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1

Digital Earth Workbench: Global Sea Surface Temperature  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Digital Earth Workbench is an interactive application that runs on a SGI Onyx Infinite Reality system and is controlled by an Immersive Workbench, tracked stereo glasses, and a tracked wand. The application allows an unprecedented freedom to roam georeferenced datasets at multiple resolutions and timescales. This animation is one of a series of direct creen captures of the application in operation. The occasional menu appearance denotes direct intervention by the operator to add or delete data or to activate a new control option.

Maher, Steve

1999-11-12

2

Retrieval of surface temperature by remote sensing. [of earth surface using brightness temperature of air pollutants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A simple procedure and computer program were developed for retrieving the surface temperature from the measurement of upwelling infrared radiance in a single spectral region in the atmosphere. The program evaluates the total upwelling radiance at any altitude in the region of the CO fundamental band (2070-2220 1/cm) for several values of surface temperature. Actual surface temperature is inferred by interpolation of the measured upwelling radiance between the computed values of radiance for the same altitude. Sensitivity calculations were made to determine the effect of uncertainty in various surface, atmospheric and experimental parameters on the inferred value of surface temperature. It is found that the uncertainties in water vapor concentration and surface emittance are the most important factors affecting the accuracy of the inferred value of surface temperature.

Gupta, S. K.; Tiwari, S. N.

1976-01-01

3

Taking the temperature of the Earth: the temperature of the ocean surface (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Given the oceans cover nearly three quarters of the Earth's surface, measuring their temperatures is an important component of 'taking the temperature of the Earth.' The large expanses of the ocean surface and the relative inaccessibility of parts of it render satellite remote sensing an advantageous approach to determining the sea-surface temperature (SST). Obviously, a critical aspect of this measurement is an assessment of the errors and uncertainties in the SSTs measured from orbit, which are often dominated by imperfections in the corrections for the effects of the intervening atmosphere. Such shortcomings in the algorithms used to retrieve the surface temperatures from the top-of-atmosphere measurements may have regional and seasonal characteristics, or be influenced by particular atmospheric characteristics. The assessment of the errors and uncertainties in the satellite SST retrievals is accomplished by comparisons with independent measurements from buoys and ships. The presentation will provide an overview of the current status of the satellite measurements of SSTs, including those from the Suomi-NPP VIIRS, and on approaches to generate Climate Data Records of SST from satellite measurements.

Minnett, P. J.

2013-12-01

4

Earth Observatory Data and Images - Sea Surface Temperature  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Visitors can use sea surface temperature data to build animations that show seasonal and yearly fluctuations, and compare them to data from other selected months and years. The animations can be constructed in map or globe formats and may be viewed on the website or downloaded.

5

Digital Earth Workbench: Sea Surface Temperature with Cloud Cover  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Digital Earth Workbench is an interactive application that runs on a SGI Onyx Infinite Reality system and is controlled by an Immersive Workbench, tracked stereo glasses, and a tracked wand. The application allows an unprecedented freedom to roam georeferenced datasets at multiple resolutions and timescales. This animation is one of a series of direct creen captures of the application in operation. The occasional menu appearance denotes direct intervention by the operator to add or delete data or to activate a new control option.

Maher, Steve

1999-11-12

6

Global relationships among the earth's radiation budget, cloudiness, volcanic aerosols, and surface temperature  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Global relationships among the earth's radiation budget, cloudiness, solar constant, volcanic aerosols, and surface temperature are analyzed using data obtained by the Nimbus-7 spacecraft. It was found that these parameters were interrelated on interannual time scales, demonstrating that the interannual variability in the earth's climate (i.e., radiation budget) is detectable and observable by current spaceborne instruments. The degree of global interannual variation is on the order of tenths of percent.

Ardanuy, Philip E.; Kyle, H. L.; Hoyt, Douglas

1992-01-01

7

The faint young sun problem. [in regulating surface temperature of early earth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is shown that the faint young sun problem was most likely solved by an increase in atmospheric CO2 concentration in the earth's atmosphere brought about by the CO2 geochemical cycle. Because the loss process for atmospheric CO2 requires liquid water, and because the earth is continually resupplying atmospheric CO2 by carbonate metamorphism, the surface temperature should never have fallen below the point at which the ocean would freeze. Indeed, the early earth may have been quite warm if carbonate metamorphism was faster and if the continents were originally smaller, so that silicate weathering was inhibited.

Kasting, James F.; Grinspoon, David H.

1991-01-01

8

Surface temperatures at the nearside of the Moon as a record of the radiation budget of Earth's climate system  

E-print Network

Surface temperatures at the nearside of the Moon as a record of the radiation budget of Earth of Earth, the Moon is a unique platform for the study of the disk-wide radiation budget of Earth. There are no complications from atmosphere, hydrosphere, or biosphere on the Moon. The nearside of the Moon allows

Huang, Shaopeng

9

Land and Ocean Surface Skin Temperature from Geostationary and Low Earth Orbit Satellite Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observations from imagers aboard Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO) and Low Earth Orbit (LEO) satellites allow for spatially detailed, near-real-time retrievals of cloud and surface radiation properties. Validating and improving the quality of these observations is important for the advancement of climate studies. Compared to GEO sensors, LEO-based instruments can typically provide higher-spatial-resolution datasets, but at the cost of limited areal coverage and reduced sampling frequency at any given location. Conversely, the persistence and coverage of GEO-based imagers offer the opportunity for more frequent retrievals of near-instantaneous, near-global surface properties. Among other cloud and clear-sky retrieval parameters, NASA Langley provides pixel-level land and ocean skin temperature datasets by comparing clear-pixel top-of-atmosphere infrared temperature observations with modeled, atmospheric-absorption-corrected surface temperature values. Depending on cloud-cover thresholds, this method yields surface temperature values that are within 0.5 to 2.0 K of measurements from ground-based networks including the Southern Great Plains Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility, the U.S. Climate Reference Network, and the global Baseline Surface Radiation Network. Furthermore, monthly mean sea surface temperatures (SSTs) are within 0.5 to 2.0 K of NOAA-based SST climatology records, and have an uncertainty of less than 1 K. These data will be useful for assimilation into atmospheric models, which offer improved performance when high-accuracy, high-resolution initial radiometric and surface conditions are included. Modelers should find the immediate availability and broad coverage of these skin temperature observations valuable, which can lead to improved forecasting and more advanced global climate models.

Scarino, B. R.; Minnis, P.; Palikonda, R.; Heck, P.; Bedka, K.

2013-12-01

10

An empirical evaluation of earths surface air temperature response to radiative forcing, including feedback, as applied to the CO 2 -climate problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several natural experiments are analyzed to yield equilibrium values of a surface air temperature response function and a feedback factor for Earths atmosphere. The former parameter, the change in surface air temperature induced by a change in radiant energy absorbed at the surface, is demonstrated to have a value of about 0.1 K (Wm?2)?1; while the latter parameter, the ratio

S. B. Idso

1984-01-01

11

Earth's Surface  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This self-contained module on Earth's crust includes a range of fun activities that students can perform in the classroom and at home with family members. They impart important concepts such as observation, identification, measurement, and differentiation.

Houghton Mifflin Science

12

Visible Earth: Land Surface  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website is part of Visible Earth, which is hosted by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and contains a searchable directory of images, visualizations, and animations of the Earth. This section contains images pertaining to surface processes, including erosion, sedimentation, land temperature, land use, soils, topography, and more. Each image is available in a variety of resolutions and sizes, with a brief description, credit, date, and the satellite that took the image.

13

What Is the Atmospheres Effect on Earth's Surface Temperature?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is frequently stated in textbooks and scholarly articles that the surface temperature of Earth is 33C warmer than it would be without the atmosphere and that this difference is due to the greenhouse effect. This Forum shows that the atmosphere effect leads to warming of only 20C. This new conclusion requires a revision to all of the relevant literature in K-12, undergraduate, and graduate education material and to science papers and reports. The greenhouse effect on Earth's surface temperature is well understood qualitatively and is regarded as basic knowledge about Earth's climate and climate change. The 33C warming has been used to quantify the greenhouse effect of greenhouse gases, or of greenhouse gases and clouds, in K-12 educational material (e.g., http://epa.gov/climatechange/kids/greenhouse.html), undergraduate freshman introductory textbooks on weather and climate [e.g., Ahrens, 2008], and graduate textbooks on climate [e.g., Peixoto and Oort, 1992]. Some textbooks and various other publications have less stringently attributed the warming to the greenhouse effect [e.g., Wallace and Hobbs, 2006; Le Treut et al., 2007; American Meteorological Society, 2000].

Zeng, Xubin

2010-04-01

14

Earth\\'s Surface  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

You have already learned about the four major parts of Earth\\'s system: atmosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere, and geosphere. Go to the following sites to learn more about rocks and minerals, continental drift, and geologic time. When you finish viewing all the sites, you will participate in a problem-based learning activity, \\"The Case of the Disappearing Dirt.\\" Topographic Maps All About Geology Answer the questions on the handout. Erosion and Weathering Summarize what your learned about erosion and weathering. Examine a landscape formed by erosion Observe the effects of mechanical weathering Plate Tectonics FAQ s About Rocks and Fossils Igneous Rocks Rocks and Minerals Slide Show Rock Cycle Observe an animation of metamorphic rocks forming Continental Drift Mineralogy 4 kids : rockin Internet site : the best place to learn about rocks and minerals Draw a picture of the rock cycle. Coasting Away ...

Mathis, Ms.

2008-01-11

15

Earth's Changing Surface  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Overview: The Earth's Changing Surface SciPack explores how Earth's ever-changing surface is due to continuous natural processes such as tectonic activity, earthquakes, volcanic activities, weathering and erosion, and sedimentation and the reformation of rock. The focus is on topics supporting Standards and Benchmarks related to how and why these processes occur, and how elements cycle through the land, oceans, and atmosphere as a result of these processes. This SciPack looks at Earth as a system that exists in dynamic equilibrium. In addition to comprehensive inquiry-based learning materials tied to Science Education Standards and Benchmarks, the SciPack includes the following additional components: Pedagogical Implications section addressing common misconceptions, teaching resources and strand maps linking grade band appropriate content to standards. Access to one-on-one support via e-mail to content "Wizards". Final Assessment which can be used to certify mastery of the concepts. Learning Outcomes: Earth's Changing Surface: Changing Earth From Within Explain that both Earth's surface and interior are in motion and describe the causes the motion. Describe how heat within Earth comes from two main sources: radioactive decay and residual heat (gravitational energy left over from the formation of Earth). Explain the fact that the vast majority of earthquakes and volcanic activities which occur near plate boundaries are caused by the movement of the plates. Describe that changes on Earth's surface also happen on the ocean floor to create forms such as ocean basins, mountains and volcanoes. Earth's Changing Surface: Sculpting the Landscape Distinguish between changes in Earth's surface that are abrupt, such as earthquakes and volcanoes and changes that happen very slowly such as uplift and wearing down of mountains. Identify rates of landscape formation. Infer from present data that the processes that shape the earth today are similar to events that occurred in the past. Identify agents of change as destructive, constructive, or both. Describe how erosion by way of waves, wind, glaciers, gravity, running water, etc., causes change in geological features. Earth's Changing Surface: Humans as Agents of Change Distinguish natural processes that shape the surface of Earth from human impact factors that change the surface of Earth. Explain how human activities such as river control, mining, and deforestation have had an effect on the shape of Earth's surface. Describe how human activities do not create new processes but cause changes in the rate and scale of natural processes.

National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

2008-01-07

16

Relationship Between the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Measurements and Surface Temperatures of Selected Ocean Regions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Clear sky longwave radiances and fluxes are compared with the sea surface temperatures for three oceanic regions: Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific. The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) measurements were obtained by the three thermistor bolometers: total channel which measures the radiation arising from the earth-atmosphere system between 0.3 - greater than 100 micrometers; the window channel which measures the radiation from 8-12 micrometers; and the shortwave channel which measures the reflected energy from 0.3 - less than 5.0 micrometers. These instruments have demonstrated measurement precisions of approximately 0.3% on the International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90) between ground and on-orbit sensor calibrations. In this work we have used eight months of clear sky earth-nadir-view radiance data starting from January 1998 through August 1998. We have found a very strong correlation of 0.97 between the CERES window channel's weekly averaged unfiltered spectral radiance values at satellite altitude (350 km) and the corresponding weekly averaged sea surface temperature (SST) data covering all the oceanic regions. Such correlation can be used in predicting the sea surface temperatures using the present CERES Terra's window channel radiances at satellite altitude very easily.

Pandey, Dhirendra, K.; Lee, Robert B., III; Brown, Shannon B.; Paden, Jack; Spence, Peter L.; Thomas, Susan; Wilson, Robert S.; Al-Hajjah, Aiman

2001-01-01

17

Earth Exploration Toolbook Chapter: Detecting El Nio in Sea Surface Temperature Data  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

DATA: Sea Surface Temperature (SST). TOOL: My World GIS. SUMMARY: Examine 15 years of SST data from the Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory. Create and analyze average SST maps to identify El Nino and La Nina events.

David Smith

18

Effects of high CO 2 levels on surface temperature and atmospheric oxidation state of the early Earth  

Microsoft Academic Search

One-dimensional radiative-convective and photochemical models are used to examine the effects of enhanced CO2 concentrations on the surface temperature of the early Earth and the composition of the prebiotic atmosphere. Carbon dioxide concentrations of the order of 1001000 times the present level are required to compensate for an expected solar luminosity decrease of 2530%, if CO2 and H2O were the

James F. Kasting; James B. Pollack; David Crisp

1984-01-01

19

External Resource: Earths Surface  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity guide is based around the video Science Investigations: Investigating the Earth's Surface, which is available for purchase through the Discovery Store Channel. After watching the video, students will be able to discuss the use of satellites,

1900-01-01

20

How will Earth's surface temperature change in future decades? Judith L. Lean1  

E-print Network

surface temperatures warmed little, if at all, from 2002 to 2008, even as green- house gas concentrations events, near 0.3°C cooling following large volcanic erup- tions, and 0.1°C warming from minima to maxima

21

Effects of temperature-dependent molecular absorption coefficients on the thermal infrared remote sensing of the earth surface  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effect of temperature-dependent molecular absorption coefficients on thermal infrared spectral signatures measured from satellite sensors is investigated by comparing results from the atmospheric transmission and radiance codes LOWTRAN and MODTRAN and the accurate multiple scattering radiative transfer model ATRAD for different atmospheric profiles. The sensors considered include the operational NOAA AVHRR and two research instruments planned for NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS): MODIS-N (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer-Nadir-Mode) and ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer). The difference in band transmittance is as large as 6 percent for some thermal bands within atmospheric windows and more than 30 percent near the edges of these atmospheric windows. The effect of temperature-dependent molecular absorption coefficients on satellite measurements of sea-surface temperature can exceed 0.6 K. Quantitative comparison and factor analysis indicate that more accurate measurements of molecular absorption coefficients and better radiative transfer simulation methods are needed to achieve SST accuracy of 0.3 K, as required for global numerical models of climate, and to develop land-surface temperature algorithms at the 1-K accuracy level.

Wan, Zhengming; Dozier, Jeff

1992-01-01

22

The CRUTEM4 land-surface air temperature data set: construction, previous versions and dissemination via Google Earth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The CRUTEM4 (Climatic Research Unit Temperature, version 4) land-surface air temperature data set is one of the most widely used records of the climate system. Here we provide an important additional dissemination route for this data set: online access to monthly, seasonal and annual data values and time series graphs via Google Earth. This is achieved via an interface written in Keyhole Markup Language (KML) and also provides access to the underlying weather station data used to construct the CRUTEM4 data set. A mathematical description of the construction of the CRUTEM4 data set (and its predecessor versions) is also provided, together with an archive of some previous versions and a recommendation for identifying the precise version of the data set used in a particular study. The CRUTEM4 data set used here is available from doi:10.5285/EECBA94F-62F9-4B7C-88D3-482F2C93C468.

Osborn, T. J.; Jones, P. D.

2014-02-01

23

The CRUTEM4 land-surface air temperature dataset: construction, previous versions and dissemination via Google Earth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The CRUTEM4 (Climatic Research Unit Temperature version 4) land-surface air temperature dataset is one of the most widely used records of the climate system. Here we provide an important additional dissemination route for this dataset: online access to monthly, seasonal and annual data values and timeseries graphs via Google Earth. This is achieved via an interface written in Keyhole Markup Language (KML) and also provides access to the underlying weather station data used to construct the CRUTEM4 dataset. A mathematical description of the construction of the CRUTEM4 dataset (and its predecessor versions) is also provided, together with an archive of some previous versions and a recommendation for identifying the precise version of the dataset used in a particular study. The CRUTEM4 dataset used here is available from doi:10.5285/EECBA94F-62F9-4B7C-88D3-482F2C93C468.

Osborn, T. J.; Jones, P. D.

2013-10-01

24

Temperature, Temperature, Earth, geotherm for  

E-print Network

group with lower temperatures from 522 to 476°C for reaction sites where talc has grown... Each measured sites either with tremolite or with talc. The conversation of the present field occurrence of assemblage of the assemblage tremolite + talc + calcite + dolomite + quartz #12;Kargel et al. 1993 #12;Kargel et al. 1993 #12

Treiman, Allan H.

25

Surface Temperature Data Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Small global mean temperature changes may have significant to disastrous consequences for the Earth's climate if they persist for an extended period. Obtaining global means from local weather reports is hampered by the uneven spatial distribution of the reliably reporting weather stations. Methods had to be developed that minimize as far as possible the impact of that situation. This software is a method of combining temperature data of individual stations to obtain a global mean trend, overcoming/estimating the uncertainty introduced by the spatial and temporal gaps in the available data. Useful estimates were obtained by the introduction of a special grid, subdividing the Earth's surface into 8,000 equal-area boxes, using the existing data to create virtual stations at the center of each of these boxes, and combining temperature anomalies (after assessing the radius of high correlation) rather than temperatures.

Hansen, James; Ruedy, Reto

2012-01-01

26

Our contaminated atmosphere: The danger of climate change, phases 1 and 2. [effect of atmospheric particulate matter on surface temperature and earth's radiation budget  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of increased concentrations of atmospheric particulate matter on average surface temperature and on the components of the earth's radiation budget are studied. An atmospheric model which couples particulate loading to surface temperature and to changes in the earth's radiation budget was used. A determination of the feasibility of using satellites to monitor the effect of increased atmospheric particulate concentrations is performed. It was found that: (1) a change in man-made particulate loading of a factor of 4 is sufficient to initiate an ice age; (2) variations in the global and hemispheric weighted averages of surface temperature, reflected radiant fluz and emitted radiant flux are nonlinear functions of particulate loading; and (3) a black satellite sphere meets the requirement of night time measurement sensitivity, but not the required day time sensitivity. A nonblack, spherical radiometer whose external optical properties are sensitive to either the reflected radiant fluz or the emitted radiant flux meets the observational sensitivity requirements.

Cimorelli, A. J.; House, F. B.

1974-01-01

27

Hydrohalite in cold sea ice: Laboratory observations of single crystals, surface accumulations, and migration rates under a temperature gradient, with application to Snowball Earth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When NaCl precipitates out of a saturated solution, it forms anhydrous crystals of halite at temperatures above +0.11C, but at temperatures below this threshold it instead precipitates as the dihydrate "hydrohalite," NaCl 2H2O. When sea ice is cooled, hydrohalite begins to precipitate within brine inclusions at about -23C. In this work, hydrohalite crystals are examined in laboratory experiments: their formation, their shape, and their response to warming and desiccation. Sublimation of a sea ice surface at low temperature leaves a lag deposit of hydrohalite, which has the character of a fine powder. The precipitation of hydrohalite in brine inclusions raises the albedo of sea ice, and the subsequent formation of a surface accumulation further raises the albedo. Although these processes have limited climatic importance on the modern Earth, they would have been important in determining the surface types present in regions of net sublimation on the tropical ocean in the cold phase of a Snowball Earth event. However, brine inclusions in sea ice migrate downward to warmer ice, so whether salt can accumulate on the surface depends on the relative rates of sublimation and migration. The migration rates are measured in a laboratory experiment at temperatures from -2C to -32C; the migration appears to be too slow to prevent formation of a salt crust on Snowball Earth.

Light, Bonnie; Brandt, Richard E.; Warren, Stephen G.

2009-07-01

28

Rare Earth Optical Temperature Sensor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new optical temperature sensor suitable for high temperatures (greater than 1700 K) and harsh environments is introduced. The key component of the sensor is the rare earth material contained at the end of a sensor that is in contact with the sample being measured. The measured narrow wavelength band emission from the rare earth is used to deduce the sample temperature. A simplified relation between the temperature and measured radiation was verified experimentally. The upper temperature limit of the sensor is determined by material limits to be approximately 2000 C. The lower limit, determined by the minimum detectable radiation, is found to be approximately 700 K. At high temperatures 1 K resolution is predicted. Also, millisecond response times are calculated.

Chubb, Donald L.; Wolford, David S.

2000-01-01

29

The Sun-Earth Connection The Temperature of the Earth  

E-print Network

AST248 The Sun-Earth Connection #12;The Temperature of the Earth The Earth is in equilibrium ­ the heat absorbed from the Sun with ­ the heat radiated by the Earth. Heat in = heat out #12;Heat constant) ­ L is the solar luminosity ­ d is the distance from the Earth to the Sun, 1AU ­ The solar

Walter, Frederick M.

30

Global Sea SurfaceTemperature  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This illustration of Earth's sea surface temperature was obtained from two weeks of infrared observations by the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR), an instrument on board NOAA-7, during July 1984. Temperatures are color coded with red being warmest and decreasing through oranges, yellows, greens, and blues. The caption provides a brief description of the features seen in the image.

31

DIATOMACEOUS EARTH SURFACE TREATMENT FOR STORED WHEAT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Diatomaceous earth (DE) can be used as a surface treatment in stored wheat to control pest infestations. However, it is not known how the thickness of the DE-treated wheat layer or grain temperature impacts effectiveness. When adult Rhizopertha dominica (F.), lesser grain borers, were released in e...

32

Earth's Changing Surface: Unit Outlines  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article assembles free resources from the Earth's Changing Surface issue of the Beyond Penguins and Polar Bears cyberzine into a unit outline based on the 5E learning cycle framework. Outlines are provided for Grades K-2 and 3-5.

Fries-Gaither, Jessica

33

Zooming into temperature conditions in the city of Leipzig: how do urban built and green structures influence earth surface temperatures in the city?  

PubMed

Urban landscape and land-use structure, particularly that of built space, were found to have a significant impact on environmental exposures, e.g., on the level and spatial distribution of particle and noise exposure in cities. Climate change will increase the frequency, duration and intensity of heat waves. Hence, the question arises: how do urban structures affect the shape and intensity of urban temperature conditions? To answer this question, multiple urban structures have been quantified in terms of their structural patterns and configuration using the landscape metric (LSM) approach. The results of a linear regression analysis showed that both the edge density and patch size ratio are significantly correlated with the spread and intensity of temperatures across all urban built structures. The analysis shows that the higher the proportion and structural complexity of the built area, the higher are the morning and evening surface temperatures. LSMs were found to be very well suited as analysis models of the site-specific temperature impact beyond the aggregate city level. Hence, they may serve as a planning tool for urban adaptation measures to climate change. PMID:25087062

Weber, Nicole; Haase, Dagmar; Franck, Ulrich

2014-10-15

34

Surface Temperature Protocol  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of this activity is to measure surface temperature with a handheld Infrared Thermometer (IRT). The instrument is pointed at the ground to take surface temperature readings. Intended outcomes are that students will learn to use an infrared thermometer, and understand how different surfaces radiate energy. Supporting background materials for both student and teacher are included.

The GLOBE Program, UCAR (University Corporation for Atmospheric Research)

2003-08-01

35

Bizarre Life Forms Thrive Beneath Earth's Surface  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In the classic tale, "A Journey to the Center of the Earth," Jules Verne imagined elaborate worlds in a hollow, miles beneath our feet. More modern science-fiction novelists have dreamed of spheres in outer space where earthling astronauts encounter alien life forms. Now these two ideas are being fused in a bubbling witches' cauldron: deep within the planet may be the best place to find new life forms on our planet--and glean clues to possible life on others. Vaporous hot pools far beneath Earth's surface support microbes conducting the business of life at extreme temperatures and pressures. The microbes, some of which are bacteria, are all called extremophiles, and their potentially far-reaching domain is called the subsurface biosphere.

2009-07-14

36

Dropping Two Balls Near the Earth's Surface  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The representation depicts two balls being dropped near the Earth's surface in an interactive simulation. The user can control the initial horizontal speed of one ball and observe the path and acceleration of both balls as they fall and hit the Earth's surface at the same time.

Harrison, David M.

37

Precision levels and measurements of tilts of the earth's surface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements of earth-surface tilts during the Tolbachik, Kamchatka volcano eruption are interpreted as being due to displacements of vast masses of the earth's matter. The design of a tiltmeter employing precision cylindrical levels as sensors is described. The properties of levels as a capillary system are discussed, and the sensitivity threshold and instrument error of the tiltmeter are evaluated. Results are presented concerning bubble surface shape and motion and temperature effects on the level.

Dobrokhotov, Iu. S.

38

Ocean Currents and Sea Surface Temperature  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will make predictions by linking current scientific satellite data to concerns about global climate change. Using maps of sea surface temperature (SST) and ocean surface winds, students will learn how differential heating of Earth results in circulation patterns in the atmosphere and oceans that globally distribute the heat. Students will learn the relationship between the rotation of Earth and the circular motions of ocean currents and air in pressure centers.

39

Surface Temperature: Contouring Isotherms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive feature shows how an isothermal map of surface temperature is drawn. Students can select an individual contour value and watch as a virtual 'pencil' correctly places the line with respect to temperature values on the map. The animation also permits the user to color the spaces between the contour lines on the map.

40

Linking Deep Earth and Surface Processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the important developments in Earth science over the past decade has been recognition of the significance of linking deep Earth dynamic processes with surface and near-surface geologic processes [e.g., Braun, 2010]. Deep Earth research, encompassing fields such as seismology and mantle geodynamics, has traditionally operated distinctly from fields focusing on dynamics of the Earth's surface, such as sedimentology and geomorphology. However, these endeavors have in common the study of Earth's topography and the prediction of changes in its surface. Observables from surface studies, such as basin stratigraphy, geomorphology of landscapes, changes in surface elevation, and changes in sea level, provide some of the principal constraints on geodynamic and tectonic models. Conversely, deep geodynamic processes give rise to the topography, erosion, and sediment generation that are the basis of surface geology. Surface manifestations of deep geodynamic processes have significant societal impact by creating natural hazards, such as earthquakes and mass movements, and controlling the distribution of natural resources such as fossil fuels or geothermal energy. The relevance of research conducted in both the deep Earth and surface regimes is thus enhanced through a focus on their interaction.

Cloetingh, Sierd; Willett, Sean D.

2013-01-01

41

Global Sea Surface Temperature and MODIS  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

MODIS provides frequent (every 1-2 days) global views of many of the Earths vital signs. This image shows a true-color land surface and a false color sea surface temperature map (red and yellow are warmer, blues are cooler).

Snodgrass, Stuart; Kaufman, Yoram

2000-04-19

42

Superhydrophobic surfaces engineered using diatomaceous earth.  

PubMed

We present a simple method to prepare superhydrophobic surfaces using siliceous exoskeleton of diatoms, a widespread group of algae. This makes diatomaceous earth an accessible and cheap natural material. A micro/nanoscale hierarchical topography was achieved by coating a glass surface with diatomaceous earth, giving rise to a superhydrophilic surface. Superhydrophobic surfaces were obtained by a further surface chemical modification through fluorosilanization. The wettability of the superhydrophobic surface can be modified by Argon plasma treatment in a controlled way by exposure time variation. The chemical surface modification by fluorosilanization and posterior fluorinated SH surface modification by plasma treatment was analyzed by XPS. Using appropriated hollowed masks only specific areas on the surface were exposed to plasma permitting to pattern hydrophilic features with different geometries on the superhydrophobic surface. We showed that the present strategy can be also applied in other substrates, including thermoplastics, enlarging the potential applicability of the resulting surfaces. PMID:23647196

Oliveira, Nuno M; Reis, Rui L; Mano, Joo F

2013-05-22

43

Reducing greenhouses and the temperature history of earth and Mars  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been suggested that NH3 and other reducing gases were present in the earth's primitive atmosphere, enhancing the global greenhouse effect; data obtained through isotopic archeothermometry support this hypothesis. Computations have been applied to the evolution of surface temperatures on Mars, considering various bolometric albedos and compositions. The results are of interest in the study of Martian sinuous channels

CARL SAGAN

1977-01-01

44

Initiation of clement surface conditions on the earliest Earth  

PubMed Central

In the beginning the surface of the Earth was extremely hot, because the Earth as we know it is the product of a collision between two planets, a collision that also created the Moon. Most of the heat within the very young Earth was lost quickly to space while the surface was still quite hot. As it cooled, the Earth's surface passed monotonically through every temperature regime between silicate vapor to liquid water and perhaps even to ice, eventually reaching an equilibrium with sunlight. Inevitably the surface passed through a time when the temperature was around 100C at which modern thermophile organisms live. How long this warm epoch lasted depends on how long a thick greenhouse atmosphere can be maintained by heat flow from the Earth's interior, either directly as a supplement to insolation, or indirectly through its influence on the nascent carbonate cycle. In both cases, the duration of the warm epoch would have been controlled by processes within the Earth's interior where buffering by surface conditions played little part. A potentially evolutionarily significant warm period of between 105 and 107 years seems likely, which nonetheless was brief compared to the vast expanse of geological time. PMID:11259665

Sleep, N. H.; Zahnle, K.; Neuhoff, P. S.

2001-01-01

45

Initiation of clement surface conditions on the earliest Earth.  

PubMed

In the beginning the surface of the Earth was extremely hot, because the Earth as we know it is the product of a collision between two planets, a collision that also created the Moon. Most of the heat within the very young Earth was lost quickly to space while the surface was still quite hot. As it cooled, the Earth's surface passed monotonically through every temperature regime between silicate vapor to liquid water and perhaps even to ice, eventually reaching an equilibrium with sunlight. Inevitably the surface passed through a time when the temperature was around 100 degrees C at which modern thermophile organisms live. How long this warm epoch lasted depends on how long a thick greenhouse atmosphere can be maintained by heat flow from the Earth's interior, either directly as a supplement to insolation, or indirectly through its influence on the nascent carbonate cycle. In both cases, the duration of the warm epoch would have been controlled by processes within the Earth's interior where buffering by surface conditions played little part. A potentially evolutionarily significant warm period of between 10(5) and 10(7) years seems likely, which nonetheless was brief compared to the vast expanse of geological time. PMID:11259665

Sleep, N H; Zahnle, K; Neuhoff, P S

2001-03-27

46

Estimation of Surface Air Temperature from MODIS 1km Resolution Land Surface Temperature Over Northern China  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Surface air temperature is a critical variable to describe the energy and water cycle of the Earth-atmosphere system and is a key input element for hydrology and land surface models. It is a very important variable in agricultural applications and climate change studies. This is a preliminary study to examine statistical relationships between ground meteorological station measured surface daily maximum/minimum air temperature and satellite remotely sensed land surface temperature from MODIS over the dry and semiarid regions of northern China. Studies were conducted for both MODIS-Terra and MODIS-Aqua by using year 2009 data. Results indicate that the relationships between surface air temperature and remotely sensed land surface temperature are statistically significant. The relationships between the maximum air temperature and daytime land surface temperature depends significantly on land surface types and vegetation index, but the minimum air temperature and nighttime land surface temperature has little dependence on the surface conditions. Based on linear regression relationship between surface air temperature and MODIS land surface temperature, surface maximum and minimum air temperatures are estimated from 1km MODIS land surface temperature under clear sky conditions. The statistical errors (sigma) of the estimated daily maximum (minimum) air temperature is about 3.8 C(3.7 C).

Shen, Suhung; Leptoukh, Gregory G.; Gerasimov, Irina

2010-01-01

47

Superhydrophobic surface at low surface temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Superhydrophobic surfaces have aroused great attention for promising applications, e.g., anti-ice/frost. However, most surfaces which are superhydrophobic at room temperature lose their superhydrophobicity at low surface temperatures. Here, surfaces with different area fractions of the solid surface in contact with the liquid (f1) were designed. It is found that surfaces with f1 equal to or smaller than 0.068 maintain the superhydrophobicity when the surface temperature approaches the dew-point. These results are crucial to understand the correlation between the surface morphology and the superhydrophobicity around the dew-point, and design effective surfaces with desired wettability.

He, Min; Li, Huiling; Wang, Jianjun; Song, Yanlin

2011-02-01

48

Comparing the Surfaces of Earth and Mars  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Comparing the Surfaces of Earth and Mars is a Windows to the Universe Exploratour and provides information and images about different features found on the surface and the geography of both planets: continents, craters, volcanoes, plate tectonics, rocks, soils, water, and polar caps. Windows to the Universe is a user-friendly learning system pertaining to the Earth and Space sciences. The objective of this project is to develop an innovative and engaging web site that spans the Earth and Space sciences and includes a rich array of documents, including images, movies, animations, and data sets that explore the Earth and Space sciences and the historical and cultural ties between science, exploration and the human experience. Links at the top of each page allow users to navigate between beginner, intermediate, and advanced options for each topic level.

Johnson, Roberta

2000-07-01

49

Influence of Land-Surface Evapotranspiration on the Earth's Climate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calculations with a numerical model of the atmosphere show that the global fields of rainfall, temperature, and motion strongly depend on the landsurface evapotranspiration. This confirms the long-held idea that the surface vegetation, which produces the evapotransporation, is an important factor in the earth's climate.

J. Shukla; Y. Mintz

1982-01-01

50

Editor's Roundtable: Sculpting the Earth's surface  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Our students need to know about the structure of the Earth and about the geological processes that shape its surface--both the long-term and the everyday processes, the abrupt shifts of faults, the sustained movements of tectonic plates, and slow uplift of mountains. Therefore, this issue of Science Scope focuses on Earth processes. Use this collection of activities to awaken your students to the factors that shape the continents and the hills, valleys, rivers, fields, lakes, and oceans around them.

Inez Liftig

2008-10-01

51

National Center for Earth-surface Dynamics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

NCED (the National Center for Earth-surface Dynamics) is a National Science Foundation Science and Technology Center. We began operation in August, 2002; we're headquartered at the St. Anthony Falls Laboratory at the University of Minnesota. Our purpose is to catalyze development of an integrated, predictive science of the processes shaping the surface of the Earth in order to transform management of ecosystems, resources, and land use. In concert with our integrative research efforts, we strive to bring our methods and results to students, the public, and practitioners in agencies and industry.

Dynamics, National C.

52

Did surface temperatures constrain microbial evolution?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The proposition that glaciation may not have occurred before the Cenozoic--albeit not yet a consensus position--nevertheless raises for reconsideration the surface temperature history of the earth. Glacial episodes, from the Huronian (2.3 billion years ago; BYA) through the late Paleozoic (320 to 250 million years ago; MYA) have been critical constraints on estimation of the upper bounds of temperature (Crowley 1983, Kasting and Toon 1989). Once removed, few if any constraints on the upper temperature limit other than life remain. Walker (1982) recognized that life provides an upper limit to temperature in the Precambrian. We propose a more radical concept: the upper temperature limit for viable growth of a given microbial group corresponds to the actual surface temperature at the time of the group's first appearance. In particular, we propose here that two major evolutionary developments--the emergence of cyanobacteria and aerobic eukaryotes--can be used to determine surface temperature in the Precambrian, and that only subsequent cooling mediated by higher plants and then angiosperms permitted what may possibly be the earth's first glaciation in the late Cenozoic.

Schwartzman, D.; McMenamin, M.; Volk, T.

1993-01-01

53

Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) planet profile provides data and images of the planet Earth. These data include planet size, orbit facts, distance from the Sun, rotation and revolution times, temperature, atmospheric composition, density, surface materials and albedo. Images with descriptions show Earth features such as the Ross Ice Shelf in Antarctica, Simpson Desert in Australia, Mt. Etna in Sicily, the Cassiar Mountains in Canada, the Strait of Gibraltar, Mississippi River, Grand Canyon, Wadi Kufra Oasis in Libya, and Moon images such as Hadley Rille, Plum Crater, massifs and Moon rocks. These images were taken with the Galileo Spacecraft and by the Apollo missions.

54

Alkaline Earth Core Level Photoemission Spectroscopy of High-Temperature Superconductors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper examines photoemission measurements of the alkaline Earth core levels of high-temperature superconductors and related materials, models that seek to explain the large negative shifts observed relative to the corresponding alkaline Earth metals, and the effect of lattice site disorder on the core level spectra and the presence or absence of intrinsic surface peaks.

Vasquez, R.

1993-01-01

55

Spaceborne radar observation of the earth surface  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Seasat SAR images are being analyzed to determine the potential of spaceborne radars for earth resources and ocean surface observation. Examples are presented for a variety of applications in structural mapping, lithological classification, soil moisture detection, polar ice motion monitoring and ocean features observation. These examples are briefly discussed with emphasis on the future research needed to further the capability of radar sensors, by themselves or in combination with other sensors. A brief discussion is then given on the spaceborne sensors which are required and planned to meet these needs.

Elachi, C.

1981-01-01

56

In Situ Airborne, Surface, and Submersible Instruments for Earth Science  

E-print Network

SBIR SBIR 74 75 I In Situ Airborne, Surface, and Submersible Instruments for Earth Science In Situ Airborne, Surface, and Submersible Instruments for Earth Science Technical Abstract An autonomous airborne imaging system for earth science research, disaster response, and fire detection is proposed. The primary

57

Stability of hydrocarbons at deep Earth pressures and temperatures  

PubMed Central

Determining the thermochemical properties of hydrocarbons (HCs) at high pressure and temperature is a key step toward understanding carbon reservoirs and fluxes in the deep Earth. The stability of carbon-hydrogen systems at depths greater than a few thousand meters is poorly understood and the extent of abiogenic HCs in the Earth mantle remains controversial. We report ab initio molecular dynamics simulations and free energy calculations aimed at investigating the formation of higher HCs from dissociation of pure methane, and in the presence of carbon surfaces and transition metals, for pressures of 2 to 30GPa and temperatures of 800 to 4,000K. We show that for T?2,000K and P?4GPa HCs higher than methane are energetically favored. Our results indicate that higher HCs become more stable between 1,000 and 2,000K and P?4GPa. The interaction of methane with a transition metal facilitates the formation of these HCs in a range of temperature where otherwise pure methane would be metastable. Our results provide a unified interpretation of several recent experiments and a detailed microscopic model of methane dissociation and polymerization at high pressure and temperature.

Spanu, Leonardo; Donadio, Davide; Hohl, Detlef; Schwegler, Eric; Galli, Giulia

2011-01-01

58

Stability of hydrocarbons at deep Earth pressures and temperatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Determining the thermochemical properties of hydrocarbons (HCs) at high pressure and temperature is a key step toward understanding carbon reservoirs and fluxes in the deep Earth. The stability of carbon-hydrogen systems at depths greater than a few thousand meters is poorly understood and the extent of abiogenic HCs in the Earth mantle remains controversial. We report ab initio molecular dynamics simulations and free energy calculations aimed at investigating the formation of higher HCs from dissociation of pure methane, and in the presence of carbon surfaces and transition metals, for pressures of 2 to 30 GPa and temperatures of 800 to 4,000 K [1]. We show that for T ? 2,000 K and P ? 4 GPa HCs higher than methane are energetically favored. Our results indicate that higher HCs become more stable between 1,000 and 2,000 K and P ? 4 GPa. The interaction of methane with a transition metal facilitates the formation of these HCs in a range of temperature where otherwise pure methane would be metastable. Our results provide a unified interpretation of several recent experiments and a detailed microscopic model of methane dissociation and polymerization at high pressure and temperature. [1] L. Spanu et al. PNAS 108, 6843 (2011).

Galli, G.

2012-12-01

59

Global surface temperatures and the atmospheric electrical circuit  

Microsoft Academic Search

To monitor future global temperature trends, it would be extremely useful if parameters nonlinearly related to surface temperature could be found, thereby amplifying any warming signal that may exist. Evidence that global thunderstorm activity is nonlinearly related to diurnal, seasonal and interannual temperature variations is presented. Since global thunderstorm activity is also well correlated with the earth's ionospheric potential, it

Colin Price

1993-01-01

60

HCMM satellite to take earth's temperature  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The heat capacity mapping mission (HCMM), a low cost modular spacecraft built for the Applications Explorer Missions (AEM), was designed to allow scientists to determine the feasibility of using day/night thermal infrared remote sensor-derived data to: (1) discriminate various rock types and locate mineral resources; (2) measure and monitor surface soil moisture changes; (3) measure plant canopy temperatures at frequent intervals to determine transpiration of water and plant stress; and (4) measure urban heat islands. The design of the spacecraft (AEM-A), its payload, launch vehicle, orbit, and data collection and processing methods are described. Projects in which the HCMM data will be applied by 12 American and 12 foreign investigators are summarized.

1978-01-01

61

Earth Interactions Interannual Temperature Events and Shifts in  

E-print Network

Earth Interactions Interannual Temperature Events and Shifts in Global Temperature: A "Multiwavelet of the instrumental record of global temperatures spanning the past 140 years. The duration of an "episode"is chosen are characterized as significant, however, by virtue of their global-scale pattern of temperature variations as well

62

The Cool Surfaces of Binaries Near-Earth Asteroids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present results from thermal-infrared observations of binary near-Earth asteroids (NEAs). These objects, in general, have surface temperatures cooler than the average values for non-binary NEAs. We discuss how this may be evidence of higher-than-average surface thermal inertia. The comparison of these binary NEAs with all NEAs and rapidly rotating NEAs suggests a binary formation mechanism capable of altering surface properties, possibly removing regolith: an obvious candidate is the YORP effect. --- Acknowledgments This research was carried out while Marco Delbo and Kevin Walsh were Henri Poincare Fellows at the Observatoire de la Cote d'Azur. The Henri Poincare Fellowship is funded by the CNRS-INSU, the Conseil General des Alpes-Maritimes and the Rotary International -- District 1730.

Delbo, Marco; Walsh, K.; Mueller, M.

2008-09-01

63

Global surface temperatures and the atmospheric electrical circuit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To monitor future global temperature trends, it would be extremely useful if parameters nonlinearly related to surface temperature could be found, thereby amplifying any warming signal that may exist. Evidence that global thunderstorm activity is nonlinearly related to diurnal, seasonal and interannual temperature variations is presented. Since global thunderstorm activity is also well correlated with the earth's ionospheric potential, it appears that variations of ionospheric potential, that can be measured at a single location, may be able to supply valuable information regarding global surface temperature fluctuations. The observations presented enable a prediction that a 1 percent increase in global surface temperatures may result in a 20 percent increase in ionospheric potential.

Price, Colin

1993-01-01

64

How Do Map Projections Distort Earth's Surface  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Exploring Earth Investigations are Internet-based activities that use animations, interactive graphics, and unique imagery to help students gather information about a particular Earth science theme, issue, or concept.

TERC (www.terc.edu)

65

Influence of slip-surface geometry on earth-flow deformation, Montaguto earth flow, southern Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated relations between slip-surface geometry and deformational structures and hydrologic features at the Montaguto earth flow in southern Italy between 1954 and 2010. We used 25 boreholes, 15 static cone-penetration tests, and 22 shallow-seismic profiles to define the geometry of basal- and lateral-slip surfaces; and 9 multitemporal maps to quantify the spatial and temporal distribution of normal faults, thrust faults, back-tilted surfaces, strike-slip faults, flank ridges, folds, ponds, and springs. We infer that the slip surface is a repeating series of steeply sloping surfaces (risers) and gently sloping surfaces (treads). Stretching of earth-flow material created normal faults at risers, and shortening of earth-flow material created thrust faults, back-tilted surfaces, and ponds at treads. Individual pairs of risers and treads formed quasi-discrete kinematic zones within the earth flow that operated in unison to transmit pulses of sediment along the length of the flow. The locations of strike-slip faults, flank ridges, and folds were not controlled by basal-slip surface topography but were instead dependent on earth-flow volume and lateral changes in the direction of the earth-flow travel path. The earth-flow travel path was strongly influenced by inactive earth-flow deposits and pre-earth-flow drainages whose positions were determined by tectonic structures. The implications of our results that may be applicable to other earth flows are that structures with strikes normal to the direction of earth-flow motion (e.g., normal faults and thrust faults) can be used as a guide to the geometry of basal-slip surfaces, but that depths to the slip surface (i.e., the thickness of an earth flow) will vary as sediment pulses are transmitted through a flow.

Guerriero, Luigi; Coe, Jeffrey A.; Revellino, Paola; Grelle, Gerardo; Pinto, Felice; Guadagno, Francesco M.

2014-08-01

66

New constraints on equatorial temperatures during a Late Neoproterozoic snowball Earth glaciation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Intense glaciation during the end of Cryogenian time (?635 million years ago) marks the coldest climate state in Earth history - a time when glacial deposits accumulated at low, tropical paleolatitudes. The leading idea to explain these deposits, the snowball Earth hypothesis, predicts globally frozen surface conditions and subfreezing temperatures, with global climate models placing surface temperatures in the tropics between -20 C and -60 C. However, precise paleosurface temperatures based upon geologic constraints have remained elusive and the global severity of the glaciation undetermined. Here we make new geologic observations of tropical periglacial, aeolian and fluvial sedimentary structures formed during the end-Cryogenian, Marinoan glaciation in South Australia; these observations allow us to constrain ancient surface temperatures. We find periglacial sand wedges and associated deformation suggest that ground temperatures were sufficiently warm to allow for ductile deformation of a sandy regolith. The wide range of deformation structures likely indicate the presence of a paleoactive layer that penetrated 2-4 m below the ground surface. These observations, paired with a model of ground temperature forced by solar insolation, constrain the local mean annual surface temperature to within a few degrees of freezing. This temperature constraint matches well with our observations of fluvial deposits, which require temperatures sufficiently warm for surface runoff. Although this estimate coincides with one of the coldest near sea-level tropical temperatures in Earth history, if these structures represent peak Marinaon glacial conditions, they do not support the persistent deep freeze of the snowball Earth hypothesis. Rather, surface temperatures near 0 C allow for regions of seasonal surface melting, atmosphere-ocean coupling and possible tropical refugia for early metazoans. If instead these structures formed during glacial onset or deglaciation, then they have implications for the timescale and character for the transition into or out of a snowball state.

Ewing, Ryan C.; Eisenman, Ian; Lamb, Michael P.; Poppick, Laura; Maloof, Adam C.; Fischer, Woodward W.

2014-11-01

67

Geodiversity of the Earth's surface and environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geologic and geographic objects can be successfully systemized based on the mathematical theories of diversity and sets. This can give us a clear understanding of the nomenclature of the Earth's surface: its elements, forms, as well as their combinations and structures. All these surface structural units are closely related to elementary landscapes, or geotops (other elementary locations such as biotops, lythotops, edafotops, hydrotops, climatops, and etc. can also be considered). Both surface structural units and corresponding geotops should be studied on two systematic levels: 1) the morphological one that provides us with the taxonomic (by unit size) and meronomic (by unit complexity) information, and 2) the dynamical one that allows working out various interpretations: geo-flows and their influence on the Earth's surface (including new formation and complete destruction of elements and forms), sustainability of geodiversity, etc. At the present time, the dynamical level is in a process of defining clear criteria and developing relevant classification. The morphological level has in turn three sub-levels: a) relief elements, b) landforms (geomorphosystems), and c) regions (super-geomorphosystems). The entire set of two-dimensional surface elements comprises 52 variants (elementary surfaces) and more than 2,700 three-dimensional geotops. Each of the geotops is characterized by four different exposures: gravitational (hypso- and bathymetric position, steepness, vertical and horizontal curvature), insolational (dip azimuth of the location), circulating (orientation against prevailing flows - frontal, rear or flank position), and anthropogenic ones. The most contrasting geotops are tied to the upper (tops, crests and their adjacent areas) and lower (bottoms, thalwegs and their adjacent areas) relief elements. Slope elements (faces, cliffs, terraces, and feet) serve as the linking areas and determine not the diversity as such but, first of all, commonalities of the territory. The second morphological level - landforms - comprises 145 variants of geomorphosystems. They are classified according to the sign and shape in plan and profile, inner structure presented by vector lines (circle, ellipse, hyperbola, parabola, and lattice figures), outer structure presented by contours (isometric, brachy-, hemi-, bilateral, and linear ones), as well as their determinants and dominants. The determinants (in the number of 18) are the elements - mainly structural lines - that determine the whole landform (ridge, valley, trough, swell, volcanic cone, etc.); elementary surfaces dominating the landform serve as its dominants (37). The third morphological level - geomorphologic regions - reflects geodiversity of a larger scale. It follows to a certain extent the classification on the first, elementary, level but is also supplemented with the analysis of extended symmetry and anisotropy carried out on a geomorphologic map. All abovementioned fundamentals in a much more detailed way can be easily found in the monograph by Alexander Lastochkin "General theory of geosystems" (St. Petersburg, 2011, in Russian) and in the "Geomorphologic Atlas of the Antarctic" (St. Petersburg, 2012 - in Russian; 2013 - in English) produced by the team of authors.

Lastochkin, Alexander; Zhirov, Andrey; Boltramovich, Sergei

2014-05-01

68

JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH: EARTH SURFACE, VOL. 118, 114, doi:10.1002/2013JF002839, 2013 Temperature and humidity within a mobile barchan sand dune,  

E-print Network

Temperature and humidity within a mobile barchan sand dune, implications for microbial survival M. Y. Louge,1 within relatively fast moving hyperarid mobile dunes present a suitable habitat for microbes. To inform avalanche face of a mobile barchan dune in the Qatar desert, emerging windward after 15 months of deep

Boyer, Edmond

69

Characteristics of networks in sea surface temperatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The climate of each nation is affected by meteorological factors such as rainfall, temperature, humidity, and wind. The sea surface temperature has played a crucial role in the climate change of continents. In IPCC report, when the temperature is increased by the climate change, it has influence on the earth's warming. The variation of sea surface temperatures is known to cause the atmospheric circulation, El Nio, and La Nia because the ocean comprises a large portion of the global surface. It is hence important for our research to simulate and analyze the change of sea surface temperatures on the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific oceans. In this paper, we firstly investigate the dynamical behavior of sea surface temperatures via the rescaled range analysis according to the season. Secondly, we analyze in detail the topological property of sea surface temperatures connecting to the network theory. We use the merged satellite and in-situ data global daily sea surface temperature data provided from the Japan meteorological agency and the data of sea surface temperatures are collected during five years from January 2005 to December 2009. In our method, we segment one region (a case of a restricted area among three oceans) into cells, each of which has the same area, viz. one cell area is 0.25 degree latitude 0.25 degree longitude. The center of each cell is regarded as a node on the network, and the network is basically constructed as the values appertaining to the same ranges for the Hurst exponent values. By reconsidering a 4-by-4 cell (1 degree latitude 1 degree longitude) as a new node, the number of links is counted as one node if the two (or more) links overlap between cells. We also can make up the topological property of the complex network in one region. Then we can extend it to the three oceans. Consequently, we find the hub points of the SST on the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific oceans, but it is necessary to analyze rigorously the network of the SST. In the future, we will extend our complex network to other meteorological fields. ----------------------------------------------------------------------- This work was supported by the Korea government (MOST) (No.2009-0074635) and by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) through a grant provided by the Korean Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (MEST) in 2011 (No.K1663000201107900).

Jung, W.; Lee, D.; Kim, K.

2012-04-01

70

Rare Earth Doped High Temperature Ceramic Selective Emitters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As a result of their electron structure, rare earth ions in crystals at high temperature emit radiation in several narrow bands rather than in a continuous blackbody manner. This study develops a spectral emittance model for films of rare earth containing materials. Although there are several possible rare earth doped high temperature materials, this study was confined to rare earth aluminum garnets. Good agreement between experimental and theoretical spectral emittances was found for erbium, thulium and erbium-holmium aluminum garnets. Spectral emittances of these films are sensitive to temperature differences across the film. Emitter efficiency is also a sensitive function of temperature. For thulium aluminum garnet the efficiency is 0.38 at 1700 K but only 0.19 at 1262 K.

Chubb, Donald L.; Pal, AnnaMarie; Patton, Martin O.; Jenkins, Phillip P.

1999-01-01

71

Could the Earth's surface Ultraviolet irradiance be blamed for the global warming? A new effect may exist  

E-print Network

Whether natural factors could interpret the rise of the Earth's surface temperature is still controversial. Though numerous recent researches have reported apparent correlations between solar activity and the Earth's climate, solar activity has encountered a big problem when describing the rapid global warming after 1970s. Our investigation shows the good positive correlations between the Earth's surface Ultraviolet irradiance (280-400 nm) and the Earth's surface temperature both in temporal and spatial variations by analyzing the global surface Ultraviolet irradiance (280-400 nm) and global surface temperature data from 1980-1999. The rise of CO$_2$ cannot interpret the good positive correlations, and we could even get an opposite result to the good correlations when employing the rise of CO$_2$ to describe the relation between them. Based on the good positive correlations, we suggest a new effect, named "Highly Excited Water Vapor" (HEWV) effect, which can interpret how the Sun influences the Earth's surfac...

Chen, Jilong; Zhao, Juan; Zheng, Yujun

2014-01-01

72

Thermal conductivity of earth materials at high temperatures.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The total thermal conductivity (lattice plus radiative) of several important earth materials is measured in the temperature range from 500 to 1900 K. A new technique is used in which a CO2 laser generates a low-frequency temperature wave at one face of a small disk-shaped sample, and an infrared detector views the opposite face to detect the phase of the emerging radiation. Phase data at several frequencies yield the simultaneous determination of the thermal diffusivity and the mean extinction coefficient of the material. The lattice, radiative, and total thermal conductivities are then calculated. Results for single-crystal and polycrystalline forsterite-rich olivines and an enstatite indicate that, even in relatively pure large-grained material, the radiative conductivity does not increase rapidly with temperature. The predicted maximum total thermal conductivity at a depth of 400 km in an olivine mantle is 0.020 cal/cm/sec/deg C, which is less than twice the surface value.

Schatz, J. F.; Simmons, G.

1972-01-01

73

MODIS Global Sea Surface Temperature  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Every day the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) measures sea surface temperature over the entire globe with high accuracy. This false-color image shows a one-month composite for May 2001. Red and yellow indicates warmer temperatures, green is an intermediate value, while blues and then purples are progressively colder values. The new MODIS sea surface temperature product will be particularly useful in studies of temperature anomalies, such as El Nino, as well as research into how air-sea interactions drive changes in weather and climate patterns. In the high resolution image, notice the amazing detail in some of the regional current patterns. For instance, notice the cold water currents that move from Antarctica northward along South America's west coast. These cold, deep waters upwell along an equatorial swath around and to the west of the Galapagos Islands. Note the warm, wide currents of the Gulf Stream moving up the United States' east coast, carrying Caribbean warmth toward Newfoundland and across the Atlantic toward Western Europe. Note the warm tongue of water extending from Africa's east coast to well south of the Cape of Good Hope. MODIS was launched in December 1999 aboard NASA's Terra satellite. For more details on this and other MODIS data products, please see NASA Unveils Spectacular Suite of New Global Data Products from MODIS. Image courtesy MODIS Ocean Group, NASA GSFC, and the University of Miami

2002-01-01

74

Earth Surface Patterns in 200 Years (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

What kinds of patterns will characterize Earth's surface in 200 years? This question is addressed using a complex systems dynamical framework for distinct levels of description in a hierarchy, in which time scale and spatial extent increase and number of variables decrease with level, and in which levels are connected nonlinearly to each other via self-organization and slaving and linearly to the external environment. Self-organized patterns linking the present to 200 years in the future must be described dynamically on a level with a time scale of centuries. Human-landscape coupling will play a prominent role in the formation of these patterns as population peaks and interactions become nonlinear over these time scales. Three related examples illustrate this approach. First, the response of human-occupied coastlines to rising sea level. Coastlines in wealthy regions develop a spatially varying boom and bust pattern, with response amplified by structures meant to delay the effects of sea level rise. Coastlines in economically disadvantaged regions experience a subdued response, with populations developing a culture of displacement that minimizes human-landscape interactions in a context of scarce resources. Second, the evolution of nation-state borders with degrading ecosystems, declining resource availability and increasing transportation costs. The maintenance of strong borders as selective filtration systems (goods, capital and people) is based on a cost-benefit analysis in which the economic benefits accruing from long distance, globalized resource exploitation are weighed against policing and infrastructure costs. As costs rise above benefits, borders fragment, with a transition to local barriers and conflicts, and mobile peoples moving to resources. Third, trends in urbanization and development of megacities under economic and environmental stress. The pattern of rapid growth of megacities through inward migration, with displaced people occupying high-risk urban landscapes such as flood plains or steep slopes and existing on the margins of the formal economic system, switches to outmigration as precarious slum dwellers respond to human-induced natural disasters, crumbling infrastructure and economic decline. Inefficient foraging along outward migration pathways from the urban center drives positive feedbacks that propel a radiating pattern and eventually lead to dispersal. These anticipated patterns represent a fragmentation of economic and power concentrations and networks, and localization of the presently globalized coupled human-landscape system. Long-time-scale models illustrating the fragmentation process and prospects for model testing will be discussed. Supported by the Geomorphology and Land Use Dynamics Program of the US National Science Foundation.

Werner, B.

2009-12-01

75

The Maximal Runaway Temperature of Earth-like Planets  

E-print Network

We generalize the problem of the semi-gray model to cases in which a non-negligible fraction of the stellar radiation falls on the long-wavelength range, and/or that the planetary long-wavelength emission penetrates into the transparent short wavelength domain of the absorption. Second, applying the most general assumptions and independently of any particular properties of an absorber, we show that the greenhouse effect saturates and any Earth-like planet has a maximal temperature which depends on the type of and distance to its main-sequence star, its albedo and the primary atmospheric components which determine the cutoff frequency below which the atmosphere is optically thick. For example, a hypothetical convection-less planet similar to Venus, that is optically thin in the visible, could have at most a surface temperature of 1200-1300K irrespective of the nature of the greenhouse gas. We show that two primary mechanisms are responsible for the saturation of the runaway greenhouse effect, depending on the ...

Shaviv, Nir J; Wehrse, Rainer

2012-01-01

76

Valence state at the surface of rare-earth metals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The valence state of a rare-earth metal surface is investigated by using general properties of the surface tension of metals. Thereby it is concluded that samarium is likely to have a divalent or partly divalent surface on top of its trivalent bulk phase, which agrees with recent spectroscopic observations. Also californium metal is discussed from this point of view. Finally,

Brje Johansson

1979-01-01

77

External Resource: Surface Air Temperature Trends of the Caribbean  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity allows learners/students to use real satellite data to determine the changes in near-surface air temperature at different times of the year over the Caribbean Sea. Upon completion of the activity, learners should be able to state how Earth's

1900-01-01

78

Evaluation of Surface Fatigue Strength Based on Surface Temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surface temperature is considered to be an integrated index that is dependent on not only the load and the dimensions at the contact point but also the sliding velocity, rolling velocity, surface roughness, and lubrication conditions. Therefore, the surface durability of rollers and gears can be evaluated more exactly and simply by the use of surface temperature rather than Hertzian stress. In this research, surface temperatures of rollers under different rolling and sliding conditions are measured using a thermocouple. The effects of load P, mean velocity Vm and sliding velocity Vs on surface temperature are clarified. An experimental formula, which expresses the linear relationship between surface temperature and the P0.86Vs1.31Vm-0.83 value, is used to determine surface temperature. By comparing calculated and measured temperature on the tooth surface of a gear, this formula is confirmed to be applicable for gear tooth surface temperature calculation.

Deng, Gang; Nakanishi, Tsutomu

79

Current Tropical Sea Surface Temperatures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This animation shows the most recent Sea Surface Temperature (SST) data available for the Gulf of Mexico and the Atlantic Coast region. Users can see the progression of warm waters (shown in yellow, orange, and red) slowly filling the Gulf of Mexico. This natural annual warming contributes to the possible formation of hurricanes in the Gulf. The animation updates every 24 hours, and still images of the data are also available. There is also imagery of the most recent 10-day average of SST anomalies in the Pacific Ocean, which is used by scientists for studying El Nino and La Nina. Warmer colors (yellow, red, orange) indicate positive anomalies (temperatures above normal). The imagery is from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for EOS (AMSR-E) aboard the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Aqua satellite.

2011-04-12

80

Isotope fractionation in surface ionization ion source of alkaline-earth iodides  

SciTech Connect

The relationship between the isotope fractionation of alkaline-earth elements in the surface ionization ion source and the evaporation filament current, i.e., filament temperature, was studied. It was confirmed that the isotope fractionation depends on the evaporation filament temperature; the isotope fractionation in the case of higher temperature of filament becomes larger. The ionization and evaporation process in the surface ionization ion source was discussed, and it was concluded that the isotope fractionation is suppressed by setting at the lower temperature of evaporation filament because the dissociations are inhibited on the evaporation filament.

Suzuki, T.; Kanzaki, C.; Nomura, M.; Fujii, Y. [Research Laboratory for Nuclear Reactors, Tokyo Institute of Technology, O-okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan)

2012-02-15

81

Thermal Conductivity of Earth Materials at High Temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The total thermal conductivity (lattice plus radiative) of several important earth materials is measured in the temperature range 500-1900K. A new technique is used in which a CO. laser generates a low-frequency temperature wave at one face of a small disk-shaped sample, and an infrared detector views the opposite face to detect the phase of the emerging radiation. Phase data

John F. Schatz; Gene Simmons

1972-01-01

82

30 CFR 717.15 - Disposal of excess rock and earth materials on surface areas.  

...2014-07-01 false Disposal of excess rock and earth materials on surface areas. 717.15 ... 717.15 Disposal of excess rock and earth materials on surface areas. Excess rock and earth materials produced from an underground...

2014-07-01

83

30 CFR 717.15 - Disposal of excess rock and earth materials on surface areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Disposal of excess rock and earth materials on surface areas. 717.15 ... 717.15 Disposal of excess rock and earth materials on surface areas. Excess rock and earth materials produced from an underground...

2011-07-01

84

30 CFR 717.15 - Disposal of excess rock and earth materials on surface areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Disposal of excess rock and earth materials on surface areas. 717.15 ... 717.15 Disposal of excess rock and earth materials on surface areas. Excess rock and earth materials produced from an underground...

2012-07-01

85

30 CFR 717.15 - Disposal of excess rock and earth materials on surface areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Disposal of excess rock and earth materials on surface areas. 717.15 ... 717.15 Disposal of excess rock and earth materials on surface areas. Excess rock and earth materials produced from an underground...

2013-07-01

86

30 CFR 717.15 - Disposal of excess rock and earth materials on surface areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Disposal of excess rock and earth materials on surface areas. 717.15 ... 717.15 Disposal of excess rock and earth materials on surface areas. Excess rock and earth materials produced from an underground...

2010-07-01

87

The energy balance of the earth' surface : a practical approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study is devoted to the energy balance of the earth's surface with a special emphasis on practical applications. A simple picture of the energy exchange processes that take place at the ground is the following. Per unit time and area an amount of radiant energy is supplied to the surface. This radiation originates partly from the sun, but an~

Bruin de H. A. R

1982-01-01

88

Aspects Of The Atmospheric Surface Layers On Mars And Earth  

Microsoft Academic Search

The structures of mean flow and turbulence in the atmospheric surface boundary layer have been extensively studied on Earth, and to a far less extent on Mars, where only the Viking missions and the Pathfinder mission have delivered in-situ data. Largely the behaviour of surface-layer turbulence and mean flow on Mars is found to obey the same scaling laws as

S. E. Larsen; H. E. Jrgensen; L. Landberg; J. E. Tillman

2002-01-01

89

NASA's Space Lidar Measurements of Earth and Planetary Surfaces  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A lidar instrument on a spacecraft was first used to measure planetary surface height and topography on the Apollo 15 mission to the Moon in 1971, The lidar was based around a flashlamp-pumped ruby laser, and the Apollo 15-17 missions used them to make a few thousand measurements of lunar surface height from orbit. With the advent of diode pumped lasers in the late 1980s, the lifetime, efficiency, resolution and mass of lasers and space lidar all improved dramatically. These advances were utilized in NASA space missions to map the shape and surface topography of Mars with > 600 million measurements, demonstrate initial space measurements of the Earth's topography, and measured the detailed shape of asteroid. NASA's ICESat mission in Earth orbit just completed its polar ice measurement mission with almost 2 billion measurements of the Earth's surface and atmosphere, and demonstrated measurements to Antarctica and Greenland with a height resolution of a few em. Space missions presently in cruise phase and in operation include those to Mercury and a topographic mapping mission of the Moon. Orbital lidar also have been used in experiments to demonstrate laser ranging over planetary distances, including laser pulse transmission from Earth to Mars orbit. Based on the demonstrated value of the measurements, lidar is now the preferred measurement approach for many new scientific space missions. Some missions planned by NASA include a planetary mission to measure the shape and dynamics of Europa, and several Earth orbiting missions to continue monitoring ice sheet heights, measure vegetation heights, assess atmospheric CO2 concentrations, and to map the Earth surface topographic heights with 5 m spatial resolution. This presentation will give an overview of history, ongoing work, and plans for using space lidar for measurements of the surfaces of the Earth and planets.

Abshire, James B.

2010-01-01

90

Agents for Development of Earth's Surface Interactive Dynamic Processes at the Surface  

E-print Network

Questions about Internal Forces · Evidence of internal forces at Earth's surface · What causes earthquakes? · How do volcanoes form? · Locations of Earthquakes and Volcanoes · Where do earthquakes and volcanoes occur? · Are they uniformly distributed across Earth's surface? Or not? · Temporal Constraints

Polly, David

91

Solar and geomagnetic activity, extremely low frequency magnetic and electric fields and human health at the Earths surface  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possibility that conditions on the Sun and in the Earths magnetosphere can affect human health at the Earths surface has been debated for many decades. This work reviews the research undertaken in the field of heliobiology, focusing on the effect of variations of geomagnetic activity on human cardiovascular health. Data from previous research are analysed for their statistical significance,

S. J. Palmer; M. J. Rycroft; M. Cermack

2006-01-01

92

Clouds, surface temperature, and the tropical and subtropical radiation budget  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Solar energy drives both the Earth's climate and biosphere, but the absorbed energy is unevenly distributed over the Earth. The tropical regions receive excess energy which is then transported by atmospheric and ocean currents to the higher latitudes. All regions at a given latitude receive the same top of the atmosphere solar irradiance (insolation). However, the net radiation received from the Sun in the tropics and subtropics varies greatly from one region to another depending on local conditions. Over land, variations in surface albedo are important. Over both land and ocean, surface temperature, cloud amount, and cloud type are also important. The Nimbus-7 cloud and Earth radiation budget (ERB) data sets are used to examine the affect of these parameters.

Dhuria, Harbans L.; Kyle, H. Lee

1980-01-01

93

Characteristics of the solar signal on the Earth's surface through stratosphere-troposphere coupled process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solar influence on climate has been discussed since long time on the assumption that the total solar irradiance (TSI) directly affects Earth's surface. Recent measurements from the space revealed that the variation of the TSI associated with the 11-year solar cycle is about 0.1%, which cannot produce little effect on Earth's climate without a feedback from the atmosphere-ocean system. Several amplifying mechanism are proposed for different variation of solar origin, cosmic ray, visible light, solar ultra violet. To determine which process is actually operating in the Earth's atmosphere, it needs to investigate not only the global mean temperature, but also its spatial structure. Observed 11-year solar signals in surface temperature can be characterizes by warming in midlatitudes and the absence of warming (or even slight cooling) in the tropics. Midlatitudes warming of the surface temperature occurs in associated with a downward penetration of stratospheric polar-night jet or the polar-night jet oscillation. Little change in tropical surface temperature is consistent with dynamical nature. Meridional circulation change produces a warming in the tropical lower stratosphere, but little effect on the tropospheric temperature. Such characteristics of solar signal can be expected from that produced through change of the solar ultraviolet. Change of the solar heating in the middle atmosphere modulates wave mean-flow interaction in the stratosphere through two processes: one is the polar-night jet oscillation, and the other is a modulation of the meridional circulation.

Kodera, Kunihiko

2014-05-01

94

Atmospheric CO2: Principal Control Knob Governing Earth's Temperature  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ample physical evidence shows that carbon dioxide (CO2) is the single most important climate-relevant greenhouse gas in Earth s atmosphere. This is because CO2, like ozone, N2O, CH4, and chlorofluorocarbons, does not condense and precipitate from the atmosphere at current climate temperatures, whereas water vapor can and does. Noncondensing greenhouse gases, which account for 25% of the total terrestrial greenhouse effect, thus serve to provide the stable temperature structure that sustains the current levels of atmospheric water vapor and clouds via feedback processes that account for the remaining 75% of the greenhouse effect. Without the radiative forcing supplied by CO2 and the other noncondensing greenhouse gases, the terrestrial greenhouse would collapse, plunging the global climate into an icebound Earth state.

Lacis, Andrew A.; Schmidt, Gavin A.; Rind, David; Ruedy, Reto A.

2010-01-01

95

GISS analysis of surface temperature change  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the current GISS analysis of surface temperature change for the period 1880-1999 based primarily on meteorological station measurements. The global surface temperature in 1998 was the warmest in the period of instrumental data. The rate of temperature change was higher in the past 25 years than at any previous time in the period of instrumental data. The warmth

J. Hansen; R. Ruedy; J. Glascoe; M. Sato

1999-01-01

96

MY NASA DATA Lesson Plan A: Circle the Earth-Explore Surface Types on a Journey around Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson plan uses NASA Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instrument percent coverage surface data with a world map to locate landmasses and bodies of water at the Earth's Equator. When using satellites to study Earth system processes, especially atmospheric processes, it is important to know what is the background that one is seeing on the Earth. This lesson provides an introduction to exploring Earth surface types. The percent water along the Equator is about 77 percent, which is surprisingly representative of the entire planet. At 40N latitude, the percentage water is about 55 percent, so any single latitude is not necessarily representative of the Earth as a whole.

2006-01-01

97

External Resource: Using Vegetation, Precipitation, and Surface Temperature to Study Climate Zones  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This My NASA Data activity explores the relationship between amount of vegetation, precipitation, and surface temperature to study Earth's climate zones. Each fifty minute activity allows learners/students to use a micro-set of satellite data to investiga

1900-01-01

98

EARTH AND ROCK SURFACE SPILLWAY EROSION RISK ASSESSMENT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The outlet works are a critical element in the safe operation of a dam that must be protected from damage that could lead to complete failure from earth and rock surface spillway erosion. However, since there are several critical elements that comprise a dam each with associated high costs in maint...

99

Microclimatic Temperature Relationships over Different Surfaces.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a study of temperature variations over different surfaces in an urban campus setting. Explains that researchers sampled temperatures over grass, bare soil, gravel, concrete, and blacktop. Reports that grassy areas registered the highest morning temperatures and lowest afternoon temperatures. (SG)

Williams, Thomas B.

1991-01-01

100

Role of surface temperature in fluorocarbon plasma-surface interactions  

SciTech Connect

This article examines plasma-surface reaction channels and the effect of surface temperature on the magnitude of those channels. Neutral species CF{sub 4}, C{sub 2}F{sub 6}, and C{sub 3}F{sub 8} are produced on surfaces. The magnitude of the production channel increases with surface temperature for all species, but favors higher mass species as the temperature is elevated. Additionally, the production rate of CF{sub 2} increases by a factor of 5 as the surface temperature is raised from 25 Degree-Sign C to 200 Degree-Sign C. Fluorine density, on the other hand, does not change as a function of either surface temperature or position outside of the plasma glow. This indicates that fluorine addition in the gas-phase is not a dominant reaction. Heating reactors can result in higher densities of depositing radical species, resulting in increased deposition rates on cooled substrates. Finally, the sticking probability of the depositing free radical species does not change as a function of surface temperature. Instead, the surface temperature acts together with an etchant species (possibly fluorine) to elevate desorption rates on that surface at temperatures lower than those required for unassisted thermal desorption.

Nelson, Caleb T.; Overzet, Lawrence J.; Goeckner, Matthew J. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Texas at Dallas, PO Box 830688, Richardson, TX 75083 (United States)

2012-07-15

101

A much warmer Earth surface for most of geologic time: implications to biotic weathering  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The authors present two scenarios for the temperature history of Earth. One scenario is conventional, the other relies on a warmer history. Both scenarios include surface cooling determined by the evolution of the biosphere and are similar until the Proterozoic period. The warmer scenario requires a higher plant/lichen terrestrial biota to increase weathering intensity. Justification for a warmer surface includes period temperatures from the oxygen isotope record of coexisting phosphates and cherts, an upper limit of 58 degrees C from primary gypsum precipitation, and the lack of fractionation of sulfur isotopes between sulfide and sulfates in Archean sediments.

Schwartzman, D. W.; McMenamin, M.

1993-01-01

102

Ground surface temperature and continental heat gain: uncertainties from underground  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Temperature changes at the Earth?s surface propagate and are recorded underground as perturbations to the equilibrium thermal regime associated with the heat flow from the Earth?s interior. Borehole climatology is concerned with the analysis and interpretation of these downward propagating subsurface temperature anomalies in terms of surface climate. Proper determination of the steady-state geothermal regime is therefore crucial because it is the reference against which climate-induced subsurface temperature anomalies are estimated. Here, we examine the effects of data noise on the determination of the steady-state geothermal regime of the subsurface and the subsequent impact on estimates of ground surface temperature (GST) history and heat gain. We carry out a series of Monte Carlo experiments using 1000 Gaussian noise realizations and depth sections of 100 and 200 m as for steady-state estimates depth intervals, as well as a range of data sampling intervals from 10 m to 0.02 m. Results indicate that typical uncertainties for 50 year averages are on the order of 0.02 K for the most recent 100 year period. These uncertainties grow with decreasing sampling intervals, reaching about 0.1 K for a 10 m sampling interval under identical conditions and target period. Uncertainties increase for progressively older periods, reaching 0.3 K at 500 years before present for a 10 m sampling interval. The uncertainties in reconstructed GST histories for the Northern Hemisphere for the most recent 50 year period can reach a maximum of +/- 0.5 K in some areas. We suggest that continuous logging should be the preferred approach when measuring geothermal data for climate reconstructions, and that for those using the International Heat Flow Commission database for borehole climatology, the steady-state thermal conditions should be estimated from boreholes as deep as possible and using a large fitting depth range (?100 m).

Beltrami, Hugo; Matharoo, Gurpreet S.; Smerdon, Jason E.

2015-01-01

103

Middle Pliocene sea surface temperatures: A global reconstruction  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Identification and analyses of Pliocene marine microfossils from 64 globally distributed stratigraphic sequences have been used to produce a middle Pliocene sea surface temperature reconstruction of the Earth. This reconstruction shows little or no change from current conditions in low latitude regions and significant warming of the ocean surface at mid and higher latitudes of both hemispheres. This pattern of warming is consistent with terrestrial records and suggests a combination of enhanced meridional ocean heat transport and enhanced greenhouse effect were responsible for the middle Pliocene warmth.

Dowsett, H.; Barron, J.; Poore, R.

1996-01-01

104

Nonlinear diffusion filtering of data on the Earth's surface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper deals with data filtering on closed surfaces using linear and nonlinear diffusion equations. We define a surface finite-volume method to approximate numerically parabolic partial differential equations on closed surfaces, namely on a sphere, ellipsoid or the Earth's surface. The closed surface as a computational domain is approximated by a polyhedral surface created by planar triangles and we construct a dual co-volume grid. On the co-volumes we define a weak formulation of the problem by applying Green's theorem to the Laplace-Beltrami operator. Then the finite-volume method is applied to discretize the weak formulation. Weak forms of elliptic operators are expressed through surface gradients. In our numerical scheme we use a piece-wise linear approximation of a solution in space and the backward Euler time discretization. Furthermore, we extend a linear diffusion on surface to the regularized surface Perona-Malik model. It represents a nonlinear diffusion equation, which at the same time reduces noise and preserves main edges and other details important for a correct interpretation of the real data. We present four numerical experiments. The first one has an illustrative character showing how an additive noise is filtered out from an artificial function defined on a sphere. Other three examples deal with the real geodetic data on the Earth's surface, namely (i) we reduce a stripping noise from the GOCE satellite only geopotential model up to degree 240, (ii) we filter noise from the real GOCE measurements (the component T_{zz}), and (iii) we reduce a stripping noise from the satellite only mean dynamic topography at oceans. In all experiments we focus on a comparison of the results obtained by both the linear and nonlinear models presenting advantages of the nonlinear diffusion.

?underlk, Rbert; Mikula, Karol; Tunega, Martin

2013-02-01

105

Spaceborne infrared Fourier-transform spectrometers for temperature and humidity sounding of the Earth's atmosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A spaceborne Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer was designed for measuring the spectra of the outgoing Earth's atmosphere radiation and serves for providing for the needs of online meteorology and climatology with regard to obtaining the following kinds of data: vertical profiles of temperature and humidity profiles in the troposphere and the lower stratosphere, the general and altitudinal ozone distribution, concentrations of small gaseous constituents, temperature of the underlying surface, etc. At present, works are underway at the Keldysh Research Centre for creating IKFS-series FTIR spectrometers for satellites in Sun-synchronous orbits: the IKFS-2 instrument for the Meteor-M spacecraft no. 2 of the Meteor-3M space complex (developed and supplied for testing together with the spacecraft) and an advanced IKFS-3 instrument for the Meteor-MP fourth-generation hydrometeorological and oceanographic space complex for Earth monitoring (at the developmental stage). The composition, functional diagram, and technical specifications of the FTIR spectrometers are presented.

Golovin, Yu. M.; Zavelevich, F. S.; Nikulin, A. G.; Kozlov, D. A.; Monakhov, D. O.; Kozlov, I. A.; Arkhipov, S. A.; Tselikov, V. A.; Romanovskii, A. S.

2014-12-01

106

Estimation of Surface Air Temperature Over Central and Eastern Eurasia from MODIS Land Surface Temperature  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Surface air temperature (T(sub a)) is a critical variable in the energy and water cycle of the Earth.atmosphere system and is a key input element for hydrology and land surface models. This is a preliminary study to evaluate estimation of T(sub a) from satellite remotely sensed land surface temperature (T(sub s)) by using MODIS-Terra data over two Eurasia regions: northern China and fUSSR. High correlations are observed in both regions between station-measured T(sub a) and MODIS T(sub s). The relationships between the maximum T(sub a) and daytime T(sub s) depend significantly on land cover types, but the minimum T(sub a) and nighttime T(sub s) have little dependence on the land cover types. The largest difference between maximum T(sub a) and daytime T(sub s) appears over the barren and sparsely vegetated area during the summer time. Using a linear regression method, the daily maximum T(sub a) were estimated from 1 km resolution MODIS T(sub s) under clear-sky conditions with coefficients calculated based on land cover types, while the minimum T(sub a) were estimated without considering land cover types. The uncertainty, mean absolute error (MAE), of the estimated maximum T(sub a) varies from 2.4 C over closed shrublands to 3.2 C over grasslands, and the MAE of the estimated minimum Ta is about 3.0 C.

Shen, Suhung; Leptoukh, Gregory G.

2011-01-01

107

Surface heat flux histories from inversion of geothermal data: Energy balance at the Earth's surface  

Microsoft Academic Search

Past changes in the Earth's surface energy balance propagate into the subsurface and appear as perturbations of the subsurface thermal regime. This paper presents a singular value decomposition inversion method used to reconstruct surface heat flux histories (SHFH) from the heat flux anomalies detected in the shallow subsurface. Synthetic tests were used to assess the robustness of the inversion procedure.

Hugo Beltrami

2001-01-01

108

The face of the Earth and the changing sea surface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the last decades, altimeter satellites have provided high-resolution mapping of the sea surface height, with high-precision and global coverage. The sea surface height above a reference ellipsoid consists of two components: a permanent component, called 'mean sea surface' that coincides with the geoid (an equipotential surface of the Earth's gravity field) and a time-variable component above the geoid, resulting from ocean dynamics (tides, currents, etc.). Altimeter satellites have revealed that at short and medium wavelengths (~ 500 km or less), highs and lows of the mean sea surface reflect seafloor tectonic features, hence ocean bottom topography. Satellite-based mean sea surface data have thus been used to provide global, high-resolution bathymetric maps. With the ever increasing precision of altimetry-based sea surface height measurements (now on the order of 1-2 cm) and of space-based geoid models, it has become possible to measure the so-called 'ocean dynamic topography' (the sea surface topography above the geoid caused by large-scale ocean circulation), hence ocean currents. Since the early 1990s, altimeter satellites also measure global mean sea level rise due to ocean warming and land ice melt (two consequences of present-day anthropogenic global warming). They also provide unique information on the regional variability in sea level change. Regional trend patterns in sea level result from a variety of factors, including non-uniform thermal expansion of sea waters and changes in ocean salinity, as well as deformations of ocean basins (and gravitational changes) due to the viscous/elastic response of the solid Earth to changing loads, in particular those associated with last deglaciation and current land ice melt.

Cazenave, Anny

2014-05-01

109

Titan's Surface Temperatures from Cassini CIRS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The surface brightness temperature of Titan can be measured from Cassini through a spectral window at 19 microns where the atmosphere is low in opacity. The Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) on Cassini observes this wavelength in its far-infrared channel. Because the Cassini tour has provided global coverage and a range of viewing geometries, CIRS has been able to go beyond the earlier flyby results of Voyager IRIS Near the equator, CIRS measures the zonally-averaged surface brightness temperature to be 917 K, very close to the temperature found at the surface by Huygens. Latitude maps show that Titan's surface temperatures drop off by about 2 K toward the south and by about 3 K toward the north. This temperature distribution is consistent with Titan's late northern winter when the data were taken. As the seasons progress, CIRS is continuing to search for corresponding changes in the temperatures of the surface and lower atmosphere. CIRS is also extending global mapping to both latitude and longitude to look for correlations between surface temperatures and geological features.

Jennings, Donald E.; Cottini, Valeria; Nixon, Conor A.

2010-01-01

110

A simple thermal model of the earth's surface for geologic mapping by remote sensing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thermal inertia of the earth's surface can be used in geologic mapping as a complement to surface reflectance data as provided by Landsat. Thermal inertia cannot be determined directly but must be inferred from radiation temperature measurements (by thermal IR sensors) made at various times in the diurnal cycle, combined with a model of the surface heating processes. A model is developed which differs from those created previously for this purpose, because it includes sensible and latent heating. Tests of this model using field data indicate that it accurately determines the surface heating. When the model is used with field measurements of meteorological variables and is combined with remotely sensed temperature data, a thermal inertia image can be produced.

Kahle, A. B.

1977-01-01

111

Surface Ionization of Some Rare Earths on Tungsten  

Microsoft Academic Search

The surface ionization of Gd, Er, and Yb atomic beams on a clean (112) tungsten surface has been studied in an ultrahigh-vacuum mass spectrometer. For the first time, the absolute ionization efficiencies have been determined as a function of surface temperature. The degree of ionization alpha was found to follow the general form of the Saha-Langmuir equation A alpha=Ae-EkT. The

M. J. Dresser; D. E. Hudson

1965-01-01

112

Evaluation of Flat Surface Temperature Probes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this paper is elaboration of elements related to metrological analysis in the field of surface temperature measurement. Surface temperature measurements are applicable in many fields. As examples, safety testing of electrical appliances and a pharmaceutical production line represent case studies for surface temperature measurements. In both cases correctness of the result of the surface temperature has an influence on final product safety and quality and thus conformity with specifications. This paper deals with the differences of flat surface temperature probes in measuring the surface temperature. For the purpose of safety testing of electrical appliances, surface temperature measurements are very important for safety of the user. General requirements are presented in European standards, which support requirements in European directives, e.g., European Low Voltage Directive 2006/95/EC and pharmaceutical requirements, which are introduced in official state legislation. This paper introduces a comparison of temperature measurements of an attached thermocouple on the measured surface and measurement with flat surface temperature probes. As a heat generator, a so called temperature artifact is used. It consists of an aluminum plate with an incorporated electrical heating element with very good temperature stability in the central part. The probes and thermocouple were applied with different forces to the surface in horizontal and vertical positions. The reference temperature was measured by a J-type fine-wire (0.2 mm) thermocouple. Two probes were homemade according to requirements in the European standard EN 60335-2-9/A12, one with a fine-wire (0.2 mm) thermocouple and one with 0.5mm of thermocouple wire diameter. Additional commercially available probes were compared. Differences between probes due to thermal conditions caused by application of the probe were found. Therefore, it can happen that measurements are performed with improper equipment or in an improper way for a particular application. Therefore, knowledge and awareness regarding all facts related to the used measuring equipment are essential to avoid the risk of a wrong decision on safety measures.

Beges, G.; Rudman, M.; Drnovsek, J.

2011-01-01

113

Global climate models bias in surface temperature trends and variability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Earth has warmed in the last century with the most rapid warming occurring near the surface in the Arctic. This Arctic amplification occurs partly because the extra heat is trapped in a thin layer of air near the surface due to the persistent stable-stratification found in this region. The amount of warming depends upon the extent of turbulent mixing in the atmosphere, which is described by the depth of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). Global climate models (GCMs) tend to over-estimate the depth of stably-stratified ABLs, and here we show that GCM biases in the ABL depth are strongly correlated with biases in the surface temperature variability. This highlights the need for a better description of the stably-stratified ABL in GCMs in order to constrain the current uncertainty in climate variability and projections of climate change in the surface layer.

Davy, Richard; Esau, Igor

2014-11-01

114

Ocean Remote Sensing: Sea Surface Temperature Imagery  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site presents rapidly processed estimates of sea surface temperature for various regions along the east coast of the United States, including the Gulf Stream, Chesapeake Bay, the Gulf of Mexico and the Bahamas. The imagery includes both single pass data and composite data from multiple passes. Included at this site is a primer on the measurement of sea surface temperature. Additional links satellite links are provided. See related links for the topics.

115

Precision radiometric surface temperature (PRST) sensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is a need for a Precision Radiometric Surface Temperature (PRST) measurement capability that can achieve noncontact profiling of a sample's surface temperature when heated dynamically during laser processing, aerothermal heating or metal cutting/machining. Target surface temperature maps within and near the heated spot provide critical quantitative diagnostic data for laser-target coupling effectiveness and laser damage assessment. In the case of metal cutting, this type of measurement provides information on plastic deformation in the primary shear zone where the cutting tool is in contact with the workpiece. The challenge in these cases is to measure the temperature of a target while its surface's temperature and emissivity are changing rapidly and with incomplete knowledge of how the emissivity and surface texture (scattering) changes with temperature. Bodkin Design and Engineering, LLC (BDandE), with partners Spectral Sciences, Inc. (SSI) and Space Computer Corporation (SCC), has developed a PRST Sensor that is based on a hyperspectral MWIR imager spanning the wavelength range 2-5 ?m and providing a hyperspectral datacube of 20-24 wavelengths at 60 Hz frame rate or faster. This imager is integrated with software and algorithms to extract surface temperature from radiometric measurements over the range from ambient to 2000K with a precision of 20K, even without a priori knowledge of the target's emissivity and even as the target emissivity may be changing with time and temperature. In this paper, we will present a description of the PRST system as well as laser heating test results which show the PRST system mapping target surface temperatures in the range 600-2600K on a variety of materials.

Daly, James T.; Roberts, Carson; Bodkin, Andrew; Sundberg, Robert; Beaven, Scott; Weinheimer, Jeffrey

2013-05-01

116

Climatic change by cloudiness linked to the spatial variability of sea surface temperatures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An active role in modifying the earth's climate is suggested for low cloudiness over the circumarctic oceans. Such cloudiness, linked to the spatial differences in ocean surface temperatures, was studied. The temporal variations from year to year of ocean temperature patterns can be pronounced and therefore, the low cloudiness over this region should also show strong temporal variations, affecting the albedo of the earth and therefore the climate. Photographs are included.

Otterman, J.

1975-01-01

117

High temperature heat pipe experiments in low earth orbit  

SciTech Connect

Although high temperature, liquid metal heat pipe radiators have become a standard component on most high power space power system designs, there is no experimental data on the operation of these heat pipes in a zero gravity or micro-gravity environment. Experiments to benchmark the transient and steady state performance of prototypical heat pipe space radiator elements are in preparation for testing in low earth orbit. It is anticipated that these heat pipes will be tested aborad the Space Shuttle in 1995. Three heat pipes will be tested in a cargo bay Get Away Special (GAS) canister. The heat pipes are SST/potassium, each with a different wick structure; homogeneous, arterial, and annular gap, the heat pipes have been designed, fabricated, and ground tested. In this paper, the heat pipe designs are specified, and transient and steady-state ground test data are presented.

Woloshun, K.; Merrigan, M.A.; Sena, J.T. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Critchley, E. (Phillips Lab., Kirtland AFB, NM (United States))

1993-01-01

118

High temperature heat pipe experiments in low earth orbit  

SciTech Connect

Although high temperature, liquid metal heat pipe radiators have become a standard component on most high power space power system designs, there is no experimental data on the operation of these heat pipes in a zero gravity or micro-gravity environment. Experiments to benchmark the transient and steady state performance of prototypical heat pipe space radiator elements are in preparation for testing in low earth orbit. It is anticipated that these heat pipes will be tested aborad the Space Shuttle in 1995. Three heat pipes will be tested in a cargo bay Get Away Special (GAS) canister. The heat pipes are SST/potassium, each with a different wick structure; homogeneous, arterial, and annular gap, the heat pipes have been designed, fabricated, and ground tested. In this paper, the heat pipe designs are specified, and transient and steady-state ground test data are presented.

Woloshun, K.; Merrigan, M.A.; Sena, J.T. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Critchley, E. [Phillips Lab., Kirtland AFB, NM (United States)

1993-02-01

119

Global trends of measured surface air temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyze surface air temperature data from available meteorological stations with principal focus on the period 1880-1985. The temperature changes at mid- and high latitude stations separated by less than 1000 km are shown to be highly correlated; at low latitudes the correlation falls off more rapidly with distance for nearby stations. We combine the station data in a way

James Hansen; Sergej Lebedeff

1987-01-01

120

Brain surface temperature under a craniotomy  

PubMed Central

Many neuroscientists access surface brain structures via a small cranial window, opened in the bone above the brain region of interest. Unfortunately this methodology has the potential to perturb the structure and function of the underlying brain tissue. One potential perturbation is heat loss from the brain surface, which may result in local dysregulation of brain temperature. Here, we demonstrate that heat loss is a significant problem in a cranial window preparation in common use for electrical recording and imaging studies in mice. In the absence of corrective measures, the exposed surface of the neocortex was at ?28C, ?10C below core body temperature, and a standing temperature gradient existed, with tissue below the core temperature even several millimeters into the brain. Cooling affected cellular and network function in neocortex and resulted principally from increased heat loss due to convection and radiation through the skull and cranial window. We demonstrate that constant perfusion of solution, warmed to 37C, over the brain surface readily corrects the brain temperature, resulting in a stable temperature of 3638C at all depths. Our results indicate that temperature dysregulation may be common in cranial window preparations that are in widespread use in neuroscience, underlining the need to take measures to maintain the brain temperature in many physiology experiments. PMID:22972953

Kalmbach, Abigail S.

2012-01-01

121

Surface modification of high temperature iron alloys  

DOEpatents

A method and article of manufacture of a coated iron based alloy. The method includes providing an iron based alloy substrate, depositing a silicon containing layer on the alloy surface while maintaining the alloy at a temperature of about 700.degree. C.-1200.degree. C. to diffuse silicon into the alloy surface and exposing the alloy surface to an ammonia atmosphere to form a silicon/oxygen/nitrogen containing protective layer on the iron based alloy.

Park, Jong-Hee (Clarendon Hills, IL)

1995-01-01

122

Surface modification of high temperature iron alloys  

DOEpatents

A method and article of manufacture of a coated iron based alloy are disclosed. The method includes providing an iron based alloy substrate, depositing a silicon containing layer on the alloy surface while maintaining the alloy at a temperature of about 700--1200 C to diffuse silicon into the alloy surface and exposing the alloy surface to an ammonia atmosphere to form a silicon/oxygen/nitrogen containing protective layer on the iron based alloy. 13 figs.

Park, J.H.

1995-06-06

123

Could the Earth's surface Ultraviolet irradiance be blamed for the global warming? (II) ----Ozone layer depth reconstruction via HEWV effect  

E-print Network

It is suggested by Chen {\\it et al.} that the Earth's surface Ultraviolet irradiance ($280-400$ nm) could influence the Earth's surface temperature variation by "Highly Excited Water Vapor" (HEWV) effect. In this manuscript, we reconstruct the developing history of the ozone layer depth variation from 1860 to 2011 based on the HEWV effect. It is shown that the reconstructed ozone layer depth variation correlates with the observational variation from 1958 to 2005 very well ($R=0.8422$, $P>99.9\\%$). From this reconstruction, we may limit the spectra band of the surface Ultraviolet irradiance referred in HEWV effect to Ultraviolet B ($280-320$ nm).

Chen, Jilong; Zheng, Yujun

2014-01-01

124

High temperature langasite surface acoustic wave sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High temperature sensors are a key enabling technology for advanced control and optimization of many industry processes. This thesis reports on the development of the langasite surface acoustic wave (SAW) temperature and oxygen sensors for sensing applications in high temperature, harsh environments. The conductivity-based surface acoustic wave sensor was selected for the high temperature oxygen sensing application in this work. A series of finite element simulations of surface acoustic wave propagation in langasite SAW devices were performed to understand the effect of sensing and spacer layer on the sensor sensitivity. Langasite SAW sensors with Pt/Ti as the IDT metallization, and ZnO and SiO2 as the oxygen sensing layer and spacer layer materials, respectively, were designed, fabricated and packaged for high temperature sensing applications. Langasite SAW temperature sensors were tested successfully from room temperature up to 700 C in wireless mode and 900 C in wired mode. The ZnO/langasite SAW oxygen sensors were tested in wired mode and showed effective oxygen sensing response up to 700 C. A multi-sensor with both temperature and oxygen sensing capability was also designed and tested. Understanding the input characteristic of the transducer is important when designing the SAW sensor for wireless operation. Langasite SAW device IDT transducers were characterized in frequency domain at room temperature. Conductance loss caused by the finite resistance of Pt electrode finger was observed and investigated.

Zheng, Peng

2011-12-01

125

Solar turbulence in earth's global and regional temperature anomalies Nicola Scafetta,1,2  

E-print Network

Solar turbulence in earth's global and regional temperature anomalies Nicola Scafetta,1,2 Paolo a study of the influence of solar activity on the earth's temperature. In particular, we focus on the repercussion of the fluctuations of the solar irradiance on the temperature of the Northern and Southern

Scafetta, Nicola

126

Spatial correlations of interdecadal variation in global surface temperatures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We have analyzed spatial correlation patterns of interdecadal global surface temperature variability from an empirical perspective. Using multitaper coherence estimates from 140-yr records, we find that correlations between hemispheres are significant at about 95 percent confidence for nonrandomness for most of the frequency band in the 0.06-0.24 cyc/yr range. Coherence estimates of pairs of 100-yr grid-point temperature data series near 5-yr period reveal teleconnection patterns consistent with known patterns of ENSO variability. Significant correlated variability is observed near 15 year period, with the dominant teleconnection pattern largely confined to the Northern Hemisphere. Peak-to-peak Delta-T is at about 0.5 deg, with simultaneous warming and cooling of discrete patches on the earth's surface. A global average of this pattern would largely cancel.

Mann, Michael E.; Park, Jeffrey

1993-01-01

127

Toward a unified science of the Earth's surface: Opportunities for synthesis among hydrology,  

E-print Network

Toward a unified science of the Earth's surface: Opportunities for synthesis among hydrology of a predictive science of Earth surface dynamics integrates many disciplines and approaches, including hydrology. Power, I. Rodriguez-Iturbe, V. Voller, and P. Wilcock (2006), Toward a unified science of the Earth

Power, Mary Eleanor

128

Transient electromagnetic field generated by a vertical electric dipole on the surface of a dissipative earth  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of electromagnetic pulse propagation over a dissipative earth surface, excited by a vertical electric dipole located on the earth surface, is investigated. By deforming related integrals in the complex frequency domain it is shown that the scattering contribution of the earth, which is formally expressed in terms of several double inf'mite integrals, can be efficiently computed from some

Hussain Haddad; D. C. Chang

1981-01-01

129

Do planetary encounters reset surfaces of near Earth asteroids? David Nesvorny a,*, William F. Bottke a  

E-print Network

. Introduction Measurements of the spectral properties of Near Earth Asteroids (NEAs) provide important evidenceDo planetary encounters reset surfaces of near Earth asteroids? David Nesvorny´ a,*, William F Keywords: Near-Earth objects Asteroids, Surfaces Asteroids, Dynamics Infrared observations Meteorites a b

Bottke, William F.

130

A Study of Surface Temperatures, Clouds and Net Radiation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This study focused on the seasonal relationships and interactions of climate parameters such as the surface temperatures, net radiation, long wave flux, short wave flux, and clouds on a global basis. Five years of observations (December 1984 to November 1989) from the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) and the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Program (ISCCP) were used to study both seasonal variations and interannual variations by use of a basic radiation budget equation. In addition, the study was extended to include an analysis of the cloud forcing due El-Nino's impact on the ERBE parameters.

Dhuria, Harbans

1996-01-01

131

GISS Analysis of Surface Temperature Changes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We describe the current GISS analysis of surface temperature change based primarily on meteorological station measurements. The global surface temperature in 1998 was the warmest in the period of instrumental data. The rate of temperature change is higher in the past 25 years than at any previous time in the period of instrumental data. The warmth of 1998 is too large and pervasive to be fully accounted for by the recent El Nino, suggesting that global temperature may have moved to a higher level, analogous to the increase that occurred in the late 1970s. The warming in the United States over the past 50 years is smaller than in most of the world, and over that period there is a slight cooling trend in the Eastern United States and the neighboring Atlantic ocean. The spatial and temporal patterns of the temperature change suggest that more than one mechanism is involved in this regional cooling.

Hansen, J.; Ruedy, R.; Glascoe, J.; Sato, M.

1999-01-01

132

Seasonal Changes in Titan's Surface Temperatures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Seasonal changes in Titan's surface brightness temperatures have been observed by Cassini in the thermal infrared. The Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) measured surface radiances at 19 micron in two time periods: one in late northern winter (Ls = 335d eg) and another centered on northern spring equinox (Ls = 0 deg). In both periods we constructed pole-to-pole maps of zonally averaged brightness temperatures corrected for effects of the atmosphere. Between late northern winter and northern spring equinox a shift occurred in the temperature distribution, characterized by a warming of approximately 0.5 K in the north and a cooling by about the same amount in the south. At equinox the polar surface temperatures were both near 91 K and the equator was 93.4 K. We measured a seasonal lag of delta Ls approximately 9 in the meridional surface temperature distribution, consistent with the post-equinox results of Voyager 1 as well as with predictions from general circulation modeling. A slightly elevated temperature is observed at 65 deg S in the relatively cloud-free zone between the mid-latitude and southern cloud regions.

Jennins, Donald E.; Cottini, V.; Nixon, C. A.; Flasar, F. M.; Kunde, V. G.; Samuelson, R. E.; Romani, P. N.; Hesman, B. E.; Carlson, R. C.; Gorius, N. J. P.; Coustenis, A.; Tokano, T.

2011-01-01

133

SOME INSTANCES OF UNSTABLE SURFACE TEMPERATURE CONDITIONS DURING AN ARCTIC WINTER  

Microsoft Academic Search

TMOSPHERIC conditions in which the air has a vertical temperature strati- fication such that portions tend to rise and become turbulent, are frequently observed in temperate climates. These turbulent conditions, in which the atmosphere is said to have an unstable or superadiabatic temperature gradient are commonly caused by solar heating of the earth's surface and the transfer of some of

Elmer Robinson

134

Progress of Space Studies of the Earth Surface, Meteorology, and Climate 1992- 1993  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report briefly summarizes the progress made by satellite-dependent systems that are necessary to accomplish global earth monitoring and associated studies of the interactions between the earth's atmosphere, land surface, and ocean.

Halpern, D.

1993-01-01

135

SESE 2009 Faculty Retreat 1 Earth Surface Processes Surface Process Studies in SESE  

E-print Network

on quantifying how climate, mountain building, volcanic activity, and human activity impact the co-evolution geology, geochronology, and soil science to better constrain human evolution. 3. Paleoclimate evolution. 3. Co-evolution of humans and the Earth's surface with lessons of the anticipating future effects

Rhoads, James

136

30 CFR 18.23 - Limitation of external surface temperatures.  

...2014-07-01 false Limitation of external surface temperatures. 18.23 Section 18.23 Mineral Resources... 18.23 Limitation of external surface temperatures. The temperature of the external surfaces of mechanical or...

2014-07-01

137

30 CFR 18.23 - Limitation of external surface temperatures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Limitation of external surface temperatures. 18.23 Section 18.23 Mineral Resources... 18.23 Limitation of external surface temperatures. The temperature of the external surfaces of mechanical or...

2013-07-01

138

16 CFR 1505.7 - Maximum acceptable surface temperatures.  

... false Maximum acceptable surface temperatures. 1505.7 Section 1505.7 Commercial...1505.7 Maximum acceptable surface temperatures. The maximum acceptable surface temperatures for electrically operated toys...

2014-01-01

139

16 CFR 1505.7 - Maximum acceptable surface temperatures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Maximum acceptable surface temperatures. 1505.7 Section 1505.7 Commercial...1505.7 Maximum acceptable surface temperatures. The maximum acceptable surface temperatures for electrically operated toys...

2011-01-01

140

30 CFR 18.23 - Limitation of external surface temperatures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Limitation of external surface temperatures. 18.23 Section 18.23 Mineral Resources... 18.23 Limitation of external surface temperatures. The temperature of the external surfaces of mechanical or...

2010-07-01

141

16 CFR 1505.7 - Maximum acceptable surface temperatures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Maximum acceptable surface temperatures. 1505.7 Section 1505.7 Commercial...1505.7 Maximum acceptable surface temperatures. The maximum acceptable surface temperatures for electrically operated toys...

2012-01-01

142

16 CFR 1505.7 - Maximum acceptable surface temperatures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Maximum acceptable surface temperatures. 1505.7 Section 1505.7 Commercial...1505.7 Maximum acceptable surface temperatures. The maximum acceptable surface temperatures for electrically operated toys...

2010-01-01

143

30 CFR 18.23 - Limitation of external surface temperatures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Limitation of external surface temperatures. 18.23 Section 18.23 Mineral Resources... 18.23 Limitation of external surface temperatures. The temperature of the external surfaces of mechanical or...

2012-07-01

144

30 CFR 18.23 - Limitation of external surface temperatures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Limitation of external surface temperatures. 18.23 Section 18.23 Mineral Resources... 18.23 Limitation of external surface temperatures. The temperature of the external surfaces of mechanical or...

2011-07-01

145

16 CFR 1505.7 - Maximum acceptable surface temperatures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Maximum acceptable surface temperatures. 1505.7 Section 1505.7 Commercial...1505.7 Maximum acceptable surface temperatures. The maximum acceptable surface temperatures for electrically operated toys...

2013-01-01

146

Monitoring global monthly mean surface temperatures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The accuracy of the global surface air temperature (SST) estimates for a particular month over the past decade is assessed using all of the in situ observations available today. The sources of noise in the data, the numbers of observations, and the spatial coverage are appraised for the comparison with the climate signal, and different analyzed results are compared to determine their reproducibility. The data are further evaluated by comparing anomalies of near-global monthly mean surface temperatures with those of global satellite channel 2 microwave sounding unit temperatures for 144 months from 1979 to 1990. The results indicate that the inherent noise level in an SST observation is about 1.0 C, and this is compounded when the observation is made in regions of large temperature gradient.

Trenberth, Kevin E.; Christy, John R.; Hurrell, James W.

1992-01-01

147

Measurement of surface temperature in lung cancer.  

PubMed

We measured the surface temperature of the tumors in 27 patients with primary lung cancer, using a flexible bronchofiberscope and a thermometer made from chromel-constantan. The thermometer was inserted into the aspiration channel of the bronchofiberscope, and temperature was studied under bronchofiberscopic located in the central portion of the lung were higher than those of the carina of the trachea (P less than 0.01), truncus superior (P less than 0.01), or truncus inferior (P less than 0.05), and almost equal to those of the peripheral lung. Thus, lung cancer showed a significantly higher surface temperature. When 67Ga scintigraphy was performed in 22 patients with lung cancer, the temperature of the high-uptake group was higher than that of the low-uptake group. PMID:6274590

Ohgimi, T; Akiyama, S; Shimokata, K

1982-01-01

148

The distribution of solar energy at the earth's surface as calculated in the ECMWF Re-analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge of the distribution of solar energy at the earth's surface is required for various practical and theoretical purposes. The solar fluxes calculated in Re-Analysis projects are promising since their radiative transfer calculations take into account the best current estimates of the humidity and temperature structure in the atmosphere. The present study assesses the quality of the insolation climatology of

Martin Wild; Atsumu Ohmura; Hans Gilgen; Jean-Jacques Morcrette

1998-01-01

149

22-Year Arctic Surface Temperature Trend  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This image shows the 22-year surface temperature trend over the Arctic region. Blue hues indicate areas that are cooling; gold hues depict areas that are warming. Lighter colors indicate less change while darker colors indicate more. The temperature scale steps from zero degrees Celsius in increments of .02 degrees. (See color bar below) The data ranges from -0.162 to +0.487 degrees Celsius.

Starr, Cindy; Comiso, Josefino

2004-12-13

150

20-Year Arctic Surface Temperature Trend  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Here the 20-year surface temperature trend is shown over the Arctic region. This animation shows the warming and cooling regions in steps from the regions of least change to the areas of greatest change. Blue hues indicate cooling regions; red hues depict warming. Light regions indicate less change while darker regions indicate more. The temperature scale used ranges from -0.4 to +0.4 degrees Celsius in increments of .02 degrees. (See color bar below)

Starr, Cindy; Comiso, Josefino

2003-10-23

151

UV 380 nm Reflectivity of the Earth's Surface  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The 380 nm radiance measurements of TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) have been converted into a global data set of daily (1979 to 1992) Lambert equivalent reflectivities R of the Earth's surface and boundary layer (clouds, aerosols, surface haze, and snow/ice). Since UV surface reflectivity is between 2 and 8% for both land and water during all seasons of the year (except for ice and snow cover), reflectivities larger than the surface value indicates the presence of clouds, haze, or aerosols in the satellite field of view. Statistical analysis of 14 years of daily data show that most snow/ice-free regions of the Earth have their largest fraction of days each year when the reflectivity is low (R less than 10%). The 380 nm reflectivity data shows that the true surface reflectivity is 2 to 3% lower than the most frequently occurring reflectivity value for each TOMS scene. The most likely cause of this could be a combination of frequently occurring boundary-layer water or aerosol haze. For most regions, the observation of extremely clear conditions needed to estimate the surface reflectivity from space is a comparatively rare occurrence. Certain areas (e.g., Australia, southern Africa, portions of northern Africa) are cloud-free more than 80% of the year, which exposes these regions to larger amounts of UV radiation than at comparable latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere. Regions over rain-forests, jungle areas, Europe and Russia, the bands surrounding the Arctic and Antarctic regions, and many ocean areas have significant cloud cover (R greater than 15%) more than half of each year. In the low to middle latitudes, the areas with the heaviest cloud cover (highest reflectivity for most of the year) are the forest areas of northern South America, southern Central America, the jungle areas of equatorial Africa, and high mountain regions such as the Himalayas or the Andes. The TOMS reflectivity data show the presence of large nearly clear ocean areas and the effects of the major ocean currents on cloud production.

Herman, J. R.; Celarier, E.; Larko, D.

2000-01-01

152

Differences between near-surface equivalent temperature and temperature trends for the Eastern United States. Equivalent temperature as an alternative measure of heat content  

USGS Publications Warehouse

There is currently much attention being given to the observed increase in near-surface air temperatures during the last century. The proper investigation of heating trends, however, requires that we include surface heat content to monitor this aspect of the climate system. Changes in heat content of the Earth's climate are not fully described by temperature alone. Moist enthalpy or, alternatively, equivalent temperature, is more sensitive to surface vegetation properties than is air temperature and therefore more accurately depicts surface heating trends. The microclimates evident at many surface observation sites highlight the influence of land surface characteristics on local surface heating trends. Temperature and equivalent temperature trend differences from 1982-1997 are examined for surface sites in the Eastern U.S. Overall trend differences at the surface indicate equivalent temperature trends are relatively warmer than temperature trends in the Eastern U.S. Seasonally, equivalent temperature trends are relatively warmer than temperature trends in winter and are relatively cooler in the fall. These patterns, however, vary widely from site to site, so local microclimate is very important. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Davey, C.A.; Pielke, R.A., Sr.; Gallo, K.P.

2006-01-01

153

Publications of Western Earth Surface Processes Team 2001  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Western Earth Surface Processes Team (WESPT) of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducts geologic mapping and related topical earth-science studies in the Western United States. This work is focused on areas where modern geologic maps and associated earth-science data are needed to address key societal and environmental issues, such as ground-water quality, landslides and other potential geologic hazards, and land-use decisions. Areas of primary emphasis in 2001 included southern California, the San Francisco Bay region, the Pacific Northwest, and the Las Vegas urban corridor. The team has its headquarters in Menlo Park, California, and maintains smaller field offices at several other locations in the Western United States. The results of research conducted by the WESPT are released to the public as a variety of databases, maps, text reports, and abstracts, both through the internal publication system of the USGS and in diverse external publications such as scientific journals and books. This report lists publications of the WESPT released in 2001, as well as additional 1999 and 2000 publications that were not included in the previous list (USGS Open-File Report 00215 and USGS Open-File Report 01198). Most of the publications listed were authored or coauthored by WESPT staff. The list also includes some publications authored by non-USGS cooperators with the WESPT, as well as some authored by USGS staff outside the WESPT in cooperation with WESPT projects. Several of the publications listed are available on the World Wide Web; for these, URL addresses are provided. Many of these web publications are USGS Open-File Reports that contain large digital databases of geologic map and related information.

Powell, II, Charles,(compiler); Graymer, R.W.

2002-01-01

154

Solar Flare Intermittency and the Earth's Temperature Anomalies Nicola Scafetta1,2  

E-print Network

Solar Flare Intermittency and the Earth's Temperature Anomalies Nicola Scafetta1,2 and Bruce J; published 17 June 2003) We argue that Earth's short-term temperature anomalies and the solar flare data sets that corresponds to the one that would be induced by the solar flare intermittency. The mean

Scafetta, Nicola

155

GISS Analysis of Surface Temperature Change  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We describe the current GISS analysis of surface temperature change for the period 1880-1999 based primarily on meteorological station measurements. The global surface temperature in 1998 was the warmest in the period of instrumental data. The rate of temperature change was higher in the past 25 years than at any previous time in the period of instrumental data. The warmth of 1998 was too large and pervasive to be fully accounted for by the recent El Nino. Despite cooling in the first half of 1999, we suggest that the mean global temperature, averaged over 2-3 years, has moved to a higher level, analogous to the increase that occurred in the late 1970s. Warming in the United States over the past 50 years has been smaller than in most of the world, and over that period there was a slight cooling trend in the Eastern United States and the neighboring Atlantic Ocean. The spatial and temporal patterns of the temperature change suggest that more than one mechanism was involved in this regional cooling. The cooling trend in the United States, which began after the 1930s and is associated with ocean temperature change patterns, began to reverse after 1979. We suggest that further warming in the United States to a level rivaling the 1930s is likely in the next decade, but reliable prediction requires better understanding of decadal oscillations of ocean temperature.

Hansen, J.; Ruedy, R.; Glascoe, J.; Sato, M.

1999-01-01

156

Temperature Responsive Hydrogels with Engineered Surface Patterns  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The surface structures of hydrogels play important roles for many potential applications. In this experiment, tiny gold squares arranged in a square lattice on the surface of a dehydrated N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPA) gel using the sputter-deposit method. A periodic surface array can serve as a grating to diffract light or a microelectrode array to monitor cell activity. The grating constant can be continuously changed by environmental stimuli such as temperature, electric field and salt solution. Such a gel with a period surface array has been successfully used for measuring swelling ratio, internal strain, and shear modulus of gels. Especially, it is an efficient way to characterize gel locally. Such a gel with engineered surface structure has potential for optical filters, microelectrode arrays and sensor applications. set of curly braces; then put the associated URL in the set. The command may go anywhere in the abstract. the text in the first curly braces will show the printed version.

Wang, Changjie; Hu, Zhibing; Li, Yong

1998-10-01

157

22 Years of Sea Surface Temperatures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This NOAA visualization video on YouTube shows the seasonal variations in sea surface temperatures and ice cover for the 22 years prior to 2007 based on data collected by NOAA polar-orbiting satellites (POES). El Nio and La Nia are easily identified, as are the trends in decreasing polar sea ice.

NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) Visualizations

158

Global surface air temperatures: update through 1987  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data from meteorological stations show that surface air temperatures in the 1980s are the warmest in the history of instrumental records. The four warmest years on record are all in the 1980s, with the warmest years in our analysis being 1981 and 1987. The rate of warming between the mid 1960s and the present is higher than that which occurred

James Hansen; Sergej Lebedeff

1988-01-01

159

Prediction of the speciation of alkaline earths adsorbed on mineral surfaces in salt solutions  

E-print Network

for all the alkaline earths in surface complexation simulations of proton surface charge, metal adsorpPrediction of the speciation of alkaline earths adsorbed on mineral surfaces in salt solutions, Baltimore, MD 21218, USA Received 5 August 2005; accepted in revised form 11 January 2006 Abstract Despite

Sverjensky, Dimitri A.

160

Near-Earth asteroid surface thermal inertias with NEOWISE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NEOWISE, the asteroid discovery and characterization mission that employs the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) spacecraft, has observed over 150,000 minor planets, and continues to observe near-Earth asteroids daily. Several of these asteroids have also been observed by radar, and shapes and spin states have been derived from those observations. Thermophysical modeling combines these 3-D asteroid shapes, a model of heat transport, and infrared observations to determine the surface thermal inertia of an asteroid. We present thermal inertia measurements derived using the NEOWISE dataset. These measurements can inform regolith composition and density, which can then be linked to collisional history and dynamical evolution. Measurements of heat capacity and thermal conductivity (components of thermal inertia), can refine predictions of the Yarkovsky drift, a non-gravitational force that can alter asteroid orbits.

Nugent, Carolyn; Mainzer, Amy; Masiero, Joseph; Lysek, Mark; Grav, Tommy; Bauer, James; Cutri, Roc; Wright, Edward

2014-11-01

161

Seasonal Changes in Titan's Surface Temperatures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cassini's extended mission has provided the opportunity to search for seasonal variations on Titan. In particular, surface temperatures are expected to have shifted significantly in latitude during the completed portion of the mission. Spectra recorded by the Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) during the nominal mission (2004-08) and the Equinox mission. (2008-10) have already shown changes in temperature. CIRS has detected a seasonal shift in the latitudinal distribution of surface brightness temperatures by comparing zonal averages from two time segments, one period in late northern winter centered on L(sub s) approximately 335 deg and a second period centered on the equinox (L(sub s) approximately 0 deg.). The earlier period had a meridional distribution similar to that previously reported: 93.5 K at the equator, 91.7 K at 85 S and 899 K at 85 N. The newly measured distribution near equinox shows a cooling in the south and a warming in the north, both by about 0.5 K. We estimate that. the centroid of the distribution moved from approximately 16 S to 7 S between the two periods. This gives a seasonal lag behind insolation of delta L(sub s) approximately 13 deg. The CIRS equinox results are consistent with those of Voyager IRIS, which encountered Titan in November 1980, just following the previous northern equinox (L(sub s) = 10 deg.). When compared with predictions from general circulation models, seasonal variations of surface temperature can help constrain the identification of surface materials. Our measurements most closely match the case of a porous ice regolith treated by Tokano, but with some apparent differences between the northern and southern hemispheres. CIRS will extend its study of seasonal variations in surface temperature on Titan as Cassini continues through northern spring.

Jennings, Donald E.; Nixon, Conor A.; Cottini, Valeria

2011-01-01

162

Earthquake Lights: Time-dependent Earth Surface - Ionosphere Coupling Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Co-seismic luminescence, commonly referred to as Earthquake lights (EQLs), is an atmospheric luminous phenomenon occurring during strong earthquakes and lasting from a fraction of a second to a few minutes [e.g., Derr, J. S., Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am., 63, 2177, 1973; St-Laurent, F., et al., Phys. Chem. Earth, 31, 305, 2006; Herauld and Lira, Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 11, 1025, 2011]. Laboratory experiments of Freund, F. T., et al. [JGR, 105, 11001, 2000; JASTP, 71, 1824, 2009, and references therein] demonstrate that rocks subjected to stress force can generate electric currents. During earthquakes these currents can deliver significant amounts of net positive charge to the ground-air interface leading to enhancements in the electric field and corona discharges around ground objects [Freund et al., 2009]. The eyewitness reports [Herauld and Lira, 2011] indicate similarities of the blue glow observed during EQLs to St. Elmo's fire observed during thunderstorms around wing tips of airplanes or around the tall masts of sailing ships [e.g., Wescott, E.M., et al., GRL, 23, 3687, 1996]. Recent work indicates that the vertical currents induced in the stressed rock can map to ionospheric altitudes and create 10s of % variations in the total electron content in the Earth's ionosphere above the earthquake active region [Kuo, C. L., et al., JGR, 116, A10317, 2011]. The magnitudes of the vertical currents estimated by Kuo et al. [2011] based on work by Freund et al. [2009] range from 0.01 to 10 ?A/m2. In this talk we report results from a new time-dependent model allowing to calculate currents induced in the ambient atmosphere and corona currents under application of vertical stressed rock currents with arbitrary time variation. We will report test results documenting the model performance under conditions: (1) relaxation toward the classic global electric circuit conditions in fair weather regions when ionosphere is maintained at 300 kV with respect to the ground; (2) relaxation toward the steady state conditions when the earth-air surface charge is maintained by balance of the current induced by stressed rock and ambient atmospheric current [Kuo et al., 2011]; and (3) a 2 min duration model episode in which the stressed rock current reaches value of 0.4 ?A/m2 producing electric fields at the ground on the order of 0.5 kV/cm leading to an additional injection of positive corona current. One of the interesting results of this modeling is that the reduced electric field (i.e., field normalized by air density) remains low at the ground-air interface due to the injection of the positive corona charge and at high altitudes due to the naturally high conductivity of the Earth's atmosphere. At the intermediate altitudes in clear air above earthquake region the reduced electric field can dynamically reach values exceeding both relativistic (~2 kV/cm when scaled to the ground level) and conventional (~30 kV/cm ground value) breakdown thresholds. The exact geometry would depend on the spatial extent of the earthquake active region, ambient atmospheric conductivity and the time dynamics of the driving stress rock current. We suggest that the enhancements of the reduced electric field in clear air at high altitudes in the Earth atmosphere is a likely scenario leading to transient (sub-second duration) flashes some time observed during earthquakes [Herauld and Lira, 2011].

Pasko, V. P.

2012-12-01

163

Low Temperature Effects: Surface Mount Capacitors  

SciTech Connect

The low signal to noise ratio produced by the VLPC (Visible Light Photon Counter) chip in the detection of a single photon necessitates the use of a filtering capacitor. Maximum performance of the filtering capabilities dictate the placement of the capacitor be as close to the VLPC chip as possible. However, the chip operates at extremely low temperatures (7K). In addition, available space within the VLPC cassette is limited. Therefore it is desired to find a capacitor which provides good temperature stability at cryogenic temperatures within a minimal space (e.g. surface mounted). This engineering note presents the results from a test of the effect of low temperature on surface mounted capacitors. Preliminary testing suggested that capacitors of the tantalum type would provide the best te mperature stability at cryogenic temperatures, therefore two different tantalum capacitors were tested. A ceramic capacitor was also included in the results as a comparison, even though preliminary results suggested the ceramic type would not provide sufficient temperature stability.

Clark, D.; /Fermilab

1992-08-17

164

Amplification of surface temperature trends and variability in thetropical atmosphere  

SciTech Connect

The month-to-month variability of tropical temperatures is larger in the troposphere than at the Earth's surface. This amplification behavior is similar in a range of observations and climate model simulations, and is consistent with basic theory. On multi-decadal timescales, tropospheric amplification of surface warming is a robust feature of model simulations, but occurs in only one observational dataset. Other observations show weak or even negative amplification. These results suggest that either different physical mechanisms control amplification processes on monthly and decadal timescales, and models fail to capture such behavior, or (more plausibly) that residual errors in several observational datasets used here affect their representation of long-term trends.

Santer, B.D.; Wigley, T.M.L.; Mears, C.; Wentz, F.J.; Klein,S.A.; Seidel, D.J.; Taylor, K.E.; Thorne, P.W.; Wehner, M.F.; Gleckler,P.J.; Boyle, J.S.; Collins, W.D.; Dixon, K.W.; Doutriaux, C.; Free, M.; Fu, Q.; Hansen, J.E.; Jones, G.S.; Ruedy, R.; Karl, T.R.; Lanzante, J.R.; Meehl, G.A.; Ramaswamy, V.; Russell, G.; Schmidt, G.A.

2005-08-11

165

Hot as You Like It: Models of the Long-term Temperature History of Earth Under Different Geological Assumptions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The long-term temperature history of the Earth is a subject of continued, vigorous debate. Past models of the climate of early Earth that utilize paleosol contraints on carbon dioxide struggle to maintain temperatures significantly greater than 0C. In these models, the incoming stellar radiation is much lower than today, consistent with an expectation that the Sun was significantly fainter at that time. In contrast to these models, many proxies for ancient temperatures suggest much warmer conditions. The surface of the planet seems to have been generally free of glaciers throughout this period, other than a brief glaciation at ~2.9 billion years ago and extensive glaciation at ~2.4 billion years ago. Such glacier-free conditions suggest mean surface temperatures greater than 15C. Measurements of oxygen isotopes in phosphates are consistent with temperatures in the range of 20-30C; and similar measurements in cherts suggest temperatures over 50C. This sets up a paradox. Models constrained by one set of geological proxies cannot reproduce the warm temperatures consistent with another set of geological proxies. In this presentation, we explore several potential resolutions to this paradox. First, we model the early Earth under modern-day conditions, but with the lower solar luminosity expected at the time. The next simulation allows carbon dioxide concentrations to increase up to the limits provided by paleosol constraints. Next, we lower the planet's surface albedo in a manner consistent with greater ocean coverage prior to the complete growth of continents. Finally, we remove all constraints on carbon dioxide and attempt to maximize surface temperatures without any geological constraints on model parameters. This set of experiments will allow us to set up potential resolutions to the paradox, and to drive a conversation on which solutions are capable of incorporating the greatest number of geological and geochemical constraints.

Domagal-Goldman, S.; Sheldon, N. D.

2012-12-01

166

Global trends of measured surface air temperature  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper presents the results of surface air temperature measurements from available meteorological stations for the period of 1880-1985. It is shown that the network of meteorological stations is sufficient to yield reliable long-term, decadal, and interannual temperature changes for both the Northern Hemisphere and the Southern Hemisphere, despite the fact that most stations are located on the continents. The results indicate a global warming of about 0.5-0.7 C in the past century, with warming of similar magnitude in both hemispheres. A strong warming trend between 1965 and 1980 raised the global mean temperature in 1980 and 1981 to the highest level in the period of instrumental records. Selected graphs of the temperature change in each of the eight latitude zones are included.

Hansen, James; Lebedeff, Sergej

1987-01-01

167

Fitting the observed changes of global surface temperatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The quality of the fit of a trivial or, conversely, delicately-designed model to the observed natural phenomena is the fundamental pillar stone of any forecasting, including forecasting of the Earth's Climate. Using precise mathematical and logical systems outside their range of applicability can be scientifically groundless, unwise, and even dangerous. The temperature data sets are naturally in the basis of any hypothesizing on variability and forecasting the Earth's Climate. Leaving open the question of the global temperature definitions and their determination (T), we have analyzed hemispheric and global monthly temperature anomaly series produced by the Climate Research Unit of the University of East Anglia (CRUTEM4 database) and more recently by the Berkeley Earth Surface Temperature consortium (BEST database). We first fit the data in 1850-2010 with polynomials of degrees 1 to 9 and compare it with exponential fit by the adjusted R-squared criterion that takes into consideration the number of free parameters of the model. In all the cases considered, the adjusted R-squared values for polynomials are larger than for the exponential as soon as the degree exceeds 1 or 2. The polynomial fits become even more satisfactory as soon as degree 5 or 6 is reached. Extrapolations of these trends outside of the data domain show quick divergence. For example, the CRUTEM4vNH fit in the decade 2010-2020, for degrees 2 to 5, rises steeply then, for degrees 6 to 9, reverses to steep decreasing: the reversal in extrapolated trends arises from improved ability to fit the observed "~60-yr" wave in 150 years of data prior to 2010. The extrapolations prior to 1850 are even more erratic, linked with the increased dispersion of the early data. When focusing the analysis of fits on 1900-2010 we find that the apparent oscillations of T can be modeled by a series of linear segments: An optimal fit suggests 4 slope breaks indicating two clear transitions in 1940 and 1975, and two that are less certain in 1905 and 2005. Interestingly, the Pacific Decadal Oscillation index underwent major changes around 1940-1950 and 1974-1984, i.e. the time of the breaks in slope of the T curve, suggesting a good correlation at the multi-decadal scale between the derivatives of T and PDO index. Therefore, one may speculate that the Earth's climate system may have entered a new multi-decadal regime in the last years of the 20th century and we should expect global temperature to remain constant or decrease slightly while the PDO index remains dominantly negative up to about 2030.

Courtillot, V.; Le Moul, J.; Kossobokov, V. G.; Gibert, D.; Lopes, F.

2012-12-01

168

Bioeffectiveness of Cosmic Rays Near the Earth Surface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experimental studies of the dynamics of morphological and functional state of the diverse biosystems (microflora, plant Maranta leuconeura «Fascinator», cell cultures, human peripheral blood, the human body ) have shown that geocosmical agents modulated the functional state of biological systems Belisheva 2006; Belisheva et all 2007 ) . First time on the experimental data showed the importance of the increase in the fluxes of solar cosmic rays (CRs ) with high energies (Belisheva et all 2002; 2012; Belisheva, Lammer, Biernat, 2004) and galactic cosmic ray variations (Belisheva et al, 2005; 2006; Vinnichenko Belisheva, 2009 ) near the Earth surface for the functional state of biosystems. The evidence of the presence of the particles with high bioeffectiveness in the secondary cosmic rays was obtained by simulating the particle cascades in the atmosphere, performed by using Geant4 (Planetocosmics, based on the Monte Carlo code (Maurchev et al, 2011), and experimental data, where radiobiological effects of cosmic rays were revealed. Modeling transport of solar protons through the Earth's atmosphere, taking into account the angular and energy distributions of secondary particles in different layers of the atmosphere, allowed us to estimate the total neutron flux during three solar proton events, accompanied by an increase in the intensity of the nucleon component of secondary cosmic rays - Ground Level Enhancement GLE (43, 44, 45) in October 1989 (19, 22, 24 October). The results obtained by simulation were compared with the data of neutron monitors and balloon measurements made during solar proton events. Confirmation of the neutron fluxes near the Earth surface during the GLE (43, 44, 45) were obtained in the experiments on the cellular cultures (Belisheva et al. 2012). A direct evidence of biological effects of CR has been demonstrated in experiments with three cellular lines growing in culture during three events of Ground Level Enhancement (GLEs) in the neutron count rate detected by ground-based neutron monitor in October, 1989. Various phenomena associated with DNA lesion on the cellular level demonstrate coherent dynamics of radiation effects in all cellular lines coincident with the time of arrival of high-energy solar particles to the near-Earth space and with the main peak in GLE. These results were obtained in the course of six separate experiments, with partial overlapping of the time of previous and subsequent experiments, which started and finished in the quiet period of solar activity (SA).A significant difference between the values of multinuclear cells in all cellular lines in the quiet period and during GLE events indicates that the cause of radiation effects in the cell cultures is an exposure of cells to the secondary solar CR near the Earth's surface. Calculations of the total flux of particles with the greatest bioeffectiveness and ambient dose equivalent neutron fluxes in different energy ranges showed that taking into account the duration of all cases GLE (19, 22, 24 October 1989), the cellular cultures were irradiated by ambient dose equivalent equal 217 microSv cm^2, which corresponds to a little less than half of the radiation dose astronauts during the day in Earth orbit (Reitz et.all, 2005; Semkova et al, 2012) and more than the average dose received by pilots per flying hour in 1997 (2.96 mSv h -1) (Langner et all, 2004). These doses are sufficient to cause genetic damages as material for the variability and the subsequent evolution of biological systems. Results of experiments conducted on cellular cultures during a great solar proton events showed that the main damages of the genetic material in the cellular nuclei appeared with increasing of the spectral hardness of solar protons that corresponded to the arrival of the particles with energies > 850 MeV in the near Earth space. The analysis shows that the prevalence of certain forms of congenital malformations in children (CDF) at high latitudes was associated with increases in fluxes of CR and with solar proton events accompanied b

Belisheva, N. K.

2014-10-01

169

Observations of Lightning on Earth from the Lunar Surface  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Optical Transient Detector (OTD) launched into a 70deg inclination orbit in April 1995 aboard the MicroLab-1 satellite and the Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) launched into a 35deg inclination orbit in November 1997 (and still operating today) aboard the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission have produced the most comprehensive global observations of lightning activity on Earth. The OTD collected data for 5-yr from an altitude of 740 km while the LIS, in its 10th year of operations, is still collecting data from its current altitude of 402 km. From these altitudes the OTD observes an individual storm within its field of view for approx.3 min and the LIS for approx.90 sec as the satellites orbit the earth. Figures 1-4 show the combined LIS/OTD distribution of lightning for day and night during the Northern Hemisphere warm season from April through August (Fig. 1,2) and the cool season from October through February (Fig. 3,4) as might be observed from the lunar surface (12-h daylight and 12-h nighttime observations). The day and night plots are for the twelve hour periods centered on local noon and midnight. The total viewtime of the global lightning activity is 200 hours or less, depending on latitude (Fig. 5). Most of the observed lightning occurs over the northern hemisphere land areas as reported in previous studies. More lightning activity is seen at the higher northern latitudes during the day. The greatest lightning maxima occurs in the southeastern US, during the day. The corresponding region at night shows much less lightning activity. In contrast, there is a maxima in lightning activity at night over the high Plains area of the U.S. This region had lower lightning rates during the daytime period. During the cold season, the southern hemisphere has significantly more lightning. The maxima in Central Africa is still present, and a secondary maxima is observed in South Africa. In South America, the maxima in Argentina occurs at night in association with large-scale mesoscale convective storm complexes. This is the region on the earth having the greatest frequency of extreme storms with flash rates exceeding 1000 flashes/min. daytime maxima is seen extending from Northern Argentina to Brazil. In the US., the Gulf of Mexico and the Gulf Coast states exhibit a maximum in lightning activity both day and night.

Goodman, S. J.; Buechler, D. E.; Christian, H. J., Jr.; Stahl, H. P.

2007-01-01

170

Publications of the Western Earth Surface Processes Team 2002  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Western Earth Surface Processes Team (WESPT) of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducts geologic mapping and related topical earth science studies in the western United States. This work is focused on areas where modern geologic maps and associated earth-science data are needed to address key societal and environmental issues such as ground-water quality, landslides and other potential geologic hazards, and land-use decisions. Areas of primary emphasis in 2001 included southern California, the San Francisco Bay region, the Pacific Northwest, and the Las Vegas urban corridor. The team has its headquarters in Menlo Park, California, and maintains smaller field offices at several other locations in the western United States. The results of research conducted by the WESPT are released to the public as a variety of databases, maps, text reports, and abstracts, both through the internal publication system of the USGS and in diverse external publications such as scientific journals and books. This report lists publications of the WESPT released in 2002 as well as additional 1998 and 2001 publications that were not included in the previous list (USGS Open-File Report 00-215, USGS Open-File Report 01-198, and USGS Open-File Report 02-269). Most of the publications listed were authored or coauthored by WESPT staff. The list also includes some publications authored by non-USGS cooperators with the WESPT, as well as some authored by USGS staff outside the WESPT in cooperation with WESPT projects. Several of the publications listed are available on the World Wide Web; for these, URL addresses are provided. Many of these web publications are USGS open-file reports that contain large digital databases of geologic map and related information. Information on ordering USGS publications can be found on the World Wide Web or by calling 1-888-ASK-USGS. The U.S. Geological Surveys web server for geologic information in the western United States is located at http://geology.wr.usgs.gov. More information is available about the WESPT is available on-line at the team website.

Powell, Charles, II,(compiler); Graymer, R.W.

2003-01-01

171

Surface Ionization of Some Rare Earth Elements on Hot Polycrystalline Tungsten Surface  

Microsoft Academic Search

The surface ionization of the rare earth elements Gd, Ho, Dy, Pr and Er has been studied for very low electric field (<3 KV\\/cm) at the surface and the ionization potentials (I.P.) of these elements have been measured. The values of ionization potentials are: Gd- 6.73 0.09 eV, Ho- 6.08 0.09 eV, Dy- 5.72 0.10 eV, Pr- 5.61 0.11 eV

S. D. Dey; S. B. Karmohapatro

1967-01-01

172

Martian Meteorites Record Surface Temperatures on Mars  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from Planetary Science Research Discoveries at the University of Hawaii uses recent research on using the ages of Martian meteorites to explore the history of surface temperature on Mars. Results of geochemical analyses from two very different meteorites indicate that Mars has experienced only very brief warm, wet periods during the past 4 billion years. Photographs, satellite images, thin sections, and graphs help illustrate the research.

G. Jeffrey Taylor

173

Global surface air temperatures - Update through 1987  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Data from meteorological stations show that surface air temperatures in the 1980s are the warmest in the history of instrumental records. The four warmest years on record are all in the 1980s, with the warmest years in the analysis being 1981 and 1987. The rate of warming between the mid-1960s and the present is higher than that which occurrred in the previous period of rapid warming between the 1880s and 1940.

Hansen, James; Lebedeff, Sergej

1988-01-01

174

Five Years of Monitoring Mars' Daytime Surface Temperatures (Animation)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Animation

This movie shows the daytime temperature of the surface of Mars as measured by the Thermal Emission Spectrometer instrument on NASA's Mars Global Surveyor orbiter. These temperatures clearly show the growth and retreat of the martian northern and southern polar ice caps. The caps grow in winter and are composed of carbon dioxide ice with temperatures as low as minus 125 degrees Celsius (minus 195 degrees Fahrenheit). In the summer the caps retreat to relatively small areas around the poles. The movie also demonstrates the large difference in temperatures between the northern hemisphere's summer (beginning when solar longitude, or Ls, is 90 degrees) and the southern hemisphere's summer (beginning when Ls is 270 degrees). This difference is because the orbit of Mars around the Sun is more elliptical than Earth's orbit. As on Earth, a hemisphere's summer is when that hemisphere is tilted toward the Sun, but on Mars, the planet's distance from the Sun varies much more than on Earth. Mars is closest to the Sun, and therefore warmest, during the southern summer season. In northern summer, when Mars' northern hemisphere is tilted toward the Sun, the planet is farther from the Sun.

Seasons on Mars are determined by the position of Mars in its orbit around the Sun. The position is measured in degrees of solar longitude (Ls) around the orbit, beginning at 0 degrees Ls at the northern spring equinox, progressing to 90 degrees Ls at the start of northern summer, 180 degrees Ls at the fall equinox, 270 degrees Ls at the start of northern winter, and finally back to 360 degrees, or 0 degrees, Ls at the spring equinox.

The Thermal Emission Spectrometer is operated by a team led at Arizona State University, Tempe. Mars Global Surveyor left Earth on Nov. 7, 1996, and began orbiting Mars on Sept. 12, 1997. JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, manages Mars Global Surveyor for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington.

2005-01-01

175

High temperature low friction surface coating  

DOEpatents

A high temperature, low friction, flexible coating for metal surfaces which are subject to rubbing contact includes a mixture of three parts graphite and one part cadmium oxide, ball milled in water for four hours, then mixed with thirty percent by weight of sodium silicate in water solution and a few drops of wetting agent. The mixture is sprayed 12-15 microns thick onto an electro-etched metal surface and air dried for thirty minutes, then baked for two hours at 65.degree. C. to remove the water and wetting agent, and baked for an additional eight hours at about 150.degree. C. to produce the optimum bond with the metal surface. The coating is afterwards burnished to a thickness of about 7-10 microns.

Bhushan, Bharat (Watervliet, NY)

1980-01-01

176

Anthropogenic Disturbance of Element Cycles at the Earth's Surface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The extent to which humans are modifying Earth's surface chemistry can be quantified by comparing total anthropogenic element fluxes with their natural counterparts [1]. We determine anthropogenic mass transfer of 77 elements from mining, fossil fuel burning, biomass burning, construction activities, and human apportionment of terrestrial net primary productivity, and compared it to natural mass transfer from terrestrial and marine net primary productivity, riverine dissolved and suspended matter fluxes to the ocean, soil erosion, eolian dust, sea-salt spray, cosmic dust, volcanic emissions and - for helium - hydrodynamic escape from the Earth's atmosphere. In addition, we introduce an approach to correct for losses during industrial processing of elements belonging to geochemically coherent groups, and explicitly incorporated uncertainties of element mass fluxes through Monte Carlo simulations [2]. Our assessment indicates that anthropogenic fluxes of iridium, osmium, helium, gold, ruthenium, antimony, platinum, palladium, rhenium, rhodium and chromium are greater than the respective natural fluxes. For these elements mining is the major factor of human dominance, whereas petroleum burning strongly influence the surficial cycle of rhenium. Apart from these 11 elements there are 15 additional elements whose anthropogenic fluxes may surpass their corresponding natural fluxes. Anthropogenic fluxes of the remaining elements are smaller than their corresponding natural fluxes although a significant human influence is observed for all of them. For example, ~20% of the annual fluxes of C, N, and P can be attributed to human activities. Such disturbances, though small compared with natural fluxes, can significantly alter concentrations in near-surface reservoirs and affect ecosystems if they are sustained over time scales similar to or longer than the residence time of elements in the respective reservoir. Examples are the continuing input of CO2 to the atmosphere that has led to a 40% increase in atmospheric CO2 concentrations, and the atmospheric redistribution of reactive nitrogen and accumulation in remote ecosystems. We note that if anthropogenic contributions to soil erosion and eolian dust are considered, anthropogenic fluxes of up to 62 elements may surpass their corresponding natural fluxes. [1] Klee and Graedel (2004), Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour., 29, p. 69-107 [2] Sen and Peucker-Ehrenbrink (2012), Environ. Sci. Technol., dx.doi.org/10.1021/es301261x

Sen, I. S.; Peucker-Ehrenbrink, B.

2012-12-01

177

Science Syllabus for Middle and Junior High Schools. Block D, The Earth's Changing Surface.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This syllabus begins with a list of program objectives and performance criteria for the study of three general topic areas in earth science and a list of 22 science processes. Following this information is a listing of concepts and understandings for subtopics within the general topic areas: (1) the earth's surface--surface features, rock

New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of General Education Curriculum Development.

178

Radon progeny in hydrometeors at the earth's surface.  

PubMed

During atmospheric thermal inversions, dew and hoarfrost concentrate gamma emitting radionuclides of the short-lived (222)Rn progeny ((214)Pb and (214)Bi), causing an increase in the total natural gamma background from the ground. To highlight this phenomenon, a volcanic zone of high (222)Rn flux was studied during the winter season 2010-11. High-specific short-lived radon progeny activities up to 122 Bq g(-1) were detected in hydrometeors forming at the earth's surface (ESHs), corresponding to a mean increase of up to 17 % of the normal gamma background value. A theoretical model, depending on radon flux from soil and predicting the radon progeny concentrations in hydrometeors forming at the ESHs is presented. The comparison between model and field data shows a good correspondence. Around nuclear power plants or in nuclear facilities that use automatic NaI or CsI total gamma spectroscopy systems for monitoring radioactive contamination, hydrometeors forming at the ESHs in sites with a high radon flux could represent a relevant source of false alarms of radioactive contamination. PMID:22039270

Voltaggio, M

2012-07-01

179

The Clear-Sky Greenhouse Effect Sensitivity to a Sea Surface Temperature Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

The clear-sky greenhouse effect response to a sea surface temperature (SST or Ts) change is studied using outgoing clear-sky longwave radiation measurements from the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE). Considering geographical distributions for July 1987, the relation between the SST, the greenhouse efect G (defined as the outgoing infrared flux trapped by atmospheric gases), and the precipitable water vapor content

J. Ph. Duvel; F. M. Bron

1991-01-01

180

Quality assessment and validation of the MODIS global land surface temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an evaluation of the Earth Observing System (EOS) Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) thermal infrared bands and the status of land surface temperature (LST) version-3 standard products retrieved from Terra MODIS data. The accuracy of daily MODIS LST products has been validated in more than 20 clear-sky cases with in situ measurement data collected in field campaigns

Z. Wan; Y. Zhang; Q. Zhang; Z.-L. Li

2004-01-01

181

Potential for extreme loss in high-latitude Earth surface processes due to climate change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

driven Earth surface processes (ESPs) govern landscape and ecosystem dynamics in high-latitude regions. However, climate change is expected to alter ESP activity at yet uncertain rate and amplitude. We examined the sensitivity of key ESPs (cryoturbation, solifluction, nivation, and palsa mires) to changing climate by modeling their distribution in regard to climate, local topography, and soil variables in northern Fennoscandia. The distributions of ESPs were then forecasted under two future time periods, 2040-2069 and 2070-2099, using ensemble modeling and three emission scenarios. Increase of 2C in current temperature conditions caused an almost complete loss of ESPs, highlighting the extreme climatic sensitivity of high-latitude geomorphic processes. Forecasts based on three scenarios suggest a disappearance of suitable climate for studied ESPs by the end of this century. This could initiate multiple opposing feedback between land surface and atmosphere through changes in albedo, heat fluxes, and biogeochemical cycles.

Aalto, Juha; Venlinen, Ari; Heikkinen, Risto K.; Luoto, Miska

2014-06-01

182

Long-term changes in net radiation at the Earth's surface: uncertainties and implications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Net radiation at the earth's surface plays a key role in terrestrial water, energy and carbon fluxes, but there is large uncertainty in its variation over decadal time scales. Globally, surface and satellite measurements indicate global dimming in solar radiation over many regions since the mid-20th century and then brightening over recent decades due to changes in cloudiness and aerosols. Changes in longwave radiation are driven by long-term increases in greenhouse gases and inter-annual variations in short-lived constituents such as dust and black carbon. These increases are partially offset, however, by increases in surface temperature. Current estimates of these components of the net radiation balance from satellite remote sensing are inconsistent because of inhomogeneities from changes in satellites, sensor calibration, retrieval algorithms, and so on, in addition to systematic biases. Estimates from direct ground observations are hampered by sparse spatial networks and often short-term records, and estimates based on denser networks of meteorological data are affected by errors in empirical radiation models. Some of the largest uncertainties are in the characterization of the global distribution and temporal changes in surface shortwave albedo and infrared emissivity, especially in regions with seasonal and patchy snow cover. This paper presents comparisons of legacy satellite-derived datasets (e.g. ISCCP, GEWEX/SRB) and recently developed datasets based on updated algorithms and homogenized data sources (e.g. NASA Princeton-Measures, HIRS) in the context of long-term changes in the net radiation balance at the earth's surface. We compare these with ground observations and empirical estimates based on meteorological data from in-situ sources and reanalysis. In particular we focus on the uncertainties in the magnitude and variation in surface albedo and emissivity, and their contribution to uncertainties in net radiation. We discuss the implications of these uncertainties on estimates of long-term changes in the terrestrial water cycle and trends in drought severity.

Sheffield, Justin; Coccia, Gabriele; Siemann, Amanda; Wood, Eric

2014-05-01

183

Calculating the temperature dependence of the specific heat for rare-earth arsenates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Equations have been derived for the temperature dependence of the specific heat for 14 rare-earth arsenates. The standard specific heats of some of them have also been calculated by Debye's and Ivanova's methods.

Sharipova, Z. M.; Kasenov, B. K.

1990-12-01

184

The surface of the ice-age Earth.  

PubMed

In the Northern Hemisphere the 18,000 B.P. world differed strikingly from the present in the huge land-based ice sheets, reaching approximately 3 km in thickness, and in a dramatic increase in the extent of pack ice and marine-based ice sheets. In the Southern Hemisphere the most striking contrast was the greater extent of sea ice. On land, grasslands, steppes, and deserts spread at the expense of forests. This change in vegetation, together with extensive areas of permanent ice and sandy outwash plains, caused an increase in global surface albedo over modern values. Sea level was lower by at least 85 m. The 18,000 B.P. oceans were characterized by: (i) marked steepening of thermal gradients along polar frontal systems, particularly in the North Atlantic and Antarctic; (ii) an equatorward displacement of polar frontal systems; (iii) general cooling of most surface waters, with a global average of -2.3 degrees C; (iv) increased cooling and up-welling along equatorial divergences in the Pacific and Atlantic; (v) low temperatures extending equatorward along the western coast of Africa, Australia, and South America, indicating increased upwelling and advection of cool waters; and (vi) nearly stable positions and temperatures of the central gyres in the subtropical Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian oceans. PMID:17781630

1976-03-19

185

Prediction of the speciation of alkaline earths adsorbed on mineral surfaces in salt solutions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite the fact that the bulk compositions of most low temperature natural surface waters, groundwaters, and porewaters are heavily influenced by alkaline earths, an understanding of the development of proton surface charge in the presence of alkaline earth adsorption on the surfaces of minerals is lacking. In particular, models of speciation at the mineral-water interface in systems involving alkaline earths need to be established for a range of different minerals. In the present study, X-ray standing wave results for Sr 2+ adsorption on rutile as a tetranuclear complex [Fenter, P., Cheng, L., Rihs, S., Machesky, M., Bedyzk, M.D., Sturchio, N.C., 2000. Electrical double-layer structure at the rutile-water interface as observed in situ with small-period X-ray standing waves. J. Colloid Interface Sci.225, 154-165] are used as constraints for all the alkaline earths in surface complexation simulations of proton surface charge, metal adsorption, and electrokinetic experiments referring to wide ranges of pH, ionic strength, surface coverage, and type of oxide. The tetranuclear reaction 4>SOH+M+H2O=(>SOH)2(>SO-)2_M(OH)++3H+ predominates for the large cations Sr 2+ and Ba 2+ (and presumably Ra 2+), consistent with X-ray results. In contrast, the mononuclear reaction >SOH+M+H2O=>SO-_M(OH)++2H+ predominates for the much smaller Mg 2+ (and presumably Be 2+), with minor amounts of the tetranuclear reaction. Both reaction types appear to be important for the intermediate size Ca 2+. For all the alkaline earths on all oxides, the proportions of the different reaction types vary systematically as a function of pH, ionic strength, and surface coverage. The application of Born solvation and crystal-chemical theory enables estimation of the equilibrium constants of adsorption of all the alkaline earths on all oxides. On high dielectric constant solids (rutile, magnetite, manganese dioxide), where the solvation contribution is negligable, ion adsorption correlates with crystal radius: the equilibrium constants increase in the sequence Be 2+ < Mg 2+ < Ca 2+ < Sr 2+ < Ba 2+ < Ra 2+. On low dielectric constant solids (hematite, gibbsite,and silicas), the solvation contribution opposing adsorption is largest for ions with the smallest hydrated radii: the equilibrium constants increase in the sequence Ra 2+ < Ba 2+ < Sr 2+ < Ca 2+ < Mg 2+ < Be 2+. These predicted sequences are consistent with adsorption affinities in the literature. In combination with previously published results, the present study enables the predictive use of the triple-layer model for 1:1 and 2:1 electrolytes, and mixtures of these, permitting calculation of proton surface charge and adsorption under conditions more relevent to natural water compositions than previously possible.

Sverjensky, Dimitri A.

2006-05-01

186

Project takes a new look at past sea surface temperatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Advancements in knowledge about sea surface temperature (SST) at key points in Earth's past are on the horizon through a new research project called TEMPUS that is funded by the European Commission's Environment and Climate Programme. The first priority of the project is to reconstruct the last ice age, which serves as a stringent test for appraising the validity of climate models. SST data for this effort are being obtained from the Climate/Long-Range Investigation, Mapping, and Prediction (CLIMAP) project 18 kyr reconstruction [CLIMAP, 1976, 1981]. CLIMAP represented a turning point in the study of climate change and helped to fuel explosive growth in climate research based on the analysis of sediment cores. Maps produced 20 years ago from CLIMAP data are still at the core of much groundbreaking research.

Rosell-Mel, Antoni

187

Earth Mover's Distances on Discrete Surfaces Justin Solomon  

E-print Network

formulation with linear scaling. Af- ter discretization using finite elements (FEM) and development: Optimal transportation, Wasserstein metric, earth mover's distance, finite elements, geometric median for Informatics Abstract We introduce a novel method for computing the earth mover's dis- tance (EMD) between

Kazhdan, Michael

188

Hemispheric asymmetry of surface temperature anomalies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent months there has been some controversy concerning the possible effect of suspended sulfate aerosols on warming trends predicted to occur in response to steadily increasing greenhouse gas concentrations in the troposphere. Evidence in the recent literature both supporting and doubting the theory that aerosols have suppressed warming in the Northern Hemisphere more than in the Southern Hemisphere has relied on analyses of radiosonde observations covering various periods between 1958 and 1995. In this letter the UK Met Office/University of East Anglia Climatic Research Unit (Parker/Jones) data sets of mean surface temperature anomalies over land and sea for the past 140 years serve as an independent data base to test earlier reported results obtained from radiosonde observations. The results suggest that there is no evidence of any systematic differences in temperature trends between the two hemispheres.

Gordon, Adrian H.; Bye, John A. T.

1997-11-01

189

Room temperature Bloch surface wave polaritons.  

PubMed

Polaritons are hybrid light-matter quasi-particles that have gathered a significant attention for their capability of showing room temperature and out-of-equilibrium Bose-Einstein condensation. More recently, a novel class of ultrafast optical devices have been realized by using flows of polariton fluids, such as switches, interferometers, and logical gates. However, polariton lifetimes and propagation distances are strongly limited by photon losses and accessible in-plane momenta in normal microcavity samples. In this work, we show experimental evidence of the formation of room temperature propagating polariton states arising from the strong coupling between organic excitons and a Bloch surface wave. This result, which was only recently predicted, paves the way for the realization of polariton devices that could allow lossless propagation up to macroscopic distances. PMID:24686676

Lerario, Giovanni; Cannavale, Alessandro; Ballarini, Dario; Dominici, Lorenzo; De Giorgi, Milena; Liscidini, Marco; Gerace, Dario; Sanvitto, Daniele; Gigli, Giuseppe

2014-04-01

190

Sea surface temperature variability: patterns and mechanisms.  

PubMed

Patterns of sea surface temperature (SST) variability on interannual and longer timescales result from a combination of atmospheric and oceanic processes. These SST anomaly patterns may be due to intrinsic modes of atmospheric circulation variability that imprint themselves upon the SST field mainly via surface energy fluxes. Examples include SST fluctuations in the Southern Ocean associated with the Southern Annular Mode, a tripolar pattern of SST anomalies in the North Atlantic associated with the North Atlantic Oscillation, and a pan-Pacific mode known as the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (with additional contributions from oceanic processes). They may also result from coupled ocean-atmosphere interactions, such as the El Nio-Southern Oscillation phenomenon in the tropical Indo-Pacific, the tropical Atlantic Nio, and the cross-equatorial meridional modes in the tropical Pacific and Atlantic. Finally, patterns of SST variability may arise from intrinsic oceanic modes, notably the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation. PMID:21141660

Deser, Clara; Alexander, Michael A; Xie, Shang-Ping; Phillips, Adam S

2010-01-01

191

A global monthly sea surface temperature climatology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper presents a new global 2 deg x 2 deg monthly sea surface temperature (SST) climatology, referred here to as the Shea-Trenberth-Reynolds (STR) climatology, which was derived by modifying a 1950-1979-based SST climatology from the Climate Analysis Center (CAC), by using data from the Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set to improve the SST estimates in the regions of the Kuroshio and the Gulf Stream. A comparison of the STR climatology with the Alexander and Mobley SST climatology showed that the STR climatology is warmer in the Northern Hemisphere, and colder poleward of 45 deg S.

Shea, Dennis J.; Trenberth, Kevin E.; Reynolds, Richard W.

1992-01-01

192

High temperature surface protection. [10 gas turbines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Alloys of the MCrAlX type are the basis for high temperature surface protection systems in gas turbines. M can be one or more of Ni, Co, or Fe and X denotes a reactive metal added to enhance oxide scale adherence. The selection and formation as well as the oxidation, hot corrosion and thermal fatigue performance of MCrAlX coatings are discussed. Coatings covered range from simple aluminides formed by pack cementation to the more advanced physical vapor deposition overlay coatings and developmental plasma spray deposited thermal barrier coatings.

Levine, S. R.

1978-01-01

193

Temperature effects on alkaline earth metal ions adsorption on gibbsite: approaches from macroscopic sorption experiments and molecular dynamics simulations.  

PubMed

Two approaches, macroscopic adsorption experiments and molecular dynamics simulations, were employed to study the effect of temperature on alkaline earth metals adsorption on gibbsite surfaces. Increased reaction temperature enhanced the extent of metal ion adsorption for all of the alkaline earth metals studied. Whereas Mg(2+) and Sr(2+) adsorption displayed dependence on ionic strength, Sr(2+) adsorption exhibited less dependence on background ionic strength regardless of temperature. The ionic strength dependence was attributed to outer-sphere complexation reactions. The ionic strength effect on metal ion removal decreased with increasing temperature for both metals. Ba(2+) removal by gibbsite, on the other hand, was not affected by ionic strength. Results from molecular dynamics simulations were in agreement with the findings of the experimental study. The amount of thermal energy required to remove waters of hydration from the metal cation and the ratio of outer-sphere to inner-sphere complexation decreased with increasing ionic radii. It was observed from both macroscopic and molecular approaches that the tendency to form inner-sphere complexes on gibbsite decreased in the order: Ba(2+)>Sr(2+)>Mg(2+) and that the common assumption that alkaline earth metal ions form outer-sphere complexes appears to be dependent on ionic radius and temperature. PMID:23540825

Katz, Lynn E; Criscenti, Louise J; Chen, Chia-chen; Larentzos, James P; Liljestrand, Howard M

2013-06-01

194

Data fusion with artificial neural networks (ANN) for classification of earth surface from microwave satellite measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A data fusion system with artificial neural networks (ANN) is used for fast and accurate classification of five earth surface conditions and surface changes, based on seven SSMI multichannel microwave satellite measurements. The measurements include brightness temperatures at 19, 22, 37, and 85 GHz at both H and V polarizations (only V at 22 GHz). The seven channel measurements are processed through a convolution computation such that all measurements are located at same grid. Five surface classes including non-scattering surface, precipitation over land, over ocean, snow, and desert are identified from ground-truth observations. The system processes sensory data in three consecutive phases: (1) pre-processing to extract feature vectors and enhance separability among detected classes; (2) preliminary classification of Earth surface patterns using two separate and parallely acting classifiers: back-propagation neural network and binary decision tree classifiers; and (3) data fusion of results from preliminary classifiers to obtain the optimal performance in overall classification. Both the binary decision tree classifier and the fusion processing centers are implemented by neural network architectures. The fusion system configuration is a hierarchical neural network architecture, in which each functional neural net will handle different processing phases in a pipelined fashion. There is a total of around 13,500 samples for this analysis, of which 4 percent are used as the training set and 96 percent as the testing set. After training, this classification system is able to bring up the detection accuracy to 94 percent compared with 88 percent for back-propagation artificial neural networks and 80 percent for binary decision tree classifiers. The neural network data fusion classification is currently under progress to be integrated in an image processing system at NOAA and to be implemented in a prototype of a massively parallel and dynamically reconfigurable Modular Neural Ring (MNR).

Lure, Y. M. Fleming; Grody, Norman C.; Chiou, Y. S. Peter; Yeh, H. Y. Michael

1993-01-01

195

Areas of Anomalous Surface Temperature in Archuleta County, Colorado, as Identified from ASTER Thermal Data  

SciTech Connect

Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Publication Date: 2012 Title: Very Warm Modeled Temperature Archuleta Edition: First Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains areas of anomalous surface temperature in Archuleta County identified from ASTER thermal data and spatial based insolation model. The temperature is calculated using the Emissivity Normalization Algorithm that separate temperature from emissivity. The incoming solar radiation was calculated using spatial based insolation model developed by Fu and Rich (1999). Then the temperature due to solar radiation was calculated using emissivity derived from ASTER data. The residual temperature, i.e. temperature due to solar radiation subtracted from ASTER temperature was used to identify thermally anomalous areas. Areas that had temperature greater than 2? were considered ASTER modeled very warm surface exposures (thermal anomalies) Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4144691.792023 m Left: 285531.662851 m Right: 348694.182686 m Bottom: 4097005.210304 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System 1984 (WGS 1984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich Angular Unit: Degree Digital Form: Format Name: Shape file

Hussein, Khalid

2012-02-01

196

Areas of Anomalous Surface Temperature in Chaffee County, Colorado, as Identified from ASTER Thermal Data  

SciTech Connect

Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Publication Date: 2012 Title: Very Warm Modeled Temperature Chaffee Edition: First Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains areas of anomalous surface temperature in Chaffee County identified from ASTER thermal data and spatial based insolation model. The temperature is calculated using the Emissivity Normalization Algorithm that separate temperature from emissivity. The incoming solar radiation was calculated using spatial based insolation model developed by Fu and Rich (1999). Then the temperature due to solar radiation was calculated using emissivity derived from ASTER data. The residual temperature, i.e. temperature due to solar radiation subtracted from ASTER temperature was used to identify thermally anomalous areas. Areas that had temperature greater than 2? were considered ASTER modeled very warm surface exposures (thermal anomalies) Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4333432.368072 m Left: 366907.700763 m Right: 452457.816015 m Bottom: 4208271.566715 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System 1984 (WGS 1984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich Angular Unit: Degree Digital Form: Format Name: Shape file

Hussein, Khalid

2012-02-01

197

Areas of Anomalous Surface Temperature in Garfield County, Colorado, as Identified from ASTER Thermal Data  

SciTech Connect

Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Publication Date: 2012 Title: Very Warm Modeled Temperature Garfield Edition: First Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains areas of anomalous surface temperature in Garfield County identified from ASTER thermal data and spatial based insolation model. The temperature is calculated using the Emissivity Normalization Algorithm that separate temperature from emissivity. The incoming solar radiation was calculated using spatial based insolation model developed by Fu and Rich (1999). Then the temperature due to solar radiation was calculated using emissivity derived from ASTER data. The residual temperature, i.e. temperature due to solar radiation subtracted from ASTER temperature was used to identify thermally anomalous areas. Areas that had temperature greater than 2? were considered ASTER modeled very warm surface exposures (thermal anomalies) Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4441550.552290 m Left: 271445.053363 m Right: 359825.053363 m Bottom: 4312490.552290 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System 1984 (WGS 1984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich Angular Unit: Degree Digital Form: Format Name: Shape file

Hussein, Khalid

2012-02-01

198

Areas of Anomalous Surface Temperature in Dolored County, Colorado, as Identified from ASTER Thermal Data  

SciTech Connect

Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Publication Date: 2012 Title: Very Warm Modeled Temperature Dolores Edition: First Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains areas of anomalous surface temperature in Dolores County identified from ASTER thermal data and spatial based insolation model. The temperature is calculated using the Emissivity Normalization Algorithm that separate temperature from emissivity. The incoming solar radiation was calculated using spatial based insolation model developed by Fu and Rich (1999). Then the temperature due to solar radiation was calculated using emissivity derived from ASTER data. The residual temperature, i.e. temperature due to solar radiation subtracted from ASTER temperature was used to identify thermally anomalous areas. Areas that had temperature greater than 2? were considered ASTER modeled very warm surface exposures (thermal anomalies) Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4186234.213315 m Left: 212558.673056 m Right: 232922.811862 m Bottom: 4176781.467043 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System 1984 (WGS 1984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich Angular Unit: Degree Digital Form: Format Name: Shape file

Hussein, Khalid

2012-02-01

199

Areas of Anomalous Surface Temperature in Routt County, Colorado, as Identified from ASTER Thermal Data  

SciTech Connect

Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Publication Date: 2012 Title: Very Warm Modeled Temperature Routt Edition: First Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains areas of anomalous surface temperature in Routt County identified from ASTER thermal data and spatial based insolation model. The temperature is calculated using the Emissivity Normalization Algorithm that separate temperature from emissivity. The incoming solar radiation was calculated using spatial based insolation model developed by Fu and Rich (1999). Then the temperature due to solar radiation was calculated using emissivity derived from ASTER data. The residual temperature, i.e. temperature due to solar radiation subtracted from ASTER temperature was used to identify thermally anomalous areas. Areas that had temperature greater than 2? were considered ASTER modeled very warm surface exposures (thermal anomalies) Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4501071.574000 m Left: 311351.975000 m Right: 359681.975000 m Bottom: 4447251.574000 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System 1984 (WGS 1984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich Angular Unit: Degree Digital Form: Format Name: Shape file

Hussein, Khalid

2012-02-01

200

Sea surface salinity has a massive influence on Earth's climate. With Aquarius, scientists will have a new way to measure that influence in a  

E-print Network

Sea surface salinity has a massive influence on Earth's climate. With Aquarius, scientists global temperatures. But when it comes to ocean salinity, the picture gets fuzzier. Researchers use surface salinity is influencing the ocean. Aquarius is poised to provide a missing link in satellite

Waliser, Duane E.

201

Gravitational large bolides influence on the Earth's surface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The authors consider the zones of elongate negative gravity anomalies that accompany some astroblemes and conclude that the formation of such "tails" associated with the energy influence of the asteroids. After analyzing the morphological elements of Popigai crater and concluding that the ballistic trajectory of Popigai cosmic body (CB) had orientation from SE to NW [1], the authors found that this direction corresponds to the position of the linear zone of negative gravity anomalies [2]. Earlier, in the analysis of this zone with using a gravity model EGM08, Czech researchers concluded that it was formed by the fall of three satellites of Popigai CB. However, traces of large impact events here are unknown and unlikely to be detected. Earlier analysis of the Russian Gravity maps 2010, scale 1:2500,000 [2], showed the presence of gravity tails for all large craters (D ? 15 km) produced by bodies for which we can assume a trajectory with a relatively low angle to the Earth's surface. However, the proven structures of large diameter are quite few in Russia. That is why it is important to check this pattern on a global scale. Indeed, the gravity imprints of CB trajectories show up in the new shaded model of "Global marine gravity" [3] for hundreds of astroblemes not specified in [2]. The data obtained can be an additional basis for definition of the CB trajectory direction along with other morphological elements of astroblemes considered by the authors earlier [4]. Furthermore, gravity can be useful to prove the impact origin of many less certain structures, such as submerged structures. Visual observation of submerged craters is difficult, and analysis of geophysical evidence in this case is simpler than the analysis of morphology. The surface gravity anomalies mimic round shape of craters and it can be assigned to the impact category in the presence of tails, even if in the absence of data, which can reveal rootless anomalies. Question "what are the linear tail zones of negative gravity anomalies and how were they formed" is waiting for his answer. Taking into account the often-observed bends of tail-shaped depressions, a more likely explanation would be in terms of gradual destruction of the body on its way through the atmosphere. As a result, there forms a chain of smaller fragments and particles after the body (the tail), which impacts a longer area of land. References 1. Khazanovitch-Wulff K.K., Mikheeva A.V. and Kuznetsov V.F. Structural elements of some astroblemes indicating directions of cosmic body trajectories // New Concepts in Global Tectonics JOURNAL, Volume 1, Number 3, p.11-19. September 2013. www.ncgt.org 2. Khazanovitch-Wulff K. K. and Mikheeva A. V. Negative gravity anomalies as the tails of astroblemes // NCGT Journal, v. 1, no. 2, p.4-15. June 2013. www.ncgt.org 3. Sandwell D.T., Smith W. H. F. Global marine gravity from retracked Geosat and ERS-1 altimetry: Ridge segmentation versus spreading rate. J. Geophys. Res., 2009. V.114, B01411. 4. Mikheeva A.V. The complete catalog of the Earth's impact structures - 2013. URL: labmpg.sscc.ru/impact/index1.html.

Mikheeva, Anna; Khazanovitch-Wulff, Konstantin

2014-05-01

202

Modelling the rheology of MgO under Earth's mantle pressure, temperature and strain rates.  

PubMed

Plate tectonics, which shapes the surface of Earth, is the result of solid-state convection in Earth's mantle over billions of years. Simply driven by buoyancy forces, mantle convection is complicated by the nature of the convecting materials, which are not fluids but polycrystalline rocks. Crystalline materials can flow as the result of the motion of defects--point defects, dislocations, grain boundaries and so on. Reproducing in the laboratory the extreme deformation conditions of the mantle is extremely challenging. In particular, experimental strain rates are at least six orders of magnitude larger than in nature. Here we show that the rheology of MgO at the pressure, temperature and strain rates of the mantle is accessible by multiscale numerical modelling starting from first principles and with no adjustable parameters. Our results demonstrate that extremely low strain rates counteract the influence of pressure. In the mantle, MgO deforms in the athermal regime and this leads to a very weak phase. It is only in the lowermost lower mantle that the pressure effect could dominate and that, under the influence of lattice friction, a viscosity of the order of 10(21)-10(22) pascal seconds can be defined for MgO. PMID:22237109

Cordier, Patrick; Amodeo, Jonathan; Carrez, Philippe

2012-01-12

203

Modern average global sea-surface temperature  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The data contained in this data set are derived from the NOAA Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer Multichannel Sea Surface Temperature data (AVHRR MCSST), which are obtainable from the Distributed Active Archive Center at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in Pasadena, Calif. The JPL tapes contain weekly images of SST from October 1981 through December 1990 in nine regions of the world ocean: North Atlantic, Eastern North Atlantic, South Atlantic, Agulhas, Indian, Southeast Pacific, Southwest Pacific, Northeast Pacific, and Northwest Pacific. This data set represents the results of calculations carried out on the NOAA data and also contains the source code of the programs that made the calculations. The objective was to derive the average sea-surface temperature of each month and week throughout the whole 10-year series, meaning, for example, that data from January of each year would be averaged together. The result is 12 monthly and 52 weekly images for each of the oceanic regions. Averaging the images in this way tends to reduce the number of grid cells that lack valid data and to suppress interannual variability.

Schweitzer, Peter N.

1993-01-01

204

Solar variability and climate change: Geomagnetic aa index and global surface temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the past ~120 years, Earth's surface temperature is correlated with both decadal averages and solar cycle minimum values of the geomagnetic aa index. The correlation with aa minimum values suggests the existence of a long-term (low-frequency) component of solar irradiance that underlies the 11-year cyclic component. Extrapolating the aa-temperature correlations to Maunder Minimum geomagnetic conditions implies that solar forcing

E. W. Cliver; V. Boriakoff; J. Feynman

1998-01-01

205

Earth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The following aspects of the planet Earth are discussed: plate tectonics, the interior of the planet, the formation of the Earth, and the evolution of the atmosphere and hydrosphere. The Earth's crust, mantle, and core are examined along with the bulk composition of the planet.

Carr, M. H.

1984-01-01

206

Connecting Atlantic temperature variability and biological cycling in two earth system models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Connections between the interdecadal variability in North Atlantic temperatures and biological cycling have been widely hypothesized. However, it is unclear whether such connections are due to small changes in basin-averaged temperatures indicated by the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) Index, or whether both biological cycling and the AMO index are causally linked to changes in the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC). We examine interdecadal variability in the annual and month-by-month diatom biomass in two Earth System Models with the same formulations of atmospheric, land, sea ice and ocean biogeochemical dynamics but different formulations of ocean physics and thus different AMOC structures and variability. In the isopycnal-layered ESM2G, strong interdecadal changes in surface salinity associated with changes in AMOC produce spatially heterogeneous variability in convection, nutrient supply and thus diatom biomass. These changes also produce changes in ice cover, shortwave absorption and temperature and hence the AMO Index. Off West Greenland, these changes are consistent with observed changes in fisheries and support climate as a causal driver. In the level-coordinate ESM2M, nutrient supply is much higher and interdecadal changes in diatom biomass are much smaller in amplitude and not strongly linked to the AMO index.

Gnanadesikan, Anand; Dunne, John P.; Msadek, Rym

2014-05-01

207

The melting curve of iron to 250 gigapascals - A constraint on the temperature at earth's center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The melting curve of iron, the primary constituent of earth's core, has been measured to pressures of 250 gigapascals with a combination of static and dynamic techniques. The melting temperature of iron at the pressure of the core-mantle boundary (136 GPa) is 4800 + or - 200 K, whereas at the inner core-outer core boundary (330 GPa), it is 7600 + or - 500 K. A melting temperature for iron-rich alloy of 6600 K at the inner core-outer core boundary and a maximum temperature of 6900 K at earth's center are inferred. This latter value is the first experimental upper bound on the temperature at earth's center, and these results imply that the temperature of the lower mantle is significantly less than that of the outer core.

Williams, Quentin; Jeanloz, Raymond; Bass, Jay; Svendsen, Bob; Ahrens, Thomas J.

1987-01-01

208

Surface Characterization of Alkali and Alkaline Earth Metals on Single Crystal Refractory Metals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The experiments were conducted on the clean surfaces of W(110), Mo(110) and Nb(110) under ultrahigh vacuum conditions using techniques of line-of-sight thermal desorption mass spectrometry, Auger electron spectroscopy and retarding potential work function measurement. The clean work functions for W(110), Mo(110) and Nb(110) were found to be 5.38 eV, 5.08 eV and 4.62 eV, respectively. The behavior of the work function was characteristic of alkali and alkaline earth metal adsorption onto refractory metal surfaces with the minimum work function for the three surfaces of approximately 1.50 eV for cesium and 2.20 eV for barium. The results of the change in work function versus adsorption of cesium onto the bariated surfaces of W(110), Mo(110) and Nb(110) were similar. The energies of desorption for the different binding states were calculated for the various adsorbate-metal systems using first order desorption kinetics, that is, the adsorbates desorb at a rate linearly dependent on coverage. The desorption spectra for cesium from the various metal surfaces showed three distinct desorption sites, while barium had a more continuous decrease in activation energy of desorption up to a monolayer of coverage. The main difference between the desorption of the two adsorbates was the temperature of the terminal (lowest coverage) desorption energy site. The highest terminal desorption energy for cesium occurred on the W(110) surface at a temperature of 1200 K, while barium does not start to desorb from the W(110) surface until the temperature reaches approximately 1700 K. The temperature difference between the binding states of cesium and barium on all three of the substrates allowed for the adsorption and desorption of cesium without altering the barium adlayer. The desorption behavior of cesium from the various barium/substrate surfaces, like the work function change, was also very similar. As the coverage of pre -adsorbed barium increased, the activation energy of the cesium decreased.

Magera, Gerald Glenn

1995-11-01

209

Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry to Measure Earth's Surface Topography and Its Deformation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Synthetic aperture radar interferometry (InSAR) from Earth-orbiting spacecraft provides a new tool to map global topography and deformation of the Earth's surface. Radar images taken from slightly different viewing directions allow the construction of digital elevation models of meter-scale accuracy. These data sets aid in the analysis and interpretation of tectonic and volcanic landscapes. If the Earth's surface deformed between two radar image acquisitions, a map of the surface displacement with tens-of-meters resolution and subcentimeter accuracy can be constructed. This review gives a basic overview of InSAR for Earth scientists and presents a selection of geologic applications that demonstrate the unique capabilities of InSAR for mapping the topography and deformation of the Earth.

Brgmann, Roland; Rosen, Paul A.; Fielding, Eric J.

210

Evidence for a high temperature differentiation in a molten earth: A preliminary appraisal  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

If the earth were molten during its later stages of accretion as indicated by the present understanding of planetary accretion process, the differentiation that led to the formation of the core and mantle must have occurred at high temperatures in the range of 3000-5000 K because of the effect of pressure on the temperature of melting in the interior of the earth. This calls into question the use of low-temperature laboratory measurements of partition coefficients of trace elements to make inferences about earth accretion and differentiation. The low temperature partition coefficients cannot be directly applied to high temperature fractionations because partition coefficients refer to an equilibrium specific to a temperature for a given reaction, and must change in some proportion to exp 1/RT. There are no laboratory data on partition coefficients at the high temperatures relevant to differentiation in the interior of the earth, and an attempt to estimate high temperature distribution coefficients of siderophile elements was made by considering the chemical potential of a given element at equilibrium and how this potential changes with temperature, under some specific assumptions.

Murthy, V. Rama

1992-01-01

211

Satellite Sensed Skin Sea Surface Temperature  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Quantitative predictions of spatial and temporal changes the global climate rely heavily on the use of computer models. Unfortunately, such models cannot provide the basis for climate prediction because key physical processes are inadequately treated. Consequently, fine tuning procedures are often used to optimize the fit between model output and observational data and the validation of climate models using observations is essential if model based predictions of climate change are to be treated with any degree of confidence. Satellite Sea Surface Temperature (SST) observations provide high spatial and temporal resolution data which is extremely well suited to the initialization, definition of boundary conditions and, validation of climate models. In the case of coupled ocean-atmosphere models, the SST (or more correctly the 'Skin' SST (SSST)) is a fundamental diagnostic variable to consider in the validation process. Daily global SST maps derived from satellite sensors also provide adequate data for the detection of global patterns of change which, unlike any other SST data set, repeatedly extend into the southern hemisphere extra-tropical regions. Such data are essential to the success of the spatial 'fingerprint' technique, which seeks to establish a north-south asymmetry where warming is suppressed in the high latitude Southern Ocean. Some estimates suggest that there is a greater than 80% chance of directly detecting significant change (97.5 % confidence level) after 10-12 years of consistent global observations of mean sea surface temperature. However, these latter statements should be qualified with the assumption that a negligible drift in the observing system exists and that biases between individual instruments required to derive a long term data set are small. Given that current estimates for the magnitude of global warming of 0.015 K yr(sup -1) - 0.025 K yr(sup -1), satellite SST data sets need to be both accurate and stable if such a warming trend is to be confidently detected. Some of these activities are focussed to develop and deploy instrumentation suitable for the collection of precise in situ measurements of the SSST which can be used to improve the accuracy of satellite measurements, while others develop techniques to generate improved global analyses of sea surface temperature using historical data.

Donlon, Craig

1997-01-01

212

Linkages between Surface Temperature and Tropospheric Ozone  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson is designed to help students gain knowledge in using the MY NASA DATA Live Access Server (LAS) to obtain a microset of data, in using Excel to graph the data, then using the graphs to investigate the relationship between surface temperature and tropospheric ozone. They will also analyze changes in tropospheric ozone and then hypothesize about the consequences of these changes. The measurements are taken over Chattanooga, TN. Students are provided content-related activities to enhance background knowledge, and then are provided detailed instructions on how to download data from the MY NASA DATA Live Access Server (LAS) and to use Excel to graph the data. The lesson provides detailed procedure, related links and sample graphs, follow-up questions and extensions, and Teacher Notes.

2010-03-14

213

Sea surface temperatures from VAS MSI data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A procedure is developed for estimating sea surface temperatures from multispectral image data acquired from the VISSR atmospheric sounder on the geostationary GOES satellites. Theoretical regression equations for two and three infrared window channels are empirically tuned using clear field of view satellite radiances matched with reports of SST from NOAA fixed environmental buoys. The empirical regression equations are then used to produce daily regional analyses of SST. Monthly mean SST's for the western North Atlantic and the eastern equatorial Pacific during March and July 1982 were produced for use in the SST Intercomparison Workshop Series. Workshop results showed VAS SST's have a scatter of 0.8-1.0 C and a slight warm bias with respect to the other measurements of SST. The VAS SST's show no discernible bias in the region of El Chichon volcanic aerosol cloud.

Bates, J. J.

1984-01-01

214

Oxidation resistance of 9-12% Cr steels: effect of rare earth surface treatment  

SciTech Connect

Medium Cr steels have been used in fossil fired power plants for many years because of their excellent high temperature stability and mechanical properties. The environment in a fossil fired power plant is extremely aggressive in terms of corrosion, especially oxidation. This is only accelerated as the operating temperature increases to 650C and beyond. For any new steel to be qualified for power plant use, in addition to adequate strength at the operating temperature, material wastage from all corrosion processes must be kept to a minimum acceptable level. The use of medium Cr steels provides a means to improve overall corrosion resistance. Three medium Cr are under development for use as high temperature power plant steels: 0.08C-(9-12)Cr-1.2Ni-0.7Mo-3.0Cu-3.0Co-0.5Ti. Oxidation tests were performed on the steels for times greater than 1000 hours in order to determine the oxidation kinetics and extent of material wastage. Also, rare earth oxides were incorporated into the outer surface layers of the steels to see if the oxidation resistance could be improved. These results will be compared to current power plant steels.

Dogan, Omer N.; Alman, David A.; Jablonski, Paul D.

2005-02-01

215

Calculating surface temperature using Landsat thermal imagery  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Abduwasit Ghulam, Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences and Center for Environmental Sciences, Saint Louis University, St Louis, MO 63103 Summary In this lab, students are walked through a hands-on exercise ...

216

A free plate surface and weak oceanic crust produce single-sided subduction on Earth  

E-print Network

A free plate surface and weak oceanic crust produce single-sided subduction on Earth F. Crameri,1 P features of terrestrial plates: (1) the presence of a free deformable upper surface and (2) the presence of weak hydrated crust atop subducting slabs. We show that assuming a free surface, rather than

Kaus, Boris

217

GS of CAS Geodesy & Geodynamics Beijing June 20041 Monitoring the Earth Surface from space  

E-print Network

GS of CAS ­ Geodesy & Geodynamics ­ Beijing June 20041 Monitoring the Earth Surface from space bandwith. Shape of the surface from radar imagery Surface deformation from satellite geodesy : SLR, VLBI, DORIS, GPS #12;GS of CAS ­ Geodesy & Geodynamics ­ Beijing June 20042 Optical Imagery : basic principles

Vigny, Christophe

218

Computer modelling of rare earth dopants in KYF materials: bulk and surface studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper is a continuation of a comprehensive modelling study of rare earth doping in the KYF family of fluoride materials (KYF4, KY3F10 K2YF5 and K3YF6). The morphology of the materials is predicted from surface energies, and substitution energies of rare earth dopants in the bulk material and at the dominant surfaces are used to calculate segregation energies, allowing conclusions about dopant segregation to be made.

Jackson, Robert A.; Maddock, Elizabeth M.; Valerio, Mario E. G.

2010-11-01

219

Low Temperature Resistivity of Yttrium-Based Alloys Containing Small Amounts of Rare Earth Metals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The resistivity of the dilute alloys of rare earth metals with yttrium has been measured at low temperatures. The result is in qualitative agreement with the recent theories due to Kondo and others on the s--d or s--f scattering. The effective s--f exchange integrals for various rare-earth solutes have been derived from the analysis of the resistivity data and compared

Tadashi Sugawara

1965-01-01

220

Geoeffective solar variability influence on Northern Hemisphere surface temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The complex interaction of the solar outputs such as electromagnetic radiation, solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field with terrestrial environment would affect the Earth's climate. Usually, the effect of solar variability on climate is taken into account only through changes in solar total and spectral irradiance. In this study, possible climatic effects related to geoeffective solar variability were investigated by means of long-term statistical correlations between surface air temperature and solar/geomagnetic indices. The data from NCEP/NCAR reanalysis database for the Northern Hemisphere have been processed. Spectral analysis indicates the occurrence of periodicities between 2 and 7 years, associated to atmospheric phenomena, and periodicities around 11 and 22 years, normally associated to solar variability. By applying simple filtering procedures we can get the 11 and 22-year signals in our temperature data. Various features of these signals will be discussed on different spatial scales of the Northern hemisphere. The differences between observed and reanalysed data will be also discussed.

Dobrica, Venera; Suteanu, Cristian; Stefan, Cristiana; Pirloaga, Razvan; Demetrescu, Crisan

2014-05-01

221

S- and R-approximations of the Earth's surface topography  

Microsoft Academic Search

The linear integral representation method has been developed from the Backus and Gilbert [G. Backus and F. Gilbert, Numerical application of formalism for geophysical inverse problems, Geophys. J. R. Astron. Soc. 13 (1967), pp. 247276; G. Backus and F. Gilbert, The resolving power of gross Earth data, Geophys. J. R. Astron. Soc. 16 (1968), pp. 169205] method for solving problems,

I. E. Stepanova

2011-01-01

222

S- and R-approximations of the Earth's surface topography  

Microsoft Academic Search

The linear integral representation method has been developed from the Backus and Gilbert [G. Backus and F. Gilbert, Numerical application of formalism for geophysical inverse problems, Geophys. J. R. Astron. Soc. 13 (1967), pp. 247276; G. Backus and F. Gilbert, The resolving power of gross Earth data, Geophys. J. R. Astron. Soc. 16 (1968), pp. 169205] method for solving problems,

I. E. Stepanova

2012-01-01

223

Introduction The surface of the Earth exhibits many  

E-print Network

processes originating in the Earth's inte- rior. Volcanic eruptions and earthquakes, for instance cannot release its heat by conduction alone. The magnetic field that, among other things, protects us of visiting it. All of our under- standing of the inner regions of the planet is, therefore, the result

Vocadlo, Lidunka

224

Magnetic Order in Rare Earth Ethyl-Sulfates and Rare Earth Bromates at Low Temperature.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The sequences of rare earth ethyl sulfates (REES) and rare earth bromates (RE Bromate) have been used to study magnetic order due to the dipolar interaction under hexagonal symmetry. A ferromagnetic ground state is predicted for those g = {g_| over g_|} < 1.56 in the sequence of REES and g = {g_ |over g_|} < 1.30 in the sequence of RE Bromates by the classical Luttinger Tisza method. Using a mutual inductance bridge and fluxgate magnetometer, both AC and DC magnetic susceptibilities have been measured down to 6 mk by putting samples inside the mixing chamber of a dilution refrigerator. As theory predicted, ferromagnetism has been observed in HoES (250 mK, g = 0), DyES (120 mK, g = 0) and NdES (12 mK, g = 0.57), and antiferromagnetism in ErES (32.6 mK, g = 6.02) in the REES sequence. On the other hand, this method does not apply to GdES and CeES, because GdES is not in a doublet ground state, while the first excited state of CeES lies close to the ground state. Since the symmetry of the RE Bromates is pseudo-hexagonal, the observed magnetic order in the perpendicular direction is not predicted by theory under the assumption of hexagonal crystal field symmetry except for antiferromagnetism in Er Bromate (44 mK, g = 5.97). The Antiferromagnetism in Yb Bromate (14.7 mK, g = 1.18) and ferromagnetism in Gd Bromate (90 mK, g = 1.00) are in contradiction with predicted ferromagnetism along the parallel direction.

Xu, Jingchun

225

High temperature heat pipe experiments in low earth orbit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although high temperature, liquid metal heat pipe radiators have become a standard component on most high power space power system designs, there is no experimental data on the operation of these heat pipes in a zero gravity or micro-gravity environment. Experiments to benchmark the transient and steady state performance of prototypical heat pipe space radiator elements are in preparation for

K. Woloshun; M. A. Merrigan; J. T. Sena; E. Critchley

1993-01-01

226

Imaging the earth's magnetosphere - Effects of plasma flow and temperature  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of Doppler shifting on the line centers of the magnetospheric O(+) cross section are investigated, and the resulting structure of the scattering rate as a function of bulk density is explained. Whereas the Doppler shifting frequently results in a decrease of the scattering rate, it is demonstrated that for certain drift speeds the overlap of the cross section and the solar intensity profile can lead to an increased rate, thus enhancing the relative brightness of the image above that obtained when v(p) is zero. Simulated images of the magnetosphere are obtained which are used to show quantitively how the magnetospheric image responds to variations in plasma drift speed and temperature. Changes in the brightness of the magnetospheric images also depend on the variability of the solar flux at 83.4 nm. In regions where there are plasma drifts, the brightness in the image is governed by the structure of the scattering rate, assuming a fixed temperature.

Garrido, D. E.; Smith, R. W.; Swift, D. S.; Akasofu, S.-I.

1991-01-01

227

Surface Temperature Assimilation in the Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) is a global land parameterization that uses prescribed meteorology as forcing in order to determine regular gridded land surface states (temperature and moisture) and other properties (e.g. water and heat fluxes). In the present experiment, the assimilation of surface skin temperature is incorporated into the land parameterizations. The meteorological forcing was derived from the Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS-3) Data Assimilation System (DAS) for the full year of 1998 GLDAS can use several land parameterizations, but here we use the Mosaic land surface model and the Common Land Model (CLM). TOVS surface temperature observations are assimilated into GLDAS. The TOVS observations are less frequent that observations used in previous experiments (ISCCP). The purpose of this presentation is to evaluate the impact of the TOVS assimilation on both Mosaic and CLM. We will especially consider the impact of coarse temporal observations on the assimilation and bias correction.

Bosilovich, Michael G.; Radakovich, Jon D.; daSilva, Arlindo; Houser, Paul R.; Atlas, Robert M. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

228

30 CFR 7.101 - Surface temperature tests.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Surface temperature tests. 7.101 Section 7.101...Equipment is Required 7.101 Surface temperature tests. The test for determination...2). (ii) Install sufficient temperature measuring devices to determine the...

2010-07-01

229

30 CFR 7.101 - Surface temperature tests.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Surface temperature tests. 7.101 Section 7.101...Equipment is Required 7.101 Surface temperature tests. The test for determination...2). (ii) Install sufficient temperature measuring devices to determine the...

2013-07-01

230

30 CFR 7.101 - Surface temperature tests.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Surface temperature tests. 7.101 Section 7.101...Equipment is Required 7.101 Surface temperature tests. The test for determination...2). (ii) Install sufficient temperature measuring devices to determine the...

2012-07-01

231

30 CFR 7.101 - Surface temperature tests.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Surface temperature tests. 7.101 Section 7.101...Equipment is Required 7.101 Surface temperature tests. The test for determination...2). (ii) Install sufficient temperature measuring devices to determine the...

2011-07-01

232

30 CFR 7.101 - Surface temperature tests.  

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Surface temperature tests. 7.101 Section 7.101...Equipment is Required 7.101 Surface temperature tests. The test for determination...2). (ii) Install sufficient temperature measuring devices to determine the...

2014-07-01

233

Implications of solar irradiance variability upon long-term changes in the Earth's atmospheric temperatures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

From 1979 through 1987, it is believed that variability in the incoming solar energy played a significant role in changing the Earth's climate. Using high-precision spacecraft radiometric measurements, the incoming total solar irradiance (total amount of solar power per unit area) and the Earth's mean, global atmospheric temperatures were found to vary in phase with each other. The observed irradiance and temperature changes appeared to be correlated with the 11-year cycle of solar magnetic activity. During the period from 1979 through 1985, both the irradiance and temperature decreased. From 1985 to 1987, they increased. The irradiance changed approximately 0.1 percent, while the temperature varied as much as 0.6 C. During the 1979-1987 period, the temperatures were forecasted to rise linearly because of the anthropogenic build-up of carbon dioxide and the hypothesized 'global warming', 'greenhouse effect', scenarios. Contrary to these scenarios, the temperatures were found to vary in a periodic manner in phase with the solar irradiance changes. The observed correlations between irradiance and temperature variabilily suggest that the mean, global temperature of the Earth may decline between 1990 and 1997 as solar magnetic activity decreases.

Lee, Robert B., III

1992-01-01

234

Study on Cr-rare Earth-boronizing of the Steel 45 at Low Temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Cr-Rare earth-boronized layers were fabricated on the steel 45 at 650C for 6 h. The microstructure, phase composition, microhardness and tribological properties were studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), microhardness tester and wear tester. The results showed the Cr-Rare earth-boronized layer was composed of single Fe2B phase. A sawtooth morphology was obtained in the Cr-Rare earth-boronized layer and the microstructure of the Cr-Rare earth-boronized layer was compact and dense. The thickness of the boride layer is about 23 ?m. The boride tooth was thin and straight. The microhardness of the Cr-Rare earth-boronized layer was 1200HV?1700HV, and first increased with the increase of distance from surface and then decreased when the distance from surface is longer than 7.5 ?m. The hardness gradient of the boride layer is lessened. The wear resistance of steel 45 is greatly improved by Cr-Rare earth-boronizing.

Yuan, Xingdong; Xu, Bin; Caib, Yucheng

235

Technique for the Estimation of Surface Temperatures from Embedded Temperature Sensing for Rapid, High Energy Surface Deposition  

SciTech Connect

Temperature histories on the surface of a body that has been subjected to a rapid, high-energy surface deposition process can be di#14;fficult to determine, especially if it is impossible to directly observe the surface or attach a temperature sensor to it. In this report, we explore two methods for estimating the temperature history of the surface through the use of a sensor embedded within the body very near to the surface. First, the maximum sensor temperature is directly correlated with the peak surface temperature. However, it is observed that the sensor data is both delayed in time and greatly attenuated in magnitude, making this approach unfeasible. Secondly, we propose an algorithm that involves fitting the solution to a one-dimensional instantaneous energy solution problem to both the sensor data and to the results of a one-dimensional CVFEM code. This algorithm is shown to be able to estimate the surface temperature {+-}~20#14;{degrees}C.

Watkins, Tyson R.; Schunk, Peter Randall; Roberts, Scott A.

2014-07-01

236

Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With three levels to choose from on each page - beginner, intermediate or advanced - this site provides information on our plant Earth. There is a section about water on earth and its many different varities, like freshwater, groundwater, and frozen water. There is information about the chemical make-up of water and many images showing the different water anvironments. There is a section about life in water, such as animals, plants, and plankton.

2008-10-03

237

Does higher surface temperature intensify extreme precipitation?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The global relationship between extreme rain and temperature was assessedThe decrease in heavy rain amount was attributed to that in the rain durationSub-hourly extreme rain amount may increase with rising temperature

Nobuyuki Utsumi; Shinta Seto; Shinjiro Kanae; Eduardo Eiji Maeda; Taikan Oki

2011-01-01

238

Interdecadal changes of surface temperature since the late nineteenth century  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors present global fields of decadal annual surface temperature anomalies, referred to the period 1951-1980, for each decade from 1881-1890 to 1981-1990 and for 1984-1993. In addition, they show decadal calendar-seasonal anomaly fields for the warm decades 1936-1945 and 1981-1990. The fields are based on sea surface temperature (SST) and land surface air temperature data. The SSTs are corrected

D. E. Parker; C. K. Folland; A. Bevan; P. D. Jones

1994-01-01

239

Microwave emission and scattering from Earth surface and atmosphere  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nonlinear Electromagnetic (EM) wave interactions with the upper atmosphere were investigated during the period 15 December 1985 to 15 June 1986. Topics discussed include: the simultaneous excitation of ionospheric density irregularities and Earth's magnetic field fluctuations; the electron acceleration by Langmuir wave turbulence; and the occurrence of artificial spread F. The role of thermal effects in generating ionospheric irregularities by Whistler waves, intense Quasi-DC electric fields, atmospheric gravity waves, and electrojets was investigated. A model was developed to explain the discrete spectrum of the resonant ultralow frequency (ULF) waves that are commonly observed in the magnetosphere.

Kong, J. A.; Lee, M. C.

1986-01-01

240

Temperature-responsive surface-functionalized polyethylene films.  

E-print Network

??PE-PEG-Pyrene cooligomers were used to functionalize the surface of polyethylene films via an entrapment process. The resultant films yield a temperature responsive surface-solvent interface when (more)

Ponder, Bill C.

2012-01-01

241

Fibre Tip Sensors for Localised Temperature Sensing Based on Rare Earth-Doped Glass Coatings  

PubMed Central

We report the development of a point temperature sensor, based on monitoring upconversion emission from erbium:ytterbium-doped tellurite coatings on the tips of optical fibres. The dip coating technique allows multiple sensors to be fabricated simultaneously, while confining the temperature-sensitive region to a localised region on the end-face of the fibre. The strong response of the rare earth ions to changing temperature allows a resolution of 0.10.3 C to be recorded over the biologically relevant range of temperatures from 2339 C. PMID:25407907

Schartner, Erik P.; Monro, Tanya M.

2014-01-01

242

Fibre tip sensors for localised temperature sensing based on rare earth-doped glass coatings.  

PubMed

We report the development of a point temperature sensor, based on monitoring upconversion emission from erbium:ytterbium-doped tellurite coatings on the tips of optical fibres. The dip coating technique allows multiple sensors to be fabricated simultaneously, while confining the temperature-sensitive region to a localised region on the end-face of the fibre. The strong response of the rare earth ions to changing temperature allows a resolution of 0.1-0.3 C to be recorded over the biologically relevant range of temperatures from 23-39 C. PMID:25407907

Schartner, Erik P; Monro, Tanya M

2014-01-01

243

High temperature radiator materials for applications in the low Earth orbital environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Radiators must be constructed of materials which have high emittance in order to efficiently radiate heat from high temperature space power systems. In addition, if these radiators are to be used for applications in the low Earth orbital environment, they must not be detrimentally affected by exposure to atomic oxygen. Four materials selected as candidate radiator materials (304 stainless steel, copper, titanium-6% aluminum-4% vanadium (Ti-6%Al-4%V), and niobium-1% zirconium (Nb-1%Zr)) were surface modified by acid etching, heat treating, abrading, sputter texturing, electrochemical etching, and combinations of the above in order to improve their emittance. Combination treatment techniques with heat treating as the second treatment provided about a factor of two improvement in emittance for 304 stainless steel, Ti-6%Al-4%V, and Nb-1%Zr. A factor of three improvement in emittance occurred for discharge chamber sputter textured copper. Exposure to atomic oxygen in an RF plasma asher did not significantly change the emittance of those samples that had been heat treated as part of their texturing process. An evaluation of oxygen penetration is needed to understand how oxidation affects the mechanical properties of these materials when heat treated.

Rutledge, Sharon K.; Banks, Bruce A.; Mirtich, Michael J.; Lebed, Richard; Brady, Joyce; Hotes, Deborah; Kussmaul, Michael

1987-01-01

244

Solar activity, cosmic rays, and Earth's temperature: A millennium-scale comparison  

E-print Network

Solar activity, cosmic rays, and Earth's temperature: A millennium-scale comparison I. G. Usoskin. We use two recently reconstructed series of the sunspot number and the cosmic ray flux to study coefficients for the cosmic rays. The significance levels reach up to 99% but vary strongly for the different

Usoskin, Ilya G.

245

A Meta-analysis of Tropical Surface Temperatures at the Last Glacial Maximum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on direct measurements of gas trapped in ice cores, we know that fluctuations in CO2 levels and glacial periods are highly synchronous. However, we have no direct means of measuring past temperature, so we must rely on proxies that correlate with temperature to infer temperature variability through time. A concerted effort to measure the change in global temperature since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) was undertaken by CLIMAP (1980) who estimated tropical sea surface temperatures during the LGM to be 1.5 +/- 1.2 C cooler than today. Since the first estimates of temperature at the LGM, numerous biological, chemical and physical temperature proxies have been developed. Estimates of tropical surface cooling at the LGM from these proxies have varied considerably (0-8 C). Here we conduct a meta-analysis of proxy estimates to arrive at an impartial approximation of tropical cooling at the LGM: 3.3 +/- 2.0 C. This approximation of tropical surface temperature would suggest a mid-range climate sensitivity of about 3.5 C for the anticipated doubling of CO2. Developing more paleo-temperature proxies and evaluating existing proxies is critical to our understanding of how Earth's temperature responds to changes in CO2.

Ballantyne, A.; Crowley, T.; Baker, P.; Lavine, M.

2003-12-01

246

Clouds not important for control of short-term surface temperatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In two recent papers, R. W. Spencer and W. D. Braswell (Remote Sens., 3(8), 1603- 1613, doi:10.3390/rs3081603, 2011) (SB) and R. S. Lindzen and Y.-S. Choi (Asia Pac. J. Atmos. Sci., 47(4), 377-390, doi:10.1007/s13143-011-0023-x, 2011) (LC) argue that clouds act as a primary initiator of surface temperature changes in Earth's climate system. The two sets of authors reached this conclusion by developing a method that tries to determine the Earth's surface temperature by calculating how much energy is stored in the ocean's upper layers, how much of this heat is transferred to the rest of the climate system, how clouds affect the rate at which energy escapes Earth's atmosphere, and how the surface's energy flux changes with temperature. Both studies spurred substantial debate within the media and the public, with the research by SB causing the editor of the journal in which it was published to resign, claiming it should not have been accepted by the journal. Assessing the two studies, Dessler found what he suggests are a number of methodological errors.

Schultz, Colin

2012-01-01

247

Temperatures in the earth's core from melting-point measurements of iron at high static pressures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most reliable method for determining the temperature gradient at the earth's core is the estimation of Fe and Fe-rich compounds' melting temperature at the pressure of the inner core boundary. Attention is presently given to melting-point measurements on Fe and Fe-O compounds at up to 2 Mbar. An extrapolation of these results to 3.3 Mbar yields an inner core

R. Boehler

1993-01-01

248

Downscaling MODIS Land Surface Temperature for Urban Public Health Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This study is part of a project funded by the NASA Applied Sciences Public Health Program, which focuses on Earth science applications of remote sensing data for enhancing public health decision-making. Heat related death is currently the number one weather-related killer in the United States. Mortality from these events is expected to increase as a function of climate change. This activity sought to augment current Heat Watch/Warning Systems (HWWS) with NASA remotely sensed data, and models used in conjunction with socioeconomic and heatrelated mortality data. The current HWWS do not take into account intra-urban spatial variation in risk assessment. The purpose of this effort is to evaluate a potential method to improve spatial delineation of risk from extreme heat events in urban environments by integrating sociodemographic risk factors with estimates of land surface temperature (LST) derived from thermal remote sensing data. In order to further improve the consideration of intra-urban variations in risk from extreme heat, we also developed and evaluated a number of spatial statistical techniques for downscaling the 1-km daily MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) LST data to 60 m using Landsat-derived LST data, which have finer spatial but coarser temporal resolution than MODIS. In this paper, we will present these techniques, which have been demonstrated and validated for Phoenix, AZ using data from the summers of 2000-2006.

Al-Hamdan, Mohammad; Crosson, William; Estes, Maurice Jr.; Estes, Sue; Quattrochi, Dale; Johnson, Daniel

2013-01-01

249

Temperature sensitive surfaces and methods of making same  

DOEpatents

Poly-n-isopropylacrylamide surface coatings demonstrate the useful property of being able to switch charateristics depending upon temperature. More specifically, these coatings switch from being hydrophilic at low temperature to hydrophobic at high temperature. Research has been conducted for many years to better characterize and control the properties of temperature sensitive coatings. The present invention provides novel temperature sensitive coatings on articles and novel methods of making temperature sensitive coatings that are disposed on the surfaces of various articles. These novel coatings contain the reaction products of n-isopropylacrylamide and are characterized by their properties such as advancing contact angles. Numerous other characteristics such as coating thickness, surface roughness, and hydrophilic-to-hydrophobic transition temperatures are also described. The present invention includes articles having temperature-sensitve coatings with improved properties as well as improved methods for forming temperature sensitive coatings.

Liang, Liang [Richland, WA; Rieke, Peter C [Pasco, WA; Alford, Kentin L [Pasco, WA

2002-09-10

250

Surface temperature distribution and infrared radiation feature of a spatial balloon decoy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The space heat flux that the spatial balloon decoy gets is calculated in the appropriate coordinate system and the earth heat flux is calculated accurately with the use of the unit hemisphere method. The surface temperature distribution of the balloon decoy is got by solving the transient heat balance equations with the use of the finite element software, ANSYS 10.0. On the basis of the solved surface temperature distribution, taking the balloon decoy as a point object, the spatial distribution of infrared radiation intensity in 3~6um and in 6~16um is calculated. Finally, the differences of the surface temperature distribution and the infrared radiation intensity spatial distribution between the spatial balloon decoy got in this paper and a spatial target got in our previous work are compared and analyzed in detail. The research results of this paper have referential value on infrared automatic target recognition (ATR) of spatial targets.

Wu, Xiao-di; Lv, Xiang-yin; Yang, Hua; Huang, Chao-chao

2009-07-01

251

Estimation of Surface Heat Flux and Surface Temperature during Inverse Heat Conduction under Varying Spray Parameters and Sample Initial Temperature  

PubMed Central

An experimental study was carried out to investigate the effects of inlet pressure, sample thickness, initial sample temperature, and temperature sensor location on the surface heat flux, surface temperature, and surface ultrafast cooling rate using stainless steel samples of diameter 27?mm and thickness (mm) 8.5, 13, 17.5, and 22, respectively. Inlet pressure was varied from 0.2?MPa to 1.8?MPa, while sample initial temperature varied from 600C to 900C. Beck's sequential function specification method was utilized to estimate surface heat flux and surface temperature. Inlet pressure has a positive effect on surface heat flux (SHF) within a critical value of pressure. Thickness of the sample affects the maximum achieved SHF negatively. Surface heat flux as high as 0.4024?MW/m2 was estimated for a thickness of 8.5?mm. Insulation effects of vapor film become apparent in the sample initial temperature range of 900C causing reduction in surface heat flux and cooling rate of the sample. A sensor location near to quenched surface is found to be a better choice to visualize the effects of spray parameters on surface heat flux and surface temperature. Cooling rate showed a profound increase for an inlet pressure of 0.8?MPa. PMID:24977219

Aamir, Muhammad; Liao, Qiang; Zhu, Xun; Aqeel-ur-Rehman; Wang, Hong

2014-01-01

252

Bulk and surface electronic structure of actinide, rare earth, and transition metal elements and compounds  

SciTech Connect

This is the final report for a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This project sought to study of unusual magnetic and structural properties of rare earth, actinide, and transition metals through high-precision electronic structure calculations. Magnetic moment anisotropies in bulk and surface systems were studied, with emphasis on novel surfaces with unusual magnetic properties with possible applicability in magnetic recording. The structural stability, bonding properties, and elastic response of the actinides, as well as transition and rare earth elements and compounds, were also studied. The project sought to understand the unusual crystallographic and cohesive properties of the actinides and the importance of correlation to structural stability and the nature of the delocalization transition in these elements. Theoretical photoemission spectra, including surface effects, were calculated for rare earths and actinides.

Wills, J.W.; Eriksson, O.

1996-07-01

253

A simplified physically-based model to calculate surface water temperature of lakes from air temperature in climate change scenarios  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modifications of water temperature are crucial for the ecology of lakes, but long-term analyses are not usually able to provide reliable estimations. This is particularly true for climate change studies based on Global Circulation Models, whose mesh size is normally too coarse for explicitly including even some of the biggest lakes on Earth. On the other hand, modeled predictions of air temperature changes are more reliable, and long-term, high-resolution air temperature observational datasets are more available than water temperature measurements. For these reasons, air temperature series are often used to obtain some information about the surface temperature of water bodies. In order to do that, it is common to exploit regression models, but they are questionable especially when it is necessary to extrapolate current trends beyond maximum (or minimum) measured temperatures. Moreover, water temperature is influenced by a variety of processes of heat exchange across the lake surface and by the thermal inertia of the water mass, which also causes an annual hysteresis cycle between air and water temperatures that is hard to consider in regressions. In this work we propose a simplified, physically-based model for the estimation of the epilimnetic temperature in lakes. Starting from the zero-dimensional heat budget, we derive a simplified first-order differential equation for water temperature, primarily forced by a seasonally varying external term (mainly related to solar radiation) and an exchange term explicitly depending on the difference between air and water temperatures. Assuming annual sinusoidal cycles of the main heat flux components at the atmosphere-lake interface, eight parameters (some of them can be disregarded, though) are identified, which can be calibrated if two temporal series of air and water temperature are available. We note that such a calibration is supported by the physical interpretation of the parameters, which provide good initial conditions. As a general result, the model allows one to obtain long-term series of estimated water temperatures, which can be valuably considered in climate change studies. The model has been applied to different lakes (Lake Baikal, Siberia; Lake Garda, Italy; Great Lakes, Canada and USA; Lake Mara, Canada) showing a noticeable agreement with the validation datasets and allowing for predictions of future trends of lake surface water temperature. Finally, it is worth noting that if the model is calibrated using air temperature series from climate models (global scale) and measured records of water temperature (lake scale), air temperatures are contemporaneously converted and downscaled. In conclusion, the model can be used as a downscaling tool, both for historical conditions and projected scenarios.

Piccolroaz, S.; Toffolon, M.

2012-12-01

254

Magnetic shielding in a low temperature torsion pendulum experiment. [superconducting cylinders for attenuation earth field  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new type of ether drift experiment searches for anomalous torques on a permanent magnet. A torsion pendulum is used at liquid helium temperature, so that superconducting cylinders can be used to shield magnetic fields. Lead shields attenuate the earth's field, while Nb-Sn shields fastened to the pendulum contain the fields of the magnet. The paper describes the technique by which the earth's field can be reduced below 0.0001 G while simultaneously the moment of the magnet can be reduced by a factor 7 x 10 to the 4th.

Phillips, P. R.

1979-01-01

255

Influence of lunar topography on simulated surface temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The surface temperature of the Moon is one of the essential parameters for the lunar exploration, especially to evaluate the Moon thermophysical features. The distribution of the temperature is heavily influenced by the Moon topography, which, however, is rarely studied in the state-of-art surface temperature models. Therefore, this paper takes the Moon topography into account to improve the surface temperature model, Racca model. The main parameters, such as slopes along the longitude and latitude directions, are estimated with the topography data from Chang'E-1 satellite and the Horn algorithm. Then the effective solar illumination model is then constructed with the slopes and the relative position to the subsolar point. Finally, the temperature distribution over the Moon surface is obtained with the effective illumination model and the improved Racca model. The results indicate that the distribution of the temperature is very sensitive to the fluctuation of the Moon surface. The change of the surface temperature is up to 150 K in some places compared to the result without considering the topography. In addition, the variation of the surface temperature increases with the distance from the subsolar point and the elevation, along both latitude and longitude directions. Furthermore, the simulated surface temperature coincides well with the brightness temperature in 37 GHz observed by the microwave sounder onboard Chang'E-2 satellite. The corresponded emissivity map not only eliminates the influence of the topography, but also hints the inherent properties of the lunar regolith just below the surface. Last but not the least, the distribution of the permanently shadowed regions (PSRs) in the lunar pole area is also evaluated with the simulated surface temperature result.

Zhiguo, Meng; Yi, Xu; Zhanchuan, Cai; Shengbo, Chen; Yi, Lian; Hang, Huang

2014-11-01

256

Transformer winding temperature estimation based on tank surface temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Power transformers are among the most valuable assets of the electrical grid. Since the largest units cost in the order of millions of dollars, it is desirable to operate them in such a manner that extends their remaining lives. Operating these units at high temperature will cause excessive insulation ageing in the windings. Consequently, it is necessary to study the

Wenyu Guo; Jaury Wijaya; Daniel Martin; Nick Lelekakis

2011-01-01

257

Snow Cover Effects on Glacier Ice Surface Temperature Margherita Maggioni*{  

E-print Network

Snow Cover Effects on Glacier Ice Surface Temperature Margherita Maggioni*{ Michele Freppaz* Paolo.maggioni@unito.it Abstract Snowpack evolution and glacier ice surface temperatures were studied on the Indren glacier of an artificial increase in the snow density was evaluated. During the season rich in snow there was a prevalence

Williams, Mark W.

258

Surface Water Temperature Observations of Large Lakes by Optimal Estimation  

E-print Network

Surface Water Temperature Observations of Large Lakes by Optimal Estimation Stuart N MacCallum(1 cloud screening have been developed to provide Lake Surface Water Temperature (LSWT) estimates from radiances. Therefore, the OE retrieval scheme developed is generic ­ i.e., applicable to all lakes. LSWTs

Merchant, Chris

259

Sea Surface Temperature Trends of the Gulf Stream  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students use NASA satellite data to explore the seasonal changes in sea surface temperatures of the Gulf Stream. Students use NASA's Live Active Server (LAS) to generate data of sea surface temperatures in the Gulf Stream, which they then graph and analyze.

Rex Roettger

260

Comparative analysis of urban reflectance and surface temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urban environmental conditions are strongly dependent on the biophysical properties and radiant thermal field of the land cover elements in the urban mosaic. Observations of urban reflectance and surface temperature provide valuable constraints on the physical properties that are determinants of mass and energy fluxes in the urban environment. Consistencies in the covariation of surface temperature with reflectance properties can

Christopher Small

2006-01-01

261

Disparity of tropospheric and surface temperature trends: New evidence  

E-print Network

Disparity of tropospheric and surface temperature trends: New evidence David H. Douglass,1 Benjamin (0312). Citation: Douglass, D. H., B. D. Pearson, S. F. Singer, P. C. Knappenberger, and P. J. Michaels [Douglass et al., 2004]. [3] The globally averaged surface temperature (ST) trend over the last 25 years

Douglass, David H.

262

Surface Temperatures Generated by Friction with Ceramic Materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

For tribological applications of ceramics, surface temperatures and thermal effects produced in frictional processes are important not only in influencing possible mechanisms of friction, wear, and lubricant film failure but also in initiating protective film formation, e.g., as in tribopolymerization. As part of a continuing combined experimental and theoretical study of surface temperatures generated by friction, the fundamental Greens function

Brian Vick; Michael J. Furey; Kurnia Iskandar

1999-01-01

263

Low-temperature thermoluminescence spectra of rare-earth-doped lanthanum fluoride  

SciTech Connect

Lanthanum fluoride consistently shows two strong thermoluminescence glow peaks at low temperature in pure material near 90 and 128 K. A model is proposed in which these thermoluminescence peaks arise from the annealing of halogen defect sites, similar to the H and V{sub k} centers of the alkali halides. Relaxation and decay of these defects in the pure LaF{sub 3} lattice results in broad-band intrinsic luminescence. Addition of rare-earth-impurity ions has two effects. First, the broad-band emission is replaced by narrow-band line emission defined by the trivalent rare-earth dopants. Second, it preferentially determines the formation of the halogen defect sites at impurity lattice sites and such sites appear to increase in thermal stability since the glow peak temperature increases from 128 K in the intrinsic material up to 141 K through the sequence of rare-earth dopants from La to Er. The temperature movement directly correlates with the changes in ionic size of the rare-earth ions, when allowance is made for differences in effective coordination number of the impurity ions. The data suggest two alternative lattice sites can be occupied. The model emphasizes that the intense thermoluminescence signals arise from internal charge rearrangements and annealing of defect complexes, rather than through the more conventional model of separated charge traps and recombination centers. At higher temperatures there is a complex array of glow peaks which depend not only on the dopant concentration but also are specific to each rare earth. Such effects imply defect models giving thermoluminescence within localized complexes and possible reasons are mentioned. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

Yang, B.; Townsend, P.D.; Rowlands, A.P. [School of Engineering, University of Sussex, Brighton, BN1 9QH (United Kingdom)] [School of Engineering, University of Sussex, Brighton, BN1 9QH (United Kingdom)

1998-01-01

264

Outdoor surface temperature measurement: ground truth or lie?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Contact surface temperature measurement in the field is essential in trials of thermal imaging systems and camouflage, as well as for scene modeling studies. The accuracy of such measurements is challenged by environmental factors such as sun and wind, which induce temperature gradients around a surface sensor and lead to incorrect temperature readings. In this work, a simple method is used to test temperature sensors under conditions representative of a surface whose temperature is determined by heat exchange with the environment. The tested sensors are different types of thermocouples and platinum thermistors typically used in field trials, as well as digital temperature sensors. The results illustrate that the actual measurement errors can be much larger than the specified accuracy of the sensors. The measurement error typically scales with the difference between surface temperature and ambient air temperature. Unless proper care is taken, systematic errors can easily reach 10% of this temperature difference, which is often unacceptable. Reasonably accurate readings are obtained using a miniature platinum thermistor. Thermocouples can perform well on bare metal surfaces if the connection to the surface is highly conductive. It is pointed out that digital temperature sensors have many advantages for field trials use.

Skauli, Torbjorn

2004-08-01

265

Asteroid surface mineralogy: Evidence from earth-based telescope observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The interpretation of asteroid reflectance spectrophotometry in terms of mineralogical types gives inferred mineral assemblages for about 60 asteroids. Asteroid surface materials are compared with similar materials that make up many meteorites. The absence of asteroids with spectra that match identically the ordinary chondrites is noted.

Mccord, T. B.

1978-01-01

266

Mapping permeability over the surface of the Earth  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Permeability, the ease of fluid flow through porous rocks and soils, is a fundamental but often poorly quantified component in the analysis of regional-scale water fluxes. Permeability is difficult to quantify because it varies over more than 13 orders of magnitude and is heterogeneous and dependent on flow direction. Indeed, at the regional scale, maps of permeability only exist for soil to depths of 1-2 m. Here we use an extensive compilation of results from hydrogeologic models to show that regional-scale (>5 km) permeability of consolidated and unconsolidated geologic units below soil horizons (hydrolithologies) can be characterized in a statistically meaningful way. The representative permeabilities of these hydrolithologies are used to map the distribution of near-surface (on the order of 100 m depth) permeability globally and over North America. The distribution of each hydrolithology is generally scale independent. The near-surface mean permeability is of the order of ???5 ?? 10-14 m2. The results provide the first global picture of near-surface permeability and will be of particular value for evaluating global water resources and modeling the influence of climate-surface-subsurface interactions on global climate change. Copyright ?? 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

Gleeson, T.; Smith, L.; Moosdorf, N.; Hartmann, J.; Durr, H.H.; Manning, A.H.; Van Beek, L. P. H.; Jellinek, A.M.

2011-01-01

267

Mapping permeability over the surface of the Earth  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Permeability, the ease of fluid flow through porous rocks and soils, is a fundamental but often poorly quantified component in the analysis of regional-scale water fluxes. Permeability is difficult to quantify because it varies over more than 13 orders of magnitude and is heterogeneous and dependent on flow direction. Indeed, at the regional scale, maps of permeability only exist for soil to depths of 1-2 m. Here we use an extensive compilation of results from hydrogeologic models to show that regional-scale (>5 km) permeability of consolidated and unconsolidated geologic units below soil horizons (hydrolithologies) can be characterized in a statistically meaningful way. The representative permeabilities of these hydrolithologies are used to map the distribution of near-surface (on the order of 100 m depth) permeability globally and over North America. The distribution of each hydrolithology is generally scale independent. The near-surface mean permeability is of the order of -5 x 10-14 m2. The results provide the first global picture of near-surface permeability and will be of particular value for evaluating global water resources and modeling the influence of climate-surface-subsurface interactions on global climate change.

Gleeson, Tom; Smith, Leslie; Moosdorf, Nils; Hartmann, Jens; Durr, Hans H.; Manning, Andrew H.; van Beek, Ludovicus P. H.; Jellinek, A.M.

2011-01-01

268

Surface tension of low-temperature aqueous solutions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements of the surface tension have been carried out to determine the effects of both temperature and concentration on the surface tension of aqueous solutions of sodium chloride, propylene glycol, and ethylene glycol. A differential capillary-rise method was employed for the measurements. The results show that the surface tension of the ethylene glycol solution and the propylene glycol solution increases as the concentration of the solution decreases, while for the sodium chloride solution the surface tension increases monotonically as the concentration increases. The surface tension of the liquids was found to be an almost-linear function of temperature from 20C to just above the freezing temperature. Equations for the surface tension of the three binary aqueous solutions as a function of temperature and concentration are presented.

Horibe, A.; Fukusako, S.; Yamada, M.

1996-03-01

269

GHG Effect on Surface Temperature in Indonesia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The increasing of green house gas emissons into the atmosphere could influence the Climate and Earth Ecosystem. The increasing CO_2 emmision in developed countries and developing countries are influenced by economic growth factor, cheaped price fuel without tax and there is not regulation yet for making arrangement energy efficiency. The result of inventarisation CO_2 emmision related to energy sector between 1990 until 2000 in Indonesia are having increased trend, and the CO_2 emmision percapita is still lower then OECD countries. The green house gas concentrations are measured continously in Bandung, Jakarta, and the others place. The CO_2 and CH_4 concentration ever had results higher than globally mean. The fluctuation of green house gas concentrations are influenced by activities of surounding research location.

Cahyono, W. E.

270

Method for preparing high cure temperature rare earth iron compound magnetic material  

DOEpatents

Insertion of light elements such as H,C, or N in the R.sub.2 Fe.sub.17 (R=rare earth metal) series has been found to modify the magnetic properties of these compounds, which thus become prospective candidates for high performance permanent magnets. The most spectacular changes are increases of the Curie temperature, T.sub.c, of the magnetization, M.sub.s, and of coercivity, H.sub.c, upon interstitial insertion. A preliminary product having a component R--Fe--C,N phase is produced by a chemical route. Rare earth metal and iron amides are synthesized followed by pyrolysis and sintering in an inert or reduced atmosphere, as a result of which, the R--Fe--C,N phases are formed. Fabrication of sintered rare earth iron nitride and carbonitride bulk magnet is impossible via conventional process due to the limitation of nitridation method.

Huang, Yuhong (West Hills, CA); Wei, Qiang (West Hills, CA); Zheng, Haixing (Oak Park, CA)

2002-01-01

271

Recent variability and trends of Antarctic near-surface temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new monthly 1 1 Antarctic near-surface temperature reconstruction for 19602005 is presented. The use of numerical model fields to establish spatial relationships between fifteen continuous observational temperature records and the voids to which they are interpolated inherently accounts for the effects of the atmospheric circulation and topography on temperature variability. Employing a fixed observation network ensures that the

Andrew J. Monaghan; David H. Bromwich; William Chapman; Josefino C. Comiso

2008-01-01

272

Offline land surface temperature assimilation in mumerical weather prediction output  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Land surface temperature plays an important role in land surface processes, and it is a key input to physically-based retrieval algorithms of important hydrological states and fluxes, such as soil moisture and evaporation. For this reason there are many independent estimates of land surface temperat...

273

Ceres surface properties by high-resolution imaging from earth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present direct-imaging observations of Ceres with the 3.6-m ESO telescope at La Silla have allowed the deduction of several physical parameters. The rotation is found to be prograde; the pole orientation is noted to imply low obliquity with respect to Ceres' orbital plane. The measured temperature of the warmest area is 235 +/- 4 K, and the mean radius value, at 484 +/- 20 km, is in keeping with earlier stellar-occultation and thermal IR photometry measurements.

Saint-Pe, O.; Combes, M.; Rigaut, F.

1993-10-01

274

Terrestrial manganese-53 A new monitor of Earth surface processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the first systematic study of the terrestrial cosmogenic radionuclide manganese-53 (T1\\/2=3.7Ma) measured in thirteen samples from nine dolerite surfaces in the Dry Valleys, Antarctica. The terrestrial manganese-53 concentrations correlate well with cosmic-ray-produced helium-3 and neon-21 concentrations in the same samples, implying that the manganese-53 is produced continuously in situ and retained quantitatively over millions of years. The terrestrial

Joerg M. Schaefer; Thomas Faestermann; Gregory F. Herzog; Klaus Knie; Gunther Korschinek; Jozef Masarik; Astrid Meier; Michail Poutivtsev; Georg Rugel; Christian Schlchter; Feride Serifiddin; Gisela Winckler

2006-01-01

275

High temperature rare earth compounds: Synthesis, characterization and applications in device fabrication  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the area of nanotechnology continues to grow, the development of new nanomaterials with interesting physical and electronic properties and improved characterization techniques are several areas of research that will be remain vital for continued improvement of devices and the understanding in nanoscale phenomenon. In this dissertation, the chemical vapor deposition synthesis of rare earth (RE) compounds is described in detail. In general, the procedure involves the vaporization of a REClx (RE = Y, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho) in the presence of hydride phase precursors such as decaborane and ammonia at high temperatures and low pressures. Unlike traditional single source precursor techniques such as metal-organic chemical vapor deposition, the materials produced are of extremely high chemical purity. The crystallographic orientation of as-synthesized rare earth hexaboride nanostructures and gadolinium nitride thin films was controlled by judicious choice of specific growth substrates and modeled by analyzing x-ray diffraction powder patterns and crystallographic models. The vapor-liquid-solid mechanism was used in combination with the chemical vapor deposition process to synthesize single crystalline rare earth hexaboride nanostructures. Unlike previously reported synthetic techniques to generate rare earth hexaborides, my synthesis provided control over the tip diameter of the nanomaterials, was applicable to all available rare earth metals and utilized a chemical scheme that was much less toxic. Furthermore, the synthesis provided the first ever doped rare earth hexaboride nanowires. The as produced materials showed excellent electronic properties and could be applicable to many different types of electronic applications. The rare earth hexaboride nanostructures were then implemented into two existing technologies to enhance their characterization capabilities. First, the rare earth hexaboride nanowires were used as a test material for the development of a TEM based local electrode atom probe tomography (LEAP) technique. The TEM based LEAP technique is the first to combine atomic resolution crystallographic imaging with angstrom scale 3D compositional mapping. This technique also provided some of the first quantitative compositional information of the rare earth hexaboride systems and is applicable to a wide range of nanowire materials. Second, due to the rigidity and excellent conductivity of the rare earth hexaborides, nanostructures were grown onto tungsten wires for the development of robust, oxidation resistant nanomanipulator electronic probes for semiconductor device failure analysis.

Brewer, Joseph Reese

276

Air-sea fluxes and surface layer turbulence around a sea surface temperature front  

Microsoft Academic Search

The response of the lower marine atmospheric boundary layer to sharp changes in sea surface temperature was studied in the Frontal Air-Sea Interaction Experiment (FASINEX) with aircraft and ships measuring mean and turbulence quantities, sea surface temperature, and wave state. Changing synoptic weather on 3 successive days provided cases of wind direction both approximately parallel and perpendicular to a surface

C. A. Friehe; W. J. Shaw; D. P. Rogers; K. L. Davidson; W. G. Large; S. A. Stage; G. H. Crescenti; S. J. S. Khalsa; G. K. Greenhut; F. Li

1991-01-01

277

Trends in the Surface Meridional Temperature Alix I. Gitelman a , James S. Risbey b , Robert E. Kass a , and Richard D. Rosen c  

E-print Network

of a planet --- perhaps as important as the global average temperature on a list of features that might in earth's global average temperature (Jones et al., 1986a; Jones et al., 1986b; Hansen and Lebedeff, 1987). In addition, one set of climate model simulations suggests a global average surface temperature difference

278

A study on diffusion coefficient and diffusion activation energy of rare earth atoms in surface layer of steel rare earth nitrocarburized  

SciTech Connect

Steels, 20CrMnTi and 30CrMnSi, were nitrocarburized at 600 C and 650 C for 5h with rare earths (RE). The experimental results show that the rare earth elements can diffuse into the treated surface layer, in which the concentration profiles of the rare earth La were measured by chemical analysis and ion probe. The diffusion coefficient and activation energy of La have been calculated based on the experimental results mentioned above. The rare earth atoms diffuse mainly along the grain boundaries according to thermodynamic theory and analysis of the calculated data.

Mufu, Y.; Qun, L.; Teqiang, Z.; Yang, C.; Fayi, Z.; Zhiru, L. [Harbin Inst. of Tech. (China)

1995-12-31

279

Estimation of Lunar Surface Temperatures: a Numerical Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

About 40 years after the Apollo and other lunar missions, several nations return to the Moon. Indian, Chinese, Japanese and American missions are already in orbit or will soon be launched, and the possibility of a "Made in Germany" mission (Lunar Exploration Orbiter - LEO) looms on the horizon [1]. In preparation of this mission, which will include a thermal infrared spectrometer (SERTIS - SElenological Radiometer and Thermal infrared Imaging Spectrometer), accurate temperature maps of the lunar surface are required. Because the orbiter will be imaging the Moon's surface at different times of the lunar day, an accurate estimation of the thermal variations of the surface with time is necessary to optimize signal-to-noise ratios and define optimal measurement areas. In this study we present new global temperature estimates for sunrise, noontime and sunset. This work provides new and updated research on the temperature variations of the lunar surface, by taking into account the surface and subsurface bulk thermophysical properties, namely their bulk density, heat capacity, thermal conductivity, emissivity and albedo. These properties have been derived from previous spacecraft-based observations, in-situ measurements and returned samples [e.g. 2-4]. In order to determine surface and subsurface temperatures, the one-dimensional heat conduction equation is solved for a resolution of about 0.4, which is better by a factor of 2 compared to the Clementine measurement and temperature modeling described in [2]. Our work expands on the work of Lawson et al. [2], who calculated global brightness temperatures of subsolar points from the instantaneous energy balance equation assuming the Moon to be a spherical object [2]. Surface daytime temperatures are mainly controlled by their surface albedo and angle of incidence. On the other hand nighttime temperatures are affected by the thermal inertia of the observed surface. Topographic effects are expected to cause earlier or later sunrises and therefore high-standing areas receive sunlight for longer time, while sloping surfaces lead to a time displacement of the temperature cycle. For our model, some simplifications were necessary. In order to determine the solar influx, the Moon is assumed to be spherical. As there are only few landing sites from which soil properties were determined, the subsurface conditions are considered as homogeneous over the whole Moon. Our study shows that the maximum surface temperatures for latitudes between 75N and 75 vary between 240K at high latitudes and 390K at the mare regions near the equator. Temperatures for latitudes higher than 75 have been excluded because topographic effects intensely influence the temperatures. Nighttime temperatures are around 100K, which is in good agreement with the Apollo 15 and 17 temperature measurements described by Keihm and Langseth [5]. In order to determine the albedo influence on surface temperatures a map that shows the difference between albedo influenced temperatures minus temperatures of a uniform surface has been created. Maximum temperatures differ about 15K between mare regions and highlands. Topographic effects due to sloping surfaces have also been investigated. For example surfaces having a slope of 20 reach their maximum temperatures about 2 days before or after a plane surface, depending on their orientation. Temperature differences of 150K have been found between sloping (20) and non-sloping surfaces shortly after sunrise. [1] Jaumann, R. et al. (2008) LPSC XXXIX, Abstract #1253; [2] Lawson, S. L. et al. (2000) JGR 105, E2, 4273-4290; [3] Langseth, M. G. et al. (1972) The Moon, Vol. 4, 390-410; [4] Racca, G. D. (1995) Planet. Space Sci., Vol 43, No. 6, 835-842; [5] Keihm, S. J. and Langseth, M. G. (1973) Proc. Lunar Sci. Conf. 4th, 2503-2513

Bauch, K.; Hiesinger, H.; Helbert, J.

2009-04-01

280

A framework for global diurnally-resolved observations of Land Surface Temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Land surface temperature (LST) is the radiative skin temperature of the land, and is one of the key parameters in the physics of land-surface processes on regional and global scales. Being a key boundary condition in land surface models, which determine the surface to atmosphere fluxes of heat, water and carbon; thus influencing cloud cover, precipitation and atmospheric chemistry predictions within Global models, the requirement for global diurnal observations of LST is well founded. Earth Observation satellites offer an opportunity to obtain global coverage of LST, with the appropriate exploitation of data from multiple instruments providing a capacity to resolve the diurnal cycle on a global scale. Here we present a framework for the production of global, diurnally resolved, data sets for LST which is a key request from users of LST data. We will show how the sampling of both geostationary and low earth orbit data sets could conceptually be employed to build combined, multi-sensor, pole-to-pole data sets. Although global averages already exist for individual instruments and merging of geostationary based LST is already being addressed operationally (Freitas, et al., 2013), there are still a number of important challenges to overcome. In this presentation, we will consider three of the issues still open in LST remote sensing: 1) the consistency amongst retrievals; 2) the clear-sky bias and its quantification; and 3) merging methods and the propagation of uncertainties. For example, the combined use of both geostationary earth orbit (GEO) and low earth orbit (LEO) data, and both infra-red and microwave data are relatively unexplored but are necessary to make the most progress. Hence this study will suggest what is state-of-the-art and how considerable advances can be made, accounting also for recent improvements in techniques and data quality. The GlobTemperature initiative under the Data User Element of ESA's 4th Earth Observation Envelope Programme (2013-2017), which aims to support the wider uptake of global-scale satellite LST by the research and operational user communities, will be a particularly important element in the development and subsequent provision of global diurnal LST. This new project, with its emphasis on promoting the coherence and openness of interactions within the LST and user communities, will be well placed to deliver appropriate data, engage a wide audience and hence be a key promoter of LST research and development for the LST community. References Freitas, S.C., Trigo, I.F., Macedo, J., Barroso, C., Silva, R., & Perdigao, R., 2013, Land surface temperature from multiple geostationary satellites, International Journal of Remote Sensing, 34, 3051-3068.

Ghent, D.; Remedios, J.; Pinnock, S.

2013-12-01

281

A framework for global diurnally-resolved observations of Land Surface Temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Land surface temperature (LST) is the radiative skin temperature of the land, and is one of the key parameters in the physics of land-surface processes on regional and global scales. Being a key boundary condition in land surface models, which determine the surface to atmosphere fluxes of heat, water and carbon; thus influencing cloud cover, precipitation and atmospheric chemistry predictions within Global models, the requirement for global diurnal observations of LST is well founded. Earth Observation satellites offer an opportunity to obtain global coverage of LST, with the appropriate exploitation of data from multiple instruments providing a capacity to resolve the diurnal cycle on a global scale. Here we present a framework for the production of global, diurnally resolved, data sets for LST which is a key request from users of LST data. We will show how the sampling of both geostationary and low earth orbit data sets could conceptually be employed to build combined, multi-sensor, pole-to-pole data sets. Although global averages already exist for individual instruments and merging of geostationary based LST is already being addressed operationally (Freitas, et al., 2013), there are still a number of important challenges to overcome. In this presentation, we will consider three of the issues still open in LST remote sensing: 1) the consistency amongst retrievals; 2) the clear-sky bias and its quantification; and 3) merging methods and the propagation of uncertainties. For example, the combined use of both geostationary earth orbit (GEO) and low earth orbit (LEO) data, and both infra-red and microwave data are relatively unexplored but are necessary to make the most progress. Hence this study will suggest what is state-of-the-art and how considerable advances can be made, accounting also for recent improvements in techniques and data quality. The GlobTemperature initiative under the Data User Element of ESA's 4th Earth Observation Envelope Programme (2013-2017), which aims to support the wider uptake of global-scale satellite LST by the research and operational user communities, will be a particularly important element in the development and subsequent provision of global diurnal LST. References Freitas, S.C., Trigo, I.F., Macedo, J., Barroso, C., Silva, R., & Perdigao, R., 2013, Land surface temperature from multiple geostationary satellites, International Journal of Remote Sensing, 34, 3051-3068.

Ghent, Darren; Remedios, John

2014-05-01

282

SURFACES SR-ECTIVES - HAUTE TEMPERATURE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Efficient conversion of solar energy into heat requires a spectrally selective surface to function as a one-way valve be- tween the incident radiation and heat transfer system. The tandem action of a solar absorber overlying an infrared reflector gives this action, provided the absorber is transparent in the thermal infrared \\/l\\/. Our group has fabricated such tandem stacks, dura- ble

B. O. Seraphin; D. C. Booth; D. D. Allred

283

Modeling ultraviolet radiation at the Earth`s surface. Part I: The sensitivity of ultraviolet irradiances to atmospheric changes  

SciTech Connect

A discrete-ordinate radiative transfer model is employed for the prediction of surface UV irradiances. A wide-ranging sensitivity study is undertaken to show how changes to the model input parameters affect UV irradiances at the surface. The effects of surface albedo, surface pressure, aerosol, cloud, and ozone on the UV irradiances are examined as well as the effects of model resolution. The ozone vertical profile and the temperature of the ozone layer are found to strongly influence UVB (280-320 nm) surface irradiances; the irradiance at 305 nm can be changed by as much as 17% for a fixed amount of total column ozone. The surface albedo is found to have a maximum influence on wavelengths near 320 nm; an uncertainty in the surface albedo of 0.2 leads to an 8% error in the UVB prediction. Clouds and tropospheric aerosol decrease the UV, their influence depending little on wavelength. Stratospheric aerosol is shown to be able to enhance the midwinter UVB surface irradiances while decreasing the UVA (320-400 nm) surface irradiances. 36 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

Forster, P.M. [Univ. of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading (United Kingdom)] [Univ. of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading (United Kingdom)

1995-11-01

284

Temperature dependent droplet impact dynamics on flat and textured surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Droplet impact dynamics determines the performance of surfaces used in many applications such as anti-icing, condensation, boiling, and heat transfer. We study impact dynamics of water droplets on surfaces with chemistry/texture ranging from hydrophilic to superhydrophobic and across a temperature range spanning below freezing to near boiling conditions. Droplet retraction shows very strong temperature dependence especially on hydrophilic surfaces; it is seen that lower substrate temperatures lead to lesser retraction. Physics-based analyses show that the increased viscosity associated with lower temperatures combined with an increased work of adhesion can explain the decreased retraction. The present findings serve as a starting point to guide further studies of dynamic fluid-surface interaction at various temperatures.

Alizadeh, Azar; Bahadur, Vaibhav; Zhong, Sheng; Shang, Wen; Li, Ri; Ruud, James; Yamada, Masako; Ge, Liehui; Dhinojwala, Ali; Sohal, Manohar

2012-03-01

285

Solar irradiance changes and photobiological effects at Earth's surface following astrophysical ionizing radiation events  

E-print Network

Astrophysical ionizing radiation events have been recognized as a potential threat to life on Earth, primarily through depletion of stratospheric ozone and subsequent increase in surface-level solar ultraviolet radiation. Simulations of the atmospheric effects of a variety of events (such as supernovae, gamma-ray bursts, and solar proton events) have been previously published, along with estimates of biological damage at Earth's surface. In this work, we employed the TUV radiative transfer model to expand and improve calculations of surface-level irradiance and biological impacts following an ionizing radiation event. We considered changes in surface-level UVB, UVA, and photosynthetically active radiation (visible light) for clear-sky conditions and fixed aerosol parameter values. We also considered a wide range of biological effects on organisms ranging from humans to phytoplankton. We found that past work overestimated UVB irradiance, but that relative estimates for increase in exposure to DNA damaging radi...

Thomas, Brian C; Snyder, Brock R

2015-01-01

286

From Dimming to Brightening: Decadal Changes in Solar Radiation at Earth's Surface  

SciTech Connect

Variations in solar radiation incident at Earth's surface profoundly affect the human and terrestrial environment. A decline in solar radiation at land surfaces has become apparent in many observational records up to 1990, a phenomenon known as global dimming. Newly available surface observations from 1990 to the present, primarily from the Northern Hemisphere, show that the dimming did not persist into the 1990s. Instead, a widespread brightening has been observed since the late 1980s. This reversal is reconcilable with changes in cloudiness and atmospheric transmission and may substantially affect surface climate, the hydrological cycle, glaciers, and ecosystems.

Wild, Martin F.; Gilgen, Hans; Roesch, Andreas; Ohmura, Atsumu; Long, Charles N.; Dutton, Ellsworth G.; Forgan, B. W.; Kallis, A.; Russak, V.; Tsvetkov, Anatoly

2005-05-06

287

CLIMATE AND THE OCEAN CIRCULATION' 1. THE ATMOSPHERIC CIRCULATION AND THE HYDROLOGY OF THE EARTH'S SURFACE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of the hydrology of the earth's surface is incorporated into a numerical model of the general circula- tion of the atmosphere developed at the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory of the Environmental Science Services Administration (ESSA). The primitive equation of motion is used for this study. The nine levels of the model are distributed so as to resolve the

SYUKURO MANABE

288

Radar interferometry and its application to changes in the earth's surface  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geophysical applications of radar inter- ferometry to measure changes in the Earth's surface have exploded in the early 1990s. This new geodetic technique calculates the interference pattern caused by the difference in phase between two images acquired by a spaceborne synthetic aperture radar at two distinct times. The resulting interferogram is a contour map of the change in distance between

Didier Massonnet; Kurt L. Feigl

1998-01-01

289

Circular structures of large scale and great age on the earth's surface  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is pointed out that the earth's surface exhibits faint circular patterns which have not been described before. These circles are characterized by near perfection of outline, by the presence of topographic highs (rims) along parts of their circumferences, and by their generally large scale (diameters from 7 to 700 km). Circles of this nature have been observed clearly in

J. M. Saul

1978-01-01

290

Radiative Forcing - Measured at Earth's Surface - Corroborate the Increasing Greenhouse Effect  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Intergovernmental Panel of Climate Change (IPCC) confirmed concentrations of atmospheric greenhouse gases and radiative forcing to increase as a result of human activities. Nevertheless, changes in radiative forcing related to increasing greenhouse gas concentrations could not be detected with instrumental measurements at Earth's surface so far. Here we show that atmospheric longwave downward radiation significantly increased (+5.2 Wm-2) partly

Rolf Philipona; B. Duerr; Christoph Marty; Atsumu Ohmura; Martin Wild

2004-01-01

291

Surface waves on the tailward flanks of the Earth's magnetopause  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Forty-three examples of ISEE 1 tailward flank side magnetopause crossings are examined and directly compared with upstream solar wind parameters. The crossings are classified into two groups. In the first group, a few sudden magnetopause crossings are observed, whereas repeated magnetopause crossings and oscillatory motions, often with boundary layer signatures, are observed in the second group. These distinctive characteristics of the two groups are interpreted in terms of the surface waves due to the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability. It is found that low solar wind speed tends to favor characteristics of the first group, whereas high solar wind speed yields those of the second group. However, no evident correlations between the groups and the interplanetary magnetic field directions are found.

Seon, J.; Frank, L. A.; Lazarus, A. J.; Lepping, R. P.

1995-01-01

292

Ground-based measurement of surface temperature and thermal emissivity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Motorized cable systems for transporting infrared thermometers have been used successfully during several international field campaigns. Systems may be configured with as many as four thermal sensors up to 9 m above the surface, and traverse a 30 m transect. Ground and canopy temperatures are important for solving the surface energy balance. The spatial variability of surface temperature is often great, so that averaged point measurements result in highly inaccurate areal estimates. The cable systems are ideal for quantifying both temporal and spatial variabilities. Thermal emissivity is also necessary for deriving the absolute physical temperature, and measurements may be made with a portable measuring box.

Owe, M.; Van De Griend, A. A.

1994-01-01

293

Application of Satellite-Derived Land Surface Temperature to Minimum Temperature Forecasting  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Satellite-derived land surface temperature (LST) is studied for the purpose of understanding regional skin temperature dependency and variability, and its relationship to corresponding, site-specific air temperature. Skin temperature is highly correlated with surface-air temperature although it differs depending on land surface characteristics, terrain, and atmospheric conditions on a diurnal and seasonal scale. The high temporal resolution of the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) -12 sounder is used to compare the diurnal cycles of LST and surface-air temperature. The minimum for both temperatures occurs near sunrise and LST is found to agree closely with surface-air temperatures a period of hours before sunrise on clear sky nights. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)-derived LST renders more horizontal temperature structure - with its high spatial resolution (1 km at nadir) compared to the GOES-12 sounder (10 km). Nighttime MODIS-derived LST is extrapolated to the time of minimum temperature for a number of case study days and these are grouped by season and atmospheric conditions. These composites show that the variation in LST mirror the variation in minimum surface-air temperature under similar conditions.

Jones, P. R.; Jedlovec, G. J.; Suggs, R. J.; Haines, S. L.

2004-01-01

294

Estimation of subsurface thermal structure using sea surface height and sea surface temperature  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method of determining a subsurface temperature in a body of water is disclosed. The method includes obtaining surface temperature anomaly data and surface height anomaly data of the body of water for a region of interest, and also obtaining subsurface temperature anomaly data for the region of interest at a plurality of depths. The method further includes regressing the obtained surface temperature anomaly data and surface height anomaly data for the region of interest with the obtained subsurface temperature anomaly data for the plurality of depths to generate regression coefficients, estimating a subsurface temperature at one or more other depths for the region of interest based on the generated regression coefficients and outputting the estimated subsurface temperature at the one or more other depths. Using the estimated subsurface temperature, signal propagation times and trajectories of marine life in the body of water are determined.

Kang, Yong Q. (Inventor); Jo, Young-Heon (Inventor); Yan, Xiao-Hai (Inventor)

2012-01-01

295

Surface Energy Effect on Polymers Adhesive Bonding at Room Temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of different surface energies of substrate on adhesive bonding at room temperature is investigated in this paper. Comparing to the RCA cleaning procedure, the improved cleaning procedure increases surface energies of wafers which were detected by water contact angle (WCA) measured with JY-82 contact angle goniometer. This higher surface energy leads to stronger bonding properties between Si and glass with epoxy (TS814) at room temperature. The bonding strength was detected by Series IX Automated Materials Testing System. Compared with the RCA cleaning simples, the one with high surface energy of wafers reached 8.56Mpa, more than seven times stronger than the others.

Jin, Yingxia; Yin, Xiaoling; Li, Liang; Wang, Chong; Yang, Yu

2011-06-01

296

Estimation of the Surface Heat Flux Response to Sea Surface Temperature Anomalies over the Global Oceans  

E-print Network

Estimation of the Surface Heat Flux Response to Sea Surface Temperature Anomalies over the Global fluxes over the global oceans for individual seasons. Net surface heat flux feedback is generally October 2004, in final form 21 February 2005) ABSTRACT The surface heat flux response to underlying sea

Hurrell, James

297

A precise method of earth-based measuring infrared radiant temperature of high-speed flying target  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The apparent temperature of high-speed flying target is an important parameter when checking the design of heat protection system. This paper analyzes the characteristics of high-speed flying target measured by earth-based staring infrared imaging system, and found out three facts made the measured image blur, the first is energy spread described by Point Spread Function, the second is the phenomenon of target smearing, and the third is atmospheric agitation and turbulence. Also the energy reflected by the target from sun and earth to infrared measuring system should be considered. Thus the method dealt with static or low-speed target isn't adapt to high-speed target, this paper proposed an effective method dealing with High-speed flying target in infrared image. The first step is computing the luminance reflected by target with information of target's pose and surface structure, the second step is extracting the target from the infrared image then computing the emission intensity with parameters of calibration, the third step is computing the luminance of target by subtract the energy of background and energy reflected from the target, after computing the atmospheric trans, the apparent temperature is finally found.

Lu, Xiaofei; Sheng, Jie

2014-11-01

298

Surface Temperatures on Titan; Changes During the Cassini Mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Surface brightness temperatures on Titan measured by the Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) aboard Cassini span the period from late northern winter to early spring. The CIRS observations cover all latitudes and can be used to study meridional changes with season. CIRS previously reported surface temperatures from 2004-2008 which were 93.7 K at the equator with decreases of 2 K toward the south pole and 3 K toward the north pole'. From a comparison of the equinox period with the earlier data, CIRS can now detect a seasonal shift in the latitudinal distribution of temperatures. Around the time of the equinox the meridional distribution was more symmetric about the equator than had been found earlier in the mission. The equatorial surface temperatures remained close to 94 K, but in the south the temperatures had decreased by about 0.5 K and in the north had increased by about 0.5 K. The CIRS equinox results are similar to what was seen near the previous vernal equinox by Voyager IRIS Z. The observed surface temperatures can help constrain the type of surface material by comparison with predictions from general circulation models. Of the three cases treated by Tokano t , our measurements most closely match a porous-ice regolith. As Cassini continues through Titan's northern spring CIRS will extend its temporal and spatial coverage and will continue to search for seasonal variations in surface temperature.

Jennings, Donald E.; Cottini, Valeria; Nixon, Conor A.

2010-01-01

299

Measurements of the temporal variation of snow surface temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The snow surface temperature is a critical state variable in the snow surface energy balance equation that is used in numerous hydrological and weather modeling applications. However, owing to the complex and dynamic nature of the snow crystals making up the snow-air interface, it remains imperfectly understood and often inadequately represented in models. The snow surface temperature is a difficult property to measure directly, so infrared radiometers are often used to infer the surface temperature from solving the longwave radiation balance. In this study, the snow surface temperature was measured using infrared thermocouples sampled at 2 Hz over a frozen boreal fen for two winter seasons. Fourier and wavelet analyses were used to examine the temporal variation of the surface temperature in order to identify and separate contributions from coherent turbulent motions and those caused by changes in cloud conditions. Furthermore, the degree of coherence between the snow surface and overlying air temperatures was quantified for different meteorological conditions. This research contributes towards the goal of identifying new techniques for measuring heat fluxes at the snow-air interface.

Helgason, W.

2013-12-01

300

Modeling ultraviolet radiation at the Earth`s surface. Part II: Model and instrument comparison  

SciTech Connect

High-resolution measurements in the spectral region of 280-400 nm using a double monochromator are compared with detailed radiative transfer calculations at Reading, United Kingdom (52{degrees}N, 0{degrees}), for clear and totally overcast days, using aerosol and cloud information deduced from empirical methods. For clear skies, instrument and model agree well in the UVA (320-400 nm), but agreement is worse in the UVB (280-320 nm). A number of possible reasons for the discrepancies are explored. Volcanic aerosols in the stratosphere of the model are found to improve agreement between the model and the instrument for high solar zenith angles by increasing the model UVB irradiances by as much as 6%. Convolving the model surface irradiances with the bandpass of the instrument leads to smaller differences between instrument and model at short wavelengths and also reduces the noisiness of the difference. When the model included stratospheric aerosol and the instrument`s bandpass function, UVB irradiances within 10% of the measured irradiances could be produced by the model for clear skies. For cloudy conditions, differences between instrument and model are larger, reaching 20%, integrated over the UVB. 17 refs., 20 figs., 1 tab.

Forster, P.M. de; Shine, K.P.; Webb, A.R. [Univ. of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading (United Kingdom)] [Univ. of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading (United Kingdom)

1995-11-01

301

Understanding and predicting changes in North Atlantic Sea Surface Temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mechanisms associated with sea surface temperature variability in the North Atlantic are explored using observation-based reconstructions of the historical surface states of the atmosphere and ocean as well as simulations run with the Community Earth System Model, version 1 (CESM1). The relationship between air-sea heat flux and SST between 1948 and 2009 yields evidence of a positive heat flux feedback at work in the subpolar gyre region on quasi-decadal timescales. Warming of the high latitude Atlantic precedes an atmospheric response which resembles a negative NAO state. The historical flux data set is used to estimate temporal variations in North Atlantic deep water formation which suggest that NAO variations drove strong decadal changes in thermohaline circulation strength in the last half century. Model simulations corroborate the observation-based inferences that substantial changes in the strength of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) ensued as a result of NAO-driven water mass perturbations, and that changes in the large-scale ocean circulation played a significant role in modulating North Atlantic SST. Surface forcing perturbation experiments show that the simulated low-frequency AMOC variability is mainly driven by turbulent buoyancy forcing over the Labrador Sea region, and that the decadal ocean variability, in uncoupled experiments, derives from low-frequency variability in the overlying atmospheric state. Surface momentum forcing accounts for most of the interannual variability in AMOC at all latitudes, and also most of the decadal AMOC variability south of the Equator. We show that the latter relates to the trend in wind stress forcing of the Southern Ocean, but that Southern Ocean forcing explains very little of the North Atlantic signal. The sea surface height in the Labrador Sea is identified as a strongly buoyancy-forced observable which supports its use as a monitor of AMOC strength. The dynamics which characterize the model mean overturning and gyre circulations, and which explain the model response to surface momentum and buoyancy forcing perturbations, are investigated in terms of mean and time-varying vorticity balances. The significant effect of bottom vortex stretching, noted in previous studies, is shown here to play a key role in a variety of time-dependent phenomena, such as the covariation of overturning and gyre circulations, the variation of the barotropic streamfunction in the intergyre-gyre region, and changes in AMOC associated with momentum forcing perturbations. We show that latitudinal changes in the AMOC vorticity balance explains the attenuation of buoyancy-forced signals south of Cape Hatteras, and that the dominant frictional balance near the Equator greatly inhibits the propagation of AMOC variability signals from one hemisphere to the other. The long persistence of buoyancy-forced, high-latitude circulation anomalies results in significant predictability of SST in the subpolar gyre. This is demonstrated with an analysis of initialized, fully coupled retrospective predictions of the mid-1990s warming in that region. The atmospheric response is shown to be relatively unimportant on timescales of up to 10 years, but skill for longer lead times is inhibited by an incorrect heat flux feedback in the North Atlantic in the coupled CESM1.

Yeager, S. G.

302

Areas of Anomalous Surface Temperature in Alamosa and Saguache Counties, Colorado, as Identified from ASTER Thermal Data  

SciTech Connect

Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Publication Date: 2012 Title: Very Warm Modeled Temperature Alamosa Saguache Edition: First Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains areas of anomalous surface temperature in Alamosa and Saguache Counties identified from ASTER thermal data and spatial based insolation model. The temperature is calculated using the Emissivity Normalization Algorithm that separate temperature from emissivity. The incoming solar radiation was calculated using spatial based insolation model developed by Fu and Rich (1999). Then the temperature due to solar radiation was calculated using emissivity derived from ASTER data. The residual temperature, i.e. temperature due to solar radiation subtracted from ASTER temperature was used to identify thermally anomalous areas. Areas that had temperature greater than 2? were considered ASTER modeled very warm surface exposures (thermal anomalies) Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4217727.601630 m Left: 394390.400264 m Right: 460179.841813 m Bottom: 4156258.036086 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System 1984 (WGS 1984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich Angular Unit: Degree Digital Form: Format Name: Shape file

Hussein, Khalid

2012-02-01

303

How do Atmospheres Affect Planetary Temperatures? Activity C Can we Model an Atmosphere's Effect Upon a Planet's Surface Temperature?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students simulate the interaction of variables, including carbon dioxide, in a radiation balance exercise using a spreadsheet-based radiation balance model. Through a series of experiments, students attempt to mimic the surface temperatures of Earth, Mercury, Venus and Mars, and account for the influence of greenhouse gases in atmospheric temperatures. The activity supports inquiry into the real-world problem of contemporary climate change. Student-collected data is needed from activity A in the same module, "How do atmospheres interact with solar energy?" to complete this activity. Included in the resource are several student data sheets and a teacher's guide. This activity is part of module 4, "How do Atmospheres Affect Planetary Temperatures?" in Earth Climate Course: What Determines a Planet's Climate? The course aims to help students to develop an understanding of our environment as a system of human and natural processes that result in changes that occur over various space and time scales.

304

LAND SURFACE TEMPERATURE RETRIEVAL FROM MODIS AND GOES 8  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Land surface temperature (LST) and its diurnal variation are important observable characteristics when evaluating climate change, land-atmosphere energy exchange processes and the global hydrologic cycle. These characteristics are observable from satellite platforms using thermal infrared, but doin...

305

Fourier power spectra of the geomagnetic field for circular paths on the Earth's surface.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Fourier power spectra of geomagnetic component values, synthesized from spherical harmonic models, have been computed for circular paths on the Earth's surface. They are not found to be more useful than is the spectrum of magnetic energy outside the Earth for the purpose of separating core and crustal sources of the geomagnetic field. The Fourier power spectra of N and E geomagnetic components along nearly polar great circle paths exhibit some unusual characteristics that are explained by the geometric perspective of Fourier series on spheres developed by Yee. -Authors

Alldredge, L.R.; Benton, E.R.

1986-01-01

306

Remote sensing: Earth's surface and atmosphere; Proceedings of Workshop X and the Topical Meeting of the 26th COSPAR Plenary Meeting, Toulouse, France, June 30-July 11, 1986  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present conference on space-based remote sensing of the earth's surface and atmosphere addresses the two broad issues of remote sensing activities of interest to developing countries and the results obtained to date by the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project, the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment, and the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE). Attention is given to the remote sensing of environmental factors affecting health, applications of satellite microwave radiometry, earth science missions for the NASA Space Station, and digitally produced Landsat map images. Also discussed are time-accumulated visible and IR histograms used as cloud cover descriptors, the estimation of the radiation budget's sensitivity to cloud variations, monitoring global surface temperature variations using cloud data sets, and an analysis of preliminary SAGE II data on ozone and NO2.

Carter, W. D. (editor); Arking, A. (editor); Mccormick, M. P. (editor); Raschke, E. (editor)

1987-01-01

307

Global Temporal Trends in Surface and Free-Air Equivalent Temperatures at High Elevations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reconciling differences between temporal trends in surface (land station) and free-air (radiosonde and satellite) temperature data concerns the international scientific community. This paper examines the differences between temporal trends in surface temperature observations at high elevation and interpolated free-air equivalent temperatures from both NCEP/NCAR reanalyses and CARDS (radiosonde data) for recent decades. Preliminary analysis of screen maxima and minima from a range of high elevation SNOTEL (Snow-Telemetry) sites in the western U.S. vs free-air equivalent temperatures interpolated from the NCAR/NCEP reanalysis yielded systematic diurnal and annual signals in the free-air/surface temperature differences. Long-term trends in such differences over the last 20 years are significant at many locations, but vary by magnitude and sign, and are dependent on topography and elevation. Such temporal trends indicate that the Earth's surface may be responding to climate change in a contrasting way to the free atmosphere over this time horizon. Possible mechanisms for such decoupling are discussed.

Pepin, N. C.

2003-12-01

308

Atmospheric corrections of passive microwave data for estimating land surface temperature.  

PubMed

Quantitative analysis of the atmospheric effects on observations made by the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) has been performed. The differences between observed brightness temperatures at the top of the atmosphere and at the bottom of the atmosphere were analyzed using a database of simulated observations, which were configured to replicate AMSR-E data. The differences between observed brightness temperatures at the top of the atmosphere and land surface-emitted brightness temperatures were also computed. Quantitative results show that the atmosphere has different effects on brightness temperatures in different AMSR-E channels. Atmospheric effects can be neglected at 6.925 and 10.65 GHz, when the standard deviation is less than 1 K. However, at other frequencies and polarizations, atmospheric effects on observations should not be neglected. An atmospheric correction algorithm was developed at 18.7 GHz vertical polarization, based on the classic split-window algorithm used in thermal remote sensing. Land surface emission can be estimated with RMSE = 0.99 K using the proposed method. Using the known land surface emissivity, Land Surface Temperature (LST) can be retrieved. The RMSE of retrieved LST is 1.17 K using the simulated data. PMID:23842351

Liu, Zeng-Lin; Wu, Hua; Tang, Bo-Hui; Qiu, Shi; Li, Zhao-Liang

2013-07-01

309

Interpretation of interdecadal trends in northern hemisphere surface air temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monthly mean time series of (1) surface air temperature anomalies averaged over the Northern Hemisphere based on data from land stations, (2) sea surface temperature anomalies averaged over the Northern Hemisphere oceans, and (3) 1000-500-mb thickness anomalies averaged over the region poleward of 40°N are examined. The data are stratified in terms of warm (May - October) and cold (November

J. M. Wallace; Yuan Zhang; L. Bajuk

1996-01-01

310

Interpretation of Interdecadal Trends in Northern Hemisphere Surface Air Temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monthly Mean time series of 1) surface air temperature anomalies averaged over the Northern Hemisphere based on data from land stations, 2) sea surface temperature anomalies averaged over the Northern Hemisphere oceans, and 3) 1000-500-mb thickness anomalies averaged over the region poleward of 40N are examined. The data are stratified in terms of warm (May-October) and cold (November-April) seasons. Time

John M. Wallace; Yuan Zhang; Louis Bajuk

1996-01-01

311

Rapid-Response Hybrid-Type Surface-Temperature Sensor  

Microsoft Academic Search

A hybrid-type surface-temperature sensor that combines the advantages of contact and non-contact sensing methods has been\\u000a developed and that offers a way to overcome the weak points of both methods. The hybrid-type surface-temperature sensor is\\u000a composed of two main components: a metal film that makes contact with the object and an optical sensor that is used to detect\\u000a the radiance

K. Hiraka; R. Shinagawa; A. Gogami; T. Iuchi

2008-01-01

312

Remote Sensing of Neutral Temperatures in Earths Thermosphere Using the Lyman-Birge-Hopfield Bands of N2: Comparisons with Satellite Drag Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermospheric temperatures from remote and in situ observations have provided valuable insights into the behavior of Earths space environment. Remote sensing techniques, however, have thus far been limited to providing exospheric temperatures from limb observations. And in situ observations, the primary source of exospheric temperature data, cannot provide the coverage desired for comparisons with global models. An alternative temperature sensing technique, which derives neutral temperatures from observations of molecular emissions, is attractive for its potential to provide global coverage of neutral temperatures. This method has previously been shown to produce temperatures consistent with atmospheric models. This presentation describes a more rigorous test of this technique - comparison with coincident satellite drag data, a proven source of thermospheric temperature information. Latitudinal profiles of the temperature are obtained by inversion of the (1-1) Lyman-Birge-Hopfield (LBH) band of N2 using high-resolution spectra obtained from the High resolution Ionospheric and Thermospheric Spectrograph (HITS) instrument aboard the Advanced Research and Global Observation Satellite (ARGOS). These remotely sensed temperatures are compared with temperatures derived from satellite drag data using the Mass Spectrometer and Incoherent Scatter (MSIS) 2000 model. Preliminary results show that the temperatures derived from the LBH spectra agree well with those derived from the satellite drag data. These results indicate that current instrumentation and fitting techniques are capable of remotely sensing thermospheric temperature.

Krywonos, A.; Murray, D. J.; Eastes, R.; Budzien, S. A.; Marcos, F. A.

2009-12-01

313

Global Surface Temperature Change and Uncertainties Since 1861  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of this talk is to analyze the warming trend and its uncertainties of the global and hemi-spheric surface temperatures. By the method of statistical optimal averaging scheme, the land surface air temperature and sea surface temperature observational data are used to compute the spatial average annual mean surface air temperature. The optimal averaging method is derived from the minimization of the mean square error between the true and estimated averages and uses the empirical orthogonal functions. The method can accurately estimate the errors of the spatial average due to observational gaps and random measurement errors. In addition, quantified are three independent uncertainty factors: urbanization, change of the in situ observational practices and sea surface temperature data corrections. Based on these uncertainties, the best linear fit to annual global surface temperature gives an increase of 0.61 +/- 0.16 C between 1861 and 2000. This lecture will also touch the topics on the impact of global change on nature and environment. as well as the latest assessment methods for the attributions of global change.

Shen, Samuel S. P.; Lau, William K. M. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

314

SPATIAL VARIABILITY OF REMOTELY SENSED SURFACE TEMPERATURE AT FIELD SCALE  

EPA Science Inventory

Bare soil surface temperatures (BST) and crop canopy temperatures (CCT) were collected from a 1-ha field in central Arizona using an infrared thermometer to determine whether they were spatially correlated. The measurements were taken from a two-dimensional random sampling patter...

315

Mean seasonal and spatial variability in global surface air temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using terrestrial observations of shelter-height air temperature and shipboard measurements, a global climatology of mean monthly surface air temperature has been compiled. Data were obtained from ten sources, screened for coding errors, and redundant station records were removed. The combined data base consists of 17 986 independent terrestrial station records and 6 955 oceanic grid-point records. These data were then

D. R. Legates; C. J. Willmott

1990-01-01

316

Thin sectioning and surface replication of ice at low temperature.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We have developed a new technique for making thin sections and surface replicas of ice at temperatures well below 273d K. The ability to make thin sections without melting sample material is important in textural and microstructural studies of ice deformed at low temperatures because of annealing effects we have observed during conventional section making.-from Author

Daley, M.A.; Kirby, S.H.

1984-01-01

317

Silicon surface evolution at high temperature in UHV  

Microsoft Academic Search

The step distribution, associated with the miscut of a Si wafer can be modified by controlled step flow. There are many studies of step-flow dynamics during sublimation or deposition at high temperature. In our group, atomically flat, step-free surfaces were previously obtained over areas of up to 50 by 50 microns by annealing Si samples in UHV. The surface of

Valerian Ignatescu; Jack Blakely

2006-01-01

318

Topography, surface properties, and tectonic evolution. [of Venus and comparison with earth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Differences in atmospheric composition, atmospheric and lithospheric temperature, and perhaps mantle composition, suggest that the rock cycle on Venus is not similar to the earth's. While radar data are not consistent with a thick, widespread and porous regolith like that of the moon, wind-transported regolith could be cemented into sedimentary rock that would be indistinguishable from other rocks in radar returns. The elevation spectrum of Venus is strongly unimodal, in contrast to the earth. Most topographic features of Venus remain enigmatic. Two types of tectonic model are proposed: a lithosphere too thick or buoyant to participate in convective flow, and a lithosphere which, in participating in convective flow, implies the existence of plate tectonics. Features consistent with earth-like plate tectonics have not been recognized.

Mcgill, G. E.; Warner, J. L.; Malin, M. C.; Arvidson, R. E.; Eliason, E.; Nozette, S.; Reasenberg, R. D.

1983-01-01

319

Global surface temperatures over the past two millennia  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present reconstructions of Northern and Southern Hemisphere mean surface temperature over the past two millennia based on high-resolution 'proxy' temperature data which retain millennial-scale variability. These reconstructions indicate that late 20th century warmth is unprecedented for at least roughly the past two millennia for the Northern Hemisphere. Conclusions for the Southern Hemisphere and global mean temperature are limited by

Michael E. Mann; Philip D. Jones

2003-01-01

320

Sea surface temperature as an indicator of ocean currents  

E-print Network

of Horizontal Temperature Gradients 24 Chapter V. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOI"?ENDATIONS 1. Conclusions 2. Recommendations APPENDIX A. DETERMINATION OF DIURNAL VARIATION OF SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE IN THE GULF OF MEXICO 1. Procedure 2. FORTRAN Program 3... temperature observations for diurnal variation study 37 6. FORTRAN symbols 7. FORTRAN program 43 45 8. Example data sheet for Crossing A-1 50 LIST OF FIGURES Figure Three areas indicating location of current cross sections Page 52 Depth...

Chesbrough, Geoffrey Lynn

2012-06-07

321

Photoluminescence studies on rare earth titanates prepared by self-propagating high temperature synthesis method.  

PubMed

The laser-induced luminescence studies of the rare earth titanates (R2Ti2O7) (R=La, Nd and Gd) using 355 nm radiation from an Nd:YAG laser are presented. These samples with submicron or nanometer size are prepared by the self-propagating high temperature synthesis (SHS) method and there is no known fluorescence shown by these rare earths in the visible region. Hence, the luminescence transitions shown by the La2Ti2O7 near 610 nm and Gd2Ti2O7 near 767 nm are quite interesting. Though La3+ ions with no 4f electrons have no electronic energy levels that can induce excitation and luminescence processes in the visible region, the presence of the Ti3+ ions leads to luminescence in this region. PMID:18455955

Joseph, Lyjo K; Dayas, K R; Damodar, Soniya; Krishnan, Bindu; Krishnankutty, K; Nampoori, V P N; Radhakrishnan, P

2008-12-15

322

Atom manipulation on an insulating surface at room temperature.  

PubMed

Atomic manipulation enables us to fabricate a unique structure at the atomic scale. So far, many atomic manipulations have been reported on conductive surfaces, mainly at low temperature with scanning tunnelling microscopy, but atomic manipulation on an insulator at room temperature is still a long-standing challenge. Here we present a systematic atomic manipulation on an insulating surface by advanced atomic force microscopy, enabling construction of complex patterns such as a 'Swiss cross' of substitutional bromine ions in the sodium chloride surface. PMID:25022312

Kawai, Shigeki; Foster, Adam S; Canova, Filippo Federici; Onodera, Hiroshi; Kitamura, Shin-ichi; Meyer, Ernst

2014-01-01

323

Surface Temperature Distribution of a Breast With and Without Tumour.  

PubMed

Breast cancer is a common and dreadful disease in women. Regular screening helps in its early detection. At present the most common methods of screening are by self examination and mammography. The surface temperature distribution of the breast can also provide some information on the presence of tumour. This distribution has a relation to the size and location of tumour and can be seen using thermography, where the infrared radiation emitted from the surface of the breast is recorded and a thermal pattern obtained. Thermography is a non-invasive and an inexpensive tool which could be used for early detection. In order to simulate the surface temperature distribution, a two-dimensional model of female breast with and without a carcinoma is considered. The breast is modelled with varying layer thickness close to the actual shape and numerically solved using finite element analysis. Temperature profiles are obtained for a normal breast and for a malignant one by varying the tumour size, location and the blood flow rates. The results show that the surface temperature for a malignant breast is higher than that of a normal one. In addition the size and location of the tumour do have an effect on the surface temperature distribution. It can also be seen that tumour of different sizes placed at the same location would yield the same maximum temperature depending on the blood perfusion rate. PMID:11264827

Sudharsan, N. M.; Ng, E. Y. K.; Teh, S. L.

1999-01-01

324

Field spectroscopy sampling strategies for improved measurement of Earth surface reflectance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the last two decades extensive networks of research sites have been established to measure the flux of carbon compounds and water vapour between the Earth's surface and the atmosphere using eddy covariance (EC) techniques. However, contributing Earth surface components cannot be determined and (as the ';footprints' are spatially constrained) these measurements cannot be extrapolated to regional cover using this technique. At many of these EC sites researchers have been integrating spectral measurements with EC and ancillary data to better understand light use efficiency and carbon dioxide flux. These spectroscopic measurements could also be used to assess contributing components and provide support for imaging spectroscopy, from airborne or satellite platforms, which can provide unconstrained spatial cover. Furthermore, there is an increasing interest in ';smart' database and information retrieval systems such as that proposed by EcoSIS and OPTIMISE to store, analyse, QA and merge spectral and biophysical measurements and provide information to end users. However, as Earth surfaces are spectrally heterogeneous and imaging and field spectrometers sample different spatial extents appropriate field sampling strategies require to be adopted. To sample Earth surfaces spectroscopists adopt either single; random; regular grid; transect; or 'swiping' point sampling strategies, although little comparative work has been carried out to determine the most appropriate approach; the work by Goetz (2012) is a limited exception. Mac Arthur et al (2012) demonstrated that, for two full wavelength (400 nm to 2,500 nm) field spectroradiometers, the measurement area sampled is defined by each spectroradiometer/fore optic system's directional response function (DRF) rather than the field-of-view (FOV) specified by instrument manufacturers. Mac Arthur et al (2012) also demonstrated that each reflecting element within the sampled area was not weighted equally in the integrated measurement recorded. There were non-uniformities of spectral response with the spectral ';weighting' per wavelength interval being positionally dependent and unique to each spectroradiometer/fore optic system investigated. However, Mac Arthur et al (2012) did not provide any advice on how to compensate for these systematic errors or advise on appropriate sampling strategies. The work reported here will provide the first systematic study of the effect of field spectroscopy sampling strategies for a range of different Earth surface types. Synthetic Earth surface hyperspectral data cubes for each surface type were generated and convolved with a range of the spectrometer/fore optic system directional response functions generated by Mac Arthur et al 2013, to simulate spectroscopic measurements of Earth surfaces. This has enabled different field sampling strategies to be directly compared and their suitability for each measurement purpose and surface type to be assessed and robust field spectroscopy sampling strategy recommendations to be made. This will be particularly of interest to the carbon and water vapour flux communities and assist the development of sampling strategies for field spectroscopy from rotary-wing Unmanned Aerial Vehicles, which will aid acquiring measurements in the spatial domain, and generally further the use of field spectroscopy for quantitative Earth observation.

Mac Arthur, A.; Alonso, L.; Malthus, T. J.; Moreno, J. F.

2013-12-01

325

Multiple sulfur isotopes and the evolution of Earth's surface sulfur cycle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The distribution of sulfur isotopes in geological materials reveals information about Earth history and biogeochemical processes. Research during the last several decades has used sulfur isotope geochemistry as a tool to better understand microbial processes ( Harrison and Thode, 1958; Kaplan, 1975; Monster et al., 1979; Peck, 1959, 1962; Rees, 1973) and sediment diagenesis ( Berner, 1969, 1982; Canfield et al., 1993b). Earth historians also realized this potential, as there exists a rich record of environmental change within the sedimentary records ( Canfield and Teske, 1996; Claypool et al., 1980; Goodwin et al., 1976; Habicht et al., 2002; Kah et al., 2004; Monster et al., 1979; Shen et al., 2001; Strauss, 1993; Thode and Goodwin, 1983). These applications have championed the use of the two most abundant sulfur isotopes [ 32S and 34S], and provide a rich introduction to what the sulfur isotope record has to offer [see ( Canfield, 2004; Canfield and Raiswell, 1999)]. Within the last decade, this information has been supplemented by new data derived from the less abundant isotopes [ 33S and 36S]. The measurement of all four stable sulfur isotopes - multiple sulfur isotope geochemistry - has expanded our understanding of biological evolution and activity, atmospheric chemistry and transport, crustal recycling, and many more fields related to Earth surface processes [see ( Farquhar and Wing, 2003)]. Here, I present a review of recent works in multiple sulfur isotope geochemistry with a focus on results that inform our understanding of biogeochemical processes and Earth surface evolution.

Johnston, David T.

2011-05-01

326

Optical pyrometry on TEMPUS: a critical assessment of noncontact temperature measurement in low earth orbit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The German Space Agency (DLT) commissioned Dornier GmbH to construct the Tiegelfreies Electromagnetisches Prozessieren unter Schwerelosigkeit (TEMPUS) facility for conducting containerless experiments on metallic samples in low earth orbit. TEMPUS, utilizing electromagnetic positioning and heating, was flown on the IML-2 Spacelab mission in July 1994 and is scheduled to fly again on the MSL-1 mission in March of 1997. TEMPUS requires non contact temperature measurement. In particular, nucleation and heat capacity measurements have special requirements for accurate temperature measurement. For these measurements, the facility has optical pyrometer capabilities at the specific wavelength of 633nm as well as the integrated wavelength ranges of 1000 to 2500 nm and 3000 to 4000 nm. The instrument and calibration procedures are described herein. The uncertainty in the temperature measurement on TEMPUS has been quantified, and the implications on the accuracy of nucleation and heat capacity measurements is discussed.

Hofmeister, William; Bayuzick, R. J.; Krishnan, Shankar

1996-07-01

327

MY NASA DATA: Using Vegetation, Precipitation, and Surface Temperature to Study Climate Zones  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students investigate the relationship between precipitation, surface temperature and vegetation for four geographic locations. Students will download graphs of each of the three system components (vegetative index, surface temperature and precipitation) for a specific latitude and longitude point during the period of January 2002-June 2004. After downloading data for three other locations, students will work with a total of 12 graphs to compare and analyze the data. They will then predict the climate zone and identify the climate type for each location. This lesson uses student- and citizen science-friendly microsets of authentic NASA Earth system science data from the MY NASA DATA project. It also includes related links, extensions, an online glossary and a list of related AP Environmental Science topics.

328

Land Surface Temperature Measurements form EOS MODIS Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We have developed a physics-based land-surface temperature (LST) algorithm for simultaneously retrieving surface band-averaged emissivities and temperatures from day/night pairs of MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) data in seven thermal infrared bands. The set of 14 nonlinear equations in the algorithm is solved with the statistical regression method and the least-squares fit method. This new LST algorithm was tested with simulated MODIS data for 80 sets of band-averaged emissivities calculated from published spectral data of terrestrial materials in wide ranges of atmospheric and surface temperature conditions. Comprehensive sensitivity and error analysis has been made to evaluate the performance of the new LST algorithm and its dependence on variations in surface emissivity and temperature, upon atmospheric conditions, as well as the noise-equivalent temperature difference (NE(Delta)T) and calibration accuracy specifications of the MODIS instrument. In cases with a systematic calibration error of 0.5%, the standard deviations of errors in retrieved surface daytime and nighttime temperatures fall between 0.4-0.5 K over a wide range of surface temperatures for mid-latitude summer conditions. The standard deviations of errors in retrieved emissivities in bands 31 and 32 (in the 10-12.5 micrometer IR spectral window region) are 0.009, and the maximum error in retrieved LST values falls between 2-3 K. Several issues related to the day/night LST algorithm (uncertainties in the day/night registration and in surface emissivity changes caused by dew occurrence, and the cloud cover) have been investigated. The LST algorithms have been validated with MODIS Airborne Simulator (MAS) dada and ground-based measurement data in two field campaigns conducted in Railroad Valley playa, NV in 1995 and 1996. The MODIS LST version 1 software has been delivered.

Wan, Zhengming

1996-01-01

329

Global fields of soil moisture and land surface evapotranspiration derived from observed precipitation and surface air temperature  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The global fields of normal monthly soil moisture and land surface evapotranspiration are derived with a simple water budget model that has precipitation and potential evapotranspiration as inputs. The precipitation is observed and the potential evapotranspiration is derived from the observed surface air temperature with the empirical regression equation of Thornthwaite (1954). It is shown that at locations where the net surface radiation flux has been measured, the potential evapotranspiration given by the Thornthwaite equation is in good agreement with those obtained with the radiation-based formulations of Priestley and Taylor (1972), Penman (1948), and Budyko (1956-1974), and this provides the justification for the use of the Thornthwaite equation. After deriving the global fields of soil moisture and evapotranspiration, the assumption is made that the potential evapotranspiration given by the Thornthwaite equation and by the Priestley-Taylor equation will everywhere be about the same; the inverse of the Priestley-Taylor equation is used to obtain the normal monthly global fields of net surface radiation flux minus ground heat storage. This and the derived evapotranspiration are then used in the equation for energy conservation at the surface of the earth to obtain the global fields of normal monthly sensible heat flux from the land surface to the atmosphere.

Mintz, Y.; Walker, G. K.

1993-01-01

330

Spatial pattern of impervious surfaces and their impacts on land surface temperature in Beijing, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Land surface temperature (LST), which is heavily influenced by urban surface structures, is a significant parameter in urban environmental analysis. This study examined the effect impervious surfaces (IS) spatial patterns have on LST in Beijing. China. A classification and regression tree model (CART) was adopted to estimate IS as a continuous variable using Landsat images from two seasons combined with

Rong-bo XIAO; Zhi-yun OUYANG; Hua ZHENG; Wei-feng LI; Erich W SCHIENKE; Xiao-ke WANG

2007-01-01

331

Development of the mechanical cryocooler system for the Sea Land Surface Temperature Radiometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Sea Land Surface Temperature Radiometer is a dual view Earth observing instrument developed as part of the European Global Monitoring for Environment and Security programme. It is scheduled for launch on two satellites, Sentinel 3A and 3B in 2014. The instrument detectors are cooled to below 85 K by two split Stirling Cryocoolers running in hot redundancy. These coolers form part of a cryocooler system that includes a support structure and drive electronics. Aspects of the system design, including control and reduction of exported vibration are discussed; and results, including thermal performance and exported vibration from the Engineering Model Cryooler System test campaign are presented.

Camilletti, Adam; Burgess, Christopher; Donchev, Anton; Watson, Stuart; Weatherstone Akbar, Shane; Gamo-Albero, Victoria; Romero-Largacha, Victor; Caballero-Olmo, Gema

2014-11-01

332

PANIC - A surface science package for the in situ characterization of a near-Earth asteroid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the results of a mission concept study for an autonomous micro-scale surface lander also referred to as PANIC - the Pico Autonomous Near-Earth Asteroid In Situ Characterizer. The lander is based on the shape of a regular tetrahedron with an edge length of 35 cm, has a total mass of approximately 12 kg and utilizes hopping as a locomotion mechanism in microgravity. PANIC houses four scientific instruments in its proposed baseline configuration which enable the in situ characterization of an asteroid. It is carried by an interplanetary probe to its target and released to the surface after rendezvous. Detailed estimates of all critical subsystem parameters were derived to demonstrate the feasibility of this concept. The study illustrates that a small, simple landing element is a viable alternative to complex traditional lander concepts, adding a significant science return to any near-Earth asteroid (NEA) mission while meeting tight mass budget constraints.

Schindler, Karsten; Thomas, Cristina A.; Reddy, Vishnu; Weber, Andreas; Gruska, Stefan; Fasoulas, Stefanos

2011-06-01

333

Global Sea Surface Temperature Anomalies from June, 2002 to September, 2003 (WMS)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The temperature of the surface of the worlds oceans provides a clear indication of the state of the Earths climate and weather. The AMSR-E instrument on the Aqua satellite measures the temperature of the top 1 millimeter of the ocean every day, even through the clouds. If the average sea surface temperature for a particular date is subtracted from the measured temperature for that date, the resulting sea surface temperature anomaly can be used to accurately assess the current state of the oceans. The anomaly can serve as an early warning system for weather phenomena and can be used to indicate forthcoming problems with fish populations and coral reef health. In this visualization of the anomaly covering the period from June, 2002, to September, 2003, the most obvious effects are a successive warming and cooling along the equator to the west of Peru, the signature of an El Nino-La Nina cycle. Around January 1, 2003, a cooler than normal region of the ocean appears in this region as part of a La Nina and flows westward, driven by the trade winds. The waves that appear on the edges of this cooler area are called tropical instability waves.

Sokolowsky, Eric; Shirah, Greg; Allen, Jesse; Wentz, Frank; Gentemann, Chelle

2004-02-12

334

About the Influence of the initial Atmosphere on the Earth's Temperature Distribution during it's Accumulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We suggested a new model for accumulation of planets of the Earth's group [1], which is based on the contemporary results of geochemical analyses, which allow to obtain the concentrations of short living radioactive isotopes of 26Al in the matter of the pre planet cloud [2]. With use of that data new estimations of temperature distribution into the growing planetary pre planetary bodies into the Earth's nebular zone had been obtained. For the further Earth's temperature evolution, as it had been showed by the results of numerical modeling, the main role belongs to the temperature distribution in the forming Earth's core and the existence of a dense and transparent atmosphere. The shadow influence of the initial atmosphere had been researched in the paper [3]. We shall give the main consideration to these problems in that paper. It had been shown in [1], that on the earliest accumulation stage the heat release by the decay of 26Al it is sufficient for forming a central melted area and solid relatively thin mainly silicate upper envelope in the pre planetary body, with dimensions, larger than (50-100) km. The impact velocities on that stage are yet not large, therefore by the bodies impact with these or near dimensions liquid and mainly iron their parts merge, but the masses of the pre planetary bodies are not sufficient to gravitational keeping of silicate parts of the cold solid envelope. On that stage they remain into the nebular zone of the proto planet and the mechanism of matter differentiation for the future core and mantle reservoirs realizes. The process takes place yet in small bodies and is in time to finish during less than 10 million years. The next forming of the core and mantle structure continues according to all known estimations about 100 million years. Because of the merging of inner liquid parts of impacting bodies occur due to inelastic impact, the main part of potential energy transforms into heat. That continues up to that time when the iron core mass increases to the main part of the contemporary mass. The silicate particles of different dimensions remain in the proto planet cloud and in the initial atmosphere, reducing it's transparency and release of the heat radiation. On the finishing stage of the core growing the mass of the pre planetary body is sufficient for keeping of the rising part of the silicate envelope of falling bodies. The matter of the growing planet enriches more and more with a touch of silicates. The impact process of accumulated bodies gradually converts to the mechanism of elastic impact, by which only a small part of kinetic energy transforms into the merging by the pre planet body heat. The atmosphere losses the silicate particles and it's transparency exceeds. It is forming either a non melted mantle, or a mantle with a rising melted layer. That results show that the existence of a dense, nontransparent atmosphere leads to temperature growing in the inner areas of the planet during it's accumulation process. 1.Anfilogov V.N., Khachay Yu.V. A possible variant of matter differentiation on the initial stage of Earth's forming. // DAN. 2005, V. 403, N. 6, 803-806. 2.Merk R.,Breuer D., Spohn T., 2002. Numerical modeling of 26Al - Induced radioactive melting of asteroids concerning accretion, Icarus, 159, 183-191. 3.Hayashi C., Nakazawa K., Mizuno H. Earth's melting due to the blanketing effect of primordial dense atmosphere. // Earth and Plenetary Science Letters. (1979). v. 43, 22-28

Khachay, Y.; Anfilogov, V.; Antipin, A.

2012-04-01

335

Oxidation-resistant reflective surfaces for solar dynamic power generation in near earth orbit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Reflective surfaces for Space Station power generation systems are required to withstand the atomic oxygen-dominated environment of near earth orbit. Thin films of platinum and rhodium, which are corrosion resistant reflective metals, have been deposited by ion beam sputter deposition onto various substrate materials. Solar reflectances were then measured as a function of time of exposure to a RF-generated air plasma.

Gulino, Daniel A.; Egger, Robert A.; Banholzer, William F.

1987-01-01

336

Microwave Imager Measures Sea Surface Temperature Through Clouds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This image was acquired over Tropical Atlantic and U.S. East Coast regions on Aug. 22 - Sept. 23, 1998. Cloud data were collected by the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES). Sea Surface Temperature (SST) data were collected aboard the NASA/NASDA Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite by The TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI). TMI is the first satellite microwave sensor capable of accurately measuring sea surface temperature through clouds, as shown in this scene. For years scientists have known there is a strong correlation between sea surface temperature and the intensity of hurricanes. But one of the major stumbling blocks for forecasters has been the precise measurement of those temperatures when a storm begins to form. In this scene, clouds have been made translucent to allow an unobstructed view of the surface. Notice Hurricane Bonnie approaching the Carolina Coast (upper left) and Hurricane Danielle following roughly in its path (lower right). The ocean surface has been falsely colored to show a map of water temperature--dark blues are around 75oF, light blues are about 80oF, greens are about 85oF, and yellows are roughly 90oF. A hurricane gathers energy from warm waters found at tropical latitudes. In this image we see Hurricane Bonnie cross the Atlantic, leaving a cooler trail of water in its wake. As Hurricane Danielle followed in Bonnie's path, the wind speed of the second storm dropped markedly, as available energy to fuel the storm dropped off. But when Danielle left Bonnie's wake, wind speeds increased due to temperature increases in surface water around the storm. As a hurricane churns up the ocean, it's central vortex draws surface heat and water into the storm. That suction at the surface causes an upwelling of deep water. At depth, tropical ocean waters are significantly colder than water found near the surface. As they're pulled up to meet the storm, those colder waters essentially leave a footprint in the storm's wake which might last as long as two weeks. Forecasters can quantify the difference in surface temperatures between this footprint and the surrounding temperatures and use that information to better predict storm intensity. If another storm intersects with this cold water trail, it is likely to lose significant strength due to the fact that the colder water does not contain as much potential energy as warm water. TRMM Fact Sheet Predicting Hurricane Intensity Far from Land Remote Sensing Systems Image courtesy TRMM Project, Remote Sensing Systems, and Scientific Visualization Studio, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center

2002-01-01

337

Doping alkaline-earth: a strategy of stabilizing hexagonal GdF3 at room temperature.  

PubMed

Hexagonal GdF3 is a more efficient phosphor host compared with the traditional orthorhombic form but the hexagonal phase is thermodynamically unstable at room temperature. Herein, we present a strategy to stabilize hexagonal GdF3 by doping with alkaline-earth ions in a mild hydrothermal reaction system. The selection of the dopant, effect of the dopant amount and the mechanism of the phase transition was discussed in detail. The luminescence variation of GdF3:Eu was demonstrated to verify the phase transformation. Furthermore, the upconversion luminescence of the Sr-doped and undoped GdF3:Yb/Er was investigated. PMID:24026018

Zhao, Qi; Shao, Baiqi; L, Wei; Jia, Yongchao; Lv, Wenzhen; Jiao, Mengmeng; You, Hongpeng

2013-11-21

338

Temperature Dependence of Surface Tension of Sn-Ag Alloys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The surface tension of molten Sn-Ag alloys was measured using a specially developed high-accuracy sessile drop apparatus. In this apparatus, a molten sample is dropped onto a R-Al2O3 substrate in order to prevent any reaction between the sample and substrate during the heating process. The droplet shape was recorded from two perpendicular directions to confirm its symmetry. The oxygen partial pressure () was controlled by a Mg furnace to a value of about 10-16 to 10-15 Pa. The sample compositions used were Sn-20Ag, Sn-50Ag, and Sn-80Ag (at.%) and were alloyed from pure Sn (99.999%) and Ag (99.99%) in the dropping tube. The accuracy of the experimental results was confirmed by an extremely small scatter. The measured temperature dependence of the surface tension of the molten Sn-50Ag (at.%) alloy indicated a characteristic curve that changed from positive to negative with increasing temperature. Furthermore, the surface tension of the molten Sn-20Ag (at.%) alloy has a temperature dependence that changes from flat to negative, while the Sn-80Ag (at.%) alloy has a negative temperature dependence across the whole temperature range. Based on a theoretical discussion using Butler's equation, these temperature dependencies can be determined by negative straight lines when assuming the surface composition.

Ohira, Chika; Fujii, Hidetoshi; Morisada, Yoshiaki

2014-05-01

339

A Subbasin-based framework to represent land surface processes in an Earth System Model  

SciTech Connect

Realistically representing spatial heterogeneity and lateral land surface processes within and between modeling units in earth system models is important because of their implications to surface energy and water exchange. The traditional approach of using regular grids as computational units in land surface models and earth system models may lead to inadequate representation of lateral movements of water, energy and carbon fluxes, especially when the grid resolution increases. Here a new subbasin-based framework is introduced in the Community Land Model (CLM), which is the land component of the Community Earth System Model (CESM). Local processes are represented assuming each subbasin as a grid cell on a pseudo grid matrix with no significant modifications to the existing CLM modeling structure. Lateral routing of water within and between subbasins is simulated with the subbasin version of a recently-developed physically based routing model, Model for Scale Adaptive River Routing (MOSART). As an illustration, this new framework is implemented in the topographically diverse region of the U.S. Pacific Northwest. The modeling units (subbasins) are delineated from high-resolution Digital Elevation Model while atmospheric forcing and surface parameters are remapped from the corresponding high resolution datasets. The impacts of this representation on simulating hydrologic processes are explored by comparing it with the default (grid-based) CLM representation. In addition, the effects of DEM resolution on parameterizing topography and the subsequent effects on runoff processes are investigated. Limited model evaluation and comparison showed that small difference between the averaged forcing can lead to more significant difference in the simulated runoff and streamflow because of nonlinear horizontal processes. Topographic indices derived from high resolution DEM may not improve the overall water balance, but affect the partitioning between surface and subsurface runoff. More systematic analyses are needed to determine the relative merits of the subbasin representation compared to the commonly used grid-based representation, especially when land surface models are approaching higher resolutions.

Tesfa, Teklu K.; Li, Hongyi; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Huang, Maoyi; Ke, Yinghai; Sun, Yu; Liu, Ying

2014-05-20

340

Applications of thin film thermocouples for surface temperature measurement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thin film thermocouples provide a minimally intrusive means of measuring surface temperature in hostile, high temperature environments. Unlike wire thermocouples, thin films do not necessitate any machining of the surface, therefore leaving intact its structural integrity. Thin films are many orders of magnitude thinner than wire, resulting in less disruption to the gas flow and thermal patterns that exist in the operating environment. Thin film thermocouples have been developed for surface temperature measurement on a variety of engine materials. The sensors are fabricated in the NASA Lewis Research Center's Thin Film Sensor Lab, which is a class 1000 clean room. The thermocouples are platinum-13 percent rhodium versus platinum and are fabricated by the sputtering process. Thin film-to-leadwire connections are made using the parallel-gap welding process. Thermocouples have been developed for use on superalloys, ceramics and ceramic composites, and intermetallics. Some applications of thin film thermocouples are: temperature measurement of space shuttle main engine turbine blade materials, temperature measurement in gas turbine engine testing of advanced materials, and temperature and heat flux measurements in a diesel engine. Fabrication of thin film thermocouples is described. Sensor durability, drift rate, and maximum temperature capabilities are addressed.

Martin, Lisa C.; Holanda, Raymond

1994-08-01

341

Applications of thin-film thermocouples for surface temperature measurement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thin film thermocouples provide a minimally intrusive means of measuring surface temperature in hostile, high temperature environments. Unlike wire thermocouples, thin films do not necessitate any machining of the surface, thereby leaving intact its structural integrity. Thin films are many orders of magnitude thinner than wire, resulting in less disruption to the gas flow and thermal patterns that exist in the operating environment. Thin film thermocouples have been developed for surface temperature measurement on a variety of engine materials. The sensors are fabricated in the NASA Lewis Research Center's Thin Film Sensor Lab, which is a Class 1000 Clean Room. The thermocouples are platinum-13% rhodium vs platinum and are fabricated by the sputtering process. Thin film-to-leadwire connections are made using the parallel-gap welding process. Thermocouples have been developed for use on superalloys, ceramics and ceramic composites, and intermetallics. Some applications of thin film thermocouples are: temperature measurement of Space Shuttle Main Engine turbine blade materials, temperature measurement in gas turbine engine testing of advanced materials, and temperature and heat flux measurements in a diesel engine. Fabrication of thin film thermocouples is described. Sensor durability, drift rate, and maximum temperature capabilities are addressed.

Martin, Lisa C.; Holanda, Raymond

1994-10-01

342

Estimation of the Surface Heat Flux Response to Sea Surface Temperature Anomalies over the Global Oceans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The surface heat flux response to underlying sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies (the surface heat flux feedback) is estimated using 42 yr (1956 97) of ship-derived monthly turbulent heat fluxes and 17 yr (1984 2000) of satellite-derived monthly radiative fluxes over the global oceans for individual seasons. Net surface heat flux feedback is generally negative (i.e., a damping of the

Clara Deser; Michael A. Alexander

2005-01-01

343

Comparison of in-situ, aircraft, and satellite based land surface temperature measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

and surface temperature (LST) is a key variable used in surface energy budget studies, and in near-real time is assimilated into land surface models for short and medium range forecasts. Observations of LST over multiple years are also critical for climate trend assessment. However, accurate in-situ measurements of LST over continents are not yet available for the whole globe and are not routinely conducted at weather stations. Recently an effort has been underway to validate LST sensed remotely from satellites to the actual measured skin temperature using data from the United States Climate Reference Network (USCRN). The goal of this work is to quantify the spatial variability and the representativeness of the single-point skin temperature measurement already being made at USCRN sites. NOAA/ATDD is collaborating with the University of Tennessee Space Institute's (UTSI) Aviation Systems and Flight Research Department in Tullahoma, TN to utilize an instrumented aircraft to perform measurements of Earth's skin temperature over selected USCRN sites in the continental U.S. Airborne remote sensing is a powerful tool to assess the spatial variability of LST over a location with sufficient sampling density and has the operational flexibility depending on the study requirements. We will present the results from airborne campaigns made concurrently with satellite overpasses over a grassland site and a deciduous forest site, compare the relationship of surface temperature to air temperature at a number of CRN sites and show results of an intercomparison between the JPL reference skin temperature measurement and the CRN sensor.

Baker, B.; Krishna, P.; Meyers, T. P.

2013-12-01

344

Modeling Earth's Energy Balance  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners use the STELLA box modeling software to determine Earth's temperature based on incoming solar radiation and outgoing terrestrial radiation. Starting with a simple black body model, the exercise gradually adds complexity by incorporating albedo, then a 1-layer atmosphere, then a 2-layer atmosphere, and finally a complex atmosphere with latent and sensible heat fluxes. With each step, students compare the modeled surface temperature to Earth's actual surface temperature, thereby providing a check on how well each increasingly complex model captures the physics of the actual system.

Menking, Kirsten; College, Vassar; Science Education Resource Center, On T.

345

Sea Surface Temperature Trends of the Gulf Stream  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

One of the most studied and important ocean currents of the world lies along the eastern coast of the United States and is called the Gulf Stream. It derives its name from its source region of warm water in the Gulf of Mexico. For the past two decades, scientists have been collecting sea surface temperature (SST) data from satellites, buoys and ships in the Gulf Stream and Atlantic Basin. In this three-part lesson, students will explore the Live Access Server (LAS) and produce plots of sea surface temperature. They then prepare a time series of data for particular location(s) on the Gulf Stream and use Excel to produce and analyze graphs of sea surface temperature. The lesson provides detailed procedure, related links, sample graphs, follow-up questions, extensions, and teacher notes.

2006-10-31

346

Revised Atmospheric Angular Momentum Series Related to Earth's Variable Rotation under Consideration of Surface Topography  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The atmospheric angular momentum is closely related to variations in the Earth rotation. The atmospheric excitation function (AEF), or namely atmospheric effective angular momentum function, is introduced in studying the atmospheric excitation of the Earth's variable rotation. It may be separated into two portions, i.e, the "wind" terms due to the atmospheric motion relative to the mantle and the "pressure" terms due to the variations of atmospheric mass distribution evident through surface pressure changes. The AEF wind terms during the period of 1948-2004 are re-processed from the NCEP/NCAR (National Centers for Environmental Prediction-National Center for Atmospheric Research) reanalysis 6-hourly wind and pressure fields. Some previous calculations were approximate, in that the wind terms were integrated from an isobaric lower boundary of 1000 hPa. To consider the surface topography effect, however, the AEF is computed by integration using the winds from the Earth's surface to 10 hPa, the top atmospheric model level, instead of from 1000 hPa. For these two cases, only a minor difference, equivalent to approx. 0.004 milliseconds in length-of-day variation, exists with respect to the axial wind term. However, considerable differences, equivalent to 5-6 milliarcseconds in polar motion, are found regarding equatorial wind terms. We further compare the total equatorial AEF (with and without the topographic effect) with the polar motion excitation function (PMEF) during the period of 1980-2003. The equatorial AEF gets generally closer to the PMEF, and improved coherences are found between them when the topography effect is included. Keywords: Atmospheric angular momentum, Atmospheric excitation function, Earth rotation, Topography, Wind, Pressure.

Zhou, Y. H.; Salstein, D. A.; Chen, J. L.

2006-01-01

347

Land surface temperature measurements from EOS MODIS data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A generalized split-window method for retrieving land-surface temperature (LST) from AVHRR and MODIS data has been developed. Accurate radiative transfer simulations show that the coefficients in the split-window algorithm for LST must depend on the viewing angle, if we are to achieve a LST accuracy of about 1 K for the whole scan swath range (+/-55.4 deg and +/-55 deg from nadir for AVHRR and MODIS, respectively) and for the ranges of surface temperature and atmospheric conditions over land, which are much wider than those over oceans. We obtain these coefficients from regression analysis of radiative transfer simulations, and we analyze sensitivity and error by using results from systematic radiative transfer simulations over wide ranges of surface temperatures and emissivities, and atmospheric water vapor abundance and temperatures. Simulations indicated that as atmospheric column water vapor increases and viewing angle is larger than 45 deg it is necessary to optimize the split-window method by separating the ranges of the atmospheric column water vapor and lower boundary temperature, and the surface temperature into tractable sub-ranges. The atmospheric lower boundary temperature and (vertical) column water vapor values retrieved from HIRS/2 or MODIS atmospheric sounding channels can be used to determine the range where the optimum coefficients of the split-window method are given. This new LST algorithm not only retrieves LST more accurately but also is less sensitive than viewing-angle independent LST algorithms to the uncertainty in the band emissivities of the land-surface in the split-window and to the instrument noise.

Wan, Zhengming

1994-01-01

348

High-Temperature Surface-Acoustic-Wave Transducer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aircraft-engine rotating equipment usually operates at high temperature and stress. Non-invasive inspection of microcracks in those components poses a challenge for the non-destructive evaluation community. A low-profile ultrasonic guided wave sensor can detect cracks in situ. The key feature of the sensor is that it should withstand high temperatures and excite strong surface wave energy to inspect surface/subsurface cracks. As far as the innovators know at the time of this reporting, there is no existing sensor that is mounted to the rotor disks for crack inspection; the most often used technology includes fluorescent penetrant inspection or eddy-current probes for disassembled part inspection. An efficient, high-temperature, low-profile surface acoustic wave transducer design has been identified and tested for nondestructive evaluation of structures or materials. The development is a Sol-Gel bismuth titanate-based surface-acoustic-wave (SAW) sensor that can generate efficient surface acoustic waves for crack inspection. The produced sensor is very thin (submillimeter), and can generate surface waves up to 540 C. Finite element analysis of the SAW transducer design was performed to predict the sensor behavior, and experimental studies confirmed the results. One major uniqueness of the Sol-Gel bismuth titanate SAW sensor is that it is easy to implement to structures of various shapes. With a spray coating process, the sensor can be applied to surfaces of large curvatures. Second, the sensor is very thin (as a coating) and has very minimal effect on airflow or rotating equipment imbalance. Third, it can withstand temperatures up to 530 C, which is very useful for engine applications where high temperature is an issue.

Zhao, Xiaoliang; Tittmann, Bernhard R.

2010-01-01

349

Method for Accurate Surface Temperature Measurements During Fast Induction Heating  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A robust method is proposed for the measurement of surface temperature fields during induction heating. It is based on the original coupling of temperature-indicating lacquers and a high-speed camera system. Image analysis tools have been implemented to automatically extract the temporal evolution of isotherms. This method was applied to the fast induction treatment of a 4340 steel spur gear, allowing the full history of surface isotherms to be accurately documented for a sequential heating, i.e., a medium frequency preheating followed by a high frequency final heating. Three isotherms, i.e., 704, 816, and 927C, were acquired every 0.3 ms with a spatial resolution of 0.04 mm per pixel. The information provided by the method is described and discussed. Finally, the transformation temperature Ac1 is linked to the temperature on specific locations of the gear tooth.

Larregain, Benjamin; Vanderesse, Nicolas; Bridier, Florent; Bocher, Philippe; Arkinson, Patrick

2013-07-01

350

Low Temperature Geothermal Electricity Generation: Google Earth Virtual Field Trip Activity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This exploration takes students to Chena Hot Springs Resort in Alaska where they will learn how to produce low temperature geothermal electricity. Teacher's guide, activity sheet and PowerPoint presenation included. The 2008 ATEEC Fellows Institute brought 18 environmental science community college and high school instructors to Alaska. They created virtual field trips using Google Earth. In the activity, explore Chena Hot Springs Resort in Alaska to learn about low temperature geothermal electricity generation. Chena Hot Springs runs their entire facility on renewable energy. Learn how they do it why they do it and the engineering challenges along the way. This activity includes numerous turnkey teaching resources such as a PowerPoint presentation explaining the geothermal heat exchanging process, video interviews with environmental engineers, a teacher's guide and student activity. Users must create a free login to access this resource.

2013-06-06

351

Annual Global Surface Temperature Anomaly: 1950 through 1998  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Global surface temperatures in 1998 set a new record for the period of instrumental measurements, report researchers at the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies who analyze data collected from several thousand meteorological stations around the world. This visualization shows surface temperature anomalies from 1950 through November, 1998. The 1998 warmth was associated partly with a strong El Nino that warmed the air over the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean in the first half of the year and in turn affected weather around the world. Red and yellow colors indicate warmer than normal conditions and blue colors indicates cooler than normal conditions.

Allen, Jesse; Hansen, James

1998-11-01

352

Annual North America Surface Temperature Anomaly: 1950 through 1998  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Global surface temperatures in 1998 set a new record for the period of instrumental measurements, report researchers at the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies who analyze data collected from several thousand meteorological stations around the world. This visualization shows surface temperature anomalies from 1950 through November, 1998. The 1998 warmth was associated partly with a strong El Nino that warmed the air over the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean in the first half of the year and in turn affected weather around the world. Red and yellow colors indicate warmer than normal conditions and blue colors indicates cooler than normal conditions.

Allen, Jesse; Hansen, James

1998-11-01

353

Separating temperature and emissivity in thermal infrared multispectral scanner data: implications for recovering land surface temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The accuracy of three techniques for recovering surface kinetic temperature from multispectral thermal infrared data acquired over land is evaluated. The three techniques are the reference channel method, the emissivity normalization method, and the alpha emissivity method. The methods used to recover the temperature of artificial radiance derived from a wide variety of materials. The results indicate that the emissivity

Peter S. Kealy; Simon J. Hook

1993-01-01

354

20-Year Arctic Autumn Seasonal Surface Temperature Trend  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Here the 20-year seasonal surface temperature trend for the autumn is shown over the Arctic region. This animation shows the warming and cooling regions in steps from the regions of least change to the areas of greatest change. Blue hues indicate cooling regions; red hues depict warming. Light regions indicate less change while darker regions indicate more. The temperature scale used ranges from -0.4 to +0.4 degrees Celsius in increments of .02 degrees. (See color bar below)

Starr, Cindy; Comiso, Josefino

2003-10-23

355

20-Year Arctic Winter Seasonal Surface Temperature Trend  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Here the 20-year seasonal surface temperature trend for the winter is shown over the Arctic region. This animation shows the warming and cooling regions in steps from the regions of least change to the areas of greatest change. Blue hues indicate cooling regions; red hues depict warming. Light regions indicate less change while darker regions indicate more. The temperature scale used ranges from -0.4 to +0.4 degrees Celsius in increments of .02 degrees. (See color bar below)

Starr, Cindy; Comiso, Josefino

2003-10-23

356

20-Year Arctic Surface Temperature Trend with Alternate Color Scale  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Here the 20-year surface temperature trend is shown over the Arctic region. This still images shows the warming and cooling regions. Blue hues indicate cooling regions; red hues depict warming. Light regions indicate less change while darker regions indicate more. The temperature scale used ranges from -0.14 to +0.4 degrees Celsius in increments of .02 degrees. (See color bar below)

Starr, Cindy; Comiso, Josefino

2003-10-23

357

20-Year Arctic Spring Seasonal Surface Temperature Trend  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Here the 20-year seasonal surface temperature trend for the spring is shown over the Arctic region. This animation shows the warming and cooling regions in steps from the regions of least change to the areas of greatest change. Blue hues indicate cooling regions; red hues depict warming. Light regions indicate less change while darker regions indicate more. The temperature scale used ranges from -0.4 to +0.4 degrees Celsius in increments of .02 degrees. (See color bar below)

Starr, Cindy; Comiso, Josefino

2003-10-23

358

20-Year Arctic Summer Seasonal Surface Temperature Trend  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Here the 20-year seasonal surface temperature trend for the summer is shown over the Arctic region. This animation shows the warming and cooling regions in steps from the regions of least change to the areas of greatest change. Blue hues indicate cooling regions; red hues depict warming. Light regions indicate less change while darker regions indicate more. The temperature scale used ranges from -0.4 to +0.4 degrees Celsius in increments of .02 degrees. (See color bar below)

Starr, Cindy; Comiso, Josefino

2003-10-23

359

Surface temperature measurements using a thin film thermal array  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A thin film device was designed and fabricated to measure surface temperatures. An array of eight integrated thermal sensors are mounted on a 0.002 inch (0.05 mm) Kapton film and multiplexed to obtain an area thermal measurement. The device was tested on a flat plate airfoil and demonstrated a temperature variation of 0.55 C maximum and 0.05 C minimum compared to embedded thermocouples. Future improvements are also discussed.

Dillon-Townes, L. A.; Johnson, P. B.; Ash, R. L.; Daryabeigi, K.; Whipple, J. C.

1989-01-01

360

Spatial correlations of interdecadal variation in global surface temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have analyzed spatial correlation patterns of interdecadal global surface temperature variability from an empirical perspective. Using multi-taper coherence estimates from 140-yr records, we find that correlations between hemispheres are significant at >95% confidence for non-randomness for most of the frequency band 0.06temperature data series near 5-yr period reveal teleconnection patterns

Michael E. Mann; Jeffrey Park

1993-01-01

361

Solitary ionizing surface waves on low-temperature plasmas  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple model for studying finite-amplitude ionizing nonlinear surface waves propagating in a partially ionized low-temperature plasma, in which collisional effects such as ionization, recombination, and friction are dominant, is proposed. The authors consider the lowest order namely, second order in the fields) nonlinear problem and investigate the evolution of finite-amplitude electromagnetic surface waves. It is shown that the waves

Sergey V. Vladimirov; Ming Y. Yu

1993-01-01

362

JOURNAL DE PHYSIQUE Colloque C5, suppliment au no 5, Tome 40, Mai 1979,page C5-46 High-temperature Hall effect in rare earth metals  

E-print Network

-temperature Hall effect in rare earth metals M. V. Vedernikov, V. G. Dvunitkin and N. I. Moreva A. F. Ioffe. Abstract. - Up to date the Hall effect in rare earth metals (REM) was studied rather extensively below at http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/jphyscol:1979518 #12;HIGH-TEMPERATURE HALL EFFECT IN RARE EARTH METALS C5

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

363

Surface modification of nano-rare earth on the tribological and mechanical properties of polytetrafluoroethylene nanocomposites.  

PubMed

In this paper, the surface of nano-lanthanum oxide was modified, and the different surface characteristics of modified nano-lanthanum oxide were analyzed. Meanwhile, the influence of surface modification on the tribological and mechanical properties of polytetrafluoroethylene nanocomposites was investigated. Results indicate that the tribological properties, degradation temperature, notched impact and tensile strength of polytetrafluoroethylene nanocomposites filled with modified nano-lanthanum oxide can be increased simultaneously. A uniform transfer film can be observed on the counterpart surface. Results also show that the smaller the difference of surface energy between filler and matrix is, the higher wear resistance and mechanical properties the polymer nanocomposites will have. PMID:19441426

Wang, Huaiyuan; Feng, Xin; Shi, Yijun; Lu, Xiaohua

2009-02-01

364

Low-Latency Lunar Surface Telerobotics from Earth-Moon Libration Points  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Concepts for a long-duration habitat at Earth-Moon LI or L2 have been advanced for a number of purposes. We propose here that such a facility could also have an important role for low-latency telerobotic control of lunar surface equipment, both for lunar science and development. With distances of about 60,000 km from the lunar surface, such sites offer light-time limited two-way control latencies of order 400 ms, making telerobotic control for those sites close to real time as perceived by a human operator. We point out that even for transcontinental teleoperated surgical procedures, which require operational precision and highly dexterous manipulation, control latencies of this order are considered adequate. Terrestrial telerobots that are used routinely for mining and manufacturing also involve control latencies of order several hundred milliseconds. For this reason, an Earth-Moon LI or L2 control node could build on the technology and experience base of commercially proven terrestrial ventures. A lunar libration-point telerobotic node could demonstrate exploration strategies that would eventually be used on Mars, and many other less hospitable destinations in the solar system. Libration-point telepresence for the Moon contrasts with lunar telerobotic control from the Earth, for which two-way control latencies are at least six times longer. For control latencies that long, telerobotic control efforts are of the "move-and-wait" variety, which is cognitively inferior to near real-time control.

Lester, Daniel; Thronson, Harley

2011-01-01

365

Displacements of the earth's surface due to atmospheric loading - Effects of gravity and baseline measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Atmospheric mass loads and deforms the earth's crust. By performing a convolution sum between daily, global barometric pressure data and mass loading Green's functions, the time dependent effects of atmospheric loading, including those associated with short-term synoptic storms, on surface point positioning measurements and surface gravity observations are estimated. The response for both an oceanless earth and an earth with an inverted barometer ocean is calculated. Load responses for near-coastal stations are significantly affected by the inclusion of an inverted barometer ocean. Peak-to-peak vertical displacements are frequently 15-20 mm with accompanying gravity perturbations of 3-6 micro Gal. Baseline changes can be as large as 20 mm or more. The perturbations are largest at higher latitudes and during winter months. These amplitudes are consistent with the results of Rabbel and Zschau (1985), who modeled synoptic pressure disturbances as Gaussian functions of radius around a central point. Deformation can be adequately computed using real pressure data from points within about 1000 km of the station. Knowledge of local pressure, alone, is not sufficient. Rabbel and Zschau's hypothesized corrections for these displacements, which use local pressure and the regionally averaged pressure, prove accurate at points well inland but are, in general, inadequate within a few hundred kilometers of the coast.

Van Dam, T. M.; Wahr, J. M.

1987-01-01

366

An interaction network perspective on the relation between patterns of sea surface temperature variability and global mean surface temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On interannual- to multidecadal timescales variability in sea surface temperature appears to be organized in large-scale spatiotemporal patterns. In this paper, we investigate these patterns by studying the community structure of interaction networks constructed from sea surface temperature observations. Much of the community structure can be interpreted using known dominant patterns of variability, such as the El Nio/Southern Oscillation and the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation. The community detection method allows us to bypass some shortcomings of Empirical Orthogonal Function analysis or composite analysis and can provide additional information with respect to these classical analysis tools. In addition, the study of the relationship between the communities and indices of global surface temperature shows that, while El Nio-Southern Oscillation is most dominant on interannual timescales, the Indian West Pacific and North Atlantic may also play a key role on decadal timescales. Finally, we show that the comparison of the community structure from simulations and observations can help detect model biases.

Tantet, A.; Dijkstra, H. A.

2014-01-01

367

Constraints on the depths and temperatures of basaltic magma generation on Earth and other terrestrial planets using new thermobarometers for mafic magmas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Basaltic magmatism is a common feature of dynamically active terrestrial planets. The compositions of basalts reflect the temperatures and pressures of magma generation, providing windows into a planet's thermal state. Here, we present new thermobarometers based on magma Si and Mg contents to estimate the pressures and temperatures of basaltic magma generation on Earth and other terrestrial planets. Melting on Earth is intimately tied to plate tectonics and occurs mostly at plate boundaries: mid-ocean ridges and subduction zones. Beneath ridges, melting is driven by adiabatic decompression of passively upwelling mantle at 1300-1400 C. Similar temperatures of melting are found for some arcs, suggesting that decompression melting is also important in arcs and that enhanced melting by hydrous fluxing is superimposed on this background. However, in arcs where melting temperatures are low (1200 C), hydrous fluxing is required. Temperatures hotter than ridges (> 1400 C) are primarily found away from plate boundaries: beneath thick continental lithosphere and oceanic "hotspots" like Hawaii. Oceanic "hotspots" are thought to derive from deep thermal upwellings ("plumes"), but some hot anomalies beneath continents are not associated with deep-seated plumes and hence must have different origins, such as thermal insulation or radioactive heating of metasomatized zones. Melting on Venus, as constrained from spectral data of its surface, occurs at higher temperatures (1500 C) and pressures than on Earth, perhaps because Venus is characterized by a thick and stagnant upper thermal boundary layer that retards convective heat loss. In this regard, Venus' upper thermal boundary layer may be analogous to thick continents on Earth. Mars appears to have cooled off to < 1300 C within its first billion years, but considerable controversy exists over the interpretation of young (< 500 My) basaltic meteorites that record temperatures of 1550 C. As for the first billion years of Earth's history, its upper mantle was hotter than 1700 C, hence melting commenced at pressures greater than 7 GPa, where melts could have been denser than residual solids, resulting in downward fertilization of the Earth's mantle.

Lee, Cin-Ty A.; Luffi, Peter; Plank, Terry; Dalton, Heather; Leeman, William P.

2009-03-01

368

Unexpected and Unexplained Surface Temperature Variations on Mimas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Until recently it was thought one of the most interesting things about Mimas, Saturns innermost classical icy moon, was its resemblance to Star Wars Death Star. However, a bizarre pattern of daytime surface temperatures was observed on Mimas using data obtained by Cassinis Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) in February 2010. The observations were taken during Cassinis closest ever encounter with Mimas (<10,000 km) and cover the daytime anti-Saturn hemisphere centered on longitude ~145 W. Instead of surface temperatures smoothly increasing throughout the morning and early afternoon, then cooling in the evening, as expected, a sharp V-shaped boundary is observed separating cooler midday and afternoon temperatures (~77 K) on the leading side from warmer morning temperatures (~92 K) on the trailing side. The boundarys apex is centered at equatorial latitudes near the anti-Saturn point and extends to low north and south latitudes on the trailing side. Subtle differences in the surface colors have been observed that are roughly spatially correlated with the observed extent of the temperature anomaly, with the cooler regions tending to be bluer (Schenk et al., Submitted). However, visible-wavelength albedo is similar in the two regions, so albedo variations are probably not directly responsible for the thermal anomaly. It is more likely that thermal inertia variations produce the anomaly, with thermal inertia being unusually high in the region with anomalously low daytime temperatures. Comparison of the February 2010 CIRS data to previous lower spatial resolution data taken at different local times tentatively confirm that the cooler regions do indeed display higher thermal inertias. Bombardment of the surface by high energy electrons from Saturns radiation belts has been proposed to explain the observed color variations (Schenk et al., Submitted). Electrons above ~1 MeV preferentially impact Mimas leading hemisphere at low latitudes where they could cause surface defects. For this process to also explain the observed temperature differences it would have to affect the surfaces thermal inertia to a depth comparable to the diurnal thermal skin-depth (~0.5 cm). However, whether the formation of the giant Herschel crater (which lies in the middle of the observed portion of the cold region) contributed to the observed temperature anomaly or if electron bombardment alone is able to explain the thermal anomaly is currently unknown. Future CIRS observations should be able to map the full spatial extent of the thermal anomaly and clarify whether it is centered on (and thus likely related to) Herschel, or is centered on the trailing hemisphere and thus likely to be related to the observed color anomaly.

Howett, C.; Spencer, J. R.; Pearl, J. C.; Hurford, T. A.; Segura, M.; Cassini Cirs Team

2010-12-01

369

Infrared thermography on ocular surface temperature: A review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Body temperature is a good indicator of human health. Thermal imaging system (thermography) is a non-invasive imaging procedure used to record the thermal patterns using Infrared (IR) camera. It provides visual and qualitative documentation of temperature changes in the vascular tissues, and is beginning to play an important role in the field of ophthalmology. This paper deals with the working principle, use and advantages of IR thermography in the field of ophthalmology. Different algorithms to acquire the ocular surface temperature (OST), that can be used for the diagnosis of ocular diseases are discussed.

Tan, Jen-Hong; Ng, E. Y. K.; Rajendra Acharya, U.; Chee, C.

2009-07-01

370

Project EARTH-11-RR2: Co-evolution of iodine antioxidant mechanism in marine algae and Earth-surface  

E-print Network

Project EARTH-11-RR2: Co-evolution of iodine antioxidant mechanism in marine algae and Earth algae (yet they are lacking in green algae) ­ but the phylogenetic distribution of iodine accumulation haloperoxidases. The first appearance and important divergence of brown algae occurred within the last 200 myr

Henderson, Gideon

371

Low temperature CO sensor based on cataluminescence from plasma-assisted catalytic oxidation on Ag doped alkaline-earth nanomaterials.  

PubMed

Based on cataluminescence from plasma-assisted catalytic oxidation, a low temperature CO sensor was fabricated. With Ag doped alkaline-earth catalyst as sensing element, air as discharge gas, carrier gas and oxidant supplier, significant cataluminescence was achieved at low temperature, demonstrating a potential low-consumption and portable sensor of CO. PMID:24519492

Han, Jiaying; Han, Feifei; Ouyang, Jin; He, Lixin; Zhang, Yantu; Na, Na

2014-03-21

372

Temperature grid sensor for the measurement of spatial temperature distributions at object surfaces.  

PubMed

This paper presents results of the development and application of a new temperature grid sensor based on the wire-mesh sensor principle. The grid sensor consists of a matrix of 256 Pt1000 platinum chip resistors and an associated electronics that measures the grid resistances with a multiplexing scheme at high speed. The individual sensor elements can be spatially distributed on an object surface and measure transient temperature distributions in real time. The advantage compared with other temperature field measurement approaches such as infrared cameras is that the object under investigation can be thermally insulated and the radiation properties of the surface do not affect the measurement accuracy. The sensor principle is therefore suited for various industrial monitoring applications. Its applicability for surface temperature monitoring has been demonstrated through heating and mixing experiments in a vessel. PMID:23353141

Schfer, Thomas; Schubert, Markus; Hampel, Uwe

2013-01-01

373

Deriving Surface Soil Moisture from Medium Resolution VNIR/TIR Earth Observation Data combined with 1D simulation process model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earth Observation (EO) has played an imperative role in extending our abilities for obtaining information on the spatio-temporal distribution of surface soil moisture (SSM). A wide range of techniques have been proposed for this purpose, utilising spectral information acquired from remote sensing instruments operating in different regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. Some of these methods have been based on the integration of satellite-derived estimates of Fractional Vegetation Cover (Fr) and Land Surface Temperature (Ts) in the form of a scatterplot domain, often combining simulations from land surface process model. In this work we present results from the evaluation of one such technique implemented using ENVISAT's Advanced Along Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR) medium resolution sensor imagery and SimSphere land surface model. Validation of the derived SMC maps was undertaken in different sites in Europe representing a variety of climatic, topographic and environmental conditions, for which validated in-situ observations from diverse operational ground observational networks were available. Our results indicated a generally close agreement between the inverted SMC maps and the in-situ observations, with accuracies often comparable to previous studies implemented using different types of EO data. Comparisons of the derived SMC maps regionally against other satellite-derived products also showed largely an explainable distribution of SMC in relation to surface heterogeneity. The present work was conducted in the framework of the PROgRESSIon (Prototyping the Retrievals of Energy Fluxes and Soil Moisture Content) project, funded by the European Space Agency (ESA) Support to Science Element (STSE). The project aims at exploring the development of a series of prototype products for the estimation of turbulent heat fluxes and SMC derived from the synergy of SimSphere land surface model with EO observations from advanced technologically designed medium resolution ESA-funded or co-funded instruments. KEYWORDS: surface soil moisture, remote sensing, triangle, SimSphere, AATSR.

Petropoulos, George P.; Carlson, Toby N.

2013-04-01

374

Numerical Modeling of Nonlinear Acoustic-Gravity Wave Propagation from the Earth's Surface to the Upper Atmosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three-dimension algorithm for numerical simulation of vertical propagation and breaking of nonlinear acoustic-gravity waves (AGWs) from the Earth's surface to the upper atmosphere is developed. The 3D algorithm for hydrodynamic equation solution uses finite-difference analogues of basic conservation laws. This approach allows us to select physically correct generalized wave solutions of hydrodynamic equations. Horizontally moving periodical horizontal sinusoidal structures of vertical velocity on the Earth's surface serve as AGW sources in the model. The numerical simulation covers altitudes from the ground up to 500 km. Vertical profiles of the mean temperature, density, molecular viscosity and thermal conductivity are specified from standard models of the atmosphere. Calculations are made for different amplitudes, horizontal wavelengths and speeds of wave sources at the bottom of the atmosphere. When AGW amplitudes increase with height, waves may break down in the middle and upper atmosphere. After activating tropospheric wave sources, AGW very quickly (in a few minutes) may reach high altitudes up to 100 km and above. Instability and dissipation of wave energy may lead to formations of wave accelerations of the mean winds and to creations of wave-induced jet flows in the middle and upper atmosphere. Nonlinear interactions may lead to instabilities of the initial wave and to the creation of smaller-scale structures. These smaller inhomogeneities may increase temperature and wind gradients and enhance the wave energy dissipation. Thus, the increase in AGW amplitudes in the upper atmosphere may occur at a much slower pace than the increase in amplitudes of tropospheric wave sources. Acknowledgements This work was partially supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research.

Gavrilov, Nikolai M.; Kshevetskii, Sergej P.

2014-05-01

375

Comparison of Near-Surface Air Temperatures and MODIS Ice-Surface Temperatures at Summit, Greenland (2008-2013)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We have investigated the stability of the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) infrared-derived ice surface temperature (IST) data from Terra for use as a climate quality data record. The availability of climate quality air temperature data (TA) from a NOAA Global Monitoring Division observatory at Greenlands Summit station has enabled this high temporal resolution study of MODIS ISTs. During a 5 year period (July 2008 to August 2013), more than 2500 IST values were compared with 3-minute average TA values derived from the 1-minute data from NOAAs primary 2 m air temperature sensor. These data enabled an expected small offset between air and surface temperatures at this the ice sheet location to be investigated over multiple annual cycles.

Shuman, Christopher A.; Hall, Dorothy K.; DiGirolamo, Nicolo E.; Mefford, Thomas K.; Schnaubelt, Michael J.

2014-01-01

376

ULF magnetic signatures at the earth surface due to ground water flow - A possible precursor to earthquakes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Magnetic field fluctuations at the earth's surface at less than 1 Hz are shown to result from motion with a peak velocity of about 4 cm/s of ground water (about 4 S/m) at about 5 km depth. Surface field changes can occur due to either divergence free fluid motion with transverse spatial wavelengths of a few tens of km, and/or homogeneous flow which displaces local inhomogeneities in the earth magnetic field.

Draganov, A. B.; Inan, U. S.; Taranenko, Iu. N.

1991-01-01

377

Sea Surface Temperature Forcing of the Late Indian Summer Monsoon  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper uses recent historical data and Atmospheric General Circulation Model (AGCM) simulations in order to assess the relationships between interannual variability of the Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM) and Sea Surface Temperature (SST) anomaly patterns over the Indian and Pacific oceans. The focus is on the predictability of ISM rainfall and circulation, and its links to local (Indian Ocean) and

P. Terray; P. Delecluse; S. Labattu; L. Terray; C. Cassou

2002-01-01

378

Instrument accurately measures small temperature changes on test surface  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Calorimeter apparatus accurately measures very small temperature rises on a test surface subjected to aerodynamic heating. A continuous thin sheet of a sensing material is attached to a base support plate through which a series of holes of known diameter have been drilled for attaching thermocouples to the material.

Harvey, W. D.; Miller, H. B.

1966-01-01

379

Marine surface temperature: Observed variations and data requirements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurements of temperature at the ocean surface are an indispensible part of the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS). We describe the varying coverage of these measurements from the mid-nineteenth century through to the present era of satellite data, along with ongoing attempts to augment the available digitized data base. We next survey attempts to remove systematic biases from both sea

D. E. Parker; C. K. Folland; M. Jackson

1995-01-01

380

Linear analysis of surface temperature dynamics and climate sensitivity  

E-print Network

iii ABSTRACT Linear Analysis of Surface Temperature Dynamics and Climate Sensitivity. (December 2005) Wei Wu, B.S., Ocean University of China; M.S., Ocean University of China Co-Chairs of Advisory Committee: Dr. Gerald R. North......................................................................................................................... 81 ix LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE Page 1 Ocean-family modes...

Wu, Wei

2007-04-25

381

Improved global sea surface temperature analyses using optimum interpolation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The new NOAA operational global sea surface temperature (SST) analysis is described. The analyses use 7 days of in situ (ship and buoy) and satellite SST. These analyses are produced weekly and daily using optimum interpolation (OI) on a 1[degrees] grid. The OI technique requires the specification of data and analysis error statistics. These statistics are derived and show that

Richard W. Reynolds; Thomas M. Smith

1994-01-01

382

Investigation of Aerodynamic and Aerodynamic and Radiometric Land Surface Temperatures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The overall goal of the project was to reconcile the difference between T(sub s,r) and T(sub aero), while maintaining consistency within models and with theory and data. The project involved collaboration between researchers at Bucknell University, Boston University, University of mode Island, and the USDNARS Hydrology Laboratory. This report focuses on the work done at Bucknell, which used an analytical continuous-source flux model developed by Crago (1998), based on work by Brutsaert and Sugita (1996) to generate fluxes at all levels of the canopy. Named ALARM [Analytical Land- Atmosphere-Radiometer Model] by Suleiman and Crago (2002), the model assumes the foliage has an exponential vertical temperature profile. The same profile is felt by the within-canopy turbulence and 'seen" by a radiometer viewing the surface from any zenith view angle. ALARM converts radiometric surface temperatures taken from any view angle into a clearly-defined version of Taero called the equivalent isothermal surface temperature T(sub s,j), and then calculates the sensible heat flux H using Monin-Obukhov similarity theory. This allows remotely sensed Ts,r measurements to be used to produce high quality sensible and latent heat flux estimates, or to validate or update the surface temperature produced by SVATs in climate or mesoscale models.

Crago, Richard D.; Friedl, Mark; Kustas, William; Wang, Ye-Qiao

2003-01-01

383

Sensitivity of tropical cyclone intensity to sea surface temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increased occurrence of more intense tropical storms intruding further poleward has been foreshadowed as one of the potential consequences of global warming. This scenario is based almost entirely on the general circulation model predictions of warmer sea surface temperature (SST) with increasing levels of atmospheric CO[sub 2] and some theories of tropical cyclone intensification that support the notion of more

Jenni L. Evans

1993-01-01

384

Atlantic Sea Surface Temperatures and Tropical Cyclone Formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has long been accepted that interannual fluctuations in sea surface temperature (SST) in the Atlantic are associated with fluctuations in seasonal Atlantic basin tropical cyclone frequency. To isolate the physical mech- anism responsible for this relationship, a singular value decomposition (SVD) is used to establish the dominant covarying modes of tropospheric wind shear and SST as well as horizontal

Lloyd J. Shapiro; Stanley B. Goldenberg

1998-01-01

385

Recent Trends in Land Surface Temperature on the Tibetan Plateau  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diurnal, seasonal, and interannual variations in land surface temperature (LST) on the Tibetan Plateau from 1996 to 2002 are analyzed using the hourly LST dataset obtained by Japanese Geostationary Meteorological Satellite 5 (GMS-5) observations. Comparing LST retrieved from GMS-5 with independent precipitation amount data demonstrates the consistent and complementary relationship between them. The results indicate an increase in the

Yuichiro Oku; Hirohiko Ishikawa; Shigenori Haginoya; Yaoming Ma

2006-01-01

386

Surface Temperature Distribution of a Breast With and Without Tumour  

Microsoft Academic Search

Breast cancer is a common and dreadful disease in women. Regular screening helps in its early detection. At present the most common methods of screening are by self examination and mammography. The surface temperature distribution of the breast can also provide some information on the presence of tumour. This distribution has a relation to the size and location of tumour

N. M. SUDHARSAN; E. Y. K. NG; S. L. TEH

1999-01-01

387

The POES-GOES Blended Sea Surface Temperature Analysis  

E-print Network

The POES-GOES Blended Sea Surface Temperature Analysis Andy Harris, NOAA-CICS, UMD Eileen Maturi geostationary (Meteosat-9, MT-SAT) ­ Microwave sensors · Meet needs of user community ­ Ocean Forecasting. ­ Rossby radius is ~20 km at mid-latitudes · Uncertainty estimates ­ For each observation type ­ Dynamic

Kuligowski, Bob

388

Predicting Winter Surface Air Temperature in Northeast China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author investigates the prediction of Northeast China's winter surface air temperature (SAT), and first forecast the year to year increment in the predic- tand and then predict the predictand. Thus, in the first step, we determined the predictors for an increment in winter SAT by analyzing the atmospheric variability associated with an increment in winter SAT. Then, multi-linear re-

FAN Ke

2009-01-01

389

Chromium isotopes in siliciclastic sediments and sedimentary rocks as a proxy for Earth surface redox  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chromium (Cr) isotopes are an emerging and potentially promising proxy for tracking redox processes at Earth's surface. However, recent efforts to reconstruct the Cr isotope record through time have primarily focused on sporadically deposited iron-rich chemical sediments, with large temporal gaps and limited capacity to explore the Cr isotope record relative to modern and recent marine processes. However, the basic inorganic chemistry of Cr suggests that anoxic marine basins factor prominently in the global Cr cycle, and that likewise sediments deposited within anoxic basins may offer an unexplored Cr isotope archive throughout Earth's history. We present authigenic ?53Cr data from sediments of the Cariaco Basin, Venezuela--a ';type' environment on the modern Earth for large, perennially anoxic basins with relatively strong hydrological connections to the global ocean. Combined with currently available constraints on the ?53Cr composition of modern Atlantic seawater, these data are consistent with the hypothesis that anoxic marine basins can serve as a chemical archive of the first-order features of seawater ?53Cr variation. We employ a simple quantitative model to explore the implications of this hypothesis for global Cr isotope mass balance and the possible utility of authigenic ?53Cr in anoxically deposited siliciclastic sediments and sedimentary rocks as a global paleoredox proxy. Our focus is a basic analysis of the primary controls on seawater ?53Cr as related to both the marine redox landscape and the processes involved in the weathering and aqueous-particulate transport of Cr at Earth's surface. As a case study, we provide analysis of new bulk ?53Cr data through a Cretaceous Oceanic Anoxic Event (OAE-2), which shows a well-defined ~1.0 negative excursion during the event coupled with evidence for a drawdown of the marine Cr reservoir. We present a conceptual model to explain these observations, and interpret this shift to suggest a shutdown of internal oceanic Cr isotope fractionation associated with a perturbation to benthic marine redox.

Reinhard, C. T.; Planavsky, N. J.; Wang, X.; Owens, J. D.; Johnson, T. M.; Fischer, W. W.; Lyons, T. W.

2013-12-01

390

Climate change signal analysis for Northeast Asian surface temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change detection, attribution, and prediction were studied for the surface temperature in the Northeast Asian region using NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data and three coupled-model simulations from ECHAM4/OPYC3, HadCM3, and CCCma GCMs (Canadian Centre for Climate Modeling and Analysis general circulation model). The Bayesian fingerprint approach was used to perform the detection and attribution test for the anthropogenic climate change signal associated with changes in anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) and sulfate aerosol (SO{4/2-}) concentrations for the Northeast Asian temperature. It was shown that there was a weak anthropogenic climate change signal in the Northeast Asian temperature change. The relative contribution of CO2 and SO{4/2-} effects to total temperature change in Northeast Asia was quantified from ECHAM4/OPYC3 and CCCma GCM simulations using analysis of variance. For the observed temperature change for the period of 1959 1998, the CO2 effect contributed 10% 21% of the total variance and the direct cooling effect of SO{4/2-} played a less important role (0% 7%) than the CO2 effect. The prediction of surface temperature change was estimated from the second CO2+SO{4/2-} scenario run of ECHAM4/OPYC3 which has the least error in the simulation of the present-day temperature field near the Korean Peninsula. The result shows that the area-mean surface temperature near the Korean Peninsula will increase by about 1.1 by the 2040s relative to the 1990s.

Lee, Jeong-Hyeong; Kim, Byungsoo; Sohn, Keon-Tae; Kown, Won-Tae; Min, Seung-Ki

2005-03-01

391

Using 3D Printers to Model Earth Surface Topography for Increased Student Understanding and Retention  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In February 2000, the Space Shuttle Endeavour flew a specially modified radar system during an 11-day mission. The purpose of the multinational Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) was to "obtain elevation data on a near-global scale to generate the most complete high-resolution digital topographic database of Earth" by using radar interferometry. The data and resulting products are now publicly available for download and give a view of the landscape removed of vegetation, buildings, and other structures. This new view of the Earth's topography allows us to see previously unmapped or poorly mapped regions of the Earth as well as providing a level of detail that was previously unknown using traditional topographic mapping techniques. Understanding and appreciating the geographic terrain is a complex but necessary requirement for middle school aged (11-14yo) students. Abstract in nature, topographic maps and other 2D renderings of the Earth's surface and features do not address the inherent spatial challenges of a concrete-learner and traditional methods of teaching can at times exacerbate the problem. Technological solutions such as 3D-imaging in programs like Google Earth are effective but lack the tactile realness that can make a large difference in learning comprehension and retention for these young students. First developed in the 1980's, 3D printers were not commercial reality until recently and the rapid rise in interest has driven down the cost. With the advent of sub US1500 3D printers, this technology has moved out of the high-end marketplace and into the local office supply store. Schools across the US and elsewhere in the world are adding 3D printers to their technological workspaces and students have begun rapid-prototyping and manufacturing a variety of projects. This project attempted to streamline the process of transforming SRTM data from a GeoTIFF format by way of Python code. The resulting data was then inputted into a CAD-based program for visualization and exporting as a .stl file for 3D printing. A proposal for improving the method and making it more accessible to middle school aged students is provided. Using the SRTM data to print a hand-held visual representation of a portion of the Earth's surface would utilize existing technology in the school and alter how topography can be taught in the classroom. Combining methods of 2D paper representations, on-screen 3D visualizations, and 3D hand-held models, give students the opportunity to truly grasp and retain the information being provided.

Thesenga, David; Town, James

2014-05-01

392

Near-surface temperature gradient in a coastal upwelling regime  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

oceanography, a near homogeneous mixed layer extending from the surface to a seasonal thermocline is a common conceptual basis in physics, chemistry, and biology. In a coastal upwelling region 3 km off the coast in the Mexican Pacific, we measured vertical density gradients with a free-rising CTD and temperature gradients with thermographs at 1, 3, and 5 m depths logging every 5 min during more than a year. No significant salinity gradient was observed down to 10 m depth, and the CTD temperature and density gradients showed no pronounced discontinuity that would suggest a near-surface mixed layer. Thermographs generally logged decreasing temperature with depth with gradients higher than 0.2 K m-1 more than half of the time in the summer between 1 and 3 m, 3 and 5 m and in the winter between 1 and 3 m. Some negative temperature gradients were present and gradients were generally highly variable in time with high peaks lasting fractions of hours to hours. These temporal changes were too rapid to be explained by local heating or cooling. The pattern of positive and negative peaks might be explained by vertical stacks of water layers of different temperatures and different horizontal drift vectors. The observed near-surface gradient has implications for turbulent wind energy transfer, vertical exchange of dissolved and particulate water constituents, the interpretation of remotely sensed SST, and horizontal wind-induced transport.

Maske, H.; Ochoa, J.; Almeda-Jauregui, C. O.; Ruiz-de la Torre, M. C.; Cruz-Lpez, R.; Villegas-Mendoza, J. R.

2014-08-01

393

Modeling apple surface temperature dynamics based on weather data.  

PubMed

The exposure of fruit surfaces to direct sunlight during the summer months can result in sunburn damage. Losses due to sunburn damage are a major economic problem when marketing fresh apples. The objective of this study was to develop and validate a model for simulating fruit surface temperature (FST) dynamics based on energy balance and measured weather data. A series of weather data (air temperature, humidity, solar radiation, and wind speed) was recorded for seven hours between 11:00-18:00 for two months at fifteen minute intervals. To validate the model, the FSTs of "Fuji" apples were monitored using an infrared camera in a natural orchard environment. The FST dynamics were measured using a series of thermal images. For the apples that were completely exposed to the sun, the RMSE of the model for estimating FST was less than 2.0 C. A sensitivity analysis of the emissivity of the apple surface and the conductance of the fruit surface to water vapour showed that accurate estimations of the apple surface emissivity were important for the model. The validation results showed that the model was capable of accurately describing the thermal performances of apples under different solar radiation intensities. Thus, this model could be used to more accurately estimate the FST relative to estimates that only consider the air temperature. In addition, this model provides useful information for sunburn protection management. PMID:25350507

Li, Lei; Peters, Troy; Zhang, Qin; Zhang, Jingjin; Huang, Danfeng

2014-01-01

394

Modeling Apple Surface Temperature Dynamics Based on Weather Data  

PubMed Central

The exposure of fruit surfaces to direct sunlight during the summer months can result in sunburn damage. Losses due to sunburn damage are a major economic problem when marketing fresh apples. The objective of this study was to develop and validate a model for simulating fruit surface temperature (FST) dynamics based on energy balance and measured weather data. A series of weather data (air temperature, humidity, solar radiation, and wind speed) was recorded for seven hours between 11:0018:00 for two months at fifteen minute intervals. To validate the model, the FSTs of Fuji apples were monitored using an infrared camera in a natural orchard environment. The FST dynamics were measured using a series of thermal images. For the apples that were completely exposed to the sun, the RMSE of the model for estimating FST was less than 2.0 C. A sensitivity analysis of the emissivity of the apple surface and the conductance of the fruit surface to water vapour showed that accurate estimations of the apple surface emissivity were important for the model. The validation results showed that the model was capable of accurately describing the thermal performances of apples under different solar radiation intensities. Thus, this model could be used to more accurately estimate the FST relative to estimates that only consider the air temperature. In addition, this model provides useful information for sunburn protection management. PMID:25350507

Li, Lei; Peters, Troy; Zhang, Qin; Zhang, Jingjin; Huang, Danfeng

2014-01-01

395

Surface heterogeneity effects on regional-scale fluxes in stable boundary layers: surface temperature transitions  

E-print Network

understanding of homogeneous stable boundary layers (SBLs). However, in general, the atmospheric boundary layerSurface heterogeneity effects on regional-scale fluxes in stable boundary layers: surface temperature distributions on regional-scale turbulent fluxes in the stable boundary layer (SBL). Simulations

Stoll, Rob

396

Inversion of seismic and geodetic data for the major element chemistry and temperature of the Earth's mantle  

Microsoft Academic Search

We jointly invert global seismic traveltime data, mean mass, and mean moment of inertia for Earth's mantle composition and thermal state using a stochastic sampling algorithm. The chemical composition of the silicate Earth is modeled within the system CaO-FeO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2. Given these parameters we calculate the stable mineralogy and its elastic properties and density as a function of pressure and temperature

A. Khan; J. A. D. Connolly; S. R. Taylor

2008-01-01

397

Evidence for influence of anthropogenic surface processes on lower tropospheric and surface temperature trends  

Microsoft Academic Search

In de Laat and Maurellis (2004), a new framework was introduced in the form of a spatial-thresholding trend technique for analyzing the correlation between anthropogenic surface processes (e.g. changes in land use, albedo, soil moisture, groundwater levels, solar absorption by soot or energy consumption) and lower tropospheric and surface temperature trends for the period 1979-2001. In situ measured surface and

A. T. J. De Laat; A. N. Maurellis

2006-01-01

398

Study of bacterial adhesion on biomimetic temperature responsive glycopolymer surfaces.  

PubMed

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen responsible for diseases such as bacteremia, chronic lung infection, and acute ulcerative keratitis. P. aeruginosa induced diseases can be fatal as the exotoxins and endotoxins released by the bacterium continue to damage host tissues even after the administration of antibiotics. As bacterial adhesion on cell surfaces is the first step in bacterial based pathogen infections, the control of bacteria-cell interactions is a worthwhile research target. In this work, thermally responsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) [P(NIPAAm)] based biomimetic surfaces were developed to study the two major bacterial infection mechanisms, which is believed to be mediated by hydrophobic or lectin-carbohydrate interactions, using quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation. Although, a greater number of P. aeruginosa adhered to the NIPAAm homopolymer modified surfaces at temperatures higher than the lower critical solution temperature (LCST), the bacterium-substratum bond stiffness was stronger between P. aeruginosa and a galactose based P(NIPAAm) surface. The high bacterial adhesion bond stiffness observed on the galactose based thermally responsive surface at 37 C might suggest that both hydrophobic and lectin-carbohydrate interactions contribute to bacterial adhesion on cell surfaces. Our investigation also suggests that the lectin-carbohydrate interaction play a significant role in bacterial infections. PMID:25548940

Wang, Yinan; Kotsuchibashi, Yohei; Liu, Yang; Narain, Ravin

2015-01-28

399

Evaluation of the present theoretical basis for determination of planetary surface properties by earth-based radar  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Spaceflight programs such as the planned Viking landing on Mars require the determination of planetary surface slopes and surface dielectric constants by earth-based methods. Heavy reliance is often placed on radar backscattering data for estimation of these surface properties. An assessment is presented of the basic theory by which the raw radar data are interpreted, and it is shown that serious difficulties and internal inconsistencies are present in the available theoretical formulas. The discussion brings into question the reliability of the presently available results for these surface properties as obtained by earth-based radar methods.

Staton, L. D.

1975-01-01

400

Curie temperatures and modified de Gennes factors of rare earth nitrides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Curie temperatures TC of the nitrides of the rare earths (Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, and Er), including binary systems, were investigated. TC was found to be approximately proportional to the de Gennes factor, ?=(J(J+1), where g is the Land g-factor and J is the total angular momentum quantum number of a trivalent rare earth (RE). This proportionality was significantly improved by introducing a modified de Gennes factor, ?. The conventional de Gennes factor ? indicates the exchange interaction given by the inner product of the effective spin components of ions of the same kind, whereas our modified de Gennes factor ? also considers interactions between different kinds of ions and statistical factors calculated on the basis of the binomial distribution. The good proportionality obtained between TC and ? indicates that the spin components of RE ions interact with each other. This interaction is considered to be responsible for the ferromagnetism of these nitrides (including binary systems). These considerations were supported by the synthesis of and magnetization measurements on Gd xEr 1- xN ( x=0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1) samples.

Hirayama, Yusuke; Nakagawa, Takashi; Yamamoto, Takao A.

2011-11-01

401

Assessing Confidence in Pliocene Sea Surface Temperatures to Evaluate Predictive Models  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In light of mounting empirical evidence that planetary warming is well underway, the climate research community looks to palaeoclimate research for a ground-truthing measure with which to test the accuracy of future climate simulations. Model experiments that attempt to simulate climates of the past serve to identify both similarities and differences between two climate states and, when compared with simulations run by other models and with geological data, to identify model-specific biases. Uncertainties associated with both the data and the models must be considered in such an exercise. The most recent period of sustained global warmth similar to what is projected for the near future occurred about 3.33.0 million years ago, during the Pliocene epoch. Here, we present Pliocene sea surface temperature data, newly characterized in terms of level of confidence, along with initial experimental results from four climate models. We conclude that, in terms of sea surface temperature, models are in good agreement with estimates of Pliocene sea surface temperature in most regions except the North Atlantic. Our analysis indicates that the discrepancy between the Pliocene proxy data and model simulations in the mid-latitudes of the North Atlantic, where models underestimate warming shown by our highest-confidence data, may provide a new perspective and insight into the predictive abilities of these models in simulating a past warm interval in Earth history.This is important because the Pliocene has a number of parallels to present predictions of late twenty-first century climate.

Dowsett, Harry J.; Robinson, Marci M.; Haywood, Alan M.; Hill, Daniel J.; Dolan, Aisling. M.; Chan, Wing-Le; Abe-Ouchi, Ayako; Chandler, Mark A.; Rosenbloom, Nan A.; Otto-Bliesner, Bette L.; Bragg, Fran J.; Lunt, Daniel J.; Stoll, Danielle K.; Foley, Kevin M.; Riesselman, Christina

2012-01-01

402

Assessing confidence in Pliocene sea surface temperatures to evaluate predictive models  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In light of mounting empirical evidence that planetary warming is well underway, the climate research community looks to palaeoclimate research for a ground-truthing measure with which to test the accuracy of future climate simulations. Model experiments that attempt to simulate climates of the past serve to identify both similarities and differences between two climate states and, when compared with simulations run by other models and with geological data, to identify model-specific biases. Uncertainties associated with both the data and the models must be considered in such an exercise. The most recent period of sustained global warmth similar to what is projected for the near future occurred about 3.33.0 million years ago, during the Pliocene epoch. Here, we present Pliocene sea surface temperature data, newly characterized in terms of level of confidence, along with initial experimental results from four climate models. We conclude that, in terms of sea surface temperature, models are in good agreement with estimates of Pliocene sea surface temperature in most regions except the North Atlantic. Our analysis indicates that the discrepancy between the Pliocene proxy data and model simulations in the mid-latitudes of the North Atlantic, where models underestimate warming shown by our highest-confidence data, may provide a new perspective and insight into the predictive abilities of these models in simulating a past warm interval in Earth history. This is important because the Pliocene has a number of parallels to present predictions of late twenty-first century climate.

Dowsett, Harry J.; Robinson, Marci M.; Haywood, Alan M.; Hill, Daniel J.; Dolan, Aisling M.; Stoll, Danielle K.; Chan, Wing-Le; Abe-Ouchi, Ayako; Chandler, Mark A.; Rosenbloom, Nan A.; Otto-Bliesner, Bette L.; Bragg, Fran J.; Lunt, Daniel J.; Foley, Kevin M.; Riesselman, Christina R.

2012-01-01

403

Global patterns of solar influence on high cloud cover and role of sea surface temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change and global warming have become usual terms nowadays but mechanisms that could explain their causes are not understood. One of the main sources of uncertainty in climate projections is represented by clouds, which, due to various feedback, have an important influence on Earth's radiation budget. The cloud representation in General Circulation Models relies largely on constraints derived from observations. Solar impact on climate is largely unknown and some coupling mechanisms between solar and climate variability rely on the Sea Surface Temperature. We identified solar forced patterns in observed high cloud cover (HCC) based on associations with known fingerprints of the same forcing on cloud cover obtained from reanalysis data, on observed surface air temperature (SAT), sea level pressure (SLP) and sea surface temperature (SST) fields. The solar influence on HCC has maximum amplitudes over the Pacific basin, where high cloud cover anomalies are distributed in bands of alternating polarities, indicating a SST influence on high clouds through convection. The HCC structure induced by the solar cycle appears to be generated through both so-called "top-down" and "bottom-up" mechanisms of solar influence on climate. Clouds are dependent on the relative humidity which is strongly influenced by the dynamics and SST, thus we also review possible mechanisms connecting SST with clouds, solar radiation, cosmic rays, precipitations and aerosols.

Voiculescu, Mirela; Dima, Mihai; Constantin, Daniel

2014-05-01

404

Surface Heat Budgets and Sea Surface Temperature in the Pacific Warm Pool During TOGA COARE  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The daily mean heat and momentum fluxes at the surface derived from the SSM/I and Japan's GMS radiance measurements are used to study the temporal and spatial variability of the surface energy budgets and their relationship to the sea surface temperature during the COARE intensive observing period (IOP). For the three time legs observed during the IOP, the retrieved surface fluxes compare reasonably well with those from the IMET buoy, RV Moana Wave, and RV Wecoma. The characteristics of surface heat and momentum fluxes are very different between the southern and northern warm pool. In the southern warm pool, the net surface heat flux is dominated by solar radiation which is, in turn, modulated by the two Madden-Julian oscillations. The surface winds are generally weak, leading to a shallow ocean mixed layer. The solar radiation penetrating through the bottom of the mixed layer is significant, and the change in the sea surface temperature during the IOP does not follow the net surface heat flux. In the northern warm pool, the northeasterly trade wind is strong and undergoes strong seasonal variation. The variation of the net surface heat flux is dominated by evaporation. The two westerly wind bursts associated with the Madden-Julian oscillations seem to have little effect on the net surface heat flux. The ocean mixed layer is deep, and the solar radiation penetrating through the bottom of the mixed layer is small. As opposed to the southern warm pool, the trend of the sea surface temperature in the northern warm pool during the IOP is in agreement with the variation of the net heat flux at the surface.

Chou, Shu-Hsien; Zhao, Wenzhong; Chou, Ming-Dah

1998-01-01

405

High spatial resolution Land Surface Temperature estimation over urban areas with uncertainty indices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Land Surface Temperature (LST) is a key variable for studying land surface processes and interactions with the atmosphere and it is listed in the Earth System Data Records (ESDRs) identified by international organizations like Global Climate Observing System. It is a valuable source of information for a range of topics in earth sciences and essential for urban climatology studies. Detailed, frequent and accurate LST mapping may support various urban applications, like the monitoring of urban heat island. Currently, no spaceborne instruments provide frequent thermal imagery at high spatial resolution, thus there is a need for synergistic algorithms that combine different kinds of data for LST retrieval. Moreover, knowing the confidence level of any satellite-derived product is highly important to the users, especially when referred to the urban environment, which is extremely heterogenic. The developed method employs spatial-spectral unmixing techniques for improving the spatial resolution of thermal measurements, combines spectral library information for emissivity estimation and applies a split-window algorithm to estimate LST with an uncertainty estimation inserted in the final product. A synergistic algorithm that utilizes the spatial information provided by visible and near-infrared measurements with more frequent low resolution thermal measurements provides excellent means for high spatial resolution LST estimation. Given the low spatial resolution of thermal infrared sensors, the measured radiation is a combination of radiances of different surface types. High spatial resolution information is used to quantify the different surface types in each pixel and then the measured radiance of each pixel is decomposed. The several difficulties in retrieving LST from space measurements, mainly related to the temperature-emissivity coupling and the atmospheric contribution to the thermal measurements, and the measurements themselves, introduce uncertainties in the final product, which are quantified here.

Mitraka, Zina; Lazzarini, Michele; Doxani, Georgia; Del Frate, Fabio; Ghedira, Hosni

2014-05-01

406

Photoelectron emission analysis of surface elements of the International Sun Earth Explorer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The photoemission was measured of engineering materials (aluminum; copper, plain; copper, abraded; copper-beryllium; magnesium; silver; In2O3 on silica; reflective coating on silica; teflon; kapton; and Pyre ML) associated with the International Sun Earth Explorer (ISEE) Satellite. The procedures used are described, including the experimental equipment; results of the program, the conclusions reached, and areas for further work are presented. Data regarding the measured yield of the 11 materials whose surface emission was determined is included in the form of plots of photoelectric yield versus incident light wavelength.

Spencer, W. T.

1975-01-01

407

STS-39 SPAS-II/IBSS spacecraft is released by RMS above the Earth's surface  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During STS-39 mission operations, the Shuttle Pallet Satellite II (SPAS-II) / Infrared Background Signature Survey (IBSS) spacecraft is released by Discovery's, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103's, remote manipulator system (RMS) end effector. SPAS-II/IBSS drifts away from the end effector over the cloud-covered surface of the Earth. Components visible on the spacecraft include the grapple fixture, the longeron trunnion, scuff plate, cryostat, and Arizona Imager/Spectrograph (AIS) (in shadows). SPAS-II is a Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO) payload.

1991-01-01

408

STS-39 SPAS-II/IBSS spacecraft is released by RMS above the Earth's surface  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During STS-39 mission operations, the Shuttle Pallet Satellite II (SPAS-II) / Infrared Background Signature Survey (IBSS) spacecraft is released by Discovery's, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103's, remote manipulator system (RMS) end effector. SPAS-II/IBSS drifts away from the end effector over the cloud-covered surface of the Earth highlighted by a sun glint. Components visible on the spacecraft include the grapple fixture, the longeron trunnion, scuff plate, cryostat, and keel trunnion with radar enhancement devices (spheres). SPAS-II is a Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO) payload.

1991-01-01

409

Evidence of Lunar Phase Influence on Global Surface Air Temperatures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Intraseasonal oscillations appearing in a newly available 20-year record of satellite-derived surface air temperature are composited with respect to the lunar phase. Polar regions exhibit strong lunar phase modulation with higher temperatures occurs near full moon and lower temperatures at new moon, in agreement with previous studies. The polar response to the apparent lunar forcing is shown to be most robust in the winter months when solar influence is minimum. In addition, the response appears to be influenced by ENSO events. The highest mean temperature range between full moon and new moon in the polar region between 60 deg and 90 deg latitude was recorded in 1983, 1986/87, and 1990/91. Although the largest lunar phase signal is in the polar regions, there is a tendency for meridional equatorward progression of anomalies in both hemispheres so that the warning in the tropics occurs at the time of the new moon.

Anyamba, Ebby; Susskind, Joel

2000-01-01

410

Global surface temperature/heat transfer measurements using infrared imaging  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A series of studies were conducted to evaluate the use of scanning radiometric infrared imaging systems for providing global surface temperature/heat transfer measurements in support of hypersonic wind tunnel testing. The in situ precision of the technique with narrow temperature span setting over the temperature range of 20 to 200 C was investigated. The precision of the technique over wider temperature span settings was also determined. The accuracy of technique for providing aerodynamic heating rates was investigated by performing measurements on a 10.2-centimeter hemisphere model in the Langley 31-inch Mach 10 tunnel, and comparing the results with theoretical predictions. Data from tests conducted on a generic orbiter model in this tunnel are also presented.

Daryabeigi, Kamran

1992-01-01

411

Theoretical study of cathode surfaces and high-temperature superconductors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The surface-dipole properties of model cathode surfaces have been investigated with relativistic scattered-wave cluster calculations. Work-function/coverage curves have been derived from these data by employing the depolarization model of interacting surface dipoles. Accurate values have been obtained for the minimum work functions of several low-work-function surfaces. In the series BaO on bcc W, hcp Os, and fcc Pt, BaO/Os shows a lower and BaO/Pt a higher work function than BaO/W, which is attributed to the different substrate crystal structures involved. Results are also presented on the electronic structure of the high-temperature superconductor YBa2Cu3O7, which has been investigated with fully relativistic calculations for the first time.

Mueller, Wolfgang

1994-01-01

412

Global Temperature Time Series  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The phenomenon is the rising and falling of temperatures on the Earth's surface. Click to choose a city on a regional map, showing graphs of the daily maximum, minimum, and mean temperatures for a 365 day time period.

413

Tensile testing method for rare earth based bulk superconductors at liquid nitrogen temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bending tests have been commonly carried out to investigate the mechanical properties of melt-processed rare earth based bulk superconductors. Tensile tests by using small specimen, however, are preferable to evaluate the detailed distribution of the mechanical properties and the intrinsic elastic modulus because no stress distributions exist in the cross-section. In this study, the tensile test method at low temperature by using specimens with the dimensions of 3 3 4 mm from Y123 and Gd123 bulks was examined. They were glued to Al alloy rods at 400 K by using epoxy resin. Tests were carried out at liquid nitrogen temperature (LNT) by using the immersion type jig. Although the bending strength in the direction perpendicular to the c-axis of the bulks at LNT is higher than that at room temperature (RT), the tensile strength at LNT was lower than that at RT. Many of specimens fractured near the interface between the specimen and the Al alloy rod at LNT. According to the finite element method analysis, it was shown that there was a peak thermal stress in the loading direction near the interface and it was significantly higher at LNT than that at RT. It was also shown that the replacement of the Al alloy rod to Ti rod of which the coefficient of thermal expansion is close to that of bulks significantly increased the tensile strength.

Kasaba, K.; Katagiri, K.; Murakami, A.; Sato, G.; Sato, T.; Murakami, M.; Sakai, N.; Teshima, H.; Sawamura, M.

2005-10-01

414

Alkaline earth silicate wools - A new generation of high temperature insulation.  

PubMed

Intensive study of the natural asbestiform minerals that cause human diseases, and the consequent understanding of their hazardous characteristics, has enabled the development of manufactured fibres whose physical and/or chemical properties, in particular as they relate to biopersistence, have been adjusted to minimize possible harm to health. A strong driver for the developmentof new high temperature insulation materials wasthe perception of the toxicity of refractory ceramic fibres (RCF)and their classification in the EU as a category 2 carcinogen under Directive 67/548/EEC. Such classification carries with it the requirement for substitution by less hazardous materials. This paper focuses on the development of alkaline earth silicate (AES) wools as a new class of high temperature insulation with the capability of such substitution in a number of applications. These wools have only a low potential to cause harm because they do not persist in lung tissue once deposited, and have produced minimal effects in experimental test systems. AES wools are increasingly being used in a wide range of high temperature applications. PMID:22975085

Brown, Robert C; Harrison, Paul T C

2012-11-01

415

Sea surface and remotely sensed temperatures off Cape Mendocino, California  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During September 3 to 5, 1979, a multisensor oceanographic experiment was conducted off Cape Mendocino, California. The purpose of this experiment was to validate the use of remote sensing techniques over an area along the U.S. west coast where coasted upwelling is known to be intense. Remotely sensed mutlispectral data, including thermal infrared imagery, were collected above an upwelling feature off Cape Mendocino. Data were acquired from the TIRNOS-N and NOAA-6 polar orbiting satellites, the NASA Ames Research Center's high altitude U-2 aircraft, and a U.S. Coast Guard C-130 aircraft. Supporting surface truth data over the same feature were collected aboard the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) ship, OCEANOGRAPHER. Atmospheric soundings were also taken aboard the ship. The results indicate that shipboard measurements of sea surface temperatures can be reproduction within 1 C or better through remote observation of absolute infrared radiance values (whether measured aboard the NOAA polar orbiting satellite, the U-2 aircraft, or the Coast Guard aircraft) by using appropriate atmospheric corrections. Also, the patterns of sea surface temperature which were derived independently from the various remote platforms provide a consistent interpretation of the surface temperature field.

Breaker, L. C.; Arvesen, J. C.; Frydenlund, D.; Myers, J. S.; Short, K.

1985-01-01

416

Angular anisotropy of satellite observations of land surface temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Satellite-based time series of land surface temperature (LST) have the potential to be an important tool to diagnose climate changes of the past several decades. Production of such a time series requires addressing several issues with using asynchronous satellite observations, including the diurnal cycle, clouds, and angular anisotropy. Here we evaluate the angular anisotropy of LST using one full year of simultaneous observations by two Geostationary Operational Environment Satellites, GOES-EAST and GOES-WEST, at the locations of five surface radiation (SURFRAD) stations. We develop a technique to convert directionally observed LST into direction-independent equivalent physical temperature of the land surface. The anisotropy model consists of an isotropic kernel, an emissivity kernel (LST dependence on viewing angle), and a solar kernel (effect of directional inhomogeneity of observed temperature). Application of this model reduces differences of LST observed from two satellites and between the satellites and surface ground truth - SURFRAD station observed LST. The techniques of angular adjustment and temporal interpolation of satellite observed LST open a path for blending together historical, current, and future observations of many geostationary and polar orbiters into a homogeneous multi-decadal data set for climate change research.

Vinnikov, Konstantin Y.; Yu, Yunyue; Goldberg, Mitchell D.; Tarpley, Dan; Romanov, Peter; Laszlo, Istvan; Chen, Ming

2012-12-01

417

NPP VIIRS Land Surface Temperature EDR validation using NOAA's observation networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NOAA will soon use the new Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) on the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) as its primary polar-orbiting satellite imager. Employing a near real-time processing system, NOAA will generate a series of Environmental Data Records (EDRs) from VIIRS data. For example, the VIIRS Land Surface Temperature (LST) EDR will estimate the surface skin temperature over all global land areas and provide key information for monitoring Earth surface energy and water fluxes. Because both VIIRS and its processing algorithms are new, NOAA is conducting a rigorous calibration and validation program to understand and improve product quality. This work presents a new validation methodology to estimate the quantitative uncertainty in the LST EDR, and contribute to improving the retrieval algorithm. It employs a physically-based approach to scaling up point LST measurements currently made operationally at many field and weather stations around the world. The scaling method consists of the merging information collected at different spatial resolutions within a land surface model to fully characterize large area (km x km scale) satellite products. The approach can be used to explore scaling issues over terrestrial surfaces spanning a large range of climate regimes and land cover types, including forests and mixed vegetated areas. First results show that VIIRS and MODIS (collection 5) LST products are very consistent. Over vegetated areas, VIIRS LST EDRs verify JPSS program quality requirements - bias and precision specifications of VIIRS LST EDRs are 1.5K and 2.5K. However, VIIRS agrees better with scaled-up field data than with non-scaled field observations. Over desert areas, current VIIRS LST EDRs do not verify JPSS specifications. VIIRS and MODIS LST products tend to underestimate surface temperature at night. Ultimately, this validation approach should lead to an accurate and continuously-assessed VIIRS LST products suitable to support weather forecast, hydrological applications, or climate studies. It is readily adaptable to other moderate resolution satellite systems.

Guillevic, P. C.; Privette, J. L.

2012-12-01

418

The extent of temporal smearing in surface-temperature histories derived from borehole temperature measurements  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The ability of borehole temperature data to resolve past climatic events is investigated using Backus-Gilbert inversion methods. Two experimental approaches are considered: (1) the data consist of a single borehole temperature profile, and (2) the data consist of climatically-induced temperature transients measured within a borehole during a monitoring experiment. The sensitivity of the data's resolving power to the vertical distribution of the measurements, temperature measurement errors, the inclusion of a local meteorological record, and the duration of a monitoring experiment, are investigated. The results can be used to help interpret existing surface temperature histories derived from borehole temperature data and to optimize future experiments for the detection of climatic signals. ?? 1992.

Clow, G.D.

1992-01-01

419

Manipulating Rydberg atoms close to surfaces at cryogenic temperatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Helium atoms in Rydberg states have been manipulated coherently with microwave radiation pulses near a gold surface and near a superconducting NbTiN surface at a temperature of 3K. The experiments were carried out with a skimmed supersonic beam of metastable (1s)1(2s)11S0 helium atoms excited with laser radiation to np Rydberg levels with principal quantum number n between 30 and 40. The separation between the cold surface and the center of the collimated beam is adjustable down to 250?m. Short-lived np Rydberg states were coherently transferred to the long-lived ns state to avoid radiative decay of the Rydberg atoms between the photoexcitation region and the region above the cold surfaces. Further coherent manipulation of the ns Rydberg states with pulsed microwave radiation above the surfaces enabled measurements of stray electric fields and allowed us to study the decoherence of the atomic ensemble. Adsorption of residual gas onto the surfaces and the resulting slow buildup of stray fields was minimized by controlling the temperature of the surface and monitoring the partial pressures of H2O, N2, O2, and CO2 in the experimental chamber during the cool-down procedure. Compensation of the stray electric fields to levels below 100mV /cm was achieved over a region of 6mm along the beam-propagation direction which, for the 1770-m/s beam velocity, implies the possibility to preserve the coherence of the atomic sample for several microseconds above the cold surfaces.

Thiele, T.; Filipp, S.; Agner, J. A.; Schmutz, H.; Deiglmayr, J.; Stammeier, M.; Allmendinger, P.; Merkt, F.; Wallraff, A.

2014-07-01

420

Manipulating Rydberg atoms close to surfaces at cryogenic temperatures  

E-print Network

Helium atoms in Rydberg states have been manipulated coherently with microwave radiation pulses near a gold surface and near a superconducting NbTiN surface at a temperature of $3 \\text{K}$. The experiments were carried out with a skimmed supersonic beam of metastable $(1\\text{s})^1(2\\text{s})^1\\, {}^1\\text{S}_0$ helium atoms excited with laser radiation to $n\\text{p}$ Rydberg levels with principal quantum number $n$ between $30$ and $40$. The separation between the cold surface and the center of the collimated beam is adjustable down to $250 \\mu\\text{m}$. Short-lived $n\\text{p}$ Rydberg levels were coherently transferred to the long-lived $n\\text{s}$ state to avoid radiative decay of the Rydberg atoms between the photoexcitation region and the region above the cold surfaces. Further coherent manipulation of the $n\\text{s}$ Rydberg levels with pulsed microwave radiation above the surfaces enabled measurements of stray electric fields and allowed us to study the decoherence of the atomic ensemble. Adsorption of residual gas onto the surfaces and the resulting slow build-up of stray fields was minimized by controlling the temperature of the surface and monitoring the partial pressures of H$_2$O, N$_2$, O$_2$ and CO$_2$ in the experimental chamber during the cool-down. Compensation of the stray electric fields to levels below $100 \\text{mV}/\\text{cm}$ was achieved over a region of $6 \\text{mm}$ along the beam-propagation direction which, for the $1770 \\text{m}/\\text{s}$ beam velocity, implies the possibility to preserve the coherence of the atomic sample for several microseconds above the cold surfaces.

Tobias Thiele; Stefan Filipp; Josef Anton Agner; Hansjrg Schmutz; Johannes Deiglmayr; Mathias Stammeier; Pitt Allmendinger; Frdric Merkt; Andreas Wallraff

2014-02-28

421

Interdecadal changes of surface temperature since the late nineteenth century  

SciTech Connect

The authors present global fields of decadal annual surface temperature anomalies, referred to the period 1951-1980, for each decade from 1881-1890 to 1981-1990 and for 1984-1993. In addition, they show decadal calendar-seasonal anomaly fields for the warm decades 1936-1945 and 1981-1990. The fields are based on sea surface temperature (SST) and land surface air temperature data. The SSTs are corrected for the pre-World War II use of uninsulated sea temperature buckets and incorporate adjusted satellite-based SSTs from 1982 onward. These results extend those published in the 1990 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Scientific Assessment. Despite poor data coverage initially and around the two World Wars the generally cold end of the nineteenth century and start to the twentieth century are confirmed, together with the substantial warming between about 1920 and 1940. Slight cooling of the northern hemisphere took place between the 1950s and the mid-1970s, although slight warming continued south of the equator. Recent warmth has been most marked over the northern continents in winter and spring, but the 1980s were warm almost everywhere apart from Greenland, the northwestern Atlantic and the midlatitude North Pacific. Parts of the middle- to high-latitude southern ocean may also have been cool in the 1980s, but in this area the 1951-1980 climatology is unreliable. The impact of the satellite data is reduced because the record of blended satellite and in situ SST is still too short to yield a climatology from which to calculate representative anomalies reflecting climatic change in the southern ocean. However, the authors propose a method of using existing satellite data in a step toward this target. The maps are condensed into global and hemispheric decadal surface temperature anomalies. The authors show the sensitivity of these estimated anomalies to alternative methods of compositing the spatially incomplete fields. 58 refs., 17 figs., 3 tabs.

Parker, D.E.; Folland, C.K.; Bevan, A. [Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research, Bracknell (United Kingdom)] [Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research, Bracknell (United Kingdom); Jones, P.D. [Univ. of East Anglia, Norwich (United Kingdom)] [Univ. of East Anglia, Norwich (United Kingdom)

1994-07-20

422

Net surface radiation retrieval using Earth Observation Satellite data and machine learning algorithm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a method to estimate net surface radiation (NSR) from Terra MODIS data using Artificial Neural Network (ANN) technique. For this purpose, we trained the ANN model using MODIS atmospheric profile product of air temperature, dew point temperature, solar zenith angle and land surface temperature from Terra as independent parameters and the net surface radiation from eddy flux tower measurements at Bonnie camp location of Sundarban region as the dependent variable. The NSR is estimated with a root mean square accuracy of 64 w/m2 and the square of the correlation coefficient (R2) is 0.75 respectively. This technique is extended to estimate NSR over the entire Sundarban area and has a potential for climate and agricultural water management studies.

Mahalakshmi, D. V.; Paul, A.; Dutta, D.; Ali, M. M.; Jha, C. S.; Dadhwal, V. K.

2014-11-01

423

Piglets Surface Temperature Change at Different Weights at Birth  

PubMed Central

The study was carried out in order to verify the effects of piglets weight at birth on their surface temperature change (ST) after birth, and its relationship with ingestion time of colostrum. Piglets from four different sows were weighed at birth and divided into a totally randomized design with three treatments according to birth weight (PBW): T1 - less than 1.00 kg, T2 - 1.00 to 1.39 kg, and T3 - higher than or equal to 1.40 kg. The time spent for the first colostrum ingestion was recorded (TFS). Images of piglets surface by thermal imaging camera were recorded at birth (STB) and 15, 30, 45, 60, and 120 min after birth. The air temperature and relative humidity were recorded every 30 min and the indexes of temperature and humidity (THI) were calculated. A ST drop after 15 min from birth was observed, increasing again after sixty minutes. Positive correlations were found between the PBW and the ST at 30 and 45 min after birth. The PBW was negatively correlated with the TFS. The THI showed high negative correlations (?0.824 and ?0.815) with STB and after 15 min from birth. The piglets surface temperature at birth was positively correlated with temperature thereof to 15 min, influencing therefore the temperatures in the interval of 45 to 120 min. The birth weight contributes significantly to postnatal hypothermia and consequently to the time it takes for piglets ingest colostrum, requiring special attention to those of low birth weight. PMID:25049971

Caldara, Fabiana Ribeiro; dos Santos, Luan Sousa; Machado, Sivanilza Teixeira; Moi, Marta; de Alencar Ns, Irenilza; Foppa, Luciana; Garcia, Rodrigo Garfallo; de Kssia Silva dos Santos, Rita

2014-01-01

424

Surface temperature variations of gyrating hailstones and effects of pressure-temperature coupling on growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Simultaneous measurements of surface temperatures in the equatorial and polar regions of gyrating hailstones, growing in a closed circuit wind tunnel, were performed using two infrared microscopes. Results indicate that a temperature difference as high as 5.9C existed between these regions, with maximum differences occurring in the liquid water content range of 1.5 to 6.4 g m?3. Under such conditions

R. List; B. J. W. Greenan; F. Garca-Garca

1995-01-01

425

The PRISM palaeoclimate reconstruction and Pliocene sea-surface temperature  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In this paper, I present a summary of the Pliocene Research, Interpretation and Synoptic Mapping (PRISM) palaeoenvironmental reconstruction, with emphasis on its historical development and range of boundary condition datasets. Sea-surface temperature (SST), sea level, sea ice, land cover (vegetation and ice) and topography are discussed as well as many of the assumptions required to create an integrated global-scale reconstruction. New multiproxy research shows good general agreement on the magnitude of mid-Pliocene SST warming. Future directions, including maximum and minimum SST analyses and deep ocean temperature estimates aimed at a full three-dimensional reconstruction, are presented. ?? The Micropalaeontological Society 2007.

Dowsett, H.J.

2007-01-01

426

Sea surface temperature of the coastal zones of France  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thermal gradients in French coastal zones for the period of one year were mapped in order to enable a coherent study of certain oceanic features detectable by the variations in the sea surface temperature field and their evolution in time. The phenomena examined were mesoscale thermal features in the English Channel, the Bay of Biscay, and the northwestern Mediterranean; thermal gradients generated by French estuary systems; and diurnal heating in the sea surface layer. The investigation was based on Heat Capacity Mapping Mission imagery.

Deschamps, P. Y.; Crepon, M.; Monget, J. M.; Verger, F. (principal investigators); Frouin, R.; Cassanet, J.; Wald, L.

1982-01-01

427

Generation of methane in the Earth's mantle: In situ high pressuretemperature measurements of carbonate reduction  

PubMed Central

We present in situ observations of hydrocarbon formation via carbonate reduction at upper mantle pressures and temperatures. Methane was formed from FeO, CaCO3-calcite, and water at pressures between 5 and 11 GPa and temperatures ranging from 500C to 1,500C. The results are shown to be consistent with multiphase thermodynamic calculations based on the statistical mechanics of soft particle mixtures. The study demonstrates the existence of abiogenic pathways for the formation of hydrocarbons in the Earth's interior and suggests that the hydrocarbon budget of the bulk Earth may be larger than conventionally assumed. PMID:15381767

Scott, Henry P.; Hemley, Russell J.; Mao, Ho-kwang; Herschbach, Dudley R.; Fried, Laurence E.; Howard, W. Michael; Bastea, Sorin

2004-01-01

428

Isotope and surface temperature effects for hydrogen recombination on a graphite surface.  

PubMed

We highlight the isotope and surface temperature effects for hydrogen atom recombination on a graphite surface. The reaction dynamics is studied using the semiclassical collisional method, according to which the mass and temperature effects are due to the coupling between the H/D dynamics and the dynamics of the phonon excitation/de-excitation mechanism of the substrate. All possible collisional schemes with H/D adsorbed on the surface and H/D impinging from the gas phase are considered. In particular, we focus on the recombination reaction between an H atom colliding with a D atom adsorbed on the surface and a D atom incident on an H adatom. For H(2) and D(2) formation, the surface temperature effect is investigated by comparing the results obtained for T(S)=800 K with those obtained at T(S)=500 K and T(S)=100 K. Despite the low masses involved in the dynamics, effective isotope and temperature effects were observed on the recombination probabilities, reaction energetics, and roto-vibrational states of formed molecules. The results show the need for correct treatment of the multiphonon excitation mechanism in molecule-surface interactions. PMID:18098253

Rutigliano, M; Cacciatore, M

2008-01-11

429

Experimental & Numerical Investigation of Pool Boiling on Engineered Surfaces with Integrated Thin-flim Temperature Sensors  

E-print Network

The objective of this investigation is to measure and analyze surface temperature fluctuations in pool boiling. The surface temperature fluctuations were recorded on silicon surfaces with and without multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT). Novel Thin...

Sathyamurthi, Vijaykumar

2011-02-22

430

Modelling the electric and magnetic fields at the Earths surface due to an auroral electrojet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A calculation of the electric and magnetic fields at the Earths surface due to an ionospheric electrojet system is required for the estimation of geomagnetically induced currents (GIC) in a technological network, which are a manifestation of space weather effects on the ground. Two models of the auroral electrojet for calculating the geoelectromagnetic field are compared in this paper: an infinitely long line current and a more realistic system consisting of an electrojet of a finite length and of vertical (field-aligned) currents at its ends. The Earth is described by a two-layer half-space, and a small and a large period of oscillation in time are considered. In the case of an infinite line current the field at the Earths surface is independent of the space coordinate parallel to the electrojet, and in the case of the finite electrojet two profiles perpendicular to the electrojet and located at the centre of the electrojet and near the edge of the electrojet are considered. The most significant shortcoming of the infinite model is the neglect of the horizontal electric component perpendicular to the electrojet as well as the horizontal magnetic component parallel to the electrojet. It is shown in this paper that these components may in reality get values in the order of 0.1-1 Vkm and 100-200 nT, respectively. The parallel electric component and the perpendicular horizontal magnetic component are overestimated by the infinite model by about 10-50% at their maxima achieved beneath the electrojet. At large distances the infinite model leads to an incorrect sign of these components. The vertical magnetic component is accurately obtained by the infinite model.

Pirjola, R. J.

1998-07-01

431

Global surface air temperature variations: 1851-1984  

SciTech Connect

Many attempts have been made to combine station surface air temperature data into an average for the Northern Hemisphere. Fewer attempts have been made for the Southern Hemisphere because of the unavailability of data from the Antarctic mainland before the 1950s and the uncertainty of making a hemispheric estimate based solely on land-based analyses for a hemisphere that is 80% ocean. Past estimates have been based largely on data from the World Weather Records (Smithsonian Institution, 1927, 1935, 1947, and U.S. Weather Bureau, 1959-82) and have been made without considerable effort to detect and correct station inhomogeneities. Better estimates for the Southern Hemisphere are now possible because of the availability of 30 years of climatological data from Antarctica. The mean monthly surface air temperature anomalies presented in this package for the than those previously published because of the incorporation of data previously hidden away in archives and the analysis of station homogeneity before estimation.

Jones, P.D.; Raper, S.C.B.; Kelly, P.M. [Univ. of East Anglia, Norwich (United Kingdom). Climatic Research Unit] [and others

1986-11-01

432

Infrared Low Temperature Turbine Vane Rough Surface Heat Transfer Measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Turbine vane heat transfer distributions obtained using an infrared camera technique are described. Infrared thermography was used because noncontact surface temperature measurements were desired. Surface temperatures were 80 C or less. Tests were conducted in a three vane linear cascade, with inlet pressures between 0.14 and 1.02 atm., and exit Mach numbers of 0.3, 0.7, and 0.9, for turbulence intensities of approximately 1 and 10%. Measurements were taken on the vane suction side, and on the pressure side leading edge region. The designs for both the vane and test facility are discussed. The approach used to account for conduction within the vane is described. Midspan heat transfer distributions are given for the range of test conditions.

Boyle, R. J.; Spuckler, C. M.; Lucci, B. L.; Camperchioli, W. P.

2000-01-01

433

Satellite-Derived Sea Surface Temperature: Workshop-2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Global accuracies and error characteristics of presently orbiting satellite sensors are examined. The workshops are intended to lead to a better understanding of present capabilities for sea surface temperature measurement and to improve measurement concepts for the future. Data from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer AVHRR and Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer is emphasized. Some data from the High Resolution Infrared Sounder HIRS and AVHRR are also examined. Comparisons of satellite data with ship and eXpendable BathyThermograph XBT measurement show standard deviations in the range 0.5 to 1.3 C with biases of less than 0.4 C, depending on the sensor, ocean region, and spatial/temporal averaging. The Sea Surface Temperature SST anomaly maps show good agreement in some cases, but a number of sensor related problems are identified.

Njoku, E. G.

1984-01-01

434

Satellite-Derived Sea Surface Temperature: Workshop 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Satellite measurements of sea surface temperature are now possible using a variety of sensors. The present accuracies of these methods are in the range of 0.5 to 2.0 C. This makes them potentially useful for synoptic studies of ocean currents and for global monitoring of climatological anomalies. To improve confidence in the satellite data, objective evaluations of sensor accuracies are necessary, and the conditions under which these accuracies degrade need to be understood. The Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) on the Nimbus-7 satellite was studied. Sea surface temperatures, derived from November 1979 SMMR data, were compared globally against ship measurements and climatology, using facilities of the JPL Pilot Ocean Data System. Methods for improved data analysis and plans for additional workshops to incorporate data from other sensors were discussed.

Njoku, E. G.

1983-01-01

435