Sample records for earth sheltered buildings

  1. Energy-efficient buildings with earth-shelter protection. Proceedings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. L. Boyer; W. T. Grondzik; R. L. Sterling; S. A. Baggs

    1983-01-01

    Climate and proximity to the equator as well as acceptance of the concept made Australia a logical place for an international conference on the energy-efficiency opportunities of earth-sheltered buildings. Papers presented at the conference are grouped under 10 general topics: earth environment, landscape\\/site, passive solar integration, hazard protection, design process, livability\\/acceptance, interior environment, energy conservation, performance simulation, and structural variations.

  2. Radon in earth-sheltered structures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Landa, E.R.

    1984-01-01

    Radon concentration in the indoor air of six residential and three non-residential earth-sheltered buildings in eastern Colorado was monitored quarterly over a nine-month period using passive, integrating detectors. Average radon concentrations during the three-month sampling periods ranged from about 1 to 9 pCi/L, although one building, a poorly ventilated storage bunker, had concentrations as high as 39 pCi/L. These radon concentrations are somewhat greater than those typically reported for conventional buildings (around 1 pCi/L); but they are of the same order of magnitude as radon concentrations reported for energy-efficient buildings which are not earth-sheltered. ?? 1984.

  3. CONTACT INFO BUILDING SHELTER

    E-print Network

    King, David G.

    , SIUC*Building Emergency Response Team Siren* Long Blast: Tornado High/Low: Any Other Emergency Radio.siuc.edu Initial Call B.E.R.T. 2nd 1st B Ext. Int. Ext. 2nd 1st B Ext. Int. Ext. under desk doorway interior wall yourself in a doorway beware of the door swinging, sit or kneel against interior wall and cover yourself

  4. Sheltering in buildings from large-scale outdoor releases

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, W.R.; Price, P.N.; Gadgil, A.J.

    2004-06-01

    Intentional or accidental large-scale airborne toxic release (e.g. terrorist attacks or industrial accidents) can cause severe harm to nearby communities. Under these circumstances, taking shelter in buildings can be an effective emergency response strategy. Some examples where shelter-in-place was successful at preventing injuries and casualties have been documented [1, 2]. As public education and preparedness are vital to ensure the success of an emergency response, many agencies have prepared documents advising the public on what to do during and after sheltering [3, 4, 5]. In this document, we will focus on the role buildings play in providing protection to occupants. The conclusions to this article are: (1) Under most circumstances, shelter-in-place is an effective response against large-scale outdoor releases. This is particularly true for release of short duration (a few hours or less) and chemicals that exhibit non-linear dose-response characteristics. (2) The building envelope not only restricts the outdoor-indoor air exchange, but can also filter some biological or even chemical agents. Once indoors, the toxic materials can deposit or sorb onto indoor surfaces. All these processes contribute to the effectiveness of shelter-in-place. (3) Tightening of building envelope and improved filtration can enhance the protection offered by buildings. Common mechanical ventilation system present in most commercial buildings, however, should be turned off and dampers closed when sheltering from an outdoor release. (4) After the passing of the outdoor plume, some residuals will remain indoors. It is therefore important to terminate shelter-in-place to minimize exposure to the toxic materials.

  5. A MODEL BUILDING CODE ARTICLE ON FALLOUT SHELTERS WITH RECOMMENDATIONS FOR INCLUSION OF REQUIREMENTS FOR FALLOUT SHELTER CONSTRUCTION IN FOUR NATIONAL MODEL BUILDING CODES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Inst. of Architects, Washington, DC.

    A MODEL BUILDING CODE FOR FALLOUT SHELTERS WAS DRAWN UP FOR INCLUSION IN FOUR NATIONAL MODEL BUILDING CODES. DISCUSSION IS GIVEN OF FALLOUT SHELTERS WITH RESPECT TO--(1) NUCLEAR RADIATION, (2) NATIONAL POLICIES, AND (3) COMMUNITY PLANNING. FALLOUT SHELTER REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIELDING, SPACE, VENTILATION, CONSTRUCTION, AND SERVICES SUCH AS ELECTRICAL…

  6. Vulnerability Assessment of Selected Buildings Designated as Shelters: Anguilla.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbs, Tony

    Educational facilities in the Caribbean often serve roles as shelters during natural hazards, but they often sustain as much damage as other buildings. This study investigated the physical vulnerability of schools located on Anguilla to wind forces, torrential rain, and seismic forces in order to provide relevant local agencies with some of the…

  7. Vulnerability Assessment of Selected Buildings Designated as Shelters: Grenada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbs, Tony

    Educational facilities in the Caribbean often serve as shelters during natural hazards, but they often sustain as much damage as other buildings. This study investigated the physical vulnerability of schools, located in Grenada, to wind forces, torrential rain, and seismic forces in order to provide relevant local agencies with some of the input…

  8. Earth-sheltered housing: an evaluation of energy-conservation potential

    SciTech Connect

    Wendt, R.L.

    1982-04-01

    The Innovative Structures Program (ISP) began an evaluation of the energy conservation potential of earth-sheltered houses in late 1979. Since that time, several projects have been undertaken as part of this evaluation. The findings of these projects, plus a discussion of the work of others in the field, form the body of this report. Although a comprehensive evaluation of earth-sheltered housing has not been completed, this report presents a compendium of knowledge on the subject. The conclusions are more qualitative than quantitative in nature because of the limited information on which to base projections. The major conclusions to date are as follows: Earth-sheltered houses are capable of very good energy performance. Earth-sheltered houses, as a passive means to conserve energy, perform significantly better in some climatic regins than in others. Earth-sheltered houses are not the optimum passive concept in several major housing growth regions of the country. Earth-sheltered houses, including their land and site improvements, will cost an estimated 10 to 35% more than comparable aboveground houses, and this additional cost may not be justified on a life cycle cost basis, given 1981 market conditions. The use of earth sheltering will probably grow in some parts of the country; however, broad-scale national or regional utilization is not likely to occur in the next 20 to 30 years.

  9. Quick Deployment Disaster Shelters: Building Community Through Design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rodney Adank; Jake Snowdon

    By understanding the experience of disaster victims, we can design product solutions that mitigate the effects and speed the pace of disaster recovery. In major disasters, temporary tent shelters can become semi-permanent. They need to provide protection from the elements, a refuge, comfort, security, and a sense of community. UNITE is an innovative tent designed for disasters. Its hard shell

  10. Shelter-Building Behavior and Natural History of Two Pyralid Caterpillars Feeding on Piper stipulaceum

    PubMed Central

    Abarca, Mariana; Boege, Karina; Zaldívar-Riverón, Alejandro

    2014-01-01

    Shelter-building behavior by caterpillars provides a mechanism of defense against predators, microenvironment enhancement, and in some cases nutritional benefits. This study provides a detailed description of the life cycle and shelter-building process of caterpillars, and identifies constraints and factors influencing this adaptive behavior in Lepidomys n. sp. near proclea Druce (Pyralidae: Chrysauginae), a tropical dry forest pyralid. Five macroscopic larval instars were detected during the life cycle, and activities performed during shelter-building were categorized and timed. Caterpillar predators were identified, and 20% of all collected larvae died due to attack by parasitoid wasps. Shelter-building behavior was found to be constrained by the ontogenetic stage of caterpillars and influenced by leaf size of the host plant, Piper stipulaceum Opiz (Piperales: Piperaceae). A similar pattern of shelter-building behavior exhibited by Tosale n. sp. near cuprealis larvae that coexisted in the same host plant is also described. Larvae of the second species were significantly less abundant than those of Lepidomys and hatched one month later in the rainy season, which could indicate some competitive interactions between these two pyralid species. PMID:25373186

  11. Effectiveness of sheltering in buildings and vehicles for plutonium

    SciTech Connect

    Engelmann, R.J.

    1990-07-30

    The purpose of this paper is to collect and present current knowledge relevant to the protection offered by sheltering against exposure to plutonium particles released to the atmosphere during accidents. For those many contaminants for which effects are linear with the airborne concentration, it is convenient to define a Dose Reduction Factor (DRF). In the past, the DRF has been defined as the ratio of the radiological dose that may be incurred within the shelter to that in the outdoors. As such, it includes the dose through shine from plumes aloft and from material deposited on the surface. For this paper, which is concerned only with the inhalation pathway, the DRF is the ratio of the time-integrated concentration inside the shelter to that outdoors. It is important to note that the range over which effects are linear with concentration may be limited for many contaminants. Examples are when concentrations produce effects that are irreversible, or when concentrations are below effects threshold levels. 71 refs., 4 figs., 8 tabs.

  12. Vulnerability Assessment of Selected Buildings Designated as Shelters: St. Kitts--Nevis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbs, Tony

    Educational facilities in the Caribbean often serve roles as shelters during natural hazards, but they often sustain as much damage as other buildings. This study investigated the physical vulnerability of schools located on St. Kitts and Nevis to wind forces, torrential rain, and seismic forces in order to provide relevant local agencies with…

  13. Vulnerability Assessment of Selected Buildings Designated as Shelters: Antigua and Barbuda.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbs, Tony

    Educational facilities in the Caribbean often serve roles as shelters during natural hazards, but they often sustain as much damage as other buildings. This study investigated the physical vulnerability of schools located on Antigua and Barbuda to wind forces, torrential rain, and seismic forces in order to provide relevant local agencies with…

  14. Speedy Shelter

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    WGBH

    2010-01-01

    In this design challenge activity, learners invent an emergency shelter that can fit a person and is sturdy and quick to build. Learners think about a familiar shape in new ways, brainstorm shelter designs and follow the design process to invent a solution to the challenge. Educators can put this challenge in the context of a real life scenario by sharing a fake news story about a lost hiker. The news story can be found on page 1 of the Leaders Notes.

  15. Passive solar/earth sheltered office/dormitory cooling season thermal performance

    SciTech Connect

    Christian, J.

    1984-01-01

    Continuous detailed hourly thermal performance measurements have been taken since February 1982 in and around an occupied, underground, 4000 ft/sup 2/ office/dormitory building at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. This building has a number of energy saving features which have been analyzed relative to their performance in a southeastern US climate and with respect to overall commercial building performance. This analysis documents cooling season performance, as well as effects of earth contact, interior thermal mass, an economizer cycle and interface of an efficient building envelope with a central three-ton heat pump. The Joint Institute Dormitory obtains a cooling energy savings of about 30% compared with an energy-efficient, above-grade structure and has the potential to save as much as 50%. The proper installation of the overhand, interior thermal mass, massive supply duct system, and earth contact team up to prevent summertime overheating. From May through September, this building cost a total of $300 (at 5.7 cents/kWh) to cool and ventilate 24 hours per day. Besides thermal performance of the building envelope, extensive comfort data was taken illustrating that at least 90% of the occupants are comfortable all of the time according to the PMV measurements.

  16. Thermal benefits and cost effectiveness of earth berming

    SciTech Connect

    Speltz, J.; Haves, P.

    1980-01-01

    A number of advantages are claimed for earth sheltered buildings; the earth provides both insulation and thermal storage and also serves to reduce infiltration and noise. This paper seeks to quantify the thermal advantages of both earth sheltering and perimeter insulation by comparing the simulated thermal performance of an earth sheltered house, a house with perimeter insulation and a house with neither. The fuel savings are then compared to the estimated construction costs to determine cost-effectiveness. The major saving from an earth sheltered building is obtained in colder climates where the effective elevation of the frost line due to the earth berms considerably reduces the cost of the foundation.

  17. Earth sheltered bee wintering and solar honey house. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    The construction and operation of an indoor wintering facility and a passive solar honey house are discussed. Goals for the project included both energy savings and financial savings for the beekeeping industry. The underground winter shelter provided a control temperature of approximately 46/sup 0/F in order to decrease both mortality rates and honey consumption rates of the bees. Three hundred square feet of glazing combined with wall insulation maintained comfortable work space temperatures for the ground level storage of honey. (BCS)

  18. SHELTER IN PLACE An incident may occur which dictates you remain inside a building during an emergency. A decision to shelter

    E-print Network

    Cavusoglu, Cenk

    -368-3333 on campus or 9-1-1) and keep responders informed of changes in your situation. · Be aware of your safe and avoiding putting yourself in a more harmful situation. Factors to consider when deciding and others by evacuating or staying in place? · Does this space provide adequate safe shelter

  19. Determining Possible Building Blocks of the Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burbine, T. H.; O'Brien, K. M.

    2003-01-01

    Introduction: One of the fundamental questions concerning the formation of the Earth is what is it made out of. The Earth appears to have condensed out of material from the solar nebula. We sample this "primitive" material in the form of chondritic meteorites. One of the most important constraints on possible building blocks for the Earth is the Earth#s oxygen iso-topic composition. Rocks from the Earth and Moon plot along a line (the terrestrial fractionation line) in diagrams of delta(sup 17)O (% relative to Standard Mean Ocean Water or SMOW) versus delta(sup 18)O (% relative to SMOW). Chondritic meteorites fall above and below this line. Distances from this line are given as Delta(sup 17)O (%) (= delta(sup 17)O - 0.52 x delta(sup 18)O).

  20. Resilience in Pre-Columbian Caribbean House-Building: Dialogue Between Archaeology and Humanitarian Shelter

    E-print Network

    Samson, A. V. M.; Crawford, C. A.; Hoogland, M. L. P.; Hofman, C. L.

    2015-04-23

    . Transitional Shelters supplied in Haiti after the 2010 earthquake (rectangular 5 m×4 m in plan) were designed with blocks of 0.2 to 0.3 cubic metres of concrete as foundations that would weigh enough to resist uplift. For a Category 1 hurricane (108mph or 43 m... frequent extent earthquakes and volcanoes are a regular experience of Caribbean peoples past and present (Bérard et al. 2001; Delpuech 2004; Hofman and Hoogland 2015; Fitzpatrick 2011; Petitjean Roget 2001; Pielke et al. 2003; Roobol andSmith 2004...

  1. Bombed Shelters

    E-print Network

    Hacker, Randi

    2013-07-24

    Broadcast Transcript: In this time of reusing, recycling, repurposing, pretty much anything can become anything else: tires to playground turf, soda bottles to fleece parkas, rails to trails. Here in Shanghai, they've got bomb shelters to transform...

  2. Building the GEM Faulted Earth database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litchfield, N. J.; Berryman, K. R.; Christophersen, A.; Thomas, R. F.; Wyss, B.; Tarter, J.; Pagani, M.; Stein, R. S.; Costa, C. H.; Sieh, K. E.

    2011-12-01

    The GEM Faulted Earth project is aiming to build a global active fault and seismic source database with a common set of strategies, standards, and formats, to be placed in the public domain. Faulted Earth is one of five hazard global components of the Global Earthquake Model (GEM) project. A key early phase of the GEM Faulted Earth project is to build a database which is flexible enough to capture existing and variable (e.g., from slow interplate faults to fast subduction interfaces) global data, and yet is not too onerous to enter new data from areas where existing databases are not available. The purpose of this talk is to give an update on progress building the GEM Faulted Earth database. The database design conceptually has two layers, (1) active faults and folds, and (2) fault sources, and automated processes are being defined to generate fault sources. These include the calculation of moment magnitude using a user-selected magnitude-length or magnitude-area scaling relation, and the calculation of recurrence interval from displacement divided by slip rate, where displacement is calculated from moment and moment magnitude. The fault-based earthquake sources defined by the Faulted Earth project will then be rationalised with those defined by the other GEM global components. A web based tool is being developed for entering individual faults and folds, and fault sources, and includes capture of additional information collected at individual sites, as well as descriptions of the data sources. GIS shapefiles of individual faults and folds, and fault sources will also be able to be uploaded. A data dictionary explaining the database design rationale, definitions of the attributes and formats, and a tool user guide is also being developed. Existing national databases will be uploaded outside of the fault compilation tool, through a process of mapping common attributes between the databases. Regional workshops are planned for compilation in areas where existing databases are not available, or require further population, and will include training on using the fault compilation tool. The tool is also envisaged as an important legacy of the GEM Faulted Earth project, to be available for use beyond the end of the 2 year project.

  3. VI. CAMPUS EMERGENCY SHELTERS Depending on the nature of the emergency, the campus community may be

    E-print Network

    Olsen, Stephen L.

    to these designated shelters should the need arise. Survey Date Building / Location Number of Shelter Spaces Bldg 879 With Risk The current shelter survey assumes that a building is usable for sheltering with risk11 VI. CAMPUS EMERGENCY SHELTERS Depending on the nature of the emergency, the campus community may

  4. Design and Construction Guidance for Community Shelters. FEMA 361.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Washington, DC.

    This manual presents guidance to engineers, architects, building officials, and prospective shelter owners concerning the design and construction of community shelters that will provide protection during tornado and hurricane events. The manual covers two types of community shelters: stand-alone shelters designed to withstand high winds and the…

  5. Family Shelter Planning.

    E-print Network

    Russell, Laura J.; Riney, Bobye J.

    1964-01-01

    to 20 incq h. x-#&-g'fl-18 + 4-L* 1 - -_ .-,$ s conshuden provkl.. excellent dolon ban Pmshaped metal shelter. - .I?_ .%'. :-5. - together with non-corrosive metal ties. The space between the brick is filled with compacted earth. The roof can... wall table or folding table 8 Radio with batteries Storage closets and shelves Equipment 8 Fire extinguisher or household soda 8 Hand-operated blower 8 Lighting Electrical Flashlight Four-cell hot-shot battery wired to 150 milliampere...

  6. Deformation of earth's surface caused loading of tall building

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kollar, P.; Mojzeš, M.; Va?ko, M.

    2010-06-01

    Tall buildings can cause deformations of the earth's crust for long distances from the area of their realization. Monitoring the deformation of tall big buildings from geodetic networks realised near the building can also have deformations from this point of view, and analysis of the measurements can result in false conclusions. The loading effect of the earth crust must be excluded from the measurement parameters. The paper presents a model computation of the loading effect produced by tall buildings constructed of simple geometric forms on the earth's crust.

  7. Attributes of Indoor Environmental Quality to Earth-sheltered Building Design 

    E-print Network

    Sheta, S.

    2010-01-01

    environment in the cases of underground spaces than in the aboveground. The aim is to approach and link together the many recent architectural and engineering factors that affect indoor environmental quality (IEQ) as a contribution to the affordability...

  8. A toolkit for building earth system models

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, I.

    1993-03-01

    An earth system model is a computer code designed to simulate the interrelated processes that determine the earth`s weather and climate, such as atmospheric circulation, atmospheric physics, atmospheric chemistry, oceanic circulation, and biosphere. I propose a toolkit that would support a modular, or object-oriented, approach to the implementation of such models.

  9. A toolkit for building Earth system models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Foster

    1993-01-01

    An earth system model is a computer code designed to simulate the interrelated processes that determine the earth's weather and climate, such as atmospheric circulation, atmospheric physics, atmospheric chemistry, oceanic circulation, and biosphere. I propose a toolkit that would support a modular, or object-oriented, approach to the implementation of such models.

  10. A toolkit for building earth system models

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, I.

    1993-03-01

    An earth system model is a computer code designed to simulate the interrelated processes that determine the earth's weather and climate, such as atmospheric circulation, atmospheric physics, atmospheric chemistry, oceanic circulation, and biosphere. I propose a toolkit that would support a modular, or object-oriented, approach to the implementation of such models.

  11. 578 I The Johns Hopkins and the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies Earthquake in Yogyakarta, Indonesia May 2006. Little girl building her own little shelter

    E-print Network

    Scharfstein, Daniel

    Glossary Annex 2 Earthquake in Yogyakarta, Indonesia May 2006. Little girl building her own little shelter for emergencies I 579 Glossary Annex 2 Glossary A Term Definition Access The proportion of the population that can malnutrition is defined as weight-for-height of less than two standard deviations of the reference population

  12. Studying the Instrument Shelter

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The GLOBE Program, UCAR (University Corporation for Atmospheric Research)

    2003-08-01

    The purpose of this activity is to discover why an instrument shelter is built the way it is. Students construct shelters that have varying properties and place them in the same location or place similar shelters in different locations and compare temperature data taken in each shelter. Students should predict what will happen for each of the different shelter designs or placements and perform the steps of student research. Intended outcomes are that students gain an understanding of GLOBE specifications for the instrument shelter and perform a guided inquiry project.

  13. Building Scientific Workflows for Earth System Modelling with Windows Workflow Foundation

    E-print Network

    Building Scientific Workflows for Earth System Modelling with Windows Workflow Foundation Matthew J developed a framework for the composition, execution and management of integrated Earth system models

  14. Earth Sciences' Capacity Building In Developing Countries through International Programmes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eder, W.

    2007-12-01

    Within the framework of "traditional" programmes, like the joint UNESCO-IUGS "International Geoscience Programme" (IGCP), the "International Continental Scientific Drilling Program" (ICDP), the "Integrated Ocean Drilling Program" (IODP) or the "International Lithosphere Programme" (ILP) numerous opportunities are provided to strengthen postgraduate geo-scientific education of representatives from developing countries. Recently established new initiatives, such as the "International Year of Planet Earth" (IYPE) or UNESCO's Global Network of Geoparks complement these in addition as important components to UNESCO's 'Education for All' programme, notably the youth, as well as to the United Nations Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (2005 - 2014). The "International Year of Planet Earth" is a joint initiative of the International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS) and UNESCO. The central aims and ambitions of the Year, proclaimed for 2008 by the UN General Assembly, are to demonstrate the great potential of the Earth sciences in building a safer, healthier and wealthier society, and to encourage more widespread and effective application of this potential by targeting politicians and other decision-makers, educational systems, and the general public. Promotion of international collaboration, as well as capacity building and training of students of developing countries in all fields of Earth Sciences seem to be the most appropriate way to meet also the challenges of the IYPE. Another opportunity to improve the international recognition of Earth Scinces, also in developing countries, is the use of Geoparks as a promotional tool for education and popularization of Earth Sciences. Geoparks, notably those included in the European and/or Global Geoparks Networks, provide an international platform of cooperation and exchange between experts and practitioners in geological heritage matters, and are as such excellent instruments in highlighting Earth sciences. The general goal of Geoparks to integrate the preservation of geological heritage into a strategy for regional sustainable socio-economic and cultural development serves ideally the overall objective of the "International Year of Planet Earth" with its subtitle "Earth Sciences for Society". International geo-related cooperation projects, run under the umbrella of international NGOs (like IUGS, IUGG, IGU, IUSS and others) are often supported financially by international and national funding agencies. Out of the broad international spectrum, some German projects devoted to developing countries - summer schools, training and capacity building courses in Earth Sciences, funded by the DFG (German Research Foundation), DAAD (German Academic Exchange Service), InWent (Capacity Building International, Germany) and others - are selected as examples in improving the geo-research capacity and education of developing countries.

  15. FORTRAN M AS A LANGUAGE FOR BUILDING EARTH SYSTEM MODELS \\Lambda

    E-print Network

    FORTRAN M AS A LANGUAGE FOR BUILDING EARTH SYSTEM MODELS \\Lambda Ian Foster Mathematics as a tool for building earth system models on massively parallel computers. I hypothesize that the use to investigate this hypothe­ sis. 2. Earth System Models An earth system model is a computer code designed

  16. FORTRAN M as a language for building earth system models

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, I.

    1992-01-01

    FORTRAN M is a small set of extensions to FORTRAN 77 that supports a modular or object-oriented approach to the development of parallel programs. In this paper, I discuss the use of FORTRAN M as a tool for building earth system models on massively parallel computers. I hypothesize that the use of FORTRAN M has software engineering advantages and outline experiments that we are conducting to investigate this hypothesis.

  17. FORTRAN M as a language for building earth system models

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, I.

    1992-12-31

    FORTRAN M is a small set of extensions to FORTRAN 77 that supports a modular or object-oriented approach to the development of parallel programs. In this paper, I discuss the use of FORTRAN M as a tool for building earth system models on massively parallel computers. I hypothesize that the use of FORTRAN M has software engineering advantages and outline experiments that we are conducting to investigate this hypothesis.

  18. Volunteer Shelter Bed Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little (Arthur D.), Inc., Washington, DC.

    The volunteer shelter bed program development guidelines in this booklet are offered as a community-based alternative to the institutionalization of status offenders. The volunteer shelter bed program is described as a nonsecure residential alternative for status offenders, which can be implemented without the creation of new facilities or the…

  19. Nuclear effects hardened shelters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindke, Paul

    1990-11-01

    The Houston Fearless 76 Government Projects Group has been actively engaged for more than twenty-five years as a sub-contractor and currently as a prime contractor in the design, manufacture, repair and logistics support of custom mobile ground stations and their equipment accommodations. Other associated products include environmental control units (ECU's), mobilizers for shelters and a variety of mobile power generation units (MPU's). Since 1984, Houston Fearless 76 has designed and manufactured four 8' x 8' x 22' nuclear hardened mobile shelters. These shelters were designed to contain electronic data processing/reduction equipment. One shelter is currently being operated by the Air Force as a Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA) approved and certified Special Corrpartmented Information Facility (SCIF). During the development and manufacturing process of the shelters, we received continual technical assistance and design concept evaluations from Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) Operations Analysis and Logistics Engineering Division and the Nondestructive Inspection Lab at McClellan AFB. SAIC was originally employed by the Air Force to design the nuclear hardening specifications applied to these shelters. The specific levels of hardening to which the shelters were designed are classified and will not be mentioned during this presentation.

  20. 4. PERSPECTIVE VIEW TO THE NORTHEAST OF THE CREW SHELTER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. PERSPECTIVE VIEW TO THE NORTHEAST OF THE CREW SHELTER IN AR-8. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base, Rammed Earth Aircraft Dispersal Revetments, Western Shore of Rogers Dry Lake, Boron, Kern County, CA

  1. 15. SOUTHEAST AND NORTHEAST WALLS OF CREW SHELTER LOCATED BETWEEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. SOUTHEAST AND NORTHEAST WALLS OF CREW SHELTER LOCATED BETWEEN THE PURSUIT PLANE BAYS OF AR-9. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base, Rammed Earth Aircraft Dispersal Revetments, Western Shore of Rogers Dry Lake, Boron, Kern County, CA

  2. Designing Shelter in New Buildings. A Manual for Architects on the Preliminary Designing of Shielding from Fallout Gamma Radiation in Normally Functioning Spaces in New Buildings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knott, Albert

    Analysis of radiation fallout prevention factors in new construction is presented with emphasis on architectural shielding principles. Numerous diagrams and charts illustrate--(1) radiation and fallout properties, (2) building protection principles, (3) details and planning suggestions, and (4) tabular data interpretation. A series of charts is…

  3. Embden Data Shelter

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    North Dakota Discovery Farms Embden data shelter 1 and located in southeast Cass County about 8 miles south of Embden, North Dakota. In 2009, Embden farm became the third farm in the North Dakota Discovery Farms project....

  4. Deployable Temporary Shelter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaffer, Joe R.; Headley, David E.

    1993-01-01

    Compact storable components expand to create large shelter. Fully deployed structure provides large, unobstructed bay. Deployed trusses support wall and roof blankets. Provides temporary cover for vehicles, people, and materials. Terrestrial version used as garage, hangar, or large tent.

  5. View of Chapel Park, showing bomb shelters at right foreground, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Chapel Park, showing bomb shelters at right foreground, from building 746 parking lot across Walnut Avenue; camera facing north. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, East of Nave Drive, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  6. SHELTERING AND MASS CARE ANNEX C SHELTERING AND MASS CARE

    E-print Network

    conducts a response specific to sheltering and mass care. The Annex is written in support of the Texas A. Texas A&M personnel and resources may be called upon to support sheltering operations and emergency agreements. #12;ANNEX C ­ SHELTERING AND MASS CARE 07/25/2012 v. 1.0 Page C-3 TABLE OF CONTENTS SECTION I

  7. SPERTI Reactor Pit Building (PER605). Earth shielding protect adjacent Instrument ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SPERT-I Reactor Pit Building (PER-605). Earth shielding protect adjacent Instrument Cell (PER-606). Security fencing surrounds complex, to which gate entry is provided next to Guard House (PER-607). Note gravel road leading to control area. Earth-covered conduit leads from instrument cell to terminal building out of view. Photographer: R.G. Larsen. Date: June 22, 1955. INEEL negative no. 55-1701 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, SPERT-I & Power Burst Facility Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  8. Technology Learning Activities: Columbus Sailed the Ocean Blue, the Cellular Connection, Emergency Shelter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Etchison, Cindy; Deal, Walter F., III

    1992-01-01

    Presents learning activities such as planning and building a sailboat, manufacturing cellular phone cases, and designing and building emergency shelters. Includes the context, the challenge, resources used, objectives, materials needed, and an evaluation. (JOW)

  9. Solar energy utilization in a greenhouse\\/animal shelter combination

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. K. Spillman; J. K. Greig; G. A. Johnson; J. R. Hartford; B. A. Koch; R. H. Hines

    1981-01-01

    Two greenhouses are being used at Kansas State Univesity to evaluate use of exhaust air from an animal shelter and its effect on greenhouse production. The control greenhouse is attached to the headquarters building and operated conventionally. The experimental house is attached to a swine finishing building and has air handling equipment to introduce hoghouse air to the greenhouse at

  10. Earth to air heat exchanger conditioning potential in an office building in a continental mediterranean climate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Sanchez-Guevara; N. Urrutia del Campo; J. Neila

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the result performance improvement due to the use of a exchanger of an office building located in Ext The climate in this region is Continental M mild winters and very hot summers. The firs data measures allowed the validation of the si Heating and cooling building loads were ev without earth to air heat exchanger. Also, a

  11. Sheltered Instruction Techniques for ELLs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pray, Lisa; Monhardt, Rebecca

    2009-01-01

    The suggestions described here to adapt instruction for English Language Learners (ELLs) are based on the concept of "sheltered instruction," a model of language-support methods for instruction for ELLs derived primarily through the Sheltered Instruction Observational Protocol (SIOP) developed by Jana Echevarria, Mary Ellen Vogt, and Deborah Short…

  12. Sheltering--a protective measure following an accidental atmospheric release from a nuclear power plant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean Koch; Jacob Tadmor

    1988-01-01

    The effectiveness of sheltering the population for reducing radiological effects following an accidental release of radioactivity at a nuclear power plant was investigated. Different levels of respiratory protection and the administration of a thyroid blocking agent were also studied as possible complements to sheltering. Specific conditions were assumed, concerning the high protection factors of regular buildings and the high availability

  13. SHELTER IN PLACE What conditions may warrant sheltering in place?

    E-print Network

    Fernandez, Eduardo

    bathroom. What should I do to safely shelter in place? · In general: o GO inside as quickly as possible. · Establish a "Buddy" system to help those in need. What should I know in order to help individuals requiring

  14. In Search of Earth's Building Blocks: The Game Is Afoot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, R. J.; Bermingham, K. R.; Touboul, M.

    2013-12-01

    Earth was constructed from compositionally diverse materials, of which only the average composition has been accessible for study. Now, however, the genetics of distinct, late accretionary additions to Earth, believed by some to comprise the final ~0.5% contribution to Earth's mass, can potentially be identified in terrestrial rocks using certain isotopic tracers. This is plausible because of several recent observations/advances. First, it is now well established that the isotopic compositions of some elements, such as the siderophile elements Ru and Mo, varied considerably among bulk planetesimals as a consequence of the planetesimals incorporating differing proportions of isotopically-diverse, nucleosynthetic components [1-2]. Siderophile elements strongly leverage the signal of late accreted materials delivered to the mantle, because their concentrations are very high in bulk chondrites compared to concentration estimates for the mantle following the cessation of core formation [3]. Second, a mismatch in the abundances of the highly siderophile elements, such as Pt, between the mantles of the Moon and Earth has led to the suggestion that late-stage mass additions to Earth were dominated by a stochastic process, whereby highly siderophile elements were delivered to the Earth's mantle largely as a result of the addition of several large (Pluto mass) bodies, rather than as a rain of small bodies [4]. Thus, major late accretionary events may have at least initially left substantial chemical and isotopic imprints on some portions of the early mantle. Third, new mass spectrometric techniques permit the measurement of some isotopic ratios in these elements to precisions of <10 ppm. Finally, recent studies have documented the long-term survival of both indigenous and exogenous 182W isotopic heterogeneity in the mantle [5-6]. These studies provide evidence that even very energetic accretionary events, such as the putative Moon-forming giant impact, did not completely homogenize the silicate Earth. Thus, chemical, and especially isotopic heterogeneities imposed on mantle domains during the final major stages of planetary accretion may be resolved using existing techniques. Calculations suggest that at least some degree of isotopic heterogeneity should be detectible in early Earth materials. If detected, the nature and long-term survival of the projected heterogeneities could provide key information regarding early mantle geodynamics. Conversely, the absence of heterogeneities may require rethinking of the nature and extent of late accretion. [1] Chen et al. (2010) Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 74, 3851-3862. [2] Burkhardt et al. (2011) Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 312, 390-400. [3] Mann et al. (2012) Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 84, 593-613. [4] Bottke et al. (2010) Science 330, 1527-1530. [5] Willbold et al. (2011) Nature 477, 195-199. [6] Touboul et al. (2012) Science 335, 1065-1069.

  15. FOODS FOR FALLOUT SHELTERS. 1. THE PROBLEM

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. L. Olson; V. F. Kaufman; E. C. Taylor

    1962-01-01

    ABS>How food supply and use interact with the design, management, and ; function of fallout shelters is discussed to indicate areas of research that will ; lead to a satisfactory plan for provisioning shelters. Some basic assumptions ; are made as to fallout-shelter requirements and human needs during shelter ; occupancy. About 2000 calories per occupant per day is considered

  16. Inside of Embden Data Shelters

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    The inside of Embden data shelter 1 and 2. Located in southeast Cass County about 8 miles south of Embden, North Dakota. In 2009, Embden became the third farm in the North Dakota Discovery Farms project....

  17. Shelter from the Storm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultz, Corey; Metz, John

    2001-01-01

    Discusses why most schools need to upgrade the spaces they use to protect students and staff from tornadoes. School building areas commonly used as safe havens during tornadoes are assessed, followed by information on disaster damage reimbursements and Federal Emergency Management Agency guidelines (FEMA 361) for building tornado and hurricane…

  18. Handbook for Building Homes of Earth. Appropriate Technologies for Development. Reprint R-34.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfskill, Lyle A.; And Others

    This manual, developed by the Agency for International Development and used by the Peace Corps, explains how to build homes made of earth. Information came from reports, books, and articles from many countries, coupled with research by soil engineers at Texas A & M University. It is presented in the most nontechnical format possible. The manual…

  19. The nature of Earth's building blocks as revealed by calcium isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valdes, Maria C.; Moreira, Manuel; Foriel, Julien; Moynier, Frédéric

    2014-05-01

    Calcium is the fifth most abundant element in the Earth and in chondrites and is a pure lithophile element which does not partition into planetary cores. Therefore, the calcium isotopic composition of the mantle represents the bulk Earth and calcium isotopes have the potential to reveal genetic links between Earth and meteorites. However, whether calcium exhibits significant mass-dependent variations among Earth and the various chondrite groups, and the magnitude of these variations, is still contentious. Here we have developed a new method to analyze calcium isotope ratios with high precision using multiple-collector inductively-coupled-plasma mass-spectrometry. The method has been applied to a range of terrestrial and meteoritic samples. We find that the Earth, the Moon, and the aubrite parent body are indistinguishable from enstatite, ordinary, and CO chondritic meteorites. Therefore, enstatite chondrites cannot be excluded as components of Earth's building blocks based on calcium isotopes, as has been proposed previously. In contrast, CI, CV, CM and CR carbonaceous chondrites are largely enriched in lighter calcium isotopes compared to Earth, and, overall, exhibit a wide range in calcium isotopic composition. Calcium is the only major element, along with oxygen, for which isotopic variations are observed among carbonaceous chondrite groups. These calcium isotope variations cannot be attributed to volatility effects, and it is difficult to ascribe them to the abundance of isotopically light refractory inclusions. The calcium isotope data presented in this study suggest that both ordinary and enstatite chondrites are representative of the bulk of the refractory materials that formed Earth. On the basis of calcium isotopes, carbonaceous chondrites (with the exception of CO) are not representative of the fraction of condensable material that accreted to form the terrestrial planets and can be excluded as unique contenders for the building blocks of Earth; however, on the basis of other isotopic systems, CO chondrites can be excluded as well.

  20. The Earth System Modeling Framework and Earth System Curator: Software Components as Building Blocks of Community

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Deluca; V. Balaji; A. da Silva; R. Dunlap; C. Hill; L. Mark; C. R. Mechoso; D. Middleton; S. Nikonov; S. Rugaber; M. Suarez

    2006-01-01

    The Earth System Modeling Framework (ESMF) is an established U.S. initiative to develop high performance common modeling infrastructure for climate and weather models. ESMF is the technical foundation for the NASA Modeling, Analysis, and Prediction (MAP) Climate Variability and Change program and the DoD Battlespace Environments Institute (BEI). It has been incorporated into the Community Climate System Model (CCSM), the

  1. The Earth System Modeling Framework and Earth System Curator: Software Components as Building Blocks of Community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deluca, C.; Balaji, V.; da Silva, A.; Dunlap, R.; Hill, C.; Mark, L.; Mechoso, C. R.; Middleton, D.; Nikonov, S.; Rugaber, S.; Suarez, M.

    2006-05-01

    The Earth System Modeling Framework (ESMF) is an established U.S. initiative to develop high performance common modeling infrastructure for climate and weather models. ESMF is the technical foundation for the NASA Modeling, Analysis, and Prediction (MAP) Climate Variability and Change program and the DoD Battlespace Environments Institute (BEI). It has been incorporated into the Community Climate System Model (CCSM), the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) Model, NOAA NCEP and GFDL models, Army, Navy, and Air Force models, and many others. The new, NSF-funded Earth System Curator is a related database and toolkit that will store information about model configurations, prepare models for execution, and run them locally or in a distributed fashion. The key concept that underlies both ESMF and the Earth System Curator is that of software components. Components are software units that are "composable", meaning they can be combined to form coupled applications. These components may be representations of physical domains, such as atmospheres or oceans; processes within particular domains such as atmospheric radiation or chemistry; or computational functions, such as data assimilation or I/O. ESMF provides interfaces, an architecture, and tools for structuring components hierarchically to form complex, coupled modeling applications. The Earth System Curator will enable modelers to describe, archive, search, compose, and run ESMF and similar components. Together these projects encourage a new paradigm for modeling: one in which the community can draw from a federation of many interoperable components in order to create and deploy applications. The goal is to enable a network of collaborations and new scientific opportunities for the Earth modeling community.

  2. Global Cooperation in the Capacity Building Activities on Sun-Earth Connection Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopalswamy, Nat; Davila, Joseph; Luebken, Franz-Josef; Shepherd, Marianna; Tsuda, Toshitaka

    2012-07-01

    The importance of global cooperation in Sun-Earth connection studies can be readily seen in the formation of a number of international collaborative programs such as the Climate and Weather of the Sun Earth System (CAWSES) by SCOSTEP* and the International Space Weather Initiative (ISWI). ISWI is the continuation of the successful International Heliophysical Year (IHY) program. These programs have brought scientists together to tackle issues of solar-terrestrial phenomena. An important element of these organizations is capacity building activities, which include deployment of low-cost ground based instruments for Sun-Earth connection studies and training young people (scientists and graduate students) from developing countries to operate these instruments and become members of the international solar-terrestrial scientific community. The training also helps young people to make use of data from the vast array of space and ground based instruments currently available for Sun-Earth connection studies. This paper presents a summary of CAWSES and ISWI activities that promote space Sun-Earth connection studies via complementary approaches in international scientific collaborations, capacity building, and public outreach. *Scientific Committee on Solar Terrestrial Physics (SCOSTEP) is an Interdisciplinary Body of the International Council for Science with representations from COSPAR, IAU, IUGG/IAGA, IUPAP, IAMAS, SCAR, and URSI (http://www.yorku.ca/scostep)

  3. Sheltered Instruction Techniques for ELLs

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Lisa Pray

    2009-03-01

    The suggestions described here to adapt instruction for English Language Learners (ELLs) are based on the concept of sheltered instruction , a model of language-support methods for instruction for ELLs derived primarily through the Sheltered Instruction Observational Protocol (SIOP) developed by Jana Echevarria, Mary Ellen Vogt, and Deborah Short (2007). While the SIOP model can address various levels of English language proficiency, students at the highest level of English language proficiency, students at the highest level of proficiency will understand the objectives better than those at the earliest stages of English acquisition.

  4. Radon and thoron in Yongding Hakka Earth Building in Fujian Province of China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Wei; W. Zhuo; Y. Luo; M. Furukawa; X. Chen; Y. Yamada; D. Lin; F. Jian

    2005-01-01

    A 1-yr survey of indoor 222Rn, 220Rn and its progeny was performed in a typical earth building in Fujian Province, China. Annual arithmetic mean concentrations of indoor 222Rn, 220Rn and its progeny were 25, 232 and 0.7 Bq m?3, respectively. Although seasonal variation of indoor 222Rn was observed, variations of indoor 220Rn and its progeny were not obvious. Indoor 220Rn

  5. Building an ocean research coordination network for Future Earth: an opportunity for innovative collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yarincik, K.; Gagosian, R. B.; Cerveny, K.; Zimmermann, L.; Hauser, J.; Morell, M.

    2014-12-01

    Future Earth is an ambitious international and interdisciplinary research program on global change. While the program demands a "step-change" in how we do Earth system research, it will also build on the large suite of projects already established under the Global Environmental Change programs, and the Future Earth framework will need to support these in rising to the challenge of the new research model. Ocean research is deserving of a focused coordination network given: the ocean's scale (71% of the planet) and role in global change and in human society; the numerous existing Global Environmental Change core projects related to ocean science (as many as 19) and numerous other relevant ICSU and international programs to be considered; and the resources and infrastructure required to access the ocean. We propose a model for ocean research coordination that will work with existing Global Environmental Change projects and the Future Earth Secretariat to facilitate research collaboration, communication, and stakeholder co-design of an integrative ocean science program focus beyond the level or responsibility of any individual project, with the goal of building capacity for cross-cutting research and deliverables.

  6. Preliminary evaluation of crisis-relocation fallout-shelter options. Volume 2. Detailed analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Santini, D.J.; Clinch, J.M.; Davis, F.H.; Hill, L.G.; Lynch, E.P.; Tanzman, E.A.; Wernette, D.R.

    1982-12-01

    This report presents a preliminary, detailed evaluation of various shelter options for use if the President orders crisis relocation of the US urban population because of strong expectation of a nuclear war. The availability of livable shelter space at 40 ft/sup 2/ per person (congregate-care space) by state is evaluated. Options are evaluated for construction of fallout shelters allowing 10 ft/sup 2/ per person - such shelters are designed to provide 100% survival at projected levels of radioactive fallout. The FEMA concept of upgrading existing buildings to act as fallout shelters can, in principle, provide adequate shelter throughout most of the US. Exceptions are noted and remedies proposed. In terms of upgrading existing buildings to fallout shelter status, great benefits are possible by turning away from a standard national approach and adopting a more site-specific approach. Existing FEMA research provides a solid foundation for successful crisis relocation planning, but the program can be refined by making suitable modifications in its locational, engineering, and institutionally specific elements.

  7. Technological characteristics of compressed earth blocks for its use as a building material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez-Villalba, Luz Stella; Camacho-Perez, Nancy; Alvarez de Buergo, Monica; Becerra-Becerra, Javier; Esmeralda Corredor-Pulido, Dery; Fort, Rafael

    2013-04-01

    We present here an innovative building technique, which uses ecological, inexpensive and environmentally friendly materials. These compressed earth blocks seem to be very good for building purposes and that is why we have characterized three types of compressed earth blocks (CEB, named by their color as yellow, grey and red) mineralogically by means of X ray diffraction XRD and scanning electron microscopy SEM (both blocks and raw materials), petrographically by polarizing optical light microscopy POLM, and SEM, and, mainly, petrophysically: their hydric, physical and physico-mechanical properties by means of determining their capillary water absorption, porosity (open or accessible to water, pore size distribution and micro/macroporosity), and densities, color and ultrasound velocity (together with anisotropy). The particularities of these analyzed materials show that some varieties are more durable than others, and that all of them can be used as building materials with some restrictions related to their appropriate placing in the structures and the exposure to water. Acknowledgements: This work is supported by the GEOMATERIALES (S2009/MAT-1629) and CONSOLIDER-TCP (CSD2007-0058) programmes. Thanks also to the UCM (Complutense University of Madrid) Research Group "Alteración y conservación de los materiales pétreos del patrimonio" / Alteration and conservation of heritage stone materials (ref. 921349).

  8. The EPOS Implementation Phase: building thematic and integrated services for solid Earth sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cocco, Massimo; Epos Consortium, the

    2015-04-01

    The European Plate Observing System (EPOS) has a scientific vision and approach aimed at creating a pan-European infrastructure for Earth sciences to support a safe and sustainable society. To follow this vision, the EPOS mission is integrating a suite of diverse and advanced Research Infrastructures (RIs) in Europe relying on new e-science opportunities to monitor and understand the dynamic and complex Earth system. To this goal, the EPOS Preparatory Phase has designed a long-term plan to facilitate integrated use of data and products as well as access to facilities from mainly distributed existing and new research infrastructures for solid Earth Science. EPOS will enable innovative multidisciplinary research for a better understanding of the Earth's physical processes that control earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, ground instability and tsunami as well as the processes driving tectonics and Earth surface dynamics. Through integration of data, models and facilities EPOS will allow the Earth Science community to make a step change in developing new concepts and tools for key answers to scientific and socio-economic questions concerning geo-hazards and geo-resources as well as Earth sciences applications to the environment and to human welfare. Since its conception EPOS has been built as "a single, Pan-European, sustainable and distributed infrastructure". EPOS is, indeed, the sole infrastructure for solid Earth Science in ESFRI and its pan-European dimension is demonstrated by the participation of 23 countries in its preparatory phase. EPOS is presently moving into its implementation phase further extending its pan-European dimension. The EPOS Implementation Phase project (EPOS IP) builds on the achievements of the successful EPOS preparatory phase project. The EPOS IP objectives are synergetic and coherent with the establishment of the new legal subject (the EPOS-ERIC in Italy). EPOS coordinates the existing and new solid Earth RIs within Europe and builds the integrating RI elements. This integration requires a significant coordination between, among others, disciplinary (thematic) communities, national RIs policies and initiatives, as well as geo- and IT-scientists. The RIs that EPOS is coordinating include: i) regionally-distributed geophysical observing systems (seismological and geodetic networks); ii) local observatories (including geomagnetic, near-fault and volcano observatories); iii) analytical and experimental laboratories; iv) integrated satellite data and geological information services v) new services for natural and anthropogenic hazards. Here we present the successful story of the EPOS Preparatory Phase and the progress towards the implementation of both integrated core services (ICS) and thematic core services (TCS) for the different communities participating to the integration plan. We aim to discuss the achieved results and the approach followed to design the implementation phase. The goal is to present and discuss the strategies adopted to foster the implementation of TCS, clarifying their crucial role as domain-specific service hubs for coordinating and harmonizing national resources/plans with the European dimension of EPOS, and their integration to develop the new ICS. We will present the prototype of the ICS central hub as a key contribution for providing multidisciplinary services for solid Earth sciences as well as the glue to keep ICT aspects integrated and rationalized across EPOS. Finally, we will discuss the well-defined role of the EPOS-ERIC Headquarter to coordinate and harmonize national RIs and EPOS services (through ICS and TCS) looking for an effective commitment by national governments. It will be an important and timely opportunity to discuss the EPOS roadmap toward the operation of the novel multidisciplinary platform for discoveries to foster scientific excellence in solid Earth sciences.

  9. Sheltering--a protective measure following an accidental atmospheric release from a nuclear power plant.

    PubMed

    Koch, J; Tadmor, J

    1988-06-01

    The effectiveness of sheltering the population for reducing radiological effects following an accidental release of radioactivity at a nuclear power plant was investigated. Different levels of respiratory protection and the administration of a thyroid blocking agent were also studied as possible complements to sheltering. Specific conditions were assumed, concerning the high protection factors of regular buildings and the high availability of civil defense shelters. Computations were performed by means of a probabilistic consequence model, which allows a comprehensive description of exposure modes and processes dealing with the implementation of sheltering and which takes into account a broad range of radiological effects. Sheltering, even in regular buildings, was found to be efficient in reducing early fatalities and other non-stochastic effects. However, it was shown that respiratory protection is also needed in order to alleviate stochastic effects and that, for this purpose, expedient individual filtration methods may be satisfactory. Under the conditions studied, sheltering was found to be preferable in most cases over evacuation, as the main immediate protective measure, unless evacuation can be carried out before the radioactive cloud reaches the populated area. PMID:3378897

  10. Sheltering--a protective measure following an accidental atmospheric release from a nuclear power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, J.; Tadmor, J.

    1988-06-01

    The effectiveness of sheltering the population for reducing radiological effects following an accidental release of radioactivity at a nuclear power plant was investigated. Different levels of respiratory protection and the administration of a thyroid blocking agent were also studied as possible complements to sheltering. Specific conditions were assumed, concerning the high protection factors of regular buildings and the high availability of civil defense shelters. Computations were performed by means of a probabilistic consequence model, which allows a comprehensive description of exposure modes and processes dealing with the implementation of sheltering and which takes into account a broad range of radiological effects. Sheltering, even in regular buildings, was found to be efficient in reducing early fatalities and other non-stochastic effects. However, it was shown that respiratory protection is also needed in order to alleviate stochastic effects and that, for this purpose, expedient individual filtration methods may be satisfactory. Under the conditions studied, sheltering was found to be preferable in most cases over evacuation, as the main immediate protective measure, unless evacuation can be carried out before the radioactive cloud reaches the populated area.

  11. Where building meets sky : the dialogue between horizontal and vertical

    E-print Network

    Snow, Sandra Leigh Olson

    1986-01-01

    The roof is man's basic shelter against the elements. The form of the roof itself affects the image of a building. The problem of shelter has been approached in different ways by different cultures. A wide range of forces ...

  12. The DEVELOP National Program: Building Dual Capacity in Decision Makers and Young Professionals Through NASA Earth Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Childs, L. M.; Rogers, L.; Favors, J.; Ruiz, M.

    2012-12-01

    Through the years, NASA has played a distinct/important/vital role in advancing Earth System Science to meet the challenges of environmental management and policy decision making. Within NASA's Earth Science Division's Applied Sciences' Program, the DEVELOP National Program seeks to extend NASA Earth Science for societal benefit. DEVELOP is a capacity building program providing young professionals and students the opportunity to utilize NASA Earth observations and model output to demonstrate practical applications of those resources to society. Under the guidance of science advisors, DEVELOP teams work in alignment with local, regional, national and international partner organizations to identify the widest array of practical uses for NASA data to enhance related management decisions. The program's structure facilitates a two-fold approach to capacity building by fostering an environment of scientific and professional development opportunities for young professionals and students, while also providing end-user organizations enhanced management and decision making tools for issues impacting their communities. With the competitive nature and growing societal role of science and technology in today's global workplace, DEVELOP is building capacity in the next generation of scientists and leaders by fostering a learning and growing environment where young professionals possess an increased understanding of teamwork, personal development, and scientific/professional development and NASA's Earth Observation System. DEVELOP young professionals are partnered with end user organizations to conduct 10 week feasibility studies that demonstrate the use of NASA Earth science data for enhanced decision making. As a result of the partnership, end user organizations are introduced to NASA Earth Science technologies and capabilities, new methods to augment current practices, hands-on training with practical applications of remote sensing and NASA Earth science, improved remote sensing and geographic information science (GIS) capabilities, and opportunities for networking with the NASA and Earth Science community. By engaging young professionals and end user organizations, DEVELOP strives to uniquely build capacity through the extension of NASA Earth Science outcomes to the public through projects that innovatively use NASA Earth observations to address environmental concerns and impact policy and decision making.

  13. Characteristics of sheltered homeless families.

    PubMed Central

    Bassuk, E L; Rubin, L; Lauriat, A S

    1986-01-01

    To describe the characteristics of homeless families, we interviewed 80 homeless mothers and 151 children living in 14 family shelters in Massachusetts (two-thirds of the shelters in the state). Ninety-four per cent of the families were headed by women, 91 per cent were on AFDC (aid to families with dependent children), with twice as many as the state average having been on AFDC for at least two years; most had long histories of residential instability. Although 60 per cent had completed high school, only a third had worked for longer than one month. One-third of the mothers reported having been abused during their childhood, and two-thirds had experienced a major family disruption. At the time of the interview, almost two-thirds either lacked or had minimal supportive relationships and one-fourth of these named their child as the major support. Eighteen mothers were involved with the Department of Social Services because of probable child abuse or neglect. Seventy-one per cent of the mothers had personality disorders. In contrast to many adult homeless individuals, however, deinstitutionalized persons or those suffering from psychoses were not overrepresented. About 50 percent of the homeless children were found to have developmental lags, anxiety, depression, and learning difficulties, and about half required further psychiatric evaluation. Two-thirds described housing and social welfare agencies as not helpful. Given the many serious problems of the mothers and the difficulties already manifested by their children, comprehensive psychosocial and economic interventions must be made to interrupt a cycle of extreme instability and family breakdown. PMID:3740332

  14. Q & A with Kathleen M. Reilly, Author of "Planet Earth: 25 Environmental Projects You Can Build Yourself"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curriculum Review, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Kathleen M. Reilly, author of "Planet Earth: 25 Environmental Projects You Can Build Yourself." Environmental awareness needs to begin in childhood, and, through this book, Kathleen M. Reilly encourages children to learn about ecology and ecosystems to begin conservation early in their lives. Children ages 9…

  15. Concrete may be one of the most familiar building materials on Earth, but its underlying structure remains elusive. Scientists

    E-print Network

    Entekhabi, Dara

    Size diversity in cement nanoparticles optimizes their packing density to give concrete its strengthPROBLEM Concrete may be one of the most familiar building materials on Earth, but its underlying paste that works as glue in concrete hardens after water and ce- ment powder are mixed, but they believe

  16. Earth

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This lithograph depicts a view of Earth taken from Apollo 10 during its journey to the Moon in May 1969. False-color satellite images showing chlorophyll concentration, sea surface temperature, topography, and ozone concentration are also featured. The images are accompanied by a brief description, some statistical facts, and a list of important dates in the history of Earth exploration.

  17. TESTIMONY DURING SHELTER HEARINGS OF THE MILITARY OPERATIONS SUBCOMMITTEE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vortman

    1958-01-01

    Those full-scale effects tests which relate to protective shelter ; construction are summarized. Principles of shelter design are discussed. Based ; on costs of two shelters built at the Nevada Test Site, the cost in dollars and ; time of a national personmel shelter program is estimated. (auth);

  18. Assessing the thermal performance of an emergency shelter system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Crawford; P. Manfield; A McRobie

    2005-01-01

    The aims of these tests are to improve conditions inside temporary shelters and to develop tools to assess shelter quality and comfort. Two different prototype shelters were tested in cold conditions with an internal vapour load. Temperature and humidity measurements were taken inside the shelter while the external temperature was maintained at ?20°C. Visual assessments were also carried out during

  19. Prospect and refuge : shelter in Roxbury

    E-print Network

    Lee, Jane Elizabeth

    1993-01-01

    This thesis attempts to use the concept of juxtaposed prospect and refuge to design shelter on a large urban site (92,000 square feet). The broad range of scales stretches the applicability of prospect and refuge as a ...

  20. Language Learning in Sheltered Social Studies Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Short, Deborah

    2002-01-01

    Describes the Language-Content-Task (LCT) framework, which highlights three areas of academic literacy around which teachers organize their sheltered English instruction. Used the LCT framework to examine instruction in middle school social studies classes. (Author/VWL)

  1. Guidelines for Sheltering In Place At the University of Maryland Baltimore

    E-print Network

    Weber, David J.

    to shelter in place. 1. Shut windows and exterior doors. Remain in the building and await further that are in use; securing radioactive materials; and putting away cultures and potentially infectious materials the campus emergency phone number at 410-706-8622. If electronic communication has been disrupted, Fire

  2. Earth

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2008-10-03

    With three levels to choose from on each page - beginner, intermediate or advanced - this site provides information on our plant Earth. There is a section about water on earth and its many different varities, like freshwater, groundwater, and frozen water. There is information about the chemical make-up of water and many images showing the different water anvironments. There is a section about life in water, such as animals, plants, and plankton.

  3. BUILDING VIRTUAL EARTH OBSERVATORIES USING ONTOLOGIES, LINKED GEOSPATIAL DATA AND KNOWLEDGE DISCOVERY ALGORITHMS

    E-print Network

    Koubarakis, Manolis

    in orbit around Earth. As a result, Earth Observation (EO) data has been constantly increasing in vol- ume or animals, due to the nature of actual features (e.g., eyes, ears, stripes, or wings) that have known

  4. Earth

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) planet profile provides data and images of the planet Earth. These data include planet size, orbit facts, distance from the Sun, rotation and revolution times, temperature, atmospheric composition, density, surface materials and albedo. Images with descriptions show Earth features such as the Ross Ice Shelf in Antarctica, Simpson Desert in Australia, Mt. Etna in Sicily, the Cassiar Mountains in Canada, the Strait of Gibraltar, Mississippi River, Grand Canyon, Wadi Kufra Oasis in Libya, and Moon images such as Hadley Rille, Plum Crater, massifs and Moon rocks. These images were taken with the Galileo Spacecraft and by the Apollo missions.

  5. Solar energy utilization in a greenhouse/animal shelter combination

    SciTech Connect

    Spillman, C.K.; Greig, J.K.; Johnson, G.A.; Hartford, J.R.; Koch, B.A.; Hines, R.H.

    1981-01-01

    Two greenhouses are being used at Kansas State Univesity to evaluate use of exhaust air from an animal shelter and its effect on greenhouse production. The control greenhouse is attached to the headquarters building and operated conventionally. The experimental house is attached to a swine finishing building and has air handling equipment to introduce hoghouse air to the greenhouse at 680 m/sup 3//h (400 cfm) or 1200 m/sup 3//h (700 cfm) and has a rock storage system with about 1 m/sup 3/ of rock for each 2 m/sup 2/ of greenhouse floor space. Cucumber, tomato, and broccoli plants in the experimental greenhouse have darker green foliage than plants in the control house regardless of nitrogen levels. The fall cucumber study indicated a 31 percent increase in number of marketable fruits from the experimental house. Marketable fruits from the experimental house weighed 40 percent more than those from the control house.

  6. Solar Eclipse Effect on Shelter Air Temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Segal, M.; Turner, R. W.; Prusa, J.; Bitzer, R. J.; Finley, S. V.

    1996-01-01

    Decreases in shelter temperature during eclipse events were quantified on the basis of observations, numerical model simulations, and complementary conceptual evaluations. Observations for the annular eclipse on 10 May 1994 over the United States are presented, and these provide insights into the temporal and spatial changes in the shelter temperature. The observations indicated near-surface temperature drops of as much as 6 C. Numerical model simulations for this eclipse event, which provide a complementary evaluation of the spatial and temporal patterns of the temperature drops, predict similar decreases. Interrelationships between the temperature drop, degree of solar irradiance reduction, and timing of the peak eclipse are also evaluated for late spring, summer, and winter sun conditions. These simulations suggest that for total eclipses the drops in shelter temperature in midlatitudes can be as high as 7 C for a spring morning eclipse.

  7. Building Formal and Informal Partnerships Through a Land-Based, Hands-on Research Expedition for Earth and Ocean Science Teachers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Slough; T. Prouhet; L. Peart; M. Leckie; K. St. John; S. Karz-Cooper; A. Klaus; K. Petronotis; J. Firth; G. Guerin; C. Buckholtz; L. Crowder; C. Peng

    2007-01-01

    Scientific Ocean drilling has a rich legacy which is largely responsible for our current understating of the complex linkages among the different parts of the Earth System. Relaying these understandings to Earth and ocean educators is a challenge that the Joint Oceanographic Institutes (JOI) Alliances has undertaken through sponsorship of the School of Rock (SOR). Building on the successful ocean-going,

  8. Comparison of several methods for analyzing earth-quake-resistant soil-building interaction systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1986-01-01

    A procedure was developed for determination of earthquake-design loads and structure-member forces from the time history-earthquake responses of the soil-building and the soil-building-building interaction system. This procedure considers the coupling effect of building, subsoil, and adjacent structures. The infinite element associated with the ordinary finite element are used to model the unbounded subsoil. Three numerical examples that represent different types

  9. Infectious Disease Exposures and Contact Tracing in Homeless Shelters

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Stephen W.; Kiss, Alex; Ho, Minnie M.; Leung, Cheryl S.; Gundlapalli, Adi V.

    2015-01-01

    An outbreak among homeless shelter users of a communicable disease with a short generation time would pose serious public health challenges. Data from Toronto were used to examine the number of shelter residents potentially exposed in the event of such an outbreak. A shelter user had contact with a mean of 97 other residents (range, 1–292) in one day and a mean of 120 (range, 2–624) in eight days. After a single week, contact tracing becomes difficult due to the challenge of locating homeless people who have left the shelter system. Over an 8-day period, individuals who used more than one shelter had contact with an average of 98 more other shelter residents than those who stayed in a single shelter had. At the onset of a serious outbreak, it may be desirable to institute policies that strongly encourage individuals to remain at their current shelter for the duration of the outbreak. PMID:19029743

  10. Closeup view of EPA Farm cattle shelter lamp, facing west ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close-up view of EPA Farm cattle shelter lamp, facing west - Nevada Test Site, Environmental Protection Agency Farm, Shelter Unit Type, Area 15, Yucca Flat, 10-2 Road near Circle Road, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  11. 4. INTERIOR VIEW OF SLEEPING SHELTER SHOWING STORAGE LOCKERS IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. INTERIOR VIEW OF SLEEPING SHELTER SHOWING STORAGE LOCKERS IN CENTER PORTION WITH SLEEPING BUNKS AT EACH END - Camp Cleawox, Adirondack Sleeping Shelter, Oregon Dunes National Recreation Area, Siuslaw National Forest, Florence, Lane County, OR

  12. FEATURE 2, OPEN SIDE OF SHELTER, VIEW FACING NORTHEAST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FEATURE 2, OPEN SIDE OF SHELTER, VIEW FACING NORTHEAST. - Naval Air Station Barbers Point, Anti-Aircraft Battery Complex-Shelter, East of Coral Sea Road, northwest of Hamilton Road, Ewa, Honolulu County, HI

  13. FEATURE 2, SHELTER, NORTHNORTHEAST SIDE, VIEW FACING SOUTHSOUTHWEST (with scale ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FEATURE 2, SHELTER, NORTH-NORTHEAST SIDE, VIEW FACING SOUTH-SOUTHWEST (with scale stick). - Naval Air Station Barbers Point, Anti-Aircraft Battery Complex-Shelter, East of Coral Sea Road, northwest of Hamilton Road, Ewa, Honolulu County, HI

  14. FEATURE 2, SHELTER, NORTHNORTHEAST SIDE, VIEW FACING SOUTHSOUTHWEST. Naval ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FEATURE 2, SHELTER, NORTH-NORTHEAST SIDE, VIEW FACING SOUTH-SOUTHWEST. - Naval Air Station Barbers Point, Anti-Aircraft Battery Complex-Shelter, East of Coral Sea Road, northwest of Hamilton Road, Ewa, Honolulu County, HI

  15. Shelters and their use by fishes on fringing coral reefs.

    PubMed

    Ménard, Alexandre; Turgeon, Katrine; Roche, Dominique G; Binning, Sandra A; Kramer, Donald L

    2012-01-01

    Coral reef fish density and species richness are often higher at sites with more structural complexity. This association may be due to greater availability of shelters, but surprisingly little is known about the size and density of shelters and their use by coral reef fishes. We quantified shelter availability and use by fishes for the first time on a Caribbean coral reef by counting all holes and overhangs with a minimum entrance diameter ?3 cm in 30 quadrats (25 m(2)) on two fringing reefs in Barbados. Shelter size was highly variable, ranging from 42 cm(3) to over 4,000,000 cm(3), with many more small than large shelters. On average, there were 3.8 shelters m(-2), with a median volume of 1,200 cm(3) and a total volume of 52,000 cm(3) m(-2). The number of fish per occupied shelter ranged from 1 to 35 individual fishes belonging to 66 species, with a median of 1. The proportion of shelters occupied and the number of occupants increased strongly with shelter size. Shelter density and total volume increased with substrate complexity, and this relationship varied among reef zones. The density of shelter-using fish was much more strongly predicted by shelter density and median size than by substrate complexity and increased linearly with shelter density, indicating that shelter availability is a limiting resource for some coral reef fishes. The results demonstrate the importance of large shelters for fish density and support the hypothesis that structural complexity is associated with fish abundance, at least in part, due to its association with shelter availability. This information can help identify critical habitat for coral reef fishes, predict the effects of reductions in structural complexity of natural reefs and improve the design of artificial reefs. PMID:22745664

  16. Lied Animal Shelter Animal campus Renewable Energy Demonstration Project

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Randy Spitzmesser

    2005-01-01

    The Animal Shelter campus plan includes a new adoption center coupled with a dog adoption park, a wellness\\/veterinary technician education center, a show arena, and an addition to the existing shelter that will accommodate all animal control and sheltering for the Las Vegas Valley. The new facility will provide a sophisticated and innovative presentation of the animals to be adopted

  17. Patterns of sheltering and housing in US disasters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. L. Quarantelli

    1995-01-01

    The terms “sheltering” and “housing” are used in a variety of unclear and inconsistent ways in the disaster literature. Proposes a differentiation among emergency sheltering, temporary sheltering, temporary housing and permanent housing. Indicates how they are paid differential attention in American disaster planning and gives specific observations about the four patterns, noting especially how they differ from one another. Suggests

  18. Hurricane Andrew: Psychological distress among shelter victims

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David N. Sattler; Jerome M. Sattler; Charles Kaiser; Beverly A. Hamby; Mary G. Adams; Laura Love; Jacqueline Winkler; Claudia Abu-Ukkaz; Barrett Watts; Ann Beatty

    1995-01-01

    This study examined psychological distress and functioning among Hurricane Andrew victims who lost their homes and were living in shelters. Four and one-half weeks after Hurricane Andrew struck southern Florida, 89 (45 males, 44 females) Blacks, Hispanics, and Whites completed a questionnaire. The questionnaire asked for information about psychological and psychophysiological symptoms, use of mental health services, coping responses, and

  19. Collaboration and Community Building in Summer Undergraduate Research Programs in the School of Earth Sciences at Stanford University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nevle, R. J.; Watson Nelson, T.; Harris, J. M.; Klemperer, S. L.

    2012-12-01

    In 2012, the School of Earth Sciences (SES) at Stanford University sponsored two summer undergraduate research programs. Here we describe these programs and efforts to build a cohesive research cohort among the programs' diverse participants. The two programs, the Stanford School of Earth Sciences Undergraduate Research (SESUR) Program and Stanford School of Earth Sciences Summer Undergraduate Research in Geoscience and Engineering (SURGE) Program, serve different undergraduate populations and have somewhat different objectives, but both provide students with opportunities to work on strongly mentored yet individualized research projects. In addition to research, enrichment activities co-sponsored by both programs support the development of community within the combined SES summer undergraduate research cohort. Over the course of 6 to 9 months, the SESUR Program engages Stanford undergraduates, primarily rising sophomores and juniors, with opportunities to deeply explore Earth sciences research while learning about diverse areas of inquiry within SES. Now in its eleventh year, the SESUR experience incorporates the breadth of the scientific endeavor: finding an advisor, proposal writing, obtaining funding, conducting research, and presenting results. Goals of the SESUR program include (1) providing a challenging and rewarding research experience for undergraduates who wish to explore the Earth sciences; (2) fostering interdisciplinary study in the Earth sciences among the undergraduate population; and (3) encouraging students to major or minor in the Earth sciences and/or to complete advanced undergraduate research in one of the departments or programs within SES. The SURGE Program, now in its second year, draws high performing students, primarily rising juniors and seniors, from 14 colleges and universities nationwide, including Stanford. Seventy percent of SURGE students are from racial/ethnic backgrounds underrepresented in STEM fields, and approximately one-third are the first in their families to attend college. For eight weeks, SURGE scholars conduct independent research with the guidance of faculty, research group mentors, and program assistants. The primary objectives of the SURGE program are to (1) provide undergraduates with a research experience in SES; (2) prepare undergraduates for the process of applying to graduate school; (3) introduce undergraduates to career opportunities in the geosciences and engineering; and (4) increase diversity in SES graduate programs. Independent research, network building, and intense mentoring culminate in a final oral and poster symposium. SESUR and SURGE scholars jointly participate in enrichment activities including faculty research seminars; career, graduate school, and software training workshops; GRE preparation classes; and geoscience-oriented field trips. Interaction among our students takes place through both research and enrichment activities, creating a critical mass of undergraduate scholars and promoting community development. Pre- and post-program surveys indicate that the overall goals of both programs are being achieved.

  20. Forecasting carbon monoxide concentrations near a sheltered intersection using video traffic surveillance and neural networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lars Moseholm; Jeff Silva; Timothy Larson

    1996-01-01

    In this preliminary study we investigated the relationships between traffic and carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations measured near an intersection which is sheltered from the wind by multi-story buildings. Detailed information on traffic parameters was obtained by video camera technology during a single, 4-h period (2–6 p.m. local time) of calm winds (< 1 m\\/s). A neural network was trained with

  1. Self-Healing, Inflatable, Rigidizable Shelter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haight, Andrea; Gosau, Jan-Michael; Dixit, Anshu; Gleeson, Dan

    2012-01-01

    An inflatable, rigidizable shelter system was developed based on Rigi dization on Command (ROC) technology incorporating not only the requ ired low-stowage volume and lightweight character achieved from an i nflatable/rigidizable system, but also a self-healing foam system inc orporated between the rigidizable layers of the final structure to m inimize the damage caused by any punctures to the structure.

  2. Understanding of earth and space science concepts: Strategies for concept building in elementary teacher preparation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nermin Bulunuz

    2006-01-01

    Research on conceptual change provides strong evidence that not only children but also many adults have incorrect or incomplete understanding of science concepts. This mixed methods study was concerned with preservice and inservice teachers' understanding of six earth and space science concepts commonly taught in elementary school: reasons for seasons, phases of the moon, reasons for the wind, the rock

  3. Electron spin resonance dating of human teeth from Toca da Santa shelter of São Raimundo Nonato, Piauí, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinoshita, A.; Figueiredo, A. M. G.; Felice, G. D.; Lage, M. C. S. M.; Guidon, N.; Baffa, O.

    2008-02-01

    Results of the dating of fossil human teeth excavated from a shelter in the surroundings areas of the Serra da Capivara National Park, São Raimundo Nonato, Piauí, Brazil are presented. This shelter was partially excavated to search for more data that could improve the archaeological context of the Garrincho’s limestone hill sites, where the Toca do Gordo do Garrincho shelter provided two human teeth dated by conventional C-14 in (12,170 ± 40) yBP (years before present) and calibrated age (2 Sigma, 95% probability) 15,245 14,690 yBP (Beta 136204) [E. Peyre, C. Guérin, N. Guidon, I. Coppens, CR Acad. Sci. Paris, Sciences de la terre et des planètes/ Earth & Planetary Sciences 327 (1998) 335, [1

  4. Daytime shelter use of individually kept horses during Swedish summer.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, E; Hopkins, R J; Blomgren, E; Ventorp, M; von Brömssen, C; Dahlborn, K

    2015-02-01

    In Sweden, no provision for summer shelter to protect horses from heat and insects is required, although access to shelter for horses kept outdoors 24 h during winter is a requirement. This study investigated horses' daytime shelter-seeking behavior in relation to weather conditions and insect activity during a 2-wk period in summer. Eight Warmblood riding horses had access to 2 shelters of different design to test which shelter design is preferred by horses. Furthermore, rectal and skin temperatures and insect-defensive behavior were measured to test whether horses would benefit from the provision of shade. The horses were kept alone in paddocks for 4 d. During 2 d, horses had access to 2 shelters: 1) open shelter with roof and uncovered sides and 2) closed shelter with roof, wind nets on 2 sides, and opaque plastic opposite the entrance. Weather conditions (ambient temperature, relative humidity, solar radiation, wind speed) were recorded every 10 min. The number of insects (flies, mosquitos) was counted from insect traps placed in each shelter and outside. Behavior (shelter use, insect-defensive behavior, locomotion, grazing) was recorded at 5-min intervals between 0900 to 1200 h and 1300 to 1600 h and rectal and skin temperatures were measured at 0800 h, 1200 h, and 1600 h. Data were analyzed with PROC MIXED and GLIMMIX procedure for Generalized Linear Mixed Models. Ambient temperature ranged from 16 to 25°C (average temperature humidity index 65.7 ± 1.4). Five horses preferred the closed shelter and were observed inside up to 2.5 h continuously. Greater wind speed decreased the likelihood of observing horses inside the shelter ( < 0.001), as did lower numbers of flies ( < 0.001). The insect-defensive behaviors, skin shiver and ear flick, were performed less frequently when horses were using the closed shelter ( < 0.001), indicating that they were less disturbed by insects. Thirty-minute shelter use had no effect on rectal and skin temperatures ( > 0.05). Results showed that horses made use of shelters during the summer even when weather conditions were moderate. A shelter with roof and covers on 3 sides was preferred over a shelter with roof only and can reduce insect-defensive behavior. PMID:26020760

  5. Modeling shelter-in-place including sorption on indoor surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, Wanyu R.; Price, Phillip N.; Gadgil, Ashok J.; Nazaroff, William W.; Loosmore, Gwen A.; Sugiyama, Gayle A.

    2003-11-01

    Intentional or accidental large-scale airborne toxic releases (e.g. terrorist attacks or industrial accidents) can cause severe harm to nearby communities. As part of an emergency response plan, shelter-in-place (SIP) can be an effective response option, especially when evacuation is infeasible. Reasonably tight building envelopes provide some protection against exposure to peak concentrations when toxic release passes over an area. They also provide some protection in terms of cumulative exposure, if SIP is terminated promptly after the outdoor plume has passed. The purpose of this work is to quantify the level of protection offered by existing houses, and the importance of sorption/desorption to and from surfaces on the effectiveness of SIP. We examined a hypothetical chlorine gas release scenario simulated by the National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC). We used a standard infiltration model to calculate the distribution of time dependent infiltration rates within each census tract. Large variation in the air tightness of dwellings makes some houses more protective than others. Considering only the median air tightness, model results showed that if sheltered indoors, the total population intake of non-sorbing toxic gas is only 50% of the outdoor level 4 hours from the start of the release. Based on a sorption/desorption model by Karlsson and Huber (1996), we calculated that the sorption process would further lower the total intake of the population by an additional 50%. The potential benefit of SIP can be considerably higher if the comparison is made in terms of health effects because of the non-linear acute effect dose-response curve of many chemical warfare agents and toxic industrial substances.

  6. Chornobyl Nuclear Power Plant - An Overview of the Current Efforts to Stabilize the Chornobyl Shelter and Establish an Environmentally Safe Site

    SciTech Connect

    Couch, Daniel P.; Gronier, Serge; Heriot, Ian D.; Hogg, Charles; Novak, Vince; Schmieman, Eric A.

    2005-08-08

    Chornobyl Nuclear Power Plant ? An Overview of the Current Efforts to Stabilize the Chornobyl Shelter and Establish an Environmentally Safe Site Abstract?The 1986 accident at the Chornobyl Nuclear Power Plant in Ukraine resulted in the destruction of the reactor core and most of the reactor building. The Chornobyl accident released an enormous quantity of radionuclides into the environment, significantly contaminating a large region around the plant. Within seven months of the accident, the damaged Unit 4 was encased in a massive concrete and steel enclosure known as the Shelter. Deterioration of the Shelter over time poses increasing risks. The Shelter is subject to structural damage or collapse due to wind, snow loading, or seismic activity. Collapse could lead to the release of radioactive fallout. Leakage of rainwater into the Shelter has caused the accumulation of a large quantity of highly radioactive liquid, corrosion of extremely contaminated nuclear fuel debris, and creation of hazardous radioactive dust. To address these concerns, the government of Ukraine, the G7 nations, and additional donor countries adopted the Shelter Implementation Plan (SIP) in 1997. The SIP's objectives are to reduce the risk and potential consequences of accidental collapse of the Shelter; improve nuclear, industrial and environmental safety; and develop a long-term strategy for conversion to an environmentally safe site. Implementation of the SIP has made significant progress that will lead to the construction of a new confinement facility by 2009. (Full paper available by contacting lead author, Dan Couch)

  7. Building Capacity to Integrate NASA Earth Science into Water Resources Management Applications in the Context of a Changing Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prados, A. I.; Mehta, A. V.

    2011-12-01

    The NASA Applied Sciences program provides technical capacity building activities to enable decision-makers to integrate NASA Earth Science into environmental management activities. This includes workshops tailored to end-user needs by working directly with agencies to 1) identify environmental management activities that could benefit from NASA Earth Science and 2) conducting workshops that teach the NASA products and decision-support tools best suited to the identified application area. Building on a successful 3-year effort on air pollution monitoring for environmental applications, the project has expanded into water resources. Climate Change has dramatically increased demand for observational and predictive data in support of decision making activities related to water supply and demand. However, a gap remains between NASA products and applied research and the entities who stand to benefit from their utilization. To fill this gap, the project has developed short courses on 1) impacts of climate change on water resources 2) hands-on exercises on access and interpretation of NASA imagery relevant to water resources management via the use of decision-support web tools and software and 3) case studies on the application of NASA products in the field. The program is currently focused on two areas 1) precipitation products over the central and southern U.S. that help communities and agencies improve flooding forecasts and 2) snow and snow/water equivalent products over the western U.S and Latin America that can provide end-users with improved stream flow prediction in Spring within a framework of decreasing snow availability.

  8. Big Data challenges and solutions in building the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzetti, Paolo; Nativi, Stefano; Santoro, Mattia; Boldrini, Enrico

    2014-05-01

    The Group on Earth Observation (GEO) is a voluntary partnership of governments and international organizations launched in response to calls for action by the 2002 World Summit on Sustainable Development and by the G8 (Group of Eight) leading industrialized countries. These high-level meetings recognized that international collaboration is essential for exploiting the growing potential of Earth observations to support decision making in an increasingly complex and environmentally stressed world. To this aim is constructing the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) on the basis of a 10-Year Implementation Plan for the period 2005 to 2015 when it will become operational. As a large-scale integrated system handling large datasets as those provided by Earth Observation, GEOSS needs to face several challenges related to big data handling and big data infrastructures management. Referring to the traditional multiple Vs characteristics of Big Data (volume, variety, velocity, veracity and visualization) it is evident how most of them can be found in data handled by GEOSS. In particular, concerning Volume, Earth Observation already generates a large amount of data which can be estimated in the range of Petabytes (1015 bytes), with Exabytes (1018) already targeted. Moreover, the challenge is related not only to the data size, but also to the large amount of datasets (not necessarily having a big size) that systems need to manage. Variety is the other main challenge since datasets coming from different sensors, processed for different use-cases are published with highly heterogeneous metadata and data models, through different service interfaces. Innovative multidisciplinary applications need to access and use those datasets in a harmonized way. Moreover Earth Observation data are growing in size and variety at an exceptionally fast rate and new technologies and applications, including crowdsourcing, will even increase data volume and variety in the next future. The current implementation of GEOSS already addresses several big data challenges. In particular, the brokered architecture adopted in the GEOSS Common Infrastructure with the deployment of the GEO DAB (Discovery and Access Broker) allows to connect more than 20 big EO infrastructures while keeping them autonomous as required by their own mandate and governance. They make more than 60 million of unique resources discoverable and accessible through the GEO Portal. Through the GEO DAB, users are able to seamlessly discover resources provided by different infrastructures, and access them in a harmonized way, collecting datasets from different sources on a Common Environment (same coordinate reference system, spatial subset, format, etc.). Through the GEONETCast system, GEOSS is also providing a solution related to the Velocity challenge, for delivering EO resources to developing countries with low bandwidth connections. Several researches addressing other Big data Vs challenges in GEOSS are on-going, including quality representation for Veracity (as in the FP7 GeoViQua project), brokering big data analytics platforms for Velocity, and support of other EO resources for Variety (such as modelling resources in the Model Web).

  9. Should cities invest in sheltering-in-place measures against chlorine truck attacks by terrorists?

    PubMed

    Barrett, Anthony Michael; Casman, Elizabeth A

    2013-05-01

    After an intentional release of chlorine in an office district, public responses such as sheltering-in-place could save many lives if rapid enough. However, previous work does not estimate how fast and effective such responses would be for several possible investments in attack detection, public alert, and building ventilation, nor whether such measures would be cost effective. We estimate public response times with investment options in place, and resulting changes in fatalities as well as system costs, including false alarm costs, and cost effectiveness in terms of cost per net death avoided. The measures do have life-saving potential, especially if all response times are at or near the lower limits of the ranges assumed in this article. However, due to uncertainties, it is not clear that responses would be rapid enough to save many people. In some cases total fatalities would increase, since sheltering after chlorine vapor has already entered buildings can increase occupants' chlorine exposure. None of the options considered have median cost per statistical life saved meeting a cost-effectiveness threshold of $6.5 million across all of the chlorine exposure dose-response and ingress-delay models considered here, even if there were one attack per year in the area covered by the system. Given these and other issues discussed in this article, at this point investments to improve sheltering-in-place capability appear not to be robust strategies for reducing fatalities from chlorine attack in an office district. PMID:23137062

  10. What happens to shelter dogs? An analysis of data for 1 year from three Australian shelters.

    PubMed

    Marston, Linda C; Bennett, Pauleen C; Coleman, Grahame J

    2004-01-01

    Annually, welfare shelters admit many dogs, including those whose caregivers surrender them or dogs who are strays. This article analyzes admission data from 3 metropolitan Australian shelters. The study collected data for a 1-year period and analyzed them to identify the characteristics of the typical shelter dog; patterns of relinquishment, sales, reclamation and euthanasia; and duration of stay and reasons underlying euthanasia, relinquishment, and postadoptive return. The study tracked more than 20,000 admissions during this period. To facilitate reclamation, the local Code of Practice requires a mandatory holding period for stray dogs; assessment for suitability for rehoming then occurs. Dogs failing the assessment are euthanized. Surrendered dogs can be assessed immediately. The Code of Practice also recommends that unsold dogs be euthanized 28 days postassessment. Typically, shelter dogs in Melbourne are strays, sexually entire, adult, small, and-usually-male. The majority of admissions are reclaimed or sold. Most reclamations occur within 4 days, and postadoptive return rates are low. That current desexing messages do not appear to have reached the owners of stray dogs to the same extent as they have other dog owners is a major finding, suggesting that a targeted education campaign may be required. PMID:15066769

  11. Concrete is the most prevalent man-made substance on Earth. This strong, durable building material has been in use for at

    E-print Network

    Entekhabi, Dara

    PROBLEM Concrete is the most prevalent man-made substance on Earth. This strong, durable building because it is readily available on all continents and rela- tively inexpensive. But concrete, starting and designing an ultra-high-density concrete that could withstand high pressure and temperature and make

  12. 45 CFR 1627.7 - Tax sheltered annuities, retirement accounts and pensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...sheltered annuities, retirement accounts and pensions. 1627.7 Section 1627.7 Public...sheltered annuities, retirement accounts and pensions. No provision contained in this...sheltered annuity, retirement account, or pension fund. [62 FR 19418, Apr....

  13. 45 CFR 1627.7 - Tax sheltered annuities, retirement accounts and pensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...sheltered annuities, retirement accounts and pensions. 1627.7 Section 1627.7 Public...sheltered annuities, retirement accounts and pensions. No provision contained in this...sheltered annuity, retirement account, or pension fund. [62 FR 19418, Apr....

  14. 45 CFR 1627.7 - Tax sheltered annuities, retirement accounts and pensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...sheltered annuities, retirement accounts and pensions. 1627.7 Section 1627.7 Public...sheltered annuities, retirement accounts and pensions. No provision contained in this...sheltered annuity, retirement account, or pension fund. [62 FR 19418, Apr....

  15. 45 CFR 1627.7 - Tax sheltered annuities, retirement accounts and pensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...sheltered annuities, retirement accounts and pensions. 1627.7 Section 1627.7 Public...sheltered annuities, retirement accounts and pensions. No provision contained in this...sheltered annuity, retirement account, or pension fund. [62 FR 19418, Apr....

  16. 45 CFR 1627.7 - Tax sheltered annuities, retirement accounts and pensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...sheltered annuities, retirement accounts and pensions. 1627.7 Section 1627.7 Public...sheltered annuities, retirement accounts and pensions. No provision contained in this...sheltered annuity, retirement account, or pension fund. [62 FR 19418, Apr....

  17. The Pilgram's Progress: Reflections on the journey building Australia's solid earth information infrastructure (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodcock, R.

    2013-12-01

    Australia's AuScope provides world class research infrastructure as a framework for understanding the structure and evolution of the Australian continent. Since it conception in 2005, Data Scientists have led the Grid and Interoperability component of AuScope. The AuScope Grid is responsible for the effective management, curation, preservation and analysis of earth science data across the many organisations collaborating in AuScope. During this journey much was learned about technology and architectures but even more about organisations and people, and the role of Data Scientists in the science ecosystem. With the AuScope Grid now in operation and resulting techniques and technologies now underpinning Australian Government initiatives in solid earth and environmental information, it is beneficial to reflect upon the journey and observe what has been learned in order to make data science routine. The role of the Data Scientist is a hybrid one, of not quite belonging and yet highly valued. With the skills to support domain scientists with data and computational needs and communicate across domains, yet not quite able to do the domain science itself. A bridge between two worlds, there is tremendous satisfaction from a job well done, but paradoxically it is also best when it is unnoticeable. In the years since AuScope started much has changed for the Data Scientist. Initially misunderstood, Data Scientists are now a recognisable part of the science landscape in Australia. Whilst the rewards and incentives are still catching up, there is wealth of knowledge on the technical and soft skills required and recognition of the need for Data Scientists. These will be shared from the AuScope journey so other pilgrims may progress well.

  18. 25 CFR 11.1004 - Detention and shelter care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 false Detention and shelter care. 11.1004 Section 11.1004...11.1004 Detention and shelter care. (a) A minor alleged to be...in the following places: (1) A foster care facility approved by the...

  19. 25 CFR 11.1004 - Detention and shelter care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 true Detention and shelter care. 11.1004 Section 11.1004...11.1004 Detention and shelter care. (a) A minor alleged to be...in the following places: (1) A foster care facility approved by the...

  20. 25 CFR 11.1004 - Detention and shelter care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 false Detention and shelter care. 11.1004 Section 11.1004...11.1004 Detention and shelter care. (a) A minor alleged to be...in the following places: (1) A foster care facility approved by the...

  1. 25 CFR 11.1004 - Detention and shelter care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false Detention and shelter care. 11.1004 Section 11.1004...11.1004 Detention and shelter care. (a) A minor alleged to be...in the following places: (1) A foster care facility approved by the...

  2. Successful Transitions of Runaway/Homeless Youth from Shelter Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nebbitt, Von E.; House, Laura E.; Thompson, Sanna J.; Pollio, David E.

    2007-01-01

    Previous research indicates that runaway and homeless youth often achieve positive outcomes after shelter stays however few studies have examined how these outcomes are achieved. This study employs qualitative methods to explicate this phenomenon. Twenty-five providers and 21 youth from four shelters participated in this study. Youth were…

  3. Mental health consultation at a youth shelter: An ethnographic approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Kevin Grigsby

    1992-01-01

    Shelters for homeless and runaway youth offer temporary, safe shelter to children and youth who have no alternative available to them other than life on the streets, many of whom also present a wide range of mental health problems. Traditional office- or clinic-based mental health services may not be available to or may not meet the needs of this population,

  4. Building Climate Resilience in the Blue Nile/Abay Highlands: A Role for Earth System Sciences

    PubMed Central

    Zaitchik, Benjamin F.; Simane, Belay; Habib, Shahid; Anderson, Martha C.; Ozdogan, Mutlu; Foltz, Jeremy D.

    2012-01-01

    The Blue Nile (Abay) Highlands of Ethiopia are characterized by significant interannual climate variability, complex topography and associated local climate contrasts, erosive rains and erodible soils, and intense land pressure due to an increasing population and an economy that is almost entirely dependent on smallholder, low-input agriculture. As a result, these highland zones are highly vulnerable to negative impacts of climate variability. As patterns of variability and precipitation intensity alter under anthropogenic climate change, there is concern that this vulnerability will increase, threatening economic development and food security in the region. In order to overcome these challenges and to enhance sustainable development in the context of climate change, it is necessary to establish climate resilient development strategies that are informed by best-available Earth System Science (ESS) information. This requirement is complicated by the fact that climate projections for the Abay Highlands contain significant and perhaps irreducible uncertainties. A critical challenge for ESS, then, is to generate and to communicate meaningful information for climate resilient development in the context of a highly uncertain climate forecast. Here we report on a framework for applying ESS to climate resilient development in the Abay Highlands, with a focus on the challenge of reducing land degradation. PMID:22470302

  5. Software Applications to Access Earth Science Data: Building an ECHO Client

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, A.; Cechini, M.; Pilone, D.

    2010-12-01

    Historically, developing an ECHO (NASA’s Earth Observing System (EOS) ClearingHOuse) client required interaction with its SOAP API. SOAP, as a framework for web service communication has numerous advantages for Enterprise applications and Java/C# type programming languages. However, as interest has grown for quick development cycles and more intriguing “mashups,” ECHO has seen the SOAP API lose its appeal. In order to address these changing needs, ECHO has introduced two new interfaces facilitating simple access to its metadata holdings. The first interface is built upon the OpenSearch format and ESIP Federated Search framework. The second interface is built upon the Representational State Transfer (REST) architecture. Using the REST and OpenSearch APIs to access ECHO makes development with modern languages much more feasible and simpler. Client developers can leverage the simple interaction with ECHO to focus more of their time on the advanced functionality they are presenting to users. To demonstrate the simplicity of developing with the REST API, participants will be led through a hands-on experience where they will develop an ECHO client that performs the following actions: + Login + Provider discovery + Provider based dataset discovery + Dataset, Temporal, and Spatial constraint based Granule discovery + Online Data Access

  6. Earth System Grid Center for Enabling Technologies: Building a Global Infrastructure for Climate Change Research

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Dean N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Ahrens, J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Ananthakrishnan, R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Bell, G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Bharathi, S. [Univ. of Southern California, Marina del Ray, CA (United States). Information Science Institute; Brown, D. [National Center for Atmospheric Reserch, Boulder, CO (United States); Chen, M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Chervenak, A. L. [Univ. of Southern California, Marina del Ray, CA (United States). Information Science Institute; Cinquini, L. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Pasadena, CA (United States); Drach, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Foster, I. T. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Fox, P. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States); Hankin, S. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (PMEL), Seattle, WA (United States); Harper, D. [National Center for Atmospheric Reserch, Boulder, CO (United States); Hook, N. [National Center for Atmospheric Reserch, Boulder, CO (United States); Jones, P. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Middleton, D. E. [National Center for Atmospheric Reserch, Boulder, CO (United States); Miller, R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Nienhouse, E. [National Center for Atmospheric Reserch, Boulder, CO (United States); Schweitzer, R. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (PMEL), Seattle, WA (United States); Schuler, R. [Univ. of Southern California, Marina del Ray, CA (United States). Information Science Institute; Shipman, G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Shoshani, A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Siebenlist, F. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Sim, A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Strand, W. G. [National Center for Atmospheric Reserch, Boulder, CO (United States); Wang, F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wilcox, H. [National Center for Atmospheric Reserch, Boulder, CO (United States); Wilhelmi, N. [National Center for Atmospheric Reserch, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2010-08-16

    Established within DOE’s Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing (SciDAC-) 2 program, with support from ASCR and BER, the Earth System Grid Center for Enabling Technologies (ESG-CET) is a consortium of seven laboratories (Argonne National Laboratory [ANL], Los Alamos National Laboratory [LANL], Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory [LBNL], Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory [LLNL], National Center for Atmospheric Research [NCAR], Oak Ridge National Laboratory [ORNL], and Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory [PMEL]), and two institutes (Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute [RPI] and the University of Southern California, Information Sciences Institute [USC/ISI]). The consortium’s mission is to provide climate researchers worldwide with a science gateway to access data, information, models, analysis tools, and computational capabilities required to evaluate extreme-scale data sets. Its stated goals are to (1) make data more useful to climate researchers by developing collaborative technology that enhances data usability; (2) meet the specific needs that national and international climate projects have for distributed databases, data access, and data movement; (3) provide a universal and secure web-based data access portal for broad-based multi-model data collections; and (4) provide a wide range of climate data-analysis tools and diagnostic methods to international climate centers and U.S. government agencies. To this end, the ESG-CET is working to integrate all highly publicized climate data sets—from climate simulations to observations—using distributed storage management, remote high-performance units, high-bandwidth wide-area networks, and user desktop platforms in a collaborative problem-solving environment.

  7. The Sombrero Marsh Education Program: Diverse partnerships building strong Earth System science programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, L. K.; Bierbaum, V.

    2003-12-01

    Broad-based science education partnerships can create exemplary education programs because each partner brings their particular expertise to the table. The Sombrero Marsh Education Program provides an example of such a program where a school district, a local government agency, a non-profit organization, and an institute of higher learning developed a field-based watershed curriculum for upper elementary students at Sombrero Marsh, a recently restored rare saline marsh located in Boulder Valley. The partners' expertise, ranging from wetland ecology and restoration to pedagogy, yielded a curriculum that includes many of the characteristics that are highlighted within the National Science Education Standards, such as inquiry-based, hands-on activities where students serve as scientists and collect real data that will be used to monitor the progress of marsh restoration. Once established, these diverse partnerships can attract further funding and expand their programs from the local to the national level, thus providing a successful model with a widespread impact. The Sombrero Marsh Program will soon be making this transition because the Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), along with 4 other departments of the University of Colorado, was awarded a NSF GK-12 Grant to expand the marsh program to the secondary science level. Using the initial Sombrero Marsh Program as a guide, eight GK-12 Fellows from the departments of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Geological Sciences, Environmental and Evolutionary Biology, and Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences will develop a secondary science level program at Sombrero Marsh, which initially will be delivered to schools with a significant population of students from under-represented groups. Several dimensions of the marsh program, such as community-based research and ecological sterwardship, can serve as a national model for similar science education programs that aim to promote Earth System science.

  8. Solar heating of integrated greenhouse-animal shelter systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ben-Abdallah, N.

    1983-01-01

    An analytical procedure to determine the effectiveness of greenhouses as solar collectors was presented. This procedure was used to predict the effect of several construction parameters on solar radiation input to greenhouses. The orientation of the greenhouse was found to be the most effective construction parameter controlling solar radiation input to greenhouses. The effective albedo of the plant canopy was also found to be a significant factor. A new solar greenhouse design, suitable for high latitude regions was developed. The results showed that an internal solar collector could be incorporated as an integral part of the greenhouse design. The concept developed could be used as a free-standing greenhouse or in a combination with livestock building. The efficiency of the solar input was investigated for the conventional and the shed greenhouses, both as a free-standing unit and a greenhouse-animal shelter system, using computer simulation analyses. The results indicated that the efficiency of solar input is highly dependent on location; the effect of location on the shed type design is more profound. A typical case of a greenhouse-hog barn production system was investigated using computer simulation analyses. The results showed that such a food production system achieves a significant reduction in conventional fuel consumption due to both animal waste heat recovery and solar energy utilization.

  9. Hydrometry Using Numerical Video Camera Sheltered From Floods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fourquet, G.; Saulnier, G.-M.

    Accurate real time flood management requires as much measurements as possible. This is not easy as, for example, rating curve are established for large discharges with many difficulties (high hazard in sampling river velocities during the flood). Build a dense measurements system on a river is also an expensive task. There is thus a need for light (i.e. cheap) measurements sytem, that can work during strong floods and that can help to manage ungauged catchment. The work presented here try to contribute to this task. A hydrological measure system using a numerical video camera is presented. This system can feed the manager with images of the flood in real-time, which is an efficient way to assess the flood hazard. In the same time, detection algorithm are performed on the images of the video camera to get two additional informations: the water level and the water surface velocity. These informations can be used as it is in alarm system or be assimilated by hydrological model of flood forecast. This is a non-contact measurement system which remains the most expensive part (the camera) sheltered from the floods, costs are low compared to gauge station setting up and it allows non-permanent measurements network for temporary intense observa- tion period for example. First results of the water level detection algorithm will be presented with consider- ations on uncertainty measurements. Tests are made on the Isere river at Grenoble (5800 km2), France.

  10. Science Sampler: Using sheltered instruction to teach English Language Learners

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Geeta Verma

    2008-11-01

    Sheltered instruction is not a commercial program but is a set of instructional practices used specifically with English Language Learners (ELL). It embeds existing instructional strategies such as wait time, visual organizers, group work, and allowing students to actively respond for immediate feedback. Sheltered instruction "integrates lesson knowledge and concepts with opportunities to practice using English by reading, writing, listening and speaking" (Colburn and Echevaria 2001). This article describes the four elements of sheltered instruction (Group work, Wait time, Group-response technique, Supplemental materials).

  11. 170. View of large trail shelter built for the United ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    170. View of large trail shelter built for the United States Forest Service by the Civilian Conservation Corps in 1938 on Craggy Knob. Facing northwest. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  12. 14. INSIDE VIEW OF BOMB SHELTER WITH AIR COMPRESSOR Everett ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. INSIDE VIEW OF BOMB SHELTER WITH AIR COMPRESSOR Everett Weinreb, photographer, April 1988 - Mount Gleason Nike Missile Site, Angeles National Forest, South of Soledad Canyon, Sylmar, Los Angeles County, CA

  13. The University of Texas System TAX-SHELTERED ANNUITY DISCLOSURE

    E-print Network

    Johnston, Daniel

    sheltered annuities, I agree that I am responsible to the Internal Revenue Service for the satisfaction by the University for compliance with such rulings. ________________________________ Employee Signature ________________________________ Employee Name ________________________________ Employee Identifier ________________________________ Date

  14. Health problems of sheltered homeless women and their dependent children.

    PubMed

    Burg, M A

    1994-05-01

    Increasing numbers of homeless female-headed families are entering temporary shelters. Social workers who work with sheltered families are confronted with a complex array of health care problems. This article introduces an analytic framework that classifies the types of health problems that emerge among shelter residents and serves as a guide to social work intervention with the health problems of shelter residents. The framework covers three categories of health problems: illness coincident with homelessness, those exacerbated by limited health care access, and those associated with the psychosocial burdens of homelessness. The failures of the current structure of the health care reimbursement and the deficiencies of service delivery to homeless families are discussed. The analytic framework conceptualizes the interrelationship between health and poverty. It can be used as a tool for informed social work intervention, advocacy, training, and research activities. PMID:8045446

  15. 25 CFR 11.1004 - Detention and shelter care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...LAW AND ORDER COURTS OF INDIAN OFFENSES AND LAW AND ORDER CODE Juvenile Offender Procedure § 11.1004 Detention and shelter care. (a) A minor alleged to be a juvenile offender may be detained, pending a court hearing, in the...

  16. Multi-culture solar heated bio-shelter. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    A rooftop greenhouse (bio-shelter) that is heated with active and passive solar systems is presented. The intent of the greenhouse is to grow vegetables hydroponically the year-round using a nutrient flow technique; and to growth the giant tropical Malaysian prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii in a recycling raceway water system heated with solar power. The produce grown was continuously monitored and the harvests weighed in order to estimate the year-round production potential of the bio-shelter greenhouse.

  17. THE SCATTERING OF THERMAL RADIATION INTO OPEN UNDERGROUND SHELTERS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. P. Davis; N. D. Miller; T. S. Ely; J. A. Basso; H. E. Pearse

    1959-01-01

    Animals placed in open underground shelters at the Nevada Test Site ;\\u000a during an atomic weapon test suffered skin burns of an unknown origin. From a ;\\u000a study of the burns it was concluded that the causative agent entered the shelter ;\\u000a from outside. the causative agent was subject to rectilinear propagation near the ;\\u000a entrance. and the causative agent

  18. Earth Sciences Geology Option

    E-print Network

    Kurapov, Alexander

    Earth Sciences with Geology Option Geological sciences focus on understanding the Earth, from its, mountain building, land surface evolution, and mineral resource creation over the Earth's 4.6 billion-year history. A geologist contributes to society through the discovery of earth resources, such as metals

  19. 15. Photograph of Architectural Building Plans. Naval Air Station ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Photograph of Architectural Building Plans. - Naval Air Station Fallon, 100-man Fallout Shelter, 800 Complex, off Carson Road near intersection of Pasture & Berney Roads, Fallon, Churchill County, NV

  20. Seeing red: Characterizing historic bricks at Sylvester Manor, Shelter Island, New York 1652-1735

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidheiny, Martin John

    The goal of this project is to develop a basic material characterization of the bricks excavated at the site of Sylvester Manor on Shelter Island, New York. In the early Manor period of 1650-1690, this early Northern provisioning plantation supplied Barbadian sugar operations and pursued mercantile interests independent of state control. Accounting for the range of production defects and material characteristics of the bricks suggests on-site or local manufacture as a regional ceramic industry developed. Qualitative visual analysis and petrographic thin-sections were used to characterize the internal composition, variation and production evidence in the bricks. Interpreting the results of this analysis offers alternatives to the assumptions about building materials on the site, using material properties to assess the role of building materials as the landscape changed.

  1. Organizational and social-psychological issues relevant to fallout-shelter evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Wernette, D.R.

    1983-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a preliminary review of the literature on organizational and social-psychological issues relevant to fallout-shelter evaluation. Fallout-shelter options are evaluated along two dimensions: shelter size, and extent of shelteree participation in the shelter construction. Four functional criteria are used in the evaluation: decision-making, member coordination, social control, and maintaining morale. Smaller shelters requiring shelteree participation in construction appear preferable as measured in most of these criteria. Additional factors mentioned include demographic characteristics of the shelter population, degree and type of ventilation system, and availability of medical equipment and personnel. 10 references.

  2. The role of PTSD and length of shelter stay in battered women’s severity of re-abuse after leaving shelter

    PubMed Central

    Perez, Sara; Johnson, Dawn M.; Johnson, Nicole; Walter, Kristen H.

    2012-01-01

    Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) is associated with significant morbidity, including high rates of re-abuse even after women have taken steps to achieve safety. This study evaluated the roles of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom severity and length of shelter stay in the severity of re-abuse in 103 IPV victims over a six month period after leaving a battered women’s shelter. Results suggest that the length of shelter stay is inversely related to re-abuse severity after leaving shelter. Additionally, more severe PTSD symptoms upon shelter exit were associated with greater re-abuse severity after leaving shelter. Furthermore, additional study findings support prior research suggesting that the emotional numbing symptoms of PTSD are a significant risk factor for re-abuse among IPV victims after leaving shelter. PMID:23230379

  3. Earth Sciences Earth Sciences

    E-print Network

    Royal Holloway, University of London

    Earth Sciences Earth Sciences Undergraduate Studies #12;Department of Earth Sciences2 Royal;3Department of Earth Sciences Earth Sciences The Department of Earth Sciences at Royal Holloway.ac.uk/studyhere Contents Why study Earth Sciences? 4 Earth Sciences at Royal Holloway 5 Admissions and entry requirements 6

  4. Smoking policy change at a homeless shelter: attitudes and effects.

    PubMed

    Businelle, Michael S; Poonawalla, Insiya B; Kendzor, Darla E; Rios, Debra M; Cuate, Erica L; Savoy, Elaine J; Ma, Ping; Baggett, Travis P; Reingle, Jennifer; Reitzel, Lorraine R

    2015-01-01

    Homeless adults are exposed to more smokers and smoke in response to environmental tobacco cues more than other socioeconomically disadvantaged groups. Addressing the culture of smoking in homeless shelters through policy initiatives may support cessation and improve health in this vulnerable and understudied population. This study examined support for and expected/actual effects of a smoking ban at a homeless shelter. A 2-wave cross-sectional study with an embedded cohort was conducted in the summer of 2013 two weeks before (wave 1) and two months after (wave 2) a partial outdoor smoking ban was implemented. A total of 394 homeless adults were surveyed (i.e., wave 1 [n=155]; wave 2 [n=150]; and 89 additional participants completed both waves). On average, participants were 43 years old, primarily African American (63%), male (72%), and had been homeless for the previous 12 months (median). Most participants were smokers (76%) smoking 12 cigarettes per day on average. Most participants supported the creation of a large smoke-free zone on the shelter campus, but there was less support for a shelter-wide smoking ban. Average cigarettes smoked per day did not differ between study waves. However, participants who completed both study waves experienced a reduction in expired carbon monoxide at wave 2 (W1=18.2 vs. W2=15.8 parts per million, p=.02). Expected effects of the partial ban were similar to actual effects. Partial outdoor smoking bans may be well supported by homeless shelter residents and may have a positive impact on shelter resident health. PMID:25222848

  5. BE INFORMED 1. Take shelter against your

    E-print Network

    Johnson, Andrew

    INFORMED EXPLOSIONS 1. Exit the building as quickly as possible. 2. Crawl low in smoke. 3. Use a wet cloth to signal your location. 2. Avoid unnecessary movement so that you don't kick up dust. 3. Cover your mouth

  6. Building debris

    E-print Network

    Dahmen, Joseph (Joseph F. D.)

    2006-01-01

    This thesis relates architectural practices to intelligent use of resources and the reuse of derelict spaces. The initial investigation of rammed earth as a building material is followed by site-specific operations at the ...

  7. Building a 15-Year Cloud Climatology using Lidar in Space Observations: CALIOP and CloudSat now, EarthCARE next.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reverdy, M.; Chepfer, H.; Donovan, D. P.; Noel, V.; Marchand, R.; Cesana, G.; Hoareau, C.; Chiriaco, M.; Bastin, S.

    2014-12-01

    Today, the CALIOP lidar and CloudSat radar have collected more than seven years of observations, and willhopefully still operate in 2016, after the EarthCARE-ATLID/CPR launch. Lidars and Radars in space providecutting edge information on the detailed vertical structure of clouds: a key element for both the evaluation ofthe description of clouds in climate models, and the survey of the clouds inter-annual evolution in variousclimatic conditions (El Nino, variation of North Atlantic Oscillations, polar regions, etc). For this purpose,the observations collected by CALIOP and by ATLID as well as CloudSat and EarthCARE CPR need to bemerged into a long-term (15 years) cloud climatology. Here, we examine the possibility of building such a climatology, with the aim of defining its accuracy andrelevance for cloud inter-annual studies. We examine the differences between the instruments (wavelengths,satellite's altitudes, telescope fields of view, multiple scattering processes, spatial resolutions) and theirability to detect the same clouds consistently. Then, we define a set of cloud detection thresholds for ATLID,CALIOP, CloudSat and EarthCARE-CPR and test against synthetic cloud scenes (cirrus and shallowcumulus) over small areas (about 200km) produced by a lidar and radar instrument simulator (ECSIM)running on Large Eddy Simulations. Doing so, we verify that the fourth instruments will be able to detect thesame clouds despite their differences (e.g. their sensitivities to noise). Finally, we use the COSP lidar andradar simulator to predict the global scale cloud cover that ATLID, CALIOP, CloudSat and EarthCARE CPRwould observe if they were overflying the same atmosphere predicted by a GCM. Our results suggest that amerged CALIOP/ATLID and CloudSat/CPR cloud climatology could be to be useful for clouds inter-annualstudies, if the post-launch sensitivity of EarthCARE instruments is in line with what is predicted today.

  8. 75 FR 46844 - Excise Taxes on Prohibited Tax Shelter Transactions and Related Disclosure Requirements...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-04

    ...CFR Parts 53 and 54 [TD 9492] RIN 1545-BG18 Excise Taxes on Prohibited Tax Shelter Transactions and Related Disclosure Requirements; Disclosure Requirements With Respect to Prohibited Tax Shelter Transactions; Requirement of Return and...

  9. Effects of a standardized obedience program on approachability and problem behaviors in dogs from rescue shelters 

    E-print Network

    Hays, Lauren Denise

    2004-11-15

    Improved adoptability is a common goal among rescue shelters. Dogs are more likely to be adopted if they are friendly, mannerly, and approachable. The possibility of improving rescue shelter dogs' behavior through an obedience program has not been...

  10. Building Formal and Informal Partnerships Through a Land-Based, Hands-on Research Expedition for Earth and Ocean Science Teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slough, S.; Prouhet, T.; Peart, L.; Leckie, M.; St. John, K.; Karz-Cooper, S.; Klaus, A.; Petronotis, K.; Firth, J.; Guerin, G.; Buckholtz, C.; Crowder, L.; Peng, C.

    2007-12-01

    Scientific Ocean drilling has a rich legacy which is largely responsible for our current understating of the complex linkages among the different parts of the Earth System. Relaying these understandings to Earth and ocean educators is a challenge that the Joint Oceanographic Institutes (JOI) Alliances has undertaken through sponsorship of the School of Rock (SOR). Building on the successful ocean-going, hands-on SOR (Leckie et al. 2006), the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) - United States Implementing Organization (USIO) piloted a land-based, hands-on research expedition for Earth and ocean science teachers, the School of Rock Expedition II (SOR II). During this seven-day workshop, 18 educators from across the United States were hosted at the IODP Gulf Coast Repository at Texas A&M University where they were mentored and taught by scientists who are actively engaged in IODP research, shipboard technical staff, SOR I veteran teachers, and science educators. Teachers participated in a series of research experiences similar to those that take place on a scientific drilling research vessel or in a post-cruise research lab. These experiences allowed educators to increase their knowledge of IODP and scientific methods as demonstrated by the entire ocean drilling program (proposals, drilling, lab analysis, data acquisition, and post-cruise research). This case study describes the formal and informal partnerships developed through the SOR II with an emphasis on identifying and nurturing informal partnerships.

  11. Sublethal effects of azamethiphos on shelter use by juvenile lobsters ( Homarus americanus)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P Abgrall; R. W Rangeley; L. E Burridge; P Lawton

    2000-01-01

    The use of pesticides to treat sea lice infestations in aquaculture may have negative impacts on non-target organisms such as the American lobster (Homarus americanus). Juvenile lobsters spend most of their time in shelter to avoid predation. This study examined: (1) whether the organophosphate pesticide azamethiphos affected shelter use by juvenile lobsters; (2) whether leaving shelter was a form of

  12. The effects of training and environmental alterations on adoption success of shelter dogs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew Urs Luescher; Robert Tyson Medlock

    2009-01-01

    Approximately 3–4 million dogs are housed annually in USA shelters. This study evaluated the effects of basic obedience training and environmental alterations on adoption rate of shelter dogs. One hundred and eighty dogs, 87 females and 93 males, passed through the one shelter during the 8 weeks of the experiment. They ranged in age from 10 weeks to 7 years

  13. Contrasting a shelter and day center for homeless mentally Ill women: four patterns of service use

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christine Grella

    1994-01-01

    This article examines a model of service delivery for homeless mentally ill women, a combined day center and shelter program. Using data from participant observation and in-depth interviews with 21 clients, four patterns of day center and shelter use are delineated. Overall, few women from the day center make the transition to the shelter, and then to permanent housing and

  14. Shelter use of the Red-Swamp Crayfish ( Procambarus clarkii ) in dry-season stream pools

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria Ilhéu; Patrizia Acquistapace; Chiara Benvenuto; Francesca Gherardi

    2003-01-01

    With 4 figures and 1 table Abstract: Patterns of shelter use of the red-swamp crayfish, Procambarus clarkii, were studied in a temporary stream of the south of the Iberian Peninsula during the summer of 1999. By shelters, we mean both excavated burrows and natural refuges, such as crevices under rocks, boulders, and stones. Both crayfish shelter use and faith- fulness,

  15. EOC Title: Mass Care and Shelter (Emergency Support Function #6) Coordinating Campus Unit: RSSP

    E-print Network

    Walker, Matthew P.

    activities involved with the emergency provision of temporary shelters, feeding, first aid, and bulkOPERATIONS EOC Title: Mass Care and Shelter (Emergency Support Function #6) Coordinating Campus Unit: RSSP General Description The Mass Care and Shelter Emergency Support Function coordinates

  16. Developing Academic Language in English Language Learners through Sheltered Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Short, Deborah J.; Fidelman, Carolyn G.; Louguit, Mohammed

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a study examining the effects of Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol (SIOP) model instruction on the academic language performance of middle and high school English language learners. The SIOP model is an approach for teaching content curriculum to students learning through a new language. Teachers employ techniques…

  17. Runaway Youth Utilizing Crisis Shelter Services: Predictors of Presenting Problems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sanna J. Thompson; Kimberley M. Zittel-Palamara; Elaine M. Maccio

    2004-01-01

    The evidence is clear that the problems of runaway youth are immense, varied, and persistent. Services must be designed to address these problems and the factors associated with them. This study investigated a sample (n=156) of runaway youths admitted to basic shelter services and evaluated the individual and family factors associated with various problem domains, including: family relationships, abuse, mental

  18. SHELTER MEDICINE: A COMPARISON OF VISUAL AND DNA IDENTIFICATION OF

    Microsoft Academic Search

    We are all aware of the newspaper articles, magazine stories, and TV segments that show pictures of dogs and then reveal DNA breed analyses of the dogs. Surprise - the DNA results are not what were expected based on the appearance of the dogs or the owners' beliefs. Those of us who walk through shelters and animal control facilities compare

  19. Women and architecture: Remaking shelter through woven tectonics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kirsten Lee Dahlquist

    2010-01-01

    Weaving and architecture, conceived simultaneously with cave paintings, are two ancient forms of craft used to enclose space and provide shelter harmoniously with nature. In its basic composition, a useable textile is the interlacing of two members, warp and weft, at right angles to create structure and surface respectively. Textile artist Anni Albers of the Bauhaus attributes the organization of

  20. 109. VIEW OF WAREHOUSE FROM SOUTHEAST. GABLED PORCH ROOF SHELTERS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    109. VIEW OF WAREHOUSE FROM SOUTHEAST. GABLED PORCH ROOF SHELTERS LIGHT TRAVELING CRANE FOR UNLOADING TRAM CARS. THE TRAM LINE PARALLELED THE PORCH AND RAN TO THE RIGHT OF THE ROAD. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  1. Candidate New Rotavirus Species in Sheltered Dogs, Hungary

    PubMed Central

    Mihalov-Kovács, Eszter; Gellért, Ákos; Marton, Szilvia; Farkas, Szilvia L.; Fehér, Enik?; Oldal, Miklós; Jakab, Ferenc; Martella, Vito

    2015-01-01

    We identified unusual rotavirus strains in fecal specimens from sheltered dogs in Hungary by viral metagenomics. The novel rotavirus species displayed limited genome sequence homology to representatives of the 8 rotavirus species, A–H, and qualifies as a candidate new rotavirus species that we tentatively named Rotavirus I. PMID:25811414

  2. Toilet Training in the Sheltered Workshop--Why Not?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olofsson, Gunilla; Karan, Orv. C.

    1976-01-01

    The present case study describes a toilet training program planned, developed, and implemented within a sheltered workshop. The client was a severely retarded woman for whom incontinence had been a life-long problem. The ease with which the program was carried out recommends its use with similar client problems. (Author)

  3. Candidate new rotavirus species in sheltered dogs, Hungary.

    PubMed

    Mihalov-Kovács, Eszter; Gellért, Ákos; Marton, Szilvia; Farkas, Szilvia L; Fehér, Enik?; Oldal, Miklós; Jakab, Ferenc; Martella, Vito; Bányai, Krisztián

    2015-04-01

    We identified unusual rotavirus strains in fecal specimens from sheltered dogs in Hungary by viral metagenomics. The novel rotavirus species displayed limited genome sequence homology to representatives of the 8 rotavirus species, A-H, and qualifies as a candidate new rotavirus species that we tentatively named Rotavirus I. PMID:25811414

  4. Assessing the Physical and Architectural Features of Sheltered Care Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moos, Rudolf H.; Lemke, Sonne

    1980-01-01

    The Physical and Architectural Features Checklist (PAF) measures physical resources of sheltered care settings in terms of nine derived dimensions. Data show that facilities which have more physical resources are seen as attractive by outside observers and pleasant by residents. Cost is not related to any PAF dimension. (Author)

  5. Shelter dogs as sentinels for Trypanosoma cruzi transmission across Texas.

    PubMed

    Tenney, Trevor D; Curtis-Robles, Rachel; Snowden, Karen F; Hamer, Sarah A

    2014-08-01

    Chagas disease, an infection with the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, is increasingly diagnosed among humans in the southern United States. We assessed exposure of shelter dogs in Texas to T. cruzi; seroprevalence across diverse ecoregions was 8.8%. Canine serosurveillance is a useful tool for public health risk assessment. PMID:25062281

  6. EFFECTIVENESS OF EXPEDIENT SHELTERING IN PLACE IN A RESIDENCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of expedient sheltering in place in a residence for protection against airborne hazards, as outlined in the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) guidance to the public. An improved method was developed to determi...

  7. Training and Sustaining Effective Teachers of Sheltered Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Short, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    This article provides guidelines for programs to deliver and sustain effective professional development on sheltered instruction to teachers who teach content to English learners. Many content area teachers have not had university coursework on second-language acquisition or the integration of language and content instruction in teacher…

  8. Shelter Dogs as Sentinels for Trypanosoma cruzi Transmission across Texas

    PubMed Central

    Tenney, Trevor D.; Curtis-Robles, Rachel; Snowden, Karen F.

    2014-01-01

    Chagas disease, an infection with the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, is increasingly diagnosed among humans in the southern United States. We assessed exposure of shelter dogs in Texas to T. cruzi; seroprevalence across diverse ecoregions was 8.8%. Canine serosurveillance is a useful tool for public health risk assessment. PMID:25062281

  9. National Call for Organizational Change from Sheltered to Integrated Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogan, Patricia; Rinne, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Our purpose in this article is to contend that organizational change from sheltered to integrated employment is not only possible but necessary, and a federal Employment First agenda must be advanced. Findings are reported from interviews with senior managers from 10 organizations that have shifted their service delivery to community employment,…

  10. 12. HISTORICAL VIEW OF FRONT ENTRANCE, BEFORE ADDITION OF SHELTERED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. HISTORICAL VIEW OF FRONT ENTRANCE, BEFORE ADDITION OF SHELTERED PORCH, SOUTH ELEVATION, 1907. Photocopied from Henry Pleasants's book, History of Old St. David's Church, published in 1915 by John C. Winston Co. - St. David's Church (Episcopal), Valley Forge Road (Newtown Township), Wayne, Delaware County, PA

  11. A pollinators' eye view of a shelter mimicry system

    PubMed Central

    Vereecken, Nicolas J.; Dorchin, Achik; Dafni, Amots; Hötling, Susann; Schulz, Stefan; Watts, Stella

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims ‘Human-red’ flowers are traditionally considered to be rather unpopular with bees, yet some allogamous species in the section Oncocyclus (genus Iris, Iridaceae) have evolved specialized interactions with their pollinators, a narrow taxonomic range of male solitary bees. The dark-red, tubular flowers of these irises are nectarless but provide protective shelters (i.e. a non-nutritive form of reward) primarily to male solitary bees (Apidae, Eucerini) that pollinate the flowers while looking for a shelter. An earlier study on orchids suggested that species pollinated predominantly by male solitary bees produce significantly larger amounts and larger numbers of different n-alkenes (unsaturated cuticular hydrocarbons). Whether or not this also applies to the Oncocyclus irises and whether pollinators are attracted by specific colours or scents of these flowers is unknown. Methods Using Iris atropurpurea, recording of pollinator preferences for shelters with different spatial parameters was combined with analyses of floral colours (by spectrophotometry) and scents (by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry) to test the hypotheses that (a) pollinators significantly prefer floral tunnels facing the rising sun (floral heat-reward hypothesis), and that (b) flowers pollinated predominantly by male solitary bees produce significantly larger amounts and larger numbers of unsaturated cuticular hydrocarbons (n-alkenes) in their floral scent (preadaptation to sexual-deception hypothesis). Key Results Male bees do not significantly prefer shelters facing the rising sun or with the presence of high absolute/relative amounts and numbers of n-alkenes in the floral scent. Conclusions The results suggest that the flowers of I. atropurpurea probably evolved by pollinator-mediated selection acting primarily on floral colours to mimic large achromatic (‘bee-black’) protective shelters used preferentially by male solitary bees, and that pollinator visits are presumably not the result of an odour-based sexual stimulation or motivated by an increased morning floral heat reward in tunnels facing the rising sun. PMID:23599249

  12. Performance evaluation of an earth air tunnel for space heating of a non air-conditioned building

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. C. Kaushik; G. Sujit Kumar

    1994-01-01

    The temperature under the earth's surface is a function of both depth and time: The diurnal variations get damped at larger depths. At a depth of 4 m or so the temperature variation throughout the year is within a small range, and is found to have characteristic values for different surface treatments. In New Delhi it is found to be

  13. Shelter, housing and recovery: a comparison of u.s. Disasters.

    PubMed

    Bolin, R; Stanford, L

    1991-03-01

    In this paper we examine the issues associated with the temporary sheltering and housing of victims after natural disasters in the United States. Specific topics addressed include differential access to shelter and housing aid according to social class, ethnicity and related demographic factors; the relationship between post-disaster shelter and housing and long-term recovery; the role of social support networks in the sheltering of victims; and the implications of the research for the provision of shelter and housing aid after disasters. PMID:20958712

  14. Building 32 35 Building 36

    E-print Network

    Botte, Gerardine G.

    Ohio University Inn 40 Southside Park Shelter Bingham House SouthSide ParkShelter 38 21 Child by Transportation Services for individuals with mobility limitations, permanent or temporary. It is designed

  15. An interdisciplinary network for young scholars in Earth System Science: building bridges between developing and developed countries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Scholze; N. Mahowald; K. Hibbard

    2007-01-01

    The goal of the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programmes' Analysis, Integration and Modeling of the Earth System (IGBP\\/AIMES) project Young Scholar's Network (YSN) ist o promote communication and collaboration across disparate geography and disciplines to best meet the emerging challenges in global change science. A primary goal of the YSN is to foster cross-disciplinary collaborations between the natural sciences and scholars studying

  16. An interdisciplinary network for young scientists in Earth System Science: building bridges between human and environmental sciences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. A. Hibbard; N. Mahowald; A. Balogun; R. Dawson; M. Scholze

    2006-01-01

    The goal of the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programmes' Analysis, Integration and Modeling of the Earth System (IGBP\\/AIMES) project Young Scientist's Network (YSN) is to promote communication and collaboration between young scientists from the biogeochemical, climate system and social dimension communities to best meet the emerging challenges in global change science. A primary goal of the YSN is to foster cross-disciplinary collaborations

  17. Earthdata Code Collaborative: Building a Reuseable and Shared Platform for Earth Science Collaboration, Development, and Application Hosting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLaughlin, B. D.; Pilone, D.

    2014-12-01

    An ever-growing number of applications to expose, utilize, and process Earth Science data are developed every year. These applications are sometimes developed by large organizations with significant budgets, and at other times by graduate students or professors with short-term grant money and little else. Because of this wide variance in environments, these applications are rarely consistent in their approach to testing, hosting, presentation of information, and approach to maintenance. Many of these applications also continually re-invent solutions to common problems such as bug tracking, collaboration, source code management, user support and feedback, and deployment of new features. The Earthdata Code Collaborative (https://ecc.earthdata.nasa.gov, typically referred to as the ECC) provides a unified and consistent environment for Earth Science application development, whether an application is developed by a team of 10, 50, or even 1. By using commercial products such as the Atlassian suite of tools (https://www.atlassian.com) and custom APIs, the ECC allows Earth Science applications to focus on science rather than infrastructure and tooling. This session will detail the process by which the Earthdata Code Collaborative was developed, as well as the initial requirements that drove its inception. It will go on to demonstrate the current state of the ECC, and explore how bringing on applications-both internal to Earthdata and external-has shaped its requirements and implementation. Concepts such as code management, continuous integration (testing), and one-touch deployment will be explored in the context of Earth Science applications.

  18. Earth Revealed

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1992-01-01

    What goes on during an earthquake? Who came up with the theory of plate tectonics? What can the fossil record tell us about the evolution of life on Earth? These are all fine questions, and students and educators with a thirst for geological knowledge will find the answers to these (and many more) questions in the "Earth Revealed" television series. Offered as part of the Annenberg Media website, the 26-part series includes such episodes as "Geologic Time", "Mountain Building", and "The Birth of a Theory". As with many of the Annenberg Media offerings, visitors can view entire episodes here, and they can also take a look at a list of additional resources.

  19. Housing Cooperatives in Zimbabwe: A Contribution to Women's Shelter and

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ANNA C VAKIL

    This paper addresses the question of how housing cooperatives might contribute to women's shelter and development by presenting some of the results of a study of five urban housing co-operatives conducted in Zimbabwe. The differences between three male-only and two mixed-gender organisations are described and evidence is presented which suggests that housing co-ops hold potential as providers of sheller for

  20. Fortifications and underground nuclear defense shelters for NATO troops

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, D.

    1985-01-01

    Improvements in NATO's conventional, chemical, and nuclear defenses are clearly needed; but constraints on changing NATO's forces are severe. Better NATO defenses must be achieved at a low economic cost, without changing NATO strategy, without adding more active duty troops or TNW, and without threatening the Soviets. Simple forms of field fortifications would improve the defensive strength of NATO forces without violating these constraints. PGMs are extremely powerful weapons that are much more effective when their operators enjoy the protection fortifications offer. Because the mission of defending fortifications and firing PGMs is simple relative to fighting a mobile war with armored vehicles, greater reliance could be placed on cheaper and more numerous West European reserves and militia forces. A simple corrugated pipe shelter buried seven feet underground would protect men against TNW as large as 100 KT striking as close as 600 meters. Since underground shelters seal air-tight they provide protection from chemical and biological weapons. A fixed defense program would be very affordable, costing around $2 billion. In addition to being much less expensive, shelters and fortifications are also attractive because they do not suffer from problems of poor reliability associated with most new high technology weapons.

  1. TAX-SHELTERED INVESTMENT PROGRAM Capital Area Health Consortium (CAHC) has a Tax-Sheltered Investment Plan (403b) available for its

    E-print Network

    Oliver, Douglas L.

    Page 94 TAX-SHELTERED INVESTMENT PROGRAM Capital Area Health Consortium (CAHC) has a Tax-Sheltered Investment Plan (403b) available for its employees. Money may be deducted from each paycheck on a pre-tax basis (403B) or a post-tax basis (Roth). The pre-tax option reduces the amount of income that is taxed

  2. Infra-Free® (IF) Architecture System as the Method for Post-Disaster Shelter Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Huai-Chien; Anilir, Serkan

    Currently, International Space Station (ISS) is capable to support 3 to 4 astronauts onboard for at least 6 months using an integrated life support system to support the need of crew onboard. Waste from daily life of the crew members are collected by waste recycle systems, electricity consumption depends on collecting solar energy, etc. though it likes the infrastructure we use on Earth, ISS can be comprehended nearly a self-reliant integrated architecture so far, this could be given an important hint for current architecture which is based on urban centralized infrastructure to support our daily lives but could be vulnerable in case of nature disasters. Comparatively, more and more economic activities and communications rely on the enormous urban central infrastructure to support our daily lives. Therefore, when in case of natural disasters, it may cut-out the infrastructure system temporarily or permanent. In order to solve this problem, we propose to design a temporary shelter, which is capable to work without depending on any existing infrastructure. We propose to use some closed-life-cycle or integrated technologies inspired by the possibilities of space and other emerging technologies into current daily architecture by using Infra-free® design framework; which proposes to integrate various life supporting infrastructural elements into one-closed system. We try to work on a scenario for post-disaster management housing as the method for solving the lifeline problems such as solid and liquid waste, energy, and water and hygiene solution into one system. And trying to establish an Infra-free® model of shelter for disaster area. The ultimate objective is to design a Temp Infra-free® model dealing with the sanitation and environment preservation concerns for disaster area.

  3. Design of Two RadWorks Storm Shelters for Solar Particle Event Shielding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, Matthew; Cerro, Jeffery; Latorella, Kara; Clowdsley, Martha; Watson, Judith; Albertson, Cindy; Norman, Ryan; Le Boffe, Vincent; Walker, Steven

    2014-01-01

    In order to enable long-duration human exploration beyond low-Earth orbit, the risks associated with exposure of astronaut crews to space radiation must be mitigated with practical and affordable solutions. The space radiation environment beyond the magnetosphere is primarily a combination of two types of radiation: galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and solar particle events (SPE). While mitigating GCR exposure remains an open issue, reducing astronaut exposure to SPEs is achievable through material shielding because they are made up primarily of medium-energy protons. In order to ensure astronaut safety for long durations beyond low-Earth orbit, SPE radiation exposure must be mitigated. However, the increasingly demanding spacecraft propulsive performance for these ambitious missions requires minimal mass and volume radiation shielding solutions which leverage available multi-functional habitat structures and logistics as much as possible. This paper describes the efforts of NASA's RadWorks Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Project to design two minimal mass SPE radiation shelter concepts leveraging available resources: one based upon reconfiguring habitat interiors to create a centralized protection area and one based upon augmenting individual crew quarters with waterwalls and logistics. Discussion items include the design features of the concepts, a radiation analysis of their implementations, an assessment of the parasitic mass of each concept, and the result of a human in the loop evaluation performed to drive out design and operational issues.

  4. Earth Rocks!

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Integrated Teaching and Learning Program,

    The purpose of this lesson is to introduce students to the basic elements of our Earth's crust: rocks, soils and minerals. They learn how we categorize rocks, soils and minerals and how they are literally the foundation for our civilization. Students also explore how engineers use rocks, soils and minerals to create the buildings, roads, vehicles, electronics, chemicals, and other objects we use to enhance our lives.

  5. Sensitivity Analysis to Aid Shelter Management Decisions: How Does Altering Expenditure Affect Operational Viability?

    PubMed

    Widmar, Nicole Olynk; Lord, Emily; Litster, Annette

    2015-01-01

    Streamlining purchasing in nonhuman animal shelters can provide multiple financial benefits. Streamlining shelter inputs and thus reducing shelter costs can include trading paid labor and management for fewer, more involved volunteers or purchasing large quantities of medical supplies from fewer vendors to take advantage of bulk-purchasing discounts. Beyond direct savings, time and energy spent on purchasing and inventory control can be reduced through careful management. Although cost-cutting measures may seem attractive, shelter managers are cautioned to consider the potential unintended consequences of short-term cost reduction measures that could limit revenues or increase costs in the future. This analysis illustrates an example of the impact of cost reductions in specific expense categories and the impact on shelter net revenue, as well as the share of expenses across categories. An in-depth discussion of labor and purchasing cost-reducing strategies in the real world of animal shelter management is provided. PMID:25775134

  6. Emp design and test guidelines for systems in mobile shelters. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, S.C.

    1993-12-01

    This document addresses the unique electromagnetic characteristics of metallic enclosures, commonly referred to as signal, communications, or box-body shelters, and identifies what system developers should do to optimize the electronic survivability of equipment placed in these shelters. Since nuclear induced high-altitude EMP is but one of possibly many nonionizing hostile environments that the shelter electronics must survive, this document treats EMP survivability in terms familiar to the design engineer.

  7. Response of dual-purpose reinforced-concrete mass shelter. Project 30. 2 of Operation Plumbbob

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Cohen; E. Laing; A. Bottenhofer

    2010-01-01

    A reinforced-concrete dual-purpose underground parking garage and personnel shelter designed for a long-duration incident pressure of 40 psi was tested. The shelter was exposed to shot Priscilla, an approx. 37-kt 700-ft balloon burst (June 24, 1957), at a ground range of 1600 ft (predicted 35-psi peak incident-pressure level). The recorded peak incident pressure at the shelter was approximately 39 psi.

  8. Building Nationally-Focussed, Globally Federated, High Performance Earth Science Platforms to Solve Next Generation Social and Economic Issues.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyborn, Lesley; Evans, Ben; Foster, Clinton; Pugh, Timothy; Uhlherr, Alfred

    2015-04-01

    Digital geoscience data and information are integral to informing decisions on the social, economic and environmental management of natural resources. Traditionally, such decisions were focused on regional or national viewpoints only, but it is increasingly being recognised that global perspectives are required to meet new challenges such as predicting impacts of climate change; sustainably exploiting scarce water, mineral and energy resources; and protecting our communities through better prediction of the behaviour of natural hazards. In recent years, technical advances in scientific instruments have resulted in a surge in data volumes, with data now being collected at unprecedented rates and at ever increasing resolutions. The size of many earth science data sets now exceed the computational capacity of many government and academic organisations to locally store and dynamically access the data sets; to internally process and analyse them to high resolutions; and then to deliver them online to clients, partners and stakeholders. Fortunately, at the same time, computational capacities have commensurately increased (both cloud and HPC): these can now provide the capability to effectively access the ever-growing data assets within realistic time frames. However, to achieve this, data and computing need to be co-located: bandwidth limits the capacity to move the large data sets; the data transfers are too slow; and latencies to access them are too high. These scenarios are driving the move towards more centralised High Performance (HP) Infrastructures. The rapidly increasing scale of data, the growing complexity of software and hardware environments, combined with the energy costs of running such infrastructures is creating a compelling economic argument for just having one or two major national (or continental) HP facilities that can be federated internationally to enable earth and environmental issues to be tackled at global scales. But at the same time, if properly constructed, these infrastructures can also service very small-scale research projects. The National Computational Infrastructure (NCI) at the Australian National University (ANU) has built such an HP infrastructure as part of the Australian Government's National Collaborative Research Infrastructure Strategy. NCI operates as a formal partnership between the ANU and the three major Australian National Government Scientific Agencies: the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), the Bureau of Meteorology and Geoscience Australia. The government partners agreed to explore the new opportunities offered within the partnership with NCI, rather than each running their own separate agenda independently. The data from these national agencies, as well as from collaborating overseas organisations (e.g., NASA, NOAA, USGS, CMIP, etc.) are either replicated to, or produced at, NCI. By co-locating and harmonising these vast data collections within the integrated HP computing environments at NCI, new opportunities have arisen for Data-intensive Interdisciplinary Science at scales and resolutions not hitherto possible. The new NCI infrastructure has also enabled the blending of research by the university sector with the more operational business of government science agencies, with the fundamental shift being that researchers from both sectors work and collaborate within a federated data and computational environment that contains both national and international data collections.

  9. Building a Global Federation System for Climate Change Research: The Earth System Grid Center for Enabling Technologies (ESG-CET)

    SciTech Connect

    Ananthakrishnan, R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Bernholdt, D. E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bharathi, S. [Univ. of Southern California, Marina del Ray, CA (United States); Brown, D. [National Center Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States); Chen, M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Chervenak, A. L. [Univ. of Southern California, Marina del Ray, CA (United States); Cinquini, L. [National Center Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States); Drach, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Foster, I. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Fox, P. [National Center Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States); Fraser, D. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Halliday, K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hankin, S. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (PMEL), Seattle, WA (United States); Jones, P. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kesselman, C. [Univ. of Southern California, Marina del Ray, CA (United States); Middleton, J. E. [National Center Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States); Schwidder, J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Schweitzer, R. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (PMEL), Seattle, WA (United States); Schuler, R. [Univ. of Southern California, Marina del Ray, CA (United States); Shoshani, A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Siebenlist, F. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Sim, A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Strand, W. G. [National Center Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States); Wilhelmi, N. [National Center Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States); Su, M. [Univ. of Southern California, Marina del Ray, CA (United States); Williams, Dean N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2007-07-13

    The recent release of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) 4th Assessment Report (AR4) has generated significant media attention. Much has been said about the U.S. role in this report, which included significant support from the Department of Energy through the Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing (SciDAC) and other Department of Energy (DOE) programs for climate model development and the production execution of simulations. The SciDAC-supported Earth System Grid Center for Enabling Technologies (ESG-CET) also played a major role in the IPCC AR4: all of the simulation data that went into the report was made available to climate scientists worldwide exclusively via the ESG-CET. At the same time as the IPCC AR4 database was being developed, the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), a leading U.S. climate science laboratory and a ESG participant, began publishing model runs from the Community Climate System Model (CCSM), and its predecessor the Parallel Coupled Model (PCM) through ESG. In aggregate, ESG-CET provides seamless access to over 250 terabytes of distributed climate simulation data to over 6,000 registered users worldwide, who have taken delivery of more than 280 terabytes from the archive. Not only does this represent a substantial advance in scientific knowledge, it is also a major step forward in how we conduct the research process on a global scale. Moving forward, the next IPCC assessment report, AR5, will demand multi-site metadata federation for data discovery and cross-domain identity management for single signon of users in a more diverse federation enterprise environment. Towards this aim, ESG is leading the effort in the climate community towards standardization of material for the global federation of metadata, security, and data services required to standardize, analyze, and access data worldwide.

  10. VIEW ALONG FLIGHT LINE FROM SECURITY GUARD TOWER (BUILDING 30631, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW ALONG FLIGHT LINE FROM SECURITY GUARD TOWER (BUILDING 30631, LOOKING TOWARD FB-1 11A AIRCRAFT SHELTERS (BUILDINGS 3066, 3067,3068,3069,3071,3072,3073,3074,3076). VIEW TO SOUTHEAST - Plattsburgh Air Force Base, U.S. Route 9, Plattsburgh, Clinton County, NY

  11. Environment and the Earth

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Compiled by Suzanne Savanick, Science Education Resource Center. Based on Bixby et al. (2003), Ecology on Campus: Service Learning in Introductory Environmental Courses, Journal of College Science Teaching, v. 32, n.5, o, 327-331.

    The Environment and the Earth class at the University of South Carolina participated in a campus environmental service-learning project where students collected data lighting, water fixtures, recycling bins, and trash in five academic buildings.

  12. Selection of emergency shelter sites for seismic disasters in mountainous regions: Lessons from the 2008 Wenchuan Ms 8.0 Earthquake, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Qiang; Ruan, Xuejing; Shi, Pilong

    2011-03-01

    In this paper, we use the 12 May 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake as a background event for analyzing and applying the principles of site selection of emergency shelters for a disastrous earthquake. Based on field investigations and analyses of remote sensing imagery, we identified the distribution of active faults and the locations of co-seismic surface rupture zones—areas in which buildings are at risk of intensive damage. It is important that emergency shelters are located outside of such vulnerable areas. One of the lessons learned from the Wenchuan Earthquake is that high fatality rates occur in areas without life-saving shelters. The principles that underlie the selection of emergency shelter sites are as follows: (1) keep far away from active fault zones, with the distance depending on the characteristics of the fault, including the nature of hangingwall and footwall structures; (2) disaster-mitigation strategies should be developed as a multi-dimensional system for the management of natural hazards, human activities, and urban expansion, involving keeping away from vulnerable slopes and establishing an early-warning system; (3) the accessibility of mountainous regions must be considered, including establishing small emergency shelters that house large numbers of people and covering regions with an uneven distribution of villages; and (4) government and law-making agencies in China must establish new earthquake design codes for buildings, emphasizing the importance of public facilities (including schools, collective welfare institutions, and medical facilities) as emergency shelters during disastrous earthquakes. The site-selection process requires an interdisciplinary approach involving seismologists, engineers, environmental and social scientists, emergency management personnel, and government officials. The parameters upon which the above principles are based can be qualitatively determined, thereby providing a valuable initial database for further quantitative analysis. The preliminary results and knowledge gained in the present paper can be used as a decision-making tool to support the government in earthquake-recovery and reconstruction programs. We also discuss practical examples of site evaluation in regions that suffered heavy damage during the Wenchuan Earthquake.

  13. The significance of ultra-refracted surface gravity waves on sheltered coasts, with application to San Francisco Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hanes, D.M.; Erikson, L.H.

    2013-01-01

    Ocean surface gravity waves propagating over shallow bathymetry undergo spatial modification of propagation direction and energy density, commonly due to refraction and shoaling. If the bathymetric variations are significant the waves can undergo changes in their direction of propagation (relative to deepwater) greater than 90° over relatively short spatial scales. We refer to this phenomenon as ultra-refraction. Ultra-refracted swell waves can have a powerful influence on coastal areas that otherwise appear to be sheltered from ocean waves. Through a numerical modeling investigation it is shown that San Francisco Bay, one of the earth's largest and most protected natural harbors, is vulnerable to ultra-refracted ocean waves, particularly southwest incident swell. The flux of wave energy into San Francisco Bay results from wave transformation due to the bathymetry and orientation of the large ebb tidal delta, and deep, narrow channel through the Golden Gate. For example, ultra-refracted swell waves play a critical role in the intermittent closure of the entrance to Crissy Field Marsh, a small restored tidal wetland located on the sheltered north-facing coast approximately 1.5 km east of the Golden Gate Bridge.

  14. Alkaline-earth metal cations as structure building blocks for molecular cages with entrapment and controlled release of quintuple ionic aggregates.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chi-Tsang; Shiu, Ler-Chun; Shiu, Kom-Bei

    2015-05-01

    Currently, main-group metal cations are totally neglected as the structure-building blocks for the self-assembly of supramolecular coordination metallocages due to the lack of directional bonding. However, here we show that a common Arrhenius acid-base neutralization allows the alkaline-earth metal cations to act as charged binders, easily connecting two or more highly directional anionic transition-metal-based metalloligands to coordination polymers. With a metal salt such as K(+) PF6 (-) added during the neutralization, the main-group metal-connected skeleton can be templated by the largest yet reported ionic-aggregate anion, K2 (PF6 )3 (-) , formed from KPF6 in solution, into molecular metallocages, encapsulating the ion. Crystal-structure details, DFT-calculation results, and controlled-release behavior support the presence of K2 (PF6 )3 (-) as a guest in the cage. Upon removal of PF6 (-) ions, the cage stays intact. Other ions like BF4 (-) can be put back in. PMID:25786666

  15. Admissions of cats to animal welfare shelters in Melbourne, Australia.

    PubMed

    Marston, Linda C; Bennett, Pauleen C

    2009-01-01

    Although the number of companion animal (pet) cats (Felis catus) in Australia is decreasing, there has not been a corresponding reduction in feline admissions to nonhuman animal welfare shelters. This study tracked 15,206 cat admissions to 1 large Melbourne shelter over a 12-month period. Data collected included factors believed indicative of the cats' source subpopulation, including body condition, injuries, and sociability. The majority (81.6%) of admissions were strays. Overall desexing levels were low (4%), even among caregiver (owner)-relinquished cats (12.8%). The high sociability of many stray cats and kittens suggests that many may be "semiowned" animals. Colony cats were typically thinner and in poorer health than other admissions. The pattern of kitten admissions suggests that many queens are producing 2 litters per season. The majority of cats admitted were euthanized, indicating that there is an oversupply of cats in Melbourne, Australia, and that strategies to reduce the euthanasia rate need to target the subpopulations of cats who contribute to the current oversupply. PMID:20183474

  16. Analysis of sheltering and evacuation strategies for an urban nuclear detonation scenario

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ann S. Yoshimura; Larry D. Brandt

    2009-01-01

    Development of an effective strategy for shelter and evacuation is among the most important planning tasks in preparation for response to a low yield, nuclear detonation in an urban area. This study examines shelter-evacuate policies and effectiveness focusing on a 10 kt scenario in Los Angeles. The goal is to provide technical insights that can support development of urban response

  17. Children in Detention and Shelter Care: Surveying the System in New Jersey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Linda J.; And Others

    The report examines the characteristics of children (primarily between the ages of 6 and 17 years) placed in 42 New Jersey detention facilities, juveniles in need of supervision (JINS) shelters, and children's shelters; and provides descriptive information and analysis on the programs, policies, and budgets of these "temporary" residences. An…

  18. Control of Pest Species: Tree shelters help protect seedlings from nutria (Louisiana)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, J.A.; Boykin, R.

    1991-01-01

    Various methods of nutria preventative techniques were tested in attempts to curb the loss of seedlings due to nutria capturing. The results of testing possibly indicate that tree shelters have real potential for use in forest restoration projects on sites with moderate nutria populations. Tree shelters may even prove effective on sites with high nutria populations, as long as alternative food supplies are available.

  19. Criteria for Determining the Effectiveness of Shelter Programs for Battered Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Gwendolyn Morrison

    According to the California State Department of Justice there were 182,000 reported cases of domestic violence in 1988 that required police intervention. This descriptive study, an explorative evaluation survey, examined 47 shelter programs in California to determine what components are essential to a shelter's effectiveness in facilitating…

  20. Primary-Grade Students' Knowledge and Thinking about the Economics of Meeting Families' Shelter Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brophy, Jere; Alleman, Janet

    2002-01-01

    Interviewed 216 students in kindergarten through grade 3 about the economics of meeting families' needs for shelter. Responses indicated that most understood that people have to pay for shelter, but most were vague about renting apartments or mortgages. Discusses findings in reference to curriculum and instruction in the early grades. (SLD)

  1. The Corporate Profit Base, Tax Sheltering Activity, and the Changing Nature of Employee Compensation

    E-print Network

    Sadoulet, Elisabeth

    The Corporate Profit Base, Tax Sheltering Activity, and the Changing Nature of Employee at Harvard Business School are gratefully acknowledged. #12;The Corporate Profit Base, Tax Sheltering of the corporate profit base and the relationship between book income and tax income for U.S. corporations over

  2. Questions and Answers Regarding Actions to Take When Ending Shelter-in-Place

    SciTech Connect

    Shumpert, B.

    2003-12-30

    Shelter-in-place has found increasing acceptance as an effective protective action option for communities participating in the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program. Studies have confirmed that it can provide optimum protection under certain accident conditions. However, emergency managers and planners, as well as the public, continue to be troubled by the need to end sheltering when the plume has passed in order to avoid sustained exposure to the small amount of agent that has penetrated the shelter. One of the concerns posed by this necessity is uncertainty regarding what hazards will then be faced in the environment outside the shelter and what actions can be taken to avoid those hazards. This report attempts to address those uncertainties. It recognizes that there is an extremely low probability that the environment outside the shelter will be contaminated with chemical agent residue. However, as people comply with an official recommendation to leave their shelters, they probably can't be certain that the environment is free from contamination. Therefore, this report identifies and explains specific and simple actions they can take to avoid the possibility of exposure to chemical agent hazards outside their shelters. It addresses such issues as the actions people should take upon ending shelter-in-place, what clothing they should wear, how they should handle animals, and what they should do about food in their homes and produce in their gardens.

  3. When Rescue Is Urgent: Children in Shelter Placement for Seven Days or Less.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wattenberg, Esther; Luke, Katherine; Cornelius, Molly; Menke, Jennifer

    This study examined the circumstances of children in Hennepin County, Minnesota, who were removed from their homes under urgent circumstances and placed for 7 days or less in emergency shelter care. It investigated whether shelter placement was the least intrusive response for the safety of the children in emergency situations and clarified the…

  4. Primary-Grade Students' Knowledge and Thinking about Shelter as a Cultural Universal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brophy, Jere; Alleman, Janet

    The traditional K-3 social studies curriculum has focused on food, clothing, shelter, communication, transportation, and other cultural universals. A study was designed to provide information with respect to the topic of shelter, and in the process, to assess claims that primary grade students do not need instruction in the topic because they…

  5. 77 FR 40626 - RP9580.210, Personal Assistance Services in Shelters Fact Sheet

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-10

    ...ID FEMA-2012-0014] RP9580.210, Personal Assistance Services in Shelters Fact...on Recovery Fact Sheet RP9580.210, Personal Assistance Services in Shelters. The...provide clarification on the eligibility of personal assistance services in congregate...

  6. Dimensions and Correlates of Client Satisfaction: An Evaluation of a Shelter for Runaway and Homeless Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spiro, Shimon E.; Dekel, Rachel; Peled, Einat

    2009-01-01

    Client satisfaction surveys give clients a voice in the planning and management of services. While their use is quite widespread, they have hardly at all been used in the evaluation of shelters for homeless youths. In this article, the authors present findings of a client satisfaction survey conducted among residents of a shelter for homeless…

  7. Perspectives on US Domestic Violence Emergency Shelters: What Do Young Adolescent Residents and Their Mothers Say?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chanmugam, Amy

    2011-01-01

    As part of a larger qualitative study using Life Story methods, an ethnically diverse, purposive sample (n = 27) of young adolescents (ages 12-14) and their mothers residing in four US domestic violence emergency shelters were interviewed about their perspectives of shelter life. Youth reported aspects they liked, most often expressing that they…

  8. Perchance to Sleep: Homeless Children without Shelter in New York City.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coalition for the Homeless, New York, NY.

    New York City's response to the demand for shelter has consistently been adequate. The city's homeless population is estimated at 35,000, including 11,000 members of homeless families, of whom almost 7,625 are children. The City's Human Resources Administration (HRA) has routinely failed to provide temporary emergency shelter for homeless…

  9. Hurricane Katrina and the Flooding of New Orleans: Emergent Issues in Sheltering and Temporary Housing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joanne M. Nigg; John Barnshaw; Manuel R. Torres

    2006-01-01

    Hurricane Katrina created an unprecedented need for sheltering and temporary housing across a four-state area along the Gulf Coast. This article reviews the disaster literature with respect to sheltering and temporary housing and contrasts how these needs actually developed with respect to both the preimpact and postimpact evacuation situations. The article also investigates the ways that intergovernmental planning failed to

  10. LWDA Shelter Shielding Factor Ylva Pihlstrm (UNM), Dan Mertely (NRAO) & Eduardo Aguilera (UNM)

    E-print Network

    Ellingson, Steven W.

    1 LWDA Shelter Shielding Factor Ylva Pihlström (UNM), Dan Mertely (NRAO) & Eduardo Aguilera (UNM) 8/17/06 Summary We report on measurements of the LWDA shelter shielding factors. From these measurements we adopt a minimum shielding of 30 dB for frequencies 0.2­3 GHz. On average, the shielding in this frequency range

  11. DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF A LOW-COST STREAM-MONITORING SHELTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The design and construction of a low-cost stream-monitoring shelter are discussed. urrently in use on the Fernow Experimental Forest in West Virginia, the shelter creates an environment for efficient sampling and chemical monitoring of small streams while protecting expensive equ...

  12. UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report UBC Farm Chicken Shelter

    E-print Network

    UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report UBC Farm Chicken Shelter ( Derek ) James Hosford Andrew Burgin Julian Cheung Chicken Shelter #12; ii Executive Summary UBC Farm is currently in need of a moveable chicken coop that is intended to house 12 chickens

  13. Do Sheltered Workshops Enhance Employment Outcomes for Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cimera, Robert Evert; Wehman, Paul; West, Michael; Burgess, Sloane

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated whether sheltered workshops help prepare individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) for competitive employment within the community. Two groups of individuals were compared: (a) 215 supported employees who were in sheltered workshops prior to entering supported employment and (b) 215 supported employees who were not in…

  14. Schools As Post-Disaster Shelters: Planning and Management Guidelines for Districts and Sites.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Office of Emergency Services, Sacramento.

    This guidebook outlines a method for preparing school facilities and personnel in the event that schools are needed for disaster shelters. It serves as a blueprint for planning and preparedness. Chapter 1 provides descriptions of actual incidents in which California schools served as emergency shelters. Chapter 2 describes schools' legal…

  15. Study of the effect on shelter cat intakes and euthanasia from a shelter neuter return project of 10,080 cats from March 2010 to June 2014.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Karen L; Cicirelli, Jon

    2014-01-01

    Cat impoundments were increasing at the municipal San Jose animal shelter in 2009, despite long-term successful low cost sterilization programs and attempts to lower the euthanasia rate of treatable-rehabilitatable impounds beginning in 2008. San Jose Animal Care and Services implemented a new strategy designed to control overall feral cat reproduction by altering and returning feral cats entering the shelter system, rather than euthanizing the cats. The purpose of this case study was to determine how the program affected the shelter cat intakes over time. In just over four years, 10,080 individual healthy adult feral cats, out of 11,423 impounded at the shelter during this time frame, were altered and returned to their site of capture. Included in the 11,423 cats were 862 cats impounded from one to four additional times for a total of 958 (9.5%) recaptures of the previously altered 10,080 cats. The remaining 385 healthy feral cats were euthanized at the shelter from March 2010 to June 2014. Four years into the program, researchers observed cat and kitten impounds decreased 29.1%; euthanasia decreased from over 70% of intakes in 2009, to 23% in 2014. Euthanasia in the shelter for Upper Respiratory Disease decreased 99%; dead cat pick up off the streets declined 20%. Dog impounds did not similarly decline over the four years. No other laws or program changes were implemented since the beginning of the program. PMID:25374785

  16. Study of the effect on shelter cat intakes and euthanasia from a shelter neuter return project of 10,080 cats from March 2010 to June 2014

    PubMed Central

    Cicirelli, Jon

    2014-01-01

    Cat impoundments were increasing at the municipal San Jose animal shelter in 2009, despite long-term successful low cost sterilization programs and attempts to lower the euthanasia rate of treatable-rehabilitatable impounds beginning in 2008. San Jose Animal Care and Services implemented a new strategy designed to control overall feral cat reproduction by altering and returning feral cats entering the shelter system, rather than euthanizing the cats. The purpose of this case study was to determine how the program affected the shelter cat intakes over time. In just over four years, 10,080 individual healthy adult feral cats, out of 11,423 impounded at the shelter during this time frame, were altered and returned to their site of capture. Included in the 11,423 cats were 862 cats impounded from one to four additional times for a total of 958 (9.5%) recaptures of the previously altered 10,080 cats. The remaining 385 healthy feral cats were euthanized at the shelter from March 2010 to June 2014. Four years into the program, researchers observed cat and kitten impounds decreased 29.1%; euthanasia decreased from over 70% of intakes in 2009, to 23% in 2014. Euthanasia in the shelter for Upper Respiratory Disease decreased 99%; dead cat pick up off the streets declined 20%. Dog impounds did not similarly decline over the four years. No other laws or program changes were implemented since the beginning of the program. PMID:25374785

  17. Analysis of sheltering and evacuation strategies for a national capital region nuclear detonation scenario.

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshimura, Ann S.; Brandt, Larry D.

    2011-12-01

    Development of an effective strategy for shelter and evacuation is among the most important planning tasks in preparation for response to a low yield, nuclear detonation in an urban area. Extensive studies have been performed and guidance published that highlight the key principles for saving lives following such an event. However, region-specific data are important in the planning process as well. This study examines some of the unique regional factors that impact planning for a 10 kT detonation in the National Capital Region. The work utilizes a single scenario to examine regional impacts as well as the shelter-evacuate decision alternatives at one exemplary point. For most Washington, DC neighborhoods, the excellent assessed shelter quality available make shelter-in-place or selective transit to a nearby shelter a compelling post-detonation strategy.

  18. Temporary shelter-in-place as protection against a release of airborne hazardous material : report of a literature search

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. D. Yantosik; K. Lerner; D. M. Maloney

    2002-01-01

    ''Temporary shelter-in place'' is the combination of prompt shelter-in-place (SIP) to minimize initial exposure to airborne hazardous material, followed by timely action to terminate this protection to minimize exposure to hazardous vapor accumulations in the shelter once the air outside becomes less hazardous than the air inside the shelter. Temporary SIP, if properly executed, is considered to be an effective

  19. Earth Advantage Institute: Introduction

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Schnepp, Katie

    This brief presentation provides an introduction to the Earth Advantage Institute, which is "a nonprofit organization that works with the building industry to help implement sustainable building practices." Information on the history of the organization, its partners, stakeholders and sponsors is included. This document may be downloaded in PDF file format.

  20. Development of red oak seedlings using plastic shelters on hardwood sites in West Virginia. Forest Service research paper (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, H.C.

    1993-04-01

    Plastic shelters were used to grow red oak seedlings on good-to-excellent Appalachian hardwood growing sites in north central West Virginia. Preliminary results indicate that shelters have the potential to stimulate development of red oak seedlingheight growth, especially if height growth continues once the seedling tops are above the 5-foot-tall shelters.

  1. Nuclear thermal effects on the outer material of the blast hardened S-280 electrical shelter wall. Final report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Quigley

    1977-01-01

    Because of the thermal insulating nature of the Kevlar-49 fiber epoxy resin composite material used in the blast hardened S-280 electrical shelter with the blast hardened wall and roof construction of the shelter, the shelter will survive the recommended nuclear thermal radiation levels. However, since the thermal environment precedes the blast environment and the Kevlar material is an integral part

  2. PO Box 43155 1009 Canton Avenue Lubbock, TX 79409-3155 National Storm Shelter Association/Texas Tech University

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Yuanlin

    PO Box 43155 1009 Canton Avenue Lubbock, TX 79409-3155 National Storm Shelter Association/Texas Tech University Door Performance Demonstration Project Overview The National Storm Shelter Association problem in the storm shelter industry: installing substandard, untested doors in above ground site

  3. Ecological influences in youth crisis shelters: Effects of social density and length of stay on youth problem behaviors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John F. Teare; Gail L. Smith; D. Wayne Osgood; Roger W. Peterson; Karen Authier; Daniel L. Daly

    1995-01-01

    For 472 consecutive days we monitored the number of youths residing in a crisis shelter for adolescents, the average length of stay for the youths residing in the shelter on each day, and the number of problem behaviors occurring within the shelter on a daily basis. We analyzed these data using a combination of time series and logistic regression techniques

  4. Half full or half empty? Shelter after the Jogjakarta earthquake.

    PubMed

    MacRae, Graeme; Hodgkin, David

    2011-01-01

    The international shelter response to the Jogjakarta earthquake in Indonesia in May 2006 is widely regarded as a success story, especially when compared with the response to the Indian Ocean tsunami 16 months earlier. This evaluation is largely in terms of the international aid system itself, which emphasises statistical measures of 'success' and internal coordination and efficiency. From the perspective of those closer to the ground, however, it was less successful, especially in terms of coordination and communication with and participation of local agencies and affected communities. This paper, by an aid worker resident in Jogjakarta and an anthropologist, examines the response from a perspective grounded both within and outside the aid system, local as well as global. It recognises the relative success of the response, but argues for an approach more grounded in local knowledge and responsive to local concerns, while also providing practical suggestions for improvement. PMID:20735456

  5. Building Student Awareness of Societal Decision-Making Challenges about Energy through the Study of Earth System Data and Innovations in Energy-Related Materials Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zalles, D. R.; Acker, J. G.; Berding, M.

    2014-12-01

    Energy literacy requires knowledge about the trade-offs inherent in energy alternatives, about how humans use energy and have choices in how much energy to use, and about what changes to the Earth system are occurring from energy uses. It also requires collaborative decision-making skills coupled with awareness about what values we bring to the table as we negotiate solutions that serve both personal needs and the common good. Coming up with a notion of the common good requires delineating how environmental crises occurring in other parts of the world compare to our own. We also need to understand criteria for judging what might be viable solutions. This presentation describes work that SRI International is carrying out to meet these awareness-building needs. SRI educational researchers created a curriculum that immerses students in studying regional climate change data about California in comparison to global climate change. Students ponder solution energy-related strategies and impact analyses. The curriculum will be described, as will a collaboration between SRI educational researchers and materials scientists. The scientists are designing and testing technologies for producing biofuels and solar power, and for sequestering carbon from coal fired power plants. As they apply principles of science and engineering to test materials intended to meet these energy challenges, they understand that even if the tests prove successful, if there is not economic feasibility or environmental advantage, the technology may not stand as a viable solution. This educator-scientist team is using the Essential Energy Principles and Next Generation Science Standards to articulate milestones along a trajectory of energy learning. The trajectory starts with simple understandings of what energy is and what constitute our energy challenges. It ends with more the types of more sophisticated understandings needed for designing and testing energy technology solutions.

  6. Behavioral responses associated with a human-mediated predator shelter.

    PubMed

    Shannon, Graeme; Cordes, Line S; Hardy, Amanda R; Angeloni, Lisa M; Crooks, Kevin R

    2014-01-01

    Human activities in protected areas can affect wildlife populations in a similar manner to predation risk, causing increases in movement and vigilance, shifts in habitat use and changes in group size. Nevertheless, recent evidence indicates that in certain situations ungulate species may actually utilize areas associated with higher levels of human presence as a potential refuge from disturbance-sensitive predators. We now use four-years of behavioral activity budget data collected from pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) and elk (Cervus elephus) in Grand Teton National Park, USA to test whether predictable patterns of human presence can provide a shelter from predatory risk. Daily behavioral scans were conducted along two parallel sections of road that differed in traffic volume--with the main Teton Park Road experiencing vehicle use that was approximately thirty-fold greater than the River Road. At the busier Teton Park Road, both species of ungulate engaged in higher levels of feeding (27% increase in the proportion of pronghorn feeding and 21% increase for elk), lower levels of alert behavior (18% decrease for pronghorn and 9% decrease for elk) and formed smaller groups. These responses are commonly associated with reduced predatory threat. Pronghorn also exhibited a 30% increase in the proportion of individuals moving at the River Road as would be expected under greater exposure to predation risk. Our findings concur with the 'predator shelter hypothesis', suggesting that ungulates in GTNP use human presence as a potential refuge from predation risk, adjusting their behavior accordingly. Human activity has the potential to alter predator-prey interactions and drive trophic-mediated effects that could ultimately impact ecosystem function and biodiversity. PMID:24718624

  7. Behavioral Responses Associated with a Human-Mediated Predator Shelter

    PubMed Central

    Shannon, Graeme; Cordes, Line S.; Hardy, Amanda R.; Angeloni, Lisa M.; Crooks, Kevin R.

    2014-01-01

    Human activities in protected areas can affect wildlife populations in a similar manner to predation risk, causing increases in movement and vigilance, shifts in habitat use and changes in group size. Nevertheless, recent evidence indicates that in certain situations ungulate species may actually utilize areas associated with higher levels of human presence as a potential refuge from disturbance-sensitive predators. We now use four-years of behavioral activity budget data collected from pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) and elk (Cervus elephus) in Grand Teton National Park, USA to test whether predictable patterns of human presence can provide a shelter from predatory risk. Daily behavioral scans were conducted along two parallel sections of road that differed in traffic volume - with the main Teton Park Road experiencing vehicle use that was approximately thirty-fold greater than the River Road. At the busier Teton Park Road, both species of ungulate engaged in higher levels of feeding (27% increase in the proportion of pronghorn feeding and 21% increase for elk), lower levels of alert behavior (18% decrease for pronghorn and 9% decrease for elk) and formed smaller groups. These responses are commonly associated with reduced predatory threat. Pronghorn also exhibited a 30% increase in the proportion of individuals moving at the River Road as would be expected under greater exposure to predation risk. Our findings concur with the ‘predator shelter hypothesis’, suggesting that ungulates in GTNP use human presence as a potential refuge from predation risk, adjusting their behavior accordingly. Human activity has the potential to alter predator-prey interactions and drive trophic-mediated effects that could ultimately impact ecosystem function and biodiversity. PMID:24718624

  8. Earth Sciences Environmental Earth Sciences,

    E-print Network

    Brierley, Andrew

    94 Earth Sciences­ Environmental Earth Sciences, Geology Degree options MGeol (Single Honours Degrees) Earth Sciences BSc (Single Honours Degrees) Environmental Earth Sciences Geology BSc (Joint placement. * The Geology and Environmental Earth Sciences degrees are accredited by the Geological Society

  9. [Medical and psychological problems relating to emergency shelters in case of war].

    PubMed

    Stoffel, R; Binswanger, R; Kind, H

    1975-02-01

    Modern warfare requires protection of the entire civilian population, and a main feature of Swiss planning is the provision of adequate shelter space for every inhabitant. The medical and psychologic problems of prolonged shelter living are considered, with reference to the literature on experience in other countries. The study centers on description of a shelter occupancy experiment. 25 men with an average age of 37 years spent 7 days in a closed shelter during the hottest part of the year. Floor space was 1.2 m2 and room volume 2.5 m3 per person. The experiment revealed that in-shelter climatic conditions remained tolerable. Initially several members of the group suffered from insomnia and nausea, while sleep disturbances, headache and gastrointestinal symptoms also occurred in the course of the stay. Daily self-rating of condition with appropriate scales showed a positive correlation of "irritability" with air humidity and a negative correlation of "vitality" with room temperature. Good shelter management and a trained leader are essential prerequisites for prolonged shelter occupancy. PMID:1121661

  10. Shelter availability, stress level and digestive performance in the aspic viper.

    PubMed

    Bonnet, Xavier; Fizesan, Alain; Michel, Catherine Louise

    2013-03-01

    The lack of shelter can perturb behaviors, increase stress level and thus alter physiological performance (e.g. digestive, immune or reproductive functions). Although intuitive, such potential impacts of lack of shelter remain poorly documented. We manipulated shelter availability and environmental and physiological variables (i.e. access to a heat source, predator attack, feeding status) in a viviparous snake, and assessed sun-basking behavior, digestive performance (i.e. digestive transit time, crude estimate of assimilation, regurgitation rate) and plasma corticosterone levels (a proxy of stress level). Shelter deprivation provoked a strong increase in sun-basking behavior and thus elevated body temperature, even in unfed individuals for which energy savings would have been otherwise beneficial. The lack of heat was detrimental to digestive performance; simulated predator attacks worsened the situation and entailed a further deterioration of digestion. The combination of the lack of shelter with cool ambient temperatures markedly elevated basal corticosterone level and was associated with low digestive performance. This hormonal effect was absent when only one negative factor was involved, suggesting a threshold response. Overall, our results revealed important non-linear cascading impacts of shelter availability on stress-hormone levels, behaviors and physiological performance. These results infer that shelter availability is important for laboratory studies, captive husbandry and possibly conservation plans. PMID:23155080

  11. Public health response to a rabid dog in an animal shelter --- North Dakota and Minnesota, 2010.

    PubMed

    2011-01-01

    On March 31, 2010, the North Dakota Department of Health (NDDoH) was notified by a local public health department that a stray dog found in rural Minnesota and housed during March 9-20 in a North Dakota animal shelter had been found to have rabies. NDDoH, along with the local public health department, the North Dakota Board of Animal Health (BOAH), the Minnesota Board of Animal Health, and the Minnesota Department of Health, immediately began an investigation to identify persons requiring rabies postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) and to prevent further rabies transmission. This report summarizes the public health investigation, which used animal shelter records and public notification to identify possible human and animal contacts of the rabid dog. Among 32 persons who might have been exposed to the rabid dog at the shelter, 21 persons, including nine shelter employees and one volunteer, received PEP. In accordance with 2009 Compendium of Animal Rabies Prevention and Control guidance, the 25 dogs in the shelter with the rabid dog were euthanized. Among 25 other dogs without an up-to-date rabies vaccination that were adopted or claimed from the shelter and might have been exposed, 11 were euthanized, 13 were isolated for 6 months in their owners' homes, and one was unintentionally killed. No additional cases of rabies in dogs or humans had been identified as of December 2010. This event supports consideration of preexposure vaccination of animal shelter employees and highlights the continued importance of routine rabies vaccination of domestic animals. PMID:21209608

  12. Animal protection measures in Taiwan: Taiwanese attitudes toward the animal protection law and animal shelters.

    PubMed

    Weng, Hsin-Yi; Kass, Philip H; Hart, Lynette A; Chomel, Bruno B

    2006-01-01

    This study used a questionnaire, self-administered by 387 Taiwanese citizens, to assess Taiwanese perception and knowledge of the Animal Protection Law and perception and use of animal shelters. Most respondents (87%) knew that Taiwan has legal protection for animals. A -5 to 5 summary score measured knowledge of companion animal dog-related legal requirements. The median score was 3, indicating that almost all respondents had inadequate knowledge about these requirements. Although more dog caregivers had adequate knowledge of the law than did nondog caregivers (prevalence ratio = 1.9, 95% confidence interval: 1.1, 3.2), only 19% had adequate knowledge. Although most respondents (81%) knew Taiwan has animal shelters, only 19 (5%) reported visiting or participating in shelter activities. Only 6 (32%) of shelter visitors or users had a "good or better" impression of services received. Despite low usage of animal shelters, most respondents thought shelters should accept (87%) and relocate (90%) unwanted animals, capture strays (64%), assist in finding lost pets (79%), and educate the public about responsible ownership (85%). More than half (52%) thought shelters should perform euthanasia. PMID:17209755

  13. Life cycle assessment of the production and use of polypropylene tree shelters.

    PubMed

    Arnold, J C; Alston, S M

    2012-02-01

    A detailed Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) has been conducted for the manufacture, use and disposal of polypropylene tree shelters, which are used to protect young seedlings in the first few years of growth. The LCA was conducted using Simapro software, the Ecoinvent database and ReCiPe assessment methodology. Detailed information on materials, manufacturing, packaging and distribution of shelters was obtained from Tubex Ltd. in South Wales, UK. Various scenarios based on different forest establishment methods, with or without tree shelters were derived and analysed using data from published literature and independent sources. The scenarios included commercial forestry in northern temperate conditions, amenity forest establishment in temperate conditions, and forest establishment in semi-arid conditions. For commercial forestry, a reduction in required seedling production and planting as well as additional time-averaged wood production led to significant benefits with tree shelters, both compared to unprotected and fenced cases. For the amenity forest scenarios, tree shelter use had a net environmental impact, while for semi-arid forestry, the benefits of reduction in water use outweighed shelter production impacts. The current practice of in-situ degradation was compared to collection and disposal and it was found that in-situ degradation was slightly preferable in terms of overall environmental impact. Use of biopolymer-based shelters would improve the environmental performance slightly. PMID:22098783

  14. Forecasting carbon monoxide concentrations near a sheltered intersection using video traffic surveillance and neural networks. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Moseholm, L.; Silva, J.; Larson, T.

    1994-01-01

    In this preliminary study, we investigated the relationships between traffic and CO concentrations measured near an intersection that is sheltered from the wind by multi-story buildings. Detailed information on traffic parameters was obtained by video camera technology during a single, 4-hour period (3 pm to 7 pm) of calm winds (<1 m/s). A neural network was trained with both lane specific traffic information as on-site wind parameters and used with an independent test set to predict one-minute average CO concentrations with reasonable accuracy. Standard linear regression models as well as an EPA dispersion model (CAL3QHC) could not reliably predict CO levels from the same data set.

  15. Applying Cluster Analysis to Test a Typology of Homelessness by Pattern of Shelter Utilization: Results from the Analysis of Administrative Data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Randall Kuhn; Dennis P. Culhane

    1998-01-01

    This study tests a typology of homelessness using administrative data on public shelter use in New York City (1988–1995) and Philadelphia (1991–1995). Cluster analysis is used to produce three groups (transitionally, episodically, and chronically homeless) by number of shelter days and number of shelter episodes. Results show that the transitionally homeless, who constitute approximately 80% of shelter users in both

  16. TALC/Teacher Shelter, 1969-81: What Difference Has It Made?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buxton, Amity P.

    1981-01-01

    Examines data from three investigations of the impact of the Teachers' Active Learning Center (TALC)/Teacher Shelter, a program run in the San Francisco Bay Area. Notes ten features of the center that make it unique and successful. (RL)

  17. Appropriate technology water treatment processes for MaeLa Temporary Shelter, Thailand

    E-print Network

    Vater, Katherine Ann

    2008-01-01

    This thesis recommends the use of horizontal-flow roughing filters to treat spring water of variable annual quality in MaeLa Temporary Shelter, Thailand. The public drinking water system for 45,000 refugees is overseen by ...

  18. 26 CFR 53.4965-7 - Taxes on prohibited tax shelter transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Revenue 17 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Taxes on prohibited tax shelter transactions. 53.4965-7 Section 53...OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) FOUNDATION AND SIMILAR EXCISE...

  19. Sustainable shelters for post disaster reconstruction : an integrated approach for reconstruction after the South Asia earthquake

    E-print Network

    Ali, Zehra (Zehra Hyder)

    2007-01-01

    A year after the South Asia earthquake, over 60% of the survivors are still vulnerable due to the lack of adequate shelter, the absence of basic facilities for water and sanitation and livelihood restoration. The harsh ...

  20. Registration and list maintenance requirements for oil and gas tax shelters after the new temporary regulations

    SciTech Connect

    Cash, L.S.; Dickens, T.L.

    1985-03-01

    There is no question that the responsibilities being placed upon tax shelter promoters have been greatly increased by the Tax Reform Act '84 and the (apparent) legislative regulations written by the Department of the Treasury. The consequences of any failure to comply with these requirements can be quite severe. Both Congress and the IRS are concerned with the potential for abuse in this area, and the requirements set forth in Code Sections 6111 and 6112 and the associated regulations are but two examples of their attempt to prevent these abuses from happening, or at the very least to make it easier for the IRS to spot these potentially abusive types of shelters. It is doubtful that this will be the last word on the subject. As a consequence, anybody associated with oil and gas drilling funds or related tax shelters must be cognizant of the rapidly changing tax law in the tax shelter area.

  1. How Do Teachers Facilitate Writing for Bilingual Learners in "Sheltered Constructivist" Science?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merino, Barbara J.; Hammond, Lorie

    2001-01-01

    Describes how elementary school teachers who work with bilingual students facilitate the learning of scientific concepts and skills through writing as they implement a science-based, interdisciplinary curriculum that uses a sheltered constructivist approach. (Author/NB)

  2. 38 CFR 21.144 - Vocational course in a sheltered workshop or rehabilitation facility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Vocational course in a sheltered workshop or rehabilitation facility. 21.144 Section 21...VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment Under 38 U.S.C....

  3. 38 CFR 21.144 - Vocational course in a sheltered workshop or rehabilitation facility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Vocational course in a sheltered workshop or rehabilitation facility. 21.144 Section 21...VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment Under 38 U.S.C....

  4. 38 CFR 21.144 - Vocational course in a sheltered workshop or rehabilitation facility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Vocational course in a sheltered workshop or rehabilitation facility. 21.144 Section 21...VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment Under 38 U.S.C....

  5. 38 CFR 21.144 - Vocational course in a sheltered workshop or rehabilitation facility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Vocational course in a sheltered workshop or rehabilitation facility. 21.144 Section 21...VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment Under 38 U.S.C....

  6. 38 CFR 21.144 - Vocational course in a sheltered workshop or rehabilitation facility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Vocational course in a sheltered workshop or rehabilitation facility. 21.144 Section 21...VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment Under 38 U.S.C....

  7. Continuity and change, an archaeobotanical assessment of Tsosie Shelter, Black Mesa, Arizona 

    E-print Network

    Ruppe?, Patricia A

    1987-01-01

    Macrobotanical Remains from Tsosre Shelter 6. 1 Presence/Absence Data Summary of Economrc Pollen from Tsosre Shelter 98 6. Combznation of Assemblage Richness by Depth 108 1X LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE Pa ge Location of Study Area on Black Mesa, Arizona Close... Residuals of Modern prnyon- Juniper Pollen Sample 94 Distribution of Economic Taxa for Pollen and Macrobotanical Samples by Depth 107 6. 4 Schematrc Diagram of Model Expectatzons 112 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Ar chaeobotanical research is directed...

  8. Shelter use and behaviour of juvenile Spotted Wolffish ( Anarhichas minor ) in an experimental context

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrée-Anne Lachance; Jean-Denis Dutil; Richard Larocque; Gaétan Daigle

    2010-01-01

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to assess shelter use and behaviour of juvenile Spotted Wolffish, Anarhichas minor, using time-lapse video. Information about the behaviour of Spotted Wolffish and its habitat utilization is sparse due to\\u000a the great depth at which this species lives. Four experiments were conducted using one or two fish per tank, with and without\\u000a a shelter. The positions

  9. Eradication of feline dermatophytosis in a shelter: a field study.

    PubMed

    Carlotti, Didier Noël; Guinot, Pauline; Meissonnier, Etienne; Germain, Pierre-Antoine

    2010-06-01

    Enzootic dermatophytosis in a shelter with approximately 140 cats was treated according to a protocol combining identification, isolation and treatment of subclinical carrier and affected animals in accordance with a three-area system: healthy animals (no lesions and negative cultures), subclinical carrier animals (no lesions but with positive cultures) and clinically affected animals (lesions and positive cultures). The cats were examined and inspected under a Wood's lamp and had samples taken for fungal culture every 2 weeks. Thirty-three per cent of the cats had a positive fungal culture at the start of the study. Clinically affected animals and carriers were treated with a 0.2% enilconazole lotion (Imaverol) twice a week and given itraconazole (Itrafungol) 5 mg/kg SID orally every other week. The environment was treated once a day with a 1% bleach solution and once a week with a 0.6% enilconazole (Clinafarm) solution. Treated animals were considered cured after two consecutive negative fungal cultures. All cats were cured within 56 days. Prophylactic measures against dermatophytosis were implemented for new arrivals consisting of individual quarantine and the systematic taking of fungal cultures. No relapses were observed based on the fungal cultures taken from the animals and the environment over the first 10 months. PMID:19706005

  10. Leaving Homelessness Behind: Housing Decisions among Families Exiting Shelter1

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Benjamin W.; Mayberry, Lindsay; Shinn, Marybeth; Khadduri, Jill

    2014-01-01

    Because homelessness assistance programs are designed to help families, it is important for policymakers and practitioners to understand how families experiencing homelessness make housing decisions, particularly when they decide not to use available services. This study explores those decisions using in-depth qualitative interviews with 80 families recruited in shelters across four sites approximately six months after they were assigned to one of four conditions (permanent housing subsidies, project-based transitional housing, community-based rapid re-housing, and usual care). Familiar neighborhoods near children’s schools, transportation, family and friends, and stability were important to families across conditions. Program restrictions on eligibility constrained family choices. Subsidized housing was the most desired intervention and families leased up at higher rates than in other studies of poor families. Respondents were least comfortable in and most likely to leave transitional housing. Uncertainty associated with community-based rapid re-housing generated considerable anxiety. Across interventions, many families had to make unhappy compromises, often leading to further moves. Policy recommendations are offered. PMID:25258503

  11. Early Earth differentiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael J. Walter; Reidar G. Trønnes

    2004-01-01

    The birth and infancy of Earth was a time of profound differentiation involving massive internal reorganization into core, mantle and proto-crust, all within a few hundred million years of solar system formation (t0). Physical and isotopic evidence indicate that the formation of iron-rich cores generally occurred very early in planetesimals, the building blocks of proto-Earth, within about 3 million years

  12. The Day the Earth Shook

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In this earthquake safety classroom activity, students work in teams to build seismic safe structures. Students will try building their own structure to see if they can discover some of the features that minimize the effects on a building when the Earth shakes. Each team will build and test three structures following the instructions. After all teams finish, the class discusses features of seismic safe structures.

  13. Response of porous building stones to acid deposition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. M. Grossi; M. Murray; R. N. Butlin

    1995-01-01

    This work investigates the response of porous carbonate building stones to acid deposition during a short-terra exposure period and the characteristics that influence their reactivity and\\/or durability. Several carbonate porous stones used in Spanish and English monuments were exposed to English urban and suburban environments. In each location they were both exposed to and sheltered from rainfall. Monthly analyses were

  14. Seismic assessment of school buildings in Taiwan using the evolutionary support vector machine inference system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ching-Shan Chen; Min-Yuan Cheng; Yu-Wei Wu

    Elementary and junior high school buildings in Taiwan are designed to serve not only as places of education but also as temporary shelters in the aftermath of major earthquakes. Effective evaluation of the seismic resistance of school buildings is a critical issue that deserves further investigation. The National Center for Research on Earthquake Engineering (in Taiwan) currently employs performance-target ground

  15. Molecular epidemiology of feline bordetellosis in two animal shelters in California, USA.

    PubMed

    Foley, Janet E; Rand, Courtney; Bannasch, Mike J; Norris, Carol R; Milan, Joy

    2002-06-25

    "Kennel cough" in dogs in animal shelters is readily transmissible, reduces adoption rates, and commonly leads to the euthanasia of affected dogs. In cats, tracheobronchitis, conjunctivitis, and pneumonia have been associated with Bordetella bronchiseptica infection-but most cases of upper-respiratory infection (URI) probably are caused by herpesvirus and calicivirus, and many B. bronchiseptica culture-positive cats are clinically normal. Our prospective observational study was undertaken to document the contribution of B. bronchiseptica to disease in cats and dogs from two animal shelters undergoing outbreaks of canine kennel cough, to evaluate whether cross-species transmission might have occurred, and to determine if the presence of infected cats represented a risk to dogs. Clinically defined cases of kennel cough in dogs and URI in cats were investigated in two shelters by calculating clinical-disease incidence, alveolar-lavage cytological examination, bacterial and viral cultures, antibiotic-susceptibility testing, and molecular fingerprinting by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. In a 40-cat and 40-dog "no-kill" shelter, the prevalences of culture positivity were 47% for B. bronchiseptica and 36% for calicivirus at the same time as two resident dogs demonstrated clinical cough. When no dogs had kennel cough 3 months later, 10% of cats were B. bronchiseptica-culture-positive and 63% calicivirus positive. In a large traditional shelter, the incidence of kennel cough in dogs increased over 12 weeks to a maximum of 19 cases/week/120 dogs, during which time the culture prevalence was 23% for B. bronchiseptica in dogs and 47% in cats. Three to 6 months before the kennel-cough epidemic, no dogs or cats were B. bronchiseptica positive. Very little genetic variability was detected in isolates from these shelters; all isolates except one corresponded to a single strain type which was identical to the pattern in a vaccine used in these shelters. Isolates from other cats, a horse, a llama, and a sea otter were genetically distinct from the shelter isolates. There was widespread resistance to cephalosporins and ampicillin, but low or no resistance to amoxicillin/clavulanate, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, tetracycline, and enrofloxacin. Greater percent resistance was observed in the traditional shelter than in the no-kill shelter and feline isolates were more likely to be resistant than canine isolates. PMID:12069777

  16. "I Am Not a Shelter!": Stigma and Social Boundaries in Teachers' Accounts of Students' Experience in Separate "Sheltered" English Learner Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dabach, Dafney Blanca

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates how teachers interact with immigrant-origin youth in school-based contexts of reception that mediate youth's educational opportunities. One understudied context is sheltered instruction, where English learners (ELs) are placed into separate content-area courses to target their linguistic needs. This qualitative study…

  17. GreenShelter for telecom applications a new generation of shelters for telecom applications integrating fuel cell electric backup and a new cooling approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Giuseppe Gianolio; Ilaria Rosso; Luca Mercante; Francesco Pedrazzo; Giuseppe Simonato; Franco Ceriani

    2008-01-01

    A new generation of shelter for telecom application has been designed and manufactured. The basic approach was to overcome the limit of the current technology regarding cooling needs and energy consumption as well as maintenance costs and backup autonomy. In this perspective the following elements have been considered: to implement an active cooling with very low energy consumption or passive

  18. Elimination behavior of shelter dogs housed in double compartment kennels.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Denae; Newbury, Sandra; Kass, Philip; Hurley, Kate

    2014-01-01

    For animals in confinement housing the housing structure has tremendous potential to impact well being. Dogs in animal shelters are often housed in one of two types of confinement housing - single kennels and rooms or double compartment kennels and rooms most often separated by a guillotine door. This study examines the effect of housing on the location of elimination behavior in dogs housed in double compartment kennels were the majority of the dogs were walked daily. One side of the kennel contained the food, water and bed and the other side was empty and available except during cleaning time. Location of urination and defecation was observed daily for 579 dogs housed in indoor double compartment kennels for a total of 4440 days of observation. There were 1856 days (41.9%) when no elimination was noted in the kennel. Feces, urine or both were observed in the kennel on 2584 days (58.1%). When elimination occurred in the kennel the probability of fecal elimination on the opposite side of the bed/food/water was 72.5% (95% CI 69.05% to 75.69%). The probability of urination on the opposite side of the bed/food/water was 77.4% (95% CI 74.33% to 80.07%). This study demonstrates the strong preference of dogs to eliminate away from the area where they eat, drink and sleep. Double compartment housing not only allows this - it allows staff the ability to provide safe, efficient, humane daily care and confers the added benefits of reducing risks for disease transmission for the individual dog as well as the population. PMID:24825357

  19. Elimination Behavior of Shelter Dogs Housed in Double Compartment Kennels

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Denae; Newbury, Sandra; Kass, Philip; Hurley, Kate

    2014-01-01

    For animals in confinement housing the housing structure has tremendous potential to impact well being. Dogs in animal shelters are often housed in one of two types of confinement housing – single kennels and rooms or double compartment kennels and rooms most often separated by a guillotine door. This study examines the effect of housing on the location of elimination behavior in dogs housed in double compartment kennels were the majority of the dogs were walked daily. One side of the kennel contained the food, water and bed and the other side was empty and available except during cleaning time. Location of urination and defecation was observed daily for 579 dogs housed in indoor double compartment kennels for a total of 4440 days of observation. There were 1856 days (41.9%) when no elimination was noted in the kennel. Feces, urine or both were observed in the kennel on 2584 days (58.1%). When elimination occurred in the kennel the probability of fecal elimination on the opposite side of the bed/food/water was 72.5% (95% CI 69.05% to 75.69%). The probability of urination on the opposite side of the bed/food/water was 77.4% (95% CI 74.33% to 80.07%). This study demonstrates the strong preference of dogs to eliminate away from the area where they eat, drink and sleep. Double compartment housing not only allows this – it allows staff the ability to provide safe, efficient, humane daily care and confers the added benefits of reducing risks for disease transmission for the individual dog as well as the population. PMID:24825357

  20. Shelter from the Storm: Building a Safe Archive in a Hostile World

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jon Maclaren; Gabrielle Allen; Chirag Dekate; Dayong Huang; Andrei Hutanu; Chongjie Zhang

    2005-01-01

    The storing of data and configuration files related to scien- tific experiments is vital if those experiments are to remain reproducible, or if the data is to be shared easily. The prescence of historical (observed) data is also important in order to assist in model evaluation and devel- opment. This paper describes the design and implementation process for a data

  1. The evolution of shelter: ecology and ethology of chimpanzee nest building

    E-print Network

    Stewart, Fiona Anne

    2011-11-08

    ? ..................................... 92 INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................................... 93 Predator avoidance in other primates... another nest). Day nests were seen built for temporary use during the day. Unknown nests had no faeces or urine beneath, but due to un-withered leaves were likely either fresh or abandoned...

  2. Examining the utility of satellite-based wind sheltering estimates for lake hydrodynamic modeling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    2014-01-01

    Satellite-based measurements of vegetation canopy structure have been in common use for the last decade but have never been used to estimate canopy's impact on wind sheltering of individual lakes. Wind sheltering is caused by slower winds in the wake of topography and shoreline obstacles (e.g. forest canopy) and influences heat loss and the flux of wind-driven mixing energy into lakes, which control lake temperatures and indirectly structure lake ecosystem processes, including carbon cycling and thermal habitat partitioning. Lakeshore wind sheltering has often been parameterized by lake surface area but such empirical relationships are only based on forested lakeshores and overlook the contributions of local land cover and terrain to wind sheltering. This study is the first to examine the utility of satellite imagery-derived broad-scale estimates of wind sheltering across a diversity of land covers. Using 30 m spatial resolution ASTER GDEM2 elevation data, the mean sheltering height, hs, being the combination of local topographic rise and canopy height above the lake surface, is calculated within 100 m-wide buffers surrounding 76,000 lakes in the U.S. state of Wisconsin. Uncertainty of GDEM2-derived hs was compared to SRTM-, high-resolution G-LiHT lidar-, and ICESat-derived estimates of hs, respective influences of land cover type and buffer width on hs are examined; and the effect of including satellite-based hs on the accuracy of a statewide lake hydrodynamic model was discussed. Though GDEM2 hs uncertainty was comparable to or better than other satellite-based measures of hs, its higher spatial resolution and broader spatial coverage allowed more lakes to be included in modeling efforts. GDEM2 was shown to offer superior utility for estimating hs compared to other satellite-derived data, but was limited by its consistent underestimation of hs, inability to detect within-buffer hs variability, and differing accuracy across land cover types. Nonetheless, considering a GDEM2 hs-derived wind sheltering potential improved the modeled lake temperature root mean square error for non-forested lakes by 0.72 °C compared to a commonly used wind sheltering model based on lake area alone. While results from this study show promise, the limitations of near-global GDEM2 data in timeliness, temporal and spatial resolution, and vertical accuracy were apparent. As hydrodynamic modeling and high-resolution topographic mapping efforts both expand, future remote sensing-derived vegetation structure data must be improved to meet wind sheltering accuracy requirements to expand our understanding of lake processes.

  3. Earth's Three

    E-print Network

    Hacker, Randi

    2010-11-17

    Broadcast Transcript: From Mongolia, land of fermented mare's milk, comes this beguiling morsel of nomadic oral tradition. It's called yertonciin gorav or Earth's Three. Earth's three what? Well, Earth's three top things in a number of categories...

  4. Earth's Atmosphere

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-08-03

    This problem set is about the methods scientists use to compare the abundance of the different elements in Earth's atmosphere. Answer key is provided. This is part of Earth Math: A Brief Mathematical Guide to Earth Science and Climate Change.

  5. Earth Sciences Environmental Earth Sciences,

    E-print Network

    Brierley, Andrew

    84 Earth Sciences­ Environmental Earth Sciences, Geology MGeol (Single Honours Degrees) Earth Sciences BSc (Single Honours Degrees) Environmental Earth Sciences Geology BSc (Joint Honours Degrees) and among the most research-intensive in Europe. Features * The Department of Earth and Environmental

  6. A Critical Discourse Analysis of Provincial Policies Impacting Shelter Service Delivery to Women Exposed to Violence.

    PubMed

    Burnett, Camille; Ford-Gilboe, Marilyn; Berman, Helene; Ward-Griffin, Cathy; Wathen, Nadine

    2015-02-01

    Shelters for abused women function within a broad context that includes intersecting social structures, policies, and resources, which may constrain and limit the options available to abused women and tacitly reinforce the cycle of abuse. This feminist, qualitative study combined in-depth interviews and focus groups conducted with 37 staff and four executive directors from four shelters in Ontario, Canada, along with a critical discourse analysis of salient policy texts. Together, the interviews and critical discourse analysis formed an integrated analysis of the dialectic between policy as written and enacted. The study findings illuminate the complexity of the system and its impact on women, shelters, and the community and highlight how specific types of social policies and various social system subsystems and structures, and system configuration, shape the day to day reality of shelter service delivery and impact outcomes for abused women and their children. Collectively, these findings offer direction regarding where these policies could be improved and provide a basis for shelters, policy makers, advocates, and the community to strengthen current services and policies, potentially enhancing outcomes for women. PMID:25908665

  7. Rapid HIV Testing and Counseling for Residents in Domestic Violence Shelters

    PubMed Central

    Draucker, Claire Burke; Johnson, Dawn M.; Johnson, Nicole L.; Kadeba, Myriam T.; Mazurczyk, Jill; Zlotnick, Caron

    2015-01-01

    Over one million Americans live with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and roughly 20% of those living with HIV are unaware of their status. One way to decrease this epidemic is community-based rapid testing with high-risk populations. One high-risk population that has received limited attention is victims of intimate partner violence (IPV) who seek shelter. In an effort to gain foundational information to implement rapid HIV testing and counseling services in domestic violence shelters, the current study conducted a series of focus groups with 18 residents and 10 staff of local shelters from October 15th to December 12th, 2012. Participants provided valuable insight into how HIV rapid testing and counseling might be best implemented given the resources and constraints of shelter life. Despite identifying some potential barriers, most believed that the promise of quick results, the convenience and support afforded by the shelter venue, and the timing of the intervention at a point when women are making life changes would render the intervention acceptable to residents. Further insights are discussed in the article. PMID:25738795

  8. Beyond Earth's Boundaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Kennedy Space Center, FL. John F. Kennedy Space Center.

    This resource for teachers of elementary age students provides a foundation for building a life-long interest in the U.S. space program. It begins with a basic understanding of man's attempt to conquer the air, then moves on to how we expanded into near-Earth space for our benefit. Students learn, through hands-on experiences, from projects…

  9. Green Buildings Virtual Tour

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-06-26

    In this lesson, learners will use Google Earth to explore the diversity of green buildings around the world. During the activity, they will look for and record the characteristics that make buildings 'green'. They will also refer to the LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) consensus-based national rating system to understand how buildings are developed to be both effective and sustainable. This lesson plan includes suggested resources, wrap-up discussion questions, key vocabulary, and is standards-based.

  10. A needs-assessment and demographic survey of infection-control and disease awareness in western US animal shelters.

    PubMed

    Steneroden, Kay K; Hill, Ashley E; Salman, M D

    2011-01-01

    A cross-sectional needs-assessment survey was used to characterize animal shelters in a 6-state region in the western US and describe infection-control practices and disease awareness. Survey questions focused on shelter demographics, infection-control practices and policies, awareness and concern over infectious and zoonotic diseases, staff and volunteer training relating to infection-control and disease awareness, use of diagnostic tools, and isolation procedures and protocols. Fifty percent of shelters responded to the survey and represented a wide variety of shelter types, sizes and locations. The top-three diseases of concern to shelters were feline upper respiratory disease (FURD), canine parvovirus and ringworm. Concern over these diseases was greater in open-admission shelters (compared to limited admission or no-kill/sanctuary) (OR 3.7, 95% CI 1.1-12.5) and in shelters with a desire for more zoonotic-disease training (OR=6.1, 95% CI 1.5-24.8) (compared to shelters desiring infectious-disease training, training on cleaning and disinfection or those who have no need for further training). In 45% of responding shelters many to most animals arrive with infectious diseases. Written protocols for preventive medicine exist in 88% of shelters, cleaning and disinfection protocols in 75%, specific disease protocols for outbreak situations in 36% and infection-control manuals in 15%. Veterinarians are in charge of infection-control in 6% of shelters. Approximately 45% of shelters vaccinate dogs and cats for rabies. Infectious-disease training is provided to 30% of staff and 35% of volunteers upon hire. Overall, volunteers received less training in infectious- and zoonotic-disease identification, prevention and control than staff members. Ninety percent of shelters said they would benefit from training in infectious and zoonotic disease. Results from this study can be used to assess and address needs in animal shelters relating to infection-control, infectious and zoonotic-disease awareness and can help guide development of shelter staff and volunteer training. PMID:21126786

  11. Seasonal shifts in shelter and microhabitat use of drymarchon couperi (eastern indigo snake) in Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hyslop, N.L.; Cooper, R.J.; Meyers, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Drymarchon couperi (Eastern Indigo Snake), a threatened species of the southeastern Coastal Plain of the United States, has experienced population declines because of extensive habitat loss and degradation across its range. In Georgia and northern Florida, the species is associated with longleaf pine habitats that support Gopherus polyphemus (Gopher Tortoise) populations, the burrows of which D. couperi uses for shelter. The extent that D. couperi uses these burrows, in addition to the use of other underground shelters and the microhabitat features associated with these structures is largely unknown. From 2003 through 2004, we conducted a radiotelemetry study of D. couperi (n = 32) to examine use of shelters and microhabitat in Georgia. We used repeated measures regression on a candidate set of models created from a priori hypotheses using principal component scores, derived from analysis of microhabitat data to examine microhabitat use at underground shelters. Proportion of locations recorded underground did not differ seasonally or between sexes. In winter, we recorded >0.90 of underground locations at tortoise burrows. Use of these burrows was less pronounced in spring for males. Females used abandoned tortoise burrows more frequently than males year-round and used them on approximately 0.60 of their underground locations during spring. Microhabitat use at underground shelters was most influenced by season compared to sex, site, or body size. Females in spring and summer used more open microhabitat compared to males, potentially in response to gestation. Our results suggest that the availability of suitable underground shelters, especially G. polyphemus burrows, may be a limiting factor in the northern range of D. couperi, with important implications for its conservation. ?? 2009 by the American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists.

  12. Research on upgrading structures for host and risk area shelters. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Tansley, R.S.; Cuzner, G.J.; Wilton, C.

    1982-09-01

    This report presents a summary of the work conducted during the first year of a five-year program. This research effort provides the engineering basis and guidance for the development of upgrading for host and risk area shelters. This investigation is in support of current Civil Defense planning based on a policy of crisis relocation, and includes investigative efforts related to glulam timber beams, concrete connections, punching strength of reinforced concrete slabs, and static/dynamic testing of prestressed concrete slabs. The results of this study are being used in the development of a prediction methodology for comparative selection of shelter spaces.

  13. The effect of rain-out shelters on the microclimate of vegetation patches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babel, Wolfgang; Schaller, Carsten; Hübner, Jörg; Kreyling, Jürgen; Jentsch, Anke; Thomas, Christoph; Foken, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    It is commonly expected that climate change will increase the probability of extreme weather events. The potential impact of such events on ecosystems can be explored with manipulation experiments at the field scale using rain-out shelters to simulate altered precipitation regimes and extreme droughts. Despite their economical use and ease of deployment it is known, however, that rain-out shelters not only exclude precipitation, but change the microclimate of the enclosed vegetation by modifying the radiation and wind regimes. We investigated the microclimatological impacts of rain-out shelter using a horizontal mobile measuring system (HMMS) as part of the EVENT II experiments at the University of Bayreuth in 2012. The EVENT II experiment explores the effects of extreme weather events (drought at different times in the year) as well as summer and winter warming in interaction with land-use intensity on the ecosystem performance of a semi-natural grassland community. The HMMS collected observations outside and inside the rain-out shelters moving along a set of tracks installed in a U-shape with a total sampling time of 10 min per lapse. The measurements were used to quantify the differences in radiation components, air temperature, and air moisture between within and outside the shelters. We explain the observed differences in terms of differences in external forcing variables related to common weather modes. The impact on evapotranspiration is explored by using the observations as input variables for the Penman-Monteith model to estimate actual evapotranspiration. The found differences were most pronounced for down-welling long- and short-wave radiation. Plant surface temperature, inferred from outgoing long-wave radiation, consistently increased inside the shelters and additional measurements with non-moving thermometers show that near-ground minimum temperatures inside the shelter can be up to 3-4 K higher than outside during clear-sky nights. Contrary to initial expectations, the HMMS measurements indicated lower air temperature under the roof for these nights. The effect can be explained by differences in the shape of the height-dependent temperature profiles and highlights the importance of measurement height on air temperature observation in rain-out shelters.

  14. Applying genetic algorithms to the location allocation of shelter sites Xiang Li, Hsiang-te Kung, Jerry Bartholomew, Esra Ozdenerol

    E-print Network

    Li, Xiang

    Applying genetic algorithms to the location allocation of shelter sites Xiang Li, Hsiang-te Kung-hard problem. This paper aims to tackle this problem by genetic algorithms. An extended, problem-specific genetic algorithm is proposed and applied to the location allocation of 50 shelter centers in Shelby

  15. Cognitive Behavioral Treatment of PTSD in Residents of Battered Women's Shelters: Results of a Randomized Clinical Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Dawn M.; Zlotnick, Caron; Perez, Sara

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study was designed to explore the acceptability, feasibility, and initial efficacy of a new shelter-based treatment for victims of intimate partner violence (IPV; i.e., Helping to Overcome PTSD through Empowerment [HOPE]). Method: A Phase I randomized clinical trial comparing HOPE (n = 35) with standard shelter services (SSS) (n =…

  16. 2010 RAL Space Solar Impacts on Earth

    E-print Network

    © 2010 RAL Space Solar Impacts on Earth: Revealed by NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory & STEREO minimum for a century: · Why? What happened? · What does that mean for the Earth? · Will the next build up cycle begins... The Events of 1-4 August 2010: A Close Shave for the Earth! 1 August 2010 ­ The day

  17. DEPARTMENT OF EARTH, OCEAN and ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES

    E-print Network

    DEPARTMENT OF EARTH, OCEAN and ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES Part-Time Sessional Lecturer EOSC 116 Sciences, University of British Columbia, Room 2020, Earth Sciences Building, 2207 Main Mall, Vancouver, B ­ Mesozoic Earth: Time of the Dinosaurs EOSC 116 is a team-taught and the topic to be covered

  18. High prevalence of deep vein thrombosis in tsunami-flooded shelters established after the great East-Japan earthquake.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Shinsaku; Hanzawa, Kazuhiko; Shibata, Muneichi; Suzuki, Satoshi

    2012-01-01

    High prevalence of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in disaster shelters has been reported in the aftermath of earthquakes in Japan. Calf DVT was examined using sonography in the shelters after the Great East Japan earthquake on March 11, 2011. By the end of July 2011, 701 out of 8,630 evacuees suspected with calf DVT, judged by inspections or medical interviews, were examined in 32 shelters, and 190 evacuees were confirmed to have calf DVT. The prevalence of DVT was 2.20%, which was 200 times higher than the usual incidence in Japan. The DVT prevalence seemed to decrease with time. By the end of May, a significantly higher prevalence of DVT was found in tsunami-flooded shelters (109 of 3,871 evacuees; 2.82%) than in non-flooded shelters (53 of 3,155 evacuees; 1.68%). After June, its prevalence was still higher (18/541; 3.33%) in tsunami-flooded shelters than in non-flooded shelters (10/1063; 0.94%). The cause of the high prevalence of DVT was supposed to be dehydration due to the delay in supplying drinking water, vomiting, and diarrhea experienced by the evacuees because of a shortage of clean water to wash their hands. Dehydration was especially noticed in women because they restricted themselves of water intake to avoid using unsanitary toilet facilities. Moreover, crowded shelters restricted the mobility of elderly people, which would exacerbate the prevalence of DVT. Those deteriorated and crowded shelters were observed in tsunami-flooded areas. Therefore, long-term shelters should not be set up in flooded areas after tsunami. PMID:22728376

  19. Simplifying the assessment of building vulnerability to chemical,biological and radiological releases

    SciTech Connect

    Thatcher, T.L.; Wood, E.E.; Edelson, E.C.; Sextro, R.G.

    2005-01-01

    The intentional or accidental release of airborne chemical, biological, or radiological materials can pose a significant threat to the health of building occupants. Pre-planning and emergency response measures, such as HVAC system manipulation and sheltering during an event, can significantly reduce the exposure of building occupants. A straightforward and comprehensive vulnerability assessment methodology is an essential tool for assisting building managers and operators in preparing for airborne hazards.

  20. The effect of housing and handling practices on the welfare, behaviour and selection of domestic cats (Felis sylvestris catus) by adopters in an animal shelter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N Gourkow; D Fraser

    As adult cats can often be difficult to re-home, they may spend long periods in rescue shelters where barren housing and inconsis- tent handling can reduce their welfare. In this study, 165 adult cats in an animal shelter in Vancouver, Canada, were assigned to four treatments. The Basic Single treatment reflected typical conditions in that particular shelter, with cats handled

  1. 2E9 ENGINEERING DESIGN III: GIVE ME SHELTER [10 credits] Lecturer(s): Professor Mark Dyer (mark.dyer@tcd.ie)

    E-print Network

    O'Mahony, Donal E.

    the design brief and develop a workable creative solution for a temporary shelter. As part of the design for temporary shelters including recycling and carbon footprint; drawings and calculations. Following submission2E9 ENGINEERING DESIGN III: GIVE ME SHELTER [10 credits] Lecturer(s): Professor Mark Dyer (mark

  2. Development of shelter use plans. Final report Sep 77Feb 79

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. D. Wright; S. B. York

    1979-01-01

    Under the concept of Crisis Relocation Planning (CRP), residents of areas considered to be likely targets of a nuclear attack are evacuated to areas of lower risk. In the relocated posture, the evacuated population will need protection from fallout radiation if a nuclear attack occurs. This report describes the procedures used to develop fallout shelter use plans for two areas

  3. Exploration of the Prevalence and Correlates of Substance Use among Sheltered Adolescents in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Sookyung; Kim, Hae Sung; Kim, Haeryun; Sung, Kgu-taik

    2007-01-01

    Substance use among sheltered adolescents is very serious in South Korea--a nation in the process of rapid industrialization and urbanization. However, few studies have investigated substance use among the adolescents which is a growing concern of the changing society of this nation. This study examined the prevalence of substance use and explored…

  4. Relationship between age at gonadectomy and health problems in kittens adopted from shelters.

    PubMed

    Porters, N; Polis, I; Moons, C P H; Van de Maele, I; Ducatelle, R; Goethals, K; Duchateau, L; de Rooster, H

    2015-05-30

    Prepubertal gonadectomy (PPG) is promoted as a way of managing overpopulation in cats, but concerns about PPG and potential health issues still exist. The objective of the present study was to evaluate short-term and long-term health problems in cats subjected to PPG in comparison to gonadectomy at traditional age (TAG). In a prospective clinical trial, 800 shelter kittens aged between approximately 8 weeks and 12?weeks were recruited before adoption and randomly assigned to either the PPG group (gonadectomy performed immediately) or the TAG group (gonadectomy delayed until six months to eight months of age). Short-term health issues included mortality between when kittens arrived at the clinic and up to seven days after they returned to the shelter, as well as the occurrence of various other health issues arising in the first month following adoption. Kittens were followed-up until 24?months of age specifically for feline lower urinary tract disease, urethral obstruction (male cats), lameness, fractures and hypersensitivity disorders with dermatological presentation. In the short term, there were no significant differences between health problems in PPG and TAG kittens. Similarly, no significant differences were observed between treatment groups in terms of the type or number of health issues in the long term. In conclusion, there are no health-related contraindications to advocating PPG strategies in shelter cats. Ideally, PPG should be performed at the shelter facility itself as long as excellent infectious disease control and postoperative clinical observation before adoption are guaranteed. PMID:25820324

  5. The influence of olfactory stimulation on the behaviour of cats housed in a rescue shelter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sarah L. H. Ellis; Deborah L. Wells

    2010-01-01

    A wide variety of feline species have been shown to gain welfare benefits from the introduction of olfactory stimuli to the captive environment. The effect of this stimulation on the domestic cat, however, has been largely overlooked. This study thus explored the influence of olfactory stimulation on cats housed in a rescue shelter to determine whether it holds any value

  6. THE LOGAN BEEMAIL SHELTER: A PRACTICAL, PORTABLE UNIT FOR MANAGING CAVITY-NESTING AGRICULTURAL POLLINATORS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An affordable, durable, portable nesting shelter will be useful to manage cavity-nesting bees for agricultural pollination. A design is described here that is assembled from commercially available components. It has been successfully used during field experiments with the alfalfa leaf-cutting bee ...

  7. Wave energy resources in sheltered sea areas: A case study of the Baltic Sea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hans Bernhoff; Elisabeth Sjöstedt; Mats Leijon

    2006-01-01

    Wave energy is a renewable source, which has not yet been exploited to a large extent. So far the main focus of wave energy conversion has been on the large wave energy resources of the great oceans on northern latitudes. However, large portions of the world potential wave energy resources are found in sheltered waters and calmer seas, which often

  8. International Students' Perceptions of Shelter-in-Place Notifications: Implications for University Officials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Thomas C.

    2014-01-01

    Emergency notifications and shelter-in-place warnings on college and university campuses are generally issued in English and presuppose either a common shared language and culture or the adaptation of the warning system to a multilingual and multicultural social structure. This study examined the roles that language, culture, and emergency…

  9. Importance of Cubitermes termitaries as shelter for alien incipient termite societies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Dejean; J. E. Ruelle

    1995-01-01

    Summary We hypothetized that in the African rainforest (Cameroon), one of the principal limiting factors for termite multiplication is the relative scarcity of nesting sites. As a consequence, termitaries ofCubitermes fungifaber, C. banksi andC. subarquatus with their alveolate structure might constitute good shelters for incipient societies. In the cavities of these termitaries we recorded 29 termite species (including conspecifics) belonging

  10. The feasibility of using paperboard as a basic material for housing shelters 

    E-print Network

    Thorpe, Roscoe Paul

    1965-01-01

    a-mount of research and hard work will need to be accomplished before a marketable shelter unit can be manufactured. Some of the problems relating to construction with paperboard have been solved; many others need additional study. It is strongly...

  11. Shifting Attention Back to Students within the Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniel, Shannon M.; Conlin, Luke

    2015-01-01

    The Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol (SIOP) is increasingly used as an instructional framework to help elementary and secondary teachers support English language learners (ELLs). This useful tool has helped teachers gain the knowledge, skills, and dispositions they need to support ELLs learn subject-area content and skills while learning…

  12. Fire alarm system\\/fire suppression system for mobile tactical shelters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. K. Walker; C. A. Lecours; O. Radcliff

    1985-01-01

    The objective of this project was to develop a fire detection\\/suppression capability for DoD standard family mobile tactical shelters. The systems developed and tested provide complete protection during all employment conditions; in garrison use, storage, transportation, and deployed field conditions. The reports outlines the requirement and the test and evaluation program. Two manufacturers of detection systems and two manufacturers of

  13. The People's Dialogue on Land and Shelter: community-driven networking in South Africa's informal settlements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joel Bolnick

    1993-01-01

    The People's Dialogue on Land and Shelter: communitydriven networking in South Africa's informal settlements describes a network which links representativesfrom illegal and informal settlements. The paper describes the evolution of the Dialogue from a workshop to a permanent process of internal and international exchange programmes linking squatter communities and a community based credit scheme.

  14. The influence of environmental change on the behaviour of sheltered dogs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Deborah L Wells; Peter G Hepper

    2000-01-01

    The majority of sheltered dogs are overlooked for purchase because they are considered undesirable by potential buyers. Many factors may determine a dog's appeal, although of interest here are the dog's behaviour and cage environment which can influence its desirability. People prefer dogs which are at the front rather than the back of the cage, quiet as opposed to barking,

  15. The Efficacy of Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol (SIOP) in Mathematics Instruction on English Language Learner Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vidot, Jose L.

    2011-01-01

    Studies by the National Association for Educational Progress found that English Language Learner (ELL) students perform poorly compared to other students on standardized mathematics exams. The research problem addressed how Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol (SIOP) affected the instructional practices of high school mathematics teachers.…

  16. Aggression and competition for shelter between a native and an introduced crayfish in Europe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christoph Vorburger; Georg Ribi

    1999-01-01

    SUMMARY 1. The introduced North American crayfish, Pacifastacus leniusculus Dana, is expanding its range in Europe and locally often replaces two native crayfish species, Astacus astacus L. and Austropotamobius pallipes Lereboullet. Pacifastacus leniusculus is also expected to invade the habitat of a third native crayfish, the endangered Austropotamobius torrentium Schrank. Interspecific aggressive interactions and competition for shelter were experimentally studied

  17. A ubiquitous power with DC micro-grid for Sectional Compact Emergency Shelters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Keiichi Kato; Masayuki Okamoto; Eiji Hiraki; Toshihiko Tanaka; Makoto Koganei; Fusanori Miura

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a mobile power for the Sectional Compact Emergency Shelter (SCES), which is used under the great disaster. The proposed mobile power consists of the Fuel Cells (FCs), photovoltaic cells (PVs) and lithium-ion rechargeable batteries. This mobile power is constructed in a container car. Therefore, the constructed mobile power is easily moveable and constructible with the SCESs. The

  18. An index for tracking sheltered forest floor moisture within the Canadian Forest Fire Weather Index System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. M. WottonA; B. J. StocksA; D. L. MartellC

    The Duff Moisture Code (DMC) component of the Canadian Forest Fire Weather Index (FWI) System is used by fire management agencies across Canada as an indicator of the susceptibility of the forest floor to lightning fire ignition. However, this model was developed for the moisture content of the forest floor away from the sheltering influences of overstory trees, an area

  19. An index for tracking sheltered forest floor moisture within the Canadian Forest Fire Weather Index System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. M. Wotton; B. J. Stocks; D. L. Martell

    2005-01-01

    Abstract. The Duff Moisture Code (DMC) component,of the Canadian Forest Fire Weather Index (FWI) System is used by fire management,agencies across Canada as an indicator of the susceptibility of the forest floor to lightning fire ignition. However, this model was developed for the moisture content of the forest floor away from the sheltering influences of overstory trees, an area where

  20. Perceived Barriers to Optimum Nutrition among Congregate (Sheltered) Housing Residents in the USA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahadevan, Meena; Hartwell, Heather; Feldman, Charles; Raines, Emily

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Malnutrition, secondary to decreased food intake, is a public health problem of epidemic proportions among older adults in the United States of America (USA). Compared to community-dwelling senior citizens, congregate (sheltered) housing residents are found to be frailer, with documented deficiencies in several major and minor…

  1. Service Quality and Corporate Social Responsibility, Influence on Post-Purchase Intentions of Sheltered Employment Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Chao-Chien; Lin, Shih-Yen; Cheng, Chia-Hsin; Tsai, Chia-Ching

    2012-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of service quality and corporate social responsibility (CSR) on customer satisfaction, and customer satisfaction toward post-purchase intentions from sheltered employment institutions. Work experience plays an important role in career development for those people with intellectual…

  2. The Meaning of Self-Concept in a Sheltered Workshop Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zetlin, Andrea G.; And Others

    Systematic observations and ratings by self and others were part of an ethnographic approach to studying the self-concept of 48 severely to mildly mentally retarded adults in a sheltered workshop setting. Ss completed both the Self-Esteem Inventory for Adults and "The Way I Feel About Myself" Self-Concept Scale. Rehabilitation counselors completed…

  3. Development of an Occupational Therapy Practice Perspective in a Homeless Shelter: A Fieldwork Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heubner, Joanne; Tryssenaar, Joyce

    1996-01-01

    An occupational therapy student's journal describes a clinical experience in a homeless shelter. Key themes were residents' search for meaning in life and the student's search for meaning in the therapist role; the importance of rapport; and residents' innate drive toward purposeful activity, which the student was able to address. (SK)

  4. 2010-2011 Inventors Competition--Winners of the "Gimme Shelter" Competition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tech Directions, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The number of entries to this year's "Tech Directions" Inventors Competition exceeded even the record set by the 2009-2010 contest--and gave engineer/inventor Harry T. Roman quite a judging challenge. This year's challenge called on students to propose designs for inexpensive, portable shelters that could be used by people made homeless by natural…

  5. Modelling terrestrial interactions and shelter use in great crested newts ( Triturus cristatus )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jan C. Malmgren; Per-Åke Andersson; Simon Ekdahl

    2007-01-01

    The great crested newt (Triturus cristatus) is a pond-breeding salamander with a prolonged aquatic phase and a period of activity in the terrestrial environment prior to hibernation. Individuals use ground-covering objects and burrows as shelters from predators and unfavourable conditions. We investigated how interactions and spacing patterns were formed in staged experiments where paired newts were exposed to an arena

  6. Registration and list maintenance requirements for oil and gas tax shelters after the new temporary regulations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. S. Cash; T. L. Dickens

    1985-01-01

    There is no question that the responsibilities being placed upon tax shelter promoters have been greatly increased by the Tax Reform Act '84 and the (apparent) legislative regulations written by the Department of the Treasury. The consequences of any failure to comply with these requirements can be quite severe. Both Congress and the IRS are concerned with the potential for

  7. Chernobyl shelter implementation plan -- project development and planning: Setting the stage for progress

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Johnson; D. Kreid; W. DeFranco

    1998-01-01

    On April 26, 1986, the Chernobyl nuclear power plant (NPP) experienced a devastating accident. This accident left much of the plant and its safety systems destroyed with widespread radioactive waste contamination from the damaged nuclear fuel. In the 6 months following the accident, heroic measures were taken to stabilize the situation and erect a temporary confinement shelter over the damaged

  8. A Descriptive Study of Single Adults in Homeless Shelters: Increasing Counselors' Knowledge and Social Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baggerly, Jennifer; Zalaquett, Carlos P.

    2006-01-01

    This article is intended to help counselors increase their knowledge and social action for single adults who are homeless. Findings from a period-prevalence study of 71 single adults in a homeless shelter over 2 years reveal demographics, mental health needs, and sociopolitical issues of this population. Implications including social justice…

  9. Threats and Acts of Intimate Partner Violence Reported by Users at Norwegian Women's Shelters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alsaker, Kjersti; Kristoffersen, Kjell; Moen, Bente E.; Baste, Valborg

    2011-01-01

    Women (n = 87) at women's shelters in Norway, a country of high welfare and gender equality, reported a multitude of severe threats and actual acts of physical, sexual and psychological violence. An individual threatening to kill his partner represented a significant increased risk for experiencing serious acts of violence, especially when the…

  10. Cyclone shelters and their locational suitability: an empirical analysis from coastal Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Mallick, Bishawjit

    2014-07-01

    Bangladesh is one of the poorest and the most disaster-prone countries in Asia; it is important, therefore, to know how its disaster reduction strategies are organised and planned. Cyclone shelters comprise a widely acceptable form of infrastructural support for disaster management in Bangladesh. This paper attempts to analyse empirically their use during cyclones in a sample study area along the southwest coastal belt of the country. It shows how the location of a cyclone shelter can determine the social power structure in coastal Bangladesh. The results reveal that the establishment of cyclone shelters in the studied communities is determined by neither a right-based nor a demand-based planning approach; rather, their creation is dependent on the socio-political affluence of local-level decision-makers. The paper goes on to demonstrate that socially vulnerable households (defined, for example, by income or housing conditions) are afforded disproportionately less access to cyclone shelters as compared to less socially vulnerable households. PMID:24905715

  11. A Way of Looking at Sheltered Workshops for the 1970's. Interface Number 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redkey, Henry

    Sheltered work programs for the handicapped in five European countries (Denmark, Sweden, Poland, West Germany, and The Netherlands) are described in this paper. Basic features of the programs in each country are discussed, including population, financing, and aspects of the programs that can be applied in helping America improve employment…

  12. 26 CFR 301.6111-1T - Questions and answers relating to tax shelter registration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...to be held by a husband and wife, their children and parents, and the spouses of their children (or any of them) will be treated as...in the sale of a tax shelter includes any marketing activities (directly or through an...

  13. The Earth System Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoeberl, Mark; Rood, Richard B.; Hildebrand, Peter; Raymond, Carol

    2003-01-01

    The Earth System Model is the natural evolution of current climate models and will be the ultimate embodiment of our geophysical understanding of the planet. These models are constructed from components - atmosphere, ocean, ice, land, chemistry, solid earth, etc. models and merged together through a coupling program which is responsible for the exchange of data from the components. Climate models and future earth system models will have standardized modules, and these standards are now being developed by the ESMF project funded by NASA. The Earth System Model will have a variety of uses beyond climate prediction. The model can be used to build climate data records making it the core of an assimilation system, and it can be used in OSSE experiments to evaluate. The computing and storage requirements for the ESM appear to be daunting. However, the Japanese ES theoretical computing capability is already within 20% of the minimum requirements needed for some 2010 climate model applications. Thus it seems very possible that a focused effort to build an Earth System Model will achieve succcss.

  14. Archeointensity determinations on Pre-Columbian potteries from La Ceiba and Santa Marta shelter-caves (Chiapas, Mexico).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez-Ceja, Maria; Camps, Pierre; Goguitchaichvili, Avto; Poidras, Thierry; Nicol, Patrick

    2014-05-01

    Quite surprisingly, the abundance of archaeological baked clays found in the tropical area of Mesoamerica contrast with the small amount of archeomagnetic data available today for this area [Fanjat et al, EPSL, 2013; Alva-Valdivia et al, PEPI, 2010, Morales et al., EPS, 2009]. It seems especially difficult to try to establish a regional trend in the intensity variations. While they are few, the data are moreover of uneven quality as attested by a large scatter in experimental values during the Mesoamerican classic and post-classic periods (250-1521 AD) that cannot be explained by real fluctuations in the Earth's magnetic field [Fanjat et al, EPSL, 2013]. The present study is part of a large effort to provide reliable and perfectly dated archeointensity data for the tropical area of Mesoamerica. It focuses on Thellier-Thellier archeointensity measurements obtained from 87 small fragments from potsherds of 12 different potteries. These potteries were excavated from sedimentary sequences within two shelter-caves, La Ceiba and Santa Marta, located on the banks of Grijalva and La Venta rivers, respectively. Both are shelter-caves without constructed structures that were inhabited by humans groups. Samples were located in different stratigraphic levels, culturally well identified and well preserved due to long time sedimentation. Only samples with a homogenous color were pre-selected for the rock magnetic study performed prior to any attempt to estimate the archeointensity. This was done in order to assure, as far as possible, a uniform baking during the manufacture, which is supposed to be made in open sky fire, since no kiln construction has been found. The ceramics ages were achieved in 2 ways: for samples with organic material associated, a 14C dating was done. The rest of the samples were dated according to their typological characteristics, comparing with regional ceramic chronological classification. This includes characteristics such as the finishing surface type, decoration, polished type, color, clay characteristics, composition, baking types, form, and function. The ages of the selected samples enclose the entire classical and post-classical periods. Most of our selected samples yielded good, from a technical point of view, archeointensity estimates. These new archeointensity determinations are compared and discussed with the previous values obtained for this area.

  15. Future of Green Building

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Penrith, Sean

    This presentation from Sean Penrith, executive director of the Earth Advantage Institute, was given at Portland Community College's 2009 Summer Sustainability Institute. Sean shares some data about the outlook for green building projects in the Portland area and elsewhere. The presentation looks at many different aspects of the issue of green building including home energy use, local and national movements to improve technology and encourage green building, information on mortgages available for sustainable home building and more. This document may be downloaded in PDF file format.

  16. In-Kennel Behavior Predicts Length of Stay in Shelter Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Protopopova, Alexandra; Mehrkam, Lindsay Renee; Boggess, May Meredith; Wynne, Clive David Lawrence

    2014-01-01

    Previous empirical evaluations of training programs aimed at improving dog adoption rates assume that dogs exhibiting certain behaviors are more adoptable. However, no systematic data are available to indicate that the spontaneous behavior of shelter dogs has an effect on adopter preference. The aim of the present study was to determine whether any behaviors that dogs exhibit spontaneously in the presence of potential adopters were associated with the dogs' length of stay in the shelter. A sample of 289 dogs was videotaped for 1 min daily throughout their stay at a county shelter. To account for differences in adopter behavior, experimenters varied from solitary passive observers to pairs of interactive observers. Dogs behaved more attentively to active observers. To account for adopter preference for morphology, dogs were divided into “morphologically preferred” and “non-preferred” groups. Morphologically preferred dogs were small, long coated, ratters, herders, and lap dogs. No theoretically significant differences in behavior were observed between the two different dog morphologies. When accounting for morphological preference, three behaviors were found to have a significant effect on length of stay in all dogs: leaning or rubbing on the enclosure wall (increased median length of stay by 30 days), facing away from the front of the enclosure (increased by 15 days), and standing (increased by 7 days). When combinations of behaviors were assessed, back and forth motion was found to predict a longer stay (increased by 24 days). No consistent behavioral changes were observed due to time spent at the shelter. These findings will allow shelters to focus behavioral modification efforts only on behaviors likely to influence adopters' choices. PMID:25551460

  17. EarthScope's Plate Boundary Observatory in Alaska: Building on Existing Infrastructure to Provide a Platform for Integrated Research and Hazard-monitoring Efforts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyce, E. S.; Bierma, R. M.; Willoughby, H.; Feaux, K.; Mattioli, G. S.; Enders, M.; Busby, R. W.

    2014-12-01

    EarthScope's geodetic component in Alaska, the UNAVCO-operated Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) network, includes 139 continuous GPS sites and 41 supporting telemetry relays. These are spread across a vast area, from northern AK to the Aleutians. Forty-five of these stations were installed or have been upgraded in cooperation with various partner agencies and currently provide data collection and transmission for more than one group. Leveraging existing infrastructure normally has multiple benefits, such as easier permitting requirements and costs savings through reduced overall construction and maintenance expenses. At some sites, PBO-AK power and communications systems have additional capacity beyond that which is needed for reliable acquisition of GPS data. Where permits allow, such stations could serve as platforms for additional instrumentation or real-time observing needs. With the expansion of the Transportable Array (TA) into Alaska, there is increased interest to leverage existing EarthScope resources for station co-location and telemetry integration. Because of the complexity and difficulty of long-term O&M at PBO sites, however, actual integration of GPS and seismic equipment must be considered on a case-by-case basis. UNAVCO currently operates two integrated GPS/seismic stations in collaboration with the Alaska Earthquake Center, and three with the Alaska Volcano Observatory. By the end of 2014, PBO and TA plan to install another four integrated and/or co-located geodetic and seismic systems. While three of these are designed around existing PBO stations, one will be a completely new TA installation, providing PBO with an opportunity to expand geodetic data collection in Alaska within the limited operations and maintenance phase of the project. We will present some of the design considerations, outcomes, and lessons learned from past and ongoing projects to integrate seismometers and other instrumentation at PBO-Alaska stations. Developing the PBO network as a platform for ongoing research and hazard monitoring equipment may also continue to serve the needs of the research community and the public beyond the sun-setting and completion of EarthScope science plan in 2018.

  18. Google Earth

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2009-01-01

    Google Earth has gone underwater with this latest iteration of their popular Earth-roaming application. Along with traveling the usual roads provided by previous versions of Google Earth, visitors can now visit the bottom of the Mariana Trench, learn about ocean observations, and even discover new places to surf and dive. On the Google Earth homepage, visitors can take a guided tour of all these new features. This version is compatible with all operating systems.

  19. Earth Calendar

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Jeffrey Barker

    This handout lists major events in Earth history with approximate ages (in millions of years before present). The calendar date is determined by setting midnight, January 1, to correspond with the formation of the Earth, and setting the following midnight, December 31, to correspond to the present. Thus, the entire history of the Earth is displayed as a single calendar year.

  20. Edible Earth

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2011-08-20

    In this activity, learners make a model of the solid Earth's layers that's good enough to eat! Learners use tasty foodstuffs to simulate Earth's inner core, outer core, mantle, and crust. The recipe includes ingredients for one edible Earth, but can be doubled or tripled to accommodate groups of learners. This activity requires adult supervision.

  1. Earth's Layers

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mrs. Walls

    2011-01-30

    Complete a poster all about Earth's Layers! Directions: Make a poster about Earth's Layers. (20 points) Include at least (1) large picture (15 points) on your poster complete with labels of every part (10 points). (15 points) Include at least three (3) facts about Earth's Layers. (5 points each) (15 points) Write at least a three sentence summary of your poster ...

  2. Earth Flow

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Wiley

    This Flash animation with accompanying audio exhibits the different stages involved in the formation of an earth flow. A step-like scarp forms along with a flowage zone at the toe of the earth flow. The sequence concludes with the stabilization of the earth flow with vegetation. Expect long loading times.

  3. Building the wireless Internet

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Elliott

    2001-01-01

    Everybody's talking about the wireless Internet, but what on earth is it? And who's building it? The trade press is adrift in a bewildering jumble of acronyms from the cellular telephony industry that claim to point the way. Or maybe dozens of LEOS (low-earth-orbiting satellites) will furnish the wireless Internet. Or perhaps it's really two way pagers on steroids-powered by

  4. Reliability of hybrid photovoltaic DC micro-grid systems for emergency shelters and other applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhere, Neelkanth G.; Schleith, Susan

    2014-10-01

    Improvement of energy efficiency in the SunSmart Schools Emergency Shelters requires new methods for optimizing the energy consumption within the shelters. One major limitation in current systems is the requirement of converting direct current (DC) power generated from the PV array into alternating current (AC) power which is distributed throughout the shelters. Oftentimes, this AC power is then converted back to DC to run certain appliances throughout the shelters resulting in a significant waste of energy due to DC to AC and then again AC to DC conversion. This paper seeks to extract the maximum value out of PV systems by directly powering essential load components within the shelters that already run on DC power without the use of an inverter and above all to make the system reliable and durable. Furthermore, additional DC applications such as LED lighting, televisions, computers and fans operated with DC brushless motors will be installed as replacements to traditional devices in order to improve efficiency and reduce energy consumption. Cost of energy storage technologies continue to decline as new technologies scale up and new incentives are put in place. This will provide a cost effective way to stabilize the energy generation of a PV system as well as to provide continuous energy during night hours. It is planned to develop a pilot program of an integrated system that can provide uninterrupted DC power to essential base load appliances (heating, cooling, lighting, etc.) at the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) command center for disaster management. PV arrays are proposed to be installed on energy efficient test houses at FSEC as well as at private homes having PV arrays where the owners volunteer to participate in the program. It is also planned to monitor the performance of the PV arrays and functioning of the appliances with the aim to improve their reliability and durability. After a successful demonstration of the hybrid DC microgrid based emergency shelter together with the monitoring system, it is planned to replicate it at other schools in Florida and elsewhere to provide continuous power for essential applications, maximizing the value of PV generation systems.

  5. Descriptive epidemiology of feline upper respiratory tract disease in an animal shelter.

    PubMed

    Dinnage, Julie D; Scarlett, Janet M; Richards, James R

    2009-10-01

    Upper respiratory tract disease (URTD) is common and spreads quickly in cats residing in animal shelters in the United States. Estimates of the actual incidence of URTD are sparse, yet this information is very important for welfare, economic and research purposes. In a large urban shelter in the northeastern US, 531 individual kittens, 701 litters, and 2203 adult cats were observed for signs of URTD during their stays. The median lengths of stay for adult cats and kittens were 5 and 4 days, respectively. Observations were made over a 50-week period. Approximately 1/3 exhibited signs of infectious respiratory disease. The crude incidence density estimates of URTD were 6.2, 6.7, and 5.6 cases per 100 cats per day among individual kittens, litters and adult cats, respectively. Increasing time of residence in the shelter increased risk of URTD. Using the Kaplan-Meier product limit method, the cumulative probability of developing URTD by day 7 in the shelter was approximately 32% (based on n=211) for litters, 31% (n=120) for individual kittens and 26% (n=763) for adult cats. By day 14, these cumulative probabilities had risen to 84% (n=18), 86% (n=7), and 80% (n=51) among litters, individual kittens and adult cats, respectively. The Kaplan-Meier failure function curve (probability of developing URTD overtime) for adults was significantly lower than those for litters or individual kittens (P<0.04). Among adult cats, those 11 years of age and older had a significantly higher risk of URTD compared to younger adult cats (P<0.05). Male cats (neutered and castrated) had higher URTD rates than ovariohysterectomized females, and purebred cats had a higher risk than those of mixed breeding. In this shelter, cats identified as strays were more likely to exhibit URTD than owner-surrendered cats. Affected cats spent a median of 3 more days than unaffected cats before they developed URTD. Approximately 1/3 (31.4%) of the observed individual kittens and 2/3 (61.8%) of the observed adult cats were euthanased with URTD in this shelter. Other factors such as space and behavior, especially among affected adult cats, were also cited as reasons leading to euthanasia. PMID:19782625

  6. Planning Protective Action Decision-Making: Evacuate or Shelter-in-Place

    SciTech Connect

    Sorensen, J.H.

    2002-08-30

    Appropriate protective action recommendations or decisions (PARs/PADs) are needed to achieve maximum protection of a population at risk. The factors that affect protective action decisions are complex but fairly well documented. Protective action decisions take into account population distributions, projected or actual exposure to a chemical substance, availability of adequate shelters, evacuation time estimates, and other relevant factors. To choose in-place sheltering, there should be a reasonable assurance that the movement of people beyond their residence, workplace, or school will endanger the health and safety of the public more so than allowing them to remain in place. The decision to evacuate the public should be based on the reasonable assurance that the movement of people to an area outside of an affected area is in the best interest of their health and safety, and is of minimal risk to them. In reality, an evacuation decision is also a resource-dependent decision. The availability of transportation and other resources, including shelters, may factor heavily in the protective action decision-making process. All strategies to protect the health and safety of the public from a release of hazardous chemicals are explicitly considered during emergency decision making. Each institutional facility (such as hospitals, schools, day care centers, correctional facilities, assisted living facilities or nursing homes) in the community should be considered separately to determine what special protective actions may be necessary. Deciding whether to evacuate or to shelter-in-place is one of the most important questions facing local emergency planners responding to a toxic chemical release. That such a complex decision with such important potential consequences must be made with such urgency places tremendous responsibility on the planners and officials involved. Researchers have devoted considerable attention to the evacuation/shelter-in-place protection decision. While several decision aids have been developed, no single approach has achieved widespread acceptance based on validity, utility, and effectiveness (Ujihara 1989, Mannan and Kilpatrick 2000). In the absence of an agreed-upon methodology for making this decision, the best strategy for local emergency planners and officials is a thorough understanding of all the components affecting the decision. This paper summarizes what is currently known about the evacuation/shelter-in-place protection decision and points to available literature that more thoroughly explores the individual components of the decision. The next section summarizes the major issues in protective action decision process. This is followed by a discussion of all the factors that may bear on the protective action decision process. The final section address how to make a protective action decision.

  7. Architectural stone investigation - What makes great buildings?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Aida Awad

    This activity is best placed as a follow-up activity to the study of minerals and the three major rock types in an introductory physical geology course. Students are required to work in small cooperative groups. Each group chooses a major building to research. The group divides the tasks associated with the research and presentation of information. The overall goal of the project is for students to gain an understanding of the importance and uses of earth materials in building and planning major buildings in an urban setting. The general format of the project is: 1. Students research building design, placement and use of earth materials in a major building. 2. Students research the earth materials used in their building. 3. Students create and show their PowerPoint presentation in class. 4. Students prepare and deliver an on-site oral presentation about their building. The activity helps students connect a basic study of earth materials to urban planning and living.

  8. MIT Department of Architecture Autumn 2012 4.461 Architectural Building Systems

    E-print Network

    Entekhabi, Dara

    .) Course Description: The making of architecture includes design and specification. Design decisions and design pedagogy address the former while building technology deals with the latter. As architecture may be satisfied with food shelter and clothing, our cultural aspirations typically push us to create

  9. The Treated Prevalence of Mental Health and Substance Use Disorders among Adults Admitted to the Philadelphia Shelter System: Results from the Integration of Longitudinal Data on Shelter and Mental Health Services Utilization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dennis P Culhane; June M Averyt; Trevor R Hadley

    1996-01-01

    This paper reports results from a study of the treated prevalence of mental health and substance use disorders among adults admitted to Philadelphia public shelters between 1990 and 1992 (N=28,638). Identifiers and service records from longitudinal databases on shelter and mental health services were merged, finding that 49% of single homeless adults and 33.2% of homeless adults with children had

  10. Research on upgrading structures for host and risk area shelters, phase II. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Tansley, R.S.; Bernard, R.D.; Cuzner, G.J.; Wilton, C.

    1983-05-01

    This report presents a summary of the work conducted during the second year of a five-year program. This research effort provides the engineering basis and guidance for the development of upgrading for host and risk area shelters. This investigation is in support of current Civil Defense planning based on a policy of crisis relocation, and includes investigative efforts related to structural wood connections, wood roof trusses and panelized systems, manufactured floor and roof joists, radiation protection for walls, the analysis of basement walls under dynamic loading, and a prediction method for the punching of concrete slabs. The results of this study are being used in the development of a prediction methodology for comparative selection of shelter spaces.

  11. Ever-pregnant and never-pregnant teens in a temporary housing shelter.

    PubMed

    Sheaff, L; Talashek, M

    1995-01-01

    Adolescent pregnancy and childbearing are of national concern; documented sequelae are numerous and varied. The primary purpose of this cross-sectional study is to describe the differences in selected demographic, sociocultural, physiological, psychological, and cognitive variables among 136 ever-pregnant and never-pregnant teens residing in a temporary housing shelter. Teens who experienced a pregnancy had significantly higher chronological age, gynecological age, and school grade level in addition to reporting significantly greater histories of both rape and voluntary sexual activity than did never-pregnant teens. This study indicates that teen pregnancy is a major problem among adolescents in temporary housing shelters. Our findings provide guidance for clinical interventions and further research with this at-risk population. PMID:7897469

  12. Dilemmas and challenges for the shelter sector: lessons learned from the Sphere revision process.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Graham

    2004-06-01

    Key dilemmas and challenges for those involved in the shelter sector are described, based on issues that emerged from the extensive global consultative process undertaken to inform the revision of the Sphere handbook. The range of perspectives on the major themes is presented, with suggestions as to how these issues could be progressed. Themes include the poor definition of the sector and the lack of a consistent approach among the leading shelter actors; the absence of a common terminology; the conflict between "temporary" versus "durable" solutions; the disconnect between technical advisers and the field; the need for greater recognition of local coping strategies and the local context; the involvement of recipients and host governments in policy development; the need for better "how-to" guidance; and the limited incorporation of the emerging themes of livelihoods etc. to date. PMID:15186362

  13. The effect of coral morphology on shelter selection by coral reef fishes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerry, J. T.; Bellwood, D. R.

    2012-06-01

    While the loss of structural complexity causes declines in coral reef fish diversity, the processes leading to this decline are largely unexplained. To explore the role of coral morphology in providing shelter for fishes, tabular, branching and massive corals were filmed with video cameras and their usage by large reef fishes compared. Tabular corals were utilised more than the other two morphologies, with at least triple the abundance, biomass and residence times of large fishes. The preference of coral reef fishes for specific structural traits of tabular corals was also examined using artificial structural units. This experimental component showed that large reef fishes preferred opaque rather than translucent canopies. It appears that large fishes cue to tabular corals because of the concealment and/or shade provided. It is suggested that a loss of tabular corals as a result of climate change would have significant ecological impacts for the coral reef fishes that use these structures for shelter.

  14. Mediators of suicidal ideation within a sheltered sample of raped and battered women.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Terri L; Allen, Janice A; Hopper, Elizabeth; Maglione, Melissa L; McLaughlin, Dorcas; McCullough, Mary Ann; Jackson, Mary K; Brewer, Teresa

    2007-05-01

    The relationship between suicide attempts and the experience of intimate partner physical violence has been examined in recent literature. The present study extended this literature by examining the relationship between intimate partner rape and suicidal ideation in a sheltered sample of battered women. Fifty women were recruited from a regional shelter setting for battered women in a Midwestern city in the United States. Fifty-eight percent had experienced intimate partner rape. More than one-third of the sample confirmed experiencing suicidal ideation at least "some of the time" within the past week. Experiencing intimate partner rape was significantly associated with suicidal ideation and symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression. Tests of mediation revealed that both PTSD and depressive symptoms mediated the relationship between intimate partner rape and suicidal ideation. PMID:17469001

  15. Positive Effects of Shade and Shelter Construction by Ants on Leafhopper-Ant Mutualism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gustavo Moya-Raygoza; Kirk J. Larsen

    2008-01-01

    The myrmecophilous Þve-spotted gamagrass leafhopper, Dalbulus quinquenotatus De- Long and Nault, and its tending ants on gamagrass Tripsacum dactyloides L. were examined to determine the inßuence of shade and ant-constructed shelters on the population sizes of D. quin- quenotatus and ants. Gamagrass plants hosting ants and leafhoppers were exposed to 50, 30, or 0% artiÞcially constructed shade. The greatest numbers

  16. Interspecific Competition for Shelters in Territorial and Gregarious Intertidal Grazers: Consequences for Individual Behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Aguilera, Moisés A.; Navarrete, Sergio A.

    2012-01-01

    Experiments have shown that interspecific interactions within consumer guilds can alter patterns of distribution, abundance and size of species. Plastic behavioural responses can be modulated by agonistic interactions. In many cases, consumers compete for space and shelters, and these interactions change the manner in which they exploit food. This study investigates the consequences of competition in the spatial and temporal organization of behaviour of intertidal grazers, which share algal resources and the use of rock crevices while resting, but exhibit different body sizes, spatial behaviour and foraging modes. We evaluate interaction strength between small gregarious Siphonaria lessoni and the larger territorial keyhole limpet Fissurella crassa and between S. lessoni and the medium-size gregarious chiton Chiton granosus. Using field manipulations and artificial arenas in the laboratory, we tested whether the use of crevices, micro-spatial distribution and activity are modified by the density of conspecifics and the presence of heterospecifics. Our results show that small-scale spatial segregation observed in the field between S. lessoni and C. granosus result from species-specific differences in habitat use. In turn, we found evidence that spatial segregation between F. crassa and S. lessoni results from highly asymmetric interference competition in the use of shelters. The presence of F. crassa reduced the use of crevices and growth rates of S. lessoni. Effects on growth rates are assumed to result from exposure to harsh environmental conditions rather than food limitation. Thus, neither gregarious behaviour nor differences in activity were sufficient to prevent competition with the larger grazer. Our study illustrates the importance of competition for shelters, which results in behavioural changes of the smaller-sized species, and how these plastic responses can translate into differences in growth rates. Use of shelters can thus be modulated by environmental conditions in a species-specific as well as an interactive manner within consumers’ guilds. PMID:23049980

  17. Interspecific competition for shelters in territorial and gregarious intertidal grazers: consequences for individual behaviour.

    PubMed

    Aguilera, Moisés A; Navarrete, Sergio A

    2012-01-01

    Experiments have shown that interspecific interactions within consumer guilds can alter patterns of distribution, abundance and size of species. Plastic behavioural responses can be modulated by agonistic interactions. In many cases, consumers compete for space and shelters, and these interactions change the manner in which they exploit food. This study investigates the consequences of competition in the spatial and temporal organization of behaviour of intertidal grazers, which share algal resources and the use of rock crevices while resting, but exhibit different body sizes, spatial behaviour and foraging modes. We evaluate interaction strength between small gregarious Siphonaria lessoni and the larger territorial keyhole limpet Fissurella crassa and between S. lessoni and the medium-size gregarious chiton Chiton granosus. Using field manipulations and artificial arenas in the laboratory, we tested whether the use of crevices, micro-spatial distribution and activity are modified by the density of conspecifics and the presence of heterospecifics. Our results show that small-scale spatial segregation observed in the field between S. lessoni and C. granosus result from species-specific differences in habitat use. In turn, we found evidence that spatial segregation between F. crassa and S. lessoni results from highly asymmetric interference competition in the use of shelters. The presence of F. crassa reduced the use of crevices and growth rates of S. lessoni. Effects on growth rates are assumed to result from exposure to harsh environmental conditions rather than food limitation. Thus, neither gregarious behaviour nor differences in activity were sufficient to prevent competition with the larger grazer. Our study illustrates the importance of competition for shelters, which results in behavioural changes of the smaller-sized species, and how these plastic responses can translate into differences in growth rates. Use of shelters can thus be modulated by environmental conditions in a species-specific as well as an interactive manner within consumers' guilds. PMID:23049980

  18. Drop weight impact on hybrid-fiber ECC blast\\/shelter panels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Zhang; M. Maalej; S. T. Quek; Y. Y. Teo

    This paper presents the results of an experimental study to evaluate the damage and failure mode of hybrid-fiber engineered cementitious composite (ECC) panels caused by large projectiles or fragments with the aim towards quantifying the extent to which hybrid-fiber ECC improves the resistance of blast panels against impact loading. Drop weight tests are conducted on full-scale blast\\/shelter panels (2 m

  19. Communication between domestic dogs and humans: effects of shelter housing upon the gaze to the human

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alba Mustaca; Mariana Bentosela

    It is widely known that gaze plays an essential role in communicative interactions. Domestic dogs tend to look at the human\\u000a face in situations of conflict and uncertainty. This study compares the gaze of shelter and pet dogs during acquisition and\\u000a extinction phases in a situation involving a reward in sight but out of reach. Even though no significant differences

  20. Molecular epidemiology of feline bordetellosis in two animal shelters in California, USA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Janet E Foley; Courtney Rand; Mike J Bannasch; Carol R Norris; Joy Milan

    2002-01-01

    “Kennel cough” in dogs in animal shelters is readily transmissible, reduces adoption rates, and commonly leads to the euthanasia of affected dogs. In cats, tracheobronchitis, conjunctivitis, and pneumonia have been associated with Bordetella bronchiseptica infection—but most cases of upper-respiratory infection (URI) probably are caused by herpesvirus and calicivirus, and many B. bronchiseptica culture-positive cats are clinically normal. Our prospective observational

  1. Prevalence of Blastocystis in Shelter-Resident and Client-Owned Companion Animals in the US Pacific Northwest

    PubMed Central

    Ruaux, Craig G.; Stang, Bernadette V.

    2014-01-01

    Domestic dogs and cats are commonly infected with a variety of protozoan enteric parasites, including Blastocystis spp. In addition, there is growing interest in Blastocystis as a potential enteric pathogen, and the possible role of domestic and in-contact animals as reservoirs for human infection. Domestic animals in shelter environments are commonly recognized to be at higher risk for carriage of enteropathogens. The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency of infection of shelter-resident and client-owned domestic dogs and cats with Blastocystis spp in the Pacific Northwest region of the USA. Fecal samples were collected from 103 shelter-resident dogs, 105 shelter-resident cats, 51 client-owned dogs and 52 client-owned cats. Blastocystis were detected and subtypes assigned using a nested PCR based on small subunit ribosomal DNA sequences. Shelter-resident animals were significantly more likely to test positive for Blastocystis (P<0.05 for dogs, P?=?0.009 for cats). Sequence analysis indicated that shelter-resident animals were carrying a variety of Blastocystis subtypes. No relationship was seen between Blastocystis carriage and the presence of gastrointestinal disease signs in either dogs or cats. These data suggest that, as previously reported for other enteric pathogens, shelter-resident companion animals are a higher risk for carriage of Blastocystis spp. The lack of relationship between Blastocystis carriage and intestinal disease in shelter-resident animals suggests that this organism is unlikely to be a major enteric pathogen in these species. PMID:25226285

  2. Comparison of sedimentation and occupation histories inside and outside rock shelters, Keep-River region, northwestern Australia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. A. K. Ward; R. L. K. Fullagar; T. Boer-Mah; L. M. Head; P. S. C. Taçon; K. Mulvaney

    2006-01-01

    This paper compares archaeological evidence of Aboriginal occupation inside rock shelters and outside in adjacent sand sheets, focusing on two locations in the Keep-River region, north- western Australia. Luminescence and radiocarbon dating reveal that occupation sequences inside rock shelters are generally younger (? 10,000 yr B.P.) than outside (? 18,000 yr B.P.). Differences in occupation chronology and artifact assemblages inside

  3. Risk factors for delays between intake and veterinary approval for adoption on medical grounds in shelter puppies and kittens

    PubMed Central

    Litster, Annette; Allen, Joselyn; Mohamed, Ahmed; He, Shuang

    2011-01-01

    To maximize their capacity to save lives and optimize resource allocation, animal shelters need to identify highly adoptable animals that are unlikely to be delayed on medical grounds before they can be made available for adoption. In this retrospective cohort study, our objective was to identify risk factors for delays from intake to approval for adoption on medical grounds in shelter puppies and kittens. Shelter medical records from 2008 for 335 puppies and 370 kittens were selected randomly at a large metropolitan adoption-guarantee shelter. Data including signalment, source shelter, intake veterinary examination findings, clinical history and days from intake until approval by a veterinarian for adoption on medical grounds were extracted from shelter records and analyzed using multivariate Cox regression. Puppies and kittens with clinical signs of respiratory or gastrointestinal disease at intake took significantly longer to receive approval for adoption on medical grounds (puppies - respiratory p<0.0001; gastrointestinal p<0.0001; kittens - respiratory p<0.0001; gastrointestinal p=0.002). Stray kittens were more likely to be delayed than owner-relinquished kittens or those transferred from other shelters (p<0.01). Older kittens were less likely to be delayed (p<0.0001). Administration of oral or parenteral antibiotics to puppies and kittens with respiratory and/or ocular signs within 24 hours of intake significantly reduced time to approval on medical grounds for adoption (puppies p=0.02; kittens p=0.03). The analyses suggested that puppies and kittens with respiratory or gastrointestinal signs on intake are more likely to experience delays between intake and veterinary approval for adoption on medical grounds. Prompt antimicrobial treatment of animals with respiratory and/or ocular signs may decrease length of stay in the shelter. PMID:21621287

  4. A placebo-controlled trial of two intranasal vaccines to prevent tracheobronchitis (kennel cough) in dogs entering a humane shelter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charlotte H. Edinboro; Michael P. Ward; Larry T. Glickman

    2004-01-01

    A placebo-controlled field trial was conducted to compare the effectiveness of intranasal (IN) vaccines containing Bordetella bronchiseptica and canine-parainfluenza virus, with (IN-BPA) or without (IN-BP) canine-adenovirus type 2, for prevention of kennel cough at a humane shelter. Dogs were examined on admission to the shelter and those without respiratory signs of disease were assigned daily, on a rotating basis, to

  5. Temperature and water-use efficiency by lucerne (Medicago sativa) sheltered by a tree windbreak in Tunisia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Benzarti

    1998-01-01

    Based on the assumption that with unrestricted water availability, temperature will determine the response of sheltered crops,\\u000a the effects of a Casuarina glauca Sieb. windbreak on the microclimate, water use and biological production of a lucerne crop\\u000a were investigated. Degree-days (dd) were used to compute an index for the efficiency of the thermal effects of the shelter\\u000a on a well-

  6. Molecular identification of hookworms in stray and shelter dogs from Guangzhou city, China using ITS sequences.

    PubMed

    Liu, Y J; Zheng, G C; Zhang, P; Alsarakibi, M; Zhang, X H; Li, Y W; Liu, T; Ren, S N; Chen, Z X; Liu, Y L; Li, S J; Li, G Q

    2015-03-01

    Canine hookworm infections are endemic worldwide, with zoonotic transmission representing a potentially significant public health concern. This study aimed to investigate hookworm infection and identify the prevalent species from stray and shelter dogs in Guangzhou city, southern China by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) based on internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences. From March 2011 to July 2012, fresh faecal samples from a total of 254 dogs were obtained from five locations, namely Conghua, Baiyun, Liwan, Haizhu and Panyu, in Guangzhou. These samples were screened for the presence of hookworm eggs using light microscopy, with an overall prevalence of 29.53% being recorded. The highest prevalence of 45.28% was found in suburban dogs from Conghua compared with lower values recorded in urban dogs in Haizhu (21.43%), Baiyun (18.97%), Panyu (18.18%) and Liwan (15%). The prevalence in stray dogs was signi?cantly higher than that in shelter dogs. PCR-RFLP analysis showed that 57.33% were detected as single hookworm infections with Ancyclostoma caninum, and 22.67% as A. ceylanicum, while 20% were mixed infections. This suggests that high prevalences of both hookworm species in stray and shelter dogs in China pose a potential risk of transmission from pet dogs to humans. PMID:24280028

  7. A cluster of Rickettsia rickettsii infection at an animal shelter in an urban area of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rozental, T; Ferreira, M S; Gomes, R; Costa, C M; Barbosa, P R A; Bezerra, I O; Garcia, M H O; Oliveira E Cruz, D M; Galliez, R; Oliveira, S; Brasil, P; Rezende, T; DE Lemos, E R S

    2015-08-01

    Rickettsia rickettsii infection is being increasingly recognized as an important cause of fatal acute illness in Brazil, where this tick-borne disease is designated Brazilian spotted fever (BSF). In this study we report five fatal cases of BSF in employees of an animal shelter in an urban area in the municipality of Rio de Janeiro in southeast Brazil after a natural disaster on 11 January 2011. Four of the cases occurred from 27 January to 11 April 2011, while the fifth fatal case was identified in April 2012. Three cases were confirmed by molecular analysis and two by epidemiological linkage. An investigation of BSF was performed in the animal shelter, and blood samples were collected from 115 employees and 117 randomly selected dogs. The presence of high levels (1024-4096) of antibodies against spotted fever group rickettsiae was found in three (2·6%) employees and 114 (97·5%) dogs. These findings emphasize the need to consider BSF as a possible cause of undifferentiated febrile illness, especially dengue and leptospirosis, in patients occupationally exposed to dogs heavily infested by ticks, mainly working at kennels and animal shelters that have inadequate space for the animals housed and frequently providing an environment conducive to exposure to pathogens such as R. rickettsii. PMID:25483025

  8. An outbreak of fatal hemorrhagic pneumonia caused by Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus in shelter dogs

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Soon-Seek; Woo, Gye-Hyeong; Jung, Byeong Yeal; Joo, Yi-Seok

    2009-01-01

    An outbreak of fatal hemorrhagic pneumonia with 70~90% morbidity and 50% mortality occurred in an animal shelter in Yangju, Gyeonggi Province, Korea. Clinically, the affected dogs showed severe respiratory distress within 48 h after arriving in the shelter. The dead were found mainly with nasal bleeding and hematemesis. At necropsy, hemothorax and hemorrhagic pneumonia along with severe pulmonary consolidation was observed, though histopathological analysis showed mainly hemorrhagic bronchopneumonia. Lymphoid depletion was inconsistently seen in the spleen, tonsil and bronchial lymph node. Gram-positive colonies were shown in blood vessels or parenchyma of cerebrum, lung, liver, spleen, and kidney. Also, Streptococcus (S.) equi subsp. zooepidemicus was isolated from the various organs in which the bacterium was microscopically and histologically detected. In addition, approximately 0.9 Kb specific amplicon, antiphagocytic factor H binding protein, was amplified in the bacterial isolates. In this study, we reported an outbreak of canine hemorrhagic bronchopneumonia caused by S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus in an animal shelter in Yangju, Korea. PMID:19687630

  9. The Safe Harbor Mouse Retreat(™) is an innovative enrichment shelter that saves mice and money.

    PubMed

    Froberg-Fejko, Karen M; Lecker, Jaime L

    2013-10-01

    Environmental enrichment can be defined as altering the living environment of captive animals in order to provide them with opportunities to express their natural behavioral repertoire. As important as offering an enriched environment is assuring lab animals are housed in the safest conditions possible. Cage flooding events are an unfortunate reality; however, technology is advancing to minimize these events. Bio-Serv, in collaboration with Allentown, Inc., has developed an innovative and economical shelter called the Safe Harbor Mouse Retreat (Fig. 1). This shelter offers a life-saving refuge for mice during these occasional, but devastating cage-flooding accidents. Mice will not be lost due to chilling or drowning caused by water exposure. Breeding mice can save their litters by moving their pups to the second level, and all mice can escape to the higher level where they can remain warm and dry until they are rescued. This clever shelter is not only life-saving for mice but offers several other significant benefits as well. PMID:24051647

  10. Visible Earth

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    NASA's Visible Earth is a searchable directory of images, visualizations, and animations of the Earth. The images are also listed under the following categories: agriculture, atmosphere, biosphere, cryosphere, human dimensions, hydrosphere, land surface, oceans, radiance or imagery, solid earth, locations, and satellites. Accompanying each image are credits, data about the image, the satellite it was taken from, a description of what is shown, and a high-resolution viewable image.

  11. Earth's Interior

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    John Louie

    This website contains class notes from a Geology 101 (physical geology) course. It discusses the composition and structure of the Earth's interior. Each layer, the inner core, outer core, mantle, and crust, is covered. Details about each layer explain their composition, temperature, depth, and state. Also covered is how scientists discovered what the interior of the Earth is made of through the use of seismic waves, plate tectonics, and the Earth's magnetic field.

  12. Earth Island

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Earth Island Web site is maintained by the Earth Island Institute (EII). EII also publishes the Earth Island Journal quarterly. The current issue of the journal can be browsed by section or by subject, and offers current news, world reports, and feature articles on a wide range of environmental subject areas. Earth Island also undertakes a number of projects that are discussed at the site as well as in a portion of the journal. The entire site is searchable. This is an excellent site for those interested in keeping up on environmental issues.

  13. Earth Day

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    On April 22, 2005, people around the world will celebrate the 35th anniversary of Earth Day. This Topic in Depth focuses on the past and present of this significant day. From the Wisconsin Historical Society, the first two sites contain historical documents pertaining to Earth Day. The first (1) document features a May 1970 issue of The Gaylord Nelson Newsletter reporting on the first Earth Day. The second (2) document is a speech by Nelson entitled "An Environmental Agenda for the 70's." Housed in the archives of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) website, the next two sites also contain historical documents. The first (3) site contains an article written by Nelson for the EPA Journal in April of 1980, entitled "Earth Day '70: What It Meant." The second (4) site contains an article written by John C. Whitaker (former Interior undersecretary in the Nixon administration) for the EPA Journal in the summer of 1998. The article is entitled "Earth Day Recollections: What It Was Like When the Movement Took Off." The (5) Earth Day Network (first mentioned in the April 4, 2003, Scout Report for Life Sciences) works "to broaden the environmental movement worldwide and to educate and mobilize people, governments, and corporations to take responsibility for a clean and healthy environment." In addition to information sections about Ongoing Programs, Current Campaigns, and News, the Earth Day Network website contains Earth Day 2005 Materials for organizers. From EarthDay.gov, Take Action In Your Classroom (6) offers links to a variety of environmental education resources. The next website, from the U.S. Army Environmental Center, presents (7) Army Earth Day; and links to information about the Army's environmental activities. The final (8) site is an Earth Day-inspired educational website (first reported on in the April 14, 1999 Scout Report for Science & Engineering) from the Wilderness Society. The site offers a collection of environmental education resources for teachers and students. [NL

  14. Earth\\'s Mass Variability

    E-print Network

    Mawad, Ramy

    2014-01-01

    The perturbation of the Earth caused by variability of mass of Earth as additional reason with gravity of celestial bodies and shape of the Earth. The Earth eating and collecting matters from space and loss or eject matters to space through its flying in the space around the Sun. The source of the rising in the global sea level is not closed in global warming and icebergs, but the outer space is the additional important source for this rising. The Earth eats waters from space in unknown mechanism. The mass of the Earth become greater in November i.e. before transit apoapsis two months, and become latter in February i.e. after transit apoapsis to two months.

  15. 146 Earth Science 147 Earth Science

    E-print Network

    Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

    146 Earth Science 147 Earth Science ESCI 101 The Earth or ESCI 102 Evolution of the Earth or ESCI 107 Oceans and Global Change or ESCI 108 Crises of the Earth ESCI 105 Introductory Lab for Earth Geophysics I ESCI 444 Exploration Geophysics II or ESCI 446 Solid Earth Geophysics Math and Other Sciences

  16. The Geoscience Diversity Enhancement Program (GDEP): Building an Earth System Science Centered Research, Education, and Outreach Effort in Urban Long Beach, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambos, E. L.; Behl, R.; Francis, R. D.; Larson, D. O.; Ramirez, M.; Rodrigue, C.; Sample, J.; Wechsler, S.; Whitney, D.; Hazen, C.

    2002-12-01

    The Geoscience Diversity Enhancement Program (GDEP) is an NSF-OEDG funded project at California State University, Long Beach (CSULB). Program goals include increasing awareness of geoscience careers, and the availability and accessibility of research experiences, to area high school and community college faculty and students from underrepresented groups. Begun in fall 2001, GDEP involves faculty leadership within three CSULB departments; geological sciences, geography, and anthropology, as well as five community colleges, and one of the largest K-12 school districts in California, Long Beach Unified. In addition, linkages to CSULB's outreach and student orientation activities are strong, with the facilitation of staff in CSULB's Student Access to Science and Mathematics (SAS) Center. During the first year, program activities centered around three major objectives: (1) creating the CSULB leadership team, and developing a robust and sustainable decision-making process, coupled with extensive relationship-building with community college and high school partners, (2) creating an evaluation plan that reflects institutional and leadership goals, and comprehensively piloting evaluation instruments, and, (3) designing and implementing a summer research experience, which was successfully inaugurated during summer 2002. We were very successful in achieving objective (1): each member of the leadership group took strong roles in the design and success of the program. Several meetings were held with each community college and high school faculty colleague, to clarify and reaffirm program values and goals. Objective (2), led by project evaluator David Whitney, resulted in an array of evaluation instruments that were tested in introductory geology, geography, and archaeology courses at CSULB. These evaluation instruments were designed to measure attitudes and beliefs of a diverse cross-section of CSULB students. Preliminary analysis of survey results reveals significant differences among ethnic groups in their perceptions and understanding of geoscience disciplines. Objective (3), the summer research experience, was also very successful: more than 25 faculty and students participated in the experience. Our preliminary analyses of the impact of the summer research experience show that research work combining field experiences, ready access to faculty mentors, and a team approach to investigations appeared most valuable to program participants.

  17. Rainbow Earth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona State Dept. of Library and Archives, Phoenix.

    The environment is a great concern in the 1990s, and everyone needs to work at maintaining our planet. The 1992 Arizona State Library Reading Program, "Rainbow Earth," provides children with many techniques they can use to help the Earth. This reading program guide provides information on the following: goals, objectives, and evaluation; getting…

  18. Earth Tremors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. L. Dallas

    1896-01-01

    IN Prof. Milne's article in NATURE of December 26, he states that earth tremors are more frequent during the winter than during the summer, that they are frequent with a low barometer, and still more frequent when the locality of observation is crossed by steep barometrical gradients. In the North-West Himalayas, throughout the winter months, slight earth tremors are exceedingly

  19. Earth tides

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, J.C.

    1984-01-01

    Nineteen papers on gravity, tilt, and strain tides are compiled into this volume. Detailed chapters cover the calculation of the tidal forces and of the Earth's response to them, as well as actual observations of earth tides. Partial Contents: On Earth tides. The tidal forces: Tidal Forces. New Computations of the Tide-Generating Potential. Corrected Tables of Tidal Harmonics. The Theory of Tidal Deformations. Body Tides on an Elliptical, Rotating, Elastic and Oceanless Earth, Deformation of the Earth by Surface Loads. Gravimetric Tidal Loading Computed from Integrated Green's Functions. Tidal Friction in the Solid Earth. Loading Tides Versus Body Tides. Lunar Tidal Acceleration from Earth Satellite Orbit Analysis. Observations: gravity. Tidal Gravity in Britain: Tidal Loading and the Spatial Distribution of the Marine Tide. Tidal Loading along a Profile Europe-East Africa-South Asia-Australia and the Pacific Ocean. Detailed Gravity-Tide Spectrum between One and Four Cycles per Day. Observations: tilt and strain. Cavity and Topographic Effects in Tilt and Strain Measurement. Observations of Local Elastic Effects on Earth Tide Tilts and Strains.

  20. Seismic Waves: How Earthquakes Move the Earth

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Integrated Teaching and Learning Program,

    Students learn about the types of seismic waves produced by earthquakes and how they move the Earth. The dangers of earthquakes are presented as well as the necessity for engineers to design structures for earthquake-prone areas that are able to withstand the forces of seismic waves. Students learn how engineers build shake tables that simulate the ground motions of the Earth caused by seismic waves in order to test the seismic performance of buildings.

  1. Observations of Near-Earth Asteroids Impact Hazard to Earth

    E-print Network

    Throop, Henry

    be traced precisely using security videos and cell phone images! #12;What Do We Know About the Chelyabinsk in last 100 years · Best-observed meteor ever: cell phones and security cameras! · Thousands of pieces broken windows · 7200 damaged buildings, many $M in damages · Largest object to enter Earth's atmosphere

  2. Ion engine propelled Earth-Mars cycler with nuclear thermal propelled transfer vehicle, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, Rudolf X.; Baker, Myles; Melko, Joseph

    1994-01-01

    The goal of this project was to perform a preliminary design of a long term, reusable transportation system between earth and Mars which would be capable of providing both artificial gravity and shelter from solar flare radiation. The heart of this system was assumed to be a Cycler spacecraft propelled by an ion propulsion system. The crew transfer vehicle was designed to be propelled by a nuclear-thermal propulsion system. Several Mars transportation system architectures and their associated space vehicles were designed.

  3. Operation Plumbbob Nevada Test Site, May-October 1957. Project 30. 2. Response of dual-purpose reinforced-concrete mass shelter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Cohen; E. Laing; A. Bottenhofer

    1962-01-01

    Project 30.2 was conducted to test a reinforced-concrete dual-purpose underground parking garage and personnel shelter designed for a long-duration incident pressure of 40 psi. The shelter was exposed to shot Priscilla, an approximately 37-kt 700-ft balloon burst (June 24, 1957), at a ground range of 1600 ft (predicted 35-psi peak incident-pressure level). The recorded peak incident pressure at the shelter

  4. The Earth

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This lesson covers the interior of the Earth, geological differentiation, plate tectonics, composition and layers of the atmosphere, weather and climate, consequences of rotation for weather, the magnetic field, magnetosphere and Van Allen Radiation Belts of Earth, auroras (Northern and Southern Lights, and imaging the Earth. There is information on seismic waves, and convection currents; an animation of continental drift; evidence for plate tectonics, including maps of crustal plate boundaries and the age of the sea floor crustal plates; and explanations of solar heating, Coriolis forces, cyclones and anticyclones.

  5. Variation of the Earth's magnetic field strength in South America during the last two millennia: New results from historical buildings of Buenos Aires and re-evaluation of regional data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goguitchaichvili, Avto; Morales, Juan; Schavelzon, Daniel; Vásquez, Carlos; Gogorza, Claudia S. G.; Loponte, Daniel; Rapalini, Augusto

    2015-08-01

    The causes of the systematic decay of the Earth's Magnetic Field strength since eighteen century have been a matter of debate during the last decade. It is also well known that such variations may have completely different expressions under an area characterized with strong magnetic anomalies, such as the South Atlantic Magnetic Anomaly. To fully understand these atypical phenomena, it is crucial to retrieve the past evolution of Earth's magnetic field beyond the observatory records. We report on detailed rock-magnetic and archeointensity investigations from some well-studied historical buildings of Buenos Aires city, located at the heart of the South Atlantic Magnetic Anomaly. Samples consist of bricks, tiles, fireplaces and pottery, which are considered as highly suitable materials for archaeointensity studies. The dating is ascertained by historical documents complemented by archeological constraints. Eighteen out of 26 analyzed samples yield reliable absolute intensity determinations. The site-mean archaeointensity values obtained in this study range from 28.5 to 43.5 ?T, with corresponding virtual axial dipole moments (VADMs) ranging from 5.3 to 8.04 × 1022 Am2. Most determinations obtained in the present study are in remarkable agreement with the values predicted by the time varying field model CALS10k.1b (Korte et al., 2011). For the older periods the recently available SHA.DIF.14 model (Pavon-Carrasco et al., 2014) seems to have greater resolution. South American archaeointensity database now includes absolute intensities from 400 to 1930 AD based on 63 selected archaeointensity determinations. The data set reveals several distinct periods of quite large fluctuations of intensity. However, most data are concentrated into a relatively narrow interval from AD 1250 to AD 1450. At the beginning of the record, values between 400 AD and 830 AD match well with ARCH3k.1 model. Some general features may be detected: the time intervals from about AD 400 to 950 and 1150 to 1280 are characterized by a quite monotonic decrease of geomagnetic intensity, while some increase is observed from AD 950 to AD 1250. In contrast, a systematic intensity decay is detected from 1550 to 1930 in excellent agreement with the model prediction. No firm evidence of correlation between the climate changes over multi-decadal time scales and geomagnetic intensity was found for South America.

  6. Discover Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Discover Earth is a NASA-funded project for teachers of grades 5-12 who want to expand their knowledge of the Earth system, and prepare to become master teachers who promote Earth system science in their own schools, counties, and throughout their state. Participants from the following states are invited to apply: Connecticut, Delaware, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont, and Washington, DC. Teachers selected for the project participate in a two-week summer workshop conducted at the University of Maryland, College Park; develop classroom-ready materials during the workshop for broad dissemination; conduct a minimum of two peer training activities during the coming school year; and participate in other enrichment/education opportunities as available and desired. Discover Earth is a team effort that utilizes expertise from a range of contributors, and balances science content with hands-on classroom applications.

  7. Earth's Surface

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Houghton Mifflin Science

    This self-contained module on Earth's crust includes a range of fun activities that students can perform in the classroom and at home with family members. They impart important concepts such as observation, identification, measurement, and differentiation.

  8. Earth Systems

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Houghton Mifflin Science

    This self-contained module on Earth systems includes a range of fun activities that students can perform in the classroom and at home with family members. They impart important concepts such as observation, identification, measurement, and differentiation.

  9. The nutritional status and dietary adequacy of single homeless women and their children in shelters.

    PubMed

    Drake, M A

    1992-01-01

    Data were collected on the nutrient intake and nutritional status of 96 single mothers and their 192 dependent children who had been displaced from their homes. The objective of the study was to provide information on the dietary adequacy of a newly identified subgroup of homeless persons, single women and their dependent children. Once situated in temporary housing, those participating in the study indicated that they believed that they were receiving sufficient food. However, a nutrient analysis found that the study subjects in all age groups were consuming less than 50 percent of the 1989 Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA) for iron, magnesium, zinc, and folic acid. Adults were consuming less than 50 percent of the RDA for calcium. The type and amounts of fats consumed were in higher than desirable quantities for a significant number of subjects of all ages. The health risk factors of iron deficiency anemia, obesity, and hypercholesterolemia were prevalent. The findings indicate a need to examine and remedy nutrient intake deficiencies among single women who are heads of household and their dependent children in temporary housing situations. Diet-related conditions found included low nutrient intakes that may affect child growth and development, risk factors associated with chronic disease, and lack of appropriate foods and knowledge of food preparation methods in shelter situations. Applicable, understandable nutrition education should be offered mothers in shelter situations to help them make food choices at the shelter and when they become self-sufficient. Assistance programs such as the Special Supplemental Food Program for Women, Infants, and Children, and food stamps, should be available to this group. PMID:1594741

  10. Earth materials and earth dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, K; Shankland, T. [and others

    2000-11-01

    In the project ''Earth Materials and Earth Dynamics'' we linked fundamental and exploratory, experimental, theoretical, and computational research programs to shed light on the current and past states of the dynamic Earth. Our objective was to combine different geological, geochemical, geophysical, and materials science analyses with numerical techniques to illuminate active processes in the Earth. These processes include fluid-rock interactions that form and modify the lithosphere, non-linear wave attenuations in rocks that drive plate tectonics and perturb the earth's surface, dynamic recrystallization of olivine that deforms the upper mantle, development of texture in high-pressure olivine polymorphs that create anisotropic velocity regions in the convecting upper mantle and transition zone, and the intense chemical reactions between the mantle and core. We measured physical properties such as texture and nonlinear elasticity, equation of states at simultaneous pressures and temperatures, magnetic spins and bonding, chemical permeability, and thermal-chemical feedback to better characterize earth materials. We artificially generated seismic waves, numerically modeled fluid flow and transport in rock systems and modified polycrystal plasticity theory to interpret measured physical properties and integrate them into our understanding of the Earth. This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL).

  11. Earth Viewers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mathias Lemmens

    \\u000a One of the most influential developments boosting the application of geo-information technologies in a wide variety of scientific\\u000a and professional disciplines has its origin outside the geomatics field although the establishment of the technology heavily\\u000a relies on recent accomplishments in geo-information technology. The developments referred to concern the emergence of Earth\\u000a viewers such as Google Earth or Bing Maps accessible

  12. Fire ants protect mealybugs against their natural enemies by utilizing the leaf shelters constructed by the leaf roller Sylepta derogata.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Aiming; Zeng, Ling; Lu, Yongyue; Xu, Yijuan; Liang, Guangwen

    2012-01-01

    The importance of mutualism is receiving more attention in community ecology. In this study, the fire ant Solenopsis invicta was found to take advantage of the shelters constructed by the leaf roller Sylepta derogata to protect mealybugs (Phenacoccus solenopsis) against their natural enemies. This protective effect of fire ant tending on the survival of mealybugs in shelters was observed when enemies and leaf rollers were simultaneously present. Specifically, fire ants moved the mealybugs inside the shelters produced by S. derogata on enemy-infested plants. Compared with that in plants without ants, the survival of mealybugs in shelters in the presence of natural enemies in plants with ants markedly improved. Both the protection of ants and the shelters provided by leaf rollers did not affect the survival of mealybugs in the absence of enemies in plants. Ants and leaf rollers significantly improved the survival of mealybugs in predator-infested plants, whereas no such improvement was observed in parasitoid-infested ones. PMID:23185505

  13. Earth’s Earliest Atmospheres

    PubMed Central

    Zahnle, Kevin; Schaefer, Laura; Fegley, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    Earth is the one known example of an inhabited planet and to current knowledge the likeliest site of the one known origin of life. Here we discuss the origin of Earth’s atmosphere and ocean and some of the environmental conditions of the early Earth as they may relate to the origin of life. A key punctuating event in the narrative is the Moon-forming impact, partly because it made Earth for a short time absolutely uninhabitable, and partly because it sets the boundary conditions for Earth’s subsequent evolution. If life began on Earth, as opposed to having migrated here, it would have done so after the Moon-forming impact. What took place before the Moon formed determined the bulk properties of the Earth and probably determined the overall compositions and sizes of its atmospheres and oceans. What took place afterward animated these materials. One interesting consequence of the Moon-forming impact is that the mantle is devolatized, so that the volatiles subsequently fell out in a kind of condensation sequence. This ensures that the volatiles were concentrated toward the surface so that, for example, the oceans were likely salty from the start. We also point out that an atmosphere generated by impact degassing would tend to have a composition reflective of the impacting bodies (rather than the mantle), and these are almost without exception strongly reducing and volatile-rich. A consequence is that, although CO- or methane-rich atmospheres are not necessarily stable as steady states, they are quite likely to have existed as long-lived transients, many times. With CO comes abundant chemical energy in a metastable package, and with methane comes hydrogen cyanide and ammonia as important albeit less abundant gases. PMID:20573713

  14. Changes in the acoustic environment alter the foraging and sheltering behaviour of the cichlid Amititlania nigrofasciata.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, Kirsty Elizabeth; Kunc, Hansjoerg P

    2015-07-01

    Anthropogenic noise can affect behaviour across a wide range of species in both terrestrial and aquatic environments. However, behaviours might not be affected in isolation. Therefore, a more holistic approach investigating how environmental stressors, such as noise pollution, affect different behaviours in concert is necessary. Using tank-based noise exposure experiments, we tested how changes in the acoustic environment affect the behaviour of the cichlid Amatitlania nigrofasciata. We found that exposure to anthropogenic noise affected a couple of behaviours: an increase in sheltering was accompanied by a decrease in foraging. Our results highlight the multiple negative effects of an environmental stressor on an individual's behaviour. PMID:25937344

  15. Acceptance of HIV Antibody Testing Among Women in Domestic Violence Shelters

    PubMed Central

    Ratcliff, Tanya M.; Zlotnick, Caron; Cu-Uvin, Susan; Payne, Nanetta; Sly, Kaye; Flanigan, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine which factors derived from an adapted version of the Health Belief Model are associated with HIV testing among women at domestic violence shelters in the rural south (N = 112). Participants were administered self-report questionnaires to assess for test acceptance and were offered private and free HIV rapid testing. A logistic regression analysis was performed. Results indicated that higher perceived susceptibility and higher PTSD symptoms predicted a greater likelihood of HIV test acceptance. The most common reason given for not testing was a lack of time. Implications are discussed.

  16. Earth Attractions

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    University of Wisconsin Extension

    2002-01-01

    In this activity, learners build and test a compass. Learners work in pairs and pretend they are stuck in the wilderness at night. They must use the supplies provided to build a simple compass to determine which way to walk to reach the town. This lesson plan includes a worksheet and map for learners to use during the activity.

  17. FORESTRY BUILDING: BUILDING EMERGENCY PLAN

    E-print Network

    FORESTRY BUILDING: BUILDING EMERGENCY PLAN Date Adopted: August 18, 2009 Date Revised June 17, 2013 Prepared By: Diana Evans and Jennifer Meyer #12;PURDUE UNIVERSITY BUILDING EMERGENCY PLAN VERSION 3 2 Table Suspension or Campus Closure SECTION 3: BUILDING INFORMATION 3.1 Building Deputy/Alternate Building Deputy

  18. Terraforming earth and Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, Joel S.

    1992-01-01

    The uncontrolled character of current earth environment changes ascribable to anthropogenic pollutants is presently contrasted with the prospects for a controlled, long-term program of 'terraforming' for Mars, whose culmination could be the introduction of organisms able to thrive in the new Martian environment in carefully designed ways. A detailed discussion is conducted concerning the chemical building-blocks available on Mars for this manner of 'environmental engineering', with frequent reference to comparable and contrasting features of the terrestrial surface, hydrosphere and atmosphere.

  19. How Do Map Projections Distort Earth's Surface?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2008-09-10

    This site, part of Exploring Earth Investigation by McDougal Littell and TERC, examines how map projects distort Earth's surface. The investigations "were designed to build students' knowledge of Earth Science conceptsâ?¦and to raise student awareness of Earth as a system of interconnected components and processes." On the site, visitors will find information on representing the spherical Earth on a flat map, the different common projections used, and how to measure the properties of the projections. Many sections contain interactive features and questions which allow students to investigate and understand the ways that flattening the Earth creates problems with maps and what cartographers have done to minimize the distortion. This is an excellent site for any Earth Science classroom as an introductory lecture or out-of-class exploration.

  20. BUILDING NAME HEYDON-LAURENCE BUILDING

    E-print Network

    Viglas, Anastasios

    BUILDING NAME HEYDON-LAURENCE BUILDING PHARMACY AND BANK BUILDING JOHN WOOLEY BUILDING OLD TEARCHER'S BUILDING PHYSICS BUILDING BAXTER'S LODGE INSTITUTE BUILDING CONSERVATION WORKS R.D.WATT BUILDING MACLEAY BUILDING THE QUARANGLE BADHAM BUILDING J.D. STEWART BUILDING BLACKBURN BUILDING MADSEN BUILDING STORE

  1. DEPARTMENT OF EARTH, OCEAN and ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES SESSIONAL LECTURERS

    E-print Network

    DEPARTMENT OF EARTH, OCEAN and ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES SESSIONAL LECTURERS Summer Session EOSC 314 Earth Science. Familiarity and/or expertise in paleontology, geology and ocean/atmospheric science would Sciences, University of British Columbia, Room 2020, Earth Sciences Building, 2207 Main Mall, Vancouver, B

  2. School of Earth and Environmental Sciences Spring 2013 Colloquium

    E-print Network

    Johnson Jr.,, Ray

    School of Earth and Environmental Sciences Spring 2013 Colloquium (Science Building C-207) Date:15 -1:30 PM Emily Chin Department Earth Science, Rice University Origin, Evolution, and Metamorphosis-Antonie Longpre Earth & Planetary Sciences, McGill University Volatile-rich magmas and explosive volcanic

  3. Earth: Earth Science and Health

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maynard, Nancy G.

    2001-01-01

    A major new NASA initiative on environmental change and health has been established to promote the application of Earth science remote sensing data, information, observations, and technologies to issues of human health. NASA's Earth Sciences suite of Earth observing instruments are now providing improved observations science, data, and advanced technologies about the Earth's land, atmosphere, and oceans. These new space-based resources are being combined with other agency and university resources, data integration and fusion technologies, geographic information systems (GIS), and the spectrum of tools available from the public health community, making it possible to better understand how the environment and climate are linked to specific diseases, to improve outbreak prediction, and to minimize disease risk. This presentation is an overview of NASA's tools, capabilities, and research advances in this initiative.

  4. Wind tunnel analysis of the aerodynamic loads on rolling stock over railway embankments: the effect of shelter windbreaks.

    PubMed

    Avila-Sanchez, Sergio; Pindado, Santiago; Lopez-Garcia, Oscar; Sanz-Andres, Angel

    2014-01-01

    Wind-flow pattern over embankments involves an overexposure of the rolling stock travelling on them to wind loads. Windbreaks are a common solution for changing the flow characteristic in order to decrease unwanted effects induced by the presence of cross-wind. The shelter effectiveness of a set of windbreaks placed over a railway twin-track embankment is experimentally analysed. A set of two-dimensional wind tunnel tests are undertaken and results corresponding to pressure tap measurements over a section of a typical high-speed train are herein presented. The results indicate that even small-height windbreaks provide sheltering effects to the vehicles. Also, eaves located at the windbreak tips seem to improve their sheltering effect. PMID:25544954

  5. Wind Tunnel Analysis of the Aerodynamic Loads on Rolling Stock over Railway Embankments: The Effect of Shelter Windbreaks

    PubMed Central

    Avila-Sanchez, Sergio; Lopez-Garcia, Oscar; Sanz-Andres, Angel

    2014-01-01

    Wind-flow pattern over embankments involves an overexposure of the rolling stock travelling on them to wind loads. Windbreaks are a common solution for changing the flow characteristic in order to decrease unwanted effects induced by the presence of cross-wind. The shelter effectiveness of a set of windbreaks placed over a railway twin-track embankment is experimentally analysed. A set of two-dimensional wind tunnel tests are undertaken and results corresponding to pressure tap measurements over a section of a typical high-speed train are herein presented. The results indicate that even small-height windbreaks provide sheltering effects to the vehicles. Also, eaves located at the windbreak tips seem to improve their sheltering effect. PMID:25544954

  6. Earth's Viscosity.

    PubMed

    Anderson, D L

    1966-01-21

    Seismic methods are now being used to determine not only Earth's elastic properties, but also by how much it departs from a perfectlyelastic body. The seismic anelasticity (Q) varies by several orders of magnitude throughout the mantle, the main feature being an extremely dissipative zone in the upper mantle above 400 kilometers. Recent determinations of viscosity by McConnell show a similar trend. The two sets of data indicate that the ratio of viscosity to Q is roughly a constant, at least in the upper mantle of Earth. On the assumption that this relation is valid for the rest of Earth, viscosities are estimated in regions that are inaccessible for direct measurement. The implied presence of a low-viscosity zone in the upper mantle, overlying a more viscous, less deformable, lower mantle, reconciles viscosites calculated from the shape of Earth and from postglacial uplift. The mismatch of the deformational characteristics at various levels in Earth, coupled with the changing rate of rotation, may be pertinent to the rate of release of seismic energy as a function of depth. PMID:17799980

  7. Women's experiences leaving abusive relationships: a shelter-based qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Baholo, Masemetse; Christofides, Nicola; Wright, Anne; Sikweyiya, Yandisa; Shai, Nwabisa Jama

    2015-05-01

    Intimate partner violence is a worldwide problem. South Africa has one of the highest rates of intimate partner violence and therefore requires effective and sustainable approaches to prevention and response. For abused women, the process of leaving an intimate partner is difficult and mired in an abundance of complex factors that influence decision making. This qualitative study explored women's experiences of leaving abusive homes and relationships and the critical factors that pushed them to leave. In-depth interviews were conducted with 11 adult women who had experienced partner abuse and were residents of a shelter in Gauteng Province, South Africa. All interviews were audio-taped with consent, translated where necessary and transcribed verbatim. Thematic analysis of interviews was carried out. Two themes emerged as being instrumental to leaving: 'a phase of change' and the 'process of leaving the abusive relationship'. Leaving an abusive relationship was found to be a complex process that did not necessarily imply the end of the relationship and it reflected women's changing attitudes over time. Awareness of shelters and social support was found to be critical in facilitating departure from abusive relationships. PMID:25470526

  8. Grow-out culture of tropical abalone, Haliotis asinina (Linnaeus) in suspended mesh cages with different shelter surface areas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Armando C. Fermin; Shela Mae Buen

    2002-01-01

    Thisstudy investigated the effects of shelter surface area (SSA) on the feeding,growth and survival of the donkey-ear abalone, Haliotisasinina reared in mesh cages (0.38×0.38×0.28m) suspended in flow-through tanks (water volume = 6m3). Cages had sections of polyvinylchloride (PVC) thatprovided shelters with surface area of 0.22 m2, 0.44m2 and 0.66 m2.Hatchery-produced abalone with initial shell length of 32 ± 1mm and

  9. Emergency treatment of splenic injury in a novel mobile minimally invasive interventional shelter following disaster: a feasibility study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There has been an increase in natural disasters in recent years, which leads to a great number of injuries and deaths. It still remains an unsolved problem to treat patients with vascular injury of solid organs effectively following natural disasters, but on-spot emergency interventional transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) has been highly recommended to cure serious vascular injury of solid organs nowadays. Spleen is the most vulnerable abdominal organ, severe arterial hemorrhage of which can cause death if untreated timely. In this research, we aimed to study the possibility of performing emergency surgical intervention in mobile minimally invasive interventional shelter for splenic injury in the case of natural disasters. Methods First, the mobile minimally invasive interventional shelter was unfolded in the field, and then disinfection and preoperative preparation were performed immediately. Eight large animal models of splenic injury were created, and angiograms were performed using a digital subtraction angiography machine in the mobile minimally invasive interventional shelter, and then the hemostatic embolizations of injured splenic artery were performed following the established convention of rapid intervention therapy. The operating time was recorded, and the survival condition and postoperative complications were observed for two weeks. Results and discussion The average time of unfolding the shelter, and performing disinfection and preoperative preparation was 33?±?7 min. The number of colonies in the sterilized shelter body was 86?±?13 cfu/m3. The average TAE time was 31?±?7 min. All the hemostatic embolizations of splenic injury were performed successfully in the mobile minimally invasive interventional shelter during the operation. A pseudoaneurysm was found in an animal model using angiography two weeks after the operation. The primary clinical success rate of embolization was 87.5%. The two-week survival rate in all animal models of splenic injury was 100%. Conclusions Our findings in the current study demonstrate that the mobile minimally invasive interventional shelter can be adapted to the field perfectly and complete emergency surgical intervention for splenic injury efficiently and safely. Therefore, on-spot emergency interventional TAE for vascular injury of solid organs (e.g. spleen) in mobile minimally invasive interventional shelter is available and effective. PMID:25103472

  10. FOCUS TERRAThe Earth Science Research and Information Centre of ETH Zurich

    E-print Network

    Gilli, Adrian

    FOCUS TERRAThe Earth Science Research and Information Centre of ETH Zurich Discover the Wonders. Housed within the Department of Earth Sciences the exhibition builds a bridge between scientists scientists and students. The striking architecture of the Earth Sciences' building and the exhibition tower

  11. Destination Earth

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    NASA has a number of sites devoted to disseminating material about its various scientific expeditions and discoveries, and the Destination Earth is one of the clearinghouse-style sites that will be of great interest to the general public. From the site's homepage, visitors can choose overviews of the different epochs of NASA discovery (ranging from 1958 to 1997) or by looking through the "Today in Earth Science" section, which contains important news updates on various topics related to the earth sciences such as the discovery of new fault lines. In the "Vision For the Future" area, users can learn about upcoming NASA expeditions and also about the potential benefits of such missions. Of course, no such website would be complete without a section for young people, and the "For Kids Only", provides access to a number of educational resources designed to help them learn about the solar system and the universe.

  12. The endangered Iris atropurpurea (Iridaceae) in Israel: honey-bees, night-sheltering male bees and female solitary bees as pollinators

    E-print Network

    Northampton, University of

    The endangered Iris atropurpurea (Iridaceae) in Israel: honey-bees, night-sheltering male bees no nectar reward. Here the role of night-sheltering male solitary bees, honey-bees and female solitary bees, but with the potential to transfer pollen, female solitary bees. Honey-bees were found to be frequent diurnal visitors

  13. Restoration of a Rocky Mountain Spruce-Fir Forest: Sixth-Year Engelmann Spruce Seedling Response With or Without Tree Shelter Removal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Douglass F. Jacobs

    This paper presents results following 6 growing seasons of a project designed to examine the use of tree shelters as a means to provide initial shade for planted Engelmann spruce seedlings. Seedlings were planted in 1996 on a 48-ha (119-ac) high-elevation site with different colors of tree shelters providing various degrees of shading. A control treatment, consisting of shading using

  14. Blast biology: a study of the primary and tertiary effects of blast in open underground protective shelters. Project 33. 1 of Operation Plumbbob

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. R. Ricmond; R. V. Taborelli; I. G. Bowen

    2010-01-01

    Dogs, pigs, rabbits, guinea pigs, and mice were exposed to nuclear detonations in two open underground partitioned shelters. The shelters were of similar construction, and each was exposed to separate detonations. Each inner chamber filled through its own orifice; thus four separate pressure environments were obtained. An aerodynamic mound was placed over the escape hatch of each structure to determine

  15. Research on long-span public building safety design strategy based on “Disaster reduction and carbon mitigation” view

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ligang Shi; Shijun Sun

    2011-01-01

    This article viewed that disaster reduction and carbon mitigation complement each other, parallel, constitute the macro background of building safety together. As the sociopetal space and important urban space node, long-span public building served as temporary shelter after disasters,therefore, its safety study on the disaster reduction and carbon mitigation was self- evident important.On this basis, this article investigated structure security

  16. Beyond Earth: Using Google Earth to Visualize Other Planetary Bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hancher, M.; Beyer, R.; Broxton, M.; Gorelick, N.; Kolb, E.; Weiss-Malik, M.

    2008-12-01

    Virtual globes have revolutionized the way we visualize and understand the Earth, but there are other planetary bodies that can be visualized as well. We will demonstrate the use of Google Earth, KML, and other modern mapping tools for visualizing data that's literally out of this world. Extra-terrestrial virtual globes are poised to revolutionize planetary science, bring an exciting new dimension to science education, and allow users to explore the increasingly breathtaking imagery being sent back to Earth by modern planetary science satellites. We will demonstrate several uses of the latest Google Earth and KML features to visualize planetary data. Global maps of planetary bodies---not just visible imagery maps, but also terrain maps, infra-red maps, minerological maps, and more---can be overlaid on the Google Earth globe using KML, and a number of sources are already making many such maps available. Coverage maps show the polygons that have been imaged by various satellite sensors, with links to the imagery and science data. High-resolution regionated ground overlays allow you to explore the most breathtaking imagery at full resolution, in its geological context, just as we have become accustomed to doing with Earth imagery. Panoramas from landed missions to the Moon and Mars can even be embedded, giving users a first-hand experience of other worlds. We will take you on a guided tour of how these features can best be used to visualize places other than the Earth, and provide pointers to KML from many sources---ourselves and others---that users can build on in constructing their own KML content of other planetary bodies. Using this paradigm for sharing geospatial data will not only enable planetary scientists to more easily build and share data within the scientific community, but will also provide an easy platform for public outreach and education efforts, and will easily allow anyone to layer geospatial information on top of planetary data.

  17. Early Earth differentiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-09-01

    The birth and infancy of Earth was a time of profound differentiation involving massive internal reorganization into core, mantle and proto-crust, all within a few hundred million years of solar system formation (t0). Physical and isotopic evidence indicate that the formation of iron-rich cores generally occurred very early in planetesimals, the building blocks of proto-Earth, within about 3 million years of t0. The final stages of terrestrial planetary accretion involved violent and tremendously energetic giant impacts among core-segregated Mercury- to Mars-sized objects and planetary embryos. As a consequence of impact heating, the early Earth was at times partially or wholly molten, increasing the likelihood for high-pressure and high-temperature equilibration among core- and mantle-forming materials. The Earth's silicate mantle harmoniously possesses abundance levels of the siderophile elements Ni and Co that can be reconciled by equilibration between iron alloy and silicate at conditions comparable to those expected for a deep magma ocean. Solidification of a deep magma ocean possibly involved crystal melt segregation at high pressures, but subsequent convective stirring of the mantle could have largely erased nascent layering. However, primitive upper mantle rocks apparently have some nonchondritic major and trace element refractory lithophile element ratios that can be plausibly linked to early mantle differentiation of ultra-high-pressure mantle phases. The geochemical effects of crystal fractionation in a deep magma ocean are partly constrained by high-pressure experimentation. Comparison between compositional models for the primitive convecting mantle and bulk silicate Earth generally allows, and possibly favors, 10 15% total fractionation of a deep mantle assemblage comprised predominantly of Mg-perovskite and with minor but geochemically important amounts of Ca-perovskite and ferropericlase. Long-term isolation of such a crystal pile is generally consistent with isotopic constraints for time-integrated Sm/Nd and Lu/Hf ratios in the modern upper mantle and might account for the characteristics of some mantle isotope reservoirs. Although much remains to be learned about the earliest formative period in the Earth's development, a convergence of theoretical, physical, isotopic and geochemical arguments is beginning to yield a self-consistent portrait of the infant Earth.

  18. Down to Earth Down to Earth

    E-print Network

    Johnson, Cari

    Down to Earth 1 Down to Earth Newsletter of the Geology and Geophysics Department University In January, the College of Mines and Earth Sciences received a pledge of an additional $5 million from's facilities is vital in an era when the earth sciences continue to take on more importance. As earth

  19. BUILDING INSPECTION Building, Infrastructure, Transportation

    E-print Network

    BUILDING INSPECTION Building, Infrastructure, Transportation City of Redwood City 1017 Middlefield Sacramento, Ca 95814-5514 Re: Green Building Ordinance and the Building Energy Efficiency Standards Per of Redwood City enforce the current Title 24 Building Energy Efficiency Standards as part

  20. 1. View from missile site control building (southeast to northwest) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. View from missile site control building (southeast to northwest) of universal missile building. Note earth mounding. On the far right can be seen the exit tunnel; the small "boxes" on top are the roof ventilators. This building was salvaged and sealed after site inactivation - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Universal Missile Building, Between Tactical Road South & Patrol Road, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  1. Spaceship Earth

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Science Netlinks

    2002-09-10

    In this lesson, from Science NetLinks, students will develop an understanding of our planet as a system by designing a very-long-duration space mission in which the life-support system is patterned after that of earth.

  2. Earth's Water

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This resource provides an overview of the distribution and occurence of water on Earth. Topics include where and how much water there is, the water cycle, and how water is measured. There is also discussion of characteristics and distribution of surface water, groundwater, glaciers, and icecaps.

  3. Rare earths

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gambogi, J.

    2013-01-01

    Global mine production of rare earths was estimated to have declined slightly in 2012 relative to 2011 (Fig. 1). Production in China was estimated to have decreased to 95 from 105 kt (104,700 from 115,700 st) in 2011, while new mine production in the United States and Australia increased.

  4. Earth Movers

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This lesson explores plate tectonics and helps students understand how mountains, earthquakes, and volcanoes are related to the movements of plates. Students will learn about the idea of continental drift and the theory of plate tectonics to ascertain a fuller picture of how land formations on the surface of the Earth are shaped by plates moving below the surface.

  5. Visible Earth

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2001-01-01

    This Web site provides a searchable directory of NASA Earth science images, animations and data visualizations. Most resources are available digitally at multiple resolutions, with captions and metadata. Users can search the database using full text and advanced searches by topic, keyword, sensor, location, parameter, and dates.

  6. Effect of high-impact targeted trap-neuter-return and adoption of community cats on cat intake to a shelter.

    PubMed

    Levy, J K; Isaza, N M; Scott, K C

    2014-09-01

    Approximately 2-3 million cats enter animal shelters annually in the United States. A large proportion of these are unowned community cats that have no one to reclaim them and may be too unsocialized for adoption. More than half of impounded cats are euthanased due to shelter crowding, shelter-acquired disease or feral behavior. Trap-neuter-return (TNR), an alternative to shelter impoundment, improves cat welfare and reduces the size of cat colonies, but has been regarded as too impractical to reduce cat populations on a larger scale or to limit shelter cat intake. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of TNR concentrated in a region of historically high cat impoundments in a Florida community. A 2-year program was implemented to capture and neuter at least 50% of the estimated community cats in a single 11.9?km(2) zip code area, followed by return to the neighborhood or adoption. Trends in shelter cat intake from the target zip code were compared to the rest of the county. A total of 2366 cats, representing approximately 54% of the projected community cat population in the targeted area, were captured for the TNR program over the 2-year study period. After 2 years, per capita shelter intake was 3.5-fold higher and per capita shelter euthanasia was 17.5-fold higher in the non-target area than in the target area. Shelter cat impoundment from the target area where 60 cats/1000 residents were neutered annually decreased by 66% during the 2-year study period, compared to a decrease of 12% in the non-target area, where only 12 cats/1000 residents were neutered annually. High-impact TNR combined with the adoption of socialized cats and nuisance resolution counseling for residents is an effective tool for reducing shelter cat intake. PMID:24980808

  7. Geohydrology and ground-water quality on Shelter Island, Suffolk County, New York, 1983-84

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simmons, D.L.

    1986-01-01

    Shelter Island, with an area of about 11 sq mi, lies between the north and south forks of eastern Long Island in Suffolk County. The thin upper glacial (water table) aquifer contains the lens-shaped freshwater body that is the sole source of freshwater for the Town 's population of about 2,200 year-round and 10,000 summer residents. Chloride concentrations in groundwater above the freshwater/saltwater interface, defined as 40 mg/L Cl-, are relatively constant with depth. Below the interface, however, chloride concentrations increase rapidly--as much as an order of magnitude within 10 ft--until they reach 19 ,000 mg/L, the chloride concentration of seawater. Chloride concentrations in shallow groundwater from wells screened in or near the zone of diffusion may range over two orders of magnitude in response to variations in recharge and groundwater withdrawal. After the summer season of relatively low recharge and peak water demand, the thickness of the freshwater lens is < 20 ft in many nearshore areas. A map showing the configuration of the water table in December 1983 indicates freshwater mounds in the center of the island, in the Mashomack Preserve, on the Dering Harbor-Hay Beach peninsula, and in the area between Shelter Island Heights and West Neck Bay. Areas in which the supply of fresh groundwater is severely limited include all coastal areas, the southernmost part of the West Neck peninsula, and Little Ram Island. Water levels in most locations are < 6 ft above sea level. During 1974-83, seasonal water table fluctuations were greater than variations that occurred from year to year. Groundwater quality on Shelter Island is generally good and usually meets Federal and State drinking water standards. However, many wells contain water that has excessive concentrations of dissolved iron and manganese (up to 5.0 mg/L and 3.0 mg/L, respectively), and elevated chloride and dissolved solids concentrations (up to 310 mg/L and 585 mg/L, respectively) have been found in some nearshore wells. Increased withdrawal of fresh groundwater in nearshore areas will cause further landward movement of saline groundwater; in other areas, excessive pumping may cause upconing. A system of widely spaced pumping wells that avoid nearshore areas would minimize these effects. (Lantz-PTT)

  8. Earth meandering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asadiyan, H.; Zamani, A.

    2009-04-01

    In this paper we try to put away current Global Tectonic Model to look the tectonic evolution of the earth from new point of view. Our new dynamic model is based on study of river meandering (RM) which infer new concept as Earth meandering(EM). In a universal gravitational field if we consider a clockwise spiral galaxy model rotate above Ninety East Ridge (geotectonic axis GA), this system with applying torsion field (likes geomagnetic field) in side direction from Rocky Mt. (west geotectonic pole WGP) to Tibetan plateau TP (east geotectonic pole EGP),it seems that pulled mass from WGP and pushed it in EGP due to it's rolling dynamics. According to this idea we see in topographic map that North America and Green land like a tongue pulled from Pacific mouth toward TP. Actually this system rolled or meander the earth over itself fractaly from small scale to big scale and what we see in the river meandering and Earth meandering are two faces of one coin. River transport water and sediments from high elevation to lower elevation and also in EM, mass transport from high altitude-Rocky Mt. to lower altitude Himalaya Mt. along 'S' shape geodetic line-optimum path which connect points from high altitude to lower altitude as kind of Euler Elastica(EE). These curves are responsible for mass spreading (source) and mass concentration (sink). In this regard, tiltness of earth spin axis plays an important role, 'S' are part of sigmoidal shape which formed due to intersection of Earth rolling with the Earth glob and actual feature of transform fault and river meandering. Longitudinal profile in mature rivers as a part of 'S' curve also is a kind of EE. 'S' which bound the whole earth is named S-1(S order 1) and cube corresponding to this which represent Earth fracturing in global scale named C-1(cube order 1 or side vergence cube SVC), C-1 is a biggest cycle of spiral polygon, so it is not completely closed and it has separation about diameter of C-7. Inside SVC we introduce cone vergence cube (CVC or geotectonic equator GE) which rotate 45 degree counterclockwise with respect to SVC. Every cube from big scale to small scale fractalize in order of 23 and every '8' shape from big scale to small scale also fractalize in the same order. Three dimensional and fractoscopic imagination about understanding the changing on earth is very important so we should imagine '8' as curved surface, sea floor spreading happened in maximum curvature of these surfaces. '8' formed from pair 'S' string with opposite direction. '8' oscillate in Pole-Pole and Side-Side direction and have saddle geometry with two 'U' path along perpendicular saddle (e.g. Lut/Jazmurian and Helmand/Mashkal basin in Iran actually intersection of this saddle shape with the earth surface and Iceland /Black Sea and CapeVerde/Victoria Lake are also In/Out (small scale polygon) of 'U' shape conduit which followed axial saddle of Side-'S-2' and Okhotsk Sea /Balkhash Lake followed axial saddle conduit of Pole-'S-2' actually intersection of this perpendicular conduit with surface make spot-like-lakes/volcanoes or basin. Global EM in Side-S-1 bounded compression region-TP inside and tension region-East African Rift offside).This is a interesting competing between two kinematic geometry - spherical and isometrical geometry by using the interaction of them we can analyze the earth face in past, present and future apart of the forces that cause this face. C-1 in two dimensional look like six sided big tent which speared over Tibet and main rod driven along GA. Pair S-1 curve. have seven component(fold) and six segment in between,S-7 exactly located on TP(center of S-1). Between two successive fold we have complex geology(e.g. eastern Iran and Afghanistan)mass dragged from North America and Siberian and accumulated gradually during six step in Earth Foundation(Tibet),S-7 bounded Takla Makan Desert (in smaller loop) and TP (in bigger loop) S-7 alter the earth balance and responsible for earth disturbing, another sample of 'S' curve we see around Australia and Kermadec/Tonga Trench, Aleutian ri

  9. Selection and sharing of sheltered nest sites by ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in grasslands of the Australian Capital Territory

    E-print Network

    Canberra, University of

    Selection and sharing of sheltered nest sites by ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in grasslands nests. Nest sites that offer protection from predators are an obvious advantage, but improved large myrmecophagous predators and protection from the elements, such as high temperatures (e.g. Dean

  10. Prevocational and Vocational Training of Trainable Mentally Retarded Youth in Sheltered Workshops Established by Local Educational Agencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gehm, Fred O., Ed.

    Presented are the proceedings of a special study institute whose primary purpose was to acquaint leaders in special education with the prevocational and vocational training of trainable mentally retarded (TMR) adolescents and young adults in sheltered workshops. Institute workshops are said to have considered the following topics: prevocational…

  11. Young and Older Caregivers at Homeless Animal and Human Shelters: Selfish and Selfless Motives in Helping Others

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph R. Ferrari; Michelle M. Loftus; Julia Pesek

    1999-01-01

    In the present study, young (n = 34) and older(n = 70) adult volunteers at either animal (n= 48) or human (n = 56) homeless shelters were asked to complete measures of caregiver stress\\/satisfaction, volunteer motives, and social desirability. Young compared to older volunteers assisting animals, but not humans, reported a significantly higher caseload and spending significantly more time per

  12. Burden of Disease and Health Status Among Hurricane Katrina- Displaced Persons in Shelters: A Population-Based Cluster Sample

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Gregg Greenough; Michael D. Lappi; Edbert B. Hsu; Sheri Fink; Yu-Hsiang Hsieh

    Study objective: Anecdotal evidence suggests that the population displaced to shelters from Hurricane Katrina had a significant burden of disease, socioeconomic vulnerability, and marginalized health care access. For agencies charged with providing health care to at-risk displaced populations, knowing the prevalence of acute and chronic disease is critical to direct resources and prevent morbidity and mortality. Methods: We performed a

  13. Influence of conspecific and heterospecific aggregation cues and alarm odors on shelter choice by syntopic spiny lobsters.

    PubMed

    Briones-Fourzán, Patricia; Ramírez-Zaldívar, Eunice; Lozano-Alvarez, Enrique

    2008-10-01

    In spiny lobsters, conspecific scents ("aggregation cues") may mediate gregarious diurnal sheltering, but scents from injured conspecifics ("alarm odors") may elicit avoidance behavior. In laboratory experiments, individuals of two coexisting species, Panulirus guttatus (a reef-obligate) and P. argus (a temporary reef-dweller), significantly chose shelters emanating conspecific aggregation cues and responded randomly to shelters emanating heterospecific aggregation cues. However, despite evidence that the two species perceived each other's alarm odors to a similar extent, P. guttatus responded randomly to shelters emanating either conspecific or heterospecific alarm odors, whereas P. argus significantly avoided both. This differential influence of alarm odors likely reflects interspecific differences in life history, sociality, and behavior. The less social, reef-obligate P. guttatus lobsters forage close to their reef dens, into which they retract deeply upon perception of risk. This cryptic behavior may offset the need to avoid conspecific (and heterospecific) alarm odors. In contrast, avoidance of conspecific alarm odors by P. argus is consistent with its ontogenetic habitat shifts and greater sociality. Furthermore, because reef-dwelling P. argus lobsters forage across open areas away from the reef, an ability to avoid alarm odors from P. guttatus upon returning to their reef dens may increase their fitness. PMID:18840779

  14. Spatial variability of fish fauna in sheltered and exposed shallow rocky reefs from a recently established Mediterranean Marine Protected Area

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Pais; E. Azzurro; P. Guidetti

    2007-01-01

    Coastal exposure may affect the structure of littoral fish assemblages. To evaluate its effects, fish assemblages associated with shallow (0–3 m depth) rocky reefs were investigated by visual census at the Asinara Island National Park (northwestern Sardinia, Italy, Mediterranean Sea) during autumn 2003. Distribution patterns of ichthyofauna in sheltered and exposed rocky reefs were assessed over the spatial scales of locations

  15. Induced Churn as Shelter from Routing-Table Poisoning Tyson Condie, Varun Kacholia, Sriram Sankararaman, Joseph M. Hellerstein, Petros Maniatis

    E-print Network

    California at Irvine, University of

    Induced Churn as Shelter from Routing-Table Poisoning Tyson Condie, Varun Kacholia, Sriram. In this paper we address routing-table poisoning attacks against structured overlays, in which adversaries to redi- rect an outgoing link to her, thereby poisoning its routing table. All lookups routed via

  16. Induced Churn as Shelter from Routing-Table Poisoning Tyson Condie, Varun Kacholia, Sriram Sankararaman, Joseph M. Hellerstein, Petros Maniatis

    E-print Network

    California at Irvine, University of

    Induced Churn as Shelter from Routing-Table Poisoning Tyson Condie, Varun Kacholia, Sriram. In this paper we address routing-table poisoning attacks against structured overlays, in which adversaries an outgoing link to her, thereby poisoning its routing table. All lookups routed via that link will end up

  17. Interactions between finfish aquaculture and lobster catches in a sheltered bay.

    PubMed

    Loucks, Ronald H; Smith, Ruth E; Fisher, E Brian

    2014-11-15

    Interactions between open-net pen finfish aquaculture and lobster catches in a sheltered bay in Nova Scotia, Canada, were investigated using fishermen's participatory research in annual lobster trap surveys over seven years. Fishermen recorded lobster catches during the last two weeks of May from 2007 to 2013. Catches for each trap haul were recorded separately for ovigerous and market-sized lobsters. Catch trends within the bay were compared to regional trends. Results of correlation analyses indicated that ovigerous catch trends were strongly affected by the fish farm's feeding/fallow periods. There was no significant correlation between trends for bay and LFA lobster landings. Patterns of lobster catch per unit effort extending over considerable distance in Port Mouton Bay appear to be influenced by proximity to the fish farm regardless of year-to-year variation in water temperatures and weather conditions. Odours and habitat changes surrounding open-net pen finfish operations are potential factors affecting lobster displacement. PMID:25242235

  18. Two-Year Predictors of Runaway and Homeless Episodes Following Shelter Services among Substance Abusing Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Slesnick, Natasha; Guo, Xiamei; Brakenhoff, Brittany; Feng, Xin

    2013-01-01

    Given high levels of health and psychological costs associated with the family disruption of homelessness, identifying predictors of runaway and homeless episodes is an important goal. The current study followed 179 substance abusing, shelter-recruited adolescents who participated in a randomized clinical trial. Predictors of runaway and homeless episodes were examined over a two year period. Results from the hierarchical linear modeling analysis showed that family cohesion and substance use, but not family conflict or depressive symptoms, delinquency, or school enrollment predicted future runaway and homeless episodes. Findings suggest that increasing family support, care and connection and reducing substance use are important targets of intervention efforts in preventing future runaway and homeless episodes amongst a high risk sample of adolescents. PMID:24011094

  19. Parametric effects of reinforcement frequency, amount of reinforcement, and required response force on sheltered workshop behavior.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, S R

    1972-01-01

    Three experiments involving parametric manipulation of reinforcement contingencies were performed with retardates in an automated Sheltered Workshop token economy. Experiment I showed that with amount of reinforcement held constant, work rates were positively related to reinforcement rates on fixed-interval schedules and inversely related to reinforcement rates on fixed-ratio schedules. Experiment II demonstrated an interaction between frequency of ratio reinforcement and torque required to complete a work unit: work rates were positively related to reinforcement rates when required response force was high and negatively related to reinforcement rates when required response force was low. Experiment III revealed that, with reinforcement frequency held constant, there was in inverse relationship between amount of reinforcement and work rate. PMID:16795367

  20. Improving Youth Mental Health through Family-Based Prevention In Family Homeless Shelters.

    PubMed

    Lynn, Cynthia J; Acri, Mary C; Goldstein, Leah; Bannon, William; Beharie, Nisha; McKay, Mary M

    2014-09-01

    This exploratory study examines changes in suicidal ideation among a sample (N = 28) of homeless youth, ages 11-14, residing within family shelters in a large metropolitan area. Changes in suicidal ideation from pretest to posttest are compared across two group approaches to delivering HIV prevention. Youth and their families participating in the HOPE Family Program, incorporating a family strengthening approach, are compared to those receiving a traditional health education-only approach. Multivariate analyses reveal that youth in the HOPE Family Program were 13 times more likely to report a decrease of suicidal ideation. These findings indicate that health education programs integrating a family strengthening approach hold promise for positively impacting mental health outcomes for vulnerable youth. PMID:25157200

  1. Design and operation of the internal dosimetry program for the Chornobyl 'shelter implementation plan'.

    PubMed

    Likhtarev, I; Berkovski, V; Kovgan, L; Tcygankov, N; Ratia, G; Bonchuk, Y; Nechaev, S; Perevoznikov, O; Ariasov, P; Vasilenko, V; Rubel, N; Kairo, I; Gorbachev, S; Volkernuk, T; Sushko, V

    2007-01-01

    The paper discusses the system of individual monitoring for internal exposure, deployed by the Ukrainian Radiation Protection Institute as an integral component of the Shelter Implementation Plan (SIP) at the Chornobyl industrial site. SIP anticipates involving of up to 10,00 workers of numerous SIP contractors. A typical daily shift comprises several hundred workers. Most of them have a direct contact with the irradiated nuclear fuel, fuel-contained aerosols and other contaminated materials on the industrial site. The hierarchical SIP individual monitoring program has been designed with consideration of peculiarities of SIP exposure conditions and aims at the timely and reliable identification of intakes, assessment of doses and initiation of measures for prevention of further intakes. PMID:17686964

  2. Earth Sciences Geography Option

    E-print Network

    Kurapov, Alexander

    Earth Sciences with Geography Option Geography is the study of Earth's environments, landscapes, international development, diplomacy, military service; · Teaching and research. #12;Earth Sciences with Geography Option What to know about Oregon State University Student Services & Advising College of Earth

  3. Histologic and Molecular Correlation in Shelter Cats with Acute Upper Respiratory Infection ?

    PubMed Central

    Burns, Rachel E.; Wagner, Denae C.; Leutenegger, Christian M.; Pesavento, Patricia A.

    2011-01-01

    This is a descriptive study designed to correlate diagnostic real-time PCR results with histopathologic lesions in cats with clinical signs of upper respiratory infection (URI). The study occurred over a 9-month period in a single open-intake animal shelter. Cats that were selected for euthanasia by the shelter staff and additionally had URI were included in the study, for a total of 22 study cats. Combined conjunctival and oropharyngeal swab specimens were tested by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) for feline herpesvirus type 1 (FHV-1), feline calicivirus (FCV), Mycoplasma felis, Chlamydophila felis, and Bordetella bronchiseptica. Necropsy was performed on all cats, and a complete set of respiratory tract tissues was examined by histopathology. Among 22 cats, 20 were qPCR positive for FHV-1, 7 for M. felis, 5 for FCV, 1 for C. felis, and 0 for B. bronchiseptica. Nine cats were positive for two or more pathogens. Histopathologic lesions were present in all cats, with consistent lesions in the nasal cavity, including acute necroulcerative rhinitis in 16 cats. Histologic or antigenic detection of FHV-1 was seen in 18 of 20 cats positive for FHV-1 by qPCR. No lesions that could be specifically attributed to FCV, M. felis, or C. felis were seen, although interpretation in this cohort could be confounded by coinfection with FHV-1. A significant agreement was found between the amount of FHV-1 DNA determined by qPCR and the presence of specific histopathologic lesions for FHV-1 but not for the other respiratory pathogens. PMID:21562109

  4. The calculation of quality indicators for long term care facilities in 8 countries (SHELTER project)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Performance indicators in the long term care sector are important to evaluate the efficiency and quality of care delivery. We are, however, still far from being able to refer to a common set of indicators at the European level. We therefore demonstrate the calculation of Long Term Care Facility Quality Indicators (LTCFQIs) from data of the European Services and Health for Elderly in Long TERm Care (SHELTER) project. We explain how risk factors are taken into account and show how LTC facilities at facility and country level can be compared on quality of care using thresholds and a Quality Indicator sum measure. Methods The indicators of Long Term Care Facility quality of care are calculated based on methods that have been developed in the US. The values of these Quality Indicators (QIs) are risk adjusted on the basis of covariates resulting from logistic regression analysis on each of the QIs. To enhance the comparison of QIs between facilities and countries we have used the method of percentile thresholds and developed a QI sum measure based on percentile outcomes. Results In SHELTER data have been collected with the interRAI Long Term Care Facility instrument (interRAI-LTCF). The data came from LTC facilities in 7 European countries and Israel. The unadjusted values of the LTCF Quality Indicators differ considerably between facilities in the 8 countries. After risk adjustment the differences are less, but still considerable. Our QI sum measure facilitates the overall comparison of quality of care between facilities and countries. Conclusions With quality indicators based on assessments with the interRAI LTCF instrument quality of care between LTC facilities in and across nations can be adequately compared. PMID:23587337

  5. Use of ponazuril paste to treat coccidiosis in shelter-housed cats and dogs.

    PubMed

    Litster, A L; Nichols, J; Hall, K; Camp, J; Mohamed, A S

    2014-05-28

    Cystoisospora (synonym Isospora) spp. infections are common in dogs and cats worldwide, especially in crowded or unsanitary environments. Ponazuril (toltrazuril sulfone) is a widely used oral treatment, but protocols that will produce oocyst excretion below the detection limit in shelter-housed animals have not been determined. The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of ponazuril paste at each of three dosages (dosage 1, 50mg/kg q24 h for 3 days, dogs n=14, cats n=16; dosage 2, 50mg/kg as a single dose, dogs n=13, cats n=25; or dosage 3, 20mg/kg as a single dose, dogs n=16, cats n=23) in shelter-housed dogs (n=43) and cats (n=64) with confirmed coccidiosis. Fecal oocyst counts and identification and fecal consistency scoring was performed pre-treatment (Day 1) and again at Day 3-4 and Day 8. There were higher proportions of animals with oocyst excretion below the detection limit at both Day 3-4 and Day 8 in the dosage 1 group (dogs 92.9%, cats 87.5%) than in the other two groups (dosage 2, dogs 76.9%, cats 80.0%; dosage 3, dogs 68.8%, cats 47.8%). Animals with high fecal oocyst counts at Day 1 were significantly more likely to be infected at Day 3-4 (dogs, P<0.001; cats, P=0.013). Fecal consistency score at Day 3-4 was not significantly related to infection status (dogs, P=0.898; cats, P=0.136). Further studies are warranted to investigate a ponazuril protocol that can safely reduce fecal oocyst burdens in infected dogs and cats to levels below the detection limit. Environmental decontamination is also important to reduce the likelihood of re-infection. PMID:24679485

  6. Earth plasmas

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Space Science Institute

    2005-01-01

    Fusion is the focus of this section of a tutorial about plasma, one of the four states of matter. This section deals with plasmas on Earth. There is little naturally-occurring plasma here because of the Earth's relatively cool (by universe standards) temperature, but human-made plasma is produced for industry and research purposes. The section explores the use of plasmas in experimental fusion reactors, pointing out three categories of significant unresolved issues that stand in the way of fusion becoming a viable energy source. The use of electromagnets to confine plasmas is discussed. Enlargeable images of fusion reactors are provided, and an explanation of the difference between fission and fusion is supplemented by animations of the two reaction types. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

  7. Breathing Earth

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Bleja, David

    Visual simulation and representation programs and applications have been popping up online in greater numbers, and this recent find is one that will pique the interest of scientists, policy makers, and others who are concerned about carbon dioxide emission rates across the Earth. The Breathing Earth site was created by David Bleja, and he draws on a number of resources (such as the World Factbook and the United Nations) for the data that is utilized to create this site. Visitors can scroll over different countries to learn about their population, their emissions, and their birth and death rate. This interactive map and educational resource also contains a legend in the right-hand corner which explains the various symbols in use here.

  8. Towards Earth AntineutRino TomograpHy (EARTH)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Meijer, R. J.; Smit, F. D.; Brooks, F. D.; Fearick, R. W.; Wörtche, H. J.; Mantovani, F.

    2006-12-01

    The programme Earth AntineutRino TomograpHy (EARTH) proposes to build ten underground facilities each hosting a telescope. Each telescope consists of many detector modules, to map the radiogenic heat sources deep in the interior of the Earth by utilising direction sensitive geoneutrino detection. Recent hypotheses target the core-mantle boundary (CMB) as a major source of natural radionuclides and therefore of radiogenic heat. A typical scale of the processes that take place at the CMB is about 200 km. To observe these processes from the surface requires an angular resolution of about 3°. EARTH aims at creating a high-resolution 3D-map of the radiogenic heat sources in the Earth’s interior. It will thereby contribute to a better understanding of a number of geophysical phenomena observed at the Earth’s surface. This condition requires a completely different approach from the monolithic detector systems as e.g. KamLAND. This paper presents, for such telescopes, the boundary conditions set by physics, the estimated count rates, and the first initial results from Monte-Carlo simulations and laboratory experiments. The Monte-Carlo simulations indicate that the large volume telescope should consist of detector modules each comprising a very large number of detector units, with a cross section of roughly a few square centimetres. The signature of an antineutrino event will be a double pulse event. One pulse arises from the slowing down of the emitted positron, the other from the neutron capture. In laboratory experiments small sized, 10B-loaded liquid scintillation detectors were investigated as candidates for direction sensitive, low-energy antineutrino detection.

  9. Prevalence of Dirofilaria immitis, Ehrlichia canis, and Borrelia burgdorferi in pet dogs, racing greyhounds, and shelter dogs in Florida.

    PubMed

    Tzipory, Nirit; Crawford, P Cynda; Levy, Julie K

    2010-07-15

    Arthropod vectors of canine infectious diseases are present throughout Florida. Since crowded housing has the potential to bring vectors and infected dogs into close proximity, it is possible that prevalence of infection is higher in intensely housed dogs. In this study, the seroprevalence of Dirofilaria immitis, Ehrlichia canis, and Borrelia burgdorferi in dogs residing in two types of intensive housing, greyhound kennels and animal shelters, was compared to dogs residing in low-intensity housing, private homes. Serum was collected from a cross-section of 1500 adult dogs from Florida, including 500 pet dogs referred to the Veterinary Medical Center of the College of Veterinary Medicine at the University of Florida, 500 racing greyhounds, and 500 dogs residing in animal shelters. Serum was tested for D. immitis antigen, E. canis antibodies, and B. burgdorferi antibodies by ELISA. Seroprevalence of D. immitis was significantly higher (14.6%) in shelter dogs and in pet dogs (1.4%) than in racing greyhounds (0.2%) (P<0.04). There were no significant differences in the seroprevalence of E. canis (0.4-1.6%) or B. burgdorferi (0-0.8%) among the groups. There was no association of sex or age with D. immitis infection, but pit bull type dogs were more than twice as likely to be infected than other breeds (P=0.003). Evidence for vector-borne infections, particularly D. immitis, was found in dogs throughout the state. The prevalence was greatest for D. immitis infection in shelter dogs, likely due to lack of preventive medications prior to impoundment. Although heartworm infection is considered to be a treatable condition, insufficient resources in shelters may lead to euthanasia of infected dogs that would otherwise be considered adoptable. PMID:20399018

  10. Effects of habitat patchiness on American lobster movement across a gradient of predation risk and shelter competition.

    PubMed

    Hovel, Kevin A; Wahle, Richard A

    2010-07-01

    The influence of landscape structure on marine ecological processes is receiving increasing attention. However, few studies conducted in coastal marine habitats have evaluated whether the effects of landscape structure on species interactions and organismal behavior are consistent across the range of an organism, over which landscape context and the strength of species interactions typically vary. American lobster (Homarus americanus) juveniles seek refuge from predators within shallow rocky habitat but make short-distance movements to forage outside of shelter. We evaluated how the patchiness of cobble habitat influences juvenile lobster movement by conducting mark-recapture experiments on lobsters placed within patchy and contiguous cobble plots in three regions of New England among which risk of predation and intraspecific shelter competition vary (Rhode Island, mid-coast Maine, and eastern Maine, USA). We also evaluated whether habitat patchiness influenced lobster colonization of plots and whether lobster fidelity to individual shelters corresponds to variability in predator abundance and conspecific density among regions. Cobble patchiness reduced rates of lobster movement in all three regions in 2004 and in two of three regions in 2005, despite large differences in landscape context among regions. Region had much larger effects on lobster colonization than did patchiness, but patchy plots were colonized at higher rates than were contiguous plots where lobster densities were highest. Fidelity to shelter was higher in regions with low conspecific density (Rhode Island and eastern Maine) than in mid-coast Maine where conspecific density is high and where unmarked lobsters often occupied shelters vacated by marked lobsters. Our results indicate that cobble patchiness influences juvenile lobster movement at small scales, but that the effects of patchiness on movement were consistent across much of the range of the American lobster despite strong regional variation in predator abundance and conspecific density. PMID:20715622

  11. Earth Observatory

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2011-01-01

    This Web site includes shares the images, stories and discoveries that emerge from NASA Earth science research, including its satellite missions, in-the-field research and climate models. View global maps of NASA data, check out the Image of the Day and images of current events, and read feature articles and blogs. Also includes special collections of NASA images, including the World of Change series, which documents how our planet’s land, oceans, atmosphere and Sun are changing over time.

  12. Earth Lab

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Earth Lab is a database of fossils, minerals and rocks from the UK. A photograph is displayed for each specimen selected, as well as the scientific name, location and properties or age of the specimen. The fossils can be searched by area, age, and group; minerals by area, element, group, and property; and rocks by area, geological age, and type of rock. A series of questions allows users to identify their own specimens.

  13. Earth Rocks!

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Miss Ramirez

    2008-09-13

    You are Miss Ramirez\\'s scientist on a mission to identify the three types of rocks found on Earth! By the end of this web journey, you will be able to: define what a rock is and where they are found. identify the three types of rocks. recognize the three types of rock based on their characteristics. Here are the materials you will need: Box of rocks (provided by Miss Ramirez) Identification Worksheet (provided by ...

  14. Impact Earth

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This 24 minute planetarium show teaches about meteors, meteorites, asteroids, and comets. The show was created for fulldome theaters, but is also available on DVD to be shown in flat version for TVs and computer monitors, and can be freely viewed online. It shows the effects of the Chixulub and Tungusta events, plus the Pallasite impact that resulted in the Brenham meteorite fall, and describes ways that asteroid hunters seek new objects in the solar system, and how ground penetrating radar is used to find meteorites that have survived to the Earth's surface. Narrated by astronaut Tom Jones, it also discusses ways that humans might try to deflect an asteroid or comet that is on a collision course with Earth. The show was created for informal science venues (digital planetariums); it is also useful as supplemental material for middle school science. Impact Earth is available for free if presented directly from the Space Update site (widescreen or fisheye views linked from YouTube). Otherwise, a DVD of the show can be purchased for $10.

  15. Building Green

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Information designed to help building industry professionals and policy makers to improve environmental performance and reduce the adverse impacts of buildings. Offers print and electronic resources to help industry professionals to take an integrated design approach that will minimize ecological impact and maximize economic performance. The publications related to green building include Environmental Building News - a monthly newsletter that is independently published and advertising-free; The GreenSpec Product Directory; and Green Building Advisor.

  16. Earth Structure: Layers of the Earth

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Smoothstone

    This interactive Flash allows users to explore Earth's structure and processes that occur on Earth such as earthquakes and plate tectonics and how scientists know the composition and state of the Earth's layers. Interactive diagrams and animations with supplementary information make this a helpful overview or review for high school and undergraduate introductory-level courses in physical geology and Earth sciences.

  17. Life on Earth. II The Hadean Earth

    E-print Network

    Walter, Frederick M.

    Life on Earth. II #12;The Hadean Earth 4.5 - 3.9 Gyr Impacts melt the surface. Volatiles escape this dating #12;#12;The Hadean Earth Details: ·Large imacts (200+ km) occurred ~ every 100 million years stabilized 3.9 Gya - 2.5 Gya #12;First Life What was the first life on Earth? ·The first living things must

  18. Abused women with children who are first-time users of a shelter or applicants for a protection order: entry data of a 7-year prospective analysis.

    PubMed

    McFarlane, Judith; Maddoux, John; Nava, Angeles; Gilroy, Heidi

    2015-02-01

    Worldwide, two models of care are offered most often to abused women-safe shelter and justice services. No evidence exists on the differential effectiveness of the services. To provide evidence, 300 abused women, 150 first-time users of a shelter and 150 first-time applicants for a protection order, signed informed consent to participate in a 7-year study. Safety, abuse, and functioning of the women and their children were measured. Compared with women seeking justice services, women in shelters reported more abuse and depression and less support. The baseline characteristics of these 300 women are presented with implications for practice and policy. PMID:25540248

  19. GOOGLE EARTH QUICK GUIDE (1)Google Earth Features

    E-print Network

    Smith-Konter, Bridget

    GOOGLE EARTH QUICK GUIDE (1)Google Earth Features The Google Earth of the Google Earth window. Often when opening up the Google Earth program, the view screen will be a view of the entire Earth from space. Navigation bar

  20. Building America

    SciTech Connect

    Brad Oberg

    2010-12-31

    IBACOS researched the constructability and viability issues of using high performance windows as one component of a larger approach to building houses that achieve the Building America 70% energy savings target.

  1. Collapsed Building

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    This masonry office building in the downtown area of Concepcion, Chile collapsed as a result of the M 8.8 earthquake on Feb. 27, 2010. The construction of this building predates the establishment of strict building codes in Chile, put in place following the devastating earthquake of 1960. ...

  2. Building Resonance

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Jeffrey Barker

    This demonstration of how buildings respond to seismic shaking uses cardboard and stiff paper (such as postcards or computer cards). The effects of building resonance can be found by experimenting with taller and shorter buildings, and varying the frequency of shaking.

  3. Architectural Design Factors Of Domestic Violence Shelters That Affect Outcomes For Female Domestic Violence Victims: A Naturalistic Inquiry To Establish Grounded Theory For Future Research

    E-print Network

    Prestwood, Laura E.

    2011-08-08

    Designing domestic violence shelters for women must be considered from a feminist perspective, inclusive of theories of embodiment, as the female victim's emotional state (mind) is a critical component in determining her overall state (i.e., level...

  4. Pollution damage to the Powell Building, Reston, Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Doe, B.R.; Reddy, M.M.; Eggleston, J.R.

    1999-01-01

    Concrete column segments of the Powell Building (Reston, VA) exposed to the elements and wetted by precipitation were `cleaned' and roughened, but sheltered portions of the columns retained their smoothness and pollution accumulates, similar to observations for limestone, marble, and sandstone. Weathering effects on the columns were dominated by precipitation run-off and not the acidity of the precipitation. The process may be dry deposition of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitric oxides (NOx) that formed soluble salts in the presence of humid air or dew, salts that were removed by precipitation run-off.

  5. Pollution damage to the Powell Building, Reston, Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    Doe, B.R.; Reddy, M.M.; Eggleston, J.R.

    1999-12-01

    Concrete column segments of the Powell Building (Reston, VA) exposed to the elements and wetted by precipitation were cleaned and roughened, but sheltered portions of the columns retained their smoothness and pollution accumulates, similar to observations for limestone, marble, and sandstone. Weathering effects on the columns were dominated by precipitation run-off and not the acidity of the precipitation. The process may be dry deposition of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitric oxides (NO{sub x}) that formed soluble salts in the presence of humid air or dew, salts that were removed by precipitation run-off.

  6. Predicting the intentions of women in domestic violence shelters to return to partners: does forgiveness play a role?

    PubMed

    Gordon, Kristina Coop; Burton, Shacunda; Porter, Laura

    2004-06-01

    Recent findings indicate that college women's forgiveness of hypothetical dating violence was predictive of their hypothetical decisions to stay in the relationship. This study was designed to evaluate the role of forgiveness in women's intentions to return to their partners from a domestic violence shelter. A sample of 121 women residing in both urban and rural domestic violence shelters filled out a series of questionnaires evaluating demographic information, severity of violence, attributions for violence, psychological constraints (or investment), and forgiveness of the partner. Forgiveness was found to predict intention to return to partner over and above the other variables studied. These findings suggest that the degree to which women are willing to "move on" from the abuse and to let go of their anger toward their partners may play a significant role in their intention to remain in a relationship with their partners. PMID:15222840

  7. Earth System History Announcements

    E-print Network

    Mojzsis, Stephen J.

    Earth System History GEOL 1020 [14] Announcements Global geochemical cycles ­ first conceptsClicker question If Earth did NOT have plate tectonics, what would be the consequences? · A. Earth would be like Mars: A frozen desert. · B. Earth would be like the Moon: A frozen vacuum. · C. Earth would be like

  8. Earth-Sun Geometry - Earth Revolution Animation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Dr. Michael Pidwirny

    The representation is an animation of the Earth revolving around the sun. The Earth is shown as a solid green sphere with the equator and arctic circle marked with black lines and the dark side of the Earth shaded. The Earth's axis is shown with a red line. As the Earth revolves around the sun, the axis is shown to always be pointing in the same direction. The positions of Earth at the winter solstice, vernal equinox, summer solstice, and autumnal equinox are labeled.

  9. A placebo-controlled trial of two intranasal vaccines to prevent tracheobronchitis (kennel cough) in dogs entering a humane shelter.

    PubMed

    Edinboro, Charlotte H; Ward, Michael P; Glickman, Larry T

    2004-02-26

    A placebo-controlled field trial was conducted to compare the effectiveness of intranasal (IN) vaccines containing Bordetella bronchiseptica and canine-parainfluenza virus, with (IN-BPA) or without (IN-BP) canine-adenovirus type 2, for prevention of kennel cough at a humane shelter. Dogs were examined on admission to the shelter and those without respiratory signs of disease were assigned daily, on a rotating basis, to receive one of three vaccines. We enrolled 972 healthy dogs. Dogs were monitored for up to 30 days post-vaccination for coughing and other clinical signs of respiratory disease. Thirty-three (10.7%; 95% confidence interval (CI): 7.2%, 14.2%) dogs in the IN-BP group, 36 (10.2%; CI: 7.0%, 13.4%) [corrected] dogs in the IN-BPA group, and 42 (13.5%; CI: 9.7%, 17.3%) [corrected] dogs in the IN-P group coughed spontaneously for > or = 1 day within 30 days of vaccination (P = 0.37). The IN-BP and IN-BPA vaccines were 20.7 and 24.4% effective, respectively, in reducing coughing compared with a placebo vaccine. The strongest prognostic factor for coughing (regardless of vaccine group) was the number of days spent at the shelter, with each additional day increasing the risk of coughing by 3% (95% CI: 1.01, 1.06) [corrected] The low incidence of coughing in the shelter during this study precluded observation of differences in vaccine effectiveness. No differences in vaccine-associated adverse events (coughing, sneezing, nasal or ocular discharge) were noted during the first 3 days post-administration or thereafter. PMID:15156996

  10. Temporary shelter-in-place as protection against a release of airborne hazardous material : report of a literature search.

    SciTech Connect

    Yantosik, G. D.; Lerner, K.; Maloney, D. M.

    2002-02-25

    ''Temporary shelter-in place'' is the combination of prompt shelter-in-place (SIP) to minimize initial exposure to airborne hazardous material, followed by timely action to terminate this protection to minimize exposure to hazardous vapor accumulations in the shelter once the air outside becomes less hazardous than the air inside the shelter. Temporary SIP, if properly executed, is considered to be an effective way to protect populations from hazardous chemical vapors, especially from high concentrations for short periods. This is supported by laboratory and field experiments. The need for timely termination of temporary SIP as protection from infiltrated vapors is an integral component of a temporary SIP strategy. It was from this premise that Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) was asked to develop methodologies for deciding when and how to terminate SIP. These methodologies, in turn, could be the basis for site-specific operational guidelines (e.g., decision matrix, decision-tree, or algorithm) for terminating SIP on each of the eight Army chemical stockpile storage sites, and in the off-post communities surrounding them. This project consists of two tasks. Task 1 was to collect and analyze existing literature that might be relevant to the termination of temporary SIP. This report is the product of Task 1. Task 2, which will begin on 2 February 2001, will use the results of the literature search as the baseline to investigate the concepts associated with temporary SIP, and to develop methodologies for termination of temporary SIP that can be incorporated in site-specific operational guidelines. It is understood that these methods will be consistent with Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program (CSEPP) policy that ''the most important objective of the emergency preparedness and implementation process is the avoidance of fatalities to the maximum extent practicable, should an accidental release of chemical agent occur.'' It is also anticipated that these methods will be consistent with approved dispersion models and compatible with the approved emergency management information systems and alert and notification protocols.

  11. Is That Dog a Pit Bull? A Cross-Country Comparison of Perceptions of Shelter Workers Regarding Breed Identification

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Christy L.; Harrison, Natalie; Wolff, London; Westgarth, Carri

    2014-01-01

    Bull breeds are commonly kept as companion animals, but the pit bull terrier is restricted by breed-specific legislation (BSL) in parts of the United States and throughout the United Kingdom. Shelter workers must decide which breed(s) a dog is. This decision may influence the dog's fate, particularly in places with BSL. In this study, shelter workers in the United States and United Kingdom were shown pictures of 20 dogs and were asked what breed each dog was, how they determined each dog's breed, whether each dog was a pit bull, and what they expected the fate of each dog to be. There was much variation in responses both between and within the United States and United Kingdom. UK participants frequently labeled dogs commonly considered by U.S. participants to be pit bulls as Staffordshire bull terriers. UK participants were more likely to say their shelters would euthanize dogs deemed to be pit bulls. Most participants noted using dogs' physical features to determine breed, and 41% affected by BSL indicated they would knowingly mislabel a dog of a restricted breed, presumably to increase the dog's adoption chances. PMID:24673506

  12. Is that dog a pit bull? A cross-country comparison of perceptions of shelter workers regarding breed identification.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Christy L; Harrison, Natalie; Wolff, London; Westgarth, Carri

    2014-01-01

    Bull breeds are commonly kept as companion animals, but the pit bull terrier is restricted by breed-specific legislation (BSL) in parts of the United States and throughout the United Kingdom. Shelter workers must decide which breed(s) a dog is. This decision may influence the dog's fate, particularly in places with BSL. In this study, shelter workers in the United States and United Kingdom were shown pictures of 20 dogs and were asked what breed each dog was, how they determined each dog's breed, whether each dog was a pit bull, and what they expected the fate of each dog to be. There was much variation in responses both between and within the United States and United Kingdom. UK participants frequently labeled dogs commonly considered by U.S. participants to be pit bulls as Staffordshire bull terriers. UK participants were more likely to say their shelters would euthanize dogs deemed to be pit bulls. Most participants noted using dogs' physical features to determine breed, and 41% affected by BSL indicated they would knowingly mislabel a dog of a restricted breed, presumably to increase the dog's adoption chances. PMID:24673506

  13. Community Partnering as a Tool for Improving Live Release Rate in Animal Shelters in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Emily; Patronek, Gary; Slater, Margaret; Garrison, Laurie; Medicus, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Collaboration among all shelters and nonhuman animal welfare groups within a community along with the transparent, shared reporting of uniform data have been promoted as effective ways to increase the number of animals' lives saved. This article summarizes the shelter intakes, outcomes, and live release rate (LRR) from 6 geographically diverse communities participating in the American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Partnership program for 5 years (2007–2011). This program is both a grant program and a coaching program that works to focus the community partners on a data-driven goal using standardized definitions and metrics. There was improvement in LRR in all communities over time regardless of intake numbers, human population, or mix of dogs/puppies and cats/kittens entering shelters. Averaged across all communities over the 5-year period, there was an overall improvement in LRR of 62%. Within individual communities, the degree of improvement ranged from 18% to 96%. This improvement in LRR was accomplished through a wide variety of programs in each community based on resources and interests during the time period. PMID:23795686

  14. Vertical migration of radionuclides in the vicinity of the chernobyl confinement shelter.

    PubMed

    Bondarkov, Mikhail D; Zheltonozhsky, Viktor A; Zheltonozhskaya, Maryna V; Kulich, Nadezhda V; Maksimenko, Andrey M; Farfán, Eduardo B; Jannik, G Timothy; Marra, James C

    2011-10-01

    Studies of vertical migration of Chernobyl-origin radionuclides in the 5-km zone of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) in the area of the Red Forest experimental site were completed. Measurements were made by gamma spectrometric methods using high purity germanium (HPGe) detectors with beryllium windows. Alpha-emitting isotopes of plutonium were determined by the measurement of the x-rays from their uranium progeny. The presence of 60Co, 134,137Cs, 154,155Eu, and 241Am in all soil layers down to a depth of 30 cm was observed. The presence of 137Cs and 241Am was noted in the area containing automorphous soils to a depth of 60 cm. In addition, the upper soil layers at the test site were found to contain 243Am and 243Ñm. Over the past 10 years, the 241Am/137Cs ratio in soil at the experimental site has increased by a factor of 3.4, nearly twice as much as would be predicted based solely on radioactive decay. This may be due to "fresh" fallout emanating from the ChNPP Confinement Shelter. PMID:21878761

  15. [Release of radioactive aerosols from the object "shelter" during strong winds].

    PubMed

    Ogorodnikov, B I; Budyka, A K; Pavliuchenko, N I

    2005-01-01

    Results of measurements of radionuclide and disperse compositions of aerosols in ventilation system "Bypass" of the object "Shelter" of the Chernobyl NPP are presented. The Bypass is used for releasing contaminated air from the destroyed reactor of Block-IV to the atmosphere. In aerosols, the experimentally found ratio of 137Cs concentration to the sum of beta-emitting radionuclides more than 1.5 times exceeds the calculated ratio for nuclear fuel (in December, 2003). Using the data of meteorological station "Chornobyl", which situated 15 km SE from the Chernobyl NPP, we found that the wind with mean velocity of 4-5 m/sec or more and gusts of 10-11 m/sec led to increasing the aerosol concentration in the Bypass by more than power of magnitude. With the help of filter pack technique sizes of aerosol particles--the carriers of Chernobyl's radioactivity--were measured. It was found that the range of activity median aerodynamical diameter (AMAD) is 2-5 microns. PMID:15906867

  16. To Evacuate or Shelter in Place: Implications of Universal Hurricane Evacuation Policies on Nursing Home Residents

    PubMed Central

    Dosa, David; Hyer, Kathryn; Thomas, Kali; Swaminathan, Shailender; Feng, Zhanlian; Brown, Lisa; Mor, Vincent

    2011-01-01

    Objective To examine the differential morbidity/mortality associated with evacuation versus sheltering in place for nursing home (NH) residents exposed to the 4 most recent Gulf-hurricanes Methods Observational study using Medicare claims, and NH data sources. We compared the differential mortality/morbidity for long-stay residents exposed to 4 recent hurricanes (Katrina, Rita, Gustav, and Ike) relative to those residing at the same NHs over the same time periods during the prior 2 non-hurricane years as a control. Using an instrumental variable analysis, we then evaluated the independent effect of evacuation on outcomes at 90 days. Results Among 36,389 NH residents exposed to a storm, the 30 and 90 day mortality/hospitalization rates increased compared to non-hurricane control years. There were a cumulative total of 277 extra deaths and 872 extra hospitalizations at 30 days. At 90 days, 579 extra deaths and 544 extra hospitalizations were observed. Using the instrumental variable analysis, evacuation increased the probability of death at 90 days from 2.7-5.3% and hospitalization by 1.8-8.3%, independent of other factors. Conclusion Among residents exposed to hurricanes, evacuation significantly exacerbated subsequent morbidity/mortality. PMID:21885350

  17. Population dynamics of two suspension-feeding bivalves on a sheltered beach in southeastern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattos, Gustavo; Cardoso, Ricardo S.

    2012-09-01

    The population biology and secondary production of the bivalves Anomalocardia brasiliana (Gmelin, 1791) and Diplodonta punctata (Say, 1822) were studied on a sheltered beach on the southeast coast of Brazil (Flexeiras Beach) between December 2006 and February 2009. Six transects were established perpendicular to the shoreline. Along each transect, sampling units (SUs) were extracted every 3 m, with a 0.04 m2 metal sampler and to a depth of 25 cm, from the base of the boulder wall until 9 m below the waterline during low tide. The abundances of A. brasiliana and D. punctata were inversely correlated over time. The populations differed in several aspects: (1) A. brasiliana occupied mainly the upper levels, whereas D. punctata occupied the lower level of the beach; (2) total abundance, growth rate, and production were higher for A. brasiliana; and (3) mortality and turnover rate were higher for D. punctata. The differences in growth, mortality, and production parameters may be associated with a difference in the species' abilities to exploit resources.

  18. Earth and Space

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-09-18

    In earth and space science, students study the origin, structure, and physical phenomena of the earth and the universe. Earth and space science studies include concepts in geology, meteorology, oceanography, and astronomy.

  19. The Lifeworld Earth and a Modelled Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juuti, Kalle

    2014-08-01

    The goal of this paper is to study the question of whether a phenomenological view of the Earth could be empirically endorsed. The phenomenological way of thinking considers the Earth as a material entity, but not as an object as viewed in science. In the learning science tradition, tracking the process of the conceptual change of the shape of the Earth, science's view of the Earth as an object—a celestial body—has been applied. I reanalysed data published in Vosniadou and Brewer's (Cognit psychol 24:535-585, 1992) seminal paper. According to my reanalysis of their interview material, it is plausible to conclude that the Earth as an infinite surface is the way to experience the Earth. Further, the `dual Earth model' is the first model of the Earth as an object. I conclude that experiences in the lifeworld need to be taken into consideration more seriously in science education research.

  20. View from southwest to northeast of warhead handling building. Note ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View from southwest to northeast of warhead handling building. Note earth embankment. The personnel entrance (left) and equipment entrance can clearly be seen in center of photograph. To the right is the emergency exit tunnel constructed of corrugated metal pipe. This building was salvaged and sealed after site inactivation - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Warhead Handling Building, Within Exclusion Area, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  1. Exploring Magnetism on Earth

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2005-01-01

    This teacher's guide contains four lessons that provide a way for teachers to introduce students to and elaborate on Earth's changing magnetic field. It covers learning to navigate using Earth's magnetic field and compass, Earth's magnetic pole and its motion across Earth's surface, magnetic reversals on Earth, and Earth's currently declining magnetic field. These lessons have been taught primarily in math, geology, and astronomy classes.

  2. Tidal Distortion and Disruption of Earth-Crossing Asteriods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Love, Stanley G.; Bottke, William, Jr.

    1997-01-01

    We represent results of numerical simulations that show Earth's tidal forces can both distort and disrupt Earth-crossing asteriods (ECAs) that have weak rubble-pile structures. Building on previous studies, we consider more realistic asteriod shapes and trajectories, test a variety of spin and rates and axis orientations, and employ a dissipation algorithm to more accurately treat collisions between particles.

  3. Tidal Distortion and Disruption of Earth-Crossing Asteroids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Derek C. Richardson; William F. Bottke; Stanley G. Love

    1998-01-01

    We present results of numerical simulations that show that Earth's tidal forces can both distort and disrupt Earth-crossing asteroids that have weak “rubble-pile” structures. Building on previous studies, we consider more realistic asteroid shapes and trajectories, test a variety of spin rates and axis orientations, and employ a dissipation algorithm to treat more accurately collisions between the particles that make

  4. ENVIR 215 Spring 2004 Earth, Air, Water: The Human Context

    E-print Network

    ENVIR 215 ­ Spring 2004 Earth, Air, Water: The Human Context Lectures: T Th 9:30-10:20, Ocean." The context is a survey of 20th Century environmental change: air, water, earth, and their inhabitants Teaching Building 205 SLN: Sections: AA T Th 10:30-12:20; AB 1:30-3:20 (Priority Registration for Honors

  5. The Earth's missing lead may not be in the core

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Lagos; C. Ballhaus; C. Münker; C. Wohlgemuth-Ueberwasser; J. Berndt; Dmitry V. Kuzmin

    2008-01-01

    Relative to the CI chondrite class of meteorites (widely thought to be the `building blocks' of the terrestrial planets), the Earth is depleted in volatile elements. For most elements this depletion is thought to be a solar nebular signature, as chondrites show depletions qualitatively similar to that of the Earth. On the other hand, as lead is a volatile element,

  6. Recent Developments in Young-Earth Creationist Geology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heaton, Timothy H.

    2009-01-01

    Young-earth creationism has undergone a shift in emphasis toward building of historical models that incorporate Biblical and scientific evidence and the acceptance of scientific conclusions that were formerly rejected. The RATE Group admitted that massive amounts of radioactive decay occurred during earth history but proposed a period of…

  7. MARCO POLO: near earth object sample return mission

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. Barucci; M. Yoshikawa; P. Michel; J. Kawagushi; H. Yano; J. R. Brucato; I. A. Franchi; E. Dotto; M. Fulchignoni; S. Ulamec

    2009-01-01

    MARCO POLO is a joint European–Japanese sample return mission to a Near-Earth Object. This Euro-Asian mission will go to a\\u000a primitive Near-Earth Object (NEO), which we anticipate will contain primitive materials without any known meteorite analogue,\\u000a scientifically characterize it at multiple scales, and bring samples back to Earth for detailed scientific investigation.\\u000a Small bodies, as primitive leftover building blocks of

  8. Comparison of steer behavior when housed in a deep-bedded hoop barn versus an open feedlot with shelter.

    PubMed

    Johnson, A K; Lonergan, S M; Busby, W D; Shouse, S C; Maxwell, D L; Harmon, J D; Honeyman, M S

    2011-06-01

    The use of hoop barns as an alternative housing system for beef cattle has not been widely researched. The objectives of this study were to determine the main effects of behavior of steers 1) over winter and summer, 2) when housed in either a hoop barn or a conventional feedlot, and 3) interactions between season and housing system. A total of 960 crossbred Bos taurus steers were used [August 2006 to April 2008 (2 winter and 2 summer trials)]. Steers were housed in either 1 deep-bedded hoop barn (n = 12 pens; 4.65 m(2)/steer) or 1 open feedlot with shelter (n = 12 pens; 14.7 m(2)/steer). Steers were ear tagged, implanted, and weighed (414 ± 36 kg) on arrival and allotted to treatments that were balanced for source, BW, and hide color. Behavioral data (3 postures and 2 behaviors) were collected using a 10-min live scan. The experimental unit for behavior was a pen of steers. Behavioral data were arcsine transformed to achieve a normal distribution. There were no (P > 0.05) differences for time spent at bunk or waterer for steers between housing treatments. Steers housed in an open feedlot with shelter spent less time lying and more time standing and walking (P < 0.05) compared with steers housed in a hoop barn. There were no (P = 0.32) differences between seasons for standing. Steers spent more time at the bunk (P < 0.0001) and waterer (P < 0.0001) in the summer compared with the winter. In the winter, steers engaged in more lying (P = 0.0002) and walking (P < 0.0001). Overall, steers stood less (P = 0.006) and spent more time lying (P = 0.024) when housed in a hoop barn than in the open feedlot with shelter regardless of season. Steers housed in the open feedlot with shelter walked more (P < 0.0001) than steers housed in the hoop barn and walked more (P < 0.0001) in winter than in summer months (6 vs. 3%). There were no (P > 0.05) differences in time spent at bunk and waterer between housing systems within season, but time spent at the waterer and bunk decreased (P < 0.05) for both housing systems during the winter. In conclusion, housing 40 steers per pen in a cornstalk-bedded hoop barn at 4.65 m(2)/steer does not result in adverse behavioral alterations and can be considered as a housing alternative for finishing steers in the Midwestern United States when compared with steers fed in an open feedlot with shelter provided. PMID:21278115

  9. EarthLink Overview Company History

    E-print Network

    Rodriguez, Carlos

    voice is hosted UC; connection includes POTS and lineside voice; data consists of DSL and broadband;7 A brand study of IT professionals shows EarthLink has among the highest brand recognition among our competitors. We are investing more in the brand to build awareness in the managed network services space

  10. Up to the waist in mud! : the assessment and application of earth-derivative architecture in rural Bangladesh

    E-print Network

    Ahmed, K. Iftekhar

    1991-01-01

    This thesis is about architecture that uses earth as the prime· building material in the context of rural Bangladesh. In extreme environmental conditions of annual floods, rain and atmospheric humidity, the use of earth, ...

  11. Green Buildings

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    From the Department of Energy's Center of Excellence for Sustainable Development, this Green Buildings site serves as a detailed metapage for environmentally conscious architects, engineers, and builders. As the introduction to the site points out, "The design, construction, and maintenance of buildings has a tremendous impact on our environment and our natural resources." The site offers carefully summarized links to relevant Websites and publications on topics such as building principles, building programs, rating systems, affordable housing, codes/ordinances, educational materials, and more. This site may be of interest to those who want practical applications for protecting the environment.

  12. Evaluation of intraperitoneal and intrahepatic administration of a euthanasia agent in animal shelter cats.

    PubMed

    Grier, R L; Schaffer, C B

    1990-12-15

    One hundred eighty-one adult cats, with body weight greater than 1.8 kg, were obtained from animal shelters, then were administered a sodium pentobarbital-lidocaine euthanasia agent by either the intraperitoneal (IP; n = 77) or intrahepatic (IH; n = 85) route. A preliminary study (n = 19 cats) indicated that most cats gave no indication of perception of injection (responding) if restraint was minimal and injection was rapid. During IP injection, 3 of the 77 cats (4%) responded (turned the head backward or vocalized). Of the 85 cats given IH injection, 8 (9%) responded; however, no response approached the magnitude of that observed after IM injection of ketamine hydrochloride. After either injection route, cats were observed for excitement (any exaggerated activities of stage-I and -II anesthesia (eg, vocalizing, flopping, sneezing, licking, running, paddling), and after cardiac standstill, cats were necropsied to identify exact location (final site) of the injection. Of 53 initial IP injections, final site for 22 (42%) was in the peritoneal cavity (PC). Use of a sideport needle (n = 24) did not significantly increase accuracy of IP injection. The small and large intestines were penetrated by 27% (15/55) of the IP injections from the right side, and the spleen was penetrated by 32% (7/22) of the left-side injections. Intrahepatic injection was significantly (P less than 0.05) more accurate, with 70 of 85 (82%) of the final sites being the liver only, the liver/PC, or the PC only. Twenty-five percent (13/53) of IP injections resulted in excitement (all stage-I and -II anesthesia-exaggerated activities cumulative to 30 seconds).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2276957

  13. [Prevention and control of invaded plant Phytolacca americana in sandy coastal shelter forests].

    PubMed

    Fu, Jun-Peng; Li, Chuan-Rong; Xu, Jing-Wei; Cheng, Wan-Li; Song, Rui-Feng; Liu, Yun

    2012-04-01

    The invasion of Phytolacca americana has produced serious damage to the coastal shelter forests in China. In order to search for the effective measures for controlling the growth of P. americana, several plots in the Robinia pseudoacacia forest invaded by P. Americana to the relatively same extent were installed, and the measures of physical control (mowing and root cutting) and chemical control (spraying herbicides) were adopted to control the invasion of P. Americana, taking the site with good growth of Amorpha fruticosa in the forest and without any control measures as the comparison. The results showed that mowing could rapidly decrease the growth of P. americana in the same year, but the growth recovered in the next year. 1/3 root cutting only reduced the aboveground growth of P. americana in the same year, and the growth was recovered in the third year; while 2/3 root cutting and whole cutting could effectively cleanup the P. americana plants all the time. Spraying quizalofop-p-ethyl and paraquat only killed the aboveground part of P. americana in the same year, but this part of P. americana recovered to the normal level in the next year; while spraying 45 g x L(-1) of glyphosate could completely kill the whole P. americana plants till the third year. The growth of P. americana at the site with good growth of A. fruticosa and without any control measures maintained at a low level all the time, suggesting that planting A. fruticosa in R. pseudoacacia forest would be an effective approach to prevent and control the P. americana invasion. PMID:22803465

  14. Management of endemic Microsporum canis dermatophytosis in an open admission shelter: a field study.

    PubMed

    Newbury, Sandra; Moriello, Karen; Coyner, Kimberly; Trimmer, Ann; Kunder, Darcie

    2015-04-01

    Endemic Microsporum canis dermatophytosis was identified in a large, open admission, private, no-kill shelter that admitted >1200 cats per year. Fungal culture (FC) screening revealed that 166/210 (79%) and 38/99 (38%) cats in the non-public and public area were culture positive, respectively. However, pending screening FC results, the 99 cats in the public area were treated with once-weekly lime sulfur rinses and monitored with once-weekly FC. Cats in the non-public area were not treated. When FC results were available, cats were separated into low-risk (n = 61) and high-risk (n = 38) groups based upon the presence or absence of skin lesions. Low-risk cats continued to receive once-weekly topical lime sulfur and rapidly achieved culture-negative status. High-risk cats were divided into two groups based upon the number of colony-forming units/plate (low or high). All 38 cats were treated with twice-weekly lime sulfur and oral terbinafine and within 6-7 weeks only 5/38 cats were still FC-positive. These cats were moved to a separate room. Dermatophytosis was eradicated within 5 months; eradication was prolonged owing to reintroduction of disease into the remaining room of cats under treatment from three kittens returning from foster care. Continued admissions and adoptions were possible by the institution of intake procedures that specifically included careful Wood's lamp examination to identify high-risk cats and use of a 'clean break strategy'. PMID:25074567

  15. Earth Structure Introduction

    E-print Network

    Earth Structure Introduction Earth Structure (2nd Edition), 2004 W.W. Norton & Co, New York Slide show by Ben van der Pluijm © WW Norton, unless noted otherwise #12;© EarthStructure (2nd ed) 210/4/2010 Aerial views #12;© EarthStructure (2nd ed) 310/4/2010 http://www.globalchange.umich.edu/Ben/ES/ #12

  16. Earth from Above

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stahley, Tom

    2006-01-01

    Google Earth is a free online software that provides a virtual view of Earth. Using Google Earth, students can view Earth by hovering over features and locations they preselect or by serendipitously exploring locations that catch their fascination. Going beyond hovering, they can swoop forward and even tilt images to make more detailed…

  17. OFTHE EARTH ~ ANDPLANETARY

    E-print Network

    PHYSiCS OFTHE EARTH ~ ANDPLANETARY _________ INTERIORS ELSEVIER Physics of the Earth and Planetary Earth owing to the P to SV conversion at the free surface. If we choose stations with weak SKS splitting 003 1-9201(94)02949-c #12;264 L. Su, J. Park /Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors 86 (1994

  18. Earth System History Announcements

    E-print Network

    Mojzsis, Stephen J.

    WELCOME #12;Earth System History GEOL 1020 [7] Announcements D/N, radioactivity, cross-section problems Get ready for the Earth's structure September 9, 2013 #12;Announcements for you! · Homework #2 evidence for oceans on Earth When we do this for the oldest rocks on Earth, we find that they are truly

  19. SYNTHESIS & INTEGRATION Earth Stewardship

    E-print Network

    Jackson, Robert B.

    SYNTHESIS & INTEGRATION Earth Stewardship: science for action to sustain the human-earth system F, A. G. Power, and A. Bartuska. 2011. Earth Stewardship: science for action to sustain the human. This paper describes Earth Stewardship, an initiative of the Ecological Society of America to provide

  20. Earth's Mineral Evolution

    E-print Network

    Downs, Robert T.

    minerals in ancient interstellar dust grains to the thousands of mineral species on the present-day EarthEarth's Mineral Evolution :: Astrobiology Magazine - earth science - evol...rth science evolution Extreme Life Mars Life Outer Planets Earth's Mineral Evolution Summary (Nov 14, 2008): New research

  1. Building Green

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    There's a great deal of talk about "building green" in the architecture and design world, but to many, this phrase may not mean a great deal. This website, created by the Building Green company, can help the uninitiated learn more about this subject. First-time visitors should click on the "Green Building Information" area. Here they can get answers to such question as "What is green?" and also learn more about green design strategies and the LEED rating system. Right next to this section is the "Case Studies" area, which features green building projects like elementary schools, commercial facilities, and university buildings. The site is rounded out by a "News" area and a detailed bibliography of websites, print resources, and so on.

  2. Earth and Moon Viewer

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Walker, John.

    Developed by John Walker, the Earth and Moon Viewer supplies updated, interactive maps for the World. Visitors can observe the Earth's Cloud cover, topography, Water Vapor, land and sea temperatures, and more. These maps can simulate views of Earth from the Sun, Moon, and satellites in Earth's orbit. Visitors will also find maps presenting the day and night regions at the moment. Anyone looking for visual interpretations of the earth and its atmosphere should visit this fascinating Web site.

  3. Regeneration of vernacular architecture: new rammed earth houses on the upper reaches of the Yangtze River

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jiaping Liu; Rongrong Hu; Runshan Wang; Liu Yang

    2010-01-01

    In rural areas of western China, most of the vernacular architectures are made of earth. In the process of urbanization, few\\u000a residents like to build their houses with earth because the old traditional earth house cannot meet their requirement for\\u000a higher standard of living. As a result, much more energy will be consumed if industrial building materials are used instead

  4. School, Earth and Imagination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merlini, Anna; Grieco, Giovanni; Oneta, Cristina

    2015-04-01

    Geology needs to be explained and narrated to the people, focusing on the goal of making that big change of mindset that will allow individuals and the entire community to tune into the timing and the ways in which the Earth evolves. In order to achieve these important goals it is necessary to educate children from an early age so that they learn to live an environmentally friendly life. With the project "School, Earth and imagination" we introduce, with a fun and new way, notions and topics in geological and environmental sciences in schools at all levels with the final goal of improving both knowledge and sensibility for these topics into the community. Through this project we start from the children (kindergarten and primary school, ages between 3 and 8 years) because they are the foundation of our society, and without foundations nothing can be built. The "School, Earth and imagination" project wants to give the children a real opportunity to approach reality and in general the surrounding environment, for the first time even before the traditional scholastic experience, with a scientific point of view, experimenting some basic physical concepts like temperature, weight, hardness and so on directly through their body. The project is structured and developed in modules that provide a high flexibility in order to meet needs and requirements of different schools in different situations. Each module is part of the journey of Mariolino, a character that represents a very curious child who introduces basic concepts associating them to geological processes. The Journey of Mariolino, as each module, follows an insistent scheme that starts from the presentation of the problem, follows with its discussion through direct questions and ends with experimentation of the hypotheses that children have proposed to validate the solution of the problem. Each module is independent and never ends without giving children a solution and is always structured with a practical activity that uses most of the five senses to approach materials of the Earth. In this way children discover the different spheres of the Earth materials, like water, soils, minerals, rocks. In the second part of each module children discover that knowledge can be applied acting on the geological objects. So they learn how to clean water using different kinds of soils or how to separate garbage according to the materials of which objects are made and not to other more showy characteristics like shape, size or color. The reiteration in time of the same scheme through the different modules is fundamental to give children a solid method of approach to the problems that children have to face, giving the basics to start the scholastic experience in the best possible way. Indeed, following structured modules activity, children will become accustomed with various situations inside and outside school with this analytical and experimental approach, overcoming sensory preconceptions and building their own perception based on an empirical method.

  5. Seroepidemiology of respiratory (group 2) canine coronavirus, canine parainfluenza virus, and Bordetella bronchiseptica infections in urban dogs in a humane shelter and in rural dogs in small communities.

    PubMed

    Ellis, John; Anseeuw, Erika; Gow, Sheryl; Bryan, Heather; Salb, Amanda; Goji, Noriko; Rhodes, Carrie; La Coste, Stacey; Smits, Judit; Kutz, Susan

    2011-08-01

    This prospective study evaluated seroepidemiologic features of canine respiratory coronavirus (CRCoV), canine parainfluenza virus (CPIV), and Bordetella bronchiseptica infections in dogs in an urban humane shelter and in rural/small community dog populations in western Canada. Seroprevalence of CRCoV and CPIV was low compared with other countries; seroprevalence of B. bronchiseptica was moderate to high in most populations examined. Rural dogs were 0.421 times (P ? 0.0001) less likely to be positive for CRCoV than dogs admitted to the shelter. There were no statistical differences in prevalence of antibodies to B. bronchiseptica and CPIV between urban and rural populations. Dogs from Fort Resolution, NWT were significantly (P < 0.05) less likely to have moderate or high antibody titers to the 3 agents than dogs in the shelter. Seroconversion to CRCoV was common in dogs in the shelter, but was not associated (P = 0.18) with respiratory disease. Antibodies to CRCoV, CPIV, or B. bronchiseptica on arrival were not significantly (P > 0.05) associated with disease-sparing after entry into the shelter. PMID:22294792

  6. Seroepidemiology of respiratory (group 2) canine coronavirus, canine parainfluenza virus, and Bordetella bronchiseptica infections in urban dogs in a humane shelter and in rural dogs in small communities

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, John; Anseeuw, Erika; Gow, Sheryl; Bryan, Heather; Salb, Amanda; Goji, Noriko; Rhodes, Carrie; La Coste, Stacey; Smits, Judit; Kutz, Susan

    2011-01-01

    This prospective study evaluated seroepidemiologic features of canine respiratory coronavirus (CRCoV), canine parainfluenza virus (CPIV), and Bordetella bronchiseptica infections in dogs in an urban humane shelter and in rural/small community dog populations in western Canada. Seroprevalence of CRCoV and CPIV was low compared with other countries; seroprevalence of B. bronchiseptica was moderate to high in most populations examined. Rural dogs were 0.421 times (P ? 0.0001) less likely to be positive for CRCoV than dogs admitted to the shelter. There were no statistical differences in prevalence of antibodies to B. bronchiseptica and CPIV between urban and rural populations. Dogs from Fort Resolution, NWT were significantly (P < 0.05) less likely to have moderate or high antibody titers to the 3 agents than dogs in the shelter. Seroconversion to CRCoV was common in dogs in the shelter, but was not associated (P = 0.18) with respiratory disease. Antibodies to CRCoV, CPIV, or B. bronchiseptica on arrival were not significantly (P > 0.05) associated with disease-sparing after entry into the shelter. PMID:22294792

  7. Modeling the effect of shelter in the modification of waves from the open sea to near-shore

    SciTech Connect

    Oliveira-Pires, H.; Carvalho, F. [Inst. de Meteorologia, Lisboa (Portugal); Pontes, T. [INETI, Lisboa (Portugal)

    1997-02-01

    An efficient method has been developed to compute the wave conditions in sheltered areas from the open sea directional spectrum using a reverse tracing wave ray model with weighted spectral filtering. The results were verified for Porto Cachorro--Azores, surrounded by several islands with an intricate geometry, and for Sines, at the west coast of Portugal. The range of applicability of this type of ray model seems to lie at the transition between the open sea, well represented through large-scale wind-wave models, and the zones close to shore where shallow water wave breaking (not represented in the model) begins to play a dominant and decisive role.

  8. Building Molecules

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute

    2005-01-01

    This online interactive has three activities in the NanoLab (press the upper right button): Build, Zoom, and Transform. In Build, learners build increasingly complex molecules out of carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen, and is useful for connecting subscripts and the number of atoms, and for introducing 3D molecular structures which are automatically built. Zoom is a "powers of 10" zoom-in ranging from 10,000 kilometers to 1 nanometer. Transform is a simulation of water changing phase from solid to liquid to gas. Through exploration of the site learners form a better understanding of the composition of matter.

  9. Google Earth for Public Outreach Through Scientific Visualizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuxen-Bettman, K.

    2008-12-01

    Google Earth Outreach helps non-profit and public benefit groups put their data online in a geographic context using Google Earth and Maps. This improves their outreach and communication with the world, and can effectively impact policy and public understanding of science. We will explore several exceptional examples that use Google Earth and Maps to display scientific data and share it with the world. You will learn what is necessary to get started on building your Earth or Maps application, which can allow your colleagues or the public to access, explore, and understand your data.

  10. Current situation of Leishmania infantum infection in shelter dogs in northern Spain

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Canine leishmaniosis (CanL) caused by Leishmania infantum is a widespread endemic disease in the Mediterranean basin, though, so far, the north of Spain has been considered a non-endemic area. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of specific antibodies to L. infantum among stray dogs living in shelters in this area, and to evaluate the clinical status (both clinical signs and clinico-pathological abnormalities) of seropositive dogs. Besides L. infantum infection, the epidemiological role of variables like sex, breed and age was also assessed. Methods Over the year 2011 a cross-sectional study was conducted on a total of 418 stray dogs. A preliminary entomological survey was carried out using CDC-light traps. The chi-squared test was used to examine relationships between L. infantum seroprevalence and the remaining variables. Results The overall seroprevalence of L. infantum infection detected was 3% in the Cantabrian coast. In Orense the seroprevalence was 35.6%. In this latter region, the presence of sand fly, Phlebotomus perniciosus was also detected. In general, seropositivity for L. infantum was related to size (large breed dogs versus small) and age, with a significantly higher seroprevalence recorded in younger (0-3 years) and older dogs (> 7 years) than adult dogs. Clinical signs of CanL were observed in 41.3% of the seropositive dogs. The seropositivity for L. infantum infection associated with the presence of clinical signs and/or abnormal laboratory findings shows a prevalence of 4.5%. Conclusion Our data provide new insight into the prevalence of CanL across northern Spain. The situation observed in Orense seems to be worsening compared to the few reports available, with figures being similar to those cited for known endemic areas of Spain. Besides, the presence of P. perniciosus in Orense points out to a risk of the spread of this zoonotic disease in this geographical area. These findings identify a need for an active search for the sand fly vectors of L. infantum across the entire northern spanish region including the rest of Galicia, Asturias, Cantabria and the Basque Country. PMID:22452948

  11. How to Build a Star

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Roberta Johnson

    2000-07-01

    How to Build a Star is a Windows to the Universe Exploratour and provides information and images about the Sun, star birth, energy, temperature, and nuclear fission. Windows to the Universe is a user-friendly learning system pertaining to the Earth and Space sciences. The objective of this project is to develop an innovative and engaging web site that spans the Earth and Space sciences and includes a rich array of documents, including images, movies, animations, and data sets that explore the Earth and Space sciences and the historical and cultural ties between science, exploration and the human experience. Links at the top of each page allow users to navigate between beginner, intermediate, and advanced options for each topic level.

  12. Building Sandcastles

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-01-01

    In this interactive application young children become familiar with 3-dimensional shapes by matching a variety of shapes in order to build a sandcastle. There are two levels of play, parent pointers, and hints to help out along the way.

  13. 3. BUILDING 0503, NORTH FRONT AND WEST SIDE, WITH LOADING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. BUILDING 0503, NORTH FRONT AND WEST SIDE, WITH LOADING DOCK AND GABLE ROOFED SHED. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Earth Covered Bunker Types, North of Sled Track, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

  14. 5. BUILDING 0503, INTERIOR WOODEN ARCHES. Looking south from entrance. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. BUILDING 0503, INTERIOR WOODEN ARCHES. Looking south from entrance. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Earth Covered Bunker Types, North of Sled Track, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

  15. 2. BUILDING 0521, SOUTH REAR AND EAST SIDE. Looking to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. BUILDING 0521, SOUTH REAR AND EAST SIDE. Looking to northwest from access road. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Earth Covered Bunker Types, North of Sled Track, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

  16. Early Earth differentiation [rapid communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, Michael J.; Trønnes, Reidar G.

    2004-09-01

    The birth and infancy of Earth was a time of profound differentiation involving massive internal reorganization into core, mantle and proto-crust, all within a few hundred million years of solar system formation ( t0). Physical and isotopic evidence indicate that the formation of iron-rich cores generally occurred very early in planetesimals, the building blocks of proto-Earth, within about 3 million years of t0. The final stages of terrestrial planetary accretion involved violent and tremendously energetic giant impacts among core-segregated Mercury- to Mars-sized objects and planetary embryos. As a consequence of impact heating, the early Earth was at times partially or wholly molten, increasing the likelihood for high-pressure and high-temperature equilibration among core- and mantle-forming materials. The Earth's silicate mantle harmoniously possesses abundance levels of the siderophile elements Ni and Co that can be reconciled by equilibration between iron alloy and silicate at conditions comparable to those expected for a deep magma ocean. Solidification of a deep magma ocean possibly involved crystal-melt segregation at high pressures, but subsequent convective stirring of the mantle could have largely erased nascent layering. However, primitive upper mantle rocks apparently have some nonchondritic major and trace element refractory lithophile element ratios that can be plausibly linked to early mantle differentiation of ultra-high-pressure mantle phases. The geochemical effects of crystal fractionation in a deep magma ocean are partly constrained by high-pressure experimentation. Comparison between compositional models for the primitive convecting mantle and bulk silicate Earth generally allows, and possibly favors, 10-15% total fractionation of a deep mantle assemblage comprised predominantly of Mg-perovskite and with minor but geochemically important amounts of Ca-perovskite and ferropericlase. Long-term isolation of such a crystal pile is generally consistent with isotopic constraints for time-integrated Sm/Nd and Lu/Hf ratios in the modern upper mantle and might account for the characteristics of some mantle isotope reservoirs. Although much remains to be learned about the earliest formative period in the Earth's development, a convergence of theoretical, physical, isotopic and geochemical arguments is beginning to yield a self-consistent portrait of the infant Earth.

  17. Community Capacity Building as a vital mechanism for enhancing the growth and efficacy of a sustainable scientific software ecosystem: experiences running a real-time bi-coastal "Open Science for Synthesis" Training Institute for young Earth and Environmental scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schildhauer, M.; Jones, M. B.; Bolker, B.; Lenhardt, W. C.; Hampton, S. E.; Idaszak, R.; Rebich Hespanha, S.; Ahalt, S.; Christopherson, L.

    2014-12-01

    Continuing advances in computational capabilities, access to Big Data, and virtual collaboration technologies are creating exciting new opportunities for accomplishing Earth science research at finer resolutions, with much broader scope, using powerful modeling and analytical approaches that were unachievable just a few years ago. Yet, there is a perceptible lag in the abilities of the research community to capitalize on these new possibilities, due to lacking the relevant skill-sets, especially with regards to multi-disciplinary and integrative investigations that involve active collaboration. UC Santa Barbara's National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis (NCEAS), and the University of North Carolina's Renaissance Computing Institute (RENCI), were recipients of NSF OCI S2I2 "Conceptualization awards", charged with helping define the needs of the research community relative to enabling science and education through "sustained software infrastructure". Over the course of our activities, a consistent request from Earth scientists was for "better training in software that enables more effective, reproducible research." This community-based feedback led to creation of an "Open Science for Synthesis" Institute— a innovative, three-week, bi-coastal training program for early career researchers. We provided a mix of lectures, hands-on exercises, and working group experience on topics including: data discovery and preservation; code creation, management, sharing, and versioning; scientific workflow documentation and reproducibility; statistical and machine modeling techniques; virtual collaboration mechanisms; and methods for communicating scientific results. All technologies and quantitative tools presented were suitable for advancing open, collaborative, and reproducible synthesis research. In this talk, we will report on the lessons learned from running this ambitious training program, that involved coordinating classrooms among two remote sites, and included developing original synthesis research activities as part of the course. We also report on the feedback provided by participants as to the learning approaches and topical issues they found most engaging, and why.

  18. Automating the Processing of Earth Observation Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golden, Keith; Pang, Wan-Lin; Nemani, Ramakrishna; Votava, Petr

    2003-01-01

    NASA s vision for Earth science is to build a "sensor web": an adaptive array of heterogeneous satellites and other sensors that will track important events, such as storms, and provide real-time information about the state of the Earth to a wide variety of customers. Achieving this vision will require automation not only in the scheduling of the observations but also in the processing of the resulting data. To address this need, we are developing a planner-based agent to automatically generate and execute data-flow programs to produce the requested data products.

  19. Operating Plan for "Helios"; A Builder and Manufacturer of Energy Efficient Homes

    E-print Network

    Cossyphas, Leonidas

    2006-05-19

    The purpose of this project is to develop a comprehensive business operating plan for a home building company that emphasizes and promotes the use of passive solar energy systems and earth sheltering designs in its products. The Kansas City based...

  20. Comparison of SAFER behavior assessment results in shelter dogs at intake and after a 3-day acclimation period.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Sara L; Weng, Hsin-Yi; Walker, Sheryl L; Placer, Margaret; Litster, Annette

    2015-01-01

    In this study, it was hypothesized that different results would be obtained by canine behavior assessments performed within 24 hr of shelter intake (Day 0) and after a 3-day acclimation period (Day 3). Safety Assessment for Evaluating Rehoming assessments were performed on 33 dogs at 2 municipal shelters. Agreements between Day 0 and Day 3 varied among subtests, and no consistent temporal patterns were observed. Weighted kappa statistics for each subtest ranged from .28 to .78, and percentage discordance was 0% to 18%. In a 2nd analysis, subtests skipped due to serious aggression were replaced with scores corresponding to serious aggression, and missing values for the Food subtest were replaced with scores for no aggression if the dog did not eat. For subtests skipped due to severe aggression, more than 50% of the dogs had scores indicating low aggression on the other assessment. Eight of 16 dogs who did not eat on Day 0 ate on Day 3; 2 showed aggression. Until the ideal time to test can be identified, it should be based on the individual dog's welfare status, and testing of dogs showing severe stress should be avoided. PMID:25603466