perihelion playback. The capability exists to download cruise mode science as well. Fault tolerance is achieved using redundant avionics and a dedicated attitude control unit to assure that the proper orientation of the spacecraft is maintained throughout the passes. Viable opportunities begin with a 2010 launch, provided new start authority is obtained in FY-05.

  13. Solar probe: an engineering study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedini, P.; Potocki, K.

    2003-04-01

    Solar Probe, a program to study the origins of the solar wind and the heating of the Sun’s corona, is currently a mission under study in NASA’s Sun-Earth Connection Theme. The availability of the Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle (EELV) and Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators has enabled the development of an implementable Solar Probe mission concept that now offers substantial resources (55 kg and 47 W) for its science payload. The mission design assumes a launch on an EELV and uses a direct Jupiter Gravity Assist to reach a perihelion of 4 RS. The mission affords two polar solar passes with Earth in quadrature within 7.1 years from launch. A large (2.7-m diameter × 5.1-m), conical Carbon-Carbon thermal protection system harbors a complement of in situ and remote-sensing instruments (based on the 1999 Solar Probe Science Definition Team straw-man payload). A Ka-band telecommunications system allows uninterrupted real-time data downlink at perihelion (p) despite coronal scintillation effects, providing > 25 kbps even at closest approach. The 43.2 Gbits of data down-linked during each pass (p -- 10 days through p + 10 days) is augmented by as much as another 128 Gbits of data recorded on redundant solid-state recorders for post-perihelion playback. The capability exists to download cruise mode science as well. Fault tolerance is achieved using redundant avionics and a dedicated attitude control unit to assure that the proper orientation of the spacecraft is maintained throughout the passes. Viable opportunities begin with a 2010 launch, provided new start authority is obtained in FY-05.

  14. Monitoring Physiological Variables with Membrane Probes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janle, Elsa M.

    1997-01-01

    This project has demonstrated the possibility of using membrane probes in rodents to monitor physiological variables for extended periods of time. The utility of these probes in physiological studies of microgravity has been demonstrated. The feasibility of developing on-line sensors has also been demonstrated and allows for the possibility of developing real-time automated monitoring systems which can be used in ground-base physiological research as well as in research and medical monitoring in space. In addition to space applications these techniques can be extended to medical monitoring in critical care situations on earth as well as facilitating research in many human and animal diseases.

  15. Saturn Science from Entry Probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkinson, David H.; Coustenis, Athena; Lunine, Jonathan; Simon-Miller, Amy; Atreya, Sushil; Brinckerhoff, William; Colaprete, Anthony; Guillot, Tristan; Mahaffy, Paul; Reh, Kim; Spilker, Linda; Spilker, Tom; Webster, Chris

    2013-04-01

    Data from atmospheric entry probe missions at the giant planets could uniquely discriminate between competing theories of solar system formation and the origin and evolution of the giant planets and their atmospheres, providing for valuable comparative studies of giant planets as well as providing a laboratory for studying the atmospheric chemistries, dynamics, and interiors of all the planets including Earth. The giant planets also represent a valuable link to extrasolar planetary systems. For these reasons, a Saturn Probe mission with a shallow probe is ranked by the recent U.S. Planetary Science Decadal Survey as a high priority for a New Frontiers class mission. Atmospheric constituents needed to constrain theories of solar system formation and the origin and evolution of the giant planets could be accessed and sampled by shallow entry probes. Many important constituents are either spectrally inactive or are beneath an atmospheric overburden that is optically thick at useful wavelengths and are therefore not remotely accessible by flyby or orbiting spacecraft. A small, scientifically focused shallow entry probe mission could make critical abundance measurements of key constituents, and could measure profiles of atmospheric structure and dynamics at a vertical resolution that is significantly higher than could be achieved by remote sensing techniques. The Galileo mission began the detailed study of the solar system's two gas giants by dropping an entry probe into the atmosphere of Jupiter and deploying an orbiter around Jupiter. In 2016-2017 the Juno mission will make measurements of Jupiter's deep oxygen abundance, and gravitational and magnetic fields. In the same epoch, the Cassini orbiter is planned to pursue a set of Juno-like orbits to make comparable gravitational and magnetic field measurements of Saturn. A Saturn atmospheric entry probe would complete the quartet of missions needed for a comparative study of the two gas giants, leading to improved models of solar system formation. A highly focused entry probe mission at Saturn carrying a minimal science payload could address unique and critical science while fitting within existing program budget caps. Fundamental measurements include abundances of the noble gases He, Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe and, abundances of key isotopic ratios 4He/3He, D/H, 15N/14N, 18O/16O, and 13C/12C. Detection of disequilibrium species CO, PH3, AsH3, and GeH4 is diagnostic of deeper internal processes and dynamics of the atmosphere along the probe descent. Abundances of these key constituents, as well as carbon which does not condense at Saturn, sulfur which is expected to be well-mixed below the 4 to 5-bar ammonium hydrosulfide (NH4SH) cloud, and gradients of nitrogen below the NH4SH cloud and oxygen in the upper layers of the H2O and H2O-NH4 solution cloud, could be measured by an entry probe descending through 10 bars. In concert with the results from Galileo, Cassini, and Juno, a shallow Saturn probe capable of measuring abundances of key constituents not accessible by a remote sensing mission would provide critical measurements enabling a comparison of composition and dynamical processes on the giant planets while also providing an improved context for understanding exoplanets.

  16. Lessons learned from planetary entry probe missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niemann, Hasso; Atreya, Sushil K.; Kasprzak, Wayne

    Probing the atmospheres and surfaces of the planets and their moons with fast moving entry probes has been a very useful and essential technique to obtain in situ or quasi in situ scientific data (ground truth) which could not otherwise be obtained from fly by or orbiter only missions and where balloon, aircraft or lander missions are too complex and too costly. Planetary entry probe missions have been conducted successfully on Venus, Mars, Jupiter and Titan after having been first demonstrated in the Earth's atmosphere. Future planetary missions should also include more entry probe missions back to Venus and to the outer planets. The success of and science returns from past missions, the need for more and unique data, and a continuously advancing technology generate confidence that future missions will be even more successful with respect to science return and technical performance. There are, however, unique challenges associated with entry probe missions and with building instruments for an entry probe, as compared to orbiters, landers, or rovers. Conditions during atmospheric entry are extreme. There are operating time constraints due to the usually short duration of the probe descent, and the instruments experience rapid environmental changes in temperature and pressure. In addition, there are resource limitations, i.e. mass, power, size and bandwidth. Because of the protective heat shield and the high acceleration the probe experiences during entry, the ratio of payload to total probe mass is usually much smaller than in other missions. Finally, the demands on the instrument design are determined in large part by conditions (pressure, temperature, composition) unique to the particular body under study, and as a result, there is no one-size-fits-all instrument for an atmospheric probe. Many of these requirements are more easily met by miniaturizing the probe instrumentation and consequently reducing the required size of the probe. Improved heat shield technology will also play an important role. The emergence over the past twenty years of Micro-electro-mechanical Systems (MEMS), utilizing lithographic semiconductor fabrication techniques to produce instrument systems in miniature, holds great promise for application to spaceflight. For example, a highly miniaturized, high performance and low-power gas chromatograph mass spectrometer would enormously benefit entry probe missions, allowing, for example, parallel measurements (e.g., multiple simultaneous gas chromatographic and direct atmospheric measurements). Such an instrument would also enable mass spectrometry on board small multiple entry probes. The challenge facing us in the development of MEMS based instruments is to move beyond the proof-of-concept, where research dollars tend to focus, and carry out the detailed work of developing high performance flight instrument systems on a chip which reach the required high technical readiness level for space flight.

  17. Rapid phenotyping of the tomato fruit model, Micro-Tom, with a portable VIS-NIR spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Ecarnot, Martin; Bączyk, Paulina; Tessarotto, Lydie; Chervin, Christian

    2013-09-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) quality traits such as juice soluble solid content (Brix), juice pH, color parameters (Hue and Chroma), firmness and water content, are critical factors for fruit quality assessment. The need for screening very large numbers of fruit has led to the development of a high-throughput method using visible-near infrared (VIS-NIR) spectrometry. We are reporting here a set of results obtained with a portable spectrometer using the 350-2500 nm range, showing good prediction of the quality traits cited above, over a wide range of developmental stages from immature green to ripe tomato fruit, cv. Micro-Tom. This is a rather good set of quality traits compared to previous publications predicting tomato quality with VIS-NIR spectrometry, and the prediction is robust, as it was obtained by grouping sets of different operators. This would be a useful tool to phenotype hundreds of Micro-Tom per day, making it possible to follow the dynamics of the described parameters on growing fruits. Thus the method can be used to study the biochemistry and physiology of fruit development in planta. PMID:23774377

  18. Fine-Scale Comparison of TOMS Total Ozone Data with Model Analysis of an Intense Midwestern Cyclone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olsen, Mark A.; Gallus, William A., Jr.; Stanford, John L.; Brown, John M.

    2000-01-01

    High-resolution (approx. 40 km) along-track total column ozone data from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) instrument are compared with a high-resolution mesoscale numerical model analysis of an intense cyclone in the Midwestern United States. Total ozone increased by 100 DU (nearly 38%) as the TOMS instrument passed over the associated tropopause fold region. Complex structure is seen in the meteorological fields and compares well with the total ozone observations. Ozone data support the meteorological analysis showing that stratospheric descent was confined to levels above approx. 600 hPa; significant positive potential vorticity at lower levels is attributable to diabetic processes. Likewise, meteorological fields show that two pronounced ozone streamers extending north and northeastward into Canada at high levels are not bands of stratospheric air feeding into the cyclone; one is a channel of exhaust downstream from the system, and the other apparently previously connected the main cyclonic circulation to a southward intrusion of polar stratospheric air and advected eastward as the cut-off cyclone evolved. Good agreement between small-scale features in the model output and total ozone data underscores the latter's potential usefulness in diagnosing upper tropospheric/lower stratospheric dynamics and kinematics.

  19. Detecting Solar Axions Using Earth's Magnetic Field

    SciTech Connect

    Davoudiasl, Hooman; Huber, Patrick

    2006-10-06

    We show that solar axion conversion to photons in the Earth's magnetosphere can produce an x-ray flux, with average energy <{omega}>{approx_equal}4 keV, which is measurable on the dark side of the Earth. The smallness of the Earth's magnetic field is compensated by a large magnetized volume. For axion masses m{sub a}(less-or-similar sign)10{sup -4} eV, a low-Earth-orbit x-ray detector with an effective area of 10{sup 4} cm{sup 2}, pointed at the solar core, can probe the photon-axion coupling down to 10{sup -11} GeV{sup -1}, in 1 yr. Thus, the sensitivity of this new approach will be an order of magnitude beyond current laboratory limits.

  20. Draft genome sequence of the first acid-tolerant sulfate-reducing deltaproteobacterium Desulfovibrio sp. TomC having potential for minewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Karnachuk, Olga V; Mardanov, Andrey V; Avakyan, Marat R; Kadnikov, Vitaly V; Vlasova, Maria; Beletsky, Alexey V; Gerasimchuk, Anna L; Ravin, Nikolai V

    2015-02-01

    The sulfidogenic bacterium Desulfovibrio sp. TomC was isolated from acidic waste at the abandoned gold ore mining site in the Martaiga gold ore belt, Western Siberia. This bacterium, being the first reported acid-tolerant gram-negative sulfate-reducer of the order Deltaproteobacteria, is able to grow at pH as low as 2.5 and is resistant to high concentrations of metals. The draft 5.3 Mb genome sequence of Desulfovibrio sp. TomC has been established and provides the genetic basis for application of this microorganism in bioreactors and other bioremediation schemes for the treatment of metal-containing wastewater. PMID:25724779

  1. Heat pipe cooled probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Camarda, C. J. (Inventor); Couch, L. M.

    1984-01-01

    The basic heat pipe principle is employed to provide a self-contained passively cooled probe that may be placed into a high temperature environment. The probe consists of an evaporator region of a heat pipe and a sensing instrument. Heat is absorbed as the working fluid evaporates in the probe. The vapor is transported to the vapor space of the condenser region. Heat is dissipated from the condenser region and fins causing condensation of the working fluid, which returns to the probe by gravity and the capillary action of the wick. Working fluid, wick and condenser configurations and structure materials can be selected to maintain the probe within an acceptable temperature range.

  2. Traversing probe system

    DOEpatents

    Mashburn, Douglas N.; Stevens, Richard H.; Woodall, Harold C.

    1977-01-01

    This invention comprises a rotatable annular probe-positioner which carries at least one radially disposed sensing probe, such as a Pitot tube having a right-angled tip. The positioner can be coaxially and rotatably mounted within a compressor casing or the like and then actuated to orient the sensing probe as required to make measurements at selected stations in the annulus between the positioner and compressor casing. The positioner can be actuated to (a) selectively move the probe along its own axis, (b) adjust the yaw angle of the right-angled probe tip, and (c) revolve the probe about the axis common to the positioner and casing. A cam plate engages a cam-follower portion of the probe and normally rotates with the positioner. The positioner includes a first-motor-driven ring gear which effects slidable movement of the probe by rotating the positioner at a time when an external pneumatic cylinder is actuated to engage the cam plate and hold it stationary. When the pneumatic cylinder is not actuated, this ring gear can be driven to revolve the positioner and thus the probe to a desired circumferential location about the above-mentioned common axis. A second motor-driven ring gear included in the positioner can be driven to rotate the probe about its axis, thus adjusting the yaw angle of the probe tip. The positioner can be used in highly corrosive atmosphere, such as gaseous uranium hexafluoride.

  3. Ultrafast scanning probe microscopy

    DOEpatents

    Weiss, Shimon; Chemla, Daniel S.; Ogletree, D. Frank; Botkin, David

    1995-01-01

    An ultrafast scanning probe microscopy method for achieving subpicosecond-temporal resolution and submicron-spatial resolution of an observation sample. In one embodiment of the present claimed invention, a single short optical pulse is generated and is split into first and second pulses. One of the pulses is delayed using variable time delay means. The first pulse is then directed at an observation sample located proximate to the probe of a scanning probe microscope. The scanning probe microscope produces probe-sample signals indicative of the response of the probe to characteristics of the sample. The second pulse is used to modulate the probe of the scanning probe microscope. The time delay between the first and second pulses is then varied. The probe-sample response signal is recorded at each of the various time delays created between the first and second pulses. The probe-sample response signal is then plotted as a function of time delay to produce a cross-correlation of the probe sample response. In so doing, the present invention provides simultaneous subpicosecond-temporal resolution and submicron-spatial resolution of the sample.

  4. Ultrafast scanning probe microscopy

    DOEpatents

    Weiss, S.; Chemla, D.S.; Ogletree, D.F.; Botkin, D.

    1995-05-16

    An ultrafast scanning probe microscopy method is described for achieving subpicosecond-temporal resolution and submicron-spatial resolution of an observation sample. In one embodiment of the present claimed invention, a single short optical pulse is generated and is split into first and second pulses. One of the pulses is delayed using variable time delay means. The first pulse is then directed at an observation sample located proximate to the probe of a scanning probe microscope. The scanning probe microscope produces probe-sample signals indicative of the response of the probe to characteristics of the sample. The second pulse is used to modulate the probe of the scanning probe microscope. The time delay between the first and second pulses is then varied. The probe-sample response signal is recorded at each of the various time delays created between the first and second pulses. The probe-sample response signal is then plotted as a function of time delay to produce a cross-correlation of the probe sample response. In so doing, the present invention provides simultaneous subpicosecond-temporal resolution and submicron-spatial resolution of the sample. 6 Figs.

  5. Why Earth Science?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    This article briefly describes Earth science. The study of Earth science provides the foundation for an understanding of the Earth, its processes, its resources, and its environment. Earth science is the study of the planet in its entirety, how its lithosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere work together as systems and how they affect…

  6. Crew Earth Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Runco, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Crew Earth Observations (CEO) takes advantage of the crew in space to observe and photograph natural and human-made changes on Earth. The photographs record the Earth's surface changes over time, along with dynamic events such as storms, floods, fires and volcanic eruptions. These images provide researchers on Earth with key data to better understand the planet.

  7. Electrical resistivity probes

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Ki Ha; Becker, Alex; Faybishenko, Boris A.; Solbau, Ray D.

    2003-10-21

    A miniaturized electrical resistivity (ER) probe based on a known current-voltage (I-V) electrode structure, the Wenner array, is designed for local (point) measurement. A pair of voltage measuring electrodes are positioned between a pair of current carrying electrodes. The electrodes are typically about 1 cm long, separated by 1 cm, so the probe is only about 1 inch long. The electrodes are mounted to a rigid tube with electrical wires in the tube and a sand bag may be placed around the electrodes to protect the electrodes. The probes can be positioned in a borehole or on the surface. The electrodes make contact with the surrounding medium. In a dual mode system, individual probes of a plurality of spaced probes can be used to measure local resistance, i.e. point measurements, but the system can select different probes to make interval measurements between probes and between boreholes.

  8. A computer program for the determination of the solar risk in Argentina by dermatologists employing NASA TOMS satellite ozone data as a key geophysical variable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piacentini, R.; Cede, A.; Luccini, E.; Stengel, F.

    The connection between skin cancer and solar ultraviolet radiation has been well documented (i.e., UNEP report "Environmental Effects of Ozone Depletion. 1998 Assessment"). In this work wepresent a computer software that can be used by dermatologists for determining the risk of persons that are exposed to solar UV radiation incident in Argentina, a country largely extended from low (tropical) to high southern hemisphere latitudes. In particular, its spectral distribution weighted by the CIE standard erythemal action spectrum and integrated in wavelength usually called "erythemal irradiance", is calculated including the following geophysical variables: ozone, solar elevation, Sun-Earth distance, altitude, aerosol and albedo. Other variables that have less influence in the final results are the vertical ozone, aerosol, pressure and temperature profiles, the extraterrestrial spectral solar UV irradiance and the ozone photoabsorption cross section. The ozone total column was obtained from the corresponding seasonal and latitudinal climatological NASA TOMS satellite data, including monthly averages, standard deviations and tendencies for the particular geographical situation of Argentina. The program considers also the different skin types, in order to determine the skin risk without or with a sunscreen protection at each moment of the day and for different days of the year. We present the program output for typical examples of persons exposed in extreme conditions, like in the high altitude tropical Puna of Atacama desert in the North- West, or when the ozone hole event overpasses Ushuaia in the South, as well as in Buenos Aires, the largest populated city in the country and one of the megacities of the world. The availability of a large satellite ozone data set gives us the possibility to make a clear sky day solar risk forecast for all the year, that can be applied in all places of the country. This work was made possible through a collaboration between the Argentina Skin Cancer Foundation, the Institute of Physics Rosario (CONICET - National University of Rosario) and the Institute of Medical Physics of the University of Innsbruck, Austria. With this support and the work of physicians and physicists, now dermatologists as well as health authorities and educators can make a reliable (scientific) prediction of the risk due to solar exposure, in order to prevent health problems induced by solar UV radiation.

  9. Flattening Earth acceleration in atomic fountains

    SciTech Connect

    Bertoldi, Andrea

    2010-07-15

    A method to compensate for Earth's gravity tide over an extended axial region is reported. Flattening acceleration is important in experiments where the coupling of the dynamics of free-falling probes to the gravity gradient generates stochastic noise on the measurement. Optimized cylindrically symmetric mass distributions lower Earth's tidal effect over 10 cm by a factor 10{sup 3}. A multimass compensation system with comparable performance is devised for tall atom interferometers. Reducing the gravity gradient is essential in terrestrial experiments based on atom fountain configurations being developed to precisely test general relativity or the neutrality of matter.

  10. Galileo: The Earth encounter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarke, Theodore C.

    1991-01-01

    The following subject areas are covered: Galileo Veega trajectory to Jupiter; lunar science objectives; Earth science objectives; Santa 2 data flow; Galileo - the U.S./Canada connections and European connections; UV spectrometer observations during close encounter periods; phase angle and cone angle of the Earth during the Earth encounters; Lunar orbit traverse at EGA1; Moon imaging - EGA1; Galileo imaging Earth after EGA1; and Earth 1 flyby geometry.

  11. TOMS Validation Based on Profiles of Aerosol Properties in the Lower Troposphere as Obtained with Light Aircraft Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prospero, Joseph M.; Maring, Hal; Savoie, Dennis

    2003-01-01

    The goal of the University of Miami Aerosol Group (UMAG) in this project was to make measurements of vertical profiles of aerosol properties and aerosol optical depth using a light aircraft. The UMAG developed a light aircraft aerosol package (LAAP) that was used in light aircraft (Cessna 172) during the Puerto Rico Dust Experiment (PRIDE). This field campaign took place on Puerto Rico during July 2000. Design details and results from the use of the LAAP were presented at TOMS Science team meetings on April 1998, April 1999, and May 2000. Results from the LAAP collected during the PRIDE Experiment were presented at the Fall Meeting of the American Geophysical Union, December 2000. Some of the results from the LAAP collected during the PRIDE Experiment have been accepted for publication in the Journal of Geophysical Research in a "topical section" made up of papers from the PRIDE Program.

  12. Eddy-induced upwelling off Cape São Tomé (22°S, Brazil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calado, L.; da Silveira, I. C. A.; Gangopadhyay, A.; de Castro, B. M.

    2010-06-01

    The regional ocean off southeast Brazil (20°S-28°S) is known as a current-eddy-upwelling region. The proximity of the Brazil Current to the coast in the Cape São Tomé vicinities, as well as of its quasi-stationary unstable meanders, suggests the possibility of background eddy-induced upwelling. Such phenomenon can intensify the prevalent coastal upwelling due to wind and topographic effects. In this paper, with the help of a numerical simulation, we provide evidence that eddy-induced upwelling in the absence of wind is possible in this region. The simulation was conducted with a regional configuration of the 3-D Princeton Ocean Model initialized by a feature-based implementation of the Brazil Current and Cape Frio eddy, blended with climatology.

  13. Rediscovery of the enigmatic Stenosternus costatus Karsch (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Orphninae) from São Tomé Island.

    PubMed

    Frolov, Andrey V; Akhmetova, Lilia A

    2015-01-01

    Stenosternus Karsch, 1881 is one of the least-known genera of the Orphninae scarab beetles. It was described from a single specimen of the odd-looking S. costatus Karsch, 1881, from the island of São Tomé, Gulf of Guinea, West Africa. Karsch (1881) originally placed Stenosternus in the "Copridae" but later moved it to the Orphninae (Karsch, 1887). Since then, no more findings of S. costatus have been reported. The genus was redescribed by Frolov (2013) from the holotype of S. costatus and provisionally placed in the tribe Aegidiini Paulian based on a number of putative synapomorphies (Frolov, 2012). However, the material limited to only one male specimen did not allow the author to clarify which of its unique characters might be malformations or be sex dependent. PMID:26623824

  14. Magnétomètre a hélium à fréquence asservie par ordinateur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Condette, C.; Barrat, J. P.; Chéron, B.; Hamel, J.

    1991-06-01

    Metastable 2 ^3S1 He atoms are aligned by optical pumping and submitted to magnetic resonance. The frequency of the radio-frequency field is locked to the static magnetic field through numerical control. The sensitivity of this magnetometer is of the order of 10^{-10}T/sqrtHz. Des atomes d'hélium métastables dans l'état 2 ^3S1 sont alignés par pompage optique et soumis à la résonance magnétique. La fréquence du champ de haute fréquence est asservie au champ magnétique à l'aide d'un asservissement numérique. La sensibilité du magnétomètre ainsi réalisé est de l'ordre de 10^{-10}T/sqrtHz.

  15. Evaluation of four Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains for the genetic transformation of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) cultivar Micro-Tom.

    PubMed

    Chetty, V J; Ceballos, N; Garcia, D; Narváez-Vásquez, J; Lopez, W; Orozco-Cárdenas, M L

    2013-02-01

    KEY MESSAGE : Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains differ not only in their ability to transform tomato Micro-Tom, but also in the number of transgene copies that the strains integrate in the genome. The transformation efficiency of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) cv. Micro-Tom with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains AGL1, EHA105, GV3101, and MP90, harboring the plasmid pBI121 was compared. The presence of the nptII and/or uidA transgenes in regenerated T(0) plants was determined by PCR, Southern blotting, and/or GUS histochemical analyses. In addition, a rapid and reliable duplex, qPCR TaqMan assay was standardized to estimate transgene copy number. The highest transformation rate (65 %) was obtained with the Agrobacterium strain GV3101, followed by EHA105 (40 %), AGL1 (35 %), and MP90 (15 %). The mortality rate of cotyledons due to Agrobacterium overgrowth was the lowest with the strain GV3101. The Agrobacterium strain EHA105 was more efficient than GV3101 in the transfer of single T-DNA insertions of nptII and uidA transgenes into the tomato genome. Even though Agrobacterium strain MP90 had the lowest transformation rate of 15 %, the qPCR analysis showed that the strain MP90 was the most efficient in the transfer of single transgene insertions, and none of the transgenic plants produced with this strain had more than two insertion events in their genome. The combination of higher transformation efficiency and fewer transgene insertions in plants transformed using EHA105 makes this Agrobacterium strain optimal for functional genomics and biotechnological applications in tomato. PMID:23099543

  16. The effect of toe trimming on behavior, mobility, toe length and other indicators of welfare in tom turkeys.

    PubMed

    Fournier, J; Schwean-Lardner, K; Knezacek, T D; Gomis, S; Classen, H L

    2015-07-01

    Society is increasingly concerned about the welfare of animals kept for food production, for this reason, invasive procedures such as toe trimming in turkeys must be studied to assess the corresponding welfare implications and to ensure such procedures are acceptable for continued use. To this end, research was conducted to evaluate the welfare effects of toe trimming on toms raised to 140 d. The study used 306 Hybrid Converter toms, half of which were toe trimmed using a Microwave Claw Processor (MCP) which group are denoted T, and half of which were sham treated but not trimmed, which group are denoted NT. Turkey behavior was observed on d 1, 3, 5, and 133. Toe cross sections were taken every second day for 14 d after treatment and were used to histologically examine the healing process. Toe length, gait score, and bird stance were assessed on d 55, 84, 119, and 139. For the first 5 d after treatment, T birds demonstrated less active behaviors such as feeding, standing, walking and running (P ≤ 0.05), indicative of pain with the effect diminishing with age. At d 133, T turkeys stood more and walked less than NT birds (P ≤ 0.05). Gait score and bird stance were not affected by treatment. Trimmed toes were on average 91.9% of the length of NT toes and toe length was more variable (P ≤ 0.05) as a result of the trimming process. Histological examination indicated T toes had complete epithelium closure over the healthy tissue by d 8 and were fully healed by d 14. Although bird mobility and stance were unaffected by treatment, turkey behavior both early and late in the production cycle were suggestive of pain and balance effects; both indicators of reduced welfare as a result of toe trimming. PMID:25881587

  17. Global Mapping of Underwater UV Irradiances and DNA-Weighted Exposures using TOMS and SeaWiFS Data Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vasilkov, Alexander; Krotkov, Nickolay; Herman, Jay; McClain, Charles; Arrigo, Kevin; Robinson, Wayne

    1999-01-01

    The global stratospheric ozone-layer depletion results In an increase in biologically harmful ultraviolet (UV) radiation reaching the surface and penetrating to ecologically significant depths in natural waters. Such an increase can be estimated on a global scale by combining satellite estimates of UV irradiance at the ocean surface from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) satellite instrument with the SeaWIFS satellite ocean-color measurements in the visible spectral region. In this paper we propose a model of seawater optical properties in the UV spectral region based on the Case I water model in the visible range. The inputs to the model are standard monthly SeaWiFS products: chlorophyll concentration and the diffuse attenuation coefficient at 490nm. Penetration of solar UV radiation to different depths in open ocean waters is calculated using the RT (radiative transfer) quasi-single scattering approximation (QSSA). The accuracy of the QSSA approximation in the water is tested using more accurate codes. The sensitivity study of the underwater UV irradiance to atmospheric and oceanic optical properties have shown that the main environmental parameters controlling the absolute levels of the UVB (280-320nm) and DNA-weighted irradiance underwater are: solar-zenith angle, cloud transmittance, water optical properties, and total ozone. Weekly maps of underwater UV irradiance and DNA-weighted exposure are calculated using monthly-mean SeaWiFS chlorophyll and diffuse attenuation coefficient products, daily SeaWiFS cloud fraction data, and the TOMS-derived surface UV irradiance daily maps. The final products include global maps of weekly-average UVB irradiance and DNA-weighted daily exposures at 3m and 10m, and depths where the UVB irradiance and DNA-weighted dose rate at local noon are equal to 10% of their surface values.

  18. Development of Advanced Earth Observing Satellite (ADEOS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuzuki, Toshiyuki; Iwasaki, Nobuo; Hara, Norikazu

    ADEOS ia a large satellite which could be called a polar orbiting platform. The weight is 3.5 tons and power is 4.5 KW at the end of three years of mission life. It is scheduled to be launched in early 1995 by the H-II launch vehicle from Tanegashima Space Center. ADEOS carries two core sensors and six Announcement Opportunity (AO) sensors. The core sensors are called the Ocean Color and Temperature Scanner (OCTS) and the Advanced Visible and Near Infrared Radiometer (ANVIR), which are being developed by NASDA. The AO sensors are the NASA Scatterometer (NSCAT), the NASA Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS), the Polarization and Directionality of Earth's Reflectances of CNES, the Interferometric Monitor for Greenhouse gases of MITI, the Improved Limb Atmospheric Spectrometer of Environment Agency (EA) of the Japanese government, and the EA Retroreflector In Space. This paper discusses the present status of the design and development of ADEOS putting emphasis on several features incorporated in the ADEOS bus system and several issues imposed at the system Preliminary Design Review.

  19. A new self-calibration method applied to TOMS and SBUV backscattered ultraviolet data to determine long-term global ozone change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herman, J. R.; Hudson, R.; Mcpeters, R.; Stolarski, R.; Ahmad, Z.

    1991-01-01

    The currently archived (1989) total ozone mapping spectrometer (TOMS) and solar backscattered ultraviolet (SBUV) total ozone data (version 5) show a global average decrease of about 9.0 percent from November 1978 to November 1988. This large decrease disagrees with an approximate 3.5-percent decrease estimated from the ground-based Dobson network. The primary source of disagreement was found to arise from an overestimate of reflectivity change and its incorrect wavelengths dependence for the diffuse plate used when measuring solar irradiance. Both of these factors have led to an overestimate of the rate of atmospheric ozone depletion by SBUV and TOMS. For total ozone measured by TOMS, a means has been found to use the measured radiance-irradiance ratio from several wavelengths pairs to construct an internally self-consistent calibration. The method uses the wavelength dependence of the sensitivity to calibration errors and the requirement that albedo ratios for each wavelength pair yield the same total ozone amounts. Smaller errors in determining spacecraft attitude, synchronization problems with the photon counting electronics, and sea-glint contamination of boundary reflectivity data have been corrected or minimized. New climatological low-ozone profiles have been incorporated into the TOMS algorithm that are appropriate for Antarctic ozone hole conditions and other low ozone cases. The combined corrections have led to a new determination of the global average total ozone trend (version 6) as a 2.9 + or - 1.3 percent decrease over 11 years (October 1978 to November 1989).

  20. Theory of Mind (ToM) in Children with Autism or Typical Development: Links between Eye-Reading and False Belief Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Candida C.; Slaughter, Virginia

    2009-01-01

    Previous research shows that high-functioning children with autism are slow to pass "litmus" false belief tests of ToM but how this may relate to other aspects of mindreading (e.g., discerning thoughts from facial expressions) is less clear, partly for methodological reasons. Thus the joint methodological and conceptual goals of this study were:…

  1. UV 380 nm Reflectivity of the Earth's Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herman, J. R.; Celarier, E.; Larko, D.

    2000-01-01

    The 380 nm radiance measurements of TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) have been converted into a global data set of daily (1979 to 1992) Lambert equivalent reflectivities R of the Earth's surface and boundary layer (clouds, aerosols, surface haze, and snow/ice). Since UV surface reflectivity is between 2 and 8% for both land and water during all seasons of the year (except for ice and snow cover), reflectivities larger than the surface value indicates the presence of clouds, haze, or aerosols in the satellite field of view. Statistical analysis of 14 years of daily data show that most snow/ice-free regions of the Earth have their largest fraction of days each year when the reflectivity is low (R less than 10%). The 380 nm reflectivity data shows that the true surface reflectivity is 2 to 3% lower than the most frequently occurring reflectivity value for each TOMS scene. The most likely cause of this could be a combination of frequently occurring boundary-layer water or aerosol haze. For most regions, the observation of extremely clear conditions needed to estimate the surface reflectivity from space is a comparatively rare occurrence. Certain areas (e.g., Australia, southern Africa, portions of northern Africa) are cloud-free more than 80% of the year, which exposes these regions to larger amounts of UV radiation than at comparable latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere. Regions over rain-forests, jungle areas, Europe and Russia, the bands surrounding the Arctic and Antarctic regions, and many ocean areas have significant cloud cover (R greater than 15%) more than half of each year. In the low to middle latitudes, the areas with the heaviest cloud cover (highest reflectivity for most of the year) are the forest areas of northern South America, southern Central America, the jungle areas of equatorial Africa, and high mountain regions such as the Himalayas or the Andes. The TOMS reflectivity data show the presence of large nearly clear ocean areas and the effects of the major ocean currents on cloud production.

  2. Magnetic TRAnsition Region Probe (MTRAP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, R. L.; Davis, John; Hathaway, David; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    MTRAP (Magnetic Transition Region Probe) will reveal the fine-scale physical processes in the Sun's magnetic transition region, the complex layer from the upper photosphere to the upper chromosphere/lower transition region. In the magnetic transition region plasma forces and magnetic forces are of comparable strength, which results in complex interplay of the two, which interplay governs the coupling of the convectively-driven deeper layers to the magnetically-driven upper transition region and inner corona. The fine-scale magnetic structure, processes, and events in the magnetic transition region are key to the genesis of the Sun's entire hot, dynamic outer atmosphere and to the initiation of large eruptive events. MTRAP will be a single spacecraft in Sun-synchronous Earth orbit. Because MTRAP will probe and measure the 3-D structure and dynamics of the magnetic field and plasma in the chromosphere and transition region with unprecedented resolution, the required telescope size and telemetry rates dictate that MTRAP be in Earth orbit, not in deep space. The observations will feature visible and infrared maps of vector magnetic and velocity fields in the magnetic transition region and photosphere. These will have large field of view (greater than 100,000 km), high resolution (greater than 100 km), and high sensitivity (greater than 30 G in transverse field). These observations of the lower atmosphere will be complemented by UV maps of the structure, velocity, and magnetic field (including the full vector field if technically feasible) higher up, in the upper chromosphere and lower transition region. MTRAP will also have an EUV imaging spectrograph observing coronal structure and dynamics in the same field of view with comparable resolution. Specific phenomena to be analyzed include spicules, bright points, jets, the base of plumes, and the triggering of eruptive flares and coronal mass ejections. Additional information is included in the original extended abstract.

  3. High temperature probe

    DOEpatents

    Swan, Raymond A.

    1994-01-01

    A high temperature probe for sampling, for example, smokestack fumes, and is able to withstand temperatures of 3000.degree. F. The probe is constructed so as to prevent leakage via the seal by placing the seal inside the water jacket whereby the seal is not exposed to high temperature, which destroys the seal. The sample inlet of the probe is also provided with cooling fins about the area of the seal to provide additional cooling to prevent the seal from being destroyed. Also, a heated jacket is provided for maintaining the temperature of the gas being tested as it passes through the probe. The probe includes pressure sensing means for determining the flow velocity of an efficient being sampled. In addition, thermocouples are located in various places on the probe to monitor the temperature of the gas passing there through.

  4. The Lifeworld Earth and a Modelled Earth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juuti, Kalle

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to study the question of whether a phenomenological view of the Earth could be empirically endorsed. The phenomenological way of thinking considers the Earth as a material entity, but not as an object as viewed in science. In the learning science tradition, tracking the process of the conceptual change of the shape of the…

  5. Spacecraft Charging and the Microwave Anisotropy Probe Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanSant, John T.; Neergaard, Linda F.

    1998-01-01

    The Microwave Anisotropy Probe (MAP), a MIDEX mission built in partnership between Princeton University and the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), will study the cosmic microwave background. It will be inserted into a highly elliptic earth orbit for several weeks and than use a lunar gravity assist to orbit around the second Lagrangean point (L2), 1.5 million kilometers, anti-sunward from the earth. the charging environment for the phasing loops and L2 was evaluated.

  6. Advanced scanning probe lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Ricardo; Knoll, Armin W.; Riedo, Elisa

    2014-08-01

    The nanoscale control afforded by scanning probe microscopes has prompted the development of a wide variety of scanning-probe-based patterning methods. Some of these methods have demonstrated a high degree of robustness and patterning capabilities that are unmatched by other lithographic techniques. However, the limited throughput of scanning probe lithography has prevented its exploitation in technological applications. Here, we review the fundamentals of scanning probe lithography and its use in materials science and nanotechnology. We focus on robust methods, such as those based on thermal effects, chemical reactions and voltage-induced processes, that demonstrate a potential for applications.

  7. Atom Probe Tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Michael K; Forbes, Richard

    2009-01-01

    This introductory tutorial describes the technique of atom probe tomography for materials characterization at the atomic level. The evolution of the technique from the initial atom probe field ion microscope to today s state-of-the-art three dimensional atom probe is outlined. An introduction is presented on the basic physics behind the technique, the operation of the instrument, and the reconstruction of the three-dimensional data. The common methods for analyzing the three-dimensional atom probe data, including atom maps, isoconcentration surfaces, proximity histograms, maximum separation methods, and concentration frequency distributions, are described.

  8. Can REDD+ Help the Conservation of Restricted-Range Island Species? Insights from the Endemism Hotspot of São Tomé

    PubMed Central

    de Lima, Ricardo Faustino; Olmos, Fábio; Dallimer, Martin; Atkinson, Philip W.; Barlow, Jos

    2013-01-01

    REDD+ aims to offset greenhouse gas emissions through “Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation”. Some authors suggest that REDD+ can bring additional benefits for biodiversity, namely for the conservation of extinction-prone restricted-range species. Here, we assess this claim, using São Tomé Island (Democratic Republic of São Tomé and Príncipe) as a case study. We quantified the abundance of bird and tree species, and calculated the aboveground carbon stocks across a gradient of land-use intensity. We found a strong spatial congruence between carbon and the presence and abundance of endemic species, supporting the potential of REDD+ to protect these taxa. We then assessed if REDD+ could help protect the forests of São Tomé and Príncipe. To do so, we used OSIRIS simulations to predict country-level deforestation under two different REDD+ designs. These simulations showed that REDD+ could promote the loss of forests in São Tomé and Príncipe through leakage. This happened even when additional payments for biodiversity were included in the simulations, and despite São Tomé and Príncipe having the fourth highest carbon stocks per land area and the second highest biodiversity values according to the OSIRIS database. These results show weaknesses of OSIRIS as a planning tool, and demonstrate that the benefits that REDD+ might bring for biodiversity are strongly dependent on its careful implementation. We recommend that payment for ecosystem services programmes such as REDD+ develop safeguards to ensure that biodiversity co-benefits are met and perverse outcomes are avoided across all tropical countries. In particular, we advise specific safeguards regarding the conservation of extinction-prone groups, such as island restricted-range species. PMID:24066109

  9. Can REDD+ help the conservation of restricted-range island species? Insights from the endemism hotspot of São Tomé.

    PubMed

    de Lima, Ricardo Faustino; Olmos, Fábio; Dallimer, Martin; Atkinson, Philip W; Barlow, Jos

    2013-01-01

    REDD+ aims to offset greenhouse gas emissions through "Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation". Some authors suggest that REDD+ can bring additional benefits for biodiversity, namely for the conservation of extinction-prone restricted-range species. Here, we assess this claim, using São Tomé Island (Democratic Republic of São Tomé and Príncipe) as a case study. We quantified the abundance of bird and tree species, and calculated the aboveground carbon stocks across a gradient of land-use intensity. We found a strong spatial congruence between carbon and the presence and abundance of endemic species, supporting the potential of REDD+ to protect these taxa. We then assessed if REDD+ could help protect the forests of São Tomé and Príncipe. To do so, we used OSIRIS simulations to predict country-level deforestation under two different REDD+ designs. These simulations showed that REDD+ could promote the loss of forests in São Tomé and Príncipe through leakage. This happened even when additional payments for biodiversity were included in the simulations, and despite São Tomé and Príncipe having the fourth highest carbon stocks per land area and the second highest biodiversity values according to the OSIRIS database. These results show weaknesses of OSIRIS as a planning tool, and demonstrate that the benefits that REDD+ might bring for biodiversity are strongly dependent on its careful implementation. We recommend that payment for ecosystem services programmes such as REDD+ develop safeguards to ensure that biodiversity co-benefits are met and perverse outcomes are avoided across all tropical countries. In particular, we advise specific safeguards regarding the conservation of extinction-prone groups, such as island restricted-range species. PMID:24066109

  10. The gravity probe B relativity gyroscope program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Everitt, C. W. Francis; Parkinson, B. W.; Turneaure, J. P.

    1989-01-01

    The idea of testing general relativity through observations on Earth orbiting gyroscopes was suggested in 1959 to 1960. The direction, it was noted, of spin of a suitably oriented gyroscope should change with respect to the line of sight to a guide star for two reasons: a geodetic effect from the motion of the gyroscope through the curved space-time around the Earth, and a frame-dragging effect from the Earth's rotation. NASA began supporting laboratory research on the experiment, now called Gravity Probe B, in 1964. Technologies for it were progressively established, and an error analysis demonstrated the potential of measuring frame-dragging to 1 to 2 percent and the geodetic effect to 1 part in 10(exp 4). Later analyses, discussed herein, suggest possibilities for further improving those precisions each by a further factor of 10. In 1984, after technical and scientific reviews by the Space Science Board and other bodies, and completion by NASA Marshall Center of a Phase B Study, the NASA Administrator approved the start of a program known as STORE (Shuttle Test Of the Relativity Experiment). The purpose of STORE is to verify the final Gravity Probe B science payload, perform on the Shuttle a 7-day experiment rehearsal (including sophisticated gyro tests in low gravity), and then return the payload to Earth for refurbishment and integration into the Science Mission spacecraft. The payload comprises four gyroscopes, a telescope, and a drag-free proof mass, all mounted in a quartz block assembly within an evacuated magnetically shielded probe, which in turn is inserted into a 10-ft long, 6-ft diameter liquid helium dewar, operating at 1.8 K and maintaining low temperature for 2 years. STORE is manifested on Shuttle OV-105, for launch MSSN 69 in February 1993. The Science Mission is set tentatively for June 1995.

  11. Scientific Value of a Saturn Atmospheric Probe Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon-Miller, A. A.; Lunine, J. I.; Atreya, S. K.; Spilker, T. R.; Coustenis, A.; Atkinson, D. H.

    2012-01-01

    Atmospheric entry probe mISSions to the giant planets can uniquely discriminate between competing theories of solar system formation and the origin and evolution of the giant planets and their atmospheres. This provides for important comparative studies of the gas and ice giants, and to provide a laboratory for studying the atmospheric chemistries, dynamics, and interiors of all the planets including Earth. The giant planets also represent a valuable link to extrasolar planetary systems. As outlined in the recent Planetary Decadal Survey, a Saturn Probe mission - with a shallow probe - ranks as a high priority for a New Frontiers class mission [1].

  12. Earth on the Move.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naturescope, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Provides background information on the layers of the earth, the relationship between changes on the surface of the earth and its insides, and plate tectonics. Teaching activities are included, with some containing reproducible worksheets and handouts to accompany them. (TW)

  13. Formative Assessment Probes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eberle, Francis; Keeley, Page

    2008-01-01

    Formative assessment probes can be effective tools to help teachers build a bridge between students' initial ideas and scientific ones. In this article, the authors describe how using two formative assessment probes can help teachers determine the extent to which students make similar connections between developing a concept of matter and a…

  14. The Sounds of Earth Record Cover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    This gold aluminum cover was designed to protect the Voyager 1 and 2 'Sounds of Earth' gold-plated records from micrometeorite bombardment, but also serves a double purpose in providing the finder a key to playing the record. The explanatory diagram appears on both the inner and outer surfaces of the cover, as the outer diagram will be eroded in time. Flying aboard Voyagers 1 and 2 are identical 'golden' records, carrying the story of Earth far into deep space. The 12 inch gold-plated copper discs contain greetings in 60 languages, samples of music from different cultures and eras, and natural and man-made sounds from Earth. They also contain electronic information that an advanced technological civilization could convert into diagrams and photographs. Currently, both Voyager probes are sailing adrift in the black sea of interplanetary space, having left our solar system years ago.

  15. Multiple seismic reflectors in Earth's lowermost mantle.

    PubMed

    Shang, Xuefeng; Shim, Sang-Heon; de Hoop, Maarten; van der Hilst, Robert

    2014-02-18

    The modern view of Earth's lowermost mantle considers a D″ region of enhanced (seismologically inferred) heterogeneity bounded by the core-mantle boundary and an interface some 150-300 km above it, with the latter often attributed to the postperovskite phase transition (in MgSiO3). Seismic exploration of Earth's deep interior suggests, however, that this view needs modification. So-called ScS and SKKS waves, which probe the lowermost mantle from above and below, respectively, reveal multiple reflectors beneath Central America and East Asia, two areas known for subduction of oceanic plates deep into Earth's mantle. This observation is inconsistent with expectations from a thermal response of a single isochemical postperovskite transition, but some of the newly observed structures can be explained with postperovskite transitions in differentiated slab materials. Our results imply that the lowermost mantle is more complex than hitherto thought and that interfaces and compositional heterogeneity occur beyond the D″ region sensu stricto. PMID:24550266

  16. Goddard earth models (5 and 6)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lerch, F. J.; Wagner, C. A.; Richardson, J. A.; Brownd, J. E.

    1974-01-01

    A comprehensive earth model has been developed that consists of two complementary gravitational fields and center-of-mass locations for 134 tracking stations on the earth's surface. One gravitational field is derived solely from satellite tracking data. This data on 27 satellite orbits is the most extensive used for such a solution. A second solution uses this data with 13,400 simultaneous events from satellite camera observations and surface gravimetric anomalies. The satellite-only solution as a whole is accurate to about 4.5 milligals as judged by the surface gravity data. The majority of the station coordinates are accurate to better than 10 meters as judged by independent results from geodetic surveys and by Doppler tracking of both distant space probes and near earth orbits.

  17. The Dynamic Earth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siever, Raymond

    1983-01-01

    Discusses how the earth is a dynamic system that maintains itself in a steady state. Areas considered include large/small-scale earth motions, geologic time, rock and hydrologic cycles, and other aspects dealing with the changing face of the earth. (JN)

  18. Interior of the Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, R. J.

    1984-01-01

    Basic questions regarding the interior of the Earth in the 1990's are discussed. Research problems in the areas of plate tectonics, the Earth mantle the Earth core, and continental structure are discussed. Observational requirements of the GRAVSAT satellite mission are discussed.

  19. Clear-Sky UV-B trends over Northern Midlatitudes derived from TOMS Low-Reflectivity Footprint Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ziemke, Jerry; Chandra, Sushil; Varotsos, C.

    1998-01-01

    This study investigates the distribution of clear-sky ultraviolet-B (UV-B, wavelengths 290-320 nm) trends in northern midlatitudes using 1979-1991 Nimbus 7 total ozone mapping spectrometer (TOMS) version 7 low-reflectivity (R<0.2) total ozone footprint measurements. The incorporation of essentially cloud-free ozone data from TOMS provides a direct method for separating transient cloud effects from anthropogenic and other dynamical factors present in UV-B. This study has also included both National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) microwave sounding unit channel 4 (MSU4) and National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) 500 hPa temperature (T500) fields in our trend models to improve UV-Index (UVI) trend statistics and to investigate the effects of interannual changes in UVI caused by synoptic-scale (horizontal wavelengths 4000-8000 km) and planetary-scale (horizontal wavelengths greater than 8000 km) dynamical events. Clear-sky UVI trends in the northern midlatitudes show large increases (exceeding 10 % per decade) and distinct regional variability especially during winter-spring months which can be attributed to topography and dynamical forcing effects. In the UV-important summer-autumn months, these trends are more uniformly distributed and still statistically significant, although smaller at around +2 to +3 % per decade. Specifically, during April largest increases in midlatitude UVI are seen to extend from near the dateline eastward across North America. In June months largest UVI increases occur over the east Asian continent with values around +5 to +6 % per decade. These increases in UVI over both the Pacific and Asian continent regions persist through summer into Autumn. In the the European sector, statistically significant increases in clear-sky UVI are found over central Europe with values around +2 to +3 % per decade and +8 to +9 % per decade during summer and winter-spring months, respectively. Over the nearby Mediterranean region these seasonal trends are around +2 to +3 and +5 to +6 % per decade.

  20. A Comparison of Seasonal and Interannual Variability of Soil Dust Aerosols Over the Atlantic Ocean as Inferred by the Toms AI and AVHRR AOT Retrievals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cakmur, R. V.; Miller, R. L.; Tegen, Ina; Hansen, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The seasonal cycle and interannual variability of two estimates of soil (or 'mineral') dust aerosols are compared: Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) aerosol optical thickness (AOT) and Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) aerosol index (AI), Both data sets, comprising more than a decade of global, daily images, are commonly used to evaluate aerosol transport models. The present comparison is based upon monthly averages, constructed from daily images of each data set for the period between 1984 and 1990, a period that excludes contamination from volcanic eruptions. The comparison focuses upon the Northern Hemisphere subtropical Atlantic Ocean, where soil dust aerosols make the largest contribution to the aerosol load, and are assumed to dominate the variability of each data set. While each retrieval is sensitive to a different aerosol radiative property - absorption for the TOMS AI versus reflectance for the AVHRR AOT - the seasonal cycles of dust loading implied by each retrieval are consistent, if seasonal variations in the height of the aerosol layer are taken into account when interpreting the TOMS AI. On interannual time scales, the correlation is low at most locations. It is suggested that the poor interannual correlation is at least partly a consequence of data availability. When the monthly averages are constructed using only days common to both data sets, the correlation is substantially increased: this consistency suggests that both TOMS and AVHRR accurately measure the aerosol load in any given scene. However, the two retrievals have only a few days in common per month so that these restricted monthly averages have a large uncertainty. Calculations suggest that at least 7 to 10 daily images are needed to estimate reliably the average dust load during any particular month, a threshold that is rarely satisfied by the AVHRR AOT due to the presence of clouds in the domain. By rebinning each data set onto a coarser grid, the availability of the AVHRR AOT is increased during any particular month, along with its interannual correlation with the TOMS AI The latter easily exceeds the sampling threshold due to its greater ability to infer the aerosol load in the presence of clouds. Whether the TOMS AI should be regarded as a more reliable indicator of interannual variability depends upon the extent of contamination by sub-pixel clouds.

  1. A comparison of seasonal and interannual variability of soil dust aerosols over the Atlantic Ocean as inferred by the TOMS AI and AVHRR AOT retrievals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cakmur, Reha V.; Miller, Ron L.; Tegen, Ina

    2001-08-01

    The seasonal cycle and interannual variability of two estimates of soil (or "mineral") dust aerosols are compared: advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) aerosol optical thickness (AOT) and Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) aerosol index (AI). Both data sets, comprising more than a decade of global, daily images, are commonly used to evaluate aerosol transport models. The present comparison is based on monthly averages, constructed from daily images of each data set for the period between 1984 and 1990, a period that excludes contamination from volcanic eruptions. The comparison focuses on the Northern Hemisphere subtropical Atlantic Ocean, where soil dust aerosols make the largest contribution to the aerosol load, and are assumed to dominate the variability of each data set. While each retrieval is sensitive to a different aerosol radiative property (absorption for the TOMS AI versus reflectance for the AVHRR AOT), the seasonal cycles of dust loading implied by each retrieval are consistent, if seasonal variations in the height of the aerosol layer are taken into account when interpreting the TOMS AI. On interannual timescales, the correlation is low at most locations. It is suggested that the poor interannual correlation is at least partly a consequence of data availability. When the monthly averages are constructed using only days common to both data sets, the correlation is substantially increased: this consistency suggests that both TOMS and AVHRR accurately measure the aerosol load in any given scene. However, the two retrievals have only a few days in common per month, so these restricted monthly averages have a large uncertainty. Calculations suggest that at least 7 to 10 daily images are needed to estimate reliably the average dust load during any particular month, a threshold that is rarely satisfied by the AVHRR AOT due to the presence of clouds in the domain. By rebinning each data set onto a coarser grid, the availability of the AVHRR AOT is increased during any particular month, along with its interannual correlation with the TOMS AI. The latter easily exceeds the sampling threshold due to its greater ability to infer the aerosol load in the presence of clouds. Whether the TOMS AI should be regarded as a more reliable indicator of interannual variability depends on the extent of contamination by subpixel clouds.

  2. Space and Earth Sciences, Computer Systems, and Scientific Data Analysis Support, Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estes, Ronald H. (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    This Final Progress Report covers the specific technical activities of Hughes STX Corporation for the last contract triannual period of 1 June through 30 Sep. 1993, in support of assigned task activities at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). It also provides a brief summary of work throughout the contract period of performance on each active task. Technical activity is presented in Volume 1, while financial and level-of-effort data is presented in Volume 2. Technical support was provided to all Division and Laboratories of Goddard's Space Sciences and Earth Sciences Directorates. Types of support include: scientific programming, systems programming, computer management, mission planning, scientific investigation, data analysis, data processing, data base creation and maintenance, instrumentation development, and management services. Mission and instruments supported include: ROSAT, Astro-D, BBXRT, XTE, AXAF, GRO, COBE, WIND, UIT, SMM, STIS, HEIDI, DE, URAP, CRRES, Voyagers, ISEE, San Marco, LAGEOS, TOPEX/Poseidon, Pioneer-Venus, Galileo, Cassini, Nimbus-7/TOMS, Meteor-3/TOMS, FIFE, BOREAS, TRMM, AVHRR, and Landsat. Accomplishments include: development of computing programs for mission science and data analysis, supercomputer applications support, computer network support, computational upgrades for data archival and analysis centers, end-to-end management for mission data flow, scientific modeling and results in the fields of space and Earth physics, planning and design of GSFC VO DAAC and VO IMS, fabrication, assembly, and testing of mission instrumentation, and design of mission operations center.

  3. Earth Science Information Center

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1991-01-01

    An ESIC? An Earth Science Information Center. Don't spell it. Say it. ESIC. It rhymes with seasick. You can find information in an information center, of course, and you'll find earth science information in an ESIC. That means information about the land that is the Earth, the land that is below the Earth, and in some instances, the space surrounding the Earth. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) operates a network of Earth Science Information Centers that sell earth science products and data. There are more than 75 ESIC's. Some are operated by the USGS, but most are in other State or Federal agencies. Each ESIC responds to requests for information received by telephone, letter, or personal visit. Your personal visit.

  4. Chemical sensing flow probe

    DOEpatents

    Laguna, G.R.; Peter, F.J.; Butler, M.A.

    1999-02-16

    A new chemical probe determines the properties of an analyte using the light absorption of the products of a reagent/analyte reaction. The probe places a small reaction volume in contact with a large analyte volume. Analyte diffuses into the reaction volume. Reagent is selectively supplied to the reaction volume. The light absorption of the reaction in the reaction volume indicates properties of the original analyte. The probe is suitable for repeated use in remote or hostile environments. It does not require physical sampling of the analyte or result in significant regent contamination of the analyte reservoir. 7 figs.

  5. Chemical sensing flow probe

    DOEpatents

    Laguna, George R.; Peter, Frank J.; Butler, Michael A.

    1999-01-01

    A new chemical probe determines the properties of an analyte using the light absorption of the products of a reagent/analyte reaction. The probe places a small reaction volume in contact with a large analyte volume. Analyte diffuses into the reaction volume. Reagent is selectively supplied to the reaction volume. The light absorption of the reaction in the reaction volume indicates properties of the original analyte. The probe is suitable for repeated use in remote or hostile environments. It does not require physical sampling of the analyte or result in significant regent contamination of the analyte reservoir.

  6. Foldable polymers as probes

    DOEpatents

    Li, Alexander D. Q.; Wang, Wei

    2007-07-03

    Disclosed herein are novel probes, which can be used to detect and identify target molecules of interest in a sample. The disclosed probes can be used to monitor conformational changes induced by molecular recognition events in addition to providing signaling the presence and/or identity of a target molecule. Methods, including solid phase synthesis techniques, for making probe molecules that exhibit changes in their optical properties upon target molecule binding are described in the disclosure. Also disclosed herein are novel chromophore moieties, which have tailored fluorescent emission spectra.

  7. Foldable polymers as probes

    DOEpatents

    Li, Alexander D. Q.; Wang, Wei

    2009-07-07

    Disclosed herein are novel probes, which can be used to detect and identify target molecules of interest in a sample. The disclosed probes can be used to monitor conformational changes induced by molecular recognition events in addition to providing signaling the presence and/or identity of a target molecule. Methods, including solid phase synthesis techniques, for making probe molecules that exhibit changes in their optical properties upon target molecule binding are described in the disclosure. Also disclosed herein are novel chromophore moieties, which have tailored fluorescent emission spectra.

  8. ALEX neutral beam probe

    SciTech Connect

    Pourrezaei, K.

    1982-01-01

    A neutral beam probe capable of measuring plasma space potential in a fully 3-dimensional magnetic field geometry has been developed. This neutral beam was successfully used to measure an arc target plasma contained within the ALEX baseball magnetic coil. A computer simulation of the experiment was performed to refine the experimental design and to develop a numerical model for scaling the ALEX neutral beam probe to other cases of fully 3-dimensional magnetic field. Based on this scaling a 30 to 50 keV neutral cesium beam probe capable of measuring space potential in the thermal barrier region of TMX Upgrade was designed.

  9. Focus: DNA probes

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-11-01

    Progress in the development of DNA probes for the identification and quantitation of specific genetic sequences in biological samples is reviewed. Current research efforts in the development of DNA probes for the diagnosis of a wide variety of bacterial, viral, and other infectious diseases, such as herpes simplex and cytomegalovirus, and inherited genetic diseases such as cystic fibrosis and sickle cell anemia are discussed. Progress in development of DNA probe assays for cancer diagnosis, detection of Salmonella food poisoning, tissue typing (detection of histocompatibility antigens), mutagen screening, and animal diseases, among other applications is included.

  10. BEAM CONTROL PROBE

    DOEpatents

    Chesterman, A.W.

    1959-03-17

    A probe is described for intercepting a desired portion of a beam of charged particles and for indicating the spatial disposition of the beam. The disclosed probe assembly includes a pair of pivotally mounted vanes moveable into a single plane with adjacent edges joining and a calibrated mechanical arrangement for pivoting the vancs apart. When the probe is disposed in the path of a charged particle beam, the vanes may be adjusted according to the beam current received in each vane to ascertain the dimension of the beam.

  11. Upper Tropospheric Ozone Between Latitudes 60S and 60N Derived from Nimbus 7 TOMS/THIR Cloud Slicing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ziemke, Jerald R.; Chandra, Sushil; Bhartia, P. K.

    2002-01-01

    This study evaluates the spatial distributions and seasonal cycles in upper tropospheric ozone (pressure range 200-500 hPa) from low to high latitudes (60S to 60N) derived from the satellite retrieval method called "Cloud Slicing." Cloud Slicing is a unique technique for determining ozone profile information in the troposphere by combining co-located measurements of cloud-top, pressure and above-cloud column ozone. For upper tropospheric ozone, co-located measurements of Nimbus 7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) above-cloud column ozone, and Nimbus 7 Temperature Humidity Infrared Radiometer (THIR) cloud-top pressure during 1979-1984 were incorporated. In the tropics, upper tropospheric ozone shows year-round enhancement in the Atlantic region and evidence of a possible semiannual variability. Upper tropospheric ozone outside the tropics shows greatest abundance in winter and spring seasons in both hemispheres with largest seasonal and largest amounts in the NH. These characteristics are similar to lower stratospheric ozone. Comparisons of upper tropospheric column ozone with both stratospheric ozone and a proxy of lower stratospheric air mass (i.e., tropopause pressure) from National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) suggest that stratosphere-troposphere exchange (STE) may be a significant source for the seasonal variability of upper tropospheric ozone almost everywhere between 60S and 60N except in low latitudes around 10S to 25N where other sources (e.g., tropospheric transport, biomass burning, aerosol effects, lightning, etc.) may have a greater role.

  12. Increased Vacuolar ATPase Activity Correlated With CAM Induction in Mesembryanthemum crystallinum and Kalanchoë blossfeldiana cv. Tom Thumb.

    PubMed

    Struve, I; Weber, A; Lüttge, U; Ball, E; Smith, J A

    1985-01-01

    Vacuolar ATPase activities were determined by differential inhibition of homogenates of isolated protoplasts (using the inhibitors molybdate for acid phosphatases, vanadate for plasmalemma ATPase, azide for mitochondrial ATPase, and phlorizin for chloroplast ATPase) and in preparations of isolated vacuoles of Mesembryanthemum crystallinum and Kalanchoë blossfeldiana cv. Tom Thumb. Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) was induced in M. crystallinum by NaCl-salinity and in K. blossfeldiana by short-day treatments. Vacuolar ATPase activities increased several-fold during the transition from C(3) photosynthesis to CAM. The increase was quantitatively related to the rates of nocturnal maliacid accumulation in CAM assuming a stoichiometry of 2 H(+) pumped into the vacuole for 1 ATP hydrolyzed and 1 malate(2-) anion transported by secondary flux coupling. In M. crystallinum increased vacuolar ATPase activities were truly correlated with the degree of CAM expressed and not with NaCl accumulation due to the salinity treatment. Some properties of the vacuolar A TPase of M. crystallinum characterized in vacuole preparations were a pH-optimum near 8.0, an apparent K(m) (MgATP(2-)) of 0.20 to 0.29 mM, and an approximately 70 % inhibition by 50 mM nitrate. PMID:23195866

  13. The Rg1 allele as a valuable tool for genetic transformation of the tomato 'Micro-Tom' model system

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The cultivar Micro-Tom (MT) is regarded as a model system for tomato genetics due to its short life cycle and miniature size. However, efforts to improve tomato genetic transformation have led to protocols dependent on the costly hormone zeatin, combined with an excessive number of steps. Results Here we report the development of a MT near-isogenic genotype harboring the allele Rg1 (MT-Rg1), which greatly improves tomato in vitro regeneration. Regeneration was further improved in MT by including a two-day incubation of cotyledonary explants onto medium containing 0.4 ?M 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) before cytokinin treatment. Both strategies allowed the use of 5 ?M 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP), a cytokinin 100 times less expensive than zeatin. The use of MT-Rg1 and NAA pre-incubation, followed by BAP regeneration, resulted in high transformation frequencies (near 40%), in a shorter protocol with fewer steps, spanning approximately 40 days from Agrobacterium infection to transgenic plant acclimatization. Conclusions The genetic resource and the protocol presented here represent invaluable tools for routine gene expression manipulation and high throughput functional genomics by insertional mutagenesis in tomato. PMID:20929550

  14. The global distribution of ozone destruction rates obtained from 13 years of Nimbus/TOMS data (1979-1991)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herman, Jay R.; Stolarski, R. S.; Mcpeters, R.; Larko, D.

    1994-01-01

    Long-term ozone trends (percentage change) have been computed from 13 years of Nimbus/TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) data as a function of latitude, longitude, and month for the period January 1, 1979 to December 31, 1991. In both hemispheres, the ozone column content has decreased at latitudes above 30 deg by amounts that are larger than predicted by homogeneous chemistry models for the 13-year time period. The largest rates of ozone decrease occur in the Southern Hemisphere during winter and spring, with recovery during the summer and autumn. The large winter ozone loss rates are consistent with observed low stratospheric temperatures, ice-cloud formation, and heterogeneous chemistry at middle and high latitudes. There are similar, but smaller changes observed in the Northern Hemisphere. At midlatitudes, (40 deg N to 50 deg N) there are increased zonal average ozone depletion rates that correspond to 5 geographically localized regions of increased ozone depletion rates. Only the equatorial band between plus or minus 20 deg shows little or no long-term ozone change since January, 1979. The long-term winter ozone depletion rate data for both hemispheres suggests that heterogeneous chemistry processes may operate over a wide range of latitudes during half of the year.

  15. Miniature Instrumentation for SIPR (Subsurface Ice PRobe)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ostmo, Karl P.

    2005-01-01

    Ice coring has proved to be a valuable scientific tool for determining climate history on Earth. The goal of the SIPR project is to develop a simple extraterrestrial ice sampling method of comparable value to coring. The SIPR probe works by melting its way through glacial ice, pumping the melt water to the surface for analysis as it descends hundreds of meters. The specific geometry of the probe, along with size and power constraints, requires creative diagnostic instrumentation. A thin, vertically strung heated filament will provide continuous-level monitoring of water in down-hole containers. The filament has an appreciable temperature coefficient to resistance (TCR), so as water cools the wire, its resistance decreases. At a constant electrical current, the voltage across the filament varies linearly with water level.

  16. Substorm electric fields in the earth's magnetotail

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cattell, C. A.; Mozer, F. S.

    1984-01-01

    A survey has been made of all the electric field data from the University of California, Berkeley, double probe experiment on ISEE-1 (apogee approximately 22 earth radii) during 1980 when the satellite was in the magnetotail. This study was restricted to the 74 events where E cross B flows could be calculated and were equal to or greater than 100 km/s. Substorm times were determined by examining the Ae index for peaks equal to or greater than 250 gamma. In association with substorms, approximately 70 percent of the flows were earthward, and approximately 20 percent had a signature called 'near satellite reconnection' (first described by Nishida et al. (1983) of tailward flow followed by earthward flow which can be interpreted in terms of a model where the x-line forms earthward of the satellite and subsequently propagates tailward of X(GSM) = -21 earth radii and within the absolute value of Y(GSM) equal to or less than 4.5 earth radii. These data suggest that the near earth x-line usually forms tailward of X(GSM) approximately -20 earth radii.

  17. Investigation of the effect of atmospheric dust on the determination of total ozone from the earth's ultraviolet reflectivity measurements, 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dave, J. V.

    1976-01-01

    Results of a detailed analysis of the simulated measurements for the BUV (Nimbus-4) configuration are described by using a total-ozone estimation procedure. A set of recommendations are discussed for increasing the accuracy and confidence level of the total ozone values estimated from the measurements of the earth's ultraviolet reflectivity at five different wavelengths (BUV configuration). A tentative procedure is also considered for the estimation of total ozone from measurements of reflectivity at six different wavelengths specified in the SBUV/TOMS (Nimbus-G) configuration.

  18. Reflections on Electric Probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braithwaite, Nicholas

    2007-10-01

    One of the more immediate temptations for an experimental plasma physicist is to insert some kind of refractory, conducting material into a plasma, as a simple means of probing its charge composition. Irvine Langmuir tried it in the 1920s and was one of the first to develop an electrical probe method in his early work on electrical discharge plasmas. There are now numerous variations on the theme including planar, cylindrical and spherical geometry with single, double and triple probes. There are also probes that resonate, propagate and reciprocate. Some probes are electrostatic and others are electromagnetic; some are effectively wireless; most absorb but some emit. All types can be used in steady and transient plasmas, while special schemes have been devised for RF plasmas, using passive and active compensation. Magnetised plasmas pose further challenges. Each configuration is accompanied by assumptions that constrain both their applicability and the analytical methods that translate the measured currents and voltages variously into charge densities, space potentials, particle fluxes, energy distributions and measures of collisionality. This talk will take a broad look at the options and opportunities for electric probes, principally in the environment of non-equilibrium plasma.

  19. Dissecting the genetic history of São Tomé e Príncipe: a new window from Y-chromosome biallelic markers.

    PubMed

    Trovoada, M J; Tavares, L; Gusmão, L; Alves, C; Abade, A; Amorim, A; Prata, M J

    2007-01-01

    Twenty biallelic Y chromosome markers were analyzed in Angolares, Forros and Tongas, three population groups from the African archipelago of São Tomé e Príncipe. While most male lineages belonged to sub-Saharan haplogroups, the component of European origin added up 23.9% in the archipelago. This contrasts with the reported absence of European mtDNA lineages, and the combined findings testify to a strong sex-biased admixture process during the long-lasting colonial period in São Tomé e Príncipe. Furthermore, the male mediated European component was clearly found to be out of proportion to the small demographic impact of the Portuguese on the islands, reflecting high variance in the reproductive success of the individuals that contributed to its peopling. The male portion of European ancestry was 33.3% in Forros, 27.3% in Tongas and approximately two-fold less, 14.5%, in Angolares. The Angolares also showed the lowest haplogroup diversity and the most reduced number of different haplogroups. The current results reinforce our previous evidence pointing to remarkable restrictions in gene flow between Angolares and other São Tomean inhabitants, in agreement with their considerable isolation and confinement to the south-eastern tip of São Tomé until recently. PMID:17227478

  20. Validation of the OMI-TOMS and OMI-DOAS total ozone column data using ground-based observations over China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Mingliang; Shi, Runhe; Gao, Wei

    2015-09-01

    This study evaluates the accuracy of total ozone column derived from Ozone Monitoring Instruments (OMI) with two algorithms: OMI Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (OMI-TOMS) and OMI Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (OMI-DOAS), compared to ground-based Brewer and Dobson spectrophotometers located at eight China stations from July 2009 to December 2013, including Xianghe, Kunming, Mt.Waliguan, Lhasa, Taipei, Chengkung, Cape D'Aguilar and Longfengshan. Results showed that the agreement between OMI ozone data and ground-based measurements is excellent. Total ozone columns from both OMI-TOMS and OMI-DOAS data are on average about 1.5% lower than ground-based data. For both OMI ozone data products the SZA dependence of the mean relative differences (RD) between satellite data and the ground-based data is relative obvious when the SZA is larger than 50°. Similar to the SZA, the satellite view zenith angle (VZA) dependence of the mean relative differences (RD) between satellite and ground is relatively markedly when the VZA is smaller than 10° in eight stations. Finally, the dependence of the mean relative differences (RD) (-4.28% to 0.818%) between OMI-DOAS data and ground-based data for the total ozone column is remarkable. While for OMI-TOMS data the dependence is not obvious (the RD value varies from -3.30% to -0.676%).

  1. Uderstanding Snowball Earth Deglaciation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbot, D. S.

    2012-12-01

    Earth, a normally clement planet comfortably in its star's habitable zone, suffered global or nearly global glaciation at least twice during the Neoproterozoic era (at about 635 and 710 million years ago). Viewed in the context of planetary evolution, these pan-global glaciations (Snowball Earth events) were extremely rapid, lasting only a few million years. The dramatic effect of the Snowball Earth events on the development of the planet can be seen through their link to rises in atmospheric oxygen and evolutionary innovations. These potential catastrophes on an otherwise clement planet can be used to gain insight into planetary habitability more generally. Since Earth is not currently a Snowball, a sound deglaciation mechanism is crucial for the viability of the Snowball Earth hypothesis. The traditional deglaciation mechanism is a massive build up of CO2 due to reduced weathering during Snowball Earth events until tropical surface temperatures reach the melting point. Once initiated, such a deglaciation might happen on a timescale of only dozens of thousands of years and would thrust Earth from the coldest climate in its history to the warmest. Therefore embedded in Snowball Earth events is an even more rapid and dramatic environmental change. Early global climate model simulations raised doubt about whether Snowball Earth deglaciation could be achieved at a CO2 concentration low enough to be consistent with geochemical data, which represented a potential challenge to the Snowball Earth hypothesis. Over the past few years dust and clouds have emerged as the essential missing additional processes that would allow Snowball Earth deglaciation at a low enough CO2 concentration. I will discuss the dust and cloud mechanisms and the modeling behind these ideas. This effort is critical for the broader implications of Snowball Earth events because understanding the specific deglaciation mechanism determines whether similar processes could happen on other planets.

  2. EarthExplorer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Houska, Treva

    2012-01-01

    The EarthExplorer trifold provides basic information for on-line access to remotely-sensed data from the U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center archive. The EarthExplorer (http://earthexplorer.usgs.gov/) client/server interface allows users to search and download aerial photography, satellite data, elevation data, land-cover products, and digitized maps. Minimum computer system requirements and customer service contact information also are included in the brochure.

  3. MicroProbe Small Unmanned Aerial System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bland, Geoffrey; Miles, Ted

    2012-01-01

    The MicroProbe unmanned aerial system (UAS) concept incorporates twin electric motors mounted on the vehicle wing, thus enabling an aerodynamically and environmentally clean nose area for atmospheric sensors. A payload bay is also incorporated in the fuselage to accommodate remote sensing instruments. A key feature of this concept is lightweight construction combined with low flying speeds to minimize kinetic energy and associated hazards, as well as maximizing spatial resolution. This type of aerial platform is needed for Earth science research and environmental monitoring. There were no vehicles of this type known to exist previously.

  4. Earth observations. [remote sensing of earth resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The development of the Earth Resources Technology Satellites for making earth observations from space is discussed. The programmatic elements of the ERTS program are defined. The specific results of the program which are considered are as follows: (1) analysis of snowmelt runoff, (2) analysis of Mississippi River floods of 1973, (3) global ice surveys with an electrically scanning microwave radiometer, (4) the microwave signature of snow fields, (5) analysis of strip mining activities, (6) sea surface studies using microwave techniques during the Bering Sea experiment, (7) cloud types and measurement of rainfall, and (8) performance of various remote sensors.

  5. Radio interference in the near-earth environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, W. C.

    1988-01-01

    Natural and man-made radio frequency interference (RFI) are potentially serious obstacles to the successful operation of an array of spacecraft used for low frequency (1 to 30 MHz) radio interferometry in the near-earth environment. Several satellites and planetary probes have carried radio astronomy experiments, and the moderate data base that they provide are examined to help understand the near-earth RFI environment. The general conclusion is that the region of space within 100 earth-radii of the earth is a hostile environment for any radio astronomy experiment. If a low frequency array in earth orbit is to yield useful astronomical results, severe interference problems must be anticipated and overcome. A number of recommendations are made to further examine the feasibility of such an array.

  6. The Gravity Probe B Flight Dewar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Gravity Probe B (GP-B) is the relativity experiment developed at Stanford University to test two extraordinary predictions of Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity. This photograph is of the Gravity Probe B flight dewar, a metal container made like a vacuum bottle that is used especially for storing liquefied gases, that will maintain the experiment at a temperature just above absolute zero, staying cold for two years. The experiment will measure, very precisely, the expected tiny changes in the direction of the spin axes of four gyroscopes contained in an Earth-orbiting satellite at 400-mile altitude. So free are the gyroscopes from disturbance that they will provide an almost perfect space-time reference system. They will measure how space and time are very slightly warped by the presence of the Earth, and, more profoundly, how the Earth's rotation very slightly drags space-time around with it. These effects, though small for the Earth, have far-reaching implications for the nature of matter and the structure of the Universe. GP-B is among the most thoroughly researched programs ever undertaken by NASA. This is the story of a scientific quest in which physicists and engineers have collaborated closely over many years. Inspired by their quest, they have invented a whole range of technologies -- technologies that are already enlivening other branches of science and engineering. Launched in 2004 and managed for NASA by the Marshall Space Flight Center, development of the GP-B is the responsibility of Stanford University, with major subcontractor Lockheed Martin Corporation. (Photo Credit: Lockheed Martin Corporation/R. Underwood)

  7. Gravity Probe B Completed With Solar Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    In this photo, the Gravity Probe B (GP-B) space vehicle is completed during the solar array installation. The GP-B is the relativity experiment developed at Stanford University to test two extraordinary predictions of Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity. The experiment will measure, very precisely, the expected tiny changes in the direction of the spin axes of four gyroscopes contained in an Earth-orbiting satellite at a 400-mile altitude. So free are the gyroscopes from disturbance that they will provide an almost perfect space-time reference system. They will measure how space and time are very slightly warped by the presence of the Earth, and, more profoundly, how the Earth's rotation very slightly drags space-time around with it. These effects, though small for the Earth, have far-reaching implications for the nature of matter and the structure of the Universe. GP-B is among the most thoroughly researched programs ever undertaken by NASA. This is the story of a scientific quest in which physicists and engineers have collaborated closely over many years. Inspired by their quest, they have invented a whole range of technologies that are already enlivening other branches of science and engineering. GP-B is scheduled for launch in April 2004 and managed for NASA by the Marshall Space Flight Center. Development of the GP-B is the responsibility of Stanford University along with major subcontractor Lockheed Martin Corporation. (Image credit to Russ Underwood, Lockheed Martin Corporation).

  8. Artist's Concept of Gravity Probe-B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Gravity Probe-B (GP-B) is the relativity experiment being developed at Stanford University to test two extraordinary predictions of Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity. The experiment will measure, very precisely, the expected tiny changes in the direction of the spin axes of four gyroscopes contained in an Earth-orbiting satellite at a 400-mile altitude. So free are the gyroscopes from disturbance that they will provide an almost perfect space-time reference system. They will measure how space and time are very slightly warped by the presence of the Earth, and, more profoundly, how the Earth's rotation very slightly drags space-time around with it. These effects, though small for the Earth, have far-reaching implications for the nature of matter and the structure of the Universe. GP-B is among the most thoroughly researched programs ever undertaken by NASA. This is the story of a scientific quest in which physicists and engineers have collaborated closely over many years. Inspired by their quest, they have invented a whole range of technologies -- technologies that are already enlivening other branches of science and engineering. Scheduled for launch in 2003 and managed for NASA by the Marshall Space Flight Center, development of GP-B is the responsibility of Stanford University, with major subcontractor Lockheed Martin Corporation.

  9. Artist's Concept of Gravity Probe-B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Gravity Probe-B (GP-B) is the relativity experiment being developed at Stanford University to test two extraordinary predictions of Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity. The experiment will measure, very precisely, the expected tiny changes in the direction of the spin axes of four gyroscopes contained in an Earth-orbiting satellite at a 400-mile altitude. So free are the gyroscopes from disturbance that they will provide an almost perfect space-time reference system. They will measure how space and time are very slightly warped by the presence of the Earth, and, more profoundly, how the Earth's rotation very slightly drags space-time around with it. These effects, though small for the Earth, have far-reaching implications for the nature of matter and the structure of the Universe. GP-B is among the most thoroughly researched programs ever undertaken by NASA. This is the story of a scientific quest in which physicists and engineers have collaborated closely over many years. Inspired by their quest, they have invented a whole range of technologies -- technologies that are already enlivening other branches of science and engineering. Scheduled for launch in 2003 and managed for NASA by Marshall Space Flight Center, development of GP-B is the responsibility of Stanford University, with major subcontractor Lockheed Martin Corporation.

  10. Gravity Probe B Number 4 Gyro Inspected

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The Gravity Probe B (GP-B) is the relativity experiment developed at Stanford University to test two extraordinary predictions of Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity. The experiment will measure, very precisely, the expected tiny changes in the direction of the spin axes of four gyroscopes contained in an Earth-orbiting satellite at a 400-mile altitude. So free are the gyroscopes from disturbance that they will provide an almost perfect space-time reference system. They will measure how space and time are very slightly warped by the presence of the Earth, and, more profoundly, how the Earth's rotation very slightly drags space-time around with it. These effects, though small for the Earth, have far-reaching implications for the nature of matter and the structure of the Universe. In this photograph, Stanford engineer, Chris Gray, is inspecting the number 4 gyro under monochromatic light. GP-B is among the most thoroughly researched programs ever undertaken by NASA. This is the story of a scientific quest in which physicists and engineers have collaborated closely over many years. Inspired by their quest, they have invented a whole range of technologies that are already enlivening other branches of science and engineering. Launched April 20, 2004 , the GP-B program was managed for NASA by the Marshall Space Flight Center. Development of the GP-B is the responsibility of Stanford University along with major subcontractor Lockheed Martin Corporation. (Image credit to Russ Leese, Stanford University.)

  11. Artist's Concept of Gravity Probe-B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Gravity Probe-B (GP-B) is the relativity experiment being developed at Stanford University to test two extraordinary predictions of Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity. The experiment will measure, very precisely, the expected tiny changes in the direction of the spin axes of four gyroscopes contained in an Earth-orbiting satellite at a 400-mile altitude. So free are the gyroscopes from disturbance that they will provide an almost perfect space-time reference system. They will measure how space and time are very slightly warped by the presence of the Earth, and, more profoundly, how the Earth's rotation very slightly drags space-time around with it. These effects, though small for the Earth, have far-reaching implications for the nature of matter and the structure of the Universe. GP-B is among the most thoroughly researched programs ever undertaken by NASA. This is the story of a scientific quest in which physicists and engineers have collaborated closely over many years. Inspired by their quest, they have invented a whole range of technologies -- technologies that are already enlivening other branches of science and engineering. Scheduled for launch in 2003 and managed for NASA by Marshall Space Flight Center, development of the GP-B is the responsibility of Stanford University, with major subcontractor Lockheed Martin Corporation.

  12. High resolution SNOM probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antosiewicz, Tomasz J.; Wrbel, Piotr; Szoplik, Tomasz

    2008-12-01

    Development of nanotechnologies demands optical characterization and measurement techniques that yield information with resolutions well below the diffraction limit. This requires an increase of the resolution of scanning near-field optical microscopes (SNOMs) from 50-70 nm commercially available nowadays in the visible range, to beneficial 30 nm, where ? is the wavelength of light in free space. High resolution SNOM probes would be crucial in measurements of point spread functions of superlenses based on negative refraction and characterization of plasmonic circuitry. The resolution of SNOMs is ?r = d + 2a, where d is the diameter of a radiating aperture of a tapered-fiber metal-coated probe and a is a skin depth, that is the distance the electromagnetic field penetrates the metal coating. The size of the radiated field does not exceed the diameter ?r when the aperture-sample distance h is kept constant by the shear-force tuning fork method. One of the resolution parameters, the skin depth a, depends on the metal that coats the dielectric probe and the shape of the metal rim. For Ag and Al, the values of a are on the level of 10nm, when measured on a flat metal surface illuminated with a plane wave. Thus, the other resolution parameter which we intend to decrease is a probe diameter d. The probe should radiate enough energy to be detected in a reasonable scanning measurement time. Recently, we proved that probe emission depends on the charge density induced on the probe rim. To increase this density we propose enhancement of the photon-plasmon coupling on the interface between the dielectric core and the metal coating. To this end we corrugate the interface. In this paper we analyze the role of parameters of the corrugations and report on attempts to fabricate them.

  13. Model for resonant plasma probe.

    SciTech Connect

    Warne, Larry Kevin; Johnson, William Arthur; Hebner, Gregory Albert; Jorgenson, Roy E.; Coats, Rebecca Sue

    2007-04-01

    This report constructs simple circuit models for a hairpin shaped resonant plasma probe. Effects of the plasma sheath region surrounding the wires making up the probe are determined. Electromagnetic simulations of the probe are compared to the circuit model results. The perturbing effects of the disc cavity in which the probe operates are also found.

  14. The infinite line pressure probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Englund, D. R.; Richards, W. B.

    1984-01-01

    The infinite line pressure probe provides a means for measuring high frequency fluctuating pressures in difficult environments. A properly designed infinite line probe does not resonate; thus its frequency response is not limited by acoustic resonance in the probe tubing, as in conventional probes. The characteristics of infinite line pressure probes are reviewed and some applications in turbine engine research are described. A probe with a flat-oval cross section, permitting a constant-impedance pressure transducer installation, is described. Techniques for predicting the frequency response of probes with both circular and flat-oval cross sections are also cited.

  15. Rare Earth Nanoprobes for Functional Biomolecular Imaging and Theranostics

    PubMed Central

    Naczynski, Dominik J.; Tan, Mei Chee; Riman, Richard E.; Moghe, Prabhas V.

    2014-01-01

    Contrast agents designed to visualize the molecular mechanisms underlying cancer pathogenesis and progression have deepened our understanding of disease complexity and accelerated the development of enhanced drug strategies targeted to specific biochemical pathways. For the next generation probes and imaging systems to be viable, they must exhibit enhanced sensitivity and robust quantitation of morphologic and contrast features, while offering the ability to resolve the disease-specific molecular signatures that may be critical to reconstitute a more comprehensive portrait of pathobiology. This feature article provides an overview on the design and advancements of emerging biomedical optical probes in general and evaluates the promise of rare earth nanoprobes, in particular, for molecular imaging and theranostics. Combined with new breakthroughs in nanoscale probe configurations, and improved dopant compositions, and multimodal infrared optical imaging, rare-earth nanoprobes can be used to address a wide variety of biomedical challenges, including deep tissue imaging, real-time drug delivery tracking and multispectral molecular profiling. PMID:24921049

  16. High tech the old-fashioned way. An interview with Tom Siebel of Siebel Systems. Interview by Bronwyn Fryer.

    PubMed

    Siebel, T

    2001-03-01

    There is a growing awareness among corporations that the quality of the customer experience they provide directly affects their bottom line. Many are turning to high-flying software maker Siebel Systems for help in managing those relationships. The young company holds a leadership position in an explosive market-enterprise application software. But customer satisfaction, not dot-com chic, is foremost on the mind of Siebel Systems' founder, chairman, and CEO, Tom Siebel. The buttoned-down Siebel rejects the freewheeling management style and culture that characterize many Silicon Valley companies. As the former CEO of Gain Technology and a former executive at Oracle, Siebel believes in putting customers ahead of technology, discipline ahead of inspiration. In this interview, conducted at the company's San Mateo, California, headquarters, Siebel describes how this obsessive focus on customer satisfaction has been the driving force behind the company's success. He talks about how the organization remains true to its core values: a deep commitment to providing customer satisfaction; responsible fiscal practices that have created a cash-positive business amid today's cash-negative dot-coms; and general professionalism. "The notion of dressing in jeans and a T-shirt to greet the CEO of a major financial institution who just got off the plane from Munich is not acceptable," he says. Siebel Systems rejects the concept of going to war with rivals; instead, the CEO says, the company has forged an ecosystem of partnerships that allows it to support and integrate its own systems with other companies' software products and ultimately ease the customer's software installations. Indeed, Siebel says, the CEO's most important job is to understand what customers need and deliver that. PMID:11246919

  17. Multiple 40-kDa Heat-Shock Protein Chaperones Function in Tom70-dependent Mitochondrial Import

    PubMed Central

    Bhangoo, Melanie K.; Tzankov, Stefan; Fan, Anna C.Y.; Dejgaard, Kurt; Thomas, David Y.

    2007-01-01

    Mitochondrial preproteins that are imported via the translocase of the mitochondrial outer membrane (Tom)70 receptor are complexed with cytosolic chaperones before targeting to the mitochondrial outer membrane. The adenine nucleotide transporter (ANT) follows this pathway, and its purified mature form is identical to the preprotein. Purified ANT was reconstituted with chaperones in reticulocyte lysate, and bound proteins were identified by mass spectrometry. In addition to 70-kDa heat-shock cognate protein (Hsc70) and 90-kDa heat-shock protein (Hsp90), a specific subset of cochaperones were found, but no mitochondria-specific targeting factors were found. Interestingly, three different Hsp40-related J-domain proteins were identified: DJA1, DJA2, and DJA4. The DJAs bound preproteins to different extents through their C-terminal regions. DJA dominant-negative mutants lacking the N-terminal J-domains impaired mitochondrial import. The mutants blocked the binding of Hsc70 to preprotein, but with varying efficiency. The DJAs also showed significant differences in activation of the Hsc70 ATPase and Hsc70-dependent protein refolding. In HeLa cells, the DJAs increased new protein folding and mitochondrial import, although to different extents. No single DJA was superior to the others in all aspects, but each had a profile of partial specialization. The Hsp90 cochaperones p23 and Aha1 also regulated Hsp90–preprotein interactions. We suggest that multiple cochaperones with similar yet partially specialized properties cooperate in optimal chaperone–preprotein complexes. PMID:17596514

  18. Synoptic study of the seasonal variability of dust cases observed by the TOMS satellite over northern Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awad, Adel M.; Mashat, Abdul-Wahab S.; Alamoudi, Ahmad O.; Assiri, Mazen E.

    2016-05-01

    The aerosol index (AI) from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) satellite and meteorological parameters from National Center for Environmental Prediction and the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP/NCAR) reanalysis datasets were used to examine seasonal dust cases in northern Saudi Arabia. Considering all seasons, winter has the fewest dust cases, whereas summer has the most dust cases. Synoptically, surface high-pressure systems in the eastern and western regions are important for the occurrence of dust cases over the northern Arabian Peninsula. When the eastern high pressure prevails, the effects of the Indian low-pressure system on the Arabian Peninsula are weakened or become nonexistent. The extension of the western high-pressure system toward the southeast provides an opportunity for a low-pressure system over Southeast Africa to connect with the Indian low-pressure system, which increases the width of the low-pressure trough and affects the Arabian Peninsula by increasing the amount of dust over the region. At 850 hPa, the weather systems typically rotate clockwise between winter and autumn. In winter, cyclonic systems prevail in the northern region, while anticyclonic systems prevail in the south. The systems are oriented toward the northeast in spring, the west in summer, and the southeast in autumn. Moreover, northern cyclones at 500 hPa shrink as they move northward and the maximum wind speed at 250 hPa decreases from winter to summer. Furthermore, the case study confirms that a change in the relative strength of the pressure systems and a change in the orientation of the isobars (contours) affect the amount of dust over the area. When the orientation of the isobar (contour) lines become strictly north to south or east to west, the amount of dust decreases and vice versa.

  19. Geology and potential hazards of the continental slope between Lindenkohl and South Toms canyons, offshore Mid-Atlantic United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robb, James M.; Hampson, John C., Jr.; Kirby, John R.; Twichell, David C.

    1981-01-01

    Because sediment instability, or slumping, has been identified as a potential hazard to petroleum development of the east-coast Continental Slope, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Bureau of Land Management, began a detailed study of a segment of the Continental Slope between Lindenkohl and South Toms Canyons off New Jersey. This 40-km x 35-km area was chosen for study because it lies within the area of high interest for petroleum development (Lease sales 49 and 59), and because it includes several wells which provide stratigraphic control. This report discusses the results of geologic mapping, using seismic-reflection data acquired in 1978 and 1979. Some initial results from more recently acquired data are included. The Continental Slope in the study area has a complex surface with ridges, canyons, and valleys. Three slump or slide features were observed in the heads and on the walls of canyons and valleys, and two slides were identified on an intercanyon area. The identified slumps or slides are found in Quaternary sediments and total about 1.3 percent of the Continental Slope area mapped. The slope is generally mantled by less than 2 m of Holocene sediments. Pleistocene sediment (primarily silty clay) is about 450 m thick at the top of the slope and thins to nearly zero or is absent on much of the mid and lower slope, where sediments of Miocene to Eocene age are exposed. Ridges on the midslope (water depths of 800-1,500 m) and parts of the lowr slope (1,500-2,150 m) result primarily from Pleistocene and older deposition. The intervening valleys show evidence of erosion along the deepest parts of their courses. Mid-range sidescan-sonar data show evidence that processes of bottom-current erosion and downcanyon transport of material may be active in the present day. However, major features of the sea floor appear to be unchanged since late-Pleistocene time.

  20. Synoptic study of the seasonal variability of dust cases observed by the TOMS satellite over northern Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awad, Adel M.; Mashat, Abdul-Wahab S.; Alamoudi, Ahmad O.; Assiri, Mazen E.

    2015-05-01

    The aerosol index (AI) from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) satellite and meteorological parameters from National Center for Environmental Prediction and the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP/NCAR) reanalysis datasets were used to examine seasonal dust cases in northern Saudi Arabia. Considering all seasons, winter has the fewest dust cases, whereas summer has the most dust cases. Synoptically, surface high-pressure systems in the eastern and western regions are important for the occurrence of dust cases over the northern Arabian Peninsula. When the eastern high pressure prevails, the effects of the Indian low-pressure system on the Arabian Peninsula are weakened or become nonexistent. The extension of the western high-pressure system toward the southeast provides an opportunity for a low-pressure system over Southeast Africa to connect with the Indian low-pressure system, which increases the width of the low-pressure trough and affects the Arabian Peninsula by increasing the amount of dust over the region. At 850 hPa, the weather systems typically rotate clockwise between winter and autumn. In winter, cyclonic systems prevail in the northern region, while anticyclonic systems prevail in the south. The systems are oriented toward the northeast in spring, the west in summer, and the southeast in autumn. Moreover, northern cyclones at 500 hPa shrink as they move northward and the maximum wind speed at 250 hPa decreases from winter to summer. Furthermore, the case study confirms that a change in the relative strength of the pressure systems and a change in the orientation of the isobars (contours) affect the amount of dust over the area. When the orientation of the isobar (contour) lines become strictly north to south or east to west, the amount of dust decreases and vice versa.

  1. Meteterakis saotomensis n. sp. (Nematoda: Heterakidae) from Schistometopum thomense (Bocage) (Gymnophiona: Dermophiidae) on São Tomé Island.

    PubMed

    Junker, Kerstin; Mariaux, Jean; Measey, G John; Mutafchiev, Yasen

    2015-10-01

    Meteterakis saotomensis n. sp. is described from Schistometopum thomense (Bocage), a gymnophionan endemic to the oceanic island of São Tomé in the Gulf of Guinea. The specimens were assigned to Meteterakis Karve, 1930, based on the possession of a head with three rounded lips, not set-off from the body, the absence of interlabia and cordons, females with a long vagina and males with a preanal sucker, surrounded by a cuticularised rim and caudal alae that are supported by fleshy papillae. The new species is characterised by: body length 4.2-4.5 mm (males) and 5.1-6.4 mm (females); total length of oesophagus, including pharyngeal portion and oesophageal bulb, 820-856 µm (males) and 898-1,070 µm (females); length of pharynx 57-58 µm (males) and 65-68 µm (females); spicules equal, 410-521 µm long, with tessellated ornamentation throughout their length and alae, and with bevelled tip; gubernaculum or 'gubernacular mass' absent; tail length 164-176 µm (males) and 214-239 µm (females), with elongated tip; vulva at 2.3-2.8 mm from anterior end, with anterior lip forming small flap. This is the second species of Meteterakis reported from gymnophionan hosts and the first from the Afrotropical region. Selected comparative morphological data for Meteterakis spp. are presented, and data on host range and geographic distribution are updated. The name M. striaturus Oshmarin & Demshin, 1972 is corrected to M. striatura to reflect the female gender of the genus name. PMID:26358072

  2. Population Genetics of the São Tomé Caecilian (Gymnophiona: Dermophiidae: Schistometopum thomense) Reveals Strong Geographic Structuring

    PubMed Central

    Stoelting, Ricka E.; Measey, G. John; Drewes, Robert C.

    2014-01-01

    Islands provide exciting opportunities for exploring ecological and evolutionary mechanisms. The oceanic island of São Tomé in the Gulf of Guinea exhibits high diversity of fauna including the endemic caecilian amphibian, Schistometopum thomense. Variation in pigmentation, morphology and size of this taxon over its c. 45 km island range is extreme, motivating a number of taxonomic, ecological, and evolutionary hypotheses to explain the observed diversity. We conducted a population genetic study of S. thomense using partial sequences of two mitochondrial DNA genes (ND4 and 16S), together with morphological examination, to address competing hypotheses of taxonomic or clinal variation. Using Bayesian phylogenetic analysis and Spatial Analysis of Molecular Variance, we found evidence of four geographic clades, whose range and approximated age (c. 253 Kya – 27 Kya) are consistent with the spread and age of recent volcanic flows. These clades explained 90% of variation in ND4 (φCT = 0.892), and diverged by 4.3% minimum pairwise distance at the deepest node. Most notably, using Mismatch Distributions and Mantel Tests, we identified a zone of population admixture that dissected the island. In the northern clade, we found evidence of recent population expansion (Fu's Fs = −13.08 and Tajima's D = −1.80) and limited dispersal (Mantel correlation coefficient = 0.36, p = 0.01). Color assignment to clades was not absolute. Paired with multinomial regression of chromatic data, our analyses suggested that the genetic groups and a latitudinal gradient together describe variation in color of S. thomense. We propose that volcanism and limited dispersal ability are the likely proximal causes of the observed genetic structure. This is the first population genetic study of any caecilian and demonstrates that these animals have deep genetic divisions over very small areas in accordance with previous speculations of low dispersal abilities. PMID:25171066

  3. Population genetics of the São Tomé caecilian (Gymnophiona: Dermophiidae: Schistometopum thomense) reveals strong geographic structuring.

    PubMed

    Stoelting, Ricka E; Measey, G John; Drewes, Robert C

    2014-01-01

    Islands provide exciting opportunities for exploring ecological and evolutionary mechanisms. The oceanic island of São Tomé in the Gulf of Guinea exhibits high diversity of fauna including the endemic caecilian amphibian, Schistometopum thomense. Variation in pigmentation, morphology and size of this taxon over its c. 45 km island range is extreme, motivating a number of taxonomic, ecological, and evolutionary hypotheses to explain the observed diversity. We conducted a population genetic study of S. thomense using partial sequences of two mitochondrial DNA genes (ND4 and 16S), together with morphological examination, to address competing hypotheses of taxonomic or clinal variation. Using Bayesian phylogenetic analysis and Spatial Analysis of Molecular Variance, we found evidence of four geographic clades, whose range and approximated age (c. 253 Kya-27 Kya) are consistent with the spread and age of recent volcanic flows. These clades explained 90% of variation in ND4 (φCT = 0.892), and diverged by 4.3% minimum pairwise distance at the deepest node. Most notably, using Mismatch Distributions and Mantel Tests, we identified a zone of population admixture that dissected the island. In the northern clade, we found evidence of recent population expansion (Fu's Fs = -13.08 and Tajima's D = -1.80) and limited dispersal (Mantel correlation coefficient = 0.36, p = 0.01). Color assignment to clades was not absolute. Paired with multinomial regression of chromatic data, our analyses suggested that the genetic groups and a latitudinal gradient together describe variation in color of S. thomense. We propose that volcanism and limited dispersal ability are the likely proximal causes of the observed genetic structure. This is the first population genetic study of any caecilian and demonstrates that these animals have deep genetic divisions over very small areas in accordance with previous speculations of low dispersal abilities. PMID:25171066

  4. Convective heat flow probe

    DOEpatents

    Dunn, J.C.; Hardee, H.C.; Striker, R.P.

    1984-01-09

    A convective heat flow probe device is provided which measures heat flow and fluid flow magnitude in the formation surrounding a borehole. The probe comprises an elongate housing adapted to be lowered down into the borehole; a plurality of heaters extending along the probe for heating the formation surrounding the borehole; a plurality of temperature sensors arranged around the periphery of the probe for measuring the temperature of the surrounding formation after heating thereof by the heater elements. The temperature sensors and heater elements are mounted in a plurality of separate heater pads which are supported by the housing and which are adapted to be radially expanded into firm engagement with the walls of the borehole. The heat supplied by the heater elements and the temperatures measured by the temperature sensors are monitored and used in providing the desired measurements. The outer peripheral surfaces of the heater pads are configured as segments of a cylinder and form a full cylinder when taken together. A plurality of temperature sensors are located on each pad so as to extend along the length and across the width thereof, with a heating element being located in each pad beneath the temperature sensors. An expansion mechanism driven by a clamping motor provides expansion and retraction of the heater pads and expandable packet-type seals are provided along the probe above and below the heater pads.

  5. Convective heat flow probe

    DOEpatents

    Dunn, James C.; Hardee, Harry C.; Striker, Richard P.

    1985-01-01

    A convective heat flow probe device is provided which measures heat flow and fluid flow magnitude in the formation surrounding a borehole. The probe comprises an elongate housing adapted to be lowered down into the borehole; a plurality of heaters extending along the probe for heating the formation surrounding the borehole; a plurality of temperature sensors arranged around the periphery of the probe for measuring the temperature of the surrounding formation after heating thereof by the heater elements. The temperature sensors and heater elements are mounted in a plurality of separate heater pads which are supported by the housing and which are adapted to be radially expanded into firm engagement with the walls of the borehole. The heat supplied by the heater elements and the temperatures measured by the temperature sensors are monitored and used in providing the desired measurements. The outer peripheral surfaces of the heater pads are configured as segments of a cylinder and form a full cylinder when taken together. A plurality of temperature sensors are located on each pad so as to extend along the length and across the width thereof, with a heating element being located in each pad beneath the temperature sensors. An expansion mechanism driven by a clamping motor provides expansion and retraction of the heater pads and expandable packer-type seals are provided along the probe above and below the heater pads.

  6. Surgical force detection probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tcheng, Ping; Roberts, Paul; Scott, Charles; Prass, Richard

    1991-01-01

    The development progress of a precision electro-mechanical instrument which allows the detection and documentation of the forces and moment applied to human tissue during surgery (under actual operation room conditions), is reported. The pen-shaped prototype probe which measures 1/2 inch in diameter and 7 inches in length was fabricated using an aerodynamic balance. The aerodynamic balance, a standard wind tunnel force and moment sensing transducer, measures the forces and the moments transmitted through the surgeon's hand to the human tissue during surgery. The prototype probe which was fabricated as a development tool was tested successfully. The final version of the surgical force detection probe will be designed based on additional laboratory tests in order to establish the full scale loads. It is expected that the final product will require a simplified aerodynamic balance with two or three force components and one moment component with lighter full scale loads. A signal conditioner was fabricated to process and display the outputs from the prototype probe. This unit will be interfaced with a PC-based data system to provide automatic data acquisition, data processing, and graphics display. The expected overall accuracy of the probe is better than one percent full scale.

  7. The Earth Charter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Education for Sustainable Development, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Humanity is part of a vast evolving universe. Earth is alive with a unique community of life. The forces of nature make existence a demanding and uncertain adventure, but Earth has provided the conditions essential to life's evolution. The resilience of the community of life and the well-being of humanity depend upon preserving a healthy biosphere…

  8. The Earth Needs You!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curriculum Review, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Celebrated annually on April 22, schools and communities organize numerous activities during Earth Day to promote awareness. To help teachers plan their own initiatives and to learn more about what is happening around the world, they can join the Earth Day Network at: http://network.earthday.net/. Once they have joined, they can create a webpage

  9. Hands On Earth Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisgarber, Sherry L.; Van Doren, Lisa; Hackathorn, Merrianne; Hannibal, Joseph T.; Hansgen, Richard

    This publication is a collection of 13 hands-on activities that focus on earth science-related activities and involve students in learning about growing crystals, tectonics, fossils, rock and minerals, modeling Ohio geology, geologic time, determining true north, and constructing scale-models of the Earth-moon system. Each activity contains…

  10. Earth System Science Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutherford, Sandra; Coffman, Margaret

    2004-01-01

    For several decades, science teachers have used bottles for classroom projects designed to teach students about biology. Bottle projects do not have to just focus on biology, however. These projects can also be used to engage students in Earth science topics. This article describes the Earth System Science Project, which was adapted and developed…

  11. Cool Earth Solar

    ScienceCinema

    Lamkin, Rob; McIlroy, Andy; Swalwell, Eric; Rajan, Kish

    2014-02-26

    In a public-private partnership that takes full advantage of the Livermore Valley Open Campus (LVOC) for the first time, Sandia National Laboratories and Cool Earth Solar have signed an agreement that could make solar energy more affordable and accessible. In this piece, representatives from Sandia, Cool Earth Solar, and leaders in California government all discuss the unique partnership and its expected impact.

  12. The Earth Needs You!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curriculum Review, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Celebrated annually on April 22, schools and communities organize numerous activities during Earth Day to promote awareness. To help teachers plan their own initiatives and to learn more about what is happening around the world, they can join the Earth Day Network at: http://network.earthday.net/. Once they have joined, they can create a webpage…

  13. The Earth's Core.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeanloz, Raymond

    1983-01-01

    The nature of the earth's core is described. Indirect evidence (such as that determined from seismological data) indicates that it is an iron alloy, solid toward its center but otherwise liquid. Evidence also suggests that it is the turbulent flow of the liquid that generates the earth's magnetic field. (JN)

  14. Earth and ocean modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knezovich, F. M.

    1976-01-01

    A modular structured system of computer programs is presented utilizing earth and ocean dynamical data keyed to finitely defined parameters. The model is an assemblage of mathematical algorithms with an inherent capability of maturation with progressive improvements in observational data frequencies, accuracies and scopes. The Eom in its present state is a first-order approach to a geophysical model of the earth's dynamics.

  15. The Earth Charter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Education for Sustainable Development, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Humanity is part of a vast evolving universe. Earth is alive with a unique community of life. The forces of nature make existence a demanding and uncertain adventure, but Earth has provided the conditions essential to life's evolution. The resilience of the community of life and the well-being of humanity depend upon preserving a healthy biosphere

  16. Introducing Earth's Orbital Eccentricity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oostra, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Most students know that planetary orbits, including Earth's, are elliptical; that is Kepler's first law, and it is found in many science textbooks. But quite a few are mistaken about the details, thinking that the orbit is very eccentric, or that this effect is somehow responsible for the seasons. In fact, the Earth's orbital eccentricity is…

  17. Skylab Explores the Earth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    This book describes the Skylab 4 Earth Explorations Project. Photographs of the earth taken by the Skylab astronauts are reproduced here and accompanied by an analytical and explanatory text. Some of the geological and geographical topics covered are: (1) global tectonics - some geological analyses of observations and photographs from Skylab; (2)…

  18. Skylab Explores the Earth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    This book describes the Skylab 4 Earth Explorations Project. Photographs of the earth taken by the Skylab astronauts are reproduced here and accompanied by an analytical and explanatory text. Some of the geological and geographical topics covered are: (1) global tectonics - some geological analyses of observations and photographs from Skylab; (2)

  19. Cool Earth Solar

    SciTech Connect

    Lamkin, Rob; McIlroy, Andy; Swalwell, Eric; Rajan, Kish

    2013-04-22

    In a public-private partnership that takes full advantage of the Livermore Valley Open Campus (LVOC) for the first time, Sandia National Laboratories and Cool Earth Solar have signed an agreement that could make solar energy more affordable and accessible. In this piece, representatives from Sandia, Cool Earth Solar, and leaders in California government all discuss the unique partnership and its expected impact.

  20. Introducing Earth's Orbital Eccentricity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oostra, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Most students know that planetary orbits, including Earth's, are elliptical; that is Kepler's first law, and it is found in many science textbooks. But quite a few are mistaken about the details, thinking that the orbit is very eccentric, or that this effect is somehow responsible for the seasons. In fact, the Earth's orbital eccentricity is

  1. Dynamics of the Earth's Radiation Belts and Inner Magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Colin

    2013-12-01

    Trapped by Earth's magnetic field far above the planet's surface, the energetic particles that fill the radiation belts are a sign of the Sun's influence and a threat to our technological future. In the AGU monograph Dynamics of the Earth's Radiation Belts and Inner Magnetosphere, editors Danny Summers, Ian R. Mann, Daniel N. Baker, and Michael Schulz explore the inner workings of the magnetosphere. The book reviews current knowledge of the magnetosphere and recent research results and sets the stage for the work currently being done by NASA's Van Allen Probes (formerly known as the Radiation Belt Storm Probes). In this interview, Eos talks to Summers about magnetospheric research, whistler mode waves, solar storms, and the effects of the radiation belts on Earth.

  2. Mission to Planet Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclucas, John L.

    1989-01-01

    The Mission to Planet Earth is a research program designed to obtain information on the earth and the global changes taking place in the environment, including the 'natural'changes due to internal processes within the earth environment, the effects of energy and particles arriving from the outer space, and the effects of man and other living organisms inhabiting the earth. This paper emphasizes the need for multinational commitment to the collection of data on various global phenomena and for the 'end-to-end' management of the data handling process, which must combine data from many sources and do it properly to reveal useful information. The role of NASA and other space agencies in organizing these efforts is discussed. Special attention is given to the role of SAFISY (the Space Agency Forum for the International Space Year) formed with participation of 24 nations to coordinate the activities of various space agencies on the Mission to Planet Earth project.

  3. Ice-Borehole Probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Behar, Alberto; Carsey, Frank; Lane, Arthur; Engelhardt, Herman

    2006-01-01

    An instrumentation system has been developed for studying interactions between a glacier or ice sheet and the underlying rock and/or soil. Prior borehole imaging systems have been used in well-drilling and mineral-exploration applications and for studying relatively thin valley glaciers, but have not been used for studying thick ice sheets like those of Antarctica. The system includes a cylindrical imaging probe that is lowered into a hole that has been bored through the ice to the ice/bedrock interface by use of an established hot-water-jet technique. The images acquired by the cameras yield information on the movement of the ice relative to the bedrock and on visible features of the lower structure of the ice sheet, including ice layers formed at different times, bubbles, and mineralogical inclusions. At the time of reporting the information for this article, the system was just deployed in two boreholes on the Amery ice shelf in East Antarctica and after successful 2000 2001 deployments in 4 boreholes at Ice Stream C, West Antarctica, and in 2002 at Black Rapids Glacier, Alaska. The probe is designed to operate at temperatures from 40 to +40 C and to withstand the cold, wet, high-pressure [130-atm (13.20-MPa)] environment at the bottom of a water-filled borehole in ice as deep as 1.6 km. A current version is being outfitted to service 2.4-km-deep boreholes at the Rutford Ice Stream in West Antarctica. The probe (see figure) contains a sidelooking charge-coupled-device (CCD) camera that generates both a real-time analog video signal and a sequence of still-image data, and contains a digital videotape recorder. The probe also contains a downward-looking CCD analog video camera, plus halogen lamps to illuminate the fields of view of both cameras. The analog video outputs of the cameras are converted to optical signals that are transmitted to a surface station via optical fibers in a cable. Electric power is supplied to the probe through wires in the cable at a potential of 170 VDC. A DC-to-DC converter steps the supply down to 12 VDC for the lights, cameras, and image-data-transmission circuitry. Heat generated by dissipation of electric power in the probe is removed simply by conduction through the probe housing to the visible features of the lower structure of the ice sheet, including ice layers formed at different times, bubbles, and mineralogical inclusions. At the time of reporting the information for this article, the system was just deployed in two boreholes on the Amery ice shelf in East Antarctica and after successful 2000 2001 deployments in 4 boreholes at Ice Stream C, West Antarctica, and in 2002 at Black Rapids Glacier, Alaska. The probe is designed to operate at temperatures from 40 to +40 C and to withstand the cold, wet, high-pressure [130-atm (13.20-MPa)] environment at the bottom of a water-filled borehole in ice as deep as 1.6 km. A current version is being outfitted to service 2.4-km-deep boreholes at the Rutford Ice Stream in West Antarctica. The probe (see figure) contains a sidelooking charge-coupled-device (CCD) camera that generates both a real-time analog video signal and a sequence of still-image data, and contains a digital videotape recorder. The probe also contains a downward-looking CCD analog video camera, plus halogen lamps to illuminate the fields of view of both cameras. The analog video outputs of the cameras are converted to optical signals that are transmitted to a surface station via optical fibers in a cable. Electric power is supplied to the probe through wires in the cable at a potential of 170 VDC. A DC-to-DC converter steps the supply down to 12 VDC for the lights, cameras, and image-datatransmission circuitry. Heat generated by dissipation of electric power in the probe is removed simply by conduction through the probe housing to the visible features of the lower structure of the ice sheet, including ice layers formed at different times, bubbles, and mineralogical inclusions. At thime of reporting the information for this article, the system was just deployed in two boreholes on the Amery ice shelf in East Antarctica and after successful 2000 2001 deployments in 4 boreholes at Ice Stream C, West Antarctica, and in 2002 at Black Rapids Glacier, Alaska. The probe is designed to operate at temperatures from 40 to +40 C and to withstand the cold, wet, high-pressure [130-atm (13.20-MPa)] environment at the bottom of a water-filled borehole in ice as deep as 1.6 km. A current version is being outfitted to service 2.4-km-deep boreholes at the Rutford Ice Stream in West Antarctica. The probe (see figure) contains a sidelooking charge-coupled-device (CCD) camera that generates both a real-time analog video signal and a sequence of still-image data, and contains a digital videotape recorder. The probe also contains a downward-looking CCD analog video camera, plus halogen lamps to illuminate the fields of view of both cameras. The analog video outputs of the cameras are converted to optical signals that are transmitted to a surface station via optical fibers in a cable. Electric power is supplied to the probe through wires in the cable at a potential of 170 VDC. A DC-to-DC converter steps the supply down to 12 VDC for the lights, cameras, and image-datatransmission circuitry. Heat generated by dissipation of electric power in the probe is removed simply by conduction through the probe housing to the adjacent water and ice.

  4. Multispectral imaging probe

    DOEpatents

    Sandison, David R.; Platzbecker, Mark R.; Descour, Michael R.; Armour, David L.; Craig, Marcus J.; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

    1999-01-01

    A multispectral imaging probe delivers a range of wavelengths of excitation light to a target and collects a range of expressed light wavelengths. The multispectral imaging probe is adapted for mobile use and use in confined spaces, and is sealed against the effects of hostile environments. The multispectral imaging probe comprises a housing that defines a sealed volume that is substantially sealed from the surrounding environment. A beam splitting device mounts within the sealed volume. Excitation light is directed to the beam splitting device, which directs the excitation light to a target. Expressed light from the target reaches the beam splitting device along a path coaxial with the path traveled by the excitation light from the beam splitting device to the target. The beam splitting device directs expressed light to a collection subsystem for delivery to a detector.

  5. Multispectral imaging probe

    DOEpatents

    Sandison, D.R.; Platzbecker, M.R.; Descour, M.R.; Armour, D.L.; Craig, M.J.; Richards-Kortum, R.

    1999-07-27

    A multispectral imaging probe delivers a range of wavelengths of excitation light to a target and collects a range of expressed light wavelengths. The multispectral imaging probe is adapted for mobile use and use in confined spaces, and is sealed against the effects of hostile environments. The multispectral imaging probe comprises a housing that defines a sealed volume that is substantially sealed from the surrounding environment. A beam splitting device mounts within the sealed volume. Excitation light is directed to the beam splitting device, which directs the excitation light to a target. Expressed light from the target reaches the beam splitting device along a path coaxial with the path traveled by the excitation light from the beam splitting device to the target. The beam splitting device directs expressed light to a collection subsystem for delivery to a detector. 8 figs.

  6. Earth Science Informatics - Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramapriyan, H. K.

    2015-01-01

    Over the last 10-15 years, significant advances have been made in information management, there are an increasing number of individuals entering the field of information management as it applies to Geoscience and Remote Sensing data, and the field of informatics has come to its own. Informatics is the science and technology of applying computers and computational methods to the systematic analysis, management, interchange, and representation of science data, information, and knowledge. Informatics also includes the use of computers and computational methods to support decision making and applications. Earth Science Informatics (ESI, a.k.a. geoinformatics) is the application of informatics in the Earth science domain. ESI is a rapidly developing discipline integrating computer science, information science, and Earth science. Major national and international research and infrastructure projects in ESI have been carried out or are on-going. Notable among these are: the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS), the European Commissions INSPIRE, the U.S. NSDI and Geospatial One-Stop, the NASA EOSDIS, and the NSF DataONE, EarthCube and Cyberinfrastructure for Geoinformatics. More than 18 departments and agencies in the U.S. federal government have been active in Earth science informatics. All major space agencies in the world, have been involved in ESI research and application activities. In the United States, the Federation of Earth Science Information Partners (ESIP), whose membership includes nearly 150 organizations (government, academic and commercial) dedicated to managing, delivering and applying Earth science data, has been working on many ESI topics since 1998. The Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS)s Working Group on Information Systems and Services (WGISS) has been actively coordinating the ESI activities among the space agencies. Remote Sensing; Earth Science Informatics, Data Systems; Data Services; Metadata

  7. The Evolving Space Weather System—Van Allen Probes Contribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanetti, L. J.; Mauk, B. H.; Fox, N. J.; Barnes, R. J.; Weiss, M.; Sotirelis, T. S.; Raouafi, N.-E.; Kessel, R. L.; Becker, H. N.

    2014-10-01

    The overarching goal and purpose of the study of space weather is clear—to understand and address the issues caused by solar disturbances on humans and technological systems. Space weather has evolved in the past few decades from a collection of concerned agencies and researchers to a critical function of the National Weather Service of NOAA. The general effects have also evolved from the well-known telegraph disruptions of the mid-1800s to modern day disturbances of the electric power grid, communications and navigation, human spaceflight and spacecraft systems. The last two items in this list, and specifically the effects of penetrating radiation, were the impetus for the space weather broadcast implemented on NASA's Van Allen Probes' twin pair of satellites, launched in August of 2012 and orbiting directly through Earth's severe radiation belts. The Van Allen Probes mission, formerly the Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP), was renamed soon after launch to honor the discoverer of Earth's radiation belts at the beginning of the space age, the late James Van Allen (the spacecraft themselves are still referred to as RBSP-A and RBSP-B). The Van Allen Probes are one part of NASA's Living With a Star program formulated to advance the scientific understanding of the connection between solar disturbances, the resulting heliospheric conditions, and their effects on the geospace and Earth environment.

  8. Accretion of the Earth.

    PubMed

    Canup, Robin M

    2008-11-28

    The origin of the Earth and its Moon has been the focus of an enormous body of research. In this paper I review some of the current models of terrestrial planet accretion, and discuss assumptions common to most works that may require re-examination. Density-wave interactions between growing planets and the gas nebula may help to explain the current near-circular orbits of the Earth and Venus, and may result in large-scale radial migration of proto-planetary embryos. Migration would weaken the link between the present locations of the planets and the original provenance of the material that formed them. Fragmentation can potentially lead to faster accretion and could also damp final planet orbital eccentricities. The Moon-forming impact is believed to be the final major event in the Earth's accretion. Successful simulations of lunar-forming impacts involve a differentiated impactor containing between 0.1 and 0.2 Earth masses, an impact angle near 45 degrees and an impact speed within 10 per cent of the Earth's escape velocity. All successful impacts-with or without pre-impact rotation-imply that the Moon formed primarily from material originating from the impactor rather than from the proto-Earth. This must ultimately be reconciled with compositional similarities between the Earth and the Moon. PMID:18826928

  9. Watering the Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graps, Amara L.; Lunine, J. I.; Coradini, A.; O'Brien, D. P.; Morbidelli, A.

    2006-09-01

    Despite our living embedded in the Earth environment, the origin of water on Earth is one of the most puzzling enigmas in the planetary sciences. Our planet that spawned our watery origins presently carries enough surface water in vapor or liquid form to cover the entire planet to a depth of about 3 km. Earth has substantially more water than scientists would expect to find at 1 A.U. Other compounds and elements also readily vaporize at Earth's distance. Previous proposed solutions to the puzzle considered comets as a viable source of the water, until spectral analysis of the comets Halley, Hyakutake, and Hale-Bopp, during their near-Earth passes in 1986, 1996 and 1997 showed that the abundance of the deuterium isotope of water is twice that found in Earth's water. Recent dynamical models [1] and the current best geochemical and water abundance data indicate that parent bodies from an overlooked region in the solar system, the inner asteroid belt, are promising as the primary source for Earth's water. References [1] O'Brien, David P.; Morbidelli, Alessandro; Levison, Harold F. (2006), Terrestrial Planet Formation with Strong Dynamical Friction, Icarus in press.

  10. Earth as art three

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2010-01-01

    For most of us, deserts, mountains, river valleys, coastlines even dry lakebeds are relatively familiar features of the Earth's terrestrial environment. For earth scientists, they are the focus of considerable scientific research. Viewed from a unique and unconventional perspective, Earth's geographic attributes can also be a surprising source of awe-inspiring art. That unique perspective is space. The artists for the Earth as Art Three exhibit are the Landsat 5 and Landsat 7 satellites, which orbit approximately 705 kilometers (438 miles) above the Earth's surface. While studying the images these satellites beam down daily, researchers are often struck by the sheer beauty of the scenes. Such images inspire the imagination and go beyond scientific value to remind us how stunning, intricate, and simply amazing our planet's features can be. Instead of paint, the medium for these works of art is light. But Landsat satellite sensors don't see light as human eyes do; instead, they see radiant energy reflected from Earth's surface in certain wavelengths, or bands, of red, green, blue, and infrared light. When these different bands are combined into a single image, remarkable patterns, colors, and shapes emerge. The Earth as Art Three exhibit provides fresh and inspiring glimpses of different parts of our planet's complex surface. The images in this collection were chosen solely based on their aesthetic appeal. Many of the images have been manipulated to enhance color variations or details. They are not intended for scientific interpretation only for your viewing pleasure. Enjoy!

  11. Earths, Super-Earths, and Jupiters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiang, Eugene; Lee, Eve J.

    2015-12-01

    We review and add to the theory of how planets acquire atmospheres from parent circumstellar disks. We derive (in real time) a simple and general analytic expression for how a planet's atmosphere grows with time, as a function of the underlying core mass and nebular conditions, including the gas metallicity. Planets accrete as much gas as can cool: an atmosphere's doubling time is given by its Kelvin-Helmholtz time. The theory can be applied in any number of settings --- gas-rich vs. gas-poor nebulae; dusty vs. dust-free atmospheres; close-in vs. far-out distances --- and is confirmed against detailed numerical models for objects ranging in mass from Mars (0.1 Mearth) to the most extreme super Earths (10--20 Mearth). We explain why heating from planetesimal accretion, commonly invoked in models of core accretion, is irrelevant. This talk sets the stage for another presentation, "Breeding Super-Earths and Birthing Super-Puffs".

  12. Trouble in Toms River

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lugg, Catherine A.; Tooms, Autumn K.

    2011-01-01

    Drawing on a recent New Jersey Supreme Court decision (2007), this case addresses a school district's responsibility regarding homophobic bullying, school culture, and the rights of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender students to be free of discrimination.

  13. Exploring the Diversity of Super-Earths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benneke, Björn; Crossfield, Ian; Knutson, Heather; Lothringer, Joshua; Dragomir, Diana; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Howard, Andrew; McCullough, Peter R.; Gilliland, Ronald L.; Kempton, Eliza; Morley, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of planets with masses and radii intermediate between Earth and Neptune was one of the biggest surprises in the brief history of exoplanet science. These "super-Earths" are an order of magnitude more abundant than close-in giant planets. Despite this ubiquity, we know little about their typical compositions and formation histories. Spectroscopic transit observations can shed new light on these mysterious worlds by probing their atmospheric compositions. In this talk, we will give an overview of our ongoing 124-orbit (200-hour) Hubble Space Telescope program to reveal the chemical diversity and formation histories of super-Earths. This unprecedented survey will provide the first comprehensive look at this intriguing new class of planets ranging from 1 Neptune mass and temperatures close to 2000K to a 1 Earth mass planet near the habitable zone of its host star. We will discuss the scope of the program, demonstrate observational techniques to observe extremely bright exoplanet targets with HST WFC3 and STIS, and present early results.

  14. Wringing out the earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Loon, A. J.

    2000-03-01

    The increase in global energy consumption urges the exploitation of known energy resources in the most efficient way. The oil and gas industry seems well capable, but politics may hamper optimum recovery, even though politicians advocate that the laws and regulations laid upon the industry are meant to promote a sustainable society and to diminish environmental pollution. Lack of geological insight sometimes plays a role, which implies that an attitude of effectively wringing out the Earth is not sufficient: more attention for earth-scientific education may turn out to be even more important. This does not affect, however, the need for ever more effective technologies for wringing out the Earth.

  15. Rare earth gas laser

    DOEpatents

    Krupke, W.F.

    1975-10-31

    A high energy gas laser with light output in the infrared or visible region of the spectrum is described. Laser action is obtained by generating vapors of rare earth halides, particularly neodymium iodide or, to a lesser extent, neodymium bromide, and disposing the rare earth vapor medium in a resonant cavity at elevated temperatures; e.g., approximately 1200/sup 0/ to 1400/sup 0/K. A particularly preferred gaseous medium is one involving a complex of aluminum chloride and neodymium chloride, which exhibits tremendously enhanced vapor pressure compared to the rare earth halides per se, and provides comparable increases in stored energy densities.

  16. Introducing Earth's Orbital Eccentricity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oostra, Benjamin

    2015-12-01

    Most students know that planetary orbits, including Earth's, are elliptical; that is Kepler's first law, and it is found in many science textbooks. But quite a few are mistaken about the details, thinking that the orbit is very eccentric, or that this effect is somehow responsible for the seasons. In fact, the Earth's orbital eccentricity is small, and its only effect on the seasons is their unequal durations. Here I show a pleasant way to guide students to the actual value of Earth's orbital eccentricity, starting from the durations of the four seasons. The date of perihelion is also found.

  17. Ultrasonic search wheel probe

    DOEpatents

    Mikesell, Charles R.

    1978-01-01

    A device is provided for reducing internal reflections from the tire of an ultrasonic search wheel probe or from within the material being examined. The device includes a liner with an anechoic chamber within which is an ultrasonic transducer. The liner is positioned within the wheel and includes an aperture through which the ultrasonic sound from the transducer is directed.

  18. Experimenting with Temperature Probes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Wolff-Michael

    1989-01-01

    Presented are four activities which are designed to familiarize children with the multiple uses of computers and help them learn about heat and temperature using temperature probes. Included are the tempering effect of water, heat capacity, caloric content of foods, and weather. Hardware and software are discussed. (CW)

  19. Laboratory plasma probe studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heikkila, W. J.

    1975-01-01

    Diagnostic experiments performed in a collisionless plasma using CO2 as the working gas are described. In particular, simultaneous measurements that have been performed by means of Langmuir- and RF-probes are presented. A resonance occurring above the parallel resonance in the frequency characteristic of a two electrode system is interpreted as being due to the resonant excitation of electroacoustic waves.

  20. The Phoenix Pluto Probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gunning, George R.; Spapperi, Jeff; Wilkinson, Jeffrey P.; Eldred, Jim; Labij, Dennis; Strinni, Meredith

    1990-01-01

    A design proposal for an unmanned probe to Pluto is presented. The topics covered include: (1) scientific instrumentation; (2) mission management, planning, and costing; (3) power and propulsion system; (4) structural subsystem; (5) command, control, and communication; and (6) attitude and articulation control.

  1. Endocavity Ultrasound Probe Manipulators.

    PubMed

    Stoianovici, Dan; Kim, Chunwoo; Schäfer, Felix; Huang, Chien-Ming; Zuo, Yihe; Petrisor, Doru; Han, Misop

    2013-06-01

    We developed two similar structure manipulators for medical endocavity ultrasound probes with 3 and 4 degrees of freedom (DoF). These robots allow scanning with ultrasound for 3-D imaging and enable robot-assisted image-guided procedures. Both robots use remote center of motion kinematics, characteristic of medical robots. The 4-DoF robot provides unrestricted manipulation of the endocavity probe. With the 3-DoF robot the insertion motion of the probe must be adjusted manually, but the device is simpler and may also be used to manipulate external-body probes. The robots enabled a novel surgical approach of using intraoperative image-based navigation during robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy (RALP), performed with concurrent use of two robotic systems (Tandem, T-RALP). Thus far, a clinical trial for evaluation of safety and feasibility has been performed successfully on 46 patients. This paper describes the architecture and design of the robots, the two prototypes, control features related to safety, preclinical experiments, and the T-RALP procedure. PMID:24795525

  2. Endocavity Ultrasound Probe Manipulators

    PubMed Central

    Stoianovici, Dan; Kim, Chunwoo; Schäfer, Felix; Huang, Chien-Ming; Zuo, Yihe; Petrisor, Doru; Han, Misop

    2014-01-01

    We developed two similar structure manipulators for medical endocavity ultrasound probes with 3 and 4 degrees of freedom (DoF). These robots allow scanning with ultrasound for 3-D imaging and enable robot-assisted image-guided procedures. Both robots use remote center of motion kinematics, characteristic of medical robots. The 4-DoF robot provides unrestricted manipulation of the endocavity probe. With the 3-DoF robot the insertion motion of the probe must be adjusted manually, but the device is simpler and may also be used to manipulate external-body probes. The robots enabled a novel surgical approach of using intraoperative image-based navigation during robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy (RALP), performed with concurrent use of two robotic systems (Tandem, T-RALP). Thus far, a clinical trial for evaluation of safety and feasibility has been performed successfully on 46 patients. This paper describes the architecture and design of the robots, the two prototypes, control features related to safety, preclinical experiments, and the T-RALP procedure. PMID:24795525

  3. Cervical Neoplasia Probe Control

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1997-01-24

    This software, which consists of a main executive and several subroutines, performs control of the optics, image acquisition, and Digital Signal Processing (DSP) of this image, of an optical based medical instrument that performs fluoresence detection of precancerous lesions (neoplasia) of the human cervix. The hardware portion of this medical instrument is known by the same name Cervical Neoplasia Probe (CNP)

  4. NASA's Interstellar Probe Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liewer, P. C.; Mewaldt, R. A.

    2002-05-01

    Sending a spacecraft beyond the heliopause to begin the exploration of our local galactic neighborhood will be one of the grand scientific enterprises of the next century. NASA's Interstellar Probe will be the first spacecraft designed to explore the nearby interstellar medium and its interaction with our solar system. In the mission concept developed in 1999 by NASA's Interstellar Probe Science and Technology Definition Team, a 400-m diameter solar sail accelerates the spacecraft to ~15 AU/year. The principal objectives of the Interstellar Probe mission would be to (1) explore the nature of the ISM and its implications for the origin and evolution of matter in our galaxy and the universe; (2) explore the influence of the ISM on the solar system and its dynamics and evolution; (3) explore the impact of the solar system on the ISM as an example of a stellar system with its environment; and (4) explore the outer solar system in search of clues to its origin and to the nature of other planetary systems. To achieve these broad, interdisciplinary objectives, Interstellar Probe will include a suite of advanced, low-power instruments designed to measure the detailed properties of the plasma, neutral atoms, energetic particles, magnetic fields, and dust in the outer heliosphere and nearby ISM. This talk will summarizes the conceptual mission design and the technological challenges presented by this ambitious mission.

  5. NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS): Observing the Atmosphere, Land, Oceans, and Ice from Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Michael D.

    2004-01-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS) is a space-based observing system comprised of a series of satellite sensors by which scientists can monitor the Earth, a Data and Information System (EOSDIS) enabling researchers worldwide to access the satellite data, and an interdisciplinary science research program to interpret the satellite data. During this year, the last of the first series of EOS missions, Aura, was launched. Aura is designed exclusively to conduct research on the composition, chemistry, and dynamics of the Earth's upper and lower atmosphere, employing multiple instruments on a single spacecraft. Aura is the third in a series of major Earth observing satellites to study the environment and climate change and is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise. The first and second missions, Terra and Aqua, are designed to study the land, oceans, atmospheric constituents (aerosols, clouds, temperature, and water vapor), and the Earth's radiation budget. The other seven EOS spacecraft include satellites to study (i) land cover & land use change, (ii) solar irradiance and solar spectral variation, (iii) ice volume, (iv) ocean processes (vector wind and sea surface topography), and (v) vertical variations of clouds, water vapor, and aerosols up to and including the stratosphere. Aura's chemistry measurements will also follow up on measurements that began with NASA's Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite and continue the record of satellite ozone data collected from the TOMS missions. In this presentation I will describe how scientists are using EOS data to examine the health of the earth's atmosphere, including atmospheric chemistry, aerosol properties, and cloud properties, with a special but not exclusive look at the latest earth observing mission, Aura.

  6. NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS): Observing the Atmosphere, Land, Oceans, and Ice from Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Michael D.

    2005-01-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS) is a space-based observing system comprised of a series of satellite sensors by whch scientists can monitor the Earth, a Data and Information System (EOSDIS) enabling researchers worldwide to access the satellite data, and an interdisciplinary science research program to interpret the satellite data. During this year, the last of the first series of EOS missions, Aura, was launched. Aura is designed exclusively to conduct research on the composition, chemistry, and dynamics of the Earth's upper and lower atmosphere, employing multiple instruments on a single spacecraft. Aura is the third in a series of major Earth observing satellites to study the environment and climate change and is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise. The first and second missions, Terra and Aqua, are designed to study the land, oceans, atmospheric constituents (aerosols, clouds, temperature, and water vapor), and the Earth's radiation budget. The other seven EOS spacecraft include satellites to study (i) land cover & land use change, (ii) solar irradiance and solar spectral variation, (iii) ice volume, (iv) ocean processes (vector wind and sea surface topography), and (v) vertical variations of clouds, water vapor, and aerosols up to and including the stratosphere. Aura's chemistry measurements will also follow up on measurements that began with NASA's Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite and continue the record of satellite ozone data collected from the TOMS missions. In this presentation I will describe how scientists are using EOS data to examine the health of the earth's atmosphere, including atmospheric chemistry, aerosol properties, and cloud properties, with a special look at the latest earth observing mission, Aura.

  7. Mechanosensitive membrane probes.

    PubMed

    Dal Molin, Marta; Verolet, Quentin; Soleimanpour, Saeideh; Matile, Stefan

    2015-04-13

    This article assembles pertinent insights behind the concept of planarizable push-pull probes. As a response to the planarization of their polarized ground state, a red shift of their excitation maximum is expected to report on either the disorder, the tension, or the potential of biomembranes. The combination of chromophore planarization and polarization contributes to various, usually more complex processes in nature. Examples include the color change of crabs or lobsters during cooking or the chemistry of vision, particularly color vision. The summary of lessons from nature is followed by an overview of mechanosensitive organic materials. Although often twisted and sometimes also polarized, their change of color under pressure usually originates from changes in their crystal packing. Intriguing exceptions include the planarization of several elegantly twisted phenylethynyl oligomers and polymers. Also mechanosensitive probes in plastics usually respond to stretching by disassembly. True ground-state planarization in response to molecular recognition is best exemplified with the binding of thoughtfully twisted cationic polythiophenes to single- and double-stranded oligonucleotides. Molecular rotors, en vogue as viscosity sensors in cells, operate by deplanarization of the first excited state. Pertinent recent examples are described, focusing on λ-ratiometry and intracellular targeting. Complementary to planarization of the ground state with twisted push-pull probes, molecular rotors report on environmental changes with quenching or shifts in emission rather than absorption. The labeling of mechanosensitive channels is discussed as a bioengineering approach to bypass the challenge to create molecular mechanosensitivity and use biological systems instead to sense membrane tension. With planarizable push-pull probes, this challenge is met not with twistome screening, but with "fluorescent flippers," a new concept to insert large and bright monomers into oligomeric probes to really feel the environment and also shine when twisted out of conjugation. PMID:25693760

  8. Cloacal and surface temperatures of tom turkeys exposed to different rearing temperature regimes during the first 12 weeks of growth.

    PubMed

    Mayes, S L; Strawford, M L; Noble, S D; Classen, H L; Crowe, T G

    2015-06-01

    Years of genetic selection have caused an increase in growth rate and market body mass in agricultural poultry species compared to earlier genetic strains, potentially altering their physiological requirements. The objective of this study was to expose Hybrid Converter tom turkeys on a weekly basis to the recommended rearing temperature regime (TCON: control) or 4°C below the recommended standard (TTRT: treatment) to determine their thermal responses. Once per week for 12 weeks, 12 turkeys were individually exposed to either TCON or TTRT for a 2-h period. Surface temperatures of the breast (TBREAST), wing (TWING), drumstick (TDRUM), head (THEAD), and shank (TSHANK) were measured at 20-min intervals using an infrared camera, while a thermal data logger measured the skin surface temperature under the wing (TLOGGER) at 30-s intervals. The cloacal temperature (TCORE) was measured using a medical thermometer at the start and end of the exposure period. Regardless of exposure temperature, the TBREAST (TCON: P<0.001 and TTRT: P<0.001), TWING (TCON: P<0.001 and TTRT: P<0.001), and TDRUM (TCON: P<0.001 and TTRT: P<0.001) decreased from weeks 4 to 6 and remained constant from weeks 1 to 3 and 8 to 12. THEAD was elevated in week 2 (TCON: P<0.001) or week 3 (TTRT: P<0.001), TSHANK increased slightly during week 3 for both TCON (P<0.001) and TTRT (P<0.001), and TLOGGER (TCON: P<0.001 and TTRT: P=0.001) and TCORE (TCON: P<0.001 and TTRT: P<0.001) were lower during the first week. Thereafter, THEAD, TSHANK, TLOGGER, and TCORE remained constant. Exposure to TTRT resulted in lower TBREAST, TWING, and TDRUM compared to TCON. Generally, THEAD, TSHANK, TLOGGER, and TCORE were not affected by the different exposure temperatures. The data demonstrated that the degree of thermal response expressed is dependent on the location of measurement, age, and exposure temperature. PMID:25589083

  9. Earth rotation and geodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogusz, Janusz; Brzezinski, Aleksander; Kosek, Wieslaw; Nastula, Jolanta

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents the summary of research activities carried out in Poland in 2011-2014 in the field of Earth rotation and geodynamics by several Polish research institutions. It contains a summary of works on Earth rotation, including evaluation and prediction of its parameters and analysis of the related excitation data as well as research on associated geodynamic phenomena such as geocentre motion, global sea level change and hydrological processes. The second part of the paper deals with monitoring of geodynamic phenomena. It contains analysis of geodynamic networks of local, and regional scale using space (GNSS and SLR) techniques, Earth tides monitoring with gravimeters and water-tube hydrostatic clinometer, and the determination of secular variation of the Earth' magnetic field.

  10. The Whole Earth Dialogue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Stephen H.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the trend toward more "earth-as-a-system" approaches in research and teaching about global science. Uses the "greenhouse effect" as a prototypical global change problem that requires interdisciplinary problem-solving approaches. (TW)

  11. This target earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verschuur, Gerrit L.

    1991-11-01

    The paper discusses the record of past asteroid impacts on earth, and the probability of a future major collision with a large celestial body. One analytical theory suggests that the chance of a half-mile-wide object will strike earth in the next 100 years is one in 1000. Consideration is given to the KT boundary layer located between the Cretaceous and Tertiary periods where large amounts of iridium are found worldwide; this gave rise to the theory of a space body collision with earth that may have caused the extinction of the dinosaurs. A rule of thumb for calculating the energy of an asteroid striking the earth at a typical speed of 24,000 mph is given. Attention is given to the numerous asteroid strikes that have occurred and have been analyzed.

  12. Observing earth from Skylab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Skylab technology and observations of earth resources are discussed. Special attention was given to application of Skylab data to mapmaking, geology/geodesy, water resources, oceanography, meteorology, and geography/ecology.

  13. LANL Studies Earth's Magnetosphere

    ScienceCinema

    Daughton, Bill

    2014-08-12

    A new 3-D supercomputer model presents a new theory of how magnetic reconnection works in high-temperature plasmas. This Los Alamos National Laboratory research supports an upcoming NASA mission to study Earth's magnetosphere in greater detail than ever.

  14. LANL Studies Earth's Magnetosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Daughton, Bill

    2011-04-15

    A new 3-D supercomputer model presents a new theory of how magnetic reconnection works in high-temperature plasmas. This Los Alamos National Laboratory research supports an upcoming NASA mission to study Earth's magnetosphere in greater detail than ever.

  15. Down to earth relativity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shapiro, I. I.

    1978-01-01

    The basic concepts of the special and general theories of relativity are described. Simple examples are given to illustrate the effect of relativity on measurements of time and frequency in the near-earth environment.

  16. Earth Radiation Measurement Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, G. Louis

    2000-01-01

    This document is the final report for NASA Grant NAG1-1959, 'Earth Radiation Measurement Science'. The purpose of this grant was to perform research in this area for the needs of the Clouds and Earth Radiant Energy System (CERES) project and for the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE), which are bing conducted by the Radiation and Aerosols Branch of the Atmospheric Sciences Division of Langley Research Center. Earth Radiation Measurement Science investigates the processes by which measurements are converted into data products. Under this grant, research was to be conducted for five tasks: (1) Point Response Function Measurements; (2) Temporal Sampling of Outgoing Longwave Radiation; (3) Spatial Averaging of Radiation Budget Data; (4) CERES Data Validation and Applications; and (5) ScaRaB Data Validation and Application.

  17. Earth's variable rotation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hide, Raymond; Dickey, Jean O.

    1991-01-01

    Recent improvements in geodetic data and practical meteorology have advanced research on fluctuations in the earth's rotation. The interpretation of these fluctuations is inextricably linked with studies of the dynamics of the earth-moon system and dynamical processes in the liquid metallic core of the earth (where the geomagnetic field originates), other parts of the earth's interior, and the hydrosphere and atmosphere. Fluctuations in the length of the day occurring on decadal time scales have implications for the topographay of the core-mantle boundary and the electrical, magnetic, ande other properties of the core and lower mantle. Investigations of more rapid fluctuations bear on meteorological studies of interannual, seasonal, and intraseasonal variations in the general circulation of the atmosphere and the response of the oceans to such variations.

  18. Analyzing earth's surface data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barr, D. J.; Elifrits, C. D.

    1979-01-01

    Manual discusses simple inexpensive image analysis technique used to interpret photographs and scanner of data of Earth's surface. Manual is designed for those who have no need for sophisticated computer-automated analysis procedures.

  19. Earth study from space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sidorenko, A. V.

    1981-01-01

    The significance that space studies are making to all Earth sciences in the areas of geography, geodesy, cartography, geology, meteorology, oceanology, agronomy, and ecology is discussed. It is predicted that cosmonautics will result in a revolution in science and technology.

  20. Earth Science Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeman, Tony; Im, Eastwood

    2007-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the JPL missions that enabling Earth Sciences, past, present and future. Included is a list of the National Academy of Sciences Space Studies Board of the recommended missions that are of interest to JPL.