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1

Constructing earth sheltered housing with concrete  

SciTech Connect

This manual provides a state - of - the - art review of the design and construction of an earth - sheltered house using cast - in - place concrete, precast concrete, and concrete masonry. Based on a literature survey, theoretical work, and discussions with researchers and engineers in the concrete industry, the text is designed for use by architects, engineers, and homebuilders. The features of concrete construction that are current accepted practice for the concrete products discussed are shown to be applicable with reasonable care to building a safe, dry, and comfortable earth - sheltered house. The main considerations underlying the recommendations were the use of the earth's mass and passive solar effects to minimize energy needs, the structural capacity of the separate concrete products and their construction methods, and drainage principles and waterproofing details. Shelter ranging from those with at least 2 feet of earth cover to those with an uncovered roof of usual construction are included. To be considered an earth - sheltered residential building, at least half of the exterior wall and roof area that is in direct contact with the conditioned living space must be sheltered from the environment by earth berm or earthfill. Siting considerations, the fundamentals of passive solar heating, planning considerations, and structural considerations are discussed. Detailed guidelines are provided on concrete masonry construction, joint details in walls and floors, waterproofing, formwork and form removal, concrete construction practices, concrete masonry, and surface finishes. Numerous illustrations, tables, and a list of 32 references are provided. (Author abstract modified).

Spears, R.E.

1981-01-01

2

Radon in earth-sheltered structures  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Radon concentration in the indoor air of six residential and three non-residential earth-sheltered buildings in eastern Colorado was monitored quarterly over a nine-month period using passive, integrating detectors. Average radon concentrations during the three-month sampling periods ranged from about 1 to 9 pCi/L, although one building, a poorly ventilated storage bunker, had concentrations as high as 39 pCi/L. These radon concentrations are somewhat greater than those typically reported for conventional buildings (around 1 pCi/L); but they are of the same order of magnitude as radon concentrations reported for energy-efficient buildings which are not earth-sheltered. ?? 1984.

Landa, E. R.

1984-01-01

3

Suitable thin shell structural configurations for earth sheltered housing  

Microsoft Academic Search

An earth sheltered house is one whose building envelope is substantially in contact with soil, without necessarily being totally underground. Hence, it can provide the commonly sought attributes of a residence, including natural light, exterior views, and curb appeal. It also exhibits strong energy performance, lower maintenance, and good storm protection. Despite the longer-term life cycle cost advantages of earth

Behr

1982-01-01

4

1966 Architectural Awards. Buildings With Fallout Shelter.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Award winning designs are presented demonstrating that economical dual-use shelter space can be incorporated in the designs of new buildings without sacrifice of either function or aesthetic values. The eight award winning designs are discussed, and graphic illustration is provided of the nature of dual-use shelter, which contributes to…

Office of Civil Defense (DOD), Washington, DC.

5

Constructing earth sheltered housing with concrete  

Microsoft Academic Search

This manual provides a state - of - the - art review of the design and construction of an earth - sheltered house using cast - in - place concrete, precast concrete, and concrete masonry. Based on a literature survey, theoretical work, and discussions with researchers and engineers in the concrete industry, the text is designed for use by architects,

Spears

1981-01-01

6

View of EPA Farm cattle shelters (Building 1506 in background), ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View of EPA Farm cattle shelters (Building 15-06 in background), facing southeast - Nevada Test Site, Environmental Protection Agency Farm, Shelter Unit Type, Area 15, Yucca Flat, 10-2 Road near Circle Road, Mercury, Nye County, NV

7

ANALYSIS OF THE ENERGY PERFORMANCE OF EARTH-SHELTERED HOUSES WITH SOUTHERN ELEVATION EXPOSED  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the article the authors present the results of heating and cooling energy usage of earth-sheltered houses with exposed southern elevations. The results were then compared to a conventional above-ground building. Simulations were focused on the influence of soil cover and the thermal insulation of building envelope thickness and were done for Polish climate conditions. The large thermal inertia of

Maja Staniec; Henryk Nowak

8

31. Threequarter view of front of building 161, fallout shelter ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

31. Three-quarter view of front of building 161, fallout shelter taken from top of water storage mound, looking northwest - Nike Missile Battery MS-40, County Road No. 260, Farmington, Dakota County, MN

9

Earth-Sheltered Industrial Utility Park. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The potential to develop the Cumberland (Wisconsin) industrial park site using earth-integrated techniques is discussed. The concept feasibility study concerned the site, the land-use plan, and building types. An assessment of energy use in the Cumberland...

1981-01-01

10

Earth-sheltered housing: an evaluation of energy-conservation potential  

SciTech Connect

The Innovative Structures Program (ISP) began an evaluation of the energy conservation potential of earth-sheltered houses in late 1979. Since that time, several projects have been undertaken as part of this evaluation. The findings of these projects, plus a discussion of the work of others in the field, form the body of this report. Although a comprehensive evaluation of earth-sheltered housing has not been completed, this report presents a compendium of knowledge on the subject. The conclusions are more qualitative than quantitative in nature because of the limited information on which to base projections. The major conclusions to date are as follows: Earth-sheltered houses are capable of very good energy performance. Earth-sheltered houses, as a passive means to conserve energy, perform significantly better in some climatic regins than in others. Earth-sheltered houses are not the optimum passive concept in several major housing growth regions of the country. Earth-sheltered houses, including their land and site improvements, will cost an estimated 10 to 35% more than comparable aboveground houses, and this additional cost may not be justified on a life cycle cost basis, given 1981 market conditions. The use of earth sheltering will probably grow in some parts of the country; however, broad-scale national or regional utilization is not likely to occur in the next 20 to 30 years.

Wendt, R.L.

1982-04-01

11

65. BUILDING 7223, BARRACKS (FORMER ANIMAL SHELTER). (Plan P702988, 24' ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

65. BUILDING 7223, BARRACKS (FORMER ANIMAL SHELTER). (Plan P-702-988, 24' x 320', completed May 25, 1932, modified January 15, 1941). Fort McCoy photograph #A-6, undated. - Fort McCoy, Sparta, Monroe County, WI

12

The Need for Shelter  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, the students will build a shelter in order to protect themselves from the rain. After the shelters are built, the class will perform durability and water proof testing on the shelters.

Adventure Engineering

13

The immature stages and shelter building behavior of Falgo Jeconia Ombra Evans, 1955 in eastern Ecuador (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae: Hesperiinae).  

PubMed

We describe the immature stages and shelter building behavior of Falga jeconia ombra Evans, 1955 from eastern Ecuador. Chusquea scandens (Poaceae, Bambusoidea) is the larval food plant. Larvae in all stadia build shelters and forcibly eject frass with the aid of an anal comb. Later instars possess an eversible prothoracic "neck" gland. Larvae are associated with moving water. PMID:19613872

Greeney, Harold F; Warren, Andrew D

2009-01-01

14

The Immature Stages and Shelter Building Behavior of Falgo Jeconia Ombra Evans, 1955 in eastern Ecuador (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae: Hesperiinae)  

PubMed Central

We describe the immature stages and shelter building behavior of Falga jeconia ombra Evans, 1955 from eastern Ecuador. Chusquea scandens (Poaceae, Bambusoidea) is the larval food plant. Larvae in all stadia build shelters and forcibly eject frass with the aid of an anal comb. Later instars possess an eversible prothoracic “neck” gland. Larvae are associated with moving water.

Greeney, Harold F.; Warren, Andrew D.

2009-01-01

15

Earth Sheltered Industrial/Utility Park. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A proposed industrial park in Cumberland, Wisconsin is discussed. Planners identified 4 land use elements for the site. A concept feasibility study for the earth-covered industrial park, an analysis of energy flows within the Cumberland community, and a r...

1981-01-01

16

ETR CONTROL BUILDING, TRA647. EAST SIDE. SHELTERED STAIRWAY TO SECOND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

ETR CONTROL BUILDING, TRA-647. EAST SIDE. SHELTERED STAIRWAY TO SECOND FLOOR; ETR CONTROL ROOM IS ON FIRST FLOOR AND ADJACENT TO ETR. ETR FREIGHT DOOR AT LEFT OF VIEW. CAMERA FACING WEST. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD42-6. Mike Crane, Photographer, 3/2004 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

17

The life history and shelter building behavior of Vettius coryna coryna Hewitson, 1866 in eastern Ecuador (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae: Hesperiinae).  

PubMed

Abstract We describe all life-stages of Vettius coryna coryna Hewitson, 1866 in eastern Ecuador. The details of larval shelter structure and associated shelter building behavior are described and illustrated, as observed on two grass species (Poaceae). We provide brief observations on V. coryna adult behavior and a review of known life history information for other species of Vettius Godman, 1901. PMID:19613868

Greeney, Harold F; Warren, Andrew D

2009-01-01

18

The analysis of the effects of frame response on basement shelters in tall buildings. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of a program to develop a theoretical analysis of the effects of frame response on basement shelters in tall buildings. The objective was to determine the effect on an upgraded basement key worker shelter of the aboveground portion of the structure being subjected to a blast wave that would destroy the building. Both steel and reinforced concrete frame structures were investigated, with most emphasis on poured-in-place reinforced concrete beam, slab, and girder type framing and poured-in-place flat-slab and flat-plate construction. A prediction technique usng both hand and computer analysis was developed and tested using a previously demolished 15-story cast-in-place reinforced structure. The analysis indicated that the upgraded basement would have survived even through the aboveground portion of the structure was exposed to 50 psi.

Gabrielsen, B.L.; Cuzner, G.J.; Hendricks, J.; Zsutty, T.C.

1982-10-01

19

Speedy Shelter  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this design challenge activity, learners invent an emergency shelter that can fit a person and is sturdy and quick to build. Learners think about a familiar shape in new ways, brainstorm shelter designs and follow the design process to invent a solution to the challenge. Educators can put this challenge in the context of a real life scenario by sharing a fake news story about a lost hiker. The news story can be found on page 1 of the Leaders Notes.

Wgbh

2010-01-01

20

Determining Possible Building Blocks of the Earth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Introduction: One of the fundamental questions concerning the formation of the Earth is what is it made out of. The Earth appears to have condensed out of material from the solar nebula. We sample this "primitive" material in the form of chondritic meteorites. One of the most important constraints on possible building blocks for the Earth is the Earth#s oxygen iso-topic composition. Rocks from the Earth and Moon plot along a line (the terrestrial fractionation line) in diagrams of delta(sup 17)O (% relative to Standard Mean Ocean Water or SMOW) versus delta(sup 18)O (% relative to SMOW). Chondritic meteorites fall above and below this line. Distances from this line are given as Delta(sup 17)O (%) (= delta(sup 17)O - 0.52 x delta(sup 18)O).

Burbine, T. H.; O'Brien, K. M.

2003-01-01

21

Civil defense shelters: a state-of-the-art assessment - 1986. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The literature on the design, construction, testing, and cost of blast and fallout shelters was reviewed, and a bibliography of over 1000 documents was assembled. It was found that nuclear weapon effects and shelter design are well understood. The principal technical barrier to construction of permanent shelters is cost. Single-purpose blast shelters cost in the high hundreds to low thousands of dollars per space, depending on size, hardness, location, and whether the shelter is part of new construction or retrofit. The risk area population requiring blast protection is approximately 160 million. The very-low-cost options open to the U.S. Government, with its present civil defense budget, remain: (1) maintain the inventory on fallout shelter and identify space with some blast protection potential; (2) plan for crisis upgrading to improve existing space in a crisis, and (3) plan for construction of expedient shelter in a crisis. Fallout shelters might be mandated in appropriate new construction outside risk areas at little cost to the government. Options in the mid-range of expense, a few tens to a few hundreds of dollars per space include: (1) requiring modified limestone-mining practices, where appropriate, to generate useable shelter space near cities; (2) encouraging the construction of earth-sheltered housing and other buildings, and (3) requiring and/or subsidizing the construction of dual-use basement shelter in new construction.

Chester, C.V.; Zimmerman, G.P.

1986-12-01

22

SEISMIC IMPROVEMENT OF TRADITIONAL EARTH BUILDING IN PERU  

Microsoft Academic Search

The analysis of current building methods in South America and mainly in Peru still reveals an extremely wide use of earth as basic material all around the country, even if it is diffused less and less every year due to the social bias that considers earth building poor and not modern enough if compared to brick or concrete building. In

LORENZO JURINA; MONICA RIGHETTI

23

Civil defense shelters: A state-of-the-art assessment, 1986  

SciTech Connect

The literature on the design, construction, testing, and cost of blast and fallout shelters was reviewed, and a bibliography of over 1000 documents was assembled. It was found that nuclear weapon effects and shelter design are well understood. An important barrier to construction of permanent shelters is cost. Single-purpose shelters cost in the high hundreds to low thousands of dollars per occupant (or per space), depending on size, hardness, location, and whether the shelter is part of new construction or retrofit. Multiplied by a risk area population of approximately 160 million, the cost of a blast shelter construction program would rival that of a major strategic weapon system. Options in the mid-range of expense, a few tens to a few hundreds of dollars per space include (1) requiring modified limestone mining practices, where appropriate, to generate usable shelter space near cities; (2) encouraging the construction of earth-sheltered housing and other buildings; and (3) requiring and/or subsidizing the construction of dual-use basement shelter in new construction. A program using this approach would require an annual expenditure of approximately 1% of the annual defense budget for 10 or more years. 950 refs., 68 figs., 9 tabs.

Chester, C.V.; Zimmerman, G.P.

1987-02-01

24

Design and Construction Guidance for Community Shelters. FEMA 361.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual presents guidance to engineers, architects, building officials, and prospective shelter owners concerning the design and construction of community shelters that will provide protection during tornado and hurricane events. The manual covers two types of community shelters: stand-alone shelters designed to withstand high winds and the…

Federal Emergency Management Agency, Washington, DC.

25

Fallout sheltering: is it feasible  

SciTech Connect

The feasibility of sheltering the U.S. population from fallout resulting from a large-scale nuclear attack is assessed using a mathematical model. The model is used to calculate the reduction in cumulative dose received by a sheltered survivor, as a function of five adjustable parameters. Three time periods are postulated: time in the shelter, a transition period during which time out of the shelter increases and a final period in which half the time is spent outside the shelter. The parameters are varied independently, and the resulting dose reduction factor is compared with what seems to be necessary for survival in different regions of the country under the postulated attack. Another model developed by K.S. Gant and C.V. Chester is compared with this one. Similarities and differences are pointed out, and where possible the results of the two are checked for compatibility. An important question addressed in this paper is whether under the conditions of a large-scale nuclear attack sheltering a relatively unprepared population is at all feasible. Sensitivity tests of the various parameters in our model show that relatively low protection factor areas such as basements or inner rooms already existing in homes or other buildings could quite adequately serve as shelters for most of the area of the contiguous United States. Furthermore, continuous stays in these shelters of more than three weeks do not seem to be necessary for these large parts of the United States.

Ehrlich, R.; Ring, J.

1987-03-01

26

Shelter System  

Microsoft Academic Search

A telephone rings at a feminist domestic violence shelter, and a worker picks up. First, the caller requests an Arabic-English translator to help her communicate, so the worker calls in a telephone translation service. The caller identifies herself as an immigrant who had come to the U.S. two years ago, who had never left her house by herself in these

Emi Koyama

27

Schools Built with Fallout Shelter.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fallout protection can be built into a school building with little or no additional cost, using areas that are in continual use in the normal functioning of the building. A general discussion of the principles of shelter design is given along with photographs, descriptions, drawings, and cost analysis for a number of recently constructed schools…

Office of Civil Defense (DOD), Washington, DC.

28

NORTHERLY VIEW OF THE SHELTER HOUSE LOCATED ON THE EAST ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

NORTHERLY VIEW OF THE SHELTER HOUSE LOCATED ON THE EAST END OF BIG DALTON DAM SHOWING THE SOUTH SIDE OF THE BUILDING - Big Dalton Dam, Shelter House, 2600 Big Dalton Canyon Road, Glendora, Los Angeles County, CA

29

Requirements for Tactical Shelters.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report discusses the need to replace Standardized Integrated Command Post System (SICPS) rigid wall shelters (RWS) and the transportability of DoD tactical shelters. The audit results concerning the use of standard tactical shelters and the method of...

S. Young R. Ryan G. Hopper T. Kotonias C. Perkins

1995-01-01

30

Community Wind Shelters: Background and Research.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A wind shelter is an interior room or other space within a building, or even an entire separate structure, that is designed and constructed to protect its occupants from high winds, usually those associated with tornadoes or hurricanes. Wind shelters are ...

2002-01-01

31

The selection of soils for unstabilised earth building: A normative review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earth building techniques make use of unbaked earth as a material for constructing walls. We consider that evaluation of soils is a primary question because not all soils are adequate for earth building, and not for any of the earth building techniques. Following a selection of more than 20 technical documents including standards from National Standards Bodies, we analysed the

M. Carmen Jiménez Delgado; Ignacio Cañas Guerrero

2007-01-01

32

Cost Estimates for Providing Biological Agent Protection to Fallout Shelters.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

It is estimated that biological agent protection can be provided in existing buildings to shelter the occupants who have not been infected nor contaminated for a cost per person of: Below-ground shelters, ventilated --$0.60, Below-ground shelters, unventi...

J. B. Petty W. L. Brooks

1964-01-01

33

Earth Sciences' Capacity Building In Developing Countries through International Programmes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Within the framework of "traditional" programmes, like the joint UNESCO-IUGS "International Geoscience Programme" (IGCP), the "International Continental Scientific Drilling Program" (ICDP), the "Integrated Ocean Drilling Program" (IODP) or the "International Lithosphere Programme" (ILP) numerous opportunities are provided to strengthen postgraduate geo-scientific education of representatives from developing countries. Recently established new initiatives, such as the "International Year of Planet Earth" (IYPE) or UNESCO's Global Network of Geoparks complement these in addition as important components to UNESCO's 'Education for All' programme, notably the youth, as well as to the United Nations Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (2005 - 2014). The "International Year of Planet Earth" is a joint initiative of the International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS) and UNESCO. The central aims and ambitions of the Year, proclaimed for 2008 by the UN General Assembly, are to demonstrate the great potential of the Earth sciences in building a safer, healthier and wealthier society, and to encourage more widespread and effective application of this potential by targeting politicians and other decision-makers, educational systems, and the general public. Promotion of international collaboration, as well as capacity building and training of students of developing countries in all fields of Earth Sciences seem to be the most appropriate way to meet also the challenges of the IYPE. Another opportunity to improve the international recognition of Earth Scinces, also in developing countries, is the use of Geoparks as a promotional tool for education and popularization of Earth Sciences. Geoparks, notably those included in the European and/or Global Geoparks Networks, provide an international platform of cooperation and exchange between experts and practitioners in geological heritage matters, and are as such excellent instruments in highlighting Earth sciences. The general goal of Geoparks to integrate the preservation of geological heritage into a strategy for regional sustainable socio-economic and cultural development serves ideally the overall objective of the "International Year of Planet Earth" with its subtitle "Earth Sciences for Society". International geo-related cooperation projects, run under the umbrella of international NGOs (like IUGS, IUGG, IGU, IUSS and others) are often supported financially by international and national funding agencies. Out of the broad international spectrum, some German projects devoted to developing countries - summer schools, training and capacity building courses in Earth Sciences, funded by the DFG (German Research Foundation), DAAD (German Academic Exchange Service), InWent (Capacity Building International, Germany) and others - are selected as examples in improving the geo-research capacity and education of developing countries.

Eder, W.

2007-12-01

34

Safe Rooms and Shelters: Protecting People Against Terrorist Attacks. Risk Management Series.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this manual is to provide guidance for engineers, architects, building officials, and property owners to design shelters and safe rooms in buildings. This manual presents information about the design and construction of shelters in the wo...

2006-01-01

35

Determining Possible Building Blocks of the Earth and Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One of the fundamental questions concerning planetary formation is exactly what material did the planets form from? All the planets in our solar system are believed to have formed out of material from the solar nebula. Chondritic meteorites appear to sample this primitive material. Chondritic meteorites are generally classified into 13 major groups, which have a variety of compositions. Detailed studies of possible building blocks of the terrestrial planets require samples that can be used to estimate the bulk chemistry of these bodies. This study will focus on trying to determine possible building blocks of Earth and Mars since samples of these two planets can be studied in detail in the laboratory.

Burbine, T. H.; OBrien, K. M.

2004-01-01

36

Studying the Instrument Shelter  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this project, students construct shelters that have varying properties and place them in the same location, or place similar shelters in different locations and compare temperature data taken in each shelter. Students predict what will happen for each of the different shelter designs or placements and perform the steps of student research. The resource includes a student worksheet. This learning resource is part of the Atmosphere chapter of the GLOBE Teacherâs Guide, and is supported by the GLOBE atmosphere protocols.

37

Earth Scientists Forge New Understanding of Mountain-Building Dynamics  

NSF Publications Database

... mountains and Earth's climate. To better understand these dynamics, earth scientists are now ... processes active in the deep Earth, processes that change Earth's surface, and the atmosphere that ...

38

Space Shelter. Grades 3-5.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on a hypothetical situation that aliens have invaded Earth and humans must relocate to another planet, students design a shelter that can be built on another planet to insure their survival. Students research the characteristics of a planet of their choice and consider how to get to that planet from Earth, determine which five items that…

Rushton, Erik; Ryan, Emily; Swift, Charles

39

Shelter Occupancy Studies of Ventilator Utilization.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report describes three shelter occupancy experiments designed to investigate shelter management problems involving shelteree needs and responses, control of the shelter environment, shelter organization, and the operation of shelter ventilation equipm...

A. G. Jago J. A. Anderson R. C. Friedman

1970-01-01

40

SOUTHEAST VIEW OF THE SHELTER HOUSE LOCATED ON THE EAST ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

SOUTHEAST VIEW OF THE SHELTER HOUSE LOCATED ON THE EAST END OF BIG DALTON DAM SHOWING THE NORTHWEST SIDE OF THE BUILDING. THE PARAPET WALL IS SHOWN IN THE FOREGROUND - Big Dalton Dam, Shelter House, 2600 Big Dalton Canyon Road, Glendora, Los Angeles County, CA

41

4. PERSPECTIVE VIEW TO THE NORTHEAST OF THE CREW SHELTER ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. PERSPECTIVE VIEW TO THE NORTHEAST OF THE CREW SHELTER IN AR-8. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base, Rammed Earth Aircraft Dispersal Revetments, Western Shore of Rogers Dry Lake, Boron, Kern County, CA

42

15. SOUTHEAST AND NORTHEAST WALLS OF CREW SHELTER LOCATED BETWEEN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

15. SOUTHEAST AND NORTHEAST WALLS OF CREW SHELTER LOCATED BETWEEN THE PURSUIT PLANE BAYS OF AR-9. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base, Rammed Earth Aircraft Dispersal Revetments, Western Shore of Rogers Dry Lake, Boron, Kern County, CA

43

Deployable Temporary Shelter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Compact storable components expand to create large shelter. Fully deployed structure provides large, unobstructed bay. Deployed trusses support wall and roof blankets. Provides temporary cover for vehicles, people, and materials. Terrestrial version used as garage, hangar, or large tent.

Shaffer, Joe R.; Headley, David E.

1993-01-01

44

Shelter for Seismological Instrmnts.  

NSF Publications Database

... S-091. What alternatives has the contractor considered? The no-action alternative (i.e., to do ... proposed alternative to construct the shelter. Have probable impacts of all alternatives been ...

45

Shelter Ventilator Studies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report describes the research conducted to determine the applicability of several investigated shelter supplies: ventilator kits, both Kearny pump (KP) and pedal ventilator (PV); novel fantype ventilators; and a motor kit PV attachment. Military speci...

A. L. Kapil C. E. Rathmann

1971-01-01

46

Preserving Childhood for Children in Shelters.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book provides useful "how-to" information to help shelters create a safe, healthful, and supportive environment for their youngest residents. The chapters of the book are: (1) "The Effects of Homelessness on Children and Families" (Janice Molnar); (2) "Children and Domestic Violence: Recognizing Effects and Building Programs" (Evelyn…

Harms, Thelma, Ed.; Ray, Adele Richardson, Ed.; Rolandelli, Pam, Ed.

47

View of Chapel Park, showing bomb shelters at right foreground, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View of Chapel Park, showing bomb shelters at right foreground, from building 746 parking lot across Walnut Avenue; camera facing north. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, East of Nave Drive, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

48

SPERTI Reactor Pit Building (PER605). Earth shielding protect adjacent Instrument ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

SPERT-I Reactor Pit Building (PER-605). Earth shielding protect adjacent Instrument Cell (PER-606). Security fencing surrounds complex, to which gate entry is provided next to Guard House (PER-607). Note gravel road leading to control area. Earth-covered conduit leads from instrument cell to terminal building out of view. Photographer: R.G. Larsen. Date: June 22, 1955. INEEL negative no. 55-1701 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, SPERT-I & Power Burst Facility Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

49

Soviet civil defense shelter program. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes the Soviet shelter program and changes in priorities in shelter construction, shelter types, shelter hardness and degree of protection against radiation, filter-ventilation systems, limitations on duration of occupancy and availability.

Goure

1977-01-01

50

Evaluation of shelter ventilation by model tests. Option 2. Final report, August 1983-September 1984  

SciTech Connect

Wind tunnel tests were carried out using models of fallout shelters to determine correlations between shelter ventilation rate, area and distribution of wall openings, wind speed and its direction relative to the orientation of the shelter. Models of bermed shelters with five different opening configurations were used. A simple correlation was formulated between the shelter ventilation rate, the total area of windward openings, the ratio of leeward to windward opening areas and the velocity of the approach wind. Results were compared with those projected from available correlations for general type buildings. Originator provided keywords include: Flow visualization and Relative wind angle.

Krishnakumar, C.K.; Schafer, C.K.; Henninger, R.H.; Fields, S.F.

1984-09-01

51

Shelter upgrading manual: host area shelters. Revisions and additions. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The Shelter Upgrading Manual: Host Area Shelters, which was originally developed under Contract No. DCPA01-78-C-0215, Work Unit 1127H, is in looseleaf form to permit removal of pertinent worksheets and charts for developing upgrading plans for a specific building and to permit the addition of new and replacement material as the work progresses. The manual is one of a series being developed in support of the civil defense concept of crisis relocation planning and is designed to be used by planners in host areas. It presents a methodology for evaluating floors, roofs, and openings and develops a variety of ways to provide the necessary structural upgrading for blast and fallout protection. The revisions included here are based on a testing program and are generally in the area of modified survival ratings. Additional new material on expedient shelters is included in an appendix.

Wilton, C.; Gabrielsen, B.L.; Tansley, R.S.

1981-05-01

52

Voyager: The Sheltering Forest  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Birch Aquarium at Scripps Institution of Oceanography offers this Web site as part of the Aquarium's online educational series, Voyager Science. Geared toward younger kids, this site introduces the kelp forest and related concepts with great photos, informative descriptions, and a few interactive activities. The Sheltering Forest focuses on the many animals that make their home in the kelp forest, emphasizing the interdependence of organisms in the kelp ecosystem. Simple at-home experiments and online activities are also included.

Criqui, Nan

53

The Earth System Modeling Framework and Earth System Curator: Software Components as Building Blocks of Community  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Earth System Modeling Framework (ESMF) is an established U.S. initiative to develop high performance common modeling infrastructure for climate and weather models. ESMF is the technical foundation for the NASA Modeling, Analysis, and Prediction (MAP) Climate Variability and Change program and the DoD Battlespace Environments Institute (BEI). It has been incorporated into the Community Climate System Model (CCSM), the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) Model, NOAA NCEP and GFDL models, Army, Navy, and Air Force models, and many others. The new, NSF-funded Earth System Curator is a related database and toolkit that will store information about model configurations, prepare models for execution, and run them locally or in a distributed fashion. The key concept that underlies both ESMF and the Earth System Curator is that of software components. Components are software units that are "composable", meaning they can be combined to form coupled applications. These components may be representations of physical domains, such as atmospheres or oceans; processes within particular domains such as atmospheric radiation or chemistry; or computational functions, such as data assimilation or I/O. ESMF provides interfaces, an architecture, and tools for structuring components hierarchically to form complex, coupled modeling applications. The Earth System Curator will enable modelers to describe, archive, search, compose, and run ESMF and similar components. Together these projects encourage a new paradigm for modeling: one in which the community can draw from a federation of many interoperable components in order to create and deploy applications. The goal is to enable a network of collaborations and new scientific opportunities for the Earth modeling community.

Deluca, C.; Balaji, V.; da Silva, A.; Dunlap, R.; Hill, C.; Mark, L.; Mechoso, C. R.; Middleton, D.; Nikonov, S.; Rugaber, S.; Suarez, M.

2006-05-01

54

The nature of Earth's building blocks as revealed by calcium isotopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Calcium is the fifth most abundant element in the Earth and in chondrites and is a pure lithophile element which does not partition into planetary cores. Therefore, the calcium isotopic composition of the mantle represents the bulk Earth and calcium isotopes have the potential to reveal genetic links between Earth and meteorites. However, whether calcium exhibits significant mass-dependent variations among Earth and the various chondrite groups, and the magnitude of these variations, is still contentious. Here we have developed a new method to analyze calcium isotope ratios with high precision using multiple-collector inductively-coupled-plasma mass-spectrometry. The method has been applied to a range of terrestrial and meteoritic samples. We find that the Earth, the Moon, and the aubrite parent body are indistinguishable from enstatite, ordinary, and CO chondritic meteorites. Therefore, enstatite chondrites cannot be excluded as components of Earth's building blocks based on calcium isotopes, as has been proposed previously. In contrast, CI, CV, CM and CR carbonaceous chondrites are largely enriched in lighter calcium isotopes compared to Earth, and, overall, exhibit a wide range in calcium isotopic composition. Calcium is the only major element, along with oxygen, for which isotopic variations are observed among carbonaceous chondrite groups. These calcium isotope variations cannot be attributed to volatility effects, and it is difficult to ascribe them to the abundance of isotopically light refractory inclusions. The calcium isotope data presented in this study suggest that both ordinary and enstatite chondrites are representative of the bulk of the refractory materials that formed Earth. On the basis of calcium isotopes, carbonaceous chondrites (with the exception of CO) are not representative of the fraction of condensable material that accreted to form the terrestrial planets and can be excluded as unique contenders for the building blocks of Earth; however, on the basis of other isotopic systems, CO chondrites can be excluded as well.

Valdes, Maria C.; Moreira, Manuel; Foriel, Julien; Moynier, Frédéric

2014-05-01

55

Some Training Implications of Large Shelters.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Based largely upon concurrent AIR research in the area of shelter management simulation, an analysis of the impact of the large, complex shelter on shelter management training needs was conducted. The large shelter is seen as requiring the type of overall...

E. Bend

1966-01-01

56

Tax shelters and corporate debt policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

We gather a unique sample of 44 tax shelter cases to investigate the magnitude of tax shelter activity and whether participating in a shelter is related to corporate debt policy. The average annual deduction produced by the shelters in our sample is very large, equaling approximately nine percent of asset value. These deductions are more than three times as large

John R. Graham; Alan L. Tucker

2006-01-01

57

Hardened Aircraft Shelter Test Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Operation DISTANT RUNNER produced data on the size and distribution of both airblast and debris produced by the detonation of 4500 kilograms of high explosive inside a Third Generation Hardened Aircraft Shelter. DISTANT RUNNER also produced data on the fr...

J. M. Swisdak

1992-01-01

58

Hardened Aircraft Shelter Test Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Operation DISTANT RUNNER produced data on the size and distribution of both airblast and debris produced by the detonation of 4500 kilograms of high explosive inside a Third Generation Hardened Aircraft Shelter. DISTANT RUNICER also produced data on the f...

M. M. Swisdak

1991-01-01

59

'Do-it-yourself' fallout/blast shelter evaluation. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Expedient fallout shelters recommended to the general public were evaluated for their potential to provide safety to occupants during nuclear blast. The blast threat was in the 2 to 50 psi overpressure range from a 1 megaton (MT) yield weapon. Research included a literature search for expedient shelter designs and evaluations of the designs to certify their ability to protect occupants. Shelters were evaluated systematically by first analyzing each design for expected failure loads. Next, scale model tests were planned and conducted in the Fort Cronkhite shock tunnel. Structural responses and blast pressures were recorded in a series of twelve experiments involving 96 structural response models. Two rigid models were included in each test to measure internal blast pressure leakage. Probabilities of survival were determined for each of the shelters tested. Expected failure mechanisms were identified for each of the eight U.S. shelters. One shelter, tilt-up doors and earth, was eliminated from consideration because of uncertainties for the associated permanent structure. Failure loads of the remaining seven shelters were determined through analysis. Analyses included failure by overturning/translation, trench collapse, or roof collapse. A car-over-trench shelter was evaluated solely through analysis. The threshold for human tolerance to blast pressures (lung damage) was calculated as 8 psi with a 99 percent survival rate at 28 psi. Thresholds for trench wall stability were calculated based on material strengths and shelter geometries.

Nash, P.T.; Baker, W.E.; Esparza, E.D.; Westine, P.S.; Blaylock, N.W.

1984-03-01

60

Shelter from the Storm.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses why most schools need to upgrade the spaces they use to protect students and staff from tornadoes. School building areas commonly used as safe havens during tornadoes are assessed, followed by information on disaster damage reimbursements and Federal Emergency Management Agency guidelines (FEMA 361) for building tornado and hurricane…

Schultz, Corey; Metz, John

2001-01-01

61

Direct estimation of the cost effectiveness of tornado shelters.  

PubMed

This article estimates the cost effectiveness of tornado shelters using the annual probability of a tornado and new data on fatalities per building struck by a tornado. This approach differs from recent estimates of the cost effectiveness of tornado shelters in Reference 1 that use historical casualties. Historical casualties combine both tornado risk and resident action. If residents of tornado-prone states take greater precautions, observed fatalities might not be much higher than in states with lower risk. Estimation using the tornado probability avoids this potential bias. Despite the very different method used, the estimates are 68 million US dollars in permanent homes and 6.0 million US dollars in mobile homes in Oklahoma using a 3% real discount rate, within about 10% of estimates based on historical fatalities. The findings suggest that shelters provide cost-effective protection for mobile homes in the most tornado-prone states but not for permanent homes. PMID:16948687

Simmons, Kevin M; Sutter, Daniel

2006-08-01

62

Effectiveness of Urban Shelter-in-Place. III: Commercial Districts  

SciTech Connect

In the event of a toxic chemical release to the atmosphere, shelter-in-place (SIP) is an emergency response option available to protect public health. This paper is the last in a three-part series that examines the effectiveness of SIP at reducing adverse health effects in communities. We model a hypothetical chemical release in an urban area, and consider SIP effectiveness in protecting occupants of commercial buildings. Building air infiltration rates are predicted from empirical data using an existing model. We consider the distribution of building air infiltration rates both with mechanical ventilation systems turned off and with the systems operating. We also consider the effects of chemical sorption to indoor surfaces and nonlinear chemical dose-response relationships. We find that commercial buildings provide effective shelter when ventilation systems are off, but that any delay in turning off ventilation systems can greatly reduce SIP effectiveness. Using a two-zone model, we find that there can be substantial benefit by taking shelter in the inner parts of a building that do not experience direct air exchange with the outdoors. Air infiltration rates vary substantially among buildings and this variation is important in quantifying effectiveness for emergency response. Community-wide health metrics, introduced in the previous papers in this series, can be applied in pre-event planning and to guide real-time emergency response.

Chan, Wanyu R.; Chan, Wanyu R.; Nazaroff, William W.; Price, Phillip N.; Gadgil, Ashok J.

2007-12-28

63

An Experimental Study of 'Integrated Guidance for Shelter Management'.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A three-volume package of integrated shelter management material was recently produced for application to shelter management training, shelter planning, and in-shelter management. This report deals with an experiment to obtain empirical data on the indivi...

R. W. Smith E. Bend F. B. Jeffreys R. A. Collins

1966-01-01

64

Sheltered Instruction Techniques for ELLs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The suggestions described here to adapt instruction for English Language Learners (ELLs) are based on the concept of sheltered instruction , a model of language-support methods for instruction for ELLs derived primarily through the Sheltered Instruction Observational Protocol (SIOP) developed by Jana Echevarria, Mary Ellen Vogt, and Deborah Short (2007). While the SIOP model can address various levels of English language proficiency, students at the highest level of English language proficiency, students at the highest level of proficiency will understand the objectives better than those at the earliest stages of English acquisition.

Pray, Lisa; Monhardt, Rebecca

2009-03-01

65

Orientations Toward Community and Private Shelter Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper investigates the American public's patterns of favorability toward community fallout shelters and the patterns of preference for community or private shelters. National opinion studies between 1960 and 1966 revealed overwhelming support for the ...

R. H. Mast

1967-01-01

66

The Psychological Environment of Protective Shelters.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The research is focused upon studying the psychological environment that would prevail in such a public fallout shelter during the shelter period. Will there be psychological and sociological problems. If so, what would be the basis for them. What prevent...

G. H. Wright N. H. Fenstermacher

1966-01-01

67

Shelter upgrading manual: key worker shelters. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This manual is one of a series being developed in support of the civil defense concept of crisis location planning. One basic element of crisis relocation is plant site protection of key industry people who operate essential facilities through a crisis period. The manual is intended to provide a framework for the practical development of key worker shelters by any interested party. The information contained herein was developed under Contract EMW-C-0153, Work Unit 1128A, and is based on previously developed structural information, but has yet to be tested in the field. The manual is designed to be used by planners and plant personnel in risk areas. It presents a methodology for evaluating basement areas and expedient shelters and provides alternative methods to develop the necessary structural upgrading for blast and fallout protection. Expedient shelters are proposed for industries without available basements, and upgrading methods and the resources required for each are presented. Included are sketches and figures that assist in the evaluation of a structure for use as a potential shelter, provide data and charts for closing small openings, and illustrate alternative details of shoring systems. Tables and charts for sizing the shoring or other materials required for each alternative have been provided to simplify applications. The manual is in looseleaf format so that worksheets, tables, and charts can be removed to develop upgrading plans for a specific structure. This format also allows for the insertion of new data and techniques as they become available.

Tansley, R.S.; Bernard, R.D.

1981-05-01

68

13. SITE BUILDING 002 SCANNER BUILDING "B" FACE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

13. SITE BUILDING 002 - SCANNER BUILDING - "B" FACE LOADING DOCK AND PERSONNEL ACCESS RAMP TO FALLOUT SHELTER. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

69

Civil defense home shelters: A viable defense strategy for the 1990s. Master's thesis  

SciTech Connect

This study investigated the question 'Why are fallout shelters not a part of U.S. national defense strategy and policy ' Initial research determined that the U.S. has the technology to design and build shelters, they are effective protection from radioactive fallout, and nuclear agression against the U.S. remains a potential national threat. The research examined the physical threats posed by nuclear weapons, followed by a brief description of fallout shelters and their ability to shield against fallout radiation in terms of the ration of time in shelter to amount of exposure. Several opposing arguments from opponents and proponents of a national fallout shelter program were categorized and expressed within U.S. National Security Strategy, military, economic, and political terms. The principal argument against a national fallout shelter program, including home fallout shelters, is the momentum of over 30 years of successful deterrence. On the other hand, the relatively simple technology, the affordability, and the potential for saving millions of lives in low-risk areas that would otherwise be lost should deterrence fail, argue strongly in favor of a national home fallout shelter system.

Evans, V.J.

1990-09-01

70

The Second Student-Run Homeless Shelter  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

From 1983-2011, the Harvard Square Homeless Shelter (HSHS) in Cambridge, Massachusetts, was the only student-run homeless shelter in the United States. However, college students at Villanova, Temple, Drexel, the University of Pennsylvania, and Swarthmore drew upon the HSHS model to open their own student-run homeless shelter in Philadelphia,…

Seider, Scott C.

2012-01-01

71

25 CFR 11.1104 - Shelter care.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Shelter care. 11.1104 Section 11.1104...Minor-in-Need-of-Care Procedure § 11.1104 Shelter care. (a) A minor alleged to be...home approved by the tribe; or (3) A shelter care facility operated by a...

2013-04-01

72

V-2 Emerges from Shelter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this undated file photo, probably from World War II, a V-2 rocket emerges from its camouflaged shelter. The team of German engineers and scientists who developed the V-2 came to the United States after World War II and worked for the U. S. Army at Fort Bliss, Texas and Redstone Arsenal in Huntsville, Alabama.

1940-01-01

73

Preliminary evaluation of crisis-relocation fallout-shelter options. Volume 2. Detailed analysis  

SciTech Connect

This report presents a preliminary, detailed evaluation of various shelter options for use if the President orders crisis relocation of the US urban population because of strong expectation of a nuclear war. The availability of livable shelter space at 40 ft/sup 2/ per person (congregate-care space) by state is evaluated. Options are evaluated for construction of fallout shelters allowing 10 ft/sup 2/ per person - such shelters are designed to provide 100% survival at projected levels of radioactive fallout. The FEMA concept of upgrading existing buildings to act as fallout shelters can, in principle, provide adequate shelter throughout most of the US. Exceptions are noted and remedies proposed. In terms of upgrading existing buildings to fallout shelter status, great benefits are possible by turning away from a standard national approach and adopting a more site-specific approach. Existing FEMA research provides a solid foundation for successful crisis relocation planning, but the program can be refined by making suitable modifications in its locational, engineering, and institutionally specific elements.

Santini, D.J.; Clinch, J.M.; Davis, F.H.; Hill, L.G.; Lynch, E.P.; Tanzman, E.A.; Wernette, D.R.

1982-12-01

74

Lunar surface operations. Volume 1: Lunar surface emergency shelter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The lunar surface emergency shelter (LSES) is designed to provide survival-level accommodations for up to four astronauts for a maximum of five days. It would be used by astronauts who were caught out in the open during a large solar event. The habitable section consists of an aluminum pressure shell with an inner diameter of 6 ft. and a length of 12.2 ft. Access is through a 4 in. thick aluminum airlock door mounted at the rear of the shelter. Shielding is provided by a 14.9 in. thick layer of lunar regolith contained within a second, outer aluminum shell. This provides protection against a 200 MeV event, based on a 15 REM maximum dose. The shelter is self-contained with a maximum range of 1000 km. Power is supplied by a primary fuel cell which occupies 70.7 cu ft. of the interior volume. Mobility is achieved by towing the shelter behind existing lunar vehicles. It was assumed that a fully operational, independent lunar base was available to provide communication support and tools for set-up and maintenance. Transportation to the moon would be provided by the proposed heavy lift launch vehicle. Major design considerations for the LSES were safety, reliability, and minimal use of earth materials.

Shields, William; Feteih, Salah; Hollis, Patrick

1993-01-01

75

Seismic Noise in the Earth Science Building at the University of Toronto  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Earth Science Building at the University of Toronto, Downtown Campus, has architecturally separable sections, including the South Wing (which houses the Geology Department) and the adjacent Library Wing. To compare the seismic noise in these two sections, we conducted a passive seismic survey. Two seismic lines, one in the basement and one on the second floor, each with eight triaxial 14 Hz geophones, were set up such that four geophones were located in each wing. Eight-second recordings of ground motion were collected. Their power spectra revealed that the Library Wing contained a distinct maximum peak amplitude at 30 Hz that was not present in the South Wing. Moreover, the amplitudes were greatest on the second floor in the Library Wing of the building. We attributed these differences to the presence of unique features of the Library Wing: more people, and a rounded structure that may have a specific resonance frequency and may trap seismic energy. The peak amplitudes were hypothesized to be caused by the air conditioning in the building.

Patraskovic, P.; Bank, C.

2009-05-01

76

Civil defense home shelters: A viable defense strategy for the 1990s. Master's thesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the question 'Why are fallout shelters not a part of U.S. national defense strategy and policy ' Initial research determined that the U.S. has the technology to design and build shelters, they are effective protection from radioactive fallout, and nuclear agression against the U.S. remains a potential national threat. The research examined the physical threats posed by

1990-01-01

77

Performance evaluation and energy conservation potential of earth–air–tunnel system coupled with non-air-conditioned building  

Microsoft Academic Search

A numerical model to predict energy conservation potential of earth–air heat exchanger system and passive thermal performance of building has been developed. This model improves upon previous studies by incorporating effects of ground temperature gradient, surface conditions, moisture content and various design aspects of earth–air–tunnel (EAT). The model is based on simultaneously coupled heat and mass transfer in the EAT

Rakesh Kumar; S. Ramesh; S. C. Kaushik

2003-01-01

78

Cooling and heating potential of earth-air tunnel heat exchanger (EATHE) for non-air-conditioned building  

Microsoft Academic Search

A numerical model to predict energy conservation potential of earth-air heat exchanger system and passive thermal performance of building has been developed. This model improves upon previous studies by incorporating effects of ground temperature gradient, surface conditions, moisture content and various design aspects of earth-air-tunnel heat exchanger (EATHE). The model is based on simultaneously coupled heat and mass transfer in

Rakesh Kumar; S. C Kaushik; Ar. Ramesh Srikonda

2003-01-01

79

Analyzing evacuation versus shelter-in-place strategies after a terrorist nuclear detonation.  

PubMed

We superimpose a radiation fallout model onto a traffic flow model to assess the evacuation versus shelter-in-place decisions after the daytime ground-level detonation of a 10-kt improvised nuclear device in Washington, DC. In our model, ? 80k people are killed by the prompt effects of blast, burn, and radiation. Of the ? 360k survivors without access to a vehicle, 42.6k would die if they immediately self-evacuated on foot. Sheltering above ground would save several thousand of these lives and sheltering in a basement (or near the middle of a large building) would save of them. Among survivors of the prompt effects with access to a vehicle, the number of deaths depends on the fraction of people who shelter in a basement rather than self-evacuate in their vehicle: 23.1k people die if 90% shelter in a basement and 54.6k die if 10% shelter. Sheltering above ground saves approximately half as many lives as sheltering in a basement. The details related to delayed (i.e., organized) evacuation, search and rescue, decontamination, and situational awareness (via, e.g., telecommunications) have very little impact on the number of casualties. Although antibiotics and transfusion support have the potential to save ? 10k lives (and the number of lives saved from medical care increases with the fraction of people who shelter in basements), the logistical challenge appears to be well beyond current response capabilities. Taken together, our results suggest that the government should initiate an aggressive outreach program to educate citizens and the private sector about the importance of sheltering in place in a basement for at least 12 hours after a terrorist nuclear detonation. PMID:20840487

Wein, Lawrence M; Choi, Youngsoo; Denuit, Sylvie

2010-09-01

80

Design concepts for pressurized lunar shelters utilizing indigenous materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective is to design a pressurized shelter build of indigenous lunar material. The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: lunar conditions which impact design; secondary factors; review of previously proposed concepts; cross section of assembly facility; rationale for indigenous materials; indigenous material choices; cast basalt properties; design variables; design 1, cylindrical segments; construction sequence; design 2, arch-slabs with post-tensioned ring girders; and future research.

Happel, John Amin; Willam, Kaspar; Shing, Benson

1991-01-01

81

Computer aided mobile shelter design  

Microsoft Academic Search

The computer aided Mobile System Design project (MSD) for devising improved mobile communications-electronics (C-E) shelter\\/vehicular configurations analysis capability has been divided into four problem-oriented study tasks. This report documents Transport and Mobility Layout for this design area and discusses some of the program features for effective CAD. The MSD set of programs, implemented on the MEDEA Interactive Design Terminal allows

G. A. Panagos

1975-01-01

82

The DEVELOP National Program: Building Dual Capacity in Decision Makers and Young Professionals Through NASA Earth Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Through the years, NASA has played a distinct/important/vital role in advancing Earth System Science to meet the challenges of environmental management and policy decision making. Within NASA's Earth Science Division's Applied Sciences' Program, the DEVELOP National Program seeks to extend NASA Earth Science for societal benefit. DEVELOP is a capacity building program providing young professionals and students the opportunity to utilize NASA Earth observations and model output to demonstrate practical applications of those resources to society. Under the guidance of science advisors, DEVELOP teams work in alignment with local, regional, national and international partner organizations to identify the widest array of practical uses for NASA data to enhance related management decisions. The program's structure facilitates a two-fold approach to capacity building by fostering an environment of scientific and professional development opportunities for young professionals and students, while also providing end-user organizations enhanced management and decision making tools for issues impacting their communities. With the competitive nature and growing societal role of science and technology in today's global workplace, DEVELOP is building capacity in the next generation of scientists and leaders by fostering a learning and growing environment where young professionals possess an increased understanding of teamwork, personal development, and scientific/professional development and NASA's Earth Observation System. DEVELOP young professionals are partnered with end user organizations to conduct 10 week feasibility studies that demonstrate the use of NASA Earth science data for enhanced decision making. As a result of the partnership, end user organizations are introduced to NASA Earth Science technologies and capabilities, new methods to augment current practices, hands-on training with practical applications of remote sensing and NASA Earth science, improved remote sensing and geographic information science (GIS) capabilities, and opportunities for networking with the NASA and Earth Science community. By engaging young professionals and end user organizations, DEVELOP strives to uniquely build capacity through the extension of NASA Earth Science outcomes to the public through projects that innovatively use NASA Earth observations to address environmental concerns and impact policy and decision making.

Childs, L. M.; Rogers, L.; Favors, J.; Ruiz, M.

2012-12-01

83

Scaled Debris Throw Tests of Norwegian/US Aircraft Shelters.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A new aircraft shelter design is to be used in the construction of shelters throughout Norway. The new shelter is called the third generation Norwegian/U.S. shelter due to structural characteristics common to both the third-generation Norwegian shelter an...

J. W. Strybos K. A. Marchand P. M. Bowles

1990-01-01

84

Aerodynamic considerations in open shelters. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Aerodynamic factors are addressed bearing on the suitability of open structures as blast shelters. Blast closures and attenuator designs are discussed. The research on shelter filling is reviewed; this includes both experimental and theoretical work on scale models and full-scale structures of large dimensions. Shock-dominated and pressure-gradient-dominated shelter-filling mechanisms are described and their potential effects on people are discussed.

Hickman, R.G.

1984-11-01

85

Sheltering--a protective measure following an accidental atmospheric release from a nuclear power plant  

SciTech Connect

The effectiveness of sheltering the population for reducing radiological effects following an accidental release of radioactivity at a nuclear power plant was investigated. Different levels of respiratory protection and the administration of a thyroid blocking agent were also studied as possible complements to sheltering. Specific conditions were assumed, concerning the high protection factors of regular buildings and the high availability of civil defense shelters. Computations were performed by means of a probabilistic consequence model, which allows a comprehensive description of exposure modes and processes dealing with the implementation of sheltering and which takes into account a broad range of radiological effects. Sheltering, even in regular buildings, was found to be efficient in reducing early fatalities and other non-stochastic effects. However, it was shown that respiratory protection is also needed in order to alleviate stochastic effects and that, for this purpose, expedient individual filtration methods may be satisfactory. Under the conditions studied, sheltering was found to be preferable in most cases over evacuation, as the main immediate protective measure, unless evacuation can be carried out before the radioactive cloud reaches the populated area.

Koch, J.; Tadmor, J.

1988-06-01

86

Sheltering--a protective measure following an accidental atmospheric release from a nuclear power plant.  

PubMed

The effectiveness of sheltering the population for reducing radiological effects following an accidental release of radioactivity at a nuclear power plant was investigated. Different levels of respiratory protection and the administration of a thyroid blocking agent were also studied as possible complements to sheltering. Specific conditions were assumed, concerning the high protection factors of regular buildings and the high availability of civil defense shelters. Computations were performed by means of a probabilistic consequence model, which allows a comprehensive description of exposure modes and processes dealing with the implementation of sheltering and which takes into account a broad range of radiological effects. Sheltering, even in regular buildings, was found to be efficient in reducing early fatalities and other non-stochastic effects. However, it was shown that respiratory protection is also needed in order to alleviate stochastic effects and that, for this purpose, expedient individual filtration methods may be satisfactory. Under the conditions studied, sheltering was found to be preferable in most cases over evacuation, as the main immediate protective measure, unless evacuation can be carried out before the radioactive cloud reaches the populated area. PMID:3378897

Koch, J; Tadmor, J

1988-06-01

87

Will Duct Tape and Plastic Really Work? Issues Related to Expedient Shelter-In-Place  

SciTech Connect

Expedient sheltering involves the use of common materials to enhance the safety of a room inside a building against the impacts of a chemical plume. The central premise behind taping and sealing with duct tape and plastic is to reduce airflow into a room. This paper reviews issues associated with the use of expedient sheltering materials and the effectiveness of this strategy. Expedient sheltering provides additional protection to people sheltering in place beyond that provided by the house and by a safe room without expedient measures. The materials chosen for taping and sealing--duct tape and plastic--are appropriate because they effectively reduce infiltration and the materials should withstand a vapor challenge. Taping is essential to reduce air infiltration. Plastic sheeting is not a critical element for reducing air infiltration, but it makes sealing off large windows easier.

Sorensen, J.H.

2002-08-30

88

Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With three levels to choose from on each page - beginner, intermediate or advanced - this site provides information on our plant Earth. There is a section about water on earth and its many different varities, like freshwater, groundwater, and frozen water. There is information about the chemical make-up of water and many images showing the different water anvironments. There is a section about life in water, such as animals, plants, and plankton.

2008-10-03

89

The Investigation of Shelter Management and Control in Natural Disaster.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study was performed to determine: (1) what management problems existed in natural disaster shelters and (2) the excellence of the natural disaster shelter situation as a source of information relevent to fallout shelter management. Contracts were made...

R. A. Collins

1972-01-01

90

Blast Tests of Expedient Shelters in the DICE THROW Event.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

To determine the worst blast environments that eight types of expedient shelters can withstand, the authors subjected a total of 18 shelters to the 1-kiloton blast effects of Defense Nuclear Agency's DICE THROW main event. These expedient shelters include...

C. H. Kearny, C. V. Chester

1978-01-01

91

26 CFR 53.4965-3 - Prohibited tax shelter transactions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Prohibited tax shelter transactions. 53.4965-3 Section...Taxes § 53.4965-3 Prohibited tax shelter transactions. (a) In general. ...section 4965(e), the term prohibited tax shelter transaction meansâ (1)...

2013-04-01

92

Shelter.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Despite the impressive level of economic growth the developing world has achieved over the past quarter century, some 800 million individuals there remain caught up in absolute poverty: a condition of life so limited by malnutrition, disease, illiteracy, ...

1980-01-01

93

Shelter  

MedlinePLUS

... and pets inside. Lock doors, close windows, air vents and fireplace dampers. Turn off fans, air conditioning ... if possible. Seal all windows, doors and air vents with 2-4 mil. thick plastic sheeting and ...

94

Documentation of the Family Shelter Care Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The document describes the Family Shelter Care (FSC) Project, a program which provides emergency and short term shelter care for troubled Indian youths (7 to 18 year old abused, dependent, and neglected, in need of supervision, and delinquent children) on five Indian reservations in South Dakota. Sections address the following project components:…

Mountain Plains Youth Service Coalition, Pierre, SD.

95

Performance evaluation and life cycle cost analysis of earth to air heat exchanger integrated with adobe building for New Delhi composite climate  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper aims to develop thermal model of a vault roof building integrated with earth to air heat exchanger (EAHE). The building under consideration is made of brick vault and adobe (or mud) structures. The methodology adopted for developing thermal model of this building with six interconnected rooms is presented in this paper. The energy balance equations were solved simultaneously

Arvind Chel; G. N. Tiwari

2009-01-01

96

Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) planet profile provides data and images of the planet Earth. These data include planet size, orbit facts, distance from the Sun, rotation and revolution times, temperature, atmospheric composition, density, surface materials and albedo. Images with descriptions show Earth features such as the Ross Ice Shelf in Antarctica, Simpson Desert in Australia, Mt. Etna in Sicily, the Cassiar Mountains in Canada, the Strait of Gibraltar, Mississippi River, Grand Canyon, Wadi Kufra Oasis in Libya, and Moon images such as Hadley Rille, Plum Crater, massifs and Moon rocks. These images were taken with the Galileo Spacecraft and by the Apollo missions.

97

Building Community Consensus for Earth Science Literacy Using an Online Workshop (Invited)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Earth Science Literacy Principles, published in the spring of 2009, represented a community consensus about what all Americans should understand about Earth sciences. Central to its creation was a 2-week online workshop that involved participation by 350 Earth scientists and educators. The online workshop, hosted by The College of Exploration, was an excellent medium for incorporating the ideas and

M. E. Wysession; P. Tuddenham; J. Taber; N. Ladue

2009-01-01

98

Understanding of earth and space science concepts: Strategies for concept building in elementary teacher preparation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Research on conceptual change provides strong evidence that not only children but also many adults have incorrect or incomplete understanding of science concepts. This mixed methods study was concerned with preservice and inservice teachers' understanding of six earth and space science concepts commonly taught in elementary school: reasons for seasons, phases of the moon, reasons for the wind, the rock cycle, soil formation, and earthquakes. The first part of the study determined and compared the level of conceptual understanding held by both groups on topics they will need to teach in the Georgia Performance Standards [GPS]. The second part focused on whether readings or hands-on learning stations, in some cases combined with concept mapping, improves preservice teachers' understanding of these concepts. The third part described the application of conceptual change strategies of one group of preservice teachers during their field placements. The overall sample was two cohorts of preservice teachers, one cohort of preservice teachers from an alternative initial certification program, and two masters' cohorts consisting of inservice teachers. Four data sources were: a six item open-ended survey, concept maps, the field assignments, and the researcher's field notes. Rubrics were used to score answers to each survey question. Concept map scores were calculated based on the criteria developed by Novak and Gowin (1984). The first part of the study shows that both preservice and inservice teachers have low conceptual understanding of the earth science concepts taught in elementary school. Independent samples t-tests results indicate that both groups have similar understanding about these concepts. A two way ANOVA with repeated measures analysis demonstrated that readings and learning stations are both successful in building preservice teacher's understanding and that benefits from the hands-on learning stations approached statistical significance. A paired samples t-test shows that concept mapping added to the participants' conceptual understanding whether the participants learned the concepts through readings or stations. Finally, field assignments allowed the participants to apply knowledge that they learned in their science methods course in their classroom placements. This study has implications for teacher preparation programs, staff development, and conceptual change practices in field placements.

Bulunuz, Nermin

99

Effectiveness of Urban Shelter-in-Place. II: ResidentialDistricts  

SciTech Connect

In the event of a short-term, large-scale toxic chemical release to the atmosphere, shelter-in-place (SIP) may be used as an emergency response to protect public health. We modeled hypothetical releases using realistic, empirical parameters to explore how key factors influence SIP effectiveness for single-family dwellings in a residential district. Four classes of factors were evaluated in this case-study: (a) time scales associated with release duration, SIP implementation delay, and SIP termination; (b) building air-exchange rates, including air infiltration and ventilation; (c) the degree of sorption of toxic chemicals to indoor surfaces; and (d) the shape of the dose-response relationship for acute adverse health effects. Houses with lower air leakage are more effective shelters, and thus variability in the air leakage of dwellings is associated with varying degrees of SIP protection in a community. Sorption on indoor surfaces improves SIP effectiveness by lowering the peak indoor concentrations and reducing the amount of contamination in the indoor air. Nonlinear dose-response relationships imply substantial reduction in adverse health effects from lowering the peak exposure concentration. However, if the scenario is unfavorable for sheltering (e.g. sheltering in leaky houses for protection against a nonsorbing chemical with a linear dose-response), the community must implement SIP without delay and exit from shelter when it first becomes safe to do so. Otherwise, the community can be subjected to even greater risk than if they did not take shelter indoors.

Chan, W.R.; Nazaroff, W.W.; Price, P.N.; Gadgil, A.J.

2006-12-01

100

A systems approach to the design of safe-rooms for shelter-in-place  

Microsoft Academic Search

The protection of building occupants from hazardous outdoor releases can involve many strategies of varying cost and complexity.\\u000a One method is known as “shelter-in-place,” in which a space within the building is isolated to a practical degree from ambient\\u000a and the remaining building air. The design of such a space involves decisions about size and level of permeability. An obvious

James S. Bennett

2009-01-01

101

Building a Global Data Network for Studies of Earth Processes at the World's Plate Boundaries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The international geoscience community is engaged in scientifically aligned goals to understand the fundamental processes of crustal formation, modification and destruction at the Earth's plate boundaries through broad multi- disciplinary initiatives such as the InterRidge and InterMARGINS programs. These programs involve the collection of unique data sets during oceanic and terrestrial expeditions and subsequent laboratory work conducted by research institutions around the globe. These international research efforts would benefit significantly if data collections maintained as national efforts could be better linked and broader access were initiated. At present there are no formal agreements within these programs for data sharing between foreign partners. A workshop was convened in May 2007, jointly sponsored and funded by MARGINS, InterMARGINS, InterRidge, Ridge2000, the US National Science Foundation, and the German project "The Future Ocean", to explore current opportunities and challenges for international data exchange to support marine geoscience research broadly. Participants from 14 countries discussed technological, organizational, and cultural issues for building a global data network and agreed on a set of recommendations regarding science user needs, data documentation, data publication, metadata interoperability, and opportunities and obstacles for international data sharing. They underscored that (1) open public access to data is fundamental to verifiable scientific progress; (2) uniform best practices and standards for data acquisition, data submission to data centers, and data publication need to be developed and used routinely within the international community, facilitated by tools that automate metadata acquisition in the field and in the lab; (3) the proliferation of metadata standards needs to be minimized to achieve a uniform approach for scientific metadata building upon the work of existing community-based projects; (4) data centers should expose their data resources via web services to enable data access through programmatic interfaces and expand options for data analysis and visualization; (5) international programs and bodies such as GEOSS, eGY, and ICSU should be leveraged to promote an initiative for a global data network; (6) a dedicated task group is needed to advance the implementation of a global data network along with special interest groups to share experience and solutions on issues concerning metadata and interfaces. Several immediate next steps were identified to initiate the implementation of these recommendations.

Lehnert, K. A.; Carbotte, S.; Tsuboi, S.; Weinrebe, W.

2007-12-01

102

Building A Collaborative And Distributed E&O Program For EarthScope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

EarthScope's education and outreach (E&O) mission is to ensure that the EarthScope experiment creates as its legacy a public more knowledgeable and understanding of the scientific and societal contributions made by the EarthScope experiment and Earth science. It will fulfill this commitment by developing and disseminating programs and products that utilize the data, models, technology and discoveries of EarthScope. The EarthScope Education and Outreach Network (EON), consisting of local EON alliances, the EarthScope facilities, partner organizations and a coordinating office, will facilitate this E&O mission. The local EON alliances, which will vary in size and purpose to respond quickly and to meet the specific needs in a region, will carry out the bulk of the effort. Thus, EarthScope EON can provide customized services that engage culturally, economically and geographically diverse audiences at the national and local scales. The EarthScope facilities and research community will provide access to data, models, and visualization tools for educational purposes. Partnerships with other national and local science education and outreach programs at colleges, universities, research facilities and professional societies within the EarthScope community as well as relevant programs at museums and parks, state geologic surveys and emergency management agencies, and K-12 schools are critical to EON's success. These partnerships will allow EON to use existing resources, networks and expertise to gear up quickly and efficiently. As EON develops, it will reciprocate by contributing new resources and expertise to the partnerships that help improve public understanding of Earth systems overall and promote effective application of EarthScope discoveries. In this presentation, we will outline major programs and products envisioned for EarthScope, plans for evaluating those programs locally and nationally, and mechanisms for collaborating with existing E&O programs.

Hall-Wallace, M. K.; Boyd, T.; Richard, G.; Ellins, K.; Meertens, C.; Semken, S.; Taber, J.; Benthien, M.; Wald, L.; Marvinney, R.

2003-12-01

103

Needs assessment for remote systems technology at the Chornobyl Unit 4 shelter  

SciTech Connect

The accident at Chornobyl Unit 4 on April 26, 1986, resulted in a series of unprecedented scientific and technical challenges. The reactor building was damaged extensively. Following the accident, immediate action was needed to seal off the gaping crater created by the accident, which was a continuing source of airborne contamination. Under extreme conditions, a structure called the {open_quotes}Shelter{close_quotes} was built over the remains of the reactor building. The Shelter, which was quickly completed in November 1986, was meant to provide immediate but temporary containment. Now, 11 years later, there are significant concerns about its structural integrity and projected life expectancy. The United States and other participating G-7 countries are supporting nuclear safety upgrade efforts in Eastern Europe with a primary focus on placing the Chornobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) Unit 4 Shelter in a stable and environmentally acceptable condition. Application of remote systems technologies will play an important part in achieving the goals of this program. The G-7 nations have agreed to support these efforts, including the identification and development of remote system technologies for fuel removal. However at this time they have taken a firm stance against funding actual fuel removal activities. The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy, Science and Technology requested that a needs assessment be performed to evaluate the requirements for applying remote systems, including robotics, at the Shelter. This document is intended to be used to identify remote systems needs and requirements at the Shelter and to provide general information on the conditions in the Shelter that could impact the use of remote systems. This document is intended as a source of information to assist those who will be implementing the Shelter Implementation Plan tasks. The document provides background information and general guidance on the application of remote systems.

Carteret, B.A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Holliday, M.A.; Jones, E.D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

1997-12-01

104

Smoking cessation among sheltered homeless: a pilot  

PubMed Central

Objective To test the feasibility and effect of a smoking cessation intervention among sheltered homeless. Methods Homeless smokers were enrolled in a 12-week group counseling program plus pharmacotherapy (n=58). Results The mean number of sessions attended was 7.2, most participants used at least one type of medication (67%) and 75% completed 12-week end of treatment surveys. Carbon monoxide verified abstinence rates at 12 and 24 weeks were 15.5% and 13.6% respectively. Conclusion Results support the feasibility of enrolling and retaining sheltered homeless in a smoking cessation program. Counseling plus pharmacotherapy options may be effective in helping sheltered homeless smokers quit.

Shelley, Donna; Cantrell, Jennifer; Warn, Doug; Wong, Selena

2010-01-01

105

Emergency and Transitional Shelter Population: 2000. Census 2000 Special Reports.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents tabulations from Census 2000 data on people enumerated at emergency and transitional shelters. This includes shelters for people experiencing homelessness; shelters for children who are runaways, neglected, or without conventional housing; transitional shelters for people without conventional housing; and hotels and motels…

Smith, Annetta C.; Smith, Denise I.

106

Shelters for Houseless Youth: A Follow-Up Evaluation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Follows Israeli youngsters who had been residents of shelters for runaway and homeless youths. A majority of the youngsters had either returned to their family homes, or had been placed out of home. Post-shelter place of residence was related to length of stay at the shelter, amount of contact with their family while at the shelter, and manner of…

Dekel, Rachel; Peled, Einat; Spiro, Shimon E.

2003-01-01

107

Battered women's shelters and older women: The Florida experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes a study of 25 battered women's shelters located throughout Florida. The research question asked whether older abused women were being served by the state's domestic violence shelters. Although older women were found to be well-represented among shelters' paid and volunteer staff and Boards of Directors, they were poorly represented among the population served by these shelters. Results

Linda Vinton

1992-01-01

108

Building Cyberinfrastructures for Earth and Space Sciences so that they will come: lessons learnt from Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the greatest drivers for change in the way scientific research is undertaken in Australia was the development of the Australian eResearch Infrastructure which was coordinated by the then Australian Government Department of Innovation, Industry, Science and Research. There were two main tranches of funding: the 2007-2013 National Collaborative Research Infrastructure Strategy (NCRIS) and the 2009 Education and Investment Framework (EIF) Super Science Initiative. Investments were in two areas: the Australian e-Research Infrastructure and domain specific capabilities: combined investment in both is 1,452M with at least 456M being invested in eResearch infrastructure. NCRIS was specifically designed as a community-guided process to provide researchers, both academic and government, with major research facilities, supporting infrastructures and networks necessary for world-class research. Extensive community engagement was sought to inform decisions on where Australia could best make strategic infrastructure investments to further develop its research capacity and improve research outcomes over the next 5 to 10years. The current (2007-2014) Australian e-Research Infrastructure has 2 components: 1. The National eResearch physical infrastructure which includes two petascale HPC facilities (one in Canberra and one in Perth), a 10 Gbps national network (National Research Network), a national data storage infrastructure comprising 8 multi petabyte data stores and shared access methods (Australian Access Federation). 2. A second component is focused on research integration infrastructures and includes the Australian National Data Service, which is concerned with better management, description and access to distributed research data in Australia and the National eResearch Collaboration Tools and Resources (NeCTAR) project. NeCTAR is centred on developing problem oriented digital laboratories which provide better and coordinated access to research tools, data environments and workflows. The eResearch Infrastructure Stack is designed to support 12 individual domain-specific capabilities. Four are relevant to the Earth and Space Sciences: (1) AuScope (a national Earth Science Infrastructure Program), (2) the Integrated Marine Observing System (IMOS), (3) the Terrestrial Ecosystems Research Network (TERN) and (4) the Australian Urban Research Infrastructure Network (AURIN). The two main research integration infrastructures, ANDS and NeCTAR, are seen as pivotal to the success of the Australian eResearch Infrastructure. Without them, there was a risk that that the investments in new computers and data storage would provide physical infrastructure, but few would come to use it as the skills barriers to entry were too high. ANDS focused on transforming Australia's research data environment. Its flagship is Research Data Australia, an Internet-based discovery service designed to provide rich connections between data, projects, researchers and institutions, and promote visibility of Australian research data collections in search engines. NeCTAR focused on building eResearch infrastructure in four areas: virtual laboratories, tools, a federated research cloud and a hosting service. Combined, ANDS and NeCTAR are ensuring that people ARE coming and ARE using the physical infrastructures that were built.

Wyborn, L. A.; Woodcock, R.

2013-12-01

109

Transit Passenger Shelters: Basic Design Principles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report analyzes the problem of passenger shelter design with the object of maximizing user welfare while contending with the constraints of environmental fit and cost. Each element of welfare (comfort, safety, convenience) is considered separately in ...

F. Ehrenthal

1973-01-01

110

An Investigation of Best Practices for Evacuating and Sheltering Individuals with Special Needs and Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

At the request of the U.S. Department of Education's Office of Safe and Drug-Free Schools, the National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities (NCEF) has conducted "a literature search and review to identify best practices in [school] building design for accommodating the evacuation and sheltering needs of individuals with special needs or…

National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, 2008

2008-01-01

111

Collaboration and Community Building in Summer Undergraduate Research Programs in the School of Earth Sciences at Stanford University  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2012, the School of Earth Sciences (SES) at Stanford University sponsored two summer undergraduate research programs. Here we describe these programs and efforts to build a cohesive research cohort among the programs' diverse participants. The two programs, the Stanford School of Earth Sciences Undergraduate Research (SESUR) Program and Stanford School of Earth Sciences Summer Undergraduate Research in Geoscience and Engineering (SURGE) Program, serve different undergraduate populations and have somewhat different objectives, but both provide students with opportunities to work on strongly mentored yet individualized research projects. In addition to research, enrichment activities co-sponsored by both programs support the development of community within the combined SES summer undergraduate research cohort. Over the course of 6 to 9 months, the SESUR Program engages Stanford undergraduates, primarily rising sophomores and juniors, with opportunities to deeply explore Earth sciences research while learning about diverse areas of inquiry within SES. Now in its eleventh year, the SESUR experience incorporates the breadth of the scientific endeavor: finding an advisor, proposal writing, obtaining funding, conducting research, and presenting results. Goals of the SESUR program include (1) providing a challenging and rewarding research experience for undergraduates who wish to explore the Earth sciences; (2) fostering interdisciplinary study in the Earth sciences among the undergraduate population; and (3) encouraging students to major or minor in the Earth sciences and/or to complete advanced undergraduate research in one of the departments or programs within SES. The SURGE Program, now in its second year, draws high performing students, primarily rising juniors and seniors, from 14 colleges and universities nationwide, including Stanford. Seventy percent of SURGE students are from racial/ethnic backgrounds underrepresented in STEM fields, and approximately one-third are the first in their families to attend college. For eight weeks, SURGE scholars conduct independent research with the guidance of faculty, research group mentors, and program assistants. The primary objectives of the SURGE program are to (1) provide undergraduates with a research experience in SES; (2) prepare undergraduates for the process of applying to graduate school; (3) introduce undergraduates to career opportunities in the geosciences and engineering; and (4) increase diversity in SES graduate programs. Independent research, network building, and intense mentoring culminate in a final oral and poster symposium. SESUR and SURGE scholars jointly participate in enrichment activities including faculty research seminars; career, graduate school, and software training workshops; GRE preparation classes; and geoscience-oriented field trips. Interaction among our students takes place through both research and enrichment activities, creating a critical mass of undergraduate scholars and promoting community development. Pre- and post-program surveys indicate that the overall goals of both programs are being achieved.

Nevle, R. J.; Watson Nelson, T.; Harris, J. M.; Klemperer, S. L.

2012-12-01

112

Tornado Protection: Selecting Refuge Areas in Buildings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This booklet presents information that will aid qualified architects and engineers in the identification of the best available refuge areas in existing buildings. Architects and engineers who are designing tornado shelters within new buildings may also fi...

2003-01-01

113

Solar energy utilization in a greenhouse/animal shelter combination  

SciTech Connect

Two greenhouses are being used at Kansas State Univesity to evaluate use of exhaust air from an animal shelter and its effect on greenhouse production. The control greenhouse is attached to the headquarters building and operated conventionally. The experimental house is attached to a swine finishing building and has air handling equipment to introduce hoghouse air to the greenhouse at 680 m/sup 3//h (400 cfm) or 1200 m/sup 3//h (700 cfm) and has a rock storage system with about 1 m/sup 3/ of rock for each 2 m/sup 2/ of greenhouse floor space. Cucumber, tomato, and broccoli plants in the experimental greenhouse have darker green foliage than plants in the control house regardless of nitrogen levels. The fall cucumber study indicated a 31 percent increase in number of marketable fruits from the experimental house. Marketable fruits from the experimental house weighed 40 percent more than those from the control house.

Spillman, C.K.; Greig, J.K.; Johnson, G.A.; Hartford, J.R.; Koch, B.A.; Hines, R.H.

1981-01-01

114

Countering the Chinese Threat to Low Earth Orbit Satellites: Building a Defensive Space Strategy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

To counter the Chinese threat to its low Earth orbit satellites, the United States should adopt a defensive strategy focused on deterrence and recovery. China demonstrated their ability to employ an anti-satellite weapon when it destroyed one of its own w...

C. Putman

2009-01-01

115

Solar Eclipse Effect on Shelter Air Temperature  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Decreases in shelter temperature during eclipse events were quantified on the basis of observations, numerical model simulations, and complementary conceptual evaluations. Observations for the annular eclipse on 10 May 1994 over the United States are presented, and these provide insights into the temporal and spatial changes in the shelter temperature. The observations indicated near-surface temperature drops of as much as 6 C. Numerical model simulations for this eclipse event, which provide a complementary evaluation of the spatial and temporal patterns of the temperature drops, predict similar decreases. Interrelationships between the temperature drop, degree of solar irradiance reduction, and timing of the peak eclipse are also evaluated for late spring, summer, and winter sun conditions. These simulations suggest that for total eclipses the drops in shelter temperature in midlatitudes can be as high as 7 C for a spring morning eclipse.

Segal, M.; Turner, R. W.; Prusa, J.; Bitzer, R. J.; Finley, S. V.

1996-01-01

116

4. INTERIOR VIEW OF SLEEPING SHELTER SHOWING STORAGE LOCKERS IN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. INTERIOR VIEW OF SLEEPING SHELTER SHOWING STORAGE LOCKERS IN CENTER PORTION WITH SLEEPING BUNKS AT EACH END - Camp Cleawox, Adirondack Sleeping Shelter, Oregon Dunes National Recreation Area, Siuslaw National Forest, Florence, Lane County, OR

117

Closeup view of EPA Farm cattle shelter lamp, facing west ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Close-up view of EPA Farm cattle shelter lamp, facing west - Nevada Test Site, Environmental Protection Agency Farm, Shelter Unit Type, Area 15, Yucca Flat, 10-2 Road near Circle Road, Mercury, Nye County, NV

118

View of EPA Farm cattle shelter (featuring horse trailer), facing ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View of EPA Farm cattle shelter (featuring horse trailer), facing northwest - Nevada Test Site, Environmental Protection Agency Farm, Shelter Unit Type, Area 15, Yucca Flat, 10-2 Road near Circle Road, Mercury, Nye County, NV

119

Interior view of entry stair into bomb shelter, taken from ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Interior view of entry stair into bomb shelter, taken from below grade, view facing south - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Splinterproof Shelter, Seventh Street between Avenues E & G, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

120

View of entry portal into bomb shelter. Wood blocking has ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View of entry portal into bomb shelter. Wood blocking has been installed to prevent entry, view facing north - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Splinterproof Shelter, Seventh Street between Avenues E & G, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

121

View of entry portal into bomb shelter. Wood blocking has ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View of entry portal into bomb shelter. Wood blocking has been installed to prevent entry, view facing northwest - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Splinterproof Shelter, Seventh Street between Avenues E & G, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

122

Shelter Management Activities in the Increased Readiness Period.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study of shelter management activities in the Increased Readiness (IR) phase is divided into two parts. Part 1 consists of recommendations for SM activities. It covers: (1) selection and recruitment of shelter personnel, (2) training, (3) public info...

E. Bend F. B. Jeffreys

1968-01-01

123

INTERIOR VIEW OF THE SHELTER HOUSE LOCATED ON THE EAST ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR VIEW OF THE SHELTER HOUSE LOCATED ON THE EAST END OF BIG DALTON DAM SHOWING THE NORTHEAST AND NORTHWEST WALLS - Big Dalton Dam, Shelter House, 2600 Big Dalton Canyon Road, Glendora, Los Angeles County, CA

124

Blast Tests of Expedient Shelters in the DICE THROW Event.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

To determine the worst blast environments that eight types of expedient shelters can withstand, we subjected a total of 18 shelters to the 1-kiloton blast effects of Defense Nuclear Agency's DICE THROW main event. These expedient shelters included two Rus...

C. H. Kearny, C. V. Chester

1978-01-01

125

30 CFR 75.1403-9 - Criteria-Shelter holes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Criteria-Shelter holes. 75.1403-9 Section 75.1403-9...Hoisting and Mantrips § 75.1403-9 CriteriaâShelter holes. (a) Shelter holes should be provided on track haulage...

2013-07-01

126

24 CFR 576.53 - Use as an emergency shelter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Use as an emergency shelter. 576.53 Section 576.53 Housing...DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY FACILITIES EMERGENCY SHELTER GRANTS PROGRAM: STEWART B. McKINNEY...Requirements § 576.53 Use as an emergency shelter. (a)(1) Restrictions and...

2010-04-01

127

1. FRONT VIEW SHOWING MAIN FACADE OF SHELTER WITH SPLIT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. FRONT VIEW SHOWING MAIN FACADE OF SHELTER WITH SPLIT SHAKES AND LOG BEAM SUPPORTS AND PORCH STEP; NOTE SHELTER NAME 'LAFITTE' OVER EYEBROW - Camp Cleawox, Adirondack Sleeping Shelter, Oregon Dunes National Recreation Area, Siuslaw National Forest, Florence, Lane County, OR

128

24 CFR 576.53 - Use as an emergency shelter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 false Use as an emergency shelter. 576.53 Section 576.53 Housing...DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY FACILITIES EMERGENCY SHELTER GRANTS PROGRAM: STEWART B. McKINNEY...Requirements § 576.53 Use as an emergency shelter. (a)(1) Restrictions and...

2009-04-01

129

Q Fever Outbreak in Homeless Shelter  

PubMed Central

Urban outbreaks of Q fever have occurred after exposure to slaughterhouses or parturient cats. We detected an outbreak of Q fever in a homeless shelter in Marseilles. Investigations showed that the main factors exposing persons to Coxiella burnetii were an abandoned slaughterhouse, used for an annual Muslim sheep feast, and wind.

Brouqui, Philippe; Badiaga, Sekene

2004-01-01

130

Storage Stability of Civil Defense Shelter Rations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is the final summary report in a study of the stability of representative types of Civil Defense shelter foods and their containers when stored for extended periods. The purpose of the study was to maintain controlled storage conditions covering the ...

S. R. Cecil

1971-01-01

131

High Explosive Testing of Hardened Aircraft Shelters.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Two full-size, hardened, third-generation aircraft shelters of the type employed by the U.S. Air Force in Europe and by NATO countries were subjected to a series of five high explosive tests. The purpose of the tests (nicknamed DISTANT RUNNER) was to gath...

R. R. Bousek

1983-01-01

132

Hurricane Andrew: Psychological distress among shelter victims  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined psychological distress and functioning among Hurricane Andrew victims who lost their homes and were living in shelters. Four and one-half weeks after Hurricane Andrew struck southern Florida, 89 (45 males, 44 females) Blacks, Hispanics, and Whites completed a questionnaire. The questionnaire asked for information about psychological and psychophysiological symptoms, use of mental health services, coping responses, and

David N. Sattler; Jerome M. Sattler; Charles Kaiser; Beverly A. Hamby; Mary G. Adams; Laura Love; Jacqueline Winkler; Claudia Abu-Ukkaz; Barrett Watts; Ann Beatty

1995-01-01

133

Big Data challenges and solutions in building the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Group on Earth Observation (GEO) is a voluntary partnership of governments and international organizations launched in response to calls for action by the 2002 World Summit on Sustainable Development and by the G8 (Group of Eight) leading industrialized countries. These high-level meetings recognized that international collaboration is essential for exploiting the growing potential of Earth observations to support decision making in an increasingly complex and environmentally stressed world. To this aim is constructing the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) on the basis of a 10-Year Implementation Plan for the period 2005 to 2015 when it will become operational. As a large-scale integrated system handling large datasets as those provided by Earth Observation, GEOSS needs to face several challenges related to big data handling and big data infrastructures management. Referring to the traditional multiple Vs characteristics of Big Data (volume, variety, velocity, veracity and visualization) it is evident how most of them can be found in data handled by GEOSS. In particular, concerning Volume, Earth Observation already generates a large amount of data which can be estimated in the range of Petabytes (1015 bytes), with Exabytes (1018) already targeted. Moreover, the challenge is related not only to the data size, but also to the large amount of datasets (not necessarily having a big size) that systems need to manage. Variety is the other main challenge since datasets coming from different sensors, processed for different use-cases are published with highly heterogeneous metadata and data models, through different service interfaces. Innovative multidisciplinary applications need to access and use those datasets in a harmonized way. Moreover Earth Observation data are growing in size and variety at an exceptionally fast rate and new technologies and applications, including crowdsourcing, will even increase data volume and variety in the next future. The current implementation of GEOSS already addresses several big data challenges. In particular, the brokered architecture adopted in the GEOSS Common Infrastructure with the deployment of the GEO DAB (Discovery and Access Broker) allows to connect more than 20 big EO infrastructures while keeping them autonomous as required by their own mandate and governance. They make more than 60 million of unique resources discoverable and accessible through the GEO Portal. Through the GEO DAB, users are able to seamlessly discover resources provided by different infrastructures, and access them in a harmonized way, collecting datasets from different sources on a Common Environment (same coordinate reference system, spatial subset, format, etc.). Through the GEONETCast system, GEOSS is also providing a solution related to the Velocity challenge, for delivering EO resources to developing countries with low bandwidth connections. Several researches addressing other Big data Vs challenges in GEOSS are on-going, including quality representation for Veracity (as in the FP7 GeoViQua project), brokering big data analytics platforms for Velocity, and support of other EO resources for Variety (such as modelling resources in the Model Web).

Mazzetti, Paolo; Nativi, Stefano; Santoro, Mattia; Boldrini, Enrico

2014-05-01

134

Building Capacity to Integrate NASA Earth Science into Water Resources Management Applications in the Context of a Changing Climate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NASA Applied Sciences program provides technical capacity building activities to enable decision-makers to integrate NASA Earth Science into environmental management activities. This includes workshops tailored to end-user needs by working directly with agencies to 1) identify environmental management activities that could benefit from NASA Earth Science and 2) conducting workshops that teach the NASA products and decision-support tools best suited to the identified application area. Building on a successful 3-year effort on air pollution monitoring for environmental applications, the project has expanded into water resources. Climate Change has dramatically increased demand for observational and predictive data in support of decision making activities related to water supply and demand. However, a gap remains between NASA products and applied research and the entities who stand to benefit from their utilization. To fill this gap, the project has developed short courses on 1) impacts of climate change on water resources 2) hands-on exercises on access and interpretation of NASA imagery relevant to water resources management via the use of decision-support web tools and software and 3) case studies on the application of NASA products in the field. The program is currently focused on two areas 1) precipitation products over the central and southern U.S. that help communities and agencies improve flooding forecasts and 2) snow and snow/water equivalent products over the western U.S and Latin America that can provide end-users with improved stream flow prediction in Spring within a framework of decreasing snow availability.

Prados, A. I.; Mehta, A. V.

2011-12-01

135

How Effective Homelessness Prevention Impacts the Length of Shelter Spells  

PubMed Central

Homelessness prevention programs intervene with households apparently in imminent danger of becoming homeless, and try to keep them housed. If they are at least partially successful, how do they change the average shelter spell of households actually becoming homeless? We use data from 2003 to 2008 for Homebase, a New York City homelessness prevention program that studies have found to be effective in reducing shelter entries. Homebase made no difference in average shelter spells at the community level. This result, like many results about shelter spell length, is not easy to reconcile with the idea that shelter spell length is a reflection of the seriousness of underlying problems.

Goodman, Sarena; Messeri, Peter; O'Flaherty, Brendan

2014-01-01

136

81. BUILDING NO. 561, CANNON POWDER BLENDER, LOOKING NORTHWEST, BUILDING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

81. BUILDING NO. 561, CANNON POWDER BLENDER, LOOKING NORTHWEST, BUILDING NO. 561-A, PROPELLANT PLANT (FIREPROOF SHELTER), IN FOREGROUND, BUILDING NO. 561-D IN EXTREME FOREGROUND. - Picatinny Arsenal, 500 Area, Powder Factory & Power House, State Route 15 near I-80, Dover, Morris County, NJ

137

New Buildings with Fallout Protection.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fallout protection can be built into a building with little or no additional expense, using areas that are in continuous use in the normal functioning of the building. A general discussion of principles of shelter design is given along with photographs, descriptions, drawings, and cost analysis for a large number of recently constructed buildings

Office of Civil Defense (DOD), Washington, DC.

138

Vulnerability Assessment of Shelters in the Eastern Caribbean: Retrofitting Terms of Reference for Consultants, Standards, [and] Global Estimates.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Dozens of natural disaster shelters (mostly schools) in five Caribbean islands were assessed as to their vulnerability and the needed retrofitting to upgrade them. This report provides retrofit consultants with terms of reference and building design criteria for withstanding various natural disasters, as well as estimated global costs of various…

Gibbs, Tony

139

Software Applications to Access Earth Science Data: Building an ECHO Client  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Historically, developing an ECHO (NASA’s Earth Observing System (EOS) ClearingHOuse) client required interaction with its SOAP API. SOAP, as a framework for web service communication has numerous advantages for Enterprise applications and Java/C# type programming languages. However, as interest has grown for quick development cycles and more intriguing “mashups,” ECHO has seen the SOAP API lose its appeal. In order to address these changing needs, ECHO has introduced two new interfaces facilitating simple access to its metadata holdings. The first interface is built upon the OpenSearch format and ESIP Federated Search framework. The second interface is built upon the Representational State Transfer (REST) architecture. Using the REST and OpenSearch APIs to access ECHO makes development with modern languages much more feasible and simpler. Client developers can leverage the simple interaction with ECHO to focus more of their time on the advanced functionality they are presenting to users. To demonstrate the simplicity of developing with the REST API, participants will be led through a hands-on experience where they will develop an ECHO client that performs the following actions: + Login + Provider discovery + Provider based dataset discovery + Dataset, Temporal, and Spatial constraint based Granule discovery + Online Data Access

Cohen, A.; Cechini, M.; Pilone, D.

2010-12-01

140

Building Climate Resilience in the Blue Nile/Abay Highlands: A Role for Earth System Sciences  

PubMed Central

The Blue Nile (Abay) Highlands of Ethiopia are characterized by significant interannual climate variability, complex topography and associated local climate contrasts, erosive rains and erodible soils, and intense land pressure due to an increasing population and an economy that is almost entirely dependent on smallholder, low-input agriculture. As a result, these highland zones are highly vulnerable to negative impacts of climate variability. As patterns of variability and precipitation intensity alter under anthropogenic climate change, there is concern that this vulnerability will increase, threatening economic development and food security in the region. In order to overcome these challenges and to enhance sustainable development in the context of climate change, it is necessary to establish climate resilient development strategies that are informed by best-available Earth System Science (ESS) information. This requirement is complicated by the fact that climate projections for the Abay Highlands contain significant and perhaps irreducible uncertainties. A critical challenge for ESS, then, is to generate and to communicate meaningful information for climate resilient development in the context of a highly uncertain climate forecast. Here we report on a framework for applying ESS to climate resilient development in the Abay Highlands, with a focus on the challenge of reducing land degradation.

Zaitchik, Benjamin F.; Simane, Belay; Habib, Shahid; Anderson, Martha C.; Ozdogan, Mutlu; Foltz, Jeremy D.

2012-01-01

141

Self-Healing, Inflatable, Rigidizable Shelter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An inflatable, rigidizable shelter system was developed based on Rigi dization on Command (ROC) technology incorporating not only the requ ired low-stowage volume and lightweight character achieved from an i nflatable/rigidizable system, but also a self-healing foam system inc orporated between the rigidizable layers of the final structure to m inimize the damage caused by any punctures to the structure.

Haight, Andrea; Gosau, Jan-Michael; Dixit, Anshu; Gleeson, Dan

2012-01-01

142

Electron spin resonance dating of human teeth from Toca da Santa shelter of São Raimundo Nonato, Piauí, Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Results of the dating of fossil human teeth excavated from a shelter in the surroundings areas of the Serra da Capivara National Park, São Raimundo Nonato, Piauí, Brazil are presented. This shelter was partially excavated to search for more data that could improve the archaeological context of the Garrincho’s limestone hill sites, where the Toca do Gordo do Garrincho shelter provided two human teeth dated by conventional C-14 in (12,170 ± 40) yBP (years before present) and calibrated age (2 Sigma, 95% probability) 15,245 14,690 yBP (Beta 136204) [E. Peyre, C. Guérin, N. Guidon, I. Coppens, CR Acad. Sci. Paris, Sciences de la terre et des planètes/ Earth & Planetary Sciences 327 (1998) 335, [1

Kinoshita, A.; Figueiredo, A. M. G.; Felice, G. D.; Lage, M. C. S. M.; Guidon, N.; Baffa, O.

2008-02-01

143

The Sombrero Marsh Education Program: Diverse partnerships building strong Earth System science programs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Broad-based science education partnerships can create exemplary education programs because each partner brings their particular expertise to the table. The Sombrero Marsh Education Program provides an example of such a program where a school district, a local government agency, a non-profit organization, and an institute of higher learning developed a field-based watershed curriculum for upper elementary students at Sombrero Marsh, a recently restored rare saline marsh located in Boulder Valley. The partners' expertise, ranging from wetland ecology and restoration to pedagogy, yielded a curriculum that includes many of the characteristics that are highlighted within the National Science Education Standards, such as inquiry-based, hands-on activities where students serve as scientists and collect real data that will be used to monitor the progress of marsh restoration. Once established, these diverse partnerships can attract further funding and expand their programs from the local to the national level, thus providing a successful model with a widespread impact. The Sombrero Marsh Program will soon be making this transition because the Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), along with 4 other departments of the University of Colorado, was awarded a NSF GK-12 Grant to expand the marsh program to the secondary science level. Using the initial Sombrero Marsh Program as a guide, eight GK-12 Fellows from the departments of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Geological Sciences, Environmental and Evolutionary Biology, and Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences will develop a secondary science level program at Sombrero Marsh, which initially will be delivered to schools with a significant population of students from under-represented groups. Several dimensions of the marsh program, such as community-based research and ecological sterwardship, can serve as a national model for similar science education programs that aim to promote Earth System science.

Smith, L. K.; Bierbaum, V.

2003-12-01

144

Plasma Cortisol Levels of Dogs at a County Animal Shelter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hennessy, M. B., H. N. Davis, M. T. Williams, C. Mellott and C. W. Douglas. Plasma cortisol levels of dogs in a county animal shelter. Physiol Behav 62(3) 485–490, 1997.—Plasma cortisol levels were examined to assess the stress of dogs in a county animal shelter. Groups of dogs confined in the shelter for their 1st, 2nd, or 3rd day had

Michael B Hennessy; Harry N Davis; Michael T Williams; Carolyn Mellott; Chet W Douglas

1997-01-01

145

WEST PORTAL. NOTE SHELTER PANELS COMPOSED OF VERTICAL SHEATHING WITH ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

WEST PORTAL. NOTE SHELTER PANELS COMPOSED OF VERTICAL SHEATHING WITH ATTACHED GUARD RAIL JUST INSIDE PORTAL. - Uhlerstown Bridge, Spanning Delaware Canal, Uhlerstown Hill Road, Uhlerstown, Bucks County, PA

146

Environmental sampling for Salmonella spp. in Colorado animal shelters.  

PubMed

Salmonella enterica is an important zoonotic agent and nosocomial infections and epidemics have occurred in animal facilities. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of Salmonella in the environment in animal shelters. From 12 to 25 samples were taken from each shelter to represent environmental contamination. Samples were collected from surfaces in areas used by animals and in public access areas including animal receiving rooms, kennels, paediatric wards, treatment, visitation rooms, isolation, euthanasia, outdoor runs and play areas, reception rooms, animal transport vehicles, offices, break rooms and restrooms. Samples were tested for Salmonella and compared within shelters to identify high- and low-risk areas; and between shelters to identify differences in environmental contamination by geographical location, infection control policies, and shelter size characteristics. Twenty-eight per cent of sampled Colorado shelters had environmental Salmonella contamination. Two regions in the eastern 1/3 of the state had prevalences of 30% and 100%. Within-shelter sample prevalence ranged from 0 to 100%. Results of this study indicate that animal shelters can be frequently contaminated with Salmonella spp., a variety of Salmonella species may be present, contamination can be widespread within a facility and recovered isolates may harbour antibiotic resistance The findings from this study may influence and help focus educational policy on issues of infection control and zoonotic disease awareness in animal shelters. PMID:21083828

Steneroden, K K; Hill, A E; Salman, M D

2011-09-01

147

26 CFR 53.4965-7 - Taxes on prohibited tax shelter transactions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Taxes on prohibited tax shelter transactions. 53.4965-7 Section...53.4965-7 Taxes on prohibited tax shelter transactions. (a) Entity-level...that are parties to prohibited tax shelter transactions. (i) Prohibited...

2013-04-01

148

78 FR 16862 - Notice of Submission of Proposed Information Collection to OMB: Emergency Shelter Grants Program...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Information Collection to OMB: Emergency Shelter Grants Program (FR 2562) AGENCY: Office...program, formerly titled, Emergency Shelter Grants Program and changed to match the...information: Title of Proposed: Emergency Shelter Grants Program. OMB Approval...

2013-03-19

149

Influence of Four Tree Shelter Types on Microclimate and Seedling Performance of Oregon White Oak and Western Redcedar.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Four types of tree shelters were evaluated in southwestern Washington for their effects on seedling microenvironment and performance of two tree species. Shelter types were fine-mesh fabric shelters, solid-walled white shelters with and without vent holes...

C. A. Harrington W. D. Devine

2008-01-01

150

Training shelter volunteers to teach dog compliance.  

PubMed

This study examined the degree to which training procedures influenced the integrity of behaviorally based dog training implemented by volunteers of an animal shelter. Volunteers were taught to implement discrete-trial obedience training to teach 2 skills (sit and wait) to dogs. Procedural integrity during the baseline and written instructions conditions was low across all participants. Although performance increased with use of a video model, integrity did not reach criterion levels until performance feedback and modeling were provided. Moreover, the integrity of the discrete-trial training procedure was significantly and positively correlated with dog compliance to instructions for all dyads. Correct implementation and compliance were observed when participants were paired with a novel dog and trainer, respectively, although generalization of procedural integrity from the discrete-trial sit procedure to the discrete-trial wait procedure was not observed. Shelter consumers rated the behavior change in dogs and trainers as socially significant. Implications of these findings and future directions for research are discussed. PMID:24924218

Howard, Veronica J; DiGennaro Reed, Florence D

2014-06-01

151

Successful Transitions of Runaway/Homeless Youth from Shelter Care  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous research indicates that runaway and homeless youth often achieve positive outcomes after shelter stays however few studies have examined how these outcomes are achieved. This study employs qualitative methods to explicate this phenomenon. Twenty-five providers and 21 youth from four shelters participated in this study. Youth were…

Nebbitt, Von E.; House, Laura E.; Thompson, Sanna J.; Pollio, David E.

2007-01-01

152

Pet overpopulation: data and measurement issues in shelters.  

PubMed

Data collection and analysis within animal shelters are critical to developing effective programs that reduce the number of dogs and cats euthanized each year. However, current data collection efforts are insufficient to identify the magnitude, dynamics, or root causes of euthanasia in animal shelters across the United States. The purpose of this study was to examine potential solutions to the underlying root causes of pet overpopulation, with 2 elements. The first, more explicit goal was to establish a baseline of shelter data, policies, and viewpoints through a detailed survey of 186 shelters, 12 site visits, and numerous interviews. The findings suggest large variation in local issues faced by shelters, as well as a nearly universal focus on sterilization as a solution. The greater objective, however, was to use this information as an impetus to improve the process by which shelters amalgamate information and effectively use it to target the most pressing needs within their communities. We believe the essential step is to provide shelters with an analytical tool that would yield informational benefits exceeding the cost of data collection. Such an improvement would have a positive spillover effect on researchers, donors, and others attempting to collect standardized, geographically scalable data. This article presents an overview of the survey findings, as well as a prototype of a tool to help improve data amalgamation and analysis efforts within shelters. PMID:16363935

Wenstrup, J; Dowidchuk, A

1999-01-01

153

Supporting family life: A survey of homeless shelters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Survey data from a national sample of homeless family shelters (N=59)were analyzed to describe the family support programming available to residents. Data were reported on facility and resident characteristics and family support programming, as well as on facility admission criteria and program participation requirements. Four independent variables (length of stay, shelter capacity, sponsorship, and program philosophy) were examined for their

Francine Jacobs; Priscilla M. D. Little; Cheryl Almeida

1993-01-01

154

Domestic Violence Shelters as Prevention Agents for HIV/AIDS?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article reports findings from a pilot study of 21 domestic violence shelters in a southwestern state in the United States. The survey instrument included descriptive information on shelter service delivery. Specifically, questions were asked about the practice of assessing a client's risk of HIV/AIDS, the provision of HIV/AIDS educational and…

Rountree, Michele A.; Pomeroy, Elizabeth C.; Marsiglia, Flavio F.

2008-01-01

155

25 CFR 11.1004 - Detention and shelter care.  

...2014-04-01 false Detention and shelter care. 11.1004 Section 11.1004 Indians...Procedure § 11.1004 Detention and shelter care. (a) A minor alleged to be a juvenile...the following places: (1) A foster care facility approved by the tribe;...

2014-04-01

156

View to east northeast. Southwest operating shelters in foreground to ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View to east northeast. Southwest operating shelters in foreground to left. East-end operating shelters in distant background, to right center - St. Mary's Falls Canal, Soo Locks, Sabin Lock Subcomplex, St. Mary's River at Falls, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI

157

25 CFR 11.1004 - Detention and shelter care.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Detention and shelter care. 11.1004 Section 11.1004 Indians BUREAU... Juvenile Offender Procedure § 11.1004 Detention and shelter care. (a) A minor alleged to be a juvenile...

2013-04-01

158

Psychiatric disorders of abused women at a shelter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty physically abused women were randomly selected from the population of a local women's shelter and evaluated by psychiatric interview and psychiatric rating scales. High prevalences of major depression disorder (37%) and PTSD (47%) were determined. Furthermore, these disorders were found to be positively associated. These results suggest the need for immediate availability of psychiatric services at such shelters along

Chole Garibay West; Adelaida Fernandez; James Randolph Hillard; Mary Schoof; Joseph Parks

1990-01-01

159

Lessons Learned: A "Homeless Shelter Intervention" by a Medical Student  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The authors explored the process of implementing a medical student-initiated program designed to provide computerized mental health screening, referral, and education in a homeless shelter. Method: An educational program was designed to teach homeless shelter staff about psychiatric disorders and culturally-informed treatment…

Owusu, Yasmin; Kunik, Mark; Coverdale, John; Shah, Asim; Primm, Annelle; Harris, Toi

2012-01-01

160

National Fallout Shelter Design Competition. Community Center. Awards  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Award winning designs for dual-use fallout shelters are presented, representing contributions by the design professions toward development of the national defense resource. The focus and concept of the competition is described as the basis for judging. The nature of dual-use shelter is discussed, which contributes to understanding of the…

Office of Civil Defense (DOD), Washington, DC.

161

Student Lead Nanosatellite Design/Build Projects: making a cost effective approach to Earth and Space Observational Science even more cost efficient  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the advancement of technologies and the miniaturization of sensors and electrical/computational components satellites are also undergoing miniaturization. With lower manufacturing cost and a decreased design/build cycle (~2 years from start to launch), compared to conventional large scale satellites, nanosatellites have become a cost effective alternative for satellite Earth and Space Observations. The University of Alberta student nanosatellite (10x10x30cm; <4kg) design/build team, AlbertaSat-1, is a participant in the Canadian Satellite Design Challenge (CSDC) implemented by the CSA and Geocentrix Ltd. in addition to 15 other Universities from across Canada. AlbertaSat-1 will be launched in early 2013, after a 2 year design/build process and environmental testing. AlbertaSat-1 will be an Earth Observation satellite monitoring GHG (CO2, H2O & CH4) concentrations over many regions of the earth with the use of a NIR spectrometer. Here we present the planning, design and future manufacturing of AlbertaSat-1 with a focus on budget and cost effective solutions. Since this is a student project, AlbertaSat-1 will incur certain benefits making them exempt from certain financial requirements and obtaining services and equipment at very low or no cost. The largest cost benefit of AlbertaSat-1 is the virtual elimination of labor costs by having a team consisting of only unpaid students. Labor costs of typical satellite missions can be a very costly component. The educational components of such projects offer more indirect benefits to effective development of this industry/discipline, nevertheless just as important, by developing skills and knowledge that can only be learned through realistic hands on design/build projects. Student lead projects and student design/build initiatives such as CSDC (among many others in the U.S. and Europe lead by NASA and ESA, respectively) will have a major impact on shaping the future of Space and Earth Observational Sciences. We will present the future implications of such student projects and initiatives for the development of research and engineering in Space and Earth Observational Sciences.

Bottoms, J.; Lange, B. A.; AlbertaSat

2011-12-01

162

Three sciences- Two Years- One Solution- Using the Earth System Science Education Alliance On-line Course to build K-12 Teacher Earth System Science Content and Pedagogical Knowledge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Starting in 2007 Ohio high school students will need to pass a new Ohio Graduation Test (OGT) taken in the second semester of their sophomore year as a graduation requirement. This high-stakes test was mandated by the Ohio legislature and developed by the Ohio Department of Education to reflect the more rigorous Ohio K-12 Academic Content Standards, including science. The science section of the OGT includes the content areas of Physical science, Life science and Earth/Space science. The Earth/Space science standards use the Earth system as a content organizer and many questions on the Ohio Graduation Test have an Earth system science focus. Ohio law mandates that Physical Science be taught as the 9th grade science course in all Ohio public high schools and that Life science be taught as the 10th grade science offering. This legislation created a profound disconnect between Earth/Space science content and the timing of the Ohio Graduation Test. Although approximately one-third of the OGT science section questions test Earth/Space science content, it is impossible to teach a high school level Earth/Space science course prior to students taking the Ohio Graduation Test. School systems in Ohio have responded to this crisis by either adding the 9th and 10th grade Earth/Space science benchmarks to the Physical Science and Life Science course curricula, or by teaching the 9th and 10th grade Earth/Space science benchmarks at the 7th or 8th grade in an Earth/Space science course that because it contains so much material, must be "a mile wide and an inch deep". In either case, a significant number of the teachers charged with building the Earth/Space science content knowledge for the Ohio Graduation Test do not have a strong Earth/Space science component in their own educational background, although they may have a strong background in the physical or life sciences. Wright State University has a long record of providing Earth/Space science professional development for K-12 teachers. Offering the Earth System Science Education Alliance Earth systems on-line course as professional development is ideal for this purpose because the course can be tailored for classroom teacher professional development. Course content can be chosen by faculty from an array of real-world situations and events that focus on the state and national science education benchmarks most useful for the K-12 teachers preparing their students for the Ohio Graduation Test. Course pedagogy can also be chosen to allow maximum flexibility in professional development. Teachers of grades 5-8 and grades 9-12 teachers can both engage the same content, but with different pedagogies. This strategy has been shown to lead to a greater likelihood of K-12 teachers incorporating the content and pedagogical strategies into their own classrooms.

Slattery, W.; Teed, R.; Low, R.

2007-12-01

163

Raise high the roofbeams, owner-builders. [Energy-efficient home building by individuals  

Microsoft Academic Search

A description is given of energy-conserving home building techniques taught at the Shelter Institute in Maine. Individuals can save 20-50 percent of the cost of a contractor-built home. In a Shelter Institute house, almost every characteristic contributes to the ease of building, durability, energy efficiency and low operating and maintenance costs. (JMT)

Holzman

1982-01-01

164

Development of an extense atmospheric scene database with the 3-D Monte-Carlo EarthCARE Simulator to build 3 along-track views angular dependence models in the framework of ESA EarthCARE Mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the main error sources when measuring the Earth Radiation Budget ERB is the lack of knowledge of the anisotropy of the observed scene radiance field Major efforts have been made over the last 25 years to build and improve Angular Dependence Models ADMs that account for this anisotropy thus allowing to retrieve flux measurements with the desired accuracy ADMs are required to carry out radiance-to-flux conversions they can be derived directly from satellite data along the course of a mission if directional sampling of radiances is sufficient to infer flux estimates Because the EarthCARE-BBR Broadband radiometer instrument lacks sufficient angular sampling an alternate approach was explored to derive a set of ADMs using TOA radiances and fluxes that were simulated by the Monte-Carlo photon transport algorithm in the EarthCARE Simulator To replace the lack of satellite information more than 200 000 detailed 3-D atmospheric scenes were defined They took into account foreseen specific orbital constraints five different land surface types and the ocean surface with four different wind speed conditions with corresponding atmospheric surface cloudy interrelated conditions including a fine aerosol cloud classification and discretisation The simulations were processed on the Grid on-Demand ESA-ESRIN interface more than 100 CPUs as well as on their Centre Nazionale di Ricerca CNR associated cluster 16 nodes grid cluster with 4 CPUs each The EarthCARE-BBR makes measurements at nadir and in the along-track direction at

Lopez-Baeza, E.; Domenech, C.; Barker, H. W.; Bouvet, M.; Donovan, D.; Velazquez, A.

165

Solar heating of integrated greenhouse-animal shelter systems  

SciTech Connect

An analytical procedure to determine the effectiveness of greenhouses as solar collectors was presented. This procedure was used to predict the effect of several construction parameters on solar radiation input to greenhouses. The orientation of the greenhouse was found to be the most effective construction parameter controlling solar radiation input to greenhouses. The effective albedo of the plant canopy was also found to be a significant factor. A new solar greenhouse design, suitable for high latitude regions was developed. The results showed that an internal solar collector could be incorporated as an integral part of the greenhouse design. The concept developed could be used as a free-standing greenhouse or in a combination with livestock building. The efficiency of the solar input was investigated for the conventional and the shed greenhouses, both as a free-standing unit and a greenhouse-animal shelter system, using computer simulation analyses. The results indicated that the efficiency of solar input is highly dependent on location; the effect of location on the shed type design is more profound. A typical case of a greenhouse-hog barn production system was investigated using computer simulation analyses. The results showed that such a food production system achieves a significant reduction in conventional fuel consumption due to both animal waste heat recovery and solar energy utilization.

Ben-Abdallah, N.

1983-01-01

166

Open space suitability analysis for emergency shelter after an earthquake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In an emergency situation shelter space is crucial for people affected by natural hazards. Emergency planners in disaster relief and mass care can greatly benefit from a sound methodology that identifies suitable shelter areas and sites where shelter services need to be improved. A methodology to rank suitability of open spaces for contingency planning and placement of shelter in the immediate aftermath of a disaster is introduced. The Open Space Suitability Index (OSSI) uses the combination of two different measures: a qualitative evaluation criterion for the suitability and manageability of open spaces to be used as shelter sites, and a second quantitative criterion using a capacitated accessibility analysis based on network analysis. For the qualitative assessment, implementation issues, environmental considerations, and basic utility supply are the main categories to rank candidate shelter sites. Geographic Information System (GIS) is used to reveal spatial patterns of shelter demand. Advantages and limitations of this method are discussed on the basis of a case study in Kathmandu Metropolitan City (KMC). According to the results, out of 410 open spaces under investigation, 12.2% have to be considered not suitable (Category D and E) while 10.7% are Category A and 17.6% are Category B. Almost two third (59.5%) are fairly suitable (Category C).

Anhorn, J.; Khazai, B.

2014-06-01

167

Acoustics of fish shelters: frequency response and gain properties.  

PubMed

Many teleosts emit sounds from cavities beneath stones and other types of submerged objects, yet the acoustical properties of fish shelters are virtually unexplored. This study examines the gain properties of shelters commonly used by Mediterranean gobies as hiding places and/or nest sites in the field (flat stones, shells belonging to five bivalve species), or within aquarium tanks (tunnel-shaped plastic covers, concrete blocks, concrete cylinder pipe, halves of terracotta flower pots). All shelters were acoustically stimulated using a small underwater buzzer, placed inside or around the shelter to mimic a fish calling from the nest site, and different types of driving stimuli (white noise, pure tones, and artificial pulse trains). Results showed the presence of significant amplitude gain (3-18 dB) at frequencies in the range 100-150 Hz in all types of natural shelters but one (Mytilus), terracotta flower pots, and concrete blocks. Gain was higher for stones and artificial shelters than for shells. Gain peak amplitude increased with the weight of stones and shells. Conclusions were verified by performing analogous acoustical tests on flat stones in the stream. Results draw attention to the use of suitable shelters for proper recording of sounds produced by fishes kept within laboratory aquaria. PMID:23145631

Lugli, Marco

2012-11-01

168

Feline dermatophytosis: Steps for investigation of a suspected shelter outbreak.  

PubMed

Practical relevance: Dermatophytosis (ringworm) is the most important infectious and contagious skin disease of cats in shelters. Its importance relates to the fact that it can affect all cats, but tends to affect those which would otherwise have good chances for adoption. Although many diseases in shelters fit this description, dermatophytosis is of particular significance because of associated public health concerns. Clinical challenges: Disease management in animal shelters is challenging because new animals are frequently entering the population, numerous animals are often housed together, and resources are almost always limited. Global relevance: Outbreaks of dermatophytosis occur worldwide and no animal shelter is completely shielded from possible introduction of the disease into the population. Audience: This article offers a flexible stepwise approach to dealing with a known or suspected outbreak of dermatophytosis in an animal shelter. It is based on the authors' experiences spanning more than a decade of responses and/or consultations. While primarily aimed at veterinarians involved in shelter medicine, the principles largely apply to other group-housing situations, such as catteries and breeding establishments. Aims: The goals in dealing with a potential dermatophytosis outbreak are to ascertain if the 'outbreak' is actually an outbreak, to develop a shelter-specific outbreak management plan and to implement a long-term plan to prevent recurrences. PMID:24794037

Newbury, Sandra; Moriello, Karen A

2014-05-01

169

Science Sampler: Using sheltered instruction to teach English Language Learners  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sheltered instruction is not a commercial program but is a set of instructional practices used specifically with English Language Learners (ELL). It embeds existing instructional strategies such as wait time, visual organizers, group work, and allowing students to actively respond for immediate feedback. Sheltered instruction "integrates lesson knowledge and concepts with opportunities to practice using English by reading, writing, listening and speaking" (Colburn and Echevaria 2001). This article describes the four elements of sheltered instruction (Group work, Wait time, Group-response technique, Supplemental materials).

Verma, Geeta; Pepper, Jerald B.; Martin-Hansen, Lisa

2008-11-01

170

Preliminary Environmental Study of Selected Building Conservation Measures in Ten Pacific Northwest Industries. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document contains preliminary information characterizing industrial building for ten selected industries within the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) service boundary. Buildings in these industries are categorized by four types of sheltered activ...

1984-01-01

171

Uniformity of Leaf Shelter Construction by Larvae of Epargyreus clarus (Hesperiidae), the Silver-Spotted Skipper  

Microsoft Academic Search

Larvae of the silver-spotted skipper, Epargyreus clarus (Hesperiidae), construct shelters from leaves of their leguminous host plants, making four distinct shelter types that change predictably over larval ontogeny. Shelters built by first-instar larvae are located on the apical half of the leaflet and are almost invariant in size, shape, and orientation, suggesting a stereotypical process of shelter location and construction.

Martha R. Weiss; Eric M. Lind; Meg T. Jones; Jeremy D. Long; Jennifer L. Maupin

2003-01-01

172

14. INSIDE VIEW OF BOMB SHELTER WITH AIR COMPRESSOR Everett ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

14. INSIDE VIEW OF BOMB SHELTER WITH AIR COMPRESSOR Everett Weinreb, photographer, April 1988 - Mount Gleason Nike Missile Site, Angeles National Forest, South of Soledad Canyon, Sylmar, Los Angeles County, CA

173

Pricing Practices of Sheltered Workshops vs. Open Employment. Consumer Implications.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evaluation of pricing practices of sheltered workshops in Australia indicated that most workshops undercharge for their services with the consequence that they are unable to pay realistic wages to disabled employees. (Author/DB)

Black, John; And Others

1987-01-01

174

Philippines Shelter Sector Assessment. Volume I: Country Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is the first of three volumes reporting on a study to develop information and make recommendations relating to the shelter sector (defined broadly as including housing, land, infrastructure, utilities, social services, and employment opportunities) i...

R. N. Merrill E. Slingsby A. Parkinson M. Dawson

1978-01-01

175

6. Contextual view of EPA Farm showing cattle shelter, facing ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. Contextual view of EPA Farm showing cattle shelter, facing southeast. - Nevada Test Site, Environmental Protection Agency Farm, Area 15, Yucca Flat, 10-2 Road near Circle Road, Mercury, Nye County, NV

176

Sikringsavstand for Flybunker (Safety Standards for Aircraft Shelter).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A reexamination of papers concerning Hardened Aircraft Shelter (HAS) explosion tests is presented. Of special interest is the physical background of all the phenomena which occur during or after the internal blast loading on the concrete walls. It is beli...

J. Brandstorp

1992-01-01

177

6. EASTERLY VIEW OF BIG DALTON DAM SHOWING THE SHELTER ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. EASTERLY VIEW OF BIG DALTON DAM SHOWING THE SHELTER HOUSE IN THE BACKGROUND. PHOTO TAKEN FROM THE ACCESS ROAD LEADING TO THE CONTROL HOUSE. - Big Dalton Dam, 2600 Big Dalton Canyon Road, Glendora, Los Angeles County, CA

178

Efficacy of bomb shelters: With lessons from the Hamburg firestorm  

SciTech Connect

Shelters for protection against the effects of nuclear weapons are often stated to be useless, largely because of firestorms. Recent models purport to show that nuclear weapons are more likely to cause firestorms than previously thought. These controversial models are based on uncertain assumptions, which are difficult or impossible to test. Regardless of the predictive validity of fire models, conclusions about the ability of shelters to protect their occupants against firestorms, if they occur, are based primarily on historical experience. A review of the original data from the Hamburg firestorm shows that almost all persons in adequate shelters survived, contradicting a currently prevailing belief that all died. The results of the strategic bombing during World War II and of nuclear weapons tests show that a considerable level of population protection can be achieved through attention to proper shelter design.

Lucas, K.A.; Orient, J.M.; Robinson, A.; Maccabee, H.; Morris, P.; Looney, G.; Klinghoffer, M. (Good Samaritan Hospital, Phoenix, AZ (USA))

1990-07-01

179

1. GENERAL VIEW OF SAND HOUSE, TANK AND CAR SHELTER ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. GENERAL VIEW OF SAND HOUSE, TANK AND CAR SHELTER LOOKING NORTHWEST. MINE CARS IN FOREGROUND. - Eureka No. 40, Sand House & Tank, East of State Route 56, North of Little Paint Creek, Scalp Level, Cambria County, PA

180

Protecting red oak seedlings with tree shelters in northwestern Pennsylvania. Forest Service research paper (Final)  

SciTech Connect

The report examines the growth and survival of planted and natural red oak seedlings and seedlings from planted acorns within translucent tan tree shelters, fences, and unprotected controls under a shelterwood seed-cut stand. Seedlings planted within tree shelters and fences were inside tree shelters. Natural seedlings grew very little and their height inside and outside of tree shelters did not differ. Recommendations based on these results should improve results from the use of tree shelters.

Walters, R.S.

1993-10-01

181

3. Historic American Buildings Survey W. N. Manning, Photographer, May ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. Historic American Buildings Survey W. N. Manning, Photographer, May 16, 1935 BATH HOUSE AND WELL SHELTER IN REAR YARD. - McDonald-Smartt House, 315 North Randolph Street, Eufaula, Barbour County, AL

182

Strengthening Homeless Families: A Coalition-Building Guide.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this coalition-building guide is to assist shelters and community-based agencies to plan, develop, and implement collaborative services designed to strengthen homeless families and create systemic change within the community. The Guide is i...

1997-01-01

183

The use of shelters as substance abuse stabilization sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feasibility of providing postdetoxification residential substance abuse programming (stabilization) in large emergency\\u000a shelters was examined as part of a demonstration project funded by the National Institute on Alcohol Aubse and Alcoholism\\u000a under Section 613 of the Stewart B. McKinney Act (Public Law 100-71). The program completion rates of 773 homeless\\/near-homeless\\u000a substance-abusing individuals assigned to two large shelters (71% and

Milton Argeriou; Dennis McCarty

1993-01-01

184

Shelters in Soviet war survival strategy. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blast shelter construction has been an important element of the Soviet civil defense program since the 1950's and has been assigned first priority as a measure for protection of the population in the 1970's. Soviet shelter designs vary according to their hardness, capacity, filter-ventilation system, location (i.e., in basements or detached), and whether built in peacetime or in time of

Goure

1978-01-01

185

The Needs of Older People in Sheltered Housing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose. Sheltered accommodation in the UK is commonly seen as a half-way house between independent community living and long-term care but little is known about the health and needs of its residents. The purpose of this study was to compare the needs of older people living in sheltered housing in two contrasting areas.Design and Methods. Residents from three inner city

Elizabeth Field; Mike Walker; Geraldine Hancock; Martin Orrell

2005-01-01

186

Blast testing of expedient shelters in model scale  

SciTech Connect

A research program was conducted to evaluate the blast resistance of expedient fallout shelters designed for the civilian population in the event of a nuclear attack. As part of this research, model-size shelters of six different designs were tested in a shock tunnel at average overpressure levels of 2.8, 4.6, and 8.8 psi. Measurements of the external blast pressures and internal pressure leakage into the model shelters were made. The expedient shelters tested utilize, in general, shallow soil excavation, load-bearing members of timber or doors, and soil-covered roofs. Replica model sizes were selected so that the shock tunnel load durations were long enough to test in the quasi-static load realm. Some of the shelter designs survived at every overpressure level very well, while other tests items suffered structural failures in almost every case. This paper presents a brief description of the experiments, including some details of the shelters, of the model fabrication and pressure measurement system, and a summary of the results.

Esparza, E.D.

1986-08-01

187

Earth Structures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web guide explores several natural phenomena that are constantly changing the face of the Earth. These geologic forces not only impact the physical features of our planet but ultimately affect the biosphere in a dramatic way. Historically, the changes have ranged from gradual (such as with the process of mountain building) to the spontaneous (such as with seismic events).

National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

2005-04-01

188

Building Formal and Informal Partnerships Through a Land-Based, Hands-on Research Expedition for Earth and Ocean Science Teachers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scientific Ocean drilling has a rich legacy which is largely responsible for our current understating of the complex linkages among the different parts of the Earth System. Relaying these understandings to Earth and ocean educators is a challenge that the Joint Oceanographic Institutes (JOI) Alliances has undertaken through sponsorship of the School of Rock (SOR). Building on the successful ocean-going, hands-on SOR (Leckie et al. 2006), the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) - United States Implementing Organization (USIO) piloted a land-based, hands-on research expedition for Earth and ocean science teachers, the School of Rock Expedition II (SOR II). During this seven-day workshop, 18 educators from across the United States were hosted at the IODP Gulf Coast Repository at Texas A&M University where they were mentored and taught by scientists who are actively engaged in IODP research, shipboard technical staff, SOR I veteran teachers, and science educators. Teachers participated in a series of research experiences similar to those that take place on a scientific drilling research vessel or in a post-cruise research lab. These experiences allowed educators to increase their knowledge of IODP and scientific methods as demonstrated by the entire ocean drilling program (proposals, drilling, lab analysis, data acquisition, and post-cruise research). This case study describes the formal and informal partnerships developed through the SOR II with an emphasis on identifying and nurturing informal partnerships.

Slough, S.; Prouhet, T.; Peart, L.; Leckie, M.; St. John, K.; Karz-Cooper, S.; Klaus, A.; Petronotis, K.; Firth, J.; Guerin, G.; Buckholtz, C.; Crowder, L.; Peng, C.

2007-12-01

189

Organizational and social-psychological issues relevant to fallout-shelter evaluation  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the results of a preliminary review of the literature on organizational and social-psychological issues relevant to fallout-shelter evaluation. Fallout-shelter options are evaluated along two dimensions: shelter size, and extent of shelteree participation in the shelter construction. Four functional criteria are used in the evaluation: decision-making, member coordination, social control, and maintaining morale. Smaller shelters requiring shelteree participation in construction appear preferable as measured in most of these criteria. Additional factors mentioned include demographic characteristics of the shelter population, degree and type of ventilation system, and availability of medical equipment and personnel. 10 references.

Wernette, D.R.

1983-01-01

190

26 CFR 301.6708-1T - Failure to maintain list of investors in potentially abusive tax shelters (temporary).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...of investors in potentially abusive tax shelters (temporary). 301.6708-1T Section...of investors in potentially abusive tax shelters (temporary). The following...investors in potentially abusive tax shelters. Q-1: What penalties are...

2013-04-01

191

26 CFR 301.6708-1T - Failure to maintain list of investors in potentially abusive tax shelters (temporary).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...of investors in potentially abusive tax shelters (temporary). 301.6708-1T Section...of investors in potentially abusive tax shelters (temporary). The following...investors in potentially abusive tax shelters. Q-1: What penalties are...

2009-04-01

192

26 CFR 301.6708-1T - Failure to maintain list of investors in potentially abusive tax shelters (temporary).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...of investors in potentially abusive tax shelters (temporary). 301.6708-1T Section...of investors in potentially abusive tax shelters (temporary). The following...investors in potentially abusive tax shelters. Q-1: What penalties are...

2010-04-01

193

Interprofessional program to provide emergency sheltering to abused elders.  

PubMed

Abuse of senior citizens should be paradoxical in a civilized society; however, the U.S. Government Accountability Office reports that 14.1% of noninstitutionalized older adults experienced some type of abuse within the previous year. This is suspected to be an underestimation of the number of abuses reported. In a society where the older population is predicted to increase significantly, it is likely that the number of cases for abused elders will increase proportionately. Through the success of advocacy groups to raise awareness of child and domestic partner abuse, funding has been channeled to shelter these abuse victims. The same cannot be said for elders who are abused. Providing shelter in a safe, secure, medically appropriate environment, free from violence, for an older adult is essential. This article describes a community's collaborative health planning process to respond to elder abuse and develop a program to shelter elders experiencing abuse or suspected abuse. PMID:23636048

Heck, Lauri; Gillespie, Gordon L

2013-01-01

194

Buildings and Earthquakes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Earthquakes happen when forces in the Earth cause violent shaking of the ground. Earthquakes can be very destructive to buildings and other man-made structures. Design and build various types of buildings, then test your buildings for earthquake resistance using a shake table and a force sensor that measures how hard a force pushes or pulls your building.

Consortium, The C.

2012-05-21

195

Shelter Network: serving homeless families and individuals (1987-2007).  

PubMed

Shelter Network is a nonprofit organization that delivers a range of services that meet the needs of homeless families and individuals in order to help them achieve stable housing and self-sufficiency. The agency began as a grassroots community effort to respond to the growing problem of homelessness and its relationship with its external community continues to play an important role in its financing, growth, and development. Over its 20-year history, Shelter Network has overcome multiple challenges related to leadership, finance, and community support and has grown from a grassroots agency into an organization with a budget of $7 million. PMID:21416437

Kimberlin, Sara E; Schwartz, Sara L; Austin, Michael J

2011-01-01

196

TRADITIONAL BUILDING IN PERU  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The analysis of current building methods in Peru still reveals an extremely wide use of earth as basic material all around the country, even if it is diffused less and less every year due to the social bias that considers earth building poor and not modern enough, neither comfortable, if compared to brick or concrete building. In the past

Lorenzo Jurina; Monica Righetti

197

75 FR 46844 - Excise Taxes on Prohibited Tax Shelter Transactions and Related Disclosure Requirements...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...CFR Parts 53 and 54 [TD 9492] RIN 1545-BG18 Excise Taxes on Prohibited Tax Shelter Transactions and Related Disclosure Requirements; Disclosure Requirements With Respect to Prohibited Tax Shelter Transactions; Requirement of Return and...

2010-08-04

198

77 FR 13695 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel IN THE SHELTER; Invitation...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel IN THE SHELTER; Invitation for Public Comments AGENCY: Maritime Administration...by the applicant the intended service of the vessel IN THE SHELTER is: Intended Commercial Use of Vessel: ``The vessel...

2012-03-07

199

A Way of Looking at Sheltered Workshops for the 1970's.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document contains two short papers on the idea of sheltered workshops, written with the aim of aiding abled and disabled workers. Summaries of sheltered workshop programs in Denmark, Sweden, Poland, West Germany, and the Netherlands are included, bas...

H. Redkey

1975-01-01

200

STRUCTURAL CONSIDERATIONS IN SCHOOL BUILDING ECONOMY. SCHOOL BUILDING ECONOMY SERIES, NUMBER 5.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

ALL SCHOOL BUILDINGS ARE BASICALLY SHELTER STRUCTURES. THEIR ELEMENTARY COMPONENTS ARE (1) STRUCTURAL MEMBERS, (2) WEATHER PROTECTION ELEMENTS, (3) MECHANICAL INSTALLATIONS, (4) FINISHING ELEMENTS, AND (5) BUILT-IN EQUIPMENT. THE CHOICE OF BUILDING SYSTEMS IS DEPENDENT ON (1) SUBSOIL CONDITIONS, (2) SITE CONTOURS, AND (3) CLIMATIC CONDITIONS.…

Connecticut State Dept. of Education, Hartford.

201

Development of damage and casualty functions for basement shelters. Final report on phase 2  

SciTech Connect

This report describes progress during the second year's work on a Civil Defense program to provide FEMA with a range of damage functions and casualty functions to determine the survivability fo people in various basement shelters. The characteristics of flat and two-way slab systems and the effects of code specified design procedures, engineering practice, and construction procedures were discussed. Non-upgraded two-way slabs are approximately twice as strong as the flat plate slabs. For upgraded (shored) systems, however, specific building characteristics are not important factors: any shored slab, with standard reinforcing and dimensions, has about the same capacity as any other slab. A mathematical model for the fragility curve of slab systems was developed. Fatality curves have been developed for ceiling collapse and a variety of other casualty mechanism(nuclear weapons effects) with emphasis to date on non-upgraded shelters areas. This review of casualty producing mechanisms is continuing and all casualty curves should be considered as provisional.

Wilton, C.; Zsutty, T.C.; Willoughby, A.B.

1983-09-01

202

Indirect interactions mediated by leaf shelters in animal–plant communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leaf shelters indirectly mediate interactions in animal–plant communities by providing the occupants with several kinds of\\u000a benefits, as physical ecosystem engineering. The occupants benefit from favorable microhabitat, reduction in antiherbivore\\u000a defense, and protection from natural enemies. The primary shelter maker has to spend energy and time and producing silk, but\\u000a shelter users have great advantages without incurring costs. Shelter users

Akiko Fukui

2001-01-01

203

Blast tests of expedient shelters in the Misers Bluff event. Final report, February 1978-January 1980  

SciTech Connect

Expedient shelters were blast-tested by a conventional explosion equivalent to a 0.2 KT nuclear explosion. The estimated survivabilities in a large nuclear explosion are: (1) improved Small-Pole Shelter, 345 kPa (50 psi); (228) triangular entryway and blastdoor made of poles, 173 kPa (25 psi); (3) Chinese A-Frame Pole Shelter, 48 kPa (7 psi); and (4) lightly shored Pole-Covered Trench Shelters, 103 kPa (15 psi).

Kearny, C.H.; Chester, C.V.; York, E.N.

1980-01-01

204

The effects of training and environmental alterations on adoption success of shelter dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Approximately 3–4 million dogs are housed annually in USA shelters. This study evaluated the effects of basic obedience training and environmental alterations on adoption rate of shelter dogs. One hundred and eighty dogs, 87 females and 93 males, passed through the one shelter during the 8 weeks of the experiment. They ranged in age from 10 weeks to 7 years

Andrew Urs Luescher; Robert Tyson Medlock

2009-01-01

205

Effectiveness and Empowerment in Women's Shelter: A Study of Working Women's Hostels in Bangalore, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Policy debates on shelter for women have focused on family structure, gender roles and the importance of shelter in women's economic development. They emphasize the need for shelter that is generally effective and empowering for women. Although valuable, these general policy proposals are often unable to account for the particular situations in specific cultural contexts in which family structure, roles

Kameshwari Pothukuchi

2001-01-01

206

Libraries, Churches, and Schools: The Literate Lives of Mothers and Children in a Homeless Shelter  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article addresses the question, "How do mothers and children in a homeless shelter interact with literacy?" We drew on the theoretical framework of social literacy practices in which cultural context is foregrounded. Data for this qualitative study included participant observation in one homeless shelter and interviews with one shelter's…

MacGillivray, Laurie; Ardell, Amy Lassiter; Curwen, Margaret Sauceda

2010-01-01

207

50 CFR 26.26 - Exception for entry for use of emergency shelter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Exception for entry for use of emergency shelter. 26.26 Section 26.26 Wildlife...Exception for entry for use of emergency shelter. A permit is not required for access to any national wildlife area for temporary shelter or temporary protection in the event...

2013-10-01

208

Family Dynamics, Housing, and Recurring Homelessness Among Women in New York City Homeless Shelters  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study looks at two sets of women who stayed in New York City homeless shelters in 1992—one set as part of a family and the other set as individuals—and at factors associated with an increased risk of their experiencing repeat shelter stays. Descriptive statistics and event history analysis indicate that regardless of whether the women stay in shelters with

STEPHEN METRAUX; DENNIS P. CULHANE

1999-01-01

209

9. Photocopy of sketch from Elliott, Clifford A., 'Shelters and ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. Photocopy of sketch from Elliott, Clifford A., 'Shelters and Stations on Pacific Electric's Interurban Lines', Electric Railway Journal, V. 53, No. 15, April 12, 1919, p. 733 - Lynwood Pacific Electric Railway Depot, 11453 Long Beach Boulevard, Lynwood, Los Angeles County, CA

210

An analysis of nurses' communications in a shelter setting.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to analyze written communications among nurses providing care to battered women and their children in a community shelter setting over a 1-year period of time. Interviews were conducted with the nurses to study the perceived effectiveness of the manual used to update daily shelter health operations, clients of concern, follow-up recommendations, or other ongoing issues. The unit of analysis was each entry recorded in the manual. The Communications Process Model guided the study (Budd, Thorp, & Donohew, 1967). Communications were transcribed and analyzed for categories of meaning from the data utilizing the Ethnograph software (Seidel & Clark, 1983). When content analysis was applied, 10 distinct categories emerged: (a) injury assessment, (b) acute condition assessment, (c) chronic condition assessment, (d) pregnancy assessment, (e) emergency assessment, (f) nursing care and procedures, (g) teaching and counseling, (h) community referrals and resources, (i) housekeeping, and (j) health program issues. From the categories, 3 primary themes were identified: nursing assessments, nursing interventions, and health program operations. The nurses were positive about using the manual for various communications. Nurses who consider working in shelter settings may find descriptions of the realities of practice and application of a working tool for communications useful. Shelter administrators and board members need to recognize the importance of having nurses on staff to address inevitable injuries and health concerns of battered women and their children. Researchers are encouraged to develop models that relate to care of clients and caregivers in this challenging practice setting. PMID:10091474

Attala, J M; McSweeney, M; Mueller, A; Bragg, B; Hubertz, E

1999-01-01

211

Sheltered Workshops Employee Satisfaction Survey. Part Two: Technical Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The special employment program in Yooralla Society of Victoria (Australia) began operation two decades ago with establishment of sheltered workshops. As part of an overall review of Yooralla's programs, a survey was conducted as a first stage in evaluation of the workshops--Ability Industries and Ability Press. The aim of the research project was…

Ogren, Evelyn H.; Lauricella, John

212

SHELTER MEDICINE: A COMPARISON OF VISUAL AND DNA IDENTIFICATION OF  

Microsoft Academic Search

We are all aware of the newspaper articles, magazine stories, and TV segments that show pictures of dogs and then reveal DNA breed analyses of the dogs. Surprise - the DNA results are not what were expected based on the appearance of the dogs or the owners' beliefs. Those of us who walk through shelters and animal control facilities compare

213

24 CFR 576.403 - Shelter and housing standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...program participant in the shelter with an acceptable place to sleep and adequate space and security for themselves and their belongings...belongings. Each resident must be provided an acceptable place to sleep. (3) Interior air quality. Each room or space...

2013-04-01

214

Products, Service Contracts, Operations, and Tools in Sheltered Workshops.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Among findings of surveys on general capabilities for contract work completed by 737 sheltered workshops were that electronic/electrical assembly and wood pallet manufacture were the most common products; collating and mailing the most common service contracts; and bagging /packaging and assembly the most predominant hand operations. (Author/CL)

Walls, Richard T.; And Others

1982-01-01

215

Shining Stars: Public Library Service to Children in Shelters.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Orange County Public Library (CA) sponsors programing at the Orangewood Children's Home, a shelter for abused and neglected children. Programs include giving each child a book to keep and a library card, story times, and special programing. The library system now operates a branch at the home, and the librarian's position is being continued.…

Carlson, Pam

1992-01-01

216

Hepatitis E Virus Infection in Sheltered Homeless Persons, France  

PubMed Central

To determine the prevalence of hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection among sheltered homeless persons in Marseille, France, we retrospectively tested 490 such persons. A total of 11.6% had immunoglobulin (Ig) G and 2.5% had IgM against HEV; 1 person had HEV genotype 3f. Injection drug use was associated with IgG against HEV.

Kaba, Mamadou; Brouqui, Philippe; Richet, Herve; Badiaga, Sekene; Gallian, Pierre; Raoult, Didier

2010-01-01

217

Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol (SIOP). WWC Intervention Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol (SIOP) is a framework for planning and delivering instruction in content areas such as science, history, and mathematics to limited-English proficient students. The goal of SIOP is to help teachers integrate academic language development into their lessons, allowing students to learn and practice…

What Works Clearinghouse, 2009

2009-01-01

218

EFFECTIVENESS OF EXPEDIENT SHELTERING IN PLACE IN A RESIDENCE  

EPA Science Inventory

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of expedient sheltering in place in a residence for protection against airborne hazards, as outlined in the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) guidance to the public. An improved method was developed to determi...

219

Public Information and Knowledge Requisites of a Shelter System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study of public information requirements for effective use of the shelter system is comprised of three separate but related parts. The first is an analysis of the types of items that make up the minimum required public information content for effecti...

E. Bend S. Cohen C. McDaniel

1966-01-01

220

Developing Academic Language in English Language Learners through Sheltered Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes a study examining the effects of Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol (SIOP) model instruction on the academic language performance of middle and high school English language learners. The SIOP model is an approach for teaching content curriculum to students learning through a new language. Teachers employ techniques…

Short, Deborah J.; Fidelman, Carolyn G.; Louguit, Mohammed

2012-01-01

221

12. HISTORICAL VIEW OF FRONT ENTRANCE, BEFORE ADDITION OF SHELTERED ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. HISTORICAL VIEW OF FRONT ENTRANCE, BEFORE ADDITION OF SHELTERED PORCH, SOUTH ELEVATION, 1907. Photocopied from Henry Pleasants's book, History of Old St. David's Church, published in 1915 by John C. Winston Co. - St. David's Church (Episcopal), Valley Forge Road (Newtown Township), Wayne, Delaware County, PA

222

An interdisciplinary network for young scientists in Earth System Science: building bridges between human and environmental sciences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The goal of the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programmes' Analysis, Integration and Modeling of the Earth System (IGBP/AIMES) project Young Scientist's Network (YSN) is to promote communication and collaboration between young scientists from the biogeochemical, climate system and social dimension communities to best meet the emerging challenges in global change science. A primary goal of the YSN is to foster cross-disciplinary collaborations and discuss ways to provide relevant research findings for decision-makers. We focus on young scientists as the integrators, and include participants from many disciplines across both natural and social sciences from around the world. In collaboration with the Global Carbon Projects' Urban Regional Carbon Management Conference in Mexico City, our most recent workshop focused on Urbanization Interactions with Biogeochemistry and Climate. The goal of the workshop was to synthesize existing literature, propose a framework for discussing urban interactions to the global biogeochemical cycles, discuss gaps in our scientific understanding and literature and propose solutions to bridge those gaps.

Hibbard, K. A.; Mahowald, N.; Balogun, A.; Dawson, R.; Scholze, M.

2006-12-01

223

A pollinators' eye view of a shelter mimicry system  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims ‘Human-red’ flowers are traditionally considered to be rather unpopular with bees, yet some allogamous species in the section Oncocyclus (genus Iris, Iridaceae) have evolved specialized interactions with their pollinators, a narrow taxonomic range of male solitary bees. The dark-red, tubular flowers of these irises are nectarless but provide protective shelters (i.e. a non-nutritive form of reward) primarily to male solitary bees (Apidae, Eucerini) that pollinate the flowers while looking for a shelter. An earlier study on orchids suggested that species pollinated predominantly by male solitary bees produce significantly larger amounts and larger numbers of different n-alkenes (unsaturated cuticular hydrocarbons). Whether or not this also applies to the Oncocyclus irises and whether pollinators are attracted by specific colours or scents of these flowers is unknown. Methods Using Iris atropurpurea, recording of pollinator preferences for shelters with different spatial parameters was combined with analyses of floral colours (by spectrophotometry) and scents (by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry) to test the hypotheses that (a) pollinators significantly prefer floral tunnels facing the rising sun (floral heat-reward hypothesis), and that (b) flowers pollinated predominantly by male solitary bees produce significantly larger amounts and larger numbers of unsaturated cuticular hydrocarbons (n-alkenes) in their floral scent (preadaptation to sexual-deception hypothesis). Key Results Male bees do not significantly prefer shelters facing the rising sun or with the presence of high absolute/relative amounts and numbers of n-alkenes in the floral scent. Conclusions The results suggest that the flowers of I. atropurpurea probably evolved by pollinator-mediated selection acting primarily on floral colours to mimic large achromatic (‘bee-black’) protective shelters used preferentially by male solitary bees, and that pollinator visits are presumably not the result of an odour-based sexual stimulation or motivated by an increased morning floral heat reward in tunnels facing the rising sun.

Vereecken, Nicolas J.; Dorchin, Achik; Dafni, Amots; Hotling, Susann; Schulz, Stefan; Watts, Stella

2013-01-01

224

NPP and the Earth System  

NASA Video Gallery

NPP is a continuation of the existing Earth-observing satellites and it builds on the legacy of multi decades of critical data. NPP will continue to deliver data to all users on Earth who will use ...

225

Testing of reduced-scale concrete MX-shelters experimental program. Technical paper  

SciTech Connect

An experimental program involving construction and testing or reduced-scale concrete horizontal MX-Missile Shelters was conducted. The program consisted of 43 shelter specimens tested under static laoding conditions. Applied loads modeled forces that might occur on the shelters from a nearby nuclear weapon attack. Loads consisted of various combinations of nonuniform radial surface pressure and axial thrust. Loads, deformations, and reinforcement strains were measured. Strength and ductility of specimens were determined. Test results were used to analyze shelter behavior under known loading conditions and to assist in selection of feasible shelter candidates for design.

Daniel, J.I.; Schultz, D.M.

1983-06-29

226

The Griggs Dynamic Convection Model: a Resource for Learning About Mountain-Building Processes in the Earth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using a physical analog model in the classroom/laboratory setting is just one of the many ways teachers can provide a resource for learning through inquiry; however, well developed physical analog models of natural processes that can be measured and manipulated scientifically by students can be challenging for teachers to obtain. This research analyzes a historical physical analog model--the David Griggs (1939) Dynamic Convection Model, which was used 'to study the effect of sub-crustal convection currents on the continental crust.'--to determine if the model is capable of supporting model-based inquiry-oriented classroom activities. An analogical structure-mapping method developed for assessing the affordances of scale models (Kastens and Rivet, 2010) is used to show that the model has highly transparent surface and structural features, which correspond to Griggs' theory of mountain-building at the levels of attributes, simple relations, higher order relations and systematicity. A variety of experimental parameters for the model (i.e., using different materials, and varying the speeds of the convection cells) are described to give teachers support for developing inquiry-oriented classroom activities. Furthermore, the Griggs dynamic convection model, along with a replica for people to try, will be at the poster session.

Glesener, G.

2013-12-01

227

Feasibility of Structural Foam/Concrete Building for Theater of Operations Use.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study was preformed to assess the feasibility of using performed polystyrene foam building blocks to construct shelters in noncombative areas of the Theater of Operations (TO). A structure in which the principal wall material was polystyrene foam blo...

A. Smith

1978-01-01

228

Amazing Earth: Facts That Fascinate  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this internet activity, students use search engines to build a list of facts about Earth science that fascinate them. After building the list, students will choose and rank their top ten amazing facts and answer some questions about them.

229

Challenges for Capacity Building  

Microsoft Academic Search

For me then, the fundamental questions are two: what on earth is capacity building and what value can it add to current efforts by society to promote, preserve and protect the health of its people? Others have questions, too, including: why build capacity, how does capacity building differ from community development, why invest in capacity building - will it make

Stephen Leeder

230

Survey of euthanasia practices in animal shelters in Canada.  

PubMed

Questionnaires on methods of euthanasia used in Canadian animal shelters were sent to 196 Canadian animal shelters yielding 67 responses. Sodium pentobarbital injection was the only method of euthanasia used by 61% of establishments that euthanized dogs and 53% of the establishments that euthanized cats. Many of these establishments used pre-medication. Sodium pentobarbital was mostly administered intravenously but some establishments also used intracardiac and intraperitoneal routes, and some only used intracardiac administration for cats. T-61 injection was the only method of euthanasia used by 23% of the establishments that euthanized dogs and 35% of the establishments that euthanized cats. All of these establishments used pre-medication, but the percentages of establishments that only used the intravenous route for administration of T-61 in dogs and cats were 45% and 7%, respectively. Further studies on the use of T-61, and the training and provision of counselling services for staff are recommended. PMID:21461208

Caffrey, Niamh; Mounchili, Aboubakar; McConkey, Sandra; Cockram, Michael S

2011-01-01

231

Homeless health needs: shelter and health service provider perspective.  

PubMed

The effects of homelessness on health are well documented, although less is known about the challenges of health care delivery from the perspective of service providers. Using data from a larger health needs assessment, the purpose of this study was to describe homeless health care needs and barriers to access utilizing qualitative data collected from shelter staff (n = 10) and health service staff (n = 14). Shelter staff members described many unmet health needs and barriers to health care access, and discussed needs for other supportive services in the area. Health service providers also described multiple health and service needs, and the need for a recuperative care setting for this population. Although a variety of resources are currently available for homeless health service delivery, barriers to access and gaps in care still exist. Recommendations for program planning are discussed and examined in the context of contributing factors and health care reform. PMID:24788048

Hauff, Alicia J; Secor-Turner, Molly

2014-01-01

232

Outbreak of tuberculosis in a homeless men’s shelter  

Microsoft Academic Search

This case—tuberculosis in a homeless men’s shelter—is one of a series of teaching cases in the Case-Based Series in Population-Oriented Prevention (C-POP). It has been developed for use in medical school and residency prevention curricula. The complete set of cases is presented in this supplement to the American Journal of Preventive Medicine.Tuberculosis presents a significant public health challenge. In this

Cynthia B Morrow; Donald A Cibula; Lloyd F Novick

2003-01-01

233

Protective Actions in Wildfires: Evacuate or Shelter-in-Place?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The decision of whether to evacuate or shelter-in-place SIP in a wildfire poses a significant challenge for emergency managers and residents in fire-prone areas. Events such as the 2007 Witch Creek Fire and 2008 Tea Fire in California highlight the option and viability of SIP, as well as the conflict that can occur between first-responders and residents in protecting life

Thomas J. Cova; Frank A. Drews; Laura K. Siebeneck; Adrian Musters

2009-01-01

234

Management style and institutional dependency in sheltered care  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two styles of management utilized by operators of California's alternative to the mental hospital — the community-based sheltered-care facility — have been identified. One style of management is characterized by a low-structure, laissez-faire approach that places the responsibility for decision making with the patient. The other style stresses structure and rule following, and leaves decision making to the operators of

S. P. Segal; E. W. Moyles

1979-01-01

235

Sleep Shelters Verbal Memory from Different Kinds of Interference  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: Studies have shown that sleep shelters old verbal memories from associative interference arising from new, more recently acquired memories. Our objective is to extend the forms of interference for which sleep provides a sheltering benefit to non-associative and prospective interference, and to examine experimental conditions and memory strengths for which sleep before or after learning particularly affects verbal memory consolidation. Design: Acquiring paired word associates, retention across intervening sleep and wake, training on new, interfering word associates, and test recall of both sets. Setting: University laboratory. Participants: Healthy volunteers. Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: Comparing recall before and after intervening periods of sleep versus wake, we found that: (i) Sleep preferentially shields weakly encoded verbal memories from retroactive interference. (ii) Sleep immediately following learning helps shelter memory from associative and non-associative forms of retroactive interference. (iii) Sleep protects new verbal memories from prospective interference. (iv) Word associations acquired for the first time in the evening after a day spent in the wake state are encoded more strongly than word associations acquired in the morning following a night of sleep. Conclusions: The findings extend the known sleep protection from interference to non-associative as well as prospective interference, and limit the protection to weakly encoded word associations. Combined, our results suggest that sleep immediately after verbal learning isolates newly formed memory traces and renders them inaccessible, except by specific contextual cues. Memory isolation in sleep is a passive mechanism that can reasonably account for several experimental findings. Citation: Sheth BR; Varghese R; Truong T. Sleep shelters verbal memory from different kinds of interference. SLEEP 2012;35(7):985-996.

Sheth, Bhavin R.; Varghese, Reni; Truong, Thuy

2012-01-01

236

PIONEER: A Robot for Structural Assessment of the Chornobyl Shelter  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) sponsored the design and fabrication of a radiation-hardened mobile diagnostic robot dubbed Pioneer. Pioneer was designed to operate in the most hazardous locations within the Chornobyl Shelter. Pioneer was delivered to the Ukraine in the spring of 1999. Initial system training and cold testing was performed after delivery.

Catalan, Michael A. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Thompson, Bruce R. (VISITORS); Dan G. Cacuci

2001-06-30

237

Infra-Free® (IF) Architecture System as the Method for Post-Disaster Shelter Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Currently, International Space Station (ISS) is capable to support 3 to 4 astronauts onboard for at least 6 months using an integrated life support system to support the need of crew onboard. Waste from daily life of the crew members are collected by waste recycle systems, electricity consumption depends on collecting solar energy, etc. though it likes the infrastructure we use on Earth, ISS can be comprehended nearly a self-reliant integrated architecture so far, this could be given an important hint for current architecture which is based on urban centralized infrastructure to support our daily lives but could be vulnerable in case of nature disasters. Comparatively, more and more economic activities and communications rely on the enormous urban central infrastructure to support our daily lives. Therefore, when in case of natural disasters, it may cut-out the infrastructure system temporarily or permanent. In order to solve this problem, we propose to design a temporary shelter, which is capable to work without depending on any existing infrastructure. We propose to use some closed-life-cycle or integrated technologies inspired by the possibilities of space and other emerging technologies into current daily architecture by using Infra-free® design framework; which proposes to integrate various life supporting infrastructural elements into one-closed system. We try to work on a scenario for post-disaster management housing as the method for solving the lifeline problems such as solid and liquid waste, energy, and water and hygiene solution into one system. And trying to establish an Infra-free® model of shelter for disaster area. The ultimate objective is to design a Temp Infra-free® model dealing with the sanitation and environment preservation concerns for disaster area.

Chang, Huai-Chien; Anilir, Serkan

238

Northern San Andreas fault near Shelter Cove, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The location of the San Andreas fault in the Shelter Cove area of northern California has been the subject of long-standing debate within the geological community. Although surface ruptures were reported near Shelter Cove in 1906, several subsequent workers questioned whether these ruptures represented true fault slip or shaking-related, gravity-driven deformation. This study, involving geologic and geomorphic mapping, historical research, and excavation across the 1906 rupture zone, concludes that the surface ruptures reported in 1906 were the result of strike-slip faulting, and that a significant Quaternary fault is located onshore near Shelter Cove. Geomorphic arguments suggest that the Holocene slip rate of this fault is greater than about 14 mm/yr, indicating that it plays an important role within the modern plate-boundary system. The onshore trace of the fault zone is well expressed as far north as Telegraph Hill; north of Telegraph Hill, its location is less well-constrained, but we propose that a splay of the fault may continue onshore northward for at least 9 km to the vicinity of Saddle Mountain.

Prentice, C. S.; Merritts, D. J.; Beutner, E. C.; Bodin, P.; Schill, A.; Muller, J. R.

1999-01-01

239

Fortifications and underground nuclear defense shelters for NATO troops  

SciTech Connect

Improvements in NATO's conventional, chemical, and nuclear defenses are clearly needed; but constraints on changing NATO's forces are severe. Better NATO defenses must be achieved at a low economic cost, without changing NATO strategy, without adding more active duty troops or TNW, and without threatening the Soviets. Simple forms of field fortifications would improve the defensive strength of NATO forces without violating these constraints. PGMs are extremely powerful weapons that are much more effective when their operators enjoy the protection fortifications offer. Because the mission of defending fortifications and firing PGMs is simple relative to fighting a mobile war with armored vehicles, greater reliance could be placed on cheaper and more numerous West European reserves and militia forces. A simple corrugated pipe shelter buried seven feet underground would protect men against TNW as large as 100 KT striking as close as 600 meters. Since underground shelters seal air-tight they provide protection from chemical and biological weapons. A fixed defense program would be very affordable, costing around $2 billion. In addition to being much less expensive, shelters and fortifications are also attractive because they do not suffer from problems of poor reliability associated with most new high technology weapons.

Miller, D.

1985-01-01

240

Use of accelerometers to measure stress levels in shelter dogs.  

PubMed

Stress can compromise welfare in any confined group of nonhuman animals, including those in shelters. However, an objective and practical method for assessing the stress levels of individual dogs housed in a shelter does not exist. Such a method would be useful for monitoring animal welfare and would allow shelters to measure the effectiveness of specific interventions for stress reduction. In this pilot study, activity levels were studied in 13 dogs using accelerometers attached to their collars. Behavioral stress scores as well as urinary and salivary cortisol levels were measured to determine if the dogs' activity levels while confined in the kennel correlated with behavioral and physiological indicators of stress in this population. The results indicated that the accelerometer could be a useful tool to study stress-related activity levels in dogs. Specific findings included a correlation between the salivary cortisol and maximum activity level (r = .62, p = .025) and a correlation between the urine cortisol-to-creatinine ratio and average activity level (r = .61, p = .028) among the study dogs. Further research is needed to better understand the complex relationship between stress and activity level among dogs in a kennel environment. PMID:24484308

Jones, Sarah; Dowling-Guyer, Seana; Patronek, Gary J; Marder, Amy R; Segurson D'Arpino, Sheila; McCobb, Emily

2014-01-01

241

A Colony of Highly Phosphorescent EarthWorms  

Microsoft Academic Search

IN the sheltered westward corner of a small grass-plat in this city there is a colony of highly phosphorescent earth-worms. The annelid is round, pellucid, slender, of a faint yellowish tint, is about two inches long, and is not flattened behind. I have been unable to distinguish segmentation. The worm is entirely luminous. The phosphorescence has precisely the bright greenish

J. Lloyd-Bozward

1897-01-01

242

Earth Charter Initiative  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Earth Charter is a declaration of fundamental principles for building a just, sustainable, and peaceful global society in the 21st century. The principles of the Earth Charter reflect extensive international consultations conducted over a period of many years. These principles are also based upon contemporary science, international law, and the insights of philosophy and religion.

2007-09-28

243

Thinking Ahead: Autonomic Buildings  

SciTech Connect

The time has come for the commercial buildings industries to reconsider the very nature of the systems installed in facilities today and to establish a vision for future buildings that differs from anything in the history of human shelter. Drivers for this examination include reductions in building operation staffs; uncertain costs and reliability of electric power; growing interest in energy-efficient and resource-conserving?green? and?high-performance? commercial buildings; and a dramatic increase in security concerns since the tragic events of September 11. This paper introduces a new paradigm? autonomic buildings? which parallels the concept of autonomic computing, introduced by IBM as a fundamental change in the way computer networks work. Modeled after the human nervous system,?autonomic systems? themselves take responsibility for a large portion of their own operation and even maintenance. For commercial buildings, autonomic systems could provide environments that afford occupants greater opportunity to focus on the things we do in buildings rather than on operation of the building itself, while achieving higher performance levels, increased security, and better use of energy and other natural resources. The author uses the human body and computer networking to introduce and illustrate this new paradigm for high-performance commercial buildings. He provides a vision for the future of commercial buildings based on autonomicity, identifies current research that could contribute to this future, and highlights research and technological gaps. The paper concludes with a set of issues and needs that are key to converting this idealized future into reality.

Brambley, Michael R. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB))

2002-08-31

244

Public shelter admission rates in Philadelphia and New York City: The implications of turnover for sheltered population counts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous estimates of the size and composition of the U.S. homeless population have been based on cross?sectional survey methodologies. National enumeration efforts have yielded point?prevalence estimates ranging from 0.11 to 0.25 percent of the population. This study reports data from shelter databases in Philadelphia and New York City that record identifiers for all persons admitted and so make possible unduplicated

Dennis P. Culhane; Edmund F. Dejowski; Julie Ibañez; Elizabeth Needham; Irene Macchia

1994-01-01

245

Earth Advantage Institute: Introduction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This brief presentation provides an introduction to the Earth Advantage Institute, which is "a nonprofit organization that works with the building industry to help implement sustainable building practices." Information on the history of the organization, its partners, stakeholders and sponsors is included. This document may be downloaded in PDF file format.

Schnepp, Katie

2012-06-29

246

Distinguishing Between Interference and Exploitation Competition for Shelter in a Mobile Fish Population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding the functional significance of shelter for animal populations requires knowledge of the behavioural mechanisms\\u000a that govern the dynamics of shelter use. Exploitation of shelters may be impeded by mutual interference, yet interference\\u000a competition can be difficult to distinguish from exploitation competition. We used bullheads (Cottus gobio) as a model system of mobile fish to investigate the effect of intraspecific

A. J. H. Davey; C. P. Doncaster; O. D. Jones

2009-01-01

247

Emp design and test guidelines for systems in mobile shelters. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This document addresses the unique electromagnetic characteristics of metallic enclosures, commonly referred to as signal, communications, or box-body shelters, and identifies what system developers should do to optimize the electronic survivability of equipment placed in these shelters. Since nuclear induced high-altitude EMP is but one of possibly many nonionizing hostile environments that the shelter electronics must survive, this document treats EMP survivability in terms familiar to the design engineer.

Sanders, S.C.

1993-12-01

248

Positive and negative effects of leaf shelters on herbivorous insects: linking multiple herbivore species on a willow.  

PubMed

We experimentally examined the effects on other herbivorous insects of leaf shelters constructed by lepidopteran larvae on a willow, Salix miyabeana. Several insect species occupied the vacant leaf shelters. Our experiment using artificial leaf shelters showed that the number of aphids increased with the number of artificial leaf shelters on a shoot, as did the numbers of three ant species ( Camponotus japonicus, Lasius hayashi, and Myrmica jessensis) that entered leaf shelters to collect aphid honeydew. To determine the ant-mediated effect of leaf shelters on herbivorous insects that do not use leaf shelters, we transferred newly hatched larvae of a common leaf beetle, Plagiodera versicolora, to the leaves of shoots with and without artificial leaf shelters. One day after the transfer, larval survival rate was significantly lower on shoots with shelters than on those without shelters, and shoots with shelters had significantly more ants than did shoots without shelters. Our field experiments demonstrated clearly that shelter-making lepidopteran larvae increased the abundance of both aphids and ants and decreased the survival rate of leaf beetle larvae, probably because the larvae were removed by ants that were attracted to the leaf shelters by the aphid colonies. PMID:12768405

Nakamura, Masahiro; Ohgushi, Takayuki

2003-08-01

249

What factors were important for dietary improvement in emergency shelters after the Great East Japan Earthquake?  

PubMed

The Great East Japan Earthquake of 2011 left many evacuees with insufficient food and emergency shelter. However, there is no evidence concerning the factors affecting dietary circumstances in emergency shelters after disasters. To clarify the factors that influenced the provision of meals, we reanalyzed a data set from a dietary survey conducted in emergency shelters one month after the Great East Japan Earthquake (2011). Among the 69 shelters in "city A," 53 (79.1%) had food shortages. The possibility of cooking in the emergency shelter improved the provision of meals to evacuees. When comparing emergency shelters with and without cooking equipment, the shelters with cooking equipment provided more meals, as well as more dishes containing grains and vegetables. When there was a gas supply, the twice per day provision of "balanced" meals (containing grains, vegetables, and meat/fish) was more frequent than when there was no gas supply. Interestingly, neither the water supply nor the electricity supply affected the provision of balanced meals. Further, emergency shelters with larger numbers of evacuees had a lower possibility of cooking and lower availability of gas supply. Our results demonstrate that early improvements to post-disaster meal provision may maintain the health of evacuees. Such improvements could be achieved by 1) the speedy restoration of the gas supply to enable cooking, and 2) limiting the number of evacuees per emergency shelter. PMID:24561984

Tsuboyama-Kasaoka, Nobuyo; Hoshi, Yuko; Onodera, Kazue; Mizuno, Shoichi; Sako, Kazuko

2014-01-01

250

Selection of emergency shelter sites for seismic disasters in mountainous regions: Lessons from the 2008 Wenchuan Ms 8.0 Earthquake, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we use the 12 May 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake as a background event for analyzing and applying the principles of site selection of emergency shelters for a disastrous earthquake. Based on field investigations and analyses of remote sensing imagery, we identified the distribution of active faults and the locations of co-seismic surface rupture zones—areas in which buildings are at risk of intensive damage. It is important that emergency shelters are located outside of such vulnerable areas. One of the lessons learned from the Wenchuan Earthquake is that high fatality rates occur in areas without life-saving shelters. The principles that underlie the selection of emergency shelter sites are as follows: (1) keep far away from active fault zones, with the distance depending on the characteristics of the fault, including the nature of hangingwall and footwall structures; (2) disaster-mitigation strategies should be developed as a multi-dimensional system for the management of natural hazards, human activities, and urban expansion, involving keeping away from vulnerable slopes and establishing an early-warning system; (3) the accessibility of mountainous regions must be considered, including establishing small emergency shelters that house large numbers of people and covering regions with an uneven distribution of villages; and (4) government and law-making agencies in China must establish new earthquake design codes for buildings, emphasizing the importance of public facilities (including schools, collective welfare institutions, and medical facilities) as emergency shelters during disastrous earthquakes. The site-selection process requires an interdisciplinary approach involving seismologists, engineers, environmental and social scientists, emergency management personnel, and government officials. The parameters upon which the above principles are based can be qualitatively determined, thereby providing a valuable initial database for further quantitative analysis. The preliminary results and knowledge gained in the present paper can be used as a decision-making tool to support the government in earthquake-recovery and reconstruction programs. We also discuss practical examples of site evaluation in regions that suffered heavy damage during the Wenchuan Earthquake.

Liu, Qiang; Ruan, Xuejing; Shi, Pilong

2011-03-01

251

The significance of ultra-refracted surface gravity waves on sheltered coasts, with application to San Francisco Bay  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Ocean surface gravity waves propagating over shallow bathymetry undergo spatial modification of propagation direction and energy density, commonly due to refraction and shoaling. If the bathymetric variations are significant the waves can undergo changes in their direction of propagation (relative to deepwater) greater than 90° over relatively short spatial scales. We refer to this phenomenon as ultra-refraction. Ultra-refracted swell waves can have a powerful influence on coastal areas that otherwise appear to be sheltered from ocean waves. Through a numerical modeling investigation it is shown that San Francisco Bay, one of the earth's largest and most protected natural harbors, is vulnerable to ultra-refracted ocean waves, particularly southwest incident swell. The flux of wave energy into San Francisco Bay results from wave transformation due to the bathymetry and orientation of the large ebb tidal delta, and deep, narrow channel through the Golden Gate. For example, ultra-refracted swell waves play a critical role in the intermittent closure of the entrance to Crissy Field Marsh, a small restored tidal wetland located on the sheltered north-facing coast approximately 1.5 km east of the Golden Gate Bridge.

Hanes, D. M.; Erikson, L. H.

2013-01-01

252

US Army Rigid Wall 8 ft x 8 ft x 20 ft Shelters and US Marine Corps 8 ft x 8 ft x 20 ft Rigid Wall and Knockdown Shelters.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A need existed to determine the operational effectiveness and military utility of the proposed US Army ISO configured rigid wall shelters and the US Marine Corps ISO configured rigid wall and knockdown shelters. A military potential type test was conducte...

1978-01-01

253

Predicting emergency evacuation and sheltering behavior: a structured analytical approach.  

PubMed

We offer a general approach to predicting public compliance with emergency recommendations. It begins with a formal risk assessment of an anticipated emergency, whose parameters include factors potentially affecting and affected by behavior, as identified by social science research. Standard procedures are used to elicit scientific experts' judgments regarding these behaviors and dependencies, in the context of an emergency scenario. Their judgments are used to refine the model and scenario, enabling local emergency coordinators to predict the behavior of citizens in their area. The approach is illustrated with a case study involving a radiological dispersion device (RDD) exploded in downtown Pittsburgh, PA. Both groups of experts (national and local) predicted approximately 80-90% compliance with an order to evacuate workplaces and 60-70% compliance with an order to shelter in place at home. They predicted 10% lower compliance for people asked to shelter at the office or to evacuate their homes. They predicted 10% lower compliance should the media be skeptical, rather than supportive. They also identified preparatory policies that could improve public compliance by 20-30%. We consider the implications of these results for improving emergency risk assessment models and for anticipating and improving preparedness for disasters, using Hurricane Katrina as a further case in point. PMID:17184405

Dombroski, Matt; Fischhoff, Baruch; Fischbeck, Paul

2006-12-01

254

Oblique, Stratified Winds about a Shelter Fence. Part I: Measurements.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wind statistics were measured using cup and sonic anemometers, placed upwind and downwind from a porous plastic windbreak fence (height h = 1.25 m, length Y = 114 m, resistance coefficient kr0 = 2.4, and porosity p = 0.45) standing on otherwise uniform land (short grass with roughness length z0 1.9 cm). Intercomparison with collocated two-dimensional sonic anemometers suggested that, except in strongly stratified winds, cup anemometers (distance constant 1.5 m), subjected to a uniform overspeeding correction (here 10%), provide a reasonably accurate transect of the mean wind across the disturbed flow region. The measurements, binned with respect to mean wind direction and stratification, establish that the resistance coefficient of a windbreak of this type implies the maximum (or “potential”) mean wind reduction, a potential that is realized in neutral, perpendicular flow and for which a semiempirical formula is derived. Obliquity of the approaching wind reduces actual shelter effectiveness below the potential value, as was already known. However, a systematic influence of stratification could only be discriminated in winds that were not too far (say, within about ±30°) from perpendicular, under which conditions both stable and unstable stratification reduced shelter effectiveness. The “quiet zone,” in which velocity standard deviations (?u, ?) are reduced relative to the approach flow, was found to extend farther downwind for the normal velocity component (u) than for the parallel component ().


Wilson, John D.

2004-08-01

255

Emergency and disaster planning at Ohio animal shelters.  

PubMed

Results of a cross-sectional study to determine the level of emergency and disaster response planning at Ohio nonhuman animal shelters and the role Ohio agencies have in emergency and disaster response planning in their communities indicated a lack of preparedness coupled with underutilization of the agencies as a resource. A total of 115 agencies (68%) responded to a standardized survey mailed to 170 Ohio agencies. Most (68%) agencies agreed that emergency and disaster response planning was important to their organization, although only 13% of agencies had completed a written emergency and disaster response plan. The majority (80%) of agencies indicated they would provide critical resources in an emergency or disaster in their community. Only 38 (33%) of the responding agencies were aware of the PETS Act of 2006. Although many agencies indicated the importance of an emergency and disaster plan, there may be insufficient resources, including time and proper training, available to ensure plans are developed. Improved coordination among veterinarians, local veterinary medical associations, emergency preparedness agencies, and animal shelters would enhance the relief efforts in a crisis. PMID:20017047

Decker, Shanna M; Lord, Linda K; Walker, William L; Wittum, Thomas E

2010-01-01

256

Schools As Post-Disaster Shelters: Planning and Management Guidelines for Districts and Sites.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guidebook outlines a method for preparing school facilities and personnel in the event that schools are needed for disaster shelters. It serves as a blueprint for planning and preparedness. Chapter 1 provides descriptions of actual incidents in which California schools served as emergency shelters. Chapter 2 describes schools' legal…

California State Office of Emergency Services, Sacramento.

257

CFD modeling and thermal test results for telecommunications shelter cooling systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Telecommunications shelters are used globally for housing and cooling of wireless cell site electronic equipment. Approximately 1.13 million cell sites can be found throughout the world [ref 1]. Most utilize active cooling, primarily air conditioners, to control electronic equipment temperatures. Air conditioned cooling of cell site shelters consumes significant energy and is now a target for energy consumption reduction by

Mark Hendrix; Lindsay Allen

2010-01-01

258

Analysis of sheltering and evacuation strategies for an urban nuclear detonation scenario  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development of an effective strategy for shelter and evacuation is among the most important planning tasks in preparation for response to a low yield, nuclear detonation in an urban area. This study examines shelter-evacuate policies and effectiveness focusing on a 10 kt scenario in Los Angeles. The goal is to provide technical insights that can support development of urban response

Ann S. Yoshimura; Larry D. Brandt

2009-01-01

259

Shade and shelter for farmed deer in New Zealand: Results from a survey of farmers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A questionnaire on shade and shelter was distributed among deer farmers throughout New Zealand, and 89 were completed. Respondents were possibly mainly people with a particular interest in the topic. Most respondents felt that shelter improved deer health and growth (92 and 68% of respondents, respectively), and 79% thought that shade was beneficial to deer health. Ninety?five percent felt that

J. C. Pollard; R. P. Littlejohn; A. J. T. Pearse

2003-01-01

260

Behavioral reasons for relinquishment of dogs and cats to 12 shelters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Regional Shelter Relinquishment Study sponsored by the National Council on Pet Population Study and Policy (NCPPSP) is a US research project designed to explore the characteristics of relinquished dogs and cats, their owners, and the reasons for relinquishment. The NCPPSP Regional Shelter Study, which was conducted between February 1995 and April 1996, found that behavioural problems, including aggression toward

Mo D. Salman; J M Hutchinson; Rebecca Ruch-Gallie; Lori Kogan; New John C. Jr; Phillip Kass; Jennifer M Scarlett

2000-01-01

261

Do Sheltered Workshops Enhance Employment Outcomes for Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated whether sheltered workshops help prepare individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) for competitive employment within the community. Two groups of individuals were compared: (a) 215 supported employees who were in sheltered workshops prior to entering supported employment and (b) 215 supported employees who were not in…

Cimera, Robert Evert; Wehman, Paul; West, Michael; Burgess, Sloane

2012-01-01

262

Hurricane Katrina and the Flooding of New Orleans: Emergent Issues in Sheltering and Temporary Housing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hurricane Katrina created an unprecedented need for sheltering and temporary housing across a four-state area along the Gulf Coast. This article reviews the disaster literature with respect to sheltering and temporary housing and contrasts how these needs actually developed with respect to both the preimpact and postimpact evacuation situations. The article also investigates the ways that intergovernmental planning failed to

Joanne M. Nigg; John Barnshaw; Manuel R. Torres

2006-01-01

263

Physical Health, Mental Health, and Substance Abuse Problems of Shelter Users.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined physical health of 72 users of homeless shelters, comparing shelter users with mental illness or substance abuse problems with those without these problems. Found that alcohol abusers were significantly more likely to have low blood pressure, symptoms of liver disease, and tuberculosis treatment history. Found no health differences for…

Harris, Shirley N.; And Others

1994-01-01

264

Control of Pest Species: Tree shelters help protect seedlings from nutria (Louisiana)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Various methods of nutria preventative techniques were tested in attempts to curb the loss of seedlings due to nutria capturing. The results of testing possibly indicate that tree shelters have real potential for use in forest restoration projects on sites with moderate nutria populations. Tree shelters may even prove effective on sites with high nutria populations, as long as alternative food supplies are available.

Allen, J.A.; Boykin, R.

1991-01-01

265

Tuberculosis Exposure among Evacuees at a Shelter after Earthquake, Japan, 2011  

PubMed Central

Tuberculosis was diagnosed in a person who had stayed in a shelter after the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake. A contact investigation showed that the prevalence of latent tuberculosis infection among other evacuees at the shelter was 20%. Our report underscores the importance of tuberculosis prevention and control after natural disasters.

Aso, Noboru; Tadano, Satoko; Saito, Miyoko; Saito, Hiroo; Uchiyama, Bine; Ishibashi, Noriomi; Inomata, Shinya; Endo, Shiro; Aoyagi, Tetsuji; Hatta, Masumitsu; Yamada, Mitsuhiro; Gu, Yoshiaki; Tokuda, Koichi; Yano, Hisakazu; Kunishima, Hiroyuki; Hirakata, Yoichi; Saijyo, Takao; Kitagawa, Miho; Kaku, Mitsuo

2013-01-01

266

Primary-Grade Students' Knowledge and Thinking about the Economics of Meeting Families' Shelter Needs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interviewed 216 students in kindergarten through grade 3 about the economics of meeting families' needs for shelter. Responses indicated that most understood that people have to pay for shelter, but most were vague about renting apartments or mortgages. Discusses findings in reference to curriculum and instruction in the early grades. (SLD)

Brophy, Jere; Alleman, Janet

2002-01-01

267

The Quality of Life of "Street Children" Accommodated at Three Shelters in Pretoria: An Exploratory Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research project is an exploratory study that aims to describe and examine the state and nature of the quality of life of street children accommodated at three shelters. A non-probability sample of 48 street children at three shelters was purposively selected. An interview schedule was constructed and administered to gather data. The…

Mathiti, Vuyisile

2006-01-01

268

Adjustment of Homeless Adolescents to a Crisis Shelter: Application of a Stress and Coping Model.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined the usefulness of a stress and coping model of adaptation to a homeless shelter among 78 homeless adolescents who were interviewed and completed measures at shelter entrance and discharge. After controlling for relevant background variables, measures of coping resources, appraisal, and coping strategies showed relations with measures of…

Dalton, Melanie M.; Pakenham, Kenneth I.

2002-01-01

269

The Voices of Black and White Rural Battered Women in Domestic Violence Shelters  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Very little research has examined the experiences of Black and White rural battered women. In this exploratory study of 88 participants, 30 rural battered women who sought assistance from domestic violence shelters in southwest Virginia were interviewed. Black and White rural women's experiences in the shelters, helpseeking, and perceived social…

Few, April L.

2005-01-01

270

Perspectives on US Domestic Violence Emergency Shelters: What Do Young Adolescent Residents and Their Mothers Say?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As part of a larger qualitative study using Life Story methods, an ethnically diverse, purposive sample (n = 27) of young adolescents (ages 12-14) and their mothers residing in four US domestic violence emergency shelters were interviewed about their perspectives of shelter life. Youth reported aspects they liked, most often expressing that they…

Chanmugam, Amy

2011-01-01

271

The Road to Nowhere... Barriers Facing Families in Search of Shelter.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study describes obstacles Massachusetts families face in accessing emergency shelters when the system is underfunded and the Department of Transitional Assistance (DTA) seeks to deflect families' entry into shelter. The study presents data, interviews, and observations recorded over 7 months at the Boston Family Housing Office. Results…

Shamasunder, Reshma

272

Recidivism at a Shelter for Adolescents: First-Time versus Repeat Runaways.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents results of a study that examined child and family influences on recidivism for 166 youths admitted to a shelter. Results indicated that youth emotional problems were significantly related to recidivism for repeat runaways, whereas family changes and length of stay at the shelter were significantly related to recidivism for first-time…

Baker, Amy J. L.; McKay, Mary M.; Lynn, Cynthia J.; Schlange, Hans; Auville, Alicia

2003-01-01

273

DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF A LOW-COST STREAM-MONITORING SHELTER  

EPA Science Inventory

The design and construction of a low-cost stream-monitoring shelter are discussed. urrently in use on the Fernow Experimental Forest in West Virginia, the shelter creates an environment for efficient sampling and chemical monitoring of small streams while protecting expensive equ...

274

Dimensions and Correlates of Client Satisfaction: An Evaluation of a Shelter for Runaway and Homeless Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Client satisfaction surveys give clients a voice in the planning and management of services. While their use is quite widespread, they have hardly at all been used in the evaluation of shelters for homeless youths. In this article, the authors present findings of a client satisfaction survey conducted among residents of a shelter for homeless…

Spiro, Shimon E.; Dekel, Rachel; Peled, Einat

2009-01-01

275

Primary-Grade Students' Knowledge and Thinking about Shelter as a Cultural Universal.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The traditional K-3 social studies curriculum has focused on food, clothing, shelter, communication, transportation, and other cultural universals. A study was designed to provide information with respect to the topic of shelter, and in the process, to assess claims that primary grade students do not need instruction in the topic because they…

Brophy, Jere; Alleman, Janet

276

Bacteria isolated from rock art paintings: the case of Atlanterra shelter (south Spain)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Sierra de la Plata is an Aljibe yellow sandstone formation from the Acheulian period. There are a few shelters, some of them with rock art paintings. The most representative one, and subjected to anthropogenic pressure, is that of Atlanterra, situated in a residential area. This shelter contains some rock art paintings made with iron oxides. The bacteria present in

I. Gonzalez; L. Laiz; B. Hermosin; B. Caballero; C. Incerti; C. Saiz-Jimenez

1999-01-01

277

77 FR 40626 - RP9580.210, Personal Assistance Services in Shelters Fact Sheet  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Personal Assistance Services in Shelters Fact Sheet AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management...FEMA) is accepting comments on Recovery Fact Sheet RP9580.210, Personal Assistance...Services in Shelters. The purpose of this new fact sheet is to provide clarification on...

2012-07-10

278

Analysis of sheltering and evacuation strategies for a Chicago nuclear detonation scenario.  

SciTech Connect

Development of an effective strategy for shelter and evacuation is among the most important planning tasks in preparation for response to a low yield, nuclear detonation in an urban area. Extensive studies have been performed and guidance published that highlight the key principles for saving lives following such an event. However, region-specific data are important in the planning process as well. This study examines some of the unique regional factors that impact planning for a 10 kt detonation in Chicago. The work utilizes a single scenario to examine regional impacts as well as the shelter-evacuate decision alternatives at selected exemplary points. For many Chicago neighborhoods, the excellent assessed shelter quality available make shelter-in-place or selective transit to a nearby shelter a compelling post-detonation strategy.

Yoshimura, Ann S.; Brandt, Larry D.

2011-09-01

279

Analysis of sheltering and evacuation strategies for a national capital region nuclear detonation scenario.  

SciTech Connect

Development of an effective strategy for shelter and evacuation is among the most important planning tasks in preparation for response to a low yield, nuclear detonation in an urban area. Extensive studies have been performed and guidance published that highlight the key principles for saving lives following such an event. However, region-specific data are important in the planning process as well. This study examines some of the unique regional factors that impact planning for a 10 kT detonation in the National Capital Region. The work utilizes a single scenario to examine regional impacts as well as the shelter-evacuate decision alternatives at one exemplary point. For most Washington, DC neighborhoods, the excellent assessed shelter quality available make shelter-in-place or selective transit to a nearby shelter a compelling post-detonation strategy.

Yoshimura, Ann S.; Brandt, Larry D.

2011-12-01

280

Remote Mapping of River Gravel Interstitial Spaces Availability for Juvenile Salmon Sheltering (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Juvenile salmonid use interstitial gravel spaces to shelter from predators and adverse hydroclimatic conditions. Shelter availability is therefore a key habitat factor to consider in habitat quality mapping. Finstad et al. (2007) developed a method for the measurement of shelter availability in the field using PVC tubes of various diameter and length. The method, which involves probing the bed with the tubes, provides high quality measurements of shelter abundance and size distribution but it is laborious and exceedingly time consuming to apply at large spatial scales. We tested two different remote methods for estimating substrate shelter availability at a large number of sampled locations over a test gravel bed reach of the Restigouche river, an Atlantic salmon river of the Gaspésie peninsula, Québec, Canada. At each sampled location, Finstad's method was first used to measure "true" reference shelter characteristics. Then, the two remote methods were used to estimate shelter characteristics over the same sampled locations. The first remote method used Agisoft Photoscan to produce hi-resolution 3D models of river bed surfaces from close-range (<150 cm from the bed) digital images of the sampled bed areas. Various methods were developed and tested for extracting shelters from these models. The second remote method used high-resolution airborne imagery to extract textural properties of the images over the sampled locations and to calibrate relationships between texture values and shelter characteristics as measured with Finstad's method. In this presentation, the performance of these two methods is analysed with regards to their ability to provide adequate estimates of shelter availability over large spatial scales.

Bergeron, N.; Calsamiglila, A.; Dugdale, S. J.; Bérubé, F.

2013-12-01

281

NUclear EVacuation Analysis Code (NUEVAC) : a tool for evaluation of sheltering and evacuation responses following urban nuclear detonations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The NUclear EVacuation Analysis Code (NUEVAC) has been developed by Sandia National Laboratories to support the analysis of shelter-evacuate (S-E) strategies following an urban nuclear detonation. This tool can model a range of behaviors, including complex evacuation timing and path selection, as well as various sheltering or mixed evacuation and sheltering strategies. The calculations are based on externally generated, high

Ann S. Yoshimura; Larry D. Brandt

2009-01-01

282

Development of red oak seedlings using plastic shelters on hardwood sites in West Virginia. Forest Service research paper (Final)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plastic shelters were used to grow red oak seedlings on good-to-excellent Appalachian hardwood growing sites in north central West Virginia. Preliminary results indicate that shelters have the potential to stimulate development of red oak seedlingheight growth, especially if height growth continues once the seedling tops are above the 5-foot-tall shelters.

1993-01-01

283

Development of red oak seedlings using plastic shelters on hardwood sites in West Virginia. Forest Service research paper (Final)  

SciTech Connect

Plastic shelters were used to grow red oak seedlings on good-to-excellent Appalachian hardwood growing sites in north central West Virginia. Preliminary results indicate that shelters have the potential to stimulate development of red oak seedlingheight growth, especially if height growth continues once the seedling tops are above the 5-foot-tall shelters.

Smith, H.C.

1993-04-01

284

26 CFR 53.4965-4 - Definition of tax-exempt party to a prohibited tax shelter transaction.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...tax-exempt party to a prohibited tax shelter transaction. 53.4965-4 Section...tax-exempt party to a prohibited tax shelter transaction. (a) In general...tax-exempt entity is a party to a prohibited tax shelter transaction if the entityâ (1)...

2013-04-01

285

Earth Exploration Toolbook Chapter: Visualizing Carbon Pathways  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

DATA: NASA Satellite Images TOOLS: ImageJ and Image Composite Explorer (ICE) of NASA Earth Observations (NEO). SUMMARY: Build animations of satellite data to illustrate and explore carbon pathways through the Earth system.

Dahlman, Luann; Whitmer, Ali; Caron, Bruce; Herring, David; Tschillard, Ray

286

Early Earth differentiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The birth and infancy of Earth was a time of profound differentiation involving massive internal reorganization into core, mantle and proto-crust, all within a few hundred million years of solar system formation (t0). Physical and isotopic evidence indicate that the formation of iron-rich cores generally occurred very early in planetesimals, the building blocks of proto-Earth, within about 3 million years

Michael J. Walter; Reidar G. Trønnes

2004-01-01

287

Individual monitoring of internal exposure at the shelter object.  

PubMed

The paper describes how the programme of individual monitoring (IM) of internal exposure (IE) at Shelter object (SO) was designed and what results were obtained in the framework of the programme for 5 y. The main dose-forming factors of IE at SO are intakes of radionuclides of transuranium elements, (90)Sr and (137)Cs. During designing the IM of IE programme, the contribution of each radionuclide was estimated for different types of works and intake paths. The different types of direct and indirect biophysical measurements that could be used for the purposes of IM of IE were analysed. The control of (239+240)Pu content in faecal samples was chosen as a basic type of control of IE. 'Dose per unit content' functions were used for the justification of the IM of IE programme; also, they were used for the assessment of doses of personnel at SO. PMID:21112886

Bonchuk, I; Likhtarev, I; Berkovski, V

2011-03-01

288

The selection of shelter place by the house cricket.  

PubMed

The stimuli acting upon the choice of shelter and resting place by the house cricket, Acheta domesticus (L.) were analysed. The places of preference in different types of terraria as well as the choice of tubes of different diameter and of various light conditions were investigated. Acheta domesticus avoids open and illuminated space in its choice of resting place. It prefers dark places, enclosed by walls, like a clefts or boxes. The influence of the conditions of environment configuration at the larval period of the crickets' development upon their subsequent preference as to rest place, has not been stated. Neither was this influence observed on their behavioural reactions as connected with the former. Crickets attain their ethological praeferendum of resting site owing to their innate photo- and thigmo-kinesis which are supplemented by hygrophilia and thermophilia. The influence of the group effect on the cricket's individual rate of development was confirmed. PMID:1007977

Kieruzel, M

1976-01-01

289

Temperature and relative humidity affect the selection of shelters by Triatoma infestans, vector of Chagas disease.  

PubMed

The preference of Triatoma infestans for shelters at different temperatures or relative humidities (RH) was tested in laboratory assays. The insects preferred refuges at a temperature of 34 degrees C rather than 26 degrees C, and chose to stay in refuges with an RH of 20% rather than 80%. Temperature and RH records made inside and outside experimental chicken-houses under natural climatic conditions showed that such habitats tend to maintain an inner climate favourable to T. infestans. Typical refuges in adobe walls showed strongly damped fluctuations in minimum and maximum temperatures, and delayed changes in these parameters when compared with an external reference. Similarly, the jarilla (Larrea sp.), a plant used for constructing roofing, damps fluctuations in minimum and maximum RH and delays these RH fluctuations when compared to an external reference. We discuss possible effects of environmental factors on the distribution of insects in human dwellings, and analyse the environmental characteristics of normally available refuges in materials used for house building in endemic zones. PMID:10232780

Lorenzo, M G; Lazzari, C R

1999-04-30

290

Emotional and Behavioural Problems among Sheltered Homeless Children.  

PubMed

Introduction: Homelessness in children is a serious problem in the society. Factors leading to homelessness in Nepalese children are poverty, unemployment, multiple children, exposure to violence, caste based social discrimination etc. Children living out of their homes have problems in attachment, temperament, social skills, cognitive ability, and language development. Few non-governmental organizations that have started to look after these children but the mental health need is neglected. The study attempted to investigate the emotional and behavioural problems in homeless children in one of the shelters in Kathmandu. Methods: All the children (n=126) in the SAATHI Organization were included in the study. They were administered Child Behaviour Check List 6-18. Children with T-score ?65 on externalising or internalising dimension were further evaluated in the Child Guidance Clinic for the final diagnosis based on DSM IV. Results: The prevalence of emotional and behavioural problem among the participants was 36 (28.57%) [15 (26.31%) in boys and 21 (30.43%) in girls] based on CBCL/6-18 years and 29 (23.01%) [12 (21.05%) in boys and 17 (24.63%) in girls] based on final diagnosis. The conduct problems was the most common among the male children 5 (8.77%), followed by ODD 3 (5.26%), ADHD 2 (3.5%), Anxiety 2 (3.50%) whereas Anxiety is most common in female children 9 (13.04 %), followed by depression 5 (7.24%), conduct 3 (4.34%). Conclusions: The rate of emotional and behavioral disorder in homeless children in the study is similar to the school aged non homeless children in previous studies, which may be because of the protection provided by the shelters. This study highlighted the need for methodologically better studies in the field. Keywords: children; emotional and behavioural problems; homelessness; Nepal. PMID:24907950

Ojha, S P; Ma, J; Chapagain, M; Tulachan, P

2013-01-01

291

Behavioral Responses Associated with a Human-Mediated Predator Shelter  

PubMed Central

Human activities in protected areas can affect wildlife populations in a similar manner to predation risk, causing increases in movement and vigilance, shifts in habitat use and changes in group size. Nevertheless, recent evidence indicates that in certain situations ungulate species may actually utilize areas associated with higher levels of human presence as a potential refuge from disturbance-sensitive predators. We now use four-years of behavioral activity budget data collected from pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) and elk (Cervus elephus) in Grand Teton National Park, USA to test whether predictable patterns of human presence can provide a shelter from predatory risk. Daily behavioral scans were conducted along two parallel sections of road that differed in traffic volume - with the main Teton Park Road experiencing vehicle use that was approximately thirty-fold greater than the River Road. At the busier Teton Park Road, both species of ungulate engaged in higher levels of feeding (27% increase in the proportion of pronghorn feeding and 21% increase for elk), lower levels of alert behavior (18% decrease for pronghorn and 9% decrease for elk) and formed smaller groups. These responses are commonly associated with reduced predatory threat. Pronghorn also exhibited a 30% increase in the proportion of individuals moving at the River Road as would be expected under greater exposure to predation risk. Our findings concur with the ‘predator shelter hypothesis’, suggesting that ungulates in GTNP use human presence as a potential refuge from predation risk, adjusting their behavior accordingly. Human activity has the potential to alter predator-prey interactions and drive trophic-mediated effects that could ultimately impact ecosystem function and biodiversity.

Shannon, Graeme; Cordes, Line S.; Hardy, Amanda R.; Angeloni, Lisa M.; Crooks, Kevin R.

2014-01-01

292

Shelter availability, stress level and digestive performance in the aspic viper.  

PubMed

The lack of shelter can perturb behaviors, increase stress level and thus alter physiological performance (e.g. digestive, immune or reproductive functions). Although intuitive, such potential impacts of lack of shelter remain poorly documented. We manipulated shelter availability and environmental and physiological variables (i.e. access to a heat source, predator attack, feeding status) in a viviparous snake, and assessed sun-basking behavior, digestive performance (i.e. digestive transit time, crude estimate of assimilation, regurgitation rate) and plasma corticosterone levels (a proxy of stress level). Shelter deprivation provoked a strong increase in sun-basking behavior and thus elevated body temperature, even in unfed individuals for which energy savings would have been otherwise beneficial. The lack of heat was detrimental to digestive performance; simulated predator attacks worsened the situation and entailed a further deterioration of digestion. The combination of the lack of shelter with cool ambient temperatures markedly elevated basal corticosterone level and was associated with low digestive performance. This hormonal effect was absent when only one negative factor was involved, suggesting a threshold response. Overall, our results revealed important non-linear cascading impacts of shelter availability on stress-hormone levels, behaviors and physiological performance. These results infer that shelter availability is important for laboratory studies, captive husbandry and possibly conservation plans. PMID:23155080

Bonnet, Xavier; Fizesan, Alain; Michel, Catherine Louise

2013-03-01

293

Public health response to a rabid dog in an animal shelter --- North Dakota and Minnesota, 2010.  

PubMed

On March 31, 2010, the North Dakota Department of Health (NDDoH) was notified by a local public health department that a stray dog found in rural Minnesota and housed during March 9-20 in a North Dakota animal shelter had been found to have rabies. NDDoH, along with the local public health department, the North Dakota Board of Animal Health (BOAH), the Minnesota Board of Animal Health, and the Minnesota Department of Health, immediately began an investigation to identify persons requiring rabies postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) and to prevent further rabies transmission. This report summarizes the public health investigation, which used animal shelter records and public notification to identify possible human and animal contacts of the rabid dog. Among 32 persons who might have been exposed to the rabid dog at the shelter, 21 persons, including nine shelter employees and one volunteer, received PEP. In accordance with 2009 Compendium of Animal Rabies Prevention and Control guidance, the 25 dogs in the shelter with the rabid dog were euthanized. Among 25 other dogs without an up-to-date rabies vaccination that were adopted or claimed from the shelter and might have been exposed, 11 were euthanized, 13 were isolated for 6 months in their owners' homes, and one was unintentionally killed. No additional cases of rabies in dogs or humans had been identified as of December 2010. This event supports consideration of preexposure vaccination of animal shelter employees and highlights the continued importance of routine rabies vaccination of domestic animals. PMID:21209608

2011-01-01

294

A survey of North American shelter practices relating to feline upper respiratory management.  

PubMed

An internet-based survey was conducted to determine common strategies for control of feline upper respiratory infections (URI) in animal shelters. Two hundred and fifty-eight North American shelters responded, representing a spectrum of 57% private non-profit, 27% municipal and 16% combined private non-profit-municipal shelters. All but nine shelters reported having a regular relationship with a veterinarian, 53% had full-time veterinarians and 62% indicated full-time (non-veterinarian) medical staff. However, in 35% of facilities, non-medical shelter management staff determined what medication an individual cat could receive, with 5% of facilities making that decision without indicating the involvement of a veterinarian or technician. Ninety-one percent of shelters had an isolation area for clinically ill cats. The most commonly used antimicrobial was doxycycline (52%), followed by amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (33%). Shelters are using a wide range of prevention measures and therapeutics, leaving room for studying URI in different settings to improve understanding of optimal protocols. PMID:23400683

Spindel, Miranda E; Slater, Margaret R; Boothe, Dawn

2013-04-01

295

Positive effects of shade and shelter construction by ants on leafhopper-ant mutualism.  

PubMed

The myrmecophilous five-spotted gamagrass leafhopper, Dalbulus quinquenotatus DeLong and Nault, and its tending ants on gamagrass Tripsacum dactyloides L. were examined to determine the influence of shade and ant-constructed shelters on the population sizes of D. quinquenotatus and ants. Gamagrass plants hosting ants and leafhoppers were exposed to 50, 30, or 0% artificially constructed shade. The greatest numbers of leafhoppers and ants were found on plants that received 50% shade. Shelters made by the ant Solenopsis geminata (F.) contained large numbers of leafhoppers and ants but were found only on T. dactyloides exposed to 50% shade in artificially constructed habitats. Additional sampling was conducted on wild gamagrass plants in the field to explore the presence of ants tending leafhoppers in shelters and to evaluate whether ant-constructed shelters protect leafhopper nymphs from parasitoid wasps. Large aggregations of S. geminata in shelters were also found in natural gamagrass habitats. Leafhopper nymphs living in shelters made by S. geminata may be protected against the dryinid wasp parasitoid Anteon ciudadi Olmi. No sheltered nymphs were parasitized by dryinids, whereas 24% of unsheltered nymphs had dryinid parasitism. PMID:19161690

Moya-Raygoza, Gustavo; Larsen, Kirk J

2008-12-01

296

Underground and earth sheltered food storage: historical, geographic, and economic considerations  

SciTech Connect

Storage structures now used for bulk grain and beans have been derived from a combination of scientific experiments and tradition. Recent generations of US farmers have grown up with the understanding that grain is best stored in round metal bins or wooden cribs aboveground. It is generally thought that natural wind movements in the crib structures and forced air flow from aeration fans in metal bins will keep grain and beans safe, i.e., free of moisture accumulation and the resulting insect and fungal growth, and protected from germination, all of which deteriorate the commodity. North American farmers further believe that the low temperature of northern winters combined with careful use of aerating fans will keep the grain dry or beans safe (less than 14% moisture content) for years of storage. Traditional forms of grain and bean storage in other parts of the world have evolved differently. With the exception of North America, the people of every continent in the world have developed underground structures for long-term storage of food. A review of the varieties of underground structures that have evolved throughout the world, and research related to underground storage of grain and beans is presented.

Dunkel, F.V.

1985-01-01

297

Applying Cluster Analysis to Test a Typology of Homelessness by Pattern of Shelter Utilization: Results from the Analysis of Administrative Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study tests a typology of homelessness using administrative data on public shelter use in New York City (1988-1995) and Philadelphia (1991-1995). Cluster analysis is used to produce three groups (transitionally, episodically, and chronically homeless) by number of shelter days and number of shelter episodes. Results show that the transitionally homeless, who constitute approximately 80% of shelter users in both

Randall Kuhn; Dennis P. Culhane

1998-01-01

298

Applying Cluster Analysis to Test a Typology of Homelessness by Pattern of Shelter Utilization: Results from the Analysis of Administrative Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study tests a typology of homelessness using administrative data on public shelter use in New York City (1988–1995) and Philadelphia (1991–1995). Cluster analysis is used to produce three groups (transitionally, episodically, and chronically homeless) by number of shelter days and number of shelter episodes. Results show that the transitionally homeless, who constitute approximately 80% of shelter users in both

Randall Kuhn; Dennis P. Culhane

1998-01-01

299

72. View of tunnel intake building, looking southwest. The winches ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

72. View of tunnel intake building, looking southwest. The winches for the trash racks, sheltered by a wood-frame structure with a gable roof, are to the left. Photo by Jet Lowe, HAER, 1989. - Puget Sound Power & Light Company, White River Hydroelectric Project, 600 North River Avenue, Dieringer, Pierce County, WA

300

The Meaning of ‘Build Back Better’: Evidence From Post-Tsunami Aceh and Sri Lanka  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 26 December 2004 tsunami disaster around the Indian Ocean provided an opportunity to see if decades of knowledge and experience on post-disaster settlement and shelter could be applied to match the tagline which many groups gave to the post-tsunami reconstruction: ‘build back better’ (or ‘building back better’). This paper uses evidence from field work completed on implementing settlement and

Jim Kennedy; Joseph Ashmore; Elizabeth Babister; Ilan Kelman

2008-01-01

301

Coordinating Communities and Building Governance in the Development of Schematic and Semantic Standards: the Key to Solving Global Earth and Space Science Challenges in the 21st Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Information Age in Science is being driven partly by the data deluge as exponentially growing volumes of data are being generated by research. Such large volumes of data cannot be effectively processed by humans and efficient and timely processing by computers requires development of specific machine readable formats. Further, as key challenges in earth and space sciences, such as

L. A. Wyborn

2007-01-01

302

Uderstanding Snowball Earth Deglaciation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earth, a normally clement planet comfortably in its star's habitable zone, suffered global or nearly global glaciation at least twice during the Neoproterozoic era (at about 635 and 710 million years ago). Viewed in the context of planetary evolution, these pan-global glaciations (Snowball Earth events) were extremely rapid, lasting only a few million years. The dramatic effect of the Snowball Earth events on the development of the planet can be seen through their link to rises in atmospheric oxygen and evolutionary innovations. These potential catastrophes on an otherwise clement planet can be used to gain insight into planetary habitability more generally. Since Earth is not currently a Snowball, a sound deglaciation mechanism is crucial for the viability of the Snowball Earth hypothesis. The traditional deglaciation mechanism is a massive build up of CO2 due to reduced weathering during Snowball Earth events until tropical surface temperatures reach the melting point. Once initiated, such a deglaciation might happen on a timescale of only dozens of thousands of years and would thrust Earth from the coldest climate in its history to the warmest. Therefore embedded in Snowball Earth events is an even more rapid and dramatic environmental change. Early global climate model simulations raised doubt about whether Snowball Earth deglaciation could be achieved at a CO2 concentration low enough to be consistent with geochemical data, which represented a potential challenge to the Snowball Earth hypothesis. Over the past few years dust and clouds have emerged as the essential missing additional processes that would allow Snowball Earth deglaciation at a low enough CO2 concentration. I will discuss the dust and cloud mechanisms and the modeling behind these ideas. This effort is critical for the broader implications of Snowball Earth events because understanding the specific deglaciation mechanism determines whether similar processes could happen on other planets.

Abbot, D. S.

2012-12-01

303

Reducing Inappropriate Verbalizations in a Sheltered Workshop through Differential Reinforcement of Other Behavior.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A within-subject reversal design was employed in a sheltered workshop to assess the effects of differential reinforcement of other behavior (DRO) in reducing inappropriate verbalizations by a severely retarded adult with Down's syndrome. (Author/CL)

Konczak, Leopold J.; Johnson, C. Merle

1983-01-01

304

38 CFR 21.144 - Vocational course in a sheltered workshop or rehabilitation facility.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Vocational course in a sheltered workshop or rehabilitation facility. 21.144 Section 21...VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment Under 38 U.S.C....

2013-07-01

305

Characteristics of homeless adults with serious mental illness served by a state mental health transitional shelter.  

PubMed

Specialized transitional shelters are available in various cities to provide assistance to homeless individuals with serious mental illness. Little is known about the population using such shelters. The authors conducted a retrospective chart review to collect demographic, social, and clinical data of residents in a state-operated mental health transitional shelter in Massachusetts. A total of 74 subjects were included. Schizophrenia-spectrum disorders were present in 67.6 % of the sample and mood disorders in 35.1 %. Substance use disorders were documented in 44.6 %. Chronic medical illness (mostly hypertension, dyslipidemia, asthma, and diabetes) was found in 82.4 %. The co-occurrence of a psychiatric and substance use disorder and chronic medical illness was found in 36.5 %. The majority (75.7 %) of patients had a history of legal charges. Homeless individuals with serious mental illness served by specialized transitional shelters represent a population with complex psychiatric, medical and social needs. PMID:23703373

Viron, Mark; Bello, Iruma; Freudenreich, Oliver; Shtasel, Derri

2014-07-01

306

Flame Test for Medical Unit, Self-Contained Transportable (Inflatable Shelter Assembly).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

MUST (Medical Unit, Self-Contained Transportable) Shelters, supplied by three different manufacturers, were exposed to common hospital flame hazards, such as trash fires, lighted cigarettes, alcohol spills, and burning wastepaper baskets. In addition to t...

A. C. Delasanta A. J. Szlachtun E. T. Waldron J. A. Sousa M. Nakashima

1977-01-01

307

Listen to the voices of unwed teenage mothers in Malaysian shelter homes: an explorative study.  

PubMed

This qualitative research aims to explore the daily life experiences of Malaysian unwed teenage mothers in shelter homes. The research is based on the thematic analysis of interviews with seventeen respondents aged from 12 to 18 years. Eight sub-themes described the experience of the unwed teenage mothers in the shelter home and led to three overall themes: rules and regulations, relationship with the staff and relationship with the other girls at the shelter home. The findings indicated that the shelter homes involved were not fulfilling the standard of the Malaysian national laws and United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child. We strongly suggest that the authorities provide a clear guideline concerning the implementation of Malaysian national laws and United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child. PMID:23985103

Saim, Nor Jana; Dufåker, Mona; Eriksson, Malin; Ghazinour, Mehdi

2013-09-01

308

Simulated Occupancy Tests and Air Distribution in a 480-Person Community Fallout Shelter.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Results of simulated occupancy tests determining the ventilation rate to maintain a habitable thermal environment in a 480-person community shelter are furnished. Effects of manual auxiliary air moving devices on the air distribution patterns in the shelt...

O. W. Svaeri M. M. Dembo

1965-01-01

309

TALC/Teacher Shelter, 1969-81: What Difference Has It Made?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines data from three investigations of the impact of the Teachers' Active Learning Center (TALC)/Teacher Shelter, a program run in the San Francisco Bay Area. Notes ten features of the center that make it unique and successful. (RL)

Buxton, Amity P.

1981-01-01

310

Proprietary Products Made By Handicapped Workers in Sheltered Workshops. Project Earning Power.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The demonstration project (1965-1970) determined that manufacture of proprietary products by handicapped workers in sheltered workshops could not provide an adequate vehicle to supply the employment needs of the disabled. Such products could not be compet...

1970-01-01

311

A comparison of lightning and nuclear electromagnetic pulse response of tactical shelters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The internal response (electromagnetic fields and cable responses) of tactical shelters is addressed. Tactical shelters are usually well-shielded systems. Apart from penetrations by signal and power lines, the main leakage paths to the interior are via seams and the environment control unit (ECU) honeycomb filter. The time domain in three-dimensional finite-difference technique is employed to determine the external and internal coupling to a shelter excited by nuclear electromagnetic pulses (NEMP) and attached lightning. The responses of interest are the internal electromagnetic fields and the voltage, current, power, and energy coupled to internal cables. Leakage through the seams and ECU filter is accomplished by their transfer impedances which relate internal electric fields to external current densities. Transfer impedances which were experimentally measured are used in the analysis. The internal numerical results are favorably compared to actual shelter test data under simulated NEMP illumination.

Perala, R. A.; Rudolph, T. H.; Mckenna, P. M.

1984-01-01

312

Excavations at Sliding Slab Shelter: Hunting and Gathering in the Ouachitas.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Excavations at Sliding Slab Shelter, 3SB29, on the northern flanks of the Ouachita Mountains in west-central Arkansas, have led to the identification of ten material assemblages and fourteen depositional events which represent occupations from the Middle ...

P. L. Harden

1981-01-01

313

Response of Semihardened Aircraft Shelter Fire Protection System to Bomb Blast Loading.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Standard specifications for mounting the Hardened Aircraft Shelter Fire Protection System (HAS-FPS) are not sufficient because of the wartime threat to the facilities. Therefore, representative sections of the HAS-FPS, previously tested against actual fir...

D. M. Zallen J. Marquis

1990-01-01

314

Terraforming earth and Mars  

Microsoft Academic Search

The uncontrolled character of current earth environment changes ascribable to anthropogenic pollutants is presently contrasted with the prospects for a controlled, long-term program of 'terraforming' for Mars, whose culmination could be the introduction of organisms able to thrive in the new Martian environment in carefully designed ways. A detailed discussion is conducted concerning the chemical building-blocks available on Mars for

Joel S. Levine

1992-01-01

315

Control of willow?tree shelter root systems in kiwifruit orchards by root pruning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The root systems of willow?tree shelter root systems and adjacent kiwifruit root systems, and measurements of gravimetric soil water content, were mapped in three orchards on deep Te Puke soils, in the North Island of New Zealand. Fruit yields were also obtained from the first (5–6 m from the shelter) and middle (4th or 5th row, 19–24 m from the

K. A. Hughes; W. R. N. Edwards; A. M. Snowball

1994-01-01

316

A comparison of lightning and nuclear electromagnetic pulse response of tactical shelters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The internal response (electromagnetic fields and cable responses) of tactical shelters is addressed. Tactical shelters are usually well-shielded systems. Apart from penetrations by signal and power lines, the main leakage paths to the interior are via seams and the environment control unit (ECU) honeycomb filter. The time domain in three-dimensional finite-difference technique is employed to determine the external and internal

R. A. Perala; T. H. Rudolph; P. M. McKenna

1984-01-01

317

Adequacy of wind ventilation in upgraded shelters. Final report Oct 78-May 80  

SciTech Connect

Experimental and analytical investigations were conducted for the purpose of evaluating the adequacy of natural ventilation in upgraded shelters. A unique low-speed wind tunnel which uses photographic measurement techniques for flow tracing of neutrally buoyant bubbles through openings was utilized to conduct scaled model tests of three shelter models to determine the ventilation air throughput CFM as a function of wind speed, relative wind approach angle and opening pattern.

Henninger, R.H.; Tsal, R.J.; Krishnakumar, C.K.

1980-05-01

318

High explosive testing of a corrugated metal blast shelter with membrane blast doors  

SciTech Connect

In October 1983 the Defense Nuclear Agency (DNA) sponsored a high-explosive blast test, nicknamed DIRECT COURSE. This event simulated the blast effects from a one-kiloton nuclear detonation and provided an environment for the testing of selected blast and fallout shelters for their structural integrity. Under work for the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) fielded a set of experiments at the DIRECT COURSE event which were directed toward reducing the cost of blast shelter for small groups of people, such as workers in critical industries (keyworkers). Six items were tested: three scale models of a corrugated metal blast shelter and three full-size blast door closures for such a shelter. The three shelters survived blast overpressures up to 2.55 MPa (225 psi), a level which is equivalent to being approximately 800 m (0.5 mile) from a 1 megaton nuclear detonation. Each shelter model was 180 cm (6 ft.) long by 60 cm (2 ft.) in diameter, was buried about 60 cm (2 ft.) below ground level, and represented a 1/4-scale version of a full-size blast shelter which would be capable of supporting 12 to 18 occupants. The three full-size, 90 cm (35 in.) diameter, blast doors for such a shelter also successfully resisted the same range of blast overpressure. Each door weighed less than 45 kg (100 lb) and incorporated a novel, yielding-membrane design. These sheet metal membranes were between 1.3 and 2.0 mm (0.050 and 0.080 in.) thick and were supported by an edge beam (hoop).

Zimmerman, G.P.; Chester, C.V.

1984-12-01

319

Sheltered Homeless Persons in Charles/Calvert/St. Mary's County, Maryland, October 1, 2008-September 30, 2009. Families in Emergency Shelter; Families in Transitional Housing; Individuals in Emergency Shelter; Individuals in Transitional Housing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report on sheltered homeless persons is based on local data submitted to the 2009 Annual Homeless Assessment Report (AHAR). The AHAR is a report to the U.S. Congress on the extent and nature of homelessness in America, prepared by the Department of H...

2009-01-01

320

Sheltered Homeless Persons in Wicomico/Somerset/Worcester County, Maryland, October 1, 2007-September 30, 2008. Families in Emergency Shelter; Families in Transitional Housing; Individuals in Emergency Shelter; Individuals in Transitional Housing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report on sheltered homeless persons is based on local data submitted to the 2008 Annual Homeless Assessment Report (AHAR). The AHAR is a report to the U.S. Congress on the extent and nature of homelessness in America, prepared by the Department of H...

2008-01-01

321

Sheltered Homeless Persons in Howard County, Maryland, October 1, 2008-September 30, 2009. Families in Emergency Shelter; Families in Transitional Housing; Individuals in Emergency Shelter; Individuals in Transitional Housing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report on sheltered homeless persons is based on local data submitted to the 2009 Annual Homeless Assessment Report (AHAR). The AHAR is a report to the U.S. Congress on the extent and nature of homelessness in America, prepared by the Department of H...

2009-01-01

322

Sheltered Homeless Persons in Howard County, Maryland, October 1, 2007-September 30, 2008. Families in Emergency Shelter; Families in Transitional Housing; Individuals in Emergency Shelter; Individuals in Transitional Housing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report on sheltered homeless persons is based on local data submitted to the 2008 Annual Homeless Assessment Report (AHAR). The AHAR is a report to the U.S. Congress on the extent and nature of homelessness in America, prepared by the Department of H...

2008-01-01

323

Sheltered Homeless Persons in Carroll County, Maryland, October 1, 2009-September 30, 2010. Families in Emergency Shelter; Families in Transitional Housing; Families in Permanent Supportive Housing; Individuals in Emergency Shelter; Individuals in Transitional Housing; Individuals in Permanent Supportive Housing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report on sheltered homeless persons is based on local data submitted to the 2010 Annual Homeless Assessment Report (AHAR). The AHAR is a report to the U.S. Congress on the extent and nature of homelessness in America, prepared by the Department of H...

2010-01-01

324

Sheltered Homeless Persons in Carroll County, Maryland, October 1, 2010-September 30, 2011. Families in Emergency Shelter; Families in Transitional Housing; Families in Permanent Supportive Housing; Individuals in Emergency Shelter; Individuals in Transitional Housing; Individuals in Permanent Supportive Housing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report on sheltered homeless persons is based on local data submitted to the 2011 Annual Homeless Assessment Report (AHAR). The AHAR is a report to the U.S. Congress on the extent and nature of homelessness in America, prepared by the Department of H...

2011-01-01

325

Food safety training needs at evacuation shelters operated by faith-based organizations.  

PubMed

The authors conducted a survey to identify food safety training needs at evacuation shelters operated by faith-based organizations (FBOs) in four hurricane-prone states. Five thousand randomly selected FBO leaders were asked questions about their food safety attitudes and food handling practices at evacuation shelters. Descriptive statistics and multivariate analysis of variance were calculated to summarize and prioritize the responses. Results from 138 leaders revealed that on average, 590 +/- 4,787 evacuees were served for 36 +/- 72 days at FBO-operated shelters. Only 19.6% felt they were well prepared for the shelter. Only 5.8% had professional food preparation staff and many accepted hot (47.8%) and cold (37%) prepared food donations. Some lacked adequate refrigerator (18.8%) or freezer (16.7%) spaces, but 40% kept hot food leftovers for later use. The majority did not provide food safety training before opening the shelters (73.2%), yet 76.9% said they will provide food to evacuation shelters again. The results show a need for food safety training and specific strategies for training at FBOs. PMID:24073485

Kwon, Junehee; Zottarelli, Lisa; Kwon, Sockju; Lee, Yee Ming; Ryu, Dojin

2013-09-01

326

Assessing the Use of Diurnal Resting Shelters by Culiseta melanura (Diptera: Culicidae)  

PubMed Central

Twenty resting shelters were set on the edge of a known Culiseta breeding habitat in four groups of five to support a 4 × 4 Latin square field experiment. Collection times were 0900, 1100, 1300, and 1500 hours and systematically rotated for the order by which each group of five boxes was collected. Mosquitoes were collected from resting shelters by chloroform anesthetization. Collections were identified to species, sex, and physiological status of the females (nonblooded or blood-fed and gravid). More than 77% of the mosquitoes collected were Culiseta melanura (Coquillett). Analyses included means and SE for total collections and shelter-day (number collected per units) and means comparison by t-test and general linear model with Student–Newman–Keuls or least significant differences means tests for replicate, group, time, and interactions of time and group. There were few significant differences among or between shelter-day means but more blood-fed and gravid female Cs. melanura were collected at 1300 hours than any other time. Results confirm the effectiveness of resting shelters in a surveillance program for Cs. melanura, demonstrate the ßexibility of resting shelters as a surveillance tool, and suggest that Cs. melanura will move to more acceptable resting sites during daylight.

HOWARD, JOHN J.; OLIVER, JOANNE; KRAMER, LAURA D.

2012-01-01

327

Assessing the use of diurnal resting shelters by Culiseta melanura (Diptera: Culicidae).  

PubMed

Twenty resting shelters were set on the edge of a known Culiseta breeding habitat in four groups of five to support a 4 x 4 Latin square field experiment. Collection times were 0900, 1100, 1300, and 1500 hours and systematically rotated for the order by which each group of five boxes was collected. Mosquitoes were collected from resting shelters by chloroform anesthetization. Collections were identified to species, sex, and physiological status of the females (nonblooded or blood-fed and gravid). More than 77% of the mosquitoes collected were Culiseta melanura (Coquillett). Analyses included means and SE for total collections and shelter-day (number collected per units) and means comparison by t-test and general linear model with Student-Newman-Keuls or least significant differences means tests for replicate, group, time, and interactions of time and group. There were few significant differences among or between shelter-day means but more blood-fed and gravid female Cs. melanura were collected at 1300 hours than any other time. Results confirm the effectiveness of resting shelters in a surveillance program for Cs. melanura, demonstrate the flexibility of resting shelters as a surveillance tool, and suggest that Cs. melanura will move to more acceptable resting sites during daylight. PMID:21845953

Howard, John J; Oliver, Joanne; Kramer, Laura D

2011-07-01

328

Microevolution of canine influenza virus in shelters and its molecular epidemiology in the United States.  

PubMed

Canine influenza virus (CIV) emerged around 2000 when an equine influenza virus (EIV) was transmitted to dogs in Florida. After 2003, the canine virus was carried by infected greyhounds to various parts of the United States and then became established in several large animal shelters, where it has continued to circulate. To better understand the evolution of CIV since its emergence, and particularly its microevolution in spatially restricted populations, we examined multiple gene segments of CIV from dogs resident in two large animal shelters in New York City during the period 2006 to 2009. In particular, we focused on viruses circulating in the two shelters in 2008 and 2009, which we found shared a common ancestor. While viruses in each shelter were generally monophyletic, we observed some gene flow between them. These shelter sequences were compared to earlier CIV isolates. The shelter viruses differed in 1 to 6 amino acids in each gene segment compared to viruses isolated in Florida between 2003 and 2005 and in Colorado in 2006 and 2008. A comparison of the sequences of equine and canine viruses revealed amino acid replacements that distinguished the viruses from the two hosts, but no clear evidence of positive selection indicative of host adaptation was detected, suggesting that any host range adaptation in CIV occurred early in the emergence of this virus or even before it transferred to dogs. PMID:20943966

Hayward, Jessica J; Dubovi, Edward J; Scarlett, Janet M; Janeczko, Stephanie; Holmes, Edward C; Parrish, Colin R

2010-12-01

329

7. WASTE CALCINING FACILITY, LOOKING AT NORTH END OF BUILDING. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. WASTE CALCINING FACILITY, LOOKING AT NORTH END OF BUILDING. CAMERA FACING SOUTH. TENT-ROOFED COVER IN RIGHT OF VIEW IS A TEMPORARY WEATHER-PROOFING SHELTER OVER THE BLOWER PIT IN CONNECTION WITH DEMOLITION PROCEDURES. SMALL BUILDING CPP-667 IN CENTER OF VIEW WAS USED FOR SUPPLEMENTARY OFFICE SPACE BY HEALTH PHYSICISTS AND OTHERS. INEEL PROOF SHEET NOT NUMBERED. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Old Waste Calcining Facility, Scoville, Butte County, ID

330

Stability in the Social Support Networks of Homeless Families in Shelter: Findings from a Study of Families in a Faith-Based Shelter Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The following article outlines a longitudinal study tracking changes of the social support networks of 28 homeless families in shelter. Weekly changes in support networks of homeless mothers were tracked including 482 dyadic ties between mothers and supportive persons. Findings suggested that informal social support and persons who provided…

Cook-Craig, Patricia; Koehly, Laura

2011-01-01

331

How Are Earth's Spheres Interacting?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site, part of Exploring Earth Investigation by McDougal Littell and TERC, examines how Earth's spheres are interacting. The investigations "were designed to build students' knowledge of Earth Science conceptsâ¦and to raise student awareness of Earth as a system of interconnected components and processes." Here, visitors will find information about Earth's four spheres, how they interact, Earth system processes, and what part human populations play into these systems. Many sections of the site include illustrations and interactive resources to help illuminate the topics covered and the last section is followed by a few links to related resources. This is an excellent site for any Earth Science classroom as an introductory lecture or out-of-class exploration.

2008-09-08

332

Radioactive aerosols released from the Chernobyl Shelter into the immediate environment.  

PubMed

The release of radioactive particles through large gaps in the containment of the destroyed Chernobyl reactor was assessed during two measurement periods. In 1996-1999, a total radionuclide flow rate of 274 Bq s(-1) or 8.64 x 10(9) Bq year(-1) was determined. These releases were predominantly due to (137)Cs (78.5%), (90)Sr (21.1%), and (239+240)Pu (0.4%). The mean activity concentration in the aerosol measured directly at the gaps was about 240 mBq m(-3) with an activity median aerodynamic diameter (AMAD) of 2.4 microm for (137)Cs, 120 mBq m(-3) with an AMAD in the range 3.1-13 microm for (90)Sr, 1.8 mBq m(-3) with an AMAD in the range 3.5-11 microm for (239+240)Pu, and 2.0 mBq m(-3) with an AMAD of 1.5 microm for (241)Am. The resulting total inhalation dose rate calculated close to the gaps was about 100 nSv h(-1). In the near environment, the mean (137)Cs activity in the aerosol was 2.2 mBq m(-3) with an AMAD of 2.2 microm, which gave rise to an inhalation dose rate of about two orders of magnitude lower than the corresponding dose rate at the gaps. Occasionally, however, dose levels were measured in the near environment that were similar to those at the gaps. In 2000-2003, lower activity concentrations were observed. The decrease was more pronounced at the gaps than in the near environment. The results indicate that effective dose due to inhalation must be considered for the dose assessment of construction workers who will be deployed at the Chernobyl site to reconstruct the old or to build the new Shelter, in the future. PMID:16733725

Garger, E K; Kashpur, V A; Li, W B; Tschiersch, J

2006-07-01

333

Service quality and corporate social responsibility, influence on post-purchase intentions of sheltered employment institutions.  

PubMed

The main purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of service quality and corporate social responsibility (CSR) on customer satisfaction, and customer satisfaction toward post-purchase intentions from sheltered employment institutions. Work experience plays an important role in career development for those people with intellectual disabilities. When they are not yet capable of obtaining a job in the open market, they must receive job training and daily care in sheltered employment institutions. If the sheltered employment institutions cannot operate properly, they will greatly affect intellectual disabilities. From the study of "Children Are Us Bakeries and Restaurants" sheltered employment institutions are one kind of food service business that has been found to request and improve service quality and execution of CSR. These are two main factors which can enhance brand value and create a good reputation for sheltered employment institutions. The questionnaire results indicate that perceived service quality has a positive relationship with customer satisfaction and the reliability dimension is the most important factor for customers to assess service quality. Meanwhile, correlation analysis shows that customer satisfaction regarding service quality influences post-purchase intentions, indicating that friendly and helpful employees can please customers and enhance their satisfaction level and also induce positive post-purchase intentions of consumers. Regarding the CSR of "Children Are Us Bakeries and Restaurants" sheltered employment institutions, the analysis reveals a statistical significance: the greater customer satisfaction of CSR, the higher the post-purchase intention. In addition, in the work, paired-sample t test analysis reveals there is a significant difference (p<.05) in service quality and CSR in terms of "perceived" and "expected" responses. In summary, since those with intellectual disabilities usually are enthusiastic at work and do their best to provide good service and execute CSR well, the value of sheltered employment institutions establishments should be recognized by all should receive continued support and there should be a willingness to hire these intellectually disabled citizens. PMID:22699256

Chen, Chao-Chien; Lin, Shih-Yen; Cheng, Chia-Hsin; Tsai, Chia-Ching

2012-01-01

334

Bartonella infection in shelter cats and dogs and their ectoparasites.  

PubMed

Mainly through vector transmission, domestic cats and dogs are infected by several Bartonella spp. and represent a large reservoir for human infections. This study investigated the relationship of prevalences of Bartonella infection in shelter dogs and cats and various ectoparasite species infesting them (fleas, ticks, and lice). Moreover, relationships between Bartonella infection and animal gender and age and presence of ectoparasites were analyzed. Blood samples were collected from 120 dogs and 103 cats. There were 386 ticks and 36 fleas harvested on these dogs, and 141 fleas, 4 ticks, and 2 lice harvested on these cats. Isolation/detection of Bartonella sp. was performed by culture, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and partial sequencing. Bartonella was isolated from 21 (20.4%) cats and detected by PCR from 20 (19.4%) cats, 2 (1.7%) dogs, 55 (39%) fleas collected from cats, 28 (10%) ticks DNA samples, and 1 (2.8%) flea collected from dogs. When combining culture and PCR data, 27 cats and 55 fleas collected on cats were positive for Bartonella henselae or Bartonella clarridgeiae, but none were coinfected. Approximately half of the B. henselae isolates from 21 cats were B. henselae type I. Moreover, B. henselae, Bartonella phoceensis, Bartonella queenslandensis, Bartonella rattimassiliensis, Bartonella elizabethae DNA was detected in ticks collected from dogs and one flea was B. clarridgeiae PCR positive. This is the first report of such a wide variety of Bartonella spp. detected in Rhipicephalus sanguineus. Further studies are required to understand the relative importance of these ectoparasites to transmit Bartonella spp. in dogs and cats. PMID:21142966

Tsai, Yi-Lun; Lin, Chao-Chen; Chomel, Bruno B; Chuang, Shih-Te; Tsai, Kun-Hsien; Wu, Wen-Jer; Huang, Chin-Gi; Yu, Jiann-Chung; Sung, Min-Hua; Kass, Philip H; Chang, Chao-Chin

2011-08-01

335

Elimination behavior of shelter dogs housed in double compartment kennels.  

PubMed

For animals in confinement housing the housing structure has tremendous potential to impact well being. Dogs in animal shelters are often housed in one of two types of confinement housing - single kennels and rooms or double compartment kennels and rooms most often separated by a guillotine door. This study examines the effect of housing on the location of elimination behavior in dogs housed in double compartment kennels were the majority of the dogs were walked daily. One side of the kennel contained the food, water and bed and the other side was empty and available except during cleaning time. Location of urination and defecation was observed daily for 579 dogs housed in indoor double compartment kennels for a total of 4440 days of observation. There were 1856 days (41.9%) when no elimination was noted in the kennel. Feces, urine or both were observed in the kennel on 2584 days (58.1%). When elimination occurred in the kennel the probability of fecal elimination on the opposite side of the bed/food/water was 72.5% (95% CI 69.05% to 75.69%). The probability of urination on the opposite side of the bed/food/water was 77.4% (95% CI 74.33% to 80.07%). This study demonstrates the strong preference of dogs to eliminate away from the area where they eat, drink and sleep. Double compartment housing not only allows this - it allows staff the ability to provide safe, efficient, humane daily care and confers the added benefits of reducing risks for disease transmission for the individual dog as well as the population. PMID:24825357

Wagner, Denae; Newbury, Sandra; Kass, Philip; Hurley, Kate

2014-01-01

336

Elimination Behavior of Shelter Dogs Housed in Double Compartment Kennels  

PubMed Central

For animals in confinement housing the housing structure has tremendous potential to impact well being. Dogs in animal shelters are often housed in one of two types of confinement housing – single kennels and rooms or double compartment kennels and rooms most often separated by a guillotine door. This study examines the effect of housing on the location of elimination behavior in dogs housed in double compartment kennels were the majority of the dogs were walked daily. One side of the kennel contained the food, water and bed and the other side was empty and available except during cleaning time. Location of urination and defecation was observed daily for 579 dogs housed in indoor double compartment kennels for a total of 4440 days of observation. There were 1856 days (41.9%) when no elimination was noted in the kennel. Feces, urine or both were observed in the kennel on 2584 days (58.1%). When elimination occurred in the kennel the probability of fecal elimination on the opposite side of the bed/food/water was 72.5% (95% CI 69.05% to 75.69%). The probability of urination on the opposite side of the bed/food/water was 77.4% (95% CI 74.33% to 80.07%). This study demonstrates the strong preference of dogs to eliminate away from the area where they eat, drink and sleep. Double compartment housing not only allows this – it allows staff the ability to provide safe, efficient, humane daily care and confers the added benefits of reducing risks for disease transmission for the individual dog as well as the population.

Wagner, Denae; Newbury, Sandra; Kass, Philip; Hurley, Kate

2014-01-01

337

The Earth System Model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Earth System Model is the natural evolution of current climate models and will be the ultimate embodiment of our geophysical understanding of the planet. These models are constructed from components - atmosphere, ocean, ice, land, chemistry, solid earth, etc. models and merged together through a coupling program which is responsible for the exchange of data from the components. Climate models and future earth system models will have standardized modules, and these standards are now being developed by the ESMF project funded by NASA. The Earth System Model will have a variety of uses beyond climate prediction. The model can be used to build climate data records making it the core of an assimilation system, and it can be used in OSSE experiments to evaluate. The computing and storage requirements for the ESM appear to be daunting. However, the Japanese ES theoretical computing capability is already within 20% of the minimum requirements needed for some 2010 climate model applications. Thus it seems very possible that a focused effort to build an Earth System Model will achieve succcss.

Schoeberl, Mark; Rood, Richard B.; Hildebrand, Peter; Raymond, Carol

2003-01-01

338

Earth's Seasons  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A computer animation on the reason for the seasons. Voice-over describes the motion of Earth around the sun to show how the sun's light impacts the tilted Earth at different times of the year, causing seasonal changes.

Rochester Museum And Science Center, Strasenburgh P.

339

Coordinating Communities and Building Governance in the Development of Schematic and Semantic Standards: the Key to Solving Global Earth and Space Science Challenges in the 21st Century.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Information Age in Science is being driven partly by the data deluge as exponentially growing volumes of data are being generated by research. Such large volumes of data cannot be effectively processed by humans and efficient and timely processing by computers requires development of specific machine readable formats. Further, as key challenges in earth and space sciences, such as climate change, hazard prediction and sustainable development resources require a cross disciplinary approach, data from various domains will need to be integrated from globally distributed sources also via machine to machine formats. However, it is becoming increasingly apparent that the existing standards can be very domain specific and most existing data transfer formats require human intervention. Where groups from different communities do try combine data across the domain/discipline boundaries much time is spent reformatting and reorganizing the data and it is conservatively estimated that this can take 80% of a project's time and resources. Four different types of standards are required for machine to machine interaction: systems, syntactic, schematic and semantic. Standards at the systems (WMS, WFS, etc) and at the syntactic level (GML, Observation and Measurement, SensorML) are being developed through international standards bodies such as ISO, OGC, W3C, IEEE etc. In contrast standards at the schematic level (e.g., GeoSciML, LandslidesML, WaterML, QuakeML) and at the semantic level (ie ontologies and vocabularies) are currently developing rapidly, in a very uncoordinated way and with little governance. As the size of the community that can machine read each others data depends on the size of the community that has developed the schematic or semantic standards, it is essential that to achieve global integration of earth and space science data, the required standards need to be developed through international collaboration using accepted standard proceedures. Once developed the standards also require some form of governance to maintain and then extend the standard as the science evolves to meet new challenges. A standard that does have some governance is GeoSciML, a data transfer standard for geoscience map data. GeoSciML is currently being developed by a consortium of 7 countries under the auspices of the Commission for the Management of and Application of Geoscience Information (CGI), a commission of the International Union of Geological Sciences. Perhaps other `ML' or ontology and vocabulary development `teams' need to look to their international domain specific specialty societies for endorsement and governance. But the issue goes beyond Earth and Space Sciences, as increasingly cross and intra disciplinary science requires machine to machine interaction with other science disciplines such as physics, chemistry and astronomy. For example, for geochemistry do we develop GeochemistryML or do we extend the existing Chemical Markup Language? Again, the question is who will provide the coordination of the development of the required schematic and semantic standards that underpin machine to machine global integration of science data. Is this a role for ICSU or CODATA or who? In order to address this issue, Geoscience Australia and CSIRO established the Solid Earth and Environmental Grid Community website to enable communities to `advertise' standards development and to provide a community TWIKI where standards can be developed in a globally `open' environment.

Wyborn, L. A.

2007-12-01

340

Earth Flow  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Flash animation with accompanying audio exhibits the different stages involved in the formation of an earth flow. A step-like scarp forms along with a flowage zone at the toe of the earth flow. The sequence concludes with the stabilization of the earth flow with vegetation. Expect long loading times.

Wiley

341

Edible Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners make a model of the solid Earth's layers that's good enough to eat! Learners use tasty foodstuffs to simulate Earth's inner core, outer core, mantle, and crust. The recipe includes ingredients for one edible Earth, but can be doubled or tripled to accommodate groups of learners. This activity requires adult supervision.

History, American M.

2011-08-20

342

Earth's Layers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Complete a poster all about Earth's Layers! Directions: Make a poster about Earth's Layers. (20 points) Include at least (1) large picture (15 points) on your poster complete with labels of every part (10 points). (15 points) Include at least three (3) facts about Earth's Layers. (5 points each) (15 points) Write at least a three sentence summary of your poster ...

Walls, Mrs.

2011-01-30

343

Snowball Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Audio program from the University of Wisconsin's Earthwatch Radio discusses the notion of the entire planet covered with ice. Doug Macdougall is an earth scientist at the University of California-San Diego and author of a new book called "Frozen Earth." He says the planet-wide freeze is known as "Snowball Earth."

344

Orbiting Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Flash animation contrasts the geostationary versus polar orbits for satellites. For a geostationary orbit, the satellite remains directly above a fixed point at all times; in time with the Earth's rotation, the satellite circles the earth once every 24 hours, continually viewing the same part of Earth. For the polar orbit, the satellite circles over both poles in a constant plane while earth rotates beneath. Earth's rotation exposes different parts of the surface on each orbit. The animation is useful for a discussion on how remote sensing imagery and Global Positioning Systems (GPS) signals are derived. The animation can be paused and rewound to stress important points.

Loomis, Jennifer; Nasa; Earth, Exploring

345

A needs-assessment and demographic survey of infection-control and disease awareness in western US animal shelters.  

PubMed

A cross-sectional needs-assessment survey was used to characterize animal shelters in a 6-state region in the western US and describe infection-control practices and disease awareness. Survey questions focused on shelter demographics, infection-control practices and policies, awareness and concern over infectious and zoonotic diseases, staff and volunteer training relating to infection-control and disease awareness, use of diagnostic tools, and isolation procedures and protocols. Fifty percent of shelters responded to the survey and represented a wide variety of shelter types, sizes and locations. The top-three diseases of concern to shelters were feline upper respiratory disease (FURD), canine parvovirus and ringworm. Concern over these diseases was greater in open-admission shelters (compared to limited admission or no-kill/sanctuary) (OR 3.7, 95% CI 1.1-12.5) and in shelters with a desire for more zoonotic-disease training (OR=6.1, 95% CI 1.5-24.8) (compared to shelters desiring infectious-disease training, training on cleaning and disinfection or those who have no need for further training). In 45% of responding shelters many to most animals arrive with infectious diseases. Written protocols for preventive medicine exist in 88% of shelters, cleaning and disinfection protocols in 75%, specific disease protocols for outbreak situations in 36% and infection-control manuals in 15%. Veterinarians are in charge of infection-control in 6% of shelters. Approximately 45% of shelters vaccinate dogs and cats for rabies. Infectious-disease training is provided to 30% of staff and 35% of volunteers upon hire. Overall, volunteers received less training in infectious- and zoonotic-disease identification, prevention and control than staff members. Ninety percent of shelters said they would benefit from training in infectious and zoonotic disease. Results from this study can be used to assess and address needs in animal shelters relating to infection-control, infectious and zoonotic-disease awareness and can help guide development of shelter staff and volunteer training. PMID:21126786

Steneroden, Kay K; Hill, Ashley E; Salman, M D

2011-01-01

346

Future of Green Building  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This presentation from Sean Penrith, executive director of the Earth Advantage Institute, was given at Portland Community College's 2009 Summer Sustainability Institute. Sean shares some data about the outlook for green building projects in the Portland area and elsewhere. The presentation looks at many different aspects of the issue of green building including home energy use, local and national movements to improve technology and encourage green building, information on mortgages available for sustainable home building and more. This document may be downloaded in PDF file format.

Penrith, Sean

2012-04-11

347

Simplifying the assessment of building vulnerability to chemical,biological and radiological releases  

SciTech Connect

The intentional or accidental release of airborne chemical, biological, or radiological materials can pose a significant threat to the health of building occupants. Pre-planning and emergency response measures, such as HVAC system manipulation and sheltering during an event, can significantly reduce the exposure of building occupants. A straightforward and comprehensive vulnerability assessment methodology is an essential tool for assisting building managers and operators in preparing for airborne hazards.

Thatcher, T.L.; Wood, E.E.; Edelson, E.C.; Sextro, R.G.

2005-01-01

348

FAST CHOPPER BUILDING, TRA665. CAMERA FACING NORTH. NOTE BRICKEDIN WINDOW ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

FAST CHOPPER BUILDING, TRA-665. CAMERA FACING NORTH. NOTE BRICKED-IN WINDOW ON RIGHT SIDE (BELOW PAINTED NUMERALS "665"). SLIDING METAL DOOR ON COVERED RAIL AT UPPER LEVEL. SHELTERED ENTRANCE TO STEEL SHIELDING DOOR. DOOR INTO MTR SERVICE BUILDING, TRA-635, STANDS OPEN. MTR BEHIND CHOPPER BUILDING. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD42-1. Mike Crane, Photographer, 3/2004 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

349

Appropriate care for shelter-based abused women: concept mapping with Dutch clients and professionals.  

PubMed

We conducted a concept mapping exercise to gain insight into the perspectives held by abused women and professionals with regard to appropriate care in Dutch women's shelters. Three brainstorming sessions generated 92 statements that were then rated by 56 clients and 51 professionals. A total of 11 clusters were identified. The three most important clusters were "help with finding a safe house if necessary," "safety and suitable care for the children," and "a personalized, respectful approach." The most important statement was "take women seriously and treat them with respect." The mapping exercise identified key practice-based elements of intervention that should better accommodate the needs of shelter-based abused women. We have used these elements in developing a new intervention for shelter-based abused women in the Netherlands. PMID:24686124

Jonker, Irene E; Jansen, Carinda C J M; Christians, Milou G M; Wolf, Judith R L M

2014-04-01

350

Damage function rating procedure for flat slab basement shelters. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the development of procedures for rating of damage function and casualty functions for basement Civil Defense shelters. Suitable large basements, after having been upgraded during a crisis period, to withstand nuclear weapons effects including air blast, and nuclear radiation are expected to be utilized to provide protection for a large portion of the population in the event of a nuclear attack on the United States. Both risk area personnel shelters for essential workers and host area shelters for the general population are included. The report includes: a descriptive listing of basement structural systems and other pertinent basement parameters; a description of the characteristics of typical flat slab basement designs; a review of applicable casualty data and prediction models for nuclear warfare casualties; a summary of previous research on development of casualty functions; a description of the current status of the damage and casualty function development procedure; casualty function predictions for representative flat slab basements; and conclusions and recommendations.

Peterson, R.E.; Bernard, R.D.; Tansley, R.S.; Willoughby, A.B.; Wilton, C.

1982-12-01

351

IRS targets abusive oil and gas and other tax-shelter investments as litigating vehicles  

SciTech Connect

The Internal Revenue Service (IRS) has targeted all investors and promoters involved in tax-sheltered investments for audit. Several new audit types and procedures will mean that investors are more likely to be audited and, when they are, it will take longer and cost more. Oil- and gas-drilling funds are among those targeted for audits in an effort to ferret out tax-shelter abuses. One danger of a new fast-track rulings section in the Rulings Division of the IRS is that an erroneous ruling issued might ultimately be resolved in the tax payer's favor in court; nevertheless, the promotor may be precluded from raising funds from discouraged investors who could have been afforded legitimate tax shelters. Probably the greatest potential area for abuse is each IRS district having sole jurisdiction to determine what is a litigating vehicle case.

Carter, R.D.; Parrott, T.G.

1980-12-01

352

Seasonal shifts in shelter and microhabitat use of drymarchon couperi (eastern indigo snake) in Georgia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Drymarchon couperi (Eastern Indigo Snake), a threatened species of the southeastern Coastal Plain of the United States, has experienced population declines because of extensive habitat loss and degradation across its range. In Georgia and northern Florida, the species is associated with longleaf pine habitats that support Gopherus polyphemus (Gopher Tortoise) populations, the burrows of which D. couperi uses for shelter. The extent that D. couperi uses these burrows, in addition to the use of other underground shelters and the microhabitat features associated with these structures is largely unknown. From 2003 through 2004, we conducted a radiotelemetry study of D. couperi (n = 32) to examine use of shelters and microhabitat in Georgia. We used repeated measures regression on a candidate set of models created from a priori hypotheses using principal component scores, derived from analysis of microhabitat data to examine microhabitat use at underground shelters. Proportion of locations recorded underground did not differ seasonally or between sexes. In winter, we recorded >0.90 of underground locations at tortoise burrows. Use of these burrows was less pronounced in spring for males. Females used abandoned tortoise burrows more frequently than males year-round and used them on approximately 0.60 of their underground locations during spring. Microhabitat use at underground shelters was most influenced by season compared to sex, site, or body size. Females in spring and summer used more open microhabitat compared to males, potentially in response to gestation. Our results suggest that the availability of suitable underground shelters, especially G. polyphemus burrows, may be a limiting factor in the northern range of D. couperi, with important implications for its conservation. ?? 2009 by the American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists.

Hyslop, N. L.; Cooper, R. J.; Meyers, J. M.

2009-01-01

353

Prevalence of HIV infection among psychiatric patients in a New York City men's shelter.  

PubMed Central

We report on the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection among psychiatric patients in a New York City shelter for homeless men. We reviewed the records of all 90 men discharged from the shelter psychiatry program to community housing over a 2-year period. HIV serostatus was recorded for 62 of the 90 men. Of these 62, 12 (19.4%) were positive. There were 28 men whose serostatus was not recorded. Data on the HIV risk behaviors of these 28 men suggested that seroprevalence could have been similarly high among them. The results indicate an urgent need to develop and apply preventive interventions for HIV in this population.

Susser, E; Valencia, E; Conover, S

1993-01-01

354

Feasibility and cost analysis of surge period shelter programs. Final report Mar 79-Jun 80  

SciTech Connect

Protection of the civilian population from the effects of a nuclear attack is one of the goals of the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). In-place population protection and protection by relocation are two distinct types of civilian protection plans that are used. The in-place plans demand direct effects protection for the entire risk area population, while in the latter case only a skeleton work force needs to be protected. This report describes the investigation into the feasibility and costs of providing all-effects shelters in risk areas for an in-place shelter plan as well as a population relocation plan.

Kamath, R.V.; Wright, M.D.

1980-06-01

355

Upgrading of existing structures. Phase III. Shelter design options. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of an investigation of blast upgrading of existing structures, which consisted of developing failure prediction methodologies for various structure types, both in as built and in upgraded configurations, and verifying these prediction techniques with full-scale load tests. These upgrading schemes were developed for use as shelters in support of Civil Defense crisis relocation planning. Structure types investigated included wood, steel, and concrete floor and roof systems. The results of this study are being used in the development of a shelter manual presenting the various upgrading concepts in an illustrative workbook form for use in the field.

Tansley, R.S.; Gabrielsen, B.L.; Cuzner, G.J.

1981-05-01

356

Research on upgrading structures for host and risk area shelters. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report presents a summary of the work conducted during the first year of a five-year program. This research effort provides the engineering basis and guidance for the development of upgrading for host and risk area shelters. This investigation is in support of current Civil Defense planning based on a policy of crisis relocation, and includes investigative efforts related to glulam timber beams, concrete connections, punching strength of reinforced concrete slabs, and static/dynamic testing of prestressed concrete slabs. The results of this study are being used in the development of a prediction methodology for comparative selection of shelter spaces.

Tansley, R.S.; Cuzner, G.J.; Wilton, C.

1982-09-01

357

Discover Earth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Discover Earth is a NASA-sponsored project for teachers of grades 5-12, designed to: (1) enhance understanding of the Earth as an integrated system; (2) enhance the interdisciplinary approach to science instruction; and (3) provide classroom materials that focus on those goals. Discover Earth is conducted by the Institute for Global Environmental Strategies in collaboration with Dr. Eric Barron, Director, Earth System Science Center, The Pennsylvania State University; and Dr. Robert Hudson, Chair, the Department of Meteorology, University of Maryland at College Park. The enclosed materials: (1) represent only part of the Discover Earth materials; (2) were developed by classroom teachers who are participating in the Discover Earth project; (3) utilize an investigative approach and on-line data; and (4) can be effectively adjusted to classrooms with greater/without technology access. The Discover Earth classroom materials focus on the Earth system and key issues of global climate change including topics such as the greenhouse effect, clouds and Earth's radiation balance, surface hydrology and land cover, and volcanoes and climate change. All the materials developed to date are available on line at (http://www.strategies.org) You are encouraged to submit comments and recommendations about these materials to the Discover Earth project manager, contact information is listed below. You are welcome to duplicate all these materials.

Steele, Colleen

1998-01-01

358

Protective action evaluation. Part II. Evacuation and sheltering as protective actions against nuclear accidents involving gaseous releases. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on a study to assess the application and utility of sheltering and evacuation as specific protective measures in the event of accidental releases of gaseous radioactive material from nuclear power plants, this report is the second of two parts that deal specifically with the effectiveness of sheltering and evacuationas protective actions. The first report focused on the benefits of

G. H. Anno; M. A. Dore

1978-01-01

359

The Perceived Impact of a Child Maltreatment Report from the Perspective of the Domestic Violence Shelter Worker  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is to examine domestic violence shelter workers' perceptions of child maltreatment reporting. A sample of 82 professionals from domestic violence shelters across the United States participated in a survey focusing on a variety of different types of reports and the frequency of both positive and negative outcomes arising…

Steen, Julie A.

2009-01-01

360

Fire Ants Protect Mealybugs against Their Natural Enemies by Utilizing the Leaf Shelters Constructed by the Leaf Roller Sylepta derogata  

PubMed Central

The importance of mutualism is receiving more attention in community ecology. In this study, the fire ant Solenopsis invicta was found to take advantage of the shelters constructed by the leaf roller Sylepta derogata to protect mealybugs (Phenacoccus solenopsis) against their natural enemies. This protective effect of fire ant tending on the survival of mealybugs in shelters was observed when enemies and leaf rollers were simultaneously present. Specifically, fire ants moved the mealybugs inside the shelters produced by S. derogata on enemy-infested plants. Compared with that in plants without ants, the survival of mealybugs in shelters in the presence of natural enemies in plants with ants markedly improved. Both the protection of ants and the shelters provided by leaf rollers did not affect the survival of mealybugs in the absence of enemies in plants. Ants and leaf rollers significantly improved the survival of mealybugs in predator-infested plants, whereas no such improvement was observed in parasitoid-infested ones.

Zhou, Aiming; Zeng, Ling; Lu, Yongyue; Xu, Yijuan; Liang, Guangwen

2012-01-01

361

Dynamic Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Dynamic Earth consists of four sections and an assessment. Each section explores one aspect of the earth's structure and the movement of its tectonic plates. Simply follow the instructions on the screen to learn about the layers that make up the earth; how the continents arrived at their current locations; the constant movement of the tectonic plates; and the volcanoes, earthquakes, and other events that result from the movements of the plates. Students will view animations, read explanations, and use their mouse to drag and drop the earth's continents in their correct places, highlight features on a map, and cause earth's tectonic plates to move. At various points, students will check their knowledge by taking a quick quiz or playing a game to see how much they have learned about the Dynamic Earth. Students should read section introductions carefully, as they give a basic overview of concepts, and use the Glossary to look up definitions to unfamiliar terms.

Quinn, Ashlinn

2007-01-01

362

Earth Floor  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Classroom of the Future (COTF) website highlights information about the Earth and its development through time. Spheres discusses layers of the Earth's environment such as the hydrosphere, Cycles discusses rock and water cycles, and Diversity illustrates different species and genetic variations that have emerged on Earth. Also covered are biomes, adaptation, geologic time, and plate tectonics. Each of these sections is an in-depth tutorial on these specific topics.

363

Visible Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

NASA's Visible Earth is a searchable directory of images, visualizations, and animations of the Earth. The images are also listed under the following categories: agriculture, atmosphere, biosphere, cryosphere, human dimensions, hydrosphere, land surface, oceans, radiance or imagery, solid earth, locations, and satellites. Accompanying each image are credits, data about the image, the satellite it was taken from, a description of what is shown, and a high-resolution viewable image.

364

Dynamic Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Dynamic Earth is an interactive Web site where students can learn about the structure of the Earth, the movements of tectonic plates, and the forces that create mountains, valleys, volcanoes, and earthquakes. It consists of four sections, a glossary and an assessment. Each section explores one aspect of the Earth's structure and the movement of its tectonic plates. At various points of the interactive, students can check their knowledge by taking a quick quiz or playing a game to see how much they have learned. Dynamic Earth includes an extensive assessment section designed to evaluate how well students have learned the content and skills.

365

High prevalence of deep vein thrombosis in tsunami-flooded shelters established after the great East-Japan earthquake.  

PubMed

High prevalence of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in disaster shelters has been reported in the aftermath of earthquakes in Japan. Calf DVT was examined using sonography in the shelters after the Great East Japan earthquake on March 11, 2011. By the end of July 2011, 701 out of 8,630 evacuees suspected with calf DVT, judged by inspections or medical interviews, were examined in 32 shelters, and 190 evacuees were confirmed to have calf DVT. The prevalence of DVT was 2.20%, which was 200 times higher than the usual incidence in Japan. The DVT prevalence seemed to decrease with time. By the end of May, a significantly higher prevalence of DVT was found in tsunami-flooded shelters (109 of 3,871 evacuees; 2.82%) than in non-flooded shelters (53 of 3,155 evacuees; 1.68%). After June, its prevalence was still higher (18/541; 3.33%) in tsunami-flooded shelters than in non-flooded shelters (10/1063; 0.94%). The cause of the high prevalence of DVT was supposed to be dehydration due to the delay in supplying drinking water, vomiting, and diarrhea experienced by the evacuees because of a shortage of clean water to wash their hands. Dehydration was especially noticed in women because they restricted themselves of water intake to avoid using unsanitary toilet facilities. Moreover, crowded shelters restricted the mobility of elderly people, which would exacerbate the prevalence of DVT. Those deteriorated and crowded shelters were observed in tsunami-flooded areas. Therefore, long-term shelters should not be set up in flooded areas after tsunami. PMID:22728376

Ueda, Shinsaku; Hanzawa, Kazuhiko; Shibata, Muneichi; Suzuki, Satoshi

2012-01-01

366

One-year rates of public shelter utilization by race\\/ethnicity, age, sex and poverty status for New York City (1990 and 1995) and Philadelphia (1995)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study calculates public homeless shelter utilization rates by sex, race\\/ethnicity and age status for New York City (1990 and 1995) and Philadelphia (fiscal year 1995) to determine the relative risk for shelter use among different demographic groups in these cities. The resulting shelter utilization rates reveal large disparities among age groups and across racial\\/ethnic groups, as well as showing

Dennis Culhane; Stephen Metraux

1999-01-01

367

Where Would CINDI Be? A 3-D Scale Model of the Earth-Moon System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an activity about the Earth-Moon system. Learners will build a scale model of the Earth-Moon system and predict the distance between the two, as well as the distance of Earth-orbiting spacecraft.

368

Methodological and Ethical Issues Emerging from Pilot Testing an Intervention with Women in a Transitional Shelter  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article focuses on the methodological and ethical issues that emerged during the pilot test of a social support intervention with women who had experienced homelessness and were living in a transitional shelter. The over- all goal of this project was to improve their health outcomes, more specifi- cally their health maintenance behaviors and general health. This article briefly describes

Diane C. Hatton; Lisa Kaiser

2004-01-01

369

Use of water hyacinths as shelter, foraging place, and transport by young piranhas, Serrasalmus spilopleura  

Microsoft Academic Search

The water hyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes, plays an important role in the early life of the piranha, Serrasalmus spilopleura in southeastern Brazil. Larvae and early juveniles are found by both day and night among the roots of this free floating waterweed, thus gaining shelter, a rich foraging place, and potential rafting dispersal. Piranha larvae up to 19 mm SL feed mainly

Ivan Sazima; Claudio Zamprognoz

1985-01-01

370

A proposed new handbook for the Federal Emergency Management Agency: Radiation safety in shelters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A proposed replacement for the portion of the current Handbook for Radiological Monitoring that deals with protection of people in shelters from radiation from fallout resulting from nuclear war is presented. Basic information at a high school level is given on how to detect nuclear radiation, how to find and improve the safest places in a shelter, the necessity for and how to keep records on individual radiation exposures, and how to minimize exposures. Several procedures are introduced, some of which are based more on theoretical considerations than on actual experiments. These procedures include: (1) the method of time averaging radiation readings taken with one instrument in different locations of a large shelter while fallout is coming down and radiation levels ar climbing too rapidly for direct comparison of readings to determine the safest location; (2) the method of using one's own body to obtain directionality in radiation readings taken with a standard Civil Defense survey meter; (3) the method of using mutual shielding to reduce the average radiation exposure to shelter occupants; and (4) the ratio method for estimating radiation levels in hazardous areas.

Haaland, C. M.

1981-09-01

371

Report to the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development on the Homeless and Emergency Shelters.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report provides information on three basic issues concerning homelessness: (1) the extent of homelessness nationwide and by region, (2) a profile of the homeless, and (3) the extent of shelter capacity and other programs for the homeless. Data and in...

1984-01-01

372

Finite element simulation of response of buried shelters to blast loadings  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present paper, the response of buried shelters to blast loadings due to conventional weapon detonation has been investigated using the finite element method. The finite element analysis was carried out using a commercial FEA software package, ABAQUS. The validity of finite element model parameters adopted was established by comparisons with existing empirical formulae available for free-field conditions in

Zhengwen Yang

1997-01-01

373

A&M. Hot cell annex (TAN633) north facade. Gabled canopy shelters ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

A&M. Hot cell annex (TAN-633) north facade. Gabled canopy shelters north end of monorail. High bay of hot shop beyond. Date: March 2004. INEEL negative no. HD-39-2-4 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

374

Sheltered Housing for the Elderly: The Role of the British Warden.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Minimal service sheltered housing with peripatetic services adjusted to individual need may be more acceptable to the majority of elderly. The key program element in the British model is a resident warden, a housewife whose training and presence assures a proper and consistent flow of peripatetic support services. (Author)

Heumann, Leonard F.

1980-01-01

375

Behavioural and physiological responses of shelter dogs to long-term confinement.  

PubMed

In Italy, National Law (281/1991) prohibits euthanasia of shelter dogs if they are not dangerous or suffering seriously. Adoption rates in rescue shelters are often lower than entrance rates, leading inevitably to overcrowded facilities where animals are likely to spend the rest of their lives in kennels. In this situation, housing conditions (i.e. space provided, environmental, and social stimulation) may have an impact on canine welfare. In this research project, the effects of two different forms of housing (group- and pair housing) on long-term shelter dogs were compared using behavioural and physiological parameters. Observational data and saliva samples were collected from dogs exposed to both experimental settings; behaviour and cortisol concentration levels were used as welfare indicators. Pair housing offered fewer social and environmental stimuli and behavioural analysis showed a significant decrease in locomotor, exploratory, and social behaviour. Cortisol levels show that this parameter varied independently of housing conditions. Although this study found no evidence suggesting that one form of confinement reduced animal welfare more than the other (e.g. in terms of abnormal behaviour, or higher cortisol concentrations), the type of confinement did affect the expression of a variety of behaviours and these variations should not be ignored with respect to housing decisions for long-term shelter dogs. PMID:23888421

Dalla Villa, Paolo; Barnard, Shanis; Di Fede, Elisa; Podaliri, Michele; Candeloro, Luca; Di Nardo, Antonio; Siracusa, Carlo; Serpell, James A

2013-01-01

376

Cognitive Coaching: A Critical Phase in Professional Development to Implement Sheltered Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This documentary account describes professional development for teachers in the USA serving culturally and linguistically diverse students. The purpose of the project was to monitor effectiveness of training in Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol (SIOP) and to assess the value of cognitive coaching. Quantitative and qualitative data sources…

Batt, Ellen G.

2010-01-01

377

Cyclone shelters and their locational suitability: an empirical analysis from coastal Bangladesh.  

PubMed

Bangladesh is one of the poorest and the most disaster-prone countries in Asia; it is important, therefore, to know how its disaster reduction strategies are organised and planned. Cyclone shelters comprise a widely acceptable form of infrastructural support for disaster management in Bangladesh. This paper attempts to analyse empirically their use during cyclones in a sample study area along the southwest coastal belt of the country. It shows how the location of a cyclone shelter can determine the social power structure in coastal Bangladesh. The results reveal that the establishment of cyclone shelters in the studied communities is determined by neither a right-based nor a demand-based planning approach; rather, their creation is dependent on the socio-political affluence of local-level decision-makers. The paper goes on to demonstrate that socially vulnerable households (defined, for example, by income or housing conditions) are afforded disproportionately less access to cyclone shelters as compared to less socially vulnerable households. PMID:24905715

Mallick, Bishawjit

2014-07-01

378

A Way of Looking at Sheltered Workshops for the 1970's. Interface Number 3.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sheltered work programs for the handicapped in five European countries (Denmark, Sweden, Poland, West Germany, and The Netherlands) are described in this paper. Basic features of the programs in each country are discussed, including population, financing, and aspects of the programs that can be applied in helping America improve employment…

Redkey, Henry

379

Recruitment to Sheltered Employment: Evidence from Samhall, a Swedish State-Owned Company  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyses recruitment practices to Samhall, a state-owned company that provides sheltered employment for individuals with severe work disabilities. Besides providing employment for disabled workers and rehabilitating them to employment outside Samhall, the company is expected to decrease its dependence on Government subsidies. This profitability goal may come into conflict with the recruitment goals, resulting in cream skimming effects.

Per Skedinger; Barbro Widerstedt

2003-01-01

380

Recruitment to sheltered employment: Evidence from Samhall, a Swedish state-owned company  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyses recruitment practices to Samhall, a state-owned company that provides sheltered employment for individuals with severe work disabilities. Besides providing employment for disabled workers and rehabilitating them to employment outside Samhall, the company is expected to decrease its dependence on Government subsidies. This profitability goal may come into conflict with the recruitment goals, resulting in cream skimming effects.

Per Skedinger; Barbro Widerstedt

2003-01-01

381

Rehabilitation, Sheltered Workshops, and the Disadvantaged: An Exploration in Manpower Policy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication contains presentations and summary of a conference designed to explore the potential of the rehabilitation model in providing rehabilitation and manpower services to the disadvantaged through sheltered workshops. Presented by scholars and practitioners in the fields of manpower economics, psychology, social psychology, sociology,…

State Univ. of New York, Ithaca. School of Industrial and Labor Relations at Cornell Univ.

382

Analysis of sheltering and evacuation strategies for a national capital region nuclear detonation scenario  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development of an effective strategy for shelter and evacuation is among the most important planning tasks in preparation for response to a low yield, nuclear detonation in an urban area. Extensive studies have been performed and guidance published that highlight the key principles for saving lives following such an event. However, region-specific data are important in the planning process as

Ann S. Yoshimura; Larry D. Brandt

2011-01-01

383

Analysis of sheltering and evacuation strategies for a Chicago nuclear detonation scenario  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development of an effective strategy for shelter and evacuation is among the most important planning tasks in preparation for response to a low yield, nuclear detonation in an urban area. Extensive studies have been performed and guidance published that highlight the key principles for saving lives following such an event. However, region-specific data are important in the planning process as

Ann S. Yoshimura; Larry D. Brandt

2011-01-01

384

Heart rate variability and saliva cortisol assessment in shelter dog: Human–animal interaction effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of a human interaction program on shelter dogs and to determine the effect on canine heart rate variability, behaviour, and salivary cortisol levels. Twenty dogs were behaviourally (temperament tests) and clinically (full cardiologic examination) pre-tested and then matched in two homogenous groups. Ten dogs (group A) were submitted to a

Luciana Bergamasco; Maria Cristina Osella; Paolo Savarino; Giuseppe Larosa; Laura Ozella; Monica Manassero; Paola Badino; Rosangela Odore; Raffaella Barbero; Giovanni Re

2010-01-01

385

A Wind Tunnel Investigation into the Design of a Filling and Launching Shelter for Meteorological Balloons.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Wind-tunnel tests were carried out to develop a balloon filling shelter with improved airflow characteristics compared to the rectangular structure currently in use. An initial series of tests was carried out on a large number of 1:55 scale cardboard mode...

M. J. Grubb P. G. G. Oneill

1973-01-01

386

The Cumulative Cost-Effectiveness of Supported and Sheltered Employees with Mental Retardation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the cumulative costs generated by supported and sheltered employees with mental retardation throughout one "employment cycle," that is, from the moment they entered their respective programs to when they exited or stopped receiving services. Data indicate that supported employees acquired services costing funding sources a…

Cimera, Robert Evert

2007-01-01

387

Service Quality and Corporate Social Responsibility, Influence on Post-Purchase Intentions of Sheltered Employment Institutions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The main purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of service quality and corporate social responsibility (CSR) on customer satisfaction, and customer satisfaction toward post-purchase intentions from sheltered employment institutions. Work experience plays an important role in career development for those people with intellectual…

Chen, Chao-Chien; Lin, Shih-Yen; Cheng, Chia-Hsin; Tsai, Chia-Ching

2012-01-01

388

THE COST OF SHADE: COST-EFFECTIVENESS OF TREES VERSUS BUS SHELTERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shade at bus stops can enhance the thermal comfort of waiting riders and can encourage new passengers, thereby reducing air pollution and traffic congestion. This study used computer simulation to compare the cost-effectiveness of shade provided by metal shelters versus trees at 64 bus stops in Tucson, Arizona. The 40-year projected total future and present values of costs were over

E. Gregory McPherson; Sharon Biedenbender

1991-01-01

389

Front End Analysis of Armored Vehicle Alternatives for the Chemically and Biologically Protected Shelter.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

With the increased mobility of the M1 Abrams and M2/M3 Bradley equipped heavy division, the ability of the Chemically and Biologically Protected Shelter 0CBPS), as presently configured, to keep pace with heavy armored divisions is questionable. To resolve...

S. A. Rei R. Stoehr

1994-01-01

390

Use of a mobile health van by a vulnerable population: Homeless sheltered women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is known about the health status of homeless women. In this study, we examined the health problems of and services provided to sheltered, homeless, Midwestern women who used a mobile health van. Our objectives were to document these women's ages, self?reported past medical histories, self?reported histories of addictions and hospitalizations, presenting concerns, diagnoses, and visit patterns. To this end,

Diane McGee; Martha Morgan; Mary J. McNamee; Jean Krajicek Bartek

1995-01-01

391

The influence of environmental change on the behaviour of sheltered dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The majority of sheltered dogs are overlooked for purchase because they are considered undesirable by potential buyers. Many factors may determine a dog's appeal, although of interest here are the dog's behaviour and cage environment which can influence its desirability. People prefer dogs which are at the front rather than the back of the cage, quiet as opposed to barking,

Deborah L Wells; Peter G Hepper

2000-01-01

392

Fire Protection and Detection System: Hardened Aircraft Shelter (HAS) Personnel Egress and Fuel Securing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A recent Air Force study resulted in the development of a fire detection and suppression system for tactical hardened aircraft shelters (HAS). This study recommended adjunct efforts be undertaken to assure that personnel within the HAS at the time of acti...

B. Dees H. D. Beeson J. A. Centrone J. K. Newman T. J. Stepetic

1988-01-01

393

Was There a Real “Mineshaft Gap”? Bomb Shelters in the USSR, 1945–1962  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the Cold War, the nature, intent, and scale of Soviet civil defense were the subject of heated debate in the West. Some analysts claimed that the USSR possessed a massive civil defense program capable of seriously destabilizing the strategic nuclear balance. This article draws on previously unexamined archival sources to investigate Soviet shelter construction from 1953, when the USSR's

Edward Geist

2012-01-01

394

Civil Defense Communications Studies: Communications Requirements to Support Movement-to-Shelter Concept.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A detailed study of the communications requirements to support the Movement-to-Shelter (MTS) concept is made. The city of New Orleans and the nuclear attack postulated in the Five City Study are used as a situation model. These requirements embrace commun...

A. J. Mandelbaum

1969-01-01

395

Learning in a Sheltered Internet Environment: The Use of WebQuests  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study investigated the effects on learning in a sheltered Internet environment using so-called WebQuests in elementary school classrooms in the Netherlands. A WebQuest is an assignment presented together with a series of web pages to help guide children's learning. The learning gains and quality of the work of 229 sixth graders…

Segers, Eliane; Verhoeven, Ludo

2009-01-01

396

Development of an Occupational Therapy Practice Perspective in a Homeless Shelter: A Fieldwork Experience.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An occupational therapy student's journal describes a clinical experience in a homeless shelter. Key themes were residents' search for meaning in life and the student's search for meaning in the therapist role; the importance of rapport; and residents' innate drive toward purposeful activity, which the student was able to address. (SK)

Heubner, Joanne; Tryssenaar, Joyce

1996-01-01

397

Police Referrals to Shelters and Mental Health Treatment: Examining Their Decisions in Domestic Assault Cases.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports how husband's mental state, antagonism between the disputants, and victim injury affected officers' inferences and referral decisions to battered women shelters and outpatient mental health centers. Officers' age and perceptions of: husband's mental state, wife's credibility, wife's intent, husband's responsibility, and victim injury…

Finn, Mary A.; Stalans, Loretta J.

1995-01-01

398

26 CFR 301.6111-1T - Questions and answers relating to tax shelter registration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...part of these temporary regulations to help the reader locate relevant provisions...other similar state statutory or regulatory scheme that requires the filing or submission...to sell or a solicitation of an offer to buy an interest in the tax shelter. In...

2009-04-01

399

26 CFR 301.6111-1T - Questions and answers relating to tax shelter registration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...part of these temporary regulations to help the reader locate relevant provisions...other similar state statutory or regulatory scheme that requires the filing or submission...to sell or a solicitation of an offer to buy an interest in the tax shelter. In...

2010-04-01

400

Wave energy resources in sheltered sea areas: A case study of the Baltic Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wave energy is a renewable source, which has not yet been exploited to a large extent. So far the main focus of wave energy conversion has been on the large wave energy resources of the great oceans on northern latitudes. However, large portions of the world potential wave energy resources are found in sheltered waters and calmer seas, which often

Hans Bernhoff; Elisabeth Sjöstedt; Mats Leijon

2006-01-01

401

Homelessness: Information on Administrative Costs for HUD's Emergency Shelter Grants Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Homeless Emergency Assistance and Rapid Transition to Housing Act of 2009 (HEARTH Act) directed GAO to study the appropriate administrative costs of the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) Emergency Shelter Grants Program (ESG)--a w...

2010-01-01

402

Institutional Discharges and Subsequent Shelter Use among Unaccompanied Adults in New York City  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study empirically examines the link between homelessness and discharges from other institutions. An administrative record match was undertaken to determine rates of discharge from institutional care for 9,247 unaccompanied adult shelter users in New York City. Cluster analysis and multinomial logistic regression analysis was then used to…

Metraux, Stephen; Byrne, Thomas; Culhane, Dennis P.

2010-01-01

403

Mental Health Disorders and Functioning of Women in Domestic Violence Shelters  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates the presence of mental health symptoms and disorders reported by 74 women in a domestic violence shelter and the impact of those symptoms on function in work, school, and social encounters. Findings are compared to estimates of U.S. women generally, based on a national sample of over 65,000 women drawn from the 1995…

Helfrich, Christine A.; Fujiura, Glenn T.; Rutkowski-Kmitta, Violet

2008-01-01

404

Proposed new handbook for the Federal Emergency Management Agency: radiation safety in shelters  

SciTech Connect

This handbook is proposed to replace the portion of the current Handbook for Radiological Monitoring that deals with protection of people in shelters from radiation from fallout resulting from nuclear war. Basic information at a high-school level is given on how to detect nuclear radiation, how to find and improve the safest places in a shelter, the necessity for and how to keep records on individual radiation exposures, and how to minimize exposures. Several new procedures are introduced, some of which are based more on theoretical considerations than on actual experiments. These procedures include: (1) the method of time-averaging radiation readings taken with one instrument in different locations of a large shelter while fallout is coming down and radiation levels are climbing too rapidly for direct comparison of readings to determine the safest location; (2) the method of using one's own body to obtain directionality in radiation readings taken with a standard Civil Defense survey meter; (3) the method of using mutual shielding to reduce the average radiation exposure to shelter occupants; and (4) the ratio method for estimating radiation levels in hazardous areas.

Haaland, C.M.

1981-09-01

405

The soft coral community on a sheltered reef quadrat at Laing Island (Papua New Guinea)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty-one species of soft corals have been found on a 30×20 m quadrat on the sheltered shore of Laing Island, on the north coast of Papua New Guinea. Their contribution to the living coverage has been quantified, with special attention to zonation. The observed distribution patterns are discussed and the importance of vegetative propagation for some of the species is

B. Tursch; A. Tursch

1982-01-01

406

The role of shelter in Australia for protecting soils, plants and livestock  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this review is to examine the current knowledge of the role of trees in providing shelter for pastures, crops, and livestock, for controlling erosion of soils and improving productivity and sustainability of agricultural production in Australia — and the extent to which this knowledge has been applied.

P. R. Bird; D. Bicknell; P. A. Bulman; S. J. A. Burke; J. F. Leys; J. N. Parker; F. J. VAN DER SOMMEN; P. Voller

1992-01-01

407

A Descriptive Study of Single Adults in Homeless Shelters: Increasing Counselors' Knowledge and Social Action  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article is intended to help counselors increase their knowledge and social action for single adults who are homeless. Findings from a period-prevalence study of 71 single adults in a homeless shelter over 2 years reveal demographics, mental health needs, and sociopolitical issues of this population. Implications including social justice…

Baggerly, Jennifer; Zalaquett, Carlos P.

2006-01-01

408

Aggression and competition for shelter between a native and an introduced crayfish in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY 1. The introduced North American crayfish, Pacifastacus leniusculus Dana, is expanding its range in Europe and locally often replaces two native crayfish species, Astacus astacus L. and Austropotamobius pallipes Lereboullet. Pacifastacus leniusculus is also expected to invade the habitat of a third native crayfish, the endangered Austropotamobius torrentium Schrank. Interspecific aggressive interactions and competition for shelter were experimentally studied

Christoph Vorburger; Georg Ribi

1999-01-01

409

THE BIOLOGY OF LANGEBAAN LAGOON: A STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF SHELTER FROM WAVE ACTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

The physical characteristics of the Saldanha Bay-Langebaan Lagoon system are described and it is shown that there are graded changes in wave action, substratum, temperature and salinity between the bay and the head of the lagoon. None the less the lagoon is not an estuary but a sheltered inlet of the sea.Two transects of rocky shores and four transects of

J. H. Day

1959-01-01

410

Census tract predictors and the social integration of sheltered care residents  

Microsoft Academic Search

It would appear that social-environmental circumstances surrounding the place of residence of patients discharged to sheltered care facilities are crucial to their adjustment to, and involvement in, community life. Census tract indicators of environmental circumstance were found to be strongly related to an individual's level of social integration. Mental health workers should carefully consider the immediate environmental situation in accepting

Barry Trute; Steven P. Segal

1976-01-01

411

A lifesaving model: teaching advanced procedures on shelter animals in a tertiary care facility.  

PubMed

It is estimated that there are over 5 million homeless animals in the United States. While the veterinary profession continues to evolve in advanced specialty disciplines, animal shelters in every community lack resources for basic care. Concurrently, veterinary students, interns, and residents have less opportunity for practical primary and secondary veterinary care experiences in tertiary-care institutions that focus on specialty training. The two main goals of this project were (1) to provide practical medical and animal-welfare experiences to veterinary students, interns, and residents, under faculty supervision, and (2) to care for animals with medical problems beyond a typical shelter's technical capabilities and budget. Over a two-year period, 22 animals from one humane society were treated at Colorado State University Veterinary Medical Center. Initial funding for medical expenses was provided by PetSmart Charities. All 22 animals were successfully treated and subsequently adopted. The results suggest that collaboration between a tertiary-care facility and a humane shelter can be used successfully to teach advanced procedures and to save homeless animals. The project demonstrated that linking a veterinary teaching hospital's resources to a humane shelter's needs did not financially affect either institution. It is hoped that such a program might be used as a model and be perpetuated in other communities. PMID:19228908

Spindel, Miranda E; MacPhail, Catriona M; Hackett, Timothy B; Egger, Erick L; Palmer, Ross H; Mama, Khursheed R; Lee, David E; Wilkerson, Nicole; Lappin, Michael R

2008-01-01

412

Results on the Slosson Drawing Coordination Test with Appalachian Sheltered Workshop Clients.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fifty-four clients (13- to 52-years-old) in an Appalachian sheltered workshop were administered the Slosson Drawing Coordination Test (SDCT) and the Bender Visual Motor Gestalt Test. Twenty-nine Ss were labeled possibly brain damaged by the SDCT, and 17 Ss by the M. Hutt scoring system for the Bender-Gestalt. Two psychologists using all available…

Rogers, George W., Jr.; Richmond, Bert O.

413

Some Factors Influencing the Outcome of Shelter Competition in Lobsters ('Homarus americanus').  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Some factors involved in the competition for shelter between lobsters 40-70mm carapace length were examined in the field and in the laboratory. Dominance, usually indicated by greater carapace length, male sex, hard exo-skeleton and a numerical or length ...

D. J. O'Neill J. S. Cobb

1978-01-01

414

Diagnostic, treatment, and prevention protocols for feline heartworm infection in animal sheltering agencies.  

PubMed

Cats are at risk for heartworm infection (Dirofilaria immitis) wherever the disease is endemic in dogs. Diagnosis is more difficult in cats, and little information is available regarding effective palliative and curative treatments for infected cats. In contrast to the challenges of diagnosis and treatment, chemoprophylaxis is highly effective, and current guidelines call for preventive medications to be administered to all cats in endemic areas. The purpose of this study was to survey feline heartworm management protocols used by 400 animal shelters and foster programs in the endemic states of Alabama, Florida, Georgia, and Mississippi. Only 23% of shelters performed feline heartworm testing. The most common reasons for not testing were expense (36%), lack of treatment options for infected cats (18%), and because the agency considers heartworm infections in cats to be less important than in dogs (12%). Most agencies (69%) did not provide preventive medication to cats. Reasons included because testing was not performed (36%), expense (35%), and the perception that local heartworm risk was low (10%). When preventive was provided, feline-labeled broad-spectrum products were used more commonly (81%) than livestock products (14%). The survey also indicated that many policy decisions were based on inaccurate knowledge of feline heartworm prevalence and pathogenesis. Issues of cost, feasibility, and education prevent most Southeastern sheltering agencies from adequately protecting cats against heartworm disease. Practical guidelines tailored to the needs of these agencies should be developed. Subsidized testing and preventive products may facilitate implementation of feline heartworm management protocols in sheltering agencies. PMID:21330060

Dunn, Kiri F; Levy, Julie K; Colby, Kathleen N; Michaud, Rachel I

2011-03-22

415

Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol[R] (SIOP[R]). What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The "Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol"[R] ("SIOP"[R]) is a framework for planning and delivering instruction in content areas such as science, history, and mathematics to English language learners as well as other students. The goal of "SIOP"[R] is to help teachers integrate academic language development into their lessons, allowing…

What Works Clearinghouse, 2013

2013-01-01

416

Shock Wave Loading on a Two-Dimensional Generic Truck/Shelter Model.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The BRL 57.5 cm shock tube was utilized to produce square and decaying waves. Pressure-time data were obtained for the diffraction and drag loading phases on a nonresponding two-dimensional model of a truck/shelter. Records were procured for the model, bo...

G. Bulmash

1983-01-01

417

Archeointensity determinations on Pre-Columbian potteries from La Ceiba and Santa Marta shelter-caves (Chiapas, Mexico).  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quite surprisingly, the abundance of archaeological baked clays found in the tropical area of Mesoamerica contrast with the small amount of archeomagnetic data available today for this area [Fanjat et al, EPSL, 2013; Alva-Valdivia et al, PEPI, 2010, Morales et al., EPS, 2009]. It seems especially difficult to try to establish a regional trend in the intensity variations. While they are few, the data are moreover of uneven quality as attested by a large scatter in experimental values during the Mesoamerican classic and post-classic periods (250-1521 AD) that cannot be explained by real fluctuations in the Earth's magnetic field [Fanjat et al, EPSL, 2013]. The present study is part of a large effort to provide reliable and perfectly dated archeointensity data for the tropical area of Mesoamerica. It focuses on Thellier-Thellier archeointensity measurements obtained from 87 small fragments from potsherds of 12 different potteries. These potteries were excavated from sedimentary sequences within two shelter-caves, La Ceiba and Santa Marta, located on the banks of Grijalva and La Venta rivers, respectively. Both are shelter-caves without constructed structures that were inhabited by humans groups. Samples were located in different stratigraphic levels, culturally well identified and well preserved due to long time sedimentation. Only samples with a homogenous color were pre-selected for the rock magnetic study performed prior to any attempt to estimate the archeointensity. This was done in order to assure, as far as possible, a uniform baking during the manufacture, which is supposed to be made in open sky fire, since no kiln construction has been found. The ceramics ages were achieved in 2 ways: for samples with organic material associated, a 14C dating was done. The rest of the samples were dated according to their typological characteristics, comparing with regional ceramic chronological classification. This includes characteristics such as the finishing surface type, decoration, polished type, color, clay characteristics, composition, baking types, form, and function. The ages of the selected samples enclose the entire classical and post-classical periods. Most of our selected samples yielded good, from a technical point of view, archeointensity estimates. These new archeointensity determinations are compared and discussed with the previous values obtained for this area.

Rodriguez-Ceja, Maria; Camps, Pierre; Goguitchaichvili, Avto; Poidras, Thierry; Nicol, Patrick

2014-05-01

418

Earth Impact  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity poses the question: What would happen if a meteor or comet impacted Earth? Students simulate an impact in a container of sand using various-sized rocks, all while measuring, recording and graphing results and conclusions. Then students brainstorm ways to prevent an object from hitting the Earth.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

419

Earth tides  

SciTech Connect

Nineteen papers on gravity, tilt, and strain tides are compiled into this volume. Detailed chapters cover the calculation of the tidal forces and of the Earth's response to them, as well as actual observations of earth tides. Partial Contents: On Earth tides. The tidal forces: Tidal Forces. New Computations of the Tide-Generating Potential. Corrected Tables of Tidal Harmonics. The Theory of Tidal Deformations. Body Tides on an Elliptical, Rotating, Elastic and Oceanless Earth, Deformation of the Earth by Surface Loads. Gravimetric Tidal Loading Computed from Integrated Green's Functions. Tidal Friction in the Solid Earth. Loading Tides Versus Body Tides. Lunar Tidal Acceleration from Earth Satellite Orbit Analysis. Observations: gravity. Tidal Gravity in Britain: Tidal Loading and the Spatial Distribution of the Marine Tide. Tidal Loading along a Profile Europe-East Africa-South Asia-Australia and the Pacific Ocean. Detailed Gravity-Tide Spectrum between One and Four Cycles per Day. Observations: tilt and strain. Cavity and Topographic Effects in Tilt and Strain Measurement. Observations of Local Elastic Effects on Earth Tide Tilts and Strains.

Harrison, J.C.

1984-01-01

420

Earth meandering  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we try to put away current Global Tectonic Model to look the tectonic evolution of the earth from new point of view. Our new dynamic model is based on study of river meandering (RM) which infer new concept as Earth meandering(EM). In a universal gravitational field if we consider a clockwise spiral galaxy model rotate above Ninety

H. Asadiyan; A. Zamani

2009-01-01

421

Earth tides  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main geometrical characteristics and mechanical properties of bodily tides are described, using the convenient elastic parameters of Love. The problem of the Earth's deformation is a problem of spherical elasticity of the sixth order. The importance of Earth tides in astronomy and geophysics is emphasized by their relation to the precession-nutation and tesseral tidal problems, the secular retardation of

Paul Melchior

1974-01-01

422

Tilted Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an activity about how the Earth's axial tilt causes its seasons. Learners will make a model using polystyrene spheres and a light bulb to represent the Earth-Sun system, showing why the tilt of the Earthâs spin axis causes its seasons due to variations in day length. This is Activity 7 in the Great Explorations in Math and Science (GEMS) guide titled Real Reasons for Seasons: Sun-Earth Connections. The resource guide is available for purchase from the Lawrence Hall of Science.

423

Earth Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This self-contained module on Earth systems includes a range of fun activities that students can perform in the classroom and at home with family members. They impart important concepts such as observation, identification, measurement, and differentiation.

Science, Houghton M.

424

Earth's Surface  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This self-contained module on Earth's crust includes a range of fun activities that students can perform in the classroom and at home with family members. They impart important concepts such as observation, identification, measurement, and differentiation.

Science, Houghton M.

425

Discover Earth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Discover Earth is a NASA-funded project for teachers of grades 5-12 who want to expand their knowledge of the Earth system, and prepare to become master teachers who promote Earth system science in their own schools, counties, and throughout their state. Participants from the following states are invited to apply: Connecticut, Delaware, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont, and Washington, DC. Teachers selected for the project participate in a two-week summer workshop conducted at the University of Maryland, College Park; develop classroom-ready materials during the workshop for broad dissemination; conduct a minimum of two peer training activities during the coming school year; and participate in other enrichment/education opportunities as available and desired. Discover Earth is a team effort that utilizes expertise from a range of contributors, and balances science content with hands-on classroom applications.

1997-01-01

426

Discover Earth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Discover Earth is a NASA-funded project for teachers of grades 5-12 who want to expand their knowledge of the Earth system, and prepare to become master teachers who promote Earth system science in their own schools, counties, and throughout their state. Participants from the following states are invited to apply: Connecticut, Delaware, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont, and Washington, DC. Teachers selected for the project participate in a two-week summer workshop conducted at the University of Maryland, College Park; develop classroom-ready materials during the workshop for broad dissemination; conduct a minimum of two peer training activities during the coming school year; and participate in other enrichment/education opportunities as available and desired. Discover Earth is a team effort that utilizes expertise from a range of contributors, and balances science content with hands-on classroom applications.

Steele, Colleen

1996-01-01

427

Earth Day  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The State University of New York at Buffalo presents this History of Earth Day website. The goal of the site is that teachers and students can better understand the development and purpose of Earth Day. In addition to the history, SUNY-Buffalo has compiled a series of websites complete with projects associated with Earth Day, appropriate for children, high school students, and college undergrads. Furthermore, the legal aspect of Earth Day - environmental legislation, EPA standards, and Global Climate Change legislation - are also discussed on the site. A list of further sites is also provided if users want more information on this national effort to help solve environmental issues such as pollution, overpopulation, and global warming. Teachers will find this website both informative and helpful in developing appropriate teaching curricula connected to this holiday, while students can have fun learning and creating projects of their own that contribute to preserving the environment.

2007-04-19

428

Earth Tides.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report explains that the effects of ocean tides on Earth tide observations can best be observed by a network of stations, varying in distance to the coast, which systematically monitor the ocean loading or attraction contributions to the observations....

B. D. Zetler J. T. Kus

1971-01-01

429

Earth materials and earth dynamics  

SciTech Connect

In the project ''Earth Materials and Earth Dynamics'' we linked fundamental and exploratory, experimental, theoretical, and computational research programs to shed light on the current and past states of the dynamic Earth. Our objective was to combine different geological, geochemical, geophysical, and materials science analyses with numerical techniques to illuminate active processes in the Earth. These processes include fluid-rock interactions that form and modify the lithosphere, non-linear wave attenuations in rocks that drive plate tectonics and perturb the earth's surface, dynamic recrystallization of olivine that deforms the upper mantle, development of texture in high-pressure olivine polymorphs that create anisotropic velocity regions in the convecting upper mantle and transition zone, and the intense chemical reactions between the mantle and core. We measured physical properties such as texture and nonlinear elasticity, equation of states at simultaneous pressures and temperatures, magnetic spins and bonding, chemical permeability, and thermal-chemical feedback to better characterize earth materials. We artificially generated seismic waves, numerically modeled fluid flow and transport in rock systems and modified polycrystal plasticity theory to interpret measured physical properties and integrate them into our understanding of the Earth. This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL).

Bennett, K; Shankland, T. [and others

2000-11-01

430

Descriptive epidemiology of feline upper respiratory tract disease in an animal shelter.  

PubMed

Upper respiratory tract disease (URTD) is common and spreads quickly in cats residing in animal shelters in the United States. Estimates of the actual incidence of URTD are sparse, yet this information is very important for welfare, economic and research purposes. In a large urban shelter in the northeastern US, 531 individual kittens, 701 litters, and 2203 adult cats were observed for signs of URTD during their stays. The median lengths of stay for adult cats and kittens were 5 and 4 days, respectively. Observations were made over a 50-week period. Approximately 1/3 exhibited signs of infectious respiratory disease. The crude incidence density estimates of URTD were 6.2, 6.7, and 5.6 cases per 100 cats per day among individual kittens, litters and adult cats, respectively. Increasing time of residence in the shelter increased risk of URTD. Using the Kaplan-Meier product limit method, the cumulative probability of developing URTD by day 7 in the shelter was approximately 32% (based on n=211) for litters, 31% (n=120) for individual kittens and 26% (n=763) for adult cats. By day 14, these cumulative probabilities had risen to 84% (n=18), 86% (n=7), and 80% (n=51) among litters, individual kittens and adult cats, respectively. The Kaplan-Meier failure function curve (probability of developing URTD overtime) for adults was significantly lower than those for litters or individual kittens (P<0.04). Among adult cats, those 11 years of age and older had a significantly higher risk of URTD compared to younger adult cats (P<0.05). Male cats (neutered and castrated) had higher URTD rates than ovariohysterectomized females, and purebred cats had a higher risk than those of mixed breeding. In this shelter, cats identified as strays were more likely to exhibit URTD than owner-surrendered cats. Affected cats spent a median of 3 more days than unaffected cats before they developed URTD. Approximately 1/3 (31.4%) of the observed individual kittens and 2/3 (61.8%) of the observed adult cats were euthanased with URTD in this shelter. Other factors such as space and behavior, especially among affected adult cats, were also cited as reasons leading to euthanasia. PMID:19782625

Dinnage, Julie D; Scarlett, Janet M; Richards, James R

2009-10-01

431

Earth Attractions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners build and test a compass. Learners work in pairs and pretend they are stuck in the wilderness at night. They must use the supplies provided to build a simple compass to determine which way to walk to reach the town. This lesson plan includes a worksheet and map for learners to use during the activity.

Extension, University O.

2002-01-01

432

The Treated Prevalence of Mental Health and Substance Use Disorders among Adults Admitted to the Philadelphia Shelter System: Results from the Integration of Longitudinal Data on Shelter and Mental Health Services Utilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports results from a study of the treated prevalence of mental health and substance use disorders among adults admitted to Philadelphia public shelters between 1990 and 1992 (N=28,638). Identifiers and service records from longitudinal databases on shelter and mental health services were merged, finding that 49% of single homeless adults and 33.2% of homeless adults with children had

Dennis P Culhane; June M Averyt; Trevor R Hadley

1996-01-01

433

Decision process for the retrofit of municipal buildings with solar energy systems a technical guide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As a background for solar applications, the following topics are covered: solar systems and components for retrofit installations; cost, performance, and quality considerations; and financing alternatives for local government. The retrofit decision process is discussed as follows: pre-screening of buildings, building data requirements, the energy conservation audit, solar system sizing and economics, comparison of alternatives, and implementation. Sample studies are presented for the West Valley Animal Shelter and the Hollywood Police Station.

1980-11-01

434

Ion engine propelled Earth-Mars cycler with nuclear thermal propelled transfer vehicle, volume 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The goal of this project was to perform a preliminary design of a long term, reusable transportation system between earth and Mars which would be capable of providing both artificial gravity and shelter from solar flare radiation. The heart of this system was assumed to be a Cycler spacecraft propelled by an ion propulsion system. The crew transfer vehicle was designed to be propelled by a nuclear-thermal propulsion system. Several Mars transportation system architectures and their associated space vehicles were designed.

Meyer, Rudolf X.; Baker, Myles; Melko, Joseph

1994-01-01

435

Earth: Earth Science and Health  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A major new NASA initiative on environmental change and health has been established to promote the application of Earth science remote sensing data, information, observations, and technologies to issues of human health. NASA's Earth Sciences suite of Earth observing instruments are now providing improved observations science, data, and advanced technologies about the Earth's land, atmosphere, and oceans. These new space-based resources are being combined with other agency and university resources, data integration and fusion technologies, geographic information systems (GIS), and the spectrum of tools available from the public health community, making it possible to better understand how the environment and climate are linked to specific diseases, to improve outbreak prediction, and to minimize disease risk. This presentation is an overview of NASA's tools, capabilities, and research advances in this initiative.

Maynard, Nancy G.

2001-01-01

436

NUclear EVacuation Analysis Code (NUEVAC): A Tool for Evaluation of Sheltering and Evacuation Responses Following Urban Nuclear Detonations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The NUclear EVacuation Analysis Code (NUEVAC) has been developed by Sandia National Laboratories to support the analysis of shelter-evacuate (S-E) strategies following an urban nuclear detonation. This tool can model a range of behaviors, including comple...

A. S. Yoshimura L. D. Brandt

2009-01-01

437

NIOSH Health Hazard Evaluation Report: HETA No. 2004-0123-2939, City of Liberal Animal Shelter, Liberal, Kansas.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In February 2004, the City of Liberal, Kansas, asked the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) for help in evaluating carbon monoxide (CO) exposures of employees that operate two euthanasia chambers at the city-run animal shelter. ...

2004-01-01

438

Testing of shelter design and industrial hardening concepts at the Mill Race event. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The report presents the results of the experiments conducted for the Federal Emergency Management Agency at the MILL RACE high explosive test. The MILL RACE event provides a simulated nuclear weapon airblast and ground motion environment to demonstrate, using full-scale structures and test objects, the validity and practicality of a number of blast upgrading and industrial hardening concepts that will support current Civil Defense planning. The design, construction, and objectives of each of the experiments are described and illustrated, and the test data and conclusions are presented. The experiments included host area and key worker shelters, expedient shelters, and industrial hardening experiments at the 2, 20, and 40 psi peak overpressure levels.

Tansley, R.S.; Zaccor, J.V.

1982-01-01

439

Testing of reduced-scale concrete MX-shelters specimen construction. Technical paper  

SciTech Connect

An experimental program involving construction and testing or reduced-scale concrete Horizontal MX-Missile Shelters was conducted. This paper describes the construction of 43 reduced-scale cement models of the Shelters. Twenty-two different prototypes were constructed. All specimens had a 2-ft (0.61 M) inside diameter with plain or reinforced concrete walls 1.8 (46 mm) or 2.4-in. (61 mm) thick. Specimen test length was 4 ft (1.22 m) with 1 ft (0.30 m) at each end for load transfer. Variables in specimen construction included wall thickness, amount of reinforcing, breakout joints details, liner thickness, spacing of studs, and Z-insert gap of the SAL inspection panel. Sensitivity of test results to variations in specimen dimensions required unusually rigid tolerances. In spite of manufacturing complexities, specimens were manufactured at a rate of three per week.

Ciolko, A.T.

1983-06-29

440

Research on upgrading structures for host and risk area shelters, phase II. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report presents a summary of the work conducted during the second year of a five-year program. This research effort provides the engineering basis and guidance for the development of upgrading for host and risk area shelters. This investigation is in support of current Civil Defense planning based on a policy of crisis relocation, and includes investigative efforts related to structural wood connections, wood roof trusses and panelized systems, manufactured floor and roof joists, radiation protection for walls, the analysis of basement walls under dynamic loading, and a prediction method for the punching of concrete slabs. The results of this study are being used in the development of a prediction methodology for comparative selection of shelter spaces.

Tansley, R.S.; Bernard, R.D.; Cuzner, G.J.; Wilton, C.

1983-05-01

441

Wind Measurements in a Square Plot Enclosed by a Shelter Fence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wind statistics were measured within a square plot (sidelengthD = 20 m) that was sheltered on all four sides by a porous plasticwindbreak fence (height h=1.25 m, resistance coefficient kr0 = 2.4, porosity p = 0.45), standing on otherwise uniform land (sparse stubble, roughness length z0 0.015 m). At any given point within the plot, short term wind statistics were extremely sensitive to the mean wind direction relative to thefences. Whereas the entire plot was sheltered from a wind blowingnormal to any side of the plot, whenever the wind was oriented soas to blow over a corner, wind reduction was observed onlyover a small fraction of the plot, in the near lee of the upwindfences.

Wilson, John D.; Flesch, Thomas K.

442

Effects of vegetation, albedo, and solar radiation sheltering on the distribution of snow in the Valles Caldera, New Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of radiation scattering and sheltering on snow distributions\\u000a are poorly understood in montane regions of the southwestern United\\u000a States. To examine this, we develop a single-layer, distributed snow\\u000a model (DSM) that includes canopy interception, and radiation scattering\\u000a and sheltering. In our simulations, we distinguish between local and\\u000a remote controls on shortwave radiation. This allows us to vary the

Alex J. Rinehart; Enrique R. Vivoni; Paul D. Brooks

2008-01-01

443

Risk factors for delays between intake and veterinary approval for adoption on medical grounds in shelter puppies and kittens  

PubMed Central

To maximize their capacity to save lives and optimize resource allocation, animal shelters need to identify highly adoptable animals that are unlikely to be delayed on medical grounds before they can be made available for adoption. In this retrospective cohort study, our objective was to identify risk factors for delays from intake to approval for adoption on medical grounds in shelter puppies and kittens. Shelter medical records from 2008 for 335 puppies and 370 kittens were selected randomly at a large metropolitan adoption-guarantee shelter. Data including signalment, source shelter, intake veterinary examination findings, clinical history and days from intake until approval by a veterinarian for adoption on medical grounds were extracted from shelter records and analyzed using multivariate Cox regression. Puppies and kittens with clinical signs of respiratory or gastrointestinal disease at intake took significantly longer to receive approval for adoption on medical grounds (puppies - respiratory p<0.0001; gastrointestinal p<0.0001; kittens - respiratory p<0.0001; gastrointestinal p=0.002). Stray kittens were more likely to be delayed than owner-relinquished kittens or those transferred from other shelters (p<0.01). Older kittens were less likely to be delayed (p<0.0001). Administration of oral or parenteral antibiotics to puppies and kittens with respiratory and/or ocular signs within 24 hours of intake significantly reduced time to approval on medical grounds for adoption (puppies p=0.02; kittens p=0.03). The analyses suggested that puppies and kittens with respiratory or gastrointestinal signs on intake are more likely to experience delays between intake and veterinary approval for adoption on medical grounds. Prompt antimicrobial treatment of animals with respiratory and/or ocular signs may decrease length of stay in the shelter.

Litster, Annette; Allen, Joselyn; Mohamed, Ahmed; He, Shuang

2011-01-01

444

A needs-assessment and demographic survey of infection-control and disease awareness in western US animal shelters  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cross-sectional needs-assessment survey was used to characterize animal shelters in a 6-state region in the western US and describe infection-control practices and disease awareness. Survey questions focused on shelter demographics, infection-control practices and policies, awareness and concern over infectious and zoonotic diseases, staff and volunteer training relating to infection-control and disease awareness, use of diagnostic tools, and isolation procedures

Kay K. Steneroden; Ashley E. Hill; M. D. Salman

2011-01-01

445

Risk factors for delays between intake and veterinary approval for adoption on medical grounds in shelter puppies and kittens.  

PubMed

To maximize their capacity to save lives and optimize resource allocation, animal shelters need to identify highly adoptable animals that are unlikely to be delayed on medical grounds before they can be made available for adoption. In this retrospective cohort study, our objective was to identify risk factors for delays from intake to approval for adoption on medical grounds in shelter puppies and kittens. Shelter medical records from 2008 for 335 puppies and 370 kittens were selected randomly at a large metropolitan adoption-guarantee shelter. Data including signalment, source shelter, intake veterinary examination findings, clinical history and days from intake until approval by a veterinarian for adoption on medical grounds were extracted from shelter records and analyzed using multivariate Cox regression. Puppies and kittens with clinical signs of respiratory or gastrointestinal disease at intake took significantly longer to receive approval for adoption on medical grounds (puppies - respiratory p<0.0001; gastrointestinal p<0.0001; kittens - respiratory p<0.0001; gastrointestinal p=0.002). Stray kittens were more likely to be delayed than owner-relinquished kittens or those transferred from other shelters (p<0.01). Older kittens were less likely to be delayed (p<0.0001). Administration of oral or parenteral antibiotics to puppies and kittens with respiratory and/or ocular signs within 24h of intake significantly reduced time to approval on medical grounds for adoption (puppies p=0.02; kittens p=0.03). The analyses suggested that puppies and kittens with respiratory or gastrointestinal signs on intake are more likely to experience delays between intake and veterinary approval for adoption on medical grounds. Prompt antimicrobial treatment of animals with respiratory and/or ocular signs may decrease length of stay in the shelter. PMID:21621287

Litster, Annette; Allen, Joselyn; Mohamed, Ahmed; He, Shuang

2011-08-01

446

Terraforming earth and Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The uncontrolled character of current earth environment changes ascribable to anthropogenic pollutants is presently contrasted with the prospects for a controlled, long-term program of 'terraforming' for Mars, whose culmination could be the introduction of organisms able to thrive in the new Martian environment in carefully designed ways. A detailed discussion is conducted concerning the chemical building-blocks available on Mars for this manner of 'environmental engineering', with frequent reference to comparable and contrasting features of the terrestrial surface, hydrosphere and atmosphere.

Levine, Joel S.

1992-01-01

447

Treatment of Locally Accumulated Liquid Radioactive Waste at the Shelter To Remove Transuranium Elements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liquid radioactive waste (LRW) from the Shelter yielded by reactions of atmospheric precipitations, condensate, and dust-suppressing solutions with structural materials and fuel-containing masses are alkali-carbonate solutions containing fission products (137Cs, 90Sr), organic compounds, uranium, and transuranium elements. This waste is unsuitable for treatment by the standard procedure utilized at the Chernobyl NPP, as the content of organic compounds and transuranium

O. B. Andronov; A. P. Krinitsyn

2002-01-01

448

Handwriting Without Tears—A Short-Term Intervention for Children Living in a Homeless Shelter  

Microsoft Academic Search

A quantitative investigation was conducted to identify handwriting deficits in first and second grade children living in a homeless shelter and to determine the potential change that can be produced using a short term handwriting intervention. A quasi-experimental pre-test\\/post-test design was used to assess baseline and post intervention handwriting skills with the standardized Minnesota Handwriting Assessment. The Handwriting Without Tears

Winifred Schultz-Krohn; Amara Boener; Huy Dinh; Monica Phelan

2008-01-01

449

Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in battered women: A shelter sample  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sample of 77 battered women in shelters was examined for the presence or absence of a post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) diagnosis. Self-report data were obtained on battery characteristics, extent of intrusion and avoidance, depression, anxiety, and general psychopathology. Eight-four percent of the sample met the DSM-III-R criteria for PTSD according to self-report. The reported subjective distress regarding the battery

Anita Kemp; Edna I. Rawlings; Bonnie L. Green

1991-01-01

450

Communication between domestic dogs and humans: effects of shelter housing upon the gaze to the human  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is widely known that gaze plays an essential role in communicative interactions. Domestic dogs tend to look at the human\\u000a face in situations of conflict and uncertainty. This study compares the gaze of shelter and pet dogs during acquisition and\\u000a extinction phases in a situation involving a reward in sight but out of reach. Even though no significant differences

Alba Mustaca; Mariana Bentosela

451

Drop weight impact on hybrid-fiber ECC blast\\/shelter panels  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results of an experimental study to evaluate the damage and failure mode of hybrid-fiber engineered cementitious composite (ECC) panels caused by large projectiles or fragments with the aim towards quantifying the extent to which hybrid-fiber ECC improves the resistance of blast panels against impact loading. Drop weight tests are conducted on full-scale blast\\/shelter panels (2 m

J. Zhang; M. Maalej; S. T. Quek; Y. Y. Teo

452

Effects of space allowance on the behaviour of long-term housed shelter dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to assess the effects of space allowance (4.5m2\\/head vs. 9m2\\/head) on the behaviour of shelter dogs (Canis familiaris) at different times of the day (from 10:30 to 13:30 vs. from 14:30 to 17:30), and the dogs' preference between two types of beds (fabric bed vs. plastic basket). Twelve neutered dogs (seven males and five

S. a Normando; B.b Contiero; G. b Marchesini; R. b Ricci

2014-01-01

453

Adverse consequences of intimate partner abuse among women in non-urban domestic violence shelters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: This study examined the health consequences of having experienced both sexual and physical abuse relative to women experiencing physical abuse but not sexual abuse.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 203 women seeking refuge in battered women’s shelters. Controlling for sociodemographics, logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess the consequences of experiencing both sexual and physical abuse.Results: Compared to

Gina M Wingood; Ralph J DiClemente; Anita Raj

2000-01-01

454

Interspecific Competition for Shelters in Territorial and Gregarious Intertidal Grazers: Consequences for Individual Behaviour  

PubMed Central

Experiments have shown that interspecific interactions within consumer guilds can alter patterns of distribution, abundance and size of species. Plastic behavioural responses can be modulated by agonistic interactions. In many cases, consumers compete for space and shelters, and these interactions change the manner in which they exploit food. This study investigates the consequences of competition in the spatial and temporal organization of behaviour of intertidal grazers, which share algal resources and the use of rock crevices while resting, but exhibit different body sizes, spatial behaviour and foraging modes. We evaluate interaction strength between small gregarious Siphonaria lessoni and the larger territorial keyhole limpet Fissurella crassa and between S. lessoni and the medium-size gregarious chiton Chiton granosus. Using field manipulations and artificial arenas in the laboratory, we tested whether the use of crevices, micro-spatial distribution and activity are modified by the density of conspecifics and the presence of heterospecifics. Our results show that small-scale spatial segregation observed in the field between S. lessoni and C. granosus result from species-specific differences in habitat use. In turn, we found evidence that spatial segregation between F. crassa and S. lessoni results from highly asymmetric interference competition in the use of shelters. The presence of F. crassa reduced the use of crevices and growth rates of S. lessoni. Effects on growth rates are assumed to result from exposure to harsh environmental conditions rather than food limitation. Thus, neither gregarious behaviour nor differences in activity were sufficient to prevent competition with the larger grazer. Our study illustrates the importance of competition for shelters, which results in behavioural changes of the smaller-sized species, and how these plastic responses can translate into differences in growth rates. Use of shelters can thus be modulated by environmental conditions in a species-specific as well as an interactive manner within consumers’ guilds.

Aguilera, Moises A.; Navarrete, Sergio A.

2012-01-01

455

Seasonal changes in sheltering: effect of light and temperature on diel activity in juvenile salmon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous work has shown that juvenile Atlantic salmon,Salmo salarL, are predominantly nocturnal during winter (spending the day sheltering in streambed refuges) but become active 24h a day in the summer. Observations of salmon in a semi-natural stream revealed how light, temperature and time of year determined these activity patterns; we also tested whether the life-history strategy of the fish affected

SVEINN K VALDIMARSSON; NEIL B METCALFE; JOHN E THORPE; FELICITY A HUNTINGFORD

1997-01-01

456

Wind Measurements in a Square Plot Enclosed by a Shelter Fence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wind statistics were measured within a square plot (sidelengthD = 20 m) that was sheltered on all four sides by a porous plasticwindbreak fence (height h=1.25 m, resistance coefficient kr0 = 2.4, porosity p = 0.45), standing on otherwise uniform land (sparse stubble, roughness length z0 ˜ 0.015 m). At any given point within the plot, short term wind statistics

John D. Wilson; Thomas K. Flesch

2003-01-01

457

The shelter effect of porous wind fences on coal piles in POSCO open storage yard  

Microsoft Academic Search

The shelter effect of porous wind fences on surface pressure and wall shear stress acting on the consecutive coal piles of 1\\/800 scale POSCO open storage yard model was investigated experimentally. The storage yard model was fully embedded in a neutral atmospheric surface boundary layer over open terrain. Reynolds number based on the coal pile height was Re=18,000. The mean

Sang-Joon Lee; Cheol-Woo Park

2000-01-01

458

Wind Measurements in a Square Plot Enclosed by a Shelter Fence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wind statistics were measured within a square plot (sidelengthD = 20 m) that was sheltered on all four sides by a porous plasticwindbreak fence (height h=1.25 m, resistance coefficient kr0 = 2.4, porosity p = 0.45), standing on otherwise uniform land (sparse stubble, roughness length z0 0.015 m). At any given point within the plot, short term wind statistics were

John D. Wilson; Thomas K. Flesch

2003-01-01

459

Human interaction moderates plasma cortisol and behavioral responses of dogs to shelter housing.  

PubMed

Housing in an animal shelter is a stressful experience for dogs. This study examined the effects of different forms of human interaction on concentrations of circulating cortisol and stress-related behaviors of dogs within 40 h of admittance to a county animal shelter. Blood samples were collected before and after 30-min sessions in a secluded area in which dogs received one of three forms of human interaction: exposure to a passive human, petting, or play. Controls were either exposed to the secluded area alone, or remained in the general housing area. There was a substantial and near uniform reduction in plasma cortisol concentrations from pretest to post-test in all three conditions receiving human interaction, but not in control conditions. Human interaction also reduced behavioral signs of excitation/social solicitation (vocalizing) and fear (panting). Finally, pretest cortisol levels were found to predict levels of panting and another fear-related behavior (tongue protrusions) that dogs exhibited during subsequent testing. The findings suggest practical means of reducing stress, and potentially of improving the welfare, of dogs in shelters. PMID:23234768

Shiverdecker, Matthew D; Schiml, Patricia A; Hennessy, Michael B

2013-01-17

460

On-farm demonstration of solar heating of livestock shelters. Final report  

SciTech Connect

A total of 80 on-farm demonstrations of solar heating of livestock shelters were performed in the states of Illinois, Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, Ohio, Vermont, and Virginia. The objectives were (1) to determine the technical and eonomic feasibility of using solar energy technology for heating systems to provide significant amounts of the heating requirements for on-the-farm livestock shelters, (2) to test, to the maximum extent possible, solar technology developed under the DOE/USDA SEA Federal Research Program operating under farm conditions, (3) to incorporate and utilize energy conservation techniques well known to the industry, (4) to minimize the interruption or interference in the normal operations of the livestock facilities, and (5) to identify incentives and opportunities for widespread farm application of solar energy technology where appropriate. Through the many workshops, seminars, tours, and other educational meetings, numerous people have gained some degree of knowledge on the application of solar energy to heating livestock shelters. A copy of each state's report is included.

Not Available

1982-12-01

461

How Do Map Projections Distort Earth's Surface?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site, part of Exploring Earth Investigation by McDougal Littell and TERC, examines how map projects distort Earth's surface. The investigations "were designed to build students' knowledge of Earth Science conceptsâ¦and to raise student awareness of Earth as a system of interconnected components and processes." On the site, visitors will find information on representing the spherical Earth on a flat map, the different common projections used, and how to measure the properties of the projections. Many sections contain interactive features and questions which allow students to investigate and understand the ways that flattening the Earth creates problems with maps and what cartographers have done to minimize the distortion. This is an excellent site for any Earth Science classroom as an introductory lecture or out-of-class exploration.

2008-09-10

462

Earth Movers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson explores plate tectonics and helps students understand how mountains, earthquakes, and volcanoes are related to the movements of plates. Students will learn about the idea of continental drift and the theory of plate tectonics to ascertain a fuller picture of how land formations on the surface of the Earth are shaped by plates moving below the surface.

463

Visible Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web site provides a searchable directory of NASA Earth science images, animations and data visualizations. Most resources are available digitally at multiple resolutions, with captions and metadata. Users can search the database using full text and advanced searches by topic, keyword, sensor, location, parameter, and dates.

2001-01-01

464

Protecting Earth  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Intense tempests of celestial origin have blown through the skies of Earth, obliterating landscapes and sending towering tsunamis\\u000a through the oceans. Fallout from such events has extinguished vast numbers of living organisms; some of these have been altered\\u000a by geological processes into fossils.

Les Johnson; Gregory L. Matloff; C Bangs

465

Earth meandering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we try to put away current Global Tectonic Model to look the tectonic evolution of the earth from new point of view. Our new dynamic model is based on study of river meandering (RM) which infer new concept as Earth meandering(EM). In a universal gravitational field if we consider a clockwise spiral galaxy model rotate above Ninety East Ridge (geotectonic axis GA), this system with applying torsion field (likes geomagnetic field) in side direction from Rocky Mt. (west geotectonic pole WGP) to Tibetan plateau TP (east geotectonic pole EGP),it seems that pulled mass from WGP and pushed it in EGP due to it's rolling dynamics. According to this idea we see in topographic map that North America and Green land like a tongue pulled from Pacific mouth toward TP. Actually this system rolled or meander the earth over itself fractaly from small scale to big scale and what we see in the river meandering and Earth meandering are two faces of one coin. River transport water and sediments from high elevation to lower elevation and also in EM, mass transport from high altitude-Rocky Mt. to lower altitude Himalaya Mt. along 'S' shape geodetic line-optimum path which connect points from high altitude to lower altitude as kind of Euler Elastica(EE). These curves are responsible for mass spreading (source) and mass concentration (sink). In this regard, tiltness of earth spin axis plays an important role, 'S' are part of sigmoidal shape which formed due to intersection of Earth rolling with the Earth glob and actual feature of transform fault and river meandering. Longitudinal profile in mature rivers as a part of 'S' curve also is a kind of EE. 'S' which bound the whole earth is named S-1(S order 1) and cube corresponding to this which represent Earth fracturing in global scale named C-1(cube order 1 or side vergence cube SVC), C-1 is a biggest cycle of spiral polygon, so it is not completely closed and it has separation about diameter of C-7. Inside SVC we introduce cone vergence cube (CVC or geotectonic equator GE) which rotate 45 degree counterclockwise with respect to SVC. Every cube from big scale to small scale fractalize in order of 23 and every '8' shape from big scale to small scale also fractalize in the same order. Three dimensional and fractoscopic imagination about understanding the changing on earth is very important so we should imagine '8' as curved surface, sea floor spreading happened in maximum curvature of these surfaces. '8' formed from pair 'S' string with opposite direction. '8' oscillate in Pole-Pole and Side-Side direction and have saddle geometry with two 'U' path along perpendicular saddle (e.g. Lut/Jazmurian and Helmand/Mashkal basin in Iran actually intersection of this saddle shape with the earth surface and Iceland /Black Sea and CapeVerde/Victoria Lake are also In/Out (small scale polygon) of 'U' shape conduit which followed axial saddle of Side-'S-2' and Okhotsk Sea /Balkhash Lake followed axial saddle conduit of Pole-'S-2' actually intersection of this perpendicular conduit with surface make spot-like-lakes/volcanoes or basin. Global EM in Side-S-1 bounded compression region-TP inside and tension region-East African Rift offside).This is a interesting competing between two kinematic geometry - spherical and isometrical geometry by using the interaction of them we can analyze the earth face in past, present and future apart of the forces that cause this face. C-1 in two dimensional look like six sided big tent which speared over Tibet and main rod driven along GA. Pair S-1 curve. have seven component(fold) and six segment in between,S-7 exactly located on TP(center of S-1). Between two successive fold we have complex geology(e.g. eastern Iran and Afghanistan)mass dragged from North America and Siberian and accumulated gradually during six step in Earth Foundation(Tibet),S-7 bounded Takla Makan Desert (in smaller loop) and TP (in bigger loop) S-7 alter the earth balance and responsible for earth disturbing, another sample of 'S' curve we see around Australia and Kermadec/Tonga Trench, Aleutian ri

Asadiyan, H.; Zamani, A.

2009-04-01

466

Building Awareness.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the importance of developing students' building awareness by exploring logos, or buildings that symbolize a country, to learn about architecture and the cultures in different countries. Explores categories of buildings. Includes examples of logos from around the world. (CMK)

Meilach, Dona Z.

2001-01-01

467

Prefabricated buildings. January 1980-January 1991 (Citations from the NTIS Data Base). Rept. for Jan 80-Jan 92  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning mobile home and prefabricated building technology. Heating requirements and performance; heating system technology including solar energy, structural testing, cost evaluations, foundations and anchoring systems; and fire testing of mobile and prefabricated buildings are among the topics discussed. Design, reseach and development, performance, applications and markets for pre- engineered building systems utilized in residential dwellings, office buildings, religious buildings and other shelters are examined. Wood, steel, and concrete are among the materials considered. (Contains 107 citations with title list and subject index.)

Not Available

1991-12-01

468

Earth-Moon-Sun Dynamics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site serves as a portal for the Earth-Moon-Sun (EMS) Dynamics section of the Modeling for Understanding in Science Education (MUSE) project. Links lead to background material entitled Introduction to Earth-Moon-Sun Dynamics, Explanatory Models, Our Research, Teaching Strategies, Learning Outcomes and Assessment. The twelve classroom activities are arranged as active links in outline form under the topics Introducing Scientific Models, Building the EMS Model, and Applications of the EMS Model. The topic names are also active links which lead to background information on each.

469

Contamination hazard of secondary vapor in a collective shelter resulting from entry/exit operation. Technical report, January-April 1986  

SciTech Connect

A theoretical study of the effects of entry/exit procedures on the vapor hazard inside an NBC shelter was developed. The model assumes that soldiers will doff their contaminated overgarments in a vapor-rich environment where some vapor can adsorb on their undergarments or skin. When the soldiers enter the air lock, some of the vapor desorbs. The model calculates the time history of agent concentration in the air lock and shelter. The model can be used to evaluate design criteria for chemical shelters and operational procedures for processing personnel through the shelter.

Birenzvige, A.

1987-09-01

470

Breathing Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Visual simulation and representation programs and applications have been popping up online in greater numbers, and this recent find is one that will pique the interest of scientists, policy makers, and others who are concerned about carbon dioxide emission rates across the Earth. The Breathing Earth site was created by David Bleja, and he draws on a number of resources (such as the World Factbook and the United Nations) for the data that is utilized to create this site. Visitors can scroll over different countries to learn about their population, their emissions, and their birth and death rate. This interactive map and educational resource also contains a legend in the right-hand corner which explains the various symbols in use here.

Bleja, David

471

Earth Institute  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The mission of the Earth Institute at Columbia University is to help the world achieve sustainability by expanding understanding of the Earth as one integrated system. Through research, education, and the practical application of research to real-world challenges, the Institute addresses nine interconnected global issues: climate and society, water, energy, poverty, ecosystems, public health, food and nutrition, and hazards and urbanization. The Institute's site offers a collection of videotaped events, including the biannual "State of the Planet" conferences, 2002-08, a Distinguished Lecture series, and the Sustainable Development seminar series, as well as e-seminars and e-briefings, information about funding opportunities, and information about educational opportunities at Columbia.

472

Impact: Earth!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What would happen if a large meteorite or other object hit the Earth? It's something that has engaged the minds and talents of astrophysicists (and students of all ages) for decades. Now the generally curious can create their own simulated impact with Purdue University's "Impact Earth" website. Visitors can browse the Famous Craters area to get started. This part includes some "classics," such as the Ries Crater and the Tunguska Fireball. Of course, visitors really must use the handy interface to craft their own impact, projectile, and target parameters to get the full effect on how such an event plays out. Also, the site includes a complete Documentation file (a peer-reviewed article) and a detailed glossary.

2013-01-01

473

Earth plasmas  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Fusion is the focus of this section of a tutorial about plasma, one of the four states of matter. This section deals with plasmas on Earth. There is little naturally-occurring plasma here because of the Earth's relatively cool (by universe standards) temperature, but human-made plasma is produced for industry and research purposes. The section explores the use of plasmas in experimental fusion reactors, pointing out three categories of significant unresolved issues that stand in the way of fusion becoming a viable energy source. The use of electromagnets to confine plasmas is discussed. Enlargeable images of fusion reactors are provided, and an explanation of the difference between fission and fusion is supplemented by animations of the two reaction types. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Institute, Space S.

2005-01-01

474

Prevalence of positive antibody test results for canine parvovirus (CPV) and canine distemper virus (CDV) and response to modified live vaccination against CPV and CDV in dogs entering animal shelters.  

PubMed

Canine parvovirus (CPV) and canine distemper virus (CDV) infections are relatively common in animal shelters and are important population management issues since the immune status of incoming dogs is usually unknown. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of positive antibody test results for CPV and CDV in incoming dogs aged ? 4 months and to measure antibody response over 2 weeks following vaccination with a modified live vaccine (MLV). Dogs aged 4-24 months entering an adoption-guarantee shelter (Shelter 1, n=51) and aged ? 4 months entering a limited admission shelter (Shelter 2; n=51) were enrolled. Dogs from Shelter 1 had been vaccinated with MLV at a municipal shelter 5 days before enrollment, whereas dogs from Shelter 2 had no known history of vaccination at enrollment. Sera were obtained on day 1, immediately prior to CPV/CDV MLV, and tested using an in-clinic ELISA kit to detect CPV/CDV antibodies. Dogs negative for CPV and/or CDV were retested at day 6-8 and those dogs still negative at day 6-8 were retested at day 13-15. Prior to CPV/CDV MLV on day 1, more dogs tested positive for CPV (Shelter 1 - 68.6%; Shelter 2 - 84.3%) than for CDV (Shelter 1 - 37.3%; Shelter 2 - 41.2%). On day 1, prior to MLV, all spayed/neutered animals tested CPV antibody-positive (n=17/102) and CPV antibody-positive dogs were older than serologically negative dogs (Shelter 1, P=0.0029; Shelter 2, P=0.0042). By day 13-15, almost all dogs were CPV antibody-positive (Shelter 1 - 97.9%; Shelter 2 - 100.0%) and CDV antibody-positive (Shelter 1 - 93.8%; Shelter 2 - 97.8%). MLV induces protective antibody titers against CPV/CDV in almost all dogs after 13-15 days. PMID:22261239

Litster, Annette; Nichols, Jamieson; Volpe, Allison

2012-05-25

475

Earth's Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The total amount of water on Earth, the places in which it is found and the percentages of fresh vs. salt are examined in this lesson. A short demonstration allows students to visualize the percentage differences and a coloring exercise illustrates locations. This lesson uses the 5E instructional model. All background information, student worksheets and images/photographs/data are included in these downloadable sections: Teacher's Guide, Student Capture Sheet and PowerPoint Presentation.

476

Earth's Biomes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What are the characteristics of Earth's biomes? First, open the Biomes Graphic Organizer Now read through Information on Aquatic Biome (Freshwater) and fill in 5 characterestics of a freshwater biome in your graphic organizer. Now read through Information on Desert and fill in 5 characteristics of a desert biome in your graphic organizer. Now read through Information on Rainforest and fill in 5 characteristics of rainforest biome in your graphic organizer. Now ...

Allman, Ms.

2012-04-05

477

Earth Observatory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web site includes shares the images, stories and discoveries that emerge from NASA Earth science research, including its satellite missions, in-the-field research and climate models. View global maps of NASA data, check out the Image of the Day and images of current events, and read feature articles and blogs. Also includes special collections of NASA images, including the World of Change series, which documents how our planetâs land, oceans, atmosphere and Sun are changing over time.

2011-01-01

478

Earth Observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This document is concentrates on a couple of the missions where the Spacelab hardware was used to do Earth science. The Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science (ATLAS) series of missions and the Lidar in-Space Technology Experiment (LITE) mission, the ATLAS being a series of three Shuttle missions that were very much Spacelab missions, are described. A little bit about the history, what the missions were, some of the instruments that were on them, and results are given.

Kaye, Jack

2000-01-01

479

Impact Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This 24 minute planetarium show teaches about meteors, meteorites, asteroids, and comets. The show was created for fulldome theaters, but is also available on DVD to be shown in flat version for TVs and computer monitors, and can be freely viewed online. It shows the effects of the Chixulub and Tungusta events, plus the Pallasite impact that resulted in the Brenham meteorite fall, and describes ways that asteroid hunters seek new objects in the solar system, and how ground penetrating radar is used to find meteorites that have survived to the Earth's surface. Narrated by astronaut Tom Jones, it also discusses ways that humans might try to deflect an asteroid or comet that is on a collision course with Earth. The show was created for informal science venues (digital planetariums); it is also useful as supplemental material for middle school science. Impact Earth is available for free if presented directly from the Space Update site (widescreen or fisheye views linked from YouTube). Otherwise, a DVD of the show can be purchased for $10.

480

Building a Barometer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students investigate the weather from a systems approach, learning how individual parts of a system work together to create a final product. Students learn how a barometer works to measure the Earth's air pressure by building a model using simple materials. Students analyze the changes in barometer measurements over time and compare those to actual weather conditions. They learn how to use a barometer to understand air pressure and predict actual weather changes.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

481

Vertically integrated educational collaboration between a college of veterinary medicine and a non-profit animal shelter.  

PubMed

The College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences (CVMBS) at Texas A&M University (TAMU) has developed a multifaceted program in partnership with the Brazos Animal Shelter to provide teaching opportunities with shelter animals during all four years of the professional curriculum. In the first three semesters of the professional program, students working in small groups spend two hours per semester at the shelter performing physical examinations, administering vaccinations and anthelmintics, completing heartworm or FeLV/FIV testing, and performing simple medical treatments. In an expanded fourth-year program, groups of six students spend 16 contact hours at the shelter during two-week rotations, completing similar tasks. Through this program, each student practices animal-handling skills and routine procedures on an average of 150 to 200 dogs and cats. In addition, during third- and fourth-year surgery courses, student teams spay or neuter an average of 12 to 18 dogs or cats each week. More than 800 animals are spayed/neutered annually through this program, and each student directly participates in 12 to 15 spay/neuter survival surgeries. The program represents a creative approach to veterinary training that conscientiously uses animal resources in a positive fashion. We believe that this is a successful partnership between a state-supported veterinary college and a non-profit shelter that benefits both agencies. We encourage other veterinary colleges to explore similar partnership opportunities to provide optimal training for professional students while using animal resources efficiently. PMID:19228920

Snowden, Karen; Bice, Kathryn; Craig, Tom; Howe, Lisa; Jarrett, Melissa; Jeter, Elizabeth; Kochevar, Deborah; Simpson, R Bruce; Stickney, Mark; Wesp, Ashley; Wolf, Alice M; Zoran, Debra

2008-01-01

482

Fire ants protect mealybugs against their natural enemies by utilizing the leaf shelters constructed by the leaf roller Sylepta derogata.  

PubMed

The importance of mutualism is receiving more attention in community ecology. In this study, the fire ant Solenopsis invicta was found to take advantage of the shelters constructed by the leaf roller Sylepta derogata to protect mealybugs (Phenacoccus solenopsis) against their natural enemies. This protective effect of fire ant tending on the survival of mealybugs in shelters was observed when enemies and leaf rollers were simultaneously present. Specifically, fire ants moved the mealybugs inside the shelters produced by S. derogata on enemy-infested plants. Compared with that in plants without ants, the survival of mealybugs in shelters in the presence of natural enemies in plants with ants markedly improved. Both the protection of ants and the shelters provided by leaf rollers did not affect the survival of mealybugs in the absence of enemies in plants. Ants and leaf rollers significantly improved the survival of mealybugs in predator-infested plants, whereas no such improvement was observed in parasitoid-infested ones. PMID:23185505

Zhou, Aiming; Zeng, Ling; Lu, Yongyue; Xu, Yijuan; Liang, Guangwen

2012-01-01

483

Rewarding Excellence in Office Building Management Call for Entries 2008 The Office Building of the Year \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

All facets of a building's operations are thoroughly evaluated during the judging process including tenant relations programs, community involvement, emergency preparedness and security standards, and continuing education for building personnel. Floor plans, site plans, and photographs round out the portfolio, providing an extensive assessment of the building for the judges. The Earth awards concentrate on areas such as indoor air

Doris Eichburg; Kimberly Ratliff

2008-01-01

484

The Day the Earth Shook  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson, based on the NOVA television broadcast 'The Day the Earth Shook', introduces students to engineering for earthquakes; specifically, architectural features that work and those that don't. The objective is to explore structural engineering through three design challenges; a relatively short, wide building; a home on a hillside; and a pyramid shape that focuses most of its mass near the bottom. Students are divided into three teams and each team is assigned one of the structure challenges. Each team will build and test its structure, record its results, then rotate to the next challenge until all three teams have attempted all three challenges.

2011-04-20

485

Research on long-span public building safety design strategy based on “Disaster reduction and carbon mitigation” view  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article viewed that disaster reduction and carbon mitigation complement each other, parallel, constitute the macro background of building safety together. As the sociopetal space and important urban space node, long-span public building served as temporary shelter after disasters,therefore, its safety study on the disaster reduction and carbon mitigation was self- evident important.On this basis, this article investigated structure security

Ligang Shi; Shijun Sun

2011-01-01

486

Effects of price manipulations on consumer behavior in sheltered workshop token economy.  

PubMed

The consumer behavior of institutionalized retarded clients in a sheltered workshop token economy were evaluated by changing prices in the workshop store. In the first experiment we found that clients displayed elasticity of demand in that raising the prices of frequently purchased goods reduced the frequency and amount spent on more expendable items. Results from the second experiment showed that this change in spending pattern was not due to the relative modal unit price of item classes. The regulation of demand for consumer goods is a potentially useful way to maintain economic balance and effectiveness of a token economy. PMID:970416

Schroeder, S R; Barrera, F J

1976-09-01

487

Genes Are Often Sheltered from the Global Histone Hyperacetylation Induced by HDAC Inhibitors  

PubMed Central

Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) are increasingly used as therapeutic agents, but the mechanisms by which they alter cell behaviour remain unclear. Here we use microarray expression analysis to show that only a small proportion of genes (?9%) have altered transcript levels after treating HL60 cells with different HDACi (valproic acid, Trichostatin A, suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid). Different gene populations respond to each inhibitor, with as many genes down- as up-regulated. Surprisingly, HDACi rarely induced increased histone acetylation at gene promoters, with most genes examined showing minimal change, irrespective of whether genes were up- or down-regulated. Many genes seem to be sheltered from the global histone hyperacetyation induced by HDACi.

O'Neill, Laura P.; Turner, Bryan M.; Nightingale, Karl P.

2012-01-01

488

Earth's Orbit  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners draw a circle with a single focus, an ellipse with two foci close together, and an ellipse with two foci far apart, and compare the shapes. Learners then measure the Sun in four images each taken in a different season, comparing the apparent size of the Sun in each image to determine when Earth is closest to the Sun. This is the second activity in the SDO Secondary Learning Unit. The activity is reprinted with permission from the Great Explorations in Math and Science (GEMS).

489

Earth Gauge  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Earth Gauge is a free environmental information service for broadcast meteorologists in major U.S. media markets, based on the 3-5 day forecast. The service is designed to make it easy to talk about the links between weather and the environment on-air with simple "factoids" and viewer action tips. Teachers or students can browse an index of weather conditions, environmental impacts, and viewer action tips for many locations, organized by city, weather type, or environmental topic. There are also links to additional resources, including fact sheets and special features, imagery, video clips, and others.

490

Earth resources data analysis system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Earth Resources Laboratory Data Analysis System provides a valuable research tool in the evaluation of multispectral, radiometric, photographic, and passive microwave imagery data. The system has been in operational use for several months and has performed quite well. Emphasis on versatility of both the hardware and software design facilitates system expansion to many specialized data analysis tasks. The many independent software handlers provide building blocks for major processing programs.

1972-01-01

491

Collaborative modelling-based shelter planning analysis: a case study of the Nagata Elementary School Community in Kobe City, Japan.  

PubMed

This study, based on a questionnaire survey and workshops, and with a focus on the impact of an earthquake on the Nagata Elementary School Community in Kobe City, Japan, develops a collaborative model to assess the allocation of residents to shelters. The current official allocation plan is compared with three alternative allocations developed within the framework of this model. The collaborative model identifies accessibility, amenity, capacity, connectivity, continuity, security, and stability as the basic, necessary criteria for shelter planning. The three alternative allocations are very similar to the local residents' own choice of shelters, but they are quite different from the current official allocation plan, which is supposed to be followed but has achieved relatively low satisfaction among households. The proposed collaborative approach provides an effective tool to assess the officially determined allocation plan by taking into account the viewpoints of local residents, and the results are useful for enhancing community evacuation planning. PMID:24325242

Xu, Wei; Li, Ying; Okada, Norio; Takeuchi, Yukiko; Kajitani, Yoshio; Shi, Peijun

2014-01-01

492

Earth Structure: Layers of the Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive Flash allows users to explore Earth's structure and processes that occur on Earth such as earthquakes and plate tectonics and how scientists know the composition and state of the Earth's layers. Interactive diagrams and animations with supplementary information make this a helpful overview or review for high school and undergraduate introductory-level courses in physical geology and Earth sciences.

Smoothstone; Mifflin, Houghton

493

Vivienda (Shelter).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Despite the impressive level of economic growth the developing world has achieved over the past quarter century, some 800 million individuals there remain caught up in absolute poverty: a condition of life so limited by malnutrition, disease, illiteracy, ...

1980-01-01

494

Logement (Shelter).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Despite the impressive level of economi