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1

Wood panel earth shelter construction  

Microsoft Academic Search

An earth sheltered building is described including an arch structure, the structure including footings, a floor extending between the footings and arch means extending between the footings and having a base having lower ends on the footings for defining an enclosure which is covered with earth and open at opposite ends. The arch structure consists of: joined, curved wooden panel

J. R. Berg; J. G. Loveless; W. Senkow

1986-01-01

2

Future includes more earth sheltering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earth sheltering is becoming an accepted alternative among consumers, contracters, designers, lenders and many others. If trends continue, it will be included in half the new construction in the next 20 years.

Vadnais

1981-01-01

3

CONTACT INFO BUILDING SHELTER  

E-print Network

911 CALL 911 if someone is hurt or the building has suffered significant damage. CALL 911 Fire Tornado the building, assisting anyone in need. DO NOT USE elevators for transport. Pull the Fire Alarm on your way out of broken glass and other debris. Quickly get under a desk or other sturdy furniture, move with it, brace

King, David G.

4

Earth Shelter Buildings Coupled with the Sun: Opportunities and Constraints in Design.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The new Civil/Mineral Engineering Building on the University of Minnesota Minneapolis campus is a demonstration design in energy conservation and innovation in active and passive solar energy applications. Its antecedents at the university represent contributory steps in the identification of issues and the development of design principles. (MLW)

Bennett, David J.

1982-01-01

5

Attributes of Indoor Environmental Quality to Earth-sheltered Building Design  

E-print Network

that might be used for smoking (Huelman, 2004, pp. 10-21). Asbestos and lead. In the past decade we have heard a lot about asbestos and lead. Asbestos exposure can induce abdominal cancers and lung disease, and high lead exposures can impair mental... and physical development. However, for newer homes, asbestos and lead are usually not an issue. Lead and asbestos have virtually been eliminated from common building products. For existing homes, it may be necessary to have a qualified contractor...

Sheta, S.

2010-01-01

6

Radiation shelter effectiveness beyond the earth magnetosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solar energetic particles (SEP) and galactic cosmic rays are known to be the sources of radiation hazard for missions beyond the Earth magnetosphere. An additionally shielded compartment of the mission spacecraft, called usually the radiation shelter, is considered as an important part of the radiation safety system. The shielding of the radiation shelter must be at least a few times higher than that of the remaining compartments. The mission crewmembers are supposed to stay in the radiation shelter for relatively short time of less than a day or two during SEP events only. A job-oriented radiation monitoring system (RMS) should be used on board the Martian mission spacecraft to provide the crew with necessary prediction information concerning the onset of a large SEP event. The information should be obtained independently of the ground-based support services and, hence, should be derived from online measurements of the dynamics of soft X-rays and charged energetic particles using the RMS sensors. As a result, the signal for the spacecrew members to go to the shelter gets somewhat delayed with respect to the SEP event onset, so that they appear to stay outside the shelter for some time during the event. The dependence of the crew-received dose on the SEP event prediction lag has been analyzed in terms of the standard SEP dynamics model for a typical 500-day Martian mission scenario. The Martian mission dose simulations have demonstrated a high efficiency of the radiation shelter despite the unavoidable lag of the RMS prediction signal.

Shurshakov, V. A.; Benghin, V. V.; Kolomensky, A. V.; Petrov, V. M.

7

View of EPA Farm cattle shelters (Building 1506 in background), ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View of EPA Farm cattle shelters (Building 15-06 in background), facing southeast - Nevada Test Site, Environmental Protection Agency Farm, Shelter Unit Type, Area 15, Yucca Flat, 10-2 Road near Circle Road, Mercury, Nye County, NV

8

31. Threequarter view of front of building 161, fallout shelter ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

31. Three-quarter view of front of building 161, fallout shelter taken from top of water storage mound, looking northwest - Nike Missile Battery MS-40, County Road No. 260, Farmington, Dakota County, MN

9

Sheltering in buildings from large-scale outdoor releases  

SciTech Connect

Intentional or accidental large-scale airborne toxic release (e.g. terrorist attacks or industrial accidents) can cause severe harm to nearby communities. Under these circumstances, taking shelter in buildings can be an effective emergency response strategy. Some examples where shelter-in-place was successful at preventing injuries and casualties have been documented [1, 2]. As public education and preparedness are vital to ensure the success of an emergency response, many agencies have prepared documents advising the public on what to do during and after sheltering [3, 4, 5]. In this document, we will focus on the role buildings play in providing protection to occupants. The conclusions to this article are: (1) Under most circumstances, shelter-in-place is an effective response against large-scale outdoor releases. This is particularly true for release of short duration (a few hours or less) and chemicals that exhibit non-linear dose-response characteristics. (2) The building envelope not only restricts the outdoor-indoor air exchange, but can also filter some biological or even chemical agents. Once indoors, the toxic materials can deposit or sorb onto indoor surfaces. All these processes contribute to the effectiveness of shelter-in-place. (3) Tightening of building envelope and improved filtration can enhance the protection offered by buildings. Common mechanical ventilation system present in most commercial buildings, however, should be turned off and dampers closed when sheltering from an outdoor release. (4) After the passing of the outdoor plume, some residuals will remain indoors. It is therefore important to terminate shelter-in-place to minimize exposure to the toxic materials.

Chan, W.R.; Price, P.N.; Gadgil, A.J.

2004-06-01

10

A MODEL BUILDING CODE ARTICLE ON FALLOUT SHELTERS WITH RECOMMENDATIONS FOR INCLUSION OF REQUIREMENTS FOR FALLOUT SHELTER CONSTRUCTION IN FOUR NATIONAL MODEL BUILDING CODES.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A MODEL BUILDING CODE FOR FALLOUT SHELTERS WAS DRAWN UP FOR INCLUSION IN FOUR NATIONAL MODEL BUILDING CODES. DISCUSSION IS GIVEN OF FALLOUT SHELTERS WITH RESPECT TO--(1) NUCLEAR RADIATION, (2) NATIONAL POLICIES, AND (3) COMMUNITY PLANNING. FALLOUT SHELTER REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIELDING, SPACE, VENTILATION, CONSTRUCTION, AND SERVICES SUCH AS ELECTRICAL…

American Inst. of Architects, Washington, DC.

11

Vulnerability Assessment of Selected Buildings Designated as Shelters: Dominica.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educational facilities in the Caribbean often serve roles as shelters during natural hazards, but they often sustain as much damage as other buildings. This study investigated the physical vulnerability of schools located on Dominica to wind forces, torrential rain, and seismic forces in order to provide relevant local agencies with some of the…

Agency for International Development (IDCA), Washington, DC.

12

The evolution of shelter: ecology and ethology of chimpanzee nest building  

E-print Network

......................................................................................................................................................... 1 Significance ............................................................................................................................................... 1 Animal building... .............................................................................................................................................. 81 Chapter 4 Why sleep in a nest? Empirical testing of the function of simple shelters made by wild chimpanzees .......................................................................................................... 82 INTRODUCTION...

Stewart, Fiona Anne

2011-11-08

13

Earth-sheltered housing: an evaluation of energy-conservation potential  

SciTech Connect

The Innovative Structures Program (ISP) began an evaluation of the energy conservation potential of earth-sheltered houses in late 1979. Since that time, several projects have been undertaken as part of this evaluation. The findings of these projects, plus a discussion of the work of others in the field, form the body of this report. Although a comprehensive evaluation of earth-sheltered housing has not been completed, this report presents a compendium of knowledge on the subject. The conclusions are more qualitative than quantitative in nature because of the limited information on which to base projections. The major conclusions to date are as follows: Earth-sheltered houses are capable of very good energy performance. Earth-sheltered houses, as a passive means to conserve energy, perform significantly better in some climatic regins than in others. Earth-sheltered houses are not the optimum passive concept in several major housing growth regions of the country. Earth-sheltered houses, including their land and site improvements, will cost an estimated 10 to 35% more than comparable aboveground houses, and this additional cost may not be justified on a life cycle cost basis, given 1981 market conditions. The use of earth sheltering will probably grow in some parts of the country; however, broad-scale national or regional utilization is not likely to occur in the next 20 to 30 years.

Wendt, R.L.

1982-04-01

14

65. BUILDING 7223, BARRACKS (FORMER ANIMAL SHELTER). (Plan P702988, 24' ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

65. BUILDING 7223, BARRACKS (FORMER ANIMAL SHELTER). (Plan P-702-988, 24' x 320', completed May 25, 1932, modified January 15, 1941). Fort McCoy photograph #A-6, undated. - Fort McCoy, Sparta, Monroe County, WI

15

Shelter-Building Behavior and Natural History of Two Pyralid Caterpillars Feeding on Piper stipulaceum  

PubMed Central

Shelter-building behavior by caterpillars provides a mechanism of defense against predators, microenvironment enhancement, and in some cases nutritional benefits. This study provides a detailed description of the life cycle and shelter-building process of caterpillars, and identifies constraints and factors influencing this adaptive behavior in Lepidomys n. sp. near proclea Druce (Pyralidae: Chrysauginae), a tropical dry forest pyralid. Five macroscopic larval instars were detected during the life cycle, and activities performed during shelter-building were categorized and timed. Caterpillar predators were identified, and 20% of all collected larvae died due to attack by parasitoid wasps. Shelter-building behavior was found to be constrained by the ontogenetic stage of caterpillars and influenced by leaf size of the host plant, Piper stipulaceum Opiz (Piperales: Piperaceae). A similar pattern of shelter-building behavior exhibited by Tosale n. sp. near cuprealis larvae that coexisted in the same host plant is also described. Larvae of the second species were significantly less abundant than those of Lepidomys and hatched one month later in the rainy season, which could indicate some competitive interactions between these two pyralid species.

Abarca, Mariana; Boege, Karina; Zaldivar-Riveron, Alejandro

2014-01-01

16

The Need for Shelter  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, the students will build a shelter in order to protect themselves from the rain. After the shelters are built, the class will perform durability and water proof testing on the shelters.

Adventure Engineering

17

The Immature Stages and Shelter Building Behavior of Falgo Jeconia Ombra Evans, 1955 in eastern Ecuador (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae: Hesperiinae)  

PubMed Central

We describe the immature stages and shelter building behavior of Falga jeconia ombra Evans, 1955 from eastern Ecuador. Chusquea scandens (Poaceae, Bambusoidea) is the larval food plant. Larvae in all stadia build shelters and forcibly eject frass with the aid of an anal comb. Later instars possess an eversible prothoracic “neck” gland. Larvae are associated with moving water. PMID:19613872

Greeney, Harold F.; Warren, Andrew D.

2009-01-01

18

Earth sheltered bee wintering and solar honey house. Final technical report  

SciTech Connect

The construction and operation of an indoor wintering facility and a passive solar honey house are discussed. Goals for the project included both energy savings and financial savings for the beekeeping industry. The underground winter shelter provided a control temperature of approximately 46/sup 0/F in order to decrease both mortality rates and honey consumption rates of the bees. Three hundred square feet of glazing combined with wall insulation maintained comfortable work space temperatures for the ground level storage of honey. (BCS)

Not Available

1985-01-01

19

A Toolkit for Building Earth System Models  

E-print Network

1 1 Motivation 1 2 Programming Concepts 2 2.1 Processes : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 2 2.2 Ports : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 2 2.3 Channels : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 3 2.4 Mapping : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 3 3 Implementation 4 3.1 Fortran M : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 4 3.2 Compatability Libraries : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 5 3.3 Performance Issues : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 7 4 Status 7 Reference 7 iii A Toolkit for Building Earth System Models Ian Foster Abstract An earth system model is a computer code designed to simulate the interrelated processes that determine the earth's weather and climate, such as atmospheric circulation, atmospheric physics, atmospheric chemistry, ocean...

Ian Foster

1993-01-01

20

SHELTER IN PLACE An incident may occur which dictates you remain inside a building during an emergency. A decision to shelter  

E-print Network

-368-3333 on campus or 9-1-1) and keep responders informed of changes in your situation. · Be aware of your safe and avoiding putting yourself in a more harmful situation. Factors to consider when deciding and others by evacuating or staying in place? · Does this space provide adequate safe shelter

Cavusoglu, Cenk

21

Building the GEM Faulted Earth database  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The GEM Faulted Earth project is aiming to build a global active fault and seismic source database with a common set of strategies, standards, and formats, to be placed in the public domain. Faulted Earth is one of five hazard global components of the Global Earthquake Model (GEM) project. A key early phase of the GEM Faulted Earth project is to build a database which is flexible enough to capture existing and variable (e.g., from slow interplate faults to fast subduction interfaces) global data, and yet is not too onerous to enter new data from areas where existing databases are not available. The purpose of this talk is to give an update on progress building the GEM Faulted Earth database. The database design conceptually has two layers, (1) active faults and folds, and (2) fault sources, and automated processes are being defined to generate fault sources. These include the calculation of moment magnitude using a user-selected magnitude-length or magnitude-area scaling relation, and the calculation of recurrence interval from displacement divided by slip rate, where displacement is calculated from moment and moment magnitude. The fault-based earthquake sources defined by the Faulted Earth project will then be rationalised with those defined by the other GEM global components. A web based tool is being developed for entering individual faults and folds, and fault sources, and includes capture of additional information collected at individual sites, as well as descriptions of the data sources. GIS shapefiles of individual faults and folds, and fault sources will also be able to be uploaded. A data dictionary explaining the database design rationale, definitions of the attributes and formats, and a tool user guide is also being developed. Existing national databases will be uploaded outside of the fault compilation tool, through a process of mapping common attributes between the databases. Regional workshops are planned for compilation in areas where existing databases are not available, or require further population, and will include training on using the fault compilation tool. The tool is also envisaged as an important legacy of the GEM Faulted Earth project, to be available for use beyond the end of the 2 year project.

Litchfield, N. J.; Berryman, K. R.; Christophersen, A.; Thomas, R. F.; Wyss, B.; Tarter, J.; Pagani, M.; Stein, R. S.; Costa, C. H.; Sieh, K. E.

2011-12-01

22

Toolkit for building earth system models.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An earth system model is a computer code designed to simulate the interrelated processes that determine the earth's weather and climate, such as atmospheric circulation, atmospheric physics, atmospheric chemistry, oceanic circulation, and biosphere. I pro...

I. Foster

1993-01-01

23

Fallout sheltering: is it feasible?  

PubMed

The feasibility of sheltering the U.S. population from fallout resulting from a large-scale nuclear attack is assessed using a mathematical model. The model is used to calculate the reduction in cumulative dose received by a sheltered survivor, as a function of five adjustable parameters. Three time periods are postulated: time in the shelter, a transition period during which time out of the shelter increases and a final period in which half the time is spent outside the shelter. The parameters are varied independently, and the resulting dose reduction factor is compared with what seems to be necessary for survival in different regions of the country under the postulated attack. Another model developed by K.S. Gant and C.V. Chester is compared with this one. Similarities and differences are pointed out, and where possible the results of the two are checked for compatibility. An important question addressed in this paper is whether under the conditions of a large-scale nuclear attack sheltering a relatively unprepared population is at all feasible. Sensitivity tests of the various parameters in our model show that relatively low protection factor areas such as basements or inner rooms already existing in homes or other buildings could quite adequately serve as shelters for most of the area of the contiguous United States. Furthermore, continuous stays in these shelters of more than three weeks do not seem to be necessary for these large parts of the United States. PMID:3818292

Ehrlich, R; Ring, J

1987-03-01

24

A toolkit for building earth system models  

SciTech Connect

An earth system model is a computer code designed to simulate the interrelated processes that determine the earth`s weather and climate, such as atmospheric circulation, atmospheric physics, atmospheric chemistry, oceanic circulation, and biosphere. I propose a toolkit that would support a modular, or object-oriented, approach to the implementation of such models.

Foster, I.

1993-03-01

25

A toolkit for building Earth system models  

Microsoft Academic Search

An earth system model is a computer code designed to simulate the interrelated processes that determine the earth's weather and climate, such as atmospheric circulation, atmospheric physics, atmospheric chemistry, oceanic circulation, and biosphere. I propose a toolkit that would support a modular, or object-oriented, approach to the implementation of such models.

I. Foster

1993-01-01

26

A toolkit for building earth system models  

SciTech Connect

An earth system model is a computer code designed to simulate the interrelated processes that determine the earth's weather and climate, such as atmospheric circulation, atmospheric physics, atmospheric chemistry, oceanic circulation, and biosphere. I propose a toolkit that would support a modular, or object-oriented, approach to the implementation of such models.

Foster, I.

1993-03-01

27

Earth Science Literacy: Building Community Consensus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During 2008, the Earth Sciences Literacy Initiative (ESLI) constructed a framework of earth science "Big Ideas" and "Supporting Concepts". Following the examples of recent literacy efforts in the ocean, atmosphere and climate research communities, ESLI has distilled the fundamental understandings of the earth science community into a document that all members of the community will be able to refer to when working with educators, policy-makers, the press and members of the general public. This document is currently in draft form for review and will be published for public distribution in 2009. ESLI began with the construction of an organizing committee of a dozen people who represent a wide array of earth science backgrounds. This group then organized and ran two workshops in 2008: a 2-week online content workshop and a 3-day intensive writing workshop. For both workshops, participants were chosen so as to cover the full breadth of earth science related to the solid earth, surficial processes, and fresh-water hydrology. The asynchronous online workshop included 350 scientists and educators participating from around the world and was a powerful way to gather ideas and information while retaining a written record of all interactions. The writing workshop included 35 scientists, educators and agency representatives to codify the extensive input of the online workshop. Since September, 2008, drafts of the ESLI literacy framework have been circulated through many different channels to make sure that the document accurately reflects the current understandings of earth scientists and to ensure that it is widely accepted and adopted by the earth science communities.

Wysession, M.; Ladue, N.; Budd, D.; Campbell, K.; Conklin, M.; Lewis, G.; Raynolds, R.; Ridky, R.; Ross, R.; Taber, J.; Tewksbury, B.; Tuddenham, P.

2008-12-01

28

NORTHERLY VIEW OF THE SHELTER HOUSE LOCATED ON THE EAST ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

NORTHERLY VIEW OF THE SHELTER HOUSE LOCATED ON THE EAST END OF BIG DALTON DAM SHOWING THE SOUTH SIDE OF THE BUILDING - Big Dalton Dam, Shelter House, 2600 Big Dalton Canyon Road, Glendora, Los Angeles County, CA

29

Fortran M As A Language For Building Earth System Models  

E-print Network

this paper, I discuss the use of Fortran M as a tool for building earth system models on massively parallel computers. I hypothesize that the use of Fortran M has software engineering advantages and outline experiments that we are conducting to investigate this hypothesis.

Ian Foster

1992-01-01

30

FORTRAN M as a language for building earth system models.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

FORTRAN M is a small set of extensions to FORTRAN 77 that supports a modular or object-oriented approach to the development of parallel programs. In this paper, I discuss the use of FORTRAN M as a tool for building earth system models on massively paralle...

I. Foster

1992-01-01

31

Building Scientific Workflows for Earth System Modelling with Windows Workflow Foundation  

E-print Network

Building Scientific Workflows for Earth System Modelling with Windows Workflow Foundation Matthew J developed a framework for the composition, execution and management of integrated Earth system models

32

FORTRAN M AS A LANGUAGE FOR BUILDING EARTH SYSTEM MODELS \\Lambda  

E-print Network

FORTRAN M AS A LANGUAGE FOR BUILDING EARTH SYSTEM MODELS \\Lambda Ian Foster Mathematics as a tool for building earth system models on massively parallel computers. I hypothesize that the use to investigate this hypothe­ sis. 2. Earth System Models An earth system model is a computer code designed

33

FORTRAN M as a language for building earth system models  

SciTech Connect

FORTRAN M is a small set of extensions to FORTRAN 77 that supports a modular or object-oriented approach to the development of parallel programs. In this paper, I discuss the use of FORTRAN M as a tool for building earth system models on massively parallel computers. I hypothesize that the use of FORTRAN M has software engineering advantages and outline experiments that we are conducting to investigate this hypothesis.

Foster, I.

1992-12-31

34

FORTRAN M as a language for building earth system models  

SciTech Connect

FORTRAN M is a small set of extensions to FORTRAN 77 that supports a modular or object-oriented approach to the development of parallel programs. In this paper, I discuss the use of FORTRAN M as a tool for building earth system models on massively parallel computers. I hypothesize that the use of FORTRAN M has software engineering advantages and outline experiments that we are conducting to investigate this hypothesis.

Foster, I.

1992-01-01

35

Building a Roadmap for European Solid Earth Sciences Infrastructure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Building a Roadmap for European Solid Earth Sciences Infrastructure John Ludden (BGS-NERC, Nottingham, UK), Domenico Giardini (ETH, Zurich, Switzerland), Massimo Cocco (INGV, Rome, Italy), Michel Diament (INSU, Paris, France); Jorn Lauterjung (GFZ, Potsdam, Germany) Europe is about to launch a new phase of funding in its Horizon 2020 programme. At the same time in FP7 the EC created a number of infrastructure projects of which the most influential in the solid Earth sector is the European Plate Observing System (EPOS). EPOS thus has a strategic role in driving infrastructure development in Europe. A reflection must be undertaken on how inclusive and representative this role is and how EPOS can complement other infrastructure initiatives. We propose a series of meetings with the key players in solid Earth infrastructure across Europe to develop a 10 year road map for the development of Earth sciences infrastructure. The key components of such a road map must include: In concert with ESA and other partners, satellite observation and the development of earth observing capabilities such as potential field, SAR etc.; With the Integrated Ocean Discovery Program (IODP 2013-2023), the International Continental Drilling program (ICDP) and other European scientific drilling infrastructure, identify added value in working as a European entity; With Eurogeosurveys develop links and compliance between data bases and work towards closer relationships between Earth science infrastructure in institutes and surveys; Consider how EPOS observatories can be better integrated and complementary to other Earth system observatories of the sea-floor, terrestrial critical zone and atmosphere; Define laboratory and training needs in infrastructure which supersede individual national objectives such as in geochronology, accelerator mass spectrometry, physical properties and large-scale field observatories in applied and fundamental earth sciences. EPOS will play a key strategic role in this process and will open a full dialogue using ICT tools and geosciences organisations and institutions throughout Europe. This paper will ask the question of the community how best to proceed, and what are the critical timelines for this roadmap.

Ludden, J.; Giardini, D.; Cocco, M.; Diament, M.; Lauterjung, J.

2012-04-01

36

Building a knowledge system for the Earth system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NSF advisory committee for the geosciences issues a forward-looking report intended to "fostering a sustainable future through a better understanding of our complex and changing planet."(GEO Vision) The report issues a call to action to develop a framework to understand and predict responses of the Earth as a system. As a backdrop to this bold call to action, NSF announced Cyberinfrastructure for the 21st century (CIF21), which is an important new research thrust for NSF for FY 2012. The Office of Cyberinfrastructure (OCI) will lead CIF21. In an effort to make significant advances within the context of CIF21 and the GEO Vision call to action, the Office of Cyberinfrastructure and the Geosciences Directorate launched Earth Cube. The goal of this endeavor is to transform the conduct of research in geosciences by supporting community created cyberinfrastructure that integrates knowledge management across the Geosciences. Implicit in the nexus of CIF21 and Earth Cube is cyberinfrastructure and the concomitant characteristics that are associated with infrastructure: how to build it; how to sustain it; how to make it extendable; how to manage it; and how to maintain it for long periods of time. To create Earth Cube, NSF embarked on a process to focus the best ideas and foster partnerships among a number of activities within geosciences and across other fields of science. This process had at its center the use of two linked events: a charrette and an IdeasLab. The charrette took place in early November 2011 for the purpose offering a forum for the community to identify the best ideas through real-time review and to modify those ideas to remove their weaknesses and enhance their strengths. As a result of this process, NSF made several awards very soon after the charrette. The multiple award approach was necessary since it is difficult to identify the best solution to a complex problem early in the process. These awards allow additional development of the conceptual approaches and these further developed ideas will be brought together in Ideaslab for a further round of realtime review and modification with the intention of funding prototype development of some of the modified ideas resulting from the charrette. Presented is a report on the goals and outcomes of the Earth Cube process and plans for the future.

Jacobs, C. A.; Zanzerkia, E. E.

2011-12-01

37

SOUTHEAST VIEW OF THE SHELTER HOUSE LOCATED ON THE EAST ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

SOUTHEAST VIEW OF THE SHELTER HOUSE LOCATED ON THE EAST END OF BIG DALTON DAM SHOWING THE NORTHWEST SIDE OF THE BUILDING. THE PARAPET WALL IS SHOWN IN THE FOREGROUND - Big Dalton Dam, Shelter House, 2600 Big Dalton Canyon Road, Glendora, Los Angeles County, CA

38

4. PERSPECTIVE VIEW TO THE NORTHEAST OF THE CREW SHELTER ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. PERSPECTIVE VIEW TO THE NORTHEAST OF THE CREW SHELTER IN AR-8. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base, Rammed Earth Aircraft Dispersal Revetments, Western Shore of Rogers Dry Lake, Boron, Kern County, CA

39

15. SOUTHEAST AND NORTHEAST WALLS OF CREW SHELTER LOCATED BETWEEN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

15. SOUTHEAST AND NORTHEAST WALLS OF CREW SHELTER LOCATED BETWEEN THE PURSUIT PLANE BAYS OF AR-9. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base, Rammed Earth Aircraft Dispersal Revetments, Western Shore of Rogers Dry Lake, Boron, Kern County, CA

40

Dynamic earth-contact building: A sustainable low-energy technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sustainable development includes low-energy buildings, which reduce energy consumption, green house gases emission, water usage, etc. The choice of subsurface wall at varying depths for construction of buildings has a direct impact on energy consumption and the environment. This paper includes in its scope all building structures in which a significant area is in direct contact with the earth, and

Rakesh Kumar; Shweta Sachdeva; S. C. Kaushik

2007-01-01

41

View of Chapel Park, showing bomb shelters at right foreground, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View of Chapel Park, showing bomb shelters at right foreground, from building 746 parking lot across Walnut Avenue; camera facing north. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, East of Nave Drive, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

42

Shelter for the Sky  

SciTech Connect

A solemn ceremony in Slavutich Ukraine on April 26th 2007 marked the twenty-first anniversary of the most catastrophic accident in the history of commercial nuclear power. Significant progress has recently been made toward transformation of Chernobyl to an environmentally sound site. Many readers will recall that in only eight months following the 1986 accident, the Soviets constructed an enormous facility to contain the radioactive contamination in the remains of Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Unit-4. Popularly known as the “sarcophagus”, but correctly referred to as the “Object Shelter”, it has deteriorated with time and is now in danger of collapse. STABILIZATION Several measures to structurally stabilize the Object Shelter and prevent its collapse have recently been completed. These measures are the largest construction projects undertaken in the local zone since the completion of the Object Shelter. The most significant risk reduction was accomplished by Measure-2 in December 2006. Stabilization

Schmieman, Eric A.

2007-07-01

43

Transitioning Our Shelters: Making Homeless Shelters Safe for Transgender People  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most homeless shelters in the United States are segregated by sex, with placement based on assumptions about a person's gender. As a result, transgender youth and adults, who identify as or express a gender different from their birth sex, can experience extreme difficulties in obtaining adequate and safe shelter. Many shelters are physically unsafe for transgender people, fail to provide

Lisa Mottet; John Ohle

2006-01-01

44

SPERTI Reactor Pit Building (PER605). Earth shielding protect adjacent Instrument ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

SPERT-I Reactor Pit Building (PER-605). Earth shielding protect adjacent Instrument Cell (PER-606). Security fencing surrounds complex, to which gate entry is provided next to Guard House (PER-607). Note gravel road leading to control area. Earth-covered conduit leads from instrument cell to terminal building out of view. Photographer: R.G. Larsen. Date: June 22, 1955. INEEL negative no. 55-1701 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, SPERT-I & Power Burst Facility Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

45

The Search for Shelter.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes the response of the American Institute of Architects' Housing Committee to the homeless crisis in the United States. Based on information shared at two conferences held by the Committee in 1985, this publication examines the question of how to provide secure, dignified shelter for those with little financial resources. It…

Greer, Nora Richter

46

Earth Scientists Forge New Understanding of Mountain-Building Dynamics  

NSF Publications Database

... OF MOUNTAIN-BUILDING DYNAMICS ESTIMATES POINT TO SLOWER R&D GROWTH IN 2002 PINPOINTING HUMAN ... method recently in IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence (PAMI). [David ...

47

Voyager: The Sheltering Forest  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Birch Aquarium at Scripps Institution of Oceanography offers this Web site as part of the Aquarium's online educational series, Voyager Science. Geared toward younger kids, this site introduces the kelp forest and related concepts with great photos, informative descriptions, and a few interactive activities. The Sheltering Forest focuses on the many animals that make their home in the kelp forest, emphasizing the interdependence of organisms in the kelp ecosystem. Simple at-home experiments and online activities are also included.

Criqui, Nan

48

Page 1 of 6 `Building Core Knowledge Reconstructing Earth History'  

E-print Network

, as well as providing links to other supplementary materials and examples for assessment. Preliminary including instructor workshops and eventually to the web. Principle Investigators: Kristen St. John) grant #0737335 and by Deep Earth Academy, an education division of the Consortium for Ocean Leadership

Leckie, Mark

49

An Early Shelter for Life on Earth? S and O Isotope Evidence From the Nuvvuagittuq Greenstone Belt, Northeastern Superior Province, Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Nuvvuagittuq Greenstone Belt (NGB,) is one of Earth's oldest Eoarchean volcano-sedimentary suites, and was emplaced prior to 3.75 Ga (Cates and Mojzsis, S.J. 2007), and likely as early as 4.28 Ga (O'Neil et al. 2008). As revealed by recent detailed mapping, the NGB geology is dominated by cummingtonite-bearing amphibolites (formerly called Faux-amphibolite, (O'Neil et al. 2008)) and a series of conformable gabbroic and ultra mafic sills. Minor horizons in the belt include banded iron formations (BIF) with cm-scale quartz-rich and magnetite-rich laminations, and a pyrite-bearing quartzite in gradational contact with the BIF. These rocks and may represent the oldest remains of the sedimentary record on Earth. We performed multiple O-isotope measurements of individual minerals (quartz, garnet, amphibole and magnetite) from three NGB lithologies (BIF, faux amphibolites and quartzite). In BIF samples, ?18O values cover a narrow range (from 1.36 per mil magnetite to 4.98 per mil with one outlier at 9.99 per mil), whereas silicate minerals in the faux reveal a more scattered range that is more depleted in light isotopes (7.77 per mil ? ?18O ? 13.38 per mil). One quartzite sample has also been analyzed and reveals the most 16O-depleted composition yet measured from the belt (?18O = 15.44 per mil). The ?17O and ?18O values from these samples define a fractionation line for multiple oxygen isotopes with a slope of 0.528 ± 0.004 (MSWD = 0.47), statistically indistinguishable from the slope (0.524 +± 0.002) of the Archean Terrestrial Fractional Line (TFL) determined from other Archean rocks and minerals. These results show no evidence for the drastic O-isotope heterogeneity that would likely accompany the late heavy bombardment of the Earth-Moon system. We also performed multiple S-isotope ratio measurements (?34S, ?33S, ?36S) in samples covering the entire lithological suite of the NGB. Samples from the quartzite and BIF display a narrow range of ?34S values (0.8 per mil ? ?34S ? 3.3 per mil), in good agreement with ranges reported so far from early Archean sediments. The same samples exhibit non-zero ?33S and ?36S values (respectively ranging from 0.18 to 2.27 per mil and from -2.9 per mil to -0.6 per mil) that are negatively correlated (?36S ~ -0.9 ?33S) and conform to the linear array that characterizes most of the Archean Eon. Finally, the NGB BIF and silica formation reveal a tight correlation between ?33S and ?34S values (?33S ~ 0.9 ?34S) that matches previous observations from Neoarchean and Paleoarchean samples. In previous studies, the ?34S - ?33S - ?36S correlations observed here have been taken to reflect both a restricted chemistry of the atmosphere and a dynamic microbiologically-dominated sulfur cycle. Taken together, and considering the age of the NGB, the S- and O-isotope results suggest that conditions conducive to life on Earth were established very early in Earth's history. Either there was apparently no significant perturbation of the early Earth system by the late heavy bombardment, or the rocks of the NGC record a time interval that was not affected by this dramatic event. This talk will explore the implications of these two possibilities for the early establishment of a stable environment suitable for the emergence of life.

Thomassot, E.; O'Neil, J.; Francis, D.; Cartigny, P.; Rumble, D.; Wing, B.

2009-05-01

50

4. November 1986. INTERIOR OF BUILDING FROM DOOR. (Note unfinished ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. November 1986. INTERIOR OF BUILDING FROM DOOR. (Note unfinished rammed earth walls; square holes are from joists used to hold wall forms together during construction. Stairs in view at left go to storage room below.) - Borough House, Dry Well Shelter, State Route 261 & Garners Ferry Road, Stateburg, Sumter County, SC

51

From the Ground Up: Building an Undergraduate Earth Systems Curriculum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is rare that an interdisciplinary group of educators has the opportunity to design a science curriculum without the constraints of pre-existing academic departments. In 1994, California State University Monterey Bay (CSUMB) acquired 1,387 acres from the U.S. Department of the Army and began construction of a new campus. CSUMB was developed as a four-year undergraduate university distinctive in its mission to serve the diverse people of California. Inspired by the Earth System Science Education program initiated by NASA and the University Space Research Association, CSUMB embarked upon the development of an interdisciplinary Earth systems curriculum that placed a strong emphasis on experience-based learning, integration of science, policy, and technology, outreach to minority students, and partnerships with the local community. Our cornerstone program is the Bachelor of Science in Earth Systems Science & Policy. It is built on a pyramid- style framework that includes integration, systems approach, and applied technologies (base of the pyramid); junior entry course, case studies, concentrations, service learning, student internships, and research experiences (middle of the pyramid); and senior capstone projects (apex of the pyramid). However, to succeed, new and innovative programs must constantly evaluate where they have been, where they are, and where they need to go to meet the needs of their students today and their students of the future.

Head, W. D.; Alexander, S. E.; Moore, S. W.; Melton, F. S.

2006-12-01

52

Creative Building Design for Innovative Earth Science Teaching and Outreach (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earth Science departments can blend the physical “bricks and mortar” facility with programs and educational displays to create a facility that is a permanent outreach tool and a welcoming home for teaching and research. The new Frederick Albert Sutton building at the University of Utah is one of the first LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) certified Earth Science buildings in the country. Throughout the structure, creative architectural designs are combined with sustainability, artful geologic displays, and community partnerships. Distinctive features of the building include: 1) Unique, inviting geologic designs such as cross bedding pattern in the concrete foundation; “a river runs through it” (a pebble tile “stream” inside the entrance); “confluence” lobby with spectacular Eocene Green River fossil fish and plant walls; polished rock slabs; and many natural stone elements. All displays are also designed as teaching tools. 2) Student-generated, energy efficient, sustainable projects such as: solar tube lights, xeriscape & rock monoliths, rainwater collection, roof garden, pervious cement, and energy monitoring. 3) Reinforced concrete foundation for vibration-free analytical measurements, and exposed lab ceilings for duct work and infrastructure adaptability. The spectacular displays for this special project were made possible by new partnerships within the community. Companies participated with generous, in-kind donations (e.g., services, stone flooring and slabs, and landscape rocks). They received recognition in the building and in literature acknowledging donors. A beautiful built environment creates space that students, faculty, and staff are proud of. People feel good about coming to work, and they are happy about their surroundings. This makes a strong recruiting tool, with more productive and satisfied employees. Buildings with architectural interest and displays can showcase geology as art and science, while highlighting what Earth Scientists do. This approach can transform our Earth Science buildings into destinations for visitors, to show evoke inquiry. The building becomes a centerpiece, not another blank box on campus. Administrators at the University of Utah now want other new building structures to emulate our geoscience example. Done right, “bricks and mortar” can build stronger departments, infuse Earth Science into the community, and enhance our educational missions. LEED-certified Earth Science building with Eocene fossil fish wall, river pebble pattern in floor tile, displays, and student gathering areas.

Chan, M. A.

2009-12-01

53

The Earth System Modeling Framework and Earth System Curator: Software Components as Building Blocks of Community  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Earth System Modeling Framework (ESMF) is an established U.S. initiative to develop high performance common modeling infrastructure for climate and weather models. ESMF is the technical foundation for the NASA Modeling, Analysis, and Prediction (MAP) Climate Variability and Change program and the DoD Battlespace Environments Institute (BEI). It has been incorporated into the Community Climate System Model (CCSM), the

C. Deluca; V. Balaji; A. da Silva; R. Dunlap; C. Hill; L. Mark; C. R. Mechoso; D. Middleton; S. Nikonov; S. Rugaber; M. Suarez

2006-01-01

54

Kursplan fr Urban Shelter, teori  

E-print Network

: More Urban Less Poor, an introduction to urbanq development and management. Earthscan 2006. ISBN-13Kursplan för Urban Shelter, teori Urban Shelter, Theory ABAN06, 7,5 högskolepoäng, A (Avancerad en fördjupad kunskap om urban utveckling, -design och -bostadsutformning i ett internationellt

55

Earth-covered buildings: An exploratory analysis for hazard and energy performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The performance of earth covered buildings is examined regarding storms, nuclear detonations, earthquakes, fire, nuclear radiation, energy consumption, compatibility with solar energy systems, peak load effects, soil and groundwater effects, air and climate effects, occupant evaluation, and resource management. Potential longterm benefits are assessed, including the areas of economic benefits, community benefits and security benefits.

Moreland, F. L.

1981-11-01

56

Building a Global Federation System for Climate Change Research: The Earth System Grid Center for Enabling  

E-print Network

Building a Global Federation System for Climate Change Research: The Earth System Grid Center@mcs.anl.gov, bernholdtde@ornl.gov Abstract. The recent release of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) 4th that went into the report was made available to climate scientists worldwide exclusively via the ESG

Chervenak, Ann

57

Effectiveness of urban shelter-in-place—II: Residential districts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the event of a short-term, large-scale toxic chemical release to the atmosphere, shelter-in-place (SIP) may be used as an emergency response to protect public health. We modeled hypothetical releases using realistic, empirical parameters to explore how key factors influence SIP effectiveness for single-family dwellings in a residential district. Four classes of factors were evaluated in this case study: (a) time scales associated with release duration, SIP implementation delay, and SIP termination; (b) building air-exchange rates, including air infiltration and ventilation; (c) the degree of sorption of toxic chemicals to indoor surfaces; and (d) the shape of the dose-response relationship for acute adverse health effects. Houses with lower air leakage are more effective shelters, and thus variability in the air leakage of dwellings is associated with varying degrees of SIP protection in a community. Sorption on indoor surfaces improves SIP effectiveness by lowering the peak indoor concentrations and reducing the amount of contamination in the indoor air. Nonlinear dose-response relationships imply substantial reduction in adverse health effects from lowering the peak exposure concentration. However, if the scenario is unfavorable for indefinite sheltering (e.g. sheltering in leaky houses for protection against a nonsorbing chemical with a linear dose-response), the community must implement SIP without delay and exit from shelter when it first becomes safe to do so. Otherwise, the community can be subjected to even greater risk than if they did not take shelter indoors.

Chan, Wanyu R.; Nazaroff, William W.; Price, Phillip N.; Gadgil, Ashok J.

58

Tax shelters and corporate debt policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

We gather a unique sample of 44 tax shelter cases to investigate the magnitude of tax shelter activity and whether participating in a shelter is related to corporate debt policy. The average annual deduction produced by the shelters in our sample is very large, equaling approximately nine percent of asset value. These deductions are more than three times as large

John R. Graham; Alan L. Tucker

2006-01-01

59

Temporary shelter for the homeless  

E-print Network

A one-person cardboard structure was designed to temporarily shelter the homeless during harsh weather conditions. The overall form is based on the folding Yoshimura pattern. It is collapsible, wind and water resistant, ...

Lin, Christine, 1982-

2005-01-01

60

Shelter for Seismological Instrmnts.  

NSF Publications Database

... EAM NSF Org: OD / OPP Date : December 30, 1991 File : opp93049 DIVISION OF POLAR PROGRAMS OFFICE OF ... S-091, Near Palmer Station, Antarctica) To: (Files S.7 - Environment) Manager, Polar Earth Sciences ...

61

RESEARCH PAPER Residency Duration and Shelter Quality Influence Vibratory  

E-print Network

) doi: 10.1111/eth.12210 Keywords: motivation, territory, caterpillar, value assessment, silk, vibration to assess how residency duration and shelter quality independently affected territorial displays during such as negotiating Ethology 120 (2014) 1�11 � 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH 1 Ethology #12;with neighbours or builds

Yack, Jayne E.

62

Pentagon. Civil Defense and Fire Instructions. Part 2: Shelter Management.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This instructional guide to civil defense shelter management is given as an aid to shelter survival techniques rather than to shelter comfort. The basis, purposes, and organization of shelter administration are outlined, with instructions on--(1) shelter management, (2) shelter teams and functions, (3) supplies and locations, and (4) daily shelter

Office of the Army Headquarters Commandant, Washington, DC.

63

The feasibility of using paperboard as a basic material for housing shelters  

E-print Network

, and to design and construct elements of buildings using this material. These elements will be related to existing, present day requirements. Construction and use of corrugated paperboard as a major structural material is feasible with respect to shelter units...

Thorpe, Roscoe Paul

2012-06-07

64

Effectiveness of Urban Shelter-in-Place. III: Commercial Districts  

SciTech Connect

In the event of a toxic chemical release to the atmosphere, shelter-in-place (SIP) is an emergency response option available to protect public health. This paper is the last in a three-part series that examines the effectiveness of SIP at reducing adverse health effects in communities. We model a hypothetical chemical release in an urban area, and consider SIP effectiveness in protecting occupants of commercial buildings. Building air infiltration rates are predicted from empirical data using an existing model. We consider the distribution of building air infiltration rates both with mechanical ventilation systems turned off and with the systems operating. We also consider the effects of chemical sorption to indoor surfaces and nonlinear chemical dose-response relationships. We find that commercial buildings provide effective shelter when ventilation systems are off, but that any delay in turning off ventilation systems can greatly reduce SIP effectiveness. Using a two-zone model, we find that there can be substantial benefit by taking shelter in the inner parts of a building that do not experience direct air exchange with the outdoors. Air infiltration rates vary substantially among buildings and this variation is important in quantifying effectiveness for emergency response. Community-wide health metrics, introduced in the previous papers in this series, can be applied in pre-event planning and to guide real-time emergency response.

Chan, Wanyu R.; Chan, Wanyu R.; Nazaroff, William W.; Price, Phillip N.; Gadgil, Ashok J.

2007-12-28

65

Smoking Shelters FREQUENT DESTINATIONS  

E-print Network

Satellite Utility Plant C7,8 Sondheim Hall G5 Student Development & Success Center (SDSC) D7 Surge Facility HALL CHESAPEAKE HALL STUDENT DEVELOPMENT & SUCCESS CENTER PUBLIC POLICY BLDG WALKER AVENUE APARTMENTS Library & Gallery, Albin O. Kuhn D5 Parking Services, 100 Facilities Management Building E10 Recital Hall

Adali, Tulay

66

Technological characteristics of compressed earth blocks for its use as a building material  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present here an innovative building technique, which uses ecological, inexpensive and environmentally friendly materials. These compressed earth blocks seem to be very good for building purposes and that is why we have characterized three types of compressed earth blocks (CEB, named by their color as yellow, grey and red) mineralogically by means of X ray diffraction XRD and scanning electron microscopy SEM (both blocks and raw materials), petrographically by polarizing optical light microscopy POLM, and SEM, and, mainly, petrophysically: their hydric, physical and physico-mechanical properties by means of determining their capillary water absorption, porosity (open or accessible to water, pore size distribution and micro/macroporosity), and densities, color and ultrasound velocity (together with anisotropy). The particularities of these analyzed materials show that some varieties are more durable than others, and that all of them can be used as building materials with some restrictions related to their appropriate placing in the structures and the exposure to water. Acknowledgements: This work is supported by the GEOMATERIALES (S2009/MAT-1629) and CONSOLIDER-TCP (CSD2007-0058) programmes. Thanks also to the UCM (Complutense University of Madrid) Research Group "Alteración y conservación de los materiales pétreos del patrimonio" / Alteration and conservation of heritage stone materials (ref. 921349).

Gomez-Villalba, Luz Stella; Camacho-Perez, Nancy; Alvarez de Buergo, Monica; Becerra-Becerra, Javier; Esmeralda Corredor-Pulido, Dery; Fort, Rafael

2013-04-01

67

Family Shelter Planning.  

E-print Network

shaped cloud. When the pulverized material cools, it comes back to earth and constitutes fallout. Only very strong, reinforced underground shel- ters can protect against the first three dangers of a nuclear explosion-blast, heat and initial radiation... cost I_ $800 to $1200. This type shdttr fib? new hous This plan shows tho pouibilify of designing &-round shel- construction lessens danger from f* debris, o hn hat becomo on aclivo ama in he funaHon af tho plan. from the how giving way in case...

Russell, Laura J.; Riney, Bobye J.

1964-01-01

68

Shelter and Residential  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possibilities of adapting materials and construction techniques from other industries such as aerospace and car manufacture\\u000a have been advocated by many commentators since the beginning of the twentieth century and though many exciting prototypes\\u000a exist, the full impact of widespread technology transfer has yet to be exploited. Portable architecture uses some of the most\\u000a innovative forms of building yet

Robert Kronenburg

69

Automatic Building Detection based on Supervised Classification using High Resolution Google Earth Images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a novel approach to detect the buildings by automization of the training area collecting stage for supervised classification. The method based on the fact that a 3d building structure should cast a shadow under suitable imaging conditions. Therefore, the methodology begins with the detection and masking out the shadow areas using luminance component of the LAB color space, which indicates the lightness of the image, and a novel double thresholding technique. Further, the training areas for supervised classification are selected by automatically determining a buffer zone on each building whose shadow is detected by using the shadow shape and the sun illumination direction. Thereafter, by calculating the statistic values of each buffer zone which is collected from the building areas the Improved Parallelepiped Supervised Classification is executed to detect the buildings. Standard deviation thresholding applied to the Parallelepiped classification method to improve its accuracy. Finally, simple morphological operations conducted for releasing the noises and increasing the accuracy of the results. The experiments were performed on set of high resolution Google Earth images. The performance of the proposed approach was assessed by comparing the results of the proposed approach with the reference data by using well-known quality measurements (Precision, Recall and F1-score) to evaluate the pixel-based and object-based performances of the proposed approach. Evaluation of the results illustrates that buildings detected from dense and suburban districts with divers characteristics and color combinations using our proposed method have 88.4 % and 853 % overall pixel-based and object-based precision performances, respectively.

Ghaffarian, S.; Ghaffarian, S.

2014-08-01

70

13. SITE BUILDING 002 SCANNER BUILDING "B" FACE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

13. SITE BUILDING 002 - SCANNER BUILDING - "B" FACE LOADING DOCK AND PERSONNEL ACCESS RAMP TO FALLOUT SHELTER. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

71

Lunar surface operations. Volume 1: Lunar surface emergency shelter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The lunar surface emergency shelter (LSES) is designed to provide survival-level accommodations for up to four astronauts for a maximum of five days. It would be used by astronauts who were caught out in the open during a large solar event. The habitable section consists of an aluminum pressure shell with an inner diameter of 6 ft. and a length of 12.2 ft. Access is through a 4 in. thick aluminum airlock door mounted at the rear of the shelter. Shielding is provided by a 14.9 in. thick layer of lunar regolith contained within a second, outer aluminum shell. This provides protection against a 200 MeV event, based on a 15 REM maximum dose. The shelter is self-contained with a maximum range of 1000 km. Power is supplied by a primary fuel cell which occupies 70.7 cu ft. of the interior volume. Mobility is achieved by towing the shelter behind existing lunar vehicles. It was assumed that a fully operational, independent lunar base was available to provide communication support and tools for set-up and maintenance. Transportation to the moon would be provided by the proposed heavy lift launch vehicle. Major design considerations for the LSES were safety, reliability, and minimal use of earth materials.

Shields, William; Feteih, Salah; Hollis, Patrick

1993-07-01

72

Preliminary evaluation of crisis-relocation fallout-shelter options. Volume 2. Detailed analysis  

SciTech Connect

This report presents a preliminary, detailed evaluation of various shelter options for use if the President orders crisis relocation of the US urban population because of strong expectation of a nuclear war. The availability of livable shelter space at 40 ft/sup 2/ per person (congregate-care space) by state is evaluated. Options are evaluated for construction of fallout shelters allowing 10 ft/sup 2/ per person - such shelters are designed to provide 100% survival at projected levels of radioactive fallout. The FEMA concept of upgrading existing buildings to act as fallout shelters can, in principle, provide adequate shelter throughout most of the US. Exceptions are noted and remedies proposed. In terms of upgrading existing buildings to fallout shelter status, great benefits are possible by turning away from a standard national approach and adopting a more site-specific approach. Existing FEMA research provides a solid foundation for successful crisis relocation planning, but the program can be refined by making suitable modifications in its locational, engineering, and institutionally specific elements.

Santini, D.J.; Clinch, J.M.; Davis, F.H.; Hill, L.G.; Lynch, E.P.; Tanzman, E.A.; Wernette, D.R.

1982-12-01

73

Sheltered versus nonsheltered homeless women  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To contrast sociodemographic characteristics, physical and mental health status, substance use, sexual behaviors, victimization,\\u000a and utilization of health services between homeless women residing in sheltered and nonsheltered environments.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey. A structured scale was used to measure mental health status. Physical health status, substance use,\\u000a sexual behavior, history of adult victimization, and health services utilization were measured by

Adeline M. Nyamathi; Barbara Leake; Lillian Gelberg

2000-01-01

74

Design concepts for pressurized lunar shelters utilizing indigenous materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective is to design a pressurized shelter build of indigenous lunar material. The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: lunar conditions which impact design; secondary factors; review of previously proposed concepts; cross section of assembly facility; rationale for indigenous materials; indigenous material choices; cast basalt properties; design variables; design 1, cylindrical segments; construction sequence; design 2, arch-slabs with post-tensioned ring girders; and future research.

Happel, John Amin; Willam, Kaspar; Shing, Benson

1991-01-01

75

Earth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The following aspects of the planet Earth are discussed: plate tectonics, the interior of the planet, the formation of the Earth, and the evolution of the atmosphere and hydrosphere. The Earth's crust, mantle, and core are examined along with the bulk composition of the planet.

Carr, M. H.

1984-01-01

76

Identifying Evacuees' Demand of Tsunami Shelters using Agent Based Simulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Amongst the lessons learned in tsunami events such as the 2004 Indian Ocean and 2011 Great Tohoku Japan earthquake is that sometimes nature exceeds structural countermeasures like seawalls, breakwaters or tsunami gates. In such situations it is a challenging task for people in plain areas to find sheltering places. The vertical evacuation to multistory buildings is one alternative to provide areas for sheltering in a complex environment of evacuation. However, if the spatial distribution and the available capacity of these structures are not well displayed, conditions of evacuee over-demand or under-demand might be observed in several structures. In this study, we present the integration of the tsunami numerical modeling and the agent based simulation of evacuation as the method to estimate the sheltering demand of evacuees in an emergent behavior approach. The case study is set in La Punta district in Peru. Here, we used in the tsunami simulation a seismic source of slip distribution model (Pulido et.al. ,2011; Chlieh et.al, 2011) for a possible future tsunami scenario in the central Andes. We modeled three alternatives of evacuation. First, the horizontal evacuation scenario was analyzed to support the necessity of the sheltering-in-place option for the district. Second, the vertical evacuation scenario and third, the combination of vertical and horizontal evacuation scenarios of pedestrians and vehicles were conducted. In the last two alternatives, the demand of evacuees were measured at each official tsunami evacuation building and compared to the sheltering capacity of the structure. Results showed that out of twenty tsunami evacuation buildings, thirteen resulted with over-demands and seven were still with available space. Also it is confirmed that in this case the horizontal evacuation might lead to a high number of casualties due to the traffic congestion at the neck of the district. Finally the vertical evacuation would be a suitable solution for this area; however the spatial location of shelters complicates the evacuation process. Future plan to provide more areas spatially well-located and with adequate capacities should be part of the agenda of mitigation and preparedness in the district.

Mas, E.; Adriano, B.; Koshimura, S.; Imamura, F.; Kuroiwa, J.; Yamazaki, F.; Zavala, C.; Estrada, M.

2012-12-01

77

The DEVELOP National Program: Building Dual Capacity in Decision Makers and Young Professionals Through NASA Earth Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Through the years, NASA has played a distinct/important/vital role in advancing Earth System Science to meet the challenges of environmental management and policy decision making. Within NASA's Earth Science Division's Applied Sciences' Program, the DEVELOP National Program seeks to extend NASA Earth Science for societal benefit. DEVELOP is a capacity building program providing young professionals and students the opportunity to utilize NASA Earth observations and model output to demonstrate practical applications of those resources to society. Under the guidance of science advisors, DEVELOP teams work in alignment with local, regional, national and international partner organizations to identify the widest array of practical uses for NASA data to enhance related management decisions. The program's structure facilitates a two-fold approach to capacity building by fostering an environment of scientific and professional development opportunities for young professionals and students, while also providing end-user organizations enhanced management and decision making tools for issues impacting their communities. With the competitive nature and growing societal role of science and technology in today's global workplace, DEVELOP is building capacity in the next generation of scientists and leaders by fostering a learning and growing environment where young professionals possess an increased understanding of teamwork, personal development, and scientific/professional development and NASA's Earth Observation System. DEVELOP young professionals are partnered with end user organizations to conduct 10 week feasibility studies that demonstrate the use of NASA Earth science data for enhanced decision making. As a result of the partnership, end user organizations are introduced to NASA Earth Science technologies and capabilities, new methods to augment current practices, hands-on training with practical applications of remote sensing and NASA Earth science, improved remote sensing and geographic information science (GIS) capabilities, and opportunities for networking with the NASA and Earth Science community. By engaging young professionals and end user organizations, DEVELOP strives to uniquely build capacity through the extension of NASA Earth Science outcomes to the public through projects that innovatively use NASA Earth observations to address environmental concerns and impact policy and decision making.

Childs, L. M.; Rogers, L.; Favors, J.; Ruiz, M.

2012-12-01

78

Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lithograph depicts a view of Earth taken from Apollo 10 during its journey to the Moon in May 1969. False-color satellite images showing chlorophyll concentration, sea surface temperature, topography, and ozone concentration are also featured. The images are accompanied by a brief description, some statistical facts, and a list of important dates in the history of Earth exploration.

79

Where building meets sky : the dialogue between horizontal and vertical  

E-print Network

The roof is man's basic shelter against the elements. The form of the roof itself affects the image of a building. The problem of shelter has been approached in different ways by different cultures. A wide range of forces ...

Snow, Sandra Leigh Olson

1986-01-01

80

Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With three levels to choose from on each page - beginner, intermediate or advanced - this site provides information on our plant Earth. There is a section about water on earth and its many different varities, like freshwater, groundwater, and frozen water. There is information about the chemical make-up of water and many images showing the different water anvironments. There is a section about life in water, such as animals, plants, and plankton.

2008-10-03

81

Ventilation of Animal Shelters in Wildland Fire Scenarios  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of wildland fires on cavity-nesting birds and bats, as well as fossorial mammals and burrow-using reptiles, are of considerable interest to the fire management community. However, relatively little is known about the degree of protection afforded by various animal shelters in wildland fire events. We present results from our ongoing investigation, utilizing NIST’s Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS) and experimental data, of the effectiveness of common shelter configurations in protecting animals from combustion products. We compare two sets of simulations with observed experimental results. In the first set, wind tunnel experiments on single-entry room ventilation by Larsen and Heiselberg (2008) were simulated in a large domain resolved into 10 cm cubic cells. The set of 24 simulations comprised all combinations of incident wind speeds of 1,3 and 5 m/s; angles of attack of 0, 45, 90 and 180 degrees from the horizontal normal to the entrance; and temperature differences of 0 and 10 degrees C between the building interior and exterior. Simulation results were in good agreement with experimental data, thus providing a validation of FDS code for further ventilation experiments. In the second set, a cubic simulation domain of ~1m on edge and resolved into 1 cm cubic cells, was set up to represent the experiments by Ar et al. (2004) of wind-induced ventilation of woodpecker cavities. As in the experiments, we simulated wind parallel and perpendicular to the cavity entrance with different mean forcing velocities, and monitored the rates of evacuation of a neutral-buoyancy tracer from the cavity. Simulated ventilation rates in many, though not all, cases fell within the range of experimental data. Reasons for these differences, which include vagueness in the experimental setup, will be discussed. Our simulations provide a tool to estimate the viability of an animal in a shelter as a function of the shelter geometry and the fire intensity. In addition to the above, we explore the role of turbulence and its effect on ventilation rates, especially in single-entrance shelters. The goal of this work is to provide engineering formulas to estimate the probable levels of harmful or irritating combustion products in animal shelters during wildland fires.

Bova, A. S.; Bohrer, G.; Dickinson, M. B.

2009-12-01

82

Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) planet profile provides data and images of the planet Earth. These data include planet size, orbit facts, distance from the Sun, rotation and revolution times, temperature, atmospheric composition, density, surface materials and albedo. Images with descriptions show Earth features such as the Ross Ice Shelf in Antarctica, Simpson Desert in Australia, Mt. Etna in Sicily, the Cassiar Mountains in Canada, the Strait of Gibraltar, Mississippi River, Grand Canyon, Wadi Kufra Oasis in Libya, and Moon images such as Hadley Rille, Plum Crater, massifs and Moon rocks. These images were taken with the Galileo Spacecraft and by the Apollo missions.

83

Use of chemical explosives for emergency solar flare shelter construction and other excavations on the Martian surface  

SciTech Connect

The necessity to shelter people on the Martian surface from solar flare particles at short notice and the need for long-term habitats with thick cosmic ray shielding suggests that explosives could be used effectively for excavation of such structures. Modern insensitive high explosives are safe, efficient, and reliable for rock breakage and excavation. Extensive Earth-bound experience leads us to propose several strategies for explosively-constructed shelters based on tunneling, cratering, and rock casting techniques.

Dick, R.D.; Blacic, J.D.; Pettitt, D.R.

1985-01-01

84

Building a Global Data Network for Studies of Earth Processes at the World's Plate Boundaries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The international geoscience community is engaged in scientifically aligned goals to understand the fundamental processes of crustal formation, modification and destruction at the Earth's plate boundaries through broad multi- disciplinary initiatives such as the InterRidge and InterMARGINS programs. These programs involve the collection of unique data sets during oceanic and terrestrial expeditions and subsequent laboratory work conducted by research institutions around the globe. These international research efforts would benefit significantly if data collections maintained as national efforts could be better linked and broader access were initiated. At present there are no formal agreements within these programs for data sharing between foreign partners. A workshop was convened in May 2007, jointly sponsored and funded by MARGINS, InterMARGINS, InterRidge, Ridge2000, the US National Science Foundation, and the German project "The Future Ocean", to explore current opportunities and challenges for international data exchange to support marine geoscience research broadly. Participants from 14 countries discussed technological, organizational, and cultural issues for building a global data network and agreed on a set of recommendations regarding science user needs, data documentation, data publication, metadata interoperability, and opportunities and obstacles for international data sharing. They underscored that (1) open public access to data is fundamental to verifiable scientific progress; (2) uniform best practices and standards for data acquisition, data submission to data centers, and data publication need to be developed and used routinely within the international community, facilitated by tools that automate metadata acquisition in the field and in the lab; (3) the proliferation of metadata standards needs to be minimized to achieve a uniform approach for scientific metadata building upon the work of existing community-based projects; (4) data centers should expose their data resources via web services to enable data access through programmatic interfaces and expand options for data analysis and visualization; (5) international programs and bodies such as GEOSS, eGY, and ICSU should be leveraged to promote an initiative for a global data network; (6) a dedicated task group is needed to advance the implementation of a global data network along with special interest groups to share experience and solutions on issues concerning metadata and interfaces. Several immediate next steps were identified to initiate the implementation of these recommendations.

Lehnert, K. A.; Carbotte, S.; Tsuboi, S.; Weinrebe, W.

2007-12-01

85

Effectiveness of Urban Shelter-in-Place. II: ResidentialDistricts  

SciTech Connect

In the event of a short-term, large-scale toxic chemical release to the atmosphere, shelter-in-place (SIP) may be used as an emergency response to protect public health. We modeled hypothetical releases using realistic, empirical parameters to explore how key factors influence SIP effectiveness for single-family dwellings in a residential district. Four classes of factors were evaluated in this case-study: (a) time scales associated with release duration, SIP implementation delay, and SIP termination; (b) building air-exchange rates, including air infiltration and ventilation; (c) the degree of sorption of toxic chemicals to indoor surfaces; and (d) the shape of the dose-response relationship for acute adverse health effects. Houses with lower air leakage are more effective shelters, and thus variability in the air leakage of dwellings is associated with varying degrees of SIP protection in a community. Sorption on indoor surfaces improves SIP effectiveness by lowering the peak indoor concentrations and reducing the amount of contamination in the indoor air. Nonlinear dose-response relationships imply substantial reduction in adverse health effects from lowering the peak exposure concentration. However, if the scenario is unfavorable for sheltering (e.g. sheltering in leaky houses for protection against a nonsorbing chemical with a linear dose-response), the community must implement SIP without delay and exit from shelter when it first becomes safe to do so. Otherwise, the community can be subjected to even greater risk than if they did not take shelter indoors.

Chan, W.R.; Nazaroff, W.W.; Price, P.N.; Gadgil, A.J.

2006-12-01

86

Effectiveness of urban shelter-in-place—I: Idealized conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For a large-scale, unanticipated release of a toxic chemical into the atmosphere, it is recommended for nearby populations to shelter indoors. Two new metrics to quantify the community-scale effectiveness of shelter-in-place (SIP) are introduced. The casualty reduction factor (CRF) quantifies the expected reduction in casualties if SIP is performed. The safety-factor multiplier (SFM) quantifies the extent of toxic-load reduction for individuals in each exposed building. In this paper, idealized models are combined to explore the relationships among important input parameters and the SIP-effectiveness metrics. A Gaussian plume model predicts ambient concentrations for a hypothetical release event. A box model predicts indoor concentrations in buildings. A toxic-load model links exposure to health consequences. SIP effectiveness varies significantly with the toxic-load exponent, m, which characterizes the dose-response relationship. Another influential variable is a dimensionless time scale, ?, equal to the release duration multiplied by the building air-exchange rate. Other factors that influence SIP effectiveness include the magnitude of the release relative to the toxicity of the pollutant, atmospheric transport and dispersion rates, and punctual termination of SIP once the toxic cloud has passed. SIP can be effective for short-duration releases ( ?<1), especially for chemicals with m of 2-3 or higher. If m=1, punctual termination at the end of the event can be important to ensure SIP effectiveness.

Chan, Wanyu R.; Nazaroff, William W.; Price, Phillip N.; Gadgil, Ashok J.

87

Assessing the thermal performance of an emergency shelter system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aims of these tests are to improve conditions inside temporary shelters and to develop tools to assess shelter quality and comfort. Two different prototype shelters were tested in cold conditions with an internal vapour load. Temperature and humidity measurements were taken inside the shelter while the external temperature was maintained at ?20°C. Visual assessments were also carried out during

C. Crawford; P. Manfield; A McRobie

2005-01-01

88

Battered women's shelters and older women: The Florida experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes a study of 25 battered women's shelters located throughout Florida. The research question asked whether older abused women were being served by the state's domestic violence shelters. Although older women were found to be well-represented among shelters' paid and volunteer staff and Boards of Directors, they were poorly represented among the population served by these shelters. Results

Linda Vinton

1992-01-01

89

Tsunami damages assessment: vulnerability functions on buildings based on field and earth observation survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The assessment of damages caused by tsunami scenarios on coastal buildings requires using vulnerability matrixes or functions to carry out a relation between the magnitude of the phenomena and the damage expected. These functions represent the probability for a building belonging to a class of vulnerability to suffer from a mean damage level. The physical vulnerability of buildings depends on

A. L. Gauraz; N. Valencia; M. Koscielny; R. Guillande; A. Gardi; F. Leone; T. Salaun

2009-01-01

90

Prospect and refuge : shelter in Roxbury  

E-print Network

This thesis attempts to use the concept of juxtaposed prospect and refuge to design shelter on a large urban site (92,000 square feet). The broad range of scales stretches the applicability of prospect and refuge as a ...

Lee, Jane Elizabeth

1993-01-01

91

25 CFR 11.1104 - Shelter care.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...provide foster care, group care or protective residence...tribe; or (3) A shelter care facility operated by a licensed child welfare services agency and approved...be a minor-in-need-of care may not be detained...

2012-04-01

92

25 CFR 11.1104 - Shelter care.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...provide foster care, group care or protective residence...tribe; or (3) A shelter care facility operated by a licensed child welfare services agency and approved...be a minor-in-need-of care may not be detained...

2010-04-01

93

25 CFR 11.1104 - Shelter care.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...provide foster care, group care or protective residence...tribe; or (3) A shelter care facility operated by a licensed child welfare services agency and approved...be a minor-in-need-of care may not be detained...

2013-04-01

94

25 CFR 11.1104 - Shelter care.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...provide foster care, group care or protective residence...tribe; or (3) A shelter care facility operated by a licensed child welfare services agency and approved...be a minor-in-need-of care may not be detained...

2011-04-01

95

Building Cyberinfrastructures for Earth and Space Sciences so that they will come: lessons learnt from Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the greatest drivers for change in the way scientific research is undertaken in Australia was the development of the Australian eResearch Infrastructure which was coordinated by the then Australian Government Department of Innovation, Industry, Science and Research. There were two main tranches of funding: the 2007-2013 National Collaborative Research Infrastructure Strategy (NCRIS) and the 2009 Education and Investment Framework (EIF) Super Science Initiative. Investments were in two areas: the Australian e-Research Infrastructure and domain specific capabilities: combined investment in both is 1,452M with at least 456M being invested in eResearch infrastructure. NCRIS was specifically designed as a community-guided process to provide researchers, both academic and government, with major research facilities, supporting infrastructures and networks necessary for world-class research. Extensive community engagement was sought to inform decisions on where Australia could best make strategic infrastructure investments to further develop its research capacity and improve research outcomes over the next 5 to 10years. The current (2007-2014) Australian e-Research Infrastructure has 2 components: 1. The National eResearch physical infrastructure which includes two petascale HPC facilities (one in Canberra and one in Perth), a 10 Gbps national network (National Research Network), a national data storage infrastructure comprising 8 multi petabyte data stores and shared access methods (Australian Access Federation). 2. A second component is focused on research integration infrastructures and includes the Australian National Data Service, which is concerned with better management, description and access to distributed research data in Australia and the National eResearch Collaboration Tools and Resources (NeCTAR) project. NeCTAR is centred on developing problem oriented digital laboratories which provide better and coordinated access to research tools, data environments and workflows. The eResearch Infrastructure Stack is designed to support 12 individual domain-specific capabilities. Four are relevant to the Earth and Space Sciences: (1) AuScope (a national Earth Science Infrastructure Program), (2) the Integrated Marine Observing System (IMOS), (3) the Terrestrial Ecosystems Research Network (TERN) and (4) the Australian Urban Research Infrastructure Network (AURIN). The two main research integration infrastructures, ANDS and NeCTAR, are seen as pivotal to the success of the Australian eResearch Infrastructure. Without them, there was a risk that that the investments in new computers and data storage would provide physical infrastructure, but few would come to use it as the skills barriers to entry were too high. ANDS focused on transforming Australia's research data environment. Its flagship is Research Data Australia, an Internet-based discovery service designed to provide rich connections between data, projects, researchers and institutions, and promote visibility of Australian research data collections in search engines. NeCTAR focused on building eResearch infrastructure in four areas: virtual laboratories, tools, a federated research cloud and a hosting service. Combined, ANDS and NeCTAR are ensuring that people ARE coming and ARE using the physical infrastructures that were built.

Wyborn, L. A.; Woodcock, R.

2013-12-01

96

Building Formal and Informal Partnerships Through a Land-Based, Hands-on Research Expedition for Earth and Ocean Science Teachers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scientific Ocean drilling has a rich legacy which is largely responsible for our current understating of the complex linkages among the different parts of the Earth System. Relaying these understandings to Earth and ocean educators is a challenge that the Joint Oceanographic Institutes (JOI) Alliances has undertaken through sponsorship of the School of Rock (SOR). Building on the successful ocean-going,

S. Slough; T. Prouhet; L. Peart; M. Leckie; K. St. John; S. Karz-Cooper; A. Klaus; K. Petronotis; J. Firth; G. Guerin; C. Buckholtz; L. Crowder; C. Peng

2007-01-01

97

An Investigation of Best Practices for Evacuating and Sheltering Individuals with Special Needs and Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

At the request of the U.S. Department of Education's Office of Safe and Drug-Free Schools, the National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities (NCEF) has conducted "a literature search and review to identify best practices in [school] building design for accommodating the evacuation and sheltering needs of individuals with special needs or…

National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, 2008

2008-01-01

98

Collaboration and Community Building in Summer Undergraduate Research Programs in the School of Earth Sciences at Stanford University  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2012, the School of Earth Sciences (SES) at Stanford University sponsored two summer undergraduate research programs. Here we describe these programs and efforts to build a cohesive research cohort among the programs' diverse participants. The two programs, the Stanford School of Earth Sciences Undergraduate Research (SESUR) Program and Stanford School of Earth Sciences Summer Undergraduate Research in Geoscience and Engineering (SURGE) Program, serve different undergraduate populations and have somewhat different objectives, but both provide students with opportunities to work on strongly mentored yet individualized research projects. In addition to research, enrichment activities co-sponsored by both programs support the development of community within the combined SES summer undergraduate research cohort. Over the course of 6 to 9 months, the SESUR Program engages Stanford undergraduates, primarily rising sophomores and juniors, with opportunities to deeply explore Earth sciences research while learning about diverse areas of inquiry within SES. Now in its eleventh year, the SESUR experience incorporates the breadth of the scientific endeavor: finding an advisor, proposal writing, obtaining funding, conducting research, and presenting results. Goals of the SESUR program include (1) providing a challenging and rewarding research experience for undergraduates who wish to explore the Earth sciences; (2) fostering interdisciplinary study in the Earth sciences among the undergraduate population; and (3) encouraging students to major or minor in the Earth sciences and/or to complete advanced undergraduate research in one of the departments or programs within SES. The SURGE Program, now in its second year, draws high performing students, primarily rising juniors and seniors, from 14 colleges and universities nationwide, including Stanford. Seventy percent of SURGE students are from racial/ethnic backgrounds underrepresented in STEM fields, and approximately one-third are the first in their families to attend college. For eight weeks, SURGE scholars conduct independent research with the guidance of faculty, research group mentors, and program assistants. The primary objectives of the SURGE program are to (1) provide undergraduates with a research experience in SES; (2) prepare undergraduates for the process of applying to graduate school; (3) introduce undergraduates to career opportunities in the geosciences and engineering; and (4) increase diversity in SES graduate programs. Independent research, network building, and intense mentoring culminate in a final oral and poster symposium. SESUR and SURGE scholars jointly participate in enrichment activities including faculty research seminars; career, graduate school, and software training workshops; GRE preparation classes; and geoscience-oriented field trips. Interaction among our students takes place through both research and enrichment activities, creating a critical mass of undergraduate scholars and promoting community development. Pre- and post-program surveys indicate that the overall goals of both programs are being achieved.

Nevle, R. J.; Watson Nelson, T.; Harris, J. M.; Klemperer, S. L.

2012-12-01

99

Shelter-in-Place Procedures What it means to "Shelter-in-Place"  

E-print Network

's emergency communications tools. How to "Shelter­in-Place" No matter where you are, the basic steps instructed otherwise by local emergency personnel: 1. If you are inside, stay where you are. Collect any emergency shelter­in-place supplies and a telephone to be used in case of emergency. If you are outdoors

Escher, Christine

100

External Resource: Earth-Moon-Sun Dynamics: Building the EMS Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this unit of study, students participate in iterative model building as they encounter patterns in various celestial phenomena and attempt to provide a causal explanation for them. Each of the six materials within Building the EMS Model focuses on a di

1900-01-01

101

Solar energy utilization in a greenhouse/animal shelter combination  

SciTech Connect

Two greenhouses are being used at Kansas State Univesity to evaluate use of exhaust air from an animal shelter and its effect on greenhouse production. The control greenhouse is attached to the headquarters building and operated conventionally. The experimental house is attached to a swine finishing building and has air handling equipment to introduce hoghouse air to the greenhouse at 680 m/sup 3//h (400 cfm) or 1200 m/sup 3//h (700 cfm) and has a rock storage system with about 1 m/sup 3/ of rock for each 2 m/sup 2/ of greenhouse floor space. Cucumber, tomato, and broccoli plants in the experimental greenhouse have darker green foliage than plants in the control house regardless of nitrogen levels. The fall cucumber study indicated a 31 percent increase in number of marketable fruits from the experimental house. Marketable fruits from the experimental house weighed 40 percent more than those from the control house.

Spillman, C.K.; Greig, J.K.; Johnson, G.A.; Hartford, J.R.; Koch, B.A.; Hines, R.H.

1981-01-01

102

Automatic building detection based on Purposive FastICA (PFICA) algorithm using monocular high resolution Google Earth images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper proposes an improved FastICA model named as Purposive FastICA (PFICA) with initializing by a simple color space transformation and a novel masking approach to automatically detect buildings from high resolution Google Earth imagery. ICA and FastICA algorithms are defined as Blind Source Separation (BSS) techniques for unmixing source signals using the reference data sets. In order to overcome the limitations of the ICA and FastICA algorithms and make them purposeful, we developed a novel method involving three main steps: 1-Improving the FastICA algorithm using Moore-Penrose pseudo inverse matrix model, 2-Automated seeding of the PFICA algorithm based on LUV color space and proposed simple rules to split image into three regions; shadow + vegetation, baresoil + roads and buildings, respectively, 3-Masking out the final building detection results from PFICA outputs utilizing the K-means clustering algorithm with two number of clusters and conducting simple morphological operations to remove noises. Evaluation of the results illustrates that buildings detected from dense and suburban districts with divers characteristics and color combinations using our proposed method have 88.6% and 85.5% overall pixel-based and object-based precision performances, respectively.

Ghaffarian, Saman; Ghaffarian, Salar

2014-11-01

103

Solar Eclipse Effect on Shelter Air Temperature  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Decreases in shelter temperature during eclipse events were quantified on the basis of observations, numerical model simulations, and complementary conceptual evaluations. Observations for the annular eclipse on 10 May 1994 over the United States are presented, and these provide insights into the temporal and spatial changes in the shelter temperature. The observations indicated near-surface temperature drops of as much as 6 C. Numerical model simulations for this eclipse event, which provide a complementary evaluation of the spatial and temporal patterns of the temperature drops, predict similar decreases. Interrelationships between the temperature drop, degree of solar irradiance reduction, and timing of the peak eclipse are also evaluated for late spring, summer, and winter sun conditions. These simulations suggest that for total eclipses the drops in shelter temperature in midlatitudes can be as high as 7 C for a spring morning eclipse.

Segal, M.; Turner, R. W.; Prusa, J.; Bitzer, R. J.; Finley, S. V.

1996-01-01

104

School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology Building on 20 years of excellence and innovation  

E-print Network

is an international leader in such diverse fields as Alternative Energy, Tropical Meteorology, Coral Reef Ecosystems unprecedented in the last 800,000 years of Earth's history, is causing global warming and rising sea level of corals and marine plankton to grow their hard parts. And our awareness of the global changes that we

Wang, Yuqing

105

Putting Art in Its Place: Earth-Centered Celebration Builds Community in Concord.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In Concord (Massachusetts), the Emerson Umbrella Center for the Arts holds seasonal workshops that invite people outdoors to explore woods, fields, and rivers and then process their discoveries through art. Each spring, a colorful community Earth Day celebration demonstrates the link between community art and community activism. The center also…

Daniel, Lucille

1999-01-01

106

Building Community Consensus for Earth Science Literacy Using an Online Workshop (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Earth Science Literacy Principles, published in the spring of 2009, represented a community consensus about what all Americans should understand about Earth sciences. Central to its creation was a 2-week online workshop that involved participation by 350 Earth scientists and educators. The online workshop, hosted by The College of Exploration, was an excellent medium for incorporating the ideas and concerns of 350 people in near-real time. NSF tasked the Earth Science Literacy Initiative (ESLI) (www.earthscienceliteracy.org) with constructing a set of “Big Ideas” and “Supporting Concepts” that distilled the essential understandings of the GEO-EAR division of NSF. Because of the wide diversity of sub-fields involved (ranging from paleobiology to tectonics), finding a mechanism for incorporating many different views while retaining an organized structure was a challenge. The online workshop turned out to be ideal for this task. Though the 2-week asynchronous workshop was designed to replicate a 2-day in-person workshop, at the drawn-out pace of one hour of requested participation per day, in reality it was much more productive. Many aspects of an in-person workshop were replicated in the the online space. Plenary talks were presented in the main conference room via videos recorded just before or during the 2-week period. The workshop was structured with 150 invited participants and 200 observers. The participants had access to all of the rooms while the observers could see all rooms but could only chat in their own area, the Observation Café. Each breakout room had a moderator who attempted to guide discussion, including suggesting off-topic conversations be moved to the Earth Café. An organizing committee of about a dozen people teleconferenced daily, determining the goals or tasks for the participants for that day. This allowed for a high level of flexibility, with the workshop structure flowing in response to the results up to that point. The first week was dedicated to the selection of a finite set of Earth Science Big Ideas, and the second week focused on the supporting concepts that would align with them. Participants went to a variety of different breakout rooms to either dialogue or upload assignments. It was tremendously beneficial to have the text of the entire workshop fully recorded and instantly available, both during and after the workshop, and this text became the foundation for the published ELSI Principles. It would have been impossible to incorporate and organize the thoughts and ideas of 350 people in an efficient, organized, and affordable manner without the use of the online workshop.

Wysession, M. E.; Tuddenham, P.; Taber, J.; Ladue, N.

2009-12-01

107

View of EPA Farm cattle shelter (featuring horse trailer), facing ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View of EPA Farm cattle shelter (featuring horse trailer), facing northwest - Nevada Test Site, Environmental Protection Agency Farm, Shelter Unit Type, Area 15, Yucca Flat, 10-2 Road near Circle Road, Mercury, Nye County, NV

108

Closeup view of EPA Farm cattle shelter lamp, facing west ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Close-up view of EPA Farm cattle shelter lamp, facing west - Nevada Test Site, Environmental Protection Agency Farm, Shelter Unit Type, Area 15, Yucca Flat, 10-2 Road near Circle Road, Mercury, Nye County, NV

109

Infectious disease exposures and contact tracing in homeless shelters.  

PubMed

An outbreak among homeless shelter users of a communicable disease with a short generation time would pose serious public health challenges. Data from Toronto were used to examine the number of shelter residents potentially exposed in the event of such an outbreak. A shelter user had contact with a mean of 97 other residents (range, 1-292) in one day and a mean of 120 (range, 2-624) in eight days. After a single week, contact tracing becomes difficult due to the challenge of locating homeless people who have left the shelter system. Over an 8-day period, individuals who used more than one shelter had contact with an average of 98 more other shelter residents than those who stayed in a single shelter had. At the onset of a serious outbreak, it may be desirable to institute policies that strongly encourage individuals to remain at their current shelter for the duration of the outbreak. PMID:19029743

Hwang, Stephen W; Kiss, Alex; Ho, Minnie M; Leung, Cheryl S; Gundlapalli, Adi V

2008-11-01

110

24 CFR 576.403 - Shelter and housing standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...government safety and sanitation standards, as applicable...following minimum safety, sanitation, and privacy standards...following minimum safety, sanitation, and privacy standards...residents. (5) Water supply. The shelter's...the shelter. (9) Food preparation....

2012-04-01

111

24 CFR 576.403 - Shelter and housing standards.  

...government safety and sanitation standards, as applicable...following minimum safety, sanitation, and privacy standards...following minimum safety, sanitation, and privacy standards...residents. (5) Water supply. The shelter's...the shelter. (9) Food preparation....

2014-04-01

112

24 CFR 576.403 - Shelter and housing standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...government safety and sanitation standards, as applicable...following minimum safety, sanitation, and privacy standards...following minimum safety, sanitation, and privacy standards...residents. (5) Water supply. The shelter's...the shelter. (9) Food preparation....

2013-04-01

113

INTERIOR VIEW OF THE SHELTER HOUSE LOCATED ON THE EAST ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR VIEW OF THE SHELTER HOUSE LOCATED ON THE EAST END OF BIG DALTON DAM SHOWING THE NORTHEAST AND NORTHWEST WALLS - Big Dalton Dam, Shelter House, 2600 Big Dalton Canyon Road, Glendora, Los Angeles County, CA

114

Homeless Housing: HUD's Shelter Programs. Updated.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper briefly discusses new housing programs for the homeless sponsored by the Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD), the funding provided by the 100th Congress, and two additional HUD programs to aid the homeless. The following four programs are discussed: (1) the Emergency Shelter Program; (2) the Transitional Housing Program,…

Vanhorenbeck, Susan M.

115

Disability and public shelter in emergencies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews current practice regarding people with disabilities in public (or communal) emergency shelter management. It shows that provision for disabled people generally fails to meet their needs and describes the main problem areas. These problems are set in the context of management and staff failings as well as underlying weaknesses in disaster management structures as a whole. The

John Twigg; Maria Kett; Helen Bottomley; Lin Tze Tan; Hussam Nasreddin

2011-01-01

116

Shelter Service Utilization of Domestic Violence Victims  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines service utilization among 283 adult victims of domestic violence identified by crisis responders as being in need of crisis services. The purpose of this study is to explore the differences between the domestic violence victims who choose to utilize shelter services and those who do not. Findings suggest that domestic violence victims who were more likely to

Brady J. Miller Clevenger; Dominique Roe-Sepowitz

2009-01-01

117

SPECIES DIFFER IN RESPONSES TO TREE SHELTERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of tree shelters on height, caliper, and di- ameter at breast height of 11 landscape tree species and cul- tivars were investigated in 2 nurseries during a 4-year period; the ratio of height to caliper was calculated as an indicator of trunk sturdiness. Species differed greatly in their responses, ranging in the fourth year from none to 44% and

Henry D. Gerhold

118

Interpretative Theory and Tax Shelter Regulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Article responds to an important recent essay in the Columbia Law Review by Marvin Chirelstein and Larry Zelenak. Chirelstein and Zelenak propose a dramatic change in tactics in the way that the government attempts to combat tax shelters - that is, efforts by corporations and high-earning individuals to avoid tax by clever manipulations of the technical terms of the

Brian D Galle

2006-01-01

119

25 CFR 11.1104 - Shelter care.  

...to provide foster care, group care or protective residence; ...tribe; or (3) A shelter care facility operated by a licensed child welfare services agency and approved...to be a minor-in-need-of care may not be detained in a...

2014-04-01

120

Infectious Disease Exposures and Contact Tracing in Homeless Shelters  

Microsoft Academic Search

An outbreak among homeless shelter users of a communicable disease with a short generation time would pose serious public health challenges. Data from Toronto were used to examine the number of shelter residents potentially exposed in the event of such an outbreak. A shelter user had contact with a mean of 97 other residents (range, 1–292) in one day and

MPH Alex Kiss M Stephen W. Hwang; Adi V. Gundlapalli

2008-01-01

121

Patterns of sheltering and housing in US disasters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The terms “sheltering” and “housing” are used in a variety of unclear and inconsistent ways in the disaster literature. Proposes a differentiation among emergency sheltering, temporary sheltering, temporary housing and permanent housing. Indicates how they are paid differential attention in American disaster planning and gives specific observations about the four patterns, noting especially how they differ from one another. Suggests

E. L. Quarantelli

1995-01-01

122

Big Data challenges and solutions in building the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Group on Earth Observation (GEO) is a voluntary partnership of governments and international organizations launched in response to calls for action by the 2002 World Summit on Sustainable Development and by the G8 (Group of Eight) leading industrialized countries. These high-level meetings recognized that international collaboration is essential for exploiting the growing potential of Earth observations to support decision making in an increasingly complex and environmentally stressed world. To this aim is constructing the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) on the basis of a 10-Year Implementation Plan for the period 2005 to 2015 when it will become operational. As a large-scale integrated system handling large datasets as those provided by Earth Observation, GEOSS needs to face several challenges related to big data handling and big data infrastructures management. Referring to the traditional multiple Vs characteristics of Big Data (volume, variety, velocity, veracity and visualization) it is evident how most of them can be found in data handled by GEOSS. In particular, concerning Volume, Earth Observation already generates a large amount of data which can be estimated in the range of Petabytes (1015 bytes), with Exabytes (1018) already targeted. Moreover, the challenge is related not only to the data size, but also to the large amount of datasets (not necessarily having a big size) that systems need to manage. Variety is the other main challenge since datasets coming from different sensors, processed for different use-cases are published with highly heterogeneous metadata and data models, through different service interfaces. Innovative multidisciplinary applications need to access and use those datasets in a harmonized way. Moreover Earth Observation data are growing in size and variety at an exceptionally fast rate and new technologies and applications, including crowdsourcing, will even increase data volume and variety in the next future. The current implementation of GEOSS already addresses several big data challenges. In particular, the brokered architecture adopted in the GEOSS Common Infrastructure with the deployment of the GEO DAB (Discovery and Access Broker) allows to connect more than 20 big EO infrastructures while keeping them autonomous as required by their own mandate and governance. They make more than 60 million of unique resources discoverable and accessible through the GEO Portal. Through the GEO DAB, users are able to seamlessly discover resources provided by different infrastructures, and access them in a harmonized way, collecting datasets from different sources on a Common Environment (same coordinate reference system, spatial subset, format, etc.). Through the GEONETCast system, GEOSS is also providing a solution related to the Velocity challenge, for delivering EO resources to developing countries with low bandwidth connections. Several researches addressing other Big data Vs challenges in GEOSS are on-going, including quality representation for Veracity (as in the FP7 GeoViQua project), brokering big data analytics platforms for Velocity, and support of other EO resources for Variety (such as modelling resources in the Model Web).

Mazzetti, Paolo; Nativi, Stefano; Santoro, Mattia; Boldrini, Enrico

2014-05-01

123

Building Capacity to Integrate NASA Earth Science into Water Resources Management Applications in the Context of a Changing Climate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NASA Applied Sciences program provides technical capacity building activities to enable decision-makers to integrate NASA Earth Science into environmental management activities. This includes workshops tailored to end-user needs by working directly with agencies to 1) identify environmental management activities that could benefit from NASA Earth Science and 2) conducting workshops that teach the NASA products and decision-support tools best suited to the identified application area. Building on a successful 3-year effort on air pollution monitoring for environmental applications, the project has expanded into water resources. Climate Change has dramatically increased demand for observational and predictive data in support of decision making activities related to water supply and demand. However, a gap remains between NASA products and applied research and the entities who stand to benefit from their utilization. To fill this gap, the project has developed short courses on 1) impacts of climate change on water resources 2) hands-on exercises on access and interpretation of NASA imagery relevant to water resources management via the use of decision-support web tools and software and 3) case studies on the application of NASA products in the field. The program is currently focused on two areas 1) precipitation products over the central and southern U.S. that help communities and agencies improve flooding forecasts and 2) snow and snow/water equivalent products over the western U.S and Latin America that can provide end-users with improved stream flow prediction in Spring within a framework of decreasing snow availability.

Prados, A. I.; Mehta, A. V.

2011-12-01

124

How Effective Homelessness Prevention Impacts the Length of Shelter Spells  

PubMed Central

Homelessness prevention programs intervene with households apparently in imminent danger of becoming homeless, and try to keep them housed. If they are at least partially successful, how do they change the average shelter spell of households actually becoming homeless? We use data from 2003 to 2008 for Homebase, a New York City homelessness prevention program that studies have found to be effective in reducing shelter entries. Homebase made no difference in average shelter spells at the community level. This result, like many results about shelter spell length, is not easy to reconcile with the idea that shelter spell length is a reflection of the seriousness of underlying problems. PMID:24610995

Goodman, Sarena; Messeri, Peter; O'Flaherty, Brendan

2014-01-01

125

Synthesis, structure and luminescent properties of rare earth coordination polymers constructed from paddle-wheel building blocks.  

PubMed

A series of three-dimensional (3D) novel coordination polymers M(bpdc)1.5(H2O) x 0.5DMF (M = Tb (1), Ho (2), Er (3), or Y (4)) have been synthesized by reaction of the rare earth ions (M3+) with 4,4'-biphenyldicarboxylic acid (H2bpdc) in a mixed solution of DMF and C2H5OH. They possess the same 3D architectures and crystallize in monoclinic space group C2/c. Two seven-coordinated metal centers and four dimonodentate bpdc groups construct a paddle-wheel building block. These building blocks connect with two carboxyl groups to lead to a one-dimensional inorganic chain, ---M-O-C-O-M---, along the [001] direction. The inorganic chains are linked with two biphenyl groups to form 25.15 A x 17.09 A rhombic channels along the c axis without interpenetration. These complexes exhibit strong fluorescence in the visible region, and complex 3 shows Er3+ characteristic emission in the range of 1450-1650 nm at room temperature. These complexes could be anticipated as potential fluorescent probes and an IR-emitter, respectively. PMID:15907110

Guo, Xiaodan; Zhu, Guangshan; Fang, Qianrong; Xue, Ming; Tian, Ge; Sun, Jinyu; Li, Xiaotian; Qiu, Shilun

2005-05-30

126

81. BUILDING NO. 561, CANNON POWDER BLENDER, LOOKING NORTHWEST, BUILDING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

81. BUILDING NO. 561, CANNON POWDER BLENDER, LOOKING NORTHWEST, BUILDING NO. 561-A, PROPELLANT PLANT (FIREPROOF SHELTER), IN FOREGROUND, BUILDING NO. 561-D IN EXTREME FOREGROUND. - Picatinny Arsenal, 500 Area, Powder Factory & Power House, State Route 15 near I-80, Dover, Morris County, NJ

127

Observations of the Bergen Orographic Shelter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The wind climate of Bergen, Norway, has been studied using 5yrs of automatic weater station (AWS) observations from the city centre and the top of the nearby mountain of Ulriken (600 m). In contrast to the freely situated AWS of Ulriken, the winds in the city centre are found to be clearly affected by the surrounding Bergen mountains, which is seen both as a reduction in wind speed and a channeling effect steering the wind along the valley's local N/NNW - S/SSE direction. The reduction in wind speed is, as expected, most evident for wind directions across the valley. In these wind sectors, differences on the order of 15 m/s between Ulriken and the city centre wind speeds are not uncommon, thus yielding a significantly sheltered Bergen valley. The atmospheric stability, obtained using temperature and pressure from the two AWSs, is generally positively correlated with the strength of the described shelter.

Opsanger Jonassen, Marius; Ólafsson, Haraldur; Asle Olseth, Jan; Reuder, Joachim

2010-05-01

128

Lunar Lava Tubes as Prepared Emergency Shelters.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

If Lunar lava tubes were mapped from orbit and robotically explored their could be supplies for potentially used emergency depots. This occurs in the Antarctic. Lava tubes are hollowed out tubes where ancient lava flowed through and left a tunnel. A major problem of their use is the entering and egress. These might have to be excavated robotically. Lava tubes have been proposed to be used as shelters on the Moon before but supplies could be cached in areas potentially traversed in case of an emergency during a surface traverse. These supplies would be protected from some radiation would be fully protected from micrometeorites and theoretically could be left indefinitely. It has been proposed that they be used as shelters but to the authors knowledge it has not been proposed that they be used as cache and emergency depots.

Mardon, Austin; Nichol, Kenneth; Mardon, Austin

129

Concrete is the most prevalent man-made substance on Earth. This strong, durable building material has been in use for at  

E-print Network

PROBLEM Concrete is the most prevalent man-made substance on Earth. This strong, durable building because it is readily available on all continents and rela- tively inexpensive. But concrete, starting and white spheres are oxygen and hydrogen atoms of water molecules, respectively; the green and gray spheres

Entekhabi, Dara

130

The role of PTSD and length of shelter stay in battered women's severity of re-abuse after leaving shelter  

PubMed Central

Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) is associated with significant morbidity, including high rates of re-abuse even after women have taken steps to achieve safety. This study evaluated the roles of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom severity and length of shelter stay in the severity of re-abuse in 103 IPV victims over a six month period after leaving a battered women’s shelter. Results suggest that the length of shelter stay is inversely related to re-abuse severity after leaving shelter. Additionally, more severe PTSD symptoms upon shelter exit were associated with greater re-abuse severity after leaving shelter. Furthermore, additional study findings support prior research suggesting that the emotional numbing symptoms of PTSD are a significant risk factor for re-abuse among IPV victims after leaving shelter. PMID:23230379

Perez, Sara; Johnson, Dawn M.; Johnson, Nicole; Walter, Kristen H.

2012-01-01

131

Self-Healing, Inflatable, Rigidizable Shelter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An inflatable, rigidizable shelter system was developed based on Rigi dization on Command (ROC) technology incorporating not only the requ ired low-stowage volume and lightweight character achieved from an i nflatable/rigidizable system, but also a self-healing foam system inc orporated between the rigidizable layers of the final structure to m inimize the damage caused by any punctures to the structure.

Haight, Andrea; Gosau, Jan-Michael; Dixit, Anshu; Gleeson, Dan

2012-01-01

132

Building Climate Resilience in the Blue Nile/Abay Highlands: A Role for Earth System Sciences  

PubMed Central

The Blue Nile (Abay) Highlands of Ethiopia are characterized by significant interannual climate variability, complex topography and associated local climate contrasts, erosive rains and erodible soils, and intense land pressure due to an increasing population and an economy that is almost entirely dependent on smallholder, low-input agriculture. As a result, these highland zones are highly vulnerable to negative impacts of climate variability. As patterns of variability and precipitation intensity alter under anthropogenic climate change, there is concern that this vulnerability will increase, threatening economic development and food security in the region. In order to overcome these challenges and to enhance sustainable development in the context of climate change, it is necessary to establish climate resilient development strategies that are informed by best-available Earth System Science (ESS) information. This requirement is complicated by the fact that climate projections for the Abay Highlands contain significant and perhaps irreducible uncertainties. A critical challenge for ESS, then, is to generate and to communicate meaningful information for climate resilient development in the context of a highly uncertain climate forecast. Here we report on a framework for applying ESS to climate resilient development in the Abay Highlands, with a focus on the challenge of reducing land degradation. PMID:22470302

Zaitchik, Benjamin F.; Simane, Belay; Habib, Shahid; Anderson, Martha C.; Ozdogan, Mutlu; Foltz, Jeremy D.

2012-01-01

133

Software Applications to Access Earth Science Data: Building an ECHO Client  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Historically, developing an ECHO (NASA’s Earth Observing System (EOS) ClearingHOuse) client required interaction with its SOAP API. SOAP, as a framework for web service communication has numerous advantages for Enterprise applications and Java/C# type programming languages. However, as interest has grown for quick development cycles and more intriguing “mashups,” ECHO has seen the SOAP API lose its appeal. In order to address these changing needs, ECHO has introduced two new interfaces facilitating simple access to its metadata holdings. The first interface is built upon the OpenSearch format and ESIP Federated Search framework. The second interface is built upon the Representational State Transfer (REST) architecture. Using the REST and OpenSearch APIs to access ECHO makes development with modern languages much more feasible and simpler. Client developers can leverage the simple interaction with ECHO to focus more of their time on the advanced functionality they are presenting to users. To demonstrate the simplicity of developing with the REST API, participants will be led through a hands-on experience where they will develop an ECHO client that performs the following actions: + Login + Provider discovery + Provider based dataset discovery + Dataset, Temporal, and Spatial constraint based Granule discovery + Online Data Access

Cohen, A.; Cechini, M.; Pilone, D.

2010-12-01

134

Governing Homelessness Through Land-use: A Sociolegal Study of the Toronto Shelter Zoning By-law  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we focus on one particular effort undertaken by the city of Toronto, in the late-1990s, to address the problem of homelessness, namely, the attempt to build more homeless shelters and equitably spread them across the city. We argue that any attempts made by municipal governments to address issues of homelessness — and more broadly, matters of social

Prashan Ranasinghe; Mariana Valverde

2006-01-01

135

The Sombrero Marsh Education Program: Diverse partnerships building strong Earth System science programs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Broad-based science education partnerships can create exemplary education programs because each partner brings their particular expertise to the table. The Sombrero Marsh Education Program provides an example of such a program where a school district, a local government agency, a non-profit organization, and an institute of higher learning developed a field-based watershed curriculum for upper elementary students at Sombrero Marsh, a recently restored rare saline marsh located in Boulder Valley. The partners' expertise, ranging from wetland ecology and restoration to pedagogy, yielded a curriculum that includes many of the characteristics that are highlighted within the National Science Education Standards, such as inquiry-based, hands-on activities where students serve as scientists and collect real data that will be used to monitor the progress of marsh restoration. Once established, these diverse partnerships can attract further funding and expand their programs from the local to the national level, thus providing a successful model with a widespread impact. The Sombrero Marsh Program will soon be making this transition because the Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), along with 4 other departments of the University of Colorado, was awarded a NSF GK-12 Grant to expand the marsh program to the secondary science level. Using the initial Sombrero Marsh Program as a guide, eight GK-12 Fellows from the departments of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Geological Sciences, Environmental and Evolutionary Biology, and Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences will develop a secondary science level program at Sombrero Marsh, which initially will be delivered to schools with a significant population of students from under-represented groups. Several dimensions of the marsh program, such as community-based research and ecological sterwardship, can serve as a national model for similar science education programs that aim to promote Earth System science.

Smith, L. K.; Bierbaum, V.

2003-12-01

136

Electron spin resonance dating of human teeth from Toca da Santa shelter of São Raimundo Nonato, Piauí, Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Results of the dating of fossil human teeth excavated from a shelter in the surroundings areas of the Serra da Capivara National Park, São Raimundo Nonato, Piauí, Brazil are presented. This shelter was partially excavated to search for more data that could improve the archaeological context of the Garrincho’s limestone hill sites, where the Toca do Gordo do Garrincho shelter provided two human teeth dated by conventional C-14 in (12,170 ± 40) yBP (years before present) and calibrated age (2 Sigma, 95% probability) 15,245 14,690 yBP (Beta 136204) [E. Peyre, C. Guérin, N. Guidon, I. Coppens, CR Acad. Sci. Paris, Sciences de la terre et des planètes/ Earth & Planetary Sciences 327 (1998) 335, [1

Kinoshita, A.; Figueiredo, A. M. G.; Felice, G. D.; Lage, M. C. S. M.; Guidon, N.; Baffa, O.

2008-02-01

137

Modeling shelter-in-place including sorption on indoor surfaces  

SciTech Connect

Intentional or accidental large-scale airborne toxic releases (e.g. terrorist attacks or industrial accidents) can cause severe harm to nearby communities. As part of an emergency response plan, shelter-in-place (SIP) can be an effective response option, especially when evacuation is infeasible. Reasonably tight building envelopes provide some protection against exposure to peak concentrations when toxic release passes over an area. They also provide some protection in terms of cumulative exposure, if SIP is terminated promptly after the outdoor plume has passed. The purpose of this work is to quantify the level of protection offered by existing houses, and the importance of sorption/desorption to and from surfaces on the effectiveness of SIP. We examined a hypothetical chlorine gas release scenario simulated by the National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC). We used a standard infiltration model to calculate the distribution of time dependent infiltration rates within each census tract. Large variation in the air tightness of dwellings makes some houses more protective than others. Considering only the median air tightness, model results showed that if sheltered indoors, the total population intake of non-sorbing toxic gas is only 50% of the outdoor level 4 hours from the start of the release. Based on a sorption/desorption model by Karlsson and Huber (1996), we calculated that the sorption process would further lower the total intake of the population by an additional 50%. The potential benefit of SIP can be considerably higher if the comparison is made in terms of health effects because of the non-linear acute effect dose-response curve of many chemical warfare agents and toxic industrial substances.

Chan, Wanyu R.; Price, Phillip N.; Gadgil, Ashok J.; Nazaroff, William W.; Loosmore, Gwen A.; Sugiyama, Gayle A.

2003-11-01

138

Plasma Cortisol Levels of Dogs at a County Animal Shelter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hennessy, M. B., H. N. Davis, M. T. Williams, C. Mellott and C. W. Douglas. Plasma cortisol levels of dogs in a county animal shelter. Physiol Behav 62(3) 485–490, 1997.—Plasma cortisol levels were examined to assess the stress of dogs in a county animal shelter. Groups of dogs confined in the shelter for their 1st, 2nd, or 3rd day had

Michael B Hennessy; Harry N Davis; Michael T Williams; Carolyn Mellott; Chet W Douglas

1997-01-01

139

Digital Earth - A sustainable Earth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

All life, particularly human, cannot be sustainable, unless complimented with shelter, poverty reduction, provision of basic infrastructure and services, equal opportunities and social justice. Yet, in the context of cities, it is believed that they can accommodate more and more people, endlessly, regardless to their carrying capacity and increasing ecological footprint. The 'inclusion', for bringing more and more people in the purview of development is often limited to social and economic inclusion rather than spatial and ecological inclusion. Economic investment decisions are also not always supported with spatial planning decisions. Most planning for a sustainable Earth, be at a level of rural settlement, city, region, national or Global, fail on the capacity and capability fronts. In India, for example, out of some 8,000 towns and cities, Master Plans exist for only about 1,800. A chapter on sustainability or environment is neither statutorily compulsory nor a norm for these Master Plans. Geospatial technologies including Remote Sensing, GIS, Indian National Spatial Data Infrastructure (NSDI), Indian National Urban Information Systems (NUIS), Indian Environmental Information System (ENVIS), and Indian National GIS (NGIS), etc. have potential to map, analyse, visualize and take sustainable developmental decisions based on participatory social, economic and social inclusion. Sustainable Earth, at all scales, is a logical and natural outcome of a digitally mapped, conceived and planned Earth. Digital Earth, in fact, itself offers a platform to dovetail the ecological, social and economic considerations in transforming it into a sustainable Earth.

Mahavir

2014-02-01

140

Chornobyl Nuclear Power Plant - An Overview of the Current Efforts to Stabilize the Chornobyl Shelter and Establish an Environmentally Safe Site  

SciTech Connect

Chornobyl Nuclear Power Plant ? An Overview of the Current Efforts to Stabilize the Chornobyl Shelter and Establish an Environmentally Safe Site Abstract?The 1986 accident at the Chornobyl Nuclear Power Plant in Ukraine resulted in the destruction of the reactor core and most of the reactor building. The Chornobyl accident released an enormous quantity of radionuclides into the environment, significantly contaminating a large region around the plant. Within seven months of the accident, the damaged Unit 4 was encased in a massive concrete and steel enclosure known as the Shelter. Deterioration of the Shelter over time poses increasing risks. The Shelter is subject to structural damage or collapse due to wind, snow loading, or seismic activity. Collapse could lead to the release of radioactive fallout. Leakage of rainwater into the Shelter has caused the accumulation of a large quantity of highly radioactive liquid, corrosion of extremely contaminated nuclear fuel debris, and creation of hazardous radioactive dust. To address these concerns, the government of Ukraine, the G7 nations, and additional donor countries adopted the Shelter Implementation Plan (SIP) in 1997. The SIP's objectives are to reduce the risk and potential consequences of accidental collapse of the Shelter; improve nuclear, industrial and environmental safety; and develop a long-term strategy for conversion to an environmentally safe site. Implementation of the SIP has made significant progress that will lead to the construction of a new confinement facility by 2009. (Full paper available by contacting lead author, Dan Couch)

Couch, Daniel P.; Gronier, Serge; Heriot, Ian D.; Hogg, Charles; Novak, Vince; Schmieman, Eric A.

2005-08-08

141

OVERHILLS GOLF COURSE LOOKING NORTHEAST FROM SPECTATOR SHELTER BACK UP ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

OVERHILLS GOLF COURSE LOOKING NORTHEAST FROM SPECTATOR SHELTER BACK UP FAIRWAY #1 - Overhills, Fort Bragg Military Reservation, Approximately 15 miles NW of Fayetteville, Overhills, Harnett County, NC

142

38 CFR 21.144 - Vocational course in a sheltered workshop or rehabilitation facility.  

... 2014-07-01 false Vocational course in a sheltered workshop or rehabilitation...Rehabilitation Services § 21.144 Vocational course in a sheltered workshop or rehabilitation...facility. (a) General. A vocational course in a sheltered workshop or...

2014-07-01

143

Admissions of Cats to Animal Welfare Shelters in Melbourne, Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the number of companion animal (pet) cats (Felis catus) in Australia is decreasing, there has not been a corresponding reduction in feline admissions to nonhuman animal welfare shelters. This study tracked 15,206 cat admissions to 1 large Melbourne shelter over a 12-month period. Data collected included factors believed indicative of the cats' source subpopulation, including body condition, injuries, and

Linda C. Marston; Pauleen C. Bennett

2009-01-01

144

Assessing the Social Environments of Sheltered Care Settings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Sheltered Care Environment Scale (SCES) measures the social environment of sheltered care settings, as perceived by residents and staff. This instrument was developed and tested in a sample of 40 facilities representing the breadth and variety of currently existing congregate housing for the elderly. (Author)

Moos, Rudolph H.; And Others

1979-01-01

145

Domestic Violence Shelters as Prevention Agents for HIV/AIDS?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article reports findings from a pilot study of 21 domestic violence shelters in a southwestern state in the United States. The survey instrument included descriptive information on shelter service delivery. Specifically, questions were asked about the practice of assessing a client's risk of HIV/AIDS, the provision of HIV/AIDS educational and…

Rountree, Michele A.; Pomeroy, Elizabeth C.; Marsiglia, Flavio F.

2008-01-01

146

Psychiatric disorders of abused women at a shelter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty physically abused women were randomly selected from the population of a local women's shelter and evaluated by psychiatric interview and psychiatric rating scales. High prevalences of major depression disorder (37%) and PTSD (47%) were determined. Furthermore, these disorders were found to be positively associated. These results suggest the need for immediate availability of psychiatric services at such shelters along

Chole Garibay West; Adelaida Fernandez; James Randolph Hillard; Mary Schoof; Joseph Parks

1990-01-01

147

The Duration of Sheltered Homelessness in a Small City  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyze the factors that influence the length of a completed spell of sheltered homelessness, using administrative data on individuals who stayed in a large regional homeless shelter. We develop a model of homelessness which provides the basis for inferences made from our estimated model. Our estimates provide some support for the predictions of the model and reveal a variety

Sam Allgood; Myra L. Moore; Ronald Warren Jr.

1997-01-01

148

Exploring the individual and organizational effects of formerly homeless employee inclusion within North Carolina shelters.  

E-print Network

??This exploratory study examined the individual and organizational effects of formerly homeless employee inclusion on members of the homeless shelter community, including shelter directors, formerly… (more)

Barnes, Suzanne Mallard

2012-01-01

149

Student Lead Nanosatellite Design/Build Projects: making a cost effective approach to Earth and Space Observational Science even more cost efficient  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the advancement of technologies and the miniaturization of sensors and electrical/computational components satellites are also undergoing miniaturization. With lower manufacturing cost and a decreased design/build cycle (~2 years from start to launch), compared to conventional large scale satellites, nanosatellites have become a cost effective alternative for satellite Earth and Space Observations. The University of Alberta student nanosatellite (10x10x30cm; <4kg) design/build team, AlbertaSat-1, is a participant in the Canadian Satellite Design Challenge (CSDC) implemented by the CSA and Geocentrix Ltd. in addition to 15 other Universities from across Canada. AlbertaSat-1 will be launched in early 2013, after a 2 year design/build process and environmental testing. AlbertaSat-1 will be an Earth Observation satellite monitoring GHG (CO2, H2O & CH4) concentrations over many regions of the earth with the use of a NIR spectrometer. Here we present the planning, design and future manufacturing of AlbertaSat-1 with a focus on budget and cost effective solutions. Since this is a student project, AlbertaSat-1 will incur certain benefits making them exempt from certain financial requirements and obtaining services and equipment at very low or no cost. The largest cost benefit of AlbertaSat-1 is the virtual elimination of labor costs by having a team consisting of only unpaid students. Labor costs of typical satellite missions can be a very costly component. The educational components of such projects offer more indirect benefits to effective development of this industry/discipline, nevertheless just as important, by developing skills and knowledge that can only be learned through realistic hands on design/build projects. Student lead projects and student design/build initiatives such as CSDC (among many others in the U.S. and Europe lead by NASA and ESA, respectively) will have a major impact on shaping the future of Space and Earth Observational Sciences. We will present the future implications of such student projects and initiatives for the development of research and engineering in Space and Earth Observational Sciences.

Bottoms, J.; Lange, B. A.; AlbertaSat

2011-12-01

150

Applying Motivational Interviewing in a Domestic Violence Shelter: A Pilot Study Evaluating the Training of Shelter Staff  

Microsoft Academic Search

This pilot study examined the use of motivational interviewing (MI) with 20 women receiving services at a domestic violence shelter. The experimental group (n = 10) received regular treatment services (RTS) from shelter counselors who were trained in MI; the control group (n = 10) received RTS only. Fisher's exact test showed that participants who received MI-enhanced RTS were significantly

Lucinda A. Rasmussen; Margaret J. Hughes; Colleen A. Murray

2008-01-01

151

Simulations of the Bergen Orographic Shelter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric flow in the complex terrain of Bergen in western Norway is simulated at different resolutions and modifications of different parts of the terrain. A comparison between model results and point observations of wind in the centre of Bergen and on the nearby mountain top of Ulriken (600m), shows a general improvement in the model results with increased horizontal resolution. A similar improvement is achieved when a higher resolution topography dataset is used together with more realistic landuse data. The simulations illuminates the role of the Bergen mountains in creating a wind shelter around the city as removal of the two dominating massives results in a significant wind speed increase in the city centre.

Opsanger Jonassen, Marius; Ólafsson, Haraldur; Reuder, Joachim

2010-05-01

152

Voices of resistance: seeking shelter services in Pakistan.  

PubMed

Gender violence is a global human rights issue that presents serious risk to women in Pakistan. Multiple factors make leaving violence extremely challenging. This study examines the experiences of women who escaped violence and sought shelter services in Pakistan through an ecological lens within the social, cultural, and legal realities of Pakistan. Nineteen women residing at a private shelter were interviewed. Explored were the processes leading women to take action against violence, barriers encountered, and the consequences of the decision to go to a shelter, with a focus on the women's strengths and resilience. PMID:22807502

Critelli, Filomena M

2012-04-01

153

Science Sampler: Using sheltered instruction to teach English Language Learners  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sheltered instruction is not a commercial program but is a set of instructional practices used specifically with English Language Learners (ELL). It embeds existing instructional strategies such as wait time, visual organizers, group work, and allowing students to actively respond for immediate feedback. Sheltered instruction "integrates lesson knowledge and concepts with opportunities to practice using English by reading, writing, listening and speaking" (Colburn and Echevaria 2001). This article describes the four elements of sheltered instruction (Group work, Wait time, Group-response technique, Supplemental materials).

Verma, Geeta; Pepper, Jerald B.; Martin-Hansen, Lisa

2008-11-01

154

DESIGN MODIFICATIONS AND 1962 COST ANALYSIS FOR A STANDARDIZED SERIES OF FALLOUT SHELTERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Major emphasis is on recent design modifications and 1962 cost estimates ; for the personnel fallout shelters described in USNRDL-TR-366, Specifications and ; Costs of a Standardized Series of Fallout Shelters (1959). The shelter is ; designed to accommodate at least 100 persons for 14 days. It is believed that ; the shelter will provide the specified fallout and blast

Porteous

1962-01-01

155

Shelter-in-Place in a Radiation Emergency  

MedlinePLUS

... your shelter area. Learn more Preparing Emergency Supplies Stock up on supplies, just as you would in ... Word file Microsoft Excel file Audio/Video file Apple Quicktime file RealPlayer file Text file Zip Archive ...

156

14. INSIDE VIEW OF BOMB SHELTER WITH AIR COMPRESSOR Everett ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

14. INSIDE VIEW OF BOMB SHELTER WITH AIR COMPRESSOR Everett Weinreb, photographer, April 1988 - Mount Gleason Nike Missile Site, Angeles National Forest, South of Soledad Canyon, Sylmar, Los Angeles County, CA

157

26 CFR 53.4965-3 - Prohibited tax shelter transactions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) FOUNDATION AND SIMILAR EXCISE TAXES Second Tier Excise Taxes § 53.4965-3 Prohibited tax shelter transactions. (a) In...

2011-04-01

158

6. Contextual view of EPA Farm showing cattle shelter, facing ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. Contextual view of EPA Farm showing cattle shelter, facing southeast. - Nevada Test Site, Environmental Protection Agency Farm, Area 15, Yucca Flat, 10-2 Road near Circle Road, Mercury, Nye County, NV

159

Shelter Deployment at Former Army Camp Tuto, Greenland.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

On behalf of the National Science Foundation, the Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (CRREL) and the Natick Soldier Research, Development and Engineering Center (NSRDEC) collaborated to test a commercially produced, expedient shelter to asse...

C. D. Aall, J. Lever, J. Mercer, J. Weale

2014-01-01

160

9 CFR 3.77 - Sheltered housing facilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...facilities for nonhuman primates must provide adequate shelter from the elements at all times. They must provide protection from the sun, rain, snow, wind, and cold, and from any weather conditions that may occur. (e) Capacity: multiple...

2010-01-01

161

9 CFR 3.77 - Sheltered housing facilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...facilities for nonhuman primates must provide adequate shelter from the elements at all times. They must provide protection from the sun, rain, snow, wind, and cold, and from any weather conditions that may occur. (e) Capacity: multiple...

2013-01-01

162

50. Stream gaging station in steelpipe well and shelter, looking ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

50. Stream gaging station in steel-pipe well and shelter, looking west. Photo by Robin Lee Tedder, Puget Power, 1989. - Puget Sound Power & Light Company, White River Hydroelectric Project, 600 North River Avenue, Dieringer, Pierce County, WA

163

Natural History and Leaf Shelter Construction of the Asian Rice Leptispa Beetle Leptispa pygmaea Baly (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Cassidinae: Leptispini)  

E-print Network

habitats for other animals thereby enhancing species diversity on a given host (Vogt 1992, Martinsen et al. 2000). Within the Chrysomelidae, leaf shelter building occurs in 2 clades of the Cassidinae (tortoise beetles): the Neotropical tribe... is grown in flooded fields, all stages may experience flooding from time to time. Larvae and pupae do not retain exuvio- fecal shields as do many tortoise beetles (Chaboo 2007). Both adults and larvae are leaf scrapers, leaving long feeding scars...

Prathapan, Kaniyarikkal Divakaran; Chaboo, Caroline S.; Karthikeyan, Kolandaivelu

2009-01-15

164

Multi-culture solar heated bio-shelter. Final report  

SciTech Connect

A rooftop greenhouse (bio-shelter) that is heated with active and passive solar systems is presented. The intent of the greenhouse is to grow vegetables hydroponically the year-round using a nutrient flow technique; and to growth the giant tropical Malaysian prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii in a recycling raceway water system heated with solar power. The produce grown was continuously monitored and the harvests weighed in order to estimate the year-round production potential of the bio-shelter greenhouse.

Not Available

1985-01-01

165

Shelter Provision in the Context of Deforestation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deforestation in many parts of the developing world has to led to a deterioration in both the quantity and the quality of wood (timber) available for housebuilding, threatening the viability of traditional building techniques. This paper examines the effects of a deteriorating resource base upon traditional house building practices in Mopti (Mali), where the most common traditional house type requires

Jill Wells; Fatiha Haddar; Matie-Line Uhde; Annick Sy

1998-01-01

166

Self-made shelters protect spiders from predation  

PubMed Central

Many animals modify their environments, apparently to reduce predation risk, but the success of such endeavors, and their impact on the density and distribution of populations, are rarely rigorously demonstrated. We staged a manipulative experiment to assess the effectiveness of self-made shelters by web spiders as protection from natural enemies. Scincid lizards were included or excluded from 21 replicated 200-m2 plots, and spiders therein were classified as exposed or sheltered, depending on whether they were uncovered in their web or hidden in cocoons, leaves/debris, or burrows. We found that exposed spiders were greatly affected by the presence of predatory scincid lizards, whereas sheltered spiders were not. More specifically, lizards, which forage close to the ground, reduced the abundance of exposed spiders by two-thirds but had no effect on the abundance of sheltered spiders. Sheltered spiders were able to avoid predation and share space with lizards, suggesting that shelter construction is a mechanism for reducing predation risk and has important population consequences. PMID:18772383

Manicom, Carryn; Schwarzkopf, Lin; Alford, Ross A.; Schoener, Thomas W.

2008-01-01

167

Earth Sciences Earth Sciences  

E-print Network

Earth Sciences Earth Sciences Undergraduate Studies #12;Department of Earth Sciences2 Royal;3Department of Earth Sciences Earth Sciences The Department of Earth Sciences at Royal Holloway.ac.uk/studyhere Contents Why study Earth Sciences? 4 Earth Sciences at Royal Holloway 5 Admissions and entry requirements 6

Royal Holloway, University of London

168

Disease avoidance influences shelter use and predation in Caribbean spiny lobster  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shelter competition is uncommon among social animals, as is the case among normally gregarious Caribbean spiny lobsters (Panulirus argus). However, healthy lobsters avoid sheltering with conspecifics infected by a lethal pathogenic virus, PaV1. These contradictory\\u000a behaviors have implications for shelter use and survival, especially in areas where shelter is limited. In laboratory experiments,\\u000a we tested shelter competition between paired healthy

Donald C. Behringer; Mark J. Butler

2010-01-01

169

Building debris  

E-print Network

This thesis relates architectural practices to intelligent use of resources and the reuse of derelict spaces. The initial investigation of rammed earth as a building material is followed by site-specific operations at the ...

Dahmen, Joseph (Joseph F. D.)

2006-01-01

170

Front (west side) and south side of building Fitzsimons ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Front (west side) and south side of building - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Golf Course Waiting Shelter, Southwest area of Golf Course, 700 feet Northeast of intersection of West Harlow Avenue & Peoria Street, Aurora, Adams County, CO

171

Bench seating in northwest corner of the building Fitzsimons ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Bench seating in northwest corner of the building - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Golf Course Waiting Shelter, Southwest area of Golf Course, 700 feet Northeast of intersection of West Harlow Avenue & Peoria Street, Aurora, Adams County, CO

172

East and north sides of building Fitzsimons General Hospital, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

East and north sides of building - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Golf Course Waiting Shelter, Southwest area of Golf Course, 700 feet Northeast of intersection of West Harlow Avenue & Peoria Street, Aurora, Adams County, CO

173

Building Formal and Informal Partnerships Through a Land-Based, Hands-on Research Expedition for Earth and Ocean Science Teachers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scientific Ocean drilling has a rich legacy which is largely responsible for our current understating of the complex linkages among the different parts of the Earth System. Relaying these understandings to Earth and ocean educators is a challenge that the Joint Oceanographic Institutes (JOI) Alliances has undertaken through sponsorship of the School of Rock (SOR). Building on the successful ocean-going, hands-on SOR (Leckie et al. 2006), the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) - United States Implementing Organization (USIO) piloted a land-based, hands-on research expedition for Earth and ocean science teachers, the School of Rock Expedition II (SOR II). During this seven-day workshop, 18 educators from across the United States were hosted at the IODP Gulf Coast Repository at Texas A&M University where they were mentored and taught by scientists who are actively engaged in IODP research, shipboard technical staff, SOR I veteran teachers, and science educators. Teachers participated in a series of research experiences similar to those that take place on a scientific drilling research vessel or in a post-cruise research lab. These experiences allowed educators to increase their knowledge of IODP and scientific methods as demonstrated by the entire ocean drilling program (proposals, drilling, lab analysis, data acquisition, and post-cruise research). This case study describes the formal and informal partnerships developed through the SOR II with an emphasis on identifying and nurturing informal partnerships.

Slough, S.; Prouhet, T.; Peart, L.; Leckie, M.; St. John, K.; Karz-Cooper, S.; Klaus, A.; Petronotis, K.; Firth, J.; Guerin, G.; Buckholtz, C.; Crowder, L.; Peng, C.

2007-12-01

174

Impact of Social Network Characteristics on Shelter Use Among Street Youth in San Francisco  

PubMed Central

Purpose We examined the cross-sectional and longitudinal association between social network characteristics and street youths’ shelter use, a determinant of health outcomes for homeless youth. Methods We analyzed interview data from 138 street youth recruited through venue-based sampling in San Francisco, to assess the cross-sectional relationship between shelter use in youths’ social networks and youths’ reported shelter use. We also assessed the relationship between baseline network shelter use and shelter use at 6-month follow-up. Results Low proportions of street youth reported shelter use at baseline (38%) and follow-up (29.6%). Twenty-nine (26.9%) youth were in networks with shelter users at baseline, compared with 17 youth (15.7%) at follow-up. In cross-sectional analysis, youth in networks with shelter users had 5-fold increased odds of reporting shelter use (OR: 5.86, p = .006). A 1-person increase in the number of network shelter users was associated with 2-fold increased odds of youths’ shelter use (OR: 2.16, p = .02). In longitudinal analysis, youth in networks with shelter users at baseline had nearly 5-fold increased odds of shelter use at follow-up (OR: 4.95, p = .01). A 1-person increase in the number of network shelter users at baseline was associated with 3-fold increased odds of shelter use at follow-up (OR: 3.15, p = .004). Conclusion Shelter users seem to cluster together. Shelter use by extended network members was associated with increased odds of youths’ own shelter use. Understanding how network behaviors influence street youths’ health-related behaviors, such as shelter use, could inform network-based interventions encouraging service uptake among marginalized and hard-to-reach street youth populations. PMID:23763964

Ng, Rilene A. Chew; Muth, Stephen Q.; Auerswald, Colette L.

2014-01-01

175

The Effects of Hands-On Learning Stations on Building American Elementary Teachers' Understanding about Earth and Space Science Concepts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research on conceptual change indicates that not only children, but also teachers have incomplete understanding or misconceptions on science concepts. This mixed methods study was concerned with in-service teachers' understanding of four earth and space science concepts taught in elementary school: reason for seasons, phases of the moon, rock…

Bulunuz, Nermin; Jarrett, Olga S.

2010-01-01

176

An interdisciplinary network for young scholars in Earth System Science: building bridges between developing and developed countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programmes' Analysis, Integration and Modeling of the Earth System (IGBP\\/AIMES) project Young Scholar's Network (YSN) ist o promote communication and collaboration across disparate geography and disciplines to best meet the emerging challenges in global change science. A primary goal of the YSN is to foster cross-disciplinary collaborations between the natural sciences and scholars studying

M. Scholze; N. Mahowald; K. Hibbard

2007-01-01

177

Organizational and social-psychological issues relevant to fallout-shelter evaluation  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the results of a preliminary review of the literature on organizational and social-psychological issues relevant to fallout-shelter evaluation. Fallout-shelter options are evaluated along two dimensions: shelter size, and extent of shelteree participation in the shelter construction. Four functional criteria are used in the evaluation: decision-making, member coordination, social control, and maintaining morale. Smaller shelters requiring shelteree participation in construction appear preferable as measured in most of these criteria. Additional factors mentioned include demographic characteristics of the shelter population, degree and type of ventilation system, and availability of medical equipment and personnel. 10 references.

Wernette, D.R.

1983-01-01

178

Interprofessional program to provide emergency sheltering to abused elders.  

PubMed

Abuse of senior citizens should be paradoxical in a civilized society; however, the U.S. Government Accountability Office reports that 14.1% of noninstitutionalized older adults experienced some type of abuse within the previous year. This is suspected to be an underestimation of the number of abuses reported. In a society where the older population is predicted to increase significantly, it is likely that the number of cases for abused elders will increase proportionately. Through the success of advocacy groups to raise awareness of child and domestic partner abuse, funding has been channeled to shelter these abuse victims. The same cannot be said for elders who are abused. Providing shelter in a safe, secure, medically appropriate environment, free from violence, for an older adult is essential. This article describes a community's collaborative health planning process to respond to elder abuse and develop a program to shelter elders experiencing abuse or suspected abuse. PMID:23636048

Heck, Lauri; Gillespie, Gordon L

2013-01-01

179

Smoking policy change at a homeless shelter: Attitudes and effects.  

PubMed

Homeless adults are exposed to more smokers and smoke in response to environmental tobacco cues more than other socioeconomically disadvantaged groups. Addressing the culture of smoking in homeless shelters through policy initiatives may support cessation and improve health in this vulnerable and understudied population. This study examined support for and expected/actual effects of a smoking ban at a homeless shelter. A 2-wave cross-sectional study with an embedded cohort was conducted in the summer of 2013 two weeks before (wave 1) and two months after (wave 2) a partial outdoor smoking ban was implemented. A total of 394 homeless adults were surveyed (i.e., wave 1 [n=155]; wave 2 [n=150]; and 89 additional participants completed both waves). On average, participants were 43years old, primarily African American (63%), male (72%), and had been homeless for the previous 12months (median). Most participants were smokers (76%) smoking 12 cigarettes per day on average. Most participants supported the creation of a large smoke-free zone on the shelter campus, but there was less support for a shelter-wide smoking ban. Average cigarettes smoked per day did not differ between study waves. However, participants who completed both study waves experienced a reduction in expired carbon monoxide at wave 2 (W1=18.2 vs. W2=15.8parts per million, p=.02). Expected effects of the partial ban were similar to actual effects. Partial outdoor smoking bans may be well supported by homeless shelter residents and may have a positive impact on shelter resident health. PMID:25222848

Businelle, Michael S; Poonawalla, Insiya B; Kendzor, Darla E; Rios, Debra M; Cuate, Erica L; Savoy, Elaine J; Ma, Ping; Baggett, Travis P; Reingle, Jennifer; Reitzel, Lorraine R

2015-01-01

180

Shelter Network: serving homeless families and individuals (1987-2007).  

PubMed

Shelter Network is a nonprofit organization that delivers a range of services that meet the needs of homeless families and individuals in order to help them achieve stable housing and self-sufficiency. The agency began as a grassroots community effort to respond to the growing problem of homelessness and its relationship with its external community continues to play an important role in its financing, growth, and development. Over its 20-year history, Shelter Network has overcome multiple challenges related to leadership, finance, and community support and has grown from a grassroots agency into an organization with a budget of $7 million. PMID:21416437

Kimberlin, Sara E; Schwartz, Sara L; Austin, Michael J

2011-01-01

181

Tree shelters and weed control enhance growth and survival of natural blue oak seedlings  

E-print Network

1997. Tree shelters: An alternative for oak regeneration.oak stands, with con- siderable numbers of seedlings and treestree shelter types on microclimate and seedling performance of Oregon white oak and

2011-01-01

182

Effects of a standardized obedience program on approachability and problem behaviors in dogs from rescue shelters  

E-print Network

Improved adoptability is a common goal among rescue shelters. Dogs are more likely to be adopted if they are friendly, mannerly, and approachable. The possibility of improving rescue shelter dogs' behavior through an obedience program has not been...

Hays, Lauren Denise

2004-11-15

183

Macrobenthic community response to copper in Shelter Island Yacht Basin, San Diego Bay, California  

E-print Network

Macrobenthic community response to copper in Shelter Island Yacht Basin, San Diego Bay, California concentration in inverte- brates within Shelter Island Yacht Basin, San Diego Bay, California. Results indicate

Levin, Lisa

184

75 FR 46844 - Excise Taxes on Prohibited Tax Shelter Transactions and Related Disclosure Requirements...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...CFR Parts 53 and 54 [TD 9492] RIN 1545-BG18 Excise Taxes on Prohibited Tax Shelter Transactions and Related Disclosure Requirements; Disclosure Requirements With Respect to Prohibited Tax Shelter Transactions; Requirement of Return and...

2010-08-04

185

Emergency and Disaster Planning at Ohio Animal Shelters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results of a cross-sectional study to determine the level of emergency and disaster response planning at Ohio nonhuman animal shelters and the role Ohio agencies have in emergency and disaster response planning in their communities indicated a lack of preparedness coupled with underutilization of the agencies as a resource. A total of 115 agencies (68%) responded to a standardized survey

Shanna M. Decker; Linda K. Lord; William L. Walker; Thomas E. Wittum

2010-01-01

186

National Call for Organizational Change from Sheltered to Integrated Employment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Our purpose in this article is to contend that organizational change from sheltered to integrated employment is not only possible but necessary, and a federal Employment First agenda must be advanced. Findings are reported from interviews with senior managers from 10 organizations that have shifted their service delivery to community employment,…

Rogan, Patricia; Rinne, Susan

2011-01-01

187

Training and Sustaining Effective Teachers of Sheltered Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article provides guidelines for programs to deliver and sustain effective professional development on sheltered instruction to teachers who teach content to English learners. Many content area teachers have not had university coursework on second-language acquisition or the integration of language and content instruction in teacher…

Short, Deborah

2013-01-01

188

Products, Service Contracts, Operations, and Tools in Sheltered Workshops.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Among findings of surveys on general capabilities for contract work completed by 737 sheltered workshops were that electronic/electrical assembly and wood pallet manufacture were the most common products; collating and mailing the most common service contracts; and bagging /packaging and assembly the most predominant hand operations. (Author/CL)

Walls, Richard T.; And Others

1982-01-01

189

Hepatitis E Virus Infection in Sheltered Homeless Persons, France  

PubMed Central

To determine the prevalence of hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection among sheltered homeless persons in Marseille, France, we retrospectively tested 490 such persons. A total of 11.6% had immunoglobulin (Ig) G and 2.5% had IgM against HEV; 1 person had HEV genotype 3f. Injection drug use was associated with IgG against HEV. PMID:21029538

Kaba, Mamadou; Brouqui, Philippe; Richet, Herve; Badiaga, Sekene; Gallian, Pierre; Raoult, Didier

2010-01-01

190

Emergency Shelter Placement of Rural Children: Placement and Discharge Patterns.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines patterns associated with placement and subsequent discharge of rural children in emergency shelter care. Suggests that the growing numbers of children being placed out of their homes, runaway adolescents, and homeless children, underscore the importance of identifying children likely to be referred for emergency services, as those…

Van Hook, Mary

1994-01-01

191

UK charity vets get a US perspective on shelter medicine.  

PubMed

Shelter medicine is very much a recognised discipline within veterinary medicine in the USA, with increasing numbers of veterinary students receiving specific teaching in the field. Delegates at the second meeting of the Association of Charity Vets, which was held at Nottingham veterinary school in November last year, learned more about the US approach to this evolving field. PMID:24443463

2014-01-18

192

A Shelter to Protect a Passive Sampler for Coarse Particulate Matter, PM10 ? 2.5  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work designed and tested a shelter to protect a passive sampler for measuring coarse particulate matter, PM10 ? 2.5. The shelter protects the sampler from precipitation and reduces the effects of wind on the deposition of particles to its collection surface. Six shelters were tested in a wind tunnel at three wind speeds: 2, 8, and 24 km hr.

Darrin K. Ott; Thomas M. Peters

2008-01-01

193

Diagnostic, treatment, and prevention protocols for canine heartworm infection in animal sheltering agencies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The high prevalence of heartworm infection in shelter dogs creates a dilemma for shelter managers, who frequently operate with insufficient funding, staffing, and expertise to comply with heartworm guidelines developed for owned pet dogs. The purpose of this study was to survey canine heartworm management protocols used by 504 animal sheltering agencies in the endemic states of Alabama, Florida, Georgia,

Kathleen N. Colby; Julie K. Levy; Kiri F. Dunn; Rachel I. Michaud

2011-01-01

194

Family Dynamics, Housing, and Recurring Homelessness Among Women in New York City Homeless Shelters  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study looks at two sets of women who stayed in New York City homeless shelters in 1992—one set as part of a family and the other set as individuals—and at factors associated with an increased risk of their experiencing repeat shelter stays. Descriptive statistics and event history analysis indicate that regardless of whether the women stay in shelters with

STEPHEN METRAUX; DENNIS P. CULHANE

1999-01-01

195

“Kids Need Structure”Negotiating Rules, Power, and Social Control in an Emergency Youth Shelter  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study illuminates aspects of social life within agencies designed to house homeless adolescents through research conducted at a live-in, emergency youth shelter. The shelter provides physical necessities, safety, life skills, and a “consistent” social environment through its operationas a quasi-total institution. Social life within the shelter is characterized by constant negotiation of the curricular imposition of “structure.” External boundaries

William T. Armaline

2005-01-01

196

Geology at Our Doorstep: Building a Partnership for Standards-Based Curriculum and Professional Development in Middle School Earth Science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geology at Our Doorstep is a collaboration between a science outreach program (CIRES Outreach), students and faculty in a university geology department (U. Colorado at Boulder), and a local school district (St. Vrain Valley) to develop locally relevant geology classroom resources for use by the district's middle-school teachers. The project grew out of direct conversations with teachers about their ideas and needs and was explicitly based on district and state standards in Earth science and scientific thinking, drawing on close work with the district on standards implementation and assessment over the past two years. We intended to draw on existing curriculum resources and substitute local geologic examples to construct a "place-based" teaching resource. However, we found that generic, national-level curricula did not effectively match the rich geologic resources of our area, and instead developed a rather more substantial set of original materials, including classroom collections of regional rocks, reference materials on local geology, classroom activities, and media resources, all shared with teachers at a series of professional development workshops. While the original project was small in scale, a number of spin-off projects have evolved. This project models several important features in the development of university-K12 partnerships: consultation with districts, piloting of small projects, and the role of outreach programs in facilitating participation of university faculty and students.

Laursen, S.; Lester, A.; Cannon, E.; Forrest, A.; Bencivengo, B.; Hunter, K.

2003-12-01

197

LUCAS EXPERIMENT: SEARCHING FOR VEGETATION AND OTHER BIOSIGNATURES ON PLANET EARTH  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to prepare the future search for biosignatures on exo-Earths or exo-SuperEarths, we investigate the detection of life on the only planet known to shelter life to date, our Earth. We have to see the Earth as a dot, the way future exoEarths will appear to us. This is the case when we observe the Earthshine, using the Moon

Danielle Briot; Luc Arnold; Karim Agabi; Eric Aristidi; Jérome Berthier; Erick Bondoux; Concordia Station; Patrick Rocher

198

NPP and the Earth System  

NASA Video Gallery

NPP is a continuation of the existing Earth-observing satellites and it builds on the legacy of multi decades of critical data. NPP will continue to deliver data to all users on Earth who will use ...

199

Training veterinary students in shelter medicine: a service-learning community-classroom technique.  

PubMed

Shelter medicine is a rapidly developing field of great importance, and shelters themselves provide abundant training opportunities for veterinary medical students. Students trained in shelter medicine have opportunities to practice zoonotic and species-specific infectious disease control, behavioral evaluation and management, primary care, animal welfare, ethics, and public policy issues. A range of sheltering systems now exists, from brick-and-mortar facilities to networks of foster homes with no centralized facility. Exposure to a single shelter setting may not allow students to understand the full range of sheltering systems that exist; a community-classroom approach introduces students to a diverse array of sheltering systems while providing practical experience. This article presents the details and results of a series of 2-week elective clinical rotations with a focus on field and service learning in animal shelters. The overall aim was to provide opportunities that familiarized students with sheltering systems and delivered primary-care training. Other priorities included increasing awareness of public health concerns and equipping students to evaluate shelters on design, operating protocols, infectious disease control, animal enrichment, and community outreach. Students were required to participate in rounds and complete a project that addressed a need recognized by them during the rotation. This article includes costs associated with the rotation, a blueprint for how the rotation was carried out at our institution, and details of shelters visited and animals treated, including a breakdown of treatments provided. Also discussed are the student projects and student feedback on this valuable clinical experience. PMID:24407109

Stevens, Brenda J; Gruen, Margaret E

2014-01-01

200

Faecal virome of cats in an animal shelter.  

PubMed

We describe the metagenomics-derived feline enteric virome in the faeces of 25 cats from a single shelter in California. More than 90?% of the recognizable viral reads were related to mammalian viruses and the rest to bacterial viruses. Eight viral families were detected: Astroviridae, Coronaviridae, Parvoviridae, Circoviridae, Herpesviridae, Anelloviridae, Caliciviridae and Picobirnaviridae. Six previously known viruses were also identified: feline coronavirus type 1, felid herpes 1, feline calicivirus, feline norovirus, feline panleukopenia virus and picobirnavirus. Novel species of astroviruses and bocaviruses, and the first genome of a cyclovirus in a feline were characterized. The RNA-dependent RNA polymerase region from four highly divergent partial viral genomes in the order Picornavirales were sequenced. The detection of such a diverse collection of viruses shed within a single shelter suggested that such animals experience robust viral exposures. This study increases our understanding of the viral diversity in cats, facilitating future evaluation of their pathogenic and zoonotic potentials. PMID:25078300

Zhang, Wen; Li, Linlin; Deng, Xutao; Kapusinszky, Beatrix; Pesavento, Patricia A; Delwart, Eric

2014-11-01

201

Distinguishing between interference and exploitation competition for shelter in a  

E-print Network

of shelter for animal populations re- quires knowledge of the behavioural mechanisms that govern the dynamics population A.J.H. Davey1 , C.P. Doncaster2 and O.D. Jones3 1WRc plc, Swindon SN5 8YF, U.K. E-Mail: andrew and population density. For each experiment the location of each individual fish was observed over a period of 10

Jones, Owen

202

Outbreak of tuberculosis in a homeless men’s shelter  

Microsoft Academic Search

This case—tuberculosis in a homeless men’s shelter—is one of a series of teaching cases in the Case-Based Series in Population-Oriented Prevention (C-POP). It has been developed for use in medical school and residency prevention curricula. The complete set of cases is presented in this supplement to the American Journal of Preventive Medicine.Tuberculosis presents a significant public health challenge. In this

Cynthia B Morrow; Donald A Cibula; Lloyd F Novick

2003-01-01

203

Service-learning and art therapy in a homeless shelter  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes a brief service-learning assignment in which graduate art therapy students at an urban university in the United States worked with children residing in a homeless shelter. The term service-learning refers to the integration of community service into a college course to help students achieve specific learning objectives. In this case, service-learning was intended to supplement an art

Holly Feen-Calligan

2008-01-01

204

Management style and institutional dependency in sheltered care  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two styles of management utilized by operators of California's alternative to the mental hospital — the community-based sheltered-care facility — have been identified. One style of management is characterized by a low-structure, laissez-faire approach that places the responsibility for decision making with the patient. The other style stresses structure and rule following, and leaves decision making to the operators of

S. P. Segal; E. W. Moyles

1979-01-01

205

HOMELESS SHELTER USE AND REINCARCERATION FOLLOWING PRISON RELEASE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: In the past two decades both the homeless and the prison populations have grown substantially. These two phenomena,may be interrelated insofar as the difficulties in reintegrating into the community,may increase the risk of homelessness for released prisoners, and homelessness may in turn increase the risk for subsequent reincarceration. This study examines,the incidence of shelter use and reincarceration among,a cohort

STEPHEN METRAUX; DENNIS P. CULHANE

2004-01-01

206

PIONEER: A Robot for Structural Assessment of the Chornobyl Shelter  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) sponsored the design and fabrication of a radiation-hardened mobile diagnostic robot dubbed Pioneer. Pioneer was designed to operate in the most hazardous locations within the Chornobyl Shelter. Pioneer was delivered to the Ukraine in the spring of 1999. Initial system training and cold testing was performed after delivery.

Catalan, Michael A. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Thompson, Bruce R. (VISITORS); Dan G. Cacuci

2001-06-30

207

TAX-SHELTERED INVESTMENT PROGRAM Capital Area Health Consortium (CAHC) has a Tax-Sheltered Investment Plan (403b) available for its  

E-print Network

Page 94 TAX-SHELTERED INVESTMENT PROGRAM Capital Area Health Consortium (CAHC) has a Tax-Sheltered Investment Plan (403b) available for its employees. Money may be deducted from each paycheck on a pre-tax basis (403B) or a post-tax basis (Roth). The pre-tax option reduces the amount of income that is taxed

Oliver, Douglas L.

208

Infra-Free® (IF) Architecture System as the Method for Post-Disaster Shelter Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Currently, International Space Station (ISS) is capable to support 3 to 4 astronauts onboard for at least 6 months using an integrated life support system to support the need of crew onboard. Waste from daily life of the crew members are collected by waste recycle systems, electricity consumption depends on collecting solar energy, etc. though it likes the infrastructure we use on Earth, ISS can be comprehended nearly a self-reliant integrated architecture so far, this could be given an important hint for current architecture which is based on urban centralized infrastructure to support our daily lives but could be vulnerable in case of nature disasters. Comparatively, more and more economic activities and communications rely on the enormous urban central infrastructure to support our daily lives. Therefore, when in case of natural disasters, it may cut-out the infrastructure system temporarily or permanent. In order to solve this problem, we propose to design a temporary shelter, which is capable to work without depending on any existing infrastructure. We propose to use some closed-life-cycle or integrated technologies inspired by the possibilities of space and other emerging technologies into current daily architecture by using Infra-free® design framework; which proposes to integrate various life supporting infrastructural elements into one-closed system. We try to work on a scenario for post-disaster management housing as the method for solving the lifeline problems such as solid and liquid waste, energy, and water and hygiene solution into one system. And trying to establish an Infra-free® model of shelter for disaster area. The ultimate objective is to design a Temp Infra-free® model dealing with the sanitation and environment preservation concerns for disaster area.

Chang, Huai-Chien; Anilir, Serkan

209

Environment and the Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Environment and the Earth class at the University of South Carolina participated in a campus environmental service-learning project where students collected data lighting, water fixtures, recycling bins, and trash in five academic buildings.

Compiled by Suzanne Savanick, Science Education Resource Center. Based on Bixby et al. (2003), Ecology on Campus: Service Learning in Introductory Environmental Courses, Journal of College Science Teaching, v. 32, n.5, o, 327-331.

210

Public shelter admission rates in Philadelphia and New York City: The implications of turnover for sheltered population counts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous estimates of the size and composition of the U.S. homeless population have been based on cross?sectional survey methodologies. National enumeration efforts have yielded point?prevalence estimates ranging from 0.11 to 0.25 percent of the population. This study reports data from shelter databases in Philadelphia and New York City that record identifiers for all persons admitted and so make possible unduplicated

Dennis P. Culhane; Edmund F. Dejowski; Julie Ibañez; Elizabeth Needham; Irene Macchia

1994-01-01

211

Thinking Ahead: Autonomic Buildings  

SciTech Connect

The time has come for the commercial buildings industries to reconsider the very nature of the systems installed in facilities today and to establish a vision for future buildings that differs from anything in the history of human shelter. Drivers for this examination include reductions in building operation staffs; uncertain costs and reliability of electric power; growing interest in energy-efficient and resource-conserving?green? and?high-performance? commercial buildings; and a dramatic increase in security concerns since the tragic events of September 11. This paper introduces a new paradigm? autonomic buildings? which parallels the concept of autonomic computing, introduced by IBM as a fundamental change in the way computer networks work. Modeled after the human nervous system,?autonomic systems? themselves take responsibility for a large portion of their own operation and even maintenance. For commercial buildings, autonomic systems could provide environments that afford occupants greater opportunity to focus on the things we do in buildings rather than on operation of the building itself, while achieving higher performance levels, increased security, and better use of energy and other natural resources. The author uses the human body and computer networking to introduce and illustrate this new paradigm for high-performance commercial buildings. He provides a vision for the future of commercial buildings based on autonomicity, identifies current research that could contribute to this future, and highlights research and technological gaps. The paper concludes with a set of issues and needs that are key to converting this idealized future into reality.

Brambley, Michael R. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB))

2002-08-31

212

Soiling of building stones in urban environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper studies the black soiling rate of building granite, marble and limestones in two urban environments with different climates.Specimens were placed horizontally, sheltered and unsheltered from rainfall. Colour changes were monitored. Changes in L? were utilised to determine the total darkening of the stones and their soiling rate and were compared by statistical analysis.Black soiling depended on the type

C. M Grossi; R. M Esbert; F D??az-Pache; F. J Alonso

2003-01-01

213

What factors were important for dietary improvement in emergency shelters after the Great East Japan Earthquake?  

PubMed

The Great East Japan Earthquake of 2011 left many evacuees with insufficient food and emergency shelter. However, there is no evidence concerning the factors affecting dietary circumstances in emergency shelters after disasters. To clarify the factors that influenced the provision of meals, we reanalyzed a data set from a dietary survey conducted in emergency shelters one month after the Great East Japan Earthquake (2011). Among the 69 shelters in "city A," 53 (79.1%) had food shortages. The possibility of cooking in the emergency shelter improved the provision of meals to evacuees. When comparing emergency shelters with and without cooking equipment, the shelters with cooking equipment provided more meals, as well as more dishes containing grains and vegetables. When there was a gas supply, the twice per day provision of "balanced" meals (containing grains, vegetables, and meat/fish) was more frequent than when there was no gas supply. Interestingly, neither the water supply nor the electricity supply affected the provision of balanced meals. Further, emergency shelters with larger numbers of evacuees had a lower possibility of cooking and lower availability of gas supply. Our results demonstrate that early improvements to post-disaster meal provision may maintain the health of evacuees. Such improvements could be achieved by 1) the speedy restoration of the gas supply to enable cooking, and 2) limiting the number of evacuees per emergency shelter. PMID:24561984

Tsuboyama-Kasaoka, Nobuyo; Hoshi, Yuko; Onodera, Kazue; Mizuno, Shoichi; Sako, Kazuko

2014-01-01

214

Earth Advantage Institute: Introduction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This brief presentation provides an introduction to the Earth Advantage Institute, which is "a nonprofit organization that works with the building industry to help implement sustainable building practices." Information on the history of the organization, its partners, stakeholders and sponsors is included. This document may be downloaded in PDF file format.

Schnepp, Katie

2012-06-29

215

Parameterizing the effect of a wind shelter on evaporation from small water bodies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The potential use of windbreaks to reduce evaporation from small agricultural reservoirs motivated the development of a simple evaporation model that includes the effect of wind shelters. The shelter effect is parameterized by averaging the integral of the horizontal velocity deficit curve over the length of the water body. This parameterization, termed the "shelter index," ranges between 0 and 1, representing no shelter to complete shelter, respectively. The results of a two-dimensional aerodynamic model that solves the disturbed flow field and evolving microclimate over the water body guided the development of a Dalton-type evaporation model, modified to include the shelter parameterization. The modified Dalton expression summarized the results of the aerodynamic model to a high degree of accuracy (R2 = 0.988). Because the shelter parameterization requires knowledge of the horizontal velocity profile, an approximation of the shelter index that can easily be estimated from physical windbreak characteristics (height, porosity) is presented. In addition, a simple approximation based exclusively on upwind meteorological information is presented for estimation of surface humidity. The evaporation model using the approximations for the shelter index and surface humidity showed excellent agreement (R2 = 0.875) with measured evaporation data from a variety of small wind-sheltered water bodies at two sites in the agricultural districts of Western Australia. The evaporation model and approximations have the advantage of requiring only routinely available meteorological information and information on windbreak physical characteristics that can be estimated a priori. It is therefore an excellent design tool for water resource managers to evaluate the efficiency of a wind shelter in reducing evaporation or for coupling with hydrodynamic models.

Hipsey, Matthew R.; Sivapalan, Murugesu

2003-12-01

216

Building 32 35 Building 36  

E-print Network

R o u te 6 8 2 D a i r y L a n eOhio University ADA Campus Accessibility Parking Accessible Entrance problems that prevent them from walking long distances. Call for more information. FOR GENERAL PARKING Ohio University Inn 40 Southside Park Shelter Bingham House SouthSide ParkShelter 38 21 Child

Botte, Gerardine G.

217

Emergency and disaster planning at Ohio animal shelters.  

PubMed

Results of a cross-sectional study to determine the level of emergency and disaster response planning at Ohio nonhuman animal shelters and the role Ohio agencies have in emergency and disaster response planning in their communities indicated a lack of preparedness coupled with underutilization of the agencies as a resource. A total of 115 agencies (68%) responded to a standardized survey mailed to 170 Ohio agencies. Most (68%) agencies agreed that emergency and disaster response planning was important to their organization, although only 13% of agencies had completed a written emergency and disaster response plan. The majority (80%) of agencies indicated they would provide critical resources in an emergency or disaster in their community. Only 38 (33%) of the responding agencies were aware of the PETS Act of 2006. Although many agencies indicated the importance of an emergency and disaster plan, there may be insufficient resources, including time and proper training, available to ensure plans are developed. Improved coordination among veterinarians, local veterinary medical associations, emergency preparedness agencies, and animal shelters would enhance the relief efforts in a crisis. PMID:20017047

Decker, Shanna M; Lord, Linda K; Walker, William L; Wittum, Thomas E

2010-01-01

218

Oblique, Stratified Winds about a Shelter Fence. Part I: Measurements.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wind statistics were measured using cup and sonic anemometers, placed upwind and downwind from a porous plastic windbreak fence (height h = 1.25 m, length Y = 114 m, resistance coefficient kr0 = 2.4, and porosity p = 0.45) standing on otherwise uniform land (short grass with roughness length z0 1.9 cm). Intercomparison with collocated two-dimensional sonic anemometers suggested that, except in strongly stratified winds, cup anemometers (distance constant 1.5 m), subjected to a uniform overspeeding correction (here 10%), provide a reasonably accurate transect of the mean wind across the disturbed flow region. The measurements, binned with respect to mean wind direction and stratification, establish that the resistance coefficient of a windbreak of this type implies the maximum (or “potential”) mean wind reduction, a potential that is realized in neutral, perpendicular flow and for which a semiempirical formula is derived. Obliquity of the approaching wind reduces actual shelter effectiveness below the potential value, as was already known. However, a systematic influence of stratification could only be discriminated in winds that were not too far (say, within about ±30°) from perpendicular, under which conditions both stable and unstable stratification reduced shelter effectiveness. The “quiet zone,” in which velocity standard deviations (?u, ?) are reduced relative to the approach flow, was found to extend farther downwind for the normal velocity component (u) than for the parallel component ().


Wilson, John D.

2004-08-01

219

The significance of ultra-refracted surface gravity waves on sheltered coasts, with application to San Francisco Bay  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ocean surface gravity waves propagating over shallow bathymetry undergo spatial modification of propagation direction and energy density, commonly due to refraction and shoaling. If the bathymetric variations are significant the waves can undergo changes in their direction of propagation (relative to deepwater) greater than 90° over relatively short spatial scales. We refer to this phenomenon as ultra-refraction. Ultra-refracted swell waves can have a powerful influence on coastal areas that otherwise appear to be sheltered from ocean waves. Through a numerical modeling investigation it is shown that San Francisco Bay, one of the earth's largest and most protected natural harbors, is vulnerable to ultra-refracted ocean waves, particularly southwest incident swell. The flux of wave energy into San Francisco Bay results from wave transformation due to the bathymetry and orientation of the large ebb tidal delta, and deep, narrow channel through the Golden Gate. For example, ultra-refracted swell waves play a critical role in the intermittent closure of the entrance to Crissy Field Marsh, a small restored tidal wetland located on the sheltered north-facing coast approximately 1.5 km east of the Golden Gate Bridge.

Hanes, D. M.; Erikson, L. H.

2013-11-01

220

Design and Construction of a Low-Cost Stream-Monitoring Shelter.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The design and construction of a low-cost stream-monitoring shelter are discussed. Currently in use on the Fernow Experimental Forest in West Virginia, the shelter creates an environment for efficient sampling and chemical monitoring of small streams whil...

J. N. Kochenderfer, P. J. Edwards

1990-01-01

221

Criteria for Determining the Effectiveness of Shelter Programs for Battered Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

According to the California State Department of Justice there were 182,000 reported cases of domestic violence in 1988 that required police intervention. This descriptive study, an explorative evaluation survey, examined 47 shelter programs in California to determine what components are essential to a shelter's effectiveness in facilitating…

Hughes, Gwendolyn Morrison

222

Recidivism at a Shelter for Adolescents: First-Time versus Repeat Runaways.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents results of a study that examined child and family influences on recidivism for 166 youths admitted to a shelter. Results indicated that youth emotional problems were significantly related to recidivism for repeat runaways, whereas family changes and length of stay at the shelter were significantly related to recidivism for first-time…

Baker, Amy J. L.; McKay, Mary M.; Lynn, Cynthia J.; Schlange, Hans; Auville, Alicia

2003-01-01

223

Do Sheltered Workshops Enhance Employment Outcomes for Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated whether sheltered workshops help prepare individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) for competitive employment within the community. Two groups of individuals were compared: (a) 215 supported employees who were in sheltered workshops prior to entering supported employment and (b) 215 supported employees who were not in…

Cimera, Robert Evert; Wehman, Paul; West, Michael; Burgess, Sloane

2012-01-01

224

Control of Pest Species: Tree shelters help protect seedlings from nutria (Louisiana)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Various methods of nutria preventative techniques were tested in attempts to curb the loss of seedlings due to nutria capturing. The results of testing possibly indicate that tree shelters have real potential for use in forest restoration projects on sites with moderate nutria populations. Tree shelters may even prove effective on sites with high nutria populations, as long as alternative food supplies are available.

Allen, J.A.; Boykin, R.

1991-01-01

225

Older Women in the Homeless Shelter: Personal Perspectives and Practice Ideas  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reports on the themes generated by interviews conducted with 10 women over the age of 50, currently homeless and residing in an overnight homeless shelter. In-depth interviews were conducted asking women to tell their stories, talk about their lives in the shelter, and speak about their needs, hopes, and dreams. Based on an analysis of these interviews, the

Jennifer Davis-Berman

2011-01-01

226

Perspectives on US Domestic Violence Emergency Shelters: What Do Young Adolescent Residents and Their Mothers Say?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As part of a larger qualitative study using Life Story methods, an ethnically diverse, purposive sample (n = 27) of young adolescents (ages 12-14) and their mothers residing in four US domestic violence emergency shelters were interviewed about their perspectives of shelter life. Youth reported aspects they liked, most often expressing that they…

Chanmugam, Amy

2011-01-01

227

DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF A LOW-COST STREAM-MONITORING SHELTER  

EPA Science Inventory

The design and construction of a low-cost stream-monitoring shelter are discussed. urrently in use on the Fernow Experimental Forest in West Virginia, the shelter creates an environment for efficient sampling and chemical monitoring of small streams while protecting expensive equ...

228

Primary-Grade Students' Knowledge and Thinking about Shelter as a Cultural Universal.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The traditional K-3 social studies curriculum has focused on food, clothing, shelter, communication, transportation, and other cultural universals. A study was designed to provide information with respect to the topic of shelter, and in the process, to assess claims that primary grade students do not need instruction in the topic because they…

Brophy, Jere; Alleman, Janet

229

Tree Shelters Fail to Enhance Height Growth of Northern Red Oak in the  

E-print Network

, if not impossible. Tree shelters have been found to be effective in other locations with animal browsing problems (Miller 1996). The objective of this study was to test the effec- tiveness of using tree shelters at beginning of third growing season to unsheltered trees due to heavy deer browsing and weed control

230

On three-dimensionality of shelterbelt structure and its influences on shelter effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural shelterbelts, unlike planar barriers, have a certain width, within which interactions among wind speed, drag force and pressure perturbations create a net sheltering effect. The variations of flow, drag force, permeability, and pressure perturbation for shelterbelts of different widths and different horizontal structures are numerically studied, and their influences on shelter efficiency are discussed. Comparisons are made of fourteen

Hao Wang; Eugene S. Takle

1996-01-01

231

The Development of Values and Beliefs in Young Americans Toward Fallout Shelters and Civil Defense.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

What kinds of beliefs and opinions do youngsters in their pre-teen and teenage years have toward fallout shelters and civil defense. 327 eighth and twelfth graders wrote extemporaneous essays on 'What I Know About Fallout Shelters'. Attitudes toward this ...

B. S. Greenberg, D. Pettersen, J. Kochevar

1966-01-01

232

Questions and Answers Regarding Actions to Take When Ending Shelter-in-Place  

SciTech Connect

Shelter-in-place has found increasing acceptance as an effective protective action option for communities participating in the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program. Studies have confirmed that it can provide optimum protection under certain accident conditions. However, emergency managers and planners, as well as the public, continue to be troubled by the need to end sheltering when the plume has passed in order to avoid sustained exposure to the small amount of agent that has penetrated the shelter. One of the concerns posed by this necessity is uncertainty regarding what hazards will then be faced in the environment outside the shelter and what actions can be taken to avoid those hazards. This report attempts to address those uncertainties. It recognizes that there is an extremely low probability that the environment outside the shelter will be contaminated with chemical agent residue. However, as people comply with an official recommendation to leave their shelters, they probably can't be certain that the environment is free from contamination. Therefore, this report identifies and explains specific and simple actions they can take to avoid the possibility of exposure to chemical agent hazards outside their shelters. It addresses such issues as the actions people should take upon ending shelter-in-place, what clothing they should wear, how they should handle animals, and what they should do about food in their homes and produce in their gardens.

Shumpert, B.

2003-12-30

233

Physical Health, Mental Health, and Substance Abuse Problems of Shelter Users.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined physical health of 72 users of homeless shelters, comparing shelter users with mental illness or substance abuse problems with those without these problems. Found that alcohol abusers were significantly more likely to have low blood pressure, symptoms of liver disease, and tuberculosis treatment history. Found no health differences for…

Harris, Shirley N.; And Others

1994-01-01

234

Dimensions and Correlates of Client Satisfaction: An Evaluation of a Shelter for Runaway and Homeless Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Client satisfaction surveys give clients a voice in the planning and management of services. While their use is quite widespread, they have hardly at all been used in the evaluation of shelters for homeless youths. In this article, the authors present findings of a client satisfaction survey conducted among residents of a shelter for homeless…

Spiro, Shimon E.; Dekel, Rachel; Peled, Einat

2009-01-01

235

Hurricane Katrina and the Flooding of New Orleans: Emergent Issues in Sheltering and Temporary Housing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hurricane Katrina created an unprecedented need for sheltering and temporary housing across a four-state area along the Gulf Coast. This article reviews the disaster literature with respect to sheltering and temporary housing and contrasts how these needs actually developed with respect to both the preimpact and postimpact evacuation situations. The article also investigates the ways that intergovernmental planning failed to

Joanne M. Nigg; John Barnshaw; Manuel R. Torres

2006-01-01

236

Prevalence of behaviour problems reported by owners of dogs purchased from an animal rescue shelter  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the prevalence of behaviour problems exhibited by dogs within 4 weeks of acquisition from a rescue shelter in Northern Ireland. One thousand five hundred and forty-seven people who had purchased a dog from a rescue shelter in Northern Ireland were sent a postal questionnaire designed to collect information on the behaviours exhibited by their dog within the

Deborah L Wells; Peter G Hepper

2000-01-01

237

Publics in Practice: Ubiquitous Computing at a Shelter for Homeless Mothers  

E-print Network

Publics in Practice: Ubiquitous Computing at a Shelter for Homeless Mothers Christopher A. Le} @us.ibm.com ABSTRACT Today, commodity technologies like mobile phones--once symbols of status at a shelter for homeless mothers. Our system connects mobile phones, a shared display, and a Web application

Edwards, Keith

238

Meeting the Needs of the Mentally Ill Homeless in Massachusetts-Based Emergency Shelters  

Microsoft Academic Search

A statewide survey (response rate = 79.5%) of the emergency shelters designed for homeless individuals was conducted in Massachusetts to determine the prevalence of serious mental illness among residents and extent to which they received psychiatric services. An average prevalence rate of 22%, ranging from 1% to 70%, was reported despite the fact that 87% of the shelters restricted admission

Pearl M. Mosher-Ashley; Nancy Henrikson; Erin French

2000-01-01

239

Study of the effect on shelter cat intakes and euthanasia from a shelter neuter return project of 10,080 cats from March 2010 to June 2014  

PubMed Central

Cat impoundments were increasing at the municipal San Jose animal shelter in 2009, despite long-term successful low cost sterilization programs and attempts to lower the euthanasia rate of treatable-rehabilitatable impounds beginning in 2008. San Jose Animal Care and Services implemented a new strategy designed to control overall feral cat reproduction by altering and returning feral cats entering the shelter system, rather than euthanizing the cats. The purpose of this case study was to determine how the program affected the shelter cat intakes over time. In just over four years, 10,080 individual healthy adult feral cats, out of 11,423 impounded at the shelter during this time frame, were altered and returned to their site of capture. Included in the 11,423 cats were 862 cats impounded from one to four additional times for a total of 958 (9.5%) recaptures of the previously altered 10,080 cats. The remaining 385 healthy feral cats were euthanized at the shelter from March 2010 to June 2014. Four years into the program, researchers observed cat and kitten impounds decreased 29.1%; euthanasia decreased from over 70% of intakes in 2009, to 23% in 2014. Euthanasia in the shelter for Upper Respiratory Disease decreased 99%; dead cat pick up off the streets declined 20%. Dog impounds did not similarly decline over the four years. No other laws or program changes were implemented since the beginning of the program. PMID:25374785

Cicirelli, Jon

2014-01-01

240

Analysis of sheltering and evacuation strategies for an urban nuclear detonation scenario.  

SciTech Connect

Development of an effective strategy for shelter and evacuation is among the most important planning tasks in preparation for response to a low yield, nuclear detonation in an urban area. This study examines shelter-evacuate policies and effectiveness focusing on a 10 kt scenario in Los Angeles. The goal is to provide technical insights that can support development of urban response plans. Results indicate that extended shelter-in-place can offer the most robust protection when high quality shelter exists. Where less effective shelter is available and the fallout radiation intensity level is high, informed evacuation at the appropriate time can substantially reduce the overall dose to personnel. However, uncertainties in the characteristics of the fallout region and in the exit route can make evacuation a risky strategy. Analyses indicate that only a relatively small fraction of the total urban population may experience significant dose reduction benefits from even a well-informed evacuation plan.

Yoshimura, Ann S.; Brandt, Larry D.

2009-05-01

241

Analysis of sheltering and evacuation strategies for a national capital region nuclear detonation scenario.  

SciTech Connect

Development of an effective strategy for shelter and evacuation is among the most important planning tasks in preparation for response to a low yield, nuclear detonation in an urban area. Extensive studies have been performed and guidance published that highlight the key principles for saving lives following such an event. However, region-specific data are important in the planning process as well. This study examines some of the unique regional factors that impact planning for a 10 kT detonation in the National Capital Region. The work utilizes a single scenario to examine regional impacts as well as the shelter-evacuate decision alternatives at one exemplary point. For most Washington, DC neighborhoods, the excellent assessed shelter quality available make shelter-in-place or selective transit to a nearby shelter a compelling post-detonation strategy.

Yoshimura, Ann S.; Brandt, Larry D.

2011-12-01

242

Analysis of sheltering and evacuation strategies for a Chicago nuclear detonation scenario.  

SciTech Connect

Development of an effective strategy for shelter and evacuation is among the most important planning tasks in preparation for response to a low yield, nuclear detonation in an urban area. Extensive studies have been performed and guidance published that highlight the key principles for saving lives following such an event. However, region-specific data are important in the planning process as well. This study examines some of the unique regional factors that impact planning for a 10 kt detonation in Chicago. The work utilizes a single scenario to examine regional impacts as well as the shelter-evacuate decision alternatives at selected exemplary points. For many Chicago neighborhoods, the excellent assessed shelter quality available make shelter-in-place or selective transit to a nearby shelter a compelling post-detonation strategy.

Yoshimura, Ann S.; Brandt, Larry D.

2011-09-01

243

75 FR 14596 - Family Violence Prevention and Services/Grants for Domestic Violence Shelters/Grants to Native...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Prevention and Services/Grants for Domestic Violence Shelters/Grants to Native...Prevention and Services/Grants for Domestic Violence Shelters/Grants to Native...awards to non-profit State Domestic Violence Coalitions. In addition,...

2010-03-26

244

Remote Mapping of River Gravel Interstitial Spaces Availability for Juvenile Salmon Sheltering (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Juvenile salmonid use interstitial gravel spaces to shelter from predators and adverse hydroclimatic conditions. Shelter availability is therefore a key habitat factor to consider in habitat quality mapping. Finstad et al. (2007) developed a method for the measurement of shelter availability in the field using PVC tubes of various diameter and length. The method, which involves probing the bed with the tubes, provides high quality measurements of shelter abundance and size distribution but it is laborious and exceedingly time consuming to apply at large spatial scales. We tested two different remote methods for estimating substrate shelter availability at a large number of sampled locations over a test gravel bed reach of the Restigouche river, an Atlantic salmon river of the Gaspésie peninsula, Québec, Canada. At each sampled location, Finstad's method was first used to measure "true" reference shelter characteristics. Then, the two remote methods were used to estimate shelter characteristics over the same sampled locations. The first remote method used Agisoft Photoscan to produce hi-resolution 3D models of river bed surfaces from close-range (<150 cm from the bed) digital images of the sampled bed areas. Various methods were developed and tested for extracting shelters from these models. The second remote method used high-resolution airborne imagery to extract textural properties of the images over the sampled locations and to calibrate relationships between texture values and shelter characteristics as measured with Finstad's method. In this presentation, the performance of these two methods is analysed with regards to their ability to provide adequate estimates of shelter availability over large spatial scales.

Bergeron, N.; Calsamiglila, A.; Dugdale, S. J.; Bérubé, F.

2013-12-01

245

Individual monitoring of internal exposure at the shelter object.  

PubMed

The paper describes how the programme of individual monitoring (IM) of internal exposure (IE) at Shelter object (SO) was designed and what results were obtained in the framework of the programme for 5 y. The main dose-forming factors of IE at SO are intakes of radionuclides of transuranium elements, (90)Sr and (137)Cs. During designing the IM of IE programme, the contribution of each radionuclide was estimated for different types of works and intake paths. The different types of direct and indirect biophysical measurements that could be used for the purposes of IM of IE were analysed. The control of (239+240)Pu content in faecal samples was chosen as a basic type of control of IE. 'Dose per unit content' functions were used for the justification of the IM of IE programme; also, they were used for the assessment of doses of personnel at SO. PMID:21112886

Bonchuk, I; Likhtarev, I; Berkovski, V

2011-03-01

246

Profiles of distress in sheltered battered women: implications for intervention.  

PubMed

Heterogeneity in patterns of distress and psychological functioning was investigated using a person-oriented approach to data analysis in two diverse samples of battered women in shelters. In order to provide some empirically derived guidance to clinicians, scores on measures of depressive symptoms as well as state and trait anxiety were cluster analyzed. A four-cluster solution provided the best fit for both samples of women, and despite the demographic differences in the women, generally similar clusters were found in both samples. One cluster contained women with minimal distress; another, those who were mildly anxious; in a third cluster, the women were moderately to highly depressed and anxious; and in a fourth cluster, the women were reporting severe levels of distress. Implications for treatment include the importance of providing individually tailored interventions for the women, based on differential combinations of depression and anxiety, especially for women whose distress levels are in the high and severe ranges of distress. PMID:21882668

Hughes, Honore M; Cangiano, Claudine; Hopper, Elizabeth K

2011-01-01

247

Hearing handicap among adult residents of an urban homeless shelter.  

PubMed

This retrospective study was undertaken to identify the prevalence of hearing loss in the homeless population and its implications for vocational rehabilitation. Audiometric threshold data for adult residents of an urban homeless shelter were collected and reported. Subjects with hearing loss were identified and defined by their binaural high-frequency pure tone average (B-HFPTA). Those subjects were assigned a predicted Hearing Handicap Inventory for Adults-Screener (HHIA-S) score. Their HHIA-S scores, in turn, were used to predict hearing handicap and hearing aid candidacy. Significant hearing handicap was predicted for 35.6% of subjects; 10.6% were identified as hearing aid candidates. These findings have implications for vocational rehabilitation that have not been previously addressed. PMID:17337805

Saccone, Patricia A; Steiger, James R

2007-02-01

248

Development of red oak seedlings using plastic shelters on hardwood sites in West Virginia. Forest Service research paper (Final)  

SciTech Connect

Plastic shelters were used to grow red oak seedlings on good-to-excellent Appalachian hardwood growing sites in north central West Virginia. Preliminary results indicate that shelters have the potential to stimulate development of red oak seedlingheight growth, especially if height growth continues once the seedling tops are above the 5-foot-tall shelters.

Smith, H.C.

1993-04-01

249

Behavioral Responses Associated with a Human-Mediated Predator Shelter  

PubMed Central

Human activities in protected areas can affect wildlife populations in a similar manner to predation risk, causing increases in movement and vigilance, shifts in habitat use and changes in group size. Nevertheless, recent evidence indicates that in certain situations ungulate species may actually utilize areas associated with higher levels of human presence as a potential refuge from disturbance-sensitive predators. We now use four-years of behavioral activity budget data collected from pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) and elk (Cervus elephus) in Grand Teton National Park, USA to test whether predictable patterns of human presence can provide a shelter from predatory risk. Daily behavioral scans were conducted along two parallel sections of road that differed in traffic volume - with the main Teton Park Road experiencing vehicle use that was approximately thirty-fold greater than the River Road. At the busier Teton Park Road, both species of ungulate engaged in higher levels of feeding (27% increase in the proportion of pronghorn feeding and 21% increase for elk), lower levels of alert behavior (18% decrease for pronghorn and 9% decrease for elk) and formed smaller groups. These responses are commonly associated with reduced predatory threat. Pronghorn also exhibited a 30% increase in the proportion of individuals moving at the River Road as would be expected under greater exposure to predation risk. Our findings concur with the ‘predator shelter hypothesis’, suggesting that ungulates in GTNP use human presence as a potential refuge from predation risk, adjusting their behavior accordingly. Human activity has the potential to alter predator-prey interactions and drive trophic-mediated effects that could ultimately impact ecosystem function and biodiversity. PMID:24718624

Shannon, Graeme; Cordes, Line S.; Hardy, Amanda R.; Angeloni, Lisa M.; Crooks, Kevin R.

2014-01-01

250

Behavioral responses associated with a human-mediated predator shelter.  

PubMed

Human activities in protected areas can affect wildlife populations in a similar manner to predation risk, causing increases in movement and vigilance, shifts in habitat use and changes in group size. Nevertheless, recent evidence indicates that in certain situations ungulate species may actually utilize areas associated with higher levels of human presence as a potential refuge from disturbance-sensitive predators. We now use four-years of behavioral activity budget data collected from pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) and elk (Cervus elephus) in Grand Teton National Park, USA to test whether predictable patterns of human presence can provide a shelter from predatory risk. Daily behavioral scans were conducted along two parallel sections of road that differed in traffic volume--with the main Teton Park Road experiencing vehicle use that was approximately thirty-fold greater than the River Road. At the busier Teton Park Road, both species of ungulate engaged in higher levels of feeding (27% increase in the proportion of pronghorn feeding and 21% increase for elk), lower levels of alert behavior (18% decrease for pronghorn and 9% decrease for elk) and formed smaller groups. These responses are commonly associated with reduced predatory threat. Pronghorn also exhibited a 30% increase in the proportion of individuals moving at the River Road as would be expected under greater exposure to predation risk. Our findings concur with the 'predator shelter hypothesis', suggesting that ungulates in GTNP use human presence as a potential refuge from predation risk, adjusting their behavior accordingly. Human activity has the potential to alter predator-prey interactions and drive trophic-mediated effects that could ultimately impact ecosystem function and biodiversity. PMID:24718624

Shannon, Graeme; Cordes, Line S; Hardy, Amanda R; Angeloni, Lisa M; Crooks, Kevin R

2014-01-01

251

Emotional and Behavioural Problems among Sheltered Homeless Children.  

PubMed

Introduction: Homelessness in children is a serious problem in the society. Factors leading to homelessness in Nepalese children are poverty, unemployment, multiple children, exposure to violence, caste based social discrimination etc. Children living out of their homes have problems in attachment, temperament, social skills, cognitive ability, and language development. Few non-governmental organizations that have started to look after these children but the mental health need is neglected. The study attempted to investigate the emotional and behavioural problems in homeless children in one of the shelters in Kathmandu. Methods: All the children (n=126) in the SAATHI Organization were included in the study. They were administered Child Behaviour Check List 6-18. Children with T-score ?65 on externalising or internalising dimension were further evaluated in the Child Guidance Clinic for the final diagnosis based on DSM IV. Results: The prevalence of emotional and behavioural problem among the participants was 36 (28.57%) [15 (26.31%) in boys and 21 (30.43%) in girls] based on CBCL/6-18 years and 29 (23.01%) [12 (21.05%) in boys and 17 (24.63%) in girls] based on final diagnosis. The conduct problems was the most common among the male children 5 (8.77%), followed by ODD 3 (5.26%), ADHD 2 (3.5%), Anxiety 2 (3.50%) whereas Anxiety is most common in female children 9 (13.04 %), followed by depression 5 (7.24%), conduct 3 (4.34%). Conclusions: The rate of emotional and behavioral disorder in homeless children in the study is similar to the school aged non homeless children in previous studies, which may be because of the protection provided by the shelters. This study highlighted the need for methodologically better studies in the field. Keywords: children; emotional and behavioural problems; homelessness; Nepal. PMID:24907950

Ojha, S P; Ma, J; Chapagain, M; Tulachan, P

2013-01-01

252

Earth Exploration Toolbook Chapter: Visualizing Carbon Pathways  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

DATA: NASA Satellite Images TOOLS: ImageJ and Image Composite Explorer (ICE) of NASA Earth Observations (NEO). SUMMARY: Build animations of satellite data to illustrate and explore carbon pathways through the Earth system.

Dahlman, Luann; Whitmer, Ali; Caron, Bruce; Herring, David; Tschillard, Ray

253

A survey of North American shelter practices relating to feline upper respiratory management.  

PubMed

An internet-based survey was conducted to determine common strategies for control of feline upper respiratory infections (URI) in animal shelters. Two hundred and fifty-eight North American shelters responded, representing a spectrum of 57% private non-profit, 27% municipal and 16% combined private non-profit-municipal shelters. All but nine shelters reported having a regular relationship with a veterinarian, 53% had full-time veterinarians and 62% indicated full-time (non-veterinarian) medical staff. However, in 35% of facilities, non-medical shelter management staff determined what medication an individual cat could receive, with 5% of facilities making that decision without indicating the involvement of a veterinarian or technician. Ninety-one percent of shelters had an isolation area for clinically ill cats. The most commonly used antimicrobial was doxycycline (52%), followed by amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (33%). Shelters are using a wide range of prevention measures and therapeutics, leaving room for studying URI in different settings to improve understanding of optimal protocols. PMID:23400683

Spindel, Miranda E; Slater, Margaret R; Boothe, Dawn

2013-04-01

254

Forecasting carbon monoxide concentrations near a sheltered intersection using video traffic surveillance and neural networks. Final report  

SciTech Connect

In this preliminary study, we investigated the relationships between traffic and CO concentrations measured near an intersection that is sheltered from the wind by multi-story buildings. Detailed information on traffic parameters was obtained by video camera technology during a single, 4-hour period (3 pm to 7 pm) of calm winds (<1 m/s). A neural network was trained with both lane specific traffic information as on-site wind parameters and used with an independent test set to predict one-minute average CO concentrations with reasonable accuracy. Standard linear regression models as well as an EPA dispersion model (CAL3QHC) could not reliably predict CO levels from the same data set.

Moseholm, L.; Silva, J.; Larson, T.

1994-01-01

255

Viral hepatitis in a homeless shelter in Hawai'i.  

PubMed

It is estimated that as many as 21,000 people in the state of Hawai'i may be infected with HCV Most of those infected with viral hepatitis are unaware they are infected. Complications from viral hepatitis include liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Hawai'i has the highest incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma in the United States. In 2003 there were over 6000 homeless and over 155,000 people at-risk of becoming homeless living in the state of Hawai'i. Risk factors for hepatitis, such as drug use, tattoos, sexual contact, and sharing of personal hygiene equipment are more prevalent in the homeless population. To determine the incidence of hepatitis B and C among a population of homeless individuals, a health fair was held at a Honolulu area homeless shelter with approximately 200 residents. The incidence of hepatitis B and C was determined by anti-HCV and HBsAg blood tests. A survey was also conducted regarding risk factors and basic demographics. Fifty-nine homeless adults volunteered for testing and took the survey. Thirty-one (52%) volunteers were born in Micronesia, twenty-four (41%) were born in the United States, two (3%) were born in Samoa, one (2%) was born in the Philippines, and one (2%) was born in the Marshall Islands. Forty adults were tested for Hepatitis C antibody, three of which tested positive. The primary risk factor among this group was jail time (100%), followed by illegal drug injection (67%), tattoos (67%), ear/body piercing (67%), snorting drugs (33%), blood transfusions (33%), and a sex partner with hepatitis (33%). Forty adults were also tested for HBsAg, One of which tested positive. This was a recent immigrant from Micronesia. Homeless people in Hawai'i are more likely to have hepatitis B or C because risk factors are common among this population. Additionally a large proportion of Hawai'i's homeless people come from the Pacific Islands, where the prevalence of hepatitis B is one of the highest in the world. In addition there are significant risks of hepatitis spread among the homeless and into the general population as many homeless do not realize they are infected. The health fair approach was an effective means for screening homeless people for hepatitis B and C. Our preliminary information suggests homeless shelters may be a good place for education, screening, and possibly interventions as well. PMID:19583106

Boyce, Daniel E C; Tice, Alan D; Ona, Fernando V; Akinaka, Kenneth T; Lusk, Heather

2009-06-01

256

Coordinating Communities and Building Governance in the Development of Schematic and Semantic Standards: the Key to Solving Global Earth and Space Science Challenges in the 21st Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Information Age in Science is being driven partly by the data deluge as exponentially growing volumes of data are being generated by research. Such large volumes of data cannot be effectively processed by humans and efficient and timely processing by computers requires development of specific machine readable formats. Further, as key challenges in earth and space sciences, such as

L. A. Wyborn

2007-01-01

257

Applying Cluster Analysis to Test a Typology of Homelessness by Pattern of Shelter Utilization: Results from the Analysis of Administrative Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study tests a typology of homelessness using administrative data on public shelter use in New York City (1988–1995) and Philadelphia (1991–1995). Cluster analysis is used to produce three groups (transitionally, episodically, and chronically homeless) by number of shelter days and number of shelter episodes. Results show that the transitionally homeless, who constitute approximately 80% of shelter users in both

Randall Kuhn; Dennis P. Culhane

1998-01-01

258

Applying Cluster Analysis to Test a Typology of Homelessness by Pattern of Shelter Utilization: Results from the Analysis of Administrative Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study tests a typology of homelessness using administrative data on public shelter use in New York City (1988-1995) and Philadelphia (1991-1995). Cluster analysis is used to produce three groups (transitionally, episodically, and chronically homeless) by number of shelter days and number of shelter episodes. Results show that the transitionally homeless, who constitute approximately 80% of shelter users in both

Randall Kuhn; Dennis P. Culhane

1998-01-01

259

Earth's Three  

E-print Network

Broadcast Transcript: From Mongolia, land of fermented mare's milk, comes this beguiling morsel of nomadic oral tradition. It's called yertonciin gorav or Earth's Three. Earth's three what? Well, Earth's three top things in a number of categories...

Hacker, Randi

2010-11-17

260

Earth's Atmosphere  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This problem set is about the methods scientists use to compare the abundance of the different elements in Earth's atmosphere. Answer key is provided. This is part of Earth Math: A Brief Mathematical Guide to Earth Science and Climate Change.

261

Earth Sciences Environmental Earth Sciences,  

E-print Network

84 Earth Sciences­ Environmental Earth Sciences, Geology MGeol (Single Honours Degrees) Earth Sciences BSc (Single Honours Degrees) Environmental Earth Sciences Geology BSc (Joint Honours Degrees Sciences offers BSc Honours degrees in Geology and Environmental Earth Sciences, and your degree choice

Brierley, Andrew

262

Earth Sciences Environmental Earth Sciences,  

E-print Network

94 Earth Sciences­ Environmental Earth Sciences, Geology Degree options MGeol (Single Honours Degrees) Earth Sciences BSc (Single Honours Degrees) Environmental Earth Sciences Geology BSc (Joint placement. * The Geology and Environmental Earth Sciences degrees are accredited by the Geological Society

Brierley, Andrew

263

Sustainable shelters for post disaster reconstruction : an integrated approach for reconstruction after the South Asia earthquake  

E-print Network

A year after the South Asia earthquake, over 60% of the survivors are still vulnerable due to the lack of adequate shelter, the absence of basic facilities for water and sanitation and livelihood restoration. The harsh ...

Ali, Zehra (Zehra Hyder)

2007-01-01

264

Down and Out on the Kaw: An Examination of Emergency Shelters in Lawrence, Kansas.  

E-print Network

-medical treatment of the individual is dominant (Piven et al. 2002). The current shelter system is a collection of charity-based organizations and public/privately funded emergency programs targeting homeless people in an attempt to make them ?housing...

McCrary, Quincy Dalton

2008-07-25

265

78 FR 16862 - Notice of Submission of Proposed Information Collection to OMB: Emergency Shelter Grants Program...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Notices] [Pages 16862-16863] [FR Doc No: 2013-06294...HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT [Docket No. FR-5683-N-24] Notice of Submission of...OMB: Emergency Shelter Grants Program (FR 2562) AGENCY: Office of the Chief...

2013-03-19

266

A comparison of lightning and nuclear electromagnetic pulse response of tactical shelters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The internal response (electromagnetic fields and cable responses) of tactical shelters is addressed. Tactical shelters are usually well-shielded systems. Apart from penetrations by signal and power lines, the main leakage paths to the interior are via seams and the environment control unit (ECU) honeycomb filter. The time domain in three-dimensional finite-difference technique is employed to determine the external and internal coupling to a shelter excited by nuclear electromagnetic pulses (NEMP) and attached lightning. The responses of interest are the internal electromagnetic fields and the voltage, current, power, and energy coupled to internal cables. Leakage through the seams and ECU filter is accomplished by their transfer impedances which relate internal electric fields to external current densities. Transfer impedances which were experimentally measured are used in the analysis. The internal numerical results are favorably compared to actual shelter test data under simulated NEMP illumination.

Perala, R. A.; Rudolph, T. H.; Mckenna, P. M.

1984-01-01

267

Appropriate technology water treatment processes for MaeLa Temporary Shelter, Thailand  

E-print Network

This thesis recommends the use of horizontal-flow roughing filters to treat spring water of variable annual quality in MaeLa Temporary Shelter, Thailand. The public drinking water system for 45,000 refugees is overseen by ...

Vater, Katherine Ann

2008-01-01

268

DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF PRE-SERVICE TRAINING METHODS FOR ANIMAL SHELTER VOLUNTEERS  

E-print Network

The current studies aim to develop a cost-effective pre-service training package for animal shelter volunteers. Study 1 compared the cost and effectiveness of three training package variations on student volunteer integrity of a dog walking...

Howard, Veronica J.

2013-08-31

269

Excavations at Sliding Slab Shelter: Hunting and Gathering in the Ouachitas.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Excavations at Sliding Slab Shelter, 3SB29, on the northern flanks of the Ouachita Mountains in west-central Arkansas, have led to the identification of ten material assemblages and fourteen depositional events which represent occupations from the Middle ...

P. L. Harden

1981-01-01

270

26 CFR 53.4965-7 - Taxes on prohibited tax shelter transactions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Revenue 17 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Taxes on prohibited tax shelter transactions. 53.4965-7 Section 53...OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) FOUNDATION AND SIMILAR EXCISE...

2012-04-01

271

26 CFR 53.4965-7 - Taxes on prohibited tax shelter transactions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Revenue 17 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Taxes on prohibited tax shelter transactions. 53.4965-7 Section 53...OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) FOUNDATION AND SIMILAR EXCISE...

2011-04-01

272

26 CFR 53.4965-7 - Taxes on prohibited tax shelter transactions.  

...Revenue 17 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Taxes on prohibited tax shelter transactions. 53.4965-7 Section 53...OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) FOUNDATION AND SIMILAR EXCISE...

2014-04-01

273

26 CFR 53.4965-7 - Taxes on prohibited tax shelter transactions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Revenue 17 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Taxes on prohibited tax shelter transactions. 53.4965-7 Section 53...OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) FOUNDATION AND SIMILAR EXCISE...

2013-04-01

274

Women's shelters in Turkey: a qualitative study on shortcomings of policy making and implementation.  

PubMed

Despite a long history of women's movements and policy-making efforts to ameliorate women's status in Turkey, the number and quality of women's shelters are far from sufficient. This article aims to reveal the shortcomings of shelter policy through the lens of those "at work" on this important social issue using a qualitative research design. Forty semistructured in-depth interviews were conducted with municipal administrative officials, state social workers, and employees of civil society organizations that run shelters. The research findings reveal that there is a lack of effective authority that has the willpower to combat violence against women, and that it is difficult to keep shelters secure in a patriarchal society away from the male gaze. Furthermore, results indicate that there has been an erosion of social services provided by the state. PMID:23676448

Diner, Cagla; Tokta?, ?ule

2013-03-01

275

26 CFR 301.6111-1T - Questions and answers relating to tax shelter registration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...recordings, motion picture or television films, videotapes...recordings, motion picture or television films, videotapes...means, or by placing an advertisement for the tax shelter in a...recording, motion picture or television film, videotape,...

2012-04-01

276

26 CFR 301.6111-1T - Questions and answers relating to tax shelter registration.  

...recordings, motion picture or television films, videotapes...recordings, motion picture or television films, videotapes...means, or by placing an advertisement for the tax shelter in a...recording, motion picture or television film, videotape,...

2014-04-01

277

26 CFR 301.6111-1T - Questions and answers relating to tax shelter registration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...recordings, motion picture or television films, videotapes...recordings, motion picture or television films, videotapes...means, or by placing an advertisement for the tax shelter in a...recording, motion picture or television film, videotape,...

2011-04-01

278

26 CFR 301.6111-1T - Questions and answers relating to tax shelter registration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...recordings, motion picture or television films, videotapes...recordings, motion picture or television films, videotapes...means, or by placing an advertisement for the tax shelter in a...recording, motion picture or television film, videotape,...

2013-04-01

279

26 CFR 301.6111-1T - Questions and answers relating to tax shelter registration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...recordings, motion picture or television films, videotapes...recordings, motion picture or television films, videotapes...means, or by placing an advertisement for the tax shelter in a...recording, motion picture or television film, videotape,...

2010-04-01

280

Listen to the voices of unwed teenage mothers in Malaysian shelter homes: an explorative study.  

PubMed

This qualitative research aims to explore the daily life experiences of Malaysian unwed teenage mothers in shelter homes. The research is based on the thematic analysis of interviews with seventeen respondents aged from 12 to 18 years. Eight sub-themes described the experience of the unwed teenage mothers in the shelter home and led to three overall themes: rules and regulations, relationship with the staff and relationship with the other girls at the shelter home. The findings indicated that the shelter homes involved were not fulfilling the standard of the Malaysian national laws and United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child. We strongly suggest that the authorities provide a clear guideline concerning the implementation of Malaysian national laws and United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child. PMID:23985103

Saim, Nor Jana; Dufåker, Mona; Eriksson, Malin; Ghazinour, Mehdi

2013-09-01

281

72. View of tunnel intake building, looking southwest. The winches ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

72. View of tunnel intake building, looking southwest. The winches for the trash racks, sheltered by a wood-frame structure with a gable roof, are to the left. Photo by Jet Lowe, HAER, 1989. - Puget Sound Power & Light Company, White River Hydroelectric Project, 600 North River Avenue, Dieringer, Pierce County, WA

282

Detail view of part of east side of building showing ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Detail view of part of east side of building showing scorecard and pencil holder - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Golf Course Waiting Shelter, Southwest area of Golf Course, 700 feet Northeast of intersection of West Harlow Avenue & Peoria Street, Aurora, Adams County, CO

283

Tree windbreaks and shelter benefits to pasture in temperate grazing systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of windbreaks on pastures are reviewed, with an emphasis on temperate grazing systems. Mechanisms of plant response\\u000a to shelter are dealt with in brief. Few papers on measured responses of pasture species to shelter were located in a search\\u000a of the global literature for the period 1972–97. Except in cold climates, where the benefits of snow-trapping on water

P. R. Bird

1998-01-01

284

HIV\\/AIDS Knowledge and Prevention Programming in Domestic Violence Shelters: How Are We Doing?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Domestic violence shelters (n = 59) in two southwestern states were surveyed about their services related to HIV prevention. Variables included organizational characteristics, agency protocols and practices, HIV\\/AIDS prevention programming, staffs’ HIV\\/AIDS knowledge, and staffs’ attitudes regarding HIV\\/AIDS prevention for women exposed to intimate partner violence. In this exploratory, descriptive study results indicated that most shelters had a significant awareness of how

Michele A. Rountree; Jeremy Goldbach; Tricia Bent-Goodley; Meredith Bagwell

2011-01-01

285

Healing the Earth - Earth observation supporting international environmental conventions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ESA is building long-term relationships with several user communities that can benefit from the Agency's Earth observation programmes. Since 2000, ESA has been working in close collaboration on three international environmental conventions. Here we see how its Earth observation activities are benefiting these conventions.

Arino, Olivier; Fernandez-Prieto, Diego; Volden, Espen

2006-11-01

286

Service learning: Priority 4 Paws mobile surgical service for shelter animals.  

PubMed

The increasing attention given to competencies needed to enter the workforce has revealed a need for veterinary students to gain more experience in performing small-animal elective surgery before graduation. In addition, guidelines for standards of care for shelter animals recommend that all dogs and cats should be spayed or neutered before adoption. Teaching surgical skills while serving the needs of local animal shelters represents an ideal service-learning opportunity. Following a pilot study and the benchmarking of other programs, an elective course in shelter medicine and surgery was created at Purdue University College of Veterinary Medicine (PVM) to allow senior DVM students an opportunity to spend 2 weeks on a mobile surgery unit (Priority 4 Paws) and 1 week at an animal shelter. With financial assistance from sponsors and donors, PVM purchased and equipped a mobile surgery unit, hired a full-time veterinarian and a registered veterinary technician, and established relationships with 12 animal shelters. From July 30, 2012, to March 22, 2013, 1,941 spays and neuters were performed with excellent postsurgical outcomes while training 33 veterinary students on rotation and 26 veterinary technician students. The program was well accepted by both students and the shelters being served. The Priority 4 Paws program is an example of an integrated, community-based service-learning opportunity that not only helps to improve the surgical skills of veterinary students but also helps to meet an identified community need. PMID:24113722

Freeman, Lynetta J; Ferguson, Nancy; Litster, Annette; Arighi, Mimi

2013-01-01

287

Assessing the Use of Diurnal Resting Shelters by Culiseta melanura (Diptera: Culicidae)  

PubMed Central

Twenty resting shelters were set on the edge of a known Culiseta breeding habitat in four groups of five to support a 4 × 4 Latin square field experiment. Collection times were 0900, 1100, 1300, and 1500 hours and systematically rotated for the order by which each group of five boxes was collected. Mosquitoes were collected from resting shelters by chloroform anesthetization. Collections were identified to species, sex, and physiological status of the females (nonblooded or blood-fed and gravid). More than 77% of the mosquitoes collected were Culiseta melanura (Coquillett). Analyses included means and SE for total collections and shelter-day (number collected per units) and means comparison by t-test and general linear model with Student–Newman–Keuls or least significant differences means tests for replicate, group, time, and interactions of time and group. There were few significant differences among or between shelter-day means but more blood-fed and gravid female Cs. melanura were collected at 1300 hours than any other time. Results confirm the effectiveness of resting shelters in a surveillance program for Cs. melanura, demonstrate the ßexibility of resting shelters as a surveillance tool, and suggest that Cs. melanura will move to more acceptable resting sites during daylight. PMID:21845953

HOWARD, JOHN J.; OLIVER, JOANNE; KRAMER, LAURA D.

2012-01-01

288

The Meaning of ‘Build Back Better’: Evidence From Post-Tsunami Aceh and Sri Lanka  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 26 December 2004 tsunami disaster around the Indian Ocean provided an opportunity to see if decades of knowledge and experience on post-disaster settlement and shelter could be applied to match the tagline which many groups gave to the post-tsunami reconstruction: ‘build back better’ (or ‘building back better’). This paper uses evidence from field work completed on implementing settlement and

Jim Kennedy; Joseph Ashmore; Elizabeth Babister; Ilan Kelman

2008-01-01

289

Green Buildings Virtual Tour  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, learners will use Google Earth to explore the diversity of green buildings around the world. During the activity, they will look for and record the characteristics that make buildings 'green'. They will also refer to the LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) consensus-based national rating system to understand how buildings are developed to be both effective and sustainable. This lesson plan includes suggested resources, wrap-up discussion questions, key vocabulary, and is standards-based.

Sciences, California A.

2009-01-01

290

Engineering for the Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Young students are introduced to the complex systems of the Earth through numerous lessons on its natural resources, processes, weather, climate and landforms. Key earth science topics include rocks, soils and minerals, water and natural resources, weather patterns and climatic regions, wind, erosion, landforms, and the harvesting of fossil fuelsâall presented from an engineering point-of-view. (See the Unit Overview section for a list of topics by lesson.) Through many hands-on activities, students build and test sand castles for construction strength, measure snow melt as a potential water source, use colored ice cubes and salt water to learn about ocean currents, make 3-D water catchment basins, make surface tension/surfactant-powered paper boats, build and use wind vanes, build and test model wind turbines, model and observe five types of erosion, model acid rain using chalk and kitchen supplies, build transportation systems across their own 3-D model landscapes, take core samples from a clay model of the Earth's crust, read and create graphs and charts as they learn about international oil production and consumption, act as engineers by specifying the power plants to build for communities, given scenarios with budgets, energy needs and environmental impacts. They learn the steps of the engineering design process as they hypothesize ways engineers might obtain water for communities facing water crises.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

291

Earth\\'s Surface  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

You have already learned about the four major parts of Earth\\'s system: atmosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere, and geosphere. Go to the following sites to learn more about rocks and minerals, continental drift, and geologic time. When you finish viewing all the sites, you will participate in a problem-based learning activity, \\"The Case of the Disappearing Dirt.\\" Topographic Maps All About Geology Answer the questions on the handout. Erosion and Weathering Summarize what your learned about erosion and weathering. Examine a landscape formed by erosion Observe the effects of mechanical weathering Plate Tectonics FAQ s About Rocks and Fossils Igneous Rocks Rocks and Minerals Slide Show Rock Cycle Observe an animation of metamorphic rocks forming Continental Drift Mineralogy 4 kids : rockin Internet site : the best place to learn about rocks and minerals Draw a picture of the rock cycle. Coasting Away ...

Mathis, Ms.

2008-01-11

292

7 Evolution When we are looking for intelligent life outside the Earth, there is a funda-  

E-print Network

organism on Earth ghts for its existence (food, light, territory, and shelter) and for its successful di erent genes for coloring; the available genes of the bug population is called gene pool. As white meetings of predator and prey the preference of selection is due to the laws of nature, in this case color

Ulmschneider, Peter

293

Elimination Behavior of Shelter Dogs Housed in Double Compartment Kennels  

PubMed Central

For animals in confinement housing the housing structure has tremendous potential to impact well being. Dogs in animal shelters are often housed in one of two types of confinement housing – single kennels and rooms or double compartment kennels and rooms most often separated by a guillotine door. This study examines the effect of housing on the location of elimination behavior in dogs housed in double compartment kennels were the majority of the dogs were walked daily. One side of the kennel contained the food, water and bed and the other side was empty and available except during cleaning time. Location of urination and defecation was observed daily for 579 dogs housed in indoor double compartment kennels for a total of 4440 days of observation. There were 1856 days (41.9%) when no elimination was noted in the kennel. Feces, urine or both were observed in the kennel on 2584 days (58.1%). When elimination occurred in the kennel the probability of fecal elimination on the opposite side of the bed/food/water was 72.5% (95% CI 69.05% to 75.69%). The probability of urination on the opposite side of the bed/food/water was 77.4% (95% CI 74.33% to 80.07%). This study demonstrates the strong preference of dogs to eliminate away from the area where they eat, drink and sleep. Double compartment housing not only allows this – it allows staff the ability to provide safe, efficient, humane daily care and confers the added benefits of reducing risks for disease transmission for the individual dog as well as the population. PMID:24825357

Wagner, Denae; Newbury, Sandra; Kass, Philip; Hurley, Kate

2014-01-01

294

Building a Sense of Scale and Geographic Context: Virtual Field Trips Created With Google Earth and QuickTime Virtual Reality (QTVR)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Virtual field trips are no substitute for observing rocks in their natural habitat. They can, however, offer a number of advantages that are not as easily experienced in the traditional field or lab setting. Chief among these is the ability to integrate information at a wide variety of scales. Virtual globes such as Google Earth are ideally suited to illustrate the spatial relationships between geologic features on scales from the entire planet down to small topographic features such as hills or valleys. By combining Google Earth's native satellite imagery with more detailed imagery and/or map overlays one can emphasize a variety of geologic information at a range of scales. QuickTime Virtual Reality (QTVR) panoramas are well suited for viewing features from the outcrop to regional scale; QTVR object movies are well adapted to viewing objects at hand sample down to microscopic scales. All of these techniques offer some level of interactivity for the viewer. Integrating these tools to create virtual field trips can be done in a number of ways. By embedding hyperlinks within QTVR images or panoramas a sequence of geographically related virtual field trip "stops" can be linked together. Alternately, a series of images could be linked to "zoom" to different scales (i.e., from tectonic to microscopic scales). Because Google Earth has web-browser capabilities built in, it is possible to use HTML and KML to create a navigation scheme that ties various geographically related "stops" together. The integrated use of these tools should give students a better sense of the relationships of scale and geographic context than traditional field or lab experiences alone.

Schott, R. C.

2006-12-01

295

Development of a Fuel Containing Material Removal and Waste Management Strategy for the Chernobyl Unit 4 Shelter  

SciTech Connect

A study was performed to develop a strategy for the removal of fuel-containing material (FCM) from the Chernobyl Unit 4 Shelter and for the related waste management. This study was performed during Phase 1 of the Shelter Implementation Plan (SIP) and was funded by the Chernobyl Shelter Fund. The main objective for Phase 2 of the SIP is to stabilize the Shelter and to construct a New Confinement (NC) by the year 2007. In addition, the SIP includes studies on the strategy and on the conceptual design implications of the removal of FCM from the Shelter. This is considered essential for the ultimate goal, the transformation of the Shelter into an environmentally safe system.

Tokarevsky, V. V.; Shibetsky, Y. A.; Leister, P.; Davison, W. R.; Follin, J. F.; McNair, J.; Lins, W.; Edler, G.

2002-02-27

296

Service quality and corporate social responsibility, influence on post-purchase intentions of sheltered employment institutions.  

PubMed

The main purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of service quality and corporate social responsibility (CSR) on customer satisfaction, and customer satisfaction toward post-purchase intentions from sheltered employment institutions. Work experience plays an important role in career development for those people with intellectual disabilities. When they are not yet capable of obtaining a job in the open market, they must receive job training and daily care in sheltered employment institutions. If the sheltered employment institutions cannot operate properly, they will greatly affect intellectual disabilities. From the study of "Children Are Us Bakeries and Restaurants" sheltered employment institutions are one kind of food service business that has been found to request and improve service quality and execution of CSR. These are two main factors which can enhance brand value and create a good reputation for sheltered employment institutions. The questionnaire results indicate that perceived service quality has a positive relationship with customer satisfaction and the reliability dimension is the most important factor for customers to assess service quality. Meanwhile, correlation analysis shows that customer satisfaction regarding service quality influences post-purchase intentions, indicating that friendly and helpful employees can please customers and enhance their satisfaction level and also induce positive post-purchase intentions of consumers. Regarding the CSR of "Children Are Us Bakeries and Restaurants" sheltered employment institutions, the analysis reveals a statistical significance: the greater customer satisfaction of CSR, the higher the post-purchase intention. In addition, in the work, paired-sample t test analysis reveals there is a significant difference (p<.05) in service quality and CSR in terms of "perceived" and "expected" responses. In summary, since those with intellectual disabilities usually are enthusiastic at work and do their best to provide good service and execute CSR well, the value of sheltered employment institutions establishments should be recognized by all should receive continued support and there should be a willingness to hire these intellectually disabled citizens. PMID:22699256

Chen, Chao-Chien; Lin, Shih-Yen; Cheng, Chia-Hsin; Tsai, Chia-Ching

2012-01-01

297

9 CFR 3.3 - Sheltered housing facilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...animals, when the floor areas are not exposed to the direct sun, or are made of a hard material such as wire, wood, metal...floor areas in contact with the animals and exposed to the direct sun may consist of compacted earth, absorbent bedding, sand,...

2012-01-01

298

9 CFR 3.3 - Sheltered housing facilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...animals, when the floor areas are not exposed to the direct sun, or are made of a hard material such as wire, wood, metal...floor areas in contact with the animals and exposed to the direct sun may consist of compacted earth, absorbent bedding, sand,...

2013-01-01

299

9 CFR 3.3 - Sheltered housing facilities.  

...animals, when the floor areas are not exposed to the direct sun, or are made of a hard material such as wire, wood, metal...floor areas in contact with the animals and exposed to the direct sun may consist of compacted earth, absorbent bedding, sand,...

2014-01-01

300

9 CFR 3.3 - Sheltered housing facilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...animals, when the floor areas are not exposed to the direct sun, or are made of a hard material such as wire, wood, metal...floor areas in contact with the animals and exposed to the direct sun may consist of compacted earth, absorbent bedding, sand,...

2011-01-01

301

9 CFR 3.3 - Sheltered housing facilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...animals, when the floor areas are not exposed to the direct sun, or are made of a hard material such as wire, wood, metal...floor areas in contact with the animals and exposed to the direct sun may consist of compacted earth, absorbent bedding, sand,...

2010-01-01

302

Computerized building energy simulation handbook  

SciTech Connect

This book provides practical, down-to-earth coverage of the non-software aspects of using computerized building energy simulation. While software is the principal tool in the process, the focus of this presentation is on the data needed to build a model, how to build a model, examining the results, diagnosing problems with a model, and calibrating them to reality. For those who have been frustrated trying to build faithful models of existing buildings, or have become skeptical of the efficacy of building simulation -- or are just trying to do a better job simulating buildings -- this book will offer welcome assistance.

Waltz, J.P.

1999-09-01

303

The influence of spirituality on service utilization and satisfaction for women residing in a domestic violence shelter.  

PubMed

Little is known about the influence of spirituality on service utilization and satisfaction among women survivors of intimate partner abuse (IPA). The purpose of this study was to examine differences between shelter and faith-based service utilization and satisfaction in a shelter sample (N = 73). Multiple regression techniques were used. The findings suggest that survivors with higher spirituality were more likely to utilize faith-based resources than shelters. Those who experienced greater IPA reported dissatisfaction with faith-based resources. These results suggest that spirituality should be incorporated into shelter services to meet survivors' spiritual needs, and faith-based services should adequately address IPA. PMID:22016470

Fowler, Dawnovise N; Faulkner, Monica; Learman, Joy; Runnels, Ratonia

2011-10-01

304

Sheltering effect and indirect pathogenesis of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii in polymicrobial infection.  

PubMed

The role of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAb) in polymicrobial infection remains elusive. Having observed the ability of CRAb to shelter other susceptible bacteria from carbapenem killing, we sought to determine the factors contributing to this sheltering effect by transforming different recombinant plasmids into recipient A. baumannii cells. The sheltering effects of CRAb were reproduced in recipient A. baumannii cells that highly expressed carbapenem-hydrolyzing class D ?-lactamases (CHDLs) through their associated strong promoter. With the use of Western blot analysis and a bioassay, the highly expressed CHDLs were found to be extracellularly released and led to hydrolysis of carbapenem. The level of extracellular CHDLs increased after challenge with a higher concentration of CHDL substrates, such as carbapenem and ticarcillin. This increased CHDL may, in part, be attributed to cell lysis, as indicated by the presence of extracellular gyrase. In the planktonic condition, the sheltering effect for the cocultured susceptible bacteria might represent an indirect and passive effect of the CRAb self-defense mechanism, because coculture with the susceptible pathogen did not augment the amount of the extracellular CHDLs. Polymicrobial infection caused by CRAb and a susceptible counterpart exerted higher pathogenicity than monomicrobial infection caused by either pathogen alone in mice receiving carbapenem therapy. This study demonstrated that CHDL-producing CRAb appears to provide a sheltering effect for carbapenem-susceptible pathogens via the extracellular release of CHDLs and, by this mechanism, can enhance the pathogenesis of polymicrobial infection in the presence of carbapenem therapy. PMID:24798276

Liao, Yu-Ting; Kuo, Shu-Chen; Lee, Yi-Tzu; Chen, Chien-Pei; Lin, Shu-Wen; Shen, Li-Jiuan; Fung, Chang-Phone; Cho, Wen-Long; Chen, Te-Li

2014-07-01

305

Simple rain-shelter cultivation prolongs accumulation period of anthocyanins in wine grape berries.  

PubMed

Simple rain-shelter cultivation is normally applied during the grape growth season in continental monsoon climates aiming to reduce the occurrence of diseases caused by excessive rainfall. However, whether or not this cultivation practice affects the composition and concentration of phenolic compounds in wine grapes remains unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of rain-shelter cultivation on the accumulation of anthocyanins in wine grapes (Vitis vinifera L. Cabernet Sauvignon) grown in eastern China. The results showed that rain-shelter cultivation, compared with the open-field, extended the period of rapid accumulation of sugar, increased the soluble solid content in the grape berries, and delayed the senescence of the green leaves at harvest. The concentrations of most anthocyanins were significantly enhanced in the rain-shelter cultivated grapes, and their content increases were closely correlated with the accumulation of sugar. However, the compositions of anthocyanins in the berries were not altered. Correspondingly, the expressions of VvF3'H, VvF3'5'H, and VvUFGT were greatly up-regulated and this rising trend appeared to continue until berry maturation. These results suggested that rain-shelter cultivation might help to improve the quality of wine grape berries by prolonging the life of functional leaves and hence increasing the assimilation products. PMID:25232706

Li, Xiao-Xi; He, Fei; Wang, Jun; Li, Zheng; Pan, Qiu-Hong

2014-01-01

306

Coordinating Communities and Building Governance in the Development of Schematic and Semantic Standards: the Key to Solving Global Earth and Space Science Challenges in the 21st Century.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Information Age in Science is being driven partly by the data deluge as exponentially growing volumes of data are being generated by research. Such large volumes of data cannot be effectively processed by humans and efficient and timely processing by computers requires development of specific machine readable formats. Further, as key challenges in earth and space sciences, such as climate change, hazard prediction and sustainable development resources require a cross disciplinary approach, data from various domains will need to be integrated from globally distributed sources also via machine to machine formats. However, it is becoming increasingly apparent that the existing standards can be very domain specific and most existing data transfer formats require human intervention. Where groups from different communities do try combine data across the domain/discipline boundaries much time is spent reformatting and reorganizing the data and it is conservatively estimated that this can take 80% of a project's time and resources. Four different types of standards are required for machine to machine interaction: systems, syntactic, schematic and semantic. Standards at the systems (WMS, WFS, etc) and at the syntactic level (GML, Observation and Measurement, SensorML) are being developed through international standards bodies such as ISO, OGC, W3C, IEEE etc. In contrast standards at the schematic level (e.g., GeoSciML, LandslidesML, WaterML, QuakeML) and at the semantic level (ie ontologies and vocabularies) are currently developing rapidly, in a very uncoordinated way and with little governance. As the size of the community that can machine read each others data depends on the size of the community that has developed the schematic or semantic standards, it is essential that to achieve global integration of earth and space science data, the required standards need to be developed through international collaboration using accepted standard proceedures. Once developed the standards also require some form of governance to maintain and then extend the standard as the science evolves to meet new challenges. A standard that does have some governance is GeoSciML, a data transfer standard for geoscience map data. GeoSciML is currently being developed by a consortium of 7 countries under the auspices of the Commission for the Management of and Application of Geoscience Information (CGI), a commission of the International Union of Geological Sciences. Perhaps other `ML' or ontology and vocabulary development `teams' need to look to their international domain specific specialty societies for endorsement and governance. But the issue goes beyond Earth and Space Sciences, as increasingly cross and intra disciplinary science requires machine to machine interaction with other science disciplines such as physics, chemistry and astronomy. For example, for geochemistry do we develop GeochemistryML or do we extend the existing Chemical Markup Language? Again, the question is who will provide the coordination of the development of the required schematic and semantic standards that underpin machine to machine global integration of science data. Is this a role for ICSU or CODATA or who? In order to address this issue, Geoscience Australia and CSIRO established the Solid Earth and Environmental Grid Community website to enable communities to `advertise' standards development and to provide a community TWIKI where standards can be developed in a globally `open' environment.

Wyborn, L. A.

2007-12-01

307

The Earth System Model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Earth System Model is the natural evolution of current climate models and will be the ultimate embodiment of our geophysical understanding of the planet. These models are constructed from components - atmosphere, ocean, ice, land, chemistry, solid earth, etc. models and merged together through a coupling program which is responsible for the exchange of data from the components. Climate models and future earth system models will have standardized modules, and these standards are now being developed by the ESMF project funded by NASA. The Earth System Model will have a variety of uses beyond climate prediction. The model can be used to build climate data records making it the core of an assimilation system, and it can be used in OSSE experiments to evaluate. The computing and storage requirements for the ESM appear to be daunting. However, the Japanese ES theoretical computing capability is already within 20% of the minimum requirements needed for some 2010 climate model applications. Thus it seems very possible that a focused effort to build an Earth System Model will achieve succcss.

Schoeberl, Mark; Rood, Richard B.; Hildebrand, Peter; Raymond, Carol

2003-01-01

308

Google Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Google Earth has gone underwater with this latest iteration of their popular Earth-roaming application. Along with traveling the usual roads provided by previous versions of Google Earth, visitors can now visit the bottom of the Mariana Trench, learn about ocean observations, and even discover new places to surf and dive. On the Google Earth homepage, visitors can take a guided tour of all these new features. This version is compatible with all operating systems.

2009-01-01

309

Snowball Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Audio program from the University of Wisconsin's Earthwatch Radio discusses the notion of the entire planet covered with ice. Doug Macdougall is an earth scientist at the University of California-San Diego and author of a new book called "Frozen Earth." He says the planet-wide freeze is known as "Snowball Earth."

310

Earth Changes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These activities give students a hands-on feeling for the relationships between the Earth's structural layers and aid them in understanding the world around them. They will be able to identify (by modeling) the Earth's structure (core, mantle and crust) and also (by experiment and demonstration) the forces within the Earth that cause constant changes on the surface (earthquakes).

1998-01-01

311

Planet Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For those interested in a global view of the weather, Planet Earth is a "real-time 3-D model of the Earth with continuously updating night shadows and clouds." Cloud images are provided by the University of Wisconsin-Madison Space Science and Engineering Center. Planet Earth is shareware with a fee of $29.95.

312

Chernobyl shelter implementation plan -- project development and planning: Setting the stage for progress  

SciTech Connect

On April 26, 1986, the Chernobyl nuclear power plant (NPP) experienced a devastating accident. This accident left much of the plant and its safety systems destroyed with widespread radioactive waste contamination from the damaged nuclear fuel. In the 6 months following the accident, heroic measures were taken to stabilize the situation and erect a temporary confinement shelter over the damaged unit 4. Since that time the shelter and the contained radioactive materials and debris have begun to deteriorate. Lack of funding and staff has allowed only minor improvements to occur on-site, resulting in an existing shelter that is unstable and deteriorating. International aid has been provided to develop a comprehensive plan for the safe and environmentally sound conversion of the damaged Chernobyl reactor. These efforts are being performed in conjunction with US experts, European experts, and local Chernobyl NPP personnel. This plan is discussed here.

Johnson, W. [Parsons Infrastructure and Technology Group, Richland, WA (United States); Kreid, D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); DeFranco, W. [Science Applications International Corp., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

1998-09-01

313

An Evaluation of a Behaviour Assessment to Determine the Suitability of Shelter Dogs for Rehoming  

PubMed Central

We evaluated a scheme for assessing shelter dog behaviour, which used 28 tests and rated responses from 0 (positive response) to 5 (fear, tonic immobility, or escape attempts). The assessment was evaluated for 236 dogs, and was repeated by a different assessor for 39 dogs approximately 80 days after rehoming to determine relevance of individual test components. A new owner survey evaluated satisfaction with the dog. A total of 130 of 236 dogs passed (score ? 70), 24 scored 71–80 (referred for behavioural modification), and 82 (score > 80) failed. Scores were mainly unaffected by dog type and environmental variables, but decreased if dog faeces from a previous test was present in the arena during a test. Shelter tests only correlated with repeat tests if there was no direct contact with assessors. Adopters were satisfied with their dogs, despite reporting some behaviour problems. The shelter assessment was therefore robust against most outside influences but did not predict responses to people well. PMID:20445786

Poulsen, A. H.; Lisle, A. T.; Phillips, C. J. C.

2010-01-01

314

Threats and acts of intimate partner violence reported by users at Norwegian women's shelters.  

PubMed

Women (n = 87) at women's shelters in Norway, a country of high welfare and gender equality, reported a multitude of severe threats and actual acts of physical, sexual and psychological violence. An individual threatening to kill his partner represented a significant increased risk for experiencing serious acts of violence, especially when the threats were repeated. A self-administered questionnaire was sent to all the women's shelters. Experiences of violence were measured by The Severity of Violence against Women Scale (SVAWS) and the Psychological Maltreatment of Women Index (PMWI). PMID:20587473

Alsaker, Kjersti; Kristoffersen, Kjell; Moen, Bente E; Baste, Valborg

2011-03-01

315

Cognitive Behavioral Treatment of PTSD in Residents of Battered Women's Shelters: Results of a Randomized Clinical Trial  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: This study was designed to explore the acceptability, feasibility, and initial efficacy of a new shelter-based treatment for victims of intimate partner violence (IPV; i.e., Helping to Overcome PTSD through Empowerment [HOPE]). Method: A Phase I randomized clinical trial comparing HOPE (n = 35) with standard shelter services (SSS) (n =…

Johnson, Dawn M.; Zlotnick, Caron; Perez, Sara

2011-01-01

316

The Perceived Impact of a Child Maltreatment Report from the Perspective of the Domestic Violence Shelter Worker  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is to examine domestic violence shelter workers' perceptions of child maltreatment reporting. A sample of 82 professionals from domestic violence shelters across the United States participated in a survey focusing on a variety of different types of reports and the frequency of both positive and negative outcomes arising…

Steen, Julie A.

2009-01-01

317

What Do Abused Women Expect from Their Family Physicians? A Qualitative Study Among Women in Shelter Homes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To gain insight into the needs and expectations of abused women in shelter homes, with regard to family physicians.Methods: Twelve women in two shelter homes were interviewed. The interview focused on women's experiences and expectations of family physicians regarding the abuse situation.Results: Eight women did not disclose intimate partner abuse to their family physicians. The main reasons were shame

Wietske Wester; Sylvie Lo Fo Wong; Antoine L. M. Lagro-Janssen

2007-01-01

318

Impact of Intensive Professional Development on Teachers' Use of Sheltered Instruction with Students Who Are English Language Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of professional development on teachers' use of sheltered instruction. The participants included 23 teachers from the same elementary school who participated in all components of the study over a span of two years. Teachers demonstrated increased knowledge of sheltered instruction as measured…

Crawford, Lindy; Schmeister, Megan; Biggs, Alicia

2008-01-01

319

66 South African Archaeological Society Goodwin Series 10: 6689, 2008 THE YSTERFONTEIN 1 MIDDLE STONE AGE ROCK SHELTER  

E-print Network

STONE AGE ROCK SHELTER AND THE EVOLUTION OF COASTAL FORAGING GRAHAM AVERY1 , DAVID HALKETT2 , JAYSON on the back face of a dune that stood near the shelter mouth. Middle Stone Age (MSA) activity on the dune resources less inten- sively than their Later Stone Age (LSA) successors and that their populations were

320

Oral supplementation with l-lysine did not prevent upper respiratory infection in a shelter population of cats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cats in animal shelters are highly susceptible to infection by feline herpesvirus (FHV) by virtue of their stress and close proximity to other cats. Animal shelters take several different approaches to prevent FHV-related upper respiratory infections (URIs), including empirically treating all cats with l-lysine, a supplement believed to prevent the replication of FHV and, therefore, manifestations of herpesvirus infections. In

Tina M. Rees; Janet L. Lubinski

2008-01-01

321

Earth's Surface Features  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students work in pairs on this worksheet and strengthen their background knowledge by identifying different features in photographs of Earth's surface. Then to build on this base, the students need to determine the key processes that form each of the features. To address a common misconception, students read a debate between two hypothetical students and need to determine which student is stating the scientifically correct idea. The project is summarized by a question posed about the features on a hypothetical planet.

Smay, Jessica

322

Discover Earth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Discover Earth is a NASA-sponsored project for teachers of grades 5-12, designed to: (1) enhance understanding of the Earth as an integrated system; (2) enhance the interdisciplinary approach to science instruction; and (3) provide classroom materials that focus on those goals. Discover Earth is conducted by the Institute for Global Environmental Strategies in collaboration with Dr. Eric Barron, Director, Earth System Science Center, The Pennsylvania State University; and Dr. Robert Hudson, Chair, the Department of Meteorology, University of Maryland at College Park. The enclosed materials: (1) represent only part of the Discover Earth materials; (2) were developed by classroom teachers who are participating in the Discover Earth project; (3) utilize an investigative approach and on-line data; and (4) can be effectively adjusted to classrooms with greater/without technology access. The Discover Earth classroom materials focus on the Earth system and key issues of global climate change including topics such as the greenhouse effect, clouds and Earth's radiation balance, surface hydrology and land cover, and volcanoes and climate change. All the materials developed to date are available on line at (http://www.strategies.org) You are encouraged to submit comments and recommendations about these materials to the Discover Earth project manager, contact information is listed below. You are welcome to duplicate all these materials.

Steele, Colleen

1998-01-01

323

Tree shelter and interplanted n-fixing shrub effects on crop tree growth on a calcareous minesoil  

SciTech Connect

In southeastern Ohio, we installed three studies to test the effects of plastic tube tree shelters and interplanted N-fixing shrubs on crop tree survival and growth. Study 1 on graded gray cast overburden used white ash (Fraxinus Americana L.) and a hybrid willow (Salix matsudana x alba, or Austree) as crop trees. These were tested in factorial combination with 1.2 m tall tree shelters (present or absent) and N-fixing shrubs [none, bristly locust (Robinia fertilis Ashe), or Siberian peashrub (Caragana arborescens Lam. )]. Study 2 evaluated growth of bur oak (Quercus macrocarpa Michx.) as affected by soil surf ace (graded cast overburden or ripped topsoil), presence of tree shelters, and presence of interplanted Siberian peashrub. Study 3 tested Austree growth as affected by soil surf ace and presence of tree shelters. After four or five growing seasons, overall crop tree survivals were white ash (80%), bur oak (52%), and Austree (10% in study 1 and 25% in study 3). All crop tree species tended to survive better with tree shelters but only Austree in study 3 (36% with shelter vs. 14% without shelter) showed a significant difference. Tree shelters increased heights of white ash (102 cm with shelter vs. 21 cm without shelter) and bur oak (84 cm vs. 27 cm). Crop tree survival and growth were not affected significantly by interplanted N-fixing shrubs or by soil surface. In study 1 (cast overburden only), peashrub (64%) survived better than bristly locust (31%) but locust was taller (74 cm vs. 45 cm). In study 2, peashrub survived better on ripped topsoil (53%) than cast overburden (17%), but height was not impressive on either soil (41{+-}11 cm).

Kost, D.A.; Larson, M.M.; Vimmerstedt, J.P. [Ohio State Univ. and Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center, Wooster, OH (United States)

1996-12-31

324

Architectural stone investigation - What makes great buildings?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is best placed as a follow-up activity to the study of minerals and the three major rock types in an introductory physical geology course. Students are required to work in small cooperative groups. Each group chooses a major building to research. The group divides the tasks associated with the research and presentation of information. The overall goal of the project is for students to gain an understanding of the importance and uses of earth materials in building and planning major buildings in an urban setting. The general format of the project is: 1. Students research building design, placement and use of earth materials in a major building. 2. Students research the earth materials used in their building. 3. Students create and show their PowerPoint presentation in class. 4. Students prepare and deliver an on-site oral presentation about their building. The activity helps students connect a basic study of earth materials to urban planning and living.

Awad, Aida

325

2010-2011 Inventors Competition--Winners of the "Gimme Shelter" Competition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The number of entries to this year's "Tech Directions" Inventors Competition exceeded even the record set by the 2009-2010 contest--and gave engineer/inventor Harry T. Roman quite a judging challenge. This year's challenge called on students to propose designs for inexpensive, portable shelters that could be used by people made homeless by natural…

Tech Directions, 2011

2011-01-01

326

Cognitive Coaching: A Critical Phase in Professional Development to Implement Sheltered Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This documentary account describes professional development for teachers in the USA serving culturally and linguistically diverse students. The purpose of the project was to monitor effectiveness of training in Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol (SIOP) and to assess the value of cognitive coaching. Quantitative and qualitative data sources…

Batt, Ellen G.

2010-01-01

327

Use of a mobile health van by a vulnerable population: Homeless sheltered women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is known about the health status of homeless women. In this study, we examined the health problems of and services provided to sheltered, homeless, Midwestern women who used a mobile health van. Our objectives were to document these women's ages, self?reported past medical histories, self?reported histories of addictions and hospitalizations, presenting concerns, diagnoses, and visit patterns. To this end,

Diane McGee; Martha Morgan; Mary J. McNamee; Jean Krajicek Bartek

1995-01-01

328

139. VIEW OF AGENA TRANSFER AREA SHELTER (117A), LSB (BLDG. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

139. VIEW OF AGENA TRANSFER AREA SHELTER (117A), LSB (BLDG. 770), FROM VEHICLE CHECKOUT AREA (117). STAINLESS STEEL FLOOR SQUARE BY LOCKER WAS LEVEL PEDESTAL. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

329

Groundwater Modeling of Recharge and Seepage in Coastal Area of Shelter Island West of Coecles Inlet  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shelter Island draws all of its water from a thin wedge (with an average thickness of ~ 80') of the anisotropic and unconfined Upper Glacial aquifer, that is surrounded on all sides and below by saline groundwater. Consequently, the aquifer is vulnerable to contamination, mainly salt water intrusion that may be aggravated by well pumping near the coast. In order

Anthony Caniano; Teng-fong Wong; Ronald J. Paulsen

330

Books, Books, Books--Let Us Read: A Library Serving Sheltered and Incarcerated Youth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the growth and development of a library program serving a shelter for abused and neglected children and youth and a juvenile detention center in Orange County (California). Program funding, materials preferred by teen users, library management, special events, and problems are discussed. Teen patrons and their use of the services are…

Carlson, Pam

1994-01-01

331

Facilitation of bilberry by mountain birch in habitat severely disturbed by pollution: Importance of sheltering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earlier we demonstrated that in heavily polluted industrial barren dwarf shrubs grew and reproduced better under top-canopy plants than in gaps, while in undisturbed forests they performed better in gaps than under tree canopies. During 2002–2004 we used bilberry, Vaccinium myrtillus to experimentally test the hypothesis that positive effects observed in industrial barrens were due to mechanical sheltering of dwarf

Elena L. Zvereva; Mikhail V. Kozlov

2007-01-01

332

Self-Management "Additives" for Improving Work Productivity of Mentally Retarded Workers in Sheltered Workshops.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study compared the addition of two self-management strategies to typical supervision to improve productivity of eight mentally retarded workers in a sheltered workshop. Both strategies--(1) self monitoring plus goal setting and social contingencies and (2) addition of a monetary bonus for productivity--were equally effective in improving…

Mullen, Heather; Martin, Garry L.

1988-01-01

333

Portable Infection Control System: Mobile Medical Shelters for Surge Capabilities and Other Medical Emergencies  

Microsoft Academic Search

ISSUE: Can a Portable Isolation Containment System (PICS) meet the need for a suitable medical shelter in the field and provide the isolation requirements for infectious patients during surge or emergency conditions?PROJECT: An exercise was conducted using a PICS solution to determine the effectiveness of using a PICS for emergency (search and rescue) or surge conditions in the aftermath of

B. Matchung

2004-01-01

334

Trends in Domestic Violence Service and Leadership: Implications for an Integrated Shelter Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Domestic violence is a dangerous and prevalent social problem affecting up to 4 million women and countless children annually. Shelters offer safety and an opportunity for change during the crisis of family violence. These individuals also have the potential for retraumatization if leadership within the program recapitulates the abuse and coercion felt at home. This article reviews three related trends

Paula G. Panzer; Marie B. Philip; R. Anna Hayward

2000-01-01

335

Incidence and Correlates of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Battered WomenShelter and Community Samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Battered women have been identified as being at risk for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This study further articulated the nature of the relationship between the trauma of battery and PTSD. One hundred seventy-nine battered women and 48 nonbattered but verbally abused women were recruited from several sources (shelters, support groups, therapist referrals, community). Battered women with and without PTSD were

ANITA KEMP; BONNIE L. GREEN; CHRISTINE HOVANITZ; EDNA I. RAWLINGS

1995-01-01

336

Do mangrove root structures function to shelter benthic macrofauna from predators?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clarification of the role of mangrove root structures as shelter from predators for benthic animals was investigated by considering (1) the impact of predation on benthic faunal communities in a mangrove forest as indicated by a predator exclusion experiment, and (2) the uses and effects of mangrove root structures by benthic animals under laboratory conditions. In the exclusion experiment, three

Koetsu Kon; Hisashi Kurokura; Prasert Tongnunui

2009-01-01

337

Cyclone shelters and their locational suitability: an empirical analysis from coastal Bangladesh.  

PubMed

Bangladesh is one of the poorest and the most disaster-prone countries in Asia; it is important, therefore, to know how its disaster reduction strategies are organised and planned. Cyclone shelters comprise a widely acceptable form of infrastructural support for disaster management in Bangladesh. This paper attempts to analyse empirically their use during cyclones in a sample study area along the southwest coastal belt of the country. It shows how the location of a cyclone shelter can determine the social power structure in coastal Bangladesh. The results reveal that the establishment of cyclone shelters in the studied communities is determined by neither a right-based nor a demand-based planning approach; rather, their creation is dependent on the socio-political affluence of local-level decision-makers. The paper goes on to demonstrate that socially vulnerable households (defined, for example, by income or housing conditions) are afforded disproportionately less access to cyclone shelters as compared to less socially vulnerable households. PMID:24905715

Mallick, Bishawjit

2014-07-01

338

The applications of maximal covering model in Typhoon Emergency shelter Location Problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Typhoon-induced disaster is one of the most important factors influencing the economic development in China. One facet of evacuation is the withdrawal or removal of persons from a stricken or threatened area. Another is the resettlement of the victims, or potential victims, and the provision of shelter and resources in the areas to which those residents are moved. Typhoon Emergency

Pan Anping

2010-01-01

339

Gimme Shelter! Investigating the Social Service Interface from the Standpoint of Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using institutional ethnography, I demonstrate how one young man's efforts to find housing are shaped in relation to a complex institutional maze through which the immigration, child welfare, social assistance, and sheltering systems are linked. My goal is to show how a particular person's narrative can be used to illuminate the general…

Nichols, Naomi Elizabeth

2008-01-01

340

The representation of travel and identity in Bernardo Bertolucci's The sheltering sky  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aims to analyse the representation of travel in movies by analysing Bernando Bertolucci's movie [Aldrich, W., Thomas, J. (Producers), & Bertolucci, B. (Director). (1990). The sheltering sky [Motion picture]. United States: Warner Bros]. Filmic travelogues are intended here as illustrations of a process of discovery and transformation of identity from a post-modern perspective. The questioning of the self

Elisabetta Tesser

2010-01-01

341

GIS representation and assessment of water distribution system for Mae La Temporary Shelter, Thailand  

E-print Network

ArcGIS is used to analyze water access in Mae La, Thailand, home to 45,000 residents living as refugees in a temporary camp. Drinking water for the shelter is supplied at public tap stands while water for hygienic purposes ...

Harding, Mary Pierce

2008-01-01

342

Macrobenthic community response to copper in Shelter Island Yacht Basin, San Diego Bay, California  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined Cu contamination effects on macrobenthic communities and Cu concentration in invertebrates within Shelter Island Yacht Basin, San Diego Bay, California. Results indicate that at some sites, Cu in sediment has exceeded a threshold for “self defense” mechanisms and highlight the potential negative impacts on benthic faunal communities where Cu accumulates and persists in sediments. At sites with elevated

Carlos Neira; Guillermo Mendoza; Lisa A. Levin; Alberto Zirino; Francisco Delgadillo-Hinojosa; Magali Porrachia; Dimitri D. Deheyn

2011-01-01

343

The Effects of Aggression Replacement Training on Male and Female Antisocial Behavior in a Runaway Shelter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: A field study was conducted to test the effect of Aggression Replacement Training on male and female antisocial behavior in a runaway shelter. Method: An interrupted time series design was used in this study. The case records of 522 adolescents who stayed in a runaway shel - ter over a 519-day period were reviewed and measures of antisocial behavior

William R. Nugent; Charlene Bruley; Patricia Allen

1999-01-01

344

The Cumulative Cost-Effectiveness of Supported and Sheltered Employees with Mental Retardation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the cumulative costs generated by supported and sheltered employees with mental retardation throughout one "employment cycle," that is, from the moment they entered their respective programs to when they exited or stopped receiving services. Data indicate that supported employees acquired services costing funding sources a…

Cimera, Robert Evert

2007-01-01

345

A lifesaving model: teaching advanced procedures on shelter animals in a tertiary care facility.  

PubMed

It is estimated that there are over 5 million homeless animals in the United States. While the veterinary profession continues to evolve in advanced specialty disciplines, animal shelters in every community lack resources for basic care. Concurrently, veterinary students, interns, and residents have less opportunity for practical primary and secondary veterinary care experiences in tertiary-care institutions that focus on specialty training. The two main goals of this project were (1) to provide practical medical and animal-welfare experiences to veterinary students, interns, and residents, under faculty supervision, and (2) to care for animals with medical problems beyond a typical shelter's technical capabilities and budget. Over a two-year period, 22 animals from one humane society were treated at Colorado State University Veterinary Medical Center. Initial funding for medical expenses was provided by PetSmart Charities. All 22 animals were successfully treated and subsequently adopted. The results suggest that collaboration between a tertiary-care facility and a humane shelter can be used successfully to teach advanced procedures and to save homeless animals. The project demonstrated that linking a veterinary teaching hospital's resources to a humane shelter's needs did not financially affect either institution. It is hoped that such a program might be used as a model and be perpetuated in other communities. PMID:19228908

Spindel, Miranda E; MacPhail, Catriona M; Hackett, Timothy B; Egger, Erick L; Palmer, Ross H; Mama, Khursheed R; Lee, David E; Wilkerson, Nicole; Lappin, Michael R

2008-01-01

346

Hard to believe, but our first class of Shelter Medicine Interns complete their year of spe-  

E-print Network

the power of people to make a dif- ference in the lives of animals. Dr. Nicole Putney comes to us from with the goal of reducing pit-bull euthanasia and (Continued on Page 2) June 6, 2011Volume I, Issue 7 Shelter

Keinan, Alon

347

Threats and Acts of Intimate Partner Violence Reported by Users at Norwegian Women's Shelters  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Women (n = 87) at women's shelters in Norway, a country of high welfare and gender equality, reported a multitude of severe threats and actual acts of physical, sexual and psychological violence. An individual threatening to kill his partner represented a significant increased risk for experiencing serious acts of violence, especially when the…

Alsaker, Kjersti; Kristoffersen, Kjell; Moen, Bente E.; Baste, Valborg

2011-01-01

348

Modelling terrestrial interactions and shelter use in great crested newts ( Triturus cristatus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

The great crested newt (Triturus cristatus) is a pond-breeding salamander with a prolonged aquatic phase and a period of activity in the terrestrial environment prior to hibernation. Individuals use ground-covering objects and burrows as shelters from predators and unfavourable conditions. We investigated how interactions and spacing patterns were formed in staged experiments where paired newts were exposed to an arena

Jan C. Malmgren; Per-Åke Andersson; Simon Ekdahl

2007-01-01

349

Aggression and competition for shelter between a native and an introduced crayfish in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY 1. The introduced North American crayfish, Pacifastacus leniusculus Dana, is expanding its range in Europe and locally often replaces two native crayfish species, Astacus astacus L. and Austropotamobius pallipes Lereboullet. Pacifastacus leniusculus is also expected to invade the habitat of a third native crayfish, the endangered Austropotamobius torrentium Schrank. Interspecific aggressive interactions and competition for shelter were experimentally studied

Christoph Vorburger; Georg Ribi

1999-01-01

350

Census tract predictors and the social integration of sheltered care residents  

Microsoft Academic Search

It would appear that social-environmental circumstances surrounding the place of residence of patients discharged to sheltered care facilities are crucial to their adjustment to, and involvement in, community life. Census tract indicators of environmental circumstance were found to be strongly related to an individual's level of social integration. Mental health workers should carefully consider the immediate environmental situation in accepting

Barry Trute; Steven P. Segal

1976-01-01

351

THE BIOLOGY OF LANGEBAAN LAGOON: A STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF SHELTER FROM WAVE ACTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

The physical characteristics of the Saldanha Bay-Langebaan Lagoon system are described and it is shown that there are graded changes in wave action, substratum, temperature and salinity between the bay and the head of the lagoon. None the less the lagoon is not an estuary but a sheltered inlet of the sea.Two transects of rocky shores and four transects of

J. H. Day

1959-01-01

352

The soft coral community on a sheltered reef quadrat at Laing Island (Papua New Guinea)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty-one species of soft corals have been found on a 30×20 m quadrat on the sheltered shore of Laing Island, on the north coast of Papua New Guinea. Their contribution to the living coverage has been quantified, with special attention to zonation. The observed distribution patterns are discussed and the importance of vegetative propagation for some of the species is

B. Tursch; A. Tursch

1982-01-01

353

The role of shelter in Australia for protecting soils, plants and livestock  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this review is to examine the current knowledge of the role of trees in providing shelter for pastures, crops, and livestock, for controlling erosion of soils and improving productivity and sustainability of agricultural production in Australia — and the extent to which this knowledge has been applied.

P. R. Bird; D. Bicknell; P. A. Bulman; S. J. A. Burke; J. F. Leys; J. N. Parker; F. J. VAN DER SOMMEN; P. Voller

1992-01-01

354

Service Quality and Corporate Social Responsibility, Influence on Post-Purchase Intentions of Sheltered Employment Institutions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The main purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of service quality and corporate social responsibility (CSR) on customer satisfaction, and customer satisfaction toward post-purchase intentions from sheltered employment institutions. Work experience plays an important role in career development for those people with intellectual…

Chen, Chao-Chien; Lin, Shih-Yen; Cheng, Chia-Hsin; Tsai, Chia-Ching

2012-01-01

355

What does tax aggressiveness signal? Evidence from stock price reactions to news about tax shelter involvement  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the stock price reaction to news about corporate tax aggressiveness. We find that, on average, a company's stock price declines when there is news about its involvement in tax shelters. We find some limited evidence for cross-sectional variation in the reaction. For example, the reaction is more negative for firms in the retail sector, suggesting that part of

Michelle Hanlon; Joel Slemrod

2009-01-01

356

THE FRENCH SURVEY OF HOMELESS PEOPLE USING SHELTERS AND SOUP KITCHENS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The French survey of homeless people using support services is unique because of its scope and the conditions under which it was conducted. About 4,000 users of shelters and soup kitchens were surveyed in January and February 2001. Because some users move from one service point to another, it is necessary to collect precise data on the number of times

Cécile Brousse; Emmanuel Massé

357

Serving the Homeless: Evaluating the Effectiveness of Homeless ShelterServices  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of homeless assistance services at the local level are tremendously difficult to ascertain. In this study, a four-month sample of homeless persons served by a local homeless shelter and case management program were contacted nine to eleven months after receiving services. The findings suggest that the program had some initial success in assisting the homeless clients to locate

George M. Glisson; Bruce A. Thyer; Robert L. Fischer

358

Earth's Interior  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website contains class notes from a Geology 101 (physical geology) course. It discusses the composition and structure of the Earth's interior. Each layer, the inner core, outer core, mantle, and crust, is covered. Details about each layer explain their composition, temperature, depth, and state. Also covered is how scientists discovered what the interior of the Earth is made of through the use of seismic waves, plate tectonics, and the Earth's magnetic field.

Louie, John

359

Earth Floor  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Classroom of the Future (COTF) website highlights information about the Earth and its development through time. Spheres discusses layers of the Earth's environment such as the hydrosphere, Cycles discusses rock and water cycles, and Diversity illustrates different species and genetic variations that have emerged on Earth. Also covered are biomes, adaptation, geologic time, and plate tectonics. Each of these sections is an in-depth tutorial on these specific topics.

360

Predictors of change in mental health and distress among women attending a women's shelter  

PubMed Central

Background Intimate partner violence (IPV) is detrimental to mental health. The Domestic Violence Survivor Assessment (DVSA), which includes a mental health assessment, is often used to evaluate abuse survivors in a counseling situation. The DVSA seeks to outline the cognitive state of women as per the stages of change as they attempt to move toward a life with no IPV. Objective The objective of this study was to explore predictors of change in mental health and distress among women who entered a women's shelter more than once. Methods Women entering a women's shelter more than once over a 3-year period were assessed by a trained social worker using the DVSA. A logistic regression analysis examined relationships between the chosen characteristics and the participants’ mental health through the DVSA stages of change. Results We analyzed complete data for 94 women who entered the shelter a mean of 3.3 times (range 2–8) over a mean period of 16.1 days (range: 1–391). Thirty-six women (36/94; 38.3%) progressed through the stages. The average number of visits among women who progressed through the stages was 4. Our multivariable logistic regression showed women who had more visits to the shelter were almost twice as likely to progress through the stages compared to women who entered the shelter fewer times (OR=1.928; 95% CI=1.292–2.877; p=0.001). In the univariate analysis, only increased number of visits was significantly associated with progressing through the stages of change (OR=1.694; 95% CI=1.237–2.322; p=0.001). The other factors were not significantly associated with a change in mental health and distress (p>0.05). Conclusion Women who enter women's shelters more frequently may be more likely to progress through the DVSA mental health stages compared to other women. Women's shelters may be helpful in assisting progression through the stages of change, thereby improving their mental health after abuse. PMID:25279102

Hoyeck, Patricia; Madden, Kim; Freeman, Clare; Scott, Taryn; Bhandari, Mohit

2014-01-01

361

One-year rates of public shelter utilization by race\\/ethnicity, age, sex and poverty status for New York City (1990 and 1995) and Philadelphia (1995)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study calculates public homeless shelter utilization rates by sex, race\\/ethnicity and age status for New York City (1990 and 1995) and Philadelphia (fiscal year 1995) to determine the relative risk for shelter use among different demographic groups in these cities. The resulting shelter utilization rates reveal large disparities among age groups and across racial\\/ethnic groups, as well as showing

DENNIS CULHANE; STEPHEN METRAUX

1999-01-01

362

Earth Force  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"Earth Force engages young people as active citizens who improve the environment and their communities now and in the future." Educators can learn about Earth Force's three programs: Community Action and Problem solving (CAPS), the Global Rivers Environmental Education Network (GREEN), and Earth Force After School. Users can discover students' many accomplishments such as creating reusable fabric grocery bags, recycling cell phones and ink cartridges to earn money, and cleaning up litter. The Tools for Teachers section offers evaluation results, a quality rubric, and a description of the six-step Earth Force community action and problem-solving process.

363

Where Would CINDI Be? A 3-D Scale Model of the Earth-Moon System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an activity about the Earth-Moon system. Learners will build a scale model of the Earth-Moon system and predict the distance between the two, as well as the distance of Earth-orbiting spacecraft.

364

Earth System Science Education Alliance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Earth System Science Education Alliance (ESSEA) professional development program is providing in-depth geoscience content and teaching methods to pre- and in-service teachers. The program is building and expanding on NASA's successful ESSEA program that was funded from 2000-2005. Now sponsored by NSF, the network has expanded to nearly 40 institutions of higher learning committed to teacher Earth system science

R. Myers; T. Schwerin

2007-01-01

365

Environmental impacts of the shelter forests in Horqin Sandy land, northeast China.  

PubMed

Assessing environmental effects of shelter forests is primarily necessary for realizing their greatest protective benefits. The Three-North Shelter Forest Program (TNSFP), the largest ecological afforestation program in the world, has been operated for three decades in China but so far lacks comprehensive assessment of its environmental impacts. Horqin Sandy Land (HSL) in Northeast China is one of the key areas in the TNSFP implementation. To identify the principal contributors to environmental changes in HSL, we evaluated impacts of variations in landscape features, shelter forest areas, climatic factors, and social factors on changes in sandy land areas from 1978 to 2007, by using Gray Relational Analysis. Our analysis showed that during the period 1978 to 2007, the sandy land area decreased by 3.9% in low aeolian dunes, 14.5% in low mountains and hills, and 98.9% in high elevation alluvial flats of HSL. Factors with Gray Correlation Degrees >0.9 were identified as the patch shape index (PSI) and the landscape isolation index (LII) of grasses in low aeolian dunes, PSI of grasses in mountains and hills, and area of broadleaved forests and LII of shrubs in alluvial flats. It is concluded that establishment of the shelter forests has played a significant role in controlling the expansion of sandy land in HSL. To sustain the long-term environmental benefits of the shelter forests in the remaining period for TNSFP construction, suitable tree species should be selected and planted at appropriate densities based on the local precipitation, groundwater and landform conditions, and the system stability of the total landscape. PMID:21546667

Yan, Q L; Zhu, J J; Hu, Z B; Sun, O J

2011-01-01

366

Teaching the Dynamic Earth: Earth Science Out of Doors  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These activities are designed to show how Earth science principles can be illustrated out of doors, often without a rock in sight, and how pupils can be engaged in discussions about Earth processes and products. In the 'neighborhood stone watch' students are shown different earth materials used in buildings and asked to note additional examples for homework. In another activity, man-made structures including walls, roads, and tennis courts are used to illustrate the several geologic principles used in sequencing. One activity teaches students what to look for in the interpretation of geologic events, and two others give students practice in reading rocks.

367

Earth\\'s Mass Variability  

E-print Network

The perturbation of the Earth caused by variability of mass of Earth as additional reason with gravity of celestial bodies and shape of the Earth. The Earth eating and collecting matters from space and loss or eject matters to space through its flying in the space around the Sun. The source of the rising in the global sea level is not closed in global warming and icebergs, but the outer space is the additional important source for this rising. The Earth eats waters from space in unknown mechanism. The mass of the Earth become greater in November i.e. before transit apoapsis two months, and become latter in February i.e. after transit apoapsis to two months.

Mawad, Ramy

2014-01-01

368

Earth Impact  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity poses the question: What would happen if a meteor or comet impacted Earth? Students simulate an impact in a container of sand using various-sized rocks, all while measuring, recording and graphing results and conclusions. Then students brainstorm ways to prevent an object from hitting the Earth.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

369

Rainbow Earth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The environment is a great concern in the 1990s, and everyone needs to work at maintaining our planet. The 1992 Arizona State Library Reading Program, "Rainbow Earth," provides children with many techniques they can use to help the Earth. This reading program guide provides information on the following: goals, objectives, and evaluation; getting…

Arizona State Dept. of Library and Archives, Phoenix.

370

University Buildings Landmark Buildings  

E-print Network

Pharmacy S Planning, Architecture and Civil Engineering T Politics, International Studies and Philosophy V Centre for Cancer Research and Cell Biology (CCRCB) 20 Chrono 13 Counselling Service 9 Crèches 10 David Bates Building 29 David Keir Building 1n Development and Alumni Relations 13 Disability Services 8 Drama

Paxton, Anthony T.

371

Effects of phenotypic characteristics on the length of stay of dogs at two no kill animal shelters.  

PubMed

Adoption records from 2 no kill shelters in New York State were examined to determine how age, sex, size, breed group, and coat color influenced the length of stay (LOS) of dogs at these shelters. Young puppies had the shortest length of stay; LOS among dogs increased linearly as age increased. Neither coat color nor sex influenced LOS. Considering only size classifications, medium-size dogs had the greatest LOS, and extra small dogs and puppies remained in shelters for the least amount of time. Considering only breed groupings, dogs in the guard group had the greatest LOS and those in the giant group had the shortest LOS. The lack of effect of coat color was not expected, nor was the shorter LOS among "fighting" breeds compared with other breed groups. Coat color and breed may have only local effects on LOS that do not generalize to all shelters, including traditional shelters. Understanding the traits of dogs in a specific shelter and the characteristics of these nonhuman animals desired by adopters are critical to improving the welfare of animals served by that shelter. PMID:23282290

Brown, William P; Davidson, Janelle P; Zuefle, Marion E

2013-01-01

372

Feasibility of structural foam\\/concrete building for theater of operations use  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was performed to assess the feasibility of using performed polystyrene foam building blocks to construct shelters in noncombative areas of the Theater of Operations (TO). A structure in which the principal wall material was polystyrene foam blocks was designed, constructed, and evaluated on the basis of logistics requirements, manpower time, required skill levels, and costs. It was concluded

A. Smith

1978-01-01

373

REACTOR SERVICE BUILDING, TRA635. CAMERA FACING NORTHWEST. BUILDING PROJECTS FROM ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

REACTOR SERVICE BUILDING, TRA-635. CAMERA FACING NORTHWEST. BUILDING PROJECTS FROM AND CONNECTS TO SOUTH WALL OF MTR BUILDING. EARTH BERM SHIELDING PLUG STORAGE BUILDING IS AT RIGHT OF VIEW. INL NEGATIVE NO. 9913. Unknown Photographer, 2/23/1954 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

374

Planning Protective Action Decision-Making: Evacuate or Shelter-in-Place  

SciTech Connect

Appropriate protective action recommendations or decisions (PARs/PADs) are needed to achieve maximum protection of a population at risk. The factors that affect protective action decisions are complex but fairly well documented. Protective action decisions take into account population distributions, projected or actual exposure to a chemical substance, availability of adequate shelters, evacuation time estimates, and other relevant factors. To choose in-place sheltering, there should be a reasonable assurance that the movement of people beyond their residence, workplace, or school will endanger the health and safety of the public more so than allowing them to remain in place. The decision to evacuate the public should be based on the reasonable assurance that the movement of people to an area outside of an affected area is in the best interest of their health and safety, and is of minimal risk to them. In reality, an evacuation decision is also a resource-dependent decision. The availability of transportation and other resources, including shelters, may factor heavily in the protective action decision-making process. All strategies to protect the health and safety of the public from a release of hazardous chemicals are explicitly considered during emergency decision making. Each institutional facility (such as hospitals, schools, day care centers, correctional facilities, assisted living facilities or nursing homes) in the community should be considered separately to determine what special protective actions may be necessary. Deciding whether to evacuate or to shelter-in-place is one of the most important questions facing local emergency planners responding to a toxic chemical release. That such a complex decision with such important potential consequences must be made with such urgency places tremendous responsibility on the planners and officials involved. Researchers have devoted considerable attention to the evacuation/shelter-in-place protection decision. While several decision aids have been developed, no single approach has achieved widespread acceptance based on validity, utility, and effectiveness (Ujihara 1989, Mannan and Kilpatrick 2000). In the absence of an agreed-upon methodology for making this decision, the best strategy for local emergency planners and officials is a thorough understanding of all the components affecting the decision. This paper summarizes what is currently known about the evacuation/shelter-in-place protection decision and points to available literature that more thoroughly explores the individual components of the decision. The next section summarizes the major issues in protective action decision process. This is followed by a discussion of all the factors that may bear on the protective action decision process. The final section address how to make a protective action decision.

Sorensen, J.H.

2002-08-30

375

Descriptive epidemiology of feline upper respiratory tract disease in an animal shelter.  

PubMed

Upper respiratory tract disease (URTD) is common and spreads quickly in cats residing in animal shelters in the United States. Estimates of the actual incidence of URTD are sparse, yet this information is very important for welfare, economic and research purposes. In a large urban shelter in the northeastern US, 531 individual kittens, 701 litters, and 2203 adult cats were observed for signs of URTD during their stays. The median lengths of stay for adult cats and kittens were 5 and 4 days, respectively. Observations were made over a 50-week period. Approximately 1/3 exhibited signs of infectious respiratory disease. The crude incidence density estimates of URTD were 6.2, 6.7, and 5.6 cases per 100 cats per day among individual kittens, litters and adult cats, respectively. Increasing time of residence in the shelter increased risk of URTD. Using the Kaplan-Meier product limit method, the cumulative probability of developing URTD by day 7 in the shelter was approximately 32% (based on n=211) for litters, 31% (n=120) for individual kittens and 26% (n=763) for adult cats. By day 14, these cumulative probabilities had risen to 84% (n=18), 86% (n=7), and 80% (n=51) among litters, individual kittens and adult cats, respectively. The Kaplan-Meier failure function curve (probability of developing URTD overtime) for adults was significantly lower than those for litters or individual kittens (P<0.04). Among adult cats, those 11 years of age and older had a significantly higher risk of URTD compared to younger adult cats (P<0.05). Male cats (neutered and castrated) had higher URTD rates than ovariohysterectomized females, and purebred cats had a higher risk than those of mixed breeding. In this shelter, cats identified as strays were more likely to exhibit URTD than owner-surrendered cats. Affected cats spent a median of 3 more days than unaffected cats before they developed URTD. Approximately 1/3 (31.4%) of the observed individual kittens and 2/3 (61.8%) of the observed adult cats were euthanased with URTD in this shelter. Other factors such as space and behavior, especially among affected adult cats, were also cited as reasons leading to euthanasia. PMID:19782625

Dinnage, Julie D; Scarlett, Janet M; Richards, James R

2009-10-01

376

The influence of environmental change on the behaviour of sheltered dogs.  

PubMed

The majority of sheltered dogs are overlooked for purchase because they are considered undesirable by potential buyers. Many factors may determine a dog's appeal, although of interest here are the dog's behaviour and cage environment which can influence its desirability. People prefer dogs which are at the front rather than the back of the cage, quiet as opposed to barking, and alert rather than non-alert. Potential buyers also prefer dogs which are held in complex as opposed to barren environments. This study examined the behaviour of sheltered dogs in response to environmental change, to determine whether it influenced dog behaviour in ways that could be perceived as desirable to potential dog buyers, and/or had any effect upon the incidence of dogs purchased from the shelter. One hundred and twenty dogs sheltered by the Ulster Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals were studied over a 4-h period. The dogs' position in the cage, vocalisation, and activity were investigated in response to increased human social stimulation, moving the dog's bed to the front of the cage, or suspending a toy from the front of the dog's cage. Social stimulation resulted in dogs spending more time at the front of the enclosure, more time standing, and slightly more time barking. Moving the bed to the front of the cage encouraged dogs to this position, but did not influence activity or vocalisation. Suspending a toy at the front of the pen exerted no effect on dog behaviour, although its presence in the pen may help to promote more positive perceptions of dog desirability. The incidence of dogs purchased from the rescue shelter increased whenever the dogs' cages were fitted with a bed at the front of the pen, whenever the dogs were subjected to increased regular human contact, and whenever a toy was placed at the front of the enclosure. Findings highlight the important role that cage environment can play in shaping the behaviour of sheltered dogs and influencing whether or not an animal will become purchased. PMID:10771323

Wells; Hepper

2000-05-10

377

Planet Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How does the Earth work? What is its relationship to the other planets? These are but a few important questions answered by this creative instructional series created by WQED in Pittsburgh, in association with the National Academy of Sciences. The series was designed to present information about "our solar system and Earth's oceans, climate, and mineral and energy sources." The Annenberg Media group has placed this entire series online, and visitors can view all seven installments here. The programs include "The Climate Puzzle", "Gifts from the Earth", and "The Solar Sea". Teachers will note that the site also contains links to other educational resources, reviews, and related resources from the Annenberg Media organization.

1986-01-01

378

Visible Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

NASA's Visible Earth is a searchable directory of images, visualizations, and animations of Earth science-related images being produced by several NASA projects including Terra and SeaWiFS. Images are categorized by location, satellite, and topic, and are also searchable using a full-text search engine. Resources include agriculture, atmosphere, biosphere, cryosphere, human dimensions, hydrosphere, land surface, oceans, radiance or imagery, and solid earth. Accompanying each image are credits, data about the image, the satellite it was taken from, a description of what is shown, and a high-resolution viewable image.

379

Seismic Waves: How Earthquakes Move the Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn about the types of seismic waves produced by earthquakes and how they move the Earth. The dangers of earthquakes are presented as well as the necessity for engineers to design structures for earthquake-prone areas that are able to withstand the forces of seismic waves. Students learn how engineers build shake tables that simulate the ground motions of the Earth caused by seismic waves in order to test the seismic performance of buildings.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

380

The Treated Prevalence of Mental Health and Substance Use Disorders among Adults Admitted to the Philadelphia Shelter System: Results from the Integration of Longitudinal Data on Shelter and Mental Health Services Utilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports results from a study of the treated prevalence of mental health and substance use disorders among adults admitted to Philadelphia public shelters between 1990 and 1992 (N=28,638). Identifiers and service records from longitudinal databases on shelter and mental health services were merged, finding that 49% of single homeless adults and 33.2% of homeless adults with children had

Dennis P Culhane; June M Averyt; Trevor R Hadley

1996-01-01

381

Windows on Earth - Virtual Globes for Earth Science Education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Windows on Earth enables museum visitors to explore Earth from space. Under active development and testing (with funding from the National Science Foundation), the exhibit uses a digital globe and a visualization engine to provides an interactive experience, as if looking at the Earth from a large window on the International Space Station. The high-resolution Earth data have been carefully color corrected for accurate representations, and the interface provides tools for creative exploration of Earth's processes, as revealed from this unique perspective. The experience also includes data overlays and hot links to extend the learning. The project also will create a web site, with extended capabilities and a rich simulation of the orbital experience, revealing the awe-inspiring beauty of our home planet, as well as insights into Earth as a dynamic, interconnected system. Windows on Earth builds on cognitive research on how people make meaning of Earth images. The team lead is TERC (an educational R&D non-profit). Partners include GeoFusion (engine), WorldSat (data), JKA (museum design), and Dr. Jay Apt (astronaut). The exhibit will be installed in National Air and Space Museum, Boston Museum of Science, St. Louis Science Center, and Montshire Museum of Science.

Barstow, D.

2006-12-01

382

Discover Earth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Discover Earth is a NASA-funded project for teachers of grades 5-12 who want to expand their knowledge of the Earth system, and prepare to become master teachers who promote Earth system science in their own schools, counties, and throughout their state. Participants from the following states are invited to apply: Connecticut, Delaware, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont, and Washington, DC. Teachers selected for the project participate in a two-week summer workshop conducted at the University of Maryland, College Park; develop classroom-ready materials during the workshop for broad dissemination; conduct a minimum of two peer training activities during the coming school year; and participate in other enrichment/education opportunities as available and desired. Discover Earth is a team effort that utilizes expertise from a range of contributors, and balances science content with hands-on classroom applications.

Steele, Colleen

1996-01-01

383

Earth's Surface  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This self-contained module on Earth's crust includes a range of fun activities that students can perform in the classroom and at home with family members. They impart important concepts such as observation, identification, measurement, and differentiation.

Science, Houghton M.

384

Earth Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This self-contained module on Earth systems includes a range of fun activities that students can perform in the classroom and at home with family members. They impart important concepts such as observation, identification, measurement, and differentiation.

Science, Houghton M.

385

Discover Earth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Discover Earth is a NASA-funded project for teachers of grades 5-12 who want to expand their knowledge of the Earth system, and prepare to become master teachers who promote Earth system science in their own schools, counties, and throughout their state. Participants from the following states are invited to apply: Connecticut, Delaware, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont, and Washington, DC. Teachers selected for the project participate in a two-week summer workshop conducted at the University of Maryland, College Park; develop classroom-ready materials during the workshop for broad dissemination; conduct a minimum of two peer training activities during the coming school year; and participate in other enrichment/education opportunities as available and desired. Discover Earth is a team effort that utilizes expertise from a range of contributors, and balances science content with hands-on classroom applications.

1997-01-01

386

Earth materials and earth dynamics  

SciTech Connect

In the project ''Earth Materials and Earth Dynamics'' we linked fundamental and exploratory, experimental, theoretical, and computational research programs to shed light on the current and past states of the dynamic Earth. Our objective was to combine different geological, geochemical, geophysical, and materials science analyses with numerical techniques to illuminate active processes in the Earth. These processes include fluid-rock interactions that form and modify the lithosphere, non-linear wave attenuations in rocks that drive plate tectonics and perturb the earth's surface, dynamic recrystallization of olivine that deforms the upper mantle, development of texture in high-pressure olivine polymorphs that create anisotropic velocity regions in the convecting upper mantle and transition zone, and the intense chemical reactions between the mantle and core. We measured physical properties such as texture and nonlinear elasticity, equation of states at simultaneous pressures and temperatures, magnetic spins and bonding, chemical permeability, and thermal-chemical feedback to better characterize earth materials. We artificially generated seismic waves, numerically modeled fluid flow and transport in rock systems and modified polycrystal plasticity theory to interpret measured physical properties and integrate them into our understanding of the Earth. This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL).

Bennett, K; Shankland, T. [and others

2000-11-01

387

Model-Simulated Influences of Shelterbelt Shape on Wind-Sheltering Efficiency.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The authors report results of a numerical model used to simulate wind and turbulence fields for porous, living shelterbelts with seven different cross-sectional shapes. The simulations are consistent with results of Woodruff and Zingg whose wind-tunnel study demonstrated that all shelterbelts with very different shapes have nearly identical reduction of wind and turbulence. The simulations also showed that the pressure-loss (resistance) coefficient for smooth-shaped or streamlined shelterbelts is significantly smaller than that for rectangle-shaped or triangle-shaped shelterbelts with a windward vertical side. However, the shelter effects are not proportional to the pressure-loss coefficient (drag). Analysis of the momentum budget demonstrated that in the near lee and in the far lee, both vertical advection and pressure gradient have opposite roles in the recovery of wind speed. This behavior, combined with differences in permeability, is the likely cause of reduced sensitivity of shelter effects to shelterbelt shape.

Wang, Hao; Takle, E. S.

1997-06-01

388

The effect of coral morphology on shelter selection by coral reef fishes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While the loss of structural complexity causes declines in coral reef fish diversity, the processes leading to this decline are largely unexplained. To explore the role of coral morphology in providing shelter for fishes, tabular, branching and massive corals were filmed with video cameras and their usage by large reef fishes compared. Tabular corals were utilised more than the other two morphologies, with at least triple the abundance, biomass and residence times of large fishes. The preference of coral reef fishes for specific structural traits of tabular corals was also examined using artificial structural units. This experimental component showed that large reef fishes preferred opaque rather than translucent canopies. It appears that large fishes cue to tabular corals because of the concealment and/or shade provided. It is suggested that a loss of tabular corals as a result of climate change would have significant ecological impacts for the coral reef fishes that use these structures for shelter.

Kerry, J. T.; Bellwood, D. R.

2012-06-01

389

Extracting shelter forest in semi-arid sandy area based on Landsat ETM+ imagery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Taking a sub-area of semi-arid west Jilin Province as example, we mainly discuss the method of shelter forest extraction in sandy area from Landsat-7 ETM+ imagery in this study. After the comparison of the image fusion methods including HIS transforms, PCA transforms, Brovey transforms and Wavelet transforms, the method of Brovey transforms improved by wavelet analysis is presented for further processing. The details information in fused ETM+ image by this improved method is more considerable and fruitful. Using unsupervised classification in combination with supervised classification and threshold method based on NDVI, we extract the farmland shelterbelts from the fusion image finally. The accuracy of classification is more than 85%. From the experiment result, this method shows a better performance in the shelter forest extraction in a typical semi-arid sandy.

Qi, Xin; Huang, Fang; Qi, Yina

2008-10-01

390

Wind Measurements in a Square Plot Enclosed by a Shelter Fence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wind statistics were measured within a square plot (sidelengthD = 20 m) that was sheltered on all four sides by a porous plasticwindbreak fence (height h=1.25 m, resistance coefficient kr0 = 2.4, porosity p = 0.45), standing on otherwise uniform land (sparse stubble, roughness length z0 0.015 m). At any given point within the plot, short term wind statistics were extremely sensitive to the mean wind direction relative to thefences. Whereas the entire plot was sheltered from a wind blowingnormal to any side of the plot, whenever the wind was oriented soas to blow over a corner, wind reduction was observed onlyover a small fraction of the plot, in the near lee of the upwindfences.

Wilson, John D.; Flesch, Thomas K.

391

78 FR 25455 - Announcement of the Award of Three Urgent Single-Source Grants To Support Shelter Care for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...AND HUMAN SERVICES Administration for Children and Families [CFDA Number: 93.676...Shelter Care for Unaccompanied Alien Children AGENCY: Office of Refugee Resettlement, Administration for Children and Families, Department of...

2013-05-01

392

NUclear EVacuation Analysis Code (NUEVAC) : a tool for evaluation of sheltering and evacuation responses following urban nuclear detonations.  

SciTech Connect

The NUclear EVacuation Analysis Code (NUEVAC) has been developed by Sandia National Laboratories to support the analysis of shelter-evacuate (S-E) strategies following an urban nuclear detonation. This tool can model a range of behaviors, including complex evacuation timing and path selection, as well as various sheltering or mixed evacuation and sheltering strategies. The calculations are based on externally generated, high resolution fallout deposition and plume data. Scenario setup and calculation outputs make extensive use of graphics and interactive features. This software is designed primarily to produce quantitative evaluations of nuclear detonation response options. However, the outputs have also proven useful in the communication of technical insights concerning shelter-evacuate tradeoffs to urban planning or response personnel.

Yoshimura, Ann S.; Brandt, Larry D.

2009-11-01

393

NIOSH Health Hazard Evaluation Report: HETA No. 2004-0123-2939, City of Liberal Animal Shelter, Liberal, Kansas.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In February 2004, the City of Liberal, Kansas, asked the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) for help in evaluating carbon monoxide (CO) exposures of employees that operate two euthanasia chambers at the city-run animal shelter. ...

2004-01-01

394

Earth System Science Education Alliance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Earth System Science Education Alliance (ESSEA) professional development program is providing in- depth geoscience content and teaching methods to pre- and in-service teachers. The program is building and expanding on NASA's successful ESSEA program that was funded from 2000-2005. Beginning in 2006 NSF funding will enable ESSEA will expand to 40 institutions of higher learning that are committed to

R. Myers; T. Schwerin

2006-01-01

395

Forging Inclusive Solutions: Experiential Earth Charter Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Forging Inclusive Solutions describes the aims, methodology and outcomes of Inclusive Leadership Adventures, an experiential education curriculum for exploring the Earth Charter. Experiential education builds meaningful relationships, skills, awareness and an inclusive community based on the Earth Charter principles. When we meet people where they…

Hill, Linda D.

2010-01-01

396

2010 RAL Space Solar Impacts on Earth  

E-print Network

© 2010 RAL Space Solar Impacts on Earth: Revealed by NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory & STEREO minimum for a century: · Why? What happened? · What does that mean for the Earth? · Will the next build up the solar northern hemisphere erupted #12;You are here! Smile ­ we are photographing you every 2 hours! #12

397

Predicting re-victimization of battered women 3 years after exiting a shelter program.  

PubMed

This study examined interpersonal and ecological predictors of re-victimization of a sample of women with abusive partners. All women (N = 124) had sought refuge from a battered women's shelter 3 years earlier, and half the sample had been randomly assigned to receive free, short-term advocacy services immediately upon exit from the shelter. Results 2 years post-intervention revealed positive change in the lives of participants (C. M. Sullivan & D. Bybee, 1999), including a decrease in abuse for women who had worked with advocates. The current study examined intervention effects 3 years after the program ended, as well as other predictors of re-abuse. Nineteen percent of the original sample had experienced domestic violence between 2 and 3 years after shelter exit (65% by current partners, 35% by ex-partners). The advocacy program's effect on risk of re-victimization did not continue 3 years post-intervention. However, having worked with an advocate 3 years prior continued to have a positive impact on women's quality of life and level of social support. The risk of being abused 3 years post-shelter stay was exacerbated by a number of factors present 1 year prior, including women's (1) having experienced abuse in the 6 months before that point; (2) having difficulties accessing resources; (3) having problems with the state welfare system; and (4) having people in their social networks who made their lives difficult. Women were at less risk of abuse if, 1 year earlier, they (1) were employed; (2) reported higher quality of life; and (3) had people in their networks who provided practical help and/or were available to talk about personal matters. These findings support the hypothesis that access to resources and social support serve as protective factors against continued abuse. PMID:16134046

Bybee, Deborah; Sullivan, Cris M

2005-09-01

398

Treatment of Locally Accumulated Liquid Radioactive Waste at the Shelter To Remove Transuranium Elements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liquid radioactive waste (LRW) from the Shelter yielded by reactions of atmospheric precipitations, condensate, and dust-suppressing solutions with structural materials and fuel-containing masses are alkali-carbonate solutions containing fission products (137Cs, 90Sr), organic compounds, uranium, and transuranium elements. This waste is unsuitable for treatment by the standard procedure utilized at the Chernobyl NPP, as the content of organic compounds and transuranium

O. B. Andronov; A. P. Krinitsyn

2002-01-01

399

Are Shelter Workers Burned Out?: An Examination of Stress, Social Support, and Coping  

Microsoft Academic Search

Job stress, perceived social support, coping self-efficacy, and coping strategies were studied as predictors of emotional\\u000a exhaustion and reduced personal accomplishment among a sample of 123 female shelter workers. Overall, these workers did not\\u000a meet the collective criteria for burnout as defined by Maslach and Jackson (1986) and perceived social support and coping strategies did not account for unique variance

Lisa M. Baker; Karen M. O’Brien; Nazish M. Salahuddin

2007-01-01

400

Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in battered women: A shelter sample  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sample of 77 battered women in shelters was examined for the presence or absence of a post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) diagnosis. Self-report data were obtained on battery characteristics, extent of intrusion and avoidance, depression, anxiety, and general psychopathology. Eight-four percent of the sample met the DSM-III-R criteria for PTSD according to self-report. The reported subjective distress regarding the battery

Anita Kemp; Edna I. Rawlings; Bonnie L. Green

1991-01-01

401

Exploring Paleoindian Site-Use at Bonfire Shelter (41VV218)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bonebed 2 at Bonfire Shelter (41VV218) has long been interpreted to be the site of a Paleoindian (ca. 10,080 radiocarbon years B.P.) bison jump (Dibble and Lorrain 1968), although in recent years it was suggested that it might instead represent a secondary processing site (Binford 1978). To explore these different interpretations more thoroughly, in 2003 we began a multi-pronged study

Ryan M. Byerly; David J. Meltzer; Judith R. Cooper; Jim Theler

2007-01-01

402

USING DIFFERENT SHELTER AREAS ON NURSING OF GIANT FRESHWATER PRAWN, Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Man, 1879) POSTLARVA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nursing of giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Man, 1879) from the postlarval stage to the size of 2 cm with six different sizes shelters, including 0, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 m 2 , respectively. The experiment was carried out in 2.5 m diameter cement tank, contained 2.5 m 3 filtered water in 0.5 m water level. The

Supat Sripat; Nipon Chanprathad

403

Drop weight impact on hybrid-fiber ECC blast\\/shelter panels  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results of an experimental study to evaluate the damage and failure mode of hybrid-fiber engineered cementitious composite (ECC) panels caused by large projectiles or fragments with the aim towards quantifying the extent to which hybrid-fiber ECC improves the resistance of blast panels against impact loading. Drop weight tests are conducted on full-scale blast\\/shelter panels (2 m

J. Zhang; M. Maalej; S. T. Quek; Y. Y. Teo

404

Communication between domestic dogs and humans: effects of shelter housing upon the gaze to the human  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is widely known that gaze plays an essential role in communicative interactions. Domestic dogs tend to look at the human\\u000a face in situations of conflict and uncertainty. This study compares the gaze of shelter and pet dogs during acquisition and\\u000a extinction phases in a situation involving a reward in sight but out of reach. Even though no significant differences

Alba Mustaca; Mariana Bentosela

405

Transmission of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) among cohabiting cats in two cat rescue shelters.  

PubMed

Conflicting accounts have been published in the veterinary literature regarding transmission of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) between cohabiting cats in mixed households, and the mechanics of possible casual transmission, if it occurs, are poorly understood. Similarly, there are conflicting reports of vertical transmission of FIV. The aim of the present study was to document the FIV serological status of cats taken into two rescue shelters. At rescue shelter 1 (Rescue 1), cats cohabited in a multi-cat household of FIV-negative and naturally-infected, FIV-positive cats. A study was performed that combined a retrospective review of records of FIV serological status at intake (Test 1) and prospective FIV serological testing (Tests 2 and 3). Retrospective records were analyzed at rescue shelter 2 (Rescue 2), where FIV-positive queens with litters of nursing kittens were taken into the shelter, before being rehomed. FIV serology was performed on all kittens after weaning. Initial test results (Test 1) for 138 cohabiting cats from Rescue 1 showed that there were 130 FIV-negative cats and eight FIV-positive cats (six male neutered and two female spayed). A second test (Test 2), performed in 45 of the FIV-negative and five of the FIV-positive cats at median 28 months after Test 1 (range, 1 month to 8.8 years) showed that results were unchanged. Similarly, a third test (Test 3), performed in four of the original FeLV-negative cats and one remaining FIV-positive cat at median 38 months after Test 1 (range, 4 months to 4 years), also showed that results were unchanged. These results show a lack of evidence of FIV transmission, despite years of exposure to naturally-infected, FIV-positive cats in a mixed household. At Rescue 2, records were available from five FIV-positive queens with 19 kittens. All 19 kittens tested FIV-negative, suggesting that vertical transmission had not occurred. PMID:24698667

Litster, Annette L

2014-08-01

406

Making the Wii at Home: Game Play by Older People in Sheltered Housing  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Games such as the Nintendo WiiTM are being promoted for use by all ages but there is little experience with how groups of older people integrate Wii playing\\u000a into their physical and social spaces. This paper focuses on WiiTM game play by older people in Sheltered Housing schemes, as part of an initiative to promote physical and social activity\\u000a in

Dave Harley; Geraldine Fitzpatrick; Lesley Axelrod; Gareth R. White; Graham McAllister

2010-01-01

407

Adverse consequences of intimate partner abuse among women in non-urban domestic violence shelters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: This study examined the health consequences of having experienced both sexual and physical abuse relative to women experiencing physical abuse but not sexual abuse.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 203 women seeking refuge in battered women’s shelters. Controlling for sociodemographics, logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess the consequences of experiencing both sexual and physical abuse.Results: Compared to

Gina M Wingood; Ralph J DiClemente; Anita Raj

2000-01-01

408

Seasonal changes in sheltering: effect of light and temperature on diel activity in juvenile salmon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous work has shown that juvenile Atlantic salmon,Salmo salarL, are predominantly nocturnal during winter (spending the day sheltering in streambed refuges) but become active 24h a day in the summer. Observations of salmon in a semi-natural stream revealed how light, temperature and time of year determined these activity patterns; we also tested whether the life-history strategy of the fish affected

SVEINN K VALDIMARSSON; NEIL B METCALFE; JOHN E THORPE; FELICITY A HUNTINGFORD

1997-01-01

409

A Three-Dimensional Numerical Investigation into the Interaction of Blast Waves with Bomb Shelters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigates the behavior of blast wave by employing the finite volume method to solve the associated three-dimensional, time-dependent, inviscous flow Euler equations. The numerical results are shown to be in good agreement with the experimental results obtained from shock tube flow studies. The results also identify the complex phenomena of flow structures, pressure distributions, and different types of reflected waves for closed-ended and open-ended bomb shelters.

Tai, Chang-Hsien; Teng, Jyh-Tong; Lo, Shi-Wei; Liu, Chia-Wei

410

Earth Attractions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners build and test a compass. Learners work in pairs and pretend they are stuck in the wilderness at night. They must use the supplies provided to build a simple compass to determine which way to walk to reach the town. This lesson plan includes a worksheet and map for learners to use during the activity.

Extension, University O.

2002-01-01

411

Performance of Giant Freshwater Prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii de Man) Reared in Earthen Ponds Beneath Plastic Film Shelters  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the effects of using plastic film shelters on the survival, growth and production cost of giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii). Three ponds were covered with plastic shelters, whilst three other were left unsheltered as controls. The surface area of all ponds was 100 square meters (6x16.7),with a water depth of 1.0 meter. Post larvae (0.012 g. mean

Niwooti Whangchai

412

Prevalence of Blastocystis in Shelter-Resident and Client-Owned Companion Animals in the US Pacific Northwest  

PubMed Central

Domestic dogs and cats are commonly infected with a variety of protozoan enteric parasites, including Blastocystis spp. In addition, there is growing interest in Blastocystis as a potential enteric pathogen, and the possible role of domestic and in-contact animals as reservoirs for human infection. Domestic animals in shelter environments are commonly recognized to be at higher risk for carriage of enteropathogens. The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency of infection of shelter-resident and client-owned domestic dogs and cats with Blastocystis spp in the Pacific Northwest region of the USA. Fecal samples were collected from 103 shelter-resident dogs, 105 shelter-resident cats, 51 client-owned dogs and 52 client-owned cats. Blastocystis were detected and subtypes assigned using a nested PCR based on small subunit ribosomal DNA sequences. Shelter-resident animals were significantly more likely to test positive for Blastocystis (P<0.05 for dogs, P?=?0.009 for cats). Sequence analysis indicated that shelter-resident animals were carrying a variety of Blastocystis subtypes. No relationship was seen between Blastocystis carriage and the presence of gastrointestinal disease signs in either dogs or cats. These data suggest that, as previously reported for other enteric pathogens, shelter-resident companion animals are a higher risk for carriage of Blastocystis spp. The lack of relationship between Blastocystis carriage and intestinal disease in shelter-resident animals suggests that this organism is unlikely to be a major enteric pathogen in these species. PMID:25226285

Ruaux, Craig G.; Stang, Bernadette V.

2014-01-01

413

[Infections with helminths and/or protozoa in cats in animal shelters in the Netherlands].  

PubMed

To determine the prevalence of infections with helminths and protozoa in cats in animal shelters, faecal samples from 305 cats from 22 animal shelters in the Netherlands were examined, using a centrifugation-sedimentation-flotation-technique. The association between potential risk factors and the occurrence of an infection was also tested. Infections with helminths and/or protozoa were found in 160 samples (52.5%). Toxocara cati was found in 86 cats (28.2%), Cystoisospora felis in 59 cats (19.3%), Cystoïsospora rivolta in 43 cats (14.1%), Capillaria spp. in 34 cats (11.2%), Ancylostoma tubaeforma in 9 cats (3.0%), Taenia taeniaeformis in 9 cats (3.0%), Aelurostrongylus abstrusus in 8 cats (2.6%), Giardia intestinalis in 3 cats (1.0%), Dipylidium caninum in 2 cats (0.7%) and Toxoplasma gondii in 1 cat (0.3%). The highest prevalence was seen in kittens and stray cats. The main preventive factor against infection was a short stay in a shelter. PMID:14737808

Robben, S R; le Nobel, W E; Döpfer, D; Hendrikx, W M; Boersema, J H; Fransen, F; Eysker, M E

2004-01-01

414

Intertidal coarse woody debris: A spatial subsidy as shelter or feeding habitat for gastropods?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coarse woody debris (CWD) in the intertidal region of rocky shores serves as a potential source of nutrients as well as habitat or refugia from predation, ecologically linking the adjacent marine and terrestrial habitats. In a series of field and laboratory experiments, the affinity of slow-moving motile intertidal gastropods to CWD either as food source or as shelter that increases habitat complexity was tested. In intertidal pools, CWD did not increase colonization by Littorina spp., while it did so in supratidal pools. Habitat complexity, brought about by algal cover and barnacles, was apparently sufficient in intertidal pools without woody debris, while the increase in habitat complexity by CWD increased the attractiveness of supratidal pools with little natural complexity to Littorina spp. Overall, however, comparison of pools containing woody debris and those containing artificial shelter provided evidence for CWD, and/or its biofilm, serving as food source rather than refugium per se. Similarly, Tegula funebralis chose CWD as food source rather than as shelter as indicated by comparison of autoclaved and unmanipulated woody debris. Further, both unfed and fed snails from a site where CWD was present significantly preferred CWD over macroalgae. Among snails from a site without woody debris, fed individuals showed no preference, while unfed snails significantly preferred macroalgae. From this, experience appears to be a factor that mediates the role of CWD. Overall, however, CWD appears to provide supplementary food to snails in the inter- and supratidal zone.

Storry, Kristin A.; Weldrick, Christine K.; Mews, Malte; Zimmer, Martin; Jelinski, Dennis E.

2006-01-01

415

Earth: Earth Science and Health  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A major new NASA initiative on environmental change and health has been established to promote the application of Earth science remote sensing data, information, observations, and technologies to issues of human health. NASA's Earth Sciences suite of Earth observing instruments are now providing improved observations science, data, and advanced technologies about the Earth's land, atmosphere, and oceans. These new space-based resources are being combined with other agency and university resources, data integration and fusion technologies, geographic information systems (GIS), and the spectrum of tools available from the public health community, making it possible to better understand how the environment and climate are linked to specific diseases, to improve outbreak prediction, and to minimize disease risk. This presentation is an overview of NASA's tools, capabilities, and research advances in this initiative.

Maynard, Nancy G.

2001-01-01

416

Decision process for the retrofit of municipal buildings with solar energy systems: a technical guide  

SciTech Connect

As a background for solar applications, the following topics are covered: solar systems and components for retrofit installations; cost, performance, and quality considerations; and financing alternatives for local government. The retrofit decision process is discussed as follows: pre-screening of buildings, building data requirements, the energy conservation audit, solar system sizing and economics, comparison of alternatives, and implementation. Sample studies are presented for the West Valley Animal Shelter and the Hollywood Police Station. (MHR)

None

1980-11-01

417

Terraforming earth and Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The uncontrolled character of current earth environment changes ascribable to anthropogenic pollutants is presently contrasted with the prospects for a controlled, long-term program of 'terraforming' for Mars, whose culmination could be the introduction of organisms able to thrive in the new Martian environment in carefully designed ways. A detailed discussion is conducted concerning the chemical building-blocks available on Mars for this manner of 'environmental engineering', with frequent reference to comparable and contrasting features of the terrestrial surface, hydrosphere and atmosphere.

Levine, Joel S.

1992-01-01

418

Project Earth Science: Meteorology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The forecast for learning meteorology is bright! With nineteen hands-on activities, ten readings, and a thorough resource guide, Project Earth Science: Meteorology brings the atmosphere right into the classroom. Designed for small budgets, Meteorology is teacher-written and classroom-tested, with ready-to-use, self-directed activities. These activities require students to make clouds and hail; build weather maps; and understand the causes of smog, ozone depletion, and acid rain. Whether it's exploring basic principles or following real-world examples, your students will agree--discovering how weather works was never this much fun!

Ford, Brent A.; Smith, P. S.

2001-01-01

419

Ion engine propelled Earth-Mars cycler with nuclear thermal propelled transfer vehicle, volume 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The goal of this project was to perform a preliminary design of a long term, reusable transportation system between earth and Mars which would be capable of providing both artificial gravity and shelter from solar flare radiation. The heart of this system was assumed to be a Cycler spacecraft propelled by an ion propulsion system. The crew transfer vehicle was designed to be propelled by a nuclear-thermal propulsion system. Several Mars transportation system architectures and their associated space vehicles were designed.

Meyer, Rudolf X.; Baker, Myles; Melko, Joseph

1994-01-01

420

University Buildings Landmark Buildings  

E-print Network

and Civil Engineering T Politics, International Studies and Philosophy V Psychology W Sociology, Social at Queen's 1 Canada Room/Council Chamber 13 Careers, Employability and Skills 24 Centre for Cancer Research Building 1n Development and Alumni Relations 13 Disability Services 8 Drama and Film Centre at Queen's (inc

Müller, Jens-Dominik

421

Rare earths  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Global mine production of rare earths was estimated to have declined slightly in 2012 relative to 2011 (Fig. 1). Production in China was estimated to have decreased to 95 from 105 kt (104,700 from 115,700 st) in 2011, while new mine production in the United States and Australia increased.

Gambogi, J.

2013-01-01

422

Spaceship Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, from Science NetLinks, students will develop an understanding of our planet as a system by designing a very-long-duration space mission in which the life-support system is patterned after that of earth.

Science Netlinks;

2002-09-10

423

Earth's Potentiosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

Viscoelastic fluid theory suggests that Earth's upper mantle and transition zone comprise a coherent thermomechanical boundary layer. Based on the remarkable correspondence between theoretical predictions and observable seismic features in the upper mantle, this finding has important ramifications for global tectonics. The theory, parameterized in terms of Weissenberg number (Wi) and scaled using the average thickness of the mechanical lithosphere

R. L. Patton

2001-01-01

424

Earth Walk  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this hands-on and feet-on excursion, learners take a science walk to visualize the planet's immense size and numerous structures, without the usual scale and ratio dimensions found in most textbooks. Learners also compare their body's height to a scaled-down Earth.

Muller, Eric

1995-01-01

425

Impact Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This planetarium show teaches about meteors, meteorites, asteroids, and comets. It includes results from NASA missions and about the dangers they can pose to life on Earth. It is created for full-dome theaters but can also be shown in flat version for TVs and computer monitors. Shows the effects of the Chixulub and Tungusta events, plus the Pallasite impact that resulted in the Brenham meteorite fall. Describes ways that asteroid hunters seek new objects in the Solar System, and how ground-penetrating radar is used to find meteorites that have reached the Earth's surface and ancient craters under the desert. Narrated by astronaut Tom Jones, it also discusses ways that humans might try to deflect an asteroid or comet that is on a collision course with Earth. Created for informal science venues (digital planetariums), it is also useful as ancillary material for middle school science. Created under NASA Cooperative Agreement NCC5-316 to Rice University in conjunction with the Houston Museum of Natural Science as part of the "Immersive Earth" project, part of the REASoN program.

Reiff, Patricia

2009-05-01

426

Building a Barometer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students investigate the weather from a systems approach, learning how individual parts of a system work together to create a final product. Students learn how a barometer works to measure the Earth's air pressure by building a model using simple materials. Students analyze the changes in barometer measurements over time and compare those to actual weather conditions. They learn how to use a barometer to understand air pressure and predict actual weather changes.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

427

The Earth Observing System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The restructuring of the NASA Earth Observing System (EOS), designed to provide comprehensive long term observations from space of changes occurring on the Earth from natural and human causes in order to have a sound scientific basis for policy decisions on protection of the future, is reported. In response to several factors, the original program approved in the fiscal year 1991 budget was restructured and somewhat reduced in scope. The resulting program uses three different sized launch vehicles to put six different spacecraft in orbit in the first phase, followed by two replacement launches for each of five of the six satellites to maintain a long term observing capability to meet the needs of global climate change research and other science objectives. The EOS system, including the space observatories, the data and information system, and the interdisciplinary global change research effort, are approved and proceeding. Elements of EOS are already in place, such as the research investigations and initial data system capabilities. The flights of precursor satellite and Shuttle missions, the ongoing data analysis, and the evolutionary enhancements to the integrated Earth science data management capabilities are all important building blocks to the full EOS program.

Shaffer, Lisa Robock

1992-01-01

428

Prefabricated buildings. January 1980-January 1991 (Citations from the NTIS Data Base). Rept. for Jan 80-Jan 92  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning mobile home and prefabricated building technology. Heating requirements and performance; heating system technology including solar energy, structural testing, cost evaluations, foundations and anchoring systems; and fire testing of mobile and prefabricated buildings are among the topics discussed. Design, reseach and development, performance, applications and markets for pre- engineered building systems utilized in residential dwellings, office buildings, religious buildings and other shelters are examined. Wood, steel, and concrete are among the materials considered. (Contains 107 citations with title list and subject index.)

Not Available

1991-12-01

429

Earth-Moon-Sun Dynamics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site serves as a portal for the Earth-Moon-Sun (EMS) Dynamics section of the Modeling for Understanding in Science Education (MUSE) project. Links lead to background material entitled Introduction to Earth-Moon-Sun Dynamics, Explanatory Models, Our Research, Teaching Strategies, Learning Outcomes and Assessment. The twelve classroom activities are arranged as active links in outline form under the topics Introducing Scientific Models, Building the EMS Model, and Applications of the EMS Model. The topic names are also active links which lead to background information on each.

430

Validity of the Sheltered Care Environment Scale: conceptual and methodological issues.  

PubMed

The Sheltered Care Environment Scale (SCES) was developed primarily to measure social climate as an attribute of a setting. As such, the SCES was designed to maximize differences between facilities and minimize differences among individuals within a setting. However, Smith and Whitbourne (1990) assessed the validity of the SCES as a measure of individual differences in perceptions of a shared environment. Moreover, they redefined the content coverage of 2 of the SCES subscales (Independence and Physical Comfort), to encompass attributes the SCES is not intended to measure. In general, preliminary evidence indicates that the SCES subscales provide reasonably reliable and valid indices of the social climate of group residential facilities. PMID:2278681

Lemke, S; Moos, R H

1990-12-01

431

Effects of price manipulations on consumer behavior in sheltered workshop token economy.  

PubMed

The consumer behavior of institutionalized retarded clients in a sheltered workshop token economy were evaluated by changing prices in the workshop store. In the first experiment we found that clients displayed elasticity of demand in that raising the prices of frequently purchased goods reduced the frequency and amount spent on more expendable items. Results from the second experiment showed that this change in spending pattern was not due to the relative modal unit price of item classes. The regulation of demand for consumer goods is a potentially useful way to maintain economic balance and effectiveness of a token economy. PMID:970416

Schroeder, S R; Barrera, F J

1976-09-01

432

Holocene environment and subsistence patterns near the Tree Shelter, Red Sea Mountains, Egypt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Tree Shelter site dates to the Early to Mid-Holocene (8000 to 4900 14C yr BP). Present conditions around the site are hyperarid, but charcoal remains indicate less severe aridity at the time of its occupation. The environment around the site then supported a rich wadi vegetation, which allowed hunting during the Epipaleolithic and herding during the Neolithic occupation. Although more favorable than today, the environmental conditions also displayed a desert character and seem to have limited the range of domestic herbivores introduced in the area.

Marinova, Elena; Linseele, Veerle; Vermeersch, Pierre

2008-11-01

433

Fire ants protect mealybugs against their natural enemies by utilizing the leaf shelters constructed by the leaf roller Sylepta derogata.  

PubMed

The importance of mutualism is receiving more attention in community ecology. In this study, the fire ant Solenopsis invicta was found to take advantage of the shelters constructed by the leaf roller Sylepta derogata to protect mealybugs (Phenacoccus solenopsis) against their natural enemies. This protective effect of fire ant tending on the survival of mealybugs in shelters was observed when enemies and leaf rollers were simultaneously present. Specifically, fire ants moved the mealybugs inside the shelters produced by S. derogata on enemy-infested plants. Compared with that in plants without ants, the survival of mealybugs in shelters in the presence of natural enemies in plants with ants markedly improved. Both the protection of ants and the shelters provided by leaf rollers did not affect the survival of mealybugs in the absence of enemies in plants. Ants and leaf rollers significantly improved the survival of mealybugs in predator-infested plants, whereas no such improvement was observed in parasitoid-infested ones. PMID:23185505

Zhou, Aiming; Zeng, Ling; Lu, Yongyue; Xu, Yijuan; Liang, Guangwen

2012-01-01

434

Fire Ants Protect Mealybugs against Their Natural Enemies by Utilizing the Leaf Shelters Constructed by the Leaf Roller Sylepta derogata  

PubMed Central

The importance of mutualism is receiving more attention in community ecology. In this study, the fire ant Solenopsis invicta was found to take advantage of the shelters constructed by the leaf roller Sylepta derogata to protect mealybugs (Phenacoccus solenopsis) against their natural enemies. This protective effect of fire ant tending on the survival of mealybugs in shelters was observed when enemies and leaf rollers were simultaneously present. Specifically, fire ants moved the mealybugs inside the shelters produced by S. derogata on enemy-infested plants. Compared with that in plants without ants, the survival of mealybugs in shelters in the presence of natural enemies in plants with ants markedly improved. Both the protection of ants and the shelters provided by leaf rollers did not affect the survival of mealybugs in the absence of enemies in plants. Ants and leaf rollers significantly improved the survival of mealybugs in predator-infested plants, whereas no such improvement was observed in parasitoid-infested ones. PMID:23185505

Zhou, Aiming; Zeng, Ling; Lu, Yongyue; Xu, Yijuan; Liang, Guangwen

2012-01-01

435

Prevalence of positive antibody test results for canine parvovirus (CPV) and canine distemper virus (CDV) and response to modified live vaccination against CPV and CDV in dogs entering animal shelters.  

PubMed

Canine parvovirus (CPV) and canine distemper virus (CDV) infections are relatively common in animal shelters and are important population management issues since the immune status of incoming dogs is usually unknown. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of positive antibody test results for CPV and CDV in incoming dogs aged ? 4 months and to measure antibody response over 2 weeks following vaccination with a modified live vaccine (MLV). Dogs aged 4-24 months entering an adoption-guarantee shelter (Shelter 1, n=51) and aged ? 4 months entering a limited admission shelter (Shelter 2; n=51) were enrolled. Dogs from Shelter 1 had been vaccinated with MLV at a municipal shelter 5 days before enrollment, whereas dogs from Shelter 2 had no known history of vaccination at enrollment. Sera were obtained on day 1, immediately prior to CPV/CDV MLV, and tested using an in-clinic ELISA kit to detect CPV/CDV antibodies. Dogs negative for CPV and/or CDV were retested at day 6-8 and those dogs still negative at day 6-8 were retested at day 13-15. Prior to CPV/CDV MLV on day 1, more dogs tested positive for CPV (Shelter 1 - 68.6%; Shelter 2 - 84.3%) than for CDV (Shelter 1 - 37.3%; Shelter 2 - 41.2%). On day 1, prior to MLV, all spayed/neutered animals tested CPV antibody-positive (n=17/102) and CPV antibody-positive dogs were older than serologically negative dogs (Shelter 1, P=0.0029; Shelter 2, P=0.0042). By day 13-15, almost all dogs were CPV antibody-positive (Shelter 1 - 97.9%; Shelter 2 - 100.0%) and CDV antibody-positive (Shelter 1 - 93.8%; Shelter 2 - 97.8%). MLV induces protective antibody titers against CPV/CDV in almost all dogs after 13-15 days. PMID:22261239

Litster, Annette; Nichols, Jamieson; Volpe, Allison

2012-05-25

436

Impact: Earth!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What would happen if a large meteorite or other object hit the Earth? It's something that has engaged the minds and talents of astrophysicists (and students of all ages) for decades. Now the generally curious can create their own simulated impact with Purdue University's "Impact Earth" website. Visitors can browse the Famous Craters area to get started. This part includes some "classics," such as the Ries Crater and the Tunguska Fireball. Of course, visitors really must use the handy interface to craft their own impact, projectile, and target parameters to get the full effect on how such an event plays out. Also, the site includes a complete Documentation file (a peer-reviewed article) and a detailed glossary.

2013-01-01

437

Earth plasmas  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Fusion is the focus of this section of a tutorial about plasma, one of the four states of matter. This section deals with plasmas on Earth. There is little naturally-occurring plasma here because of the Earth's relatively cool (by universe standards) temperature, but human-made plasma is produced for industry and research purposes. The section explores the use of plasmas in experimental fusion reactors, pointing out three categories of significant unresolved issues that stand in the way of fusion becoming a viable energy source. The use of electromagnets to confine plasmas is discussed. Enlargeable images of fusion reactors are provided, and an explanation of the difference between fission and fusion is supplemented by animations of the two reaction types. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Institute, Space S.

2005-01-01

438

Earth Math  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This text explores a few of the many concepts that frequently come up in the study of Earth systems and global climate change. Students will be exposed to many problems involving unit conversion. Global climate change reports involve terms such as kilowatt-hour, megawatt-hour, and gigawatt-hour, as well as megatons and gigatons. Students will become versed in converting units where appropriate, and through the calculations, will work with the concept of significant figures. Creating linear equations from graphical and tabular information is covered, as well as forecasting. The text is meant to be used as a companion to standard Earth science and mathematics courses, and presents enough application problems to allow students to quantitatively understand typical media reports about global climate change.

2009-01-01

439

Cool Shelter  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Amid climbing energy costs and tightening budgets, administrators at school districts, colleges and universities are looking for all avenues of potential savings while promoting sustainable communities. Cool metal roofing can save schools money and promote sustainable design at the same time. Cool metal roofing keeps the sun's heat from collecting…

Praeger, Charles E.

2005-01-01

440

Bombed Shelters  

E-print Network

Broadcast Transcript: In this time of reusing, recycling, repurposing, pretty much anything can become anything else: tires to playground turf, soda bottles to fleece parkas, rails to trails. Here in Shanghai, they've got ...

Hacker, Randi

2013-07-24

441

Earth Lab  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Earth Lab is a database of fossils, minerals and rocks from the UK. A photograph is displayed for each specimen selected, as well as the scientific name, location and properties or age of the specimen. The fossils can be searched by area, age, and group; minerals by area, element, group, and property; and rocks by area, geological age, and type of rock. A series of questions allows users to identify their own specimens.

442

Earth's Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The total amount of water on Earth, the places in which it is found and the percentages of fresh vs. salt are examined in this lesson. A short demonstration allows students to visualize the percentage differences and a coloring exercise illustrates locations. This lesson uses the 5E instructional model. All background information, student worksheets and images/photographs/data are included in these downloadable sections: Teacher's Guide, Student Capture Sheet and PowerPoint Presentation.

443

Earth's Biomes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What are the characteristics of Earth's biomes? First, open the Biomes Graphic Organizer Now read through Information on Aquatic Biome (Freshwater) and fill in 5 characterestics of a freshwater biome in your graphic organizer. Now read through Information on Desert and fill in 5 characteristics of a desert biome in your graphic organizer. Now read through Information on Rainforest and fill in 5 characteristics of rainforest biome in your graphic organizer. Now ...

Allman, Ms.

2012-04-05

444

Earth Day  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Wow! Endagered species are everywhere! Just understanding the needs of animals will help them to survive longer. Find out how much your use of energy leaves a 'carbon' footprint on the earth. We all need to use our limited resources wisely. Reduce your footprint! Find out how and take the carbon footrpint quiz here. Carbon Footprint Watch the following YouTube video to hear a special message from Carl Hiaasen, the ...

Datwyler, Mrs.

2010-04-19

445

Earth Observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This document is concentrates on a couple of the missions where the Spacelab hardware was used to do Earth science. The Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science (ATLAS) series of missions and the Lidar in-Space Technology Experiment (LITE) mission, the ATLAS being a series of three Shuttle missions that were very much Spacelab missions, are described. A little bit about the history, what the missions were, some of the instruments that were on them, and results are given.

Kaye, Jack

2000-01-01

446

Impact Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This 24 minute planetarium show teaches about meteors, meteorites, asteroids, and comets. The show was created for fulldome theaters, but is also available on DVD to be shown in flat version for TVs and computer monitors, and can be freely viewed online. It shows the effects of the Chixulub and Tungusta events, plus the Pallasite impact that resulted in the Brenham meteorite fall, and describes ways that asteroid hunters seek new objects in the solar system, and how ground penetrating radar is used to find meteorites that have survived to the Earth's surface. Narrated by astronaut Tom Jones, it also discusses ways that humans might try to deflect an asteroid or comet that is on a collision course with Earth. The show was created for informal science venues (digital planetariums); it is also useful as supplemental material for middle school science. Impact Earth is available for free if presented directly from the Space Update site (widescreen or fisheye views linked from YouTube). Otherwise, a DVD of the show can be purchased for $10.

447

Collaborative modelling-based shelter planning analysis: a case study of the Nagata Elementary School Community in Kobe City, Japan.  

PubMed

This study, based on a questionnaire survey and workshops, and with a focus on the impact of an earthquake on the Nagata Elementary School Community in Kobe City, Japan, develops a collaborative model to assess the allocation of residents to shelters. The current official allocation plan is compared with three alternative allocations developed within the framework of this model. The collaborative model identifies accessibility, amenity, capacity, connectivity, continuity, security, and stability as the basic, necessary criteria for shelter planning. The three alternative allocations are very similar to the local residents' own choice of shelters, but they are quite different from the current official allocation plan, which is supposed to be followed but has achieved relatively low satisfaction among households. The proposed collaborative approach provides an effective tool to assess the officially determined allocation plan by taking into account the viewpoints of local residents, and the results are useful for enhancing community evacuation planning. PMID:24325242

Xu, Wei; Li, Ying; Okada, Norio; Takeuchi, Yukiko; Kajitani, Yoshio; Shi, Peijun

2014-01-01

448

Building houses for people  

E-print Network

" ... shelter is part of daily human life and will come about wherever and whenever people will share space. Today, in a new age where so much more is possible, the professional plays a crucial role in that process. Yes, ...

Townes, Anne E. (Anne Elizabeth)

1995-01-01

449

Estimating the urban bias of surface shelter temperatures using upper-air and satellite data. Part 1: Development of models predicting surface shelter temperatures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Multiple regression techniques were used to predict surface shelter temperatures based on the time period 1986-89 using upper-air data from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) to represent the background climate and site-specific data to represent the local landscape. Global monthly mean temperature models were developed using data from over 5000 stations available in the Global Historical Climate Network (GHCN). Monthly maximum, mean, and minimum temperature models for the United States were also developed using data from over 1000 stations available in the U.S. Cooperative (COOP) Network and comparative monthly mean temperature models were developed using over 1150 U.S. stations in the GHCN. Three-, six-, and full-variable models were developed for comparative purposes. Inferences about the variables selected for the various models were easier for the GHCN models, which displayed month-to-month consistency in which variables were selected, than for the COOP models, which were assigned a different list of variables for nearly every month. These and other results suggest that global calibration is preferred because data from the global spectrum of physical processes that control surface temperatures are incorporated in a global model. All of the models that were developed in this study validated relatively well, especially the global models. Recalibration of the models with validation data resulted in only slightly poorer regression statistics, indicating that the calibration list of variables was valid. Predictions using data from the validation dataset in the calibrated equation were better for the GHCN models, and the globally calibrated GHCN models generally provided better U.S. predictions than the U.S.-calibrated COOP models. Overall, the GHCN and COOP models explained approximately 64%-95% of the total variance of surface shelter temperatures, depending on the month and the number of model variables. In addition, root-mean-square errors (rmse's) were over 3 C for GHCN models and over 2 C for COOP models for winter months, and near 2 C for GHCN models and near 1.5 C for COOP models for summer months.

Epperson, David L.; Davis, Jerry M.; Bloomfield, Peter; Karl, Thomas R.; Mcnab, Alan L.; Gallo, Kevin P.

1995-01-01

450

Toxoplasmosis, leptospirosis and brucellosis in stray dogs housed at the shelter in Umuarama municipality, Paran?, Brazil  

PubMed Central

Background Leptospirosis, toxoplasmosis and brucellosis are diseases with worldwide distribution. Among stray dogs, these zoonoses are facilitated by direct contact with other animal species, by the habit of scavenging garbage and hunting in search of food, drinking standing water, smelling other animals’ urine, licking female genitalia and the sexual act itself. The objective of this study was to detect antibodies anti-Toxoplasma gondii, anti-Leptospira spp., anti-Brucella canis and anti-Brucella abortus in stray dogs housed in shelters at Umuarama city, Paraná, Brazil. In order to detect toxoplasmosis, indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) was performed, agglutination microscopic (MAT) test for leptospirosis and agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) and buffered acidified antigen (BAA) tests for brucellosis. Results Of the 175 serum samples analyzed, 70.85% were considered positive for toxoplasmosis by IFA, 20% by MAT for leptospirosis and 2.85% by AGID for Brucella canis. Conclusions The serological results of this study showed that stray dogs housed at the private shelter are potential carriers of these three different zoonoses and contribute to the spread and maintenance of these etiologic agents in the urban area of Umuarama (PR), Brazil. PMID:24066949

2013-01-01

451

Domestic violence shelter partnerships and veterinary student attitudes at North American veterinary schools and colleges.  

PubMed

Animal abuse and domestic violence are linked issues, and pet ownership is reported to play a crucial role in the choice to leave an abusive situation. Although veterinarians witness the effects of abuse and violence over the course of their careers, they have limited training regarding these issues. One mechanism for educating veterinary students while providing a service for victims of domestic violence is the creation of partnerships between domestic violence shelters and veterinary schools. These extracurricular programs can provide both care for pets belonging to victims of domestic violence and an educational platform for student participants. The goals of this study were to determine the prevalence and characteristics of domestic violence shelter partnerships (DVSPs) at North American veterinary teaching hospitals and to determine whether the presence of a DVSP was associated with increased awareness among veterinary students regarding animal abuse and domestic violence. Nine of 33 veterinary schools surveyed described a DVSP program. Students at schools with DVSPs associated with their veterinary teaching hospitals were significantly more likely to indicate that their awareness of the link between animal abuse and domestic violence had increased during veterinary school. Most veterinary students reported that they felt poorly prepared to handle domestic violence and animal abuse issues in the workplace. This study indicates that extracurricular DVSPs are a viable means of educating veterinary students regarding domestic violence and animal abuse. A need for improved education on these topics in veterinary schools across North America is identified. PMID:23697544

Creevy, Kate E; Shaver, Stephanie L; Cornell, Karen K

2013-01-01

452

Abraham Pais Prize for History of Physics Talk: Shelter Island, Pocono, Oldstone, 1947-49, Revisited  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The historic June 1947 Shelter Island Conference was the first of three small conferences on theoretical physics sponsored by the National Academy of Sciences. It opened with a report of the results of Lamb and Retherford's and those of Nafe, Nelson and Rabi's experiments on the spectrum of hydrogen. The challenge to explain the accurate numbers they had obtained stimulated a renewed interest in quantum electrodynamics (QED) and became the point of departure for the post World War II developments in quantum field theory: effective Lorentz invariant computational methods, Feynman diagrams, renormalization theory. The recent discovery of Hans Bethe's extensive notes on the Shelter Island conference allows a reconsideration of the role played by Kramers, Oppenheimer and Weisskopf in these developments. The 1948 Pocono Conference at which Schwinger and Feynman presented their formulation of QED, and the 1949 Oldstone conference, at which Dyson summarized his researches and his views regarding renormalizability, give proof of the deep changes in the conceptualization, description and representation of nature that had been brought about by the work of Weisskopf, Schwinger, Feynman, and Dyson.

Schweber, Silvan

2011-04-01

453

Shasta ground sloth ( Nothrotheriops shastense hoffstetter) at Shelter Cave, New Mexico: Environment, diet, and extinction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seven coprolites of the extinct Shasta ground sloth ( Nothrotheriops shastense) were recently discovered in the Los Angeles County Museum collection from Shelter Cave, New Mexico. Three dung balls provided radiocarbon ages of 11,330, 12,330 and 12,430 yr B.P. Packrat ( Neotoma) middens disclose a xeric juniper woodland at Shelter Cave during the sloth's occupation. Plant cuticles from the dung indicate that the ground sloth had a diet dominated by mormon tea ( Ephedra) and other xerophytic shrubs. Pollen spectra from the coprolites have high representations of anemophilous plants and low representations of the dietary items shown in the cuticle analysis. Fifteen radiocarbon dates of sloth dung obtained since 1974 strengthen the hypothesis that sloth extinction occurred about 11,000 yr B.P. Paleoenvironmental studies indicate that ground sloths lived in juniper woodlands and montane conifer communities. Nothrotheriops commonly dined on shrubs that are still present in these habitats. It is difficult to explain the demise of the Shasta ground sloth by climatic change or dietary stress. Human predation remains as a possible explanation; ground sloth extinction appears to coincide with the time of Clovis mammoth hunters.

Thompson, Robert S.; Van Devender, Thomas R.; Martin, Paul S.; Foppe, Theresa; Long, Austin

1980-11-01

454

Full Earth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

View of the Earth as seen by the Apollo 17 crew traveling toward the Moon. This translunar coast photograph extends from the Mediterranean Sea area to the Antarctica South polar ice cap. This is the first time the Apollo trajectory made it possible to photograph the South polar ice cap. Note the heavy cloud cover in the Southern Hemisphere. Almost the entire coastline of Africa is clearly visible. The Arabian Peninsula can be seen at the Northeastern edge of Africa. The large island off the coast of Africa is the Malagasy Republic. The Asian mainland is on the horizon toward the Northeast.

1972-01-01

455

Earth 911  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Earth 911 is an organization focused on empowering the public with community-specific resources to improve their quality of life. To accomplish this goal, they provide information on a wide range of environmental topics including recycling (several types of materials), household hazardous waste, water quality, composting, air pollution prevention, fire prevention, green shopping tips, and mercury pollution. Environmental news links, games and activities for kids, and local news and events are also included. Users may enter a zip code to obtain information on environmental issues specific to where they live.

2004-01-01

456

Small Buildings in Earthquake Areas. Educational Building Digest 2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet is intended for builders and others who actually construct small buildings in earthquake areas and not for professionally qualified architects or engineers. In outline form with sketches the following topics are discussed: general construction and design principles; foundations; earth walls; brick, block, and stone walls; timber frame…

Mooij, D.

457

Combined effects of shelter and density on the growth and survival of juveniles of the Australian freshwater crayfish, Cherax destructor Clark  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two experiments were conducted on newly independent (stage 3) yabbies (Cherax destructor) to investigate the effect of shelter and density on growth and survival under laboratory conditions. The first trial was conducted over 41 days using three density levels, four, eight and 16 per 2.5 l aquarium, equivalent to 150, 300 and 600 m?2, with and without onion bag shelter.

G. D Verhoef; C. M Austin

1999-01-01

458

Is length of shelter stay and receipt of a protection order associated with less violence and better functioning for abused women? Outcome data 4 months after receiving services.  

PubMed

To provide differential effectiveness on length of stay at a shelter and receipt versus non-receipt of a protection order (PO), and outcomes of violence, functioning, and resiliency, in 300 abused women (150 first-time users of a shelter and 150 first-time applicants for a PO) who participate in a 7-year study with outcomes measured every 4 months. Four months after a shelter stay or application for a PO, abused women staying 21 days or less at a shelter reported similar outcomes compared with women staying longer than 21 days. Similarly, women receiving and not receiving a PO reported overall equivalent outcomes. Seeking shelter or justice services results in similar improved outcomes for abused women 4 months later, regardless of length of stay at the shelter or receipt or no receipt of the PO. Contact with shelter and justice services results in positive outcomes for abused women and indicates the urgent need to increase availability, accessibility, and acceptability of shelter and justice services. PMID:24664248

McFarlane, Judith; Symes, Lene; Maddoux, John; Gilroy, Heidi; Koci, Anne

2014-10-01

459

The endangered Iris atropurpurea (Iridaceae) in Israel: honey-bees, night-sheltering male bees and female solitary bees as pollinators  

E-print Network

The endangered Iris atropurpurea (Iridaceae) in Israel: honey-bees, night-sheltering male bees and female solitary bees as pollinators Stella Watts1,*, Yuval Sapir2, Bosmat Segal1 and Amots Dafni1 1 no nectar reward. Here the role of night-sheltering male solitary bees, honey-bees and female solitary bees

Northampton, University of

460

Restoration of a Rocky Mountain Spruce-Fir Forest: Sixth-Year Engelmann Spruce Seedling Response With or Without Tree Shelter Removal  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents results following 6 growing seasons of a project designed to examine the use of tree shelters as a means to provide initial shade for planted Engelmann spruce seedlings. Seedlings were planted in 1996 on a 48-ha (119-ac) high-elevation site with different colors of tree shelters providing various degrees of shading. A control treatment, consisting of shading using

Douglass F. Jacobs

461

Behavior and cortisol levels of dogs in a public animal shelter, and an exploration of the ability of these measures to predict problem behavior after adoption  

Microsoft Academic Search

Behavior and plasma cortisol levels were examined in puppies and juvenile\\/adult dogs admitted to a public animal shelter. A behavioral test was developed to assess the responses of the dogs to novel or threatening conditions. Factor analysis of the behavioral responses of 166 dogs on day 3 in the shelter yielded six factors (locomotor activity, flight, sociability, timidity, solicitation, and

Michael B Hennessy; Victoria L Voith; Samuel J Mazzei; Jeff Buttram; Deborah D Miller; Fran Linden

2001-01-01

462

Acoustical and sedimentological characterization of substrates in and around sheltered and open-ocean mussel aquaculture sites and its bearing on the dispersal of mussel debris  

Microsoft Academic Search

Side-scan sonar, camera observations, and sediment sampling are used to determine the seabed dispersal of mussel debris at three aquaculture farm sites in sheltered to exposed environments in the Marlborough Sounds, New Zealand. At the two sheltered farm sites, side-scan sonagraphs reveal high acoustic backscatter beneath culture sites and low backscatter in the immediate surrounds. This suggests a sharp contrast

Neil D. Hartstein

2005-01-01

463

Healthy Buildings?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Health problems related to school buildings can be categorized in five major areas: sick-building syndrome; health-threatening building materials; environmental hazards such as radon gas and asbestos; lead poisoning; and poor indoor air quality due to smoke, chemicals, and other pollutants. This paper provides an overview of these areas,…

Grubb, Deborah

464

Building Resonance  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This demonstration of how buildings respond to seismic shaking uses cardboard and stiff paper (such as postcards or computer cards). The effects of building resonance can be found by experimenting with taller and shorter buildings, and varying the frequency of shaking.

Barker, Jeffrey

465

Cross-repository Information Discovery in the Earth Sciences Adila Krisnadhia  

E-print Network

Cross-repository Information Discovery in the Earth Sciences Adila Krisnadhia , Robert Arkob, discovery and management across the geosciences. EARTHCUBE Conceptual modeling, Information Integration Project An EarthCube building block focused on ocean science knowledge infrastructure. Starts with 6

Hitzler, Pascal

466

Design of an unmanned lunar cargo lander that reconfigures into a shelter for a habitation module or disassembles into parts useful to a permanent manned lunar base  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA plans to establish a permanent manned lunar base by the first decade of the twenty-first century. It is extremely expensive to transport material from earth to the moon. Therefore, expense would be reduced if the vehicle that lands cargo on the moon could itself meet some of the material needs of establishing the lunar base. The design of a multi-functional lander that is entirely useful to the base after landing is described. Alternate designs of the overall lander configuration and possible uses of the lander and its components after landing are contained. The design solution is a lander employing the Saddlebagged Fuel Tank Configuration. After landing, its structure will be converted into a habitation module shelter that supports a protective layer of regolith. The fuel tanks will be cleaned and used as storage tanks for the lunar base. The engines and instrumentation will be saved as stock parts. Recommendations for further research and technology development to enhance future lander designs are given.

Davanay, Lisa; Garner, Brian; Rigol, Jason

1989-01-01

467

NASA Earth Exchange: Next Generation Earth Science Collaborative  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NASA Earth Exchange (NEX) is a collaboration platform for the Earth science community creating new ways for scientific interaction and knowledge sharing. Funded through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act, NEX combines state-of-the-art supercomputing, Earth system modeling, workflow management, NASA remote sensing data feeds, and a social networking platform to deliver a complete work environment in which users can explore and analyze large datasets, run modeling codes, collaborate on new or existing projects, and quickly share results among the Earth science communities. The work environment provides NEX members with community supported modeling, analysis and visualization software in conjunction with datasets that are common to the Earth systems science domain. By providing data, software, and large-scale computing power together in a flexible framework, NEX reduces the need for duplicated efforts in downloading data, developing pre-processing software tools, and expanding local compute infrastructures-while accelerating fundamental research, development of new applications, and reducing project costs. The social networking platform provides a forum for NEX members to efficiently share datasets, results, algorithms, codes, and expertise with other members. Since all members' work environments reside on the collaborative platform, sharing may be done without the transfer of large volumes of data or the porting of complex codes-making NEX an ideal platform for building upon and exchanging research, and fostering innovation.

Nemani, R. R.; Votava, P.; Michaelis, A.; Melton, F. S.; Milesi, C.

2011-12-01

468

NASA Earth Exchange: A Collaborative Earth Science Platform  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NASA Earth Exchange (NEX) is a collaboration platform for the Earth science community creating new ways for scientific interaction and knowledge sharing. Funded through ARRA, NEX combines state-of-the-art supercomputing, Earth system modeling, workflow management, NASA remote sensing data feeds, and a social networking platform to deliver a complete work environment in which users can explore and analyze large datasets, run modeling codes, collaborate on new or existing projects, and quickly share results among the Earth science communities. The work environment provides NEX members with community supported modeling, analysis and visualization software in conjunction with datasets that are common to the Earth systems science domain. By providing data, software, and large-scale computing power together in a flexible framework, NEX reduces the need for duplicated efforts in downloading data, developing pre-processing software tools, and expanding local compute infrastructures—while accelerating fundamental research, development of new applications, and reducing project costs. The social networking platform provides a forum for NEX members to efficiently share datasets, results, algorithms, codes, and expertise with other members. Since all members' work environments reside on the collaborative platform, sharing may be done without the transfer of large volumes of data or the porting of complex codes—making NEX an ideal platform for building upon and exchanging research, and fostering innovation. Architecture of NEX integrating social networking, super-computing and data center. The prototyping facility allows users to test their models, algorithms prior to deploying them on the super-computers when required.

Nemani, R. R.; Votava, P.; Michaelis, A.; Melton, F. S.; Hashimoto, H.; Milesi, C.; Wang, W.; Ganguly, S.

2010-12-01

469

NASA Earth Exchange: Next Generation Earth Science Collaborative  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NASA Earth Exchange (NEX) is a collaboration platform for the Earth science community creating new ways for scientific interaction and knowledge sharing. NEX combines state-of-the-art supercomputing, Earth system modeling, workflow management, NASA remote sensing data feeds, and a social networking platform to deliver a complete work environment in which users can explore and analyze large datasets, run modeling codes, collaborate on new or existing projects, and quickly share results among the Earth science communities.The work environment provides NEX members with community supported modeling, analysis and visualization software in conjunction with datasets that are common to the Earth systems science domain. By providing data, software, and large-scale computing power together in a flexible framework, NEX reduces the need for duplicated efforts in downloading data, developing pre-processing software tools, and expanding local compute infrastructures-while accelerating fundamental research, development of new applications, and reducing project costs. The social networking platform provides a forum for NEX members to efficiently share datasets, results, algorithms, codes, and expertise with other members. Since all members''work environments reside on the collaborative platform, sharing may be done without the transfer of large volumes of data or the porting of complex codes- making NEX an ideal platform for building upon and exchanging research, and fostering innovation.

Nemani, R.

2011-08-01

470

Sulfur Earth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Variations in surface tension affect the buoyancy of objects floating in a liquid. Thus an object floating in water will sink deeper in the presence of dishwater fluid. This is a very minor but measurable effect. It causes for instance ducks to drown in aqueous solutions with added surfactant. The surface tension of liquid iron is very strongly affected by the presence of sulfur which acts as a surfactant in this system varying between 1.9 and 0.4 N/m at 10 mass percent Sulfur (Lee & Morita (2002), This last value is inferred to be the maximum value for Sulfur inferred to be present in the liquid outer core. Venting of Sulfur from the liquid core manifests itself on the Earth surface by the 105 to 106 ton of sulfur vented into the atmosphere annually (Wedepohl, 1984). Inspection of surface Sulfur emission indicates that venting is non-homogeneously distributed over the Earth's surface. The implication of such large variation in surface tension in the liquid outer core are that at locally low Sulfur concentration, the liquid outer core does not wet the predominantly MgSiO3 matrix with which it is in contact. However at a local high in Sulfur, the liquid outer core wets this matrix which in the fluid state has a surface tension of 0.4 N/m (Bansal & Doremus, 1986), couples with it, and causes it to sink. This differential and diapiric movement is transmitted through the essentially brittle mantle (1024 Pa.s, Lambeck & Johnson, 1998; the maximum value for ice being about 1030 Pa.s at 0 K, in all likely hood representing an upper bound of viscosity for all materials) and manifests itself on the surface by the roughly 20 km differentiation, about 0.1 % of the total mantle thickness, between topographical heights and lows with concomitant lateral movement in the crust and upper mantle resulting in thin skin tectonics. The brittle nature of the medium though which this movement is transmitted suggests that the extremes in topography of the D" layer are similar in range to those observed on the Earth's surface and are mimicked by lows under the oceans and highs under the altiplanos. Careful and area selective S wave core mantle ellipsometry might be able to discern these core-mantle topographic variations. As such this process demonstrates the validity of the Gaia hypothesis enunciated by Baas Becking(1931) that no ecological niche on our planet is closed off from other niches "nothing in the world is single".

de Jong, B. H.

2007-12-01

471

Survivor: Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This series of ten lessons has been developed to teach students about local and global water issues. They are based on NASAâs Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission. The activities are done largely outdoors and include scientific data collection and analysis and integrate technology. Many of the lessons involve data collected based on protocols from the GLOBE Program. Each lesson is designed to take one hour; the lessons build on each other, but can also be used independently. Each lesson topic includes a lesson plan, PowerPoint presentation, student capture sheet and capture sheet answer guide.

472

Effect of high-impact targeted trap-neuter-return and adoption of community cats on cat intake to a shelter.  

PubMed

Approximately 2-3 million cats enter animal shelters annually in the United States. A large proportion of these are unowned community cats that have no one to reclaim them and may be too unsocialized for adoption. More than half of impounded cats are euthanased due to shelter crowding, shelter-acquired disease or feral behavior. Trap-neuter-return (TNR), an alternative to shelter impoundment, improves cat welfare and reduces the size of cat colonies, but has been regarded as too impractical to reduce cat populations on a larger scale or to limit shelter cat intake. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of TNR concentrated in a region of historically high cat impoundments in a Florida community. A 2-year program was implemented to capture and neuter at least 50% of the estimated community cats in a single 11.9?km(2) zip code area, followed by return to the neighborhood or adoption. Trends in shelter cat intake from the target zip code were compared to the rest of the county. A total of 2366 cats, representing approximately 54% of the projected community cat population in the targeted area, were captured for the TNR program over the 2-year study period. After 2 years, per capita shelter intake was 3.5-fold higher and per capita shelter euthanasia was 17.5-fold higher in the non-target area than in the target area. Shelter cat impoundment from the target area where 60 cats/1000 residents were neutered annually decreased by 66% during the 2-year study period, compared to a decrease of 12% in the non-target area, where only 12 cats/1000 residents were neutered annually. High-impact TNR combined with the adoption of socialized cats and nuisance resolution counseling for residents is an effective tool for reducing shelter cat intake. PMID:24980808

Levy, J K; Isaza, N M; Scott, K C

2014-09-01

473

GOOGLE EARTH QUICK GUIDE (1)Google Earth Features  

E-print Network

GOOGLE EARTH QUICK GUIDE (1)Google Earth Features The Google Earth of the Google Earth window. Often when opening up the Google Earth program, the view screen will be a view of the entire Earth from space. Navigation bar

Smith-Konter, Bridget

474

Asymmetric Earth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The net rotation, or so-called W-ward drift of the lithosphere, implies a decoupling of the plates relative to the underlying asthenosphere, and a relative "E-ward" mantle flow. This polarized flow can account for a number of asymmetries. When comparing the W-directed versus the E- to NE-directed subduction zones, as a general observation, they have the subduction hinge diverging versus converging relative to the upper plate; low versus high topography and structural elevation respectively; deep versus shallow trenches and foreland basins; shallow versus deep decollement; low versus high basement involvement; high versus low heat flow and gravity anomaly; shallow versus deep asthenosphere; etc. The western limbs of rift zones show S-waves faster in the lithosphere and slower in the asthenosphere with respect to the eastern limb. The asymmetry can be recognized when moving along the "tectonic equator", which describes the fastest flow of plates relative to the mantle, and it undulates relative to the geographic equator. In our reconstructions, the best fit for the tectonic equator has a pole of rotation at latitude -56.4° and longitude 136.7°, with an angular velocity of 1.2036°/Ma. Shear-wave splitting alignments tend to parallel the tectonic flow, apart along the subduction zones where they become orthogonal, as a flow encountering an obstacle. The tectonic equator lies close to the revolution plane of the Moon about the Earth. All these data and interpretations point for an asymmetric Earth, whose nature appears to be related to the rotation and its tidal despinning, combined with the thermal cooling of the planet. However, this model has been questioned on the basis of the high viscosity so far inferred in the asthenosphere. Preliminary modelling shows that the tidal oscillation can generate gravitational wave propagation in the lithosphere, and the wave velocity can increase with the decrease of the asthenospheric viscosity.

Doglioni, Carlo; Carminati, Eugenio; Crespi, Mattia; Cuffaro, Marco; Ismail-Zadeh, Alik; Levshin, Anatoli; Panza, Giuliano F.; Riguzzi, Federica

2010-05-01

475

Service Quality and Corporate Social Responsibility, Influence on Post-Purchase Intentions of Sheltered Employment Institutions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The main purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of service quality and corporate social responsibility (CSR) on customer satisfaction, and customer satisfaction toward post-purchase intentions from sheltered employment institutions. Work experience plays an important role in career development for those people with intellectual…

Chen, Chao-Chien; Lin, Shih-Yen; Cheng, Chia-Hsin; Tsai, Chia-Ching

2012-01-01

476

Comparison of selected canine vector-borne diseases between urban animal shelter and rural hunting dogs in Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

A serological survey for Dirofilaria immitis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Ehrlichia canis, and Borrelia burgdorferi infections in rural hunting and urban shelter dogs mainly from southwestern regions of the Republic of Korea (South Korea) was conducted. From a total of 229 wild boar or pheasant hunting dogs, the number of serologically positive dogs for any of the four pathogens was 93 (40.6%).

Sun Lim; Peter J Irwin; SeungRyong Lee; MyungHwan Oh; KyuSung Ahn; BoYoung Myung; SungShik Shin

2010-01-01

477

Economic, Environmental, and Natural Resource Benefits of Plastic Shelters in Vegetable Production in a Humid Tropical Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports the effectiveness of plastic shelters in overcoming soil-related and biotic constraints to vegetable production in Belize, Central America, where rainy-season tomatoes and sweet peppers are almost totally destroyed by geminiviruses. Use of pesticides is rampant, while rapid decline in soil productivity induces farmers to abandon previously used lands and clear new lands from virgin forests. We postulated

Lalit M. Arya; Edward L. Pulver; M. Th van Genuchten

2001-01-01

478

Reckless males, rational females: dynamic trade-off between food and shelter in the marine isopod Idotea balthica.  

PubMed

Habitat choice of herbivores is expected to be a resolution of a trade-off between food and shelter. The resolution of this trade-off may, however, be dynamic within a species because distinct phenotypes may value these factors differently and the value may vary temporally. We studied this hypothesis in the marine herbivore Idotea balthica (Isopoda), by simultaneously manipulating both food and shelter, and investigated whether the resolution of the trade-off differed between sexes, colour morphs and day and night (i.e. high and low predation risk). Isopods chose between exposing and concealing backgrounds in which the quantity or quality of food varied. When choosing between the backgrounds in the absence of food, females preferred the concealment more than males did. However, in a trade-off situation the isopods traded shelter for food, and females more so than males. Thus, males' lower preference for the shelter was not counterbalanced by a stronger preference for food. The microhabitat use also differed between night and day showing adaptation to diurnally fluctuating predation risk. We suggest that microhabitat utilization of females is more strongly tied to variation in risk and resources than that of males, for whom other factors, such as seeking mates, may be more important. PMID:18692551

Vesakoski, Outi; Merilaita, Sami; Jormalainen, Veijo

2008-11-01

479

Impact of the economic recession on companion animal relinquishment, adoption, and euthanasia: a Chicago animal shelter's experience.  

PubMed

This study investigated how the current economic recession (since December 2007) has affected dog and cat relinquishment, adoption, and euthanasia at the Anti-Cruelty Society animal shelter in Chicago, Illinois. The study compared temporal patterns of the investigated statistics before (2000-2007) the start of the current recession with the patterns after the start of the recession (2008-2010). The results showed that once the guardianship (ownership) of a nonhuman animal had been established, the recession did not greatly affect the owner's decision on relinquishment-except for the relinquishment of senior dogs, which may be associated with increased costs of care. However, an unfavorable economic environment may have reduced adoption of animals. The consequences of a decline in adoptions might be reflected in an increase in the proportion or number of sheltered animals euthanized. This study demonstrated how monitoring changes in temporal patterns in these shelter statistics can help guide animal shelters to better prepare for the current recession. PMID:22233217

Weng, Hsin-Yi; Hart, Lynette A

2012-01-01

480

Tree shelters and weed control: Effects on protection, survival and growth of cherrybark oak seedlings planted on a cutover site  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the southern USA oaks (Quercusspp.) are often favored by forest owners havingmultiple objectives for forest ownership as oaksprovide mast for wildlife, are consideredaesthetically pleasing, and are valuable for timberproducts. Regeneration and early seedling growth isa concern to those forest owners interested insustaining oaks as a component of their forests. Theeffects of tree shelters and herbaceous weed controlon second-year seedling

Mark R. Dubois; Arthur H. Chappelka; Efrem Robbins; Greg Somers; Karl Baker

2000-01-01

481

Moving: Characteristics of dogs and cats and those relinquishing them to 12 U.S. animal shelters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National Council on Pet Population Study and Policy Regional Shelter Survey identified moving as the most often cited of 71 reasons for relinquishing dogs and the 3rd most common reason for relinquishing cats. Most relinquished companion animals were less than 3 years old and female. Dogs were most often intact, whereas cats were most often altered. Friends had given

New John C. Jr; M D Salman; Jennifer M Scarlett; Philip Kass; Jayne Vaughn; Stacy Scherr; William Kelch

1999-01-01

482

Reasons for relinquishment of companion animals in U.S. animal shelters: Selected health and personal issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

In personal interviews, people surrendering their dogs and cats to 12 animal shelters in 4 regions of the country discussed their reasons for relinquishing their companion animals and answered questions about their own characteristics and those of their pet. The interviews identified 71 reasons for relinquishment. Personal issues lead the class of reasons for relinquishment of cats and ranked 3rd

Jennifer M Scarlett; M D Salman; New John C. Jr; Philip Kass

1999-01-01

483

Common virus infections in cats, before and after being placed in shelters, with emphasis on feline enteric coronavirus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to determine the origin and subsequent spread of feline calicivirus (FCV), feline herpesvirus (FHV), and feline enteric coronavirus (FECV) in cats relinquished to shelters. FCV was isolated from the oral fauces of 11% of healthy cats upon entry, and isolation rates were highest for kittens (33%). FHV shedding was very low (4%) at the

N. C. Pedersen; R. Sato; J. E. Foley; A. M. Poland

2004-01-01

484

Perception of access to health care by homeless individuals seeking services at a day shelter.  

PubMed

Homeless individuals experience significant physical, mental health and substance abuse issues. This study describes the prevalence of health issues and perceptions of access to care among 300 homeless individuals who use a day shelter. Approximately 43% described a serious/chronic physical health problem, 53% a serious mental health problem, and 49% a substance use disorder. Those reporting a serious problem were more likely to have insurance and to report greater perceived access to care but perceived access to care was less than expected. Having insurance was also related to longer duration of homelessness. Targeting interventions to better match services to homeless individuals is the next challenge for advanced practice psychiatric and other nursing groups. Implications for doctoral level nurses in ways of evaluating models of care for this marginalized group are discussed. PMID:23915695

Weber, Mary; Thompson, Lisa; Schmiege, Sarah J; Peifer, Karen; Farrell, Ed

2013-08-01

485

Two-year predictors of runaway and homeless episodes following shelter services among substance abusing adolescents.  

PubMed

Given high levels of health and psychological costs associated with the family disruption of homelessness, identifying predictors of runaway and homeless episodes is an important goal. The current study followed 179 substance abusing, shelter-recruited adolescents who participated in a randomized clinical trial. Predictors of runaway and homeless episodes were examined over a two year period. Results from the hierarchical linear modeling analysis showed that family cohesion and substance use, but not family conflict or depressive symptoms, delinquency, or school enrollment predicted future runaway and homeless episodes. Findings suggest that increasing family support, care and connection and reducing substance use are important targets of intervention efforts in preventing future runaway and homeless episodes amongst a high risk sample of adolescents. PMID:24011094

Slesnick, Natasha; Guo, Xiamei; Brakenhoff, Brittany; Feng, Xin

2013-10-01

486

Correlates for Legal Help-Seeking: Contextual Factors for Battered Women in Shelter  

PubMed Central

Legal redress can play a critical role in interrupting the pattern of domination and control inherent in intimate partner violence (IPV), yet it remains an infrequent strategy among battered women. The current study employed a contextual framework for investigating the correlates for engagement in the criminal justice system for a sample of 227 sheltered battered women. Results indicated that individual, relational, and system-level factors were all associated with two legal help-seeking behaviors: having a civil protection order and criminal prosecution. In particular, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptomatology, social support, and prior experience with police officers were significant correlates for legal help-seeking. Results highlight the need for a coordinated community response to IPV, addressing both legal needs and psychological needs simultaneously. PMID:20055214

Wright, Caroline Vaile; Johnson, Dawn M.

2010-01-01

487

Two-Year Predictors of Runaway and Homeless Episodes Following Shelter Services among Substance Abusing Adolescents  

PubMed Central

Given high levels of health and psychological costs associated with the family disruption of homelessness, identifying predictors of runaway and homeless episodes is an important goal. The current study followed 179 substance abusing, shelter-recruited adolescents who participated in a randomized clinical trial. Predictors of runaway and homeless episodes were examined over a two year period. Results from the hierarchical linear modeling analysis showed that family cohesion and substance use, but not family conflict or depressive symptoms, delinquency, or school enrollment predicted future runaway and homeless episodes. Findings suggest that increasing family support, care and connection and reducing substance use are important targets of intervention efforts in preventing future runaway and homeless episodes amongst a high risk sample of adolescents. PMID:24011094

Slesnick, Natasha; Guo, Xiamei; Brakenhoff, Brittany; Feng, Xin

2013-01-01

488

Macrobenthic community response to copper in Shelter Island Yacht Basin, San Diego Bay, California.  

PubMed

We examined Cu contamination effects on macrobenthic communities and Cu concentration in invertebrates within Shelter Island Yacht Basin, San Diego Bay, California. Results indicate that at some sites, Cu in sediment has exceeded a threshold for "self defense" mechanisms and highlight the potential negative impacts on benthic faunal communities where Cu accumulates and persists in sediments. At sites with elevated Cu levels in