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1

Attributes of Indoor Environmental Quality to Earth-sheltered Building Design  

E-print Network

and sustainability of present earth sheltered building design and development. To attain its goals, the study develops a conceptual micro-framework of healthy buildings' parameters and economic aspects for evaluating links between sustainable construction...

Sheta, S.

2010-01-01

2

Earth Shelter Buildings Coupled with the Sun: Opportunities and Constraints in Design.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The new Civil/Mineral Engineering Building on the University of Minnesota Minneapolis campus is a demonstration design in energy conservation and innovation in active and passive solar energy applications. Its antecedents at the university represent contributory steps in the identification of issues and the development of design principles. (MLW)

Bennett, David J.

1982-01-01

3

1966 Architectural Awards. Buildings With Fallout Shelter.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Award winning designs are presented demonstrating that economical dual-use shelter space can be incorporated in the designs of new buildings without sacrifice of either function or aesthetic values. The eight award winning designs are discussed, and graphic illustration is provided of the nature of dual-use shelter, which contributes to…

Office of Civil Defense (DOD), Washington, DC.

4

Sheltering in buildings from large-scale outdoor releases  

SciTech Connect

Intentional or accidental large-scale airborne toxic release (e.g. terrorist attacks or industrial accidents) can cause severe harm to nearby communities. Under these circumstances, taking shelter in buildings can be an effective emergency response strategy. Some examples where shelter-in-place was successful at preventing injuries and casualties have been documented [1, 2]. As public education and preparedness are vital to ensure the success of an emergency response, many agencies have prepared documents advising the public on what to do during and after sheltering [3, 4, 5]. In this document, we will focus on the role buildings play in providing protection to occupants. The conclusions to this article are: (1) Under most circumstances, shelter-in-place is an effective response against large-scale outdoor releases. This is particularly true for release of short duration (a few hours or less) and chemicals that exhibit non-linear dose-response characteristics. (2) The building envelope not only restricts the outdoor-indoor air exchange, but can also filter some biological or even chemical agents. Once indoors, the toxic materials can deposit or sorb onto indoor surfaces. All these processes contribute to the effectiveness of shelter-in-place. (3) Tightening of building envelope and improved filtration can enhance the protection offered by buildings. Common mechanical ventilation system present in most commercial buildings, however, should be turned off and dampers closed when sheltering from an outdoor release. (4) After the passing of the outdoor plume, some residuals will remain indoors. It is therefore important to terminate shelter-in-place to minimize exposure to the toxic materials.

Chan, W.R.; Price, P.N.; Gadgil, A.J.

2004-06-01

5

Earth shelter 2. 1979-1980 USC series  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

s are presented of 22 conference papers which discuss criteria for constructing earth-sheltered structures for residential and commercial purposes. Aesthetics and the manipulation of form, space, and natural light are examined as well as ionizing radiation levels; legal liabilities in design, construction, and ownership; and the impact of restrictive covenants. The locations and energy conservation efficiency of 80 earth-covered structures in Oklahoma are also examined.

1980-11-01

6

A MODEL BUILDING CODE ARTICLE ON FALLOUT SHELTERS WITH RECOMMENDATIONS FOR INCLUSION OF REQUIREMENTS FOR FALLOUT SHELTER CONSTRUCTION IN FOUR NATIONAL MODEL BUILDING CODES.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A MODEL BUILDING CODE FOR FALLOUT SHELTERS WAS DRAWN UP FOR INCLUSION IN FOUR NATIONAL MODEL BUILDING CODES. DISCUSSION IS GIVEN OF FALLOUT SHELTERS WITH RESPECT TO--(1) NUCLEAR RADIATION, (2) NATIONAL POLICIES, AND (3) COMMUNITY PLANNING. FALLOUT SHELTER REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIELDING, SPACE, VENTILATION, CONSTRUCTION, AND SERVICES SUCH AS ELECTRICAL…

American Inst. of Architects, Washington, DC.

7

The evolution of shelter: ecology and ethology of chimpanzee nest building  

E-print Network

THE EVOLUTION OF SHELTER: ECOLOGY AND ETHOLOGY OF CHIMPANZEE NEST BUILDING. A dissertation submitted to the University of Cambridge in partial fulfilment of the conditions of application for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy By Fiona... ............................................................................................................ 181 Great ape nests and the evolution of shelter .................................................................................. 185 A culture of nest...

Stewart, Fiona Anne

2011-11-08

8

65. BUILDING 7223, BARRACKS (FORMER ANIMAL SHELTER). (Plan P702988, 24' ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

65. BUILDING 7223, BARRACKS (FORMER ANIMAL SHELTER). (Plan P-702-988, 24' x 320', completed May 25, 1932, modified January 15, 1941). Fort McCoy photograph #A-6, undated. - Fort McCoy, Sparta, Monroe County, WI

9

Shelter-Building Behavior and Natural History of Two Pyralid Caterpillars Feeding on Piper stipulaceum  

PubMed Central

Shelter-building behavior by caterpillars provides a mechanism of defense against predators, microenvironment enhancement, and in some cases nutritional benefits. This study provides a detailed description of the life cycle and shelter-building process of caterpillars, and identifies constraints and factors influencing this adaptive behavior in Lepidomys n. sp. near proclea Druce (Pyralidae: Chrysauginae), a tropical dry forest pyralid. Five macroscopic larval instars were detected during the life cycle, and activities performed during shelter-building were categorized and timed. Caterpillar predators were identified, and 20% of all collected larvae died due to attack by parasitoid wasps. Shelter-building behavior was found to be constrained by the ontogenetic stage of caterpillars and influenced by leaf size of the host plant, Piper stipulaceum Opiz (Piperales: Piperaceae). A similar pattern of shelter-building behavior exhibited by Tosale n. sp. near cuprealis larvae that coexisted in the same host plant is also described. Larvae of the second species were significantly less abundant than those of Lepidomys and hatched one month later in the rainy season, which could indicate some competitive interactions between these two pyralid species. PMID:25373186

Abarca, Mariana; Boege, Karina; Zaldívar-Riverón, Alejandro

2014-01-01

10

Effectiveness of sheltering in buildings and vehicles for plutonium  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this paper is to collect and present current knowledge relevant to the protection offered by sheltering against exposure to plutonium particles released to the atmosphere during accidents. For those many contaminants for which effects are linear with the airborne concentration, it is convenient to define a Dose Reduction Factor (DRF). In the past, the DRF has been defined as the ratio of the radiological dose that may be incurred within the shelter to that in the outdoors. As such, it includes the dose through shine from plumes aloft and from material deposited on the surface. For this paper, which is concerned only with the inhalation pathway, the DRF is the ratio of the time-integrated concentration inside the shelter to that outdoors. It is important to note that the range over which effects are linear with concentration may be limited for many contaminants. Examples are when concentrations produce effects that are irreversible, or when concentrations are below effects threshold levels. 71 refs., 4 figs., 8 tabs.

Engelmann, R.J.

1990-07-30

11

The Need for Shelter  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, the students will build a shelter in order to protect themselves from the rain. After the shelters are built, the class will perform durability and water proof testing on the shelters.

2014-09-18

12

The Immature Stages and Shelter Building Behavior of Falgo Jeconia Ombra Evans, 1955 in eastern Ecuador (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae: Hesperiinae)  

PubMed Central

We describe the immature stages and shelter building behavior of Falga jeconia ombra Evans, 1955 from eastern Ecuador. Chusquea scandens (Poaceae, Bambusoidea) is the larval food plant. Larvae in all stadia build shelters and forcibly eject frass with the aid of an anal comb. Later instars possess an eversible prothoracic “neck” gland. Larvae are associated with moving water. PMID:19613872

Greeney, Harold F.; Warren, Andrew D.

2009-01-01

13

The Life History and Shelter Building Behavior of Vettius Coryna Coryna Hewitson, 1866 in Eastern Ecuador (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae: Hesperiinae)  

PubMed Central

We describe all life-stages of Vettius coryna coryna Hewitson, 1866 in eastern Ecuador. The details of larval shelter structure and associated shelter building behavior are described and illustrated, as observed on two grass species (Poaceae). We provide brief observations on V. coryna adult behavior and a review of known life history information for other species of Vettius Godman, 1901. PMID:19613868

Greeney, Harold F.; Warren, Andrew D.

2009-01-01

14

SHELTER IN PLACE An incident may occur which dictates you remain inside a building during an emergency. A decision to shelter  

E-print Network

to allow alerting and rescue, phone/internet/ e-mail available? WHEN TO SHELTER IN PLACE · When a tornado surroundings and be ready to move quickly if needed. · In case of an active shooter or gunman in the building

Cavusoglu, Cenk

15

Speedy Shelter  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this design challenge activity, learners invent an emergency shelter that can fit a person and is sturdy and quick to build. Learners think about a familiar shape in new ways, brainstorm shelter designs and follow the design process to invent a solution to the challenge. Educators can put this challenge in the context of a real life scenario by sharing a fake news story about a lost hiker. The news story can be found on page 1 of the Leaders Notes.

2012-08-19

16

Building Planet Earth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Continental plates, moving as fast as human hair grows, collide, mountains buckle, the ocean abyss sucks in the Earth's crust, and volcanos explode. Here is a story that Hollywood wished it could option: the dynamic cycle of geological destruction and renewal that has stretched across billions of years and shaped our planet in its current image. Scene by scene, this

Peter Cattermole

2000-01-01

17

Earth sheltered bee wintering and solar honey house. Final technical report  

SciTech Connect

The construction and operation of an indoor wintering facility and a passive solar honey house are discussed. Goals for the project included both energy savings and financial savings for the beekeeping industry. The underground winter shelter provided a control temperature of approximately 46/sup 0/F in order to decrease both mortality rates and honey consumption rates of the bees. Three hundred square feet of glazing combined with wall insulation maintained comfortable work space temperatures for the ground level storage of honey. (BCS)

Not Available

1985-01-01

18

Passive annual heat storage: improving the design of earth shelters or how to store summer's sunshine to keep your wigwam warm all winter  

Microsoft Academic Search

A practical guide to passive annual heat storage is presented. Year-round energy conservation measures are discussed. Without mechanical equipment or commercial power, passive annual heat storage may be used to inexpensively cool a home during the hot summer months. The following topics are discussed: improving the earth shelter, passive annual heat storage, the use of water in passive heat storage,

Hait

1983-01-01

19

Acquisition, Renovation, and Construction of an Addition to a Building to Serve as a Sheltered Workshop for Handicapped Adults. Maxi II Practicum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented is the final report of a project to acquire, renovate, and construct a building addition to house a sheltered workshop and provide instruction in basic life skills, social skills, simple production work skills, and life oriented academics for moderately retarded adults. Sections are provided on the following aspects of the project…

Zoino, John E.

20

Bombed Shelters  

E-print Network

Broadcast Transcript: In this time of reusing, recycling, repurposing, pretty much anything can become anything else: tires to playground turf, soda bottles to fleece parkas, rails to trails. Here in Shanghai, they've got bomb shelters to transform...

Hacker, Randi

2013-07-24

21

Design and Construction Guidance for Community Shelters. FEMA 361.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual presents guidance to engineers, architects, building officials, and prospective shelter owners concerning the design and construction of community shelters that will provide protection during tornado and hurricane events. The manual covers two types of community shelters: stand-alone shelters designed to withstand high winds and the…

Federal Emergency Management Agency, Washington, DC.

22

A toolkit for building Earth system models  

Microsoft Academic Search

An earth system model is a computer code designed to simulate the interrelated processes that determine the earth's weather and climate, such as atmospheric circulation, atmospheric physics, atmospheric chemistry, oceanic circulation, and biosphere. I propose a toolkit that would support a modular, or object-oriented, approach to the implementation of such models.

I. Foster

1993-01-01

23

Building Scientific Workflows for Earth System Modelling with Windows Workflow Foundation  

E-print Network

Building Scientific Workflows for Earth System Modelling with Windows Workflow Foundation Matthew J developed a framework for the composition, execution and management of integrated Earth system models

24

Earth Sciences' Capacity Building In Developing Countries through International Programmes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Within the framework of "traditional" programmes, like the joint UNESCO-IUGS "International Geoscience Programme" (IGCP), the "International Continental Scientific Drilling Program" (ICDP), the "Integrated Ocean Drilling Program" (IODP) or the "International Lithosphere Programme" (ILP) numerous opportunities are provided to strengthen postgraduate geo-scientific education of representatives from developing countries. Recently established new initiatives, such as the "International Year of Planet Earth" (IYPE) or UNESCO's Global Network of Geoparks complement these in addition as important components to UNESCO's 'Education for All' programme, notably the youth, as well as to the United Nations Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (2005 - 2014). The "International Year of Planet Earth" is a joint initiative of the International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS) and UNESCO. The central aims and ambitions of the Year, proclaimed for 2008 by the UN General Assembly, are to demonstrate the great potential of the Earth sciences in building a safer, healthier and wealthier society, and to encourage more widespread and effective application of this potential by targeting politicians and other decision-makers, educational systems, and the general public. Promotion of international collaboration, as well as capacity building and training of students of developing countries in all fields of Earth Sciences seem to be the most appropriate way to meet also the challenges of the IYPE. Another opportunity to improve the international recognition of Earth Scinces, also in developing countries, is the use of Geoparks as a promotional tool for education and popularization of Earth Sciences. Geoparks, notably those included in the European and/or Global Geoparks Networks, provide an international platform of cooperation and exchange between experts and practitioners in geological heritage matters, and are as such excellent instruments in highlighting Earth sciences. The general goal of Geoparks to integrate the preservation of geological heritage into a strategy for regional sustainable socio-economic and cultural development serves ideally the overall objective of the "International Year of Planet Earth" with its subtitle "Earth Sciences for Society". International geo-related cooperation projects, run under the umbrella of international NGOs (like IUGS, IUGG, IGU, IUSS and others) are often supported financially by international and national funding agencies. Out of the broad international spectrum, some German projects devoted to developing countries - summer schools, training and capacity building courses in Earth Sciences, funded by the DFG (German Research Foundation), DAAD (German Academic Exchange Service), InWent (Capacity Building International, Germany) and others - are selected as examples in improving the geo-research capacity and education of developing countries.

Eder, W.

2007-12-01

25

Space Shelter. Grades 3-5.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on a hypothetical situation that aliens have invaded Earth and humans must relocate to another planet, students design a shelter that can be built on another planet to insure their survival. Students research the characteristics of a planet of their choice and consider how to get to that planet from Earth, determine which five items that…

Rushton, Erik; Ryan, Emily; Swift, Charles

26

FORTRAN M AS A LANGUAGE FOR BUILDING EARTH SYSTEM MODELS \\Lambda  

E-print Network

FORTRAN M AS A LANGUAGE FOR BUILDING EARTH SYSTEM MODELS \\Lambda Ian Foster Mathematics as a tool for building earth system models on massively parallel computers. I hypothesize that the use to investigate this hypothe­ sis. 2. Earth System Models An earth system model is a computer code designed

27

Rapid deployment shelter system  

DOEpatents

A shelter for the protection of for the protection of persons, animals, equipment, materials, property, and similar things of value from potentially damaging environmental conditions is disclosed. Various embodiments include the use of a frame structure and hinged panels which are unfolded to create the walls of the structure. Optionally flexible surfaces may be added to the ends of the shelter to at least partially close the end of the shelter.

Bzorgi, Fariborz M.

2006-10-10

28

FORTRAN M as a language for building earth system models  

SciTech Connect

FORTRAN M is a small set of extensions to FORTRAN 77 that supports a modular or object-oriented approach to the development of parallel programs. In this paper, I discuss the use of FORTRAN M as a tool for building earth system models on massively parallel computers. I hypothesize that the use of FORTRAN M has software engineering advantages and outline experiments that we are conducting to investigate this hypothesis.

Foster, I.

1992-01-01

29

FORTRAN M as a language for building earth system models  

SciTech Connect

FORTRAN M is a small set of extensions to FORTRAN 77 that supports a modular or object-oriented approach to the development of parallel programs. In this paper, I discuss the use of FORTRAN M as a tool for building earth system models on massively parallel computers. I hypothesize that the use of FORTRAN M has software engineering advantages and outline experiments that we are conducting to investigate this hypothesis.

Foster, I.

1992-12-31

30

Embden Data Shelter  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

North Dakota Discovery Farms Embden data shelter 1 and located in southeast Cass County about 8 miles south of Embden, North Dakota. In 2009, Embden farm became the third farm in the North Dakota Discovery Farms project....

31

15. SOUTHEAST AND NORTHEAST WALLS OF CREW SHELTER LOCATED BETWEEN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

15. SOUTHEAST AND NORTHEAST WALLS OF CREW SHELTER LOCATED BETWEEN THE PURSUIT PLANE BAYS OF AR-9. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base, Rammed Earth Aircraft Dispersal Revetments, Western Shore of Rogers Dry Lake, Boron, Kern County, CA

32

4. PERSPECTIVE VIEW TO THE NORTHEAST OF THE CREW SHELTER ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. PERSPECTIVE VIEW TO THE NORTHEAST OF THE CREW SHELTER IN AR-8. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base, Rammed Earth Aircraft Dispersal Revetments, Western Shore of Rogers Dry Lake, Boron, Kern County, CA

33

Preserving Childhood for Children in Shelters.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book provides useful "how-to" information to help shelters create a safe, healthful, and supportive environment for their youngest residents. The chapters of the book are: (1) "The Effects of Homelessness on Children and Families" (Janice Molnar); (2) "Children and Domestic Violence: Recognizing Effects and Building Programs" (Evelyn…

Harms, Thelma, Ed.; Ray, Adele Richardson, Ed.; Rolandelli, Pam, Ed.

34

View of Chapel Park, showing bomb shelters at right foreground, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View of Chapel Park, showing bomb shelters at right foreground, from building 746 parking lot across Walnut Avenue; camera facing north. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, East of Nave Drive, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

35

Shelter for the Sky  

SciTech Connect

A solemn ceremony in Slavutich Ukraine on April 26th 2007 marked the twenty-first anniversary of the most catastrophic accident in the history of commercial nuclear power. Significant progress has recently been made toward transformation of Chernobyl to an environmentally sound site. Many readers will recall that in only eight months following the 1986 accident, the Soviets constructed an enormous facility to contain the radioactive contamination in the remains of Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Unit-4. Popularly known as the “sarcophagus”, but correctly referred to as the “Object Shelter”, it has deteriorated with time and is now in danger of collapse. STABILIZATION Several measures to structurally stabilize the Object Shelter and prevent its collapse have recently been completed. These measures are the largest construction projects undertaken in the local zone since the completion of the Object Shelter. The most significant risk reduction was accomplished by Measure-2 in December 2006. Stabilization

Schmieman, Eric A.

2007-07-01

36

Tri-Trophic Effects of Seasonally Variable Induced Plant Defenses Vary across the Development of a Shelter Building Moth Larva and Its Parasitoid.  

PubMed

Plant chemical defenses can negatively affect insect herbivore fitness, but they can also decrease herbivore palatability to predators or decrease parasitoid fitness, potentially changing selective pressures on both plant investment in production of chemical defenses and host feeding behavior. Larvae of the fern moth Herpetogramma theseusalis live in and feed upon leaf shelters of their own construction, and their most abundant parasitoid Alabagrus texanus oviposits in early instar larvae, where parasitoid larvae lay dormant for most of host development before rapidly developing and emerging just prior to host pupation. As such, both might be expected to live in a relatively constant chemical environment. Instead, we find that a correlated set of phenolic compounds shows strong seasonal variation both within shelters and in undamaged fern tissue, and the relative level of these compounds in these two different fern tissue types switches across the summer. Using experimental feeding treatments, in which we exposed fern moth larvae to different chemical trajectories across their development, we show that exposure to this set of phenolic compounds reduces the survival of larvae in early development. However, exposure to this set of compounds just before the beginning of explosive parasitoid growth increased parasitoid survival. Exposure during the period of rapid parasitoid growth and feeding decreased parasitoid survival. These results highlight the spatial and temporal complexity of leaf shelter chemistry, and demonstrate the developmental contingency of associated effects on both host and parasitoid, implying the existence of complex selective pressures on plant investment in chemical defenses, host feeding behavior, and parasitoid life history. PMID:25781029

Rose, Noah H; Halitschke, Rayko; Morse, Douglass H

2015-01-01

37

Tri-Trophic Effects of Seasonally Variable Induced Plant Defenses Vary across the Development of a Shelter Building Moth Larva and Its Parasitoid  

PubMed Central

Plant chemical defenses can negatively affect insect herbivore fitness, but they can also decrease herbivore palatability to predators or decrease parasitoid fitness, potentially changing selective pressures on both plant investment in production of chemical defenses and host feeding behavior. Larvae of the fern moth Herpetogramma theseusalis live in and feed upon leaf shelters of their own construction, and their most abundant parasitoid Alabagrus texanus oviposits in early instar larvae, where parasitoid larvae lay dormant for most of host development before rapidly developing and emerging just prior to host pupation. As such, both might be expected to live in a relatively constant chemical environment. Instead, we find that a correlated set of phenolic compounds shows strong seasonal variation both within shelters and in undamaged fern tissue, and the relative level of these compounds in these two different fern tissue types switches across the summer. Using experimental feeding treatments, in which we exposed fern moth larvae to different chemical trajectories across their development, we show that exposure to this set of phenolic compounds reduces the survival of larvae in early development. However, exposure to this set of compounds just before the beginning of explosive parasitoid growth increased parasitoid survival. Exposure during the period of rapid parasitoid growth and feeding decreased parasitoid survival. These results highlight the spatial and temporal complexity of leaf shelter chemistry, and demonstrate the developmental contingency of associated effects on both host and parasitoid, implying the existence of complex selective pressures on plant investment in chemical defenses, host feeding behavior, and parasitoid life history. PMID:25781029

Rose, Noah H.; Halitschke, Rayko; Morse, Douglass H.

2015-01-01

38

The Creation of Shelter.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The American Institute of Architects (AIA) became involved in the problem of homelessness through the establishment of the Search for Shelter program, a collaboration with several other architectural organizations. The program, led by the AIA Housing Committee, sought solutions to the housing crisis through a series of workshops held around the…

Greer, Nora Richter

39

Voyager: The Sheltering Forest  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Birch Aquarium at Scripps Institution of Oceanography offers this Web site as part of the Aquarium's online educational series, Voyager Science. Geared toward younger kids, this site introduces the kelp forest and related concepts with great photos, informative descriptions, and a few interactive activities. The Sheltering Forest focuses on the many animals that make their home in the kelp forest, emphasizing the interdependence of organisms in the kelp ecosystem. Simple at-home experiments and online activities are also included.

Criqui, Nan

40

SPERTI Reactor Pit Building (PER605). Earth shielding protect adjacent Instrument ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

SPERT-I Reactor Pit Building (PER-605). Earth shielding protect adjacent Instrument Cell (PER-606). Security fencing surrounds complex, to which gate entry is provided next to Guard House (PER-607). Note gravel road leading to control area. Earth-covered conduit leads from instrument cell to terminal building out of view. Photographer: R.G. Larsen. Date: June 22, 1955. INEEL negative no. 55-1701 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, SPERT-I & Power Burst Facility Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

41

An Early Shelter for Life on Earth? S and O Isotope Evidence From the Nuvvuagittuq Greenstone Belt, Northeastern Superior Province, Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Nuvvuagittuq Greenstone Belt (NGB,) is one of Earth's oldest Eoarchean volcano-sedimentary suites, and was emplaced prior to 3.75 Ga (Cates and Mojzsis, S.J. 2007), and likely as early as 4.28 Ga (O'Neil et al. 2008). As revealed by recent detailed mapping, the NGB geology is dominated by cummingtonite-bearing amphibolites (formerly called Faux-amphibolite, (O'Neil et al. 2008)) and a series of conformable gabbroic and ultra mafic sills. Minor horizons in the belt include banded iron formations (BIF) with cm-scale quartz-rich and magnetite-rich laminations, and a pyrite-bearing quartzite in gradational contact with the BIF. These rocks and may represent the oldest remains of the sedimentary record on Earth. We performed multiple O-isotope measurements of individual minerals (quartz, garnet, amphibole and magnetite) from three NGB lithologies (BIF, faux amphibolites and quartzite). In BIF samples, ?18O values cover a narrow range (from 1.36 per mil magnetite to 4.98 per mil with one outlier at 9.99 per mil), whereas silicate minerals in the faux reveal a more scattered range that is more depleted in light isotopes (7.77 per mil ? ?18O ? 13.38 per mil). One quartzite sample has also been analyzed and reveals the most 16O-depleted composition yet measured from the belt (?18O = 15.44 per mil). The ?17O and ?18O values from these samples define a fractionation line for multiple oxygen isotopes with a slope of 0.528 ± 0.004 (MSWD = 0.47), statistically indistinguishable from the slope (0.524 +± 0.002) of the Archean Terrestrial Fractional Line (TFL) determined from other Archean rocks and minerals. These results show no evidence for the drastic O-isotope heterogeneity that would likely accompany the late heavy bombardment of the Earth-Moon system. We also performed multiple S-isotope ratio measurements (?34S, ?33S, ?36S) in samples covering the entire lithological suite of the NGB. Samples from the quartzite and BIF display a narrow range of ?34S values (0.8 per mil ? ?34S ? 3.3 per mil), in good agreement with ranges reported so far from early Archean sediments. The same samples exhibit non-zero ?33S and ?36S values (respectively ranging from 0.18 to 2.27 per mil and from -2.9 per mil to -0.6 per mil) that are negatively correlated (?36S ~ -0.9 ?33S) and conform to the linear array that characterizes most of the Archean Eon. Finally, the NGB BIF and silica formation reveal a tight correlation between ?33S and ?34S values (?33S ~ 0.9 ?34S) that matches previous observations from Neoarchean and Paleoarchean samples. In previous studies, the ?34S - ?33S - ?36S correlations observed here have been taken to reflect both a restricted chemistry of the atmosphere and a dynamic microbiologically-dominated sulfur cycle. Taken together, and considering the age of the NGB, the S- and O-isotope results suggest that conditions conducive to life on Earth were established very early in Earth's history. Either there was apparently no significant perturbation of the early Earth system by the late heavy bombardment, or the rocks of the NGC record a time interval that was not affected by this dramatic event. This talk will explore the implications of these two possibilities for the early establishment of a stable environment suitable for the emergence of life.

Thomassot, E.; O'Neil, J.; Francis, D.; Cartigny, P.; Rumble, D.; Wing, B.

2009-05-01

42

Lied Animal Shelter Animal campus Renewable Energy Demonstration Project  

SciTech Connect

The Animal Shelter campus plan includes a new adoption center coupled with a dog adoption park, a wellness/veterinary technician education center, a show arena, and an addition to the existing shelter that will accommodate all animal control and sheltering for the Las Vegas Valley. The new facility will provide a sophisticated and innovative presentation of the animals to be adopted in an attempt to improve the public's perception of shelter animals. Additionally, the Regional Animal Campus will be a ''green building'', embodying a design intent on balancing environmental responsiveness, resource efficiency and cultural and community sensitivity. Designing an energy-efficient building helps reduce pollution from burning fossil fuels, reduce disturbance of natural habitats for the harvesting of resources and minimizes global warming. The project will be a leader in the use of renewable energy by relying on photovoltaic panels, wind turbines, and solar collectors to produce a portion of the project's energy needs The building will operate more efficiently in comparison to a typical shelter through the use of monitoring and specialized cooling/heating equipment. Windows bringing in natural daylight will reduce the center's demand for electricity.

Randy Spitzmesser, AIA

2005-11-22

43

In Search of Earth's Building Blocks: The Game Is Afoot  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earth was constructed from compositionally diverse materials, of which only the average composition has been accessible for study. Now, however, the genetics of distinct, late accretionary additions to Earth, believed by some to comprise the final ~0.5% contribution to Earth's mass, can potentially be identified in terrestrial rocks using certain isotopic tracers. This is plausible because of several recent observations/advances. First, it is now well established that the isotopic compositions of some elements, such as the siderophile elements Ru and Mo, varied considerably among bulk planetesimals as a consequence of the planetesimals incorporating differing proportions of isotopically-diverse, nucleosynthetic components [1-2]. Siderophile elements strongly leverage the signal of late accreted materials delivered to the mantle, because their concentrations are very high in bulk chondrites compared to concentration estimates for the mantle following the cessation of core formation [3]. Second, a mismatch in the abundances of the highly siderophile elements, such as Pt, between the mantles of the Moon and Earth has led to the suggestion that late-stage mass additions to Earth were dominated by a stochastic process, whereby highly siderophile elements were delivered to the Earth's mantle largely as a result of the addition of several large (Pluto mass) bodies, rather than as a rain of small bodies [4]. Thus, major late accretionary events may have at least initially left substantial chemical and isotopic imprints on some portions of the early mantle. Third, new mass spectrometric techniques permit the measurement of some isotopic ratios in these elements to precisions of <10 ppm. Finally, recent studies have documented the long-term survival of both indigenous and exogenous 182W isotopic heterogeneity in the mantle [5-6]. These studies provide evidence that even very energetic accretionary events, such as the putative Moon-forming giant impact, did not completely homogenize the silicate Earth. Thus, chemical, and especially isotopic heterogeneities imposed on mantle domains during the final major stages of planetary accretion may be resolved using existing techniques. Calculations suggest that at least some degree of isotopic heterogeneity should be detectible in early Earth materials. If detected, the nature and long-term survival of the projected heterogeneities could provide key information regarding early mantle geodynamics. Conversely, the absence of heterogeneities may require rethinking of the nature and extent of late accretion. [1] Chen et al. (2010) Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 74, 3851-3862. [2] Burkhardt et al. (2011) Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 312, 390-400. [3] Mann et al. (2012) Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 84, 593-613. [4] Bottke et al. (2010) Science 330, 1527-1530. [5] Willbold et al. (2011) Nature 477, 195-199. [6] Touboul et al. (2012) Science 335, 1065-1069.

Walker, R. J.; Bermingham, K. R.; Touboul, M.

2013-12-01

44

From the Ground Up: Building an Undergraduate Earth Systems Curriculum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is rare that an interdisciplinary group of educators has the opportunity to design a science curriculum without the constraints of pre-existing academic departments. In 1994, California State University Monterey Bay (CSUMB) acquired 1,387 acres from the U.S. Department of the Army and began construction of a new campus. CSUMB was developed as a four-year undergraduate university distinctive in its mission to serve the diverse people of California. Inspired by the Earth System Science Education program initiated by NASA and the University Space Research Association, CSUMB embarked upon the development of an interdisciplinary Earth systems curriculum that placed a strong emphasis on experience-based learning, integration of science, policy, and technology, outreach to minority students, and partnerships with the local community. Our cornerstone program is the Bachelor of Science in Earth Systems Science & Policy. It is built on a pyramid- style framework that includes integration, systems approach, and applied technologies (base of the pyramid); junior entry course, case studies, concentrations, service learning, student internships, and research experiences (middle of the pyramid); and senior capstone projects (apex of the pyramid). However, to succeed, new and innovative programs must constantly evaluate where they have been, where they are, and where they need to go to meet the needs of their students today and their students of the future.

Head, W. D.; Alexander, S. E.; Moore, S. W.; Melton, F. S.

2006-12-01

45

Laurel Clark Earth Camp: Building a Framework for Teacher and Student Understanding of Earth Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laurel Clark Earth Camp is designed to inspire teachers and students to study their world through field experiences, remote sensing investigations, and hands on exploration, all of which lend context to scientific inquiry. In three different programs (for middle school students, for high school students, and for teachers) participants are challenged to understand Earth processes from the perspectives of both on-the ground inspection and from examination of satellite images, and use those multiple perspectives to determine best practices on both a societal and individual scale. Earth Camp is a field-based program that takes place both in the “natural” and built environment. Middle School Earth Camp introduces students to a variety of environmental science, engineering, technology, and societal approaches to sustainability. High School Earth Camp explores ecology and water resources from southern Arizona to eastern Utah, including a 5 day rafting trip. In both camps, students compare environmental change observed through repeat photography on the ground to changes observed from space. Students are encouraged to utilize their camp experience in considering their future course of study, career objectives, and lifestyle choices. During Earth Camp for Educators, teachers participate in a series of weekend workshops to explore relevant environmental science practices, including water quality testing, biodiversity surveys, water and light audits, and remote sensing. Teachers engage students, both in school and after school, in scientific investigations with this broad based set of tools. Earth Stories from Space is a website that will assist in developing skills and comfort in analyzing change over time and space using remotely sensed images. Through this three-year NASA funded program, participants will appreciate the importance of scale and perspective in understanding Earth systems and become inspired to make choices that protect the environment.

Colodner, D.; Buxner, S.; Schwartz, K.; Orchard, A.; Titcomb, A.; King, B.; Baldridge, A.; Thomas-Hilburn, H.; Crown, D. A.

2013-04-01

46

Creative Building Design for Innovative Earth Science Teaching and Outreach (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earth Science departments can blend the physical “bricks and mortar” facility with programs and educational displays to create a facility that is a permanent outreach tool and a welcoming home for teaching and research. The new Frederick Albert Sutton building at the University of Utah is one of the first LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) certified Earth Science buildings in the country. Throughout the structure, creative architectural designs are combined with sustainability, artful geologic displays, and community partnerships. Distinctive features of the building include: 1) Unique, inviting geologic designs such as cross bedding pattern in the concrete foundation; “a river runs through it” (a pebble tile “stream” inside the entrance); “confluence” lobby with spectacular Eocene Green River fossil fish and plant walls; polished rock slabs; and many natural stone elements. All displays are also designed as teaching tools. 2) Student-generated, energy efficient, sustainable projects such as: solar tube lights, xeriscape & rock monoliths, rainwater collection, roof garden, pervious cement, and energy monitoring. 3) Reinforced concrete foundation for vibration-free analytical measurements, and exposed lab ceilings for duct work and infrastructure adaptability. The spectacular displays for this special project were made possible by new partnerships within the community. Companies participated with generous, in-kind donations (e.g., services, stone flooring and slabs, and landscape rocks). They received recognition in the building and in literature acknowledging donors. A beautiful built environment creates space that students, faculty, and staff are proud of. People feel good about coming to work, and they are happy about their surroundings. This makes a strong recruiting tool, with more productive and satisfied employees. Buildings with architectural interest and displays can showcase geology as art and science, while highlighting what Earth Scientists do. This approach can transform our Earth Science buildings into destinations for visitors, to show evoke inquiry. The building becomes a centerpiece, not another blank box on campus. Administrators at the University of Utah now want other new building structures to emulate our geoscience example. Done right, “bricks and mortar” can build stronger departments, infuse Earth Science into the community, and enhance our educational missions. LEED-certified Earth Science building with Eocene fossil fish wall, river pebble pattern in floor tile, displays, and student gathering areas.

Chan, M. A.

2009-12-01

47

Inside of Embden Data Shelters  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

The inside of Embden data shelter 1 and 2. Located in southeast Cass County about 8 miles south of Embden, North Dakota. In 2009, Embden became the third farm in the North Dakota Discovery Farms project....

48

Temporary shelter for the homeless  

E-print Network

A one-person cardboard structure was designed to temporarily shelter the homeless during harsh weather conditions. The overall form is based on the folding Yoshimura pattern. It is collapsible, wind and water resistant, ...

Lin, Christine, 1982-

2005-01-01

49

Building a Global Federation System for Climate Change Research: The Earth System Grid Center for Enabling  

E-print Network

Building a Global Federation System for Climate Change Research: The Earth System Grid Center@mcs.anl.gov, bernholdtde@ornl.gov Abstract. The recent release of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) 4th.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) investment in climate change research is broad, spanning model development

Chervenak, Ann

50

Thermal insulation for buildings. (Latest citations from the Compendex database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning materials used for the thermal insulation of buildings. Consumer acceptance of materials and weatherproofing options are included. Insulation in new and retrofitted buildings is discussed. Residential buildings, earth sheltered structures, greenhouses, and animal houses are among the structures studied. Infrared thermal sensing of heat loss, insulation placement, multilayer partition walls, and insulating windows are briefly considered. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-06-01

51

The Earth System Modeling Framework and Earth System Curator: Software Components as Building Blocks of Community  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Earth System Modeling Framework (ESMF) is an established U.S. initiative to develop high performance common modeling infrastructure for climate and weather models. ESMF is the technical foundation for the NASA Modeling, Analysis, and Prediction (MAP) Climate Variability and Change program and the DoD Battlespace Environments Institute (BEI). It has been incorporated into the Community Climate System Model (CCSM), the

C. Deluca; V. Balaji; A. da Silva; R. Dunlap; C. Hill; L. Mark; C. R. Mechoso; D. Middleton; S. Nikonov; S. Rugaber; M. Suarez

2006-01-01

52

Effectiveness of Urban Shelter-in-Place. III: Commercial Districts  

SciTech Connect

In the event of a toxic chemical release to the atmosphere, shelter-in-place (SIP) is an emergency response option available to protect public health. This paper is the last in a three-part series that examines the effectiveness of SIP at reducing adverse health effects in communities. We model a hypothetical chemical release in an urban area, and consider SIP effectiveness in protecting occupants of commercial buildings. Building air infiltration rates are predicted from empirical data using an existing model. We consider the distribution of building air infiltration rates both with mechanical ventilation systems turned off and with the systems operating. We also consider the effects of chemical sorption to indoor surfaces and nonlinear chemical dose-response relationships. We find that commercial buildings provide effective shelter when ventilation systems are off, but that any delay in turning off ventilation systems can greatly reduce SIP effectiveness. Using a two-zone model, we find that there can be substantial benefit by taking shelter in the inner parts of a building that do not experience direct air exchange with the outdoors. Air infiltration rates vary substantially among buildings and this variation is important in quantifying effectiveness for emergency response. Community-wide health metrics, introduced in the previous papers in this series, can be applied in pre-event planning and to guide real-time emergency response.

Chan, Wanyu R.; Chan, Wanyu R.; Nazaroff, William W.; Price, Phillip N.; Gadgil, Ashok J.

2007-12-28

53

THERMAL PERFORMANCE OF EARTH-AIR HEAT EXCHANGER FOR REDUCING COOLING ENERGY DEMAND OF OFFICE BUILDINGS IN THE UNITED KINGDOM  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a rising demand for conventional mechanical cooling systems in UK buildings over the last 10 years, which is due to increase in building internal and solar heat gains. Use of passive and low energy strategies for cooling and heating of buildings is an attractive alternative for providing comfortable indoor environments with low energy use. Earth-air heat exchanger (EAHX)

Abdullahi Ahmed; Kenneth Ip; Andrew Miller; Kassim Gidado

54

Chemical Agents: Facts about Sheltering in Place  

MedlinePLUS

... Public Health Matters What's New A - Z Index Chemical Agents: Facts About Sheltering in Place Language: English ... â??sheltering in placeâ? means Some kinds of chemical accidents or attacks may make going outdoors dangerous. ...

55

30 CFR 57.9360 - Shelter holes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Loading, Hauling, and Dumping Safety Devices, Provisions, and Procedures for Roadways, Railroads, and Loading and Dumping Sites § 57.9360 Shelter holes. (a) Shelter holes shall...

2010-07-01

56

The Second Student-Run Homeless Shelter  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

From 1983-2011, the Harvard Square Homeless Shelter (HSHS) in Cambridge, Massachusetts, was the only student-run homeless shelter in the United States. However, college students at Villanova, Temple, Drexel, the University of Pennsylvania, and Swarthmore drew upon the HSHS model to open their own student-run homeless shelter in Philadelphia,…

Seider, Scott C.

2012-01-01

57

Resources and Strategies for Building Understanding of the Earth-Moon-Sun System in Students of all Ages  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This presentation discusses a variety of resources and strategies used in UT Dallas education and outreach programs to help learners build understanding of the Earth-Moon-Sun system including topics of scale, lunar phases, and seasons.

Urquhart, M. L.

2011-03-01

58

Lunar surface operations. Volume 1: Lunar surface emergency shelter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The lunar surface emergency shelter (LSES) is designed to provide survival-level accommodations for up to four astronauts for a maximum of five days. It would be used by astronauts who were caught out in the open during a large solar event. The habitable section consists of an aluminum pressure shell with an inner diameter of 6 ft. and a length of 12.2 ft. Access is through a 4 in. thick aluminum airlock door mounted at the rear of the shelter. Shielding is provided by a 14.9 in. thick layer of lunar regolith contained within a second, outer aluminum shell. This provides protection against a 200 MeV event, based on a 15 REM maximum dose. The shelter is self-contained with a maximum range of 1000 km. Power is supplied by a primary fuel cell which occupies 70.7 cu ft. of the interior volume. Mobility is achieved by towing the shelter behind existing lunar vehicles. It was assumed that a fully operational, independent lunar base was available to provide communication support and tools for set-up and maintenance. Transportation to the moon would be provided by the proposed heavy lift launch vehicle. Major design considerations for the LSES were safety, reliability, and minimal use of earth materials.

Shields, William; Feteih, Salah; Hollis, Patrick

1993-01-01

59

Sheltered versus nonsheltered homeless women  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To contrast sociodemographic characteristics, physical and mental health status, substance use, sexual behaviors, victimization,\\u000a and utilization of health services between homeless women residing in sheltered and nonsheltered environments.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey. A structured scale was used to measure mental health status. Physical health status, substance use,\\u000a sexual behavior, history of adult victimization, and health services utilization were measured by

Adeline M. Nyamathi; Barbara Leake; Lillian Gelberg

2000-01-01

60

Automatic Building Detection based on Supervised Classification using High Resolution Google Earth Images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a novel approach to detect the buildings by automization of the training area collecting stage for supervised classification. The method based on the fact that a 3d building structure should cast a shadow under suitable imaging conditions. Therefore, the methodology begins with the detection and masking out the shadow areas using luminance component of the LAB color space, which indicates the lightness of the image, and a novel double thresholding technique. Further, the training areas for supervised classification are selected by automatically determining a buffer zone on each building whose shadow is detected by using the shadow shape and the sun illumination direction. Thereafter, by calculating the statistic values of each buffer zone which is collected from the building areas the Improved Parallelepiped Supervised Classification is executed to detect the buildings. Standard deviation thresholding applied to the Parallelepiped classification method to improve its accuracy. Finally, simple morphological operations conducted for releasing the noises and increasing the accuracy of the results. The experiments were performed on set of high resolution Google Earth images. The performance of the proposed approach was assessed by comparing the results of the proposed approach with the reference data by using well-known quality measurements (Precision, Recall and F1-score) to evaluate the pixel-based and object-based performances of the proposed approach. Evaluation of the results illustrates that buildings detected from dense and suburban districts with divers characteristics and color combinations using our proposed method have 88.4 % and 853 % overall pixel-based and object-based precision performances, respectively.

Ghaffarian, S.; Ghaffarian, S.

2014-08-01

61

Identifying Evacuees' Demand of Tsunami Shelters using Agent Based Simulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Amongst the lessons learned in tsunami events such as the 2004 Indian Ocean and 2011 Great Tohoku Japan earthquake is that sometimes nature exceeds structural countermeasures like seawalls, breakwaters or tsunami gates. In such situations it is a challenging task for people in plain areas to find sheltering places. The vertical evacuation to multistory buildings is one alternative to provide areas for sheltering in a complex environment of evacuation. However, if the spatial distribution and the available capacity of these structures are not well displayed, conditions of evacuee over-demand or under-demand might be observed in several structures. In this study, we present the integration of the tsunami numerical modeling and the agent based simulation of evacuation as the method to estimate the sheltering demand of evacuees in an emergent behavior approach. The case study is set in La Punta district in Peru. Here, we used in the tsunami simulation a seismic source of slip distribution model (Pulido et.al. ,2011; Chlieh et.al, 2011) for a possible future tsunami scenario in the central Andes. We modeled three alternatives of evacuation. First, the horizontal evacuation scenario was analyzed to support the necessity of the sheltering-in-place option for the district. Second, the vertical evacuation scenario and third, the combination of vertical and horizontal evacuation scenarios of pedestrians and vehicles were conducted. In the last two alternatives, the demand of evacuees were measured at each official tsunami evacuation building and compared to the sheltering capacity of the structure. Results showed that out of twenty tsunami evacuation buildings, thirteen resulted with over-demands and seven were still with available space. Also it is confirmed that in this case the horizontal evacuation might lead to a high number of casualties due to the traffic congestion at the neck of the district. Finally the vertical evacuation would be a suitable solution for this area; however the spatial location of shelters complicates the evacuation process. Future plan to provide more areas spatially well-located and with adequate capacities should be part of the agenda of mitigation and preparedness in the district.

Mas, E.; Adriano, B.; Koshimura, S.; Imamura, F.; Kuroiwa, J.; Yamazaki, F.; Zavala, C.; Estrada, M.

2012-12-01

62

Building a 3D earth model conditioned by the spatial statistics of petrophysical data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Characteristics of the earth’s heterogeneity are inherent in the physical properties measured from the target rock mass. Hence, investigation of the spatial variability of measured rock properties, for example porosity, permeability, density, and metal concentration, are useful for understanding the spatial changes in characteristics of the rock mass. Given that most data in the earth sciences are not exhaustive, heterogeneity in a rock mass at locations with no available data can be constrained by information at sampled data locations. Geostatistical tools are used to model spatial variability of physical properties at such unsampled locations. This study presents the application of geostatistical techniques to build a 3D earth model constrained by existing large database information that includes density logs measured from core samples of 32 boreholes, lithology, mineral concentration, gravity, magnetic and electromagnetic data. The database constituted part of an integrated study to delineate the lateral distribution of a Zn-Pb-Ag sulfide deposit. Density values are often correlated to the chemical constituent of the rock. In a sulfide setting, despite the potential influence of geologic processes in altering rock densities, sulfide mineralized rock samples have high densities relative to host rocks. Heuristic density models can then be built to honour any existing hard data and can be further tailored to accommodate the spatial correlation with other existing interdependent (cokriging) rock properties such as metal concentration. The cokriging process is based on an established hierarchy between the property variables e.g. Geology (felsic/mafic) ? Density (Primary variable) ? Zn%(Secondary variable). The 3D earth model honours not only the 3D statistics of the various properties considered, but also existing hard data (logs) in existing boreholes. Such an approach for modeling the spatial distribution of density and metal concentration provides a better assessment for inferred resource estimates. We used this geostatistical approach to locally characterize the 3D distribution of the rock mass at the Nash Creek exploration project, New Brunswick.

Bongajum, E. L.; Huang, J.; White, I.; Milkereit, B.

2009-12-01

63

Shelter  

MedlinePLUS

... and creating a barrier between yourself and potentially contaminated air outside, a process known as "sealing the ... if local authorities say the air is badly contaminated, you may want to take this kind of ...

64

26 CFR 301.6111-2 - Confidential corporate tax shelters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...interests in a confidential corporate tax shelter were first...becomes a confidential corporate tax shelter (e.g., because of a change in the law or factual circumstances...registered as a confidential corporate tax shelter under...

2010-04-01

65

Documentation of the Family Shelter Care Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The document describes the Family Shelter Care (FSC) Project, a program which provides emergency and short term shelter care for troubled Indian youths (7 to 18 year old abused, dependent, and neglected, in need of supervision, and delinquent children) on five Indian reservations in South Dakota. Sections address the following project components:…

Mountain Plains Youth Service Coalition, Pierre, SD.

66

Where building meets sky : the dialogue between horizontal and vertical  

E-print Network

The roof is man's basic shelter against the elements. The form of the roof itself affects the image of a building. The problem of shelter has been approached in different ways by different cultures. A wide range of forces ...

Snow, Sandra Leigh Olson

1986-01-01

67

PFENDLER HALL BUILDING EMERGENCY PLAN  

E-print Network

to Alarms: 2.5 Detailed Emergency Evacuation Procedures 2.6 Detailed Emergency Shelter in Place Procedures 2, shelter-in-place and building evacuation emergency information for natural and human-caused incidents. DPFENDLER HALL BUILDING EMERGENCY PLAN Date Adopted: September 21, 2007 Date Revised: November 19

68

Earth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The following aspects of the planet Earth are discussed: plate tectonics, the interior of the planet, the formation of the Earth, and the evolution of the atmosphere and hydrosphere. The Earth's crust, mantle, and core are examined along with the bulk composition of the planet.

Carr, M. H.

1984-01-01

69

The DEVELOP National Program: Building Dual Capacity in Decision Makers and Young Professionals Through NASA Earth Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Through the years, NASA has played a distinct/important/vital role in advancing Earth System Science to meet the challenges of environmental management and policy decision making. Within NASA's Earth Science Division's Applied Sciences' Program, the DEVELOP National Program seeks to extend NASA Earth Science for societal benefit. DEVELOP is a capacity building program providing young professionals and students the opportunity to utilize NASA Earth observations and model output to demonstrate practical applications of those resources to society. Under the guidance of science advisors, DEVELOP teams work in alignment with local, regional, national and international partner organizations to identify the widest array of practical uses for NASA data to enhance related management decisions. The program's structure facilitates a two-fold approach to capacity building by fostering an environment of scientific and professional development opportunities for young professionals and students, while also providing end-user organizations enhanced management and decision making tools for issues impacting their communities. With the competitive nature and growing societal role of science and technology in today's global workplace, DEVELOP is building capacity in the next generation of scientists and leaders by fostering a learning and growing environment where young professionals possess an increased understanding of teamwork, personal development, and scientific/professional development and NASA's Earth Observation System. DEVELOP young professionals are partnered with end user organizations to conduct 10 week feasibility studies that demonstrate the use of NASA Earth science data for enhanced decision making. As a result of the partnership, end user organizations are introduced to NASA Earth Science technologies and capabilities, new methods to augment current practices, hands-on training with practical applications of remote sensing and NASA Earth science, improved remote sensing and geographic information science (GIS) capabilities, and opportunities for networking with the NASA and Earth Science community. By engaging young professionals and end user organizations, DEVELOP strives to uniquely build capacity through the extension of NASA Earth Science outcomes to the public through projects that innovatively use NASA Earth observations to address environmental concerns and impact policy and decision making.

Childs, L. M.; Rogers, L.; Favors, J.; Ruiz, M.

2012-12-01

70

Q & A with Kathleen M. Reilly, Author of "Planet Earth: 25 Environmental Projects You Can Build Yourself"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents an interview with Kathleen M. Reilly, author of "Planet Earth: 25 Environmental Projects You Can Build Yourself." Environmental awareness needs to begin in childhood, and, through this book, Kathleen M. Reilly encourages children to learn about ecology and ecosystems to begin conservation early in their lives. Children ages 9…

Curriculum Review, 2008

2008-01-01

71

Effectiveness of Urban Shelter-in-Place. II: ResidentialDistricts  

SciTech Connect

In the event of a short-term, large-scale toxic chemical release to the atmosphere, shelter-in-place (SIP) may be used as an emergency response to protect public health. We modeled hypothetical releases using realistic, empirical parameters to explore how key factors influence SIP effectiveness for single-family dwellings in a residential district. Four classes of factors were evaluated in this case-study: (a) time scales associated with release duration, SIP implementation delay, and SIP termination; (b) building air-exchange rates, including air infiltration and ventilation; (c) the degree of sorption of toxic chemicals to indoor surfaces; and (d) the shape of the dose-response relationship for acute adverse health effects. Houses with lower air leakage are more effective shelters, and thus variability in the air leakage of dwellings is associated with varying degrees of SIP protection in a community. Sorption on indoor surfaces improves SIP effectiveness by lowering the peak indoor concentrations and reducing the amount of contamination in the indoor air. Nonlinear dose-response relationships imply substantial reduction in adverse health effects from lowering the peak exposure concentration. However, if the scenario is unfavorable for sheltering (e.g. sheltering in leaky houses for protection against a nonsorbing chemical with a linear dose-response), the community must implement SIP without delay and exit from shelter when it first becomes safe to do so. Otherwise, the community can be subjected to even greater risk than if they did not take shelter indoors.

Chan, W.R.; Nazaroff, W.W.; Price, P.N.; Gadgil, A.J.

2006-12-01

72

Needs assessment for remote systems technology at the Chornobyl Unit 4 shelter  

SciTech Connect

The accident at Chornobyl Unit 4 on April 26, 1986, resulted in a series of unprecedented scientific and technical challenges. The reactor building was damaged extensively. Following the accident, immediate action was needed to seal off the gaping crater created by the accident, which was a continuing source of airborne contamination. Under extreme conditions, a structure called the {open_quotes}Shelter{close_quotes} was built over the remains of the reactor building. The Shelter, which was quickly completed in November 1986, was meant to provide immediate but temporary containment. Now, 11 years later, there are significant concerns about its structural integrity and projected life expectancy. The United States and other participating G-7 countries are supporting nuclear safety upgrade efforts in Eastern Europe with a primary focus on placing the Chornobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) Unit 4 Shelter in a stable and environmentally acceptable condition. Application of remote systems technologies will play an important part in achieving the goals of this program. The G-7 nations have agreed to support these efforts, including the identification and development of remote system technologies for fuel removal. However at this time they have taken a firm stance against funding actual fuel removal activities. The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy, Science and Technology requested that a needs assessment be performed to evaluate the requirements for applying remote systems, including robotics, at the Shelter. This document is intended to be used to identify remote systems needs and requirements at the Shelter and to provide general information on the conditions in the Shelter that could impact the use of remote systems. This document is intended as a source of information to assist those who will be implementing the Shelter Implementation Plan tasks. The document provides background information and general guidance on the application of remote systems.

Carteret, B.A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Holliday, M.A.; Jones, E.D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

1997-12-01

73

Prospect and refuge : shelter in Roxbury  

E-print Network

This thesis attempts to use the concept of juxtaposed prospect and refuge to design shelter on a large urban site (92,000 square feet). The broad range of scales stretches the applicability of prospect and refuge as a ...

Lee, Jane Elizabeth

1993-01-01

74

Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lithograph depicts a view of Earth taken from Apollo 10 during its journey to the Moon in May 1969. False-color satellite images showing chlorophyll concentration, sea surface temperature, topography, and ozone concentration are also featured. The images are accompanied by a brief description, some statistical facts, and a list of important dates in the history of Earth exploration.

75

Applying remote sensing and spacial analysis technology to locating transitional shelters in earthquake areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Violent earthquakes damaged buildings, towns and cities. The earthquakes and the subsequent secondary disasters, such as landslips, landslides and debris flows, brought immediate threats to people there. The rescue tasks need updated and appropriate information for site selection of emergency refuges and transitional shelters, especially when a city has been destroyed and the original earthquake emergency refuge planning can no

Li Peng; Wu-nian Yang; Pei-fen Pan; Zhi-gang Li; Guo-chao Hu

2010-01-01

76

BUILDING VIRTUAL EARTH OBSERVATORIES USING ONTOLOGIES, LINKED GEOSPATIAL DATA AND KNOWLEDGE DISCOVERY ALGORITHMS  

E-print Network

in orbit around Earth. As a result, Earth Observation (EO) data has been constantly increasing in vol- ume or animals, due to the nature of actual features (e.g., eyes, ears, stripes, or wings) that have known

Koubarakis, Manolis

77

Building a Global Data Network for Studies of Earth Processes at the World's Plate Boundaries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The international geoscience community is engaged in scientifically aligned goals to understand the fundamental processes of crustal formation, modification and destruction at the Earth's plate boundaries through broad multi- disciplinary initiatives such as the InterRidge and InterMARGINS programs. These programs involve the collection of unique data sets during oceanic and terrestrial expeditions and subsequent laboratory work conducted by research institutions around the globe. These international research efforts would benefit significantly if data collections maintained as national efforts could be better linked and broader access were initiated. At present there are no formal agreements within these programs for data sharing between foreign partners. A workshop was convened in May 2007, jointly sponsored and funded by MARGINS, InterMARGINS, InterRidge, Ridge2000, the US National Science Foundation, and the German project "The Future Ocean", to explore current opportunities and challenges for international data exchange to support marine geoscience research broadly. Participants from 14 countries discussed technological, organizational, and cultural issues for building a global data network and agreed on a set of recommendations regarding science user needs, data documentation, data publication, metadata interoperability, and opportunities and obstacles for international data sharing. They underscored that (1) open public access to data is fundamental to verifiable scientific progress; (2) uniform best practices and standards for data acquisition, data submission to data centers, and data publication need to be developed and used routinely within the international community, facilitated by tools that automate metadata acquisition in the field and in the lab; (3) the proliferation of metadata standards needs to be minimized to achieve a uniform approach for scientific metadata building upon the work of existing community-based projects; (4) data centers should expose their data resources via web services to enable data access through programmatic interfaces and expand options for data analysis and visualization; (5) international programs and bodies such as GEOSS, eGY, and ICSU should be leveraged to promote an initiative for a global data network; (6) a dedicated task group is needed to advance the implementation of a global data network along with special interest groups to share experience and solutions on issues concerning metadata and interfaces. Several immediate next steps were identified to initiate the implementation of these recommendations.

Lehnert, K. A.; Carbotte, S.; Tsuboi, S.; Weinrebe, W.

2007-12-01

78

Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) planet profile provides data and images of the planet Earth. These data include planet size, orbit facts, distance from the Sun, rotation and revolution times, temperature, atmospheric composition, density, surface materials and albedo. Images with descriptions show Earth features such as the Ross Ice Shelf in Antarctica, Simpson Desert in Australia, Mt. Etna in Sicily, the Cassiar Mountains in Canada, the Strait of Gibraltar, Mississippi River, Grand Canyon, Wadi Kufra Oasis in Libya, and Moon images such as Hadley Rille, Plum Crater, massifs and Moon rocks. These images were taken with the Galileo Spacecraft and by the Apollo missions.

79

WRIGHT FORESTRY CENTER (WRIT) BUILDING EMERGENCY PLAN  

E-print Network

: 2.5 Detailed Emergency Evacuation Procedures 2.6 Detailed Emergency Shelter in Place Procedures 2, shelter-in-place and building evacuation emergency information for natural and human-caused incidents. DWRIGHT FORESTRY CENTER (WRIT) BUILDING EMERGENCY PLAN Date Adopted: August 21, 2009 Date Revised

80

Solar Eclipse Effect on Shelter Air Temperature  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Decreases in shelter temperature during eclipse events were quantified on the basis of observations, numerical model simulations, and complementary conceptual evaluations. Observations for the annular eclipse on 10 May 1994 over the United States are presented, and these provide insights into the temporal and spatial changes in the shelter temperature. The observations indicated near-surface temperature drops of as much as 6 C. Numerical model simulations for this eclipse event, which provide a complementary evaluation of the spatial and temporal patterns of the temperature drops, predict similar decreases. Interrelationships between the temperature drop, degree of solar irradiance reduction, and timing of the peak eclipse are also evaluated for late spring, summer, and winter sun conditions. These simulations suggest that for total eclipses the drops in shelter temperature in midlatitudes can be as high as 7 C for a spring morning eclipse.

Segal, M.; Turner, R. W.; Prusa, J.; Bitzer, R. J.; Finley, S. V.

1996-01-01

81

Building Cyberinfrastructures for Earth and Space Sciences so that they will come: lessons learnt from Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the greatest drivers for change in the way scientific research is undertaken in Australia was the development of the Australian eResearch Infrastructure which was coordinated by the then Australian Government Department of Innovation, Industry, Science and Research. There were two main tranches of funding: the 2007-2013 National Collaborative Research Infrastructure Strategy (NCRIS) and the 2009 Education and Investment Framework (EIF) Super Science Initiative. Investments were in two areas: the Australian e-Research Infrastructure and domain specific capabilities: combined investment in both is 1,452M with at least 456M being invested in eResearch infrastructure. NCRIS was specifically designed as a community-guided process to provide researchers, both academic and government, with major research facilities, supporting infrastructures and networks necessary for world-class research. Extensive community engagement was sought to inform decisions on where Australia could best make strategic infrastructure investments to further develop its research capacity and improve research outcomes over the next 5 to 10years. The current (2007-2014) Australian e-Research Infrastructure has 2 components: 1. The National eResearch physical infrastructure which includes two petascale HPC facilities (one in Canberra and one in Perth), a 10 Gbps national network (National Research Network), a national data storage infrastructure comprising 8 multi petabyte data stores and shared access methods (Australian Access Federation). 2. A second component is focused on research integration infrastructures and includes the Australian National Data Service, which is concerned with better management, description and access to distributed research data in Australia and the National eResearch Collaboration Tools and Resources (NeCTAR) project. NeCTAR is centred on developing problem oriented digital laboratories which provide better and coordinated access to research tools, data environments and workflows. The eResearch Infrastructure Stack is designed to support 12 individual domain-specific capabilities. Four are relevant to the Earth and Space Sciences: (1) AuScope (a national Earth Science Infrastructure Program), (2) the Integrated Marine Observing System (IMOS), (3) the Terrestrial Ecosystems Research Network (TERN) and (4) the Australian Urban Research Infrastructure Network (AURIN). The two main research integration infrastructures, ANDS and NeCTAR, are seen as pivotal to the success of the Australian eResearch Infrastructure. Without them, there was a risk that that the investments in new computers and data storage would provide physical infrastructure, but few would come to use it as the skills barriers to entry were too high. ANDS focused on transforming Australia's research data environment. Its flagship is Research Data Australia, an Internet-based discovery service designed to provide rich connections between data, projects, researchers and institutions, and promote visibility of Australian research data collections in search engines. NeCTAR focused on building eResearch infrastructure in four areas: virtual laboratories, tools, a federated research cloud and a hosting service. Combined, ANDS and NeCTAR are ensuring that people ARE coming and ARE using the physical infrastructures that were built.

Wyborn, L. A.; Woodcock, R.

2013-12-01

82

Earth  

E-print Network

As in his original cosmology proposal 1,2 and in subsequent writings in its defence, 3,4 so also in New vistas of space-time rebut the critics, 5 Dr Humphreys makes sweeping physical claims without backing them up with the simple mathematical calculations which would demonstrate their truth or falsity. It is straightforward, using only undergraduate-level differential calculus, to show that Humphreys’ claim of a ‘timeless zone ’ in the Klein metric is false. In order for a ‘timeless zone ’ to exist, there must be a region of spacetime within which there are no spacetime trajectories which have the property ds 2> 0. However, it is easy to verify that every comoving clock in Humphreys ’ bounded matter sphere cosmology traverses a timelike trajectory (ds 2> 0), even in the region of (?,?) space which Humphreys alleges is ‘timeless. ’ Consider, for example, the trajectory of the Earth, which Humphreys hypothesizes is at the center of the matter sphere. The Earth’s spatial trajectory in Schwarzschild coordinates is given by d?

unknown authors

83

4. INTERIOR VIEW OF SLEEPING SHELTER SHOWING STORAGE LOCKERS IN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. INTERIOR VIEW OF SLEEPING SHELTER SHOWING STORAGE LOCKERS IN CENTER PORTION WITH SLEEPING BUNKS AT EACH END - Camp Cleawox, Adirondack Sleeping Shelter, Oregon Dunes National Recreation Area, Siuslaw National Forest, Florence, Lane County, OR

84

9 CFR 3.77 - Sheltered housing facilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications...sheltered part of sheltered animal facilities must be sufficiently...to minimize odors, drafts, ammonia levels, and moisture condensation...of the nonhuman primates. Animal areas must be provided a...

2011-01-01

85

Shelters and Their Use by Fishes on Fringing Coral Reefs  

PubMed Central

Coral reef fish density and species richness are often higher at sites with more structural complexity. This association may be due to greater availability of shelters, but surprisingly little is known about the size and density of shelters and their use by coral reef fishes. We quantified shelter availability and use by fishes for the first time on a Caribbean coral reef by counting all holes and overhangs with a minimum entrance diameter ?3 cm in 30 quadrats (25 m2) on two fringing reefs in Barbados. Shelter size was highly variable, ranging from 42 cm3 to over 4,000,000 cm3, with many more small than large shelters. On average, there were 3.8 shelters m?2, with a median volume of 1,200 cm3 and a total volume of 52,000 cm3m?2. The number of fish per occupied shelter ranged from 1 to 35 individual fishes belonging to 66 species, with a median of 1. The proportion of shelters occupied and the number of occupants increased strongly with shelter size. Shelter density and total volume increased with substrate complexity, and this relationship varied among reef zones. The density of shelter-using fish was much more strongly predicted by shelter density and median size than by substrate complexity and increased linearly with shelter density, indicating that shelter availability is a limiting resource for some coral reef fishes. The results demonstrate the importance of large shelters for fish density and support the hypothesis that structural complexity is associated with fish abundance, at least in part, due to its association with shelter availability. This information can help identify critical habitat for coral reef fishes, predict the effects of reductions in structural complexity of natural reefs and improve the design of artificial reefs. PMID:22745664

Ménard, Alexandre; Turgeon, Katrine; Roche, Dominique G.; Binning, Sandra A.; Kramer, Donald L.

2012-01-01

86

SPECIES DIFFER IN RESPONSES TO TREE SHELTERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of tree shelters on height, caliper, and di- ameter at breast height of 11 landscape tree species and cul- tivars were investigated in 2 nurseries during a 4-year period; the ratio of height to caliper was calculated as an indicator of trunk sturdiness. Species differed greatly in their responses, ranging in the fourth year from none to 44% and

Henry D. Gerhold

87

Training Shelter Volunteers to Teach Dog Compliance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the degree to which training procedures influenced the integrity of behaviorally based dog training implemented by volunteers of an animal shelter. Volunteers were taught to implement discrete-trial obedience training to teach 2 skills (sit and wait) to dogs. Procedural integrity during the baseline and written instructions…

Howard, Veronica J.; DiGennaro Reed, Florence D.

2014-01-01

88

Collaboration and Community Building in Summer Undergraduate Research Programs in the School of Earth Sciences at Stanford University  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2012, the School of Earth Sciences (SES) at Stanford University sponsored two summer undergraduate research programs. Here we describe these programs and efforts to build a cohesive research cohort among the programs' diverse participants. The two programs, the Stanford School of Earth Sciences Undergraduate Research (SESUR) Program and Stanford School of Earth Sciences Summer Undergraduate Research in Geoscience and Engineering (SURGE) Program, serve different undergraduate populations and have somewhat different objectives, but both provide students with opportunities to work on strongly mentored yet individualized research projects. In addition to research, enrichment activities co-sponsored by both programs support the development of community within the combined SES summer undergraduate research cohort. Over the course of 6 to 9 months, the SESUR Program engages Stanford undergraduates, primarily rising sophomores and juniors, with opportunities to deeply explore Earth sciences research while learning about diverse areas of inquiry within SES. Now in its eleventh year, the SESUR experience incorporates the breadth of the scientific endeavor: finding an advisor, proposal writing, obtaining funding, conducting research, and presenting results. Goals of the SESUR program include (1) providing a challenging and rewarding research experience for undergraduates who wish to explore the Earth sciences; (2) fostering interdisciplinary study in the Earth sciences among the undergraduate population; and (3) encouraging students to major or minor in the Earth sciences and/or to complete advanced undergraduate research in one of the departments or programs within SES. The SURGE Program, now in its second year, draws high performing students, primarily rising juniors and seniors, from 14 colleges and universities nationwide, including Stanford. Seventy percent of SURGE students are from racial/ethnic backgrounds underrepresented in STEM fields, and approximately one-third are the first in their families to attend college. For eight weeks, SURGE scholars conduct independent research with the guidance of faculty, research group mentors, and program assistants. The primary objectives of the SURGE program are to (1) provide undergraduates with a research experience in SES; (2) prepare undergraduates for the process of applying to graduate school; (3) introduce undergraduates to career opportunities in the geosciences and engineering; and (4) increase diversity in SES graduate programs. Independent research, network building, and intense mentoring culminate in a final oral and poster symposium. SESUR and SURGE scholars jointly participate in enrichment activities including faculty research seminars; career, graduate school, and software training workshops; GRE preparation classes; and geoscience-oriented field trips. Interaction among our students takes place through both research and enrichment activities, creating a critical mass of undergraduate scholars and promoting community development. Pre- and post-program surveys indicate that the overall goals of both programs are being achieved.

Nevle, R. J.; Watson Nelson, T.; Harris, J. M.; Klemperer, S. L.

2012-12-01

89

TREE SHELTERS ACCELERATE SLOW-GROWING SPECIES IN NURSERIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two experiments investigated the effects of tree shelters on height, caliper, and diameter growth of liners of 14 species and cultivars. In the first year at one nursery all nine varieties had greater height growth inside shelters, averaging 325% of controls without shelters, thus adding 1.1 feet (33 cm) to 2.3 feet (70 cm) to their height. After two years

Robert K. Witmer; Henry D. Gerhold; Eric R. Ulrich

90

No place like home: A study of two homeless shelters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Homelessness is one of the most pressing social problems today. Society has responded to the problem with the creation of homeless shelters. Yet, the nature of the operation of the shelter is not defined. This study explored the operations of two single adult homeless shelters to understand how they operate in addressing the problem of homelessness. The study identified two

Bruce D. Friedman

1994-01-01

91

26 CFR 301.6111-2 - Confidential corporate tax shelters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Confidential corporate tax shelters. 301.6111-2...Returns and Records § 301.6111-2 Confidential corporate tax shelters. (a) In...section 6111(d) and this section, a confidential corporate tax shelter is...

2013-04-01

92

26 CFR 301.6111-2 - Confidential corporate tax shelters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Confidential corporate tax shelters. 301.6111-2...Returns and Records § 301.6111-2 Confidential corporate tax shelters. (a) In...section 6111(d) and this section, a confidential corporate tax shelter is...

2014-04-01

93

26 CFR 301.6111-2 - Confidential corporate tax shelters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Confidential corporate tax shelters. 301.6111-2...Returns and Records § 301.6111-2 Confidential corporate tax shelters. (a) In...section 6111(d) and this section, a confidential corporate tax shelter is...

2011-04-01

94

26 CFR 301.6111-2 - Confidential corporate tax shelters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Confidential corporate tax shelters. 301.6111-2...Returns and Records § 301.6111-2 Confidential corporate tax shelters. (a) In...section 6111(d) and this section, a confidential corporate tax shelter is...

2012-04-01

95

1. FRONT VIEW SHOWING MAIN FACADE OF SHELTER WITH SPLIT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. FRONT VIEW SHOWING MAIN FACADE OF SHELTER WITH SPLIT SHAKES AND LOG BEAM SUPPORTS AND PORCH STEP; NOTE SHELTER NAME 'LAFITTE' OVER EYEBROW - Camp Cleawox, Adirondack Sleeping Shelter, Oregon Dunes National Recreation Area, Siuslaw National Forest, Florence, Lane County, OR

96

30 CFR 75.1403-9 - Criteria-Shelter holes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Criteria-Shelter holes. 75.1403-9 Section 75.1403-9 Mineral...and Mantrips § 75.1403-9 Criteria—Shelter holes. (a) Shelter holes should be provided on track haulage roads at...

2010-07-01

97

Barnacle larval supply to sheltered rocky shores: a limiting factor?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In northwest Europe, sheltered rocky shores are dominated by fucoid canopy algae and barnacles are rare, although the latter are extremely abundant on exposed shores. The supply of the intertidal barnacle Semibalanus balanoides (L.) to sheltered, fucoid dominated rocky shores was investigated to determine the importance of larval supply in limiting the abundance of adults in shelter. Larval supply was

S. R. Jenkins; S. J. Hawkins

2003-01-01

98

External Resource: Earth-Moon-Sun Dynamics: Building the EMS Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this unit of study, students participate in iterative model building as they encounter patterns in various celestial phenomena and attempt to provide a causal explanation for them. Each of the six materials within Building the EMS Model focuses on a di

1900-01-01

99

Automatic building detection based on Purposive FastICA (PFICA) algorithm using monocular high resolution Google Earth images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper proposes an improved FastICA model named as Purposive FastICA (PFICA) with initializing by a simple color space transformation and a novel masking approach to automatically detect buildings from high resolution Google Earth imagery. ICA and FastICA algorithms are defined as Blind Source Separation (BSS) techniques for unmixing source signals using the reference data sets. In order to overcome the limitations of the ICA and FastICA algorithms and make them purposeful, we developed a novel method involving three main steps: 1-Improving the FastICA algorithm using Moore-Penrose pseudo inverse matrix model, 2-Automated seeding of the PFICA algorithm based on LUV color space and proposed simple rules to split image into three regions; shadow + vegetation, baresoil + roads and buildings, respectively, 3-Masking out the final building detection results from PFICA outputs utilizing the K-means clustering algorithm with two number of clusters and conducting simple morphological operations to remove noises. Evaluation of the results illustrates that buildings detected from dense and suburban districts with divers characteristics and color combinations using our proposed method have 88.6% and 85.5% overall pixel-based and object-based precision performances, respectively.

Ghaffarian, Saman; Ghaffarian, Salar

2014-11-01

100

How Effective Homelessness Prevention Impacts the Length of Shelter Spells  

PubMed Central

Homelessness prevention programs intervene with households apparently in imminent danger of becoming homeless, and try to keep them housed. If they are at least partially successful, how do they change the average shelter spell of households actually becoming homeless? We use data from 2003 to 2008 for Homebase, a New York City homelessness prevention program that studies have found to be effective in reducing shelter entries. Homebase made no difference in average shelter spells at the community level. This result, like many results about shelter spell length, is not easy to reconcile with the idea that shelter spell length is a reflection of the seriousness of underlying problems. PMID:24610995

Goodman, Sarena; Messeri, Peter; O’Flaherty, Brendan

2014-01-01

101

Tsunami damages assessment: vulnerability functions on buildings based on field and earth observation survey.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The assessment of damages caused by tsunami scenarios on coastal buildings requires using vulnerability matrixes or functions to carry out a relation between the magnitude of the phenomena and the damage expected. These functions represent the probability for a building belonging to a class of vulnerability to suffer from a mean damage level. The physical vulnerability of buildings depends on two parameters: the solicitation level applied by the tsunami on buildings and their resistance capacity. According to the authors after post-tsunami observations (Reese et al. 2007; Ruangrassamee et al. 2006; Leone et al. 2006; Peiris 2006), the level of damage is clearly linked to the water elevation of the inundated areas and the type of observed buildings. Very few works propose relations based on velocity or hydrodynamic pressure of the waves. An approach developed for the estimation of the building vulnerability consists in deriving empirical damage functions starting from field observations. As part of the SCHEMA European Project on the vulnerability assessment for tsunami hazards in the Atlantic and Mediterranean area, vulnerability functions have been elaborated for different classes of buildings in order to produce vulnerability maps for exposed areas with emphasis on extraction of building characteristics using remote sensing data. The damage detection has been carried out by field data collected after the 24 December 2006 tsunami event on the southwest area of Banda Aceh (Sumatra, Thailand) completed by photo-interpretation of satellite images to get representative functions with large population of samples. The building classes consist in several categories depending mainly on the type of construction material (timber/bamboo, traditional brick, reinforced concrete …), the type of structure (beam, pillars, etc) and the number of storeys. The level of damage has been also classified in five categories, from D0 (no damage) to D5 (total destruction). Vulnerability functions have been established then for four classes of buildings. For some classes of buildings (the strongest, engineered, in reinforces concrete) there is not enough field observations to build damage functions. Resulting matrixes allow the cartographic representation of expected damage according to inundation depths and types of buildings. As expected, they show that the damage levels relative to the water elevation are linked to the resistance capacity of each building class considered in this study. But divergence exists between the shape of the expected curves and the curves obtained. Indeed, secondary factors affecting the buildings are responsible of the damage level increase before or during the tsunami: prior impact of the earthquake occurred before the tsunami and of impact of debris and floating objects during the wave passing. Other characteristics such as foundation types, type of surrounding soils, proximity to shore lines, cannot be easily extracted unless detailed site and building studies. For some of them it is simply impossible. Some of the factors can however be mapped as local additional vulnerability criteria but cannot be integrated to damage functions. Furthermore the dispersion between the distribution of field observations and interpreted data underlines the limits of the interpretation of satellite image for the damage detection in this type of study. These difficulties raise the importance of carrying out post-tsunami field observations to feed the knowledge of phenomena in the aim of more efficient risk assessment. The final target is to develop generic rules and tools to apply the damages functions to European coastal zones and produce damages scenario which could be exploited either by civil protection for their relief actions after a disaster or by coastal zone planners to adapt land use of exposed coast or at least to take in consideration tsunami hazard for the development of coastal zones.

Gauraz, A. L.; Valencia, N.; Koscielny, M.; Guillande, R.; Gardi, A.; Leone, F.; Salaun, T.

2009-04-01

102

Angular Momentum Exchange between the Solid Earth and Atmosphere: Building Links between Geodesists and Meteorologists  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Remarkable advances occurred in atmospheric sciences with the advent of satellite meteorological program in the 1970’s and the development of special observing program, such as FGGE, to collect and analyze the "best-to-date" atmospheric data sets. We developed the mathematical formulation for the atmospheric angular momentum (AAM) excitation functions, and utilized the FGGE results to make an in-depth study of the atmospheric excitation of Earth rotation. We thereby began a series of beneficial interactions between meteorological and geodetic communities, enabling unique insights into Earth System Science. This paper will outline early works and later developments that lead to this ongoing synergistic area.

Hide, R.

2003-04-01

103

Self-Healing, Inflatable, Rigidizable Shelter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An inflatable, rigidizable shelter system was developed based on Rigi dization on Command (ROC) technology incorporating not only the requ ired low-stowage volume and lightweight character achieved from an i nflatable/rigidizable system, but also a self-healing foam system inc orporated between the rigidizable layers of the final structure to m inimize the damage caused by any punctures to the structure.

Haight, Andrea; Gosau, Jan-Michael; Dixit, Anshu; Gleeson, Dan

2012-01-01

104

An Ethnographic Study of a Cat Shelter  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explores the value of traditional ethnographic methods in sociology for the study of human-animal and animal-animal interactions and culture. Itargues that some measure of human-animal intersubjectivity is possible and that the method of participant observation is best suited to achieve this. Applying ethnographic methods to human-cat and cat-cat relationships in a no-kill cat shelter, the study presents initial

Janet M. Alger; Steven F. Alger

105

Putting Art in Its Place: Earth-Centered Celebration Builds Community in Concord.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In Concord (Massachusetts), the Emerson Umbrella Center for the Arts holds seasonal workshops that invite people outdoors to explore woods, fields, and rivers and then process their discoveries through art. Each spring, a colorful community Earth Day celebration demonstrates the link between community art and community activism. The center also…

Daniel, Lucille

1999-01-01

106

Software Applications to Access Earth Science Data: Building an ECHO Client  

Microsoft Academic Search

Historically, developing an ECHO (NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) ClearingHOuse) client required interaction with its SOAP API. SOAP, as a framework for web service communication has numerous advantages for Enterprise applications and Java\\/C# type programming languages. However, as interest has grown for quick development cycles and more intriguing ``mashups,'' ECHO has seen the SOAP API lose its appeal. In order

A. Cohen; M. Cechini; D. Pilone

2010-01-01

107

Understanding of Earth and Space Science Concepts: Strategies for Concept-Building in Elementary Teacher Preparation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research is concerned with preservice teacher understanding of six earth and space science concepts that are often taught in elementary school: the reason for seasons, phases of the moon, why the wind blows, the rock cycle, soil formation, and earthquakes. Specifically, this study examines the effect of readings, hands-on learning stations,…

Bulunuz, Nermin; Jarrett, Olga S.

2009-01-01

108

An experimental study on shrinkage of earth plaster with natural fibres for straw bale buildings  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a series of laboratory tests on shrinkage of plaster materials are presented. The plaster materials consist of cohesive soil, sand and different natural fibres. Three types of fibres, wheat straw, barley straw and wood shavings, were used as reinforcement in the tests. The shrinkage behaviour of earth plasters was studied by laboratory tests for different compositions and

Taha Ashour; Wei Wu

2010-01-01

109

Building Community Consensus for Earth Science Literacy Using an Online Workshop (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Earth Science Literacy Principles, published in the spring of 2009, represented a community consensus about what all Americans should understand about Earth sciences. Central to its creation was a 2-week online workshop that involved participation by 350 Earth scientists and educators. The online workshop, hosted by The College of Exploration, was an excellent medium for incorporating the ideas and concerns of 350 people in near-real time. NSF tasked the Earth Science Literacy Initiative (ESLI) (www.earthscienceliteracy.org) with constructing a set of “Big Ideas” and “Supporting Concepts” that distilled the essential understandings of the GEO-EAR division of NSF. Because of the wide diversity of sub-fields involved (ranging from paleobiology to tectonics), finding a mechanism for incorporating many different views while retaining an organized structure was a challenge. The online workshop turned out to be ideal for this task. Though the 2-week asynchronous workshop was designed to replicate a 2-day in-person workshop, at the drawn-out pace of one hour of requested participation per day, in reality it was much more productive. Many aspects of an in-person workshop were replicated in the the online space. Plenary talks were presented in the main conference room via videos recorded just before or during the 2-week period. The workshop was structured with 150 invited participants and 200 observers. The participants had access to all of the rooms while the observers could see all rooms but could only chat in their own area, the Observation Café. Each breakout room had a moderator who attempted to guide discussion, including suggesting off-topic conversations be moved to the Earth Café. An organizing committee of about a dozen people teleconferenced daily, determining the goals or tasks for the participants for that day. This allowed for a high level of flexibility, with the workshop structure flowing in response to the results up to that point. The first week was dedicated to the selection of a finite set of Earth Science Big Ideas, and the second week focused on the supporting concepts that would align with them. Participants went to a variety of different breakout rooms to either dialogue or upload assignments. It was tremendously beneficial to have the text of the entire workshop fully recorded and instantly available, both during and after the workshop, and this text became the foundation for the published ELSI Principles. It would have been impossible to incorporate and organize the thoughts and ideas of 350 people in an efficient, organized, and affordable manner without the use of the online workshop.

Wysession, M. E.; Tuddenham, P.; Taber, J.; Ladue, N.

2009-12-01

110

School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology Building on 20 years of excellence and innovation  

E-print Network

and innovation U N I V E R S I T Y O F H A W A I ` I A T M ¯A N O A #12;A Message from the Dean 1 Department on 20 Years of Excellence and Innovation #12;1 In 1988 the Board of Regents, on the recommendation a healthy public, economy, and planet through an integrated, comprehensive, and sus- tained system of Earth

Wang, Yuqing

111

Building Capacity to Integrate NASA Earth Science into Water Resources Management Applications in the Context of a Changing Climate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NASA Applied Sciences program provides technical capacity building activities to enable decision-makers to integrate NASA Earth Science into environmental management activities. This includes workshops tailored to end-user needs by working directly with agencies to 1) identify environmental management activities that could benefit from NASA Earth Science and 2) conducting workshops that teach the NASA products and decision-support tools best suited to the identified application area. Building on a successful 3-year effort on air pollution monitoring for environmental applications, the project has expanded into water resources. Climate Change has dramatically increased demand for observational and predictive data in support of decision making activities related to water supply and demand. However, a gap remains between NASA products and applied research and the entities who stand to benefit from their utilization. To fill this gap, the project has developed short courses on 1) impacts of climate change on water resources 2) hands-on exercises on access and interpretation of NASA imagery relevant to water resources management via the use of decision-support web tools and software and 3) case studies on the application of NASA products in the field. The program is currently focused on two areas 1) precipitation products over the central and southern U.S. that help communities and agencies improve flooding forecasts and 2) snow and snow/water equivalent products over the western U.S and Latin America that can provide end-users with improved stream flow prediction in Spring within a framework of decreasing snow availability.

Prados, A. I.; Mehta, A. V.

2011-12-01

112

OVERHILLS GOLF COURSE LOOKING NORTHEAST FROM SPECTATOR SHELTER BACK UP ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

OVERHILLS GOLF COURSE LOOKING NORTHEAST FROM SPECTATOR SHELTER BACK UP FAIRWAY #1 - Overhills, Fort Bragg Military Reservation, Approximately 15 miles NW of Fayetteville, Overhills, Harnett County, NC

113

Chornobyl Nuclear Power Plant - An Overview of the Current Efforts to Stabilize the Chornobyl Shelter and Establish an Environmentally Safe Site  

SciTech Connect

Chornobyl Nuclear Power Plant ? An Overview of the Current Efforts to Stabilize the Chornobyl Shelter and Establish an Environmentally Safe Site Abstract?The 1986 accident at the Chornobyl Nuclear Power Plant in Ukraine resulted in the destruction of the reactor core and most of the reactor building. The Chornobyl accident released an enormous quantity of radionuclides into the environment, significantly contaminating a large region around the plant. Within seven months of the accident, the damaged Unit 4 was encased in a massive concrete and steel enclosure known as the Shelter. Deterioration of the Shelter over time poses increasing risks. The Shelter is subject to structural damage or collapse due to wind, snow loading, or seismic activity. Collapse could lead to the release of radioactive fallout. Leakage of rainwater into the Shelter has caused the accumulation of a large quantity of highly radioactive liquid, corrosion of extremely contaminated nuclear fuel debris, and creation of hazardous radioactive dust. To address these concerns, the government of Ukraine, the G7 nations, and additional donor countries adopted the Shelter Implementation Plan (SIP) in 1997. The SIP's objectives are to reduce the risk and potential consequences of accidental collapse of the Shelter; improve nuclear, industrial and environmental safety; and develop a long-term strategy for conversion to an environmentally safe site. Implementation of the SIP has made significant progress that will lead to the construction of a new confinement facility by 2009. (Full paper available by contacting lead author, Dan Couch)

Couch, Daniel P.; Gronier, Serge; Heriot, Ian D.; Hogg, Charles; Novak, Vince; Schmieman, Eric A.

2005-08-08

114

Teaching as Sheltering: A Metaphorical Analysis of Sheltered Instruction for English Language Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The term "sheltered instruction" (SI) has become a widely used metaphor representing a common pedagogical intervention intended to help English language learners simultaneously gain English proficiency and academic content knowledge. While existing research places considerable emphasis on observable pedagogical techniques that characterize SI,…

Fritzen, Anny

2011-01-01

115

Should cities invest in sheltering-in-place measures against chlorine truck attacks by terrorists?  

PubMed

After an intentional release of chlorine in an office district, public responses such as sheltering-in-place could save many lives if rapid enough. However, previous work does not estimate how fast and effective such responses would be for several possible investments in attack detection, public alert, and building ventilation, nor whether such measures would be cost effective. We estimate public response times with investment options in place, and resulting changes in fatalities as well as system costs, including false alarm costs, and cost effectiveness in terms of cost per net death avoided. The measures do have life-saving potential, especially if all response times are at or near the lower limits of the ranges assumed in this article. However, due to uncertainties, it is not clear that responses would be rapid enough to save many people. In some cases total fatalities would increase, since sheltering after chlorine vapor has already entered buildings can increase occupants' chlorine exposure. None of the options considered have median cost per statistical life saved meeting a cost-effectiveness threshold of $6.5 million across all of the chlorine exposure dose-response and ingress-delay models considered here, even if there were one attack per year in the area covered by the system. Given these and other issues discussed in this article, at this point investments to improve sheltering-in-place capability appear not to be robust strategies for reducing fatalities from chlorine attack in an office district. PMID:23137062

Barrett, Anthony Michael; Casman, Elizabeth A

2013-05-01

116

Networking as a tool for Earth science women to build community and succeed  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Skills for Networking and Communication Workshop;Madison, Wisconsin, 4-6 June 2012 Women are often underrepresented in academic positions in Earth sciences (M. A. Holmes and S. O'Connell, Where are the women geoscience professors?, 2004, http://www.eas.unl.edu/˜mholmes/images/Where%20are%20the%20Women%20Geoscientists.pdf), with numbers below the critical mass to induce change and improve conditions. This can lead to lower productivity and a lower success rate for female scientists. However, women can overcome these problems by expanding their networks. (For background and supporting information, see the online supplement to this meeting report (http://www.agu.org/journals/eo/v093/i041/2012EO410011/2012EO410011_suppl.pdf).)

Glessmer, Mirjam S.; Wang, Yiming V.; Kontak, Rose

2012-10-01

117

The Pilgram's Progress: Reflections on the journey building Australia's solid earth information infrastructure (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Australia's AuScope provides world class research infrastructure as a framework for understanding the structure and evolution of the Australian continent. Since it conception in 2005, Data Scientists have led the Grid and Interoperability component of AuScope. The AuScope Grid is responsible for the effective management, curation, preservation and analysis of earth science data across the many organisations collaborating in AuScope. During this journey much was learned about technology and architectures but even more about organisations and people, and the role of Data Scientists in the science ecosystem. With the AuScope Grid now in operation and resulting techniques and technologies now underpinning Australian Government initiatives in solid earth and environmental information, it is beneficial to reflect upon the journey and observe what has been learned in order to make data science routine. The role of the Data Scientist is a hybrid one, of not quite belonging and yet highly valued. With the skills to support domain scientists with data and computational needs and communicate across domains, yet not quite able to do the domain science itself. A bridge between two worlds, there is tremendous satisfaction from a job well done, but paradoxically it is also best when it is unnoticeable. In the years since AuScope started much has changed for the Data Scientist. Initially misunderstood, Data Scientists are now a recognisable part of the science landscape in Australia. Whilst the rewards and incentives are still catching up, there is wealth of knowledge on the technical and soft skills required and recognition of the need for Data Scientists. These will be shared from the AuScope journey so other pilgrims may progress well.

Woodcock, R.

2013-12-01

118

Training shelter volunteers to teach dog compliance.  

PubMed

This study examined the degree to which training procedures influenced the integrity of behaviorally based dog training implemented by volunteers of an animal shelter. Volunteers were taught to implement discrete-trial obedience training to teach 2 skills (sit and wait) to dogs. Procedural integrity during the baseline and written instructions conditions was low across all participants. Although performance increased with use of a video model, integrity did not reach criterion levels until performance feedback and modeling were provided. Moreover, the integrity of the discrete-trial training procedure was significantly and positively correlated with dog compliance to instructions for all dyads. Correct implementation and compliance were observed when participants were paired with a novel dog and trainer, respectively, although generalization of procedural integrity from the discrete-trial sit procedure to the discrete-trial wait procedure was not observed. Shelter consumers rated the behavior change in dogs and trainers as socially significant. Implications of these findings and future directions for research are discussed. PMID:24924218

Howard, Veronica J; DiGennaro Reed, Florence D

2014-01-01

119

The nature of Earth's building materials as revealed by calcium isotopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Isotopic ratios have traditionally been used as tracers of the genetic link between meteorites and the Earth. Of the major primitive meteorite groups, enstatite chondrites (EC) are the most similar to Earth with regard to the isotopic composition of most elements (e.g. Javoy et al., 2010). In contrast to many isotope systems, calcium (Ca) exhibits significant mass-dependent variation between Earth and EC, though the magnitude of the difference is debated. Simon and DePaolo (2010) find a 0.4‰ difference between EC and Earth while Huang and Jacobsen (2012) find EC and Earth to be identical within error bars. Here we have developed a new method to resolve the difference in Ca isotopic composition at the 0.1 permil level. The method has been applied to a range of terrestrial and meteoritic samples, including seven EC, 12 carbonaceous chondrites (CC) representing most subgroups (CI, CV, CO, CM, CB, CR), six ordinary chondrites (OC), five lunar basalts, and six terrestrial rock standards. In addition, we measured 13 ocean island basalt (OIB) samples from a series of compositional ranges (EM1, EM2, HIMU) to better estimate the Ca isotopic composition of the mantle. Calcium was purified by a combination of Eichrom DGA and Sr-Spec resins and the isotope ratios 42Ca/44Ca and 43Ca/44Ca were measured by standard bracketing normalized to NIST SRM 915b in medium or high resolution on a Thermo-Fisher Neptune Plus MC-ICP-MS at Washington University in St. Louis. All data reported below follow a mass-dependent fractionation law with ?42/44Ca ? 2 × ?43/44Ca. As is convention in Ca isotope studies performed on TIMS, we present the data as ?44/40Ca (calculated as -2 × ?42/44Ca) and renormalize to SRM 915a. We find the ?44/40Ca value of NIST SRM 915b relative to SRM 915a to be 0.69 × 0.01 (2se), which is in excellent agreement with previously reported values. Our results show that geostandards are in good agreement with previous data (e.g. ?44CaBHVO-1 = 0.88 × 0.02‰, 2se). OIBs show variation from 0.8 to 1.1‰ with an average of 0.89 × 0.11‰ (2sd), which is in line with the findings of Huang et al. (2011). This suggests that the mantle is homogenous at the 0.1 permil level with regard to Ca isotopes. Lunar samples are indistinguishable from terrestrial basalt. As observed by both Simon and DePaolo (2010) and Huang and Jacobsen (2012), we find CC to be isotopically light compared to Earth; however, we find a 0.2‰ range and distinct signatures among the different groups. OC are heavier than CC with an average which overlaps with terrestrial samples of 0.90 × 0.09‰ (2sd). Finally, we find that EC are heavier than both OC and CC and display a range from terrestrial up to 1.5‰. One of the main carriers of Ca in EC is Oldhamite (CaS). Hence, we performed a set of leachate experiments which show that CaS is isotopically lighter than the bulk sample. Since CaS is soluble in water and Ca very easily mobile with aqueous fluid, a possible origin for the range observed within EC observed in our study and for the divergent results obtained by Simon and DePaolo and Huang and Jacobsen may be attributed to variation in the amount of CaS in the samples, due to either heterogeneous distribution of CaS or sample alteration. [Huang and Jacobsen (2012), 43rd LPSC #1334; Huang et al. (2011), GCA, 75, 4987-4997; Javoy et al. (2010), EPSL, 293, 259-268; Simon and DePaolo (2010), EPSL, 289, 457-466.

Valdes, M. C.; Moreira, M. A.; Boyet, M.; Foriel, J.; Moynier, F.

2013-12-01

120

Why build below  

SciTech Connect

Building homes underground is a rapidly growing concept. From less than 200 in 1977 to about 6000 homes at present, this trend is discussed in detail. Although dirt is a poor insulator, its temperature moderating properties offer advantages. The need for insulating an underground house is discussed as well as the advantages of this type of home: (1) security advantages (fewer entrances); (2) storm resistance; (3) protection against fire; (4) lower maintenance costs; (5) space for lawn and garden is greater; and (6) these homes are quieter. The three principle types of underground homes are discussed in detail and illustrated with drawings and floor plans. These are: (1) the elevational type (most popular) with all doors and windows on one wall with other walls and roof completely covered; (2) penetrational homes with windows and doors on more than one side; and (3) the atrium home which is built around an open courtyard or atrium. Problems associated with earth-sheltered homes (underground water, structural strength requirements, building codes, indoor air pollution, costs, and financing) are discussed and suggestions are made for cutting costs. 4 references. (MJJ)

Rawlings, R.

1982-01-01

121

76 FR 51381 - Supplemental Awards to Seven Unaccompanied Alien Shelter Care Providers  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Supplemental Awards to Seven Unaccompanied Alien Shelter Care Providers AGENCY: Office...supplement grants to seven Unaccompanied Alien Shelter Care Providers...supplement grants to seven unaccompanied alien shelter care providers for a total...

2011-08-18

122

45 CFR 1627.7 - Tax sheltered annuities, retirement accounts and pensions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...sheltered annuities, retirement accounts and pensions. 1627.7 Section 1627.7 Public...sheltered annuities, retirement accounts and pensions. No provision contained in this...sheltered annuity, retirement account, or pension fund. [62 FR 19418, Apr....

2010-10-01

123

INTRODUCTION The construction of leaf shelters by caterpillars is wide-  

E-print Network

INTRODUCTION The construction of leaf shelters by caterpillars is wide- spread among at least 18). As such, caterpillars that expend time, energy and material (silk) constructing their own shelters may be expected to defend these valuable commodities from intruding con- and heterospecifics. Caterpillars have

Yack, Jayne E.

124

Distinguishing between interference and exploitation competition for shelter in a  

E-print Network

, Australia. E-Mail: o.d.jones@ms.unimelb.edu.au June 2008 Abstract Understanding the functional significance of shelter for animal populations re- quires knowledge of the behavioural mechanisms that govern the dynamics of animals. Shelter, or cover, is an important resource for mobile animals, providing refuge from hostile

Jones, Owen

125

Admissions of Cats to Animal Welfare Shelters in Melbourne, Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the number of companion animal (pet) cats (Felis catus) in Australia is decreasing, there has not been a corresponding reduction in feline admissions to nonhuman animal welfare shelters. This study tracked 15,206 cat admissions to 1 large Melbourne shelter over a 12-month period. Data collected included factors believed indicative of the cats' source subpopulation, including body condition, injuries, and

Linda C. Marston; Pauleen C. Bennett

2009-01-01

126

SHELTER COMPETITION BETWEEN TWO INVASIVE CRAYFISH SPECIES: A LABORATORY STUDY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alien crayfishes represent a common threat to aquatic ecosystems. Their spread in Europe is leading to more frequent contacts between different invasive species populations. Shelter can be an important factor in the resulting interactions. A laboratory experiment was designed to analyse the competition for shelter in similarly sized males of two species that show an invasive behaviour in Spain, Pacifastacus

F. ALONSO; R. MARTÍNEZ

2006-01-01

127

Lessons Learned: A "Homeless Shelter Intervention" by a Medical Student  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The authors explored the process of implementing a medical student-initiated program designed to provide computerized mental health screening, referral, and education in a homeless shelter. Method: An educational program was designed to teach homeless shelter staff about psychiatric disorders and culturally-informed treatment…

Owusu, Yasmin; Kunik, Mark; Coverdale, John; Shah, Asim; Primm, Annelle; Harris, Toi

2012-01-01

128

Island sheltering of surface gravity waves: model and experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

A field experiment is used to evaluate a numerical model of the sheltering of gravity waves by islands offshore of the Southern California region. The sheltering model considered here includes only the effects of island blocking and wave refraction over the island bathymetry. Wave frequency and directional spectra measured in the deep ocean (unsheltered region west of the islands) were

S. S. Pawka; D. L. Inman; R. T. Guza

1984-01-01

129

Animal shelters: managing heartworms in resource-scarce environments.  

PubMed

Animal shelters must frequently make difficult decisions regarding the allocation of limited resources to appropriately care for the millions of dogs and cats that enter their doors annually. Insufficient staffing, expertise, and guidance on heartworm management in animal shelters creates significant confusion on how these facilities should appropriately address heartworm infection in dogs and cats. The American Heartworm Society (AHS) issues comprehensive guidelines for the diagnosis, prevention, and management of heartworm infection in pets, but shelters are often unable to fully comply with these guidelines due to resource constraints. In response, shelter staff is forced to either ignore the disease or implement compromised management practices. Such compromises lead to suboptimal treatment of infected animals, adoption of infected animals to the public, and subsequent backlash from community veterinarians, as well as increased risk of disease transmission throughout the shelter and community. Unfortunately, when shelters lack the resources to address heartworm infection appropriately, this treatable condition may serve as grounds for automatic euthanasia in infected yet adoptable animals. The AHS guidelines must be tailored to the needs of sheltering agencies or additional resources created to appropriately address the dilemmas faced by shelter professionals when managing heartworm disease. PMID:24731382

Polak, Katherine C; Smith-Blackmore, Martha

2014-11-15

130

National Fallout Shelter Design Competition. Community Center. Awards  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Award winning designs for dual-use fallout shelters are presented, representing contributions by the design professions toward development of the national defense resource. The focus and concept of the competition is described as the basis for judging. The nature of dual-use shelter is discussed, which contributes to understanding of the…

Office of Civil Defense (DOD), Washington, DC.

131

Software Applications to Access Earth Science Data: Building an ECHO Client  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Historically, developing an ECHO (NASA’s Earth Observing System (EOS) ClearingHOuse) client required interaction with its SOAP API. SOAP, as a framework for web service communication has numerous advantages for Enterprise applications and Java/C# type programming languages. However, as interest has grown for quick development cycles and more intriguing “mashups,” ECHO has seen the SOAP API lose its appeal. In order to address these changing needs, ECHO has introduced two new interfaces facilitating simple access to its metadata holdings. The first interface is built upon the OpenSearch format and ESIP Federated Search framework. The second interface is built upon the Representational State Transfer (REST) architecture. Using the REST and OpenSearch APIs to access ECHO makes development with modern languages much more feasible and simpler. Client developers can leverage the simple interaction with ECHO to focus more of their time on the advanced functionality they are presenting to users. To demonstrate the simplicity of developing with the REST API, participants will be led through a hands-on experience where they will develop an ECHO client that performs the following actions: + Login + Provider discovery + Provider based dataset discovery + Dataset, Temporal, and Spatial constraint based Granule discovery + Online Data Access

Cohen, A.; Cechini, M.; Pilone, D.

2010-12-01

132

Building Climate Resilience in the Blue Nile/Abay Highlands: A Role for Earth System Sciences  

PubMed Central

The Blue Nile (Abay) Highlands of Ethiopia are characterized by significant interannual climate variability, complex topography and associated local climate contrasts, erosive rains and erodible soils, and intense land pressure due to an increasing population and an economy that is almost entirely dependent on smallholder, low-input agriculture. As a result, these highland zones are highly vulnerable to negative impacts of climate variability. As patterns of variability and precipitation intensity alter under anthropogenic climate change, there is concern that this vulnerability will increase, threatening economic development and food security in the region. In order to overcome these challenges and to enhance sustainable development in the context of climate change, it is necessary to establish climate resilient development strategies that are informed by best-available Earth System Science (ESS) information. This requirement is complicated by the fact that climate projections for the Abay Highlands contain significant and perhaps irreducible uncertainties. A critical challenge for ESS, then, is to generate and to communicate meaningful information for climate resilient development in the context of a highly uncertain climate forecast. Here we report on a framework for applying ESS to climate resilient development in the Abay Highlands, with a focus on the challenge of reducing land degradation. PMID:22470302

Zaitchik, Benjamin F.; Simane, Belay; Habib, Shahid; Anderson, Martha C.; Ozdogan, Mutlu; Foltz, Jeremy D.

2012-01-01

133

Digital Earth - A sustainable Earth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

All life, particularly human, cannot be sustainable, unless complimented with shelter, poverty reduction, provision of basic infrastructure and services, equal opportunities and social justice. Yet, in the context of cities, it is believed that they can accommodate more and more people, endlessly, regardless to their carrying capacity and increasing ecological footprint. The 'inclusion', for bringing more and more people in the purview of development is often limited to social and economic inclusion rather than spatial and ecological inclusion. Economic investment decisions are also not always supported with spatial planning decisions. Most planning for a sustainable Earth, be at a level of rural settlement, city, region, national or Global, fail on the capacity and capability fronts. In India, for example, out of some 8,000 towns and cities, Master Plans exist for only about 1,800. A chapter on sustainability or environment is neither statutorily compulsory nor a norm for these Master Plans. Geospatial technologies including Remote Sensing, GIS, Indian National Spatial Data Infrastructure (NSDI), Indian National Urban Information Systems (NUIS), Indian Environmental Information System (ENVIS), and Indian National GIS (NGIS), etc. have potential to map, analyse, visualize and take sustainable developmental decisions based on participatory social, economic and social inclusion. Sustainable Earth, at all scales, is a logical and natural outcome of a digitally mapped, conceived and planned Earth. Digital Earth, in fact, itself offers a platform to dovetail the ecological, social and economic considerations in transforming it into a sustainable Earth.

Mahavir

2014-02-01

134

Open space suitability analysis for emergency shelter after an earthquake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In an emergency situation shelter space is crucial for people affected by natural hazards. Emergency planners in disaster relief and mass care can greatly benefit from a sound methodology that identifies suitable shelter areas and sites where shelter services need to be improved. A methodology to rank suitability of open spaces for contingency planning and placement of shelter in the immediate aftermath of a disaster is introduced. The Open Space Suitability Index (OSSI) uses the combination of two different measures: a qualitative evaluation criterion for the suitability and manageability of open spaces to be used as shelter sites, and a second quantitative criterion using a capacitated accessibility analysis based on network analysis. For the qualitative assessment, implementation issues, environmental considerations, and basic utility supply are the main categories to rank candidate shelter sites. Geographic Information System (GIS) is used to reveal spatial patterns of shelter demand. Advantages and limitations of this method are discussed on the basis of a case study in Kathmandu Metropolitan City (KMC). According to the results, out of 410 open spaces under investigation, 12.2% have to be considered not suitable (Category D and E) while 10.7% are Category A and 17.6% are Category B. Almost two third (59.5%) are fairly suitable (Category C).

Anhorn, J.; Khazai, B.

2014-06-01

135

Common and emerging infectious diseases in the animal shelter.  

PubMed

The beneficial role that animal shelters play is unquestionable. An estimated 3 to 4 million animals are cared for or placed in homes each year, and most shelters promote public health and support responsible pet ownership. It is, nonetheless, inevitable that shelters are prime examples of anthropogenic biological instability: even well-run shelters often house transient, displaced, and mixed populations of animals. Many of these animals have received minimal to no prior health care, and some have a history of scavenging or predation to survive. Overcrowding and poor shelter conditions further magnify these inherent risks to create individual, intraspecies, and interspecies stress and provide an environment conducive to exposure to numerous potentially collaborative pathogens. All of these factors can contribute to the evolution and emergence of new pathogens or to alterations in virulence of endemic pathogens. While it is not possible to effectively anticipate the timing or the pathogen type in emergence events, their sites of origin are less enigmatic, and pathologists and diagnosticians who work with sheltered animal populations have recognized several such events in the past decade. This article first considers the contribution of the shelter environment to canine and feline disease. This is followed by summaries of recent research on the pathogenesis of common shelter pathogens, as well as research that has led to the discovery of novel or emerging diseases and the methods that are used for their diagnosis and discovery. For the infectious agents that commonly affect sheltered dogs and cats, including canine distemper virus, canine influenza virus, Streptococcus spp, parvoviruses, feline herpesvirus, feline caliciviruses, and feline infectious peritonitis virus, we present familiar as well as newly recognized lesions associated with infection. Preliminary studies on recently discovered viruses like canine circovirus, canine bocavirus, and feline norovirus indicate that these pathogens can cause or contribute to canine and feline disease. PMID:24265288

Pesavento, P A; Murphy, B G

2014-03-01

136

Science Sampler: Using sheltered instruction to teach English Language Learners  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sheltered instruction is not a commercial program but is a set of instructional practices used specifically with English Language Learners (ELL). It embeds existing instructional strategies such as wait time, visual organizers, group work, and allowing students to actively respond for immediate feedback. Sheltered instruction "integrates lesson knowledge and concepts with opportunities to practice using English by reading, writing, listening and speaking" (Colburn and Echevaria 2001). This article describes the four elements of sheltered instruction (Group work, Wait time, Group-response technique, Supplemental materials).

Geeta Verma

2008-11-01

137

Protecting red oak seedlings with tree shelters in northwestern Pennsylvania. Forest Service research paper (Final)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The report examines the growth and survival of planted and natural red oak seedlings and seedlings from planted acorns within translucent tan tree shelters, fences, and unprotected controls under a shelterwood seed-cut stand. Seedlings planted within tree shelters and fences were inside tree shelters. Natural seedlings grew very little and their height inside and outside of tree shelters did not

1993-01-01

138

Uniformity of Leaf Shelter Construction by Larvae of Epargyreus clarus (Hesperiidae), the Silver-Spotted Skipper  

Microsoft Academic Search

Larvae of the silver-spotted skipper, Epargyreus clarus (Hesperiidae), construct shelters from leaves of their leguminous host plants, making four distinct shelter types that change predictably over larval ontogeny. Shelters built by first-instar larvae are located on the apical half of the leaflet and are almost invariant in size, shape, and orientation, suggesting a stereotypical process of shelter location and construction.

Martha R. Weiss; Eric M. Lind; Meg T. Jones; Jeremy D. Long; Jennifer L. Maupin

2003-01-01

139

24 CFR 576.403 - Shelter and housing standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...disclosure. The Lead-Based Paint Poisoning Prevention Act (42 U.S...appliances in the shelter. (9) Food preparation. Food preparation areas, if any, must...to store, prepare, and serve food in a safe and sanitary...

2013-04-01

140

24 CFR 576.403 - Shelter and housing standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...disclosure. The Lead-Based Paint Poisoning Prevention Act (42 U.S...appliances in the shelter. (9) Food preparation. Food preparation areas, if any, must...to store, prepare, and serve food in a safe and sanitary...

2012-04-01

141

24 CFR 576.403 - Shelter and housing standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...disclosure. The Lead-Based Paint Poisoning Prevention Act (42 U.S...appliances in the shelter. (9) Food preparation. Food preparation areas, if any, must...to store, prepare, and serve food in a safe and sanitary...

2014-04-01

142

170. View of large trail shelter built for the United ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

170. View of large trail shelter built for the United States Forest Service by the Civilian Conservation Corps in 1938 on Craggy Knob. Facing northwest. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

143

9 CFR 3.77 - Sheltered housing facilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...facilities for nonhuman primates must provide adequate shelter from the elements at all times. They must provide protection from the sun, rain, snow, wind, and cold, and from any weather conditions that may occur. (e) Capacity: multiple...

2013-01-01

144

9 CFR 3.77 - Sheltered housing facilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...facilities for nonhuman primates must provide adequate shelter from the elements at all times. They must provide protection from the sun, rain, snow, wind, and cold, and from any weather conditions that may occur. (e) Capacity: multiple...

2010-01-01

145

The University of Texas System TAX-SHELTERED ANNUITY DISCLOSURE  

E-print Network

sheltered annuities, I agree that I am responsible to the Internal Revenue Service for the satisfaction by the University for compliance with such rulings. ________________________________ Employee Signature ________________________________ Employee Name ________________________________ Employee Identifier ________________________________ Date

Johnston, Daniel

146

6. Contextual view of EPA Farm showing cattle shelter, facing ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. Contextual view of EPA Farm showing cattle shelter, facing southeast. - Nevada Test Site, Environmental Protection Agency Farm, Area 15, Yucca Flat, 10-2 Road near Circle Road, Mercury, Nye County, NV

147

INTEGRATED SYSTEM PROVIDES MECHANICAL, ELECTRICAL SERVICE FOR SURVIVAL SHELTERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A summary of an integrated system of providing mechanical and electrical ; services for survival shelters is presented and contrasted with all-electric ; systems commonly considered. (Public Health Eng. Abstr., 42: No. 8, Aug. 1962);

Solzman

1962-01-01

148

14. INSIDE VIEW OF BOMB SHELTER WITH AIR COMPRESSOR Everett ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

14. INSIDE VIEW OF BOMB SHELTER WITH AIR COMPRESSOR Everett Weinreb, photographer, April 1988 - Mount Gleason Nike Missile Site, Angeles National Forest, South of Soledad Canyon, Sylmar, Los Angeles County, CA

149

25 CFR 11.1004 - Detention and shelter care.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...COURTS OF INDIAN OFFENSES AND LAW AND ORDER CODE Juvenile Offender Procedure § 11.1004 Detention and shelter care. (a) A minor alleged to be a juvenile offender may be detained, pending a court hearing, in...

2011-04-01

150

25 CFR 11.1004 - Detention and shelter care.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...COURTS OF INDIAN OFFENSES AND LAW AND ORDER CODE Juvenile Offender Procedure § 11.1004 Detention and shelter care. (a) A minor alleged to be a juvenile offender may be detained, pending a court hearing, in...

2010-04-01

151

25 CFR 11.1004 - Detention and shelter care.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...COURTS OF INDIAN OFFENSES AND LAW AND ORDER CODE Juvenile Offender Procedure § 11.1004 Detention and shelter care. (a) A minor alleged to be a juvenile offender may be detained, pending a court hearing, in...

2013-04-01

152

25 CFR 11.1004 - Detention and shelter care.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...COURTS OF INDIAN OFFENSES AND LAW AND ORDER CODE Juvenile Offender Procedure § 11.1004 Detention and shelter care. (a) A minor alleged to be a juvenile offender may be detained, pending a court hearing, in...

2014-04-01

153

25 CFR 11.1004 - Detention and shelter care.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...COURTS OF INDIAN OFFENSES AND LAW AND ORDER CODE Juvenile Offender Procedure § 11.1004 Detention and shelter care. (a) A minor alleged to be a juvenile offender may be detained, pending a court hearing, in...

2012-04-01

154

9 CFR 3.3 - Sheltered housing facilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Treatment, and Transportation of Dogs and Cats 1 Facilities and Operating Standards...sheltered housing facilities for dogs and cats must be sufficiently heated and cooled when necessary to protect the dogs and cats from temperature or humidity...

2010-01-01

155

A series of novel lanthanide polyoxometalates: condensation of building blocks dependent on the nature of rare earth cations.  

PubMed

A series of novel lanthanide polyoxomolybdates was synthesized by reaction of lanthanide cations with the Anderson type anion (TeMo(6)O(24))(6-). The polyoxometalates K(6n)(TeMo(6)O(24))(n)[(Ln(H(2)O)(7))(2)(TeMo(6)O(24))](n)[middle dot]16nH(2)O (Ln = Eu, Gd) and K(3n)[Ln(H(2)O)(5)(TeMo(6)O(24))](n)[middle dot]6nH(2)O (Ln = Tb, Dy, Ho, Er) were characterized by X-ray structure analysis, elemental analysis and IR spectroscopy. We found that the solid-state structures of Ln/(TeMo(6)O(24))(6-) compounds are strongly dependent on the lanthanide cations, and therefore represent a rare example for different arrangements of building units depending on the nature of the rare earth cations. While the Eu(3+) and Gd(3+) cations achieve ninefold coordination by seven water molecules and two terminal oxygen atoms of the (TeMo(6)O(24))(6-) anions, the Tb(3+), Dy(3+), Ho(3+) and Er(3+) cations are coordinated by five water molecules, two terminal oxygen atoms and one molybdenum-bridging oxygen atom belonging to the (TeMo(6)O(24))(6-) anion. The europium and gadolinium substituted compounds contain infinite one-dimensional [(Ln(H(2)O)(7))(2)(TeMo(6)O(24))](n) chains; the terbium, dysprosium, holmium and erbium compounds contain infinite one-dimensional [Ln(H(2)O)(5)(TeMo(6)O(24))](n)(3n-) chains. PMID:15249943

Drewes, Daniel; Limanski, Eva Melanie; Krebs, Bernt

2004-07-21

156

EFFECTS OF OVERPRESSURES IN GROUP SHELTERS ON ANIMALS AND DUMMIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

S>Relative biological hazards of blast were studied in two types of ;\\u000a communal air-raid shelters during Shots 1 and 8. Dogs, restrained within the ;\\u000a shelters during detonation, were studied pathologically and clinically for blast ;\\u000a injuries. Two anthropometric dummies were test objects for displacement studies ;\\u000a utilizing high-speed photography. Physical data included pressure vs time and ;\\u000a air-drag determinations.

J. E. Roberts; C. S. White; T. L. Chiffelle

1953-01-01

157

Design and adoption of household tornado shelters for Bangladesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

Death tolls from tornadoes in Bangladesh are the highest in the world due to lack of storm warnings, poor communication, weak\\u000a housing, and lack of shelters from strong winds in tornadoes and nor’westers. Based on surveys of housing types and designs\\u000a in the Tangail district, a household tornado shelter is proposed to be placed in the elevated storage platform that

Yuichi Ono; Thomas W. Schmidlin

2011-01-01

158

Student Lead Nanosatellite Design/Build Projects: making a cost effective approach to Earth and Space Observational Science even more cost efficient  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the advancement of technologies and the miniaturization of sensors and electrical/computational components satellites are also undergoing miniaturization. With lower manufacturing cost and a decreased design/build cycle (~2 years from start to launch), compared to conventional large scale satellites, nanosatellites have become a cost effective alternative for satellite Earth and Space Observations. The University of Alberta student nanosatellite (10x10x30cm; <4kg) design/build team, AlbertaSat-1, is a participant in the Canadian Satellite Design Challenge (CSDC) implemented by the CSA and Geocentrix Ltd. in addition to 15 other Universities from across Canada. AlbertaSat-1 will be launched in early 2013, after a 2 year design/build process and environmental testing. AlbertaSat-1 will be an Earth Observation satellite monitoring GHG (CO2, H2O & CH4) concentrations over many regions of the earth with the use of a NIR spectrometer. Here we present the planning, design and future manufacturing of AlbertaSat-1 with a focus on budget and cost effective solutions. Since this is a student project, AlbertaSat-1 will incur certain benefits making them exempt from certain financial requirements and obtaining services and equipment at very low or no cost. The largest cost benefit of AlbertaSat-1 is the virtual elimination of labor costs by having a team consisting of only unpaid students. Labor costs of typical satellite missions can be a very costly component. The educational components of such projects offer more indirect benefits to effective development of this industry/discipline, nevertheless just as important, by developing skills and knowledge that can only be learned through realistic hands on design/build projects. Student lead projects and student design/build initiatives such as CSDC (among many others in the U.S. and Europe lead by NASA and ESA, respectively) will have a major impact on shaping the future of Space and Earth Observational Sciences. We will present the future implications of such student projects and initiatives for the development of research and engineering in Space and Earth Observational Sciences.

Bottoms, J.; Lange, B. A.; AlbertaSat

2011-12-01

159

Chornobyl Nuclear Power Plant - An Overview of the Current Efforts to Stabilize the Chornobyl Shelter and Establish an Environmentally Safe Site  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chornobyl Nuclear Power Plant ? An Overview of the Current Efforts to Stabilize the Chornobyl Shelter and Establish an Environmentally Safe Site Abstract?The 1986 accident at the Chornobyl Nuclear Power Plant in Ukraine resulted in the destruction of the reactor core and most of the reactor building. The Chornobyl accident released an enormous quantity of radionuclides into the environment, significantly

Daniel P. Couch; Serge Gronier; Ian D. Heriot; Charles Hogg; Vince Novak; Eric A. Schmieman

2005-01-01

160

Thermal and environmental assessment of a passive building equipped with an earth-to-air heat exchanger in France  

Microsoft Academic Search

In France, where a division by 4 of the greenhouse gases emissions is aimed from 1990 to 2050, technical solutions are studied in order to reduce energy consumption while providing a satisfactory thermal comfort level in buildings. A two-dwelling passive building has been carried out in Formerie (North-West of France), complying the “Passivhaus” standard. This building, not yet monitored, has

Stéphane Thiers; Bruno Peuportier

2008-01-01

161

Three sciences- Two Years- One Solution- Using the Earth System Science Education Alliance On-line Course to build K-12 Teacher Earth System Science Content and Pedagogical Knowledge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Starting in 2007 Ohio high school students will need to pass a new Ohio Graduation Test (OGT) taken in the second semester of their sophomore year as a graduation requirement. This high-stakes test was mandated by the Ohio legislature and developed by the Ohio Department of Education to reflect the more rigorous Ohio K-12 Academic Content Standards, including science. The science section of the OGT includes the content areas of Physical science, Life science and Earth/Space science. The Earth/Space science standards use the Earth system as a content organizer and many questions on the Ohio Graduation Test have an Earth system science focus. Ohio law mandates that Physical Science be taught as the 9th grade science course in all Ohio public high schools and that Life science be taught as the 10th grade science offering. This legislation created a profound disconnect between Earth/Space science content and the timing of the Ohio Graduation Test. Although approximately one-third of the OGT science section questions test Earth/Space science content, it is impossible to teach a high school level Earth/Space science course prior to students taking the Ohio Graduation Test. School systems in Ohio have responded to this crisis by either adding the 9th and 10th grade Earth/Space science benchmarks to the Physical Science and Life Science course curricula, or by teaching the 9th and 10th grade Earth/Space science benchmarks at the 7th or 8th grade in an Earth/Space science course that because it contains so much material, must be "a mile wide and an inch deep". In either case, a significant number of the teachers charged with building the Earth/Space science content knowledge for the Ohio Graduation Test do not have a strong Earth/Space science component in their own educational background, although they may have a strong background in the physical or life sciences. Wright State University has a long record of providing Earth/Space science professional development for K-12 teachers. Offering the Earth System Science Education Alliance Earth systems on-line course as professional development is ideal for this purpose because the course can be tailored for classroom teacher professional development. Course content can be chosen by faculty from an array of real-world situations and events that focus on the state and national science education benchmarks most useful for the K-12 teachers preparing their students for the Ohio Graduation Test. Course pedagogy can also be chosen to allow maximum flexibility in professional development. Teachers of grades 5-8 and grades 9-12 teachers can both engage the same content, but with different pedagogies. This strategy has been shown to lead to a greater likelihood of K-12 teachers incorporating the content and pedagogical strategies into their own classrooms.

Slattery, W.; Teed, R.; Low, R.

2007-12-01

162

Economic impacts of adoption and fundraising strategies in animal shelters.  

PubMed

The adoption strategies used in animal shelters can have a large impact on the total number of adoptions and donations that take place. Reducing adoption fees during peak kitten or puppy season is one way to reduce inventories and increase the number of open spaces to save more lives, but does not necessarily increase the financial well-being of the shelter if the per-animal costs exceed the revenues generated. We developed a stochastic model to simulate the expected costs, revenues, and net income of a hypothetical animal shelter for various alternative management strategies, based on US conditions. A total of 8 scenarios were developed and compared to the base-case scenario (BC). In the model, scenarios which decreased or waived adoption fees caused total costs to increase due to the escalating costs associated with increasing the total number and density of animals housed. This effect was especially pronounced when adoptions were free. When the return on money invested in additional fundraising was predetermined to be 'good' (rather than 'fair' or 'poor'), net shelter income did exceed costs - but even 'fair' return increased net shelter income compared to the BC. Of the eight scenarios compared to BC, the mean monthly net income was significantly different from that in the BC in all eight scenarios (p<0.01). In contrast, variances were different (p<0.01) in five of the eight scenarios (and the uncertainty that comes with high variance would make planning difficult for shelter managers); however, the variance in net income did not differ from the BC for any of the scenarios investigating returns to additional spending on promotion and fundraising. In these scenarios, because the extra cost involved is relatively low compared to the other scenarios, the potential risk of a reduction in net shelter revenue is reduced. When shelters are aware of the positive and negative impacts of various adoption strategies on mean net income and variation in net income, shelter managers can better strategize saving animal lives and meeting shelter goals, while maintaining the financial health and functionality of the operation. PMID:24380571

Lord, Emily; Olynk Widmar, Nicole; Litster, Annette

2014-03-01

163

Impact of Social Network Characteristics on Shelter Use Among Street Youth in San Francisco  

PubMed Central

Purpose We examined the cross-sectional and longitudinal association between social network characteristics and street youths’ shelter use, a determinant of health outcomes for homeless youth. Methods We analyzed interview data from 138 street youth recruited through venue-based sampling in San Francisco, to assess the cross-sectional relationship between shelter use in youths’ social networks and youths’ reported shelter use. We also assessed the relationship between baseline network shelter use and shelter use at 6-month follow-up. Results Low proportions of street youth reported shelter use at baseline (38%) and follow-up (29.6%). Twenty-nine (26.9%) youth were in networks with shelter users at baseline, compared with 17 youth (15.7%) at follow-up. In cross-sectional analysis, youth in networks with shelter users had 5-fold increased odds of reporting shelter use (OR: 5.86, p = .006). A 1-person increase in the number of network shelter users was associated with 2-fold increased odds of youths’ shelter use (OR: 2.16, p = .02). In longitudinal analysis, youth in networks with shelter users at baseline had nearly 5-fold increased odds of shelter use at follow-up (OR: 4.95, p = .01). A 1-person increase in the number of network shelter users at baseline was associated with 3-fold increased odds of shelter use at follow-up (OR: 3.15, p = .004). Conclusion Shelter users seem to cluster together. Shelter use by extended network members was associated with increased odds of youths’ own shelter use. Understanding how network behaviors influence street youths’ health-related behaviors, such as shelter use, could inform network-based interventions encouraging service uptake among marginalized and hard-to-reach street youth populations. PMID:23763964

Ng, Rilene A. Chew; Muth, Stephen Q.; Auerswald, Colette L.

2014-01-01

164

Seeing red: Characterizing historic bricks at Sylvester Manor, Shelter Island, New York 1652-1735  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The goal of this project is to develop a basic material characterization of the bricks excavated at the site of Sylvester Manor on Shelter Island, New York. In the early Manor period of 1650-1690, this early Northern provisioning plantation supplied Barbadian sugar operations and pursued mercantile interests independent of state control. Accounting for the range of production defects and material characteristics of the bricks suggests on-site or local manufacture as a regional ceramic industry developed. Qualitative visual analysis and petrographic thin-sections were used to characterize the internal composition, variation and production evidence in the bricks. Interpreting the results of this analysis offers alternatives to the assumptions about building materials on the site, using material properties to assess the role of building materials as the landscape changed.

Schmidheiny, Martin John

165

Front (west side) and south side of building Fitzsimons ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Front (west side) and south side of building - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Golf Course Waiting Shelter, Southwest area of Golf Course, 700 feet Northeast of intersection of West Harlow Avenue & Peoria Street, Aurora, Adams County, CO

166

Bench seating in northwest corner of the building Fitzsimons ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Bench seating in northwest corner of the building - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Golf Course Waiting Shelter, Southwest area of Golf Course, 700 feet Northeast of intersection of West Harlow Avenue & Peoria Street, Aurora, Adams County, CO

167

East and north sides of building Fitzsimons General Hospital, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

East and north sides of building - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Golf Course Waiting Shelter, Southwest area of Golf Course, 700 feet Northeast of intersection of West Harlow Avenue & Peoria Street, Aurora, Adams County, CO

168

Gimme Shelter!: Doghouse Project Hones Construction Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In Rover's House project, students practice planning, measurement, layout, and processing skills in building a doghouse. The project is more than a doghouse--it is a learning activity that helps students develop and enhance their ability to work with reinforced concrete, steel and wood studs, trusses, roofing materials and a variety of…

Shackelford, Ray; Griffis, Kurt

2007-01-01

169

Organizational and social-psychological issues relevant to fallout-shelter evaluation  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the results of a preliminary review of the literature on organizational and social-psychological issues relevant to fallout-shelter evaluation. Fallout-shelter options are evaluated along two dimensions: shelter size, and extent of shelteree participation in the shelter construction. Four functional criteria are used in the evaluation: decision-making, member coordination, social control, and maintaining morale. Smaller shelters requiring shelteree participation in construction appear preferable as measured in most of these criteria. Additional factors mentioned include demographic characteristics of the shelter population, degree and type of ventilation system, and availability of medical equipment and personnel. 10 references.

Wernette, D.R.

1983-01-01

170

Smoking policy change at a homeless shelter: attitudes and effects.  

PubMed

Homeless adults are exposed to more smokers and smoke in response to environmental tobacco cues more than other socioeconomically disadvantaged groups. Addressing the culture of smoking in homeless shelters through policy initiatives may support cessation and improve health in this vulnerable and understudied population. This study examined support for and expected/actual effects of a smoking ban at a homeless shelter. A 2-wave cross-sectional study with an embedded cohort was conducted in the summer of 2013 two weeks before (wave 1) and two months after (wave 2) a partial outdoor smoking ban was implemented. A total of 394 homeless adults were surveyed (i.e., wave 1 [n=155]; wave 2 [n=150]; and 89 additional participants completed both waves). On average, participants were 43 years old, primarily African American (63%), male (72%), and had been homeless for the previous 12 months (median). Most participants were smokers (76%) smoking 12 cigarettes per day on average. Most participants supported the creation of a large smoke-free zone on the shelter campus, but there was less support for a shelter-wide smoking ban. Average cigarettes smoked per day did not differ between study waves. However, participants who completed both study waves experienced a reduction in expired carbon monoxide at wave 2 (W1=18.2 vs. W2=15.8 parts per million, p=.02). Expected effects of the partial ban were similar to actual effects. Partial outdoor smoking bans may be well supported by homeless shelter residents and may have a positive impact on shelter resident health. PMID:25222848

Businelle, Michael S; Poonawalla, Insiya B; Kendzor, Darla E; Rios, Debra M; Cuate, Erica L; Savoy, Elaine J; Ma, Ping; Baggett, Travis P; Reingle, Jennifer; Reitzel, Lorraine R

2015-01-01

171

Building debris  

E-print Network

This thesis relates architectural practices to intelligent use of resources and the reuse of derelict spaces. The initial investigation of rammed earth as a building material is followed by site-specific operations at the ...

Dahmen, Joseph (Joseph F. D.)

2006-01-01

172

75 FR 46844 - Excise Taxes on Prohibited Tax Shelter Transactions and Related Disclosure Requirements...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...CFR Parts 53 and 54 [TD 9492] RIN 1545-BG18 Excise Taxes on Prohibited Tax Shelter Transactions and Related Disclosure Requirements; Disclosure Requirements With Respect to Prohibited Tax Shelter Transactions; Requirement of Return and...

2010-08-04

173

DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF PRE-SERVICE TRAINING METHODS FOR ANIMAL SHELTER VOLUNTEERS  

E-print Network

aimed to address the methodological limitations and systematically replicate the findings of Study 1 with shelter volunteers. During the shelter's typical training, volunteers implemented just over half of all DWEP steps correctly (M = 55.2%). DWEP...

Howard, Veronica J.

2013-08-31

174

Continuity and change, an archaeobotanical assessment of Tsosie Shelter, Black Mesa, Arizona  

E-print Network

plant communzties. The piny on-juniper (Pznus edulis- ~t) t t outcrop and across the wash approximately 100 meters fzom the shelter. The shelter faces west over the flood plain of' Yazzie Wash. A sagebrush- snakeweed (Artemisia tridentata...

Ruppe?, Patricia A

1987-01-01

175

Development of damage and casualty functions for basement shelters. Final report on phase 2  

SciTech Connect

This report describes progress during the second year's work on a Civil Defense program to provide FEMA with a range of damage functions and casualty functions to determine the survivability fo people in various basement shelters. The characteristics of flat and two-way slab systems and the effects of code specified design procedures, engineering practice, and construction procedures were discussed. Non-upgraded two-way slabs are approximately twice as strong as the flat plate slabs. For upgraded (shored) systems, however, specific building characteristics are not important factors: any shored slab, with standard reinforcing and dimensions, has about the same capacity as any other slab. A mathematical model for the fragility curve of slab systems was developed. Fatality curves have been developed for ceiling collapse and a variety of other casualty mechanism(nuclear weapons effects) with emphasis to date on non-upgraded shelters areas. This review of casualty producing mechanisms is continuing and all casualty curves should be considered as provisional.

Wilton, C.; Zsutty, T.C.; Willoughby, A.B.

1983-09-01

176

Indirect interactions mediated by leaf shelters in animal–plant communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leaf shelters indirectly mediate interactions in animal–plant communities by providing the occupants with several kinds of\\u000a benefits, as physical ecosystem engineering. The occupants benefit from favorable microhabitat, reduction in antiherbivore\\u000a defense, and protection from natural enemies. The primary shelter maker has to spend energy and time and producing silk, but\\u000a shelter users have great advantages without incurring costs. Shelter users

Akiko Fukui

2001-01-01

177

Planning and Organizing a Sheltered Workshop for Mentally Retarded Persons.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The document is a basic guide for planning and organizing a sheltered workshop, a work-oriented rehabilitation facility with a controlled working environment and individual vocational goals. The workshop utilizes work experience and related services to help the mentally retarded person progress toward normal living and a productive vocational…

Whitehead, Claude

178

Products, Service Contracts, Operations, and Tools in Sheltered Workshops.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Among findings of surveys on general capabilities for contract work completed by 737 sheltered workshops were that electronic/electrical assembly and wood pallet manufacture were the most common products; collating and mailing the most common service contracts; and bagging /packaging and assembly the most predominant hand operations. (Author/CL)

Walls, Richard T.; And Others

1982-01-01

179

Licensure of Sheltered-Care Facilities: Does It Assure Quality?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Longitudinal study related characteristics of 214 sheltered-care facilities for mentally ill population, their residents, and communities to subsequent licensure and considered differences between licensed and unlicensed facilities at follow-up. Results indicated that, although licensure occurred with greater frequency among facilities serving…

Segal, Steven P.; Hwang, Sung-Dong

1994-01-01

180

9. Photocopy of sketch from Elliott, Clifford A., 'Shelters and ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. Photocopy of sketch from Elliott, Clifford A., 'Shelters and Stations on Pacific Electric's Interurban Lines', Electric Railway Journal, V. 53, No. 15, April 12, 1919, p. 733 - Lynwood Pacific Electric Railway Depot, 11453 Long Beach Boulevard, Lynwood, Los Angeles County, CA

181

EFFECTIVENESS OF EXPEDIENT SHELTERING IN PLACE IN A RESIDENCE  

EPA Science Inventory

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of expedient sheltering in place in a residence for protection against airborne hazards, as outlined in the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) guidance to the public. An improved method was developed to determi...

182

12. HISTORICAL VIEW OF FRONT ENTRANCE, BEFORE ADDITION OF SHELTERED ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. HISTORICAL VIEW OF FRONT ENTRANCE, BEFORE ADDITION OF SHELTERED PORCH, SOUTH ELEVATION, 1907. Photocopied from Henry Pleasants's book, History of Old St. David's Church, published in 1915 by John C. Winston Co. - St. David's Church (Episcopal), Valley Forge Road (Newtown Township), Wayne, Delaware County, PA

183

Training and Sustaining Effective Teachers of Sheltered Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article provides guidelines for programs to deliver and sustain effective professional development on sheltered instruction to teachers who teach content to English learners. Many content area teachers have not had university coursework on second-language acquisition or the integration of language and content instruction in teacher…

Short, Deborah

2013-01-01

184

Candidate new rotavirus species in sheltered dogs, hungary.  

PubMed

We identified unusual rotavirus strains in fecal specimens from sheltered dogs in Hungary by viral metagenomics. The novel rotavirus species displayed limited genome sequence homology to representatives of the 8 rotavirus species, A-H, and qualifies as a candidate new rotavirus species that we tentatively named Rotavirus I. PMID:25811414

Mihalov-Kovács, Eszter; Gellért, Ákos; Marton, Szilvia; Farkas, Szilvia L; Fehér, Enik?; Oldal, Miklós; Jakab, Ferenc; Martella, Vito; Bányai, Krisztián

2015-04-01

185

Candidate New Rotavirus Species in Sheltered Dogs, Hungary  

PubMed Central

We identified unusual rotavirus strains in fecal specimens from sheltered dogs in Hungary by viral metagenomics. The novel rotavirus species displayed limited genome sequence homology to representatives of the 8 rotavirus species, A–H, and qualifies as a candidate new rotavirus species that we tentatively named Rotavirus I. PMID:25811414

Mihalov-Kovács, Eszter; Gellért, Ákos; Marton, Szilvia; Farkas, Szilvia L.; Fehér, Enik?; Oldal, Miklós; Jakab, Ferenc; Martella, Vito

2015-01-01

186

Sheltered Workshops and Transition: Old Bottles, New Wine?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper provides a historical overview of sheltered workshops and presents information about service innovations and mission expansion. The first workshop in the United States was the Perkins Institute, opened in 1837 for individuals with visual handicaps. This workshop was typical of "categorical" workshops that were established during this…

Coombe, Edmund

187

Emergency Shelter Placement of Rural Children: Placement and Discharge Patterns.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines patterns associated with placement and subsequent discharge of rural children in emergency shelter care. Suggests that the growing numbers of children being placed out of their homes, runaway adolescents, and homeless children, underscore the importance of identifying children likely to be referred for emergency services, as those…

Van Hook, Mary

1994-01-01

188

The Bullfrog in the Bomb Shelter and Other Backyard Beasties.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Motivated by the discovery of a bullfrog in an abandoned fallout shelter in the backyard of his parents' newly acquired farmhouse, the author challenges the reader to look for other "backyard beasties" in their own environment for help in gaining an understanding of how, when, and why interactions take place as a method of acquiring insight into…

Funderburk, David O.

1991-01-01

189

Site Selection Criteria for Sheltering after Earthquakes: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Objective: Proper shelter site selection is necessary for long-term welfare of earthquake affected people. This study aims to explore the criteria that need to be considered after earthquakes. Methods: Through a systematic review, 273 articles found that were published till April 2014. Among these, seven articles have been selected and analyzed for the criteria that they introduced for sheltering site selection after earthquakes. Results: Out of 27 proposed criteria, accessibility and proximity to homes of affected people were stressed in all the papers. Moreover, seven other criteria were the same in most of the papers including suitable size, suitable distance from hazardous areas, geological hazards and land slope, suitable distance from medical centers, water supply and Security. We categorized all the mentioned criteria in six main categories. Size and location, disaster risk reduction, relief and rescue facilities, feasibility of the site, environmental and social aspects are the main categories. Conclusion: Selection and applying proper criteria for shelter site selection after earthquakes is a multi-disciplinary task. The decision needs relevant models and/or tools. Geographic Information System (GIS) is a useful tool for this purpose. Key words: Disaster, earthquake, shelter, site selection, systematic review PMID:25642367

Soltani, Ahmad; Ardalan, Ali; Darvishi Boloorani, Ali; Haghdoost, AliAkbar; Hosseinzadeh-Attar, Mohammad Javad

2014-01-01

190

National Call for Organizational Change from Sheltered to Integrated Employment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Our purpose in this article is to contend that organizational change from sheltered to integrated employment is not only possible but necessary, and a federal Employment First agenda must be advanced. Findings are reported from interviews with senior managers from 10 organizations that have shifted their service delivery to community employment,…

Rogan, Patricia; Rinne, Susan

2011-01-01

191

Developing Academic Language in English Language Learners through Sheltered Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes a study examining the effects of Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol (SIOP) model instruction on the academic language performance of middle and high school English language learners. The SIOP model is an approach for teaching content curriculum to students learning through a new language. Teachers employ techniques…

Short, Deborah J.; Fidelman, Carolyn G.; Louguit, Mohammed

2012-01-01

192

Shelter-based treatment of the homeless alcoholic.  

PubMed

We describe a model for integrating municipal shelter and hospital-based alcoholism outpatient treatment services for the homeless alcoholic, and report on its outcome at 12 months. The experimental program was designed to increase homeless patient's length of stay in treatment and was based on integrating clinic services for homeless men at Bellevue Hospital in New York with an abstinence oriented dormitory, the "Clean and Sober" Unit in a municipal shelter. The study sample consists of 189 consecutive male admissions to an intensive outpatient alcoholism treatment program in the Bellevue hospital. The patients' outcome was assessed in relation to their place of residence divided in three groups: the experimental group counts 100 men housed in the Clean and Sober Unit. The two contrast groups counted 34 residents of various unaffiliated shelters and 55 domiciled men with independent living arrangements. The three subject groups did not differ significantly on demographic or clinical characteristics. After 12 months, residents in unaffiliated shelters were significantly less likely to be retained than the domiciled patients and showed a trend towards less retention than the experimental group. PMID:8880671

Miescher, A; Galanter, M

1996-01-01

193

Building Formal and Informal Partnerships Through a Land-Based, Hands-on Research Expedition for Earth and Ocean Science Teachers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scientific Ocean drilling has a rich legacy which is largely responsible for our current understating of the complex linkages among the different parts of the Earth System. Relaying these understandings to Earth and ocean educators is a challenge that the Joint Oceanographic Institutes (JOI) Alliances has undertaken through sponsorship of the School of Rock (SOR). Building on the successful ocean-going, hands-on SOR (Leckie et al. 2006), the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) - United States Implementing Organization (USIO) piloted a land-based, hands-on research expedition for Earth and ocean science teachers, the School of Rock Expedition II (SOR II). During this seven-day workshop, 18 educators from across the United States were hosted at the IODP Gulf Coast Repository at Texas A&M University where they were mentored and taught by scientists who are actively engaged in IODP research, shipboard technical staff, SOR I veteran teachers, and science educators. Teachers participated in a series of research experiences similar to those that take place on a scientific drilling research vessel or in a post-cruise research lab. These experiences allowed educators to increase their knowledge of IODP and scientific methods as demonstrated by the entire ocean drilling program (proposals, drilling, lab analysis, data acquisition, and post-cruise research). This case study describes the formal and informal partnerships developed through the SOR II with an emphasis on identifying and nurturing informal partnerships.

Slough, S.; Prouhet, T.; Peart, L.; Leckie, M.; St. John, K.; Karz-Cooper, S.; Klaus, A.; Petronotis, K.; Firth, J.; Guerin, G.; Buckholtz, C.; Crowder, L.; Peng, C.

2007-12-01

194

Some factors influencing the outcome of shelter competition in lobsters (Homarus americanus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some factors involved in the competition for shelter between lobsters 40–70 mm carapace length were examined in the field and in the laboratory. Dominance, usually indicated by greater carapace length, male sex, hard exo?skeleton and a numerical or length advantage in claws increased the likelihood of capturing and holding a shelter. Prior residence in the shelter, right or left position

D. J. ONeill; J. S. Cobb

1979-01-01

195

Effectiveness and Empowerment in Women's Shelter: A Study of Working Women's Hostels in Bangalore, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Policy debates on shelter for women have focused on family structure, gender roles and the importance of shelter in women's economic development. They emphasize the need for shelter that is generally effective and empowering for women. Although valuable, these general policy proposals are often unable to account for the particular situations in specific cultural contexts in which family structure, roles

Kameshwari Pothukuchi

2001-01-01

196

The Effects of Hands-On Learning Stations on Building American Elementary Teachers' Understanding about Earth and Space Science Concepts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research on conceptual change indicates that not only children, but also teachers have incomplete understanding or misconceptions on science concepts. This mixed methods study was concerned with in-service teachers' understanding of four earth and space science concepts taught in elementary school: reason for seasons, phases of the moon, rock…

Bulunuz, Nermin; Jarrett, Olga S.

2010-01-01

197

A pollinators' eye view of a shelter mimicry system  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims ‘Human-red’ flowers are traditionally considered to be rather unpopular with bees, yet some allogamous species in the section Oncocyclus (genus Iris, Iridaceae) have evolved specialized interactions with their pollinators, a narrow taxonomic range of male solitary bees. The dark-red, tubular flowers of these irises are nectarless but provide protective shelters (i.e. a non-nutritive form of reward) primarily to male solitary bees (Apidae, Eucerini) that pollinate the flowers while looking for a shelter. An earlier study on orchids suggested that species pollinated predominantly by male solitary bees produce significantly larger amounts and larger numbers of different n-alkenes (unsaturated cuticular hydrocarbons). Whether or not this also applies to the Oncocyclus irises and whether pollinators are attracted by specific colours or scents of these flowers is unknown. Methods Using Iris atropurpurea, recording of pollinator preferences for shelters with different spatial parameters was combined with analyses of floral colours (by spectrophotometry) and scents (by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry) to test the hypotheses that (a) pollinators significantly prefer floral tunnels facing the rising sun (floral heat-reward hypothesis), and that (b) flowers pollinated predominantly by male solitary bees produce significantly larger amounts and larger numbers of unsaturated cuticular hydrocarbons (n-alkenes) in their floral scent (preadaptation to sexual-deception hypothesis). Key Results Male bees do not significantly prefer shelters facing the rising sun or with the presence of high absolute/relative amounts and numbers of n-alkenes in the floral scent. Conclusions The results suggest that the flowers of I. atropurpurea probably evolved by pollinator-mediated selection acting primarily on floral colours to mimic large achromatic (‘bee-black’) protective shelters used preferentially by male solitary bees, and that pollinator visits are presumably not the result of an odour-based sexual stimulation or motivated by an increased morning floral heat reward in tunnels facing the rising sun. PMID:23599249

Vereecken, Nicolas J.; Dorchin, Achik; Dafni, Amots; Hötling, Susann; Schulz, Stefan; Watts, Stella

2013-01-01

198

Shelter-in-Place Procedures What it means to "Shelter-in-Place"  

E-print Network

exterior doors. 4. Turn off air conditioners, heaters, and fans. 5. Close vents to ventilation systems and the buildings or areas around you become unstable, or if the air outdoors becomes dangerous due to toxic

Escher, Christine

199

STRUCTURAL CONSIDERATIONS IN SCHOOL BUILDING ECONOMY. SCHOOL BUILDING ECONOMY SERIES, NUMBER 5.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

ALL SCHOOL BUILDINGS ARE BASICALLY SHELTER STRUCTURES. THEIR ELEMENTARY COMPONENTS ARE (1) STRUCTURAL MEMBERS, (2) WEATHER PROTECTION ELEMENTS, (3) MECHANICAL INSTALLATIONS, (4) FINISHING ELEMENTS, AND (5) BUILT-IN EQUIPMENT. THE CHOICE OF BUILDING SYSTEMS IS DEPENDENT ON (1) SUBSOIL CONDITIONS, (2) SITE CONTOURS, AND (3) CLIMATIC CONDITIONS.…

Connecticut State Dept. of Education, Hartford.

200

Training veterinary students in shelter medicine: a service-learning community-classroom technique.  

PubMed

Shelter medicine is a rapidly developing field of great importance, and shelters themselves provide abundant training opportunities for veterinary medical students. Students trained in shelter medicine have opportunities to practice zoonotic and species-specific infectious disease control, behavioral evaluation and management, primary care, animal welfare, ethics, and public policy issues. A range of sheltering systems now exists, from brick-and-mortar facilities to networks of foster homes with no centralized facility. Exposure to a single shelter setting may not allow students to understand the full range of sheltering systems that exist; a community-classroom approach introduces students to a diverse array of sheltering systems while providing practical experience. This article presents the details and results of a series of 2-week elective clinical rotations with a focus on field and service learning in animal shelters. The overall aim was to provide opportunities that familiarized students with sheltering systems and delivered primary-care training. Other priorities included increasing awareness of public health concerns and equipping students to evaluate shelters on design, operating protocols, infectious disease control, animal enrichment, and community outreach. Students were required to participate in rounds and complete a project that addressed a need recognized by them during the rotation. This article includes costs associated with the rotation, a blueprint for how the rotation was carried out at our institution, and details of shelters visited and animals treated, including a breakdown of treatments provided. Also discussed are the student projects and student feedback on this valuable clinical experience. PMID:24407109

Stevens, Brenda J; Gruen, Margaret E

2014-01-01

201

Source and specificity of chemical cues mediating shelter preference of Caribbean spiny lobsters (Panulirus argus).  

PubMed

Caribbean spiny lobsters display a diversity of social behaviors, one of the most prevalent of which is gregarious diurnal sheltering. Previous research has demonstrated that shelter selection is chemically mediated, but the source of release and the identity of the aggregation signal are unknown. In this study, we investigated the source and specificity of the aggregation signal in Caribbean spiny lobsters, Panulirus argus. We developed a relatively rapid test of shelter choice in a 5000-l laboratory flume that simulated flow conditions in the spiny lobster's natural environment, and used it to examine the shelter preference of the animals in response to a variety of odorants. We found that both males and females associated preferentially with shelters emanating conspecific urine of either sex, but not with shelters emanating seawater, food odors, or the scent of a predatory octopus. These results demonstrate specificity in the cues mediating sheltering behavior and show that urine is at least one source of the aggregation signal. PMID:17062872

Horner, Amy J; Nickles, Scott P; Weissburg, Marc J; Derby, Charles D

2006-10-01

202

Mental health issues of abused women: the perceptions of shelter workers.  

PubMed

While some studies have documented the mental health symptoms of battered women, we know little of the extent to which shelter residents present with mental health and substance abuse symptoms, or the effect of these issues on other residents, staff, and children. Further, it is not clear whether shelter staff feel sufficiently trained to safely and adequately address such concerns. The current survey was an effort to document what proportion of shelter residents present with severe symptomatology and its effect on the shelter environment. The survey was completed by 158 staff from 23 of Alberta's 30 shelters. Since shelters are one aspect of a community network of services, it was of interest to identify how well mental health and substance abuse services complement each other and whether shelters have developed strategies to better connect with other agencies. PMID:10351172

Tutty, L M

1998-01-01

203

Faecal virome of cats in an animal shelter.  

PubMed

We describe the metagenomics-derived feline enteric virome in the faeces of 25 cats from a single shelter in California. More than 90?% of the recognizable viral reads were related to mammalian viruses and the rest to bacterial viruses. Eight viral families were detected: Astroviridae, Coronaviridae, Parvoviridae, Circoviridae, Herpesviridae, Anelloviridae, Caliciviridae and Picobirnaviridae. Six previously known viruses were also identified: feline coronavirus type 1, felid herpes 1, feline calicivirus, feline norovirus, feline panleukopenia virus and picobirnavirus. Novel species of astroviruses and bocaviruses, and the first genome of a cyclovirus in a feline were characterized. The RNA-dependent RNA polymerase region from four highly divergent partial viral genomes in the order Picornavirales were sequenced. The detection of such a diverse collection of viruses shed within a single shelter suggested that such animals experience robust viral exposures. This study increases our understanding of the viral diversity in cats, facilitating future evaluation of their pathogenic and zoonotic potentials. PMID:25078300

Zhang, Wen; Li, Linlin; Deng, Xutao; Kapusinszky, Beatrix; Pesavento, Patricia A; Delwart, Eric

2014-11-01

204

Protective Actions in Wildfires: Evacuate or Shelter-in-Place?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The decision of whether to evacuate or shelter-in-place SIP in a wildfire poses a significant challenge for emergency managers and residents in fire-prone areas. Events such as the 2007 Witch Creek Fire and 2008 Tea Fire in California highlight the option and viability of SIP, as well as the conflict that can occur between first-responders and residents in protecting life

Thomas J. Cova; Frank A. Drews; Laura K. Siebeneck; Adrian Musters

2009-01-01

205

Tornado shelters and the manufactured home parks market  

Microsoft Academic Search

Manufactured or mobile homes represent a fast growing portion of the housing market but are particularly vulnerable to tornadoes.\\u000a In the US over 40% of tornado fatalities occur in mobile homes even though they comprise about 8% of US housing units. We\\u000a examine the market for tornado shelters in manufactured home parks in Oklahoma. Almost 60% of parks in the

Kevin M. Simmons; Daniel Sutter

2007-01-01

206

Protective actions and CSEPP: Can we shelter in place?  

SciTech Connect

The public has limited options for protection in an accident involving extremely hazardous chemicals. As previous researchers have suggested, in place sheltering and evacuation are potential options for population protection from a toxic vapor plume. In addition, more attention is being given to several forms of respiratory protection. At least two US companies are marketing respirator devices designed for the general public. Of course European companies have marketed such devices for the past decade. Moreover, the use of gas masks by Israeli citizens during the Gulf War drew media attention to respiratory protection. This paper reports the results of an investigation into the effectiveness of alternative protective actions for chemical weapons accidents. This analysis was done in support of the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program (CSEPP). It is the thesis in this paper that the choice among protective action is a much more complex decision than has been characterized in previous research. Moreover it is highly situation specific and that it is potentially problematic to treat it as a simple decision problem. The author hypothesizes that it is problematic because a small change in one of the parameters that determines protective action effectiveness may lead to a different decision outcome. Furthermore the list of parameters that influence effectiveness goes well beyond those considered in previous research. This thesis is illustrated by a comparative analysis of evacuation, and in place shelter options. The results show that sheltering is only preferable under very limited conditions, which will be difficult to predict at the time of the emergency.

Sorensen, J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1995-12-31

207

Case series of feline panleukopenia virus in an animal shelter.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to describe a series of confirmed and suspected cases of feline panleukopenia virus (FPV) and in-contact cats in an adoption-guarantee shelter in an FPV-endemic area by reviewing shelter records over a 10-month period (January-October 2010). Cats were divided into three groups: in-contact group - asymptomatic cats that were housed with a FPV fecal antigen (Ag)-positive cat/kitten as part of a litter group (n = 66); FPV-survivors group (FPV-infected survivors) - tested FPV fecal Ag-positive and showed clinical signs of FPV, but survived (n = 27); FPV-non-survivors group (FPV-infected non-survivors) - showed clinical signs of FPV and either tested FPV fecal Ag-positive or were housed with an Ag-positive family member, but did not survive (n = 52). Ages ranged from 3 weeks to 3 years, but most were <6 months old (in-contact group: 79%; FPV-survivors group: 70%; FPV-non-survivors group: 85%). A seasonal peak occurred over summer, but cases occurred year-round. Anorexia, dehydration, fever and diarrhea predominated in the FPV-survivors group, and death was preceded by clinical signs of circulatory shock in the FPV-non-survivors group. Housing litters of kittens with their mother was not associated with improved outcome, perhaps because in this population clinical FPV infection was relatively common in queens arriving at the shelter with susceptible litters. PMID:23873047

Litster, Annette; Benjanirut, Chutamas

2014-04-01

208

TAX-SHELTERED INVESTMENT PROGRAM Capital Area Health Consortium (CAHC) has a Tax-Sheltered Investment Plan (403b) available for its  

E-print Network

Page 94 TAX-SHELTERED INVESTMENT PROGRAM Capital Area Health Consortium (CAHC) has a Tax-Sheltered Investment Plan (403b) available for its employees. Money may be deducted from each paycheck on a pre-tax basis (403B) or a post-tax basis (Roth). The pre-tax option reduces the amount of income that is taxed

Oliver, Douglas L.

209

SHELTER-IN-PLACE DRILL DURING THE SHELTER-IN-PLACE DRILL BETWEEN 2:30pm AND 2:45pm, READ & DISCUSS THIS DOCU-  

E-print Network

hit the campus. Tornadoes are a possibility, along with strong winds and large hail. Heavy rainfall and lightning is expected soon. Where should you seek shelter? Tornadoes cause the least amount of damage are not a good choice when tornadoes are present. If tornadoes are not an issue, seek shelter inside any sturdy

Sorin, Eric J.

210

Public shelter admission rates in Philadelphia and New York City: The implications of turnover for sheltered population counts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous estimates of the size and composition of the U.S. homeless population have been based on cross?sectional survey methodologies. National enumeration efforts have yielded point?prevalence estimates ranging from 0.11 to 0.25 percent of the population. This study reports data from shelter databases in Philadelphia and New York City that record identifiers for all persons admitted and so make possible unduplicated

Dennis P. Culhane; Edmund F. Dejowski; Julie Ibañez; Elizabeth Needham; Irene Macchia

1994-01-01

211

Infra-Free® (IF) Architecture System as the Method for Post-Disaster Shelter Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Currently, International Space Station (ISS) is capable to support 3 to 4 astronauts onboard for at least 6 months using an integrated life support system to support the need of crew onboard. Waste from daily life of the crew members are collected by waste recycle systems, electricity consumption depends on collecting solar energy, etc. though it likes the infrastructure we use on Earth, ISS can be comprehended nearly a self-reliant integrated architecture so far, this could be given an important hint for current architecture which is based on urban centralized infrastructure to support our daily lives but could be vulnerable in case of nature disasters. Comparatively, more and more economic activities and communications rely on the enormous urban central infrastructure to support our daily lives. Therefore, when in case of natural disasters, it may cut-out the infrastructure system temporarily or permanent. In order to solve this problem, we propose to design a temporary shelter, which is capable to work without depending on any existing infrastructure. We propose to use some closed-life-cycle or integrated technologies inspired by the possibilities of space and other emerging technologies into current daily architecture by using Infra-free® design framework; which proposes to integrate various life supporting infrastructural elements into one-closed system. We try to work on a scenario for post-disaster management housing as the method for solving the lifeline problems such as solid and liquid waste, energy, and water and hygiene solution into one system. And trying to establish an Infra-free® model of shelter for disaster area. The ultimate objective is to design a Temp Infra-free® model dealing with the sanitation and environment preservation concerns for disaster area.

Chang, Huai-Chien; Anilir, Serkan

212

Design of Two RadWorks Storm Shelters for Solar Particle Event Shielding  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In order to enable long-duration human exploration beyond low-Earth orbit, the risks associated with exposure of astronaut crews to space radiation must be mitigated with practical and affordable solutions. The space radiation environment beyond the magnetosphere is primarily a combination of two types of radiation: galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and solar particle events (SPE). While mitigating GCR exposure remains an open issue, reducing astronaut exposure to SPEs is achievable through material shielding because they are made up primarily of medium-energy protons. In order to ensure astronaut safety for long durations beyond low-Earth orbit, SPE radiation exposure must be mitigated. However, the increasingly demanding spacecraft propulsive performance for these ambitious missions requires minimal mass and volume radiation shielding solutions which leverage available multi-functional habitat structures and logistics as much as possible. This paper describes the efforts of NASA's RadWorks Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Project to design two minimal mass SPE radiation shelter concepts leveraging available resources: one based upon reconfiguring habitat interiors to create a centralized protection area and one based upon augmenting individual crew quarters with waterwalls and logistics. Discussion items include the design features of the concepts, a radiation analysis of their implementations, an assessment of the parasitic mass of each concept, and the result of a human in the loop evaluation performed to drive out design and operational issues.

Simon, Matthew; Cerro, Jeffery; Latorella, Kara; Clowdsley, Martha; Watson, Judith; Albertson, Cindy; Norman, Ryan; Le Boffe, Vincent; Walker, Steven

2014-01-01

213

Down to Earth Down to Earth  

E-print Network

Down to Earth 1 Down to Earth Newsletter of the Geology and Geophysics Department University of this college. The university's plan is to design the building to be built at an estimated cost of $14 million..........................9 Geology and Geophysics Faculty at Work..... 10 Third Annual Geo-Winter Adventure .............. 11

Johnson, Cari

214

Earth Rocks!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of this lesson is to introduce students to the basic elements of our Earth's crust: rocks, soils and minerals. They learn how we categorize rocks, soils and minerals and how they are literally the foundation for our civilization. Students also explore how engineers use rocks, soils and minerals to create the buildings, roads, vehicles, electronics, chemicals, and other objects we use to enhance our lives.

Integrated Teaching and Learning Program,

215

Predatory wasps learn to overcome the shelter defences of their larval prey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Larvae of Epargyreus clarus (Hesperiidae), the silver-spotted skipper, inhabit leaf-and-silk shelters that they construct on their leguminous host plants. In the field, Polistes spp. (Vespidae) wasps land on the shelters, quickly extracting and killing the larvae within. In marked contrast, wasps that emerge from field-collected colonies maintained in the laboratory visit and examine leaflets bearing sheltered caterpillars, but only rarely

Martha R. Weiss; Erin E. Wilson; Ignacio Castellanos

2004-01-01

216

The Griggs Dynamic Convection Model: a Resource for Learning About Mountain-Building Processes in the Earth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using a physical analog model in the classroom/laboratory setting is just one of the many ways teachers can provide a resource for learning through inquiry; however, well developed physical analog models of natural processes that can be measured and manipulated scientifically by students can be challenging for teachers to obtain. This research analyzes a historical physical analog model--the David Griggs (1939) Dynamic Convection Model, which was used 'to study the effect of sub-crustal convection currents on the continental crust.'--to determine if the model is capable of supporting model-based inquiry-oriented classroom activities. An analogical structure-mapping method developed for assessing the affordances of scale models (Kastens and Rivet, 2010) is used to show that the model has highly transparent surface and structural features, which correspond to Griggs' theory of mountain-building at the levels of attributes, simple relations, higher order relations and systematicity. A variety of experimental parameters for the model (i.e., using different materials, and varying the speeds of the convection cells) are described to give teachers support for developing inquiry-oriented classroom activities. Furthermore, the Griggs dynamic convection model, along with a replica for people to try, will be at the poster session.

Glesener, G.

2013-12-01

217

Rates of euthanasia and adoption for dogs and cats in Michigan animal shelters.  

PubMed

Estimates of canine and feline euthanasia at U.S. animal shelters--largely based on voluntary surveys with low response rates--make it difficult to estimate the population from which the euthanized animals derive. Estimates of euthanasia rates (animals euthanized per unit of population) have varied widely and been available only sporadically. This study used requirements of Michigan state law (Pet Shops, Dog Pounds, and Animal Shelters Act, 1969) for animal shelters to collect admission and discharge data for all 176 Michigan-licensed animal shelters. In 2003, Michigan shelters discharged 140,653 dogs: Of these, 56,972 (40%) were euthanized; 40,005 (28%) were adopted. This annual euthanasia rate is 2.6% of the estimated 2003 Michigan dog population. Michigan shelters discharged 134,405 cats in 2003: 76,321 (57%) by euthanasia and (24%) by adoption. The estimated ratio of euthanized cats to cats who had owners was 3.1%. Small shelters and privately owned shelters were associated with higher adoption rates. Comparison with historical information from the past 10 to 20 years suggests the number of companion animals being euthanized in shelters has decreased and that progress has been made in reducing the companion animal overpopulation problem. PMID:16277593

Bartlett, Paul C; Bartlett, Andrew; Walshaw, Sally; Halstead, Stephen

2005-01-01

218

National call for organizational change from sheltered to integrated employment.  

PubMed

Our purpose in this article is to contend that organizational change from sheltered to integrated employment is not only possible but necessary, and a federal Employment First agenda must be advanced. Findings are reported from interviews with senior managers from 10 organizations that have shifted their service delivery to community employment, and recommendations are provided based on these findings. Results reveal the commonalities among a diverse group of agencies, suggesting the viability of transformation of our current systems with the support and leadership of state and federal agencies and programs. PMID:21721978

Rogan, Patricia; Rinne, Susan

2011-08-01

219

Determinants of adoption and euthanasia of shelter dogs spayed or neutered in the university of california veterinary student surgery program compared to other shelter dogs.  

PubMed

Limited economic resources and pet overpopulation force animals shelters to consider euthanasia of adoptable animals every day. Veterinary medical schools can play a positive role in increasing pet adoption and combating overpopulation by providing free neutering for shelter animals. This retrospective cohort study illustrated that the cooperative efforts of a veterinary medicine surgical teaching program and local animal shelters decreases euthanasia of adoptable pets. At the University of California, Davis (UCD), shelter dogs are neutered by veterinary students and then returned to the shelter for adoption. The rates of adoption and euthanasia of the dogs neutered at UCD were contrasted with a comparison shelter group to determine the effect of pre-adoption neutering. The UCD-neutered dogs had a lower rate of euthanasia than the comparison shelter group at the shelters investigated. At Sacramento County Animal Care and Regulation, 73% of the UCD group but only 36% of the comparison group were adopted. At Yolo County Animal Services, 71% of the UCD group and 45% of the comparison group were adopted. The sex of an animal did not significantly affect the rate of euthanasia. Dogs that were predominantly pit bull, rottweiler, or chow chow breeds had higher rates of euthanasia than other breeds, independent of neuter status. Also, juveniles (less than one year old) had lower rates of euthanasia than adults, independent of neuter status. UCD adult dogs had lower rates of euthanasia than comparison adults. Post-surgical UCD dogs spent a longer average time in the shelter before adoption (15 days at Sacramento; 16 days at Yolo) than the comparison dogs (11 and 12 days, respectively). UCD dogs also spent a longer average time in the shelter before euthanasia (18 and 25 days, respectively) than the comparison dogs (13 days at both shelters). Lower probabilities of euthanasia for behavioral or medical reasons were found for UCD dogs than for the comparison dogs. The probability of euthanasia for reasons of space limitations increased with time in shelter for both groups. In this study, pre-adoption neutering increased adoptions without increasing the probability of medical or behavioral euthanasia. PMID:14976625

Clevenger, Jaime; Kass, Philip H

2003-01-01

220

Alkaline-Earth metal cations as structure building blocks for molecular cages with entrapment and controlled release of quintuple ionic aggregates.  

PubMed

Currently, main-group metal cations are totally neglected as the structure-building blocks for the self-assembly of supramolecular coordination metallocages due to the lack of directional bonding. However, here we show that a common Arrhenius acid-base neutralization allows the alkaline-earth metal cations to act as charged binders, easily connecting two or more highly directional anionic transition-metal-based metalloligands to coordination polymers. With a metal salt such as K(+) PF6 (-) added during the neutralization, the main-group metal-connected skeleton can be templated by the largest yet reported ionic-aggregate anion, K2 (PF6 )3 (-) , formed from KPF6 in solution, into molecular metallocages, encapsulating the ion. Crystal-structure details, DFT-calculation results, and controlled-release behavior support the presence of K2 (PF6 )3 (-) as a guest in the cage. Upon removal of PF6 (-) ions, the cage stays intact. Other ions like BF4 (-) can be put back in. PMID:25786666

Wang, Chi-Tsang; Shiu, Ler-Chun; Shiu, Kom-Bei

2015-05-01

221

Predicting emergency evacuation and sheltering behavior: a structured analytical approach.  

PubMed

We offer a general approach to predicting public compliance with emergency recommendations. It begins with a formal risk assessment of an anticipated emergency, whose parameters include factors potentially affecting and affected by behavior, as identified by social science research. Standard procedures are used to elicit scientific experts' judgments regarding these behaviors and dependencies, in the context of an emergency scenario. Their judgments are used to refine the model and scenario, enabling local emergency coordinators to predict the behavior of citizens in their area. The approach is illustrated with a case study involving a radiological dispersion device (RDD) exploded in downtown Pittsburgh, PA. Both groups of experts (national and local) predicted approximately 80-90% compliance with an order to evacuate workplaces and 60-70% compliance with an order to shelter in place at home. They predicted 10% lower compliance for people asked to shelter at the office or to evacuate their homes. They predicted 10% lower compliance should the media be skeptical, rather than supportive. They also identified preparatory policies that could improve public compliance by 20-30%. We consider the implications of these results for improving emergency risk assessment models and for anticipating and improving preparedness for disasters, using Hurricane Katrina as a further case in point. PMID:17184405

Dombroski, Matt; Fischhoff, Baruch; Fischbeck, Paul

2006-12-01

222

Diagnostic, treatment, and prevention protocols for canine heartworm infection in animal sheltering agencies.  

PubMed

The high prevalence of heartworm infection in shelter dogs creates a dilemma for shelter managers, who frequently operate with insufficient funding, staffing, and expertise to comply with heartworm guidelines developed for owned pet dogs. The purpose of this study was to survey canine heartworm management protocols used by 504 animal sheltering agencies in the endemic states of Alabama, Florida, Georgia, and Mississippi. Open-admission shelters, which tended to be larger and more likely to perform animal control functions, were less likely (41%) to test all adult dogs than were limited-admission shelters (80%), which tended to be smaller non-profit humane agencies, and foster programs (98%) based out of private residences. Open-admission shelters were more likely to euthanize infected dogs (27%) or to release them without treatment (39%), whereas limited-admission shelters and foster programs were more likely to provide adulticide therapy (82% and 89%, respectively). Of the 319 agencies that treated infections, 44% primarily used a standard two-dose melarsomine protocol, and 35% primarily used a three-dose split-treatment melarsomine protocol. Long-term low-dose ivermectin was the most common treatment used in 22% of agencies. Open-admission shelters were less likely (35%) to provide preventive medications for all dogs than were limited-admission shelters (82%) and foster programs (97%). More agencies used preventives labeled for monthly use in dogs (60%) than ivermectin products labeled for livestock (38%). The most common reason diagnostic testing and preventive medication was not provided was cost. These results indicate a lack of protocol uniformity among agencies and insufficient resources to identify, treat, and prevent infection. Sheltering agencies and companion animal health industries should develop guidelines that are feasible for use in sheltering agencies and provide improved access to preventive and treatment strategies for management of Dirofilaria immitis. PMID:21353743

Colby, Kathleen N; Levy, Julie K; Dunn, Kiri F; Michaud, Rachel I

2011-03-22

223

Environment and the Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Environment and the Earth class at the University of South Carolina participated in a campus environmental service-learning project where students collected data lighting, water fixtures, recycling bins, and trash in five academic buildings.

Compiled by Suzanne Savanick, Science Education Resource Center. Based on Bixby et al. (2003), Ecology on Campus: Service Learning in Introductory Environmental Courses, Journal of College Science Teaching, v. 32, n.5, o, 327-331.

224

The significance of ultra-refracted surface gravity waves on sheltered coasts, with application to San Francisco Bay  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Ocean surface gravity waves propagating over shallow bathymetry undergo spatial modification of propagation direction and energy density, commonly due to refraction and shoaling. If the bathymetric variations are significant the waves can undergo changes in their direction of propagation (relative to deepwater) greater than 90° over relatively short spatial scales. We refer to this phenomenon as ultra-refraction. Ultra-refracted swell waves can have a powerful influence on coastal areas that otherwise appear to be sheltered from ocean waves. Through a numerical modeling investigation it is shown that San Francisco Bay, one of the earth's largest and most protected natural harbors, is vulnerable to ultra-refracted ocean waves, particularly southwest incident swell. The flux of wave energy into San Francisco Bay results from wave transformation due to the bathymetry and orientation of the large ebb tidal delta, and deep, narrow channel through the Golden Gate. For example, ultra-refracted swell waves play a critical role in the intermittent closure of the entrance to Crissy Field Marsh, a small restored tidal wetland located on the sheltered north-facing coast approximately 1.5 km east of the Golden Gate Bridge.

Hanes, D.M.; Erikson, L.H.

2013-01-01

225

The significance of ultra-refracted surface gravity waves on sheltered coasts, with application to San Francisco Bay  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ocean surface gravity waves propagating over shallow bathymetry undergo spatial modification of propagation direction and energy density, commonly due to refraction and shoaling. If the bathymetric variations are significant the waves can undergo changes in their direction of propagation (relative to deepwater) greater than 90° over relatively short spatial scales. We refer to this phenomenon as ultra-refraction. Ultra-refracted swell waves can have a powerful influence on coastal areas that otherwise appear to be sheltered from ocean waves. Through a numerical modeling investigation it is shown that San Francisco Bay, one of the earth's largest and most protected natural harbors, is vulnerable to ultra-refracted ocean waves, particularly southwest incident swell. The flux of wave energy into San Francisco Bay results from wave transformation due to the bathymetry and orientation of the large ebb tidal delta, and deep, narrow channel through the Golden Gate. For example, ultra-refracted swell waves play a critical role in the intermittent closure of the entrance to Crissy Field Marsh, a small restored tidal wetland located on the sheltered north-facing coast approximately 1.5 km east of the Golden Gate Bridge.

Hanes, D. M.; Erikson, L. H.

2013-11-01

226

Shelter size influences self-assessment of size in crayfish, Orconectes rusticus: Consequences for  

E-print Network

Shelter size influences self-assessment of size in crayfish, Orconectes rusticus: Consequences. By manipulating sensory information used in self-assessment in crayfish, Orconectes rusticus, it may be pos- sible the role of self-assessment in the agonistic behaviour of crayfish by using differing shelter sizes

Moore, Paul A.

227

Human interaction and cortisol: Can human contact reduce stress for shelter dogs?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Animal shelters are an extremely stressful environment for a dog, most specifically due to social isolation and novel surroundings. The stress response of dogs housed in this environment may be alleviated through human interaction shortly after arrival. During their second day in a public animal shelter, adult stray dogs were either engaged in a human contact session or not. The

Crista L. Coppola; Temple Grandin; R. Mark Enns

2006-01-01

228

Criteria for Determining the Effectiveness of Shelter Programs for Battered Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

According to the California State Department of Justice there were 182,000 reported cases of domestic violence in 1988 that required police intervention. This descriptive study, an explorative evaluation survey, examined 47 shelter programs in California to determine what components are essential to a shelter's effectiveness in facilitating…

Hughes, Gwendolyn Morrison

229

Physical Health, Mental Health, and Substance Abuse Problems of Shelter Users.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined physical health of 72 users of homeless shelters, comparing shelter users with mental illness or substance abuse problems with those without these problems. Found that alcohol abusers were significantly more likely to have low blood pressure, symptoms of liver disease, and tuberculosis treatment history. Found no health differences for…

Harris, Shirley N.; And Others

1994-01-01

230

Tuberculosis Exposure among Evacuees at a Shelter after Earthquake, Japan, 2011  

PubMed Central

Tuberculosis was diagnosed in a person who had stayed in a shelter after the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake. A contact investigation showed that the prevalence of latent tuberculosis infection among other evacuees at the shelter was 20%. Our report underscores the importance of tuberculosis prevention and control after natural disasters. PMID:23648069

Aso, Noboru; Tadano, Satoko; Saito, Miyoko; Saito, Hiroo; Uchiyama, Bine; Ishibashi, Noriomi; Inomata, Shinya; Endo, Shiro; Aoyagi, Tetsuji; Hatta, Masumitsu; Yamada, Mitsuhiro; Gu, Yoshiaki; Tokuda, Koichi; Yano, Hisakazu; Kunishima, Hiroyuki; Hirakata, Yoichi; Saijyo, Takao; Kitagawa, Miho; Kaku, Mitsuo

2013-01-01

231

Dimensions and Correlates of Client Satisfaction: An Evaluation of a Shelter for Runaway and Homeless Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Client satisfaction surveys give clients a voice in the planning and management of services. While their use is quite widespread, they have hardly at all been used in the evaluation of shelters for homeless youths. In this article, the authors present findings of a client satisfaction survey conducted among residents of a shelter for homeless…

Spiro, Shimon E.; Dekel, Rachel; Peled, Einat

2009-01-01

232

Control of Pest Species: Tree shelters help protect seedlings from nutria (Louisiana)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Various methods of nutria preventative techniques were tested in attempts to curb the loss of seedlings due to nutria capturing. The results of testing possibly indicate that tree shelters have real potential for use in forest restoration projects on sites with moderate nutria populations. Tree shelters may even prove effective on sites with high nutria populations, as long as alternative food supplies are available.

Allen, J.A.; Boykin, R.

1991-01-01

233

Behavioral reasons for relinquishment of dogs and cats to 12 shelters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Regional Shelter Relinquishment Study sponsored by the National Council on Pet Population Study and Policy (NCPPSP) is a US research project designed to explore the characteristics of relinquished dogs and cats, their owners, and the reasons for relinquishment. The NCPPSP Regional Shelter Study, which was conducted between February 1995 and April 1996, found that behavioural problems, including aggression toward

Mo D. Salman; J M Hutchinson; Rebecca Ruch-Gallie; Lori Kogan; New John C. Jr; Phillip Kass; Jennifer M Scarlett

2000-01-01

234

Hurricane Katrina and the Flooding of New Orleans: Emergent Issues in Sheltering and Temporary Housing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hurricane Katrina created an unprecedented need for sheltering and temporary housing across a four-state area along the Gulf Coast. This article reviews the disaster literature with respect to sheltering and temporary housing and contrasts how these needs actually developed with respect to both the preimpact and postimpact evacuation situations. The article also investigates the ways that intergovernmental planning failed to

Joanne M. Nigg; John Barnshaw; Manuel R. Torres

2006-01-01

235

The Corporate Profit Base, Tax Sheltering Activity, and the Changing Nature of Employee Compensation  

E-print Network

. In short, American firms are faced with enhanced opportunities for avoiding or evading corporate taxesThe Corporate Profit Base, Tax Sheltering Activity, and the Changing Nature of Employee at Harvard Business School are gratefully acknowledged. #12;The Corporate Profit Base, Tax Sheltering

Sadoulet, Elisabeth

236

Do Sheltered Workshops Enhance Employment Outcomes for Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated whether sheltered workshops help prepare individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) for competitive employment within the community. Two groups of individuals were compared: (a) 215 supported employees who were in sheltered workshops prior to entering supported employment and (b) 215 supported employees who were not in…

Cimera, Robert Evert; Wehman, Paul; West, Michael; Burgess, Sloane

2012-01-01

237

Perspectives on US Domestic Violence Emergency Shelters: What Do Young Adolescent Residents and Their Mothers Say?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As part of a larger qualitative study using Life Story methods, an ethnically diverse, purposive sample (n = 27) of young adolescents (ages 12-14) and their mothers residing in four US domestic violence emergency shelters were interviewed about their perspectives of shelter life. Youth reported aspects they liked, most often expressing that they…

Chanmugam, Amy

2011-01-01

238

Shelters for Battered Women and Their Children: An Under-Recognized Source of Communicable Disease Transmission.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on a study of various aspects of communicable disease occurrence (focusing on diarrheal illness) in shelters for battered women and their children, the extent and methods of screening for disease, training of staff in health care principles, resources available for health care needs, and the health regulations governing these shelters. (PS)

Gross, Thomas P.; Rosenberg, Mark L.

1987-01-01

239

77 FR 40626 - RP9580.210, Personal Assistance Services in Shelters Fact Sheet  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Personal Assistance Services in Shelters Fact Sheet AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency...is accepting comments on Recovery Fact Sheet RP9580.210, Personal Assistance Services in Shelters. The purpose of this new fact sheet is to provide clarification on the...

2012-07-10

240

Publics in Practice: Ubiquitous Computing at a Shelter for Homeless Mothers  

E-print Network

Publics in Practice: Ubiquitous Computing at a Shelter for Homeless Mothers Christopher A. Le at a shelter for homeless mothers. Our system connects mobile phones, a shared display, and a Web application and organiza- tional coordination. Author Keywords Constructed Publics, Homeless, Urban Computing, Longitu

Edwards, Keith

241

Descriptive epidemiology of feline upper respiratory tract disease in an animal shelter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Upper respiratory tract disease (URTD) is common and spreads quickly in cats residing in animal shelters in the United States. Estimates of the actual incidence of URTD are sparse, yet this information is very important for welfare, economic and research purposes. In a large urban shelter in the northeastern US, 531 individual kittens, 701 litters, and 2203 adult cats were

Julie D. Dinnage; Janet M. Scarlett; James R. Richards

2009-01-01

242

UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report UBC Farm Chicken Shelter  

E-print Network

UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report UBC Farm Chicken Shelter ( Derek ) James Hosford Andrew Burgin Julian Cheung Chicken Shelter #12; ii Executive Summary UBC Farm is currently in need of a moveable chicken coop that is intended to house 12 chickens

243

Bacteria isolated from rock art paintings: the case of Atlanterra shelter (south Spain)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Sierra de la Plata is an Aljibe yellow sandstone formation from the Acheulian period. There are a few shelters, some of them with rock art paintings. The most representative one, and subjected to anthropogenic pressure, is that of Atlanterra, situated in a residential area. This shelter contains some rock art paintings made with iron oxides. The bacteria present in

I. Gonzalez; L. Laiz; B. Hermosin; B. Caballero; C. Incerti; C. Saiz-Jimenez

1999-01-01

244

When Rescue Is Urgent: Children in Shelter Placement for Seven Days or Less.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the circumstances of children in Hennepin County, Minnesota, who were removed from their homes under urgent circumstances and placed for 7 days or less in emergency shelter care. It investigated whether shelter placement was the least intrusive response for the safety of the children in emergency situations and clarified the…

Wattenberg, Esther; Luke, Katherine; Cornelius, Molly; Menke, Jennifer

245

Questions and Answers Regarding Actions to Take When Ending Shelter-in-Place  

SciTech Connect

Shelter-in-place has found increasing acceptance as an effective protective action option for communities participating in the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program. Studies have confirmed that it can provide optimum protection under certain accident conditions. However, emergency managers and planners, as well as the public, continue to be troubled by the need to end sheltering when the plume has passed in order to avoid sustained exposure to the small amount of agent that has penetrated the shelter. One of the concerns posed by this necessity is uncertainty regarding what hazards will then be faced in the environment outside the shelter and what actions can be taken to avoid those hazards. This report attempts to address those uncertainties. It recognizes that there is an extremely low probability that the environment outside the shelter will be contaminated with chemical agent residue. However, as people comply with an official recommendation to leave their shelters, they probably can't be certain that the environment is free from contamination. Therefore, this report identifies and explains specific and simple actions they can take to avoid the possibility of exposure to chemical agent hazards outside their shelters. It addresses such issues as the actions people should take upon ending shelter-in-place, what clothing they should wear, how they should handle animals, and what they should do about food in their homes and produce in their gardens.

Shumpert, B.

2003-12-30

246

7 Evolution When we are looking for intelligent life outside the Earth, there is a funda-  

E-print Network

a very good reason why an organism survives in a given environment. 7.1 Darwin's Theory Every living organism on Earth ghts for its existence (food, light, territory, and shelter) and for its successful the time at which the Earth became hospitable enough for organic chemistry to function, the formation

Ulmschneider, Peter

247

Study of the effect on shelter cat intakes and euthanasia from a shelter neuter return project of 10,080 cats from March 2010 to June 2014.  

PubMed

Cat impoundments were increasing at the municipal San Jose animal shelter in 2009, despite long-term successful low cost sterilization programs and attempts to lower the euthanasia rate of treatable-rehabilitatable impounds beginning in 2008. San Jose Animal Care and Services implemented a new strategy designed to control overall feral cat reproduction by altering and returning feral cats entering the shelter system, rather than euthanizing the cats. The purpose of this case study was to determine how the program affected the shelter cat intakes over time. In just over four years, 10,080 individual healthy adult feral cats, out of 11,423 impounded at the shelter during this time frame, were altered and returned to their site of capture. Included in the 11,423 cats were 862 cats impounded from one to four additional times for a total of 958 (9.5%) recaptures of the previously altered 10,080 cats. The remaining 385 healthy feral cats were euthanized at the shelter from March 2010 to June 2014. Four years into the program, researchers observed cat and kitten impounds decreased 29.1%; euthanasia decreased from over 70% of intakes in 2009, to 23% in 2014. Euthanasia in the shelter for Upper Respiratory Disease decreased 99%; dead cat pick up off the streets declined 20%. Dog impounds did not similarly decline over the four years. No other laws or program changes were implemented since the beginning of the program. PMID:25374785

Johnson, Karen L; Cicirelli, Jon

2014-01-01

248

Study of the effect on shelter cat intakes and euthanasia from a shelter neuter return project of 10,080 cats from March 2010 to June 2014  

PubMed Central

Cat impoundments were increasing at the municipal San Jose animal shelter in 2009, despite long-term successful low cost sterilization programs and attempts to lower the euthanasia rate of treatable-rehabilitatable impounds beginning in 2008. San Jose Animal Care and Services implemented a new strategy designed to control overall feral cat reproduction by altering and returning feral cats entering the shelter system, rather than euthanizing the cats. The purpose of this case study was to determine how the program affected the shelter cat intakes over time. In just over four years, 10,080 individual healthy adult feral cats, out of 11,423 impounded at the shelter during this time frame, were altered and returned to their site of capture. Included in the 11,423 cats were 862 cats impounded from one to four additional times for a total of 958 (9.5%) recaptures of the previously altered 10,080 cats. The remaining 385 healthy feral cats were euthanized at the shelter from March 2010 to June 2014. Four years into the program, researchers observed cat and kitten impounds decreased 29.1%; euthanasia decreased from over 70% of intakes in 2009, to 23% in 2014. Euthanasia in the shelter for Upper Respiratory Disease decreased 99%; dead cat pick up off the streets declined 20%. Dog impounds did not similarly decline over the four years. No other laws or program changes were implemented since the beginning of the program. PMID:25374785

Cicirelli, Jon

2014-01-01

249

Analysis of sheltering and evacuation strategies for a Chicago nuclear detonation scenario.  

SciTech Connect

Development of an effective strategy for shelter and evacuation is among the most important planning tasks in preparation for response to a low yield, nuclear detonation in an urban area. Extensive studies have been performed and guidance published that highlight the key principles for saving lives following such an event. However, region-specific data are important in the planning process as well. This study examines some of the unique regional factors that impact planning for a 10 kt detonation in Chicago. The work utilizes a single scenario to examine regional impacts as well as the shelter-evacuate decision alternatives at selected exemplary points. For many Chicago neighborhoods, the excellent assessed shelter quality available make shelter-in-place or selective transit to a nearby shelter a compelling post-detonation strategy.

Yoshimura, Ann S.; Brandt, Larry D.

2011-09-01

250

Analysis of sheltering and evacuation strategies for a national capital region nuclear detonation scenario.  

SciTech Connect

Development of an effective strategy for shelter and evacuation is among the most important planning tasks in preparation for response to a low yield, nuclear detonation in an urban area. Extensive studies have been performed and guidance published that highlight the key principles for saving lives following such an event. However, region-specific data are important in the planning process as well. This study examines some of the unique regional factors that impact planning for a 10 kT detonation in the National Capital Region. The work utilizes a single scenario to examine regional impacts as well as the shelter-evacuate decision alternatives at one exemplary point. For most Washington, DC neighborhoods, the excellent assessed shelter quality available make shelter-in-place or selective transit to a nearby shelter a compelling post-detonation strategy.

Yoshimura, Ann S.; Brandt, Larry D.

2011-12-01

251

Shelter Proximity and Affect among Homeless Smokers Making a Quit Attempt  

PubMed Central

Objectives To explore the associations between shelter proximity and real-time affect during a specific smoking quit attempt among 22 homeless adults. Methods Affect was measured via 485 smartphone-based Ecological Momentary Assessments randomly administered during the weeks immediately before and after the quit day, and proximity to the shelter was measured via GPS. Adjusted linear mixed model regressions examined associations between shelter proximity and affect. Results Closer proximity to the shelter was associated with greater negative affect only during the post-quit attempt week (p = .008). All participants relapsed to smoking by one week post-quit attempt. Conclusions Among homeless smokers trying to quit, the shelter may be associated with unexpected negative affect/stress. Potential intervention applications are suggested. PMID:24629545

Reitzel, Lorraine R.; Kendzor, Darla E.; Nguyen, Nga; Regan, Seann D.; Okuyemi, Kolawole S.; Castro, Yessenia; Wetter, David W.; Businelle, Michael S.

2013-01-01

252

Analysis of sheltering and evacuation strategies for an urban nuclear detonation scenario.  

SciTech Connect

Development of an effective strategy for shelter and evacuation is among the most important planning tasks in preparation for response to a low yield, nuclear detonation in an urban area. This study examines shelter-evacuate policies and effectiveness focusing on a 10 kt scenario in Los Angeles. The goal is to provide technical insights that can support development of urban response plans. Results indicate that extended shelter-in-place can offer the most robust protection when high quality shelter exists. Where less effective shelter is available and the fallout radiation intensity level is high, informed evacuation at the appropriate time can substantially reduce the overall dose to personnel. However, uncertainties in the characteristics of the fallout region and in the exit route can make evacuation a risky strategy. Analyses indicate that only a relatively small fraction of the total urban population may experience significant dose reduction benefits from even a well-informed evacuation plan.

Yoshimura, Ann S.; Brandt, Larry D.

2009-05-01

253

Earth Charter Initiative  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Earth Charter is a declaration of fundamental principles for building a just, sustainable, and peaceful global society in the 21st century. The principles of the Earth Charter reflect extensive international consultations conducted over a period of many years. These principles are also based upon contemporary science, international law, and the insights of philosophy and religion.

254

Remote Mapping of River Gravel Interstitial Spaces Availability for Juvenile Salmon Sheltering (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Juvenile salmonid use interstitial gravel spaces to shelter from predators and adverse hydroclimatic conditions. Shelter availability is therefore a key habitat factor to consider in habitat quality mapping. Finstad et al. (2007) developed a method for the measurement of shelter availability in the field using PVC tubes of various diameter and length. The method, which involves probing the bed with the tubes, provides high quality measurements of shelter abundance and size distribution but it is laborious and exceedingly time consuming to apply at large spatial scales. We tested two different remote methods for estimating substrate shelter availability at a large number of sampled locations over a test gravel bed reach of the Restigouche river, an Atlantic salmon river of the Gaspésie peninsula, Québec, Canada. At each sampled location, Finstad's method was first used to measure "true" reference shelter characteristics. Then, the two remote methods were used to estimate shelter characteristics over the same sampled locations. The first remote method used Agisoft Photoscan to produce hi-resolution 3D models of river bed surfaces from close-range (<150 cm from the bed) digital images of the sampled bed areas. Various methods were developed and tested for extracting shelters from these models. The second remote method used high-resolution airborne imagery to extract textural properties of the images over the sampled locations and to calibrate relationships between texture values and shelter characteristics as measured with Finstad's method. In this presentation, the performance of these two methods is analysed with regards to their ability to provide adequate estimates of shelter availability over large spatial scales.

Bergeron, N.; Calsamiglila, A.; Dugdale, S. J.; Bérubé, F.

2013-12-01

255

The selection of shelter place by the house cricket.  

PubMed

The stimuli acting upon the choice of shelter and resting place by the house cricket, Acheta domesticus (L.) were analysed. The places of preference in different types of terraria as well as the choice of tubes of different diameter and of various light conditions were investigated. Acheta domesticus avoids open and illuminated space in its choice of resting place. It prefers dark places, enclosed by walls, like a clefts or boxes. The influence of the conditions of environment configuration at the larval period of the crickets' development upon their subsequent preference as to rest place, has not been stated. Neither was this influence observed on their behavioural reactions as connected with the former. Crickets attain their ethological praeferendum of resting site owing to their innate photo- and thigmo-kinesis which are supplemented by hygrophilia and thermophilia. The influence of the group effect on the cricket's individual rate of development was confirmed. PMID:1007977

Kieruzel, M

1976-01-01

256

Behavioral Responses Associated with a Human-Mediated Predator Shelter  

PubMed Central

Human activities in protected areas can affect wildlife populations in a similar manner to predation risk, causing increases in movement and vigilance, shifts in habitat use and changes in group size. Nevertheless, recent evidence indicates that in certain situations ungulate species may actually utilize areas associated with higher levels of human presence as a potential refuge from disturbance-sensitive predators. We now use four-years of behavioral activity budget data collected from pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) and elk (Cervus elephus) in Grand Teton National Park, USA to test whether predictable patterns of human presence can provide a shelter from predatory risk. Daily behavioral scans were conducted along two parallel sections of road that differed in traffic volume - with the main Teton Park Road experiencing vehicle use that was approximately thirty-fold greater than the River Road. At the busier Teton Park Road, both species of ungulate engaged in higher levels of feeding (27% increase in the proportion of pronghorn feeding and 21% increase for elk), lower levels of alert behavior (18% decrease for pronghorn and 9% decrease for elk) and formed smaller groups. These responses are commonly associated with reduced predatory threat. Pronghorn also exhibited a 30% increase in the proportion of individuals moving at the River Road as would be expected under greater exposure to predation risk. Our findings concur with the ‘predator shelter hypothesis’, suggesting that ungulates in GTNP use human presence as a potential refuge from predation risk, adjusting their behavior accordingly. Human activity has the potential to alter predator-prey interactions and drive trophic-mediated effects that could ultimately impact ecosystem function and biodiversity. PMID:24718624

Shannon, Graeme; Cordes, Line S.; Hardy, Amanda R.; Angeloni, Lisa M.; Crooks, Kevin R.

2014-01-01

257

Behavioral responses associated with a human-mediated predator shelter.  

PubMed

Human activities in protected areas can affect wildlife populations in a similar manner to predation risk, causing increases in movement and vigilance, shifts in habitat use and changes in group size. Nevertheless, recent evidence indicates that in certain situations ungulate species may actually utilize areas associated with higher levels of human presence as a potential refuge from disturbance-sensitive predators. We now use four-years of behavioral activity budget data collected from pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) and elk (Cervus elephus) in Grand Teton National Park, USA to test whether predictable patterns of human presence can provide a shelter from predatory risk. Daily behavioral scans were conducted along two parallel sections of road that differed in traffic volume--with the main Teton Park Road experiencing vehicle use that was approximately thirty-fold greater than the River Road. At the busier Teton Park Road, both species of ungulate engaged in higher levels of feeding (27% increase in the proportion of pronghorn feeding and 21% increase for elk), lower levels of alert behavior (18% decrease for pronghorn and 9% decrease for elk) and formed smaller groups. These responses are commonly associated with reduced predatory threat. Pronghorn also exhibited a 30% increase in the proportion of individuals moving at the River Road as would be expected under greater exposure to predation risk. Our findings concur with the 'predator shelter hypothesis', suggesting that ungulates in GTNP use human presence as a potential refuge from predation risk, adjusting their behavior accordingly. Human activity has the potential to alter predator-prey interactions and drive trophic-mediated effects that could ultimately impact ecosystem function and biodiversity. PMID:24718624

Shannon, Graeme; Cordes, Line S; Hardy, Amanda R; Angeloni, Lisa M; Crooks, Kevin R

2014-01-01

258

26 CFR 301.6708-1T - Failure to maintain list of investors in potentially abusive tax shelters (temporary).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...to a penalty with respect to a tax shelter under section 6708...penalties with respect to the tax shelter? A-7: Yes. The...any other penalty provided by law. If, for example, an organizer of a tax shelter is subject to a...

2013-04-01

259

26 CFR 301.6708-1T - Failure to maintain list of investors in potentially abusive tax shelters (temporary).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...to a penalty with respect to a tax shelter under section 6708...penalties with respect to the tax shelter? A-7: Yes. The...any other penalty provided by law. If, for example, an organizer of a tax shelter is subject to a...

2011-04-01

260

26 CFR 301.6708-1T - Failure to maintain list of investors in potentially abusive tax shelters (temporary).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...to a penalty with respect to a tax shelter under section 6708...penalties with respect to the tax shelter? A-7: Yes. The...any other penalty provided by law. If, for example, an organizer of a tax shelter is subject to a...

2012-04-01

261

26 CFR 301.6708-1T - Failure to maintain list of investors in potentially abusive tax shelters (temporary).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...to a penalty with respect to a tax shelter under section 6708...penalties with respect to the tax shelter? A-7: Yes. The...any other penalty provided by law. If, for example, an organizer of a tax shelter is subject to a...

2014-04-01

262

Earth Advantage Institute: Introduction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This brief presentation provides an introduction to the Earth Advantage Institute, which is "a nonprofit organization that works with the building industry to help implement sustainable building practices." Information on the history of the organization, its partners, stakeholders and sponsors is included. This document may be downloaded in PDF file format.

Schnepp, Katie

263

Coercive control and abused women's decisions about their pets when seeking shelter.  

PubMed

The importance of pets in families, especially during major life stressors, is well documented. Research suggests links between pet ownership and intimate partner violence (IPV). This study explored abused women's decisions about pets when seeking help from a shelter. Interviews were conducted with 19 women who were pet owners. Using grounded theory methods, two patterns emerged surrounding abusers' treatment of pets, bonds to pets, women's decisions about pets upon seeking shelter, and future plans for pets. The presence of coercive control was central to these patterns. Women also discussed their experiences with and needs from shelter professionals and veterinarians with implications for practice. PMID:23670287

Hardesty, Jennifer L; Khaw, Lyndal; Ridgway, Marcella D; Weber, Cheryl; Miles, Teresa

2013-09-01

264

Applying Cluster Analysis to Test a Typology of Homelessness by Pattern of Shelter Utilization: Results from the Analysis of Administrative Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study tests a typology of homelessness using administrative data on public shelter use in New York City (1988-1995) and Philadelphia (1991-1995). Cluster analysis is used to produce three groups (transitionally, episodically, and chronically homeless) by number of shelter days and number of shelter episodes. Results show that the transitionally homeless, who constitute approximately 80% of shelter users in both

Randall Kuhn; Dennis P. Culhane

1998-01-01

265

26 CFR 53.4965-7 - Taxes on prohibited tax shelter transactions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Revenue 17 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Taxes on prohibited tax shelter transactions. 53.4965-7 Section 53...OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) FOUNDATION AND SIMILAR EXCISE...

2011-04-01

266

26 CFR 53.4965-7 - Taxes on prohibited tax shelter transactions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Revenue 17 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Taxes on prohibited tax shelter transactions. 53.4965-7 Section 53...OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) FOUNDATION AND SIMILAR EXCISE...

2014-04-01

267

26 CFR 53.4965-7 - Taxes on prohibited tax shelter transactions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Revenue 17 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Taxes on prohibited tax shelter transactions. 53.4965-7 Section 53...OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) FOUNDATION AND SIMILAR EXCISE...

2012-04-01

268

26 CFR 53.4965-7 - Taxes on prohibited tax shelter transactions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Revenue 17 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Taxes on prohibited tax shelter transactions. 53.4965-7 Section 53...OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) FOUNDATION AND SIMILAR EXCISE...

2013-04-01

269

Community-Based Child Health Clinical Experience in a Family Homeless Shelter.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students of child health nursing conducted weekly preschool health promotion activities for children in homeless shelters. They also organized a health fair and interviewed family members to learn about their coping strategies and help they develop healthy strategies. (SK)

Stevens, Marcia S.

2002-01-01

270

Appropriate technology water treatment processes for MaeLa Temporary Shelter, Thailand  

E-print Network

This thesis recommends the use of horizontal-flow roughing filters to treat spring water of variable annual quality in MaeLa Temporary Shelter, Thailand. The public drinking water system for 45,000 refugees is overseen by ...

Vater, Katherine Ann

2008-01-01

271

77 FR 14378 - Family Violence Prevention and Services/Grants for Domestic Violence Shelters and Supportive...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Administration for Children and Families Family Violence Prevention and Services/Grants for Domestic Violence Shelters and Supportive Services/Grants...award of mandatory grants under the Family Violence Prevention and Services Act (FVPSA)...

2012-03-09

272

38 CFR 21.144 - Vocational course in a sheltered workshop or rehabilitation facility.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Vocational course in a sheltered workshop or rehabilitation facility. 21.144 Section 21...VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment Under 38 U.S.C....

2013-07-01

273

38 CFR 21.144 - Vocational course in a sheltered workshop or rehabilitation facility.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Vocational course in a sheltered workshop or rehabilitation facility. 21.144 Section 21...VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment Under 38 U.S.C....

2014-07-01

274

38 CFR 21.144 - Vocational course in a sheltered workshop or rehabilitation facility.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Vocational course in a sheltered workshop or rehabilitation facility. 21.144 Section 21...VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment Under 38 U.S.C....

2010-07-01

275

38 CFR 21.144 - Vocational course in a sheltered workshop or rehabilitation facility.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Vocational course in a sheltered workshop or rehabilitation facility. 21.144 Section 21...VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment Under 38 U.S.C....

2011-07-01

276

38 CFR 21.144 - Vocational course in a sheltered workshop or rehabilitation facility.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Vocational course in a sheltered workshop or rehabilitation facility. 21.144 Section 21...VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment Under 38 U.S.C....

2012-07-01

277

Sustainable shelters for post disaster reconstruction : an integrated approach for reconstruction after the South Asia earthquake  

E-print Network

A year after the South Asia earthquake, over 60% of the survivors are still vulnerable due to the lack of adequate shelter, the absence of basic facilities for water and sanitation and livelihood restoration. The harsh ...

Ali, Zehra (Zehra Hyder)

2007-01-01

278

Shelter recovery in urban Haiti after the earthquake: the dual role of social capital.  

PubMed

This paper documents the culture-specific understanding of social capital among Haitians and examines its benefits and downsides in post-disaster shelter recovery following the 12 January 2010 earthquake. The case study of shelter recovery processes in three socioeconomically diverse communities (Pétion-Ville, Delmas and Canapé Vert) in Port-au-Prince suggests that social capital plays dual roles in post-disaster shelter recovery of the displaced population in Haiti. On the one hand, it provides enhanced access to shelter-related resources for those with connections. On the other hand, it accentuates pre-existing inequalities or creates new inequalities among displaced Haitians. In some cases, such inequalities lead to tensions between the haves and have-nots and instigate violence among the displaced. PMID:24601933

Rahill, Guitele J; Ganapati, N Emel; Clérismé, J Calixte; Mukherji, Anuradha

2014-04-01

279

Leaving Homelessness Behind: Housing Decisions among Families Exiting Shelter1  

PubMed Central

Because homelessness assistance programs are designed to help families, it is important for policymakers and practitioners to understand how families experiencing homelessness make housing decisions, particularly when they decide not to use available services. This study explores those decisions using in-depth qualitative interviews with 80 families recruited in shelters across four sites approximately six months after they were assigned to one of four conditions (permanent housing subsidies, project-based transitional housing, community-based rapid re-housing, and usual care). Familiar neighborhoods near children’s schools, transportation, family and friends, and stability were important to families across conditions. Program restrictions on eligibility constrained family choices. Subsidized housing was the most desired intervention and families leased up at higher rates than in other studies of poor families. Respondents were least comfortable in and most likely to leave transitional housing. Uncertainty associated with community-based rapid re-housing generated considerable anxiety. Across interventions, many families had to make unhappy compromises, often leading to further moves. Policy recommendations are offered. PMID:25258503

Fisher, Benjamin W.; Mayberry, Lindsay; Shinn, Marybeth; Khadduri, Jill

2014-01-01

280

From research to practice (and vice versa) for post-disaster settlement and shelter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shelter Projects (2008 – IFRC\\/UN-Habitat\\/UNHCR and 2009 – IFRC\\/UN-Habitat) are two books aiming to consolidate some of the lessons from post-disaster settlement and shelter case studies, spanning over 60 projects from 1945 to the present. This paper analyses many of these case studies in order to reflect on how research and practice could be better connected for post-disaster settlement and

Ilan Kelman; Joseph Ashmore; Esteban Leon; Sandra Durzo

2011-01-01

281

A theory-based approach to understanding suicide risk in shelter-seeking women.  

PubMed

Women seeking shelter from intimate partner violence are at an increased risk for suicide ideation and attempts compared to women in the general population. Control-based violence, which is common among shelter-seeking women, may play a pivotal role in the development of suicide ideation and attempts. Current risk assessment and management practices for shelter-seeking women are limited by the lack of an empirically grounded understanding of increased risk in this population. We argue that in order to more effectively promote risk assessment and management, an empirically supported theory that is sensitive to the experiences of shelter-seeking women is needed. Such a theory-driven approach has the benefits of identifying and prioritizing targetable areas for intervention. Here, we review the evidence for the link between coercive control and suicide ideation and attempts from the perspective of Baumeister's escape theory of suicide. This theory has the potential to explain the role of coercive control in the development of suicide ideation and eventual attempts in shelter-seeking women. Implications for suicide risk assessment and prevention in domestic violence shelters are discussed. PMID:24415137

Wolford-Clevenger, Caitlin; Smith, Phillip N

2015-04-01

282

[Survey of the existing housing situation for cats (Felis catus) in German-Swiss animal shelters].  

PubMed

This study investigated the current situation of cat husbandry in the animal shelters of german-speaking Switzerland. In 1993, Swiss-german animal shelters occupied just over 5000 housing spaces. Additionally, there was one quarantine space per eight housing spaces. During the summer, which is the season of highest demand, the requirement for housing and quarantine spaces was inadequate. In 1993, approximately 30,000 cats were housed in Swiss-german animal shelters. About four fifths of all entries were boarding cats and the rest were homeless cats. In 1993, about three-quarters of all homeless cats were rehoused with new owners. About a tenth of the remaining cats were reclaimed by their owners. Another tenth of the animals were euthanatized. 63 animal shelters kept cats mainly in group housing enclosures. 15 preferred single/pair boxes, whereas 22 animal shelters used both types of housing. This study shows that more housing and quarantine spaces are needed and should be built for the summer season, to avoid the inadequate housing capacities in Swiss-german animal shelters. PMID:9441380

Kessler, M R

1997-01-01

283

Food safety training needs at evacuation shelters operated by faith-based organizations.  

PubMed

The authors conducted a survey to identify food safety training needs at evacuation shelters operated by faith-based organizations (FBOs) in four hurricane-prone states. Five thousand randomly selected FBO leaders were asked questions about their food safety attitudes and food handling practices at evacuation shelters. Descriptive statistics and multivariate analysis of variance were calculated to summarize and prioritize the responses. Results from 138 leaders revealed that on average, 590 +/- 4,787 evacuees were served for 36 +/- 72 days at FBO-operated shelters. Only 19.6% felt they were well prepared for the shelter. Only 5.8% had professional food preparation staff and many accepted hot (47.8%) and cold (37%) prepared food donations. Some lacked adequate refrigerator (18.8%) or freezer (16.7%) spaces, but 40% kept hot food leftovers for later use. The majority did not provide food safety training before opening the shelters (73.2%), yet 76.9% said they will provide food to evacuation shelters again. The results show a need for food safety training and specific strategies for training at FBOs. PMID:24073485

Kwon, Junehee; Zottarelli, Lisa; Kwon, Sockju; Lee, Yee Ming; Ryu, Dojin

2013-09-01

284

IEEE JOURNAL OF SELECTED TOPICS IN APPLIED EARTH OBSERVATIONS AND REMOTE SENSING, VOL. 5, NO. 1, FEBRUARY 2012 89 A Hybrid Approach for Building Extraction From  

E-print Network

. This urban land use study is focused on building extraction and height estimation from spaceborne optical, FEBRUARY 2012 89 A Hybrid Approach for Building Extraction From Spaceborne Multi-Angular Optical Imagery imagery. The advantages of such methods include 3D visualization of urban areas, digital urban mapping

Du, Jenny (Qian)

285

Managing the earth's resources for today  

E-print Network

Managing the earth's resources for today and tomorrow Everything we build and use on the surface of our planet comes from the earth. Engineers in the applied earth sciences know where these resources in order to locate, extract and process the earth's resources in a sustainable and responsible manner

Langendoen, Koen

286

Earth Exploration Toolbook Chapter: Visualizing Carbon Pathways  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

DATA: NASA Satellite Images TOOLS: ImageJ and Image Composite Explorer (ICE) of NASA Earth Observations (NEO). SUMMARY: Build animations of satellite data to illustrate and explore carbon pathways through the Earth system.

LuAnn Dahlman

287

Molecular epidemiology of feline bordetellosis in two animal shelters in California, USA.  

PubMed

"Kennel cough" in dogs in animal shelters is readily transmissible, reduces adoption rates, and commonly leads to the euthanasia of affected dogs. In cats, tracheobronchitis, conjunctivitis, and pneumonia have been associated with Bordetella bronchiseptica infection-but most cases of upper-respiratory infection (URI) probably are caused by herpesvirus and calicivirus, and many B. bronchiseptica culture-positive cats are clinically normal. Our prospective observational study was undertaken to document the contribution of B. bronchiseptica to disease in cats and dogs from two animal shelters undergoing outbreaks of canine kennel cough, to evaluate whether cross-species transmission might have occurred, and to determine if the presence of infected cats represented a risk to dogs. Clinically defined cases of kennel cough in dogs and URI in cats were investigated in two shelters by calculating clinical-disease incidence, alveolar-lavage cytological examination, bacterial and viral cultures, antibiotic-susceptibility testing, and molecular fingerprinting by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. In a 40-cat and 40-dog "no-kill" shelter, the prevalences of culture positivity were 47% for B. bronchiseptica and 36% for calicivirus at the same time as two resident dogs demonstrated clinical cough. When no dogs had kennel cough 3 months later, 10% of cats were B. bronchiseptica-culture-positive and 63% calicivirus positive. In a large traditional shelter, the incidence of kennel cough in dogs increased over 12 weeks to a maximum of 19 cases/week/120 dogs, during which time the culture prevalence was 23% for B. bronchiseptica in dogs and 47% in cats. Three to 6 months before the kennel-cough epidemic, no dogs or cats were B. bronchiseptica positive. Very little genetic variability was detected in isolates from these shelters; all isolates except one corresponded to a single strain type which was identical to the pattern in a vaccine used in these shelters. Isolates from other cats, a horse, a llama, and a sea otter were genetically distinct from the shelter isolates. There was widespread resistance to cephalosporins and ampicillin, but low or no resistance to amoxicillin/clavulanate, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, tetracycline, and enrofloxacin. Greater percent resistance was observed in the traditional shelter than in the no-kill shelter and feline isolates were more likely to be resistant than canine isolates. PMID:12069777

Foley, Janet E; Rand, Courtney; Bannasch, Mike J; Norris, Carol R; Milan, Joy

2002-06-25

288

Detail view of part of east side of building showing ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Detail view of part of east side of building showing scorecard and pencil holder - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Golf Course Waiting Shelter, Southwest area of Golf Course, 700 feet Northeast of intersection of West Harlow Avenue & Peoria Street, Aurora, Adams County, CO

289

"I Am Not a Shelter!": Stigma and Social Boundaries in Teachers' Accounts of Students' Experience in Separate "Sheltered" English Learner Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates how teachers interact with immigrant-origin youth in school-based contexts of reception that mediate youth's educational opportunities. One understudied context is sheltered instruction, where English learners (ELs) are placed into separate content-area courses to target their linguistic needs. This qualitative study…

Dabach, Dafney Blanca

2014-01-01

290

Shelter from the Storm: Building a Safe Archive in a Hostile World  

E-print Network

, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 {maclaren, gallen, cdekate, dayong, ahutanu, czhang to be used for verification of model results (sensor data). R. Meersman et al. (Eds.): OTM Workshops 2005

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

291

BUILDINGS INVENTORY -CASUARINA CAMPUS Amendment: A July 2008 * Additions to Original List  

E-print Network

31 Bookshop / Post Office / Security BD RD1 - 01 to 03 Levels 1 to 3 PLANS Red 2 RD2 31 Basketball General Purpose Building - Teaching & Administration BD OR1 - 01 to 04 Levels 1 to 4 PLANS * Orange 1A OR1A - Bus Stop Shelter Orange 2 OR2 28 General Purpose Building - Teaching & Administration BD OR2

292

Development of a Fuel Containing Material Removal and Waste Management Strategy for the Chernobyl Unit 4 Shelter  

SciTech Connect

A study was performed to develop a strategy for the removal of fuel-containing material (FCM) from the Chernobyl Unit 4 Shelter and for the related waste management. This study was performed during Phase 1 of the Shelter Implementation Plan (SIP) and was funded by the Chernobyl Shelter Fund. The main objective for Phase 2 of the SIP is to stabilize the Shelter and to construct a New Confinement (NC) by the year 2007. In addition, the SIP includes studies on the strategy and on the conceptual design implications of the removal of FCM from the Shelter. This is considered essential for the ultimate goal, the transformation of the Shelter into an environmentally safe system.

Tokarevsky, V. V.; Shibetsky, Y. A.; Leister, P.; Davison, W. R.; Follin, J. F.; McNair, J.; Lins, W.; Edler, G.

2002-02-27

293

Service quality and corporate social responsibility, influence on post-purchase intentions of sheltered employment institutions.  

PubMed

The main purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of service quality and corporate social responsibility (CSR) on customer satisfaction, and customer satisfaction toward post-purchase intentions from sheltered employment institutions. Work experience plays an important role in career development for those people with intellectual disabilities. When they are not yet capable of obtaining a job in the open market, they must receive job training and daily care in sheltered employment institutions. If the sheltered employment institutions cannot operate properly, they will greatly affect intellectual disabilities. From the study of "Children Are Us Bakeries and Restaurants" sheltered employment institutions are one kind of food service business that has been found to request and improve service quality and execution of CSR. These are two main factors which can enhance brand value and create a good reputation for sheltered employment institutions. The questionnaire results indicate that perceived service quality has a positive relationship with customer satisfaction and the reliability dimension is the most important factor for customers to assess service quality. Meanwhile, correlation analysis shows that customer satisfaction regarding service quality influences post-purchase intentions, indicating that friendly and helpful employees can please customers and enhance their satisfaction level and also induce positive post-purchase intentions of consumers. Regarding the CSR of "Children Are Us Bakeries and Restaurants" sheltered employment institutions, the analysis reveals a statistical significance: the greater customer satisfaction of CSR, the higher the post-purchase intention. In addition, in the work, paired-sample t test analysis reveals there is a significant difference (p<.05) in service quality and CSR in terms of "perceived" and "expected" responses. In summary, since those with intellectual disabilities usually are enthusiastic at work and do their best to provide good service and execute CSR well, the value of sheltered employment institutions establishments should be recognized by all should receive continued support and there should be a willingness to hire these intellectually disabled citizens. PMID:22699256

Chen, Chao-Chien; Lin, Shih-Yen; Cheng, Chia-Hsin; Tsai, Chia-Ching

2012-01-01

294

9 CFR 3.3 - Sheltered housing facilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...animals, when the floor areas are not exposed to the direct sun, or are made of a hard material such as wire, wood, metal...floor areas in contact with the animals and exposed to the direct sun may consist of compacted earth, absorbent bedding, sand,...

2011-01-01

295

9 CFR 3.3 - Sheltered housing facilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...animals, when the floor areas are not exposed to the direct sun, or are made of a hard material such as wire, wood, metal...floor areas in contact with the animals and exposed to the direct sun may consist of compacted earth, absorbent bedding, sand,...

2012-01-01

296

9 CFR 3.3 - Sheltered housing facilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...animals, when the floor areas are not exposed to the direct sun, or are made of a hard material such as wire, wood, metal...floor areas in contact with the animals and exposed to the direct sun may consist of compacted earth, absorbent bedding, sand,...

2014-01-01

297

9 CFR 3.3 - Sheltered housing facilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...animals, when the floor areas are not exposed to the direct sun, or are made of a hard material such as wire, wood, metal...floor areas in contact with the animals and exposed to the direct sun may consist of compacted earth, absorbent bedding, sand,...

2013-01-01

298

Simple rain-shelter cultivation prolongs accumulation period of anthocyanins in wine grape berries.  

PubMed

Simple rain-shelter cultivation is normally applied during the grape growth season in continental monsoon climates aiming to reduce the occurrence of diseases caused by excessive rainfall. However, whether or not this cultivation practice affects the composition and concentration of phenolic compounds in wine grapes remains unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of rain-shelter cultivation on the accumulation of anthocyanins in wine grapes (Vitis vinifera L. Cabernet Sauvignon) grown in eastern China. The results showed that rain-shelter cultivation, compared with the open-field, extended the period of rapid accumulation of sugar, increased the soluble solid content in the grape berries, and delayed the senescence of the green leaves at harvest. The concentrations of most anthocyanins were significantly enhanced in the rain-shelter cultivated grapes, and their content increases were closely correlated with the accumulation of sugar. However, the compositions of anthocyanins in the berries were not altered. Correspondingly, the expressions of VvF3'H, VvF3'5'H, and VvUFGT were greatly up-regulated and this rising trend appeared to continue until berry maturation. These results suggested that rain-shelter cultivation might help to improve the quality of wine grape berries by prolonging the life of functional leaves and hence increasing the assimilation products. PMID:25232706

Li, Xiao-Xi; He, Fei; Wang, Jun; Li, Zheng; Pan, Qiu-Hong

2014-01-01

299

Rapid HIV Testing and Counseling for Residents in Domestic Violence Shelters.  

PubMed

Over one million Americans live with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and roughly 20 percent of those living with HIV are unaware of their status. One way to decrease this epidemic is community-based rapid testing with high-risk populations. One high-risk population that has received limited attention is victims of intimate partner violence who seek shelter. In an effort to gain foundational information to implement rapid HIV testing and counseling services in domestic violence shelters, the current study conducted a series of focus groups with eighteen residents and ten staff of local shelters from October 15 to December 12, 2012. Participants provided valuable insight into how HIV rapid testing and counseling might be best implemented given the resources and constraints of shelter life. Despite identifying some potential barriers, most believed that the promise of quick results, the convenience and support afforded by the shelter venue, and the timing of the intervention at a point when women are making life changes would render the intervention acceptable to residents. Further insights are discussed in the article. PMID:25738795

Draucker, Claire Burke; Johnson, Dawn M; Johnson-Quay, Nicole L; Kadeba, Myriam T; Mazurczyk, Jill; Zlotnick, Caron

2015-04-01

300

Rapid HIV Testing and Counseling for Residents in Domestic Violence Shelters  

PubMed Central

Over one million Americans live with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and roughly 20% of those living with HIV are unaware of their status. One way to decrease this epidemic is community-based rapid testing with high-risk populations. One high-risk population that has received limited attention is victims of intimate partner violence (IPV) who seek shelter. In an effort to gain foundational information to implement rapid HIV testing and counseling services in domestic violence shelters, the current study conducted a series of focus groups with 18 residents and 10 staff of local shelters from October 15th to December 12th, 2012. Participants provided valuable insight into how HIV rapid testing and counseling might be best implemented given the resources and constraints of shelter life. Despite identifying some potential barriers, most believed that the promise of quick results, the convenience and support afforded by the shelter venue, and the timing of the intervention at a point when women are making life changes would render the intervention acceptable to residents. Further insights are discussed in the article. PMID:25738795

Draucker, Claire Burke; Johnson, Dawn M.; Johnson, Nicole L.; Kadeba, Myriam T.; Mazurczyk, Jill; Zlotnick, Caron

2015-01-01

301

The olfactory pathway mediates sheltering behavior of Caribbean spiny lobsters, Panulirus argus, to conspecific urine signals.  

PubMed

The "noses" of diverse taxa are organized into different subsystems whose functions are often not well understood. The "nose" of decapod crustaceans is organized into two parallel pathways that originate in different populations of antennular sensilla and project to specific neuropils in the brain-the aesthetasc/olfactory lobe pathway and the non-aesthetasc/lateral antennular neuropil pathway. In this study, we investigated the role of these pathways in mediating shelter selection of Caribbean spiny lobsters, Panulirus argus, in response to conspecific urine signals. We compared the behavior of ablated animals and intact controls. Our results show that control and non-aesthetasc ablated lobsters have a significant overall preference for shelters emanating urine over control shelters. Thus the non-aesthetasc pathway does not play a critical role in shelter selection. In contrast, spiny lobsters with aesthetascs ablated did not show a preference for either shelter, suggesting that the aesthetasc/olfactory pathway is important for processing social odors. Our results show a difference in the function of these dual chemosensory pathways in responding to social cues, with the aesthetasc/olfactory lobe pathway playing a major role. We discuss our results in the context of why the noses of many animals contain multiple parallel chemosensory systems. PMID:18057940

Horner, Amy J; Weissburg, Marc J; Derby, Charles D

2008-03-01

302

Sheltering Effect and Indirect Pathogenesis of Carbapenem-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii in Polymicrobial Infection  

PubMed Central

The role of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAb) in polymicrobial infection remains elusive. Having observed the ability of CRAb to shelter other susceptible bacteria from carbapenem killing, we sought to determine the factors contributing to this sheltering effect by transforming different recombinant plasmids into recipient A. baumannii cells. The sheltering effects of CRAb were reproduced in recipient A. baumannii cells that highly expressed carbapenem-hydrolyzing class D ?-lactamases (CHDLs) through their associated strong promoter. With the use of Western blot analysis and a bioassay, the highly expressed CHDLs were found to be extracellularly released and led to hydrolysis of carbapenem. The level of extracellular CHDLs increased after challenge with a higher concentration of CHDL substrates, such as carbapenem and ticarcillin. This increased CHDL may, in part, be attributed to cell lysis, as indicated by the presence of extracellular gyrase. In the planktonic condition, the sheltering effect for the cocultured susceptible bacteria might represent an indirect and passive effect of the CRAb self-defense mechanism, because coculture with the susceptible pathogen did not augment the amount of the extracellular CHDLs. Polymicrobial infection caused by CRAb and a susceptible counterpart exerted higher pathogenicity than monomicrobial infection caused by either pathogen alone in mice receiving carbapenem therapy. This study demonstrated that CHDL-producing CRAb appears to provide a sheltering effect for carbapenem-susceptible pathogens via the extracellular release of CHDLs and, by this mechanism, can enhance the pathogenesis of polymicrobial infection in the presence of carbapenem therapy. PMID:24798276

Liao, Yu-Ting; Kuo, Shu-Chen; Lee, Yi-Tzu; Chen, Chien-Pei; Lin, Shu-Wen; Shen, Li-Jiuan; Fung, Chang-Phone

2014-01-01

303

Coordinating Communities and Building Governance in the Development of Schematic and Semantic Standards: the Key to Solving Global Earth and Space Science Challenges in the 21st Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Information Age in Science is being driven partly by the data deluge as exponentially growing volumes of data are being generated by research. Such large volumes of data cannot be effectively processed by humans and efficient and timely processing by computers requires development of specific machine readable formats. Further, as key challenges in earth and space sciences, such as

L. A. Wyborn

2007-01-01

304

Green Buildings Virtual Tour  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, learners will use Google Earth to explore the diversity of green buildings around the world. During the activity, they will look for and record the characteristics that make buildings 'green'. They will also refer to the LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) consensus-based national rating system to understand how buildings are developed to be both effective and sustainable. This lesson plan includes suggested resources, wrap-up discussion questions, key vocabulary, and is standards-based.

California Academy of Sciences

2009-01-01

305

University Buildings Landmark Buildings  

E-print Network

Pharmacy S Planning, Architecture and Civil Engineering T Politics, International Studies and Philosophy VKEY University Buildings Landmark Buildings The Lanyon Building Roads Footpath Cafe University Accommodation Queen's University Belfast Campus Map School Offices A Biological Sciences B Chemistry

Paxton, Anthony T.

306

7. WASTE CALCINING FACILITY, LOOKING AT NORTH END OF BUILDING. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. WASTE CALCINING FACILITY, LOOKING AT NORTH END OF BUILDING. CAMERA FACING SOUTH. TENT-ROOFED COVER IN RIGHT OF VIEW IS A TEMPORARY WEATHER-PROOFING SHELTER OVER THE BLOWER PIT IN CONNECTION WITH DEMOLITION PROCEDURES. SMALL BUILDING CPP-667 IN CENTER OF VIEW WAS USED FOR SUPPLEMENTARY OFFICE SPACE BY HEALTH PHYSICISTS AND OTHERS. INEEL PROOF SHEET NOT NUMBERED. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Old Waste Calcining Facility, Scoville, Butte County, ID

307

Earth's Atmosphere  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This problem set is about the methods scientists use to compare the abundance of the different elements in Earth's atmosphere. Answer key is provided. This is part of Earth Math: A Brief Mathematical Guide to Earth Science and Climate Change.

2012-08-03

308

Earth's Three  

E-print Network

Broadcast Transcript: From Mongolia, land of fermented mare's milk, comes this beguiling morsel of nomadic oral tradition. It's called yertonciin gorav or Earth's Three. Earth's three what? Well, Earth's three top things in a number of categories...

Hacker, Randi

2010-11-17

309

Ion engine propelled Earth-Mars cycler with nuclear thermal propelled transfer vehicle, volume 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this project was to perform a preliminary design of a long term, reusable transportation system between earth and Mars which would be capable of providing both artificial gravity and shelter from solar flare radiation. The heart of this system was assumed to be a Cycler spacecraft propelled by an ion propulsion system. The crew transfer vehicle was

Rudolf X. Meyer; Myles Baker; Joseph Melko

1994-01-01

310

Uderstanding Snowball Earth Deglaciation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earth, a normally clement planet comfortably in its star's habitable zone, suffered global or nearly global glaciation at least twice during the Neoproterozoic era (at about 635 and 710 million years ago). Viewed in the context of planetary evolution, these pan-global glaciations (Snowball Earth events) were extremely rapid, lasting only a few million years. The dramatic effect of the Snowball Earth events on the development of the planet can be seen through their link to rises in atmospheric oxygen and evolutionary innovations. These potential catastrophes on an otherwise clement planet can be used to gain insight into planetary habitability more generally. Since Earth is not currently a Snowball, a sound deglaciation mechanism is crucial for the viability of the Snowball Earth hypothesis. The traditional deglaciation mechanism is a massive build up of CO2 due to reduced weathering during Snowball Earth events until tropical surface temperatures reach the melting point. Once initiated, such a deglaciation might happen on a timescale of only dozens of thousands of years and would thrust Earth from the coldest climate in its history to the warmest. Therefore embedded in Snowball Earth events is an even more rapid and dramatic environmental change. Early global climate model simulations raised doubt about whether Snowball Earth deglaciation could be achieved at a CO2 concentration low enough to be consistent with geochemical data, which represented a potential challenge to the Snowball Earth hypothesis. Over the past few years dust and clouds have emerged as the essential missing additional processes that would allow Snowball Earth deglaciation at a low enough CO2 concentration. I will discuss the dust and cloud mechanisms and the modeling behind these ideas. This effort is critical for the broader implications of Snowball Earth events because understanding the specific deglaciation mechanism determines whether similar processes could happen on other planets.

Abbot, D. S.

2012-12-01

311

Earth Sciences Environmental Earth Sciences,  

E-print Network

94 Earth Sciences­ Environmental Earth Sciences, Geology Degree options MGeol (Single Honours Degrees) Earth Sciences BSc (Single Honours Degrees) Environmental Earth Sciences Geology BSc (Joint placement. * The Geology and Environmental Earth Sciences degrees are accredited by the Geological Society

Brierley, Andrew

312

Earth Sciences Environmental Earth Sciences,  

E-print Network

84 Earth Sciences­ Environmental Earth Sciences, Geology MGeol (Single Honours Degrees) Earth Sciences BSc (Single Honours Degrees) Environmental Earth Sciences Geology BSc (Joint Honours Degrees) and among the most research-intensive in Europe. Features * The Department of Earth and Environmental

Brierley, Andrew

313

Damage function rating procedure for flat slab basement shelters. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the development of procedures for rating of damage function and casualty functions for basement Civil Defense shelters. Suitable large basements, after having been upgraded during a crisis period, to withstand nuclear weapons effects including air blast, and nuclear radiation are expected to be utilized to provide protection for a large portion of the population in the event of a nuclear attack on the United States. Both risk area personnel shelters for essential workers and host area shelters for the general population are included. The report includes: a descriptive listing of basement structural systems and other pertinent basement parameters; a description of the characteristics of typical flat slab basement designs; a review of applicable casualty data and prediction models for nuclear warfare casualties; a summary of previous research on development of casualty functions; a description of the current status of the damage and casualty function development procedure; casualty function predictions for representative flat slab basements; and conclusions and recommendations.

Peterson, R.E.; Bernard, R.D.; Tansley, R.S.; Willoughby, A.B.; Wilton, C.

1982-12-01

314

An Evaluation of a Behaviour Assessment to Determine the Suitability of Shelter Dogs for Rehoming  

PubMed Central

We evaluated a scheme for assessing shelter dog behaviour, which used 28 tests and rated responses from 0 (positive response) to 5 (fear, tonic immobility, or escape attempts). The assessment was evaluated for 236 dogs, and was repeated by a different assessor for 39 dogs approximately 80 days after rehoming to determine relevance of individual test components. A new owner survey evaluated satisfaction with the dog. A total of 130 of 236 dogs passed (score ? 70), 24 scored 71–80 (referred for behavioural modification), and 82 (score > 80) failed. Scores were mainly unaffected by dog type and environmental variables, but decreased if dog faeces from a previous test was present in the arena during a test. Shelter tests only correlated with repeat tests if there was no direct contact with assessors. Adopters were satisfied with their dogs, despite reporting some behaviour problems. The shelter assessment was therefore robust against most outside influences but did not predict responses to people well. PMID:20445786

Poulsen, A. H.; Lisle, A. T.; Phillips, C. J. C.

2010-01-01

315

Chernobyl shelter implementation plan -- project development and planning: Setting the stage for progress  

SciTech Connect

On April 26, 1986, the Chernobyl nuclear power plant (NPP) experienced a devastating accident. This accident left much of the plant and its safety systems destroyed with widespread radioactive waste contamination from the damaged nuclear fuel. In the 6 months following the accident, heroic measures were taken to stabilize the situation and erect a temporary confinement shelter over the damaged unit 4. Since that time the shelter and the contained radioactive materials and debris have begun to deteriorate. Lack of funding and staff has allowed only minor improvements to occur on-site, resulting in an existing shelter that is unstable and deteriorating. International aid has been provided to develop a comprehensive plan for the safe and environmentally sound conversion of the damaged Chernobyl reactor. These efforts are being performed in conjunction with US experts, European experts, and local Chernobyl NPP personnel. This plan is discussed here.

Johnson, W. [Parsons Infrastructure and Technology Group, Richland, WA (United States); Kreid, D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); DeFranco, W. [Science Applications International Corp., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

1998-09-01

316

The social construction of anemia in school shelters for indigenous children in Mexico.  

PubMed

Indigenous children in school shelters in Mexico suffer from anemia in spite of food that is subsidized, prepared, and served to them. Economically and biomedically centered strategies to reduce anemia have achieved only partial and short-term success. An interdisciplinary team investigated the food security system of the school shelters and collected data through interviews and participant observation. The analysis revealed that the children's nutrition depends on a frail chain of events in which a single link's failure can lead to nutritional insecurity. The authors conclude that the social actors involved in the process are mainly considering the economic aspects of nutrition, but anemia persists as a social construction of the faulty relationship between the institution that runs the shelters and the indigenous culture. The authors make suggestions for an intervention that empowers the community by involving it actively in solving the problem. PMID:16513993

Turnbull, Bernardo; Martínez-Andrade, Gloria; Klünder, Miguel; Carranco, Tania; Duque-López, Ximena; Ramos-Hernández, Rosa Isela; González-Unzaga, Marco; Flores-Hernández, Sergio; Martínez-Salgado, Homero

2006-04-01

317

A needs-assessment and demographic survey of infection-control and disease awareness in western US animal shelters.  

PubMed

A cross-sectional needs-assessment survey was used to characterize animal shelters in a 6-state region in the western US and describe infection-control practices and disease awareness. Survey questions focused on shelter demographics, infection-control practices and policies, awareness and concern over infectious and zoonotic diseases, staff and volunteer training relating to infection-control and disease awareness, use of diagnostic tools, and isolation procedures and protocols. Fifty percent of shelters responded to the survey and represented a wide variety of shelter types, sizes and locations. The top-three diseases of concern to shelters were feline upper respiratory disease (FURD), canine parvovirus and ringworm. Concern over these diseases was greater in open-admission shelters (compared to limited admission or no-kill/sanctuary) (OR 3.7, 95% CI 1.1-12.5) and in shelters with a desire for more zoonotic-disease training (OR=6.1, 95% CI 1.5-24.8) (compared to shelters desiring infectious-disease training, training on cleaning and disinfection or those who have no need for further training). In 45% of responding shelters many to most animals arrive with infectious diseases. Written protocols for preventive medicine exist in 88% of shelters, cleaning and disinfection protocols in 75%, specific disease protocols for outbreak situations in 36% and infection-control manuals in 15%. Veterinarians are in charge of infection-control in 6% of shelters. Approximately 45% of shelters vaccinate dogs and cats for rabies. Infectious-disease training is provided to 30% of staff and 35% of volunteers upon hire. Overall, volunteers received less training in infectious- and zoonotic-disease identification, prevention and control than staff members. Ninety percent of shelters said they would benefit from training in infectious and zoonotic disease. Results from this study can be used to assess and address needs in animal shelters relating to infection-control, infectious and zoonotic-disease awareness and can help guide development of shelter staff and volunteer training. PMID:21126786

Steneroden, Kay K; Hill, Ashley E; Salman, M D

2011-01-01

318

Earth Sciences Geology Option  

E-print Network

the eruptive history of volcanoes in the western United States. Career Opportunities A vibrant job market includes providing information on ground stability for, construction of buildings, dams and coastal jetties geologists · Teachers and researchers at universities · Geologists in federal and state agencies #12;Earth

Kurapov, Alexander

319

Earth Sciences Emergency Instructions  

E-print Network

Earth Sciences Emergency Instructions In the event of an EMERGENCY dial 403-220-5333 for Campus Stay close to the ground and protect your head from flying objects If outdoors and unable to safely get inside, lie in a ditch or low-lying area or crouch near a building Armed Assailant on Campus

de Leon, Alex R.

320

Beyond Earth's Boundaries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This resource for teachers of elementary age students provides a foundation for building a life-long interest in the U.S. space program. It begins with a basic understanding of man's attempt to conquer the air, then moves on to how we expanded into near-Earth space for our benefit. Students learn, through hands-on experiences, from projects…

National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Kennedy Space Center, FL. John F. Kennedy Space Center.

321

Bioengineering/Chemical Engineering Building,  

E-print Network

School of Business; Knight Management Center Escondido South Galvez Lot Skilling HEPL South Green EarthBioE/ChemE Building Bioengineering/Chemical Engineering Building, Under Construction Lucile PackardMurtry, Building Under Construction West Campus Parking Lot, Under Construction Replacement Central Energy Facility

Bogyo, Matthew

322

A supervisory strategy to improve work performance for lower functioning retarded clients in a sheltered workshop.  

PubMed Central

A multiple component strategy was investigated for aiding staff responsible for supervising production of lower functioning retarded clients on contract tasks in an institution-based sheltered workshop. The strategy was assessed in a combined multi-element, multiple baseline across groups design with a reversal component. Production performance increased during the production supervisory strategy with all 16 clients, with the range of increase varying from a few percentage points to 150% of baseline production. Both the clients and staff (responsible for conducting the research) preferred working under experimental conditions rather than under baseline conditions which approximated those found in "typical" sheltered workshops. PMID:7364697

Martin, G; Pallotta-Cornick, A; Johnstone, G; Goyos, A C

1980-01-01

323

Engineering for the Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Young students are introduced to the complex systems of the Earth through numerous lessons on its natural resources, processes, weather, climate and landforms. Key earth science topics include rocks, soils and minerals, water and natural resources, weather patterns and climatic regions, wind, erosion, landforms, and the harvesting of fossil fuels—all presented from an engineering point-of-view. (See the Unit Overview section for a list of topics by lesson.) Through many hands-on activities, students build and test sand castles for construction strength, measure snow melt as a potential water source, use colored ice cubes and salt water to learn about ocean currents, make 3-D water catchment basins, make surface tension/surfactant-powered paper boats, build and use wind vanes, build and test model wind turbines, model and observe five types of erosion, model acid rain using chalk and kitchen supplies, build transportation systems across their own 3-D model landscapes, take core samples from a clay model of the Earth's crust, read and create graphs and charts as they learn about international oil production and consumption, act as engineers by specifying the power plants to build for communities, given scenarios with budgets, energy needs and environmental impacts. They learn the steps of the engineering design process as they hypothesize ways engineers might obtain water for communities facing water crises.

Integrated Teaching and Learning Program,

324

Cognitive Behavioral Treatment of PTSD in Residents of Battered Women's Shelters: Results of a Randomized Clinical Trial  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: This study was designed to explore the acceptability, feasibility, and initial efficacy of a new shelter-based treatment for victims of intimate partner violence (IPV; i.e., Helping to Overcome PTSD through Empowerment [HOPE]). Method: A Phase I randomized clinical trial comparing HOPE (n = 35) with standard shelter services (SSS) (n =…

Johnson, Dawn M.; Zlotnick, Caron; Perez, Sara

2011-01-01

325

The Perceived Impact of a Child Maltreatment Report from the Perspective of the Domestic Violence Shelter Worker  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is to examine domestic violence shelter workers' perceptions of child maltreatment reporting. A sample of 82 professionals from domestic violence shelters across the United States participated in a survey focusing on a variety of different types of reports and the frequency of both positive and negative outcomes arising…

Steen, Julie A.

2009-01-01

326

Mother\\/Child Interaction Among Homeless Women and Their Children in a Public Night Shelter in Atlanta, Georgia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Public night shelters across the nation serve as a temporary resting place for hundreds of thousands of homeless families. In this article the delicate and important dyad of mother and child is described as observed in one such shelter. Through participant\\/observation the authors provide a look at the impact that circumstance may have on the nature and quality of mother\\/child

Nancy A. Boxill; Anita L. Beaty

1990-01-01

327

Challenges to implementing communicable disease surveillance in New York City evacuation shelters after Hurricane Sandy, November 2012.  

PubMed

Hurricane Sandy hit New York City (NYC) on October 29, 2012. Before and after the storm, 73 temporary evacuation shelters were established. The total census of these shelters peaked at approximately 6,800 individuals. Concern about the spread of communicable diseases in shelters prompted the NYC Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (DOHMH) to rapidly develop a surveillance system to report communicable diseases and emergency department transports from shelters. We describe the implementation of this system. Establishing effective surveillance in temporary shelters was challenging and required in-person visits by DOHMH staff to ensure reporting. After system establishment, surveillance data were used to identify some potential disease clusters. For the future, we recommend pre-event planning for disease surveillance. PMID:25552754

Ridpath, Alison D; Bregman, Brooke; Jones, Lucretia; Reddy, Vasudha; Waechter, HaeNa; Balter, Sharon

2015-01-01

328

46 CFR 42.03-35 - U.S.-flag vessels and Canadian vessels navigating on sheltered waters of Puget Sound and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...navigating on sheltered waters of Puget Sound and contiguous west coast waters of United...navigating on sheltered waters of Puget Sound and contiguous west coast waters of United...follows: “* * * the waters of Puget Sound, the waters lying between...

2011-10-01

329

46 CFR 42.03-35 - U.S.-flag vessels and Canadian vessels navigating on sheltered waters of Puget Sound and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...navigating on sheltered waters of Puget Sound and contiguous west coast waters of United...navigating on sheltered waters of Puget Sound and contiguous west coast waters of United...follows: “* * * the waters of Puget Sound, the waters lying between...

2012-10-01

330

Earth\\'s Surface  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

You have already learned about the four major parts of Earth\\'s system: atmosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere, and geosphere. Go to the following sites to learn more about rocks and minerals, continental drift, and geologic time. When you finish viewing all the sites, you will participate in a problem-based learning activity, \\"The Case of the Disappearing Dirt.\\" Topographic Maps All About Geology Answer the questions on the handout. Erosion and Weathering Summarize what your learned about erosion and weathering. Examine a landscape formed by erosion Observe the effects of mechanical weathering Plate Tectonics FAQ s About Rocks and Fossils Igneous Rocks Rocks and Minerals Slide Show Rock Cycle Observe an animation of metamorphic rocks forming Continental Drift Mineralogy 4 kids : rockin Internet site : the best place to learn about rocks and minerals Draw a picture of the rock cycle. Coasting Away ...

Ms. Mathis

2008-01-11

331

Tree shelter and interplanted n-fixing shrub effects on crop tree growth on a calcareous minesoil  

SciTech Connect

In southeastern Ohio, we installed three studies to test the effects of plastic tube tree shelters and interplanted N-fixing shrubs on crop tree survival and growth. Study 1 on graded gray cast overburden used white ash (Fraxinus Americana L.) and a hybrid willow (Salix matsudana x alba, or Austree) as crop trees. These were tested in factorial combination with 1.2 m tall tree shelters (present or absent) and N-fixing shrubs [none, bristly locust (Robinia fertilis Ashe), or Siberian peashrub (Caragana arborescens Lam. )]. Study 2 evaluated growth of bur oak (Quercus macrocarpa Michx.) as affected by soil surf ace (graded cast overburden or ripped topsoil), presence of tree shelters, and presence of interplanted Siberian peashrub. Study 3 tested Austree growth as affected by soil surf ace and presence of tree shelters. After four or five growing seasons, overall crop tree survivals were white ash (80%), bur oak (52%), and Austree (10% in study 1 and 25% in study 3). All crop tree species tended to survive better with tree shelters but only Austree in study 3 (36% with shelter vs. 14% without shelter) showed a significant difference. Tree shelters increased heights of white ash (102 cm with shelter vs. 21 cm without shelter) and bur oak (84 cm vs. 27 cm). Crop tree survival and growth were not affected significantly by interplanted N-fixing shrubs or by soil surface. In study 1 (cast overburden only), peashrub (64%) survived better than bristly locust (31%) but locust was taller (74 cm vs. 45 cm). In study 2, peashrub survived better on ripped topsoil (53%) than cast overburden (17%), but height was not impressive on either soil (41{+-}11 cm).

Kost, D.A.; Larson, M.M.; Vimmerstedt, J.P. [Ohio State Univ. and Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center, Wooster, OH (United States)

1996-12-31

332

High prevalence of deep vein thrombosis in tsunami-flooded shelters established after the great East-Japan earthquake.  

PubMed

High prevalence of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in disaster shelters has been reported in the aftermath of earthquakes in Japan. Calf DVT was examined using sonography in the shelters after the Great East Japan earthquake on March 11, 2011. By the end of July 2011, 701 out of 8,630 evacuees suspected with calf DVT, judged by inspections or medical interviews, were examined in 32 shelters, and 190 evacuees were confirmed to have calf DVT. The prevalence of DVT was 2.20%, which was 200 times higher than the usual incidence in Japan. The DVT prevalence seemed to decrease with time. By the end of May, a significantly higher prevalence of DVT was found in tsunami-flooded shelters (109 of 3,871 evacuees; 2.82%) than in non-flooded shelters (53 of 3,155 evacuees; 1.68%). After June, its prevalence was still higher (18/541; 3.33%) in tsunami-flooded shelters than in non-flooded shelters (10/1063; 0.94%). The cause of the high prevalence of DVT was supposed to be dehydration due to the delay in supplying drinking water, vomiting, and diarrhea experienced by the evacuees because of a shortage of clean water to wash their hands. Dehydration was especially noticed in women because they restricted themselves of water intake to avoid using unsanitary toilet facilities. Moreover, crowded shelters restricted the mobility of elderly people, which would exacerbate the prevalence of DVT. Those deteriorated and crowded shelters were observed in tsunami-flooded areas. Therefore, long-term shelters should not be set up in flooded areas after tsunami. PMID:22728376

Ueda, Shinsaku; Hanzawa, Kazuhiko; Shibata, Muneichi; Suzuki, Satoshi

2012-01-01

333

Future of Green Building  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This presentation from Sean Penrith, executive director of the Earth Advantage Institute, was given at Portland Community College's 2009 Summer Sustainability Institute. Sean shares some data about the outlook for green building projects in the Portland area and elsewhere. The presentation looks at many different aspects of the issue of green building including home energy use, local and national movements to improve technology and encourage green building, information on mortgages available for sustainable home building and more. This document may be downloaded in PDF file format.

Penrith, Sean

334

Exploration of the Prevalence and Correlates of Substance Use among Sheltered Adolescents in South Korea  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Substance use among sheltered adolescents is very serious in South Korea--a nation in the process of rapid industrialization and urbanization. However, few studies have investigated substance use among the adolescents which is a growing concern of the changing society of this nation. This study examined the prevalence of substance use and explored…

Park, Sookyung; Kim, Hae Sung; Kim, Haeryun; Sung, Kgu-taik

2007-01-01

335

Good housekeeping: why do shelter-dwelling caterpillars fling their frass?  

E-print Network

REPORT Good housekeeping: why do shelter-dwelling caterpillars fling their frass? Martha R. Weiss enclosed spaces. In a taxonomically widespread but largely unexamined behaviour, many caterpillars to have been a driving force behind the evolution of frass ejection behaviour in skipper caterpillars

Weiss, Martha R.

336

Aggression and competition for shelter between a native and an introduced crayfish in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY 1. The introduced North American crayfish, Pacifastacus leniusculus Dana, is expanding its range in Europe and locally often replaces two native crayfish species, Astacus astacus L. and Austropotamobius pallipes Lereboullet. Pacifastacus leniusculus is also expected to invade the habitat of a third native crayfish, the endangered Austropotamobius torrentium Schrank. Interspecific aggressive interactions and competition for shelter were experimentally studied

Christoph Vorburger; Georg Ribi

1999-01-01

337

Service Quality and Corporate Social Responsibility, Influence on Post-Purchase Intentions of Sheltered Employment Institutions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The main purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of service quality and corporate social responsibility (CSR) on customer satisfaction, and customer satisfaction toward post-purchase intentions from sheltered employment institutions. Work experience plays an important role in career development for those people with intellectual…

Chen, Chao-Chien; Lin, Shih-Yen; Cheng, Chia-Hsin; Tsai, Chia-Ching

2012-01-01

338

Effects of a standardized obedience program on approachability and problem behaviors in dogs from rescue shelters  

E-print Network

.............................................................4 Ontogeny of Behavior Problems..............................................................5 Jumping.......................................................................................5 Barking... when looking for a dog to adopt from a shelter and specifically, a quiet dog at the front of the enclosure will be more likely adopted. Obedience training has been shown to improve behavior problems in dogs (Clark and Boyer, 1993; Campbell, 1986...

Hays, Lauren Denise

2004-11-15

339

Hard to believe, but our first class of Shelter Medicine Interns complete their year of spe-  

E-print Network

the new members of our Shelter Medicine Team. Dr. Kate Gollon graduated from Cornell Veterinary College, they will be tagging our new in- terns, Drs. Kate Gollon and Nicole Putney, into action. I am excited to introduce pro- grams. As a veterinary student, she has ex- terned at the ASPCA, Best Friends Animal Sanctuary

Keinan, Alon

340

August 6, 2014 Analysis of the Above Ground Shelter Door Failure  

E-print Network

1 August 6, 2014 Analysis of the Above Ground Shelter Door Failure April 27, 2014 Tornado CDT (0026 UTC), the community of Mayflower, Arkansas was struck by a large tornado which continued in Vilonia were attributed to this tornado. Multi-story homes were destroyed or damaged and concrete road

Zhang, Yuanlin

341

Threats and Acts of Intimate Partner Violence Reported by Users at Norwegian Women's Shelters  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Women (n = 87) at women's shelters in Norway, a country of high welfare and gender equality, reported a multitude of severe threats and actual acts of physical, sexual and psychological violence. An individual threatening to kill his partner represented a significant increased risk for experiencing serious acts of violence, especially when the…

Alsaker, Kjersti; Kristoffersen, Kjell; Moen, Bente E.; Baste, Valborg

2011-01-01

342

GIS representation and assessment of water distribution system for Mae La Temporary Shelter, Thailand  

E-print Network

ArcGIS is used to analyze water access in Mae La, Thailand, home to 45,000 residents living as refugees in a temporary camp. Drinking water for the shelter is supplied at public tap stands while water for hygienic purposes ...

Harding, Mary Pierce

2008-01-01

343

Vocational and Social Learning of People with Severe Disabilities in Sheltered Employment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses a German program that provides a network of sheltered workshops for those unable to work under competitive conditions. Specifically described is the program at Detmold, Westphalia, which uses job analysis and detailed appraisal of workers' social and psychological characteristics in its training program. (Author/DB)

Brackhane, Rainer

1990-01-01

344

THE LOGAN BEEMAIL SHELTER: A PRACTICAL, PORTABLE UNIT FOR MANAGING CAVITY-NESTING AGRICULTURAL POLLINATORS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

An affordable, durable, portable nesting shelter will be useful to manage cavity-nesting bees for agricultural pollination. A design is described here that is assembled from commercially available components. It has been successfully used during field experiments with the alfalfa leaf-cutting bee ...

345

Cyclone shelters and their locational suitability: an empirical analysis from coastal Bangladesh.  

PubMed

Bangladesh is one of the poorest and the most disaster-prone countries in Asia; it is important, therefore, to know how its disaster reduction strategies are organised and planned. Cyclone shelters comprise a widely acceptable form of infrastructural support for disaster management in Bangladesh. This paper attempts to analyse empirically their use during cyclones in a sample study area along the southwest coastal belt of the country. It shows how the location of a cyclone shelter can determine the social power structure in coastal Bangladesh. The results reveal that the establishment of cyclone shelters in the studied communities is determined by neither a right-based nor a demand-based planning approach; rather, their creation is dependent on the socio-political affluence of local-level decision-makers. The paper goes on to demonstrate that socially vulnerable households (defined, for example, by income or housing conditions) are afforded disproportionately less access to cyclone shelters as compared to less socially vulnerable households. PMID:24905715

Mallick, Bishawjit

2014-07-01

346

The Provision of Children's Services Within Battered Women's Shelters: A Model Children's Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A three-fold exploratory study was conducted to examine the current literature regarding the effects of spousal abuse on observing children, evaluate children's programs within battered women's shelters, and propose a model children's program designed to meet children's needs. Based on the literature and the children's programs currently existing,…

Brancato, Debra Michel

347

Use of water hyacinths as shelter, foraging place, and transport by young piranhas, Serrasalmus spilopleura  

Microsoft Academic Search

The water hyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes, plays an important role in the early life of the piranha, Serrasalmus spilopleura in southeastern Brazil. Larvae and early juveniles are found by both day and night among the roots of this free floating waterweed, thus gaining shelter, a rich foraging place, and potential rafting dispersal. Piranha larvae up to 19 mm SL feed mainly

Ivan Sazima; Claudio Zamprognoz

1985-01-01

348

Literacy, Education, and Inequality: Assimilation and Resistance Narratives from Families Residing at a Homeless Shelter  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, I draw on data from my qualitative dissertation study of the literacy practices of five families who resided in a homeless shelter to complicate the relationship between literacy, education, and inequality. Homelessness is examined through the lens of sponsorship to understand the differential access the families have to powerful…

Jacobs, Mary M.

2014-01-01

349

2010-2011 Inventors Competition--Winners of the "Gimme Shelter" Competition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The number of entries to this year's "Tech Directions" Inventors Competition exceeded even the record set by the 2009-2010 contest--and gave engineer/inventor Harry T. Roman quite a judging challenge. This year's challenge called on students to propose designs for inexpensive, portable shelters that could be used by people made homeless by natural…

Tech Directions, 2011

2011-01-01

350

The Impact of Short-Term Counseling at a Domestic Violence Shelter  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Women who received counseling at a domestic violence shelter were evaluated with several measures to determine the impact of the services they received. Method: A pretest and posttest design using clinical measures for life functioning and coping ability along with posttest-only measures of satisfaction and helpfulness of service were…

McNamara, John R.; Tamanini, Kevin; Pelletier-Walker, Suzanne

2008-01-01

351

Management of Bacterial Blight of Lilac Caused by Pseudomonas syringae by Growing Plants under Plastic Shelters  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae causes some of the most economically-important bacterial diseases affecting woody perennials grown by the nursery industry in the Pacific Northwest of the United States. In this study, we evaluated a cultural control practice, placement of plants in plastic shelter...

352

Factors influencing efficacy of plastic shelters for control of bacterial blight of lilac  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Plastic shelters are thought to manage bacterial blight by protecting plants from rain and/or frost. In February to April 2008 and 2009, we studied the contribution of frost protection to efficacy of this cultural control practice. Lilacs in 1-gallon pots were exposed to four treatments: 1) plants...

353

A Way of Looking at Sheltered Workshops for the 1970's. Interface Number 3.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sheltered work programs for the handicapped in five European countries (Denmark, Sweden, Poland, West Germany, and The Netherlands) are described in this paper. Basic features of the programs in each country are discussed, including population, financing, and aspects of the programs that can be applied in helping America improve employment…

Redkey, Henry

354

SHELTER IN PLACE PAGE 1 OF 4 UNIVERSITY OF NEW ORLEANS  

E-print Network

) tornado, or 3) an outdoor airborne hazardous materials release. Below are the steps that faculty, staff and students should follow if any of these incidents should occur on the UNO main campus. A three (3) minute situation to report. 2. TORNADO 2.1 WARNING SIREN: When you hear the official Shelter-In-Place warning siren

Li, X. Rong

355

Perceived Barriers to Optimum Nutrition among Congregate (Sheltered) Housing Residents in the USA  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Malnutrition, secondary to decreased food intake, is a public health problem of epidemic proportions among older adults in the United States of America (USA). Compared to community-dwelling senior citizens, congregate (sheltered) housing residents are found to be frailer, with documented deficiencies in several major and minor…

Mahadevan, Meena; Hartwell, Heather; Feldman, Charles; Raines, Emily

2014-01-01

356

Damage function rating procedure for flat slab basement shelters. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report presents the development of procedures for rating of damage function and casualty functions for basement Civil Defense shelters. Suitable large basements, after having been upgraded during a crisis period, to withstand nuclear weapons effects including air blast, and nuclear radiation are expected to be utilized to provide protection for a large portion of the population in the event

R. E. Peterson; R. D. Bernard; R. S. Tansley; A. B. Willoughby; C. Wilton

1982-01-01

357

2010 RAL Space Solar Impacts on Earth  

E-print Network

© 2010 RAL Space Solar Impacts on Earth: Revealed by NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory & STEREO minimum for a century: · Why? What happened? · What does that mean for the Earth? · Will the next build up cycle begins... The Events of 1-4 August 2010: A Close Shave for the Earth! 1 August 2010 ­ The day

358

DEPARTMENT OF EARTH, OCEAN and ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES  

E-print Network

DEPARTMENT OF EARTH, OCEAN and ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES Part-Time Sessional Lecturer EOSC 116 Sciences, University of British Columbia, Room 2020, Earth Sciences Building, 2207 Main Mall, Vancouver, B ­ Mesozoic Earth: Time of the Dinosaurs EOSC 116 is a team-taught and the topic to be covered

359

Effect of tree shelter design on water condensation and run-off and its potential benefit for reforestation establishment in semiarid climates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tree shelters are able to act as radiative condensers and so harvest dew in significant amounts, although previous studies have overlooked this fact. This influence on dew harvesting and its quantification through soil water supply as a function of tree shelter single and double wall design was studied in a plantation trial of Pinus halepensis for two different walled shelters.

Antonio D. del Campo; Rafael M. Navarro; Anna Aguilella; Emilio González

2006-01-01

360

In-Kennel Behavior Predicts Length of Stay in Shelter Dogs  

PubMed Central

Previous empirical evaluations of training programs aimed at improving dog adoption rates assume that dogs exhibiting certain behaviors are more adoptable. However, no systematic data are available to indicate that the spontaneous behavior of shelter dogs has an effect on adopter preference. The aim of the present study was to determine whether any behaviors that dogs exhibit spontaneously in the presence of potential adopters were associated with the dogs' length of stay in the shelter. A sample of 289 dogs was videotaped for 1 min daily throughout their stay at a county shelter. To account for differences in adopter behavior, experimenters varied from solitary passive observers to pairs of interactive observers. Dogs behaved more attentively to active observers. To account for adopter preference for morphology, dogs were divided into “morphologically preferred” and “non-preferred” groups. Morphologically preferred dogs were small, long coated, ratters, herders, and lap dogs. No theoretically significant differences in behavior were observed between the two different dog morphologies. When accounting for morphological preference, three behaviors were found to have a significant effect on length of stay in all dogs: leaning or rubbing on the enclosure wall (increased median length of stay by 30 days), facing away from the front of the enclosure (increased by 15 days), and standing (increased by 7 days). When combinations of behaviors were assessed, back and forth motion was found to predict a longer stay (increased by 24 days). No consistent behavioral changes were observed due to time spent at the shelter. These findings will allow shelters to focus behavioral modification efforts only on behaviors likely to influence adopters' choices. PMID:25551460

Protopopova, Alexandra; Mehrkam, Lindsay Renee; Boggess, May Meredith; Wynne, Clive David Lawrence

2014-01-01

361

Coordinating Communities and Building Governance in the Development of Schematic and Semantic Standards: the Key to Solving Global Earth and Space Science Challenges in the 21st Century.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Information Age in Science is being driven partly by the data deluge as exponentially growing volumes of data are being generated by research. Such large volumes of data cannot be effectively processed by humans and efficient and timely processing by computers requires development of specific machine readable formats. Further, as key challenges in earth and space sciences, such as climate change, hazard prediction and sustainable development resources require a cross disciplinary approach, data from various domains will need to be integrated from globally distributed sources also via machine to machine formats. However, it is becoming increasingly apparent that the existing standards can be very domain specific and most existing data transfer formats require human intervention. Where groups from different communities do try combine data across the domain/discipline boundaries much time is spent reformatting and reorganizing the data and it is conservatively estimated that this can take 80% of a project's time and resources. Four different types of standards are required for machine to machine interaction: systems, syntactic, schematic and semantic. Standards at the systems (WMS, WFS, etc) and at the syntactic level (GML, Observation and Measurement, SensorML) are being developed through international standards bodies such as ISO, OGC, W3C, IEEE etc. In contrast standards at the schematic level (e.g., GeoSciML, LandslidesML, WaterML, QuakeML) and at the semantic level (ie ontologies and vocabularies) are currently developing rapidly, in a very uncoordinated way and with little governance. As the size of the community that can machine read each others data depends on the size of the community that has developed the schematic or semantic standards, it is essential that to achieve global integration of earth and space science data, the required standards need to be developed through international collaboration using accepted standard proceedures. Once developed the standards also require some form of governance to maintain and then extend the standard as the science evolves to meet new challenges. A standard that does have some governance is GeoSciML, a data transfer standard for geoscience map data. GeoSciML is currently being developed by a consortium of 7 countries under the auspices of the Commission for the Management of and Application of Geoscience Information (CGI), a commission of the International Union of Geological Sciences. Perhaps other `ML' or ontology and vocabulary development `teams' need to look to their international domain specific specialty societies for endorsement and governance. But the issue goes beyond Earth and Space Sciences, as increasingly cross and intra disciplinary science requires machine to machine interaction with other science disciplines such as physics, chemistry and astronomy. For example, for geochemistry do we develop GeochemistryML or do we extend the existing Chemical Markup Language? Again, the question is who will provide the coordination of the development of the required schematic and semantic standards that underpin machine to machine global integration of science data. Is this a role for ICSU or CODATA or who? In order to address this issue, Geoscience Australia and CSIRO established the Solid Earth and Environmental Grid Community website to enable communities to `advertise' standards development and to provide a community TWIKI where standards can be developed in a globally `open' environment.

Wyborn, L. A.

2007-12-01

362

Earth Fun!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Futher Discovering Volcanos and how they work. Lets go on a Virtual field trip to a volcano, plus look at interactive games and lessons on volcanos and the Earth. This is our virtual field trip! Hop aboard, and hold on tight while we discover one of Earths great wonders. Volcano Field Trip Click here to learn more about volcanos and how they work! Earth: Plates on the Move Make Your Own Earth Science Stationery Making Rocks Meet the Earth OLogists Volcano! What Do You Know About Earth Science? ...

miss.whit

2009-10-09

363

The Earth System Model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Earth System Model is the natural evolution of current climate models and will be the ultimate embodiment of our geophysical understanding of the planet. These models are constructed from components - atmosphere, ocean, ice, land, chemistry, solid earth, etc. models and merged together through a coupling program which is responsible for the exchange of data from the components. Climate models and future earth system models will have standardized modules, and these standards are now being developed by the ESMF project funded by NASA. The Earth System Model will have a variety of uses beyond climate prediction. The model can be used to build climate data records making it the core of an assimilation system, and it can be used in OSSE experiments to evaluate. The computing and storage requirements for the ESM appear to be daunting. However, the Japanese ES theoretical computing capability is already within 20% of the minimum requirements needed for some 2010 climate model applications. Thus it seems very possible that a focused effort to build an Earth System Model will achieve succcss.

Schoeberl, Mark; Rood, Richard B.; Hildebrand, Peter; Raymond, Carol

2003-01-01

364

University Buildings Landmark Buildings  

E-print Network

's University Belfast Campus Map The Lanyon Building The Students' Union The David Keir Building School Offices and Sonic Arts Q Nursing and Midwifery R Pharmacy S Planning, Architecture and Civil Engineering T Politics Accommodation) 5 Harty Room, School of Music 26 Health Sciences Building 3 Human Resources 11 Information

Paxton, Anthony T.

365

Effects of phenotypic characteristics on the length of stay of dogs at two no kill animal shelters.  

PubMed

Adoption records from 2 no kill shelters in New York State were examined to determine how age, sex, size, breed group, and coat color influenced the length of stay (LOS) of dogs at these shelters. Young puppies had the shortest length of stay; LOS among dogs increased linearly as age increased. Neither coat color nor sex influenced LOS. Considering only size classifications, medium-size dogs had the greatest LOS, and extra small dogs and puppies remained in shelters for the least amount of time. Considering only breed groupings, dogs in the guard group had the greatest LOS and those in the giant group had the shortest LOS. The lack of effect of coat color was not expected, nor was the shorter LOS among "fighting" breeds compared with other breed groups. Coat color and breed may have only local effects on LOS that do not generalize to all shelters, including traditional shelters. Understanding the traits of dogs in a specific shelter and the characteristics of these nonhuman animals desired by adopters are critical to improving the welfare of animals served by that shelter. PMID:23282290

Brown, William P; Davidson, Janelle P; Zuefle, Marion E

2013-01-01

366

Earth's Seasons  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A computer animation on the reason for the seasons. Voice-over describes the motion of Earth around the sun to show how the sun's light impacts the tilted Earth at different times of the year, causing seasonal changes.

Rochester Museum and Science Center, Strasenburgh Planetarium

367

Google Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Google Earth has gone underwater with this latest iteration of their popular Earth-roaming application. Along with traveling the usual roads provided by previous versions of Google Earth, visitors can now visit the bottom of the Mariana Trench, learn about ocean observations, and even discover new places to surf and dive. On the Google Earth homepage, visitors can take a guided tour of all these new features. This version is compatible with all operating systems.

2009-01-01

368

Earth Calendar  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This handout lists major events in Earth history with approximate ages (in millions of years before present). The calendar date is determined by setting midnight, January 1, to correspond with the formation of the Earth, and setting the following midnight, December 31, to correspond to the present. Thus, the entire history of the Earth is displayed as a single calendar year.

Jeffrey Barker

369

Edible Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners make a model of the solid Earth's layers that's good enough to eat! Learners use tasty foodstuffs to simulate Earth's inner core, outer core, mantle, and crust. The recipe includes ingredients for one edible Earth, but can be doubled or tripled to accommodate groups of learners. This activity requires adult supervision.

American Museum of Natural History

2011-08-20

370

Earth's Layers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Complete a poster all about Earth's Layers! Directions: Make a poster about Earth's Layers. (20 points) Include at least (1) large picture (15 points) on your poster complete with labels of every part (10 points). (15 points) Include at least three (3) facts about Earth's Layers. (5 points each) (15 points) Write at least a three sentence summary of your poster ...

Mrs. Walls

2011-01-30

371

Snowball Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Audio program from the University of Wisconsin's Earthwatch Radio discusses the notion of the entire planet covered with ice. Doug Macdougall is an earth scientist at the University of California-San Diego and author of a new book called "Frozen Earth." He says the planet-wide freeze is known as "Snowball Earth."

372

Earth Changes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These activities give students a hands-on feeling for the relationships between the Earth's structural layers and aid them in understanding the world around them. They will be able to identify (by modeling) the Earth's structure (core, mantle and crust) and also (by experiment and demonstration) the forces within the Earth that cause constant changes on the surface (earthquakes).

1998-01-01

373

Planet Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For those interested in a global view of the weather, Planet Earth is a "real-time 3-D model of the Earth with continuously updating night shadows and clouds." Cloud images are provided by the University of Wisconsin-Madison Space Science and Engineering Center. Planet Earth is shareware with a fee of $29.95.

374

Planning Protective Action Decision-Making: Evacuate or Shelter-in-Place  

SciTech Connect

Appropriate protective action recommendations or decisions (PARs/PADs) are needed to achieve maximum protection of a population at risk. The factors that affect protective action decisions are complex but fairly well documented. Protective action decisions take into account population distributions, projected or actual exposure to a chemical substance, availability of adequate shelters, evacuation time estimates, and other relevant factors. To choose in-place sheltering, there should be a reasonable assurance that the movement of people beyond their residence, workplace, or school will endanger the health and safety of the public more so than allowing them to remain in place. The decision to evacuate the public should be based on the reasonable assurance that the movement of people to an area outside of an affected area is in the best interest of their health and safety, and is of minimal risk to them. In reality, an evacuation decision is also a resource-dependent decision. The availability of transportation and other resources, including shelters, may factor heavily in the protective action decision-making process. All strategies to protect the health and safety of the public from a release of hazardous chemicals are explicitly considered during emergency decision making. Each institutional facility (such as hospitals, schools, day care centers, correctional facilities, assisted living facilities or nursing homes) in the community should be considered separately to determine what special protective actions may be necessary. Deciding whether to evacuate or to shelter-in-place is one of the most important questions facing local emergency planners responding to a toxic chemical release. That such a complex decision with such important potential consequences must be made with such urgency places tremendous responsibility on the planners and officials involved. Researchers have devoted considerable attention to the evacuation/shelter-in-place protection decision. While several decision aids have been developed, no single approach has achieved widespread acceptance based on validity, utility, and effectiveness (Ujihara 1989, Mannan and Kilpatrick 2000). In the absence of an agreed-upon methodology for making this decision, the best strategy for local emergency planners and officials is a thorough understanding of all the components affecting the decision. This paper summarizes what is currently known about the evacuation/shelter-in-place protection decision and points to available literature that more thoroughly explores the individual components of the decision. The next section summarizes the major issues in protective action decision process. This is followed by a discussion of all the factors that may bear on the protective action decision process. The final section address how to make a protective action decision.

Sorensen, J.H.

2002-08-30

375

Reliability of hybrid photovoltaic DC micro-grid systems for emergency shelters and other applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Improvement of energy efficiency in the SunSmart Schools Emergency Shelters requires new methods for optimizing the energy consumption within the shelters. One major limitation in current systems is the requirement of converting direct current (DC) power generated from the PV array into alternating current (AC) power which is distributed throughout the shelters. Oftentimes, this AC power is then converted back to DC to run certain appliances throughout the shelters resulting in a significant waste of energy due to DC to AC and then again AC to DC conversion. This paper seeks to extract the maximum value out of PV systems by directly powering essential load components within the shelters that already run on DC power without the use of an inverter and above all to make the system reliable and durable. Furthermore, additional DC applications such as LED lighting, televisions, computers and fans operated with DC brushless motors will be installed as replacements to traditional devices in order to improve efficiency and reduce energy consumption. Cost of energy storage technologies continue to decline as new technologies scale up and new incentives are put in place. This will provide a cost effective way to stabilize the energy generation of a PV system as well as to provide continuous energy during night hours. It is planned to develop a pilot program of an integrated system that can provide uninterrupted DC power to essential base load appliances (heating, cooling, lighting, etc.) at the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) command center for disaster management. PV arrays are proposed to be installed on energy efficient test houses at FSEC as well as at private homes having PV arrays where the owners volunteer to participate in the program. It is also planned to monitor the performance of the PV arrays and functioning of the appliances with the aim to improve their reliability and durability. After a successful demonstration of the hybrid DC microgrid based emergency shelter together with the monitoring system, it is planned to replicate it at other schools in Florida and elsewhere to provide continuous power for essential applications, maximizing the value of PV generation systems.

Dhere, Neelkanth G.; Schleith, Susan

2014-10-01

376

Architectural stone investigation - What makes great buildings?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is best placed as a follow-up activity to the study of minerals and the three major rock types in an introductory physical geology course. Students are required to work in small cooperative groups. Each group chooses a major building to research. The group divides the tasks associated with the research and presentation of information. The overall goal of the project is for students to gain an understanding of the importance and uses of earth materials in building and planning major buildings in an urban setting. The general format of the project is: 1. Students research building design, placement and use of earth materials in a major building. 2. Students research the earth materials used in their building. 3. Students create and show their PowerPoint presentation in class. 4. Students prepare and deliver an on-site oral presentation about their building. The activity helps students connect a basic study of earth materials to urban planning and living.

Aida Awad

377

MIT Department of Architecture Autumn 2012 4.461 Architectural Building Systems  

E-print Network

.) Course Description: The making of architecture includes design and specification. Design decisions and design pedagogy address the former while building technology deals with the latter. As architecture may be satisfied with food shelter and clothing, our cultural aspirations typically push us to create

Entekhabi, Dara

378

Seasonal patterns of arthropods occurring on sheltered and unsheltered pig carcasses in Buenos Aires Province (Argentina).  

PubMed

Differences in the succession of insects and other Arthropoda (invertebrate animals with jointed legs), on domestic pig carcasses placed under a roof and under the open sky have been studied in Buenos Aires Province, Argentina (latitude 34 degrees 45'S) in all the seasons of the year. Faunal associations proved different for each treatment in winter: the common bluebottle Calliphora vicina was found in both, but on the sheltered carcass Cochliomyia macellaria and the rare Phaenicia cluvia were found as well. In the fall, the difference between sheltered and unsheltered carcasses was small (six species on the former and five species on the latter); in spring and summer, the difference was negligible. PMID:11955835

Centeno, N; Maldonado, M; Oliva, A

2002-03-28

379

The effect of coral morphology on shelter selection by coral reef fishes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While the loss of structural complexity causes declines in coral reef fish diversity, the processes leading to this decline are largely unexplained. To explore the role of coral morphology in providing shelter for fishes, tabular, branching and massive corals were filmed with video cameras and their usage by large reef fishes compared. Tabular corals were utilised more than the other two morphologies, with at least triple the abundance, biomass and residence times of large fishes. The preference of coral reef fishes for specific structural traits of tabular corals was also examined using artificial structural units. This experimental component showed that large reef fishes preferred opaque rather than translucent canopies. It appears that large fishes cue to tabular corals because of the concealment and/or shade provided. It is suggested that a loss of tabular corals as a result of climate change would have significant ecological impacts for the coral reef fishes that use these structures for shelter.

Kerry, J. T.; Bellwood, D. R.

2012-06-01

380

NUclear EVacuation Analysis Code (NUEVAC) : a tool for evaluation of sheltering and evacuation responses following urban nuclear detonations.  

SciTech Connect

The NUclear EVacuation Analysis Code (NUEVAC) has been developed by Sandia National Laboratories to support the analysis of shelter-evacuate (S-E) strategies following an urban nuclear detonation. This tool can model a range of behaviors, including complex evacuation timing and path selection, as well as various sheltering or mixed evacuation and sheltering strategies. The calculations are based on externally generated, high resolution fallout deposition and plume data. Scenario setup and calculation outputs make extensive use of graphics and interactive features. This software is designed primarily to produce quantitative evaluations of nuclear detonation response options. However, the outputs have also proven useful in the communication of technical insights concerning shelter-evacuate tradeoffs to urban planning or response personnel.

Yoshimura, Ann S.; Brandt, Larry D.

2009-11-01

381

77 FR 14385 - Family Violence Prevention and Services/Grants for Domestic Violence Shelters/Grants to Native...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Administration for Children and Families Family Violence Prevention and Services/Grants for Domestic Violence Shelters/Grants to Native American Tribes...award of formula grants under the Family Violence Prevention and Services Act (FVPSA)...

2012-03-09

382

NPP and the Earth System - Duration: 2:33.  

NASA Video Gallery

NPP is a continuation of the existing Earth-observing satellites and it builds on the legacy of multi decades of critical data. NPP will continue to deliver data to all users on Earth who will use ...

383

Communication between domestic dogs and humans: effects of shelter housing upon the gaze to the human  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is widely known that gaze plays an essential role in communicative interactions. Domestic dogs tend to look at the human\\u000a face in situations of conflict and uncertainty. This study compares the gaze of shelter and pet dogs during acquisition and\\u000a extinction phases in a situation involving a reward in sight but out of reach. Even though no significant differences

Alba Mustaca; Mariana Bentosela

384

Influence of herbaceous cover, shelter and land cover structure on wild rabbit abundance in NW Portugal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The European wild rabbitOryctolagus cuniculus (Linnaeus, 1758) populations in the Iberian Peninsula has suffered a serious decline. Therefore, the knowledge about the\\u000a factors that influence rabbit distribution and abundance is of major interest for conservation and management programmes.\\u000a Rabbit relative abundance was evaluated by pellet counting in relation to herbaceous ground cover, shelter availability (tall\\u000a scrub cover and gaps in

José Carlos Carvalho; Pedro Gomes

2004-01-01

385

Thermal performance trials on the habitability of private bushfire shelters: part 1.  

PubMed

This communication is the first of two in which specifications for private bushfire shelters were evaluated during human trials. The purpose of this investigation (series 1) was to test the hypothesis that shelters capable of maintaining the internal environment at, or below, a modified discomfort index of 39 °C would prevent a deep-body temperature elevation of >2 °C. This was tested over 96 trials during which eight men and eight women were exposed at rest (60 min) to three regulated shelter conditions satisfying that standard: 40 °C and 70 % relative humidity, 45 °C and 50 % relative humidity and 50 °C and 30 % relative humidity. Subjects were tested twice in each condition following exercise- and heat-induced dehydration (2 % body mass reduction) and pre-heating to each of two deep-body thermal states (37.5 and 38.5 °C). Participants presented well rested and euhydrated, and pre-treatments successfully achieved the thermal and hydration targets prior to exposure. Auditory canal temperatures declined as exposures commenced, with subsequent rises of >0.5 °C not evident within any trial. However, each increment in air temperature elicited a significant elevation in the respective within-trial mean auditory canal temperature (37.4, 37.7 and 37.9 °C) and heart rate (103, 116 and 122 beats.min(-1)) when subjects were moderately hyperthermic (all P shelters appeared adequate, providing the physical characteristics of the internal air remained stable. PMID:25336107

Taylor, Nigel A S; Haberley, Benjamin J; Hoyle, David J R

2014-10-22

386

Thermal performance trials on the habitability of private bushfire shelters: part 2.  

PubMed

In the preceding communication, an investigation was described in which the thermal specifications for the design of private bushfire shelters were evaluated. Since those trials were undertaken with the thermal characteristics of the air clamped, survival uncertainty persisted if the internal ambient conditions were progressively changing, as would occur within an air-tight shelter. Therefore, two further investigations were performed. In the first, changes in the physical properties of air within an air-tight shelter simulator (1.2 m(3)), initially equilibrated to 43.7 °C and 42.3 % relative humidity, were studied when pre-heated, well-hydrated males were sealed inside (N?=?16; 60 min; experimental series 2). Air temperature and humidity moved sigmoidally to 40.5 °C (standard deviation (SD), 0.5) and 90.1 % (SD, 2.1). Oxygen and carbon dioxide fractional concentrations changed reciprocally, with respective terminal averages of 16.7 % (SD, 0.8) and 3.94 % (SD, 0.72). Deep-body temperature rose beyond the tenth minute to a terminal mean of 39.3 °C (SD, 0.2). In the third experimental series, these air temperature and humidity changes were reproduced in trials commencing at two different thermal states (40 °C and 70 % relative humidity; 45 °C and 50 % relative humidity). Sixteen pre-heated and slightly dehydrated men and women were investigated. In neither condition did the auditory canal temperature of any individual change by more than 2 °C or exceed 40 °C. It may be concluded, within the limits of these experiments, that the recommended thermal and dimensional specifications for bushfire shelters can provide tenable conditions for healthy, young adults. PMID:25361703

Taylor, Nigel A S; Haberley, Benjamin J

2014-11-01

387

The Caring-Killing Paradox: Euthanasia-Related Strain Among Animal-Shelter Workers1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study represents the first quantitative investigation of the psychological rami- fications of euthanasia-related work. Results indicate that perceived euthanasia-related strain is prevalcnt among shelter employees and is associated with increased levels of gen- eral job stress, work-to-family conflict, somatic complaints, and substance use; and with lower levels of job satisfaction. Analyses provide evidence that euthanasia-related work has a

Charlie L. Reeve; Steven G. Rogelberg; Christiane Spitzmuller; Natalie Digiacomo

2005-01-01

388

Molecular epidemiology of feline bordetellosis in two animal shelters in California, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

“Kennel cough” in dogs in animal shelters is readily transmissible, reduces adoption rates, and commonly leads to the euthanasia of affected dogs. In cats, tracheobronchitis, conjunctivitis, and pneumonia have been associated with Bordetella bronchiseptica infection—but most cases of upper-respiratory infection (URI) probably are caused by herpesvirus and calicivirus, and many B. bronchiseptica culture-positive cats are clinically normal. Our prospective observational

Janet E Foley; Courtney Rand; Mike J Bannasch; Carol R Norris; Joy Milan

2002-01-01

389

Interspecific Competition for Shelters in Territorial and Gregarious Intertidal Grazers: Consequences for Individual Behaviour  

PubMed Central

Experiments have shown that interspecific interactions within consumer guilds can alter patterns of distribution, abundance and size of species. Plastic behavioural responses can be modulated by agonistic interactions. In many cases, consumers compete for space and shelters, and these interactions change the manner in which they exploit food. This study investigates the consequences of competition in the spatial and temporal organization of behaviour of intertidal grazers, which share algal resources and the use of rock crevices while resting, but exhibit different body sizes, spatial behaviour and foraging modes. We evaluate interaction strength between small gregarious Siphonaria lessoni and the larger territorial keyhole limpet Fissurella crassa and between S. lessoni and the medium-size gregarious chiton Chiton granosus. Using field manipulations and artificial arenas in the laboratory, we tested whether the use of crevices, micro-spatial distribution and activity are modified by the density of conspecifics and the presence of heterospecifics. Our results show that small-scale spatial segregation observed in the field between S. lessoni and C. granosus result from species-specific differences in habitat use. In turn, we found evidence that spatial segregation between F. crassa and S. lessoni results from highly asymmetric interference competition in the use of shelters. The presence of F. crassa reduced the use of crevices and growth rates of S. lessoni. Effects on growth rates are assumed to result from exposure to harsh environmental conditions rather than food limitation. Thus, neither gregarious behaviour nor differences in activity were sufficient to prevent competition with the larger grazer. Our study illustrates the importance of competition for shelters, which results in behavioural changes of the smaller-sized species, and how these plastic responses can translate into differences in growth rates. Use of shelters can thus be modulated by environmental conditions in a species-specific as well as an interactive manner within consumers’ guilds. PMID:23049980

Aguilera, Moisés A.; Navarrete, Sergio A.

2012-01-01

390

Interspecific competition for shelters in territorial and gregarious intertidal grazers: consequences for individual behaviour.  

PubMed

Experiments have shown that interspecific interactions within consumer guilds can alter patterns of distribution, abundance and size of species. Plastic behavioural responses can be modulated by agonistic interactions. In many cases, consumers compete for space and shelters, and these interactions change the manner in which they exploit food. This study investigates the consequences of competition in the spatial and temporal organization of behaviour of intertidal grazers, which share algal resources and the use of rock crevices while resting, but exhibit different body sizes, spatial behaviour and foraging modes. We evaluate interaction strength between small gregarious Siphonaria lessoni and the larger territorial keyhole limpet Fissurella crassa and between S. lessoni and the medium-size gregarious chiton Chiton granosus. Using field manipulations and artificial arenas in the laboratory, we tested whether the use of crevices, micro-spatial distribution and activity are modified by the density of conspecifics and the presence of heterospecifics. Our results show that small-scale spatial segregation observed in the field between S. lessoni and C. granosus result from species-specific differences in habitat use. In turn, we found evidence that spatial segregation between F. crassa and S. lessoni results from highly asymmetric interference competition in the use of shelters. The presence of F. crassa reduced the use of crevices and growth rates of S. lessoni. Effects on growth rates are assumed to result from exposure to harsh environmental conditions rather than food limitation. Thus, neither gregarious behaviour nor differences in activity were sufficient to prevent competition with the larger grazer. Our study illustrates the importance of competition for shelters, which results in behavioural changes of the smaller-sized species, and how these plastic responses can translate into differences in growth rates. Use of shelters can thus be modulated by environmental conditions in a species-specific as well as an interactive manner within consumers' guilds. PMID:23049980

Aguilera, Moisés A; Navarrete, Sergio A

2012-01-01

391

Population biology of the gastropod Olivella minuta (Gastropoda, Olividae) on two sheltered beaches in southeastern Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The structure, dynamics and production of two populations of the olivid gastropod Olivella minuta were analyzed through monthly sampling from November 2009 through October 2011 on two sandy beaches, Pernambuco (very sheltered) and Barequeçaba (sheltered) in São Paulo state (23°48'S), southeastern Brazil. On both beaches, samples were taken along five transects established perpendicular to the waterline. Parameters of the von Bertalanffy growth function were estimated for both populations from monthly length-frequency distributions. The production and turnover ratios were determined using the mass-specific growth rate method. The population on the less-sheltered Barequeçaba Beach was less abundant (120.02 ± 22.60 ind m-1) than on Pernambuco Beach (3295.30 ± 504.86 ind m-1 (±SE)), which we attribute to the greater environmental stability of the latter. Conversely, the mean length, size of the largest individual, and body mass were higher at Barequeçaba than at Pernambuco. The significant differences in the growth of individuals and the mortality rate (Z) between the beaches suggest that density-dependent processes were operating at Pernambuco Beach. The production and P/B ratio at Pernambuco (12.12 g AFDM m-1 year-1 and 1.91 year-1) were higher than at Barequeçaba (0.82 g AFDM m-1 year-1 and 1.06 year-1). The difference in production can be attributed to the higher abundance on Pernambuco, while the higher P/B ratio resulted from the scarcity of smaller individuals in the intertidal zone of Barequeçaba. The P/B ratio estimated for the Pernambuco population is the highest found so far for sandy-beach gastropods. This study reinforces the theory that biological interactions are important regulators of sheltered sandy-beach populations. Future studies with multi-beach sampling are needed to better understand the life-history variations of O. minuta along gradients of degree of exposure of sandy beaches.

Petracco, Marcelo; Camargo, Rita Monteiro; Tardelli, Daniel Teixeira; Turra, Alexander

2014-10-01

392

Evaluation of a behavioral assessment tool for dogs relinquished to shelters.  

PubMed

The goal of the present study was to evaluate a shortened, 42-item version of the Canine Behavioral Assessment and Research Questionnaire (C-BARQ((S))) as a behavioral screening tool for dogs relinquished to animal shelters. In contrast to a previous finding, the current study found no consistent evidence that relinquishing owners gave unreliable or biased responses to the questionnaire depending on whether or not they believed that this information would be shared with shelter staff or used to evaluate dogs for adoption. Relinquishing owners' C-BARQ((S)) responses for items related to aggression and fear directed toward humans and other dogs correlated with independent subjective assessments of aggressiveness made by shelter staff (generalized linear mixed models, P<0.05, N=84 aggressive dogs, N=156 non-aggressive dogs). In addition, C-BARQ((S)) scores successfully discriminated between dogs based on their eventual outcomes (i.e., adoption or euthanasia; Generalized Linear Mixed Models, P<0.05, N=181 adopted, N=177 euthanized), indicating convergent validity. Follow-up surveys with a subset of adoptive owners (N=53) revealed significant correlations (after correction for multiple comparisons) between relinquishing and adoptive owners' C-BARQ((S)) ratings for 3 behavioral traits: stranger-directed aggression (rs=0.494, P<0.001), chewing inappropriate objects (rs=0.402, P<0.01), and urination when left alone (rs=0.421, P<0.01). Overall, the findings confirmed the value of this type of shelter intake survey instrument for screening owner-surrendered dogs for the presence of behavior problems. PMID:25457136

Duffy, Deborah L; Kruger, Katherine A; Serpell, James A

2014-12-01

393

Effects of climate change on groundwater resources at Shelter Island, New York State, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rising sea levels due to climate change are expected to negatively impact the fresh-water resources of small islands. The\\u000a effects of climate change on Shelter Island, New York State (USA), a small sandy island, were investigated using a variable-density\\u000a transient groundwater flow model. Predictions for changes in precipitation and sea-level rise over the next century from the\\u000a Intergovernmental Panel on

Daniel J. Rozell; Teng-Fong Wong

2010-01-01

394

A cluster of Rickettsia rickettsii infection at an animal shelter in an urban area of Brazil.  

PubMed

SUMMARY Rickettsia rickettsii infection is being increasingly recognized as an important cause of fatal acute illness in Brazil, where this tick-borne disease is designated Brazilian spotted fever (BSF). In this study we report five fatal cases of BSF in employees of an animal shelter in an urban area in the municipality of Rio de Janeiro in southeast Brazil after a natural disaster on 11 January 2011. Four of the cases occurred from 27 January to 11 April 2011, while the fifth fatal case was identified in April 2012. Three cases were confirmed by molecular analysis and two by epidemiological linkage. An investigation of BSF was performed in the animal shelter, and blood samples were collected from 115 employees and 117 randomly selected dogs. The presence of high levels (1024-4096) of antibodies against spotted fever group rickettsiae was found in three (2·6%) employees and 114 (97·5%) dogs. These findings emphasize the need to consider BSF as a possible cause of undifferentiated febrile illness, especially dengue and leptospirosis, in patients occupationally exposed to dogs heavily infested by ticks, mainly working at kennels and animal shelters that have inadequate space for the animals housed and frequently providing an environment conducive to exposure to pathogens such as R. rickettsii. PMID:25483025

Rozental, T; Ferreira, M S; Gomes, R; Costa, C M; Barbosa, P R A; Bezerra, I O; Garcia, M H O; Oliveira E Cruz, D M; Galliez, R; Oliveira, S; Brasil, P; Rezende, T; DE Lemos, E R S

2014-12-01

395

Molecular identification of hookworms in stray and shelter dogs from Guangzhou city, China using ITS sequences.  

PubMed

Canine hookworm infections are endemic worldwide, with zoonotic transmission representing a potentially significant public health concern. This study aimed to investigate hookworm infection and identify the prevalent species from stray and shelter dogs in Guangzhou city, southern China by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) based on internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences. From March 2011 to July 2012, fresh faecal samples from a total of 254 dogs were obtained from five locations, namely Conghua, Baiyun, Liwan, Haizhu and Panyu, in Guangzhou. These samples were screened for the presence of hookworm eggs using light microscopy, with an overall prevalence of 29.53% being recorded. The highest prevalence of 45.28% was found in suburban dogs from Conghua compared with lower values recorded in urban dogs in Haizhu (21.43%), Baiyun (18.97%), Panyu (18.18%) and Liwan (15%). The prevalence in stray dogs was signi?cantly higher than that in shelter dogs. PCR-RFLP analysis showed that 57.33% were detected as single hookworm infections with Ancyclostoma caninum, and 22.67% as A. ceylanicum, while 20% were mixed infections. This suggests that high prevalences of both hookworm species in stray and shelter dogs in China pose a potential risk of transmission from pet dogs to humans. PMID:24280028

Liu, Y J; Zheng, G C; Zhang, P; Alsarakibi, M; Zhang, X H; Li, Y W; Liu, T; Ren, S N; Chen, Z X; Liu, Y L; Li, S J; Li, G Q

2015-03-01

396

An outbreak of fatal hemorrhagic pneumonia caused by Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus in shelter dogs  

PubMed Central

An outbreak of fatal hemorrhagic pneumonia with 70~90% morbidity and 50% mortality occurred in an animal shelter in Yangju, Gyeonggi Province, Korea. Clinically, the affected dogs showed severe respiratory distress within 48 h after arriving in the shelter. The dead were found mainly with nasal bleeding and hematemesis. At necropsy, hemothorax and hemorrhagic pneumonia along with severe pulmonary consolidation was observed, though histopathological analysis showed mainly hemorrhagic bronchopneumonia. Lymphoid depletion was inconsistently seen in the spleen, tonsil and bronchial lymph node. Gram-positive colonies were shown in blood vessels or parenchyma of cerebrum, lung, liver, spleen, and kidney. Also, Streptococcus (S.) equi subsp. zooepidemicus was isolated from the various organs in which the bacterium was microscopically and histologically detected. In addition, approximately 0.9 Kb specific amplicon, antiphagocytic factor H binding protein, was amplified in the bacterial isolates. In this study, we reported an outbreak of canine hemorrhagic bronchopneumonia caused by S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus in an animal shelter in Yangju, Korea. PMID:19687630

Yoon, Soon-Seek; Woo, Gye-Hyeong; Jung, Byeong Yeal; Joo, Yi-Seok

2009-01-01

397

BLAST BIOLOGY--A STUDY OF THE PRIMARY AND TERTIARY EFFECTS OF BLAST IN OPEN UNDERGROUND PROTECTIVE SHELTERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dogs, pigs, rabbits, guinea pigs, and mice were exposed to nuclear ;\\u000a detonatiors in two open underground pantitioned shelters. The shelters were of ;\\u000a similar constructions and each was exposed to separate detonations. Each inner ;\\u000a chamber filled through its own orifice; thus four separate pressure enviromments ;\\u000a were obtained. An aerodynamic mound was placed over the escape hatch of

D. R. Ricmond; R. V. Taborelli; I. G. Bowen; T. L. Chiffelle; F. G. Hirsch; B. B. Longwell; J. G. Riley; C. S. White; F. Sherping; V. C. Goldizen; J. D. Ward; M. B. Wetherbe; V. R. Clare; M. L. Kuhn; R. T. Sanchez

1959-01-01

398

Performance of Giant Freshwater Prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii de Man) Reared in Earthen Ponds Beneath Plastic Film Shelters  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the effects of using plastic film shelters on the survival, growth and production cost of giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii). Three ponds were covered with plastic shelters, whilst three other were left unsheltered as controls. The surface area of all ponds was 100 square meters (6x16.7),with a water depth of 1.0 meter. Post larvae (0.012 g. mean

Niwooti Whangchai

399

A needs-assessment and demographic survey of infection-control and disease awareness in western US animal shelters  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cross-sectional needs-assessment survey was used to characterize animal shelters in a 6-state region in the western US and describe infection-control practices and disease awareness. Survey questions focused on shelter demographics, infection-control practices and policies, awareness and concern over infectious and zoonotic diseases, staff and volunteer training relating to infection-control and disease awareness, use of diagnostic tools, and isolation procedures

Kay K. Steneroden; Ashley E. Hill; M. D. Salman

2011-01-01

400

THE INTERNAL ENVIRONMENT OF UNDERGROUND STRUCTURES SUBJECTED TO NUCLEAR BLAST. II. EFFECTS ON MICE LOCATED IN HEAVY CONCRETE SHELTERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cage containing 20 mice was placed in each of 12 underground shelters ;\\u000a in an attempt to assess biologically the inside environment of the shelters. Two ;\\u000a samples of 20 mice each acted as controls. The structures, of French and German ;\\u000a design, were located at ranges between 840 ft and 4320 ft from Ground Zero. A ;\\u000a nuclear

D. R. Richmond; C. S. White; R. T. Sanchez; F. Sherping

1959-01-01

401

Risk factors for delays between intake and veterinary approval for adoption on medical grounds in shelter puppies and kittens  

PubMed Central

To maximize their capacity to save lives and optimize resource allocation, animal shelters need to identify highly adoptable animals that are unlikely to be delayed on medical grounds before they can be made available for adoption. In this retrospective cohort study, our objective was to identify risk factors for delays from intake to approval for adoption on medical grounds in shelter puppies and kittens. Shelter medical records from 2008 for 335 puppies and 370 kittens were selected randomly at a large metropolitan adoption-guarantee shelter. Data including signalment, source shelter, intake veterinary examination findings, clinical history and days from intake until approval by a veterinarian for adoption on medical grounds were extracted from shelter records and analyzed using multivariate Cox regression. Puppies and kittens with clinical signs of respiratory or gastrointestinal disease at intake took significantly longer to receive approval for adoption on medical grounds (puppies - respiratory p<0.0001; gastrointestinal p<0.0001; kittens - respiratory p<0.0001; gastrointestinal p=0.002). Stray kittens were more likely to be delayed than owner-relinquished kittens or those transferred from other shelters (p<0.01). Older kittens were less likely to be delayed (p<0.0001). Administration of oral or parenteral antibiotics to puppies and kittens with respiratory and/or ocular signs within 24 hours of intake significantly reduced time to approval on medical grounds for adoption (puppies p=0.02; kittens p=0.03). The analyses suggested that puppies and kittens with respiratory or gastrointestinal signs on intake are more likely to experience delays between intake and veterinary approval for adoption on medical grounds. Prompt antimicrobial treatment of animals with respiratory and/or ocular signs may decrease length of stay in the shelter. PMID:21621287

Litster, Annette; Allen, Joselyn; Mohamed, Ahmed; He, Shuang

2011-01-01

402

Where Would CINDI Be? A 3-D Scale Model of the Earth-Moon System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an activity about the Earth-Moon system. Learners will build a scale model of the Earth-Moon system and predict the distance between the two, as well as the distance of Earth-orbiting spacecraft.

403

Discover Earth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Discover Earth is a NASA-sponsored project for teachers of grades 5-12, designed to: (1) enhance understanding of the Earth as an integrated system; (2) enhance the interdisciplinary approach to science instruction; and (3) provide classroom materials that focus on those goals. Discover Earth is conducted by the Institute for Global Environmental Strategies in collaboration with Dr. Eric Barron, Director, Earth System Science Center, The Pennsylvania State University; and Dr. Robert Hudson, Chair, the Department of Meteorology, University of Maryland at College Park. The enclosed materials: (1) represent only part of the Discover Earth materials; (2) were developed by classroom teachers who are participating in the Discover Earth project; (3) utilize an investigative approach and on-line data; and (4) can be effectively adjusted to classrooms with greater/without technology access. The Discover Earth classroom materials focus on the Earth system and key issues of global climate change including topics such as the greenhouse effect, clouds and Earth's radiation balance, surface hydrology and land cover, and volcanoes and climate change. All the materials developed to date are available on line at (http://www.strategies.org) You are encouraged to submit comments and recommendations about these materials to the Discover Earth project manager, contact information is listed below. You are welcome to duplicate all these materials.

Steele, Colleen

1998-01-01

404

Earth System Science Education Alliance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Earth System Science Education Alliance (ESSEA) professional development program is providing in-depth geoscience content and teaching methods to pre- and in-service teachers. The program is building and expanding on NASA's successful ESSEA program that was funded from 2000-2005. Now sponsored by NSF, the network has expanded to nearly 40 institutions of higher learning committed to teacher Earth system science

R. Myers; T. Schwerin

2007-01-01

405

University Buildings Landmark Buildings  

E-print Network

Building School Offices A Biological Sciences B Chemistry and Chemical Engineering C Education D and Biomedical Sciences P Music and Sonic Arts Q Nursing and Midwifery R Pharmacy S Planning, Architecture (Student Accommodation) 5 Harty Room, School of Music 26 Health Sciences Building 3 Human Resources 11

Müller, Jens-Dominik

406

Dynamic Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Dynamic Earth consists of four sections and an assessment. Each section explores one aspect of the earth's structure and the movement of its tectonic plates. Simply follow the instructions on the screen to learn about the layers that make up the earth; how the continents arrived at their current locations; the constant movement of the tectonic plates; and the volcanoes, earthquakes, and other events that result from the movements of the plates. Students will view animations, read explanations, and use their mouse to drag and drop the earth's continents in their correct places, highlight features on a map, and cause earth's tectonic plates to move. At various points, students will check their knowledge by taking a quick quiz or playing a game to see how much they have learned about the Dynamic Earth. Students should read section introductions carefully, as they give a basic overview of concepts, and use the Glossary to look up definitions to unfamiliar terms.

Ashlinn Quinn

2007-01-01

407

Earth Floor  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Classroom of the Future (COTF) website highlights information about the Earth and its development through time. Spheres discusses layers of the Earth's environment such as the hydrosphere, Cycles discusses rock and water cycles, and Diversity illustrates different species and genetic variations that have emerged on Earth. Also covered are biomes, adaptation, geologic time, and plate tectonics. Each of these sections is an in-depth tutorial on these specific topics.

408

Celebrate Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Earth is truly something to celebrate! Click on the links below and have some fun! Click on the link to send you to a fun website created just for kids like you! Now go celebrate the earth! Kids for Saving Earth Enjoy these other activities as well! Go recycling! A is for Air Discover what all of the letters of the alphabet can stand for! video Get on ...

Mrs. Rokes

2009-04-23

409

Earth's Interior  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website contains class notes from a Geology 101 (physical geology) course. It discusses the composition and structure of the Earth's interior. Each layer, the inner core, outer core, mantle, and crust, is covered. Details about each layer explain their composition, temperature, depth, and state. Also covered is how scientists discovered what the interior of the Earth is made of through the use of seismic waves, plate tectonics, and the Earth's magnetic field.

John Louie

410

Teaching the Dynamic Earth: Earth Science Out of Doors  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These activities are designed to show how Earth science principles can be illustrated out of doors, often without a rock in sight, and how pupils can be engaged in discussions about Earth processes and products. In the 'neighborhood stone watch' students are shown different earth materials used in buildings and asked to note additional examples for homework. In another activity, man-made structures including walls, roads, and tennis courts are used to illustrate the several geologic principles used in sequencing. One activity teaches students what to look for in the interpretation of geologic events, and two others give students practice in reading rocks.

411

Earth Island  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Earth Island Web site is maintained by the Earth Island Institute (EII). EII also publishes the Earth Island Journal quarterly. The current issue of the journal can be browsed by section or by subject, and offers current news, world reports, and feature articles on a wide range of environmental subject areas. Earth Island also undertakes a number of projects that are discussed at the site as well as in a portion of the journal. The entire site is searchable. This is an excellent site for those interested in keeping up on environmental issues.

412

Earth Force  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"Earth Force engages young people as active citizens who improve the environment and their communities now and in the future." Educators can learn about Earth Force's three programs: Community Action and Problem solving (CAPS), the Global Rivers Environmental Education Network (GREEN), and Earth Force After School. Users can discover students' many accomplishments such as creating reusable fabric grocery bags, recycling cell phones and ink cartridges to earn money, and cleaning up litter. The Tools for Teachers section offers evaluation results, a quality rubric, and a description of the six-step Earth Force community action and problem-solving process.

413

Earth Day  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

On April 22, 2005, people around the world will celebrate the 35th anniversary of Earth Day. This Topic in Depth focuses on the past and present of this significant day. From the Wisconsin Historical Society, the first two sites contain historical documents pertaining to Earth Day. The first (1) document features a May 1970 issue of The Gaylord Nelson Newsletter reporting on the first Earth Day. The second (2) document is a speech by Nelson entitled "An Environmental Agenda for the 70's." Housed in the archives of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) website, the next two sites also contain historical documents. The first (3) site contains an article written by Nelson for the EPA Journal in April of 1980, entitled "Earth Day '70: What It Meant." The second (4) site contains an article written by John C. Whitaker (former Interior undersecretary in the Nixon administration) for the EPA Journal in the summer of 1998. The article is entitled "Earth Day Recollections: What It Was Like When the Movement Took Off." The (5) Earth Day Network (first mentioned in the April 4, 2003, Scout Report for Life Sciences) works "to broaden the environmental movement worldwide and to educate and mobilize people, governments, and corporations to take responsibility for a clean and healthy environment." In addition to information sections about Ongoing Programs, Current Campaigns, and News, the Earth Day Network website contains Earth Day 2005 Materials for organizers. From EarthDay.gov, Take Action In Your Classroom (6) offers links to a variety of environmental education resources. The next website, from the U.S. Army Environmental Center, presents (7) Army Earth Day; and links to information about the Army's environmental activities. The final (8) site is an Earth Day-inspired educational website (first reported on in the April 14, 1999 Scout Report for Science & Engineering) from the Wilderness Society. The site offers a collection of environmental education resources for teachers and students. [NL

414

Decision process for the retrofit of municipal buildings with solar energy systems: a technical guide  

SciTech Connect

As a background for solar applications, the following topics are covered: solar systems and components for retrofit installations; cost, performance, and quality considerations; and financing alternatives for local government. The retrofit decision process is discussed as follows: pre-screening of buildings, building data requirements, the energy conservation audit, solar system sizing and economics, comparison of alternatives, and implementation. Sample studies are presented for the West Valley Animal Shelter and the Hollywood Police Station. (MHR)

Licciardello, Michael R.; Wood, Brian; Dozier, Warner; Braly, Mark; Yates, Alan

1980-11-01

415

Rainbow Earth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The environment is a great concern in the 1990s, and everyone needs to work at maintaining our planet. The 1992 Arizona State Library Reading Program, "Rainbow Earth," provides children with many techniques they can use to help the Earth. This reading program guide provides information on the following: goals, objectives, and evaluation; getting…

Arizona State Dept. of Library and Archives, Phoenix.

416

Earth tides  

SciTech Connect

Nineteen papers on gravity, tilt, and strain tides are compiled into this volume. Detailed chapters cover the calculation of the tidal forces and of the Earth's response to them, as well as actual observations of earth tides. Partial Contents: On Earth tides. The tidal forces: Tidal Forces. New Computations of the Tide-Generating Potential. Corrected Tables of Tidal Harmonics. The Theory of Tidal Deformations. Body Tides on an Elliptical, Rotating, Elastic and Oceanless Earth, Deformation of the Earth by Surface Loads. Gravimetric Tidal Loading Computed from Integrated Green's Functions. Tidal Friction in the Solid Earth. Loading Tides Versus Body Tides. Lunar Tidal Acceleration from Earth Satellite Orbit Analysis. Observations: gravity. Tidal Gravity in Britain: Tidal Loading and the Spatial Distribution of the Marine Tide. Tidal Loading along a Profile Europe-East Africa-South Asia-Australia and the Pacific Ocean. Detailed Gravity-Tide Spectrum between One and Four Cycles per Day. Observations: tilt and strain. Cavity and Topographic Effects in Tilt and Strain Measurement. Observations of Local Elastic Effects on Earth Tide Tilts and Strains.

Harrison, J.C.

1984-01-01

417

Earth Impact  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity poses the question: What would happen if a meteor or comet impacted Earth? Students simulate an impact in a container of sand using various-sized rocks, all while measuring, recording and graphing results and conclusions. Then students brainstorm ways to prevent an object from hitting the Earth.

Integrated Teaching and Learning Program,

418

146 Earth Science 147 Earth Science  

E-print Network

146 Earth Science 147 Earth Science ESCI 101 The Earth or ESCI 102 Evolution of the Earth or ESCI 107 Oceans and Global Change or ESCI 108 Crises of the Earth ESCI 105 Introductory Lab for Earth Geophysics I ESCI 444 Exploration Geophysics II or ESCI 446 Solid Earth Geophysics Math and Other Sciences

Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

419

FORESTRY BUILDING: BUILDING EMERGENCY PLAN  

E-print Network

FORESTRY BUILDING: BUILDING EMERGENCY PLAN Date Adopted: August 18, 2009 Date Revised June 17, 2013 Prepared By: Diana Evans and Jennifer Meyer #12;PURDUE UNIVERSITY BUILDING EMERGENCY PLAN VERSION 3 2 Table Suspension or Campus Closure SECTION 3: BUILDING INFORMATION 3.1 Building Deputy/Alternate Building Deputy

420

Multisensory Contributions to the Shelter-Seeking Behavior of a Mormyrid Fish, Gnathonemus petersii Günther (Mormyridae, Teleostei): The Role of Vision, and the Passive and Active Electrosenses  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined how weakly electric fish, Gnathonemus petersii, integrate multiple sensory modalities (passive and active electrosenses, and vision) to maintain proximity to tubular structures, serving as the fish’s hiding place or shelter during the daytime. By moving the shelter along a linear 2-meter path, causing a mechanical disturbance, we challenged the fish’s shelter-seeking behavior and used the length of

Roland Rojas; Peter Moller

2002-01-01

421

BUILDING NAME HEYDON-LAURENCE BUILDING  

E-print Network

BUILDING NAME HEYDON-LAURENCE BUILDING PHARMACY AND BANK BUILDING JOHN WOOLEY BUILDING OLD TEARCHER'S BUILDING PHYSICS BUILDING BAXTER'S LODGE INSTITUTE BUILDING CONSERVATION WORKS R.D.WATT BUILDING MACLEAY BUILDING THE QUARANGLE BADHAM BUILDING J.D. STEWART BUILDING BLACKBURN BUILDING MADSEN BUILDING STORE

Viglas, Anastasios

422

Social movements and the struggle for shelter: A case study of eThekwini (Durban)?  

PubMed Central

The needs of informal settlement dwellers across towns and cities in the global South are acute. While much emphasis has been placed on income poverty, for urban dwellers affordable access to improved secured accommodation and basic services such as water and sanitation is essential for well-being. In part due to the lack of such access, urban citizens organize in multiple ways to address these needs and to press for state investment and redistribution. South Africa, despite relatively high levels of income and a state with redistributive capacity, is no exception. Indeed, this country is particularly interesting for those seeking to understand effective approaches to addressing housing need because of the efforts that have been made and the resultant scale of state investment in the housing sector. This paper draws on the experiences of urban social movement organizations in South Africa to understand better how shelter needs can be addressed. We reflect on their goals, strategies and activities and explore what this means for themes discussed within the social movement literature. The research has a specific focus on the city of eThekwini/Durban primarily because of the scale of social movement activities there. The paper describes the core concerns with respect to shelter as elaborated by social movement activists, staff of other civil society agencies and officials. While there is a broad consensus about the shelter problems, there is less agreement about solutions. The discussion summarises the shelter objectives and core strategies used by the social movement activists, and considers the success they have had. This includes reviewing their understanding of what success is and how success is achieved. Movement organisations have been able to secure access to the housing subsidy scheme for their members. However, their progress has been limited. The paper concludes that there is a primary focus on what is offered through state programmes and policies despite evident shortcomings. While there is an awareness of the misfit between available programmes, the needs of movement members and more general shelter needs, no fundamental challenge is being made to the dominant approach. A second finding is that while movement members and leaders have an explicit focus on material improvements, underlying their motivations and some of their strategies and actions is the more fundamental goal to be treated as equal citizens. In this dimension, movement organizations seek both recognition of their citizenship as well as the redistribution of state resources. Third, we argue that while social movement progress is related to the political opportunity structures, it also depends on the ability of movement organizations to manage the emerging opportunities, particularly their relationships with the state, professional support organizations and other movement organizations. Relations shift between contention and collaboration to improve negotiating positions, secure access to shelter and achieve greater political inclusion.

Mitlin, Diana; Mogaladi, Jan

2013-01-01

423

Contamination hazard of secondary vapor in a collective shelter resulting from entry/exit operation. Technical report, January-April 1986  

SciTech Connect

A theoretical study of the effects of entry/exit procedures on the vapor hazard inside an NBC shelter was developed. The model assumes that soldiers will doff their contaminated overgarments in a vapor-rich environment where some vapor can adsorb on their undergarments or skin. When the soldiers enter the air lock, some of the vapor desorbs. The model calculates the time history of agent concentration in the air lock and shelter. The model can be used to evaluate design criteria for chemical shelters and operational procedures for processing personnel through the shelter.

Birenzvige, A.

1987-09-01

424

The Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson covers the interior of the Earth, geological differentiation, plate tectonics, composition and layers of the atmosphere, weather and climate, consequences of rotation for weather, the magnetic field, magnetosphere and Van Allen Radiation Belts of Earth, auroras (Northern and Southern Lights, and imaging the Earth. There is information on seismic waves, and convection currents; an animation of continental drift; evidence for plate tectonics, including maps of crustal plate boundaries and the age of the sea floor crustal plates; and explanations of solar heating, Coriolis forces, cyclones and anticyclones.

425

Visible Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

NASA's Visible Earth is a searchable directory of images, visualizations, and animations of Earth science-related images being produced by several NASA projects including Terra and SeaWiFS. Images are categorized by location, satellite, and topic, and are also searchable using a full-text search engine. Resources include agriculture, atmosphere, biosphere, cryosphere, human dimensions, hydrosphere, land surface, oceans, radiance or imagery, and solid earth. Accompanying each image are credits, data about the image, the satellite it was taken from, a description of what is shown, and a high-resolution viewable image.

426

Early Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The formative processes that shaped our planet offer up several exciting areas for teaching. How did the earth's solid crust evolve? What processes formed the initial atmosphere? How and where did life emerge? Each of these areas is interesting in its own right, but the formation and evolution of the earth as an integrated system is a concept that also has direct applications for teaching. This website offers a growing collection of teaching materials and research results that will aid in the understanding of and teaching about the early earth.

427

Fruits of Mimosa foliolosa (Fabales: Fabaceae) as sleeping shelter for Megachile (Pseudocentron) botucatuna (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae).  

PubMed

Several plant parts or organs are often used by insects for aggregation and even as resting areas. We first report the use of fruits of the legume Mimosa foliolosa pachycarpa as a night shelter for Megachile (Pseudocentron) botucana Schrottky (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) in Serra do Cipó, southeastern Brazil. Only a single bee was found per fruit, in 86 fruits out of 1,003 fruits opened. The present findings augmented the occurrence of the phenomenon among bees, which is new to the harsh mountaintop environments in the Brazilian rupestrian fields. PMID:23949678

Fernandes, G W; Ferrari, R R

2012-12-01

428

Boundaries in carework: a case study of domestic violence shelter advocates in the USA.  

PubMed

Recent decades have witnessed the professionalisation of carework in the USA, including the work of caring for the elderly, people living with mental/physical disabilities and other vulnerable populations. In the past, carework was primarily performed by family members or others as a service. Using an ethnographic case study of domestic violence shelter advocacy as a sector in the carework industry, this article defines boundaries as a mechanism for creating and maintaining organisational and attitudinal professionalism. The discourse of boundaries is also a lens through which domestic violence advocates articulate the multiple pressures they negotiate, as they embrace and resist their professional identities. PMID:19504376

Wies, J R

2009-01-01

429

Earth System Models especially those of  

E-print Network

are we going ? GENIE Model types Conceptual/illustrative · to build & test general understanding · e.6°/5.6° Potsdam (CLIMBER-2) · 2.5D at 10° (lat) by 52° (long) Genie · 3D at 5° (lat) by 10° (long) #12;CLIMBER-2.Valdes (Genie)P.Valdes (Genie) What is an Earth System Model ?What is an Earth System Model ? #12;Components

Shepherd, John

430

Earth System Science Education Alliance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Earth System Science Education Alliance (ESSEA) professional development program is providing in- depth geoscience content and teaching methods to pre- and in-service teachers. The program is building and expanding on NASA's successful ESSEA program that was funded from 2000-2005. Beginning in 2006 NSF funding will enable ESSEA will expand to 40 institutions of higher learning that are committed to

R. Myers; T. Schwerin

2006-01-01

431

Cool Shelter  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Amid climbing energy costs and tightening budgets, administrators at school districts, colleges and universities are looking for all avenues of potential savings while promoting sustainable communities. Cool metal roofing can save schools money and promote sustainable design at the same time. Cool metal roofing keeps the sun's heat from collecting…

Praeger, Charles E.

2005-01-01

432

Fire Ants Protect Mealybugs against Their Natural Enemies by Utilizing the Leaf Shelters Constructed by the Leaf Roller Sylepta derogata  

PubMed Central

The importance of mutualism is receiving more attention in community ecology. In this study, the fire ant Solenopsis invicta was found to take advantage of the shelters constructed by the leaf roller Sylepta derogata to protect mealybugs (Phenacoccus solenopsis) against their natural enemies. This protective effect of fire ant tending on the survival of mealybugs in shelters was observed when enemies and leaf rollers were simultaneously present. Specifically, fire ants moved the mealybugs inside the shelters produced by S. derogata on enemy-infested plants. Compared with that in plants without ants, the survival of mealybugs in shelters in the presence of natural enemies in plants with ants markedly improved. Both the protection of ants and the shelters provided by leaf rollers did not affect the survival of mealybugs in the absence of enemies in plants. Ants and leaf rollers significantly improved the survival of mealybugs in predator-infested plants, whereas no such improvement was observed in parasitoid-infested ones. PMID:23185505

Zhou, Aiming; Zeng, Ling; Lu, Yongyue; Xu, Yijuan; Liang, Guangwen

2012-01-01

433

Ion engine propelled Earth-Mars cycler with nuclear thermal propelled transfer vehicle, volume 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The goal of this project was to perform a preliminary design of a long term, reusable transportation system between earth and Mars which would be capable of providing both artificial gravity and shelter from solar flare radiation. The heart of this system was assumed to be a Cycler spacecraft propelled by an ion propulsion system. The crew transfer vehicle was designed to be propelled by a nuclear-thermal propulsion system. Several Mars transportation system architectures and their associated space vehicles were designed.

Meyer, Rudolf X.; Baker, Myles; Melko, Joseph

1994-01-01

434

Earth Attractions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners build and test a compass. Learners work in pairs and pretend they are stuck in the wilderness at night. They must use the supplies provided to build a simple compass to determine which way to walk to reach the town. This lesson plan includes a worksheet and map for learners to use during the activity.

2012-12-13

435

Discover Earth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Discover Earth is a NASA-funded project for teachers of grades 5-12 who want to expand their knowledge of the Earth system, and prepare to become master teachers who promote Earth system science in their own schools, counties, and throughout their state. Participants from the following states are invited to apply: Connecticut, Delaware, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont, and Washington, DC. Teachers selected for the project participate in a two-week summer workshop conducted at the University of Maryland, College Park; develop classroom-ready materials during the workshop for broad dissemination; conduct a minimum of two peer training activities during the coming school year; and participate in other enrichment/education opportunities as available and desired. Discover Earth is a team effort that utilizes expertise from a range of contributors, and balances science content with hands-on classroom applications.

Steele, Colleen

1996-01-01

436

Discover Earth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Discover Earth is a NASA-funded project for teachers of grades 5-12 who want to expand their knowledge of the Earth system, and prepare to become master teachers who promote Earth system science in their own schools, counties, and throughout their state. Participants from the following states are invited to apply: Connecticut, Delaware, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont, and Washington, DC. Teachers selected for the project participate in a two-week summer workshop conducted at the University of Maryland, College Park; develop classroom-ready materials during the workshop for broad dissemination; conduct a minimum of two peer training activities during the coming school year; and participate in other enrichment/education opportunities as available and desired. Discover Earth is a team effort that utilizes expertise from a range of contributors, and balances science content with hands-on classroom applications.

1997-01-01

437

Earth Day  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The State University of New York at Buffalo presents this History of Earth Day website. The goal of the site is that teachers and students can better understand the development and purpose of Earth Day. In addition to the history, SUNY-Buffalo has compiled a series of websites complete with projects associated with Earth Day, appropriate for children, high school students, and college undergrads. Furthermore, the legal aspect of Earth Day - environmental legislation, EPA standards, and Global Climate Change legislation - are also discussed on the site. A list of further sites is also provided if users want more information on this national effort to help solve environmental issues such as pollution, overpopulation, and global warming. Teachers will find this website both informative and helpful in developing appropriate teaching curricula connected to this holiday, while students can have fun learning and creating projects of their own that contribute to preserving the environment.

438

Earth Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This self-contained module on Earth systems includes a range of fun activities that students can perform in the classroom and at home with family members. They impart important concepts such as observation, identification, measurement, and differentiation.

Houghton Mifflin Science

439

Earth's Surface  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This self-contained module on Earth's crust includes a range of fun activities that students can perform in the classroom and at home with family members. They impart important concepts such as observation, identification, measurement, and differentiation.

Houghton Mifflin Science

440

Earth materials and earth dynamics  

SciTech Connect

In the project ''Earth Materials and Earth Dynamics'' we linked fundamental and exploratory, experimental, theoretical, and computational research programs to shed light on the current and past states of the dynamic Earth. Our objective was to combine different geological, geochemical, geophysical, and materials science analyses with numerical techniques to illuminate active processes in the Earth. These processes include fluid-rock interactions that form and modify the lithosphere, non-linear wave attenuations in rocks that drive plate tectonics and perturb the earth's surface, dynamic recrystallization of olivine that deforms the upper mantle, development of texture in high-pressure olivine polymorphs that create anisotropic velocity regions in the convecting upper mantle and transition zone, and the intense chemical reactions between the mantle and core. We measured physical properties such as texture and nonlinear elasticity, equation of states at simultaneous pressures and temperatures, magnetic spins and bonding, chemical permeability, and thermal-chemical feedback to better characterize earth materials. We artificially generated seismic waves, numerically modeled fluid flow and transport in rock systems and modified polycrystal plasticity theory to interpret measured physical properties and integrate them into our understanding of the Earth. This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL).

Bennett, K; Shankland, T. [and others

2000-11-01

441

Earth Viewers  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a One of the most influential developments boosting the application of geo-information technologies in a wide variety of scientific\\u000a and professional disciplines has its origin outside the geomatics field although the establishment of the technology heavily\\u000a relies on recent accomplishments in geo-information technology. The developments referred to concern the emergence of Earth\\u000a viewers such as Google Earth or Bing Maps accessible

Mathias Lemmens

442

Earth’s Earliest Atmospheres  

PubMed Central

Earth is the one known example of an inhabited planet and to current knowledge the likeliest site of the one known origin of life. Here we discuss the origin of Earth’s atmosphere and ocean and some of the environmental conditions of the early Earth as they may relate to the origin of life. A key punctuating event in the narrative is the Moon-forming impact, partly because it made Earth for a short time absolutely uninhabitable, and partly because it sets the boundary conditions for Earth’s subsequent evolution. If life began on Earth, as opposed to having migrated here, it would have done so after the Moon-forming impact. What took place before the Moon formed determined the bulk properties of the Earth and probably determined the overall compositions and sizes of its atmospheres and oceans. What took place afterward animated these materials. One interesting consequence of the Moon-forming impact is that the mantle is devolatized, so that the volatiles subsequently fell out in a kind of condensation sequence. This ensures that the volatiles were concentrated toward the surface so that, for example, the oceans were likely salty from the start. We also point out that an atmosphere generated by impact degassing would tend to have a composition reflective of the impacting bodies (rather than the mantle), and these are almost without exception strongly reducing and volatile-rich. A consequence is that, although CO- or methane-rich atmospheres are not necessarily stable as steady states, they are quite likely to have existed as long-lived transients, many times. With CO comes abundant chemical energy in a metastable package, and with methane comes hydrogen cyanide and ammonia as important albeit less abundant gases. PMID:20573713

Zahnle, Kevin; Schaefer, Laura; Fegley, Bruce

2010-01-01

443

EARTH OBSERVATIONS  

E-print Network

Each year, Federal agencies invest billions of dollars in civil Earth observations. Through these investments, the U.S. government ensures that the Nation’s decision makers have the information they need about climate and weather, disaster events, land-use change, ecosystem health, natural resources, and many other characteristics of the planet. Section 702 of the NASA Authorization Act of 2010, signed into law on October 11, 2010, instructs the Director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) to establish a mechanism to ensure greater coordination of civilian Earth observations, including the development of a strategic implementation plan that is updated at least every three years. In December 2010, I reported to Congress on the formation of a National Earth Observations Task Force to respond to this direction. The attached National Strategy for Civil Earth Observations, completed by the Task Force, establishes a three-year assessment and planning framework for Earth observations organized by major areas of societal benefit, initiates a prioritization of national observing systems according to those areas, and codifies guidelines for Federal agencies concerning the effective management of Earth observation data. As this National Strategy document describes, the Administration has begun a broad and

unknown authors

2013-01-01

444

Digital Earth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Digital Earth (DE) seeks to make geospatial information broadly and easily available. Vast amounts of natural and cultural information are gathered about the Earth, but it is often difficult to find needed data, to share knowledge across disciplines, and to combine information from several sources. DE defines a framework for interoperability by selecting relevant open standards from the information technology community. These standards specify the technical means by which publishers can provide or sell their data, and by which client applications can find and access data in an automated fashion. The standardized DE framework enables many types of clients--from web browsers to museum kiosks to research-grade virtual environments--to use a common geospatial information infrastructure. Digital Earth can benefit Earth system education in general, and DLESE in particular, in several ways. First, educators, students and creators of instructional material will benefit from standardized access to georeferenced data. Secondly, educational lesson plans that focus on a region or aspect of the Earth can themselves be considered geospatial information resources that could be cataloged and retrieved through DE. Finally, general public knowledge about our planet will by increased by Digital Earth.

de La Beaujardiere, J.

2001-05-01

445

BUILDING INSPECTION Building, Infrastructure, Transportation  

E-print Network

BUILDING INSPECTION Building, Infrastructure, Transportation City of Redwood City 1017 Middlefield Sacramento, Ca 95814-5514 Re: Green Building Ordinance and the Building Energy Efficiency Standards Per of Redwood City enforce the current Title 24 Building Energy Efficiency Standards as part

446

Collaborative modelling-based shelter planning analysis: a case study of the Nagata Elementary School Community in Kobe City, Japan.  

PubMed

This study, based on a questionnaire survey and workshops, and with a focus on the impact of an earthquake on the Nagata Elementary School Community in Kobe City, Japan, develops a collaborative model to assess the allocation of residents to shelters. The current official allocation plan is compared with three alternative allocations developed within the framework of this model. The collaborative model identifies accessibility, amenity, capacity, connectivity, continuity, security, and stability as the basic, necessary criteria for shelter planning. The three alternative allocations are very similar to the local residents' own choice of shelters, but they are quite different from the current official allocation plan, which is supposed to be followed but has achieved relatively low satisfaction among households. The proposed collaborative approach provides an effective tool to assess the officially determined allocation plan by taking into account the viewpoints of local residents, and the results are useful for enhancing community evacuation planning. PMID:24325242

Xu, Wei; Li, Ying; Okada, Norio; Takeuchi, Yukiko; Kajitani, Yoshio; Shi, Peijun

2014-01-01

447

On the effectiveness of shelter-in-place as a measure to reduce harm from atmospheric releases.  

PubMed

Shelter-in-place (SIP) is recommended by numerous entities as a measure to reduce harm in the event of a chemical accident or chemical attack taking place in the atmosphere. This article, based on solving mass conservation equation for indoor hazardous material, examines how effective SIP is to reduce the harm. It is shown that SIP can be effective when the shelter's air exchange rate is low and when the release duration is short. The effectiveness is strongly affected by the hazardous material itself: SIP is more effective for hazardous material with higher toxic load exponent. Another finding is that leaving the shelter promptly after the event can also be critical. PMID:25062825

Du, Shuming

2014-01-01

448

[Violence and psychosocial risks: narratives of adolescents living in shelters in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil].  

PubMed

This article contains part of the results of the "Youth, Disaffiliation and Violence" extension project developed at the Institute of Psychiatry of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro in 2008. It seeks to present experiences of violence experienced in three different contexts, namely in the family home, on the streets and in shelter units (SU), from the standpoint of adolescents. Thirty adolescents in five SUs in the municipality of Rio de Janeiro were interviewed. A qualitative approach was used in order to examine a relatively unknown reality, seeking a contextual understanding from the perspective of the social actors. To achieve this goal, this study sought the contribution of oral reports as the methodology for data collection. The theory of communication was the method of analysis, through the objective/subjective narratives of experiences of adolescents, establishing categories and points of analysis that permeate these experiences. The results revealed that youths housed in shelters are exposed to various psychosocial risks related to violence experienced in the environments visited. Lastly, the need for setting up an intersectorial network aiming at providing effective and comprehensive care for adolescents was highlighted. PMID:25650593

Botelho, Adriana Pedreira; Moraes, Mayara Cristina Muniz Bastos; Leite, Ligia Costa

2015-01-01

449

Women's experiences leaving abusive relationships: a shelter-based qualitative study.  

PubMed

Intimate partner violence is a worldwide problem. South Africa has one of the highest rates of intimate partner violence and therefore requires effective and sustainable approaches to prevention and response. For abused women, the process of leaving an intimate partner is difficult and mired in an abundance of complex factors that influence decision making. This qualitative study explored women's experiences of leaving abusive homes and relationships and the critical factors that pushed them to leave. In-depth interviews were conducted with 11 adult women who had experienced partner abuse and were residents of a shelter in Gauteng Province, South Africa. All interviews were audio-taped with consent, translated where necessary and transcribed verbatim. Thematic analysis of interviews was carried out. Two themes emerged as being instrumental to leaving: 'a phase of change' and the 'process of leaving the abusive relationship'. Leaving an abusive relationship was found to be a complex process that did not necessarily imply the end of the relationship and it reflected women's changing attitudes over time. Awareness of shelters and social support was found to be critical in facilitating departure from abusive relationships. PMID:25470526

Baholo, Masemetse; Christofides, Nicola; Wright, Anne; Sikweyiya, Yandisa; Shai, Nwabisa Jama

2015-05-01

450

Experiences of Hurricane Katrina Evacuees in Houston Shelters: Implications for Future Planning  

PubMed Central

Objectives. To shed light on how the public health community can promote the recovery of Hurricane Katrina victims and protect people in future disasters, we examined the experiences of evacuees housed in Houston area shelters 2 weeks after the hurricane. Methods. A survey was conducted September 10 through 12, 2005, with 680 randomly selected respondents who were evacuated to Houston from the Gulf Coast as a result of Hurricane Katrina. Interviews were conducted in Red Cross shelters in the greater Houston area. Results. Many evacuees suffered physical and emotional stress during the storm and its aftermath, including going without adequate food and water. In comparison with New Orleans and Louisiana residents overall, disproportionate numbers of this group were African American, had low incomes, and had no health insurance coverage. Many had chronic health conditions and relied heavily on the New Orleans public hospital system, which was destroyed in the storm. Conclusions. Our results highlight the need for better plans for emergency communication and evacuation of low-income and disabled citizens in future disasters and shed light on choices facing policymakers in planning for the long-term health care needs of vulnerable populations. PMID:16571686

Brodie, Mollyann; Weltzien, Erin; Altman, Drew; Blendon, Robert J.; Benson, John M.

2006-01-01

451

Toxoplasmosis, leptospirosis and brucellosis in stray dogs housed at the shelter in Umuarama municipality, Paraná, Brazil  

PubMed Central

Background Leptospirosis, toxoplasmosis and brucellosis are diseases with worldwide distribution. Among stray dogs, these zoonoses are facilitated by direct contact with other animal species, by the habit of scavenging garbage and hunting in search of food, drinking standing water, smelling other animals’ urine, licking female genitalia and the sexual act itself. The objective of this study was to detect antibodies anti-Toxoplasma gondii, anti-Leptospira spp., anti-Brucella canis and anti-Brucella abortus in stray dogs housed in shelters at Umuarama city, Paraná, Brazil. In order to detect toxoplasmosis, indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) was performed, agglutination microscopic (MAT) test for leptospirosis and agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) and buffered acidified antigen (BAA) tests for brucellosis. Results Of the 175 serum samples analyzed, 70.85% were considered positive for toxoplasmosis by IFA, 20% by MAT for leptospirosis and 2.85% by AGID for Brucella canis. Conclusions The serological results of this study showed that stray dogs housed at the private shelter are potential carriers of these three different zoonoses and contribute to the spread and maintenance of these etiologic agents in the urban area of Umuarama (PR), Brazil. PMID:24066949

2013-01-01

452

Domestic violence shelter partnerships and veterinary student attitudes at North American veterinary schools and colleges.  

PubMed

Animal abuse and domestic violence are linked issues, and pet ownership is reported to play a crucial role in the choice to leave an abusive situation. Although veterinarians witness the effects of abuse and violence over the course of their careers, they have limited training regarding these issues. One mechanism for educating veterinary students while providing a service for victims of domestic violence is the creation of partnerships between domestic violence shelters and veterinary schools. These extracurricular programs can provide both care for pets belonging to victims of domestic violence and an educational platform for student participants. The goals of this study were to determine the prevalence and characteristics of domestic violence shelter partnerships (DVSPs) at North American veterinary teaching hospitals and to determine whether the presence of a DVSP was associated with increased awareness among veterinary students regarding animal abuse and domestic violence. Nine of 33 veterinary schools surveyed described a DVSP program. Students at schools with DVSPs associated with their veterinary teaching hospitals were significantly more likely to indicate that their awareness of the link between animal abuse and domestic violence had increased during veterinary school. Most veterinary students reported that they felt poorly prepared to handle domestic violence and animal abuse issues in the workplace. This study indicates that extracurricular DVSPs are a viable means of educating veterinary students regarding domestic violence and animal abuse. A need for improved education on these topics in veterinary schools across North America is identified. PMID:23697544

Creevy, Kate E; Shaver, Stephanie L; Cornell, Karen K

2013-01-01

453

Terraforming earth and Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The uncontrolled character of current earth environment changes ascribable to anthropogenic pollutants is presently contrasted with the prospects for a controlled, long-term program of 'terraforming' for Mars, whose culmination could be the introduction of organisms able to thrive in the new Martian environment in carefully designed ways. A detailed discussion is conducted concerning the chemical building-blocks available on Mars for this manner of 'environmental engineering', with frequent reference to comparable and contrasting features of the terrestrial surface, hydrosphere and atmosphere.

Levine, Joel S.

1992-01-01

454

Project Earth Science: Meteorology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The forecast for learning meteorology is bright! With nineteen hands-on activities, ten readings, and a thorough resource guide, Project Earth Science: Meteorology brings the atmosphere right into the classroom. Designed for small budgets, Meteorology is teacher-written and classroom-tested, with ready-to-use, self-directed activities. These activities require students to make clouds and hail; build weather maps; and understand the causes of smog, ozone depletion, and acid rain. Whether it's exploring basic principles or following real-world examples, your students will agree--discovering how weather works was never this much fun!

Brent A. Ford

2001-01-01

455

Earth: Earth Science and Health  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A major new NASA initiative on environmental change and health has been established to promote the application of Earth science remote sensing data, information, observations, and technologies to issues of human health. NASA's Earth Sciences suite of Earth observing instruments are now providing improved observations science, data, and advanced technologies about the Earth's land, atmosphere, and oceans. These new space-based resources are being combined with other agency and university resources, data integration and fusion technologies, geographic information systems (GIS), and the spectrum of tools available from the public health community, making it possible to better understand how the environment and climate are linked to specific diseases, to improve outbreak prediction, and to minimize disease risk. This presentation is an overview of NASA's tools, capabilities, and research advances in this initiative.

Maynard, Nancy G.

2001-01-01

456

Emergency treatment of splenic injury in a novel mobile minimally invasive interventional shelter following disaster: a feasibility study  

PubMed Central

Background There has been an increase in natural disasters in recent years, which leads to a great number of injuries and deaths. It still remains an unsolved problem to treat patients with vascular injury of solid organs effectively following natural disasters, but on-spot emergency interventional transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) has been highly recommended to cure serious vascular injury of solid organs nowadays. Spleen is the most vulnerable abdominal organ, severe arterial hemorrhage of which can cause death if untreated timely. In this research, we aimed to study the possibility of performing emergency surgical intervention in mobile minimally invasive interventional shelter for splenic injury in the case of natural disasters. Methods First, the mobile minimally invasive interventional shelter was unfolded in the field, and then disinfection and preoperative preparation were performed immediately. Eight large animal models of splenic injury were created, and angiograms were performed using a digital subtraction angiography machine in the mobile minimally invasive interventional shelter, and then the hemostatic embolizations of injured splenic artery were performed following the established convention of rapid intervention therapy. The operating time was recorded, and the survival condition and postoperative complications were observed for two weeks. Results and discussion The average time of unfolding the shelter, and performing disinfection and preoperative preparation was 33?±?7 min. The number of colonies in the sterilized shelter body was 86?±?13 cfu/m3. The average TAE time was 31?±?7 min. All the hemostatic embolizations of splenic injury were performed successfully in the mobile minimally invasive interventional shelter during the operation. A pseudoaneurysm was found in an animal model using angiography two weeks after the operation. The primary clinical success rate of embolization was 87.5%. The two-week survival rate in all animal models of splenic injury was 100%. Conclusions Our findings in the current study demonstrate that the mobile minimally invasive interventional shelter can be adapted to the field perfectly and complete emergency surgical intervention for splenic injury efficiently and safely. Therefore, on-spot emergency interventional TAE for vascular injury of solid organs (e.g. spleen) in mobile minimally invasive interventional shelter is available and effective. PMID:25103472

2014-01-01

457

School of Earth and Environmental Sciences Spring 2013 Colloquium  

E-print Network

School of Earth and Environmental Sciences Spring 2013 Colloquium (Science Building C-207) Date:15 -1:30 PM Emily Chin Department Earth Science, Rice University Origin, Evolution, and Metamorphosis-Antonie Longpre Earth & Planetary Sciences, McGill University Volatile-rich magmas and explosive volcanic

Johnson Jr.,, Ray

458

DEPARTMENT OF EARTH, OCEAN and ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES SESSIONAL LECTURERS  

E-print Network

DEPARTMENT OF EARTH, OCEAN and ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES SESSIONAL LECTURERS Summer Session EOSC 314 Earth Science. Familiarity and/or expertise in paleontology, geology and ocean/atmospheric science would Sciences, University of British Columbia, Room 2020, Earth Sciences Building, 2207 Main Mall, Vancouver, B

459

DesignbyCIS Research School of Earth Sciences  

E-print Network

DesignbyCIS Research School of Earth Sciences A L Hales Honours Scholarship Enquiries: (02) 6125 have discussed your interest in undertaking an Honours program in Earth Sciences and/or your intention and Enquiries to: Student Admin Officer Research School of Earth Sciences Building 142, Jaeger 8, 61 Mills Road

Botea, Adi

460

Development of an Orientation Training Manual for Implementation with New Personnel and Volunteers Working in Short Term Transitional Homeless Shelters for Single Parent Families.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Increasing numbers of diverse families, caught in the web of poverty, are becoming homeless. Homeless shelters have tended to focus on meeting only critical necessities such as food and shelter. However, the needs of the homeless are much more complex and challenging. Homeless families have deep-rooted problems and fractured relationships. Staff…

Kates-Doyle, Susan

461

7 CFR Exhibit D to Subpart B of... - Fact Sheet-The Federal Interagency Task Force on Food and Shelter for the Homeless  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Sheet-The Federal Interagency Task Force on Food and Shelter for the Homeless D Exhibit D to Subpart B of Part 1955 Agriculture ...The Federal Interagency Task Force on Food and Shelter for the Homeless Editorial Note: Exhibit D is not published in the...

2010-01-01

462

Building a Barometer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students investigate the weather from a systems approach, learning how individual parts of a system work together to create a final product. Students learn how a barometer works to measure the Earth's air pressure by building a model using simple materials. Students analyze the changes in barometer measurements over time and compare those to actual weather conditions. They learn how to use a barometer to understand air pressure and predict actual weather changes.

Integrated Teaching and Learning Program,

463

Intelligent buildings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The principal issues faced in intelligent building design and construction are presented. The components of the intelligent building are placed into four main categories-facilities management, information management, connectivity, and overall control-and each of these is examined. Multitenant shared services, the changing nature of building components, and the benefits of intelligent building management are briefly discussed. Six stages in the realization

B. M. Flax

1991-01-01

464

Savage Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Savage Earth website is the on-line companion to the PBS television series of the same name. This site tells the stories of several great natural disasters, particularly the eruption of Mt. Vesuvius in 79 A.D. that destroyed Pompeii and the 1994 earthquake in Kobe, Japan. It contains articles on the earth's crust and plate tectonics, earthquakes, volcanoes, and tsunamis. Each article features photographs, animated drawings, and video clips. For example, the earthquakes article includes animations of types of faults and three different kinds of seismic waves. There is also a question and answer section and links to related sites about geology and natural hazards.

2002-04-24

465

Design of an unmanned lunar cargo lander that reconfigures into a shelter for a habitation module or disassembles into parts useful to a permanent manned lunar base  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA plans to establish a permanent manned lunar base by the first decade of the twenty-first century. It is extremely expensive to transport material from earth to the moon. Therefore, expense would be reduced if the vehicle that lands cargo on the moon could itself meet some of the material needs of establishing the lunar base. The design of a multi-functional lander that is entirely useful to the base after landing is described. Alternate designs of the overall lander configuration and possible uses of the lander and its components after landing are contained. The design solution is a lander employing the Saddlebagged Fuel Tank Configuration. After landing, its structure will be converted into a habitation module shelter that supports a protective layer of regolith. The fuel tanks will be cleaned and used as storage tanks for the lunar base. The engines and instrumentation will be saved as stock parts. Recommendations for further research and technology development to enhance future lander designs are given.

Davanay, Lisa; Garner, Brian; Rigol, Jason

1989-01-01

466

Building Green  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Information designed to help building industry professionals and policy makers to improve environmental performance and reduce the adverse impacts of buildings. Offers print and electronic resources to help industry professionals to take an integrated design approach that will minimize ecological impact and maximize economic performance. The publications related to green building include Environmental Building News - a monthly newsletter that is independently published and advertising-free; The GreenSpec Product Directory; and Green Building Advisor.

467

FOCUS TERRAThe Earth Science Research and Information Centre of ETH Zurich  

E-print Network

FOCUS TERRAThe Earth Science Research and Information Centre of ETH Zurich Discover the Wonders. Housed within the Department of Earth Sciences the exhibition builds a bridge between scientists scientists and students. The striking architecture of the Earth Sciences' building and the exhibition tower

Gilli, Adrian

468

Effect of high-impact targeted trap-neuter-return and adoption of community cats on cat intake to a shelter.  

PubMed

Approximately 2-3 million cats enter animal shelters annually in the United States. A large proportion of these are unowned community cats that have no one to reclaim them and may be too unsocialized for adoption. More than half of impounded cats are euthanased due to shelter crowding, shelter-acquired disease or feral behavior. Trap-neuter-return (TNR), an alternative to shelter impoundment, improves cat welfare and reduces the size of cat colonies, but has been regarded as too impractical to reduce cat populations on a larger scale or to limit shelter cat intake. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of TNR concentrated in a region of historically high cat impoundments in a Florida community. A 2-year program was implemented to capture and neuter at least 50% of the estimated community cats in a single 11.9?km(2) zip code area, followed by return to the neighborhood or adoption. Trends in shelter cat intake from the target zip code were compared to the rest of the county. A total of 2366 cats, representing approximately 54% of the projected community cat population in the targeted area, were captured for the TNR program over the 2-year study period. After 2 years, per capita shelter intake was 3.5-fold higher and per capita shelter euthanasia was 17.5-fold higher in the non-target area than in the target area. Shelter cat impoundment from the target area where 60 cats/1000 residents were neutered annually decreased by 66% during the 2-year study period, compared to a decrease of 12% in the non-target area, where only 12 cats/1000 residents were neutered annually. High-impact TNR combined with the adoption of socialized cats and nuisance resolution counseling for residents is an effective tool for reducing shelter cat intake. PMID:24980808

Levy, J K; Isaza, N M; Scott, K C

2014-09-01

469

Earth Movers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson explores plate tectonics and helps students understand how mountains, earthquakes, and volcanoes are related to the movements of plates. Students will learn about the idea of continental drift and the theory of plate tectonics to ascertain a fuller picture of how land formations on the surface of the Earth are shaped by plates moving below the surface.

470

Impact Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This planetarium show teaches about meteors, meteorites, asteroids, and comets. It includes results from NASA missions and about the dangers they can pose to life on Earth. It is created for full-dome theaters but can also be shown in flat version for TVs and computer monitors. Shows the effects of the Chixulub and Tungusta events, plus the Pallasite impact that resulted in the Brenham meteorite fall. Describes ways that asteroid hunters seek new objects in the Solar System, and how ground-penetrating radar is used to find meteorites that have reached the Earth's surface and ancient craters under the desert. Narrated by astronaut Tom Jones, it also discusses ways that humans might try to deflect an asteroid or comet that is on a collision course with Earth. Created for informal science venues (digital planetariums), it is also useful as ancillary material for middle school science. Created under NASA Cooperative Agreement NCC5-316 to Rice University in conjunction with the Houston Museum of Natural Science as part of the "Immersive Earth" project, part of the REASoN program.

Patricia Reiff

2009-05-01

471

Visible Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web site provides a searchable directory of NASA Earth science images, animations and data visualizations. Most resources are available digitally at multiple resolutions, with captions and metadata. Users can search the database using full text and advanced searches by topic, keyword, sensor, location, parameter, and dates.

2001-01-01

472

Earth Walk  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this hands-on and feet-on excursion, learners take a science walk to visualize the planet's immense size and numerous structures, without the usual scale and ratio dimensions found in most textbooks. Learners also compare their body's height to a scaled-down Earth.

2012-06-26

473

Rare earths  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Global mine production of rare earths was estimated to have declined slightly in 2012 relative to 2011 (Fig. 1). Production in China was estimated to have decreased to 95 from 105 kt (104,700 from 115,700 st) in 2011, while new mine production in the United States and Australia increased.

Gambogi, J.

2013-01-01

474

Earth's Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource provides an overview of the distribution and occurence of water on Earth. Topics include where and how much water there is, the water cycle, and how water is measured. There is also discussion of characteristics and distribution of surface water, groundwater, glaciers, and icecaps.

475

Early Earth differentiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The birth and infancy of Earth was a time of profound differentiation involving massive internal reorganization into core, mantle and proto-crust, all within a few hundred million years of solar system formation (t0). Physical and isotopic evidence indicate that the formation of iron-rich cores generally occurred very early in planetesimals, the building blocks of proto-Earth, within about 3 million years of t0. The final stages of terrestrial planetary accretion involved violent and tremendously energetic giant impacts among core-segregated Mercury- to Mars-sized objects and planetary embryos. As a consequence of impact heating, the early Earth was at times partially or wholly molten, increasing the likelihood for high-pressure and high-temperature equilibration among core- and mantle-forming materials. The Earth's silicate mantle harmoniously possesses abundance levels of the siderophile elements Ni and Co that can be reconciled by equilibration between iron alloy and silicate at conditions comparable to those expected for a deep magma ocean. Solidification of a deep magma ocean possibly involved crystal melt segregation at high pressures, but subsequent convective stirring of the mantle could have largely erased nascent layering. However, primitive upper mantle rocks apparently have some nonchondritic major and trace element refractory lithophile element ratios that can be plausibly linked to early mantle differentiation of ultra-high-pressure mantle phases. The geochemical effects of crystal fractionation in a deep magma ocean are partly constrained by high-pressure experimentation. Comparison between compositional models for the primitive convecting mantle and bulk silicate Earth generally allows, and possibly favors, 10 15% total fractionation of a deep mantle assemblage comprised predominantly of Mg-perovskite and with minor but geochemically important amounts of Ca-perovskite and ferropericlase. Long-term isolation of such a crystal pile is generally consistent with isotopic constraints for time-integrated Sm/Nd and Lu/Hf ratios in the modern upper mantle and might account for the characteristics of some mantle isotope reservoirs. Although much remains to be learned about the earliest formative period in the Earth's development, a convergence of theoretical, physical, isotopic and geochemical arguments is beginning to yield a self-consistent portrait of the infant Earth.

2004-09-01

476

78 FR 25455 - Announcement of the Award of Three Urgent Single-Source Grants To Support Shelter Care for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Support Shelter Care for Unaccompanied Alien Children AGENCY: Office of Refugee Resettlement...single-source grants from the Unaccompanied Alien Children's Program to KidsPeace in Bethlehem...services to meet the number of unaccompanied alien children referrals from the...

2013-05-01

477

Effects of sublethal exposure to cadmium on shelter-seeking behavior of juvenile Orconectes rusticus (Girard) crayfish  

SciTech Connect

Sublethal behavioral effect of heavy metals on crayfishes may adversely effect their survival in the environment. They may experience increased predation due to changes in their ability to remain in or under shelter. The effect of sublethal cadmium exposure on the ability of juvenile Orconectes rusticus crayfish to remain in shelter was evaluated. Four different treatment groups were used: a control group not exposed to cadmium, and three experimental groups exposed to 1, 2 ,or 3 mg Cd/L for 7 days. Crayfish were placed, individually, into small glass aquaria containing 3 L of laboratory water, with continuous aeration. Each crayfish was provided with a dark, thigmotactic shelter. Cadmium was introduced into the aquaria on days 1 and 4 to establish and maintain the nominal concentration. On days 5 through 7, observations were taken on each crayfish five times per day, with a minimum of 30 minutes between observations. The locations of the animals were recorded as in cover or in the open area of an aquarium. Repeated measures ANOVA was used to examine the effects of sublethal exposure to cadmium on shelter use by the juveniles.

Alberstadt, P.; Steele, C.; Misra, K.; Skinner, C.; Wilson, B.; Robaskiewicz, S.

1999-07-01

478

PO Box 43155 1009 Canton Avenue Lubbock, TX 79409-3155 National Storm Shelter Association/Texas Tech University  

E-print Network

(NSSA), working with the Debris Impact Test Facility at Texas Tech University, is addressing a serious the failure mechanism of doors that are unable to carry tornado-induced wind pressures and debris impacts. We doors in tornado shelters. Financial assistance will be acknowledged in publications and reports

Zhang, Yuanlin

479

Sex, drugs and videotape: The prevention of AIDS in a New York City shelter for homeless men  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper documents a process of social change through participant observation. During the course of research a group response was facilitated by a team of residents, staff and researchers. The social context, a shelter for homeless men in New York City, will be presented first, emphasizing those aspects of resident living that are germane to HIV transmission. Next, we describe

Ida Susser; M. Alfredo González

1992-01-01

480

Reasons for relinquishment of companion animals in U.S. animal shelters: Selected health and personal issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

In personal interviews, people surrendering their dogs and cats to 12 animal shelters in 4 regions of the country discussed their reasons for relinquishing their companion animals and answered questions about their own characteristics and those of their pet. The interviews identified 71 reasons for relinquishment. Personal issues lead the class of reasons for relinquishment of cats and ranked 3rd

Jennifer M Scarlett; M D Salman; New John C. Jr; Philip Kass

1999-01-01

481

Moving: Characteristics of dogs and cats and those relinquishing them to 12 U.S. animal shelters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National Council on Pet Population Study and Policy Regional Shelter Survey identified moving as the most often cited of 71 reasons for relinquishing dogs and the 3rd most common reason for relinquishing cats. Most relinquished companion animals were less than 3 years old and female. Dogs were most often intact, whereas cats were most often altered. Friends had given

New John C. Jr; M D Salman; Jennifer M Scarlett; Philip Kass; Jayne Vaughn; Stacy Scherr; William Kelch

1999-01-01

482

Influence of conspecific and heterospecific aggregation cues and alarm odors on shelter choice by syntopic spiny lobsters.  

PubMed

In spiny lobsters, conspecific scents ("aggregation cues") may mediate gregarious diurnal sheltering, but scents from injured conspecifics ("alarm odors") may elicit avoidance behavior. In laboratory experiments, individuals of two coexisting species, Panulirus guttatus (a reef-obligate) and P. argus (a temporary reef-dweller), significantly chose shelters emanating conspecific aggregation cues and responded randomly to shelters emanating heterospecific aggregation cues. However, despite evidence that the two species perceived each other's alarm odors to a similar extent, P. guttatus responded randomly to shelters emanating either conspecific or heterospecific alarm odors, whereas P. argus significantly avoided both. This differential influence of alarm odors likely reflects interspecific differences in life history, sociality, and behavior. The less social, reef-obligate P. guttatus lobsters forage close to their reef dens, into which they retract deeply upon perception of risk. This cryptic behavior may offset the need to avoid conspecific (and heterospecific) alarm odors. In contrast, avoidance of conspecific alarm odors by P. argus is consistent with its ontogenetic habitat shifts and greater sociality. Furthermore, because reef-dwelling P. argus lobsters forage across open areas away from the reef, an ability to avoid alarm odors from P. guttatus upon returning to their reef dens may increase their fitness. PMID:18840779

Briones-Fourzán, Patricia; Ramírez-Zaldívar, Eunice; Lozano-Alvarez, Enrique

2008-10-01

483

Comparison of selected canine vector-borne diseases between urban animal shelter and rural hunting dogs in Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

A serological survey for Dirofilaria immitis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Ehrlichia canis, and Borrelia burgdorferi infections in rural hunting and urban shelter dogs mainly from southwestern regions of the Republic of Korea (South Korea) was conducted. From a total of 229 wild boar or pheasant hunting dogs, the number of serologically positive dogs for any of the four pathogens was 93 (40.6%).

Sun Lim; Peter J Irwin; SeungRyong Lee; MyungHwan Oh; KyuSung Ahn; BoYoung Myung; SungShik Shin

2010-01-01

484

Building houses for people  

E-print Network

" ... shelter is part of daily human life and will come about wherever and whenever people will share space. Today, in a new age where so much more is possible, the professional plays a crucial role in that process. Yes, ...

Townes, Anne E. (Anne Elizabeth)

1995-01-01

485

Developing a sustainable foot care clinic in a homeless shelter within an academic-community partnership.  

PubMed

Nursing faculty are confronted with the need to design community learning activities with vulnerable populations to prepare students for nursing practice. The creation of sustainable academic-community partnerships with agencies providing care to underserved populations meets this challenge. This article describes the development and implementation of a foot care clinic in a homeless shelter, created through a model of curricular integration, faculty engagement, and a long-term academic-community partnership. A transformative pedagogical approach based on service-learning was used to facilitate student understanding of social justice through activities that promote citizenship, develop advocacy skills, and increase knowledge and skills related to the role of the public health nurse in the community. The process of designing and developing a community clinical learning activity and the essential components for sustainability are discussed. Student outcomes are addressed. Recommendations for implementing a foot care clinic within an academic–community partnership are outlined. PMID:23362514

Schoon, Patricia M; Champlin, Barbara E; Hunt, Roberta J

2012-12-01

486

Improving Youth Mental Health through Family-Based Prevention In Family Homeless Shelters.  

PubMed

This exploratory study examines changes in suicidal ideation among a sample (N = 28) of homeless youth, ages 11-14, residing within family shelters in a large metropolitan area. Changes in suicidal ideation from pretest to posttest are compared across two group approaches to delivering HIV prevention. Youth and their families participating in the HOPE Family Program, incorporating a family strengthening approach, are compared to those receiving a traditional health education-only approach. Multivariate analyses reveal that youth in the HOPE Family Program were 13 times more likely to report a decrease of suicidal ideation. These findings indicate that health education programs integrating a family strengthening approach hold promise for positively impacting mental health outcomes for vulnerable youth. PMID:25157200

Lynn, Cynthia J; Acri, Mary C; Goldstein, Leah; Bannon, William; Beharie, Nisha; McKay, Mary M

2014-09-01

487

Copper bioavailability and toxicity to Mytilus galloprovincialis in Shelter Island Yacht Basin, San Diego, CA.  

PubMed

The bioavailability and toxicity of copper (Cu) in Shelter Island Yacht Basin (SIYB), San Diego, CA, USA, was assessed with simultaneous toxicological, chemical, and modeling approaches. Toxicological measurements included laboratory toxicity testing with Mytilus galloprovincialis (Mediterranean mussel) embryos added to both site water (ambient) and site water spiked with multiple Cu concentrations. Chemical assessment of ambient samples included total and dissolved Cu concentrations, and Cu complexation capacity measurements. Modeling was based on chemical speciation and predictions of bioavailability and toxicity using a marine Biotic Ligand Model (BLM). Cumulatively, these methods assessed the natural buffering capacity of Cu in SIYB during singular wet and dry season sampling events. Overall, the three approaches suggested negligible bioavailability, and isolated observed or predicted toxicity, despite an observed gradient of increasing Cu concentration, both horizontally and vertically within the water body, exceeding current water quality criteria for saltwater. PMID:24952455

Bosse, Casey; Rosen, Gunther; Colvin, Marienne; Earley, Patrick; Santore, Robert; Rivera-Duarte, Ignacio

2014-08-15

488

Interactions between finfish aquaculture and lobster catches in a sheltered bay.  

PubMed

Interactions between open-net pen finfish aquaculture and lobster catches in a sheltered bay in Nova Scotia, Canada, were investigated using fishermen's participatory research in annual lobster trap surveys over seven years. Fishermen recorded lobster catches during the last two weeks of May from 2007 to 2013. Catches for each trap haul were recorded separately for ovigerous and market-sized lobsters. Catch trends within the bay were compared to regional trends. Results of correlation analyses indicated that ovigerous catch trends were strongly affected by the fish farm's feeding/fallow periods. There was no significant correlation between trends for bay and LFA lobster landings. Patterns of lobster catch per unit effort extending over considerable distance in Port Mouton Bay appear to be influenced by proximity to the fish farm regardless of year-to-year variation in water temperatures and weather conditions. Odours and habitat changes surrounding open-net pen finfish operations are potential factors affecting lobster displacement. PMID:25242235

Loucks, Ronald H; Smith, Ruth E; Fisher, E Brian

2014-11-15

489

Two-Year Predictors of Runaway and Homeless Episodes Following Shelter Services among Substance Abusing Adolescents  

PubMed Central

Given high levels of health and psychological costs associated with the family disruption of homelessness, identifying predictors of runaway and homeless episodes is an important goal. The current study followed 179 substance abusing, shelter-recruited adolescents who participated in a randomized clinical trial. Predictors of runaway and homeless episodes were examined over a two year period. Results from the hierarchical linear modeling analysis showed that family cohesion and substance use, but not family conflict or depressive symptoms, delinquency, or school enrollment predicted future runaway and homeless episodes. Findings suggest that increasing family support, care and connection and reducing substance use are important targets of intervention efforts in preventing future runaway and homeless episodes amongst a high risk sample of adolescents. PMID:24011094

Slesnick, Natasha; Guo, Xiamei; Brakenhoff, Brittany; Feng, Xin

2013-01-01

490

Oh, the things you will learn: taking undergraduate research to the homeless shelter.  

PubMed

Teaching research to undergraduate students has been described as a challenge. This article describes how a small group of students participated in a service-learning research project that culminated in the development of an educational intervention for volunteers who staff homeless shelters in the local community. By interacting with the homeless population and the volunteer staff who provide their care, students developed a greater understanding of the needs of the homeless, recognized some mental health disorders, and interacted with volunteer staff to assess their educational needs. Students were able to learn the research process through their participation in this collaborative project. The students' learning exceeded typical outcomes, as they displayed leadership skills and advocacy in areas of social justice and made compassionate connections with this vulnerable population. These students also forged new territory for future students who will be working with homeless populations and those who minister to them. PMID:23668249

August-Brady, Michele; Adamshick, Pamela

2013-06-01

491

Earth-Moon-Sun Dynamics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site serves as a portal for the Earth-Moon-Sun (EMS) Dynamics section of the Modeling for Understanding in Science Education (MUSE) project. Links lead to background material entitled Introduction to Earth-Moon-Sun Dynamics, Explanatory Models, Our Research, Teaching Strategies, Learning Outcomes and Assessment. The twelve classroom activities are arranged as active links in outline form under the topics Introducing Scientific Models, Building the EMS Model, and Applications of the EMS Model. The topic names are also active links which lead to background information on each.

492

Earth meandering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we try to put away current Global Tectonic Model to look the tectonic evolution of the earth from new point of view. Our new dynamic model is based on study of river meandering (RM) which infer new concept as Earth meandering(EM). In a universal gravitational field if we consider a clockwise spiral galaxy model rotate above Ninety East Ridge (geotectonic axis GA), this system with applying torsion field (likes geomagnetic field) in side direction from Rocky Mt. (west geotectonic pole WGP) to Tibetan plateau TP (east geotectonic pole EGP),it seems that pulled mass from WGP and pushed it in EGP due to it's rolling dynamics. According to this idea we see in topographic map that North America and Green land like a tongue pulled from Pacific mouth toward TP. Actually this system rolled or meander the earth over itself fractaly from small scale to big scale and what we see in the river meandering and Earth meandering are two faces of one coin. River transport water and sediments from high elevation to lower elevation and also in EM, mass transport from high altitude-Rocky Mt. to lower altitude Himalaya Mt. along 'S' shape geodetic line-optimum path which connect points from high altitude to lower altitude as kind of Euler Elastica(EE). These curves are responsible for mass spreading (source) and mass concentration (sink). In this regard, tiltness of earth spin axis plays an important role, 'S' are part of sigmoidal shape which formed due to intersection of Earth rolling with the Earth glob and actual feature of transform fault and river meandering. Longitudinal profile in mature rivers as a part of 'S' curve also is a kind of EE. 'S' which bound the whole earth is named S-1(S order 1) and cube corresponding to this which represent Earth fracturing in global scale named C-1(cube order 1 or side vergence cube SVC), C-1 is a biggest cycle of spiral polygon, so it is not completely closed and it has separation about diameter of C-7. Inside SVC we introduce cone vergence cube (CVC or geotectonic equator GE) which rotate 45 degree counterclockwise with respect to SVC. Every cube from big scale to small scale fractalize in order of 23 and every '8' shape from big scale to small scale also fractalize in the same order. Three dimensional and fractoscopic imagination about understanding the changing on earth is very important so we should imagine '8' as curved surface, sea floor spreading happened in maximum curvature of these surfaces. '8' formed from pair 'S' string with opposite direction. '8' oscillate in Pole-Pole and Side-Side direction and have saddle geometry with two 'U' path along perpendicular saddle (e.g. Lut/Jazmurian and Helmand/Mashkal basin in Iran actually intersection of this saddle shape with the earth surface and Iceland /Black Sea and CapeVerde/Victoria Lake are also In/Out (small scale polygon) of 'U' shape conduit which followed axial saddle of Side-'S-2' and Okhotsk Sea /Balkhash Lake followed axial saddle conduit of Pole-'S-2' actually intersection of this perpendicular conduit with surface make spot-like-lakes/volcanoes or basin. Global EM in Side-S-1 bounded compression region-TP inside and tension region-East African Rift offside).This is a interesting competing between two kinematic geometry - spherical and isometrical geometry by using the interaction of them we can analyze the earth face in past, present and future apart of the forces that cause this face. C-1 in two dimensional look like six sided big tent which speared over Tibet and main rod driven along GA. Pair S-1 curve. have seven component(fold) and six segment in between,S-7 exactly located on TP(center of S-1). Between two successive fold we have complex geology(e.g. eastern Iran and Afghanistan)mass dragged from North America and Siberian and accumulated gradually during six step in Earth Foundation(Tibet),S-7 bounded Takla Makan Desert (in smaller loop) and TP (in bigger loop) S-7 alter the earth balance and responsible for earth disturbing, another sample of 'S' curve we see around Australia and Kermadec/Tonga Trench, Aleutian ri

Asadiyan, H.; Zamani, A.

2009-04-01

493

Effects of habitat patchiness on American lobster movement across a gradient of predation risk and shelter competition.  

PubMed

The influence of landscape structure on marine ecological processes is receiving increasing attention. However, few studies conducted in coastal marine habitats have evaluated whether the effects of landscape structure on species interactions and organismal behavior are consistent across the range of an organism, over which landscape context and the strength of species interactions typically vary. American lobster (Homarus americanus) juveniles seek refuge from predators within shallow rocky habitat but make short-distance movements to forage outside of shelter. We evaluated how the patchiness of cobble habitat influences juvenile lobster movement by conducting mark-recapture experiments on lobsters placed within patchy and contiguous cobble plots in three regions of New England among which risk of predation and intraspecific shelter competition vary (Rhode Island, mid-coast Maine, and eastern Maine, USA). We also evaluated whether habitat patchiness influenced lobster colonization of plots and whether lobster fidelity to individual shelters corresponds to variability in predator abundance and conspecific density among regions. Cobble patchiness reduced rates of lobster movement in all three regions in 2004 and in two of three regions in 2005, despite large differences in landscape context among regions. Region had much larger effects on lobster colonization than did patchiness, but patchy plots were colonized at higher rates than were contiguous plots where lobster densities were highest. Fidelity to shelter was higher in regions with low conspecific density (Rhode Island and eastern Maine) than in mid-coast Maine where conspecific density is high and where unmarked lobsters often occupied shelters vacated by marked lobsters. Our results indicate that cobble patchiness influences juvenile lobster movement at small scales, but that the effects of patchiness on movement were consistent across much of the range of the American lobster despite strong regional variation in predator abundance and conspecific density. PMID:20715622

Hovel, Kevin A; Wahle, Richard A

2010-07-01