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1

Radon in earth-sheltered structures  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Radon concentration in the indoor air of six residential and three non-residential earth-sheltered buildings in eastern Colorado was monitored quarterly over a nine-month period using passive, integrating detectors. Average radon concentrations during the three-month sampling periods ranged from about 1 to 9 pCi/L, although one building, a poorly ventilated storage bunker, had concentrations as high as 39 pCi/L. These radon concentrations are somewhat greater than those typically reported for conventional buildings (around 1 pCi/L); but they are of the same order of magnitude as radon concentrations reported for energy-efficient buildings which are not earth-sheltered. ?? 1984.

Landa, E.R.

1984-01-01

2

Shelter  

MedlinePLUS

... Read more about Managing Water and Managing Food . Mass Care Shelter Even though mass care shelters often provide water, food, medicine and ... so you will have the supplies you require. Mass care sheltering can involve living with many people ...

3

A MODEL BUILDING CODE ARTICLE ON FALLOUT SHELTERS WITH RECOMMENDATIONS FOR INCLUSION OF REQUIREMENTS FOR FALLOUT SHELTER CONSTRUCTION IN FOUR NATIONAL MODEL BUILDING CODES.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A MODEL BUILDING CODE FOR FALLOUT SHELTERS WAS DRAWN UP FOR INCLUSION IN FOUR NATIONAL MODEL BUILDING CODES. DISCUSSION IS GIVEN OF FALLOUT SHELTERS WITH RESPECT TO--(1) NUCLEAR RADIATION, (2) NATIONAL POLICIES, AND (3) COMMUNITY PLANNING. FALLOUT SHELTER REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIELDING, SPACE, VENTILATION, CONSTRUCTION, AND SERVICES SUCH AS ELECTRICAL…

American Inst. of Architects, Washington, DC.

4

Earth-sheltered housing: an evaluation of energy-conservation potential  

SciTech Connect

The Innovative Structures Program (ISP) began an evaluation of the energy conservation potential of earth-sheltered houses in late 1979. Since that time, several projects have been undertaken as part of this evaluation. The findings of these projects, plus a discussion of the work of others in the field, form the body of this report. Although a comprehensive evaluation of earth-sheltered housing has not been completed, this report presents a compendium of knowledge on the subject. The conclusions are more qualitative than quantitative in nature because of the limited information on which to base projections. The major conclusions to date are as follows: Earth-sheltered houses are capable of very good energy performance. Earth-sheltered houses, as a passive means to conserve energy, perform significantly better in some climatic regins than in others. Earth-sheltered houses are not the optimum passive concept in several major housing growth regions of the country. Earth-sheltered houses, including their land and site improvements, will cost an estimated 10 to 35% more than comparable aboveground houses, and this additional cost may not be justified on a life cycle cost basis, given 1981 market conditions. The use of earth sheltering will probably grow in some parts of the country; however, broad-scale national or regional utilization is not likely to occur in the next 20 to 30 years.

Wendt, R.L.

1982-04-01

5

65. BUILDING 7223, BARRACKS (FORMER ANIMAL SHELTER). (Plan P702988, 24' ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

65. BUILDING 7223, BARRACKS (FORMER ANIMAL SHELTER). (Plan P-702-988, 24' x 320', completed May 25, 1932, modified January 15, 1941). Fort McCoy photograph #A-6, undated. - Fort McCoy, Sparta, Monroe County, WI

6

Shelter-building behavior and natural history of two pyralid caterpillars feeding on Piper stipulaceum.  

PubMed

Shelter-building behavior by caterpillars provides a mechanism of defense against predators, microenvironment enhancement, and in some cases nutritional benefits. This study provides a detailed description of the life cycle and shelter-building process of caterpillars, and identifies constraints and factors influencing this adaptive behavior in Lepidomys n. sp. near proclea Druce (Pyralidae: Chrysauginae), a tropical dry forest pyralid. Five macroscopic larval instars were detected during the life cycle, and activities performed during shelter-building were categorized and timed. Caterpillar predators were identified, and 20% of all collected larvae died due to attack by parasitoid wasps. Shelter-building behavior was found to be constrained by the ontogenetic stage of caterpillars and influenced by leaf size of the host plant, Piper stipulaceum Opiz (Piperales: Piperaceae) . A similar pattern of shelter-building behavior exhibited by Tosale n. sp. near cuprealis larvae that coexisted in the same host plant is also described. Larvae of the second species were significantly less abundant than those of Lepidomys and hatched one month later in the rainy season, which could indicate some competitive interactions between these two pyralid species. PMID:25373186

Abarca, Mariana; Boege, Karina; Zaldívar-Riverón, Alejandro

2014-01-01

7

Effectiveness of sheltering in buildings and vehicles for plutonium  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this paper is to collect and present current knowledge relevant to the protection offered by sheltering against exposure to plutonium particles released to the atmosphere during accidents. For those many contaminants for which effects are linear with the airborne concentration, it is convenient to define a Dose Reduction Factor (DRF). In the past, the DRF has been defined as the ratio of the radiological dose that may be incurred within the shelter to that in the outdoors. As such, it includes the dose through shine from plumes aloft and from material deposited on the surface. For this paper, which is concerned only with the inhalation pathway, the DRF is the ratio of the time-integrated concentration inside the shelter to that outdoors. It is important to note that the range over which effects are linear with concentration may be limited for many contaminants. Examples are when concentrations produce effects that are irreversible, or when concentrations are below effects threshold levels. 71 refs., 4 figs., 8 tabs.

Engelmann, R.J.

1990-07-30

8

The Immature Stages and Shelter Building Behavior of Falgo Jeconia Ombra Evans, 1955 in eastern Ecuador (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae: Hesperiinae)  

PubMed Central

We describe the immature stages and shelter building behavior of Falga jeconia ombra Evans, 1955 from eastern Ecuador. Chusquea scandens (Poaceae, Bambusoidea) is the larval food plant. Larvae in all stadia build shelters and forcibly eject frass with the aid of an anal comb. Later instars possess an eversible prothoracic “neck” gland. Larvae are associated with moving water. PMID:19613872

Greeney, Harold F.; Warren, Andrew D.

2009-01-01

9

Building Planet Earth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Continental plates, moving as fast as human hair grows, collide, mountains buckle, the ocean abyss sucks in the Earth's crust, and volcanos explode. Here is a story that Hollywood wished it could option: the dynamic cycle of geological destruction and renewal that has stretched across billions of years and shaped our planet in its current image. Scene by scene, this action-packed blockbuster can be experienced in Building Planet Earth. Peter Cattermole begins the story by describing a cloud of matter that surrounds a primitive Sun. Out of this the Earth was formed through compaction and internal heating to the point at which it became a stable, layered structure with a core, mantle, and crust. Using eye-catching images, artwork, and diagrams, Building Planet Earth presents this geological development and goes on to discuss what is happening to our planet now and what we can expect in the future. Cattermole covers in fascinating detail the impact of mass extinctions, global-warming, and ozone holes. The book features 241 illustrations--128 in full-color--and a number of useful appendices. For anyone who has ever wondered how this miraculous planet continues to thrive and surprise, this elegantly-written book will be an essential read. Peter Cattermole is a principal investigator with NASA's Planetary Geology and Geophysics Program. He has written several books on geology and astronomy as well as numerous articles for both scholarly and popular media, including Atlas of Venus (Cambridge University Press, 1997) and The Story of the Earth (Cambridge University Press, 1985).

Cattermole, Peter

2000-03-01

10

Speedy Shelter  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this design challenge activity, learners invent an emergency shelter that can fit a person and is sturdy and quick to build. Learners think about a familiar shape in new ways, brainstorm shelter designs and follow the design process to invent a solution to the challenge. Educators can put this challenge in the context of a real life scenario by sharing a fake news story about a lost hiker. The news story can be found on page 1 of the Leaders Notes.

2012-08-19

11

Passive solar/Earth sheltered office/dormitory cooling season thermal performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Continuous detailed hourly thermal performance measurements were taken since February 1982 in and around an occupied, underground, 4000 ft(2) office/dormitory building at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. This building has a number of energy saving features which were analyzed relative to their performance in a southeastern US climate and with respect to overall commercial building performance. Cooling season performance is documented, as well as effects of earth constact, interior thermal mass, an economizer cycle and interface of an efficient building envelope with a central three-ton heat pump. The Joint Institute Dormitory obtains a cooling energy savings of about 30% compared with an energy-efficient, above-grade structure and has the potential to save as much as 50%. The proper instllation of the overhand, interior thermal mass, massive supply duct system, and earth contact team up to prevent summertime overheating. From May through September, this building cost a total of $300 (at 5.7) cents/kWh) to cool and ventilate 24 hours per day. Besides thermal performance of the building envelope, extensive comfort data was taken illustrating that at least 90% of the occupants are comfortable all of the time according to the PMV measurements.

Christian, J.

1984-06-01

12

Earth sheltered bee wintering and solar honey house. Final technical report  

SciTech Connect

The construction and operation of an indoor wintering facility and a passive solar honey house are discussed. Goals for the project included both energy savings and financial savings for the beekeeping industry. The underground winter shelter provided a control temperature of approximately 46/sup 0/F in order to decrease both mortality rates and honey consumption rates of the bees. Three hundred square feet of glazing combined with wall insulation maintained comfortable work space temperatures for the ground level storage of honey. (BCS)

Not Available

1985-01-01

13

Acquisition, Renovation, and Construction of an Addition to a Building to Serve as a Sheltered Workshop for Handicapped Adults. Maxi II Practicum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented is the final report of a project to acquire, renovate, and construct a building addition to house a sheltered workshop and provide instruction in basic life skills, social skills, simple production work skills, and life oriented academics for moderately retarded adults. Sections are provided on the following aspects of the project…

Zoino, John E.

14

Bombed Shelters  

E-print Network

Broadcast Transcript: In this time of reusing, recycling, repurposing, pretty much anything can become anything else: tires to playground turf, soda bottles to fleece parkas, rails to trails. Here in Shanghai, they've got bomb shelters to transform...

Hacker, Randi

2013-07-24

15

Design and Construction Guidance for Community Shelters. FEMA 361.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual presents guidance to engineers, architects, building officials, and prospective shelter owners concerning the design and construction of community shelters that will provide protection during tornado and hurricane events. The manual covers two types of community shelters: stand-alone shelters designed to withstand high winds and the…

Federal Emergency Management Agency, Washington, DC.

16

CONTACT INFO BUILDING SHELTER  

E-print Network

Alerts City of Carbondale: AM 1620 WSIU: FM 91.9 SIUC Emergency Notification System (ENS)* Radio Scanner, except in self-defense. Get a description and the license plate number of suspected criminal. Evacuate spill without proper training. Evacuate those not affected. Evacuees should be confined until monitored

King, David G.

17

Designing Shelter in New Buildings. A Manual for Architects on the Preliminary Designing of Shielding from Fallout Gamma Radiation in Normally Functioning Spaces in New Buildings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analysis of radiation fallout prevention factors in new construction is presented with emphasis on architectural shielding principles. Numerous diagrams and charts illustrate--(1) radiation and fallout properties, (2) building protection principles, (3) details and planning suggestions, and (4) tabular data interpretation. A series of charts is…

Knott, Albert

18

Nuclear effects hardened shelters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Houston Fearless 76 Government Projects Group has been actively engaged for more than twenty-five years as a sub-contractor and currently as a prime contractor in the design, manufacture, repair and logistics support of custom mobile ground stations and their equipment accommodations. Other associated products include environmental control units (ECU's), mobilizers for shelters and a variety of mobile power generation units (MPU's). Since 1984, Houston Fearless 76 has designed and manufactured four 8' x 8' x 22' nuclear hardened mobile shelters. These shelters were designed to contain electronic data processing/reduction equipment. One shelter is currently being operated by the Air Force as a Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA) approved and certified Special Corrpartmented Information Facility (SCIF). During the development and manufacturing process of the shelters, we received continual technical assistance and design concept evaluations from Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) Operations Analysis and Logistics Engineering Division and the Nondestructive Inspection Lab at McClellan AFB. SAIC was originally employed by the Air Force to design the nuclear hardening specifications applied to these shelters. The specific levels of hardening to which the shelters were designed are classified and will not be mentioned during this presentation.

Lindke, Paul

1990-11-01

19

Building a Roadmap for European Solid Earth Sciences Infrastructure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Building a Roadmap for European Solid Earth Sciences Infrastructure John Ludden (BGS-NERC, Nottingham, UK), Domenico Giardini (ETH, Zurich, Switzerland), Massimo Cocco (INGV, Rome, Italy), Michel Diament (INSU, Paris, France); Jorn Lauterjung (GFZ, Potsdam, Germany) Europe is about to launch a new phase of funding in its Horizon 2020 programme. At the same time in FP7 the EC created a number of infrastructure projects of which the most influential in the solid Earth sector is the European Plate Observing System (EPOS). EPOS thus has a strategic role in driving infrastructure development in Europe. A reflection must be undertaken on how inclusive and representative this role is and how EPOS can complement other infrastructure initiatives. We propose a series of meetings with the key players in solid Earth infrastructure across Europe to develop a 10 year road map for the development of Earth sciences infrastructure. The key components of such a road map must include: In concert with ESA and other partners, satellite observation and the development of earth observing capabilities such as potential field, SAR etc.; With the Integrated Ocean Discovery Program (IODP 2013-2023), the International Continental Drilling program (ICDP) and other European scientific drilling infrastructure, identify added value in working as a European entity; With Eurogeosurveys develop links and compliance between data bases and work towards closer relationships between Earth science infrastructure in institutes and surveys; Consider how EPOS observatories can be better integrated and complementary to other Earth system observatories of the sea-floor, terrestrial critical zone and atmosphere; Define laboratory and training needs in infrastructure which supersede individual national objectives such as in geochronology, accelerator mass spectrometry, physical properties and large-scale field observatories in applied and fundamental earth sciences. EPOS will play a key strategic role in this process and will open a full dialogue using ICT tools and geosciences organisations and institutions throughout Europe. This paper will ask the question of the community how best to proceed, and what are the critical timelines for this roadmap.

Ludden, J.; Giardini, D.; Cocco, M.; Diament, M.; Lauterjung, J.

2012-04-01

20

4. PERSPECTIVE VIEW TO THE NORTHEAST OF THE CREW SHELTER ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. PERSPECTIVE VIEW TO THE NORTHEAST OF THE CREW SHELTER IN AR-8. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base, Rammed Earth Aircraft Dispersal Revetments, Western Shore of Rogers Dry Lake, Boron, Kern County, CA

21

15. SOUTHEAST AND NORTHEAST WALLS OF CREW SHELTER LOCATED BETWEEN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

15. SOUTHEAST AND NORTHEAST WALLS OF CREW SHELTER LOCATED BETWEEN THE PURSUIT PLANE BAYS OF AR-9. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base, Rammed Earth Aircraft Dispersal Revetments, Western Shore of Rogers Dry Lake, Boron, Kern County, CA

22

View of Chapel Park, showing bomb shelters at right foreground, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View of Chapel Park, showing bomb shelters at right foreground, from building 746 parking lot across Walnut Avenue; camera facing north. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, East of Nave Drive, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

23

Shelter for the Sky  

SciTech Connect

A solemn ceremony in Slavutich Ukraine on April 26th 2007 marked the twenty-first anniversary of the most catastrophic accident in the history of commercial nuclear power. Significant progress has recently been made toward transformation of Chernobyl to an environmentally sound site. Many readers will recall that in only eight months following the 1986 accident, the Soviets constructed an enormous facility to contain the radioactive contamination in the remains of Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Unit-4. Popularly known as the “sarcophagus”, but correctly referred to as the “Object Shelter”, it has deteriorated with time and is now in danger of collapse. STABILIZATION Several measures to structurally stabilize the Object Shelter and prevent its collapse have recently been completed. These measures are the largest construction projects undertaken in the local zone since the completion of the Object Shelter. The most significant risk reduction was accomplished by Measure-2 in December 2006. Stabilization

Schmieman, Eric A.

2007-07-01

24

Building a knowledge system for the Earth system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NSF advisory committee for the geosciences issues a forward-looking report intended to "fostering a sustainable future through a better understanding of our complex and changing planet."(GEO Vision) The report issues a call to action to develop a framework to understand and predict responses of the Earth as a system. As a backdrop to this bold call to action, NSF announced Cyberinfrastructure for the 21st century (CIF21), which is an important new research thrust for NSF for FY 2012. The Office of Cyberinfrastructure (OCI) will lead CIF21. In an effort to make significant advances within the context of CIF21 and the GEO Vision call to action, the Office of Cyberinfrastructure and the Geosciences Directorate launched Earth Cube. The goal of this endeavor is to transform the conduct of research in geosciences by supporting community created cyberinfrastructure that integrates knowledge management across the Geosciences. Implicit in the nexus of CIF21 and Earth Cube is cyberinfrastructure and the concomitant characteristics that are associated with infrastructure: how to build it; how to sustain it; how to make it extendable; how to manage it; and how to maintain it for long periods of time. To create Earth Cube, NSF embarked on a process to focus the best ideas and foster partnerships among a number of activities within geosciences and across other fields of science. This process had at its center the use of two linked events: a charrette and an IdeasLab. The charrette took place in early November 2011 for the purpose offering a forum for the community to identify the best ideas through real-time review and to modify those ideas to remove their weaknesses and enhance their strengths. As a result of this process, NSF made several awards very soon after the charrette. The multiple award approach was necessary since it is difficult to identify the best solution to a complex problem early in the process. These awards allow additional development of the conceptual approaches and these further developed ideas will be brought together in Ideaslab for a further round of realtime review and modification with the intention of funding prototype development of some of the modified ideas resulting from the charrette. Presented is a report on the goals and outcomes of the Earth Cube process and plans for the future.

Jacobs, C. A.; Zanzerkia, E. E.

2011-12-01

25

The Search for Shelter.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes the response of the American Institute of Architects' Housing Committee to the homeless crisis in the United States. Based on information shared at two conferences held by the Committee in 1985, this publication examines the question of how to provide secure, dignified shelter for those with little financial resources. It…

Greer, Nora Richter

26

Voyager: The Sheltering Forest  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Birch Aquarium at Scripps Institution of Oceanography offers this Web site as part of the Aquarium's online educational series, Voyager Science. Geared toward younger kids, this site introduces the kelp forest and related concepts with great photos, informative descriptions, and a few interactive activities. The Sheltering Forest focuses on the many animals that make their home in the kelp forest, emphasizing the interdependence of organisms in the kelp ecosystem. Simple at-home experiments and online activities are also included.

Criqui, Nan

27

Dynamic earth-contact building: A sustainable low-energy technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sustainable development includes low-energy buildings, which reduce energy consumption, green house gases emission, water usage, etc. The choice of subsurface wall at varying depths for construction of buildings has a direct impact on energy consumption and the environment. This paper includes in its scope all building structures in which a significant area is in direct contact with the earth, and

Rakesh Kumar; Shweta Sachdeva; S. C. Kaushik

2007-01-01

28

An Early Shelter for Life on Earth? S and O Isotope Evidence From the Nuvvuagittuq Greenstone Belt, Northeastern Superior Province, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Nuvvuagittuq Greenstone Belt (NGB,) is one of Earth's oldest Eoarchean volcano-sedimentary suites, and was emplaced prior to 3.75 Ga (Cates and Mojzsis, S.J. 2007), and likely as early as 4.28 Ga (O'Neil et al. 2008). As revealed by recent detailed mapping, the NGB geology is dominated by cummingtonite-bearing amphibolites (formerly called Faux-amphibolite, (O'Neil et al. 2008)) and a series

E. Thomassot; J. O'Neil; D. Francis; P. Cartigny; D. Rumble; B. Wing

2009-01-01

29

SPERTI Reactor Pit Building (PER605). Earth shielding protect adjacent Instrument ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

SPERT-I Reactor Pit Building (PER-605). Earth shielding protect adjacent Instrument Cell (PER-606). Security fencing surrounds complex, to which gate entry is provided next to Guard House (PER-607). Note gravel road leading to control area. Earth-covered conduit leads from instrument cell to terminal building out of view. Photographer: R.G. Larsen. Date: June 22, 1955. INEEL negative no. 55-1701 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, SPERT-I & Power Burst Facility Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

30

A Place to Stay: Building Green  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Shelter has been a concern of humans and animals alike for the millennia. Animals, through their natural instincts, build nests and shelters to meet their needs for protection against predators and seasonal changes in the weather. Early humans sought shelter in caves and cliff dwellings and later began to design and build shelters based on the…

Deal, Walter F.

2010-01-01

31

Technology Learning Activities: Columbus Sailed the Ocean Blue, the Cellular Connection, Emergency Shelter.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents learning activities such as planning and building a sailboat, manufacturing cellular phone cases, and designing and building emergency shelters. Includes the context, the challenge, resources used, objectives, materials needed, and an evaluation. (JOW)

Etchison, Cindy; Deal, Walter F., III

1992-01-01

32

Lied Animal Shelter Animal campus Renewable Energy Demonstration Project  

SciTech Connect

The Animal Shelter campus plan includes a new adoption center coupled with a dog adoption park, a wellness/veterinary technician education center, a show arena, and an addition to the existing shelter that will accommodate all animal control and sheltering for the Las Vegas Valley. The new facility will provide a sophisticated and innovative presentation of the animals to be adopted in an attempt to improve the public's perception of shelter animals. Additionally, the Regional Animal Campus will be a ''green building'', embodying a design intent on balancing environmental responsiveness, resource efficiency and cultural and community sensitivity. Designing an energy-efficient building helps reduce pollution from burning fossil fuels, reduce disturbance of natural habitats for the harvesting of resources and minimizes global warming. The project will be a leader in the use of renewable energy by relying on photovoltaic panels, wind turbines, and solar collectors to produce a portion of the project's energy needs The building will operate more efficiently in comparison to a typical shelter through the use of monitoring and specialized cooling/heating equipment. Windows bringing in natural daylight will reduce the center's demand for electricity.

Randy Spitzmesser, AIA

2005-11-22

33

August 6, 2014 Analysis of the Above Ground Shelter Door Failure  

E-print Network

, this benchmark would provide a 1.56 Factor of Safety. The 250 mph standard was later adopted in the FEMA Publications P-320, Taking Shelter from the Storm: Building a Safe Room inside Your House (FEMA, 1998); FEMA National Performance Criteria for Tornado Shelters (FEMA, 1999); FEMA Design and Construction Guidance

Zhang, Yuanlin

34

Shelter from the Storm.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses why most schools need to upgrade the spaces they use to protect students and staff from tornadoes. School building areas commonly used as safe havens during tornadoes are assessed, followed by information on disaster damage reimbursements and Federal Emergency Management Agency guidelines (FEMA 361) for building tornado and hurricane…

Schultz, Corey; Metz, John

2001-01-01

35

Handbook for Building Homes of Earth. Appropriate Technologies for Development. Reprint R-34.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual, developed by the Agency for International Development and used by the Peace Corps, explains how to build homes made of earth. Information came from reports, books, and articles from many countries, coupled with research by soil engineers at Texas A & M University. It is presented in the most nontechnical format possible. The manual…

Wolfskill, Lyle A.; And Others

36

Building a Global Federation System for Climate Change Research: The Earth System Grid Center for Enabling  

E-print Network

through Advanced Computing (SciDAC) and other Department of Energy (DOE) programs for climate model, climate change simulation, model intercomparisons, observational programs, and supporting infrastructureBuilding a Global Federation System for Climate Change Research: The Earth System Grid Center

Chervenak, Ann

37

Conditioning shelter dogs to sit.  

PubMed

Human contact in the shelter may lessen effects of change in environment and smooth transition into a home. Training can increase a dog's interaction with people in a shelter environment. Experiments were conducted to determine how rapidly shelter dogs learn to sit, if the dogs can retain sitting behavior over time, and if sitting transfers to novel locations and people. Two experiments trained shelter dogs (n = 21) to sit when a stranger approached over a 10-trial session. Food and a verbal cue or a clicker reinforced the sit. The experiments measured latency to sit for each trial. Latency to sit decreased significantly over trials. Another experiment included reinforcement given to dogs (n = 20) on a noncontingent basis or for sitting. Five days of the experiment (condition training) were in the same room with the same experimenter. The last 4 days (testing) varied by both experimenter and location (familiar or strange). Results indicate that short training sessions are effective for teaching shelter dogs to sit, that dogs can retain sitting behavior over 2 days, and that training transfers to novel people and situations. PMID:16649949

Thorn, Judith M; Templeton, Jennifer J; Van Winkle, Kimberly M M; Castillo, Roberto R

2006-01-01

38

The Earth System Modeling Framework and Earth System Curator: Software Components as Building Blocks of Community  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Earth System Modeling Framework (ESMF) is an established U.S. initiative to develop high performance common modeling infrastructure for climate and weather models. ESMF is the technical foundation for the NASA Modeling, Analysis, and Prediction (MAP) Climate Variability and Change program and the DoD Battlespace Environments Institute (BEI). It has been incorporated into the Community Climate System Model (CCSM), the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) Model, NOAA NCEP and GFDL models, Army, Navy, and Air Force models, and many others. The new, NSF-funded Earth System Curator is a related database and toolkit that will store information about model configurations, prepare models for execution, and run them locally or in a distributed fashion. The key concept that underlies both ESMF and the Earth System Curator is that of software components. Components are software units that are "composable", meaning they can be combined to form coupled applications. These components may be representations of physical domains, such as atmospheres or oceans; processes within particular domains such as atmospheric radiation or chemistry; or computational functions, such as data assimilation or I/O. ESMF provides interfaces, an architecture, and tools for structuring components hierarchically to form complex, coupled modeling applications. The Earth System Curator will enable modelers to describe, archive, search, compose, and run ESMF and similar components. Together these projects encourage a new paradigm for modeling: one in which the community can draw from a federation of many interoperable components in order to create and deploy applications. The goal is to enable a network of collaborations and new scientific opportunities for the Earth modeling community.

Deluca, C.; Balaji, V.; da Silva, A.; Dunlap, R.; Hill, C.; Mark, L.; Mechoso, C. R.; Middleton, D.; Nikonov, S.; Rugaber, S.; Suarez, M.

2006-05-01

39

Effectiveness of Urban Shelter-in-Place. III: Commercial Districts  

SciTech Connect

In the event of a toxic chemical release to the atmosphere, shelter-in-place (SIP) is an emergency response option available to protect public health. This paper is the last in a three-part series that examines the effectiveness of SIP at reducing adverse health effects in communities. We model a hypothetical chemical release in an urban area, and consider SIP effectiveness in protecting occupants of commercial buildings. Building air infiltration rates are predicted from empirical data using an existing model. We consider the distribution of building air infiltration rates both with mechanical ventilation systems turned off and with the systems operating. We also consider the effects of chemical sorption to indoor surfaces and nonlinear chemical dose-response relationships. We find that commercial buildings provide effective shelter when ventilation systems are off, but that any delay in turning off ventilation systems can greatly reduce SIP effectiveness. Using a two-zone model, we find that there can be substantial benefit by taking shelter in the inner parts of a building that do not experience direct air exchange with the outdoors. Air infiltration rates vary substantially among buildings and this variation is important in quantifying effectiveness for emergency response. Community-wide health metrics, introduced in the previous papers in this series, can be applied in pre-event planning and to guide real-time emergency response.

Chan, Wanyu R.; Chan, Wanyu R.; Nazaroff, William W.; Price, Phillip N.; Gadgil, Ashok J.

2007-12-28

40

Global Cooperation in the Capacity Building Activities on Sun-Earth Connection Studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The importance of global cooperation in Sun-Earth connection studies can be readily seen in the formation of a number of international collaborative programs such as the Climate and Weather of the Sun Earth System (CAWSES) by SCOSTEP* and the International Space Weather Initiative (ISWI). ISWI is the continuation of the successful International Heliophysical Year (IHY) program. These programs have brought scientists together to tackle issues of solar-terrestrial phenomena. An important element of these organizations is capacity building activities, which include deployment of low-cost ground based instruments for Sun-Earth connection studies and training young people (scientists and graduate students) from developing countries to operate these instruments and become members of the international solar-terrestrial scientific community. The training also helps young people to make use of data from the vast array of space and ground based instruments currently available for Sun-Earth connection studies. This paper presents a summary of CAWSES and ISWI activities that promote space Sun-Earth connection studies via complementary approaches in international scientific collaborations, capacity building, and public outreach. *Scientific Committee on Solar Terrestrial Physics (SCOSTEP) is an Interdisciplinary Body of the International Council for Science with representations from COSPAR, IAU, IUGG/IAGA, IUPAP, IAMAS, SCAR, and URSI (http://www.yorku.ca/scostep)

Gopalswamy, Nat; Davila, Joseph; Luebken, Franz-Josef; Shepherd, Marianna; Tsuda, Toshitaka

2012-07-01

41

Building the EarthChem System for Advanced Data Management in Igneous Geochemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several mature databases of geochemical analyses for igneous rocks are now available over the Internet. The existence of these databases has revolutionized access to data for researchers and students allowing them to extract data sets customized to their specific problem from global data compilations with their desktop computer within a few minutes. Three of the database efforts - PetDB, GEOROC, and NAVDAT - have initiated a collaborative effort called EarthChem to create better and more advanced and integrated data management for igneous geochemistry. The EarthChem web site (http://www.earthchem.org/) serves as a portal to the three databases and information related to EarthChem activities. EarthChem participants agreed to establish a dialog to minimize duplication of effort and share useful tools and approaches. To initiate this dialog, a workshop was run by EarthChem in October, 2003 to discuss cyberinfrastructure needs in igneous geochemistry (workshop report available at the EarthChem site). EarthChem ran an information booth with database and visualization demonstrations at the Fall 2003 AGU meeting (and will have one in 2004) and participated in the May 2003 GERM meeting in Lyon, France where we provided the newly established Publishers' Round Table a list of minimum standards of data reporting to ease the assimilation of data into the databases. Aspects of these suggestions already have been incorporated into new data policies at Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta and Chemical Geology (Goldstein et al. 2004), and are under study by the Geological Society of America. EarthChem presented its objectives and activities to the Solid Earth Sciences community at the Annual GSA Meeting 2003 (Lehnert et al, 2003). Future plans for EarthChem include expanding the types and amounts of data available from a single portal, giving researchers, faculty, students, and the general public the ability to search, visualize, and download geochemical and geochronological data for a wide variety of rock types of global distribution. We also hope to implement more mapping and query functions to open the application of these data across the spectrum of geoscientists. Lastly, we want to facilitate data submission and data entry in anticipation of incorporating more data directly from publishers and from a broader cross section of researchers. The building of interfaces for the transfer of raw and reduced data will allow data to be archived, and most importantly accessed, in a manner that will facilitate the use of geochemical data to address a wide variety of problems in the solid earth sciences.

Lehnert, K.; Walker, J. D.; Carlson, R. W.; Hofmann, A. W.; Sarbas, B.

2004-12-01

42

Lunar surface operations. Volume 1: Lunar surface emergency shelter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The lunar surface emergency shelter (LSES) is designed to provide survival-level accommodations for up to four astronauts for a maximum of five days. It would be used by astronauts who were caught out in the open during a large solar event. The habitable section consists of an aluminum pressure shell with an inner diameter of 6 ft. and a length of 12.2 ft. Access is through a 4 in. thick aluminum airlock door mounted at the rear of the shelter. Shielding is provided by a 14.9 in. thick layer of lunar regolith contained within a second, outer aluminum shell. This provides protection against a 200 MeV event, based on a 15 REM maximum dose. The shelter is self-contained with a maximum range of 1000 km. Power is supplied by a primary fuel cell which occupies 70.7 cu ft. of the interior volume. Mobility is achieved by towing the shelter behind existing lunar vehicles. It was assumed that a fully operational, independent lunar base was available to provide communication support and tools for set-up and maintenance. Transportation to the moon would be provided by the proposed heavy lift launch vehicle. Major design considerations for the LSES were safety, reliability, and minimal use of earth materials.

Shields, William; Feteih, Salah; Hollis, Patrick

1993-07-01

43

Resources and Strategies for Building Understanding of the Earth-Moon-Sun System in Students of all Ages  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This presentation discusses a variety of resources and strategies used in UT Dallas education and outreach programs to help learners build understanding of the Earth-Moon-Sun system including topics of scale, lunar phases, and seasons.

Urquhart, M. L.

2011-03-01

44

Preliminary evaluation of crisis-relocation fallout-shelter options. Volume 2. Detailed analysis  

SciTech Connect

This report presents a preliminary, detailed evaluation of various shelter options for use if the President orders crisis relocation of the US urban population because of strong expectation of a nuclear war. The availability of livable shelter space at 40 ft/sup 2/ per person (congregate-care space) by state is evaluated. Options are evaluated for construction of fallout shelters allowing 10 ft/sup 2/ per person - such shelters are designed to provide 100% survival at projected levels of radioactive fallout. The FEMA concept of upgrading existing buildings to act as fallout shelters can, in principle, provide adequate shelter throughout most of the US. Exceptions are noted and remedies proposed. In terms of upgrading existing buildings to fallout shelter status, great benefits are possible by turning away from a standard national approach and adopting a more site-specific approach. Existing FEMA research provides a solid foundation for successful crisis relocation planning, but the program can be refined by making suitable modifications in its locational, engineering, and institutionally specific elements.

Santini, D.J.; Clinch, J.M.; Davis, F.H.; Hill, L.G.; Lynch, E.P.; Tanzman, E.A.; Wernette, D.R.

1982-12-01

45

Design concepts for pressurized lunar shelters utilizing indigenous materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective is to design a pressurized shelter build of indigenous lunar material. The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: lunar conditions which impact design; secondary factors; review of previously proposed concepts; cross section of assembly facility; rationale for indigenous materials; indigenous material choices; cast basalt properties; design variables; design 1, cylindrical segments; construction sequence; design 2, arch-slabs with post-tensioned ring girders; and future research.

Happel, John Amin; Willam, Kaspar; Shing, Benson

1991-01-01

46

Analyzing evacuation versus shelter-in-place strategies after a terrorist nuclear detonation.  

PubMed

We superimpose a radiation fallout model onto a traffic flow model to assess the evacuation versus shelter-in-place decisions after the daytime ground-level detonation of a 10-kt improvised nuclear device in Washington, DC. In our model, ? 80k people are killed by the prompt effects of blast, burn, and radiation. Of the ? 360k survivors without access to a vehicle, 42.6k would die if they immediately self-evacuated on foot. Sheltering above ground would save several thousand of these lives and sheltering in a basement (or near the middle of a large building) would save of them. Among survivors of the prompt effects with access to a vehicle, the number of deaths depends on the fraction of people who shelter in a basement rather than self-evacuate in their vehicle: 23.1k people die if 90% shelter in a basement and 54.6k die if 10% shelter. Sheltering above ground saves approximately half as many lives as sheltering in a basement. The details related to delayed (i.e., organized) evacuation, search and rescue, decontamination, and situational awareness (via, e.g., telecommunications) have very little impact on the number of casualties. Although antibiotics and transfusion support have the potential to save ? 10k lives (and the number of lives saved from medical care increases with the fraction of people who shelter in basements), the logistical challenge appears to be well beyond current response capabilities. Taken together, our results suggest that the government should initiate an aggressive outreach program to educate citizens and the private sector about the importance of sheltering in place in a basement for at least 12 hours after a terrorist nuclear detonation. PMID:20840487

Wein, Lawrence M; Choi, Youngsoo; Denuit, Sylvie

2010-09-01

47

Sheltering--a protective measure following an accidental atmospheric release from a nuclear power plant  

SciTech Connect

The effectiveness of sheltering the population for reducing radiological effects following an accidental release of radioactivity at a nuclear power plant was investigated. Different levels of respiratory protection and the administration of a thyroid blocking agent were also studied as possible complements to sheltering. Specific conditions were assumed, concerning the high protection factors of regular buildings and the high availability of civil defense shelters. Computations were performed by means of a probabilistic consequence model, which allows a comprehensive description of exposure modes and processes dealing with the implementation of sheltering and which takes into account a broad range of radiological effects. Sheltering, even in regular buildings, was found to be efficient in reducing early fatalities and other non-stochastic effects. However, it was shown that respiratory protection is also needed in order to alleviate stochastic effects and that, for this purpose, expedient individual filtration methods may be satisfactory. Under the conditions studied, sheltering was found to be preferable in most cases over evacuation, as the main immediate protective measure, unless evacuation can be carried out before the radioactive cloud reaches the populated area.

Koch, J.; Tadmor, J.

1988-06-01

48

Earth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The following aspects of the planet Earth are discussed: plate tectonics, the interior of the planet, the formation of the Earth, and the evolution of the atmosphere and hydrosphere. The Earth's crust, mantle, and core are examined along with the bulk composition of the planet.

Carr, M. H.

1984-01-01

49

Smoking cessation among sheltered homeless: a pilot  

PubMed Central

Objective To test the feasibility and effect of a smoking cessation intervention among sheltered homeless. Methods Homeless smokers were enrolled in a 12-week group counseling program plus pharmacotherapy (n=58). Results The mean number of sessions attended was 7.2, most participants used at least one type of medication (67%) and 75% completed 12-week end of treatment surveys. Carbon monoxide verified abstinence rates at 12 and 24 weeks were 15.5% and 13.6% respectively. Conclusion Results support the feasibility of enrolling and retaining sheltered homeless in a smoking cessation program. Counseling plus pharmacotherapy options may be effective in helping sheltered homeless smokers quit. PMID:20524884

Shelley, Donna; Cantrell, Jennifer; Warn, Doug; Wong, Selena

2010-01-01

50

The DEVELOP National Program: Building Dual Capacity in Decision Makers and Young Professionals Through NASA Earth Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Through the years, NASA has played a distinct/important/vital role in advancing Earth System Science to meet the challenges of environmental management and policy decision making. Within NASA's Earth Science Division's Applied Sciences' Program, the DEVELOP National Program seeks to extend NASA Earth Science for societal benefit. DEVELOP is a capacity building program providing young professionals and students the opportunity to utilize NASA Earth observations and model output to demonstrate practical applications of those resources to society. Under the guidance of science advisors, DEVELOP teams work in alignment with local, regional, national and international partner organizations to identify the widest array of practical uses for NASA data to enhance related management decisions. The program's structure facilitates a two-fold approach to capacity building by fostering an environment of scientific and professional development opportunities for young professionals and students, while also providing end-user organizations enhanced management and decision making tools for issues impacting their communities. With the competitive nature and growing societal role of science and technology in today's global workplace, DEVELOP is building capacity in the next generation of scientists and leaders by fostering a learning and growing environment where young professionals possess an increased understanding of teamwork, personal development, and scientific/professional development and NASA's Earth Observation System. DEVELOP young professionals are partnered with end user organizations to conduct 10 week feasibility studies that demonstrate the use of NASA Earth science data for enhanced decision making. As a result of the partnership, end user organizations are introduced to NASA Earth Science technologies and capabilities, new methods to augment current practices, hands-on training with practical applications of remote sensing and NASA Earth science, improved remote sensing and geographic information science (GIS) capabilities, and opportunities for networking with the NASA and Earth Science community. By engaging young professionals and end user organizations, DEVELOP strives to uniquely build capacity through the extension of NASA Earth Science outcomes to the public through projects that innovatively use NASA Earth observations to address environmental concerns and impact policy and decision making.

Childs, L. M.; Rogers, L.; Favors, J.; Ruiz, M.

2012-12-01

51

Effectiveness of Urban Shelter-in-Place. II: ResidentialDistricts  

SciTech Connect

In the event of a short-term, large-scale toxic chemical release to the atmosphere, shelter-in-place (SIP) may be used as an emergency response to protect public health. We modeled hypothetical releases using realistic, empirical parameters to explore how key factors influence SIP effectiveness for single-family dwellings in a residential district. Four classes of factors were evaluated in this case-study: (a) time scales associated with release duration, SIP implementation delay, and SIP termination; (b) building air-exchange rates, including air infiltration and ventilation; (c) the degree of sorption of toxic chemicals to indoor surfaces; and (d) the shape of the dose-response relationship for acute adverse health effects. Houses with lower air leakage are more effective shelters, and thus variability in the air leakage of dwellings is associated with varying degrees of SIP protection in a community. Sorption on indoor surfaces improves SIP effectiveness by lowering the peak indoor concentrations and reducing the amount of contamination in the indoor air. Nonlinear dose-response relationships imply substantial reduction in adverse health effects from lowering the peak exposure concentration. However, if the scenario is unfavorable for sheltering (e.g. sheltering in leaky houses for protection against a nonsorbing chemical with a linear dose-response), the community must implement SIP without delay and exit from shelter when it first becomes safe to do so. Otherwise, the community can be subjected to even greater risk than if they did not take shelter indoors.

Chan, W.R.; Nazaroff, W.W.; Price, P.N.; Gadgil, A.J.

2006-12-01

52

Automated transduction of sheltered workshop behaviors1  

PubMed Central

This study describes techniques for attaching transducers directly to the tools in a sheltered workshop. The resulting automatic recordings of tool usage correlate fairly highly with independent measures of work products completed. PMID:16795377

Schroeder, Stephen R.

1972-01-01

53

Chemical Agents: Facts about Sheltering in Place  

MedlinePLUS

... Index Chemical Agents: Facts About Sheltering in Place Language: English Español (Spanish) Format: Select one PDF [99 KB] ... international organizations. Format: Select one PDF [99 KB] Language: English Español (Spanish) File Formats Help: How do I ...

54

Needs assessment for remote systems technology at the Chornobyl Unit 4 shelter  

SciTech Connect

The accident at Chornobyl Unit 4 on April 26, 1986, resulted in a series of unprecedented scientific and technical challenges. The reactor building was damaged extensively. Following the accident, immediate action was needed to seal off the gaping crater created by the accident, which was a continuing source of airborne contamination. Under extreme conditions, a structure called the {open_quotes}Shelter{close_quotes} was built over the remains of the reactor building. The Shelter, which was quickly completed in November 1986, was meant to provide immediate but temporary containment. Now, 11 years later, there are significant concerns about its structural integrity and projected life expectancy. The United States and other participating G-7 countries are supporting nuclear safety upgrade efforts in Eastern Europe with a primary focus on placing the Chornobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) Unit 4 Shelter in a stable and environmentally acceptable condition. Application of remote systems technologies will play an important part in achieving the goals of this program. The G-7 nations have agreed to support these efforts, including the identification and development of remote system technologies for fuel removal. However at this time they have taken a firm stance against funding actual fuel removal activities. The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy, Science and Technology requested that a needs assessment be performed to evaluate the requirements for applying remote systems, including robotics, at the Shelter. This document is intended to be used to identify remote systems needs and requirements at the Shelter and to provide general information on the conditions in the Shelter that could impact the use of remote systems. This document is intended as a source of information to assist those who will be implementing the Shelter Implementation Plan tasks. The document provides background information and general guidance on the application of remote systems.

Carteret, B.A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Holliday, M.A.; Jones, E.D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

1997-12-01

55

An Investigation of Best Practices for Evacuating and Sheltering Individuals with Special Needs and Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

At the request of the U.S. Department of Education's Office of Safe and Drug-Free Schools, the National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities (NCEF) has conducted "a literature search and review to identify best practices in [school] building design for accommodating the evacuation and sheltering needs of individuals with special needs or…

National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, 2008

2008-01-01

56

Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With three levels to choose from on each page - beginner, intermediate or advanced - this site provides information on our plant Earth. There is a section about water on earth and its many different varities, like freshwater, groundwater, and frozen water. There is information about the chemical make-up of water and many images showing the different water anvironments. There is a section about life in water, such as animals, plants, and plankton.

2008-10-03

57

BUILDING VIRTUAL EARTH OBSERVATORIES USING ONTOLOGIES, LINKED GEOSPATIAL DATA AND KNOWLEDGE DISCOVERY ALGORITHMS  

E-print Network

in orbit around Earth. As a result, Earth Observation (EO) data has been constantly increasing in vol- ume or animals, due to the nature of actual features (e.g., eyes, ears, stripes, or wings) that have known

Koubarakis, Manolis

58

Solar Eclipse Effect on Shelter Air Temperature  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Decreases in shelter temperature during eclipse events were quantified on the basis of observations, numerical model simulations, and complementary conceptual evaluations. Observations for the annular eclipse on 10 May 1994 over the United States are presented, and these provide insights into the temporal and spatial changes in the shelter temperature. The observations indicated near-surface temperature drops of as much as 6 C. Numerical model simulations for this eclipse event, which provide a complementary evaluation of the spatial and temporal patterns of the temperature drops, predict similar decreases. Interrelationships between the temperature drop, degree of solar irradiance reduction, and timing of the peak eclipse are also evaluated for late spring, summer, and winter sun conditions. These simulations suggest that for total eclipses the drops in shelter temperature in midlatitudes can be as high as 7 C for a spring morning eclipse.

Segal, M.; Turner, R. W.; Prusa, J.; Bitzer, R. J.; Finley, S. V.

1996-01-01

59

Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) planet profile provides data and images of the planet Earth. These data include planet size, orbit facts, distance from the Sun, rotation and revolution times, temperature, atmospheric composition, density, surface materials and albedo. Images with descriptions show Earth features such as the Ross Ice Shelf in Antarctica, Simpson Desert in Australia, Mt. Etna in Sicily, the Cassiar Mountains in Canada, the Strait of Gibraltar, Mississippi River, Grand Canyon, Wadi Kufra Oasis in Libya, and Moon images such as Hadley Rille, Plum Crater, massifs and Moon rocks. These images were taken with the Galileo Spacecraft and by the Apollo missions.

60

FEATURE 2, OPEN SIDE OF SHELTER, VIEW FACING NORTHEAST. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

FEATURE 2, OPEN SIDE OF SHELTER, VIEW FACING NORTHEAST. - Naval Air Station Barbers Point, Anti-Aircraft Battery Complex-Shelter, East of Coral Sea Road, northwest of Hamilton Road, Ewa, Honolulu County, HI

61

FEATURE 2, SHELTER, NORTHNORTHEAST SIDE, VIEW FACING SOUTHSOUTHWEST (with scale ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

FEATURE 2, SHELTER, NORTH-NORTHEAST SIDE, VIEW FACING SOUTH-SOUTHWEST (with scale stick). - Naval Air Station Barbers Point, Anti-Aircraft Battery Complex-Shelter, East of Coral Sea Road, northwest of Hamilton Road, Ewa, Honolulu County, HI

62

FEATURE 2, SHELTER, NORTHNORTHEAST SIDE, VIEW FACING SOUTHSOUTHWEST. Naval ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

FEATURE 2, SHELTER, NORTH-NORTHEAST SIDE, VIEW FACING SOUTH-SOUTHWEST. - Naval Air Station Barbers Point, Anti-Aircraft Battery Complex-Shelter, East of Coral Sea Road, northwest of Hamilton Road, Ewa, Honolulu County, HI

63

4. INTERIOR VIEW OF SLEEPING SHELTER SHOWING STORAGE LOCKERS IN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. INTERIOR VIEW OF SLEEPING SHELTER SHOWING STORAGE LOCKERS IN CENTER PORTION WITH SLEEPING BUNKS AT EACH END - Camp Cleawox, Adirondack Sleeping Shelter, Oregon Dunes National Recreation Area, Siuslaw National Forest, Florence, Lane County, OR

64

Training Shelter Volunteers to Teach Dog Compliance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the degree to which training procedures influenced the integrity of behaviorally based dog training implemented by volunteers of an animal shelter. Volunteers were taught to implement discrete-trial obedience training to teach 2 skills (sit and wait) to dogs. Procedural integrity during the baseline and written instructions…

Howard, Veronica J.; DiGennaro Reed, Florence D.

2014-01-01

65

Occupational Performance Needs of a Shelter Population.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data were analyzed regarding the occupational performance of 25 persons at a homeless shelter. The Canadian Occupational Performance Measure was useful for assessing the occupational performance needs of this population but should be augmented by inquiry about environmental concerns, relationships housing, and spirituality. (Author/JOW)

Tryssenaar, Joyce; Jones, Elizabeth J.; Lee, Deanne

1999-01-01

66

Shelters and Their Use by Fishes on Fringing Coral Reefs  

PubMed Central

Coral reef fish density and species richness are often higher at sites with more structural complexity. This association may be due to greater availability of shelters, but surprisingly little is known about the size and density of shelters and their use by coral reef fishes. We quantified shelter availability and use by fishes for the first time on a Caribbean coral reef by counting all holes and overhangs with a minimum entrance diameter ?3 cm in 30 quadrats (25 m2) on two fringing reefs in Barbados. Shelter size was highly variable, ranging from 42 cm3 to over 4,000,000 cm3, with many more small than large shelters. On average, there were 3.8 shelters m?2, with a median volume of 1,200 cm3 and a total volume of 52,000 cm3m?2. The number of fish per occupied shelter ranged from 1 to 35 individual fishes belonging to 66 species, with a median of 1. The proportion of shelters occupied and the number of occupants increased strongly with shelter size. Shelter density and total volume increased with substrate complexity, and this relationship varied among reef zones. The density of shelter-using fish was much more strongly predicted by shelter density and median size than by substrate complexity and increased linearly with shelter density, indicating that shelter availability is a limiting resource for some coral reef fishes. The results demonstrate the importance of large shelters for fish density and support the hypothesis that structural complexity is associated with fish abundance, at least in part, due to its association with shelter availability. This information can help identify critical habitat for coral reef fishes, predict the effects of reductions in structural complexity of natural reefs and improve the design of artificial reefs. PMID:22745664

Ménard, Alexandre; Turgeon, Katrine; Roche, Dominique G.; Binning, Sandra A.; Kramer, Donald L.

2012-01-01

67

1. FRONT VIEW SHOWING MAIN FACADE OF SHELTER WITH SPLIT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. FRONT VIEW SHOWING MAIN FACADE OF SHELTER WITH SPLIT SHAKES AND LOG BEAM SUPPORTS AND PORCH STEP; NOTE SHELTER NAME 'LAFITTE' OVER EYEBROW - Camp Cleawox, Adirondack Sleeping Shelter, Oregon Dunes National Recreation Area, Siuslaw National Forest, Florence, Lane County, OR

68

A pre-feasibility study to assess the potential of Open Loop Ground Source Heat to heat and cool the proposed Earth Science Systems Building  

E-print Network

the proposed Earth Science Systems Building at the University of British Columbia Abha Parajulee Kim Smet Source Heat Pump Systems ................................................4 1.5. The Earth Systems Science............................................................1 1.2. History of Ground Source Heat Pump Systems................................................3 1

69

Building Formal and Informal Partnerships Through a Land-Based, Hands-on Research Expedition for Earth and Ocean Science Teachers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scientific Ocean drilling has a rich legacy which is largely responsible for our current understating of the complex linkages among the different parts of the Earth System. Relaying these understandings to Earth and ocean educators is a challenge that the Joint Oceanographic Institutes (JOI) Alliances has undertaken through sponsorship of the School of Rock (SOR). Building on the successful ocean-going,

S. Slough; T. Prouhet; L. Peart; M. Leckie; K. St. John; S. Karz-Cooper; A. Klaus; K. Petronotis; J. Firth; G. Guerin; C. Buckholtz; L. Crowder; C. Peng

2007-01-01

70

Building Cyberinfrastructures for Earth and Space Sciences so that they will come: lessons learnt from Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the greatest drivers for change in the way scientific research is undertaken in Australia was the development of the Australian eResearch Infrastructure which was coordinated by the then Australian Government Department of Innovation, Industry, Science and Research. There were two main tranches of funding: the 2007-2013 National Collaborative Research Infrastructure Strategy (NCRIS) and the 2009 Education and Investment Framework (EIF) Super Science Initiative. Investments were in two areas: the Australian e-Research Infrastructure and domain specific capabilities: combined investment in both is 1,452M with at least 456M being invested in eResearch infrastructure. NCRIS was specifically designed as a community-guided process to provide researchers, both academic and government, with major research facilities, supporting infrastructures and networks necessary for world-class research. Extensive community engagement was sought to inform decisions on where Australia could best make strategic infrastructure investments to further develop its research capacity and improve research outcomes over the next 5 to 10years. The current (2007-2014) Australian e-Research Infrastructure has 2 components: 1. The National eResearch physical infrastructure which includes two petascale HPC facilities (one in Canberra and one in Perth), a 10 Gbps national network (National Research Network), a national data storage infrastructure comprising 8 multi petabyte data stores and shared access methods (Australian Access Federation). 2. A second component is focused on research integration infrastructures and includes the Australian National Data Service, which is concerned with better management, description and access to distributed research data in Australia and the National eResearch Collaboration Tools and Resources (NeCTAR) project. NeCTAR is centred on developing problem oriented digital laboratories which provide better and coordinated access to research tools, data environments and workflows. The eResearch Infrastructure Stack is designed to support 12 individual domain-specific capabilities. Four are relevant to the Earth and Space Sciences: (1) AuScope (a national Earth Science Infrastructure Program), (2) the Integrated Marine Observing System (IMOS), (3) the Terrestrial Ecosystems Research Network (TERN) and (4) the Australian Urban Research Infrastructure Network (AURIN). The two main research integration infrastructures, ANDS and NeCTAR, are seen as pivotal to the success of the Australian eResearch Infrastructure. Without them, there was a risk that that the investments in new computers and data storage would provide physical infrastructure, but few would come to use it as the skills barriers to entry were too high. ANDS focused on transforming Australia's research data environment. Its flagship is Research Data Australia, an Internet-based discovery service designed to provide rich connections between data, projects, researchers and institutions, and promote visibility of Australian research data collections in search engines. NeCTAR focused on building eResearch infrastructure in four areas: virtual laboratories, tools, a federated research cloud and a hosting service. Combined, ANDS and NeCTAR are ensuring that people ARE coming and ARE using the physical infrastructures that were built.

Wyborn, L. A.; Woodcock, R.

2013-12-01

71

Collaboration and Community Building in Summer Undergraduate Research Programs in the School of Earth Sciences at Stanford University  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2012, the School of Earth Sciences (SES) at Stanford University sponsored two summer undergraduate research programs. Here we describe these programs and efforts to build a cohesive research cohort among the programs' diverse participants. The two programs, the Stanford School of Earth Sciences Undergraduate Research (SESUR) Program and Stanford School of Earth Sciences Summer Undergraduate Research in Geoscience and Engineering (SURGE) Program, serve different undergraduate populations and have somewhat different objectives, but both provide students with opportunities to work on strongly mentored yet individualized research projects. In addition to research, enrichment activities co-sponsored by both programs support the development of community within the combined SES summer undergraduate research cohort. Over the course of 6 to 9 months, the SESUR Program engages Stanford undergraduates, primarily rising sophomores and juniors, with opportunities to deeply explore Earth sciences research while learning about diverse areas of inquiry within SES. Now in its eleventh year, the SESUR experience incorporates the breadth of the scientific endeavor: finding an advisor, proposal writing, obtaining funding, conducting research, and presenting results. Goals of the SESUR program include (1) providing a challenging and rewarding research experience for undergraduates who wish to explore the Earth sciences; (2) fostering interdisciplinary study in the Earth sciences among the undergraduate population; and (3) encouraging students to major or minor in the Earth sciences and/or to complete advanced undergraduate research in one of the departments or programs within SES. The SURGE Program, now in its second year, draws high performing students, primarily rising juniors and seniors, from 14 colleges and universities nationwide, including Stanford. Seventy percent of SURGE students are from racial/ethnic backgrounds underrepresented in STEM fields, and approximately one-third are the first in their families to attend college. For eight weeks, SURGE scholars conduct independent research with the guidance of faculty, research group mentors, and program assistants. The primary objectives of the SURGE program are to (1) provide undergraduates with a research experience in SES; (2) prepare undergraduates for the process of applying to graduate school; (3) introduce undergraduates to career opportunities in the geosciences and engineering; and (4) increase diversity in SES graduate programs. Independent research, network building, and intense mentoring culminate in a final oral and poster symposium. SESUR and SURGE scholars jointly participate in enrichment activities including faculty research seminars; career, graduate school, and software training workshops; GRE preparation classes; and geoscience-oriented field trips. Interaction among our students takes place through both research and enrichment activities, creating a critical mass of undergraduate scholars and promoting community development. Pre- and post-program surveys indicate that the overall goals of both programs are being achieved.

Nevle, R. J.; Watson Nelson, T.; Harris, J. M.; Klemperer, S. L.

2012-12-01

72

Effectiveness of expedient sheltering in place in a residence.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of expedient sheltering in place in a residence for protection against airborne hazards, as outlined in the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) guidance to the public. An improved method was developed to determine the air flow rate for a shelter inside a house. Expedient sheltering measures (plastic sheeting and duct tape) were applied to a room inside a test house by participants who followed the DHS guidance. Measured air flow rates were used to determine protection factors for various scenarios. Protection factors were calculated for the house and shelter under various occupancy times, weather conditions, and outdoor exposure times for hazardous agents. Protection factors ranged from 1.3 to 539, depending on the conditions. Results indicate that proper sealing can make a substantial difference in the effectiveness of the shelter. Sheltering in place can be most beneficial if people enter shelters before the arrival of a cloud of hazardous agent, and people exit shelters as soon as the cloud passes over. However, sheltering in place can be detrimental if people enter or exit shelters too late. CO2 and O2 concentrations inside the shelter are not likely to reach dangerous levels under most scenarios, but concentrations could reach dangerous levels under certain conditions, and concentration levels could affect individuals with respiratory problems. PMID:15752846

Jetter, James J; Whitfield, Calvin

2005-03-17

73

A wire-frame shelter for collecting resting mosquitoes.  

PubMed

Collecting resting mosquitoes is important for studies of the bloodfeeding patterns of medically important mosquitoes. We developed a novel resting shelter, called a wire-frame resting shelter, for collecting resting mosquitoes and evaluated its efficacy at sites in Alabama and the Florida Panhandle. The shelter is made of a 1 x 2-m section of galvanized metal-wire field fencing rolled into a cylinder and placed inside a heavy-duty black plastic bag. In the field evaluation, the wire-frame shelters were comparable to other artificial resting shelters (trash cans) in the number of Culex (Melanoconion) females collected. While a number of other resting shelter designs are available, the wire-frame shelter has a number of beneficial attributes, including being easily assembled in the field, lightweight, inexpensive, and easily modified. PMID:21805849

Burkett-Cadena, Nathan D

2011-06-01

74

Self-Healing, Inflatable, Rigidizable Shelter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An inflatable, rigidizable shelter system was developed based on Rigi dization on Command (ROC) technology incorporating not only the requ ired low-stowage volume and lightweight character achieved from an i nflatable/rigidizable system, but also a self-healing foam system inc orporated between the rigidizable layers of the final structure to m inimize the damage caused by any punctures to the structure.

Haight, Andrea; Gosau, Jan-Michael; Dixit, Anshu; Gleeson, Dan

2012-01-01

75

Venus, Earth, Mars, Titan: intensity of wiping out volatiles from celestial bodies and building atmospheres  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The comparative wave planetology 1 states that orbits make structures This general rule can be unfolded into 4 theorems of the planetary tectonics 1 Celestial bodies are dichotomic 2 Celestial bodies are sectoral 3 Celestial bodies are granular 4 Angular momenta of different level blocks tend to be equal 1 The third theorem connects orbital frequencies and sizes of tectonic granules higher frequencies -- smaller granules Mars Earth Venus with frequencies about 1 2 y 1 1 y 1 0 6 y have granules sizes pi R 2 pi R 4 pi R 6 R-a body radius 2 Otherwise Venus is tectonically fine-grained Earth medium-grained Mars coarse-grained The wave produced granulation indicates that fine-grained Venus is more thoroughly shaken out and released of its volatiles degassed than Earth and Mars This is proved by its massive atmosphere containing a large amount of nitrogen and having very low ratio of radiogenic to primordial argon Venus 1 Earth 300 Mars 3000 Compare sweeping volatiles out of Venus and Earth 2 Venus is 3 38 times finer-grained than Earth in the terrestrial globe there are 16 5 grains of radius pi R 8 in the venusian one 55 7 grains of radius pi R 12 55 7 16 5 3 38 To the terrestrial wavelength 10000 km pi R 2 corresponds frequency 0 03 khz to the venusian 6000 km pi R 3 0 07 khz Venusian oscillations thus 2 33 times more frequent If a degassing difference of two planets is the square degassing goes through surface of the production of differences in granulation

Kochemasov, G. G.

76

Understanding of Earth and Space Science Concepts: Strategies for Concept-Building in Elementary Teacher Preparation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research is concerned with preservice teacher understanding of six earth and space science concepts that are often taught in elementary school: the reason for seasons, phases of the moon, why the wind blows, the rock cycle, soil formation, and earthquakes. Specifically, this study examines the effect of readings, hands-on learning stations,…

Bulunuz, Nermin; Jarrett, Olga S.

2009-01-01

77

Understanding of earth and space science concepts: Strategies for concept building in elementary teacher preparation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on conceptual change provides strong evidence that not only children but also many adults have incorrect or incomplete understanding of science concepts. This mixed methods study was concerned with preservice and inservice teachers' understanding of six earth and space science concepts commonly taught in elementary school: reasons for seasons, phases of the moon, reasons for the wind, the rock

Nermin Bulunuz

2006-01-01

78

Putting Art in Its Place: Earth-Centered Celebration Builds Community in Concord.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In Concord (Massachusetts), the Emerson Umbrella Center for the Arts holds seasonal workshops that invite people outdoors to explore woods, fields, and rivers and then process their discoveries through art. Each spring, a colorful community Earth Day celebration demonstrates the link between community art and community activism. The center also…

Daniel, Lucille

1999-01-01

79

Electron spin resonance dating of human teeth from Toca da Santa shelter of São Raimundo Nonato, Piauí, Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Results of the dating of fossil human teeth excavated from a shelter in the surroundings areas of the Serra da Capivara National Park, São Raimundo Nonato, Piauí, Brazil are presented. This shelter was partially excavated to search for more data that could improve the archaeological context of the Garrincho’s limestone hill sites, where the Toca do Gordo do Garrincho shelter provided two human teeth dated by conventional C-14 in (12,170 ± 40) yBP (years before present) and calibrated age (2 Sigma, 95% probability) 15,245 14,690 yBP (Beta 136204) [E. Peyre, C. Guérin, N. Guidon, I. Coppens, CR Acad. Sci. Paris, Sciences de la terre et des planètes/ Earth & Planetary Sciences 327 (1998) 335, [1

Kinoshita, A.; Figueiredo, A. M. G.; Felice, G. D.; Lage, M. C. S. M.; Guidon, N.; Baffa, O.

2008-02-01

80

Building Community Consensus for Earth Science Literacy Using an Online Workshop (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Earth Science Literacy Principles, published in the spring of 2009, represented a community consensus about what all Americans should understand about Earth sciences. Central to its creation was a 2-week online workshop that involved participation by 350 Earth scientists and educators. The online workshop, hosted by The College of Exploration, was an excellent medium for incorporating the ideas and concerns of 350 people in near-real time. NSF tasked the Earth Science Literacy Initiative (ESLI) (www.earthscienceliteracy.org) with constructing a set of “Big Ideas” and “Supporting Concepts” that distilled the essential understandings of the GEO-EAR division of NSF. Because of the wide diversity of sub-fields involved (ranging from paleobiology to tectonics), finding a mechanism for incorporating many different views while retaining an organized structure was a challenge. The online workshop turned out to be ideal for this task. Though the 2-week asynchronous workshop was designed to replicate a 2-day in-person workshop, at the drawn-out pace of one hour of requested participation per day, in reality it was much more productive. Many aspects of an in-person workshop were replicated in the the online space. Plenary talks were presented in the main conference room via videos recorded just before or during the 2-week period. The workshop was structured with 150 invited participants and 200 observers. The participants had access to all of the rooms while the observers could see all rooms but could only chat in their own area, the Observation Café. Each breakout room had a moderator who attempted to guide discussion, including suggesting off-topic conversations be moved to the Earth Café. An organizing committee of about a dozen people teleconferenced daily, determining the goals or tasks for the participants for that day. This allowed for a high level of flexibility, with the workshop structure flowing in response to the results up to that point. The first week was dedicated to the selection of a finite set of Earth Science Big Ideas, and the second week focused on the supporting concepts that would align with them. Participants went to a variety of different breakout rooms to either dialogue or upload assignments. It was tremendously beneficial to have the text of the entire workshop fully recorded and instantly available, both during and after the workshop, and this text became the foundation for the published ELSI Principles. It would have been impossible to incorporate and organize the thoughts and ideas of 350 people in an efficient, organized, and affordable manner without the use of the online workshop.

Wysession, M. E.; Tuddenham, P.; Taber, J.; Ladue, N.

2009-12-01

81

81. BUILDING NO. 561, CANNON POWDER BLENDER, LOOKING NORTHWEST, BUILDING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

81. BUILDING NO. 561, CANNON POWDER BLENDER, LOOKING NORTHWEST, BUILDING NO. 561-A, PROPELLANT PLANT (FIREPROOF SHELTER), IN FOREGROUND, BUILDING NO. 561-D IN EXTREME FOREGROUND. - Picatinny Arsenal, 500 Area, Powder Factory & Power House, State Route 15 near I-80, Dover, Morris County, NJ

82

3. View of Building 802 from the Guard Shack (Building ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. View of Building 802 from the Guard Shack (Building 801), Buildings 800 and 804 beside, facing north. - Naval Air Station Fallon, 100-man Fallout Shelter, 800 Complex, off Carson Road near intersection of Pasture & Berney Roads, Fallon, Churchill County, NV

83

Training shelter volunteers to teach dog compliance.  

PubMed

This study examined the degree to which training procedures influenced the integrity of behaviorally based dog training implemented by volunteers of an animal shelter. Volunteers were taught to implement discrete-trial obedience training to teach 2 skills (sit and wait) to dogs. Procedural integrity during the baseline and written instructions conditions was low across all participants. Although performance increased with use of a video model, integrity did not reach criterion levels until performance feedback and modeling were provided. Moreover, the integrity of the discrete-trial training procedure was significantly and positively correlated with dog compliance to instructions for all dyads. Correct implementation and compliance were observed when participants were paired with a novel dog and trainer, respectively, although generalization of procedural integrity from the discrete-trial sit procedure to the discrete-trial wait procedure was not observed. Shelter consumers rated the behavior change in dogs and trainers as socially significant. Implications of these findings and future directions for research are discussed. PMID:24924218

Howard, Veronica J; DiGennaro Reed, Florence D

2014-01-01

84

Domestic Violence Shelters as Prevention Agents for HIV/AIDS?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article reports findings from a pilot study of 21 domestic violence shelters in a southwestern state in the United States. The survey instrument included descriptive information on shelter service delivery. Specifically, questions were asked about the practice of assessing a client's risk of HIV/AIDS, the provision of HIV/AIDS educational and…

Rountree, Michele A.; Pomeroy, Elizabeth C.; Marsiglia, Flavio F.

2008-01-01

85

Animal shelters: managing heartworms in resource-scarce environments.  

PubMed

Animal shelters must frequently make difficult decisions regarding the allocation of limited resources to appropriately care for the millions of dogs and cats that enter their doors annually. Insufficient staffing, expertise, and guidance on heartworm management in animal shelters creates significant confusion on how these facilities should appropriately address heartworm infection in dogs and cats. The American Heartworm Society (AHS) issues comprehensive guidelines for the diagnosis, prevention, and management of heartworm infection in pets, but shelters are often unable to fully comply with these guidelines due to resource constraints. In response, shelter staff is forced to either ignore the disease or implement compromised management practices. Such compromises lead to suboptimal treatment of infected animals, adoption of infected animals to the public, and subsequent backlash from community veterinarians, as well as increased risk of disease transmission throughout the shelter and community. Unfortunately, when shelters lack the resources to address heartworm infection appropriately, this treatable condition may serve as grounds for automatic euthanasia in infected yet adoptable animals. The AHS guidelines must be tailored to the needs of sheltering agencies or additional resources created to appropriately address the dilemmas faced by shelter professionals when managing heartworm disease. PMID:24731382

Polak, Katherine C; Smith-Blackmore, Martha

2014-11-15

86

The Impact of Homelessness and Shelter Life on Family Relationships.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores mothers' perceptions of how homelessness and shelter life affect their family relationships. Participants report increased closeness and interaction with their children, but disruption in disciplinary and provider/caretaker roles. Shelter conditions, mother's emotional state, child's emotional state, temperament, and behavior affect…

Lindsey, Elizabeth W.

1998-01-01

87

Implementing an Art Program for Children in a Homeless Shelter  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes a qualitative research study designed to analyze the implementation of an art program for children in a homeless shelter. Using a socio-cultural lens and the framework of resilience theory, teacher researchers implemented community-art programs for children residing in a family emergency shelter. Data collection included…

Heise, Donalyn; MacGillivray, Laurie

2011-01-01

88

Finite element modeling and analysis of a cardboard shelter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Constructing shelters from corrugated cardboard panels represents an innovative approach in the construction industry. The cardboard shelters can be used for permanent living or as temporary houses in post natural disaster events. Due to their light weight and also due to the ease of packing, cardboard sheets can be easily shipped to remote areas. This study includes a comprehensive stress

A. A El Damatty; A Mikhail; A. A Awad

2000-01-01

89

Networking as a tool for Earth science women to build community and succeed  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Skills for Networking and Communication Workshop;Madison, Wisconsin, 4-6 June 2012 Women are often underrepresented in academic positions in Earth sciences (M. A. Holmes and S. O'Connell, Where are the women geoscience professors?, 2004, http://www.eas.unl.edu/˜mholmes/images/Where%20are%20the%20Women%20Geoscientists.pdf), with numbers below the critical mass to induce change and improve conditions. This can lead to lower productivity and a lower success rate for female scientists. However, women can overcome these problems by expanding their networks. (For background and supporting information, see the online supplement to this meeting report (http://www.agu.org/journals/eo/v093/i041/2012EO410011/2012EO410011_suppl.pdf).)

Glessmer, Mirjam S.; Wang, Yiming V.; Kontak, Rose

2012-10-01

90

The nature of Earth's building materials as revealed by calcium isotopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Isotopic ratios have traditionally been used as tracers of the genetic link between meteorites and the Earth. Of the major primitive meteorite groups, enstatite chondrites (EC) are the most similar to Earth with regard to the isotopic composition of most elements (e.g. Javoy et al., 2010). In contrast to many isotope systems, calcium (Ca) exhibits significant mass-dependent variation between Earth and EC, though the magnitude of the difference is debated. Simon and DePaolo (2010) find a 0.4‰ difference between EC and Earth while Huang and Jacobsen (2012) find EC and Earth to be identical within error bars. Here we have developed a new method to resolve the difference in Ca isotopic composition at the 0.1 permil level. The method has been applied to a range of terrestrial and meteoritic samples, including seven EC, 12 carbonaceous chondrites (CC) representing most subgroups (CI, CV, CO, CM, CB, CR), six ordinary chondrites (OC), five lunar basalts, and six terrestrial rock standards. In addition, we measured 13 ocean island basalt (OIB) samples from a series of compositional ranges (EM1, EM2, HIMU) to better estimate the Ca isotopic composition of the mantle. Calcium was purified by a combination of Eichrom DGA and Sr-Spec resins and the isotope ratios 42Ca/44Ca and 43Ca/44Ca were measured by standard bracketing normalized to NIST SRM 915b in medium or high resolution on a Thermo-Fisher Neptune Plus MC-ICP-MS at Washington University in St. Louis. All data reported below follow a mass-dependent fractionation law with ?42/44Ca ? 2 × ?43/44Ca. As is convention in Ca isotope studies performed on TIMS, we present the data as ?44/40Ca (calculated as -2 × ?42/44Ca) and renormalize to SRM 915a. We find the ?44/40Ca value of NIST SRM 915b relative to SRM 915a to be 0.69 × 0.01 (2se), which is in excellent agreement with previously reported values. Our results show that geostandards are in good agreement with previous data (e.g. ?44CaBHVO-1 = 0.88 × 0.02‰, 2se). OIBs show variation from 0.8 to 1.1‰ with an average of 0.89 × 0.11‰ (2sd), which is in line with the findings of Huang et al. (2011). This suggests that the mantle is homogenous at the 0.1 permil level with regard to Ca isotopes. Lunar samples are indistinguishable from terrestrial basalt. As observed by both Simon and DePaolo (2010) and Huang and Jacobsen (2012), we find CC to be isotopically light compared to Earth; however, we find a 0.2‰ range and distinct signatures among the different groups. OC are heavier than CC with an average which overlaps with terrestrial samples of 0.90 × 0.09‰ (2sd). Finally, we find that EC are heavier than both OC and CC and display a range from terrestrial up to 1.5‰. One of the main carriers of Ca in EC is Oldhamite (CaS). Hence, we performed a set of leachate experiments which show that CaS is isotopically lighter than the bulk sample. Since CaS is soluble in water and Ca very easily mobile with aqueous fluid, a possible origin for the range observed within EC observed in our study and for the divergent results obtained by Simon and DePaolo and Huang and Jacobsen may be attributed to variation in the amount of CaS in the samples, due to either heterogeneous distribution of CaS or sample alteration. [Huang and Jacobsen (2012), 43rd LPSC #1334; Huang et al. (2011), GCA, 75, 4987-4997; Javoy et al. (2010), EPSL, 293, 259-268; Simon and DePaolo (2010), EPSL, 289, 457-466.

Valdes, M. C.; Moreira, M. A.; Boyet, M.; Foriel, J.; Moynier, F.

2013-12-01

91

Acoustics of fish shelters: frequency response and gain properties.  

PubMed

Many teleosts emit sounds from cavities beneath stones and other types of submerged objects, yet the acoustical properties of fish shelters are virtually unexplored. This study examines the gain properties of shelters commonly used by Mediterranean gobies as hiding places and/or nest sites in the field (flat stones, shells belonging to five bivalve species), or within aquarium tanks (tunnel-shaped plastic covers, concrete blocks, concrete cylinder pipe, halves of terracotta flower pots). All shelters were acoustically stimulated using a small underwater buzzer, placed inside or around the shelter to mimic a fish calling from the nest site, and different types of driving stimuli (white noise, pure tones, and artificial pulse trains). Results showed the presence of significant amplitude gain (3-18 dB) at frequencies in the range 100-150 Hz in all types of natural shelters but one (Mytilus), terracotta flower pots, and concrete blocks. Gain was higher for stones and artificial shelters than for shells. Gain peak amplitude increased with the weight of stones and shells. Conclusions were verified by performing analogous acoustical tests on flat stones in the stream. Results draw attention to the use of suitable shelters for proper recording of sounds produced by fishes kept within laboratory aquaria. PMID:23145631

Lugli, Marco

2012-11-01

92

Digital Earth - A sustainable Earth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

All life, particularly human, cannot be sustainable, unless complimented with shelter, poverty reduction, provision of basic infrastructure and services, equal opportunities and social justice. Yet, in the context of cities, it is believed that they can accommodate more and more people, endlessly, regardless to their carrying capacity and increasing ecological footprint. The 'inclusion', for bringing more and more people in the purview of development is often limited to social and economic inclusion rather than spatial and ecological inclusion. Economic investment decisions are also not always supported with spatial planning decisions. Most planning for a sustainable Earth, be at a level of rural settlement, city, region, national or Global, fail on the capacity and capability fronts. In India, for example, out of some 8,000 towns and cities, Master Plans exist for only about 1,800. A chapter on sustainability or environment is neither statutorily compulsory nor a norm for these Master Plans. Geospatial technologies including Remote Sensing, GIS, Indian National Spatial Data Infrastructure (NSDI), Indian National Urban Information Systems (NUIS), Indian Environmental Information System (ENVIS), and Indian National GIS (NGIS), etc. have potential to map, analyse, visualize and take sustainable developmental decisions based on participatory social, economic and social inclusion. Sustainable Earth, at all scales, is a logical and natural outcome of a digitally mapped, conceived and planned Earth. Digital Earth, in fact, itself offers a platform to dovetail the ecological, social and economic considerations in transforming it into a sustainable Earth.

Mahavir

2014-02-01

93

Safety planning with children and adolescents in domestic violence shelters.  

PubMed

This exploratory mixed methods survey yielded a comprehensive picture of safety planning practices with children and adolescents in Texas emergency domestic violence shelters. Shelter personnel described safety planning goals, methods, timing, and contents and views of best practices, barriers, and risks. The study's approach was guided by Proctor's (2005) recommendations for developing the research base for an understudied intervention. Results indicate that the practice is widespread. Shelters consider developmental differences and use multiple methods and timing strategies. Views on goals and risks varied. Findings are contextualized with information on overall child/youth services. This article discusses implications for shelter practices and future research, such as outcome studies and the feasibility of children/youth implementing commonly recommended safety strategies. PMID:23393948

Chanmugam, Amy; Hall, Kimberly

2012-01-01

94

69. Smart view recreation area picnic shelter is a postandbeam ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

69. Smart view recreation area picnic shelter is a post-and-beam structure. Facing south-southwest. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

95

24 CFR 576.102 - Emergency shelter component.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...essential services to homeless families and individuals...emergency shelter for homeless families and individuals...consumer education, health education...stalking, appeal of veterans and public benefit... (viii) Mental health services. (A...provide services for homeless youth,...

2013-04-01

96

24 CFR 576.102 - Emergency shelter component.  

...essential services to homeless families and individuals...emergency shelter for homeless families and individuals...consumer education, health education...stalking, appeal of veterans and public benefit... (viii) Mental health services. (A...provide services for homeless youth,...

2014-04-01

97

24 CFR 576.102 - Emergency shelter component.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...essential services to homeless families and individuals...emergency shelter for homeless families and individuals...consumer education, health education...stalking, appeal of veterans and public benefit... (viii) Mental health services. (A...provide services for homeless youth,...

2012-04-01

98

6. Contextual view of EPA Farm showing cattle shelter, facing ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. Contextual view of EPA Farm showing cattle shelter, facing southeast. - Nevada Test Site, Environmental Protection Agency Farm, Area 15, Yucca Flat, 10-2 Road near Circle Road, Mercury, Nye County, NV

99

9 CFR 3.77 - Sheltered housing facilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...facilities for nonhuman primates must provide adequate shelter from the elements at all times. They must provide protection from the sun, rain, snow, wind, and cold, and from any weather conditions that may occur. (e) Capacity: multiple...

2013-01-01

100

9 CFR 3.3 - Sheltered housing facilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Care, Treatment, and Transportation of Dogs and Cats 1 Facilities and Operating Standards...part of sheltered housing facilities for dogs and cats must be sufficiently heated and cooled when necessary to protect the dogs and cats from temperature or...

2011-01-01

101

9 CFR 3.3 - Sheltered housing facilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Care, Treatment, and Transportation of Dogs and Cats 1 Facilities and Operating Standards...part of sheltered housing facilities for dogs and cats must be sufficiently heated and cooled when necessary to protect the dogs and cats from temperature or...

2010-01-01

102

14. INSIDE VIEW OF BOMB SHELTER WITH AIR COMPRESSOR Everett ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

14. INSIDE VIEW OF BOMB SHELTER WITH AIR COMPRESSOR Everett Weinreb, photographer, April 1988 - Mount Gleason Nike Missile Site, Angeles National Forest, South of Soledad Canyon, Sylmar, Los Angeles County, CA

103

FEATURE I, TYPE 4 STRUCTURE, UNDERGROUND SHELTER, VIEW FACING WEST ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

FEATURE I, TYPE 4 STRUCTURE, UNDERGROUND SHELTER, VIEW FACING WEST (with scale sticks). - Naval Air Station Barbers Point, Shore Pillbox Complex-Type 4 Structure, Along shoreline, seaward of Coral Sea Road, Ewa, Honolulu County, HI

104

FEATURE I, TYPE 4 STRUCTURE, UNDERGROUND SHELTER, VIEW FACING WEST. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

FEATURE I, TYPE 4 STRUCTURE, UNDERGROUND SHELTER, VIEW FACING WEST. - Naval Air Station Barbers Point, Shore Pillbox Complex-Type 4 Structure, Along shoreline, seaward of Coral Sea Road, Ewa, Honolulu County, HI

105

Uniformity of Leaf Shelter Construction by Larvae of Epargyreus clarus (Hesperiidae), the Silver-Spotted Skipper  

Microsoft Academic Search

Larvae of the silver-spotted skipper, Epargyreus clarus (Hesperiidae), construct shelters from leaves of their leguminous host plants, making four distinct shelter types that change predictably over larval ontogeny. Shelters built by first-instar larvae are located on the apical half of the leaflet and are almost invariant in size, shape, and orientation, suggesting a stereotypical process of shelter location and construction.

Martha R. Weiss; Eric M. Lind; Meg T. Jones; Jeremy D. Long; Jennifer L. Maupin

2003-01-01

106

Multi-culture solar heated bio-shelter. Final report  

SciTech Connect

A rooftop greenhouse (bio-shelter) that is heated with active and passive solar systems is presented. The intent of the greenhouse is to grow vegetables hydroponically the year-round using a nutrient flow technique; and to growth the giant tropical Malaysian prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii in a recycling raceway water system heated with solar power. The produce grown was continuously monitored and the harvests weighed in order to estimate the year-round production potential of the bio-shelter greenhouse.

Not Available

1985-01-01

107

Blast response of a hardened Army ISO shelter  

SciTech Connect

A prototype shelter was designed to withstand a blast loading corresponding to a 10.0 psi (68.9 kPa) incident overpressure. The hardened shelter was then constructed, instrumented and subjected to a simulated nuclear blast loading. Test results demonstrated that a design featuring shear stiffened sandwich panels with aluminum face materials could withstand a nominal 10.0 psi incident shock loading.

Milligan, R.W.; Lush, A.; Crenshaw, W.L.

1982-09-01

108

Self-made shelters protect spiders from predation  

PubMed Central

Many animals modify their environments, apparently to reduce predation risk, but the success of such endeavors, and their impact on the density and distribution of populations, are rarely rigorously demonstrated. We staged a manipulative experiment to assess the effectiveness of self-made shelters by web spiders as protection from natural enemies. Scincid lizards were included or excluded from 21 replicated 200-m2 plots, and spiders therein were classified as exposed or sheltered, depending on whether they were uncovered in their web or hidden in cocoons, leaves/debris, or burrows. We found that exposed spiders were greatly affected by the presence of predatory scincid lizards, whereas sheltered spiders were not. More specifically, lizards, which forage close to the ground, reduced the abundance of exposed spiders by two-thirds but had no effect on the abundance of sheltered spiders. Sheltered spiders were able to avoid predation and share space with lizards, suggesting that shelter construction is a mechanism for reducing predation risk and has important population consequences. PMID:18772383

Manicom, Carryn; Schwarzkopf, Lin; Alford, Ross A.; Schoener, Thomas W.

2008-01-01

109

Student Lead Nanosatellite Design/Build Projects: making a cost effective approach to Earth and Space Observational Science even more cost efficient  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the advancement of technologies and the miniaturization of sensors and electrical/computational components satellites are also undergoing miniaturization. With lower manufacturing cost and a decreased design/build cycle (~2 years from start to launch), compared to conventional large scale satellites, nanosatellites have become a cost effective alternative for satellite Earth and Space Observations. The University of Alberta student nanosatellite (10x10x30cm; <4kg) design/build team, AlbertaSat-1, is a participant in the Canadian Satellite Design Challenge (CSDC) implemented by the CSA and Geocentrix Ltd. in addition to 15 other Universities from across Canada. AlbertaSat-1 will be launched in early 2013, after a 2 year design/build process and environmental testing. AlbertaSat-1 will be an Earth Observation satellite monitoring GHG (CO2, H2O & CH4) concentrations over many regions of the earth with the use of a NIR spectrometer. Here we present the planning, design and future manufacturing of AlbertaSat-1 with a focus on budget and cost effective solutions. Since this is a student project, AlbertaSat-1 will incur certain benefits making them exempt from certain financial requirements and obtaining services and equipment at very low or no cost. The largest cost benefit of AlbertaSat-1 is the virtual elimination of labor costs by having a team consisting of only unpaid students. Labor costs of typical satellite missions can be a very costly component. The educational components of such projects offer more indirect benefits to effective development of this industry/discipline, nevertheless just as important, by developing skills and knowledge that can only be learned through realistic hands on design/build projects. Student lead projects and student design/build initiatives such as CSDC (among many others in the U.S. and Europe lead by NASA and ESA, respectively) will have a major impact on shaping the future of Space and Earth Observational Sciences. We will present the future implications of such student projects and initiatives for the development of research and engineering in Space and Earth Observational Sciences.

Bottoms, J.; Lange, B. A.; AlbertaSat

2011-12-01

110

Gimme Shelter!: Doghouse Project Hones Construction Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In Rover's House project, students practice planning, measurement, layout, and processing skills in building a doghouse. The project is more than a doghouse--it is a learning activity that helps students develop and enhance their ability to work with reinforced concrete, steel and wood studs, trusses, roofing materials and a variety of…

Shackelford, Ray; Griffis, Kurt

2007-01-01

111

Interprofessional program to provide emergency sheltering to abused elders.  

PubMed

Abuse of senior citizens should be paradoxical in a civilized society; however, the U.S. Government Accountability Office reports that 14.1% of noninstitutionalized older adults experienced some type of abuse within the previous year. This is suspected to be an underestimation of the number of abuses reported. In a society where the older population is predicted to increase significantly, it is likely that the number of cases for abused elders will increase proportionately. Through the success of advocacy groups to raise awareness of child and domestic partner abuse, funding has been channeled to shelter these abuse victims. The same cannot be said for elders who are abused. Providing shelter in a safe, secure, medically appropriate environment, free from violence, for an older adult is essential. This article describes a community's collaborative health planning process to respond to elder abuse and develop a program to shelter elders experiencing abuse or suspected abuse. PMID:23636048

Heck, Lauri; Gillespie, Gordon L

2013-01-01

112

15. Photograph of Architectural Building Plans. Naval Air Station ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

15. Photograph of Architectural Building Plans. - Naval Air Station Fallon, 100-man Fallout Shelter, 800 Complex, off Carson Road near intersection of Pasture & Berney Roads, Fallon, Churchill County, NV

113

"Rap Groups" as Field Research Method in a Sheltered Workshop.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Informal discussion groups, "rap groups", have been found to be an effective method for establishing rapport and understanding with mentally retarded adults in sheltered workshop settings. To investigate the use of rap groups as a field research approach with mentally retarded adults, four groups of 6 to 9 mentally retarded adults, divided by…

Hoshmand, Lisa

114

Site Selection Criteria for Sheltering after Earthquakes: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Objective: Proper shelter site selection is necessary for long-term welfare of earthquake affected people. This study aims to explore the criteria that need to be considered after earthquakes. Methods: Through a systematic review, 273 articles found that were published till April 2014. Among these, seven articles have been selected and analyzed for the criteria that they introduced for sheltering site selection after earthquakes. Results: Out of 27 proposed criteria, accessibility and proximity to homes of affected people were stressed in all the papers. Moreover, seven other criteria were the same in most of the papers including suitable size, suitable distance from hazardous areas, geological hazards and land slope, suitable distance from medical centers, water supply and Security. We categorized all the mentioned criteria in six main categories. Size and location, disaster risk reduction, relief and rescue facilities, feasibility of the site, environmental and social aspects are the main categories. Conclusion: Selection and applying proper criteria for shelter site selection after earthquakes is a multi-disciplinary task. The decision needs relevant models and/or tools. Geographic Information System (GIS) is a useful tool for this purpose. Key words: Disaster, earthquake, shelter, site selection, systematic review PMID:25642367

Soltani, Ahmad; Ardalan, Ali; Darvishi Boloorani, Ali; Haghdoost, AliAkbar; Hosseinzadeh-Attar, Mohammad Javad

2014-01-01

115

Lunar surface operations. Volume 1: Lunar surface emergency shelter  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lunar surface emergency shelter (LSES) is designed to provide survival-level accommodations for up to four astronauts for a maximum of five days. It would be used by astronauts who were caught out in the open during a large solar event. The habitable section consists of an aluminum pressure shell with an inner diameter of 6 ft. and a length

William Shields; Salah Feteih; Patrick Hollis

1993-01-01

116

Developing Academic Language in English Language Learners through Sheltered Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes a study examining the effects of Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol (SIOP) model instruction on the academic language performance of middle and high school English language learners. The SIOP model is an approach for teaching content curriculum to students learning through a new language. Teachers employ techniques…

Short, Deborah J.; Fidelman, Carolyn G.; Louguit, Mohammed

2012-01-01

117

Assessing the Physical and Architectural Features of Sheltered Care Settings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Physical and Architectural Features Checklist (PAF) measures physical resources of sheltered care settings in terms of nine derived dimensions. Data show that facilities which have more physical resources are seen as attractive by outside observers and pleasant by residents. Cost is not related to any PAF dimension. (Author)

Moos, Rudolf H.; Lemke, Sonne

1980-01-01

118

66. VIEW OF DELUGE CHANNEL; NORTH FACE OF THEODOLITE SHELTER ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

66. VIEW OF DELUGE CHANNEL; NORTH FACE OF THEODOLITE SHELTER (BLDG. 788); TELEVISION CAMERA TOWER; CAMERA TOWER FROM SOUTH END OF LAUNCH DECK - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

119

Spatial representation of shelter locations in meerkats, Suricata suricatta  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used observations and manipulation experiments to investigate how meerkats, social mongooses living under high predation pressure, find shelter from predators quickly within their territory. We played back alarm calls to foraging meerkats and dug new boltholes and covered existing ones to see whether location or other cues were used. Meerkats almost always ran to the bolthole closest to them.

Marta B. Manser; Matthew B. Bell

2004-01-01

120

Libraries, Churches, and Schools: The Literate Lives of Mothers and Children in a Homeless Shelter  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article addresses the question, "How do mothers and children in a homeless shelter interact with literacy?" We drew on the theoretical framework of social literacy practices in which cultural context is foregrounded. Data for this qualitative study included participant observation in one homeless shelter and interviews with one shelter's…

MacGillivray, Laurie; Ardell, Amy Lassiter; Curwen, Margaret Sauceda

2010-01-01

121

Aphid-tending Ants Affect Secondary Users in Leaf Shelters and Rates of Herbivory on  

E-print Network

Aphid-tending Ants Affect Secondary Users in Leaf Shelters and Rates of Herbivory on Salix. We studied the effects of a keystone species, the aphid-tending ant (Formica obscuripes California. Leaf shelters on branches with aphid-tending ants had 54% more individuals than shelters

Sanders, Nathan J.

122

The Influence of Shelter Temperature on Gain Stability of LWA1  

E-print Network

of the analog signal processor (ASP). Visual comparison of the shelter temperature sensor and the observed power of temperature sensors at different locations in the shelter. The shelter temperature sensor is located as the surface temperature sensor of one of the ASP power supplies show a clear anti

Ellingson, Steven W.

123

A pollinators' eye view of a shelter mimicry system  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims ‘Human-red’ flowers are traditionally considered to be rather unpopular with bees, yet some allogamous species in the section Oncocyclus (genus Iris, Iridaceae) have evolved specialized interactions with their pollinators, a narrow taxonomic range of male solitary bees. The dark-red, tubular flowers of these irises are nectarless but provide protective shelters (i.e. a non-nutritive form of reward) primarily to male solitary bees (Apidae, Eucerini) that pollinate the flowers while looking for a shelter. An earlier study on orchids suggested that species pollinated predominantly by male solitary bees produce significantly larger amounts and larger numbers of different n-alkenes (unsaturated cuticular hydrocarbons). Whether or not this also applies to the Oncocyclus irises and whether pollinators are attracted by specific colours or scents of these flowers is unknown. Methods Using Iris atropurpurea, recording of pollinator preferences for shelters with different spatial parameters was combined with analyses of floral colours (by spectrophotometry) and scents (by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry) to test the hypotheses that (a) pollinators significantly prefer floral tunnels facing the rising sun (floral heat-reward hypothesis), and that (b) flowers pollinated predominantly by male solitary bees produce significantly larger amounts and larger numbers of unsaturated cuticular hydrocarbons (n-alkenes) in their floral scent (preadaptation to sexual-deception hypothesis). Key Results Male bees do not significantly prefer shelters facing the rising sun or with the presence of high absolute/relative amounts and numbers of n-alkenes in the floral scent. Conclusions The results suggest that the flowers of I. atropurpurea probably evolved by pollinator-mediated selection acting primarily on floral colours to mimic large achromatic (‘bee-black’) protective shelters used preferentially by male solitary bees, and that pollinator visits are presumably not the result of an odour-based sexual stimulation or motivated by an increased morning floral heat reward in tunnels facing the rising sun. PMID:23599249

Vereecken, Nicolas J.; Dorchin, Achik; Dafni, Amots; Hötling, Susann; Schulz, Stefan; Watts, Stella

2013-01-01

124

The Effects of Hands-On Learning Stations on Building American Elementary Teachers' Understanding about Earth and Space Science Concepts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research on conceptual change indicates that not only children, but also teachers have incomplete understanding or misconceptions on science concepts. This mixed methods study was concerned with in-service teachers' understanding of four earth and space science concepts taught in elementary school: reason for seasons, phases of the moon, rock…

Bulunuz, Nermin; Jarrett, Olga S.

2010-01-01

125

From Suns to Life: A Chronological Approach to the History of Life on Earth 4. Building of a Habitable Planet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Except the old Jack Hills zircon crystals, it does not exit direct record of the first 500 Ma of the Earth history. Consequently, the succession of events that took place during this period is only indirectly known through geochemistry, comparison with other telluric planets, and numerical modelling. Just after planetary accretion several episodes were necessary in order to make life apparition and development possible and to make the Earth surface habitable. Among these stages are: the core differentiation, the formation of a magma ocean, the apparition of the first atmosphere, oceans and continents as well as the development of magnetic field and of plate tectonics. In the same time, Earth has been subject to extraterrestrial events such as the Late Heavy Bombardment (LHB) between 3.95 and 3.8 Ga. Since 4.4 4.3 Ga, the conditions for pre-biotic chemistry and appearance of life were already met (liquid water, continental crust, no strong meteoritic bombardment, etc...). This does not mean that life existed as early, but this demonstrates that all necessary conditions assumed for life development were already present on Earth.

Martin, Hervé; Albarède, Francis; Claeys, Philippe; Gargaud, Muriel; Marty, Bernard; Morbidelli, Alessandro; Pinti, Daniele L.

2006-06-01

126

Earth Structures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web guide explores several natural phenomena that are constantly changing the face of the Earth. These geologic forces not only impact the physical features of our planet but ultimately affect the biosphere in a dramatic way. Historically, the changes have ranged from gradual (such as with the process of mountain building) to the spontaneous (such as with seismic events).

National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

2005-04-01

127

Faecal virome of cats in an animal shelter.  

PubMed

We describe the metagenomics-derived feline enteric virome in the faeces of 25 cats from a single shelter in California. More than 90?% of the recognizable viral reads were related to mammalian viruses and the rest to bacterial viruses. Eight viral families were detected: Astroviridae, Coronaviridae, Parvoviridae, Circoviridae, Herpesviridae, Anelloviridae, Caliciviridae and Picobirnaviridae. Six previously known viruses were also identified: feline coronavirus type 1, felid herpes 1, feline calicivirus, feline norovirus, feline panleukopenia virus and picobirnavirus. Novel species of astroviruses and bocaviruses, and the first genome of a cyclovirus in a feline were characterized. The RNA-dependent RNA polymerase region from four highly divergent partial viral genomes in the order Picornavirales were sequenced. The detection of such a diverse collection of viruses shed within a single shelter suggested that such animals experience robust viral exposures. This study increases our understanding of the viral diversity in cats, facilitating future evaluation of their pathogenic and zoonotic potentials. PMID:25078300

Zhang, Wen; Li, Linlin; Deng, Xutao; Kapusinszky, Beatrix; Pesavento, Patricia A; Delwart, Eric

2014-11-01

128

Service-learning and art therapy in a homeless shelter  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes a brief service-learning assignment in which graduate art therapy students at an urban university in the United States worked with children residing in a homeless shelter. The term service-learning refers to the integration of community service into a college course to help students achieve specific learning objectives. In this case, service-learning was intended to supplement an art

Holly Feen-Calligan

2008-01-01

129

Sheltering and Evacuating from Hurricanes Katrina and Rita  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Corpus Christi, a city of 285,000, received several thousand refugees from Hurricane Katrina. City personnel and volunteers\\u000a converted the Coliseum for the evacuees, some of whom were sheltered in neighboring communities. Food provided by volunteer\\u000a restaurants, medical services, Internet access to other communities, and travel assistance to reunite families were provided.\\u000a An emergency operations center and a mobile command post

Henry Garrett

130

TAX-SHELTERED INVESTMENT PROGRAM Capital Area Health Consortium (CAHC) has a Tax-Sheltered Investment Plan (403b) available for its  

E-print Network

Page 94 TAX-SHELTERED INVESTMENT PROGRAM Capital Area Health Consortium (CAHC) has a Tax-Sheltered Investment Plan (403b) available for its employees. Money may be deducted from each paycheck on a pre-tax basis (403B) or a post-tax basis (Roth). The pre-tax option reduces the amount of income that is taxed

Oliver, Douglas L.

131

SHELTER-IN-PLACE DRILL DURING THE SHELTER-IN-PLACE DRILL BETWEEN 2:30pm AND 2:45pm, READ & DISCUSS THIS DOCU-  

E-print Network

hit the campus. Tornadoes are a possibility, along with strong winds and large hail. Heavy rainfall and lightning is expected soon. Where should you seek shelter? Tornadoes cause the least amount of damage are not a good choice when tornadoes are present. If tornadoes are not an issue, seek shelter inside any sturdy

Sorin, Eric J.

132

The need and potential for building a integrated knowledge-base of the Earth-Human system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The pursuit of scientific understanding is increasingly based on interdisciplinary research. To understand more deeply the planet and its interactions requires a progressively more holistic approach, exploring knowledge coming from all scientific and engineering disciplines including but not limited to, biology, chemistry, computer sciences, geosciences, material sciences, mathematics, physics, cyberinfrastucture, and social sciences. Nowhere is such an approach more critical than in the study of global climate change in which one of the major challenges is the development of next-generation Earth System Models that include coupled and interactive representations of ecosystems, agricultural working lands and forests, urban environments, biogeochemistry, atmospheric chemistry, ocean and atmospheric currents, the water cycle, land ice, and human activities.

Jacobs, Clifford

2011-03-01

133

Predatory wasps learn to overcome the shelter defences of their larval prey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Larvae of Epargyreus clarus (Hesperiidae), the silver-spotted skipper, inhabit leaf-and-silk shelters that they construct on their leguminous host plants. In the field, Polistes spp. (Vespidae) wasps land on the shelters, quickly extracting and killing the larvae within. In marked contrast, wasps that emerge from field-collected colonies maintained in the laboratory visit and examine leaflets bearing sheltered caterpillars, but only rarely

Martha R. Weiss; Erin E. Wilson; Ignacio Castellanos

2004-01-01

134

Earth Rocks!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of this lesson is to introduce students to the basic elements of our Earth's crust: rocks, soils and minerals. They learn how we categorize rocks, soils and minerals and how they are literally the foundation for our civilization. Students also explore how engineers use rocks, soils and minerals to create the buildings, roads, vehicles, electronics, chemicals, and other objects we use to enhance our lives.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

135

Building a global federation system for climate change research: the earth system grid center for enabling technologies (ESG-CET)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recent release of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) 4th Assessment Report (AR4) has generated significant media attention. Much has been said about the US role in this report, which included significant support from the Department of Energy through the Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing (SciDAC) and other Department of Energy (DOE) programs for climate model development and the production execution of simulations. The SciDAC-supported Earth System Grid Center for Enabling Technologies (ESG-CET) also played a major role in the IPCC AR4: all of the simulation data that went into the report was made available to climate scientists worldwide exclusively via the ESG-CET At the same time as the IPCC AR4 database was being developed, the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), a leading US climate science laboratory and a ESG participant, began publishing model runs from the Community Climate System Model (CCSM), and its predecessor the Parallel Coupled Model (PCM) through ESG In aggregate, ESG-CET provides seamless access to over 180 terabytes of distributed climate simulation data to over 6,000 registered users worldwide, who have taken delivery of more than 250 terabytes from the archive. Not only does this represent a substantial advance in scientific knowledge, it is also a major step forward in how we conduct the research process on a global scale. Moving forward, the next IPCC assessment report, AR5, will demand multi-site metadata federation for data discovery and cross-domain identity management for single sign-on of users in a more diverse federation enterprise environment. Towards this aim, ESG is leading the effort in the climate community towards standardization of material for the global federation of metadata, security, and data services required to standardize, analyze, and access data worldwide.

Ananthakrishnan, R.; Bernholdt, D. E.; Bharathi, S.; Brown, D.; Chen, M.; Chervenak, A. L.; Cinquini, L.; Drach, R.; Foster, I. T.; Fox, P.; Fraser, D.; Halliday, K.; Hankin, S.; Jones, P.; Kesselman, C.; Middleton, D. E.; Schwidder, J.; Schweitzer, R.; Schuler, R.; Shoshani, A.; Siebenlist, F.; Sim, A.; Strand, W. G.; Wilhelmi, N.; Su, M.; Williams, D. N.

2007-07-01

136

The Griggs Dynamic Convection Model: a Resource for Learning About Mountain-Building Processes in the Earth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using a physical analog model in the classroom/laboratory setting is just one of the many ways teachers can provide a resource for learning through inquiry; however, well developed physical analog models of natural processes that can be measured and manipulated scientifically by students can be challenging for teachers to obtain. This research analyzes a historical physical analog model--the David Griggs (1939) Dynamic Convection Model, which was used 'to study the effect of sub-crustal convection currents on the continental crust.'--to determine if the model is capable of supporting model-based inquiry-oriented classroom activities. An analogical structure-mapping method developed for assessing the affordances of scale models (Kastens and Rivet, 2010) is used to show that the model has highly transparent surface and structural features, which correspond to Griggs' theory of mountain-building at the levels of attributes, simple relations, higher order relations and systematicity. A variety of experimental parameters for the model (i.e., using different materials, and varying the speeds of the convection cells) are described to give teachers support for developing inquiry-oriented classroom activities. Furthermore, the Griggs dynamic convection model, along with a replica for people to try, will be at the poster session.

Glesener, G.

2013-12-01

137

Predicting emergency evacuation and sheltering behavior: a structured analytical approach.  

PubMed

We offer a general approach to predicting public compliance with emergency recommendations. It begins with a formal risk assessment of an anticipated emergency, whose parameters include factors potentially affecting and affected by behavior, as identified by social science research. Standard procedures are used to elicit scientific experts' judgments regarding these behaviors and dependencies, in the context of an emergency scenario. Their judgments are used to refine the model and scenario, enabling local emergency coordinators to predict the behavior of citizens in their area. The approach is illustrated with a case study involving a radiological dispersion device (RDD) exploded in downtown Pittsburgh, PA. Both groups of experts (national and local) predicted approximately 80-90% compliance with an order to evacuate workplaces and 60-70% compliance with an order to shelter in place at home. They predicted 10% lower compliance for people asked to shelter at the office or to evacuate their homes. They predicted 10% lower compliance should the media be skeptical, rather than supportive. They also identified preparatory policies that could improve public compliance by 20-30%. We consider the implications of these results for improving emergency risk assessment models and for anticipating and improving preparedness for disasters, using Hurricane Katrina as a further case in point. PMID:17184405

Dombroski, Matt; Fischhoff, Baruch; Fischbeck, Paul

2006-12-01

138

Diagnostic, treatment, and prevention protocols for canine heartworm infection in animal sheltering agencies.  

PubMed

The high prevalence of heartworm infection in shelter dogs creates a dilemma for shelter managers, who frequently operate with insufficient funding, staffing, and expertise to comply with heartworm guidelines developed for owned pet dogs. The purpose of this study was to survey canine heartworm management protocols used by 504 animal sheltering agencies in the endemic states of Alabama, Florida, Georgia, and Mississippi. Open-admission shelters, which tended to be larger and more likely to perform animal control functions, were less likely (41%) to test all adult dogs than were limited-admission shelters (80%), which tended to be smaller non-profit humane agencies, and foster programs (98%) based out of private residences. Open-admission shelters were more likely to euthanize infected dogs (27%) or to release them without treatment (39%), whereas limited-admission shelters and foster programs were more likely to provide adulticide therapy (82% and 89%, respectively). Of the 319 agencies that treated infections, 44% primarily used a standard two-dose melarsomine protocol, and 35% primarily used a three-dose split-treatment melarsomine protocol. Long-term low-dose ivermectin was the most common treatment used in 22% of agencies. Open-admission shelters were less likely (35%) to provide preventive medications for all dogs than were limited-admission shelters (82%) and foster programs (97%). More agencies used preventives labeled for monthly use in dogs (60%) than ivermectin products labeled for livestock (38%). The most common reason diagnostic testing and preventive medication was not provided was cost. These results indicate a lack of protocol uniformity among agencies and insufficient resources to identify, treat, and prevent infection. Sheltering agencies and companion animal health industries should develop guidelines that are feasible for use in sheltering agencies and provide improved access to preventive and treatment strategies for management of Dirofilaria immitis. PMID:21353743

Colby, Kathleen N; Levy, Julie K; Dunn, Kiri F; Michaud, Rachel I

2011-03-22

139

The significance of ultra-refracted surface gravity waves on sheltered coasts, with application to San Francisco Bay  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Ocean surface gravity waves propagating over shallow bathymetry undergo spatial modification of propagation direction and energy density, commonly due to refraction and shoaling. If the bathymetric variations are significant the waves can undergo changes in their direction of propagation (relative to deepwater) greater than 90° over relatively short spatial scales. We refer to this phenomenon as ultra-refraction. Ultra-refracted swell waves can have a powerful influence on coastal areas that otherwise appear to be sheltered from ocean waves. Through a numerical modeling investigation it is shown that San Francisco Bay, one of the earth's largest and most protected natural harbors, is vulnerable to ultra-refracted ocean waves, particularly southwest incident swell. The flux of wave energy into San Francisco Bay results from wave transformation due to the bathymetry and orientation of the large ebb tidal delta, and deep, narrow channel through the Golden Gate. For example, ultra-refracted swell waves play a critical role in the intermittent closure of the entrance to Crissy Field Marsh, a small restored tidal wetland located on the sheltered north-facing coast approximately 1.5 km east of the Golden Gate Bridge.

Hanes, D.M.; Erikson, L.H.

2013-01-01

140

Thinking Ahead: Autonomic Buildings  

SciTech Connect

The time has come for the commercial buildings industries to reconsider the very nature of the systems installed in facilities today and to establish a vision for future buildings that differs from anything in the history of human shelter. Drivers for this examination include reductions in building operation staffs; uncertain costs and reliability of electric power; growing interest in energy-efficient and resource-conserving?green? and?high-performance? commercial buildings; and a dramatic increase in security concerns since the tragic events of September 11. This paper introduces a new paradigm? autonomic buildings? which parallels the concept of autonomic computing, introduced by IBM as a fundamental change in the way computer networks work. Modeled after the human nervous system,?autonomic systems? themselves take responsibility for a large portion of their own operation and even maintenance. For commercial buildings, autonomic systems could provide environments that afford occupants greater opportunity to focus on the things we do in buildings rather than on operation of the building itself, while achieving higher performance levels, increased security, and better use of energy and other natural resources. The author uses the human body and computer networking to introduce and illustrate this new paradigm for high-performance commercial buildings. He provides a vision for the future of commercial buildings based on autonomicity, identifies current research that could contribute to this future, and highlights research and technological gaps. The paper concludes with a set of issues and needs that are key to converting this idealized future into reality.

Brambley, Michael R. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB))

2002-08-31

141

Sheltered Homeless Children: Eligibility and Unmet Need for Special Education Evaluations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the special education needs of school-aged children living in emergency homeless family shelters in Los Angeles (California). Specifically, the study: (1) identified the proportion of sheltered homeless children with a probable behavior problem, learning disability, or mental retardation; (2) examined the level of unmet need…

Zima, Bonnie T.; Bussing, Regina; Forness, Steven R.; Benjamin, Bernadette

142

Control of Pest Species: Tree shelters help protect seedlings from nutria (Louisiana)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Various methods of nutria preventative techniques were tested in attempts to curb the loss of seedlings due to nutria capturing. The results of testing possibly indicate that tree shelters have real potential for use in forest restoration projects on sites with moderate nutria populations. Tree shelters may even prove effective on sites with high nutria populations, as long as alternative food supplies are available.

Allen, J.A.; Boykin, R.

1991-01-01

143

Questions and Answers Regarding Actions to Take When Ending Shelter-in-Place  

SciTech Connect

Shelter-in-place has found increasing acceptance as an effective protective action option for communities participating in the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program. Studies have confirmed that it can provide optimum protection under certain accident conditions. However, emergency managers and planners, as well as the public, continue to be troubled by the need to end sheltering when the plume has passed in order to avoid sustained exposure to the small amount of agent that has penetrated the shelter. One of the concerns posed by this necessity is uncertainty regarding what hazards will then be faced in the environment outside the shelter and what actions can be taken to avoid those hazards. This report attempts to address those uncertainties. It recognizes that there is an extremely low probability that the environment outside the shelter will be contaminated with chemical agent residue. However, as people comply with an official recommendation to leave their shelters, they probably can't be certain that the environment is free from contamination. Therefore, this report identifies and explains specific and simple actions they can take to avoid the possibility of exposure to chemical agent hazards outside their shelters. It addresses such issues as the actions people should take upon ending shelter-in-place, what clothing they should wear, how they should handle animals, and what they should do about food in their homes and produce in their gardens.

Shumpert, B.

2003-12-30

144

Perspectives on US Domestic Violence Emergency Shelters: What Do Young Adolescent Residents and Their Mothers Say?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As part of a larger qualitative study using Life Story methods, an ethnically diverse, purposive sample (n = 27) of young adolescents (ages 12-14) and their mothers residing in four US domestic violence emergency shelters were interviewed about their perspectives of shelter life. Youth reported aspects they liked, most often expressing that they…

Chanmugam, Amy

2011-01-01

145

Physical Health, Mental Health, and Substance Abuse Problems of Shelter Users.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined physical health of 72 users of homeless shelters, comparing shelter users with mental illness or substance abuse problems with those without these problems. Found that alcohol abusers were significantly more likely to have low blood pressure, symptoms of liver disease, and tuberculosis treatment history. Found no health differences for…

Harris, Shirley N.; And Others

1994-01-01

146

No evidence of shelter providing a metabolic advantage to the false clown anemonefish Amphiprion ocellaris.  

PubMed

There was no evidence that shelter conveyed a metabolic advantage to the false clown anemonefish Amphiprion ocellaris in terms of standard and routine rates of oxygen uptake. The metabolic and fitness benefit of shelter might not, therefore, be widespread among all fish species. PMID:23398079

Kegler, P; Kunzmann, A; Bröhl, S; Herbert, N A

2013-02-01

147

Primary-Grade Students' Knowledge and Thinking about Shelter as a Cultural Universal.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The traditional K-3 social studies curriculum has focused on food, clothing, shelter, communication, transportation, and other cultural universals. A study was designed to provide information with respect to the topic of shelter, and in the process, to assess claims that primary grade students do not need instruction in the topic because they…

Brophy, Jere; Alleman, Janet

148

The Corporate Profit Base, Tax Sheltering Activity, and the Changing Nature of Employee Compensation  

E-print Network

The Corporate Profit Base, Tax Sheltering Activity, and the Changing Nature of Employee at Harvard Business School are gratefully acknowledged. #12;The Corporate Profit Base, Tax Sheltering of the corporate profit base and the relationship between book income and tax income for U.S. corporations over

Sadoulet, Elisabeth

149

Shelters for battered women and their children: an under-recognized source of communicable disease transmission.  

PubMed Central

A survey of 73 full-time government-funded shelters for battered women and their children from five geographic regions in 15 states provided information on communicable disease problems and control measures (focusing on diarrheal illness). Outbreaks of diarrheal illness involving more than 10 persons were reported by 12 per cent (9/73) of shelter directors. Less than half reported screening potential residents for communicable diseases before admitting them, and the majority reported that most of their staff are trained in basics of first aid, principles of hygiene, and experienced in day care work. More than half of the staff in the majority of shelters are counselors, but only 5 per cent (4/73) of shelters have health care workers. Less than one-fourth of the shelters have areas designated for diapering infants and less than half of the shelter directors knew of specified health regulations applying to their shelter. For most shelters, limitations on staff size, training, and funding may restrict the types of disease control measures they can apply. However, basic hygienic practices, such as strict handwashing and identification and cohorting of sick clients, may be effective in disease prevention. PMID:3618854

Gross, T P; Rosenberg, M L

1987-01-01

150

Hurricane Katrina and the Flooding of New Orleans: Emergent Issues in Sheltering and Temporary Housing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hurricane Katrina created an unprecedented need for sheltering and temporary housing across a four-state area along the Gulf Coast. This article reviews the disaster literature with respect to sheltering and temporary housing and contrasts how these needs actually developed with respect to both the preimpact and postimpact evacuation situations. The article also investigates the ways that intergovernmental planning failed to

Joanne M. Nigg; John Barnshaw; Manuel R. Torres

2006-01-01

151

Study of the effect on shelter cat intakes and euthanasia from a shelter neuter return project of 10,080 cats from March 2010 to June 2014  

PubMed Central

Cat impoundments were increasing at the municipal San Jose animal shelter in 2009, despite long-term successful low cost sterilization programs and attempts to lower the euthanasia rate of treatable-rehabilitatable impounds beginning in 2008. San Jose Animal Care and Services implemented a new strategy designed to control overall feral cat reproduction by altering and returning feral cats entering the shelter system, rather than euthanizing the cats. The purpose of this case study was to determine how the program affected the shelter cat intakes over time. In just over four years, 10,080 individual healthy adult feral cats, out of 11,423 impounded at the shelter during this time frame, were altered and returned to their site of capture. Included in the 11,423 cats were 862 cats impounded from one to four additional times for a total of 958 (9.5%) recaptures of the previously altered 10,080 cats. The remaining 385 healthy feral cats were euthanized at the shelter from March 2010 to June 2014. Four years into the program, researchers observed cat and kitten impounds decreased 29.1%; euthanasia decreased from over 70% of intakes in 2009, to 23% in 2014. Euthanasia in the shelter for Upper Respiratory Disease decreased 99%; dead cat pick up off the streets declined 20%. Dog impounds did not similarly decline over the four years. No other laws or program changes were implemented since the beginning of the program. PMID:25374785

Cicirelli, Jon

2014-01-01

152

Analysis of sheltering and evacuation strategies for a Chicago nuclear detonation scenario.  

SciTech Connect

Development of an effective strategy for shelter and evacuation is among the most important planning tasks in preparation for response to a low yield, nuclear detonation in an urban area. Extensive studies have been performed and guidance published that highlight the key principles for saving lives following such an event. However, region-specific data are important in the planning process as well. This study examines some of the unique regional factors that impact planning for a 10 kt detonation in Chicago. The work utilizes a single scenario to examine regional impacts as well as the shelter-evacuate decision alternatives at selected exemplary points. For many Chicago neighborhoods, the excellent assessed shelter quality available make shelter-in-place or selective transit to a nearby shelter a compelling post-detonation strategy.

Yoshimura, Ann S.; Brandt, Larry D.

2011-09-01

153

Analysis of sheltering and evacuation strategies for an urban nuclear detonation scenario.  

SciTech Connect

Development of an effective strategy for shelter and evacuation is among the most important planning tasks in preparation for response to a low yield, nuclear detonation in an urban area. This study examines shelter-evacuate policies and effectiveness focusing on a 10 kt scenario in Los Angeles. The goal is to provide technical insights that can support development of urban response plans. Results indicate that extended shelter-in-place can offer the most robust protection when high quality shelter exists. Where less effective shelter is available and the fallout radiation intensity level is high, informed evacuation at the appropriate time can substantially reduce the overall dose to personnel. However, uncertainties in the characteristics of the fallout region and in the exit route can make evacuation a risky strategy. Analyses indicate that only a relatively small fraction of the total urban population may experience significant dose reduction benefits from even a well-informed evacuation plan.

Yoshimura, Ann S.; Brandt, Larry D.

2009-05-01

154

Analysis of sheltering and evacuation strategies for a national capital region nuclear detonation scenario.  

SciTech Connect

Development of an effective strategy for shelter and evacuation is among the most important planning tasks in preparation for response to a low yield, nuclear detonation in an urban area. Extensive studies have been performed and guidance published that highlight the key principles for saving lives following such an event. However, region-specific data are important in the planning process as well. This study examines some of the unique regional factors that impact planning for a 10 kT detonation in the National Capital Region. The work utilizes a single scenario to examine regional impacts as well as the shelter-evacuate decision alternatives at one exemplary point. For most Washington, DC neighborhoods, the excellent assessed shelter quality available make shelter-in-place or selective transit to a nearby shelter a compelling post-detonation strategy.

Yoshimura, Ann S.; Brandt, Larry D.

2011-12-01

155

Environment and the Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Environment and the Earth class at the University of South Carolina participated in a campus environmental service-learning project where students collected data lighting, water fixtures, recycling bins, and trash in five academic buildings.

Compiled by Suzanne Savanick, Science Education Resource Center. Based on Bixby et al. (2003), Ecology on Campus: Service Learning in Introductory Environmental Courses, Journal of College Science Teaching, v. 32, n.5, o, 327-331.

156

A Colony of Highly Phosphorescent EarthWorms  

Microsoft Academic Search

IN the sheltered westward corner of a small grass-plat in this city there is a colony of highly phosphorescent earth-worms. The annelid is round, pellucid, slender, of a faint yellowish tint, is about two inches long, and is not flattened behind. I have been unable to distinguish segmentation. The worm is entirely luminous. The phosphorescence has precisely the bright greenish

J. Lloyd-Bozward

1897-01-01

157

Hearing handicap among adult residents of an urban homeless shelter.  

PubMed

This retrospective study was undertaken to identify the prevalence of hearing loss in the homeless population and its implications for vocational rehabilitation. Audiometric threshold data for adult residents of an urban homeless shelter were collected and reported. Subjects with hearing loss were identified and defined by their binaural high-frequency pure tone average (B-HFPTA). Those subjects were assigned a predicted Hearing Handicap Inventory for Adults-Screener (HHIA-S) score. Their HHIA-S scores, in turn, were used to predict hearing handicap and hearing aid candidacy. Significant hearing handicap was predicted for 35.6% of subjects; 10.6% were identified as hearing aid candidates. These findings have implications for vocational rehabilitation that have not been previously addressed. PMID:17337805

Saccone, Patricia A; Steiger, James R

2007-02-01

158

Half full or half empty? Shelter after the Jogjakarta earthquake.  

PubMed

The international shelter response to the Jogjakarta earthquake in Indonesia in May 2006 is widely regarded as a success story, especially when compared with the response to the Indian Ocean tsunami 16 months earlier. This evaluation is largely in terms of the international aid system itself, which emphasises statistical measures of 'success' and internal coordination and efficiency. From the perspective of those closer to the ground, however, it was less successful, especially in terms of coordination and communication with and participation of local agencies and affected communities. This paper, by an aid worker resident in Jogjakarta and an anthropologist, examines the response from a perspective grounded both within and outside the aid system, local as well as global. It recognises the relative success of the response, but argues for an approach more grounded in local knowledge and responsive to local concerns, while also providing practical suggestions for improvement. PMID:20735456

MacRae, Graeme; Hodgkin, David

2011-01-01

159

Behavioral responses associated with a human-mediated predator shelter.  

PubMed

Human activities in protected areas can affect wildlife populations in a similar manner to predation risk, causing increases in movement and vigilance, shifts in habitat use and changes in group size. Nevertheless, recent evidence indicates that in certain situations ungulate species may actually utilize areas associated with higher levels of human presence as a potential refuge from disturbance-sensitive predators. We now use four-years of behavioral activity budget data collected from pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) and elk (Cervus elephus) in Grand Teton National Park, USA to test whether predictable patterns of human presence can provide a shelter from predatory risk. Daily behavioral scans were conducted along two parallel sections of road that differed in traffic volume--with the main Teton Park Road experiencing vehicle use that was approximately thirty-fold greater than the River Road. At the busier Teton Park Road, both species of ungulate engaged in higher levels of feeding (27% increase in the proportion of pronghorn feeding and 21% increase for elk), lower levels of alert behavior (18% decrease for pronghorn and 9% decrease for elk) and formed smaller groups. These responses are commonly associated with reduced predatory threat. Pronghorn also exhibited a 30% increase in the proportion of individuals moving at the River Road as would be expected under greater exposure to predation risk. Our findings concur with the 'predator shelter hypothesis', suggesting that ungulates in GTNP use human presence as a potential refuge from predation risk, adjusting their behavior accordingly. Human activity has the potential to alter predator-prey interactions and drive trophic-mediated effects that could ultimately impact ecosystem function and biodiversity. PMID:24718624

Shannon, Graeme; Cordes, Line S; Hardy, Amanda R; Angeloni, Lisa M; Crooks, Kevin R

2014-01-01

160

Earth Charter Initiative  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Earth Charter is a declaration of fundamental principles for building a just, sustainable, and peaceful global society in the 21st century. The principles of the Earth Charter reflect extensive international consultations conducted over a period of many years. These principles are also based upon contemporary science, international law, and the insights of philosophy and religion.

161

Development of red oak seedlings using plastic shelters on hardwood sites in West Virginia. Forest Service research paper (Final)  

SciTech Connect

Plastic shelters were used to grow red oak seedlings on good-to-excellent Appalachian hardwood growing sites in north central West Virginia. Preliminary results indicate that shelters have the potential to stimulate development of red oak seedlingheight growth, especially if height growth continues once the seedling tops are above the 5-foot-tall shelters.

Smith, H.C.

1993-04-01

162

Life cycle assessment of the production and use of polypropylene tree shelters.  

PubMed

A detailed Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) has been conducted for the manufacture, use and disposal of polypropylene tree shelters, which are used to protect young seedlings in the first few years of growth. The LCA was conducted using Simapro software, the Ecoinvent database and ReCiPe assessment methodology. Detailed information on materials, manufacturing, packaging and distribution of shelters was obtained from Tubex Ltd. in South Wales, UK. Various scenarios based on different forest establishment methods, with or without tree shelters were derived and analysed using data from published literature and independent sources. The scenarios included commercial forestry in northern temperate conditions, amenity forest establishment in temperate conditions, and forest establishment in semi-arid conditions. For commercial forestry, a reduction in required seedling production and planting as well as additional time-averaged wood production led to significant benefits with tree shelters, both compared to unprotected and fenced cases. For the amenity forest scenarios, tree shelter use had a net environmental impact, while for semi-arid forestry, the benefits of reduction in water use outweighed shelter production impacts. The current practice of in-situ degradation was compared to collection and disposal and it was found that in-situ degradation was slightly preferable in terms of overall environmental impact. Use of biopolymer-based shelters would improve the environmental performance slightly. PMID:22098783

Arnold, J C; Alston, S M

2012-02-01

163

Earth Sciences Safety Handbook  

E-print Network

and Good Conduct 49 Visitors and Contractors 13 Water Supplies and Drainage 25 Workshop 23 Workstation Risk POLICY The Department of Earth Sciences operates a strict no- smoking policy in all of its buildings so away from doors and windows so as not to inconvenience occupants of buildings. #12;3 Head

Cambridge, University of

164

Leaving Homelessness Behind: Housing Decisions among Families Exiting Shelter1  

PubMed Central

Because homelessness assistance programs are designed to help families, it is important for policymakers and practitioners to understand how families experiencing homelessness make housing decisions, particularly when they decide not to use available services. This study explores those decisions using in-depth qualitative interviews with 80 families recruited in shelters across four sites approximately six months after they were assigned to one of four conditions (permanent housing subsidies, project-based transitional housing, community-based rapid re-housing, and usual care). Familiar neighborhoods near children’s schools, transportation, family and friends, and stability were important to families across conditions. Program restrictions on eligibility constrained family choices. Subsidized housing was the most desired intervention and families leased up at higher rates than in other studies of poor families. Respondents were least comfortable in and most likely to leave transitional housing. Uncertainty associated with community-based rapid re-housing generated considerable anxiety. Across interventions, many families had to make unhappy compromises, often leading to further moves. Policy recommendations are offered. PMID:25258503

Fisher, Benjamin W.; Mayberry, Lindsay; Shinn, Marybeth; Khadduri, Jill

2014-01-01

165

26 CFR 53.4965-7 - Taxes on prohibited tax shelter transactions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Revenue 17 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Taxes on prohibited tax shelter transactions. 53.4965-7 Section 53...OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) FOUNDATION AND SIMILAR EXCISE...

2013-04-01

166

26 CFR 53.4965-7 - Taxes on prohibited tax shelter transactions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Revenue 17 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Taxes on prohibited tax shelter transactions. 53.4965-7 Section 53...OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) FOUNDATION AND SIMILAR EXCISE...

2012-04-01

167

26 CFR 53.4965-7 - Taxes on prohibited tax shelter transactions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Revenue 17 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Taxes on prohibited tax shelter transactions. 53.4965-7 Section 53...OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) FOUNDATION AND SIMILAR EXCISE...

2011-04-01

168

26 CFR 53.4965-7 - Taxes on prohibited tax shelter transactions.  

...Revenue 17 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Taxes on prohibited tax shelter transactions. 53.4965-7 Section 53...OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) FOUNDATION AND SIMILAR EXCISE...

2014-04-01

169

75 FR 65566 - Revised Regulations Concerning Section 403(b) Tax-Sheltered Annuity Contracts; Correction  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Revised Regulations Concerning Section 403(b) Tax-Sheltered Annuity Contracts; Correction...providing updated guidance on section 403(b) contracts of public schools and tax-exempt...regulations will affect sponsors of section 403(b) contracts, administrators,...

2010-10-26

170

Sustainable shelters for post disaster reconstruction : an integrated approach for reconstruction after the South Asia earthquake  

E-print Network

A year after the South Asia earthquake, over 60% of the survivors are still vulnerable due to the lack of adequate shelter, the absence of basic facilities for water and sanitation and livelihood restoration. The harsh ...

Ali, Zehra (Zehra Hyder)

2007-01-01

171

Applying Cluster Analysis to Test a Typology of Homelessness by Pattern of Shelter Utilization: Results from the Analysis of Administrative Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study tests a typology of homelessness using administrative data on public shelter use in New York City (1988–1995) and Philadelphia (1991–1995). Cluster analysis is used to produce three groups (transitionally, episodically, and chronically homeless) by number of shelter days and number of shelter episodes. Results show that the transitionally homeless, who constitute approximately 80% of shelter users in both

Randall Kuhn; Dennis P. Culhane

1998-01-01

172

Psychological Distress of Children and Mothers in Domestic Violence Emergency Shelters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abused mothers and their school-aged children who recently entered domestic violence emergency shelters were assessed by individual\\u000a interview and psychometric measures. Children had positiveviews of the shelter residence. Mothers and children reported high-quality\\u000a relationships with eachother. Children came from highly violent homes, and the majority had attempted to intervene in theinteradult\\u000a violence. Hierarchical multiple regressions were conducted on child PTSD

Kelly L. Jarvis; Erin E. Gordon; Raymond W. Novaco

2005-01-01

173

The Changing Rate of Suspected Rabies Bites after Begin to Act Animal Shelter in Erzurum City  

PubMed Central

Objective: We aimed to evaluate the relationship between establishing an animal shelter in Erzurum and the number of suspected rabies bites between the years 2005 and 2012. Materials and Methods: A retrospective, repeated cross-sectional study was planned in Erzurum in the year 2013. Records between the years 2005 and 2012 were obtained from the Communicable Diseases Department of the Erzurum Health Directorate. Data for 5789 cases exposed to suspected rabies bites were analyzed. Results: 5789 suspected rabies bites were encountered in Erzurum between the years 2005 and 2012. After establishing the animal shelter in 2009, 4239 dogs were collected from the streets within four years and 426 of them were released after immunization. Additionally, the following services were given in the animal shelter between 2009 and 2012: immunization of 2935 dogs, sterilization of 1735 dogs, and release of 2082 dogs back to the street. 4-years before the establishment of the animal shelter, the number of dog-bites had decreased from 3403 cases to 2386 cases; 4-years after the establishment of the shelter, it declined by 29.8%. While there were 1096 suspected rabies cases during the year 2008, this ratio decreased by 40.9% after the establishment of the animal shelter in the year 2009. During the year 2010, where we had the highest number of homeless dog collection to the animal shelter, the decrease in suspected rabies bites reached the maximum decrease, namely 51.0%. Spearman correlation analysis showed a strong negative correlation between the number of collected animals and suspected rabies bites (r = ?0,862; p=0.006). Conclusion: Suspected rabies cases are common in Turkey and some cases of rabies are encountered. The number of suspected rabies bites in Erzurum has decreased significantly after establishing the animal shelter. It is an evident that establishing rehabilitation centers for homeless animals in all cities will have an important role in controlling zoonotic diseases including rabies. PMID:25610317

Vancelik, Serhat; Set, Turan; Akturk, Zekeriya; Calikoglu, Oksan; Kosan, Zahide

2014-01-01

174

Food safety training needs at evacuation shelters operated by faith-based organizations.  

PubMed

The authors conducted a survey to identify food safety training needs at evacuation shelters operated by faith-based organizations (FBOs) in four hurricane-prone states. Five thousand randomly selected FBO leaders were asked questions about their food safety attitudes and food handling practices at evacuation shelters. Descriptive statistics and multivariate analysis of variance were calculated to summarize and prioritize the responses. Results from 138 leaders revealed that on average, 590 +/- 4,787 evacuees were served for 36 +/- 72 days at FBO-operated shelters. Only 19.6% felt they were well prepared for the shelter. Only 5.8% had professional food preparation staff and many accepted hot (47.8%) and cold (37%) prepared food donations. Some lacked adequate refrigerator (18.8%) or freezer (16.7%) spaces, but 40% kept hot food leftovers for later use. The majority did not provide food safety training before opening the shelters (73.2%), yet 76.9% said they will provide food to evacuation shelters again. The results show a need for food safety training and specific strategies for training at FBOs. PMID:24073485

Kwon, Junehee; Zottarelli, Lisa; Kwon, Sockju; Lee, Yee Ming; Ryu, Dojin

2013-09-01

175

Assessing the Use of Diurnal Resting Shelters by Culiseta melanura (Diptera: Culicidae)  

PubMed Central

Twenty resting shelters were set on the edge of a known Culiseta breeding habitat in four groups of five to support a 4 × 4 Latin square field experiment. Collection times were 0900, 1100, 1300, and 1500 hours and systematically rotated for the order by which each group of five boxes was collected. Mosquitoes were collected from resting shelters by chloroform anesthetization. Collections were identified to species, sex, and physiological status of the females (nonblooded or blood-fed and gravid). More than 77% of the mosquitoes collected were Culiseta melanura (Coquillett). Analyses included means and SE for total collections and shelter-day (number collected per units) and means comparison by t-test and general linear model with Student–Newman–Keuls or least significant differences means tests for replicate, group, time, and interactions of time and group. There were few significant differences among or between shelter-day means but more blood-fed and gravid female Cs. melanura were collected at 1300 hours than any other time. Results confirm the effectiveness of resting shelters in a surveillance program for Cs. melanura, demonstrate the ßexibility of resting shelters as a surveillance tool, and suggest that Cs. melanura will move to more acceptable resting sites during daylight. PMID:21845953

HOWARD, JOHN J.; OLIVER, JOANNE; KRAMER, LAURA D.

2012-01-01

176

Buildings where wheelchair access is not possible  

E-print Network

Webb Earth Science and Engineering 11 Bessemer Building Centre for Blast Injury Studies, BioengineeringSouth Kensington Buildings where wheelchair access is not possible at this time Beit Quadrangle Hill Building Bone Building Royal School of Mines Aston Webb Bessemer Building Goldsmiths Building

Wirosoetisno, Djoko

177

The evolution of shelter: ecology and ethology of chimpanzee nest building  

E-print Network

.................................................................................................................................. 47 Genetic sampling ................................................................................................................................... 47 Insect trapping experiment... . ..................................................................................................................................... 18 Figure 2-5. Map of western Tanzania. Issa Valley study area is highlighted in yellow. The two national parks of Gombe and Mahale Mountain are outlined in green on the lake shore. The colours of the image also indicate vegetation cover: brown...

Stewart, Fiona Anne

2011-11-08

178

Development of a Fuel Containing Material Removal and Waste Management Strategy for the Chernobyl Unit 4 Shelter  

SciTech Connect

A study was performed to develop a strategy for the removal of fuel-containing material (FCM) from the Chernobyl Unit 4 Shelter and for the related waste management. This study was performed during Phase 1 of the Shelter Implementation Plan (SIP) and was funded by the Chernobyl Shelter Fund. The main objective for Phase 2 of the SIP is to stabilize the Shelter and to construct a New Confinement (NC) by the year 2007. In addition, the SIP includes studies on the strategy and on the conceptual design implications of the removal of FCM from the Shelter. This is considered essential for the ultimate goal, the transformation of the Shelter into an environmentally safe system.

Tokarevsky, V. V.; Shibetsky, Y. A.; Leister, P.; Davison, W. R.; Follin, J. F.; McNair, J.; Lins, W.; Edler, G.

2002-02-27

179

9 CFR 3.3 - Sheltered housing facilities.  

...animals, when the floor areas are not exposed to the direct sun, or are made of a hard material such as wire, wood, metal...floor areas in contact with the animals and exposed to the direct sun may consist of compacted earth, absorbent bedding, sand,...

2014-01-01

180

9 CFR 3.3 - Sheltered housing facilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...animals, when the floor areas are not exposed to the direct sun, or are made of a hard material such as wire, wood, metal...floor areas in contact with the animals and exposed to the direct sun may consist of compacted earth, absorbent bedding, sand,...

2012-01-01

181

9 CFR 3.3 - Sheltered housing facilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...animals, when the floor areas are not exposed to the direct sun, or are made of a hard material such as wire, wood, metal...floor areas in contact with the animals and exposed to the direct sun may consist of compacted earth, absorbent bedding, sand,...

2013-01-01

182

Examining the utility of satellite-based wind sheltering estimates for lake hydrodynamic modeling  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Satellite-based measurements of vegetation canopy structure have been in common use for the last decade but have never been used to estimate canopy's impact on wind sheltering of individual lakes. Wind sheltering is caused by slower winds in the wake of topography and shoreline obstacles (e.g. forest canopy) and influences heat loss and the flux of wind-driven mixing energy into lakes, which control lake temperatures and indirectly structure lake ecosystem processes, including carbon cycling and thermal habitat partitioning. Lakeshore wind sheltering has often been parameterized by lake surface area but such empirical relationships are only based on forested lakeshores and overlook the contributions of local land cover and terrain to wind sheltering. This study is the first to examine the utility of satellite imagery-derived broad-scale estimates of wind sheltering across a diversity of land covers. Using 30 m spatial resolution ASTER GDEM2 elevation data, the mean sheltering height, hs, being the combination of local topographic rise and canopy height above the lake surface, is calculated within 100 m-wide buffers surrounding 76,000 lakes in the U.S. state of Wisconsin. Uncertainty of GDEM2-derived hs was compared to SRTM-, high-resolution G-LiHT lidar-, and ICESat-derived estimates of hs, respective influences of land cover type and buffer width on hs are examined; and the effect of including satellite-based hs on the accuracy of a statewide lake hydrodynamic model was discussed. Though GDEM2 hs uncertainty was comparable to or better than other satellite-based measures of hs, its higher spatial resolution and broader spatial coverage allowed more lakes to be included in modeling efforts. GDEM2 was shown to offer superior utility for estimating hs compared to other satellite-derived data, but was limited by its consistent underestimation of hs, inability to detect within-buffer hs variability, and differing accuracy across land cover types. Nonetheless, considering a GDEM2 hs-derived wind sheltering potential improved the modeled lake temperature root mean square error for non-forested lakes by 0.72 °C compared to a commonly used wind sheltering model based on lake area alone. While results from this study show promise, the limitations of near-global GDEM2 data in timeliness, temporal and spatial resolution, and vertical accuracy were apparent. As hydrodynamic modeling and high-resolution topographic mapping efforts both expand, future remote sensing-derived vegetation structure data must be improved to meet wind sheltering accuracy requirements to expand our understanding of lake processes.

Van Den Hoek, Jamon; Read, Jordan S.; Winslow, Luke A; Montesano, Paul; Markfort, Corey D

2014-01-01

183

Acoustics of fish shelters: Background noise and signal-to-noise ratio.  

PubMed

Fish shelters (flat stones, shells, artificial covers, etc., with a hollow beneath) increase the sound pressure levels of low frequency sounds (<150?Hz) outside the nest cavity, see Lugli [(2012). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 132, 3512-3524]. Since some calling males only produce sound when a female is inside the shelter, this study examines the effect of sound amplification by the shelter on signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in the nest. Background noise amplification by the shelter was examined under both laboratory (stones and shells) and field (stones) conditions, and the SNR of tones inside the nest cavity was measured by performing acoustic tests on stones in the stream. Stone and shell shelters amplify the background noise pressure levels inside the cavity with comparable gains and at similar frequencies of an active sound source. Inside the cavity of stream stones, the mean SNR of tones increased significantly below 125?Hz and peaked at 65?Hz (+10?dB). Implications for fish acoustic communication inside nest enclosures are discussed. PMID:25480082

Lugli, Marco

2014-12-01

184

Composite material structures for tactical shelters - a cost/weight study  

SciTech Connect

As part of an overall program sponsored by the U.S. Army Natick Research and Development Laboratories (NLABS) to develop a nuclear hardened, mobile, tactical shelter of minimum weight and cost, the application of three composite materials in future tactical shelters has been investigated. Nine shelter wall panels were designed using various combinations of material and panel cross sectional geometry. Acquisition cost and weight of the individual designs were estimated. The best of the graphite/epoxy configurations resulted in a 50% weight reduction from a baseline aluminum panel. The projected acquisition cost of this graphite panel was 3.3 times higher than the equivalent aluminum design. Predicted weight trends compared favorably with design experience reported by a variety of manufacturers. Aerospace industry pricing of composite versus metal production hardware suggests that predicted shelter panel acquisition costs have been substantially overestimated. Because composite technology is currently in a state of rapid growth and change, reliable cost information is relatively scarce. Evidence suggests that an expected reduction in composite shelter maintenance cost could result in a lower overall life cycle cost for the composite designs.

Fanucci, J.P.

1982-09-01

185

Disposition of shelter companion animals from nonhuman animal control officers, citizen finders, and relinquished by caregivers.  

PubMed

Many private not-for-profit humane societies have contracts with their local government entities to provide nonhuman animal control services that the law commonly requires the government to provide to its residents. These services normally have the humane organization providing either the total animal control program (including field work to pick up stray animal companions, enforcing local animal ordinances, and the impounding of stray companion animals) or just the boarding of companion animals with no fieldwork or enforcement duties. Shelter companion animals normally come from three main sources: (a) stray or lost companion animals impounded by animal control field officers or animals impounded for violations of humane care regulations; (b) stray companion animals brought to the shelter by a resident who happens across, and catches, a lost companion animal and delivers the animal to the shelter; and (c) companion animals relinquished by their caregivers. PMID:15498725

Notaro, Stephen J

2004-01-01

186

Chernobyl shelter implementation plan -- project development and planning: Setting the stage for progress  

SciTech Connect

On April 26, 1986, the Chernobyl nuclear power plant (NPP) experienced a devastating accident. This accident left much of the plant and its safety systems destroyed with widespread radioactive waste contamination from the damaged nuclear fuel. In the 6 months following the accident, heroic measures were taken to stabilize the situation and erect a temporary confinement shelter over the damaged unit 4. Since that time the shelter and the contained radioactive materials and debris have begun to deteriorate. Lack of funding and staff has allowed only minor improvements to occur on-site, resulting in an existing shelter that is unstable and deteriorating. International aid has been provided to develop a comprehensive plan for the safe and environmentally sound conversion of the damaged Chernobyl reactor. These efforts are being performed in conjunction with US experts, European experts, and local Chernobyl NPP personnel. This plan is discussed here.

Johnson, W. [Parsons Infrastructure and Technology Group, Richland, WA (United States); Kreid, D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); DeFranco, W. [Science Applications International Corp., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

1998-09-01

187

The effects of sheltering and orientation on the atmospheric corrosion of structural metals  

SciTech Connect

The Bureau of Mines, US Department of the Interior, is conducting atmospheric corrosion tests on five alloys and two coated steel products at five sites as part of the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program. Samples tested are boldly exposed to the atmosphere, sheltered from the atmosphere, and facing skyward and groundward. Details of the corrosion process related to orientation and sheltering and involving particulates, corrosion film chemistry and morphology, and the dissolution/reprecipitation process were established. The corrosion film on zinc saturates with sulfur at -- 7 wt% with increasing ambient sulfur dioxide concentration. Zinc corrosion on the skyward side appears to be cathodically protected in two-sided bold exposures. Only large particulates are present on the surface of sheltered copper and zinc; small particulates dissolve and disperse into the corrosion film. The dissolution/reprecipitation process occurs primarily during the final stages of drying.

Carter, J.P.; Linstrom, P.J.; Finn, D.R.; Cramer, S.D.

1987-07-01

188

The effects of sheltering and orientation on the atmospheric corrosion of structural metals  

SciTech Connect

The Bureau of Mines, U.S. Department of the Interior, is conducting atmospheric corrosion tests on five alloys and two coated-steel products at five sites as part of the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program. Tests have been conducted on samples boldly exposed to the atmosphere, sheltered from the atmosphere, and facing skyward and groundward. Details of the corrosion process related to orientation and sheltering and involving particulates, corrosion film chemistry and morphology, and the dissolution/reprecipitation process were established. The corrosion film on zinc saturates with sulfur at around 7 wt pct with increasing ambient sulfur dioxide concentration. Zinc corrosion on the skyward side appears to be cathodically protected in two-sided bold exposures. Only large particulates are present on the surface of sheltered copper and zinc; small particulates dissolve and disperse into the corrosion film. The dissolution/reprecipitation process occurs primarily during the final stages of drying.

Carter, J.P.; Linstrom, P.J.; Flinn, D.R.; Cramer, S.D.

1987-01-01

189

The perception of pleasantness in a product of collective use: the bus shelter.  

PubMed

This article presents a study on the identification of a setting whose arrangement of attributes could lead to the perception of pleasantness of a bus shelter: a product that should welcome people while waiting for the bus. Two different bus shelters typologies in the city of Porto Alegre, state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, were evaluated, where four attributes were under consideration. The relation between the shelters subject of the study and the surroundings was significant for defining the attributes. The setting with curve shaped cover, bench, rear wall, and surrounding vegetation was considered the most pleasant one. The seats and the rear wall were associated with the practical function of the product while the curve shaped cover and the surrounding vegetation were associated with the aesthetical function according to the participant users. PMID:22316736

Pizzato, Gabriela; Guimarães, Lia; ten Caten, Carla

2012-01-01

190

An Empirical Study of Earth Covered Schools in Oklahoma. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of earth-covered schools in Oklahoma was conducted for the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) to assess the viability of these structures as learning and teaching environments, as cost beneficial investments, and as potential shelters from natural and man-made disasters. The study was aimed at identifying what information is…

Zaccor, James V.

191

Continuity and change, an archaeobotanical assessment of Tsosie Shelter, Black Mesa, Arizona  

E-print Network

are represented at the highest el evat iona in the deeply entrenched sandstone canyons near the northeast rim of Black Mesa. Colorado pinyon (Pinus edulis), ponderosa pine (Pinus 2 d t, " g ? ' (~dt ' -*' ) f dep ending on the e&posure of the slope. Douglas... by stream 15 i'd+ r 1 ( I 0 sV A V Ai J . 0 . r ( . ". . - , ig ( C. =i c E S . E . V A T 4 0 . 5mr. Adapted from U. S. G. S. 75 mmute quadrangle LONG HOUSE VALLEY, ARIZONA KEY ~ Tsosle Shelter ID:7:20851 ~ Control Shelter ID:7:2085a 1...

Ruppe?, Patricia A

2012-06-07

192

Excusable deficiency: staff perceptions of mothering at shelters for abused women.  

PubMed

This study examined how staff members in shelters for abused women perceive the women's mothering and the challenges when working with these mothers. Data were collected through focus group interviews with 30 workers at Israeli shelters for abused women. Findings revealed that workers typically held a "deficit perspective" when describing the residents' mothering skills. Most seemed committed to the notion of empowerment as a guiding framework for intervention with the women and made an effort to facilitate the women's choices and autonomy in spite of the obstacles. The study examined workers' perceptions from personal, professional, and sociocultural perspectives. PMID:21097960

Peled, Einat; Dekel, Rachel

2010-11-01

193

Earth's Atmosphere  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This problem set is about the methods scientists use to compare the abundance of the different elements in Earth's atmosphere. Answer key is provided. This is part of Earth Math: A Brief Mathematical Guide to Earth Science and Climate Change.

194

Earth's Three  

E-print Network

Broadcast Transcript: From Mongolia, land of fermented mare's milk, comes this beguiling morsel of nomadic oral tradition. It's called yertonciin gorav or Earth's Three. Earth's three what? Well, Earth's three top things in a number of categories...

Hacker, Randi

2010-11-17

195

Earth Sciences Environmental Earth Sciences,  

E-print Network

84 Earth Sciences­ Environmental Earth Sciences, Geology MGeol (Single Honours Degrees) Earth Sciences BSc (Single Honours Degrees) Environmental Earth Sciences Geology BSc (Joint Honours Degrees) and among the most research-intensive in Europe. Features * The Department of Earth and Environmental

Brierley, Andrew

196

Earth Sciences Environmental Earth Sciences,  

E-print Network

94 Earth Sciences­ Environmental Earth Sciences, Geology Degree options MGeol (Single Honours Degrees) Earth Sciences BSc (Single Honours Degrees) Environmental Earth Sciences Geology BSc (Joint placement. * The Geology and Environmental Earth Sciences degrees are accredited by the Geological Society

Brierley, Andrew

197

7. WASTE CALCINING FACILITY, LOOKING AT NORTH END OF BUILDING. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. WASTE CALCINING FACILITY, LOOKING AT NORTH END OF BUILDING. CAMERA FACING SOUTH. TENT-ROOFED COVER IN RIGHT OF VIEW IS A TEMPORARY WEATHER-PROOFING SHELTER OVER THE BLOWER PIT IN CONNECTION WITH DEMOLITION PROCEDURES. SMALL BUILDING CPP-667 IN CENTER OF VIEW WAS USED FOR SUPPLEMENTARY OFFICE SPACE BY HEALTH PHYSICISTS AND OTHERS. INEEL PROOF SHEET NOT NUMBERED. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Old Waste Calcining Facility, Scoville, Butte County, ID

198

Towards Earth AntineutRino TomograpHy (EARTH)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The programme Earth AntineutRino TomograpHy (EARTH) proposes to build ten underground facilities each hosting a telescope. Each telescope consists of many detector modules, to map the radiogenic heat sources deep in the interior of the Earth by utilising direction sensitive geoneutrino detection. Recent hypotheses target the core-mantle boundary (CMB) as a major source of natural radionuclides and therefore of radiogenic

R. J. de Meijer; F. D. Smit; F. D. Brooks; R. W. Fearick; H. J. Wörtche; F. Mantovani

2006-01-01

199

Towards Earth AntineutRino TomograpHy (EARTH)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The programme Earth AntineutRino TomograpHy (EARTH) proposes to build ten underground facilities each hosting a telescope.\\u000a Each telescope consists of many detector modules, to map the radiogenic heat sources deep in the interior of the Earth by\\u000a utilising direction sensitive geoneutrino detection. Recent hypotheses target the core-mantle boundary (CMB) as a major source\\u000a of natural radionuclides and therefore of radiogenic

R. J. de Meijer; F. D. Smit; F. D. Brooks; R. W. Fearick; H. J. Woertche; F. Mantovani

2006-01-01

200

The Perceived Impact of a Child Maltreatment Report from the Perspective of the Domestic Violence Shelter Worker  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is to examine domestic violence shelter workers' perceptions of child maltreatment reporting. A sample of 82 professionals from domestic violence shelters across the United States participated in a survey focusing on a variety of different types of reports and the frequency of both positive and negative outcomes arising…

Steen, Julie A.

2009-01-01

201

Observations of overwintering nymphalid butterflies in underground shelters in SW and W Bohemia (Czech Republic) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae  

E-print Network

Observations of overwintering nymphalid butterflies in underground shelters in SW and W Bohemia and observations of overwintering nymphalid butterflies in various types of underground shelters in SW-W Bohemia, Czech Republic are presented. During these surveys, three species of nymphalid butterflies were

Fric, Zdenek

202

Natural History and Leaf Shelter Construction of the Asian Rice Leptispa Beetle Leptispa pygmaea Baly (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Cassidinae: Leptispini)  

E-print Network

Natural History and Leaf Shelter Construction of the Asian Rice Leptispa Beetle Leptispa pygmaea Baly (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Cassidinae: Leptispini) Kaniyarikkal Divakaran Prathapan1, Caroline S. Chaboo2,*, and Kolandaivelu Karthikeyan3 1... 15, 2009) Kaniyarikkal Divakaran Prathapan, Caroline S. Chaboo, and Kolandaivelu Karthikeyan (2009) Natural history and leaf shelter construction of the Asian rice leptispa beetle, Leptispa pygmaea Baly (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Cassidinae...

Prathapan, Kaniyarikkal Divakaran; Chaboo, Caroline S.; Karthikeyan, Kolandaivelu

2009-01-15

203

Beyond Earth's Boundaries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This resource for teachers of elementary age students provides a foundation for building a life-long interest in the U.S. space program. It begins with a basic understanding of man's attempt to conquer the air, then moves on to how we expanded into near-Earth space for our benefit. Students learn, through hands-on experiences, from projects…

National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Kennedy Space Center, FL. John F. Kennedy Space Center.

204

Challenges to implementing communicable disease surveillance in new york city evacuation shelters after hurricane sandy, november 2012.  

PubMed

Hurricane Sandy hit New York City (NYC) on October 29, 2012. Before and after the storm, 73 temporary evacuation shelters were established. The total census of these shelters peaked at approximately 6,800 individuals. Concern about the spread of communicable diseases in shelters prompted the NYC Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (DOHMH) to rapidly develop a surveillance system to report communicable diseases and emergency department transports from shelters. We describe the implementation of this system. Establishing effective surveillance in temporary shelters was challenging and required in-person visits by DOHMH staff to ensure reporting. After system establishment, surveillance data were used to identify some potential disease clusters. For the future, we recommend pre-event planning for disease surveillance. PMID:25552754

Ridpath, Alison D; Bregman, Brooke; Jones, Lucretia; Reddy, Vasudha; Waechter, HaeNa; Balter, Sharon

2015-01-01

205

The Cumulative Cost-Effectiveness of Supported and Sheltered Employees with Mental Retardation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the cumulative costs generated by supported and sheltered employees with mental retardation throughout one "employment cycle," that is, from the moment they entered their respective programs to when they exited or stopped receiving services. Data indicate that supported employees acquired services costing funding sources a…

Cimera, Robert Evert

2007-01-01

206

Management of Bacterial Blight of Lilac Caused by Pseudomonas syringae by Growing Plants under Plastic Shelters  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae causes some of the most economically-important bacterial diseases affecting woody perennials grown by the nursery industry in the Pacific Northwest of the United States. In this study, we evaluated a cultural control practice, placement of plants in plastic shelter...

207

Service Quality and Corporate Social Responsibility, Influence on Post-Purchase Intentions of Sheltered Employment Institutions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The main purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of service quality and corporate social responsibility (CSR) on customer satisfaction, and customer satisfaction toward post-purchase intentions from sheltered employment institutions. Work experience plays an important role in career development for those people with intellectual…

Chen, Chao-Chien; Lin, Shih-Yen; Cheng, Chia-Hsin; Tsai, Chia-Ching

2012-01-01

208

Olfactory recognition of terrestrial shelters in female Northern Spectacled Salamanders Salamandrina perspicillata (Caudata, Salamandridae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Olfactory recognition of terrestrial shelters in female Northern Spectacled Salamanders Salamandrina perspicillata (Caudata, Salamandridae). Chemical cues are used as ubiquitous markers of individual, group, kinship, and species identity. Northern Spectacled Salamander (Salamandrina perspicillata) is a semi-terrestrial and elusive species. Females can be found in water bodies just in the spawning season but spend most of their life, as well as

Antonio Romano; Antonio Ruggiero

2008-01-01

209

The Impact of Short-Term Counseling at a Domestic Violence Shelter  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Women who received counseling at a domestic violence shelter were evaluated with several measures to determine the impact of the services they received. Method: A pretest and posttest design using clinical measures for life functioning and coping ability along with posttest-only measures of satisfaction and helpfulness of service were…

McNamara, John R.; Tamanini, Kevin; Pelletier-Walker, Suzanne

2008-01-01

210

Cyclone shelters and their locational suitability: an empirical analysis from coastal Bangladesh.  

PubMed

Bangladesh is one of the poorest and the most disaster-prone countries in Asia; it is important, therefore, to know how its disaster reduction strategies are organised and planned. Cyclone shelters comprise a widely acceptable form of infrastructural support for disaster management in Bangladesh. This paper attempts to analyse empirically their use during cyclones in a sample study area along the southwest coastal belt of the country. It shows how the location of a cyclone shelter can determine the social power structure in coastal Bangladesh. The results reveal that the establishment of cyclone shelters in the studied communities is determined by neither a right-based nor a demand-based planning approach; rather, their creation is dependent on the socio-political affluence of local-level decision-makers. The paper goes on to demonstrate that socially vulnerable households (defined, for example, by income or housing conditions) are afforded disproportionately less access to cyclone shelters as compared to less socially vulnerable households. PMID:24905715

Mallick, Bishawjit

2014-07-01

211

Tree Shelters Fail to Enhance Height Growth of Northern Red Oak in the  

E-print Network

Forester, Upper Peninsula Tree Improvement Center 1 In: Pallardy-SG (ed.); Cecich-RA (ed.); Garrett-HG (ed (Miller 1996). The objective of this study was to test the effec- tiveness of using tree shelters the first two years of the study. (Phase I) · Seedling survival declined to 79% for unsheltered seedlings

212

Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol[R] (SIOP[R]). What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The "Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol"[R] ("SIOP"[R]) is a framework for planning and delivering instruction in content areas such as science, history, and mathematics to English language learners as well as other students. The goal of "SIOP"[R] is to help teachers integrate academic language development into their lessons, allowing…

What Works Clearinghouse, 2013

2013-01-01

213

Exploration of the Prevalence and Correlates of Substance Use among Sheltered Adolescents in South Korea  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Substance use among sheltered adolescents is very serious in South Korea--a nation in the process of rapid industrialization and urbanization. However, few studies have investigated substance use among the adolescents which is a growing concern of the changing society of this nation. This study examined the prevalence of substance use and explored…

Park, Sookyung; Kim, Hae Sung; Kim, Haeryun; Sung, Kgu-taik

2007-01-01

214

Institutional Discharges and Subsequent Shelter Use among Unaccompanied Adults in New York City  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study empirically examines the link between homelessness and discharges from other institutions. An administrative record match was undertaken to determine rates of discharge from institutional care for 9,247 unaccompanied adult shelter users in New York City. Cluster analysis and multinomial logistic regression analysis was then used to…

Metraux, Stephen; Byrne, Thomas; Culhane, Dennis P.

2010-01-01

215

THE LOGAN BEEMAIL SHELTER: A PRACTICAL, PORTABLE UNIT FOR MANAGING CAVITY-NESTING AGRICULTURAL POLLINATORS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

An affordable, durable, portable nesting shelter will be useful to manage cavity-nesting bees for agricultural pollination. A design is described here that is assembled from commercially available components. It has been successfully used during field experiments with the alfalfa leaf-cutting bee ...

216

Damage function rating procedure for flat slab basement shelters. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report presents the development of procedures for rating of damage function and casualty functions for basement Civil Defense shelters. Suitable large basements, after having been upgraded during a crisis period, to withstand nuclear weapons effects including air blast, and nuclear radiation are expected to be utilized to provide protection for a large portion of the population in the event

R. E. Peterson; R. D. Bernard; R. S. Tansley; A. B. Willoughby; C. Wilton

1982-01-01

217

Literacy, Education, and Inequality: Assimilation and Resistance Narratives from Families Residing at a Homeless Shelter  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, I draw on data from my qualitative dissertation study of the literacy practices of five families who resided in a homeless shelter to complicate the relationship between literacy, education, and inequality. Homelessness is examined through the lens of sponsorship to understand the differential access the families have to powerful…

Jacobs, Mary M.

2014-01-01

218

A ubiquitous power with DC micro-grid for Sectional Compact Emergency Shelters  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a mobile power for the Sectional Compact Emergency Shelter (SCES), which is used under the great disaster. The proposed mobile power consists of the Fuel Cells (FCs), photovoltaic cells (PVs) and lithium-ion rechargeable batteries. This mobile power is constructed in a container car. Therefore, the constructed mobile power is easily moveable and constructible with the SCESs. The

Keiichi Kato; Masayuki Okamoto; Eiji Hiraki; Toshihiko Tanaka; Makoto Koganei; Fusanori Miura

2011-01-01

219

Predictors of change in mental health and distress among women attending a women's shelter  

PubMed Central

Background Intimate partner violence (IPV) is detrimental to mental health. The Domestic Violence Survivor Assessment (DVSA), which includes a mental health assessment, is often used to evaluate abuse survivors in a counseling situation. The DVSA seeks to outline the cognitive state of women as per the stages of change as they attempt to move toward a life with no IPV. Objective The objective of this study was to explore predictors of change in mental health and distress among women who entered a women's shelter more than once. Methods Women entering a women's shelter more than once over a 3-year period were assessed by a trained social worker using the DVSA. A logistic regression analysis examined relationships between the chosen characteristics and the participants’ mental health through the DVSA stages of change. Results We analyzed complete data for 94 women who entered the shelter a mean of 3.3 times (range 2–8) over a mean period of 16.1 days (range: 1–391). Thirty-six women (36/94; 38.3%) progressed through the stages. The average number of visits among women who progressed through the stages was 4. Our multivariable logistic regression showed women who had more visits to the shelter were almost twice as likely to progress through the stages compared to women who entered the shelter fewer times (OR=1.928; 95% CI=1.292–2.877; p=0.001). In the univariate analysis, only increased number of visits was significantly associated with progressing through the stages of change (OR=1.694; 95% CI=1.237–2.322; p=0.001). The other factors were not significantly associated with a change in mental health and distress (p>0.05). Conclusion Women who enter women's shelters more frequently may be more likely to progress through the DVSA mental health stages compared to other women. Women's shelters may be helpful in assisting progression through the stages of change, thereby improving their mental health after abuse. PMID:25279102

Hoyeck, Patricia; Madden, Kim; Freeman, Clare; Scott, Taryn; Bhandari, Mohit

2014-01-01

220

Archeointensity determinations on Pre-Columbian potteries from La Ceiba and Santa Marta shelter-caves (Chiapas, Mexico).  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quite surprisingly, the abundance of archaeological baked clays found in the tropical area of Mesoamerica contrast with the small amount of archeomagnetic data available today for this area [Fanjat et al, EPSL, 2013; Alva-Valdivia et al, PEPI, 2010, Morales et al., EPS, 2009]. It seems especially difficult to try to establish a regional trend in the intensity variations. While they are few, the data are moreover of uneven quality as attested by a large scatter in experimental values during the Mesoamerican classic and post-classic periods (250-1521 AD) that cannot be explained by real fluctuations in the Earth's magnetic field [Fanjat et al, EPSL, 2013]. The present study is part of a large effort to provide reliable and perfectly dated archeointensity data for the tropical area of Mesoamerica. It focuses on Thellier-Thellier archeointensity measurements obtained from 87 small fragments from potsherds of 12 different potteries. These potteries were excavated from sedimentary sequences within two shelter-caves, La Ceiba and Santa Marta, located on the banks of Grijalva and La Venta rivers, respectively. Both are shelter-caves without constructed structures that were inhabited by humans groups. Samples were located in different stratigraphic levels, culturally well identified and well preserved due to long time sedimentation. Only samples with a homogenous color were pre-selected for the rock magnetic study performed prior to any attempt to estimate the archeointensity. This was done in order to assure, as far as possible, a uniform baking during the manufacture, which is supposed to be made in open sky fire, since no kiln construction has been found. The ceramics ages were achieved in 2 ways: for samples with organic material associated, a 14C dating was done. The rest of the samples were dated according to their typological characteristics, comparing with regional ceramic chronological classification. This includes characteristics such as the finishing surface type, decoration, polished type, color, clay characteristics, composition, baking types, form, and function. The ages of the selected samples enclose the entire classical and post-classical periods. Most of our selected samples yielded good, from a technical point of view, archeointensity estimates. These new archeointensity determinations are compared and discussed with the previous values obtained for this area.

Rodriguez-Ceja, Maria; Camps, Pierre; Goguitchaichvili, Avto; Poidras, Thierry; Nicol, Patrick

2014-05-01

221

In-Kennel Behavior Predicts Length of Stay in Shelter Dogs  

PubMed Central

Previous empirical evaluations of training programs aimed at improving dog adoption rates assume that dogs exhibiting certain behaviors are more adoptable. However, no systematic data are available to indicate that the spontaneous behavior of shelter dogs has an effect on adopter preference. The aim of the present study was to determine whether any behaviors that dogs exhibit spontaneously in the presence of potential adopters were associated with the dogs' length of stay in the shelter. A sample of 289 dogs was videotaped for 1 min daily throughout their stay at a county shelter. To account for differences in adopter behavior, experimenters varied from solitary passive observers to pairs of interactive observers. Dogs behaved more attentively to active observers. To account for adopter preference for morphology, dogs were divided into “morphologically preferred” and “non-preferred” groups. Morphologically preferred dogs were small, long coated, ratters, herders, and lap dogs. No theoretically significant differences in behavior were observed between the two different dog morphologies. When accounting for morphological preference, three behaviors were found to have a significant effect on length of stay in all dogs: leaning or rubbing on the enclosure wall (increased median length of stay by 30 days), facing away from the front of the enclosure (increased by 15 days), and standing (increased by 7 days). When combinations of behaviors were assessed, back and forth motion was found to predict a longer stay (increased by 24 days). No consistent behavioral changes were observed due to time spent at the shelter. These findings will allow shelters to focus behavioral modification efforts only on behaviors likely to influence adopters' choices. PMID:25551460

Protopopova, Alexandra; Mehrkam, Lindsay Renee; Boggess, May Meredith; Wynne, Clive David Lawrence

2014-01-01

222

Earth\\'s Surface  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

You have already learned about the four major parts of Earth\\'s system: atmosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere, and geosphere. Go to the following sites to learn more about rocks and minerals, continental drift, and geologic time. When you finish viewing all the sites, you will participate in a problem-based learning activity, \\"The Case of the Disappearing Dirt.\\" Topographic Maps All About Geology Answer the questions on the handout. Erosion and Weathering Summarize what your learned about erosion and weathering. Examine a landscape formed by erosion Observe the effects of mechanical weathering Plate Tectonics FAQ s About Rocks and Fossils Igneous Rocks Rocks and Minerals Slide Show Rock Cycle Observe an animation of metamorphic rocks forming Continental Drift Mineralogy 4 kids : rockin Internet site : the best place to learn about rocks and minerals Draw a picture of the rock cycle. Coasting Away ...

Mathis, Ms.

2008-01-11

223

DEPARTMENT OF EARTH, OCEAN and ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES  

E-print Network

DEPARTMENT OF EARTH, OCEAN and ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES Part-Time Sessional Lecturer EOSC 116 Sciences, University of British Columbia, Room 2020, Earth Sciences Building, 2207 Main Mall, Vancouver, B ­ Mesozoic Earth: Time of the Dinosaurs EOSC 116 is a team-taught and the topic to be covered

224

2010 RAL Space Solar Impacts on Earth  

E-print Network

© 2010 RAL Space Solar Impacts on Earth: Revealed by NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory & STEREO minimum for a century: · Why? What happened? · What does that mean for the Earth? · Will the next build up cycle begins... The Events of 1-4 August 2010: A Close Shave for the Earth! 1 August 2010 ­ The day

225

Coordinating Communities and Building Governance in the Development of Schematic and Semantic Standards: the Key to Solving Global Earth and Space Science Challenges in the 21st Century.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Information Age in Science is being driven partly by the data deluge as exponentially growing volumes of data are being generated by research. Such large volumes of data cannot be effectively processed by humans and efficient and timely processing by computers requires development of specific machine readable formats. Further, as key challenges in earth and space sciences, such as climate change, hazard prediction and sustainable development resources require a cross disciplinary approach, data from various domains will need to be integrated from globally distributed sources also via machine to machine formats. However, it is becoming increasingly apparent that the existing standards can be very domain specific and most existing data transfer formats require human intervention. Where groups from different communities do try combine data across the domain/discipline boundaries much time is spent reformatting and reorganizing the data and it is conservatively estimated that this can take 80% of a project's time and resources. Four different types of standards are required for machine to machine interaction: systems, syntactic, schematic and semantic. Standards at the systems (WMS, WFS, etc) and at the syntactic level (GML, Observation and Measurement, SensorML) are being developed through international standards bodies such as ISO, OGC, W3C, IEEE etc. In contrast standards at the schematic level (e.g., GeoSciML, LandslidesML, WaterML, QuakeML) and at the semantic level (ie ontologies and vocabularies) are currently developing rapidly, in a very uncoordinated way and with little governance. As the size of the community that can machine read each others data depends on the size of the community that has developed the schematic or semantic standards, it is essential that to achieve global integration of earth and space science data, the required standards need to be developed through international collaboration using accepted standard proceedures. Once developed the standards also require some form of governance to maintain and then extend the standard as the science evolves to meet new challenges. A standard that does have some governance is GeoSciML, a data transfer standard for geoscience map data. GeoSciML is currently being developed by a consortium of 7 countries under the auspices of the Commission for the Management of and Application of Geoscience Information (CGI), a commission of the International Union of Geological Sciences. Perhaps other `ML' or ontology and vocabulary development `teams' need to look to their international domain specific specialty societies for endorsement and governance. But the issue goes beyond Earth and Space Sciences, as increasingly cross and intra disciplinary science requires machine to machine interaction with other science disciplines such as physics, chemistry and astronomy. For example, for geochemistry do we develop GeochemistryML or do we extend the existing Chemical Markup Language? Again, the question is who will provide the coordination of the development of the required schematic and semantic standards that underpin machine to machine global integration of science data. Is this a role for ICSU or CODATA or who? In order to address this issue, Geoscience Australia and CSIRO established the Solid Earth and Environmental Grid Community website to enable communities to `advertise' standards development and to provide a community TWIKI where standards can be developed in a globally `open' environment.

Wyborn, L. A.

2007-12-01

226

Planning Protective Action Decision-Making: Evacuate or Shelter-in-Place  

SciTech Connect

Appropriate protective action recommendations or decisions (PARs/PADs) are needed to achieve maximum protection of a population at risk. The factors that affect protective action decisions are complex but fairly well documented. Protective action decisions take into account population distributions, projected or actual exposure to a chemical substance, availability of adequate shelters, evacuation time estimates, and other relevant factors. To choose in-place sheltering, there should be a reasonable assurance that the movement of people beyond their residence, workplace, or school will endanger the health and safety of the public more so than allowing them to remain in place. The decision to evacuate the public should be based on the reasonable assurance that the movement of people to an area outside of an affected area is in the best interest of their health and safety, and is of minimal risk to them. In reality, an evacuation decision is also a resource-dependent decision. The availability of transportation and other resources, including shelters, may factor heavily in the protective action decision-making process. All strategies to protect the health and safety of the public from a release of hazardous chemicals are explicitly considered during emergency decision making. Each institutional facility (such as hospitals, schools, day care centers, correctional facilities, assisted living facilities or nursing homes) in the community should be considered separately to determine what special protective actions may be necessary. Deciding whether to evacuate or to shelter-in-place is one of the most important questions facing local emergency planners responding to a toxic chemical release. That such a complex decision with such important potential consequences must be made with such urgency places tremendous responsibility on the planners and officials involved. Researchers have devoted considerable attention to the evacuation/shelter-in-place protection decision. While several decision aids have been developed, no single approach has achieved widespread acceptance based on validity, utility, and effectiveness (Ujihara 1989, Mannan and Kilpatrick 2000). In the absence of an agreed-upon methodology for making this decision, the best strategy for local emergency planners and officials is a thorough understanding of all the components affecting the decision. This paper summarizes what is currently known about the evacuation/shelter-in-place protection decision and points to available literature that more thoroughly explores the individual components of the decision. The next section summarizes the major issues in protective action decision process. This is followed by a discussion of all the factors that may bear on the protective action decision process. The final section address how to make a protective action decision.

Sorensen, J.H.

2002-08-30

227

Reliability of hybrid photovoltaic DC micro-grid systems for emergency shelters and other applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Improvement of energy efficiency in the SunSmart Schools Emergency Shelters requires new methods for optimizing the energy consumption within the shelters. One major limitation in current systems is the requirement of converting direct current (DC) power generated from the PV array into alternating current (AC) power which is distributed throughout the shelters. Oftentimes, this AC power is then converted back to DC to run certain appliances throughout the shelters resulting in a significant waste of energy due to DC to AC and then again AC to DC conversion. This paper seeks to extract the maximum value out of PV systems by directly powering essential load components within the shelters that already run on DC power without the use of an inverter and above all to make the system reliable and durable. Furthermore, additional DC applications such as LED lighting, televisions, computers and fans operated with DC brushless motors will be installed as replacements to traditional devices in order to improve efficiency and reduce energy consumption. Cost of energy storage technologies continue to decline as new technologies scale up and new incentives are put in place. This will provide a cost effective way to stabilize the energy generation of a PV system as well as to provide continuous energy during night hours. It is planned to develop a pilot program of an integrated system that can provide uninterrupted DC power to essential base load appliances (heating, cooling, lighting, etc.) at the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) command center for disaster management. PV arrays are proposed to be installed on energy efficient test houses at FSEC as well as at private homes having PV arrays where the owners volunteer to participate in the program. It is also planned to monitor the performance of the PV arrays and functioning of the appliances with the aim to improve their reliability and durability. After a successful demonstration of the hybrid DC microgrid based emergency shelter together with the monitoring system, it is planned to replicate it at other schools in Florida and elsewhere to provide continuous power for essential applications, maximizing the value of PV generation systems.

Dhere, Neelkanth G.; Schleith, Susan

2014-10-01

228

University Buildings Landmark Buildings  

E-print Network

Sciences Building 3 Human Resources 11 Information Services 34 Institute of Professional Legal Studies (IPLS) 4 International and Postgraduate Student Centre 1n International Office 33 INTO at Queen's 13 and Student Affairs 3 Administration Building 32 Ashby Building 27 Belfast City Hospital 28 Bernard Crossland

Paxton, Anthony T.

229

University Buildings Landmark Buildings  

E-print Network

Accommodation) 5 Harty Room, School of Music 26 Health Sciences Building 3 Human Resources 11 Information Services 34 Institute of Professional Legal Studies (IPLS) 4 International and Postgraduate Student Centre's University Belfast Campus Map The Lanyon Building The Students' Union The David Keir Building School Offices

Paxton, Anthony T.

230

Earth's Seasons  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A computer animation on the reason for the seasons. Voice-over describes the motion of Earth around the sun to show how the sun's light impacts the tilted Earth at different times of the year, causing seasonal changes.

Rochester Museum And Science Center, Strasenburgh P.

231

The Treated Prevalence of Mental Health and Substance Use Disorders among Adults Admitted to the Philadelphia Shelter System: Results from the Integration of Longitudinal Data on Shelter and Mental Health Services Utilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports results from a study of the treated prevalence of mental health and substance use disorders among adults admitted to Philadelphia public shelters between 1990 and 1992 (N=28,638). Identifiers and service records from longitudinal databases on shelter and mental health services were merged, finding that 49% of single homeless adults and 33.2% of homeless adults with children had

Dennis P Culhane; June M Averyt; Trevor R Hadley

1996-01-01

232

Edible Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners make a model of the solid Earth's layers that's good enough to eat! Learners use tasty foodstuffs to simulate Earth's inner core, outer core, mantle, and crust. The recipe includes ingredients for one edible Earth, but can be doubled or tripled to accommodate groups of learners. This activity requires adult supervision.

American Museum of Natural History

2011-08-20

233

Earth Flow  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Flash animation with accompanying audio exhibits the different stages involved in the formation of an earth flow. A step-like scarp forms along with a flowage zone at the toe of the earth flow. The sequence concludes with the stabilization of the earth flow with vegetation. Expect long loading times.

Wiley

234

Planet Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For those interested in a global view of the weather, Planet Earth is a "real-time 3-D model of the Earth with continuously updating night shadows and clouds." Cloud images are provided by the University of Wisconsin-Madison Space Science and Engineering Center. Planet Earth is shareware with a fee of $29.95.

235

Earth Calendar  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This handout lists major events in Earth history with approximate ages (in millions of years before present). The calendar date is determined by setting midnight, January 1, to correspond with the formation of the Earth, and setting the following midnight, December 31, to correspond to the present. Thus, the entire history of the Earth is displayed as a single calendar year.

Barker, Jeffrey

236

Snowball Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Audio program from the University of Wisconsin's Earthwatch Radio discusses the notion of the entire planet covered with ice. Doug Macdougall is an earth scientist at the University of California-San Diego and author of a new book called "Frozen Earth." He says the planet-wide freeze is known as "Snowball Earth."

237

Interspecific Competition for Shelters in Territorial and Gregarious Intertidal Grazers: Consequences for Individual Behaviour  

PubMed Central

Experiments have shown that interspecific interactions within consumer guilds can alter patterns of distribution, abundance and size of species. Plastic behavioural responses can be modulated by agonistic interactions. In many cases, consumers compete for space and shelters, and these interactions change the manner in which they exploit food. This study investigates the consequences of competition in the spatial and temporal organization of behaviour of intertidal grazers, which share algal resources and the use of rock crevices while resting, but exhibit different body sizes, spatial behaviour and foraging modes. We evaluate interaction strength between small gregarious Siphonaria lessoni and the larger territorial keyhole limpet Fissurella crassa and between S. lessoni and the medium-size gregarious chiton Chiton granosus. Using field manipulations and artificial arenas in the laboratory, we tested whether the use of crevices, micro-spatial distribution and activity are modified by the density of conspecifics and the presence of heterospecifics. Our results show that small-scale spatial segregation observed in the field between S. lessoni and C. granosus result from species-specific differences in habitat use. In turn, we found evidence that spatial segregation between F. crassa and S. lessoni results from highly asymmetric interference competition in the use of shelters. The presence of F. crassa reduced the use of crevices and growth rates of S. lessoni. Effects on growth rates are assumed to result from exposure to harsh environmental conditions rather than food limitation. Thus, neither gregarious behaviour nor differences in activity were sufficient to prevent competition with the larger grazer. Our study illustrates the importance of competition for shelters, which results in behavioural changes of the smaller-sized species, and how these plastic responses can translate into differences in growth rates. Use of shelters can thus be modulated by environmental conditions in a species-specific as well as an interactive manner within consumers’ guilds. PMID:23049980

Aguilera, Moisés A.; Navarrete, Sergio A.

2012-01-01

238

Interspecific competition for shelters in territorial and gregarious intertidal grazers: consequences for individual behaviour.  

PubMed

Experiments have shown that interspecific interactions within consumer guilds can alter patterns of distribution, abundance and size of species. Plastic behavioural responses can be modulated by agonistic interactions. In many cases, consumers compete for space and shelters, and these interactions change the manner in which they exploit food. This study investigates the consequences of competition in the spatial and temporal organization of behaviour of intertidal grazers, which share algal resources and the use of rock crevices while resting, but exhibit different body sizes, spatial behaviour and foraging modes. We evaluate interaction strength between small gregarious Siphonaria lessoni and the larger territorial keyhole limpet Fissurella crassa and between S. lessoni and the medium-size gregarious chiton Chiton granosus. Using field manipulations and artificial arenas in the laboratory, we tested whether the use of crevices, micro-spatial distribution and activity are modified by the density of conspecifics and the presence of heterospecifics. Our results show that small-scale spatial segregation observed in the field between S. lessoni and C. granosus result from species-specific differences in habitat use. In turn, we found evidence that spatial segregation between F. crassa and S. lessoni results from highly asymmetric interference competition in the use of shelters. The presence of F. crassa reduced the use of crevices and growth rates of S. lessoni. Effects on growth rates are assumed to result from exposure to harsh environmental conditions rather than food limitation. Thus, neither gregarious behaviour nor differences in activity were sufficient to prevent competition with the larger grazer. Our study illustrates the importance of competition for shelters, which results in behavioural changes of the smaller-sized species, and how these plastic responses can translate into differences in growth rates. Use of shelters can thus be modulated by environmental conditions in a species-specific as well as an interactive manner within consumers' guilds. PMID:23049980

Aguilera, Moisés A; Navarrete, Sergio A

2012-01-01

239

Making the Wii at Home: Game Play by Older People in Sheltered Housing  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Games such as the Nintendo WiiTM are being promoted for use by all ages but there is little experience with how groups of older people integrate Wii playing\\u000a into their physical and social spaces. This paper focuses on WiiTM game play by older people in Sheltered Housing schemes, as part of an initiative to promote physical and social activity\\u000a in

Dave Harley; Geraldine Fitzpatrick; Lesley Axelrod; Gareth R. White; Graham McAllister

2010-01-01

240

Population biology of the gastropod Olivella minuta (Gastropoda, Olividae) on two sheltered beaches in southeastern Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The structure, dynamics and production of two populations of the olivid gastropod Olivella minuta were analyzed through monthly sampling from November 2009 through October 2011 on two sandy beaches, Pernambuco (very sheltered) and Barequeçaba (sheltered) in São Paulo state (23°48'S), southeastern Brazil. On both beaches, samples were taken along five transects established perpendicular to the waterline. Parameters of the von Bertalanffy growth function were estimated for both populations from monthly length-frequency distributions. The production and turnover ratios were determined using the mass-specific growth rate method. The population on the less-sheltered Barequeçaba Beach was less abundant (120.02 ± 22.60 ind m-1) than on Pernambuco Beach (3295.30 ± 504.86 ind m-1 (±SE)), which we attribute to the greater environmental stability of the latter. Conversely, the mean length, size of the largest individual, and body mass were higher at Barequeçaba than at Pernambuco. The significant differences in the growth of individuals and the mortality rate (Z) between the beaches suggest that density-dependent processes were operating at Pernambuco Beach. The production and P/B ratio at Pernambuco (12.12 g AFDM m-1 year-1 and 1.91 year-1) were higher than at Barequeçaba (0.82 g AFDM m-1 year-1 and 1.06 year-1). The difference in production can be attributed to the higher abundance on Pernambuco, while the higher P/B ratio resulted from the scarcity of smaller individuals in the intertidal zone of Barequeçaba. The P/B ratio estimated for the Pernambuco population is the highest found so far for sandy-beach gastropods. This study reinforces the theory that biological interactions are important regulators of sheltered sandy-beach populations. Future studies with multi-beach sampling are needed to better understand the life-history variations of O. minuta along gradients of degree of exposure of sandy beaches.

Petracco, Marcelo; Camargo, Rita Monteiro; Tardelli, Daniel Teixeira; Turra, Alexander

2014-10-01

241

Thermal performance trials on the habitability of private bushfire shelters: part 1.  

PubMed

This communication is the first of two in which specifications for private bushfire shelters were evaluated during human trials. The purpose of this investigation (series 1) was to test the hypothesis that shelters capable of maintaining the internal environment at, or below, a modified discomfort index of 39 °C would prevent a deep-body temperature elevation of >2 °C. This was tested over 96 trials during which eight men and eight women were exposed at rest (60 min) to three regulated shelter conditions satisfying that standard: 40 °C and 70 % relative humidity, 45 °C and 50 % relative humidity and 50 °C and 30 % relative humidity. Subjects were tested twice in each condition following exercise- and heat-induced dehydration (2 % body mass reduction) and pre-heating to each of two deep-body thermal states (37.5 and 38.5 °C). Participants presented well rested and euhydrated, and pre-treatments successfully achieved the thermal and hydration targets prior to exposure. Auditory canal temperatures declined as exposures commenced, with subsequent rises of >0.5 °C not evident within any trial. However, each increment in air temperature elicited a significant elevation in the respective within-trial mean auditory canal temperature (37.4, 37.7 and 37.9 °C) and heart rate (103, 116 and 122 beats.min(-1)) when subjects were moderately hyperthermic (all P shelters appeared adequate, providing the physical characteristics of the internal air remained stable. PMID:25336107

Taylor, Nigel A S; Haberley, Benjamin J; Hoyle, David J R

2014-10-22

242

Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in battered women: A shelter sample  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sample of 77 battered women in shelters was examined for the presence or absence of a post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) diagnosis. Self-report data were obtained on battery characteristics, extent of intrusion and avoidance, depression, anxiety, and general psychopathology. Eight-four percent of the sample met the DSM-III-R criteria for PTSD according to self-report. The reported subjective distress regarding the battery

Anita Kemp; Edna I. Rawlings; Bonnie L. Green

1991-01-01

243

NUclear EVacuation Analysis Code (NUEVAC) : a tool for evaluation of sheltering and evacuation responses following urban nuclear detonations.  

SciTech Connect

The NUclear EVacuation Analysis Code (NUEVAC) has been developed by Sandia National Laboratories to support the analysis of shelter-evacuate (S-E) strategies following an urban nuclear detonation. This tool can model a range of behaviors, including complex evacuation timing and path selection, as well as various sheltering or mixed evacuation and sheltering strategies. The calculations are based on externally generated, high resolution fallout deposition and plume data. Scenario setup and calculation outputs make extensive use of graphics and interactive features. This software is designed primarily to produce quantitative evaluations of nuclear detonation response options. However, the outputs have also proven useful in the communication of technical insights concerning shelter-evacuate tradeoffs to urban planning or response personnel.

Yoshimura, Ann S.; Brandt, Larry D.

2009-11-01

244

Applying genetic algorithms to the location allocation of shelter sites Xiang Li, Hsiang-te Kung, Jerry Bartholomew, Esra Ozdenerol  

E-print Network

The threat posed by a disaster as destructive as hurricane Katrina forces not only the homeless but also every resident to be evacuated from their homes to centralized shelters. Therefore, as part of hazard

Li, Xiang

245

Architectural stone investigation - What makes great buildings?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is best placed as a follow-up activity to the study of minerals and the three major rock types in an introductory physical geology course. Students are required to work in small cooperative groups. Each group chooses a major building to research. The group divides the tasks associated with the research and presentation of information. The overall goal of the project is for students to gain an understanding of the importance and uses of earth materials in building and planning major buildings in an urban setting. The general format of the project is: 1. Students research building design, placement and use of earth materials in a major building. 2. Students research the earth materials used in their building. 3. Students create and show their PowerPoint presentation in class. 4. Students prepare and deliver an on-site oral presentation about their building. The activity helps students connect a basic study of earth materials to urban planning and living.

Aida Awad

246

A cluster of Rickettsia rickettsii infection at an animal shelter in an urban area of Brazil.  

PubMed

SUMMARY Rickettsia rickettsii infection is being increasingly recognized as an important cause of fatal acute illness in Brazil, where this tick-borne disease is designated Brazilian spotted fever (BSF). In this study we report five fatal cases of BSF in employees of an animal shelter in an urban area in the municipality of Rio de Janeiro in southeast Brazil after a natural disaster on 11 January 2011. Four of the cases occurred from 27 January to 11 April 2011, while the fifth fatal case was identified in April 2012. Three cases were confirmed by molecular analysis and two by epidemiological linkage. An investigation of BSF was performed in the animal shelter, and blood samples were collected from 115 employees and 117 randomly selected dogs. The presence of high levels (1024-4096) of antibodies against spotted fever group rickettsiae was found in three (2·6%) employees and 114 (97·5%) dogs. These findings emphasize the need to consider BSF as a possible cause of undifferentiated febrile illness, especially dengue and leptospirosis, in patients occupationally exposed to dogs heavily infested by ticks, mainly working at kennels and animal shelters that have inadequate space for the animals housed and frequently providing an environment conducive to exposure to pathogens such as R. rickettsii. PMID:25483025

Rozental, T; Ferreira, M S; Gomes, R; Costa, C M; Barbosa, P R A; Bezerra, I O; Garcia, M H O; Oliveira E Cruz, D M; Galliez, R; Oliveira, S; Brasil, P; Rezende, T; DE Lemos, E R S

2014-12-01

247

Intertidal coarse woody debris: A spatial subsidy as shelter or feeding habitat for gastropods?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coarse woody debris (CWD) in the intertidal region of rocky shores serves as a potential source of nutrients as well as habitat or refugia from predation, ecologically linking the adjacent marine and terrestrial habitats. In a series of field and laboratory experiments, the affinity of slow-moving motile intertidal gastropods to CWD either as food source or as shelter that increases habitat complexity was tested. In intertidal pools, CWD did not increase colonization by Littorina spp., while it did so in supratidal pools. Habitat complexity, brought about by algal cover and barnacles, was apparently sufficient in intertidal pools without woody debris, while the increase in habitat complexity by CWD increased the attractiveness of supratidal pools with little natural complexity to Littorina spp. Overall, however, comparison of pools containing woody debris and those containing artificial shelter provided evidence for CWD, and/or its biofilm, serving as food source rather than refugium per se. Similarly, Tegula funebralis chose CWD as food source rather than as shelter as indicated by comparison of autoclaved and unmanipulated woody debris. Further, both unfed and fed snails from a site where CWD was present significantly preferred CWD over macroalgae. Among snails from a site without woody debris, fed individuals showed no preference, while unfed snails significantly preferred macroalgae. From this, experience appears to be a factor that mediates the role of CWD. Overall, however, CWD appears to provide supplementary food to snails in the inter- and supratidal zone.

Storry, Kristin A.; Weldrick, Christine K.; Mews, Malte; Zimmer, Martin; Jelinski, Dennis E.

2006-01-01

248

Molecular identification of hookworms in stray and shelter dogs from Guangzhou city, China using ITS sequences.  

PubMed

Canine hookworm infections are endemic worldwide, with zoonotic transmission representing a potentially significant public health concern. This study aimed to investigate hookworm infection and identify the prevalent species from stray and shelter dogs in Guangzhou city, southern China by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) based on internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences. From March 2011 to July 2012, fresh faecal samples from a total of 254 dogs were obtained from five locations, namely Conghua, Baiyun, Liwan, Haizhu and Panyu, in Guangzhou. These samples were screened for the presence of hookworm eggs using light microscopy, with an overall prevalence of 29.53% being recorded. The highest prevalence of 45.28% was found in suburban dogs from Conghua compared with lower values recorded in urban dogs in Haizhu (21.43%), Baiyun (18.97%), Panyu (18.18%) and Liwan (15%). The prevalence in stray dogs was signi?cantly higher than that in shelter dogs. PCR-RFLP analysis showed that 57.33% were detected as single hookworm infections with Ancyclostoma caninum, and 22.67% as A. ceylanicum, while 20% were mixed infections. This suggests that high prevalences of both hookworm species in stray and shelter dogs in China pose a potential risk of transmission from pet dogs to humans. PMID:24280028

Liu, Y J; Zheng, G C; Zhang, P; Alsarakibi, M; Zhang, X H; Li, Y W; Liu, T; Ren, S N; Chen, Z X; Liu, Y L; Li, S J; Li, G Q

2015-03-01

249

Effects of sheltering and orientation on the atmospheric corrosion of structural metals  

SciTech Connect

The Bureau of Mines, U.S. Department of the Interior, is conducting atmospheric corrosion tests on five alloys and two coated-steel products at five sites as part of the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program. Tests were conducted on samples boldly exposed to the atmosphere, sheltered from the atmosphere, and facing skyward and groundward. Details of the corrosion process related to orientation and sheltering and involving particulates, corrosion film chemistry and morphology, and the dissolution/reprecipitation process were established. The corrosion film on zinc saturates with sulfur at around 7 wt pct with increasing ambient sulfur dioxide concentration. Zinc corrosion on the skyward side appears to be cathodically protected in two-sided old exposures. Only large particulates are present on the surface of sheltered copper and zinc; small particulates dissolve and disperse into the corrosion film. The dissolution/reprecipitation process occurs primarily during the final stages of drying. The information is essential to the development of damage models for the effects of acid deposition of metallic materials.

Carter, J.P.; Linstrom, P.J.; Flinn, D.R.; Cramer, S.D.

1987-03-01

250

A placebo-controlled trial of two intranasal vaccines to prevent tracheobronchitis (kennel cough) in dogs entering a humane shelter  

Microsoft Academic Search

A placebo-controlled field trial was conducted to compare the effectiveness of intranasal (IN) vaccines containing Bordetella bronchiseptica and canine-parainfluenza virus, with (IN-BPA) or without (IN-BP) canine-adenovirus type 2, for prevention of kennel cough at a humane shelter. Dogs were examined on admission to the shelter and those without respiratory signs of disease were assigned daily, on a rotating basis, to

Charlotte H. Edinboro; Michael P. Ward; Larry T. Glickman

2004-01-01

251

Prevalence of Blastocystis in Shelter-Resident and Client-Owned Companion Animals in the US Pacific Northwest  

PubMed Central

Domestic dogs and cats are commonly infected with a variety of protozoan enteric parasites, including Blastocystis spp. In addition, there is growing interest in Blastocystis as a potential enteric pathogen, and the possible role of domestic and in-contact animals as reservoirs for human infection. Domestic animals in shelter environments are commonly recognized to be at higher risk for carriage of enteropathogens. The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency of infection of shelter-resident and client-owned domestic dogs and cats with Blastocystis spp in the Pacific Northwest region of the USA. Fecal samples were collected from 103 shelter-resident dogs, 105 shelter-resident cats, 51 client-owned dogs and 52 client-owned cats. Blastocystis were detected and subtypes assigned using a nested PCR based on small subunit ribosomal DNA sequences. Shelter-resident animals were significantly more likely to test positive for Blastocystis (P<0.05 for dogs, P?=?0.009 for cats). Sequence analysis indicated that shelter-resident animals were carrying a variety of Blastocystis subtypes. No relationship was seen between Blastocystis carriage and the presence of gastrointestinal disease signs in either dogs or cats. These data suggest that, as previously reported for other enteric pathogens, shelter-resident companion animals are a higher risk for carriage of Blastocystis spp. The lack of relationship between Blastocystis carriage and intestinal disease in shelter-resident animals suggests that this organism is unlikely to be a major enteric pathogen in these species. PMID:25226285

Ruaux, Craig G.; Stang, Bernadette V.

2014-01-01

252

The effects of density, light and shelter on the growth and survival of African catfish ( Clarias gariepinus Burchell, 1822) fingerlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of stocking density, light and shelter on the growth and survival of Clarias gariepinus fingerings was evaluated. In this experiment African catfish with initial individual mean weight 0.79±0.1 g were reared at two different stocking densities—5 fish l?1 and 10 fish l?1 in either sheltered or unsheltered tanks with reduced and normal light condition. In all conditions growth

Mostafa A. R. Hossain; Malcolm C. M. Beveridge; Graham S. Haylor

1998-01-01

253

MIT Department of Architecture Autumn 2012 4.461 Architectural Building Systems  

E-print Network

.) Course Description: The making of architecture includes design and specification. Design decisions and design pedagogy address the former while building technology deals with the latter. As architecture may be satisfied with food shelter and clothing, our cultural aspirations typically push us to create

Entekhabi, Dara

254

NPP and the Earth System - Duration: 2:33.  

NASA Video Gallery

NPP is a continuation of the existing Earth-observing satellites and it builds on the legacy of multi decades of critical data. NPP will continue to deliver data to all users on Earth who will use ...

255

Where Would CINDI Be? A 3-D Scale Model of the Earth-Moon System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an activity about the Earth-Moon system. Learners will build a scale model of the Earth-Moon system and predict the distance between the two, as well as the distance of Earth-orbiting spacecraft.

256

The Geoscience Diversity Enhancement Program (GDEP): Building an Earth System Science Centered Research, Education, and Outreach Effort in Urban Long Beach, California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Geoscience Diversity Enhancement Program (GDEP) is an NSF-OEDG funded project at California State University, Long Beach (CSULB). Program goals include increasing awareness of geoscience careers, and the availability and accessibility of research experiences, to area high school and community college faculty and students from underrepresented groups. Begun in fall 2001, GDEP involves faculty leadership within three CSULB departments; geological sciences, geography, and anthropology, as well as five community colleges, and one of the largest K-12 school districts in California, Long Beach Unified. In addition, linkages to CSULB's outreach and student orientation activities are strong, with the facilitation of staff in CSULB's Student Access to Science and Mathematics (SAS) Center. During the first year, program activities centered around three major objectives: (1) creating the CSULB leadership team, and developing a robust and sustainable decision-making process, coupled with extensive relationship-building with community college and high school partners, (2) creating an evaluation plan that reflects institutional and leadership goals, and comprehensively piloting evaluation instruments, and, (3) designing and implementing a summer research experience, which was successfully inaugurated during summer 2002. We were very successful in achieving objective (1): each member of the leadership group took strong roles in the design and success of the program. Several meetings were held with each community college and high school faculty colleague, to clarify and reaffirm program values and goals. Objective (2), led by project evaluator David Whitney, resulted in an array of evaluation instruments that were tested in introductory geology, geography, and archaeology courses at CSULB. These evaluation instruments were designed to measure attitudes and beliefs of a diverse cross-section of CSULB students. Preliminary analysis of survey results reveals significant differences among ethnic groups in their perceptions and understanding of geoscience disciplines. Objective (3), the summer research experience, was also very successful: more than 25 faculty and students participated in the experience. Our preliminary analyses of the impact of the summer research experience show that research work combining field experiences, ready access to faculty mentors, and a team approach to investigations appeared most valuable to program participants.

Ambos, E. L.; Behl, R.; Francis, R. D.; Larson, D. O.; Ramirez, M.; Rodrigue, C.; Sample, J.; Wechsler, S.; Whitney, D.; Hazen, C.

2002-12-01

257

Dynamic Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Dynamic Earth consists of four sections and an assessment. Each section explores one aspect of the earth's structure and the movement of its tectonic plates. Simply follow the instructions on the screen to learn about the layers that make up the earth; how the continents arrived at their current locations; the constant movement of the tectonic plates; and the volcanoes, earthquakes, and other events that result from the movements of the plates. Students will view animations, read explanations, and use their mouse to drag and drop the earth's continents in their correct places, highlight features on a map, and cause earth's tectonic plates to move. At various points, students will check their knowledge by taking a quick quiz or playing a game to see how much they have learned about the Dynamic Earth. Students should read section introductions carefully, as they give a basic overview of concepts, and use the Glossary to look up definitions to unfamiliar terms.

Ashlinn Quinn

2007-01-01

258

University Buildings Landmark Buildings  

E-print Network

(Student Accommodation) 5 Harty Room, School of Music 26 Health Sciences Building 3 Human Resources 11 Information Services 34 Institute of Professional Legal Studies (IPLS) 4 International and Postgraduate Accommodation Queen's University Belfast Campus Map The Lanyon Building The Students' Union The David Keir

Müller, Jens-Dominik

259

Celebrate Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Earth is truly something to celebrate! Click on the links below and have some fun! Click on the link to send you to a fun website created just for kids like you! Now go celebrate the earth! Kids for Saving Earth Enjoy these other activities as well! Go recycling! A is for Air Discover what all of the letters of the alphabet can stand for! video Get on ...

Mrs. Rokes

2009-04-23

260

Earth Force  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"Earth Force engages young people as active citizens who improve the environment and their communities now and in the future." Educators can learn about Earth Force's three programs: Community Action and Problem solving (CAPS), the Global Rivers Environmental Education Network (GREEN), and Earth Force After School. Users can discover students' many accomplishments such as creating reusable fabric grocery bags, recycling cell phones and ink cartridges to earn money, and cleaning up litter. The Tools for Teachers section offers evaluation results, a quality rubric, and a description of the six-step Earth Force community action and problem-solving process.

261

Earth Day  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

On April 22, 2005, people around the world will celebrate the 35th anniversary of Earth Day. This Topic in Depth focuses on the past and present of this significant day. From the Wisconsin Historical Society, the first two sites contain historical documents pertaining to Earth Day. The first (1) document features a May 1970 issue of The Gaylord Nelson Newsletter reporting on the first Earth Day. The second (2) document is a speech by Nelson entitled "An Environmental Agenda for the 70's." Housed in the archives of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) website, the next two sites also contain historical documents. The first (3) site contains an article written by Nelson for the EPA Journal in April of 1980, entitled "Earth Day '70: What It Meant." The second (4) site contains an article written by John C. Whitaker (former Interior undersecretary in the Nixon administration) for the EPA Journal in the summer of 1998. The article is entitled "Earth Day Recollections: What It Was Like When the Movement Took Off." The (5) Earth Day Network (first mentioned in the April 4, 2003, Scout Report for Life Sciences) works "to broaden the environmental movement worldwide and to educate and mobilize people, governments, and corporations to take responsibility for a clean and healthy environment." In addition to information sections about Ongoing Programs, Current Campaigns, and News, the Earth Day Network website contains Earth Day 2005 Materials for organizers. From EarthDay.gov, Take Action In Your Classroom (6) offers links to a variety of environmental education resources. The next website, from the U.S. Army Environmental Center, presents (7) Army Earth Day; and links to information about the Army's environmental activities. The final (8) site is an Earth Day-inspired educational website (first reported on in the April 14, 1999 Scout Report for Science & Engineering) from the Wilderness Society. The site offers a collection of environmental education resources for teachers and students. [NL

262

Smart buildings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Can building automation systems overcome interoperability problems to assert control over our offices, hotels, and airports? Efforts to make buildings smarter are focusing on cutting costs by streamlining building operations like air conditioning and lighting. Building automation is critical to these efforts, mainly because it could reduce the annual operating costs of buildings. This article outlines the latest building automation

D. Snoonian

2003-01-01

263

Earth tides  

SciTech Connect

Nineteen papers on gravity, tilt, and strain tides are compiled into this volume. Detailed chapters cover the calculation of the tidal forces and of the Earth's response to them, as well as actual observations of earth tides. Partial Contents: On Earth tides. The tidal forces: Tidal Forces. New Computations of the Tide-Generating Potential. Corrected Tables of Tidal Harmonics. The Theory of Tidal Deformations. Body Tides on an Elliptical, Rotating, Elastic and Oceanless Earth, Deformation of the Earth by Surface Loads. Gravimetric Tidal Loading Computed from Integrated Green's Functions. Tidal Friction in the Solid Earth. Loading Tides Versus Body Tides. Lunar Tidal Acceleration from Earth Satellite Orbit Analysis. Observations: gravity. Tidal Gravity in Britain: Tidal Loading and the Spatial Distribution of the Marine Tide. Tidal Loading along a Profile Europe-East Africa-South Asia-Australia and the Pacific Ocean. Detailed Gravity-Tide Spectrum between One and Four Cycles per Day. Observations: tilt and strain. Cavity and Topographic Effects in Tilt and Strain Measurement. Observations of Local Elastic Effects on Earth Tide Tilts and Strains.

Harrison, J.C.

1984-01-01

264

Earth Impact  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity poses the question: What would happen if a meteor or comet impacted Earth? Students simulate an impact in a container of sand using various-sized rocks, all while measuring, recording and graphing results and conclusions. Then students brainstorm ways to prevent an object from hitting the Earth.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

265

Earth meandering  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we try to put away current Global Tectonic Model to look the tectonic evolution of the earth from new point of view. Our new dynamic model is based on study of river meandering (RM) which infer new concept as Earth meandering(EM). In a universal gravitational field if we consider a clockwise spiral galaxy model rotate above Ninety

H. Asadiyan; A. Zamani

2009-01-01

266

Decision process for the retrofit of municipal buildings with solar energy systems: a technical guide  

SciTech Connect

As a background for solar applications, the following topics are covered: solar systems and components for retrofit installations; cost, performance, and quality considerations; and financing alternatives for local government. The retrofit decision process is discussed as follows: pre-screening of buildings, building data requirements, the energy conservation audit, solar system sizing and economics, comparison of alternatives, and implementation. Sample studies are presented for the West Valley Animal Shelter and the Hollywood Police Station. (MHR)

None

1980-11-01

267

Cool Shelter  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Amid climbing energy costs and tightening budgets, administrators at school districts, colleges and universities are looking for all avenues of potential savings while promoting sustainable communities. Cool metal roofing can save schools money and promote sustainable design at the same time. Cool metal roofing keeps the sun's heat from collecting…

Praeger, Charles E.

2005-01-01

268

Prevalence of positive antibody test results for canine parvovirus (CPV) and canine distemper virus (CDV) and response to modified live vaccination against CPV and CDV in dogs entering animal shelters.  

PubMed

Canine parvovirus (CPV) and canine distemper virus (CDV) infections are relatively common in animal shelters and are important population management issues since the immune status of incoming dogs is usually unknown. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of positive antibody test results for CPV and CDV in incoming dogs aged ? 4 months and to measure antibody response over 2 weeks following vaccination with a modified live vaccine (MLV). Dogs aged 4-24 months entering an adoption-guarantee shelter (Shelter 1, n=51) and aged ? 4 months entering a limited admission shelter (Shelter 2; n=51) were enrolled. Dogs from Shelter 1 had been vaccinated with MLV at a municipal shelter 5 days before enrollment, whereas dogs from Shelter 2 had no known history of vaccination at enrollment. Sera were obtained on day 1, immediately prior to CPV/CDV MLV, and tested using an in-clinic ELISA kit to detect CPV/CDV antibodies. Dogs negative for CPV and/or CDV were retested at day 6-8 and those dogs still negative at day 6-8 were retested at day 13-15. Prior to CPV/CDV MLV on day 1, more dogs tested positive for CPV (Shelter 1 - 68.6%; Shelter 2 - 84.3%) than for CDV (Shelter 1 - 37.3%; Shelter 2 - 41.2%). On day 1, prior to MLV, all spayed/neutered animals tested CPV antibody-positive (n=17/102) and CPV antibody-positive dogs were older than serologically negative dogs (Shelter 1, P=0.0029; Shelter 2, P=0.0042). By day 13-15, almost all dogs were CPV antibody-positive (Shelter 1 - 97.9%; Shelter 2 - 100.0%) and CDV antibody-positive (Shelter 1 - 93.8%; Shelter 2 - 97.8%). MLV induces protective antibody titers against CPV/CDV in almost all dogs after 13-15 days. PMID:22261239

Litster, Annette; Nichols, Jamieson; Volpe, Allison

2012-05-25

269

Planet Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How does the Earth work? What is its relationship to the other planets? These are but a few important questions answered by this creative instructional series created by WQED in Pittsburgh, in association with the National Academy of Sciences. The series was designed to present information about "our solar system and Earth's oceans, climate, and mineral and energy sources." The Annenberg Media group has placed this entire series online, and visitors can view all seven installments here. The programs include "The Climate Puzzle", "Gifts from the Earth", and "The Solar Sea". Teachers will note that the site also contains links to other educational resources, reviews, and related resources from the Annenberg Media organization.

1986-01-01

270

Feline herpesvirus 1 and feline calicivirus infections in a heterogeneous cat population of a rescue shelter.  

PubMed

Feline herpesvirus 1 (FeHV-1) and feline calicivirus (FCV), associated with upper respiratory tract disease, are highly prevalent in cats worldwide. With the aim to investigate the importance of feline respiratory viruses in a heterogeneous population of cats, samples were taken in a rescue shelter in Liège, Belgium, between March 2005 and August 2006. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were performed to diagnose FCV and FeHV-1 infection in the sampled cats. The prevalence rate (33.1%) was higher for FCV than for FeHV-1 (20.1%) whereas prevalence rate of co-infection with both viruses was 10%. Gingivitis was more common in FCV infections (odds ratio (OR)=2.83) whereas respiratory signs were more often observed with FeHV-1 infections. The average age was significantly higher in FCV positive cats (38 months) than in FeHV-1 positive cats (29.9 months). The second and the fourth quarters of the year and the two first quarters were significantly more at risk than the others in the case of FeHV-1 and FCV infection, respectively. Age was found to be a confounding factor. High prevalence of both infections strengthens the importance of applying hygienic and preventive measures in rescue shelters where cats with an unknown status of vaccination are introduced. PMID:19577497

Zicola, Angélique; Saegerman, Claude; Quatpers, Dominique; Viandier, Julie; Thiry, Etienne

2009-12-01

271

Shasta ground sloth ( Nothrotheriops shastense hoffstetter) at Shelter Cave, New Mexico: Environment, diet, and extinction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seven coprolites of the extinct Shasta ground sloth ( Nothrotheriops shastense) were recently discovered in the Los Angeles County Museum collection from Shelter Cave, New Mexico. Three dung balls provided radiocarbon ages of 11,330, 12,330 and 12,430 yr B.P. Packrat ( Neotoma) middens disclose a xeric juniper woodland at Shelter Cave during the sloth's occupation. Plant cuticles from the dung indicate that the ground sloth had a diet dominated by mormon tea ( Ephedra) and other xerophytic shrubs. Pollen spectra from the coprolites have high representations of anemophilous plants and low representations of the dietary items shown in the cuticle analysis. Fifteen radiocarbon dates of sloth dung obtained since 1974 strengthen the hypothesis that sloth extinction occurred about 11,000 yr B.P. Paleoenvironmental studies indicate that ground sloths lived in juniper woodlands and montane conifer communities. Nothrotheriops commonly dined on shrubs that are still present in these habitats. It is difficult to explain the demise of the Shasta ground sloth by climatic change or dietary stress. Human predation remains as a possible explanation; ground sloth extinction appears to coincide with the time of Clovis mammoth hunters.

Thompson, Robert S.; Van Devender, Thomas R.; Martin, Paul S.; Foppe, Theresa; Long, Austin

1980-11-01

272

Women's experiences leaving abusive relationships: a shelter-based qualitative study.  

PubMed

Intimate partner violence is a worldwide problem. South Africa has one of the highest rates of intimate partner violence and therefore requires effective and sustainable approaches to prevention and response. For abused women, the process of leaving an intimate partner is difficult and mired in an abundance of complex factors that influence decision making. This qualitative study explored women's experiences of leaving abusive homes and relationships and the critical factors that pushed them to leave. In-depth interviews were conducted with 11 adult women who had experienced partner abuse and were residents of a shelter in Gauteng Province, South Africa. All interviews were audio-taped with consent, translated where necessary and transcribed verbatim. Thematic analysis of interviews was carried out. Two themes emerged as being instrumental to leaving: 'a phase of change' and the 'process of leaving the abusive relationship'. Leaving an abusive relationship was found to be a complex process that did not necessarily imply the end of the relationship and it reflected women's changing attitudes over time. Awareness of shelters and social support was found to be critical in facilitating departure from abusive relationships. PMID:25470526

Baholo, Masemetse; Christofides, Nicola; Wright, Anne; Sikweyiya, Yandisa; Jama Shai, Nwabisa

2014-12-01

273

Wind Tunnel Analysis of the Aerodynamic Loads on Rolling Stock over Railway Embankments: The Effect of Shelter Windbreaks.  

PubMed

Wind-flow pattern over embankments involves an overexposure of the rolling stock travelling on them to wind loads. Windbreaks are a common solution for changing the flow characteristic in order to decrease unwanted effects induced by the presence of cross-wind. The shelter effectiveness of a set of windbreaks placed over a railway twin-track embankment is experimentally analysed. A set of two-dimensional wind tunnel tests are undertaken and results corresponding to pressure tap measurements over a section of a typical high-speed train are herein presented. The results indicate that even small-height windbreaks provide sheltering effects to the vehicles. Also, eaves located at the windbreak tips seem to improve their sheltering effect. PMID:25544954

Avila-Sanchez, Sergio; Pindado, Santiago; Lopez-Garcia, Oscar; Sanz-Andres, Angel

2014-01-01

274

Wind Tunnel Analysis of the Aerodynamic Loads on Rolling Stock over Railway Embankments: The Effect of Shelter Windbreaks  

PubMed Central

Wind-flow pattern over embankments involves an overexposure of the rolling stock travelling on them to wind loads. Windbreaks are a common solution for changing the flow characteristic in order to decrease unwanted effects induced by the presence of cross-wind. The shelter effectiveness of a set of windbreaks placed over a railway twin-track embankment is experimentally analysed. A set of two-dimensional wind tunnel tests are undertaken and results corresponding to pressure tap measurements over a section of a typical high-speed train are herein presented. The results indicate that even small-height windbreaks provide sheltering effects to the vehicles. Also, eaves located at the windbreak tips seem to improve their sheltering effect.

Avila-Sanchez, Sergio; Lopez-Garcia, Oscar; Sanz-Andres, Angel

2014-01-01

275

Earth's Surface  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This self-contained module on Earth's crust includes a range of fun activities that students can perform in the classroom and at home with family members. They impart important concepts such as observation, identification, measurement, and differentiation.

Houghton Mifflin Science

276

Earth Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This self-contained module on Earth systems includes a range of fun activities that students can perform in the classroom and at home with family members. They impart important concepts such as observation, identification, measurement, and differentiation.

Houghton Mifflin Science

277

Discover Earth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Discover Earth is a NASA-funded project for teachers of grades 5-12 who want to expand their knowledge of the Earth system, and prepare to become master teachers who promote Earth system science in their own schools, counties, and throughout their state. Participants from the following states are invited to apply: Connecticut, Delaware, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont, and Washington, DC. Teachers selected for the project participate in a two-week summer workshop conducted at the University of Maryland, College Park; develop classroom-ready materials during the workshop for broad dissemination; conduct a minimum of two peer training activities during the coming school year; and participate in other enrichment/education opportunities as available and desired. Discover Earth is a team effort that utilizes expertise from a range of contributors, and balances science content with hands-on classroom applications.

1997-01-01

278

Earth Day  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The State University of New York at Buffalo presents this History of Earth Day website. The goal of the site is that teachers and students can better understand the development and purpose of Earth Day. In addition to the history, SUNY-Buffalo has compiled a series of websites complete with projects associated with Earth Day, appropriate for children, high school students, and college undergrads. Furthermore, the legal aspect of Earth Day - environmental legislation, EPA standards, and Global Climate Change legislation - are also discussed on the site. A list of further sites is also provided if users want more information on this national effort to help solve environmental issues such as pollution, overpopulation, and global warming. Teachers will find this website both informative and helpful in developing appropriate teaching curricula connected to this holiday, while students can have fun learning and creating projects of their own that contribute to preserving the environment.

2007-04-19

279

Visible Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site provides a searchable collection of NASA Earth science images, animations and data visualizations. Most images are available at multiple resolutions, with a description of the image and metadata. Users can search the database using full text; or with advanced searches by topic, keyword, sensor, geographic region, parameter, and dates. Examples of topics represented in this collection are snow and ice, agriculture, oceans, climate, the atmosphere, human dimensions, land surface, the solid earth and more.

NASA

280

Emergency treatment of splenic injury in a novel mobile minimally invasive interventional shelter following disaster: a feasibility study  

PubMed Central

Background There has been an increase in natural disasters in recent years, which leads to a great number of injuries and deaths. It still remains an unsolved problem to treat patients with vascular injury of solid organs effectively following natural disasters, but on-spot emergency interventional transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) has been highly recommended to cure serious vascular injury of solid organs nowadays. Spleen is the most vulnerable abdominal organ, severe arterial hemorrhage of which can cause death if untreated timely. In this research, we aimed to study the possibility of performing emergency surgical intervention in mobile minimally invasive interventional shelter for splenic injury in the case of natural disasters. Methods First, the mobile minimally invasive interventional shelter was unfolded in the field, and then disinfection and preoperative preparation were performed immediately. Eight large animal models of splenic injury were created, and angiograms were performed using a digital subtraction angiography machine in the mobile minimally invasive interventional shelter, and then the hemostatic embolizations of injured splenic artery were performed following the established convention of rapid intervention therapy. The operating time was recorded, and the survival condition and postoperative complications were observed for two weeks. Results and discussion The average time of unfolding the shelter, and performing disinfection and preoperative preparation was 33?±?7 min. The number of colonies in the sterilized shelter body was 86?±?13 cfu/m3. The average TAE time was 31?±?7 min. All the hemostatic embolizations of splenic injury were performed successfully in the mobile minimally invasive interventional shelter during the operation. A pseudoaneurysm was found in an animal model using angiography two weeks after the operation. The primary clinical success rate of embolization was 87.5%. The two-week survival rate in all animal models of splenic injury was 100%. Conclusions Our findings in the current study demonstrate that the mobile minimally invasive interventional shelter can be adapted to the field perfectly and complete emergency surgical intervention for splenic injury efficiently and safely. Therefore, on-spot emergency interventional TAE for vascular injury of solid organs (e.g. spleen) in mobile minimally invasive interventional shelter is available and effective. PMID:25103472

2014-01-01

281

Physics of the Earth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

he fourth edition of Physics of the Earth maintains the original philosophy of this classic graduate textbook on fundamental solid earth geophysics, while being completely revised, updated, and restructured into a more modular format to make individual topics even more accessible. Building on the success of previous editions, which have served generations of students and researchers for nearly forty years, this new edition will be an invaluable resource for graduate students looking for the necessary physical and mathematical foundations to embark on their own research careers in geophysics. Several completely new chapters have been added and a series of appendices, presenting fundamental data and advanced mathematical concepts, and an extensive reference list, are provided as tools to aid readers wishing to pursue topics beyond the level of the book. Over 140 student exercises of varying levels of difficulty are also included, and full solutions are available online at www.cambridge.org/9780521873628.

Stacey, Frank D.; Davis, Paul M.

282

Earth: Earth Science and Health  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A major new NASA initiative on environmental change and health has been established to promote the application of Earth science remote sensing data, information, observations, and technologies to issues of human health. NASA's Earth Sciences suite of Earth observing instruments are now providing improved observations science, data, and advanced technologies about the Earth's land, atmosphere, and oceans. These new space-based resources are being combined with other agency and university resources, data integration and fusion technologies, geographic information systems (GIS), and the spectrum of tools available from the public health community, making it possible to better understand how the environment and climate are linked to specific diseases, to improve outbreak prediction, and to minimize disease risk. This presentation is an overview of NASA's tools, capabilities, and research advances in this initiative.

Maynard, Nancy G.

2001-01-01

283

Restoration of a Rocky Mountain Spruce-Fir Forest: Sixth-Year Engelmann Spruce Seedling Response With or Without Tree Shelter Removal  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents results following 6 growing seasons of a project designed to examine the use of tree shelters as a means to provide initial shade for planted Engelmann spruce seedlings. Seedlings were planted in 1996 on a 48-ha (119-ac) high-elevation site with different colors of tree shelters providing various degrees of shading. A control treatment, consisting of shading using

Douglass F. Jacobs

284

Is length of shelter stay and receipt of a protection order associated with less violence and better functioning for abused women? Outcome data 4 months after receiving services.  

PubMed

To provide differential effectiveness on length of stay at a shelter and receipt versus non-receipt of a protection order (PO), and outcomes of violence, functioning, and resiliency, in 300 abused women (150 first-time users of a shelter and 150 first-time applicants for a PO) who participate in a 7-year study with outcomes measured every 4 months. Four months after a shelter stay or application for a PO, abused women staying 21 days or less at a shelter reported similar outcomes compared with women staying longer than 21 days. Similarly, women receiving and not receiving a PO reported overall equivalent outcomes. Seeking shelter or justice services results in similar improved outcomes for abused women 4 months later, regardless of length of stay at the shelter or receipt or no receipt of the PO. Contact with shelter and justice services results in positive outcomes for abused women and indicates the urgent need to increase availability, accessibility, and acceptability of shelter and justice services. PMID:24664248

McFarlane, Judith; Symes, Lene; Maddoux, John; Gilroy, Heidi; Koci, Anne

2014-10-01

285

The endangered Iris atropurpurea (Iridaceae) in Israel: honey-bees, night-sheltering male bees and female solitary bees as pollinators  

E-print Network

The endangered Iris atropurpurea (Iridaceae) in Israel: honey-bees, night-sheltering male bees and female solitary bees as pollinators Stella Watts1,*, Yuval Sapir2, Bosmat Segal1 and Amots Dafni1 1 no nectar reward. Here the role of night-sheltering male solitary bees, honey-bees and female solitary bees

Northampton, University of

286

Project Earth Science: Meteorology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The forecast for learning meteorology is bright! With nineteen hands-on activities, ten readings, and a thorough resource guide, Project Earth Science: Meteorology brings the atmosphere right into the classroom. Designed for small budgets, Meteorology is teacher-written and classroom-tested, with ready-to-use, self-directed activities. These activities require students to make clouds and hail; build weather maps; and understand the causes of smog, ozone depletion, and acid rain. Whether it's exploring basic principles or following real-world examples, your students will agree--discovering how weather works was never this much fun!

Ford, Brent A.; Smith, P. S.

2001-01-01

287

DEPARTMENT OF EARTH, OCEAN and ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES SESSIONAL LECTURERS  

E-print Network

DEPARTMENT OF EARTH, OCEAN and ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES SESSIONAL LECTURERS Summer Session EOSC 314 Earth Science. Familiarity and/or expertise in paleontology, geology and ocean/atmospheric science would Sciences, University of British Columbia, Room 2020, Earth Sciences Building, 2207 Main Mall, Vancouver, B

288

DesignbyCIS Research School of Earth Sciences  

E-print Network

DesignbyCIS Research School of Earth Sciences A L Hales Honours Scholarship Enquiries: (02) 6125 have discussed your interest in undertaking an Honours program in Earth Sciences and/or your intention and Enquiries to: Student Admin Officer Research School of Earth Sciences Building 142, Jaeger 8, 61 Mills Road

Botea, Adi

289

The Impact of Comets and Asteroids Upon the Earth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comets and asteroids have been receiving bad press of late. In two recent movies, they have been portrayed as Earth threatening villains. While comets and asteroids do smack into the Earth from time to time, it is also likely that they helped deliver the water and carbon-based molecules to the early Earth, thus providing the building blocks for the formation

D. K. Yeomans

1998-01-01

290

School of Earth and Environmental Sciences Spring 2013 Colloquium  

E-print Network

School of Earth and Environmental Sciences Spring 2013 Colloquium (Science Building C-207) Date:15 -1:30 PM Emily Chin Department Earth Science, Rice University Origin, Evolution, and Metamorphosis-Antonie Longpre Earth & Planetary Sciences, McGill University Volatile-rich magmas and explosive volcanic

Johnson Jr.,, Ray

291

Design of an unmanned lunar cargo lander that reconfigures into a shelter for a habitation module or disassembles into parts useful to a permanent manned lunar base  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA plans to establish a permanent manned lunar base by the first decade of the twenty-first century. It is extremely expensive to transport material from earth to the moon. Therefore, expense would be reduced if the vehicle that lands cargo on the moon could itself meet some of the material needs of establishing the lunar base. The design of a multi-functional lander that is entirely useful to the base after landing is described. Alternate designs of the overall lander configuration and possible uses of the lander and its components after landing are contained. The design solution is a lander employing the Saddlebagged Fuel Tank Configuration. After landing, its structure will be converted into a habitation module shelter that supports a protective layer of regolith. The fuel tanks will be cleaned and used as storage tanks for the lunar base. The engines and instrumentation will be saved as stock parts. Recommendations for further research and technology development to enhance future lander designs are given.

Davanay, Lisa; Garner, Brian; Rigol, Jason

1989-01-01

292

Effect of high-impact targeted trap-neuter-return and adoption of community cats on cat intake to a shelter.  

PubMed

Approximately 2-3 million cats enter animal shelters annually in the United States. A large proportion of these are unowned community cats that have no one to reclaim them and may be too unsocialized for adoption. More than half of impounded cats are euthanased due to shelter crowding, shelter-acquired disease or feral behavior. Trap-neuter-return (TNR), an alternative to shelter impoundment, improves cat welfare and reduces the size of cat colonies, but has been regarded as too impractical to reduce cat populations on a larger scale or to limit shelter cat intake. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of TNR concentrated in a region of historically high cat impoundments in a Florida community. A 2-year program was implemented to capture and neuter at least 50% of the estimated community cats in a single 11.9?km(2) zip code area, followed by return to the neighborhood or adoption. Trends in shelter cat intake from the target zip code were compared to the rest of the county. A total of 2366 cats, representing approximately 54% of the projected community cat population in the targeted area, were captured for the TNR program over the 2-year study period. After 2 years, per capita shelter intake was 3.5-fold higher and per capita shelter euthanasia was 17.5-fold higher in the non-target area than in the target area. Shelter cat impoundment from the target area where 60 cats/1000 residents were neutered annually decreased by 66% during the 2-year study period, compared to a decrease of 12% in the non-target area, where only 12 cats/1000 residents were neutered annually. High-impact TNR combined with the adoption of socialized cats and nuisance resolution counseling for residents is an effective tool for reducing shelter cat intake. PMID:24980808

Levy, J K; Isaza, N M; Scott, K C

2014-09-01

293

Interactions between finfish aquaculture and lobster catches in a sheltered bay.  

PubMed

Interactions between open-net pen finfish aquaculture and lobster catches in a sheltered bay in Nova Scotia, Canada, were investigated using fishermen's participatory research in annual lobster trap surveys over seven years. Fishermen recorded lobster catches during the last two weeks of May from 2007 to 2013. Catches for each trap haul were recorded separately for ovigerous and market-sized lobsters. Catch trends within the bay were compared to regional trends. Results of correlation analyses indicated that ovigerous catch trends were strongly affected by the fish farm's feeding/fallow periods. There was no significant correlation between trends for bay and LFA lobster landings. Patterns of lobster catch per unit effort extending over considerable distance in Port Mouton Bay appear to be influenced by proximity to the fish farm regardless of year-to-year variation in water temperatures and weather conditions. Odours and habitat changes surrounding open-net pen finfish operations are potential factors affecting lobster displacement. PMID:25242235

Loucks, Ronald H; Smith, Ruth E; Fisher, E Brian

2014-11-15

294

Tuberculosis in Sheltered Homeless Population of Rome: An Integrated Model of Recruitment for Risk Management  

PubMed Central

The authors show the results of an integrated model for risk management of tuberculosis in a sample of sheltered homeless in Rome. Tuberculin skin test (TST) was used for evaluating the prevalence of latent infection (LTBI). In TST positives, expectorate was collected and chest X-ray was achieved. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to investigate determinants of infection. Out of 288 recruited subjects, 259 returned for the TST reading; 45.56% were positive and referred to a specialized center; 70 accessed the health facility and completed the clinical pathway. The risk factors associated to LTBI were male gender (OR = 3.72), age over 60 years (OR = 3.59), immigrant status (OR = 3.73), and obesity (OR = 2.19). This approach, based on an integrated social network, guarantees high adherence to screening (89.93%), allowing patients testing positive for latent tuberculosis infection to be diagnosed and rapidly referred to a specialized center. PMID:22448132

Laurenti, Patrizia; Bruno, Stefania; Quaranta, Gianluigi; La Torre, Giuseppe; Cairo, Antonio G.; Nardella, Pierangela; Delogu, Giovanni; Fadda, Giovanni; Pirronti, Tommaso; Geraci, Salvatore; Pelargonio, Salvatore; Lauria, Francesco N.; Goletti, Delia; Ricciardi, Gualtiero

2012-01-01

295

Copper bioavailability and toxicity to Mytilus galloprovincialis in Shelter Island Yacht Basin, San Diego, CA.  

PubMed

The bioavailability and toxicity of copper (Cu) in Shelter Island Yacht Basin (SIYB), San Diego, CA, USA, was assessed with simultaneous toxicological, chemical, and modeling approaches. Toxicological measurements included laboratory toxicity testing with Mytilus galloprovincialis (Mediterranean mussel) embryos added to both site water (ambient) and site water spiked with multiple Cu concentrations. Chemical assessment of ambient samples included total and dissolved Cu concentrations, and Cu complexation capacity measurements. Modeling was based on chemical speciation and predictions of bioavailability and toxicity using a marine Biotic Ligand Model (BLM). Cumulatively, these methods assessed the natural buffering capacity of Cu in SIYB during singular wet and dry season sampling events. Overall, the three approaches suggested negligible bioavailability, and isolated observed or predicted toxicity, despite an observed gradient of increasing Cu concentration, both horizontally and vertically within the water body, exceeding current water quality criteria for saltwater. PMID:24952455

Bosse, Casey; Rosen, Gunther; Colvin, Marienne; Earley, Patrick; Santore, Robert; Rivera-Duarte, Ignacio

2014-08-15

296

Two-year predictors of runaway and homeless episodes following shelter services among substance abusing adolescents.  

PubMed

Given high levels of health and psychological costs associated with the family disruption of homelessness, identifying predictors of runaway and homeless episodes is an important goal. The current study followed 179 substance abusing, shelter-recruited adolescents who participated in a randomized clinical trial. Predictors of runaway and homeless episodes were examined over a two year period. Results from the hierarchical linear modeling analysis showed that family cohesion and substance use, but not family conflict or depressive symptoms, delinquency, or school enrollment predicted future runaway and homeless episodes. Findings suggest that increasing family support, care and connection and reducing substance use are important targets of intervention efforts in preventing future runaway and homeless episodes amongst a high risk sample of adolescents. PMID:24011094

Slesnick, Natasha; Guo, Xiamei; Brakenhoff, Brittany; Feng, Xin

2013-10-01

297

Correlates for Legal Help-Seeking: Contextual Factors for Battered Women in Shelter  

PubMed Central

Legal redress can play a critical role in interrupting the pattern of domination and control inherent in intimate partner violence (IPV), yet it remains an infrequent strategy among battered women. The current study employed a contextual framework for investigating the correlates for engagement in the criminal justice system for a sample of 227 sheltered battered women. Results indicated that individual, relational, and system-level factors were all associated with two legal help-seeking behaviors: having a civil protection order and criminal prosecution. In particular, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptomatology, social support, and prior experience with police officers were significant correlates for legal help-seeking. Results highlight the need for a coordinated community response to IPV, addressing both legal needs and psychological needs simultaneously. PMID:20055214

Wright, Caroline Vaile; Johnson, Dawn M.

2010-01-01

298

Burden of Disease and Health Status Among Hurricane Katrina- Displaced Persons in Shelters: A Population-Based Cluster Sample  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study objective: Anecdotal evidence suggests that the population displaced to shelters from Hurricane Katrina had a significant burden of disease, socioeconomic vulnerability, and marginalized health care access. For agencies charged with providing health care to at-risk displaced populations, knowing the prevalence of acute and chronic disease is critical to direct resources and prevent morbidity and mortality. Methods: We performed a

P. Gregg Greenough; Michael D. Lappi; Edbert B. Hsu; Sheri Fink; Yu-Hsiang Hsieh

299

Comparison of selected canine vector-borne diseases between urban animal shelter and rural hunting dogs in Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

A serological survey for Dirofilaria immitis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Ehrlichia canis, and Borrelia burgdorferi infections in rural hunting and urban shelter dogs mainly from southwestern regions of the Republic of Korea (South Korea) was conducted. From a total of 229 wild boar or pheasant hunting dogs, the number of serologically positive dogs for any of the four pathogens was 93 (40.6%).

Sun Lim; Peter J Irwin; SeungRyong Lee; MyungHwan Oh; KyuSung Ahn; BoYoung Myung; SungShik Shin

2010-01-01

300

Impact of publicly sponsored neutering programs on animal population dynamics at animal shelters: the New Hampshire and Austin experiences.  

PubMed

This study found that government-funded surgical sterilization of companion animals has been widely promoted as a means of decreasing shelter intake and euthanasia. However, little information is available about the true impact of these programs on community and shelter nonhuman animal population dynamics. This study estimated the impact of the Animal Population Control Program in New Hampshire by comparing shelter intake and euthanasia data before and after the onset of the neutering initiative. Regression analysis demonstrated a significant decrease in cat intake and euthanasia during the years after program onset, a trend that appears to begin prior to the program's initiation; however, there was no decrease in dog intake or euthanasia. This study also estimated the impact of the Austin-based EmanciPET Free Spay/Neuter Program by comparing shelter intake and euthanasia data from the targeted program areas versus nonprogram areas within the city. Regression analysis demonstrated a significantly lower rate of increase for dog and cat intake and euthanasia in the program areas. Prospective studies should determine the effectiveness and affordability of different models for funding and delivering neutering services. PMID:20563902

White, Sara C; Jefferson, Ellen; Levy, Julie K

2010-01-01

301

Food supply, grazing activity and growth rate in the limpet Patella vulgata L.: a comparison between exposed and sheltered shores  

Microsoft Academic Search

The limpet Patella vulgata L. is an important microphagous grazer on intertidal rocky shores of north-west Europe, occurring across the wave exposure gradient. Groups of P. vulgata were selected at mid-tide level of two exposed shores and two sheltered, fucoid dominated shores on the Isle of Man, British Isles, and manipulated to equivalent densities and population structure. The level of

Stuart R. Jenkins; Richard G. Hartnoll

2001-01-01

302

Learning about the past and preparing for the future: a longitudinal investigation of a grade 7 ‘sheltered’ social studies class  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drawing on interviews, observations, and videorecorded data collected in a ‘sheltered’ grade 7 social studies class in a Mid-western US city, the current paper explores the learning opportunities provided for English language learners (ELLs) and the discursive strategies used by a teacher, consciously or unconsciously, to help her students become increasingly competent members of her class. Findings indicated that (a)

Mari Haneda

2009-01-01

303

Savage Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Savage Earth website is the on-line companion to the PBS television series of the same name. This site tells the stories of several great natural disasters, particularly the eruption of Mt. Vesuvius in 79 A.D. that destroyed Pompeii and the 1994 earthquake in Kobe, Japan. It contains articles on the earth's crust and plate tectonics, earthquakes, volcanoes, and tsunamis. Each article features photographs, animated drawings, and video clips. For example, the earthquakes article includes animations of types of faults and three different kinds of seismic waves. There is also a question and answer section and links to related sites about geology and natural hazards.

2002-04-24

304

Mortality at older ages and moves in residential and sheltered housing: evidence from the UK  

PubMed Central

Background The study examines the relationship between transitions to residential and sheltered housing and mortality. Past research has focused on housing moves over extended time periods and subsequent mortality. In this paper, annual housing transitions allow the identification of the patterning of housing moves, the duration of stay in each sector and the assessment of the relationship of preceding moves to a heightened risk of dying. Methods The study uses longitudinal data constructed from pooled observations from the British Household Panel Survey (waves 1993–2008). Records were pooled for all cases where the survey member is 65?years or over and living in private housing at baseline and observed at three consecutive time points, including baseline (N=23?727). Binary logistic regression (death as outcome three waves after baseline) explored the relative strength of different housing transitions, controlling for sociodemographic predictors. Results (1) Transition to residential housing within the previous 12?months was associated with the highest mortality risk. (2) Results support existing findings showing an interaction between marital status and mortality, whereby unmarried persons were more likely to die. (3) Higher male mortality was observed across all housing transitions. Conclusions An older person's move to residential housing is associated with a higher risk of mortality within 12?months of the move. Survivors living in residential housing for more than a year, show a similar probability of dying to those living in sheltered housing. Results highlight that it is the type of accommodation that affects an older person's mortality risk, and the length of time they spend there. PMID:24638058

Robards, James; Evandrou, Maria; Falkingham, Jane; Vlachantoni, Athina

2014-01-01

305

Use of ponazuril paste to treat coccidiosis in shelter-housed cats and dogs.  

PubMed

Cystoisospora (synonym Isospora) spp. infections are common in dogs and cats worldwide, especially in crowded or unsanitary environments. Ponazuril (toltrazuril sulfone) is a widely used oral treatment, but protocols that will produce oocyst excretion below the detection limit in shelter-housed animals have not been determined. The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of ponazuril paste at each of three dosages (dosage 1, 50mg/kg q24 h for 3 days, dogs n=14, cats n=16; dosage 2, 50mg/kg as a single dose, dogs n=13, cats n=25; or dosage 3, 20mg/kg as a single dose, dogs n=16, cats n=23) in shelter-housed dogs (n=43) and cats (n=64) with confirmed coccidiosis. Fecal oocyst counts and identification and fecal consistency scoring was performed pre-treatment (Day 1) and again at Day 3-4 and Day 8. There were higher proportions of animals with oocyst excretion below the detection limit at both Day 3-4 and Day 8 in the dosage 1 group (dogs 92.9%, cats 87.5%) than in the other two groups (dosage 2, dogs 76.9%, cats 80.0%; dosage 3, dogs 68.8%, cats 47.8%). Animals with high fecal oocyst counts at Day 1 were significantly more likely to be infected at Day 3-4 (dogs, P<0.001; cats, P=0.013). Fecal consistency score at Day 3-4 was not significantly related to infection status (dogs, P=0.898; cats, P=0.136). Further studies are warranted to investigate a ponazuril protocol that can safely reduce fecal oocyst burdens in infected dogs and cats to levels below the detection limit. Environmental decontamination is also important to reduce the likelihood of re-infection. PMID:24679485

Litster, A L; Nichols, J; Hall, K; Camp, J; Mohamed, A S

2014-05-28

306

1. View from missile site control building (southeast to northwest) ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. View from missile site control building (southeast to northwest) of universal missile building. Note earth mounding. On the far right can be seen the exit tunnel; the small "boxes" on top are the roof ventilators. This building was salvaged and sealed after site inactivation - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Universal Missile Building, Between Tactical Road South & Patrol Road, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

307

FOCUS TERRAThe Earth Science Research and Information Centre of ETH Zurich  

E-print Network

FOCUS TERRAThe Earth Science Research and Information Centre of ETH Zurich Discover the Wonders. Housed within the Department of Earth Sciences the exhibition builds a bridge between scientists scientists and students. The striking architecture of the Earth Sciences' building and the exhibition tower

Gilli, Adrian

308

Earth's Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource provides an overview of the distribution and occurence of water on Earth. Topics include where and how much water there is, the water cycle, and how water is measured. There is also discussion of characteristics and distribution of surface water, groundwater, glaciers, and icecaps.

309

Earth Movers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson explores plate tectonics and helps students understand how mountains, earthquakes, and volcanoes are related to the movements of plates. Students will learn about the idea of continental drift and the theory of plate tectonics to ascertain a fuller picture of how land formations on the surface of the Earth are shaped by plates moving below the surface.

310

Visible Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web site provides a searchable directory of NASA Earth science images, animations and data visualizations. Most resources are available digitally at multiple resolutions, with captions and metadata. Users can search the database using full text and advanced searches by topic, keyword, sensor, location, parameter, and dates.

2001-01-01

311

Impact Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This planetarium show teaches about meteors, meteorites, asteroids, and comets. It includes results from NASA missions and about the dangers they can pose to life on Earth. It is created for full-dome theaters but can also be shown in flat version for TVs and computer monitors. Shows the effects of the Chixulub and Tungusta events, plus the Pallasite impact that resulted in the Brenham meteorite fall. Describes ways that asteroid hunters seek new objects in the Solar System, and how ground-penetrating radar is used to find meteorites that have reached the Earth's surface and ancient craters under the desert. Narrated by astronaut Tom Jones, it also discusses ways that humans might try to deflect an asteroid or comet that is on a collision course with Earth. Created for informal science venues (digital planetariums), it is also useful as ancillary material for middle school science. Created under NASA Cooperative Agreement NCC5-316 to Rice University in conjunction with the Houston Museum of Natural Science as part of the "Immersive Earth" project, part of the REASoN program.

Reiff, Patricia

2009-05-01

312

Earth meandering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we try to put away current Global Tectonic Model to look the tectonic evolution of the earth from new point of view. Our new dynamic model is based on study of river meandering (RM) which infer new concept as Earth meandering(EM). In a universal gravitational field if we consider a clockwise spiral galaxy model rotate above Ninety East Ridge (geotectonic axis GA), this system with applying torsion field (likes geomagnetic field) in side direction from Rocky Mt. (west geotectonic pole WGP) to Tibetan plateau TP (east geotectonic pole EGP),it seems that pulled mass from WGP and pushed it in EGP due to it's rolling dynamics. According to this idea we see in topographic map that North America and Green land like a tongue pulled from Pacific mouth toward TP. Actually this system rolled or meander the earth over itself fractaly from small scale to big scale and what we see in the river meandering and Earth meandering are two faces of one coin. River transport water and sediments from high elevation to lower elevation and also in EM, mass transport from high altitude-Rocky Mt. to lower altitude Himalaya Mt. along 'S' shape geodetic line-optimum path which connect points from high altitude to lower altitude as kind of Euler Elastica(EE). These curves are responsible for mass spreading (source) and mass concentration (sink). In this regard, tiltness of earth spin axis plays an important role, 'S' are part of sigmoidal shape which formed due to intersection of Earth rolling with the Earth glob and actual feature of transform fault and river meandering. Longitudinal profile in mature rivers as a part of 'S' curve also is a kind of EE. 'S' which bound the whole earth is named S-1(S order 1) and cube corresponding to this which represent Earth fracturing in global scale named C-1(cube order 1 or side vergence cube SVC), C-1 is a biggest cycle of spiral polygon, so it is not completely closed and it has separation about diameter of C-7. Inside SVC we introduce cone vergence cube (CVC or geotectonic equator GE) which rotate 45 degree counterclockwise with respect to SVC. Every cube from big scale to small scale fractalize in order of 23 and every '8' shape from big scale to small scale also fractalize in the same order. Three dimensional and fractoscopic imagination about understanding the changing on earth is very important so we should imagine '8' as curved surface, sea floor spreading happened in maximum curvature of these surfaces. '8' formed from pair 'S' string with opposite direction. '8' oscillate in Pole-Pole and Side-Side direction and have saddle geometry with two 'U' path along perpendicular saddle (e.g. Lut/Jazmurian and Helmand/Mashkal basin in Iran actually intersection of this saddle shape with the earth surface and Iceland /Black Sea and CapeVerde/Victoria Lake are also In/Out (small scale polygon) of 'U' shape conduit which followed axial saddle of Side-'S-2' and Okhotsk Sea /Balkhash Lake followed axial saddle conduit of Pole-'S-2' actually intersection of this perpendicular conduit with surface make spot-like-lakes/volcanoes or basin. Global EM in Side-S-1 bounded compression region-TP inside and tension region-East African Rift offside).This is a interesting competing between two kinematic geometry - spherical and isometrical geometry by using the interaction of them we can analyze the earth face in past, present and future apart of the forces that cause this face. C-1 in two dimensional look like six sided big tent which speared over Tibet and main rod driven along GA. Pair S-1 curve. have seven component(fold) and six segment in between,S-7 exactly located on TP(center of S-1). Between two successive fold we have complex geology(e.g. eastern Iran and Afghanistan)mass dragged from North America and Siberian and accumulated gradually during six step in Earth Foundation(Tibet),S-7 bounded Takla Makan Desert (in smaller loop) and TP (in bigger loop) S-7 alter the earth balance and responsible for earth disturbing, another sample of 'S' curve we see around Australia and Kermadec/Tonga Trench, Aleutian ri

Asadiyan, H.; Zamani, A.

2009-04-01

313

The Earth Observing System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The restructuring of the NASA Earth Observing System (EOS), designed to provide comprehensive long term observations from space of changes occurring on the Earth from natural and human causes in order to have a sound scientific basis for policy decisions on protection of the future, is reported. In response to several factors, the original program approved in the fiscal year 1991 budget was restructured and somewhat reduced in scope. The resulting program uses three different sized launch vehicles to put six different spacecraft in orbit in the first phase, followed by two replacement launches for each of five of the six satellites to maintain a long term observing capability to meet the needs of global climate change research and other science objectives. The EOS system, including the space observatories, the data and information system, and the interdisciplinary global change research effort, are approved and proceeding. Elements of EOS are already in place, such as the research investigations and initial data system capabilities. The flights of precursor satellite and Shuttle missions, the ongoing data analysis, and the evolutionary enhancements to the integrated Earth science data management capabilities are all important building blocks to the full EOS program.

Shaffer, Lisa Robock

1992-01-01

314

Towards Earth AntineutRino TomograpHy (EARTH)  

E-print Network

The programme Earth AntineutRino TomograpHy (EARTH) proposes to build ten underground facilities each hosting a telescope. Each telescope consists of many detector modules, to map the radiogenic heat sources deep in the interior of the Earth by utilising direction sensitive geoneutrino detection. Recent hypotheses target the core-mantle boundary (CMB) as a major source of natural radionuclides and therefore of radiogenic heat. A typical scale of the processes that take place at the CMB is about 200km. To observe these processes from the surface requires an angular resolution of about 3 degrees. EARTH aims at creating a high-resolution 3D-map of the radiogenic heat sources in the interior of the Earth. It will thereby contribute to a better understanding of a number of geophysical phenomena observed at the surface of the Earth. This condition requires a completely different approach from the monolithic detector systems as e.g. KamLAND. This paper presents, for such telescopes, the boundary conditions set by ph...

De Meijer, R J; Fearick, R W; Mantovani, F; Smit, F D; Wörtche, H J

2006-01-01

315

Save the Earth vs Destroy the Earth  

E-print Network

Abstract. Save the Earth VS Destroy the Earth is an interactive installation. Two structures, built with the skeletons of old monitors, are holding two world globes, plus a sign indicating on one Save the Earth and on the other Destroy the Earth. The audience is invited to mime the action to save or destroy the Earth becoming a part of the artwork. Every action is monitored and photographed, leading to the creation of an image dataset of save-the-earth vs destroy-the-earth actions. Such dataset can be interpreted as sort of sentiment dataset, where actors express a negative or positive sentiment about the "Save the Earth " topic.

Davide Giaccone

316

Breathing Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Visual simulation and representation programs and applications have been popping up online in greater numbers, and this recent find is one that will pique the interest of scientists, policy makers, and others who are concerned about carbon dioxide emission rates across the Earth. The Breathing Earth site was created by David Bleja, and he draws on a number of resources (such as the World Factbook and the United Nations) for the data that is utilized to create this site. Visitors can scroll over different countries to learn about their population, their emissions, and their birth and death rate. This interactive map and educational resource also contains a legend in the right-hand corner which explains the various symbols in use here.

Bleja, David

317

Earth Institute  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The mission of the Earth Institute at Columbia University is to help the world achieve sustainability by expanding understanding of the Earth as one integrated system. Through research, education, and the practical application of research to real-world challenges, the Institute addresses nine interconnected global issues: climate and society, water, energy, poverty, ecosystems, public health, food and nutrition, and hazards and urbanization. The Institute's site offers a collection of videotaped events, including the biannual "State of the Planet" conferences, 2002-08, a Distinguished Lecture series, and the Sustainable Development seminar series, as well as e-seminars and e-briefings, information about funding opportunities, and information about educational opportunities at Columbia.

318

Earth Math  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This text explores a few of the many concepts that frequently come up in the study of Earth systems and global climate change. Students will be exposed to many problems involving unit conversion. Global climate change reports involve terms such as kilowatt-hour, megawatt-hour, and gigawatt-hour, as well as megatons and gigatons. Students will become versed in converting units where appropriate, and through the calculations, will work with the concept of significant figures. Creating linear equations from graphical and tabular information is covered, as well as forecasting. The text is meant to be used as a companion to standard Earth science and mathematics courses, and presents enough application problems to allow students to quantitatively understand typical media reports about global climate change.

2009-01-01

319

Impact: Earth!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What would happen if a large meteorite or other object hit the Earth? It's something that has engaged the minds and talents of astrophysicists (and students of all ages) for decades. Now the generally curious can create their own simulated impact with Purdue University's "Impact Earth" website. Visitors can browse the Famous Craters area to get started. This part includes some "classics," such as the Ries Crater and the Tunguska Fireball. Of course, visitors really must use the handy interface to craft their own impact, projectile, and target parameters to get the full effect on how such an event plays out. Also, the site includes a complete Documentation file (a peer-reviewed article) and a detailed glossary.

2013-01-01

320

The Day the Earth Shook  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson, based on the NOVA television broadcast 'The Day the Earth Shook', introduces students to engineering for earthquakes; specifically, architectural features that work and those that don't. The objective is to explore structural engineering through three design challenges; a relatively short, wide building; a home on a hillside; and a pyramid shape that focuses most of its mass near the bottom. Students are divided into three teams and each team is assigned one of the structure challenges. Each team will build and test its structure, record its results, then rotate to the next challenge until all three teams have attempted all three challenges.

2011-04-20

321

The Day the Earth Shook  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson, based on the NOVA television broadcast 'The Day the Earth Shook', introduces students to engineering for earthquakes; specifically, architectural features that work and those that don't. The objective is to explore structural engineering through three design challenges; a relatively short, wide building; a home on a hillside; and a pyramid shape that focuses most of its mass near the bottom. Students are divided into three teams and each team is assigned one of the structure challenges. Each team will build and test its structure, record its results, then rotate to the next challenge until all three teams have attempted all three challenges.

322

Earth Lab  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Earth Lab is a database of fossils, minerals and rocks from the UK. A photograph is displayed for each specimen selected, as well as the scientific name, location and properties or age of the specimen. The fossils can be searched by area, age, and group; minerals by area, element, group, and property; and rocks by area, geological age, and type of rock. A series of questions allows users to identify their own specimens.

323

Earth Observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This document is concentrates on a couple of the missions where the Spacelab hardware was used to do Earth science. The Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science (ATLAS) series of missions and the Lidar in-Space Technology Experiment (LITE) mission, the ATLAS being a series of three Shuttle missions that were very much Spacelab missions, are described. A little bit about the history, what the missions were, some of the instruments that were on them, and results are given.

Kaye, Jack

2000-01-01

324

Earth's Biomes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What are the characteristics of Earth's biomes? First, open the Biomes Graphic Organizer Now read through Information on Aquatic Biome (Freshwater) and fill in 5 characterestics of a freshwater biome in your graphic organizer. Now read through Information on Desert and fill in 5 characteristics of a desert biome in your graphic organizer. Now read through Information on Rainforest and fill in 5 characteristics of rainforest biome in your graphic organizer. Now ...

Ms. Allman

2012-04-05

325

Earth Observatory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web site includes shares the images, stories and discoveries that emerge from NASA Earth science research, including its satellite missions, in-the-field research and climate models. View global maps of NASA data, check out the Image of the Day and images of current events, and read feature articles and blogs. Also includes special collections of NASA images, including the World of Change series, which documents how our planetâs land, oceans, atmosphere and Sun are changing over time.

2011-01-01

326

Earth Day  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Wow! Endagered species are everywhere! Just understanding the needs of animals will help them to survive longer. Find out how much your use of energy leaves a 'carbon' footprint on the earth. We all need to use our limited resources wisely. Reduce your footprint! Find out how and take the carbon footrpint quiz here. Carbon Footprint Watch the following YouTube video to hear a special message from Carl Hiaasen, the ...

Mrs. Datwyler

2010-04-19

327

Impact Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This 24 minute planetarium show teaches about meteors, meteorites, asteroids, and comets. The show was created for fulldome theaters, but is also available on DVD to be shown in flat version for TVs and computer monitors, and can be freely viewed online. It shows the effects of the Chixulub and Tungusta events, plus the Pallasite impact that resulted in the Brenham meteorite fall, and describes ways that asteroid hunters seek new objects in the solar system, and how ground penetrating radar is used to find meteorites that have survived to the Earth's surface. Narrated by astronaut Tom Jones, it also discusses ways that humans might try to deflect an asteroid or comet that is on a collision course with Earth. The show was created for informal science venues (digital planetariums); it is also useful as supplemental material for middle school science. Impact Earth is available for free if presented directly from the Space Update site (widescreen or fisheye views linked from YouTube). Otherwise, a DVD of the show can be purchased for $10.

328

Small Buildings in Earthquake Areas. Educational Building Digest 2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet is intended for builders and others who actually construct small buildings in earthquake areas and not for professionally qualified architects or engineers. In outline form with sketches the following topics are discussed: general construction and design principles; foundations; earth walls; brick, block, and stone walls; timber frame…

Mooij, D.

329

Building America  

SciTech Connect

IBACOS researched the constructability and viability issues of using high performance windows as one component of a larger approach to building houses that achieve the Building America 70% energy savings target.

Brad Oberg

2010-12-31

330

Towards Earth AntineutRino TomograpHy (EARTH)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The programme Earth AntineutRino TomograpHy (EARTH) proposes to build ten underground facilities each hosting a telescope. Each telescope consists of many detector modules, to map the radiogenic heat sources deep in the interior of the Earth by utilising direction sensitive geoneutrino detection. Recent hypotheses target the core-mantle boundary (CMB) as a major source of natural radionuclides and therefore of radiogenic heat. A typical scale of the processes that take place at the CMB is about 200 km. To observe these processes from the surface requires an angular resolution of about 3°. EARTH aims at creating a high-resolution 3D-map of the radiogenic heat sources in the Earth’s interior. It will thereby contribute to a better understanding of a number of geophysical phenomena observed at the Earth’s surface. This condition requires a completely different approach from the monolithic detector systems as e.g. KamLAND. This paper presents, for such telescopes, the boundary conditions set by physics, the estimated count rates, and the first initial results from Monte-Carlo simulations and laboratory experiments. The Monte-Carlo simulations indicate that the large volume telescope should consist of detector modules each comprising a very large number of detector units, with a cross section of roughly a few square centimetres. The signature of an antineutrino event will be a double pulse event. One pulse arises from the slowing down of the emitted positron, the other from the neutron capture. In laboratory experiments small sized, 10B-loaded liquid scintillation detectors were investigated as candidates for direction sensitive, low-energy antineutrino detection.

de Meijer, R. J.; Smit, F. D.; Brooks, F. D.; Fearick, R. W.; Wörtche, H. J.; Mantovani, F.

2006-12-01

331

DEPARTMENT OF EARTH AND OCEAN SCIENCES Part-Time Sessional Lecturer  

E-print Network

DEPARTMENT OF EARTH AND OCEAN SCIENCES Part-Time Sessional Lecturer Distance Ed EOSC 310 (Earth.D. program in a pertinent Earth Science. Familiarity and/or expertise in paleontology, geology and ocean Sciences, University of British Columbia, Room 2020, Earth Sciences Building, 2207 Main Mall, Vancouver, B

332

Building Bingo  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this on site "field trip" activity (located on pages 6-9 of PDF), learners get hands-on experience identifying building materials by playing "Building Bingo". To play, teams of learners locate interior and exterior building materials at their site, use the Natural Materials chart to complete the Building Materials Facts label, and cross off the boxes on their Bingo cards. This lesson guide includes suggestions/tips and game hand-outs.

2012-05-09

333

Collapsed Building  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

This masonry office building in the downtown area of Concepcion, Chile collapsed as a result of the M 8.8 earthquake on Feb. 27, 2010. The construction of this building predates the establishment of strict building codes in Chile, put in place following the devastating earthquake of 1960. ...

2010-03-30

334

Healthy Buildings?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Health problems related to school buildings can be categorized in five major areas: sick-building syndrome; health-threatening building materials; environmental hazards such as radon gas and asbestos; lead poisoning; and poor indoor air quality due to smoke, chemicals, and other pollutants. This paper provides an overview of these areas,…

Grubb, Deborah

335

The perceived impact of a child maltreatment report from the perspective of the domestic violence shelter worker.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study is to examine domestic violence shelter workers' perceptions of child maltreatment reporting. A sample of 82 professionals from domestic violence shelters across the United States participated in a survey focusing on a variety of different types of reports and the frequency of both positive and negative outcomes arising from these reports. Possible outcomes included in the study are damage to the relationship between the worker and the battered woman, disempowerment of the battered woman, discouragement from seeking further help, protection of the child, further traumatization of the child, further disruption to the family, and damage to the woman's likelihood of maintaining custody. Significant differences in perceived impact are found based on identity of abuser (spousal batterer vs. battered woman) and nature of report (child as witness to domestic violence vs. child as victim of abuse). These results point to the complexity of perceptions regarding the impact of reporting. PMID:18981190

Steen, Julie A

2009-11-01

336

The effect of sensor sheltering and averaging techniques on wind measurements at the Shuttle Landing Facility  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This document presents results of a field study of the effect of sheltering of wind sensors by nearby foliage on the validity of wind measurements at the Space Shuttle Landing Facility (SLF). Standard measurements are made at one second intervals from 30-feet (9.1-m) towers located 500 feet (152 m) from the SLF centerline. The centerline winds are not exactly the same as those measured by the towers. A companion study, Merceret (1995), quantifies the differences as a function of statistics of the observed winds and distance between the measurements and points of interest. This work examines the effect of nearby foliage on the accuracy of the measurements made by any one sensor, and the effects of averaging on interpretation of the measurements. The field program used logarithmically spaced portable wind towers to measure wind speed and direction over a range of conditions as a function of distance from the obstructing foliage. Appropriate statistics were computed. The results suggest that accurate measurements require foliage be cut back to OFCM standards. Analysis of averaging techniques showed that there is no significant difference between vector and scalar averages. Longer averaging periods reduce measurement error but do not otherwise change the measurement in reasonably steady flow regimes. In rapidly changing conditions, shorter averaging periods may be required to capture trends.

Merceret, Francis J.

1995-01-01

337

VERTICAL MIGRATION OF RADIONUCLIDES IN THE VICINITY OF THE CHERNOBYL CONFINEMENT SHELTER  

SciTech Connect

Studies on vertical migration of Chernobyl-origin radionuclides in the 5-km zone of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) in the area of the Red Forest experimental site were completed. Measurements were made by gamma spectrometric methods using high purity germanium (HPGe) detectors with beryllium windows. Alpha-emitting isotopes of plutonium were determined by the measurement of the x-rays from their uranium progeny. The presence of {sup 60}Co, {sup 134,137}Cs, {sup 154,155}Eu, and {sup 241}Am in all soil layers down to a depth of 30 cm was observed. The presence of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 241}Am were noted in the area containing automorphous soils to a depth of 60 cm. In addition, the upper soil layers at the test site were found to contain {sup 243}Am and {sup 243}Cm. Over the past ten years, the {sup 241}Am/{sup 137}Cs ratio in soil at the experimental site has increased by a factor of 3.4, nearly twice as much as would be predicted based solely on radioactive decay. This may be due to 'fresh' fallout emanating from the ChNPP Confinement Shelter.

Farfan, E.; Jannik, T.; Marra, J.

2011-10-01

338

Earth 911  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Earth 911 is an organization focused on empowering the public with community-specific resources to improve their quality of life. To accomplish this goal, they provide information on a wide range of environmental topics including recycling (several types of materials), household hazardous waste, water quality, composting, air pollution prevention, fire prevention, green shopping tips, and mercury pollution. Environmental news links, games and activities for kids, and local news and events are also included. Users may enter a zip code to obtain information on environmental issues specific to where they live.

2004-01-01

339

Nest shelter predicts nesting success but not nesting phenology or parental behaviors in high arctic Northern Fulmars Fulmarus glacialis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The physical characteristics of nest sites are thought to influence both the outcome of breeding attempts and breeding behavior\\u000a in colonial seabirds. We examined the relationship between nest shelter in breeding Northern Fulmars (Fulmarus glacialis), at the remote Cape Vera colony on Devon Island, Nunavut, Canada, and timing of nesting, reproductive success, and the amounts\\u000a of time parents spent in

Mark L. Mallory; Mark R. Forbes

2011-01-01

340

Community Partnering as a Tool for Improving Live Release Rate in Animal Shelters in the United States  

PubMed Central

Collaboration among all shelters and nonhuman animal welfare groups within a community along with the transparent, shared reporting of uniform data have been promoted as effective ways to increase the number of animals' lives saved. This article summarizes the shelter intakes, outcomes, and live release rate (LRR) from 6 geographically diverse communities participating in the American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Partnership program for 5 years (2007–2011). This program is both a grant program and a coaching program that works to focus the community partners on a data-driven goal using standardized definitions and metrics. There was improvement in LRR in all communities over time regardless of intake numbers, human population, or mix of dogs/puppies and cats/kittens entering shelters. Averaged across all communities over the 5-year period, there was an overall improvement in LRR of 62%. Within individual communities, the degree of improvement ranged from 18% to 96%. This improvement in LRR was accomplished through a wide variety of programs in each community based on resources and interests during the time period. PMID:23795686

Weiss, Emily; Patronek, Gary; Slater, Margaret; Garrison, Laurie; Medicus, Karen

2013-01-01

341

Is That Dog a Pit Bull? A Cross-Country Comparison of Perceptions of Shelter Workers Regarding Breed Identification  

PubMed Central

Bull breeds are commonly kept as companion animals, but the pit bull terrier is restricted by breed-specific legislation (BSL) in parts of the United States and throughout the United Kingdom. Shelter workers must decide which breed(s) a dog is. This decision may influence the dog's fate, particularly in places with BSL. In this study, shelter workers in the United States and United Kingdom were shown pictures of 20 dogs and were asked what breed each dog was, how they determined each dog's breed, whether each dog was a pit bull, and what they expected the fate of each dog to be. There was much variation in responses both between and within the United States and United Kingdom. UK participants frequently labeled dogs commonly considered by U.S. participants to be pit bulls as Staffordshire bull terriers. UK participants were more likely to say their shelters would euthanize dogs deemed to be pit bulls. Most participants noted using dogs' physical features to determine breed, and 41% affected by BSL indicated they would knowingly mislabel a dog of a restricted breed, presumably to increase the dog's adoption chances. PMID:24673506

Hoffman, Christy L.; Harrison, Natalie; Wolff, London; Westgarth, Carri

2014-01-01

342

Savage Earth: The Restless Planet - Earthquakes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article, entitled Earth: All Stressed Out, dicusses the reasons for crustal movement, the different types of faults and seismic waves, and an explanation of how the damage is caused. The article includes several animations that support the explanations, plus a video taken during a destructive California earthquake. There are also three sidebars that support the article. They are Learning from Earthquakes, Quake Prediction, and Build Smart. A companion animation illustrates how earthquake waves travel around and through the Earth.

343

NASA Earth Exchange: Next Generation Earth Science Collaborative  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NASA Earth Exchange (NEX) is a collaboration platform for the Earth science community creating new ways for scientific interaction and knowledge sharing. NEX combines state-of-the-art supercomputing, Earth system modeling, workflow management, NASA remote sensing data feeds, and a social networking platform to deliver a complete work environment in which users can explore and analyze large datasets, run modeling codes, collaborate on new or existing projects, and quickly share results among the Earth science communities.The work environment provides NEX members with community supported modeling, analysis and visualization software in conjunction with datasets that are common to the Earth systems science domain. By providing data, software, and large-scale computing power together in a flexible framework, NEX reduces the need for duplicated efforts in downloading data, developing pre-processing software tools, and expanding local compute infrastructures-while accelerating fundamental research, development of new applications, and reducing project costs. The social networking platform provides a forum for NEX members to efficiently share datasets, results, algorithms, codes, and expertise with other members. Since all members''work environments reside on the collaborative platform, sharing may be done without the transfer of large volumes of data or the porting of complex codes- making NEX an ideal platform for building upon and exchanging research, and fostering innovation.

Nemani, R.

2011-08-01

344

NASA Earth Exchange: A Collaborative Earth Science Platform  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NASA Earth Exchange (NEX) is a collaboration platform for the Earth science community creating new ways for scientific interaction and knowledge sharing. Funded through ARRA, NEX combines state-of-the-art supercomputing, Earth system modeling, workflow management, NASA remote sensing data feeds, and a social networking platform to deliver a complete work environment in which users can explore and analyze large datasets, run modeling codes, collaborate on new or existing projects, and quickly share results among the Earth science communities. The work environment provides NEX members with community supported modeling, analysis and visualization software in conjunction with datasets that are common to the Earth systems science domain. By providing data, software, and large-scale computing power together in a flexible framework, NEX reduces the need for duplicated efforts in downloading data, developing pre-processing software tools, and expanding local compute infrastructures—while accelerating fundamental research, development of new applications, and reducing project costs. The social networking platform provides a forum for NEX members to efficiently share datasets, results, algorithms, codes, and expertise with other members. Since all members' work environments reside on the collaborative platform, sharing may be done without the transfer of large volumes of data or the porting of complex codes—making NEX an ideal platform for building upon and exchanging research, and fostering innovation. Architecture of NEX integrating social networking, super-computing and data center. The prototyping facility allows users to test their models, algorithms prior to deploying them on the super-computers when required.

Nemani, R. R.; Votava, P.; Michaelis, A.; Melton, F. S.; Hashimoto, H.; Milesi, C.; Wang, W.; Ganguly, S.

2010-12-01

345

NASA Earth Exchange: Next Generation Earth Science Collaborative  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NASA Earth Exchange (NEX) is a collaboration platform for the Earth science community creating new ways for scientific interaction and knowledge sharing. Funded through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act, NEX combines state-of-the-art supercomputing, Earth system modeling, workflow management, NASA remote sensing data feeds, and a social networking platform to deliver a complete work environment in which users can explore and analyze large datasets, run modeling codes, collaborate on new or existing projects, and quickly share results among the Earth science communities. The work environment provides NEX members with community supported modeling, analysis and visualization software in conjunction with datasets that are common to the Earth systems science domain. By providing data, software, and large-scale computing power together in a flexible framework, NEX reduces the need for duplicated efforts in downloading data, developing pre-processing software tools, and expanding local compute infrastructures-while accelerating fundamental research, development of new applications, and reducing project costs. The social networking platform provides a forum for NEX members to efficiently share datasets, results, algorithms, codes, and expertise with other members. Since all members' work environments reside on the collaborative platform, sharing may be done without the transfer of large volumes of data or the porting of complex codes-making NEX an ideal platform for building upon and exchanging research, and fostering innovation.

Nemani, R. R.; Votava, P.; Michaelis, A.; Melton, F. S.; Milesi, C.

2011-12-01

346

GOOGLE EARTH QUICK GUIDE (1)Google Earth Features  

E-print Network

GOOGLE EARTH QUICK GUIDE (1)Google Earth Features The Google Earth of the Google Earth window. Often when opening up the Google Earth program, the view screen will be a view of the entire Earth from space. Navigation bar

Smith-Konter, Bridget

347

Earth Pulse  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Earth Pulse is the National Geographic site for conservation. It features a set of links to National Geographic sites with a variety of conservation themes such as oceans, climate, energy, fresh water, and others. Many of these pages feature interactive tours or videos. Virtual Worlds is a set of interactive tours of various environments, from the rain forest at night to a new urbanist neighborhood. There is also a collection of Sights and Sounds interactive pages on a variety of ecosystems, in which users can click on a map and see information on wildlife that inhabits the selected region. There are also links to news articles and online expeditions in which users can follow actual expeditions as they were conducted by explorers-in-residence.

2007-12-12

348

Earth's Oceans  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource guide from the Middle School Portal 2 project, written specifically for teachers, provides links to exemplary resources including background information, lessons, career information, and related national science education standards. This guide focuses on the oceans as a part of the Earth system: the link between oceans and climate; tsunamis; life science concepts such as ocean ecosystems, food webs, and biodiversity; real data â both sources of and projects that use real data; and related careers. There is also a section on the misconceptions commonly surrounding ocean concepts and finally the National Science Education Standards that these resource connect to. So even though you might not teach a unit called oceans, the oceans can be used as a context within an existing unit, such as ecosystems, energy transfer, systems thinking, or methods in science.

Lightle, Kimberly; Fries-Gaither, Jessica

2009-10-01

349

Building Together  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this Bob the Builder(TM)-themed activity, learners explore what it means to work together as a team. Learners repeat the phrase “Can We Build It?(TM) Yes We Can!” until they can chant it together as a team. Then, learners repeat the chant at each activity station. Learners rotate through the stations where they build with blocks, LEGO® bricks or other small manipulatives, hammer nails and wood, pump with water, and construct a building site by moving sand with toy trucks. This activity is featured on page 9 of the "Bob the Builder(TM) — Project: Build It" unit of study.

The Children's Museum of Indianapolis

2006-01-01

350

Building Houses  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Build a house you can fit inside, using cardboard tubes. Variations of this activity include building for a toy (easier) or building a house the right size for a stuffed animal or a garage for a toy car. Also included is an option to build houses inspired by those around the world (harder). This activity focuses on the understanding of sizes and shapes: Can I fit in this if I stand up? if I sit? Do we have enough cardboard tubes to make a triangular roof? This activity is available as a webpage and a downloadable pdf. Students should have the ability to use scissors and tape well.

2010-01-01

351

Earth-Sun Geometry - Earth Revolution Animation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The representation is an animation of the Earth revolving around the sun. The Earth is shown as a solid green sphere with the equator and arctic circle marked with black lines and the dark side of the Earth shaded. The Earth's axis is shown with a red line. As the Earth revolves around the sun, the axis is shown to always be pointing in the same direction. The positions of Earth at the winter solstice, vernal equinox, summer solstice, and autumnal equinox are labeled.

Dr. Michael Pidwirny

352

[Prevention and control of invaded plant Phytolacca americana in sandy coastal shelter forests].  

PubMed

The invasion of Phytolacca americana has produced serious damage to the coastal shelter forests in China. In order to search for the effective measures for controlling the growth of P. americana, several plots in the Robinia pseudoacacia forest invaded by P. Americana to the relatively same extent were installed, and the measures of physical control (mowing and root cutting) and chemical control (spraying herbicides) were adopted to control the invasion of P. Americana, taking the site with good growth of Amorpha fruticosa in the forest and without any control measures as the comparison. The results showed that mowing could rapidly decrease the growth of P. americana in the same year, but the growth recovered in the next year. 1/3 root cutting only reduced the aboveground growth of P. americana in the same year, and the growth was recovered in the third year; while 2/3 root cutting and whole cutting could effectively cleanup the P. americana plants all the time. Spraying quizalofop-p-ethyl and paraquat only killed the aboveground part of P. americana in the same year, but this part of P. americana recovered to the normal level in the next year; while spraying 45 g x L(-1) of glyphosate could completely kill the whole P. americana plants till the third year. The growth of P. americana at the site with good growth of A. fruticosa and without any control measures maintained at a low level all the time, suggesting that planting A. fruticosa in R. pseudoacacia forest would be an effective approach to prevent and control the P. americana invasion. PMID:22803465

Fu, Jun-Peng; Li, Chuan-Rong; Xu, Jing-Wei; Cheng, Wan-Li; Song, Rui-Feng; Liu, Yun

2012-04-01

353

Building Technology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From residential houses to hundred-story skyscrapers, many different technologies come together to make a building safe and comfortable. Building design is a continually changing industry, and new advances are being made possible as research progresses.Sustainable development is gaining popularity worldwide in an effort to minimize environmental impact. The Center for Resourceful Building Technology (1) maintains an online guide that describes building practices that are resource-efficient; some information on the center's research projects is also available. Similar in topic is this report from the National Association of Home Builders Research Center (2). The 70-page document is the final report of an April 2003 conference on green building; it gives day-by-day summaries of presentations and activities in which the conference participants were involved. Office buildings have a number of design issues that need to be considered to make a productive work environment. One such issue is the acoustics in a cubicle workspace. The Canadian Institute for Research in Construction (3) discusses some design factors that can improve privacy even in the very open atmosphere of closely spaced cubicles. In the wake of the 2001 anthrax scare, a research project at Pennsylvania State University has garnered significant attention. This paper (4) introduces immune buildings, which have advanced ventilation and air filtration systems that can mitigate the danger caused by airborne pathogens. Experimental results from the project are also presented. The US Department of Energy High Performance Building Initiative (5) is investigating new technologies to make commercial buildings more comfortable and cost effective. Several interesting technical papers and introductory reports are given on the initiative's homepage, including a technology road map for high performance buildings. This essay from the June 2003 issue of Constructech Magazine (6) highlights a movement toward integrated control systems for all types of buildings. The author notes that having a unified system that automatically manages security, lighting, energy, and several other building operations can save time and money in the long run. Another article, written by a member of the Partnership for Advanced Technology in Housing (7), discusses building materials and practices that can improve residential installation's resistance to major storms and natural disasters. An example of an area that is using these weather resistant designs is in Florida; the article cites the vulnerability of coastal homes to hurricanes and outlines some efforts to build them in a more structurally sound manner. Lastly, the Commercial Modular Construction Magazine (8) is a quarterly publication that centers on permanent and temporary modular building design. The second issue of 2003 has, among other things, a good article that describes the basics and benefits of modular construction.

Leske, Cavin.

354

View from southwest to northeast of warhead handling building. Note ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View from southwest to northeast of warhead handling building. Note earth embankment. The personnel entrance (left) and equipment entrance can clearly be seen in center of photograph. To the right is the emergency exit tunnel constructed of corrugated metal pipe. This building was salvaged and sealed after site inactivation - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Warhead Handling Building, Within Exclusion Area, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

355

Building Green  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

There's a great deal of talk about "building green" in the architecture and design world, but to many, this phrase may not mean a great deal. This website, created by the Building Green company, can help the uninitiated learn more about this subject. First-time visitors should click on the "Green Building Information" area. Here they can get answers to such question as "What is green?" and also learn more about green design strategies and the LEED rating system. Right next to this section is the "Case Studies" area, which features green building projects like elementary schools, commercial facilities, and university buildings. The site is rounded out by a "News" area and a detailed bibliography of websites, print resources, and so on.

356

Exploring Magnetism on Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This teacher's guide contains four lessons that provide a way for teachers to introduce students to and elaborate on Earth's changing magnetic field. It covers learning to navigate using Earth's magnetic field and compass, Earth's magnetic pole and its motion across Earth's surface, magnetic reversals on Earth, and Earth's currently declining magnetic field. These lessons have been taught primarily in math, geology, and astronomy classes.

2005-01-01

357

Iran: A Case Study on Research and Development of the Indigenous Building Methods, Materials, Local Skills and Resources in Selseleh, Luristan; in the Caspian Region; Training Workshop for Local Builders. Report Studies ... C 90.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two case studies, one conducted in the Luristan region of Iran in 1974, the other in the Caspian region in 1978, outline a methodology for assessing the problems and potentials of indigenous building methods. They illustrate how the methods can be used and developed to meet present shelter needs and how the problems that exist can be overcome…

Norton, John

358

The effectiveness of critical time intervention for abused women and homeless people leaving Dutch shelters: study protocol of two randomised controlled trials  

PubMed Central

Background One of the main priorities of Dutch organisations providing shelter services is to develop evidence-based interventions in the care for abused women and homeless people. To date, most of these organisations have not used specific intervention models and the interventions which have been implemented rarely have an empirical and theoretical foundation. The present studies aim to examine the effectiveness of critical time intervention (CTI) for abused women and homeless people. Methods In two multi-centre randomised controlled trials we investigate whether CTI, a time-limited (nine month) outreach intervention, is more effective than care-as-usual for abused women and homeless people making the transition from shelter facilities to supported or independent housing. Participants were recruited in 19 women’s shelter facilities and 22 homeless shelter facilities across The Netherlands and randomly allocated to the intervention group (CTI) or the control group (care-as-usual). They were interviewed four times in nine months: once before leaving the shelter, and then at three, six and nine months after leaving the shelter. Quality of life (primary outcome for abused women) and recurrent loss of housing (primary outcome for homeless people) as well as secondary outcomes (e.g. care needs, self-esteem, loneliness, social support, substance use, psychological distress and service use) were assessed during the interviews. In addition, the model integrity of CTI was investigated during the data collection period. Discussion Based on international research CTI is expected to be an appropriate intervention for clients making the transition from institutional to community living. If CTI proves to be effective for abused women and homeless people, shelter services could include this case management model in their professional standards and improve the (quality of) services for clients. Trial registration NTR3463 and NTR3425

2013-01-01

359

Life on Earth. II The Hadean Earth  

E-print Network

Life on Earth. II #12;The Hadean Earth 4.5 - 3.9 Gyr Impacts melt the surface. Volatiles escape cools, rain replenished oceans Life appeared with 100 Myr of end of great bombardment Did life reform stabilized 3.9 Gya - 2.5 Gya #12;First Life What was the first life on Earth? ·The first living things must

Walter, Frederick M.

360

Academic Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Academic Earth provides videos of lectures by top scholars in "Subjects" that range from Astronomy to Entrepreneurship to Religion, from "Universities" as celebrated as MIT, Berkeley, Harvard, and Stanford. Visitors must register to view the lectures, but registration is free. There are over 1500 video lectures available, with more being added everyday. In addition to viewing the lectures available by subject or university, visitors can choose by "Instructors" or by "Playlists". When visitors click on "Playlists" at the top of the homepage, they will see a list of lectures by theme, by several different instructors, and a grade given to the lecture series. A good example is the 6-part lecture entitled "Understanding the Financial Crisis" by four different instructors. The series is given a grade overall, in this case, an A-, and when visitors click on "See all 6 lectures" at the bottom of the series' description, they will be taken to the page with the links to the individual lectures, as well as shown the grade given each individual lecture. Visitors can even keep a playlist of their favorite lectures or download the lectures. Visitors should definitely check out the Frequently Asked Questions page, accessible by the "FAQ" link at the bottom of the website.

361

Tidal Distortion and Disruption of Earth-Crossing Asteriods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We represent results of numerical simulations that show Earth's tidal forces can both distort and disrupt Earth-crossing asteriods (ECAs) that have weak rubble-pile structures. Building on previous studies, we consider more realistic asteriod shapes and trajectories, test a variety of spin and rates and axis orientations, and employ a dissipation algorithm to more accurately treat collisions between particles.

Love, Stanley G.; Bottke, William, Jr.

1997-01-01

362

Recent Developments in Young-Earth Creationist Geology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Young-earth creationism has undergone a shift in emphasis toward building of historical models that incorporate Biblical and scientific evidence and the acceptance of scientific conclusions that were formerly rejected. The RATE Group admitted that massive amounts of radioactive decay occurred during earth history but proposed a period of…

Heaton, Timothy H.

2009-01-01

363

What's Under Your Feet? Activity Book. Earth Science for Everyone.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This profusely illustrated activity book helps students understand systems and cycles, how years change the look of the Earth, and how students can protect resources. The sections (and activities) in this book are: (1) The Earth (Introduction--View, Soil & Dirt); (2) Forces (Plate Tectonics, Earthquakes, Mountain Building, Erosion, Volcanoes,…

Rubin, Penni; Robbins, Eleanora I.

364

Testing Shelter Index and a Simple Wind Speed Parameter to Characterize Vegetation Control of Sand Transport Threshold and Flux  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wind erosion and dust emissions occur in the Chihuahuan Desert surrounding Las Cruces NM from a range of surfaces with different types and amounts of vegetation. Understanding how vegetation modulates these processes remains a research challenge. One important aspect of research is to develop a relationship between a descriptor of the surface roughness that can be used to provide an indication of how susceptible the sediment transport system is to activation by wind. Here we present results from a study that examines the relationship between an index of shelter (distance from a point to the nearest upwind vegetation/vegetation height), as originally proposed by Okin (2008), and particle threshold expressed as a ratio of wind measured at 0.45 times the plant height divided by the wind speed at 17 m, and saltation flux (g cm-2 s-1). Saltation flux was measured using sediment traps positioned 15 cm above the surface and nearby optical gate sensors (Wenglor® model YH03PCT8)measuring saltation activity also placed at a height of 15 cm. The results are used to evaluate shelter index as a parameter to characterize the local winds as influenced by the vegetation and sediment transport conditions (threshold and transport). Wind speed, wind direction, saltation activity and point saltation flux were measured at 35 locations in defined test areas (~13,000 m2) in three vegetation communities: mature mesquite covered nebkha dunes, incipient nebkha dunes dominated by low mesquite plants, and a mature creosote bush area. Measurement positions represent the most open areas, and hence those places most susceptible to wind erosion among the vegetation elements. Shelter index was calculated for each measurement position for each approximately 10 degree wind direction bin using digital elevation models for each site acquired using terrestrial laser scanning.

Gillies, John; Nield, Joanna; Nickling, William; Furtak-Cole, Eden

2013-04-01

365

Building Big  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Building Big is a very informative site about the engineering principles required to build large structures, including bridges, domes, skyscrapers, dams, and tunnels. The interactive labs presented on the site discuss the various factors (e.g. forces, materials, loads, shapes) that need to be considered when designing large buildings. Fun challenges test these concepts for each of the five structures by putting students in charge of various construction projects. The student needs to weigh the pros and cons of particular designs and choose which is best for a given scenario. There are also many interviews with different structural engineers that will help students understand what working in this field is like.

2000-01-01

366

Earth Observation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For pipeline companies, mapping, facilities inventory, pipe inspections, environmental reporting, etc. is a monumental task. An Automated Mapping/Facilities Management/Geographic Information Systems (AM/FM/GIS) is the solution. However, this is costly and time consuming. James W. Sewall Company, an AM/FM/GIS consulting firm proposed an EOCAP project to Stennis Space Center (SSC) to develop a computerized system for storage and retrieval of digital aerial photography. This would provide its customer, Algonquin Gas Transmission Company, with an accurate inventory of rights-of-way locations and pipeline surroundings. The project took four years to complete and an important byproduct was SSC's Digital Aerial Rights-of-Way Monitoring System (DARMS). DARMS saves substantial time and money. EOCAP enabled Sewall to develop new products and expand its customer base. Algonquin now manages regulatory requirements more efficiently and accurately. EOCAP provides government co-funding to encourage private investment in and broader use of NASA remote sensing technology. Because changes on Earth's surface are accelerating, planners and resource managers must assess the consequences of change as quickly and accurately as possible. Pacific Meridian Resources and NASA's Stennis Space Center (SSC) developed a system for monitoring changes in land cover and use, which incorporated the latest change detection technologies. The goal of this EOCAP project was to tailor existing technologies to a system that could be commercialized. Landsat imagery enabled Pacific Meridian to identify areas that had sustained substantial vegetation loss. The project was successful and Pacific Meridian's annual revenues have substantially increased. EOCAP provides government co-funding to encourage private investment in and broader use of NASA remote sensing technology.

1994-01-01

367

Wind variability and sheltering effects on measurements and modeling of air-water exchange for a small lake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lakes with a surface area of less than 10 km2 account for over 50% of the global cumulative lake surface water area, and make up more than 99% of the total number of global lakes, ponds, and wetlands. Within the boreal regions as well as some temperate and tropical areas, a significant proportion of land cover is characterized by lakes or wetlands, which can have a dramatic effect on land-atmosphere fluxes as well as the local and regional energy budget. Many of these small water bodies are surrounded by complex terrain and forest, which cause the wind blowing over a small lake or wetland to be highly variable. Wind mixing of the lake surface layer affects thermal stratification, surface temperature and air-water gas transfer, e.g. O2, CO2, and CH4. As the wind blows from the land to the lake, wake turbulence behind trees and other shoreline obstacles leads to a recirculation zone and enhanced turbulence. This wake flow results in the delay of the development of wind shear stress on the lake surface, and the fetch required for surface shear stress to fully develop may be ~O(1 km). Interpretation of wind measurements made on the lake is hampered by the unknown effect of wake turbulence. We present field measurements designed to quantify wind variability over a sheltered lake. The wind data and water column temperature profiles are used to evaluate a new method to quantify wind sheltering of lakes that takes into account lake size, shape and the surrounding landscape features. The model is validated against field data for 36 Minnesota lakes. Effects of non-uniform sheltering and lake shape are also demonstrated. The effects of wind sheltering must be included in lake models to determine the effect of wind-derived energy inputs on lake stratification, surface gas transfer, lake water quality, and fish habitat. These effects are also important for correctly modeling momentum, heat, moisture and trace gas flux to the atmosphere.

Markfort, Corey D.; Resseger, Emily; Porté-Agel, Fernando; Stefan, Heinz

2014-05-01

368

The Sheltered Genetic Load Linked to the S Locus in Plants: New Insights From Theoretical and Empirical Approaches in Sporophytic Self-Incompatibility  

PubMed Central

Inbreeding depression and mating systems evolution are closely linked, because the purging of deleterious mutations and the fitness of individuals may depend on outcrossing vs. selfing rates. Further, the accumulation of deleterious mutations may vary among genomic regions, especially for genes closely linked to loci under balancing selection. Sporophytic self-incompatibility (SSI) is a common genetic mechanism in angiosperm that enables hermaphrodite plants to avoid selfing and promote outcrossing. The SSI phenotype is determined by the S locus and may depend on dominance relationships among alleles. Since most individuals are heterozygous at the S locus and recombination is suppressed in the S-locus region, it has been suggested that deleterious mutations could accumulate at genes linked to the S locus, generating a “sheltered load.” In this article, we first theoretically investigate the conditions generating sheltered load in SSI. We show that deleterious mutations can accumulate in linkage with specific S alleles, and particularly if those S alleles are dominant. Second, we looked for the presence of sheltered load in Arabidopsis halleri using CO2 gas treatment to overcome self-incompatibility. By examining the segregation of S alleles and measuring the relative fitness of progeny, we found significant sheltered load associated with the most dominant S allele (S15) of three S alleles tested. This sheltered load seems to be expressed at several stages of the life cycle and to have a larger effect than genomic inbreeding depression. PMID:19752218

Llaurens, Violaine; Gonthier, Lucy; Billiard, Sylvain

2009-01-01

369

Cooking, Healthy Eating, Fitness and Fun (CHEFFs): Qualitative Evaluation of a Nutrition Education Program for Children Living at Urban Family Homeless Shelters  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We assessed the feasibility of a 15-week nutrition education, physical activity, and media literacy program for children living in urban family homeless shelters. Methods. We developed a qualitative monitoring tool to evaluate program process and impact at 2 shelter sites in the Bronx, New York, from 2009 to 2012. Facilitators recorded indications of participants’ understanding of intended messages and demonstrations of changes in attitudes and behaviors. Comments, insights, and actions were recorded as they occurred. Facilitators also documented barriers to delivery of content and activities as intended. We used content analysis to examine data for patterns and identify themes. Results. A total of 162 children participated at the 2 shelter sites. Analysis of qualitative data yielded 3 themes: (1) children’s knowledge and understanding of content, (2) children’s shift in attitudes or intentions, and (3) interpretations through children’s life experience. Food insecurity as well as shelter food service and policies were important influences on children’s choices, hunger, and sense of well-being. Conclusions. Children’s experiences highlighted the need to advocate for shelter policies that adequately provide for children’s nutritional and physical activity requirements and foster academic development. PMID:24148062

Applebaum, Jo; Stephenson-Hunter, Cara; Tinio, Andrea; Shapiro, Alan

2013-01-01

370

Seroepidemiology of respiratory (group 2) canine coronavirus, canine parainfluenza virus, and Bordetella bronchiseptica infections in urban dogs in a humane shelter and in rural dogs in small communities  

PubMed Central

This prospective study evaluated seroepidemiologic features of canine respiratory coronavirus (CRCoV), canine parainfluenza virus (CPIV), and Bordetella bronchiseptica infections in dogs in an urban humane shelter and in rural/small community dog populations in western Canada. Seroprevalence of CRCoV and CPIV was low compared with other countries; seroprevalence of B. bronchiseptica was moderate to high in most populations examined. Rural dogs were 0.421 times (P ? 0.0001) less likely to be positive for CRCoV than dogs admitted to the shelter. There were no statistical differences in prevalence of antibodies to B. bronchiseptica and CPIV between urban and rural populations. Dogs from Fort Resolution, NWT were significantly (P < 0.05) less likely to have moderate or high antibody titers to the 3 agents than dogs in the shelter. Seroconversion to CRCoV was common in dogs in the shelter, but was not associated (P = 0.18) with respiratory disease. Antibodies to CRCoV, CPIV, or B. bronchiseptica on arrival were not significantly (P > 0.05) associated with disease-sparing after entry into the shelter. PMID:22294792

Ellis, John; Anseeuw, Erika; Gow, Sheryl; Bryan, Heather; Salb, Amanda; Goji, Noriko; Rhodes, Carrie; La Coste, Stacey; Smits, Judit; Kutz, Susan

2011-01-01

371

Our Buildings, Ourselves.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews in detail environmental impacts associated with buildings. Discusses building construction, internal environments, building life spans, building materials, protection from climate, and amenities. (LZ)

Roodman, David Malin; Lenssen, Nicholas

1994-01-01

372

Better Buildings  

E-print Network

on capital ? Delaware State University secured construction financing via the Delaware Sustainable Energy Utility?s Energy Efficiency Construction Bonds for an energy services performance contract across 26 buildings that will result in 25 percent...

Neukomm, M.

2012-01-01

373

Earth System Science Education Alliance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Earth System Science Education Alliance (ESSEA) professional development program is providing in-depth geoscience content and teaching methods to pre- and in-service teachers. The program is building and expanding on NASA's successful ESSEA program that was funded from 2000-2005. Now sponsored by NSF, the network has expanded to nearly 40 institutions of higher learning committed to teacher Earth system science education. The program supports participating institutions with funding, training, and standards-aligned courses and resources for pre- and in-service teachers. As a result, teachers are prepared to teach Earth system science using inquiry-based classroom methods, geoscience data and tools. From 1999-2005, the NASA funded ESSEA Program delivered online Earth system science professional development for K-12 teachers through a network of 20 colleges and universities. The program was led by the Institute for Global Environmental Strategies (IGES) and based on a trio of 16-week online courses (for elementary, middle, and high school teachers) that had been developed and piloted by NASA's Classroom of the Future at Wheeling Jesuit University. The ESSEA program's mission was to: 1) support universities, colleges, and science education organizations delivering the K-12 online graduate courses; 2) strengthen teachers' understanding of Earth system science; 3) demonstrate the ability to deliver exceptional professional development to a national audience; and 4) create a solid infrastructure to sustain the program. As of spring 2006, the courses had been used by 40 faculty at 20 institutions educating over 1,700 K-12 teachers in Earth system science. Through NSF funding beginning in late 2006, IGES is enhancing and building on the ESSEA foundation by: 1. Introducing extensive use of data, models and existing Earth system educational materials to support the courses; 2. Implementing a rigorous evaluation program designed to demonstrate growth in teachers' Earth systems content knowledge; 3. Using the ESSEA courses as a model to introduce newly upgrade Earth system science undergraduate and graduate courses; and 4. Disseminating model teaching practices and program success through annual conferences and presentations at national and regional geoscience and science teacher conferences. ESSEA has created a national professional development program aimed at improving the knowledge, skills, and resources of Earth system science educators. This professional development program offers state-of-the-art, online courses to promote understanding of Earth system science, to encourage communication and cooperation among teachers, and to facilitate the use of exceptional classroom materials. IGES furthers this vision by; updating the courses with additional tools, modules, and resources; and providing continuing support to institutions and faculty teaching middle-high school teachers (pre- and in-service) using the ESSEA courses and instructional resources. URL Address: http://esseacourses.strategies.org/

Myers, R.; Schwerin, T.

2007-12-01

374

Earth's Mineral Evolution  

E-print Network

Earth's Mineral Evolution :: Astrobiology Magazine - earth science - evol...rth science evolution Extreme Life Mars Life Outer Planets Earth's Mineral Evolution Summary (Nov 14, 2008): New research. Display Options: Earth's Mineral Evolution Based on a CIW news release Mineral Kingdom Has Co

Downs, Robert T.

375

Crew Earth Observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Crew Earth Observations (CEO) takes advantage of the crew in space to observe and photograph natural and human-made changes on Earth. The photographs record the Earth's surface changes over time, along with dynamic events such as storms, floods, fires and volcanic eruptions. These images provide researchers on Earth with key data to better understand the planet.

Runco, Susan

2009-01-01

376

Earth Structure Introduction  

E-print Network

Earth Structure Introduction Earth Structure (2nd Edition), 2004 W.W. Norton & Co, New York Slide show by Ben van der Pluijm © WW Norton, unless noted otherwise #12;© EarthStructure (2nd ed) 210/4/2010 Aerial views #12;© EarthStructure (2nd ed) 310/4/2010 http://www.globalchange.umich.edu/Ben/ES/ #12

377

Why Earth Science?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article briefly describes Earth science. The study of Earth science provides the foundation for an understanding of the Earth, its processes, its resources, and its environment. Earth science is the study of the planet in its entirety, how its lithosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere work together as systems and how they affect…

Smith, Michael J.

2004-01-01

378

Building a virtual outcrop, extracting geological information from it, and sharing the results in Google Earth via OpenPlot and Photoscan: An example from the Khaviz Anticline (Iran)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photogrammetry is becoming a highly efficient alternative technique to laser-scanning for creating virtual outcrop models. It is easy to create a 3-dimensional digital model of an outcrop and extract geological information contained in it by using photos taken from different locations and integrating few free and/or cheap software. Subsequently, both the virtual outcrop and the geological data can be easily uploaded into Google Earth for sharing purposes. This is opening a door to the use of virtual outcrops in geology, for both research and teaching, which due to the costs and computers' skill requirements, was limited to a few. The aim of this paper is to present methodologies involved in the creation, analysis and sharing of low-cost easily-built virtual outcrops, which can be extensively used for the introduction to the 3D geology. An example from the Khaviz Anticline (Iran) is used to create a 3D digital model from a set of non-oriented images, using Agisoft Photoscan photogrammetry software. The obtained geopositioned model is then imported into OpenPlot, from which geological surfaces can be extracted. These data, together with the 3D model, can be later exported in Google Earth format.

Tavani, S.; Granado, P.; Corradetti, A.; Girundo, M.; Iannace, A.; Arbués, P.; Muñoz, J. A.; Mazzoli, S.

2014-02-01

379

Rare earth (Eu{sup 3+}, Tb{sup 3+}) centered composite gels Si-O-M (M = B, Ti) through hexafluoroacetyl-acetone building block: Sol-gel preparation, characterization and photoluminescence  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Composite gel of Si-O-M (M = B, Ti). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hybrids with Si-O-B possess favorable luminescence property. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sol-gel process of different alkoxides. -- Abstract: This report focuses on the syntheses of a series of novel photoactive composite xerogels materials in which the functionalized hexafluoroacetylacetone (HFAASi) organic components are grafted into the different inorganic networks (SiO{sub 2}-B{sub 2}O{sub 3} or SiO{sub 2}-TiO{sub 2}) via covalent bonds through a sol-gel process. Subsequently, the physical characterization and especially photoluminescent properties of the resulting xerogel materials are studied in detail. Except for composite xerogels linked to SiO{sub 2}-TiO{sub 2} networks, all of these composite xerogels exhibit homogeneous microstructures and morphologies, suggesting that molecular-based materials are obtained with strong covalent bonds between the organic {beta}-diketone ligand and inorganic matrices. In addition, the ternary rare earth composite gels present stronger luminescent intensities, longer lifetimes, and higher luminescent quantum efficiencies than the binary ones, indicating that the introduction of the second ligands (phen) can sensitize the luminescent emission of the rare earth ions in the ternary hybrid systems. It should be especially noted that these composite xerogels based on Si-O-B networks possess not only higher thermal stability but also stronger luminescent intensities than the other systems linked to different inorganic networks.

Wang, Chang [Department of Chemistry, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China)] [Department of Chemistry, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Yan, Bing, E-mail: byan@tongji.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China)] [Department of Chemistry, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China)

2011-12-15

380

Finding Safe Shelters in Urban Areas for Earthquake Emergency Response through Web Processing Service  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earthquake emergency response provides support for making judgments and decisions in order to reduce levels of casualties and economic losses during a state of emergency after the occurrence of an earthquake. In the relief activities, it is of vital importance to provide evacuees usually in panic with accurate safety information. Immediate assessments of victims, collapsed buildings, interruption of lifelines, halting

Xiaoliang Meng; Fuling Bian; Yichun Xie; Zongliang Yang

2009-01-01

381

How to Build a Star  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How to Build a Star is a Windows to the Universe Exploratour and provides information and images about the Sun, star birth, energy, temperature, and nuclear fission. Windows to the Universe is a user-friendly learning system pertaining to the Earth and Space sciences. The objective of this project is to develop an innovative and engaging web site that spans the Earth and Space sciences and includes a rich array of documents, including images, movies, animations, and data sets that explore the Earth and Space sciences and the historical and cultural ties between science, exploration and the human experience. Links at the top of each page allow users to navigate between beginner, intermediate, and advanced options for each topic level.

Johnson, Roberta

2000-07-01

382

Exploring Earth from Space  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This set of lithographs from the ISS EarthKAM program contains an educators' guide, student information and worksheets, and several Earth photos taken from the Space Shuttle. Shuttle astronauts and the ISS EarthKAM program provide photos of our planet from the unique perspective of Earth orbit. This resource can enhance students' studies of Earth and space science, geography, social studies, mathematics, and educational technologies.

2002-12-01

383

Earth Observatory Glossary  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Earth Observatory Glossary defines words from space science, ecology and Earth science. It is part of the NASA Earth Observatory site, which provides new satellite imagery and scientific information about Earth with a focus on climate and environmental change. The new glossary mode allows users to browse the Earth Observatory site with special terms highlighted that, when selected, will take you to the appropriate entry in the glossary.

384

Peeling the layers: a grounded theory of interprofessional co-learning with residents of a homeless shelter.  

PubMed

Clients, patients, families, and communities must be conceived as partners in care delivery, not just as recipients (D'Amour, D. & Oandasan, I. (2005). Journal of Interprofessional Care, 19(Suppl.), 8-20). Health-care students need an opportunity to understand community member self-determination, partnership, and empowerment (Scheyett, A., & Diehl, M. ( 2004 ). Social Work Education, 23(4), 435-450), within the frame of interprofessional education (IPE) where community members are involved as teachers and learners. The aim of this grounded theory research was to determine the conditions that support health-care students to learn with, from, and about community members. This study took place in a shelter for the homeless where nursing and social work students learned interprofessionally along with residents and clients of the shelter. Data were gathered through 7 months of participant observation, interviews, and focus groups. The interprofessional co-learning theory that emerged introduces the three phases of entering, engaging, and emerging, which co-learners experienced at different levels of intensity. This article outlines the conditions that support each of these phases of the co-learning process. This interprofessional co-learning theory provides a basis for further development and evaluation of IPE programs that strive to actively include community members as teachers and learners, experts, and novices together with service providers, students, and faculty members. PMID:21635183

E Rutherford, Gayle

2011-09-01

385

Earth System Science Education Alliance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Earth System Science Education Alliance (ESSEA) professional development program is providing in- depth geoscience content and teaching methods to pre- and in-service teachers. The program is building and expanding on NASA's successful ESSEA program that was funded from 2000-2005. Beginning in 2006 NSF funding will enable ESSEA will expand to 40 institutions of higher learning that are committed to teacher education in Earth system science. The program will support participating institutions with funding, training, and standards-aligned courses and resources for pre- and in-service teachers. As a result, teachers will be prepared to teach Earth system science using inquiry-based classroom methods, geoscience data and tools. From 1999-2005, the NASA funded ESSEA Program delivered online Earth system science professional development for K-12 teachers through a network of 20 colleges and universities. The program was led by the Institute for Global Environmental Strategies (IGES) and based on a trio of 16-week online courses (for elementary, middle, and high school teachers) that had been developed and piloted by NASA's Classroom of the Future at Wheeling Jesuit University. The ESSEA program's mission was to: 1) support universities, colleges, and science education organizations delivering the K-12 online graduate courses; 2) strengthen teachers' understanding of Earth system science; 3) demonstrate the ability to deliver exceptional professional development to a national audience; and 4) create a solid infrastructure to sustain the program. As of spring 2006, the courses had been used by 40 faculty at 20 institutions educating over 1,700 k-12 teachers in Earth system science. Although NASA funding ended in late 2005, the courses continue to be offered by 17 of the original 20 institutions. Through NSF funding beginning in late 2006, IGES will enhance and build upon the ESSEA foundation by: 1.Using the ESSEA courses as a model to introduce newly upgraded Earth system science undergraduate and graduate courses; 2. Introducing extensive use of data, models and existing Earth system educational materials to support the courses; 3.Disseminating model teaching practices and program success through annual conferences and presentations at national and regional geoscience and science teacher conferences; and 4.Expanding the base of 17 ESSEA colleges and universities to 40 participating institutions. ESSEA has created a national professional development program aimed at improving the knowledge, skills, and resources of Earth system science educators. This professional development program offers state-of-the- art, online courses to promote understanding of Earth system science, to encourage communication and cooperation among teachers, and to facilitate the use of exceptional classroom materials. Beginning in 2006 IGES will further this vision by expanding the number of institutions offering the courses; updating the courses with additional tools, modules, and resources; and providing continuing support to institutions and faculty teaching middle-high school teachers (pre- and in-service) using the ESSEA courses and instructional resources.

Myers, R.; Schwerin, T.

2006-12-01

386

Research on the Placement of the Ecological Shelter Zone in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Three Gorges Dam is built on the middle reaches of Yangtze River (Changjiang) in south-central China, which is the world's third longest river. The Three Gorges Reservoir Region (TGRR), including the entire inundated area and 19 administrative units (counties and cities) on both sides of the river, is regarded as an environmentally sensitive area. The total area of the TGRR is approximately 58000 km2. As the Three Gorges Dam fully operated, for the flood control, the water level should be kept in the range between 145 m and 175 m and the reservoir surface water area(over 1080 km2)at a water level of 175 m, with a length of 600 km. Many of cities, villages and farms have been submerged. Moreover, as a result of reservoir operation, the water-level alternation of the reservoir is opposite to the nature, which is low water level (145m) in summer and high water level (175m) in winter. The Hydro-Fluctuation Belt, with a height of 30m, will become a new pollution source due to the riparian being flooded and the submerged areas may still contain trace amounts of toxic or radioactive materials. The environmental impacts associated with large scale reservoir area often have significant negative impacts on the environment. It affects forest cover, species in the area, some endangered, water quality, increase the likelihood of earthquakes and mudslides in the area. To solve these problems, it is necessarily to construct the Ecological Shelter Zone (ESZ) along with the edge of the reservoir area. The function of the ESZ is similar to the riparian zone in reducing flood damage, improving water quality, decreasing the levels of the nonpoint source pollution load and soil erosion and rebuilding the migration routes of plant and wildlife. However, the research of the ESZ is mainly focused on rivers at field scale by now, lack of research method on reservoir at the watershed scale. As the special nature of the Three Gorges Reservoir, the construction of the ESZ in the TGRA is very complex. This paper focus on the development of a methodology to target the ESZ based on currently available tools (Remote Sensing, GIS and Hydrologic Model). According to the features of the TGRR, a spatially explicit and process-based method was introduced to help plan the placement of the ESZ in the TGRR for water quality benefits. The methods presented here were based on the integration of grid-based terrain analysis and nonpoint source pollution estimates. Firstly, the contribution of nonpoint source pollution from upslope farmland and urban to the TGRR was determined by grid-based terrain analysis. The upslope contributing area beyond the ESZ was defined as a "source". The SWAT model was used to analyze the characteristics of the pollution load. Secondly, the ESZ was defined as a "sink" and the reducing pollution loads in each grid cell of the ESZ was calculated by the REMM model. Finally, the key areas in the TGRA where the ESZ have the greatest potential to improve water quality were identified and the formula of the width of the ESZ was determined. However, the method in this article considers only the function of pollutants reduction in the ESZ, the next stage of the study will involve detailed modeling for the function of ecological corridor in the ESZ.

Shan, N.; Ruan, X.

2011-12-01

387

Sub-surface movement of stone artefacts at White Paintings Shelter, Tsodilo Hills, Botswana: implications for the Middle Stone Age chronology of central southern Africa.  

PubMed

White Paintings Shelter, Tsodilo Hills, Botswana plays a pivotal role in the archaeological chronology of the Middle Stone Age in the Kalahari. Results of refitting and the application of the chaîne opératoire on the Middle Stone Age lithic assemblage from this site suggest that the previously reported relatively undisturbed nature of the lower deposits should be refuted. Potential causes for this admixture include sloping deposits and post-depositional processes. The significant consequences for the Middle Stone Age occupation, dating and transition to the Later Stone Age at White Paintings Shelter are explored. PMID:24953669

Staurset, Sigrid; Coulson, Sheila

2014-10-01

388

Building Design  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Building Design site bills itself as "the architects" website", and it is a claim that is quite accurate and apropos. Designed to complement their print publication, the site is a treasure-trove of material for just about anyone who is involved in any aspect of building, including architects, design theorists, planners, and so on. As the magazine is based in the United Kingdom, there's definitely a British Isles focus. Readers probably won't mind as the site offers excellent coverage of the field in the "News" section, where they can sign up to receive email updates, watch some slideshows of new and proposed buildings, and read long-form pieces. Not surprisingly, the site is keeping up with the proverbial Joneses" by offering a smattering of intelligent and lively blogs, coupled with podcasts that mix contemporary interviews and discussions with archived materials such as talks with Buckminster Fuller on his environmental philosophy.

389

3. BUILDING 0503, NORTH FRONT AND WEST SIDE, WITH LOADING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. BUILDING 0503, NORTH FRONT AND WEST SIDE, WITH LOADING DOCK AND GABLE ROOFED SHED. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Earth Covered Bunker Types, North of Sled Track, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

390

2. BUILDING 0521, SOUTH REAR AND EAST SIDE. Looking to ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. BUILDING 0521, SOUTH REAR AND EAST SIDE. Looking to northwest from access road. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Earth Covered Bunker Types, North of Sled Track, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

391

5. BUILDING 0503, INTERIOR WOODEN ARCHES. Looking south from entrance. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. BUILDING 0503, INTERIOR WOODEN ARCHES. Looking south from entrance. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Earth Covered Bunker Types, North of Sled Track, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

392

Building Tall  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this engineering activity (page 2 of PDF), young learners investigate how a wide base can make a building more stable. Learners use blocks or boxes of different sizes to construct stable towers. Learners will compare and contrast different structures, document their observations, experiment with different materials, and conduct stability tests. This activity is part of the Curious George "Under Construction" lesson plan and related to the show Curious George on PBS, specifically the episode "Curious George's Home for Pigeons." The lesson plan includes several activities that explore building engineering. Activities are connected to fiction and non-fiction books and include family extension projects.

PBS Kids

2006-01-01

393

Discover our Earth: An Earth Science Information System for undergraduate education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In many scientific disciplines, there are currently several large-scale efforts to build comprehensive information management systems. Cornell University's Geoscience Information Systems Project (http://atlas.geo.cornell.edu/) is one of the larger efforts designed to build such a system for geoscience research [Seber et al., 1997; Seber et al., 2000]. Utilizing this resource in education activities has great potential for improving the quality of Earth science education. This article summarizes our work on developing education applications, and discusses issues related to building interactive information systems for education purposes.

Seber, Dogan; Moore, Alexandra; Brindisi, Carrie; Danowski, Daniel

394

Building Sinusoids  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author describes the development and implementation of a measurement-based group activity designed to support students in understanding the connection between angle magnitude and the shape of the sine function. She explains that the benefit of this activity is that it allows students to build their trigonometric knowledge…

Landers, Mara G.

2013-01-01

395

Building Height  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Working in pairs, students create a clinometer and use isosceles right triangles to find the height of a building. The class will compare measurements, discuss their results, and select the best measure of central tendency to report the most accurate height. All handouts and excellent class discussion questions are provided.

Hendrickson, Katie

2000-01-01

396

Building Trades.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum guide provides materials for a competency-based course in building trades at the secondary level. The curriculum design uses the curriculum infused model for the teaching of basic skills as part of vocational education and demonstrates the relationship of vocationally related skills to communication, mathematics, and science…

Gudzak, Raymond

397

The Lifeworld Earth and a Modelled Earth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The goal of this paper is to study the question of whether a phenomenological view of the Earth could be empirically endorsed. The phenomenological way of thinking considers the Earth as a material entity, but not as an object as viewed in science. In the learning science tradition, tracking the process of the conceptual change of the shape of the…

Juuti, Kalle

2014-01-01

398

1. West elevations of barrier (Building 4216/E17) and Monitor Building ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. West elevations of barrier (Building 4216/E-17) and Monitor Building (4203/E-4). Barrier is built of wood infilled with earth, intended to protect Monitor Building from flying debris should anything at Test Stand 'A' explode. Building 4203/E-4 is built of reinforced concrete; equipment on top of it is cooling tower for refrigeration equipment in Test Stand 'A' machinery room. Electrical utility poles are typical at the facility, and carry 4,800 volts 3-phase alternating current. - Jet Propulsion Laboratory Edwards Facility, Test Stand A, Control Center, Edwards Air Force Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

399

Build Our Milky Way  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online module features an interactive model of the the Milky Way galaxy. Students click on parts of the model to read and learn about the different components of galaxies. Upon completion of this activity, students will be able to locate parts of and build the Milky Way, and identify Earth's location within it. Additional information about our galaxy can be found in the Galaxy Gallery and Galaxy Gossip sections of the module. Students can complete this activity independently or in small groups. However, students should complete this activity prior to completing Galaxy Games. Detailed teacher pages, identified as Teaching Tips on the activity's title page, provide science background information, lesson plan ideas, related resources, and alignment with national education standards. This activity is part of the online exploration "Galaxies Galore, Games and More" available on the Amazing Space website.

400

Automating the Processing of Earth Observation Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA s vision for Earth science is to build a "sensor web": an adaptive array of heterogeneous satellites and other sensors that will track important events, such as storms, and provide real-time information about the state of the Earth to a wide variety of customers. Achieving this vision will require automation not only in the scheduling of the observations but also in the processing of the resulting data. To address this need, we are developing a planner-based agent to automatically generate and execute data-flow programs to produce the requested data products.

Golden, Keith; Pang, Wan-Lin; Nemani, Ramakrishna; Votava, Petr

2003-01-01

401

Earth on the Move.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides background information on the layers of the earth, the relationship between changes on the surface of the earth and its insides, and plate tectonics. Teaching activities are included, with some containing reproducible worksheets and handouts to accompany them. (TW)

Naturescope, 1987

1987-01-01

402

Earth Science Education Plan: Inspire the Next Generation of Earth Explorers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Education Enterprise Strategy, the expanding knowledge of how people learn, and the community-wide interest in revolutionizing Earth and space science education have guided us in developing this plan for Earth science education. This document builds on the success of the first plan for Earth science education published in 1996; it aligns with the new framework set forth in the NASA Education Enterprise Strategy; it recognizes the new educational opportunities resulting from research programs and flight missions; and it builds on the accomplishments th'at the Earth Science Enterprise has made over the last decade in studying Earth as a system. This document embodies comprehensive, practicable plans for inspiring our children; providing educators with the tools they need to teach science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM); and improving our citizens' scientific literacy. This plan describes an approach to systematically sharing knowledge; developing the most effective mechanisms to achieve tangible, lasting results; and working collaboratively to catalyze action at a scale great enough to ensure impact nationally and internationally. This document will evolve and be periodically reviewed in partnership with the Earth science education community.

2004-01-01

403

Earth System Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Understanding climate requires understanding that Earth is a holistic system of dynamic, interacting components. Furthermore, understanding how the Earth system works is essential for making informed decisions about how to manage, protect, and sustain our planet and its natural resources. This EarthLabs module helps students understand their world as an interconnected living system. Students learn to identify the parts of the Earth system and the processes that connect them, starting locally and gradually expanding their view to regional and global scales.

Bardar, Erin; Haddad, Nick

404

Building Specifications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The building in the top photo is the new home of the National Permanent Savings Bank in Washington, D.C., designed by Hartman-Cox Architects. Its construction was based on a money-saving method of preparing building specifications which derived from NASA technology developed to obtain quality construction while holding down cost of launch facilities, test centers and other structures. Written technical specifications spell out materials and components to be used on construction projects and identify the quality tests each item must pass. Specifications can have major impact on construction costs. Poorly formulated specifications can lead to unacceptable construction which must be replaced, unnecessarily high materials costs, safety hazards, disputes and often additional costs due to delays and litigation. NASA's Langley Research Center developed a novel approach to providing accurate, uniform, cost-effective specifications which can be readily updated to incorporate new building technologies. Called SPECSINTACT, it is a computerized - system accessible to all NASA centers involved in construction programs. The system contains a comprehensive catalog of master specifications applicable to many types of construction. It enables designers of any structure to call out relevant sections from computer storage and modify them to fit the needs of the project at hand. Architects and engineers can save time by concentrating their efforts on needed modifications rather than developing all specifications from scratch. Successful use of SPECSINTACT has led to a number of spinoff systems. One of the first was MASTERSPEC, developed from NASA's experience by Production Systems for Architects and Engineers, Inc., an organization established by the American Institute of Architects. MASTERSPEC, used in construction of the bank building pictured, follows the same basic format as SPECSINTACT and can be used in either automated or manual modes. The striking appearance of the bank building shows that, while MASTERSPEC saves time and money, its use involves no sacrfice in architectural design freedom. The Naval Engineering Facilities Command employs an automated specifications system based on SPECSINTACT. The Public Buildings Service of the General Services Administration used SPECSINTACT as a starting point in a plan to make its guideline specifications available to architects and engineers on a nationwide computer network. Public Technology, Inc., a NASA Technology Application Team, is working with Production Systems for Architects and Engineers, Inc., to promote widespread use of the system by state and local governments for cost benefits to taxpayers.

1978-01-01

405

The Cortisol Awakening Response as a Function of PTSD Severity and Abuse Chronicity in Sheltered Battered Women  

PubMed Central

Although intimate partner violence (IPV) is a significant social problem associated with severe psychiatric problems, most notably PTSD, only a handful of studies has examined PTSD and associated physiological factors in battered women. Further, no research to date has investigated impact of abuse chronicity on HPA functioning. The present study examined the impact of PTSD severity and abuse chronicity on the cortisol awakening response in a sample of 52 sheltered battered women. Results suggest that IPV-related PTSD and abuse chronicity have opposite effects on waking salivary cortisol curves in battered women. PTSD severity was associated with significantly greater cortisol output the first hour after awakening, while more chronic abuse was associated with lower total cortisol output in the first hour after awakening. Implications of findings and suggestions for future research are discussed. PMID:17890049

Johnson, Dawn M.; Delahanty, Douglas L.; Pinna, Keri

2008-01-01

406

Takarkori rock shelter (SW Libya): an archive of Holocene climate and environmental changes in the central Sahara  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rock shelters in the central Saharan massifs preserve anthropogenic stratigraphic sequences that represent both a precious archive for the prehistory of the region and a powerful proxy data for Holocene palaeoenvironments. The geoarchaeological (micromorphology) and archaeobotanical (pollen analysis) approaches were integrated to investigate the anthropogenic sedimentary sequence preserved within the Takarkori rock shelter, a Holocene archaeological site located in the Libyan central Sahara (southern Tadrart Acacus massif). The site was occupied throughout the Early and Middle Holocene (African Humid Period) by groups of hunter-gatherers before and by pastoral communities later. The investigation on the inner part of the sequence allows to recognize the anthropogenic contribution to sedimentation process, and to reconstruct the major changes in the Holocene climate. At the bottom of the stratigraphic sequence, evidence for the earliest frequentation of the site by hunters and gatherers has been recognized; it is dated to c. 10,170 cal yr BP and is characterized by high availability of water, freshwater habitats and sparsely wooded savannah vegetation. A second Early Holocene occupation ended at c. 8180 cal yr BP; this phase is marked by increased aridity: sediments progressively richer in organics, testifying to a more intense occupation of the site, and pollen spectra indicating a decrease of grassland and the spreading of cattails, which followed a general lowering of lake level or widening of shallow-water marginal habitats near the site. After this period, a new occupational phase is dated between c. 8180 and 5610 cal yr BP; this period saw the beginning of the frequentation of pastoral groups and is marked by an important change in the forming processes of the sequence. Sediments and pollen spectra confirm a new increase in water availability, which led to a change in the landscape surrounding the Takarkori rock shelter with the spreading of water bodies. The upper part of the sequence, dating between c. 5700 and 4650 cal yr BP records a significant environmental instability towards dryer climatic conditions, consistent with the end of the African Humid Period. Though some freshwater habitats were still present, increasing aridity pushed the expansion of the dry savannah. The final transition to arid conditions is indicated by the preservation of ovicaprines dung layers at the top of the sequence together with sandstone blocks collapsed from the shelter's vault. On the contrary, the outer part of the sequence preserves a significantly different palaeoenvironmental signal; in fact, the surface was exposed to rainfall and a complex pedogenetic evolution of the sequence occurred, encompassing the formation of an argillic laminar horizon at the topsoil, the evolution of a desert pavement, and the deposition of Mn-rich rock varnish on stones. These processes are an effect of the general environmental instability that occurred in the central Sahara since the Middle Holocene transition. Finally, the local palaeoclimatic significance of the sequence fits well with Holocene regional and continental environmental changes recorded by many palaeohydrological records from North Africa. This highlights the potential of geoarchaeological and archaeobotanical investigations in interpreting the palaeoenvironmental significance of anthropogenic cave sediments in arid lands.

Cremaschi, Mauro; Zerboni, Andrea; Mercuri, Anna Maria; Olmi, Linda; Biagetti, Stefano; di Lernia, Savino

2014-10-01

407

Simulation-based design of energy management system with storage battery for a refugee shelter in Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the massive earthquake hit eastern Japan in March, 2011, our team has participated in the recovery planning for Kesen Association, which is a group of cities in northeastern Japan. As one of our proposals for the recovery planning for the community, we are designing energy management system with renewable energy (RE) and storage batteries. Some public facilities in the area have been used as refugee shelters, but refugees had to put up with life without electricity for a while after the disaster. If RE generator and storage batteries are introduced into the facilities, it is possible to provide refugees with electricity. In this study, the sizes of photovoltaic (PV) appliances and storage batteries to be introduced into one public facility are optimized. The optimization is based on simulation, in which electric energy is managed by charge and discharge of storage battery.

Kaji, K.; Zhang, J.; Horie, H.; Akimoto, H.; Tanaka, K.

2013-12-01

408

Simulation-based design of energy management system with storage battery for a refugee shelter in Japan  

SciTech Connect

Since the massive earthquake hit eastern Japan in March, 2011, our team has participated in the recovery planning for Kesen Association, which is a group of cities in northeastern Japan. As one of our proposals for the recovery planning for the community, we are designing energy management system with renewable energy (RE) and storage batteries. Some public facilities in the area have been used as refugee shelters, but refugees had to put up with life without electricity for a while after the disaster. If RE generator and storage batteries are introduced into the facilities, it is possible to provide refugees with electricity. In this study, the sizes of photovoltaic (PV) appliances and storage batteries to be introduced into one public facility are optimized. The optimization is based on simulation, in which electric energy is managed by charge and discharge of storage battery.

Kaji, K.; Zhang, J.; Horie, H.; Tanaka, K. [Department of Technology Management for Innovation, Graduate School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo (Japan); Akimoto, H. [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (Korea, Republic of)

2013-12-10

409

Impact of a subsidized spay neuter clinic on impoundments and euthanasia in a community shelter and on service and complaint calls to animal control.  

PubMed

Reducing the number of homeless, nonhuman animals entering and being euthanatized in community shelters is the principal motivation for most spay/neuter (S/N) programs in the United States. This study evaluated the impact of a subsidized S/N clinic opened in 2005 in Transylvania County, North Carolina, on the numbers of impoundments (and euthanasia) of dogs and cats and on the number of animal-related service and complaint calls at the community's only animal shelter. Before opening the local S/N clinic, a significant linear decline in the shelter's dog-intake rate per 1,000 human population was evident. This decline did not accelerate after the S/N clinic opened in 2005. The rate of decline in euthanasia did level off after the clinic opened, but the proportion of impounded dogs euthanatized did not change significantly. The median number of cats impounded and euthanatized yearly in the Transylvania County Animal Services shelter decreased significantly after the S/N clinic opened; the proportion of cats euthanatized did not change. The median annual number of service calls and complaints decreased or leveled off. Unfortunately, data regarding many factors essential for conclusively interpreting these results were not available. PMID:22233215

Scarlett, Janet; Johnston, Naomi

2012-01-01

410

46 CFR 42.03-35 - U.S.-flag vessels and Canadian vessels navigating on sheltered waters of Puget Sound and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...sheltered nature of certain waters of the west coast of North America. It was agreed to exempt vessels of the United...Calvert to Duke Point on Duke Island, and the waters north of Duke Island and east of Prince of Wales Island,...

2013-10-01

411

Caves to Condos...Food, Shelter, Clothing. Introduction to Practical Arts, Grades 7 and 8. A Non-Sexist Curriculum Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum guide for grades 7 and 8 presents a one-semester course in the practical arts to provide students with the skills and knowledge necessary for everyday living. A unit is devoted to each of the four following topics: (1) food and nutrition, including meal preparation; (2) shelter, focusing on the financial aspects of housing,…

Froede, Joan

412

The first record of a leaf-hole shelter in leaf beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) with descriptions of two new Orthaltica Crotch species from southern India  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Two behavioral novelties in adults of leaf beetles were observed in a couple of new species of Orthaltica Crotch: 1) use of low cost, leaf-hole shelter, which are pre-formed holes produced by larger beetles that fed on the same leaf, or made artificially as part of an experiment; 2) use of feces t...

413

The Dynamic Earth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses how the earth is a dynamic system that maintains itself in a steady state. Areas considered include large/small-scale earth motions, geologic time, rock and hydrologic cycles, and other aspects dealing with the changing face of the earth. (JN)

Siever, Raymond

1983-01-01

414

Mass of the Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners use basic measurements of the Earth and pieces of rock and iron to estimate the mass of the Earth. Learners will calculate mass, volume, and density, convert units, and employ the water displacement method. To calculate an even more accurate estimate of the mass of the Earth, this resource includes optional instructions on how to measure the iron core mass.

Muller, Eric

2010-01-01

415

Exploring Earth Investigations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Exploring Earth Investigations are Internet-based activities that use animations, interactive graphics, and unique imagery to help students gather information about a particular Earth science theme, issue, or concept. Exploring Earth Investigations were created by Houghton-Mifflin/McDougal-Littell in collaboration with TERC.

2008-07-01

416

Interior of the Earth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Basic questions regarding the interior of the Earth in the 1990's are discussed. Research problems in the areas of plate tectonics, the Earth mantle the Earth core, and continental structure are discussed. Observational requirements of the GRAVSAT satellite mission are discussed.

Phillips, R. J.

1984-01-01

417

The Design of Ground-Coupled Heat Pump Systems  

E-print Network

.S. Prlnting Office, Washlngton, DC 20402). Salomone. L. A. (1983a). Procedures used to predict the thermal behavior of soils. 1983 International Conference on Earth Sheltered Buildings Proceedings, Sydney, Australia. Salomone, L. A,, and Kovacs, W. D...

Parker, J. D.

1985-01-01

418

Short human occupations in the Middle Palaeolithic level i of the Abric Romani?? rock-shelter (Capellades, Barcelona, Spain)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This paper presents a multidisciplinary study on the size of the occupied surfaces, provisioning strategies and behaviour planning at the Romani rock-shelter, using the Middle Palaeolithic record of the level i. This level is dated around 46.000 BP through U/Th ages. A behavioural interpretation is proposed, which emphasises the activities and the systemic value of the archaeological artefacts and structures. Occupation patterns are identified on the basis of the accumulations formed by human activities. These archaeological accumulations, consisting of artefacts and hearths, are easily defined visually as spatial units. The relationships between these accumulations, established by means of refitted remains, indicate that differences can be established between: 1) small and medium-sized occupation surfaces; 2) restricted and diversified provisioning strategies. This variability suggests that different modes of occupation are represented in the same archaeological level. The human activities reveal the generalization of fire technology. In almost all sizes of the occupation surfaces, the exploitation of vegetal resources near the Abric Romani marks the threshold of the restricted provisioning strategy. Limited use and fragmented knapping activities are recorded in the lithic assemblage. Faunal remains show differential transport. The exploitation of lithic, faunal and vegetal resources characterizes the diversified provisioning strategy. The small occupati on surfaces and restricted provisioning strategies suggest short settlements in the Abric Romani. This shorter occupation model complements the longer diversified provisioning strategy recorded in both small and medium-sized occupied surfaces. The selection of precise elements for transport and the possible deferred consumption in the diversified provision strategy suggest an individual supply. In this respect, Neanderthal occupations in the Romani rock-shelter show a direct relation to: 1) hunting strategic resources; 2) high, linear mobility. ?? 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Vallerdu, J.; Allue, E.; Bischoff, J.L.; Caceres, I.; Carbonell, E.; Cebria, A.; Garcia-Anton, D.; Huguet, R.; Ibanez, N.; Martinez, K.; Pasto, I.; Rosell, J.; Saladie, P.; Vaquero, M.

2005-01-01

419

Mountain Building  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site offers several sets of questions for students to answer about where mountain ranges are located and why they are where they are. Many of the questions have links to more information and/or images. Questions address the role of plate tectonics in the process of mountain building. A computer isn't necessary to answer the questions, but is highly recommended so that the students can use the links provided. These questions require some prior knowledge of the content.

420

Bridge Building  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a quick activity (on page 2 of the PDF) about how the arrangement of carbon atoms determines carbon's different properties. Learners will build bridges with Post-It notes that model two types of carbon molecules, graphite and carbon nanotubes, and test which structure of the same material can bear the weight of the most pennies. Also relates to linked video, DragonflyTV Nano: Hockey Sticks.

Twin Cities Public Television, Inc.

2008-01-01

421

Mountain Building  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is part of a series of lessons in a continuing study of change. It is designed to give students hands-on experience manipulating and controlling the variables involved in the process of soil erosion. They will be able to identify variables that influence rates of change and use group consensus to design and build what they believe to be the strongest mountain possible.

1998-01-01

422

Building Bridges  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students build bridges from arithmetical to algebraic thinking by exploring problems that are not limited to single-solution responses. Values organized into tables and graphs are used to move toward symbolic representations. Problem situations at the middle school level involve linear, quadratic, and exponential models. The site is valuable not only for its problems for students but also for the teaching strategy illustrated here.

Roger Day

2000-01-01

423

Intelligent buildings.  

PubMed

The maturing of technologies in computer capabilities, particularly direct digital signals, has provided an exciting variety of new communication and facility control opportunities. These include telecommunications, energy management systems, security systems, office automation systems, local area networks, and video conferencing. New applications are developing continuously. The so-called "intelligent" or "smart" building concept evolves from the development of this advanced technology in building environments. Automation has had a dramatic effect on facility planning. For decades, communications were limited to the telephone, the typewritten message, and copy machines. The office itself and its functions had been essentially unchanged for decades. Office automation systems began to surface during the energy crisis and, although their newer technology was timely, they were, for the most part, designed separately from other new building systems. For example, most mainframe computer systems were originally stand-alone, as were word processing installations. In the last five years, the advances in distributive systems, networking, and personal computer capabilities have provided opportunities to make such dramatic improvements in productivity that the Selectric typewriter has gone from being the most advanced piece of office equipment to nearly total obsolescence. PMID:10282446

Williams, W E

1987-01-01

424

Earth Systems Science Earth Systems Science at UNH  

E-print Network

Earth Systems Science Earth Systems Science at UNH THE UNH Institute for the Study of Earth, Oceans, and Space (EOS) Earth Systems Research Center is dedicated to understanding the Earth as an integrative scientists and students study the Earth's ecosystems, atmosphere, water, and ice using field measurements

Pringle, James "Jamie"

425

Requirements Engineering in Building Climate Science Software  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Software has an important role in supporting scientific work. This dissertation studies teams that build scientific software, focusing on the way that they determine what the software should do. These requirements engineering processes are investigated through three case studies of climate science software projects. The Earth System Modeling…

Batcheller, Archer L.

2011-01-01

426

Earth Science for Society Exhibition  

E-print Network

4th Earth Science for Society Exhibition March 1618, 2014 Big Four............................................................................................................................................ 9 Earth Science for Society Exhibitor Listing.com 3 WelcomeMessage Thank you for participating in Earth Science for Society! Earth Science

de Leon, Alex R.

427

Dear Colleague Letter - Earth Sciences  

NSF Publications Database

... Division of Earth Sciences 16 July, 2004 Dear Colleague; The Division of Earth Sciences (EAR ... Division of Earth Sciences. EAR will now be structured in two Sections: Surface Earth Processes ...

428

Dear Colleague Letter - Earth Sciences  

NSF Publications Database

... of Earth Sciences 16 July, 2004 RE: A NEW STRUCTURE FOR THE ORGANIZATION OF THE DIVISION OF EARTH ... the Earth Sciences community, nor the actual activities within the Sections. The Division of Earth ...

429

26 CFR 1.48-12 - Qualified rehabilitated building; expenditures incurred after December 31, 1981.  

...with one face exposed to the weather or earth, and a common wall shall not be treated...that has one face exposed to the weather, earth, or an abutting wall of an adjacent building...have one face exposed to the weather, earth, or an abutting wall. In general,...

2014-04-01

430

Earth Science Information Center  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An ESIC? An Earth Science Information Center. Don't spell it. Say it. ESIC. It rhymes with seasick. You can find information in an information center, of course, and you'll find earth science information in an ESIC. That means information about the land that is the Earth, the land that is below the Earth, and in some instances, the space surrounding the Earth. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) operates a network of Earth Science Information Centers that sell earth science products and data. There are more than 75 ESIC's. Some are operated by the USGS, but most are in other State or Federal agencies. Each ESIC responds to requests for information received by telephone, letter, or personal visit. Your personal visit.

U.S. Geological Survey

1991-01-01

431

EarthLabs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

EarthLabs is a collection of challenging, lab-based high school Earth science curriculum units, each of which integrates text, hands-on activities, interactive visualizations, video, authentic science data, and data visualization and analysis tools. Each unit highlights the interconnectedness and complexities of the Earth system in the context of a specific content area (including Earth system science, climate, weather, atmosphere, cryosphere, environmental science, hurricanes, drought, fisheries, oceans, carbon cycle), and can be integrated into an existing Earth or environmental science course or used as an independent curriculum unit. In addition to the student portal, EarthLabs provides a separate teacher's guide ("EarthLabs for Educators") that provides background and logistical information, pedagogical guidance, and answers to assessments embedded in the student portal.

432

EarthLabs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

EarthLabs is a collection of challenging, lab-based high school Earth science curriculum units, each of which integrates text, hands-on activities, interactive visualizations, video, authentic science data, and data visualization and analysis tools. Each unit highlights the interconnectedness and complexities of the Earth system in the context of a specific content area (including Earth system science, climate, weather, atmosphere, cryosphere, environmental science, hurricanes, drought, fisheries, oceans, carbon cycle), and can be integrated into an existing Earth or environmental science course or used as an independent curriculum unit. In addition to the student portal, EarthLabs provides a separate teacher's guide ("EarthLabs for Educators") that provides background and logistical information, pedagogical guidance, and answers to assessments embedded in the student portal.

2012-05-31

433

13. The south segment of the building has a stone ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

13. The south segment of the building has a stone basement. The alley wall had a number of areaway windows that are now infilled with bricks. These areaways were subsequently filled with earth, probably when the alley was paved. Here the first-floor joists are seen with a make-shift support beam and column. The basement floor originally was part earth and part wood. Some of the earth floor is now covered with a concrete slab; the wood floor remains. Credit GADA/MRM. - Stroud Building, 31-33 North Central Avenue, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

434

Modular Habitats Comprising Rigid and Inflatable Modules  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Modular, lightweight, fully equipped buildings comprising hybrids of rigid and inflatable structures can be assembled on Earth and then transported to and deployed on the Moon for use as habitats. Modified versions of these buildings could also prove useful on Earth as shelters that can be rapidly and easily erected in emergency situations and/or extreme environments: examples include shelters for hurricane relief and for Antarctic exploration.

Kennedy, Kriss J.

2010-01-01

435

Teaching About the Sun-Earth Connection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This talk will be about the Sun: how it changes with time, its magnetic cycle, flares, and the solar wind. The solar wind and what space is like between the Sun and Earth will be presented. Also, the Earth, its magnetic field, how the solar wind interacts with the Earth, Aurora, and how these affect human systems will be discussed. These interactions dictate how we build our systems in space (communications satellites, GPS, etc), and some of our ground systems (power grids). Some simple classroom activities will be presented that can be done using new data from space that is available daily on the internet, and how you can use the internet to get space questions answered within about 1 day. Finally, some career opportunities for jobs related to space for the future will be discussed.

Poland, Arthur I.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

436

Electrocardiograph Building  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Building on concepts taught in the associated lesson, students learn about bioelectricity, electrical circuits and biology as they use deductive and analytical thinking skills in connection with an engineering education. Students interact with a rudimentary electrocardiograph circuit (made by the teacher) and examine the simplicity of the device. They get to see their own cardiac signals and test the device themselves. During the second part of the activity, a series of worksheets, students examine different EKG print-outs and look for irregularities, as is done for heart disease detection.

Biomedical Engineering,

437

SERVIR Science Applications for Capacity Building  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

SERVIR is a regional visualization and monitoring system using Earth observations to support environmental management, climate adaptation, and disaster response in developing countries. SERVIR is jointly sponsored by NASA and the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID). SERVIR has been instrumental in development of science applications to support the decision-making and capacity building in the developing countries with the help of SERVIR Hubs. In 2011, NASA Research Opportunities in Space and Earth Sciences (ROSES) included a call for proposals to form SERVIR Applied Sciences Team (SERVIR AST) under Applied Sciences Capacity Building Program. Eleven proposals were selected, the Principal Investigators of which comprise the core of the SERVIR AST. The expertise on the Team span several societal benefit areas including agriculture, disasters, public health and air quality, water, climate and terrestrial carbon assessments. This presentation will cover the existing SERVIR science applications, capacity building components, overview of SERVIR AST projects, and anticipated impacts.

Limaye, Ashutosh; Searby, Nancy D.; Irwin, Daniel

2012-01-01

438

The Group on Earth Observations and the Global Earth Observation System of Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Group on Earth Observations (GEO) is leading a worldwide effort to build a Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) over the next 10 years. The GEOSS vision, articulated in its 10-Year Implementation Plan, represents the consolidation of a global scientific and political consensus: the assessment of the state of the Earth requires continuous and coordinated observation of our planet at all scales. GEOSS aims to achieve comprehensive, coordinated and sustained observations of the Earth system in order to improve monitoring of the state of the Earth; increase understanding of Earth processes; and enhance prediction of the behaviour of the Earth system. After the World Summit on Sustainable Development in 2002 highlighted the urgent need for coordinated observations relating to the state of the Earth, GEO was established at the Third Earth Observation Summit in February 2005 and the GEOSS 10-Year Implementation Plan was endorsed. GEO currently involves 60 countries; the European Commission; and 43 international organizations and has begun implementation of the GEOSS 10-Year Implementation Plan. GEO programme activities cover nine societal benefit areas (Disasters; Health; Energy; Climate; Water; Weather; Ecosystems; Agriculture; Biodiversity) and five transverse or crosscutting elements (User Engagement; Architecture; Data Management; Capacity Building; Outreach). All these activities have as their final goal the establishment of the "system of systems" which will yield a broad range of basic societal benefits, including the reduction of loss of life and property from tsunamis, hurricanes, and other natural disasters; improved water resource and energy management; and improved understanding of environmental factors significant to public health. As a "system of systems", GEOSS will work with and build upon existing national, regional, and international systems to provide comprehensive, coordinated Earth observations from thousands of instruments worldwide, transforming the data they collect into vital information for society. The GEO Secretariat was established in Geneva in May 2005 to facilitate and support GEO activities, and the first Director, José Achache, assumed leadership in September 2005. It is the centre of international coordination for the GEOSS effort.

Achache, J.

2006-05-01

439

Ecotoxicity of rare earth elements Rare earth elements (REEs) or rare earth metals is the  

E-print Network

Ecotoxicity of rare earth elements Info Sheet Rare earth elements (REEs) or rare earth metals isolated. Actually, most rare earth elements exist in the Earth's crust in higher concentrations than though most people have never heard of rare earth elements, sev- eral of them govern mankind's modern

Wehrli, Bernhard

440

Shelter Forum2014 2014 SHELTER FORUM  

E-print Network

and surveying as a tool for acquiring land tenure security in urban poor communities in Cambodia' Ms Johanna by Professor Daniel Fitzpatrick `Trends and Challenges for Land Tenure in the Asia Pacific: Their Impacts of Disaster on Land Insecurity `Housing Land and Property Issues in the Philippines (Typhoon Haiyan)' Ms

Botea, Adi

441

Rare Earth ? See Rare Earth, by Ward and Brownlee  

E-print Network

Rare Earth ? See Rare Earth, by Ward and Brownlee #12;N to date N = N* fs fGHZfp nH fl fi fc L/T ·N Earth is "Just Right" Yes, life on Earth has adapted to Earth, but ... Earth has just the right mass to be ·Tectonically-active ·Retain an atmosphere Earth has had a stable climate The Sun is particularly inactive

Walter, Frederick M.

442

Earth: Inside and Out  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This book of 19 essays, written by Earth scientists, provides insight into the dynamic processes that shape the Earth. The essays are supported by case studies describing a range of research projects (including Looking for Life in Antarctica-and Mars, Mapping Mt. Rainer, and Mapping Hot Springs on the Deep Ocean Floor) and profiles of historically significant Earth scientists (Including Inge Lehmann, Milutin Milankovitch, and Harold C. Urey). The essays, case studies, and profiles are organized along the same themes explored in the American Museum of Natural History (AMNH) Gottesman Hall of Planet Earth, (How do we read the rocks?; How has the Earth evolved?; Why are there ocean basins, mountains and continents?; What causes climate and climate change?; Why is the Earth habitable?) a large, permanent exhibition that opened at the Museum in 1999.

2001-05-01

443

Earth? Mass Variability  

E-print Network

The perturbation of the Earth caused by variability of mass of Earth as additional reason with gravity of celestial bodies and shape of the Earth. The Earth eating and collecting matters from space and loss or eject matters to space through its flying in the space around the Sun. The source of the rising in the global sea level is not closed in global warming and icebergs, but the outer space is the additional important source for this rising. The Earth eats waters from space in unknown mechanism. The mass of the Earth become greater in November i.e. before transit apoapsis two months, and become latter in February i.e. after transit apoapsis to two months.

Ramy Mawad

2014-02-12

444

Variables Affecting Earth's Albedo  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Earth's albedo is the fraction of incoming radiation (sunlight) that is reflected into space. The Earth has an average albedo, which describes how much sunlight is reflected on average for the whole planet and the whole year. The Earth also has a local albedo, which determines how much of the Sun's light is reflected from a particular place at a particular time. The local albedo depends on the particular local surface, which can change seasonally as vegetation changes. It also depends on more rapidly changing things such as snow and clouds. In this lesson, students will investigate one of the variables that affect the Earth's albedo. They will collect and graph data on Earth's albedo from two surface types at the same latitude over a period of two years. They will then use the data to calculate how much difference there is in Earth's albedo between the two locations and suggest reasons for the differences.

445

Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey - Office Buildings  

EIA Publications

Provides an in-depth look at this building type as reported in the 2003 Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey. Office buildings are the most common type of commercial building and they consumed more than 17% of all energy in the commercial buildings sector in 2003. This special report provides characteristics and energy consumption data by type of office building (e.g. administrative office, government office, medical office) and information on some of the types of equipment found in office buildings: heating and cooling equipment, computers, servers, printers, and photocopiers.

2010-01-01

446

EarthWise Journeys  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

EarthWise Journeys is an independent resource for travel adventures worldwide with special emphasis on socially responsible travel, cross-cultural exchange, and the environment. EarthWise Journeys is dedicated to travelers who seek environmental awareness, adventure, personal growth, and discovery of our global community. EarthWise Journeys assists members find fun and rewarding travel adventures, learning opportunities, volunteer trips with non-profits, and personal retreats. In addition to travel planning, members receive newsletters, the discount airfares ...and more.

447

Visible Earth: Biosphere  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site is part of Visible Earth, which is hosted by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and contains a searchable directory of images, visualizations, and animations of the Earth. This section highlights the Earth's biosphere, which includes aquatic habitats, ecological dynamics, microbiota, fungi, terrestrial ecosystems and habitats, vegetation, wetlands, and zoology. Each image is available in a variety of resolutions and sizes, with a brief description, credit, date, and photographing satellite.

448

EarthExplorer  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The EarthExplorer trifold provides basic information for on-line access to remotely-sensed data from the U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center archive. The EarthExplorer (http://earthexplorer.usgs.gov/) client/server interface allows users to search and download aerial photography, satellite data, elevation data, land-cover products, and digitized maps. Minimum computer system requirements and customer service contact information also are included in the brochure.

Houska, Treva

2012-01-01

449

Why Earth Science?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Nearly everything that we do each day is connected in some way to Earth--to its land, oceans, atmosphere, plants, and animals. To fully understand and appreciate our planet, students need to learn about its processes, its resources, and its environment. In 2004, the American Geological Institute (AGI) developed the "Why Earth Science?" brochure to help teachers, parents, and school boards to understand the value of Earth and space science to life, citizenship, and careers.

Smith, Michael J.

2004-05-01

450

Earth Science Week  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Each year, Earth Science Week focuses on a different facet of earth science to help people gain a better understanding and appreciation of the natural world. This website contains information about ways for classrooms to integrate Earth Science Week into their curriculum each year. This includes ways to involve the community, contests, and grade-level appropriate activities surrounding the year's theme. The site also includes a list of links to educational resources related to the current theme.

451

Layering the Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students create a set of flash cards to assist them in learning the structure of the Earth, including the Earth's crust, inner core, outer core, and mantle. The resource includes a template with cut away diagrams of the Earth's interior. It is part of the teacher's guide accompanying the video, NASA SCI Files: The Case of the Shaky Quake. Lesson objectives supported by the video, additional resources, teaching tips and an answer sheet are included in the teacher's guide.

452

The Digital Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Digital Earth is a virtual representation of our planet that enables a person to explore and interact with the vast amounts of natural, cultural, and historical information being gathered about the Earth. This video describes the need for such a system, possible uses of a Digital Earth system, and the technologies and organizations that must come together in order for it to become a reality.

Shirah, Greg; Kekesi, Alex; Snodgrass, Stuart; Allen, Jesse; Maher, Steve; Mitchell, Horace

1999-05-04

453

Digital Earth: GeoWeb  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

GeoWeb is part of SRI International's DARPA-sponsored Digital Earth Project. Drawing from search engines like Yahoo Maps, MapQuest, or TerraServer, the GeoWeb is "a vision for making all geographically referenced, or georeferenced, data available over the Web." The infrastructure allows for open, global, and scalable Internet searches associated with a specific latitude/longitude location. Clients can query the GeoWeb to "discover relevant metadata and use Web-based or peer-to-peer communications to retrieve the actual data." The data can be used, for example, with Internet-connected cell phones and car navigation systems. The website describes the project goals and work on building the standards, tools, browsers, and infrastructure necessary to develop GeoWeb. This site is also reviewed in the April 23, 2004 _NSDL MET Report_.

454

Effect of gentle stroking and vocalization on behaviour, mucosal immunity and upper respiratory disease in anxious shelter cats.  

PubMed

Emotional, behavioural, and health benefits of gentle stroking and vocalizations, otherwise known as gentling, have been documented for several species, but little is known about the effect of gentling on cats in stressful situations. In this study, 139 cats rated as anxious upon admission to an animal shelter were allocated to either a Gentled or Control group. Cats were gentled four times daily for 10min over a period of 10 days, with the aid of a tool for cats that were too aggressive to handle. The cats' mood, or persistent emotional state, was rated daily for 10 d as Anxious, Frustrated or Content. Gentled cats were less likely to have negatively valenced moods (Anxious or Frustrated) than Control cats (Incidence Rate Ratio [IRR]=0.61 CI 0.42-0.88, P=0.007). Total secretory immunoglobulin A (S-IgA) was quantified from faeces by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Gentled cats had increased S-IgA (6.9±0.7loge?g/g) compared to Control cats (5.9±0.5loge?g/g) (P<0.0001). Within the Gentled group of cats, S-IgA values were higher for cats that responded positively to gentling (7.03±0.6, loge?g/g), compared with those that responded negatively (6.14±0.8, loge?g/g). Combined conjunctival and oropharyngeal swab specimens were tested by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (rPCR) for feline herpesvirus type 1 (FHV-1), feline calicivirus (FCV), Mycoplasma felis, Chlamydophila felis, and Bordetella bronchiseptica. There was a significant increase in shedding over time in Control cats (23%, 35%, 52% on days 1, 4 and 10, respectively), but not in gentled cats (32%, 26%, 30% on days 1, 4 and 10, respectively) (P=0.001). Onset of upper respiratory disease was determined by veterinary staff based on clinical signs, in particular ocular and/or nasal discharge. Control cats were 2.4 (CI: 1.35-4.15) times more likely to develop upper respiratory disease over time than gentled cats (P<0.0001). It is concluded that gentling anxious cats in animal shelters can induce positive affect (contentment), increase production of S-IgA, and reduce the incidence of upper respiratory disease. PMID:25064364

Gourkow, Nadine; Hamon, Sara C; Phillips, Clive J C

2014-11-01

455

Earth - India and Australia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This color image of the Earth was obtained by the Galileo spacecraft on Dec. 11, 1990, when the spacecraft was about 1.5 million miles from the Earth. The color composite used images taken through the red, green and violet filters. India is near the top of the picture, and Australia is to the right of center. The white, sunlit continent of Antarctica is below. Picturesque weather fronts are visible in the South Pacific, lower right. This is a frame of the Galileo Earth spin movie, a 500-frame time-lapse motion picture showing a 25-hour period of Earth's rotation and atmospheric dynamics.

1990-01-01

456

The Flat Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students are exposed to a compelling idea: the Earth really IS flat! They are challenged to provide evidence for a spherical earth, then present evidence (experiences) for a flat Earth, discuss the relative strengths of the evidence, and reach conclusions. They look at the nature of science and pseudoscience and examine the flat Earth idea in that context. The social context of science is also explored, with the roles of collaboration and past experience biases being emphasized. The role of science in exposing illusions in nature is also mentioned.

Jean Beard

457

Earth's Changing Surface  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Overview: The Earth's Changing Surface SciPack explores how Earth's ever-changing surface is due to continuous natural processes such as tectonic activity, earthquakes, volcanic activities, weathering and erosion, and sedimentation and the reformation of rock. The focus is on topics supporting Standards and Benchmarks related to how and why these processes occur, and how elements cycle through the land, oceans, and atmosphere as a result of these processes. This SciPack looks at Earth as a system that exists in dynamic equilibrium. In addition to comprehensive inquiry-based learning materials tied to Science Education Standards and Benchmarks, the SciPack includes the following additional components: Pedagogical Implications section addressing common misconceptions, teaching resources and strand maps linking grade band appropriate content to standards. Access to one-on-one support via e-mail to content "Wizards". Final Assessment which can be used to certify mastery of the concepts. Learning Outcomes: Earth's Changing Surface: Changing Earth From Within Explain that both Earth's surface and interior are in motion and describe the causes the motion. Describe how heat within Earth comes from two main sources: radioactive decay and residual heat (gravitational energy left over from the formation of Earth). Explain the fact that the vast majority of earthquakes and volcanic activities which occur near plate boundaries are caused by the movement of the plates. Describe that changes on Earth's surface also happen on the ocean floor to create forms such as ocean basins, mountains and volcanoes. Earth's Changing Surface: Sculpting the Landscape Distinguish between changes in Earth's surface that are abrupt, such as earthquakes and volcanoes and changes that happen very slowly such as uplift and wearing down of mountains. Identify rates of landscape formation. Infer from present data that the processes that shape the earth today are similar to events that occurred in the past. Identify agents of change as destructive, constructive, or both. Describe how erosion by way of waves, wind, glaciers, gravity, running water, etc., causes change in geological features. Earth's Changing Surface: Humans as Agents of Change Distinguish natural processes that shape the surface of Earth from human impact factors that change the surface of Earth. Explain how human activities such as river control, mining, and deforestation have had an effect on the shape of Earth's surface. Describe how human activities do not create new processes but cause changes in the rate and scale of natural processes.

National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

2008-01-07

458

NASA EarthKAM  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

NASA EarthKAM (Earth Knowledge Acquired by Middle schools) enables students, teachers, and the public to learn about Earth via photographs taken from space. This growing collection of Earth images come from middle school students around the world who used the Internet to target areas of Earth to be photographed with a digital camera onboard the Space Shuttle and International Space Station. These images are available to everyone through a user-friendly data system. Users can search for images of the earth by geographic area, feature, country, mission or school. The collection is wide reaching, and includes land features, water, atmospheric systems, and human impacts. Middle schools (grades 5-8) can apply to join the EarthKAM Community. Community schools use the EarthKAM images in inquiry-based investigations and can even become Flight Certified, which enables them to take their own images of Earth from space. Also included is a section for educators, which provides tips and guides on how to incorporate these images into daily lessons.

Edwards, Teon

2000-09-01

459

Earth and Moon Viewer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

At this site you can view either a map of the Earth showing the day and night regions at this moment, or view the Earth from the Sun, the Moon, the night side of the Earth, above any location on the planet specified by latitude, longitude and altitude, from a satellite in Earth orbit, or above various cities around the globe. Images can be generated based on a full-colour image of the Earth by day and night, a topographical map of the Earth, up-to-date weather satellite imagery, or a composite image of cloud cover superimposed on a map of the Earth, or a color composite which shows clouds, land and sea temperatures, and ice. In addition to the Earth, you can also view the Moon from the Earth, Sun, night side, above named formations on the lunar surface or as a map showing day and night. A related document compares the appearance of the Moon at perigee and apogee, including an interactive Perigee and Apogee Calculator.

Walker, John

1999-03-27

460

EARTH SCIENCE 100 Planet Earth: How it Works  

E-print Network

1 EARTH SCIENCE 100 Planet Earth: How it Works Fall Quarter 2008 Lecture: TR 10 and methods of Earth Science, and its relevance to daily life and the problems of the contemporary world, theories and methods of modern earth science, including: the formation and structure of the earth

Schoenbohm, Lindsay

461

Evolution of Life on Earth EVOLUTION OF LIFE ON EARTH  

E-print Network

Evolution of Life on Earth #12;EVOLUTION OF LIFE ON EARTH #12;Earth ~4.5 billion years ago A bad day .... #12;Old (Archean) Rocks #12;4.4 Billion year old Zircon Earth was temperate and had water 4.4 billion years ago! #12;#12;EVOLUTION OF LIFE ON EARTH #12;Making Organic Molecules : Miller & Urey Famous

Shirley, Yancy

462

The Sun-Earth Connection The Temperature of the Earth  

E-print Network

AST248 The Sun-Earth Connection #12;The Temperature of the Earth The Earth is in equilibrium ­ the heat absorbed from the Sun with ­ the heat radiated by the Earth. Heat in = heat out #12;Heat constant) ­ L is the solar luminosity ­ d is the distance from the Earth to the Sun, 1AU ­ The solar

Walter, Frederick M.

463

Capturing near-Earth asteroids around Earth Zaki Hasnain n  

E-print Network

Capturing near-Earth asteroids around Earth Zaki Hasnain n , Christopher A. Lamb, Shane D. Ross Keywords: Near-Earth asteroids Asteroid capture a b s t r a c t The list of detected near-Earth asteroids metals and semiconducting elements on Earth may be supplemented or even replaced by the reserves floating

Ross, Shane

464

Capturing near-Earth asteroids around Earth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The list of detected near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) is constantly growing. NEAs are likely targets for resources to support space industrialization, as they may be the least expensive source of certain needed raw materials. The limited supply of precious metals and semiconducting elements on Earth may be supplemented or even replaced by the reserves floating in the form of asteroids around the solar system. Precious metals make up a significant fraction NEAs by mass, and even one metallic asteroid of ˜1km size and fair enrichment in platinum-group metals would contain twice the tonnage of such metals already harvested on Earth. There are ˜1000 NEAs with a diameter of greater than 1 km. Capturing these asteroids around the Earth would expand the mining industry into an entirely new dimension. Having such resources within easy reach in Earth's orbit could provide an off-world environmentally friendly remedy for impending terrestrial shortages, especially given the need for raw materials in developing nations. In this paper, we develop and implement a conceptually simple algorithm to determine trajectory characteristics necessary to move NEAs into capture orbits around the Earth. Altered trajectories of asteroids are calculated using an ephemeris model. Only asteroids of eccentricity less than 0.1 have been studied and the model is restricted to the ecliptic plane for simplicity. We constrain the time of retrieval to be 10 years or less, based on considerations of the time to return on investment. For the heliocentric phase, constant acceleration is assumed. The acceleration required for transporting these asteroids from their undisturbed orbits to the sphere of influence of the Earth is the primary output, along with the impulse or acceleration necessary to effect capture to a bound orbit once the Earth's sphere of influence is reached. The initial guess for the constant acceleration is provided by a new estimation method, similar in spirit to Edelbaum's. Based on the numerically calculated trajectories, 23 asteroids are recommended for future consideration for capture missions, provided necessary technological developments are made.

Hasnain, Zaki; Lamb, Christopher A.; Ross, Shane D.

2012-12-01

465

carleton.ca Earth Sciences  

E-print Network

carleton.ca Earth Sciences #12;Earth is our home. It is a dynamic planet, integrating and recording spectrometers or electron microprobes--earth scientists investigate Earth's evolution to help understand future today and for the future is enhanced by the expertise of economic geologists. Knowledge of the Earth

Dawson, Jeff W.

466

Descriptive epidemiology of upper respiratory disease and associated risk factors in cats in an animal shelter in coastal western Canada  

PubMed Central

We examined 250 cats at an animal shelter in the coastal temperate region of Canada to determine whether age, source, gender, and sterilization status influenced risk of shedding at intake, transmission of infection, and development of clinical upper respiratory disease (URD). On admission, 28% of the cats were positive for 1 or more infectious agent related to URD; 21% were carriers of Mycoplasma felis and < 3% were carriers of feline calicivirus (FCV), feline herpesvirus-1 (FHV-1) or Bordetella bronchiseptica. Chlamydophila felis and H1N1 influenza virus were not detected. Carrier status was not affected by source, gender, sterilization status, or age (P > 0.05). Viral and bacterial shedding increased by 9% and 11%, respectively, over 3 sampling times (days 1, 4, and 10). Over 40 days after admission, the cumulative probability of developing URD was 2.2 times greater for stray than owner-surrendered cats (P = 0.02) and 0.5 times as great for neutered cats as for intact cats (P = 0.03). Cats that were shedding at intake were 2.6 times more likely to develop URD than were non-carriers (P < 0.002). Cats with FHV-1 and B. bronchiseptica infections were most at risk compared with non-shedding cats (P < 0.01). PMID:23904635

Gourkow, Nadine; Lawson, James H.; Hamon, Sara C.; Phillips, Clive J.C.

2013-01-01

467

Contagious yawning, social cognition, and arousal: an investigation of the processes underlying shelter dogs' responses to human yawns.  

PubMed

Studies of contagious yawning have reported inconsistent findings regarding whether dogs exhibit this behavior and whether it is mediated by social-cognitive processes or the result of physiological arousal. We investigated why some dogs yawn in response to human yawns; particularly, whether these dogs are exceptional in their ability to understand human social cues or whether they were more physiologically aroused. Sixty shelter dogs were exposed to yawning and nonyawning control stimuli demonstrated by an unfamiliar human. We took salivary cortisol samples before and after testing to determine the role of arousal in yawn contagion. Dogs were tested on the object-choice task to assess their sensitivity for interpreting human social cues. We found that 12 dogs yawned only in response to human yawns (i.e., appeared to exhibit yawn contagion), though contagious yawning at the population level was not observed. Dogs that exhibited yawn contagion did not perform better on the object-choice task than other dogs, but their cortisol levels remained elevated after exposure to human yawning, whereas other dogs had reduced cortisol levels following yawning stimuli relative to their baseline levels. We interpret these findings as showing that human yawning, when presented in a stressful context, can further influence arousal in dogs, which then causes some to yawn. Although the precise social-cognitive mechanisms that underlie contagious yawning in dogs are still unclear, yawning between humans and dogs may involve some communicative function that is modulated by context and arousal. PMID:23670215

Buttner, Alicia Phillips; Strasser, Rosemary

2014-01-01

468

Growth and Comprehensive Quality Index of Tomato under Rain Shelters in Response to Different Irrigation and Drainage Treatments  

PubMed Central

The effects of two levels of irrigation water (100%, 60%) and buried underground pipe depths (0.8?m, 0.6?m) under rain shelters' conditions on yield and some quality parameters of tomato were investigated. A fully randomized factorial experiment was conducted between April and August in 2011 and 2012 at Hohai University. It was found that drainage treatments enhanced biomass production, whereas soil desiccation led to biomass reduction. At 60?cm buried underground pipe depths, the drought treatments increased the mean root weight and root-shoot ratio by 14% and 39%, respectively. The main effects of drainage treatments on the fruit quality were increases in total soluble solids (TSS), soluble sugar (SS), and vitamin C (VC) compared to the control. In addition, drainage treatments increased the average yield by 13% and 9%, respectively, in both years. The drought treatments did not significantly alter fruit yield, although mean single fruit weight was slightly reduced. Instead, these treatments tend to have great potential to improve fruit quality (TSS, SS, and VC) to variable extents. In both years, the drought treatment at 60?cm buried underground pipe depths proved to possess the highest comprehensive quality index based on Principal Component Analysis. PMID:25054180

Shao, Guang-cheng; Wang, Ming-hui; Liu, Na; Yuan, Min; Kumar, Prem; She, Dong-Li

2014-01-01

469

Comparison of selected canine vector-borne diseases between urban animal shelter and rural hunting dogs in Korea  

PubMed Central

A serological survey for Dirofilaria immitis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Ehrlichia canis, and Borrelia burgdorferi infections in rural hunting and urban shelter dogs mainly from southwestern regions of the Republic of Korea (South Korea) was conducted. From a total of 229 wild boar or pheasant hunting dogs, the number of serologically positive dogs for any of the four pathogens was 93 (40.6%). The highest prevalence observed was D. immitis (22.3%), followed by A. phagocytophilum (18.8%), E. canis (6.1%) and the lowest prevalence was B. burgdorferi (2.2%). In contrast, stray dogs found within the city limits of Gwangju showed seropositivity only to D. immitis (14.6%), and none of the 692 dogs responded positive for A. phagocytophilum, E. canis or B. burgdorferi antibodies. This study indicates that the risk of exposure to vector-borne diseases in rural hunting dogs can be quite high in Korea, while the urban environment may not be suitable for tick infestation on dogs, as evidenced by the low infection status of tick-borne pathogens in stray dogs. PMID:20377869

2010-01-01

470

Moon phase effects and timing of emerging macrobenthic assemblages in a sheltered soft-bottom sublittoral habitat  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several species of benthic macro and meio-invertebrates actively emerge from the seabed to the water column during the night. Such diel vertical migrations have important consequences for benthic-pelagic coupling, dispersal, connectivity and recovery after disturbance of benthic assemblages. However, this process has never been studied in the coast of the Humboldt Current ecosystem. Herein we examined the relationship between the emerging assemblage and moon phases (and co-variables) and the timing of emergence during the day/night cycle, in a sublittoral soft-bottom habitat. Sampling using emergence traps was conducted at 7 m depth in the zone of Bolsico, a sheltered cove with low bottom hydrodynamics in northern Chile. Multivariable analysis showed that changes in the dissimilarity of the emerging assemblage were related to each moon phase. The percentage of moon illumination, bottom illumination and tide amplitude explained most of the variation of the emerging assemblage. Species showed differential responses to each moon phase; some were abundant at intermediate phases (e.g., harpacticoids), or peaked at full moon (e.g. ostracods) and others such as mysids emerged in equal abundances at all moon phases. The timing of assemblage emergence followed a consecutive sequence through the night/day period. Most of the studies dealing with the emergence processes have described species-specific responses. Our research shows that the examination at assemblage level may reveal new and distinct patterns of emergence in sublittoral soft-bottom habitats.

Pacheco, Aldo S.; Gómez, Gonzalo E.; Santoro, Pablo A.; Malebran, Maritza; Cortés, Cynthia; Riascos, José M.

2014-02-01

471

The effect of cognitive–behavioral group therapy on the self-esteem, depression, and self-efficacy of runaway adolescents in a shelter in South Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the effects of cognitive–behavioral group therapy (CBT) on the self-esteem, depression, and self-efficacy of runaway adolescents residing in a shelter in Seoul, South Korea. The study used a control group pretest–posttest design. The experimental group and the control group consisted of 14 and 13 male subjects, respectively, with subjects having been randomly assigned to these groups. The

Myung-Sun Hyun; Hyang-In Cho Chung; Young-Ja Lee

2005-01-01

472

Evaluation of applicability of standard CW EMI/RFI shielding effectiveness test techniques to assessment of EMP hardness of tactical shelters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report investigates the validity of analytical techniques for converting continuous wave (CW) test data to values for electromagnetic pulse (EMP) to measure the EMP hardness of tactical shelters. MIL-STD-285 and specifications for CW testing IEEE 299 specify measurements in the near field using dipole and loop antennas. Consequently, the test wavefronts are spherical, rather than planar, as in the case of an EMP. Thus, correction factors for EMP needed to be developed.

Axford, R.; McCormack, R.; Mittra, R.

1982-03-01

473

Men’s Use of Controlling Behaviors: A Comparison of Reports by Women in a Domestic Violence Shelter and Women in a Domestic Violence Offender Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current descriptive study seeks to broaden empirical understanding about family violence by comparing women’s reports\\u000a of their male partner’s controlling behaviors in samples of women in a domestic violence offender’s program (N?=?77) and women in a domestic violence shelter (N?=?77). Three interesting findings were noted. First, the majority of women in the IPV offender’s program reported their male\\u000a partner

Catherine A. Simmons; Peter Lehmann; Shannon Collier-Tenison

2008-01-01

474

The Earth's Dynamic Magnetotail  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geomagnetic field lines that are stretched on the nightside of the Earth due to reconnection with the interplanetary magnetic field constitute the Earth's magnetotail. The magnetotail is a dynamic entity where energy imparted from the solar wind is stored and then released to generate disturbance phenomena such as substorms. This paper gives an updated overview on the physics of the

A. Nishida

2000-01-01

475

Earth Science Books  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This OLogy reference list has nine kid-friendly books on Earth science. A short description is given for each title, along with author name and publisher. The list includes illustrated looks at the powerful forces of nature, hands-on science activities for kids that introduce them to how the Earth works, guides to weather, rocks and minerals, the solar system, and more.

476

Earth Science Vocabulary Review  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collection of activities lets students test their knowledge of hundreds of random geologic terms. The activities include games such as hangman (several varieties), flash cards, guessing words or definitions, and matching terms with definitions. Topics include rocks and minerals, Earth dynamics, Earth history, surface processes, weather, and astronomy.

477

Hands On Earth Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication is a collection of 13 hands-on activities that focus on earth science-related activities and involve students in learning about growing crystals, tectonics, fossils, rock and minerals, modeling Ohio geology, geologic time, determining true north, and constructing scale-models of the Earth-moon system. Each activity contains…

Weisgarber, Sherry L.; Van Doren, Lisa; Hackathorn, Merrianne; Hannibal, Joseph T.; Hansgen, Richard

478

Cool Earth Solar  

ScienceCinema

In a public-private partnership that takes full advantage of the Livermore Valley Open Campus (LVOC) for the first time, Sandia National Laboratories and Cool Earth Solar have signed an agreement that could make solar energy more affordable and accessible. In this piece, representatives from Sandia, Cool Earth Solar, and leaders in California government all discuss the unique partnership and its expected impact.

Lamkin, Rob; McIlroy, Andy; Swalwell, Eric; Rajan, Kish

2014-02-26

479

Guided earth boring tool  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a controllable tool for drilling holes in soft earth. The tool comprising an elongated rigid supporting drill rod or pipe, means supporting the drill rod or pipe for earth boring or piercing movement, including means for moving the drill rod or pipe longitudinally for penetrating the earth, means for rotating the drill rod or pipe while penetrating the earth, and means for controlling the direction of movement of the drill rod or pipe along a straight or curved path. The drill rod or pipe moving and rotating means being constructed to permit addition and removal of supporting drill rod or pipe during earth penetrating operation, an earth piercing member of substantially cylindrical shape. The tool being operable to penetrate the earth upon longitudinal movement of the drill rod or pipe by the longitudinal rod or pipe moving means, and the direction controlling means comprising means causing drill rod or pipe movement in a curved path through the earth when the rod or pipe is not rotated and causing drill rod or pipe straight line movement when the rod or pipe is rotated.

McDonald, W.J.; Pittard, G.T.; Maurer, W.C.; Wasson, M.R.; Herben, W.C.

1989-08-22

480

Earth at Night  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The influence humans have had on their planet can be seen from space. Viewing Earth at night, we see the lights of countless villages, towns, and cities. Fires from slash-and-burn farming and the burn-off of natural gas in oil fields appear in red and yellow. This perspective unveils the breadth of human activity on Earth. It spans the globe.

Alex Kekesi

1999-01-21

481

SCIENCE CHINA Earth Sciences  

E-print Network

SCIENCE CHINA Earth Sciences © Science China Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2010 earth-010-0056-5 Growth characteristics and response to climate change of Larix Miller tree-ring in China SUN Yu1,4 , WANG Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China; 2 Institute

Zhang, Qi-Bin

482

The Earth Needs You!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Celebrated annually on April 22, schools and communities organize numerous activities during Earth Day to promote awareness. To help teachers plan their own initiatives and to learn more about what is happening around the world, they can join the Earth Day Network at: http://network.earthday.net/. Once they have joined, they can create a webpage…

Curriculum Review, 2008

2008-01-01

483

Earth System Science Project  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For several decades, science teachers have used bottles for classroom projects designed to teach students about biology. Bottle projects do not have to just focus on biology, however. These projects can also be used to engage students in Earth science topics. This article describes the Earth System Science Project, which was adapted and developed…

Rutherford, Sandra; Coffman, Margaret

2004-01-01

484

The Changing Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These activities present evidence, illustrations and visualizations for some of the changes in the Earth's crust. Students will learn to categorize materials as either chemically or physically weathered, describe how a glacier can change the crust of the Earth (erratic rocks, hills, scraping), and identify at least five examples of changes in the crust within walking distance of their school.

1998-01-01

485

Jupiter: Earth's Shield  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Jupiter's immense gravity protects Earth from asteroids. In this video segment adapted from NOVA, scientists searching for signs of life in the universe identify solar systems with Jupiter-like planets that may be shielding smaller nearby Earth-like planets from comets and asteroids.

2005-12-17<