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1

What Is the Atmosphere's Effect on Earth's Surface Temperature?  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is frequently stated in textbooks and scholarly articles that the surface temperature of Earth is 33°C warmer than it would be without the atmosphere and that this difference is due to the greenhouse effect. This Forum shows that the atmosphere effect leads to warming of only 20°C. This new conclusion requires a revision to all of the relevant literature

Xubin Zeng

2010-01-01

2

Soil moisture from temperature measurements at the Earth's surface, update  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Soil moisture budgets at the Earth's surface were investigated based on soil and atmospheric temperature variations. A number of data sets were plotted and statistically analyzed in order to accentuate the existence and the characteristics of mesoscale soil temperature extrema variations and their relations to other parameters. The correlations between diurnal temperature extrema for air and soil in drought and non-drought periods appear to follow different characteristic patterns, allowing an inference of soil moisture content from temperature data. The recovery of temperature extrema after a precipitation event also follows a characteristic power curve rise between two limiting values which is an indicator of evaporation rates. If these indicators are applied universally to regional temperature data, soil moisture content or drought conditions can be inferred directly from temperature measurements.

Welker, J. E.

1984-01-01

3

A New Estimate of the Earth's Land Surface Temperature History  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Berkeley Earth Surface Temperature team has re-evaluated the world's atmospheric land surface temperature record using a linear least-squares method that allow the use of all the digitized records back to 1800, including short records that had been excluded by prior groups. We use the Kriging method to estimate an optimal weighting of stations to give a world average based on uniform weighting of the land surface. We have assembled a record of the available data by merging 1.6 billion temperature reports from 16 pre-existing data archives; this data base will be made available for public use. The former Global Historic Climatology Network (GHCN) monthly data base shows a sudden drop in the number of stations reporting monthly records from 1980 to the present; we avoid this drop by calculating monthly averages from the daily records. By using all the data, we reduce the effects of potential data selection bias. We make an independent estimate of the urban heat island effect by calculating the world land temperature trends based on stations chosen to be far from urban sites. We calculate the effect of poor station quality, as documented in the US by the team led by Anthony Watts by estimating the temperature trends based solely on the stations ranked good (1,2 or 1,2,3 in the NOAA ranking scheme). We avoid issues of homogenization bias by using raw data; at times when the records are discontinuous (e.g. due to station moves) we break the record into smaller segments and analyze those, rather than attempt to correct the discontinuity. We estimate the uncertainties in the final results using the jackknife procedure developed by J. Tukey. We calculate spatial uncertainties by measuring the effects of geographical exclusion on recent data that have good world coverage. The results we obtain are compared to those published by the groups at NOAA, NASA-GISS, and Hadley-CRU in the UK.

Muller, R. A.; Curry, J. A.; Groom, D.; Jacobsen, B.; Perlmutter, S.; Rohde, R. A.; Rosenfeld, A.; Wickham, C.; Wurtele, J.

2011-12-01

4

The Surface Temperature Characteristics of Earth's Active Lavas: Implications for the Design of Earth Observation Missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The detailed surface temperature distribution of an active lava body is an important boundary condition for estimating flow cooling and hence changes in rheology through time. These data can be difficult to acquire in-situ due to the temporally dynamic nature of the active lava bodies, their extreme thermal heterogeneity, and their propensity to occur in inaccessible areas and often over large spatial scales. This presentation describes results obtained from the analysis of 60 hyperspectral satellite images of active lava flows, domes, and lakes, acquired by NASA's Earth Observing-1 Hyperion sensor, which have been analyzed using sub-pixel mixture modeling techniques to constrain the temperature and radiant characteristics of real terrestrial lava bodies. The data reveal significant differences between the surface temperature distributions of lava flows (aa and pahoehoe), lava domes and lava lakes which relate primarily to a) eruption temperature, and b) the extent to which emplacement processes govern the rate at which lava flow surfaces are thermally renewed. The temperature data presented have wider implications. Volcanologists currently use many remote sensing instruments to quantify volcanic activity, and the fidelity of the imaging process (i.e. how accurately scene content is recorded in the image data), varies from instrument to instrument. Active lavas radiate prodigious amounts of energy in the infrared, often in excess of the maximum signal recordable by Earth observation satellites (Lmax), the dynamic ranges of which are optimized to observe surfaces at much lower temperatures. Such saturation is a significant problem for satellite volcanologists. The temperature data derived from Hyperion are used to simulate the response of some commonly used satellite remote sensing instruments to real lava flows to quantify the impact that saturation has on the measurements process. These results indicate the range of Lmax required to provide unsaturated data for Earth's active volcanoes, as well as quantifying the expected incidence of saturation using currently operational spacecraft. By defining target characteristics, the results are of relevance to the design of future Earth observation missions which have a strong volcanological science component, including NASA's proposed HyspIRI mission.

Wright, R.

2010-12-01

5

Stationary determinism in Observed Time Series: the earth's surface temperature  

E-print Network

In this work we address the feasibility of estimating and isolating the stationary and deterministic content of observational time series, {\\bf Ots}, which in general have very limited characteristics. In particular, we study the valuable earth's surface mean temperature time series, {\\bf Tts}, by applying several treatments intended to isolate the stationary and deterministic content. We give particular attention to the sensitivity of results on the different parameters involved. The effects of such treatments were assessed by means of several methods designed to estimate the stationarity of time series. In order to strengthen the significance of the results obtained we have created a comparative framework with seven test time series of well-know origin and characteristics with a similar small number of data points. We have obtained a greater understanding of the potential and limitations of the different methods when applied to real world time series. The study of the stationarity and deterministic content of the {\\bf Tts} gives useful information about the particular complexity of global climatic evolution and the general important problem of the isolation of a real system from its surroundings by measuring and treating the obtained observations without any other additional information about the system.

Rafael M. Gutierrez

1999-08-06

6

TQ5. Earth Surface Composition What is the composition and temperature of the exposed  

E-print Network

TQ5. Earth Surface Composition and Change What is the composition and temperature of the exposed. Impacted regions often show difference in surface composition and temperature from the background that can associated with such patches (top). Source: Gupta & Prakash, IJRS, 1998. #12;TQ5c: How do surface temperature

Christian, Eric

7

Taking the temperature of the Earth: the temperature of the ocean surface (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Given the oceans cover nearly three quarters of the Earth's surface, measuring their temperatures is an important component of 'taking the temperature of the Earth.' The large expanses of the ocean surface and the relative inaccessibility of parts of it render satellite remote sensing an advantageous approach to determining the sea-surface temperature (SST). Obviously, a critical aspect of this measurement is an assessment of the errors and uncertainties in the SSTs measured from orbit, which are often dominated by imperfections in the corrections for the effects of the intervening atmosphere. Such shortcomings in the algorithms used to retrieve the surface temperatures from the top-of-atmosphere measurements may have regional and seasonal characteristics, or be influenced by particular atmospheric characteristics. The assessment of the errors and uncertainties in the satellite SST retrievals is accomplished by comparisons with independent measurements from buoys and ships. The presentation will provide an overview of the current status of the satellite measurements of SSTs, including those from the Suomi-NPP VIIRS, and on approaches to generate Climate Data Records of SST from satellite measurements.

Minnett, P. J.

2013-12-01

8

Comparison of Historical CMIP5 Surface Temperatures to the Berkeley Earth Gridded Observational Temperature Field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Berkeley Earth surface temperature research program uses observations from nearly 40,000 weather stations to reconstruct monthly land-surface temperature fields over a longer duration (250 years) and with higher resolution than other comparable global efforts. This submission will compare and contrast the observation-based Berkeley Earth temperature fields to the land component of historical CMIP5 climate model temperature fields. Emphasis will be given to examining long-term trends and spatial variations in climate response. Though the models all broadly reproduce the historical warming of the last 150 years, we observe numerous differences among them. When compared to observations, many models overpredict warming at high northern latitudes and underpredict warming at mid northern latitudes. Similarly, most models predict a greater surface temperature response to volcanic eruptions than has been observed. By using these and other comparisons between models and observations, it is possible to identify both strengths and weaknesses in the current generation of models. It is hoped that such comparisons can help guide the development of the next generation of models. In addition, identifying models that are relatively more accurate in reproducing the climate change of the historical period may also suggest which models might be more reliable in their predictions of future climate change. The implications for constraining climate sensitivity will be discussed.

Rohde, R. A.; Mosher, S.; Hausfather, Z.

2013-12-01

9

The surface temperatures of Earth: steps towards integrated understanding of variability and change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surface temperature is a key aspect of weather and climate, but the term may refer to different quantities that play interconnected roles and are observed by different means. In a community-based activity in June 2012, the EarthTemp Network brought together 55 researchers from five continents to improve the interaction between scientific communities who focus on surface temperature in particular domains, to exploit the strengths of different observing systems and to better meet the needs of different communities. The workshop identified key needs for progress towards meeting scientific and societal requirements for surface temperature understanding and information, which are presented in this community paper. A "whole-Earth" perspective is required with more integrated, collaborative approaches to observing and understanding Earth's various surface temperatures. It is necessary to build understanding of the relationships between different surface temperatures, where presently inadequate, and undertake large-scale systematic intercomparisons. Datasets need to be easier to obtain and exploit for a wide constituency of users, with the differences and complementarities communicated in readily understood terms, and realistic and consistent uncertainty information provided. Steps were also recommended to curate and make available data that are presently inaccessible, develop new observing systems and build capacities to accelerate progress in the accuracy and usability of surface temperature datasets.

Merchant, C. J.; Matthiesen, S.; Rayner, N. A.; Remedios, J. J.; Jones, P. D.; Olesen, F.; Trewin, B.; Thorne, P. W.; Auchmann, R.; Corlett, G. K.; Guillevic, P. C.; Hulley, G. C.

2013-12-01

10

The faint young sun problem. [in regulating surface temperature of early earth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is shown that the faint young sun problem was most likely solved by an increase in atmospheric CO2 concentration in the earth's atmosphere brought about by the CO2 geochemical cycle. Because the loss process for atmospheric CO2 requires liquid water, and because the earth is continually resupplying atmospheric CO2 by carbonate metamorphism, the surface temperature should never have fallen below the point at which the ocean would freeze. Indeed, the early earth may have been quite warm if carbonate metamorphism was faster and if the continents were originally smaller, so that silicate weathering was inhibited.

Kasting, James F.; Grinspoon, David H.

1991-01-01

11

The Surface Temperature Characteristics of Earth's Active Lavas: Implications for the Design of Earth Observation Missions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The detailed surface temperature distribution of an active lava body is an important boundary condition for estimating flow cooling and hence changes in rheology through time. These data can be difficult to acquire in-situ due to the temporally dynamic nature of the active lava bodies, their extreme thermal heterogeneity, and their propensity to occur in inaccessible areas and often over

R. Wright

2010-01-01

12

The Surface Temperatures of the Earth: Steps towards Integrated Understanding of Variability and Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surface temperature is a key aspect of weather and climate, relevant to human health, agriculture and leisure, ecosystem services, infrastructure development and economic activity. In a community-based activity, the EarthTemp Network brought together 55 researchers from 5 continents to improve the interaction between scientific communities who focus on particular domains, to exploit the strengths of different observing systems and to better meet the needs of different communities. The Network idenitified key needs for progress towards meeting societal needs for surface temperature understanding and information, which will be reviewed and discussed in this contribution. A "whole-Earth" perspective is required with more integrated, collaborative approaches to observing and understanding Earth's various surface temperatures. It is necessary to build understanding of the relationships of different surface temperatures, where presently inadequate, and undertake large-scale systematic intercomparisons. Datasets need to be easier to obtain and exploit for a wide constituency of users, with the differences and complementarities communicated in readily understood terms, and realistic and consistent uncertainty information. Steps are also recommended to curate and make available data that are presently inaccessible, develop new observing systems and build capacities to accelerate progress in the accuracy and usability of surface temperature datasets.

Matthiesen, Stephan; Merchant, Chris; Rayner, Nick; Remedios, John; Høyer, Jacob L.; Jones, Phil; Olesen, Folke; Roquet, Hervé; Sobrino, José; Thorne, Peter

2013-04-01

13

No direct correlation between galactic cosmic rays and earth surface temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have searched for a correlation between galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) and global earth surface air temperature (GST) datasets going back to the year 1900. The linear correlation coefficient between GCRs and GST varies erratically, exhibiting both positive and negative values over time scales varying from about 5-20 years. Since the finding of no persistent correlation is not supported by predictive theory but is what one should expect for two random, un-correlated time series, we infer that GCRs do not influence global surface air temperature.

Ahluwalia, H. S.

2013-12-01

14

Surface temperatures at the nearside of the Moon as a record of the radiation budget of Earth's climate system  

E-print Network

Surface temperatures at the nearside of the Moon as a record of the radiation budget of Earth of Earth, the Moon is a unique platform for the study of the disk-wide radiation budget of Earth. There are no complications from atmosphere, hydrosphere, or biosphere on the Moon. The nearside of the Moon allows

Huang, Shaopeng

15

Earth's Surface  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This self-contained module on Earth's crust includes a range of fun activities that students can perform in the classroom and at home with family members. They impart important concepts such as observation, identification, measurement, and differentiation.

Science, Houghton M.

16

Earth\\'s Surface  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

You have already learned about the four major parts of Earth\\'s system: atmosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere, and geosphere. Go to the following sites to learn more about rocks and minerals, continental drift, and geologic time. When you finish viewing all the sites, you will participate in a problem-based learning activity, \\"The Case of the Disappearing Dirt.\\" Topographic Maps All About Geology Answer the questions on the handout. Erosion and Weathering Summarize what your learned about erosion and weathering. Examine a landscape formed by erosion Observe the effects of mechanical weathering Plate Tectonics FAQ s About Rocks and Fossils Igneous Rocks Rocks and Minerals Slide Show Rock Cycle Observe an animation of metamorphic rocks forming Continental Drift Mineralogy 4 kids : rockin Internet site : the best place to learn about rocks and minerals Draw a picture of the rock cycle. Coasting Away ...

Mathis, Ms.

2008-01-11

17

A dissection of the surface temperature biases in the Community Earth System Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based upon the climate feedback-responses analysis method, a quantitative attribution analysis is conducted for the annual-mean surface temperature biases in the Community Earth System Model version 1 (CESM1). Surface temperature biases are decomposed into partial temperature biases associated with model biases in albedo, water vapor, cloud, sensible/latent heat flux, surface dynamics, and atmospheric dynamics. A globally-averaged cold bias of -1.22 K in CESM1 is largely attributable to albedo bias that accounts for approximately -0.80 K. Over land, albedo bias contributes -1.20 K to the averaged cold bias of -1.45 K. The cold bias over ocean, on the other hand, results from multiple factors including albedo, cloud, oceanic dynamics, and atmospheric dynamics. Bias in the model representation of oceanic dynamics is the primary cause of cold (warm) biases in the Northern (Southern) Hemisphere oceans while surface latent heat flux over oceans always acts to compensate for the overall temperature biases. Albedo bias resulted from the model's simulation of snow cover and sea ice is the main contributor to temperature biases over high-latitude lands and the Arctic and Antarctic region. Longwave effect of water vapor is responsible for an overall warm (cold) bias in the subtropics (tropics) due to an overestimate (underestimate) of specific humidity in the region. Cloud forcing of temperature biases exhibits large regional variations and the model bias in the simulated ocean mixed layer depth is a key contributor to the partial sea surface temperature biases associated with oceanic dynamics. On a global scale, biases in the model representation of radiative processes account more for surface temperature biases compared to non-radiative, dynamical processes.

Park, Tae-Won; Deng, Yi; Cai, Ming; Jeong, Jee-Hoon; Zhou, Renjun

2014-10-01

18

Comment on “What Is the Atmosphere's Effect on Earth's Surface Temperature?”  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A recent Forum pointed out an important, widespread error in the calculation of the atmosphere's role in raising the surface temperature of the Earth above its radiative equilibrium [Zeng, 2010]. Unfortunately, by using the inaccurate and misleading terms “greenhouse effect” and “greenhouse gases,” this Forum continues to spread an even more widespread and ancient error. The error in using the greenhouse as a model for the Earth's atmosphere is that heating of the air within a greenhouse is caused by the structure's suppression of convective heat exchange with the outside air and not by the structure's reduction of longwave radiation exchange with space. There is evidence that Joseph Fourier, to whom the phrase “greenhouse effect” is often attributed, realized this in 1827 (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joseph_Fourier). The correct explanation of the heating of the air within a greenhouse was experimentally demonstrated a century ago [Wood, 1909] and by quantitative analysis a half century later [Businger, 1963].

Stanhill, Gerald

2010-11-01

19

Negative feedback mechanism for the long-term stabilization of earth's surface temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

We suggest that the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is buffered, over geological time scales, by a negative feedback mechanism in which the rate of weathering of silicate minerals (followed by deposition of carbonate minerals) depends on surface temperature, and surface temperature, in turn, depends on carbon dioxide partial pressure through the green effect. Although the quantitative

James C. G. Walker; P. B. Hays; J. F. Kasting

1981-01-01

20

Earth's Changing Surface  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Overview: The Earth's Changing Surface SciPack explores how Earth's ever-changing surface is due to continuous natural processes such as tectonic activity, earthquakes, volcanic activities, weathering and erosion, and sedimentation and the reformation of rock. The focus is on topics supporting Standards and Benchmarks related to how and why these processes occur, and how elements cycle through the land, oceans, and atmosphere as a result of these processes. This SciPack looks at Earth as a system that exists in dynamic equilibrium. In addition to comprehensive inquiry-based learning materials tied to Science Education Standards and Benchmarks, the SciPack includes the following additional components: Pedagogical Implications section addressing common misconceptions, teaching resources and strand maps linking grade band appropriate content to standards. Access to one-on-one support via e-mail to content "Wizards". Final Assessment which can be used to certify mastery of the concepts. Learning Outcomes: Earth's Changing Surface: Changing Earth From Within Explain that both Earth's surface and interior are in motion and describe the causes the motion. Describe how heat within Earth comes from two main sources: radioactive decay and residual heat (gravitational energy left over from the formation of Earth). Explain the fact that the vast majority of earthquakes and volcanic activities which occur near plate boundaries are caused by the movement of the plates. Describe that changes on Earth's surface also happen on the ocean floor to create forms such as ocean basins, mountains and volcanoes. Earth's Changing Surface: Sculpting the Landscape Distinguish between changes in Earth's surface that are abrupt, such as earthquakes and volcanoes and changes that happen very slowly such as uplift and wearing down of mountains. Identify rates of landscape formation. Infer from present data that the processes that shape the earth today are similar to events that occurred in the past. Identify agents of change as destructive, constructive, or both. Describe how erosion by way of waves, wind, glaciers, gravity, running water, etc., causes change in geological features. Earth's Changing Surface: Humans as Agents of Change Distinguish natural processes that shape the surface of Earth from human impact factors that change the surface of Earth. Explain how human activities such as river control, mining, and deforestation have had an effect on the shape of Earth's surface. Describe how human activities do not create new processes but cause changes in the rate and scale of natural processes.

National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

2008-01-07

21

Earth Exploration Toolbook Chapter: Detecting El NiÃo in Sea Surface Temperature Data  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

DATA: Sea Surface Temperature (SST). TOOL: My World GIS. SUMMARY: Examine 15 years of SST data from the Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory. Create and analyze average SST maps to identify El Nino and La Nina events.

Smith, David; Youngman, Betsy

22

Effects of high CO 2 levels on surface temperature and atmospheric oxidation state of the early Earth  

Microsoft Academic Search

One-dimensional radiative-convective and photochemical models are used to examine the effects of enhanced CO2 concentrations on the surface temperature of the early Earth and the composition of the prebiotic atmosphere. Carbon dioxide concentrations of the order of 100–1000 times the present level are required to compensate for an expected solar luminosity decrease of 25–30%, if CO2 and H2O were the

James F. Kasting; James B. Pollack; David Crisp

1984-01-01

23

External Resource: Earths Surface  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity guide is based around the video Science Investigations: Investigating the Earth's Surface, which is available for purchase through the Discovery Store Channel. After watching the video, students will be able to discuss the use of satellites,

1900-01-01

24

Earth's Surface Features  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students work in pairs on this worksheet and strengthen their background knowledge by identifying different features in photographs of Earth's surface. Then to build on this base, the students need to determine the key processes that form each of the features. To address a common misconception, students read a debate between two hypothetical students and need to determine which student is stating the scientifically correct idea. The project is summarized by a question posed about the features on a hypothetical planet.

Smay, Jessica

25

Surface Temperature Data Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Small global mean temperature changes may have significant to disastrous consequences for the Earth's climate if they persist for an extended period. Obtaining global means from local weather reports is hampered by the uneven spatial distribution of the reliably reporting weather stations. Methods had to be developed that minimize as far as possible the impact of that situation. This software is a method of combining temperature data of individual stations to obtain a global mean trend, overcoming/estimating the uncertainty introduced by the spatial and temporal gaps in the available data. Useful estimates were obtained by the introduction of a special grid, subdividing the Earth's surface into 8,000 equal-area boxes, using the existing data to create virtual stations at the center of each of these boxes, and combining temperature anomalies (after assessing the radius of high correlation) rather than temperatures.

Hansen, James; Ruedy, Reto

2012-01-01

26

Our contaminated atmosphere: The danger of climate change, phases 1 and 2. [effect of atmospheric particulate matter on surface temperature and earth's radiation budget  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of increased concentrations of atmospheric particulate matter on average surface temperature and on the components of the earth's radiation budget are studied. An atmospheric model which couples particulate loading to surface temperature and to changes in the earth's radiation budget was used. A determination of the feasibility of using satellites to monitor the effect of increased atmospheric particulate concentrations is performed. It was found that: (1) a change in man-made particulate loading of a factor of 4 is sufficient to initiate an ice age; (2) variations in the global and hemispheric weighted averages of surface temperature, reflected radiant fluz and emitted radiant flux are nonlinear functions of particulate loading; and (3) a black satellite sphere meets the requirement of night time measurement sensitivity, but not the required day time sensitivity. A nonblack, spherical radiometer whose external optical properties are sensitive to either the reflected radiant fluz or the emitted radiant flux meets the observational sensitivity requirements.

Cimorelli, A. J.; House, F. B.

1974-01-01

27

Rare Earth Optical Temperature Sensor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new optical temperature sensor suitable for high temperatures (greater than 1700 K) and harsh environments is introduced. The key component of the sensor is the rare earth material contained at the end of a sensor that is in contact with the sample being measured. The measured narrow wavelength band emission from the rare earth is used to deduce the sample temperature. A simplified relation between the temperature and measured radiation was verified experimentally. The upper temperature limit of the sensor is determined by material limits to be approximately 2000 C. The lower limit, determined by the minimum detectable radiation, is found to be approximately 700 K. At high temperatures 1 K resolution is predicted. Also, millisecond response times are calculated.

Chubb, Donald L.; Wolford, David S.

2000-01-01

28

Surface Temperature Protocol  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of this activity is to measure surface temperature with a handheld Infrared Thermometer (IRT). The instrument is pointed at the ground to take surface temperature readings. Intended outcomes are that students will learn to use an infrared thermometer, and understand how different surfaces radiate energy. Supporting background materials for both student and teacher are included.

The GLOBE Program, UCAR (University Corporation for Atmospheric Research)

2003-08-01

29

Bizarre Life Forms Thrive Beneath Earth's Surface  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In the classic tale, "A Journey to the Center of the Earth," Jules Verne imagined elaborate worlds in a hollow, miles beneath our feet. More modern science-fiction novelists have dreamed of spheres in outer space where earthling astronauts encounter alien life forms. Now these two ideas are being fused in a bubbling witches' cauldron: deep within the planet may be the best place to find new life forms on our planet--and glean clues to possible life on others. Vaporous hot pools far beneath Earth's surface support microbes conducting the business of life at extreme temperatures and pressures. The microbes, some of which are bacteria, are all called extremophiles, and their potentially far-reaching domain is called the subsurface biosphere.

2009-07-14

30

Surface Temperature Analysis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site, NASA GISS Surface Temperature (GISTEMP) analysis, provides a measure of the changing global surface temperature with monthly resolution for the period since 1880, when a reasonably global distribution of meteorological stations was established. Data for individual stations, aggregate data, graphs, charts, maps, and animations are included, and tables of data are also linked to the site.

Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS); Nasa

31

A Unique Laboratory Environment The Earth's Surface The Earth s Surface  

E-print Network

, and biology dominated by the effects of gravity L E th O bitLow Earth Orbit · Force of gravity is actually 89A Unique Laboratory Environment #12; The Earth's Surface The Earth s Surface · Weight felt because orbit, we fly fast , y and high enough to fall and not hit the Earththe Earth The centripetal

32

The Sun-Earth Connection The Temperature of the Earth  

E-print Network

.8 billion years · the surface temperature has been between 273 and 373 K. · Fossils suggest a much narrower range #12;· NOAA/NCDC: "For the year-to-date, the global combined land and ocean surface temperature temperature, 700 - 2000 CE #12;Change in mean sea level since 1870 Source: http://www.ncdc.noaa .gov

Walter, Frederick M.

33

Platinum in Earth surface environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Platinum (Pt) is a rare precious metal that is a strategic commodity for industries in many countries. The demand for Pt has more than doubled in the last 30 years due to its role in the catalytic conversion of CO, hydrocarbons and NOx in modern automobiles. To explore for new Pt deposits, process ores and deal with ecotoxicological effects of Pt mining and usage, the fundamental processes and pathways of Pt dispersion and re-concentration in surface environments need to be understood. Hence, the aim of this review is to develop a synergistic model for the cycling of Pt in Earth surface environments. This is achieved by integrating the geological/(biogeo)chemical literature, which focuses on naturally occurring Pt mobility around ore deposits, with the environmental/ecotoxicological literature dealing with anthropogenic Pt dispersion. In Pt deposits, Pt occurs as sulfide-, telluride- and arsenide, native metal and alloyed to other PGEs and iron (Fe). Increased mining and utilization of Pt combined with the burning of fossil fuels have led to the dispersion of Pt-containing nano- and micro-particles. Hence, soils and sediments in industrialized areas, urban environments and along major roads are now commonly Pt enriched. Platinum minerals, nuggets and anthropogenic particles are transformed by physical and (bio)geochemical processes. Complexation of Pt ions with chloride, thiosulfate, ammonium, cyanide, low- and high molecular weight organic acids (LMWOAs and HMWOAs) and siderophores can facilitate Pt mobilization. Iron-oxides, clays, organic matter and (micro)biota are known to sequester Pt-complexes and -particles. Microbes and plants are capable of bioaccumulating and reductively precipitating mobile Pt complexes. Bioaccumulation can lead to toxic effects on plants and animals, including humans. (Bio)mineralization in organic matter-rich sediments can lead to the formation of secondary Pt particles and -grains. Ultimately, Pt is enriched in oceanic sediments, where Pt is commonly concentrated in manganese (Mn) oxides. When these sediments are subducted, Pt re-enters the magmatic cycle. In conclusion, this review demonstrates that geological, geochemical as well as biological and most recently anthropological processes are strongly interlinked in driving the cycling of Pt in surface environments.

Reith, F.; Campbell, S. G.; Ball, A. S.; Pring, A.; Southam, G.

2014-04-01

34

Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lithograph depicts a view of Earth taken from Apollo 10 during its journey to the Moon in May 1969. False-color satellite images showing chlorophyll concentration, sea surface temperature, topography, and ozone concentration are also featured. The images are accompanied by a brief description, some statistical facts, and a list of important dates in the history of Earth exploration.

35

Superhydrophobic surfaces engineered using diatomaceous earth.  

PubMed

We present a simple method to prepare superhydrophobic surfaces using siliceous exoskeleton of diatoms, a widespread group of algae. This makes diatomaceous earth an accessible and cheap natural material. A micro/nanoscale hierarchical topography was achieved by coating a glass surface with diatomaceous earth, giving rise to a superhydrophilic surface. Superhydrophobic surfaces were obtained by a further surface chemical modification through fluorosilanization. The wettability of the superhydrophobic surface can be modified by Argon plasma treatment in a controlled way by exposure time variation. The chemical surface modification by fluorosilanization and posterior fluorinated SH surface modification by plasma treatment was analyzed by XPS. Using appropriated hollowed masks only specific areas on the surface were exposed to plasma permitting to pattern hydrophilic features with different geometries on the superhydrophobic surface. We showed that the present strategy can be also applied in other substrates, including thermoplastics, enlarging the potential applicability of the resulting surfaces. PMID:23647196

Oliveira, Nuno M; Reis, Rui L; Mano, João F

2013-05-22

36

Estimation of Surface Air Temperature from MODIS 1km Resolution Land Surface Temperature Over Northern China  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Surface air temperature is a critical variable to describe the energy and water cycle of the Earth-atmosphere system and is a key input element for hydrology and land surface models. It is a very important variable in agricultural applications and climate change studies. This is a preliminary study to examine statistical relationships between ground meteorological station measured surface daily maximum/minimum air temperature and satellite remotely sensed land surface temperature from MODIS over the dry and semiarid regions of northern China. Studies were conducted for both MODIS-Terra and MODIS-Aqua by using year 2009 data. Results indicate that the relationships between surface air temperature and remotely sensed land surface temperature are statistically significant. The relationships between the maximum air temperature and daytime land surface temperature depends significantly on land surface types and vegetation index, but the minimum air temperature and nighttime land surface temperature has little dependence on the surface conditions. Based on linear regression relationship between surface air temperature and MODIS land surface temperature, surface maximum and minimum air temperatures are estimated from 1km MODIS land surface temperature under clear sky conditions. The statistical errors (sigma) of the estimated daily maximum (minimum) air temperature is about 3.8 C(3.7 C).

Shen, Suhung; Leptoukh, Gregory G.; Gerasimov, Irina

2010-01-01

37

Comparing the Surfaces of Earth and Mars  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Comparing the Surfaces of Earth and Mars is a Windows to the Universe Exploratour and provides information and images about different features found on the surface and the geography of both planets: continents, craters, volcanoes, plate tectonics, rocks, soils, water, and polar caps. Windows to the Universe is a user-friendly learning system pertaining to the Earth and Space sciences. The objective of this project is to develop an innovative and engaging web site that spans the Earth and Space sciences and includes a rich array of documents, including images, movies, animations, and data sets that explore the Earth and Space sciences and the historical and cultural ties between science, exploration and the human experience. Links at the top of each page allow users to navigate between beginner, intermediate, and advanced options for each topic level.

Johnson, Roberta

2000-07-01

38

Influence of Land-Surface Evapotranspiration on the Earth's Climate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calculations with a numerical model of the atmosphere show that the global fields of rainfall, temperature, and motion strongly depend on the landsurface evapotranspiration. This confirms the long-held idea that the surface vegetation, which produces the evapotransporation, is an important factor in the earth's climate.

J. Shukla; Y. Mintz

1982-01-01

39

Diurnal Cycles of High Absolute Humidity at the Earth's Surface.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Previous studies of high humidities at the earth's surface are reviewed as an introduction for the purpose of formulating recommendations for absolute humidity extremes for MIL-STD-210B. Four typical diurnal cycles of dew point and temperature for periods...

D. D. Grantham, H. A. Salmela

1972-01-01

40

On the temperature of surfaces  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The concept of the temperature of a surface is introduced from the viewpoint of the physical chemistry of surfaces. The surface, near surface and microlayer regions of the interface are defined. Most methods measure the temperature of the microlayer or at best the near surface region and may err in representing the surface temperature. Methods based on capillary ripples actually measure the surface temperature since surface tension (or surface tension tensor when a monolayer has been spread or absorbed at the interface) is the main restoring force that controls their propagation. Light scattering methods are described for determining the elevation of very small amplitude capillary waves through the computation of various correlation functions from which the surface tension can be estimated. Procedures for estimating the surface temperature are described.

Mann, J. Adin, Jr.; Edwards, Robert V.

1989-01-01

41

EARTH SURFACE PROCESSES AND LANDFORMS Earth Surf. Process. Landforms 34, 12551269 (2009)  

E-print Network

EARTH SURFACE PROCESSES AND LANDFORMS Earth Surf. Process. Landforms 34, 1255­1269 (2009) Copyright.interscience.wiley.com) DOI: 10.1002/esp.1813 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.Chichester, UKESPEarth Surface Processes and LandformsEARTH SURFACE PROCESSES AND LANDFORMSEarth Surface Processes and LandformsThe Journal of the British

Johnson, Edward A.

42

EARTH SURFACE PROCESSES AND LANDFORMS Earth Surf. Process. Landforms 34, 291304 (2009)  

E-print Network

EARTH SURFACE PROCESSES AND LANDFORMS Earth Surf. Process. Landforms 34, 291­304 (2009) Copyright.interscience.wiley.com) DOI: 10.1002/esp.1725 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.Chichester, UKESPEarth Surface Processes and LandformsEARTH SURFACE PROCESSES AND LANDFORMSEarth Surface Processes and LandformsThe Journal of the British

California at Santa Barbara, University of

43

EARTH SURFACE PROCESSES AND LANDFORMS Earth Surf. Process. Landforms 34, 13931407 (2009)  

E-print Network

EARTH SURFACE PROCESSES AND LANDFORMS Earth Surf. Process. Landforms 34, 1393­1407 (2009) Copyright.interscience.wiley.com) DOI: 10.1002/esp.1828 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.Chichester, UKESPEarth Surface Processes and LandformsEARTH SURFACE PROCESSES AND LANDFORMSEarth Surface Processes and LandformsThe Journal of the British

Canberra, University of

44

Agents for Development of Earth's Surface Interactive Dynamic Processes at the Surface  

E-print Network

Agents for Development of Earth's Surface · Interactive Dynamic Processes at the Surface · Roles and consumption) · Internal Dynamic Processes · Driven by the Earth's radioactive heat · Energy release of the Earth? G302 Development of the Global Environment The Face of the EarthThe Face of the Earth Thematic

Polly, David

45

Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) planet profile provides data and images of the planet Earth. These data include planet size, orbit facts, distance from the Sun, rotation and revolution times, temperature, atmospheric composition, density, surface materials and albedo. Images with descriptions show Earth features such as the Ross Ice Shelf in Antarctica, Simpson Desert in Australia, Mt. Etna in Sicily, the Cassiar Mountains in Canada, the Strait of Gibraltar, Mississippi River, Grand Canyon, Wadi Kufra Oasis in Libya, and Moon images such as Hadley Rille, Plum Crater, massifs and Moon rocks. These images were taken with the Galileo Spacecraft and by the Apollo missions.

46

Earth Surface Processes and Landforms Earth Surf. Process. Landforms 27, 667672 (2002)  

E-print Network

Earth Surface Processes and Landforms Earth Surf. Process. Landforms 27, 667­672 (2002) Published-based research (fluvial processes and landforms, riparian, drainage basin) dominates well-cited papers publish well-cited papers, but Earth Surface Processes and Landforms hosts the largest number of well

Dorn, Ron

47

Reducing greenhouses and the temperature history of earth and Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It has been suggested that NH3 and other reducing gases were present in the earth's primitive atmosphere, enhancing the global greenhouse effect; data obtained through isotopic archeothermometry support this hypothesis. Computations have been applied to the evolution of surface temperatures on Mars, considering various bolometric albedos and compositions. The results are of interest in the study of Martian sinuous channels which may have been created by aqueous fluvial errosion, and imply that clement conditions may have previously occurred on Mars, and may occur in the future.

Sagan, C.

1977-01-01

48

EARTH SURFACE PROCESSES AND LANDFORMS Earth Surf. Process. Landforms 35, 78101 (2010)  

E-print Network

EARTH SURFACE PROCESSES AND LANDFORMS Earth Surf. Process. Landforms 35, 78­101 (2010) Copyright future research are identified: (1) co-evolution of landforms and biological communities; and (2) humans

Cardinale, Bradley J.

49

Alkaline Earth Core Level Photoemission Spectroscopy of High-Temperature Superconductors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper examines photoemission measurements of the alkaline Earth core levels of high-temperature superconductors and related materials, models that seek to explain the large negative shifts observed relative to the corresponding alkaline Earth metals, and the effect of lattice site disorder on the core level spectra and the presence or absence of intrinsic surface peaks.

Vasquez, R.

1993-01-01

50

Influence of Agricultural Practice on Surface Temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Changes in land uses/covers can have a significant effect on the temperature of the Earth's surface. Agricultural fields exhibit a significant change in land cover within a single year and from year to year as different crops are planted. These changes in agricultural practices including tillage practice and crop type influence the energy budget as reflected in differences in surface temperature. In this project, Landsat 5 and 7 imagery were used to investigate the influence of crop type and tillage practice on surface temperature in Iowa and NW Ohio. In particular, the three crop rotation of corn, soybeans and wheat, as well as no-till, conservation tillage and tradition tillage methods, were investigated. Crop type and conservation tillage practices were identified using supervised classification. Student surface temperature observations from the GLOBE program were used to correct for the effects of the atmosphere for some of the satellite thermal observations. Students took surface temperature observations in field sites near there schools using hand- held infrared thermometers.

Czajkowski, K.; Ault, T.; Hayase, R.; Benko, T.

2006-12-01

51

Stability of hydrocarbons at deep Earth pressures and temperatures  

PubMed Central

Determining the thermochemical properties of hydrocarbons (HCs) at high pressure and temperature is a key step toward understanding carbon reservoirs and fluxes in the deep Earth. The stability of carbon-hydrogen systems at depths greater than a few thousand meters is poorly understood and the extent of abiogenic HCs in the Earth mantle remains controversial. We report ab initio molecular dynamics simulations and free energy calculations aimed at investigating the formation of higher HCs from dissociation of pure methane, and in the presence of carbon surfaces and transition metals, for pressures of 2 to 30 GPa and temperatures of 800 to 4,000 K. We show that for T?2,000 K and P?4 GPa HCs higher than methane are energetically favored. Our results indicate that higher HCs become more stable between 1,000 and 2,000 K and P?4 GPa. The interaction of methane with a transition metal facilitates the formation of these HCs in a range of temperature where otherwise pure methane would be metastable. Our results provide a unified interpretation of several recent experiments and a detailed microscopic model of methane dissociation and polymerization at high pressure and temperature.

Spanu, Leonardo; Donadio, Davide; Hohl, Detlef; Schwegler, Eric; Galli, Giulia

2011-01-01

52

Circle the Earth - Explore Surface Types on a Journey around Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This easy but effective lesson uses NASA CERES satellite percent coverage surface data along with a world map and asks students to locate landmasses and bodies of water at Earth's Equator. Students will map locations using latitude and longitude coordinates. Using the microset of satellite data included with the lesson to investigate surface characteristics, students will apply percentage to determine land surface characteristics. When using satellites to study Earth system processes, especially atmospheric processes, it is important to know what is the background that one is seeing on the Earth. This lesson provides an introduction to exploring Earth surface types.

Moore, Susan

53

Geodiversity of the Earth's surface and environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geologic and geographic objects can be successfully systemized based on the mathematical theories of diversity and sets. This can give us a clear understanding of the nomenclature of the Earth's surface: its elements, forms, as well as their combinations and structures. All these surface structural units are closely related to elementary landscapes, or geotops (other elementary locations such as biotops, lythotops, edafotops, hydrotops, climatops, and etc. can also be considered). Both surface structural units and corresponding geotops should be studied on two systematic levels: 1) the morphological one that provides us with the taxonomic (by unit size) and meronomic (by unit complexity) information, and 2) the dynamical one that allows working out various interpretations: geo-flows and their influence on the Earth's surface (including new formation and complete destruction of elements and forms), sustainability of geodiversity, etc. At the present time, the dynamical level is in a process of defining clear criteria and developing relevant classification. The morphological level has in turn three sub-levels: a) relief elements, b) landforms (geomorphosystems), and c) regions (super-geomorphosystems). The entire set of two-dimensional surface elements comprises 52 variants (elementary surfaces) and more than 2,700 three-dimensional geotops. Each of the geotops is characterized by four different exposures: gravitational (hypso- and bathymetric position, steepness, vertical and horizontal curvature), insolational (dip azimuth of the location), circulating (orientation against prevailing flows - frontal, rear or flank position), and anthropogenic ones. The most contrasting geotops are tied to the upper (tops, crests and their adjacent areas) and lower (bottoms, thalwegs and their adjacent areas) relief elements. Slope elements (faces, cliffs, terraces, and feet) serve as the linking areas and determine not the diversity as such but, first of all, commonalities of the territory. The second morphological level - landforms - comprises 145 variants of geomorphosystems. They are classified according to the sign and shape in plan and profile, inner structure presented by vector lines (circle, ellipse, hyperbola, parabola, and lattice figures), outer structure presented by contours (isometric, brachy-, hemi-, bilateral, and linear ones), as well as their determinants and dominants. The determinants (in the number of 18) are the elements - mainly structural lines - that determine the whole landform (ridge, valley, trough, swell, volcanic cone, etc.); elementary surfaces dominating the landform serve as its dominants (37). The third morphological level - geomorphologic regions - reflects geodiversity of a larger scale. It follows to a certain extent the classification on the first, elementary, level but is also supplemented with the analysis of extended symmetry and anisotropy carried out on a geomorphologic map. All abovementioned fundamentals in a much more detailed way can be easily found in the monograph by Alexander Lastochkin "General theory of geosystems" (St. Petersburg, 2011, in Russian) and in the "Geomorphologic Atlas of the Antarctic" (St. Petersburg, 2012 - in Russian; 2013 - in English) produced by the team of authors.

Lastochkin, Alexander; Zhirov, Andrey; Boltramovich, Sergei

2014-05-01

54

Temperature dependence of surface nanobubbles.  

PubMed

The temperature dependence of nanobubbles was investigated experimentally using atomic force microscopy. By scanning the same area of the surface at temperatures from 51 °C to 25 °C it was possible to track geometrical changes of individual nanobubbles as the temperature was decreased. Interestingly, nanobubbles of the same size react differently to this temperature change; some grow whilst others shrink. This effect cannot be attributed to Ostwald ripening, since the growth and shrinkage of nanobubbles appears to occur in distinct patches on the substrate. The total nanobubble volume per unit area shows a maximum around 33 °C, which is comparable with literature where experiments were carried out with increasing temperature. This underlines the stability of surface nanobubbles. PMID:22411710

Berkelaar, Robin P; Seddon, James R T; Zandvliet, Harold J W; Lohse, Detlef

2012-06-01

55

Characteristics of networks in sea surface temperatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The climate of each nation is affected by meteorological factors such as rainfall, temperature, humidity, and wind. The sea surface temperature has played a crucial role in the climate change of continents. In IPCC report, when the temperature is increased by the climate change, it has influence on the earth's warming. The variation of sea surface temperatures is known to cause the atmospheric circulation, El Niño, and La Niña because the ocean comprises a large portion of the global surface. It is hence important for our research to simulate and analyze the change of sea surface temperatures on the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific oceans. In this paper, we firstly investigate the dynamical behavior of sea surface temperatures via the rescaled range analysis according to the season. Secondly, we analyze in detail the topological property of sea surface temperatures connecting to the network theory. We use the merged satellite and in-situ data global daily sea surface temperature data provided from the Japan meteorological agency and the data of sea surface temperatures are collected during five years from January 2005 to December 2009. In our method, we segment one region (a case of a restricted area among three oceans) into cells, each of which has the same area, viz. one cell area is 0.25 degree latitude × 0.25 degree longitude. The center of each cell is regarded as a node on the network, and the network is basically constructed as the values appertaining to the same ranges for the Hurst exponent values. By reconsidering a 4-by-4 cell (1 degree latitude × 1 degree longitude) as a new node, the number of links is counted as one node if the two (or more) links overlap between cells. We also can make up the topological property of the complex network in one region. Then we can extend it to the three oceans. Consequently, we find the hub points of the SST on the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific oceans, but it is necessary to analyze rigorously the network of the SST. In the future, we will extend our complex network to other meteorological fields. ----------------------------------------------------------------------- This work was supported by the Korea government (MOST) (No.2009-0074635) and by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) through a grant provided by the Korean Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (MEST) in 2011 (No.K1663000201107900).

Jung, W.; Lee, D.; Kim, K.

2012-04-01

56

Contribution of Nonionospheric Currents to the Quiet Daily Magnetic Variations at the Earth’s Surface  

Microsoft Academic Search

current systems should produce a daily variation in the earth's surface magnetic field. It is the purpose of this paper to examine each of these magnetospheric current systems and to calculate their contributions to the earth's surface magnetic field. Because these variations will be compared with the average Sq pattern, only the case of perpendicular incidence of the solar wind

W. P. Olson; Douglas Astronautics

1970-01-01

57

SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE MONTHLY AVERAGE AND  

E-print Network

385: SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE MONTHLY AVERAGE AND ANOMALY CHARTS NORTHEASTERN PACIFIC OCEAN 1947 SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE MONTHLY AVERAGE AND ANOMALY CHARTS NORTHEASTERN PACIFIC OCEAN, 1947 Part I- -Sea surface temperature monthly average charts, northeastern Pacific Ocean 5 Part II- -Sea

58

Middle Pliocene sea surface temperatures: a global reconstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Identification and analyses of Pliocene marine microfossils from 64 globally distributed stratigraphic sequences have been used to produce a middle Pliocene sea surface temperature reconstruction of the Earth. This reconstruction shows little or no change from current conditions in low latitude regions and significant warming of the ocean surface at mid and higher latitudes of both hemispheres. This pattern of

Harry Dowsett; John Barron; Richard Poore

1996-01-01

59

New constraints on equatorial temperatures during a Late Neoproterozoic snowball Earth glaciation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Intense glaciation during the end of Cryogenian time (?635 million years ago) marks the coldest climate state in Earth history - a time when glacial deposits accumulated at low, tropical paleolatitudes. The leading idea to explain these deposits, the snowball Earth hypothesis, predicts globally frozen surface conditions and subfreezing temperatures, with global climate models placing surface temperatures in the tropics between -20 °C and -60 °C. However, precise paleosurface temperatures based upon geologic constraints have remained elusive and the global severity of the glaciation undetermined. Here we make new geologic observations of tropical periglacial, aeolian and fluvial sedimentary structures formed during the end-Cryogenian, Marinoan glaciation in South Australia; these observations allow us to constrain ancient surface temperatures. We find periglacial sand wedges and associated deformation suggest that ground temperatures were sufficiently warm to allow for ductile deformation of a sandy regolith. The wide range of deformation structures likely indicate the presence of a paleoactive layer that penetrated 2-4 m below the ground surface. These observations, paired with a model of ground temperature forced by solar insolation, constrain the local mean annual surface temperature to within a few degrees of freezing. This temperature constraint matches well with our observations of fluvial deposits, which require temperatures sufficiently warm for surface runoff. Although this estimate coincides with one of the coldest near sea-level tropical temperatures in Earth history, if these structures represent peak Marinaon glacial conditions, they do not support the persistent deep freeze of the snowball Earth hypothesis. Rather, surface temperatures near 0 °C allow for regions of seasonal surface melting, atmosphere-ocean coupling and possible tropical refugia for early metazoans. If instead these structures formed during glacial onset or deglaciation, then they have implications for the timescale and character for the transition into or out of a snowball state.

Ewing, Ryan C.; Eisenman, Ian; Lamb, Michael P.; Poppick, Laura; Maloof, Adam C.; Fischer, Woodward W.

2014-11-01

60

Method for measuring surface temperature  

DOEpatents

The present invention relates to a method for measuring a surface temperature using is a fluorescent temperature sensor or optical thermometer. The sensor includes a solution of 1,3-bis(1-pyrenyl)propane within a 1-butyl-1-1-methyl pyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ionic liquid solvent. The 1,3-bis(1-pyrenyl)propane remains unassociated when in the ground state while in solution. When subjected to UV light, an excited state is produced that exists in equilibrium with an excimer. The position of the equilibrium between the two excited states is temperature dependent.

Baker, Gary A. (Los Alamos, NM); Baker, Sheila N. (Los Alamos, NM); McCleskey, T. Mark (Los Alamos, NM)

2009-07-28

61

Rare Earth Doped High Temperature Ceramic Selective Emitters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As a result of their electron structure, rare earth ions in crystals at high temperature emit radiation in several narrow bands rather than in a continuous blackbody manner. This study develops a spectral emittance model for films of rare earth containing materials. Although there are several possible rare earth doped high temperature materials, this study was confined to rare earth aluminum garnets. Good agreement between experimental and theoretical spectral emittances was found for erbium, thulium and erbium-holmium aluminum garnets. Spectral emittances of these films are sensitive to temperature differences across the film. Emitter efficiency is also a sensitive function of temperature. For thulium aluminum garnet the efficiency is 0.38 at 1700 K but only 0.19 at 1262 K.

Chubb, Donald L.; Pal, AnnaMarie; Patton, Martin O.; Jenkins, Phillip P.

1999-01-01

62

Low temperature magnetic ordering of frustrated rare-earth pyrochlores.  

E-print Network

??We study the low temperature magnetic ordering of rare-earth pyrochlores. The dominant magnetic interaction: nearest neighbour antiferromagnetic Heisenberg exchange, is frustrated with a macroscopic ground-state… (more)

Briffa, Amy K.R.

2012-01-01

63

The Temperature of the Earth in 2020  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In spite of the confusion in the public discourse about global warming, there is no doubt that the Earth has been warming for the past century. The chemistry of the Earth's atmosphere is complex, and it is sometimes difficult to claim cause-and-effect with certainty. Nevertheless, the evidence seems clear that CO2 and non-CO2 forcings such as methane and air pollution are causally related to this warming trend. Our dependence on fossil fuels make it difficult to expect that massive reductions in CO2 will be feasible in the near-term, however. In this talk I will consider the evidence for global warming, the extent to which we can extrapolate current trends into the future if no changes in global policy are introduced, and those near-term policies that might be realistically introduced to significantly affect those trends.

Hansen, James; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

64

HoloGlobe: Sea Surface Temperature Climatology on a Globe  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is one of a series of animations that were produced to be part of the narrated video shown in the HoloGlobe exhibit at the Smithsonian Museum of Natural History and the Earth Today exhibit at the Smithsonian Air and Space Museum. In this animation, colors represent sea surface temperatures in degrees centigrade, with blue representing temperatures less than 4 degrees, cyan representing temperatures between 4 and 11 degrees, green representing temperatures between 11 and 18 degrees, yellow representing temperatures between 18 and 25 degrees, orange representing temperatures between 25 and 32 degrees, and deep red representing temperatures greater than 32 degrees.

Strong, Jim; Watters, Tom

1996-08-10

65

Using Vegetation, Precipitation, and Surface Temperature to Study Climate Zones  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The type of climate present in a particular location depends on several variables, including surface temperature and annual precipitation. One indicator of a locale' s climate is the vegetation present, a relationship used by the Koeppen system of climate classification. Using a microset of satellite data to investigate vegetation of a particular climate zone, students will identify factors that influence an area's climate. They will explore the relationship between amount of vegetation, precipitation, and surface temperature to study Earth's climate zones.

66

Intercomparison of the seasonal cycle of Titan's and Earth's surface climatology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The characteristics of the seasonal cycle of Titan's surface temperature, surface pressure and surface wind and their implication for weather are compared with the terrestrial counterpart. The surface climatology of Titan predicted by a GCM and partly observed by Cassini is presented side by side with the well-known Earth's climatology. Even though the surface temperature varies only by a few K in the course of a Titan year, the seasonality of Titan's surface climate is partly more pronounced than on Earth in a qualitative sense. The seasonal forcing can completely reverse the global circulation and precipitation pattern on almost entire Titan in a monsoon-like fashion. This high sensitivity of Titan's climate to small seasonal temperature variations can be mainly ascribed to Titan's slow rotation.

Tokano, T.

2012-09-01

67

MODIS Global Sea Surface Temperature  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Every day the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) measures sea surface temperature over the entire globe with high accuracy. This false-color image shows a one-month composite for May 2001. Red and yellow indicates warmer temperatures, green is an intermediate value, while blues and then purples are progressively colder values. The new MODIS sea surface temperature product will be particularly useful in studies of temperature anomalies, such as El Nino, as well as research into how air-sea interactions drive changes in weather and climate patterns. In the high resolution image, notice the amazing detail in some of the regional current patterns. For instance, notice the cold water currents that move from Antarctica northward along South America's west coast. These cold, deep waters upwell along an equatorial swath around and to the west of the Galapagos Islands. Note the warm, wide currents of the Gulf Stream moving up the United States' east coast, carrying Caribbean warmth toward Newfoundland and across the Atlantic toward Western Europe. Note the warm tongue of water extending from Africa's east coast to well south of the Cape of Good Hope. MODIS was launched in December 1999 aboard NASA's Terra satellite. For more details on this and other MODIS data products, please see NASA Unveils Spectacular Suite of New Global Data Products from MODIS. Image courtesy MODIS Ocean Group, NASA GSFC, and the University of Miami

2002-01-01

68

Updating the Map of Earth'sSurface Conductance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studying the Earth's deep conductivitystructures, important for developing ourunderstanding of the dynamics of the Earth,is complicated due to effects of the shallowconductive structures on the electromagnetic(EM) responses for periods larger thanhours. The results of the deep EM soundingscan be heavily distorted by the surface shellconductance, which varies from fractions ofsiemens (S) inland to up to tens thousand ofsiemens in the

Ján Vozár; Vladimir Y. Semenov; Alexey V. Kuvshinov; Chandrasekharan Manoj

2006-01-01

69

EARTH SURFACE PROCESSES AND LANDFORMS Earth Surf. Process. Landforms 35, 284293 (2010)  

E-print Network

EARTH SURFACE PROCESSES AND LANDFORMS Earth Surf. Process. Landforms 35, 284­293 (2010) Copyright the general evolution of intertidal landforms. In muddy coastlines, the morphology of tidal channels terrestrial and intertidal landforms. As a result, salt marshes and chenier plains are the shoreline main

Fagherazzi, Sergio

70

Profiling Earth's Surface using GeoMapApp  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this exercise, students relate large-scale features on Earth's surface to lithospheric plates, the underlying asthenosphere, earthquakes, and volcanoes. After creating a cross section showing elevation using GeoMapApp, students add additional features by hand.

Wetzel, Laura

71

Valence state at the surface of rare-earth metals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The valence state of a rare-earth metal surface is investigated by using general properties of the surface tension of metals. Thereby it is concluded that samarium is likely to have a divalent or partly divalent surface on top of its trivalent bulk phase, which agrees with recent spectroscopic observations. Also californium metal is discussed from this point of view. Finally,

Börje Johansson

1979-01-01

72

Mission to Earth: LANDSAT Views the World. [Color imagery of the earth's surface  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The LANDSAT program and system is described. The entire global land surface of Earth is visualized in 400 color plates at a scale and resolution that specify natural land cultural features in man's familiar environments. A glossary is included.

Short, N. M.; Lowman, P. D., Jr.; Freden, S. C.; Finch, W. A., Jr.

1976-01-01

73

Taking the temperature of Earth's hottest crust  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The limitations of conventional thermobarometry and petrogenetic grids for determining the peak P -T conditions of granulites are well known. These limitations have been overcome during the past decade with the calibration of single mineral thermometers, particularly Al-in-orthopyroxene, Zr-in-rutile and Ti-in-zircon, and the increased use of P -T pseudosection thermobarometry. Most recent studies of ultrahigh temperature (UHT) granulites (those formed at >900 °C) have used one or other of these methods to argue for peak metamorphic temperatures up to or beyond 1000 °C. Since models for the thermal evolution of orogens generally do not predict such extreme temperatures it is important to confirm their veracity. Here we combine in a single study single mineral thermometry with P -T pseudosection thermobarometry to provide a robust determination of peak temperature and tight constraints on the retrograde P -T path for one UHT granulite locality in the Eastern Ghats Province. This is the first study to apply the most recent update of the internally consistent thermodynamic dataset of Holland and Powell (2011) and the re-parameterized a -x models of White et al. (2014) and Wheller and Powell (2014) to UHT granulites. For two samples, we report Zr-in-rutile temperatures of >1000 °C and Ti-in-zircon temperatures of ?900 °C, supported by Al-in-orthopyroxene temperatures of ?900 °C, that correspond closely to those estimated using P -T pseudosections for conditions at the thermal peak and at the solidus on the retrograde P -T path, respectively. The P -T path is counter-clockwise in common with other UHT granulite localities in the Eastern Ghats Province. By demonstrating that UHT metamorphism at T >1000° C is real we provide a robust constraint that must be met by geodynamic models for the development of ultrahot orogens.

Korhonen, F. J.; Clark, C.; Brown, M.; Taylor, R. J. M.

2014-12-01

74

Earthing: Health Implications of Reconnecting the Human Body to the Earth's Surface Electrons  

PubMed Central

Environmental medicine generally addresses environmental factors with a negative impact on human health. However, emerging scientific research has revealed a surprisingly positive and overlooked environmental factor on health: direct physical contact with the vast supply of electrons on the surface of the Earth. Modern lifestyle separates humans from such contact. The research suggests that this disconnect may be a major contributor to physiological dysfunction and unwellness. Reconnection with the Earth's electrons has been found to promote intriguing physiological changes and subjective reports of well-being. Earthing (or grounding) refers to the discovery of benefits—including better sleep and reduced pain—from walking barefoot outside or sitting, working, or sleeping indoors connected to conductive systems that transfer the Earth's electrons from the ground into the body. This paper reviews the earthing research and the potential of earthing as a simple and easily accessed global modality of significant clinical importance. PMID:22291721

Chevalier, Gaetan; Sinatra, Stephen T.; Oschman, James L.; Sokal, Karol; Sokal, Pawel

2012-01-01

75

Earthing: health implications of reconnecting the human body to the Earth's surface electrons.  

PubMed

Environmental medicine generally addresses environmental factors with a negative impact on human health. However, emerging scientific research has revealed a surprisingly positive and overlooked environmental factor on health: direct physical contact with the vast supply of electrons on the surface of the Earth. Modern lifestyle separates humans from such contact. The research suggests that this disconnect may be a major contributor to physiological dysfunction and unwellness. Reconnection with the Earth's electrons has been found to promote intriguing physiological changes and subjective reports of well-being. Earthing (or grounding) refers to the discovery of benefits-including better sleep and reduced pain-from walking barefoot outside or sitting, working, or sleeping indoors connected to conductive systems that transfer the Earth's electrons from the ground into the body. This paper reviews the earthing research and the potential of earthing as a simple and easily accessed global modality of significant clinical importance. PMID:22291721

Chevalier, Gaétan; Sinatra, Stephen T; Oschman, James L; Sokal, Karol; Sokal, Pawel

2012-01-01

76

Daily High-Resolution-Blended Analyses for Sea Surface Temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two new high-resolution sea surface temperature (SST) analysis products have been developed using optimum interpolation (OI). The analyses have a spatial grid resolution of 0.25° and a temporal resolution of 1 day. One product uses the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) infrared satellite SST data. The other uses AVHRR and Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR) on the NASA Earth

Richard W. Reynolds; Thomas M. Smith; Chunying Liu; Dudley B. Chelton; Kenneth S. Casey; Michael G. Schlax

2007-01-01

77

Propagation of linear surface air temperature trends into the terrestrial subsurface  

E-print Network

Propagation of linear surface air temperature trends into the terrestrial subsurface Marielle air and terrestrial subsurface temperatures working under the assumption that linear trends in surface robust estimates of multidecadal to centennial temperature changes at the Earth's surface for several hun

Beltrami, Hugo

78

A study of surface temperatures, clouds and net radiation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The study is continuing and it is focused on examining seasonal relationships between climate parameters such as the surface temperatures, the net radiation and cloud types and amount on a global basis for the period February 1985 to January 1987. The study consists of an analysis of the combined Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) and International Satellite Cloud Climatology Program (ISCCP) products. The main emphasis is on obtaining the information about the interactions and relationships of Earth Radiation Budget parameters, cloud and temperature information. The purpose is to gain additional qualitative and quantitative insight into the cloud climate relationship.

Dhuria, Harbans

1994-01-01

79

Terrestrial manganese-53 --A new monitor of Earth surface processes  

E-print Network

Terrestrial manganese-53 -- A new monitor of Earth surface processes Joerg M. Schaefer a,, Thomas of the terrestrial cosmogenic radionuclide manganese-53 (T1/2 =3.7 Ma) measured in thirteen samples from nine dolerite surfaces in the Dry Valleys, Antarctica. The terrestrial manganese-53 concentrations correlate

Winckler, Gisela

80

Isotope fractionation in surface ionization ion source of alkaline-earth iodides  

SciTech Connect

The relationship between the isotope fractionation of alkaline-earth elements in the surface ionization ion source and the evaporation filament current, i.e., filament temperature, was studied. It was confirmed that the isotope fractionation depends on the evaporation filament temperature; the isotope fractionation in the case of higher temperature of filament becomes larger. The ionization and evaporation process in the surface ionization ion source was discussed, and it was concluded that the isotope fractionation is suppressed by setting at the lower temperature of evaporation filament because the dissociations are inhibited on the evaporation filament.

Suzuki, T.; Kanzaki, C.; Nomura, M.; Fujii, Y. [Research Laboratory for Nuclear Reactors, Tokyo Institute of Technology, O-okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan)

2012-02-15

81

30 CFR 717.15 - Disposal of excess rock and earth materials on surface areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Disposal of excess rock and earth materials on surface areas. 717...STANDARDS § 717.15 Disposal of excess rock and earth materials on surface areas. Excess rock and earth materials produced from an...

2010-07-01

82

30 CFR 717.15 - Disposal of excess rock and earth materials on surface areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Disposal of excess rock and earth materials on surface areas. 717...STANDARDS § 717.15 Disposal of excess rock and earth materials on surface areas. Excess rock and earth materials produced from an...

2011-07-01

83

30 CFR 717.15 - Disposal of excess rock and earth materials on surface areas.  

...2014-07-01 false Disposal of excess rock and earth materials on surface areas. 717...STANDARDS § 717.15 Disposal of excess rock and earth materials on surface areas. Excess rock and earth materials produced from an...

2014-07-01

84

30 CFR 717.15 - Disposal of excess rock and earth materials on surface areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Disposal of excess rock and earth materials on surface areas. 717...STANDARDS § 717.15 Disposal of excess rock and earth materials on surface areas. Excess rock and earth materials produced from an...

2013-07-01

85

30 CFR 717.15 - Disposal of excess rock and earth materials on surface areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Disposal of excess rock and earth materials on surface areas. 717...STANDARDS § 717.15 Disposal of excess rock and earth materials on surface areas. Excess rock and earth materials produced from an...

2012-07-01

86

Sea Surface Temperatures (SST): Significance and Measurement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oceans cover 71 percent of Earth's surface and control the global climate. Quoted global mean temperature values and trends, largely based on land thermometers, differ substantially -" mainly because of uncertainties about SST. The ongoing controversy about the relative importance of natural climate changes and Anthropogenic Global Warming (AGW) revolves mainly around disparities between temperature trends of the atmosphere and surface (in the tropics and SH, i.e. mostly SST). Accurate measurement of SST is difficult. Geographic coverage is poor and there are many different techniques, each with its own problems and uncertainties: Water temperatures from buckets and ship-engine inlets; fixed and floating buoys; air temperatures from shipboard and island stations; and remote sensing from satellites using IR and microwaves. As is evident, each technique refers to a different level below the air-water interface. Drifter buoys (at around 50 cm) measure temperatures in the euphotic layers that are generally warmer than the bulk mixed layer sampled by ships (typically around 10 m). The IR emission arises from a 10-micron-thick skin that interacts dynamically with the underlying "mixed layer." The microwave data depend also on emissivity and therefore on surface roughness and sea state. SST data derived from corals provide some support for instrumental data but are not conclusive. The majority of corals show a warming trend since 1979; others show cooling or are ambiguous. There are different ways of interpreting this result. Physical optics dictates that the downwelling IR radiation from atmospheric greenhouse gases is absorbed in the first instance within the skin. Only direct measurements can establish how much of this energy is shared with the bulk mixed layer (to which the usual SST values refer.). SST controls evaporation and therefore global precipitation. SST influences tropical cyclones and sea-level rise; but there is lively debate on those issues. Changes in SST are also responsible for changes in deep- ocean temperatures and ocean heat storage. But recent claims that an increase in heat storage is a "smoking gun" for AGW are without merit.

Singer, S. F.

2006-05-01

87

Modelling heat transport from the earth's surface through aquifers to springs: theoretical examples and case studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Annual periodical temperature variations in spring-water and groundwater caused by the annual periodical thermal component at the earth's surface can provide information on the boundaries and properties of shallow, thin aquifer systems, such as groundwater recharge, groundwater circulation depth, flow direction, flow velocity, and residence time, as well as mixing processes of different waters. Illustrative numerical simulations of coupled ground

J. BUNDSCHUH

1993-01-01

88

Temperature and Pressure Dependence of Elastic Properties of EARTH’S Lower Mantle Components  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The expressions for the temperature and pressure derivatives of Second Order Elastic (SOE) constants of elements of earth’s lower mantle i.e. CaO, MgO and SrO have been obtained using a simple method of direct differentiation of expressions of SOE constants which have been suitably modified taking into account three body interaction and thermal phonon pressure. The method provides a direct check to the already known expressions of pressure derivatives of SOE constants using Thurston and Brugger relation. The results obtained at 300° K are found to be in reasonably good agreement with the experiment.

Bedi, S. S.; Bhangoo, M. S.

89

A Low Temperature Limit for Life on Earth  

PubMed Central

There is no generally accepted value for the lower temperature limit for life on Earth. We present empirical evidence that free-living microbial cells cooling in the presence of external ice will undergo freeze-induced desiccation and a glass transition (vitrification) at a temperature between ?10°C and ?26°C. In contrast to intracellular freezing, vitrification does not result in death and cells may survive very low temperatures once vitrified. The high internal viscosity following vitrification means that diffusion of oxygen and metabolites is slowed to such an extent that cellular metabolism ceases. The temperature range for intracellular vitrification makes this a process of fundamental ecological significance for free-living microbes. It is only where extracellular ice is not present that cells can continue to metabolise below these temperatures, and water droplets in clouds provide an important example of such a habitat. In multicellular organisms the cells are isolated from ice in the environment, and the major factor dictating how they respond to low temperature is the physical state of the extracellular fluid. Where this fluid freezes, then the cells will dehydrate and vitrify in a manner analogous to free-living microbes. Where the extracellular fluid undercools then cells can continue to metabolise, albeit slowly, to temperatures below the vitrification temperature of free-living microbes. Evidence suggests that these cells do also eventually vitrify, but at lower temperatures that may be below ?50°C. Since cells must return to a fluid state to resume metabolism and complete their life cycle, and ice is almost universally present in environments at sub-zero temperatures, we propose that the vitrification temperature represents a general lower thermal limit to life on Earth, though its precise value differs between unicellular (typically above ?20°C) and multicellular organisms (typically below ?20°C). Few multicellular organisms can, however, complete their life cycle at temperatures below ??2°C. PMID:23840425

Clarke, Andrew; Morris, G. John; Fonseca, Fernanda; Murray, Benjamin J.; Price, Hannah C.

2013-01-01

90

Remote sensing of the Dead Sea surface temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Dead Sea is a unique terminal lake located at the lowest place on Earth's surface. It has the highest surface temperature, salinity, and density among Earth's large water bodies, and its level is currently dropping at a rate of ˜1 m/a. Knowledge of the Dead Sea thermal and saline structure is based on meteorological and hydrological measurements from a single site at a time. In this study, we used satellite and in situ data to characterize the spatial and temporal variations of the Dead Sea sea surface temperature (SST) and to explore the causes for these variations. Sequences of almost continuous individual satellite images were transformed into a time series of parameters representing the spatial distribution of SST. Also used were in situ measured bulk SST, wind speed, solar radiation, and water temperature profiles with depth. Analysis of this data set shows strong diurnal and seasonal variations of the surface and vertical temperature field and the meteorological forcing. The temperature field is heterogeneous after noon, when radiation is high and wind speed is low and thermal layering develops. The temperature field is homogeneous during the nighttime, when solar radiation is absent and the high wind speed vertically mixes the upper layer.

Nehorai, R.; Lensky, I. M.; Lensky, N. G.; Shiff, S.

2009-05-01

91

Characteristics of the solar signal on the Earth's surface through stratosphere-troposphere coupled process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solar influence on climate has been discussed since long time on the assumption that the total solar irradiance (TSI) directly affects Earth's surface. Recent measurements from the space revealed that the variation of the TSI associated with the 11-year solar cycle is about 0.1%, which cannot produce little effect on Earth's climate without a feedback from the atmosphere-ocean system. Several amplifying mechanism are proposed for different variation of solar origin, cosmic ray, visible light, solar ultra violet. To determine which process is actually operating in the Earth's atmosphere, it needs to investigate not only the global mean temperature, but also its spatial structure. Observed 11-year solar signals in surface temperature can be characterizes by warming in midlatitudes and the absence of warming (or even slight cooling) in the tropics. Midlatitudes warming of the surface temperature occurs in associated with a downward penetration of stratospheric polar-night jet or the polar-night jet oscillation. Little change in tropical surface temperature is consistent with dynamical nature. Meridional circulation change produces a warming in the tropical lower stratosphere, but little effect on the tropospheric temperature. Such characteristics of solar signal can be expected from that produced through change of the solar ultraviolet. Change of the solar heating in the middle atmosphere modulates wave mean-flow interaction in the stratosphere through two processes: one is the polar-night jet oscillation, and the other is a modulation of the meridional circulation.

Kodera, Kunihiko

2014-05-01

92

Ocean Currents and Sea Surface Temperature  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this classroom activity, students access sea surface temperature and wind speed data from a NASA site, plot and compare data, draw conclusions about surface current and sea surface temperature, and link their gained understanding to concerns about global climate change.

Carter, Joan; Collection, Nasa -.

93

Twentieth-century sea surface temperature trends  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analysis of historical sea surface temperatures provides evidence for global warming since 1900, in line with land-based analyses of global temperature trends, and also shows that over the same period, the eastern equatorial Pacific cooled and the zonal sea surface temperature gradient strengthened. Recent theoretical studies have predicted such a pattern as a response of the coupled ocean-atmosphere system

M. A. Cane; A. C. Clement; A. Kaplan

1997-01-01

94

Patchiness in satellite derived sea surface temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patchiness, indicated by ship measurements from the International Indian Ocean Expedition, was checked against the most advanced sea surface temperature program based on satellite observations. The statistical analysis of structures observed with sea surface temperature measurements showed that they are highly correlated with the time span of observations; i. e., structures or patches in the temperature field can be artificially

Karl-Heinz Szekielda; Amnon Ptashek

1991-01-01

95

MY NASA DATA Lesson Plan A: Circle the Earth-Explore Surface Types on a Journey around Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson plan uses NASA Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instrument percent coverage surface data with a world map to locate landmasses and bodies of water at the Earth's Equator. When using satellites to study Earth system processes, especially atmospheric processes, it is important to know what is the background that one is seeing on the Earth. This lesson provides an introduction to exploring Earth surface types. The percent water along the Equator is about 77 percent, which is surprisingly representative of the entire planet. At 40N latitude, the percentage water is about 55 percent, so any single latitude is not necessarily representative of the Earth as a whole.

2006-01-01

96

Disparity of tropospheric and surface temperature trends: New evidence  

E-print Network

Observations suggest that the earth's surface has been warming relative to the troposphere for the last 25 years; this is not only difficult to explain but also contrary to the results of climate models. We provide new evidence that the disparity is real. Introducing an additional data set, R2 2 meter temperatures, a diagnostic variable related to tropospheric temperature profiles, we find trends derived from it to be in close agreement with satellite measurements of tropospheric temperature. This suggests that the disparity likely is a result of near-surface processes. We find that the disparity does not occur uniformly across the globe, but is primarily confined to tropical regions which are primarily oceanic. Since the ocean measurements are sea surface temperatures, we suggest that the disparity is probably associated with processes at the ocean-atmosphere interface. Our study thus makes unlikely some of the explanations advanced to account for the disparity; it also demonstrates the importance of disting...

Douglass, D H; Singer, F; Knappenberger, P C; Michaels, P J

2004-01-01

97

Pyrometric Gas and Surface Temperature Measurements.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A multiwavelength pyrometer possessing advantages over the one- and two-wavelength designs is described. Results of its application to surface temperature measurements of ceramics is presented. Also described is a probe suitable for gas temperature measur...

G. Fralick, D. Ng

1999-01-01

98

Rare earth–cobalt magnets with low reversible temperature coefficient  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heavy rare earth substitution for Sm in SmCo5 magnets were carried out with a view of improving the reversible temperature coefficient (RTC) of magnetization. The RTC was found to vary depending on the temperature ranges of interest. Over the range of ?50 C to +100 C for Sm0.6Dy0.4Co5 and Sm0.68Er0.08Ho0.08Dy0.08Gd0.08Co5 an RTC of +0.0062% per °C and ?0.0045% per °C

K. S. V. L. Narasimhan; M. G. H. Wells; D. V. Ratnam

1978-01-01

99

Microclimatic Temperature Relationships over Different Surfaces.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a study of temperature variations over different surfaces in an urban campus setting. Explains that researchers sampled temperatures over grass, bare soil, gravel, concrete, and blacktop. Reports that grassy areas registered the highest morning temperatures and lowest afternoon temperatures. (SG)

Williams, Thomas B.

1991-01-01

100

External Resource: Using Vegetation, Precipitation, and Surface Temperature to Study Climate Zones  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This My NASA Data activity explores the relationship between amount of vegetation, precipitation, and surface temperature to study Earth's climate zones. Each fifty minute activity allows learners/students to use a micro-set of satellite data to investiga

1900-01-01

101

Martensitic stainless steel modified by plasma nitrocarburizing at conventional temperature with and without rare earths addition  

Microsoft Academic Search

17-4PH Martensitic stainless steel was plasma nitrocarburized at conventional temperature (560°C) with and without rare earths (RE) addition. The surface treated layers were characterized by optical microscope, scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray analyzer, X-ray diffraction and microhardness test. The wear and corrosion behavior of the modified specimens was studied respectively using pin-on-disc tribometer and anodic polarization

M. F. Yan; R. L. Liu

2010-01-01

102

Surface Wave Propagation Around the Earth: A Problem Solving Exercise  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students examine a seismogram display called a seismic record section in which each trace is a seismogram recorded at a specific seismograph station. The seismograms are plotted according to the distance (in degrees, geocentric angle) from the earthquake location and time from the earthquake origin. The traces are of the vertical component of ground motion, and have been filtered to include only periods longer than 125 seconds. Students look for the prominent arrivals, called phases, that angle across the record section and are labeled and discover that they are called long-period Rayleigh waves. Students learn that these waves travel along the surface of the Earth and that surface waves penetrate (have particle motion) to depths of tens to hundreds of km but travel approximately parallel to the Earth's surface. Since the surface waves propagate in all directions from the source, the arrival times are approximately the same as if the stations were all located along a great circle path from the epicenter. From this, students are able to measure the distance traveled and calculate the velocity in kilometers per second and how long it takes for the wave to go around the Earth.

Braile, Larry

103

Consecutive recovery of rare earth and alkaline earth elements by countercurrent electromigration in room temperature molten salts  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have suggested the novel environmental harmonization process applying the countercurrent electromigration technique utilizing the room temperature molten salts substituted for the pyrometallurgical processes aiming at the recovery of the electrochemically base metals such as the rare earth and the alkaline-earth elements in spent catalysts. According to the batch experiments using ammonium imide type room temperature molten salts, the trivalent

Masahiko Matsumiya; Kiyotaka Tokuraku; Haruaki Matsuura; Ken-ichi Hinoue

2006-01-01

104

Enrichment of rare earth and alkaline-earth elements by countercurrent electromigration in room temperature molten salts  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the recovery of the electrochemically negative elements such as the rare earth and the alkaline-earth elements, it is important to develop the recycle process which has less potential hazards. For this purpose, we have proposed the novel environmental harmonization process using the room temperature molten salts substituted for the high-temperature pyrometallurgical processes. The countercurrent electromigration methods using ammonium imide

Masahiko Matsumiya; Kiyotaka Tokuraku; Haruaki Matsuura; Ken-ichi Hinoue

2005-01-01

105

A much warmer Earth surface for most of geologic time: implications to biotic weathering  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The authors present two scenarios for the temperature history of Earth. One scenario is conventional, the other relies on a warmer history. Both scenarios include surface cooling determined by the evolution of the biosphere and are similar until the Proterozoic period. The warmer scenario requires a higher plant/lichen terrestrial biota to increase weathering intensity. Justification for a warmer surface includes period temperatures from the oxygen isotope record of coexisting phosphates and cherts, an upper limit of 58 degrees C from primary gypsum precipitation, and the lack of fractionation of sulfur isotopes between sulfide and sulfates in Archean sediments.

Schwartzman, D. W.; McMenamin, M.

1993-01-01

106

Sea surface temperature measurements with AIRS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The comparison of global sea surface skin temperature derived from cloud-free AIRS super window channel at 2616 cm-1 (sst2616) with the Real-Time Global Sea Surface Temperature for September 2002 shows surprisingly small standard deviation of 0.44K.

Aumann, H.

2003-01-01

107

Common oscillations in Global Earth Temperature, Sea Level, and Earth rotation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Singular Spectrum Analysis (SSA) of Global Mean Sea Level (GMSL) and Global Average Earth Temperature (HadCRUT4) data after global warming trends subtraction revealed presence of quasi-periodic components with periods of 60, 20 and 10 years in both time series. 60-year component of sea level is anticorrelated with long-periodic changes in temperature, while 10 and 20-year components are correlated. Simultaneous presence of 60-year component in secular Earth rotation rate changes rises a question of interrelations between Earth rotation and Climate. Quasi-20-year changes in GMSL and HadCRUT4 have maxima and minima well corresponding to the amplitude changes of recently reconstructed Chandler wobble excitation, which could be caused by the 18.6-year cycle of the Moon orbital nodes regression. The cause of 10-year oscillations in climate characteristics is enigmatic. It could be related to El Nino variability, Volcanoes, or Solar activity, but correlation with each of those processes found to be small. Looks like it is correlated with 9.3 yr tidal wave.

Zotov, Leonid; Bizouard, Christian; Sidorenkov, Nikolay

2014-05-01

108

Titan Surface Temperatures from Cassini CIRS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thermal radiation from the surface of Titan reaches space through a spectral window at 19-microns wavelength. After removing the effects of the atmosphere, measurement of this radiance gives the brightness temperature of the surface. The Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) has made such measurements during the Cassini prime mission. These observations cover a wide range of emission angles, thereby constraining the contributions from atmospheric radiance and opacity. With the more complete latitude coverage and much larger dataset, we have been able to improve upon the original results from Voyager IRIS. CIRS measures an equatorial surface brightness temperature, averaged over longitude, of 93.7 +/- 0.6 K. This agrees with the HASI temperature at the Huygens landing site. The latitude dependence of surface brightness temperature exhibits an approximately 2 K decrease toward the South Pole and 3 K decrease toward the North Pole. The lower surface temperatures seen at high latitudes are consistent with conditions expected for lake formation.

Jennings, Donald E.; Flasar, F.M.; Kundle, V.G.; Samuelson, R.E.; Pearl, J.C.; Nixon, C.A.; Carlson, R.C.; Mamoutkine, A.A.; Brasunas, J.C.; Guandique, E.; Achterberg, R.K.; Bjoraker, M.H.; Romani, P.N.; Segura, M.E.; Albright, S.A.; Elliott, M.H.; Tingley, J.S.; Calcutt, S.; Coustenis, A.; Bezard, B.; Courtin, R.

2008-01-01

109

Atmospheric Effects on Remote Sensing of the Earth's Surface  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The main causes and magnitude of the atmospheric effects on remote sensing of the Earth's surface are determined. Theoretical study as well as measurements are included. The knowledge gained from this study will be used to develop atmospheric correction algorithms and to test them with satellite data. In a theoretical investigation of the relative effects of the aerosol optical thickness, absorption, and size distribution on remote sensing, it was found that aerosol absorption has a significant effect on satellite measurements of surface reflectivity. The absorption effect is stronger for high than for low surface reflectances. The aerosol optical thickness is dominant for small surface reflectances. The accuracy of clustering algorithms depends on both parameters. The vegetation index, however, is affected by the optical thickness but only weakly affected by the absorption. A laboratory simulation of the atmospheric effect on the radiance of sunlight scattered from the Earth's surface-atmosphere system was performed. This experiment verified the existence of the adjacency effect (the effect of a bright field on the radiance detected above a dark field) and was used to test 3-D radiative transfer models. In a theoretical study it was found that atmospheric scattering resulting from the adjacency effect reduces the separability between surface classes.

Fraser, R. E.; Kaufman, Y.

1984-01-01

110

Infrared Thermography Measurements of Window Thermal Test Specimen Surface Temperatures  

E-print Network

Infrared Thermography Measurements of Window Thermal Test Specimen Surface Temperatures Brent T and cold sides, respectively. Surface temperature maps were compiled using an infrared thermographic system techniques allow detailed, non-intrusive mapping of surface temperatures. Surface temperature data

111

Nonlinear diffusion filtering of data on the Earth's surface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper deals with data filtering on closed surfaces using linear and nonlinear diffusion equations. We define a surface finite-volume method to approximate numerically parabolic partial differential equations on closed surfaces, namely on a sphere, ellipsoid or the Earth's surface. The closed surface as a computational domain is approximated by a polyhedral surface created by planar triangles and we construct a dual co-volume grid. On the co-volumes we define a weak formulation of the problem by applying Green's theorem to the Laplace-Beltrami operator. Then the finite-volume method is applied to discretize the weak formulation. Weak forms of elliptic operators are expressed through surface gradients. In our numerical scheme we use a piece-wise linear approximation of a solution in space and the backward Euler time discretization. Furthermore, we extend a linear diffusion on surface to the regularized surface Perona-Malik model. It represents a nonlinear diffusion equation, which at the same time reduces noise and preserves main edges and other details important for a correct interpretation of the real data. We present four numerical experiments. The first one has an illustrative character showing how an additive noise is filtered out from an artificial function defined on a sphere. Other three examples deal with the real geodetic data on the Earth's surface, namely (i) we reduce a stripping noise from the GOCE satellite only geopotential model up to degree 240, (ii) we filter noise from the real GOCE measurements (the component T_{zz}), and (iii) we reduce a stripping noise from the satellite only mean dynamic topography at oceans. In all experiments we focus on a comparison of the results obtained by both the linear and nonlinear models presenting advantages of the nonlinear diffusion.

?underlík, Róbert; Mikula, Karol; Tunega, Martin

2013-02-01

112

Concept of a space optoelectronic system for environmental monitoring of the near-earth space, atmosphere, and earth surface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The sharp increase of the man-induced pressure on the environment and hence the need to predict and monitor natural anomalies makes global monitoring of the ecosphere of planet Earth an issue of vital importance. The notion of the ecosphere covers three basic shells closely interacting with each other: the near-Earth space, the atmosphere and the Earth surface. In the near-Earth space (covering 100 to 2000 km altitudes) the primary objects of monitoring are: functioning artificial space objects, the fragments of their constructions or space rubbish (which by estimation amounts to 3.5 million pieces including 30,000 to 70,000 objects having dimensions sufficient for heavy damaging or even destroying functioning space objects) and objects of space origin (asteroids, meteorites and comets) whose trajectories come closely enough to the Earth. Maximum concentrations of space rubbish observed on orbits with altitudes of 800, 1000 and 1500 km and inclinations of 60 to 100 deg. are related in the first place to spacecraft launch requirements. Taking into account the number of launches implemented by different countries in the framework of their own space programs the probability of collision of functioning spacecraft with space rubbish may be estimation increase from (1.5 - 3.5)% at present to (15 - 40)% by 2020. Besides, registration of space radiation flow intensity and the solar activity is no less important in this space area. Subject to control in the atmosphere are time and space variations in temperature fields, humidity, tracing gas concentrations, first of all ozone and greenhouse gases, the state of the cloud cover, wind velocity, etc. The range of objects to be under environmental management of Earth surface is just as diverse and essentially should include the state of the surface and the near-surface layer of seas and oceans, internal reservoirs, the cryosphere and the land surface along with vegetation cover, natural resources and human activities. No matter how large the space (from several meters to hundreds of kilometers) and time (from an hour to several months) scales of the above monitoring might be there is a common dominating factor which could favor creation of a general- purpose observation and control system based on passive optoelectronic instrumentation of different levels of sophistication. This dominating factor refers to the possibility of obtaining information about the state of objects by way to recording parameters of radiation emitted by them in wavelengths of 250 nm to tens of microns. The fact that phenomena and processes occurring in the atmosphere are closely interrelated gives implications as to the structure of such a system which is supposed to be a common information network basically consisting of an orbiting constellation of a number of small-size spacecraft equipped with optoelectronic instrumentation of different complexity, and a ground segment to provide acquisition and processing of information about the status of every ecosphere shell including comprehensive thematic analysis. The existing domestic (based on the `Meteor', `Resurs-O', `Okean', etc. spacecraft) and foreign (NOAA, SPOT, LANDSAT, ERS, etc.) space systems are designed for solution of only a limited number of atmosphere monitoring issues, namely those related to meteorology and studies of natural resources. As for the near-Earth space there are at present only ground facilities whose monitoring capabilities are also limited. It should be noted that in recent years in the USA similar activities have been in full swing targeted at creation of a system like the one mentioned above (the Earth Observation System). A system comprising four spacecraft of the NOAA series and a distributed ground network for receiving analog (with 4 km spatial resolution) and digital (with 1 km spatial resolution) multispectral data pertaining to the status of the atmosphere and the underlying surface is currently operational. This system presents some unique features which make it in several applications superior to existing counterparts. The

Eltsov, Anatoli V.; Karasev, Vladimir I.; Kolotkov, Vjacheslav V.; Kondranin, Timothy V.

1997-06-01

113

Titan's Surface Temperatures Measured by Cassini CIRS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A large fraction of 19-micron thermal radiation from the surface of Titan reaches space through a spectral window of low atmospheric opacity. The emergent radiance, after removing the effect of the atmosphere, gives the brightness temperature of the surface. This atmospheric window is covered by the far-infrared channel of the Composite Infrared spectrometer1 (CIRS) on Cassini. In mapping Titan surface temperatures, CIRS is able to improve upon results of Voyager IRIS, by taking advantage of improved latitude coverage and a much larger dataset. Observations are from a wide range of emission angles and thereby provide constraints on the atmospheric opacity and radiance that are used to derive the surface temperature. CIRS finds an average equatorial surface brightness temperature of 93.7+/-0.6 K, virtually identical to the HASI temperature at the Huygens landing site. Mapping in latitude shows that the surface temperature decreases toward the poles by about 2 K in the south and 3 K in the north. This surface temperature distribution is consistent with the formation of lakes seen at high latitudes on Titan.

Jennings, Donald E.; Flasar, F. M.; Kundle, V. G.; Samuelson, R. E.; Pearl, J. C.; Nixon, C. A.; Carlson, R. C.; Mamoutkine, A. A.; Brasunas, J. C.; Guandique, E.; Arhterberg, R. K.; Bjoraker, G. L.; Romani, P. N.; Segura, M. E.; Albright, S. A.; Elliott, M. H.; Tingley, J. S.; Calcutt, S.; Coustenis, A.; Bezard, B.; Courtin, R.

2008-01-01

114

Mapping the downwelling atmospheric radiation at the Earth's surface: A research strategy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A strategy is presented along with background material for determining downward atmospheric radiation at the Earth's surface on a regional scale but over the entire globe, using available information on the temperature and humidity of the air near the ground and at cloud base altitudes. Most of these parameters can be inferred from satellite radiance measurements. Careful validation of the derived radiances will be required using ground-based direct measurements of radiances, to avoid systematic biases of these derived field quantities.

Raschke, E.

1986-01-01

115

Estimation of Surface Air Temperature Over Central and Eastern Eurasia from MODIS Land Surface Temperature  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Surface air temperature (T(sub a)) is a critical variable in the energy and water cycle of the Earth.atmosphere system and is a key input element for hydrology and land surface models. This is a preliminary study to evaluate estimation of T(sub a) from satellite remotely sensed land surface temperature (T(sub s)) by using MODIS-Terra data over two Eurasia regions: northern China and fUSSR. High correlations are observed in both regions between station-measured T(sub a) and MODIS T(sub s). The relationships between the maximum T(sub a) and daytime T(sub s) depend significantly on land cover types, but the minimum T(sub a) and nighttime T(sub s) have little dependence on the land cover types. The largest difference between maximum T(sub a) and daytime T(sub s) appears over the barren and sparsely vegetated area during the summer time. Using a linear regression method, the daily maximum T(sub a) were estimated from 1 km resolution MODIS T(sub s) under clear-sky conditions with coefficients calculated based on land cover types, while the minimum T(sub a) were estimated without considering land cover types. The uncertainty, mean absolute error (MAE), of the estimated maximum T(sub a) varies from 2.4 C over closed shrublands to 3.2 C over grasslands, and the MAE of the estimated minimum Ta is about 3.0 C.

Shen, Suhung; Leptoukh, Gregory G.

2011-01-01

116

Anthropogenic disturbance of element cycles at the Earth's surface.  

PubMed

The extent to which humans are modifying Earth's surface chemistry can be quantified by comparing total anthropogenic element fluxes with their natural counterparts (Klee and Graedel, 2004). We quantify anthropogenic mass transfer of 77 elements from mining, fossil fuel burning, biomass burning, construction activities, and human apportionment of terrestrial net primary productivity, and compare it to natural mass transfer from terrestrial and marine net primary productivity, riverine dissolved and suspended matter fluxes to the ocean, soil erosion, eolian dust, sea-salt spray, cosmic dust, volcanic emissions, and for helium, hydrodynamic escape from the Earth's atmosphere. We introduce an approach to correct for losses during industrial processing of elements belonging to geochemically coherent groups, and explicitly incorporate uncertainties of element mass fluxes through Monte Carlo simulations. We find that at the Earth's surface anthropogenic fluxes of iridium, osmium, helium, gold, ruthenium, antimony, platinum, palladium, rhenium, rhodium and chromium currently exceed natural fluxes. For these elements mining is the major factor of anthropogenic influence, whereas petroleum burning strongly influences the surficial cycle of rhenium. Our assessment indicates that if anthropogenic contributions to soil erosion and eolian dust are considered, anthropogenic fluxes of up to 62 elements surpass their corresponding natural fluxes. PMID:22803636

Sen, Indra S; Peucker-Ehrenbrink, Bernhard

2012-08-21

117

Remote sensing of atmospheric and surface temperatures with microwaves.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Solids, liquids, and gases emit at microwave wavelengths measurable amounts of black-body thermal radiation. Receiver sensitivities readily approach 0.01 K, and permit accurate measurements of land, sea, and atmospheric temperatures. Sea and land temperature measurements must be corrected for the effects of surface emissivity, but these effects can often be measured or estimated. Observations near the 5 mm wavelength 02 resonances can yield atmospheric temperature profiles with an approximate accuracy of 2 K for altitudes 0-80 km. Such measurements from balloons and aircraft suggest that the planned earth-orbital satellite experiments will yield data valuable for numerical weather prediction. Ground-based radio telescopes and planetary-probes have yielded similar information about the surfaces and atmospheres of other planets.

Staelin, D. H.

1972-01-01

118

Titan's Surface Temperatures from Cassini CIRS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The surface brightness temperature of Titan can be measured from Cassini through a spectral window at 19 microns where the atmosphere is low in opacity. The Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) on Cassini observes this wavelength in its far-infrared channel. Because the Cassini tour has provided global coverage and a range of viewing geometries, CIRS has been able to go beyond the earlier flyby results of Voyager IRIS Near the equator, CIRS measures the zonally-averaged surface brightness temperature to be 917 K, very close to the temperature found at the surface by Huygens. Latitude maps show that Titan's surface temperatures drop off by about 2 K toward the south and by about 3 K toward the north. This temperature distribution is consistent with Titan's late northern winter when the data were taken. As the seasons progress, CIRS is continuing to search for corresponding changes in the temperatures of the surface and lower atmosphere. CIRS is also extending global mapping to both latitude and longitude to look for correlations between surface temperatures and geological features.

Jennings, Donald E.; Cottini, Valeria; Nixon, Conor A.

2010-01-01

119

Determination of surface debye temperatures by leed  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The method to determine the surface Debye temperature by LEED beam intensity versus temperature measurements is critically evaluated. Simulated in( I) versus T plots obtained with the help of the Gallon-model using a kinematic approach for the specular beam at Bragg diffraction conditions are presented. It is shown that the assumed linearity in these plots is fundamentally incorrect. With our newly developed model good agreement is obtained with experimentally determined effective Debye temperature versus electron energy plots for Pt(111), Pt(100), Rh(111) and Rh(100). However, it is shown that the method of electron energy variation is not reliable for straightforward determination of the surface Debye temperature, whereas variation of angle of incidence is better suitable. In addition, plots measured on a Pt-Rh(100) surface with a Pt surface content varying between 25 and 60 at% are compared with simulated plots for disordered and ordered alloys.

Delft, F. C. M. J. M. van; Koster van Groos, M. J.; Graaff, R. A. G. De; Langeveld, A. D. Van; Nieuwenhuys, B. E.

1987-10-01

120

Evaluation of Flat Surface Temperature Probes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this paper is elaboration of elements related to metrological analysis in the field of surface temperature measurement. Surface temperature measurements are applicable in many fields. As examples, safety testing of electrical appliances and a pharmaceutical production line represent case studies for surface temperature measurements. In both cases correctness of the result of the surface temperature has an influence on final product safety and quality and thus conformity with specifications. This paper deals with the differences of flat surface temperature probes in measuring the surface temperature. For the purpose of safety testing of electrical appliances, surface temperature measurements are very important for safety of the user. General requirements are presented in European standards, which support requirements in European directives, e.g., European Low Voltage Directive 2006/95/EC and pharmaceutical requirements, which are introduced in official state legislation. This paper introduces a comparison of temperature measurements of an attached thermocouple on the measured surface and measurement with flat surface temperature probes. As a heat generator, a so called temperature artifact is used. It consists of an aluminum plate with an incorporated electrical heating element with very good temperature stability in the central part. The probes and thermocouple were applied with different forces to the surface in horizontal and vertical positions. The reference temperature was measured by a J-type fine-wire (0.2 mm) thermocouple. Two probes were homemade according to requirements in the European standard EN 60335-2-9/A12, one with a fine-wire (0.2 mm) thermocouple and one with 0.5mm of thermocouple wire diameter. Additional commercially available probes were compared. Differences between probes due to thermal conditions caused by application of the probe were found. Therefore, it can happen that measurements are performed with improper equipment or in an improper way for a particular application. Therefore, knowledge and awareness regarding all facts related to the used measuring equipment are essential to avoid the risk of a wrong decision on safety measures.

Beges, G.; Rudman, M.; Drnovsek, J.

2011-01-01

121

Precision radiometric surface temperature (PRST) sensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is a need for a Precision Radiometric Surface Temperature (PRST) measurement capability that can achieve noncontact profiling of a sample's surface temperature when heated dynamically during laser processing, aerothermal heating or metal cutting/machining. Target surface temperature maps within and near the heated spot provide critical quantitative diagnostic data for laser-target coupling effectiveness and laser damage assessment. In the case of metal cutting, this type of measurement provides information on plastic deformation in the primary shear zone where the cutting tool is in contact with the workpiece. The challenge in these cases is to measure the temperature of a target while its surface's temperature and emissivity are changing rapidly and with incomplete knowledge of how the emissivity and surface texture (scattering) changes with temperature. Bodkin Design and Engineering, LLC (BDandE), with partners Spectral Sciences, Inc. (SSI) and Space Computer Corporation (SCC), has developed a PRST Sensor that is based on a hyperspectral MWIR imager spanning the wavelength range 2-5 ?m and providing a hyperspectral datacube of 20-24 wavelengths at 60 Hz frame rate or faster. This imager is integrated with software and algorithms to extract surface temperature from radiometric measurements over the range from ambient to 2000K with a precision of 20K, even without a priori knowledge of the target's emissivity and even as the target emissivity may be changing with time and temperature. In this paper, we will present a description of the PRST system as well as laser heating test results which show the PRST system mapping target surface temperatures in the range 600-2600K on a variety of materials.

Daly, James T.; Roberts, Carson; Bodkin, Andrew; Sundberg, Robert; Beaven, Scott; Weinheimer, Jeffrey

2013-05-01

122

Seasonal Changes in Surface Temperatures on Titan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The surface brightness temperatures on Titan have been measured by the Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) aboard Cassini during the period spanning late northern winter through vernal equinox. CIRS observes radiance from the surface through a spectral window at 19 microns where the atmosphere has an opacity minimum [I]. CIRS is now seeing a shift in the latitudinal distribution of temperatures froth a distinctly warmer south to a more symmetrical north -south pattern, similar to that found by Voyager IRIS [2,3] at the time of the previous vernal equinox. Near the equator the temperatures remain close to the 93.7 K value found at the surface by Huygens [4]. From the equator to the poles the temperature gradients are 2-3 K. When compared with predictions froth general circulation models [5] the measured temperatures and their seasonal changes constrain the possible types of surface material. As Cassini continues through Titan's northern spring CiRS will extend its, global coverage to took for correlations between surface temperatures and albedo and to search for diurnal temperature variations

Jennings, D. E.; Cottini, V.; Nixon, C. A.

2010-01-01

123

30 CFR 7.101 - Surface temperature tests.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 false Surface temperature tests. 7.101 Section...is Required § 7.101 Surface temperature tests. The test for determination...Acceptable performance. The surface temperature of any external surface...

2010-07-01

124

30 CFR 7.101 - Surface temperature tests.  

... 2014-07-01 false Surface temperature tests. 7.101 Section...is Required § 7.101 Surface temperature tests. The test for determination...Acceptable performance. The surface temperature of any external surface...

2014-07-01

125

Satellite and surface temperature data at odds?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on a series of scientific papers, from Spencer and Christy (1990) to Christy and McNider (1994), a perception has been created in the popular media that satellite measurements of global temperature change are inconsistent with surface measurements and with climate model predictions of global warming rates. Such conclusions, if warranted, would be important. Global temperature change is the most

James Hansen; Helene Wilson; Makiko Sato; Reto Ruedy; Kathy Shah; Erik Hansen

1995-01-01

126

Global trends of measured surface air temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyze surface air temperature data from available meteorological stations with principal focus on the period 1880-1985. The temperature changes at mid- and high latitude stations separated by less than 1000 km are shown to be highly correlated; at low latitudes the correlation falls off more rapidly with distance for nearby stations. We combine the station data in a way

James Hansen; Sergej Lebedeff

1987-01-01

127

Temperature dependence in atom-surface scattering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is shown that a straightforward measure of the temperature dependence of energy resolved atom-surface scattering spectra measured under classical conditions can be related to the strength of the surface corrugation. Using classical perturbation theory combined with a Langevin bath formalism for describing energy transfer, explicit expressions for the scattering probabilities are obtained for both two-dimensional, in-plane scattering and full three-dimensional scattering. For strong surface corrugations results expressed as analytic closed-form equations for the scattering probability are derived which demonstrate that the temperature dependence of the scattering probability weakens with increasing corrugation strength. The relationship to the inelastic rainbow is briefly discussed.

Pollak, Eli; Manson, J. R.

2012-03-01

128

Enceladus Near-Fissure Surface Temperatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently reported Cassini VIMS observations of thermal emission from the Enceladus south-pole fissures (Goguen et al. 2013) when combined with previous longer wavelength Cassini CIRS observations (Spencer et al. 2006) allow us to better constrain the highest temperatures present, but also require more detailed modeling of the processes which control those highest temperatures. The simplest interpretation of the VIMS observations is that the 3-5 µm thermal radiation comes from the walls within a fissure, rather than the adjacent surface. But as part of investigating that latter alternative it became clear that very high sublimation rates are implied by some predicted surface temperatures. Abramov and Spencer (2009) produced models of the expected surface temperature distribution, assuming conduction of heat through the ice, balanced by thermal radiation at the surface. However as temperature is raised, at 186K sublimation cooling equals radiation, and because it depends exponentially on temperature, it quickly dominates. We have found that including the surface sublimation cooling suppresses the higher temperatures. Regardless of the fissure temperature, surface temperatures above 200K can only be maintained by conduction within a few tens of centimeters of the assumed fissure wall. The high sublimation erosion rates (0.25 m/yr at 180K, rising to over 100 m/yr at 220K) imply that the fixed boundaries we have previously assumed are unrealistic. If these surface temperatures are maintained then either a sublimation lag of non-ice components will accumulate, inhibiting sublimation, or the geometry of the fissure vent will rapidly change. However the rate of change will be limited by the available heat provided by conduction. We are now developing numerical models with moving boundary conditions to explore the time evolution. The simplest result may be that the lip of the fissure erodes back till it no longer remains in thermal contact with the rising vapor which maintains the high fissure temperatures. Ingersoll and Pankine (2010) have explored the importance of vapor/ice equilibrium within the fissure. Those same physical principles will also control the surface temperature near the fissures.

Howell, Robert R.; Goguen, J. D.; Spencer, J. R.

2013-10-01

129

Molecular adsorption on the (0001) surfaces of rare-earth metals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The adsorption of molecules on rare-earth (0001) thin films on W(110) at room temperature has been studied using photoemission spectroscopy. CO2 adsorbs dissociatively, up to monolayer coverage, forming a carbonate species, with clean up of adventitious hydrogen also observed. Higher coverages result in molecular adsorption. H2O and H2S on Y(0001) also adsorb dissociatively, resulting in atomic H and S, up to monolayer coverage. Higher coverages of H2O result in oxidation of the substrate to Y2O3, with formation of H2O multilayers. H2S dissociation appears to result in atomic S, adsorbed in both hollow and bridge sites. No indication of CH4 adsorption was seen on Y(0001). These results, and those from the literature, are compared to data from bulk single-crystal rare-earth (0001) surfaces in an attempt to explain the origin of certain unexplained photoemission features observed on those surfaces.

Blyth, R. I.; Searle, C.; Tucker, N.; White, R. G.; Johal, T. K.; Thompson, J.; Barrett, S. D.

2003-11-01

130

Night side lunar surface potential in the Earth's magnetosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the Earth's magnetotail, Japanese Moon orbiter Kaguya repeatedly encountered the plasmoid or plasma sheet. The encounters were characterized by the low energy ion signatures including lobe cold ions, cold ion acceleration in the plasma sheet-lobe boundaries, and hot plasma sheet ions or fast flowing ions associated with plasmoids. Different from the previous observations made in the magnetotail by the GEOTAIL spacecraft, the ions were affected by the existence of the Moon. On the dayside of the Moon, tailward flowing cold ions and their acceleration were observed. However, on the night side, tailward flowing cold ions could not be observed since the Moon blocked them. In stead, ion acceleration by the spacecraft potential and the electron beam accelerated by the potential difference between lunar surface and spacecraft were simultaneously observed. These electron and ion data enabled us to determine the night side lunar surface potential and spacecraft potential only from the observed data for the first time.

Saito, Y.; Nishino, M. N.; Yokota, S.; Tsunakawa, H.; Matsushima, M.; Takahashi, F.; Shibuya, H.; Shimizu, H.

2014-11-01

131

Land-surface atmosphere coupling in an earth system model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The interaction between the atmosphere and the strongly heterogeneous land surface is one of the central scientific topics within Earth system sciences and especially climate research. Many processes, such as vegetation dynamics and the development of spatial patterns in the Subtropics and permafrost regions, take place on scales much below the scale of model resolution. Thus, it is an important scientific challenge to consider the influence of sub-scale heterogeneity on the vertical near-surface fluxes of energy and water. Most climate models do not take into account the actual scale of surface heterogeneities. When coupling a heterogeneous surface to the atmosphere often coupling methods are employed, which include the underlying assumption that the horizontal extent of the individual heterogeneity is so small that the turbulent vertical fluxes stemming from the different surface heterogeneities within one grid-box have mixed horizontally below the lowest model level of the atmosphere. This assumption allows a comparatively simple land-surface-atmosphere coupling with a horizontally homogeneous state of the atmosphere, but it may also be the source of significant errors. In order to access the extent of error introduced we designed an experiment in which the results of three different coupling schemes were compared. The first one is a parameter-aggregation scheme, the second a flux-aggregation scheme based on the assumption of a horizontally homogeneous atmosphere on the lowest atmospheric model level and the third one is a coupling scheme which allows, up to a given height, for the atmosphere to be horizontally heterogeneous within a grid-box. These coupling methods were implemented in the land-surface model JSBACH which was then coupled to the general circulation model ECHAM6, both part of the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology's earth system model MPI-ESM. In a first step sensitivity studies are being carried out to gain process understanding and to disentangle the direct effects of the land-surface-atmosphere coupling and the atmospheric response. To evaluate the overall impact, of a given coupling scheme, 20-year-AMIP-type simulations were performed. First analysis indicates that the results obtained with the three coupling schemes do significantly differ. These differences are not only visible on a sub-grid scale e.g. the sub-grid fluxes, but also on the grid-scale the choice of the coupling scheme significantly affects the simulated global climate and large-scale patterns. Furthermore the difference in the simulated climate between using the improved and the standard flux-aggregation scheme are in the same order of magnitude as those between the parameter aggregation scheme and the standard flux-aggregation scheme.

de Vrese, Philipp; Hagemann, Stefan

2014-05-01

132

Spatial correlations of interdecadal variation in global surface temperatures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We have analyzed spatial correlation patterns of interdecadal global surface temperature variability from an empirical perspective. Using multitaper coherence estimates from 140-yr records, we find that correlations between hemispheres are significant at about 95 percent confidence for nonrandomness for most of the frequency band in the 0.06-0.24 cyc/yr range. Coherence estimates of pairs of 100-yr grid-point temperature data series near 5-yr period reveal teleconnection patterns consistent with known patterns of ENSO variability. Significant correlated variability is observed near 15 year period, with the dominant teleconnection pattern largely confined to the Northern Hemisphere. Peak-to-peak Delta-T is at about 0.5 deg, with simultaneous warming and cooling of discrete patches on the earth's surface. A global average of this pattern would largely cancel.

Mann, Michael E.; Park, Jeffrey

1993-01-01

133

Seasonal Changes in Titan's Surface Temperatures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Seasonal changes in Titan's surface brightness temperatures have been observed by Cassini in the thermal infrared. The Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) measured surface radiances at 19 micron in two time periods: one in late northern winter (Ls = 335d eg) and another centered on northern spring equinox (Ls = 0 deg). In both periods we constructed pole-to-pole maps of zonally averaged brightness temperatures corrected for effects of the atmosphere. Between late northern winter and northern spring equinox a shift occurred in the temperature distribution, characterized by a warming of approximately 0.5 K in the north and a cooling by about the same amount in the south. At equinox the polar surface temperatures were both near 91 K and the equator was 93.4 K. We measured a seasonal lag of delta Ls approximately 9 in the meridional surface temperature distribution, consistent with the post-equinox results of Voyager 1 as well as with predictions from general circulation modeling. A slightly elevated temperature is observed at 65 deg S in the relatively cloud-free zone between the mid-latitude and southern cloud regions.

Jennins, Donald E.; Cottini, V.; Nixon, C. A.; Flasar, F. M.; Kunde, V. G.; Samuelson, R. E.; Romani, P. N.; Hesman, B. E.; Carlson, R. C.; Gorius, N. J. P.; Coustenis, A.; Tokano, T.

2011-01-01

134

A Study of Surface Temperatures, Clouds and Net Radiation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This study focused on the seasonal relationships and interactions of climate parameters such as the surface temperatures, net radiation, long wave flux, short wave flux, and clouds on a global basis. Five years of observations (December 1984 to November 1989) from the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) and the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Program (ISCCP) were used to study both seasonal variations and interannual variations by use of a basic radiation budget equation. In addition, the study was extended to include an analysis of the cloud forcing due El-Nino's impact on the ERBE parameters.

Dhuria, Harbans

1996-01-01

135

SESE 2009 Faculty Retreat 1 Earth Surface Processes Surface Process Studies in SESE  

E-print Network

on quantifying how climate, mountain building, volcanic activity, and human activity impact the co-evolution geology, geochronology, and soil science to better constrain human evolution. 3. Paleoclimate evolution. 3. Co-evolution of humans and the Earth's surface with lessons of the anticipating future effects

Rhoads, James

136

Solar turbulence in earth's global and regional temperature anomalies Nicola Scafetta,1,2  

E-print Network

Solar turbulence in earth's global and regional temperature anomalies Nicola Scafetta,1,2 Paolo a study of the influence of solar activity on the earth's temperature. In particular, we focus on the repercussion of the fluctuations of the solar irradiance on the temperature of the Northern and Southern

Scafetta, Nicola

137

Design of a Surface Albedo Modification Payload for Near Earth Asteroid (NEA) Mitigation  

E-print Network

The development of the Surface Albedo Treatment System (SATS) onboard a spacecraft mission to the near earth asteroid (NEA) Apophis in 2012 is an innovative concept of deflecting NEAs from possible impact with the Earth through altering...

Ge, Shen

2011-10-21

138

EARTH SURFACE PROCESSES AND LANDFORMS, VOL 22, 11971205 (1997) RING PERMEAMETRY: DESIGN, OPERATION AND ERROR  

E-print Network

EARTH SURFACE PROCESSES AND LANDFORMS, VOL 22, 1197­1205 (1997) RING PERMEAMETRY: DESIGN, OPERATION of permeability estimates is illustrated. © 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Earth surf. process. landforms, 22, 1197

Chappell, Nick A

139

Earth's core-mantle boundary - Results of experiments at high pressures and temperatures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Laboratory experiments document that liquid iron reacts chemically with silicates at high pressures (above 2.4 x 10 to the 10th Pa) and temperatures. In particular, (Mg,Fe)SiO3 perovskite, the most abundant mineral of earth's lower mantle, is expected to react with liquid iron to produce metallic alloys (FeO and FeSi) and nonmetallic silicates (SiO2 stishovite and MgSiO3 perovskite) at the pressures of the core-mantle boundary, 14 x 10 to the 10th Pa. The experimental observations, in conjunction with seismological data, suggest that the lowermost 200 to 300 km of earth's mantle, the D-double-prime layer, may be an extremely heterogeneous region as a result of chemical reactions between the silicate mantle and the liquid iron alloy of earth's core. The combined thermal-chemical-electrical boundary layer resulting from such reactions offers a plausible explanation for the complex behavior of seismic waves near the core-mantle boundary and could influence earth's magnetic field observed at the surface.

Knittle, Elise; Jeanloz, Raymond

1991-01-01

140

Chemical Sputtering of Deuterated Carbon Surfaces at Various Surface Temperatures  

SciTech Connect

The chemical sputtering of deuterated amorphous carbon (a-C:D) surfaces irradiated by 1 50 eV deuterium atoms at surface temperatures between 300 1000 K was studied using classical molecular dynamics. A quasi-stationary state was reached by cumulative bombardment for each energy and temperature. Results were compared with available experimental data and previous modeling results, and the applicability of molecular dynamics for thermally generated processes was discussed. An attempt is made to correct the absence of the thermally stimulated desorption/degassing form the MD simulations, which evolve at the longer time scales.

Dadras, J. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Krstic, Predrag S [ORNL

2010-01-01

141

UV 380 nm Reflectivity of the Earth's Surface  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The 380 nm radiance measurements of TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) have been converted into a global data set of daily (1979 to 1992) Lambert equivalent reflectivities R of the Earth's surface and boundary layer (clouds, aerosols, surface haze, and snow/ice). Since UV surface reflectivity is between 2 and 8% for both land and water during all seasons of the year (except for ice and snow cover), reflectivities larger than the surface value indicates the presence of clouds, haze, or aerosols in the satellite field of view. Statistical analysis of 14 years of daily data show that most snow/ice-free regions of the Earth have their largest fraction of days each year when the reflectivity is low (R less than 10%). The 380 nm reflectivity data shows that the true surface reflectivity is 2 to 3% lower than the most frequently occurring reflectivity value for each TOMS scene. The most likely cause of this could be a combination of frequently occurring boundary-layer water or aerosol haze. For most regions, the observation of extremely clear conditions needed to estimate the surface reflectivity from space is a comparatively rare occurrence. Certain areas (e.g., Australia, southern Africa, portions of northern Africa) are cloud-free more than 80% of the year, which exposes these regions to larger amounts of UV radiation than at comparable latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere. Regions over rain-forests, jungle areas, Europe and Russia, the bands surrounding the Arctic and Antarctic regions, and many ocean areas have significant cloud cover (R greater than 15%) more than half of each year. In the low to middle latitudes, the areas with the heaviest cloud cover (highest reflectivity for most of the year) are the forest areas of northern South America, southern Central America, the jungle areas of equatorial Africa, and high mountain regions such as the Himalayas or the Andes. The TOMS reflectivity data show the presence of large nearly clear ocean areas and the effects of the major ocean currents on cloud production.

Herman, J. R.; Celarier, E.; Larko, D.

2000-01-01

142

Surface Temperature of Magnetized Neutron Stars  

E-print Network

We show that the expected inhomogeneous temperature distribution induced at the surface of a neutron star by the anisotropy of heat transport in the magnetized envelope allows us to understand quite well the observed pulse profiles of the four nearby pulsars for which surface thermal emission has been detected. However, due to gravitational lensing, dipolar magnetic fields are not adequate and the observed high pulsed fractions force us to include a quadrupolar component.

Dany Page; A. Sarmiento

1996-01-31

143

Surface-mount sapphire interferometric temperature sensor  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fiber-optic high-temperature sensor is demonstrated by bonding a 45°-polished single-crystal sapphire fiber on the surface of a sapphire wafer, whose optical thickness is temperature dependent and measured by white-light interferometry. A novel adhesive-free coupling between the silica and sapphire fibers is achieved by fusion splicing, and its performance is characterized. The sensor's interference signal is investigated for its dependence

Yizheng Zhu; Anbo Wang

2006-01-01

144

20-Year Arctic Surface Temperature Trend  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Here the 20-year surface temperature trend is shown over the Arctic region. This animation shows the warming and cooling regions in steps from the regions of least change to the areas of greatest change. Blue hues indicate cooling regions; red hues depict warming. Light regions indicate less change while darker regions indicate more. The temperature scale used ranges from -0.4 to +0.4 degrees Celsius in increments of .02 degrees. (See color bar below)

Starr, Cindy; Comiso, Josefino

2003-10-23

145

22-Year Arctic Surface Temperature Trend  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This image shows the 22-year surface temperature trend over the Arctic region. Blue hues indicate areas that are cooling; gold hues depict areas that are warming. Lighter colors indicate less change while darker colors indicate more. The temperature scale steps from zero degrees Celsius in increments of .02 degrees. (See color bar below) The data ranges from -0.162 to +0.487 degrees Celsius.

Starr, Cindy; Comiso, Josefino

2004-12-13

146

The Effect of Rare Earth Elements, Temperature and Rolling Speed on the Microstructure Evolution of Magnesium  

E-print Network

The Effect of Rare Earth Elements, Temperature and Rolling Speed on the Microstructure Evolution ·Rare earth elements are the current focus of study due to: Ability to weaken the rolling texture of Aluminum Abundance: 8th most abundant element in Earth's crust (2% by mass) ·These properties can serve

Barthelat, Francois

147

30 CFR 18.23 - Limitation of external surface temperatures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Limitation of external surface temperatures. 18.23 Section 18.23 Mineral... § 18.23 Limitation of external surface temperatures. The temperature of the external surfaces of mechanical or electrical...

2010-07-01

148

30 CFR 18.23 - Limitation of external surface temperatures.  

...2014-07-01 false Limitation of external surface temperatures. 18.23 Section 18.23 Mineral... § 18.23 Limitation of external surface temperatures. The temperature of the external surfaces of mechanical or electrical...

2014-07-01

149

Spacecraft ram glow and surface temperature  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space shuttle glow intensity measurements show large differences when the data from different missions are compared. In particular, on the 41-G mission the space shuttle ram glow was observed to display an unusually low intensity. Subsequent investigation of this measurement and earlier measurements suggest that there was a significant difference in temperature of the glow producing ram surfaces. The highly insulating properties coupled with the high emissivity of the shuttle tile results in surfaces that cool quickly when exposed to deep space on the night side of the orbit. The increased glow intensity is consistent with the hypothesis that the glow is emitted from excited NO2. The excited NO2 is likely formed through three body recombination (OI + NO + M = NO2*) where ramming of OI interacts with weakly surface bound NO. The NO is formed from atmospheric OI and NI which is scavenged by the spacecraft moving through the atmosphere. It is postulated that the colder surfaces retain a thicker layer of NO thereby increasing the probability of the reaction. It has been found from the glow intensity/temperature data that the bond energy of the surface bound precursor, leading to the chemical recombination producing the glow, is approximately 0.14 eV. A thermal analysis of material samples of STS-8 was made and the postulated temperature change of individual material samples prior to the time of glow measurements above respective samples are consistent with the thermal effect on glow found for the orbiter surface.

Swenson, G. R.; Mende, S. B.; Llewellyn, E. J.

1987-01-01

150

Evaluation of Split-Window Land Surface Temperature Algorithms for Generating Climate Data Records  

Microsoft Academic Search

Land surface temperature (LST) is a key indicator of the Earth's surface energy and is used in a range of hydrological, meteorological, and climatological applications. As needed for most modeling and climate analysis applications, LST products that are generated from polar-orbiting meteorological satellite sensors have spatial resolutions from several hundred meters to several kilometers and have (quasi) daily temporal resolution.

Yunyue Yu; Jeffrey L. Privette; Ana C. Pinheiro

2008-01-01

151

New report affirms surface global warming, but falls short of reconciling temperature trends  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new report by the U.S. National Research Council (NRC) affirms that the global surface temperature on Earth has warmed during the past 20 years. The report, issued on January 13, also says the lower to mid-troposphere has warmed less than the surface during the past two decades, and that a ``substantial disparity remains'' between these measurements. ``The warming trend

Randy Showstack

2000-01-01

152

Surface-mount sapphire interferometric temperature sensor.  

PubMed

A fiber-optic high-temperature sensor is demonstrated by bonding a 45 degrees -polished single-crystal sapphire fiber on the surface of a sapphire wafer, whose optical thickness is temperature dependent and measured by white-light interferometry. A novel adhesive-free coupling between the silica and sapphire fibers is achieved by fusion splicing, and its performance is characterized. The sensor's interference signal is investigated for its dependence on angular alignment between the fiber and the wafer. A prototype sensor is tested to 1,170 degrees C with a resolution of 0.4 degrees C, demonstrating excellent potential for high-temperature measurement. PMID:16892105

Zhu, Yizheng; Wang, Anbo

2006-08-20

153

GISS Analysis of Surface Temperature Change  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We describe the current GISS analysis of surface temperature change for the period 1880-1999 based primarily on meteorological station measurements. The global surface temperature in 1998 was the warmest in the period of instrumental data. The rate of temperature change was higher in the past 25 years than at any previous time in the period of instrumental data. The warmth of 1998 was too large and pervasive to be fully accounted for by the recent El Nino. Despite cooling in the first half of 1999, we suggest that the mean global temperature, averaged over 2-3 years, has moved to a higher level, analogous to the increase that occurred in the late 1970s. Warming in the United States over the past 50 years has been smaller than in most of the world, and over that period there was a slight cooling trend in the Eastern United States and the neighboring Atlantic Ocean. The spatial and temporal patterns of the temperature change suggest that more than one mechanism was involved in this regional cooling. The cooling trend in the United States, which began after the 1930s and is associated with ocean temperature change patterns, began to reverse after 1979. We suggest that further warming in the United States to a level rivaling the 1930s is likely in the next decade, but reliable prediction requires better understanding of decadal oscillations of ocean temperature.

Hansen, J.; Ruedy, R.; Glascoe, J.; Sato, M.

1999-01-01

154

GISS analysis of surface temperature change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe the current GISS analysis of surface temperature change for the period 1880-1999 based primarily on meteorological station measurements. The global surface temperature in 1998 was the warmest in the period of instrumental data. The rate of temperature change was higher in the past 25 years than at any previous time in the period of instrumental data. The warmth of 1998 was too large and pervasive to be fully accounted for by the recent El Nino. Despite cooling in the first half of 1999, we suggest that the mean global temperature, averaged over 2-3 years, has moved to a higher level, analogous to the increase that occurred in the late 1970s. Warming in the United States over the past 50 years has been smaller than in most of the world, and over that period there was a slight cooling trend in the eastern United States and the neighboring Atlantic Ocean. The spatial and temporal patterns of the temperature change suggest that more than one mechanism was involved in this regional cooling. The cooling trend in the United States, which began after the 1930s and is associated with ocean temperature change patterns, began to reverse after 1979. We suggest that further warming in the United States to a level rivaling the 1930s is likely in the next decade, but reliable prediction requires better understanding of decadal oscillations of ocean temperature.

Hansen, J.; Ruedy, R.; Glascoe, J.; Sato, M.

1999-01-01

155

Near-Earth asteroid surface thermal inertias with NEOWISE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NEOWISE, the asteroid discovery and characterization mission that employs the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) spacecraft, has observed over 150,000 minor planets, and continues to observe near-Earth asteroids daily. Several of these asteroids have also been observed by radar, and shapes and spin states have been derived from those observations. Thermophysical modeling combines these 3-D asteroid shapes, a model of heat transport, and infrared observations to determine the surface thermal inertia of an asteroid. We present thermal inertia measurements derived using the NEOWISE dataset. These measurements can inform regolith composition and density, which can then be linked to collisional history and dynamical evolution. Measurements of heat capacity and thermal conductivity (components of thermal inertia), can refine predictions of the Yarkovsky drift, a non-gravitational force that can alter asteroid orbits.

Nugent, Carolyn; Mainzer, Amy; Masiero, Joseph; Lysek, Mark; Grav, Tommy; Bauer, James; Cutri, Roc; Wright, Edward

2014-11-01

156

A Rough Surface Model to Explain Surface Temperatures on Vesta  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We modeled the spatially resolved temperature of the surface of Vesta controlling for high resolution topography, Bond albedo and 1D thermal conduction. We determined a systematic difference between the temperatures measured by the Visual and Infrared spectrometer (VIR) and computer models.We analyzed a highly degraded crater that shows negligible variations in regolith gardening and albedo. Using this crater, where the only variation in temperature is based upon illumination conditions, we were able to calculate a correction factor, and ultimately identify a thermal model based on surface roughness. This requires that the grains are small enough to be illuminated individually but large enough that they do not thermally equilibrate.We will present a "rough-surface" thermal model that takes into account how irregular grains create sub-pixel variations in the thermal spectrum and describes the effect this has on the observed surface temperatures of Vesta. We have applied this method to the VIR observations of Vesta, which produced a high level of agreement between the model and the observations.

Palmer, Eric; Sykes, Mark V.

2014-11-01

157

Laboratory investigations: Low Earth orbit environment chemistry with spacecraft surfaces  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Long-term space operations that require exposure of material to the low earth orbit (LEO) environment must take into account the effects of this highly oxidative atmosphere on material properties and the possible contamination of the spacecraft surroundings. Ground-based laboratory experiments at Los Alamos using a newly developed hyperthermal atomic oxygen (AO) source have shown that not only are hydrocarbon based materials effected but that inorganic materials such as MoS2 are also oxidized and that thin protective coatings such as Al2O3 can be breached, producing oxidation of the underlying substrate material. Gas-phase reaction products, such as SO2 from oxidation of MoS2 and CO and CO2 from hydrocarbon materials, have been detected and have consequences in terms of spacecraft contamination. Energy loss through gas-surface collisions causing spacecraft drag has been measured for a few select surfaces and has been found to be highly dependent on the surface reactivity.

Cross, Jon B.

1990-01-01

158

Monitoring global monthly mean surface temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

An assessment is made of how well the monthly mean surface temperatures for the decade of the 1980s are known. The sources of noise in the data, the numbers of observations, and the spatial coverage are appraised for comparison with the climate signal, and different analyzed results are compared to see how reproducible they are. The data are further evaluated

Kevin E. Trenberth; J. W. Hurrell; J. R. Christy

1992-01-01

159

Global surface air temperatures: update through 1987  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data from meteorological stations show that surface air temperatures in the 1980s are the warmest in the history of instrumental records. The four warmest years on record are all in the 1980s, with the warmest years in our analysis being 1981 and 1987. The rate of warming between the mid 1960s and the present is higher than that which occurred

James Hansen; Sergej Lebedeff

1988-01-01

160

High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature Field Derived.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A procedure for deriving high resolution sea surface temperature field from digital AVHRR/HRPT data is described. For the purpose of reducing the processing time, only the reflective threshold or near infrared channel is used for selecting data over clear...

S. Zhou, W. Chen, L. Zhang

1986-01-01

161

22 Years of Sea Surface Temperatures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This NOAA visualization video on YouTube shows the seasonal variations in sea surface temperatures and ice cover for the 22 years prior to 2007 based on data collected by NOAA polar-orbiting satellites (POES). El NiÃo and La NiÃa are easily identified, as are the trends in decreasing polar sea ice.

NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) Visualizations

162

Surface electronic structure of p-InP using temperature-controlled surface photovoltage spectroscopy  

E-print Network

Surface electronic structure of p-InP using temperature-controlled surface photovoltage have been investigated using temperature-controlled surface photovoltage spectros- copy T induced by temperature-controlled surface photovoltage spectroscopy T-SPS measurements. Another goal

Shapira, Yoram

163

Surface defects and temperature on atomic friction.  

PubMed

We present a theoretical study of the effect of surface defects on atomic friction in the stick-slip dynamical regime of a minimalistic model. We focus on how the presence of defects and temperature change the average properties of the system. We have identified two main mechanisms which modify the mean friction force of the system when defects are considered. As expected, defects change the potential profile locally and thus affect the friction force. But the presence of defects also changes the probability distribution function of the tip slip length and thus the mean friction force. We corroborated both effects for different values of temperature, external load, dragging velocity and damping. We also show a comparison of the effects of surface defects and surface disorder on the dynamics of the system. PMID:21846940

Fajardo, O Y; Mazo, J J

2011-09-01

164

Seasonal Changes in Titan's Surface Temperatures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cassini's extended mission has provided the opportunity to search for seasonal variations on Titan. In particular, surface temperatures are expected to have shifted significantly in latitude during the completed portion of the mission. Spectra recorded by the Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) during the nominal mission (2004-08) and the Equinox mission. (2008-10) have already shown changes in temperature. CIRS has detected a seasonal shift in the latitudinal distribution of surface brightness temperatures by comparing zonal averages from two time segments, one period in late northern winter centered on L(sub s) approximately 335 deg and a second period centered on the equinox (L(sub s) approximately 0 deg.). The earlier period had a meridional distribution similar to that previously reported: 93.5 K at the equator, 91.7 K at 85 S and 899 K at 85 N. The newly measured distribution near equinox shows a cooling in the south and a warming in the north, both by about 0.5 K. We estimate that. the centroid of the distribution moved from approximately 16 S to 7 S between the two periods. This gives a seasonal lag behind insolation of delta L(sub s) approximately 13 deg. The CIRS equinox results are consistent with those of Voyager IRIS, which encountered Titan in November 1980, just following the previous northern equinox (L(sub s) = 10 deg.). When compared with predictions from general circulation models, seasonal variations of surface temperature can help constrain the identification of surface materials. Our measurements most closely match the case of a porous ice regolith treated by Tokano, but with some apparent differences between the northern and southern hemispheres. CIRS will extend its study of seasonal variations in surface temperature on Titan as Cassini continues through northern spring.

Jennings, Donald E.; Nixon, Conor A.; Cottini, Valeria

2011-01-01

165

Differences between near-surface equivalent temperature and temperature trends for the Eastern United States. Equivalent temperature as an alternative measure of heat content  

USGS Publications Warehouse

There is currently much attention being given to the observed increase in near-surface air temperatures during the last century. The proper investigation of heating trends, however, requires that we include surface heat content to monitor this aspect of the climate system. Changes in heat content of the Earth's climate are not fully described by temperature alone. Moist enthalpy or, alternatively, equivalent temperature, is more sensitive to surface vegetation properties than is air temperature and therefore more accurately depicts surface heating trends. The microclimates evident at many surface observation sites highlight the influence of land surface characteristics on local surface heating trends. Temperature and equivalent temperature trend differences from 1982-1997 are examined for surface sites in the Eastern U.S. Overall trend differences at the surface indicate equivalent temperature trends are relatively warmer than temperature trends in the Eastern U.S. Seasonally, equivalent temperature trends are relatively warmer than temperature trends in winter and are relatively cooler in the fall. These patterns, however, vary widely from site to site, so local microclimate is very important. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Davey, C.A.; Pielke, R.A., Sr.; Gallo, K.P.

2006-01-01

166

Solar Flare Intermittency and the Earth's Temperature Anomalies Nicola Scafetta1,2  

E-print Network

Solar Flare Intermittency and the Earth's Temperature Anomalies Nicola Scafetta1,2 and Bruce J; published 17 June 2003) We argue that Earth's short-term temperature anomalies and the solar flare data sets that corresponds to the one that would be induced by the solar flare intermittency. The mean

Scafetta, Nicola

167

Global trends of measured surface air temperature  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper presents the results of surface air temperature measurements from available meteorological stations for the period of 1880-1985. It is shown that the network of meteorological stations is sufficient to yield reliable long-term, decadal, and interannual temperature changes for both the Northern Hemisphere and the Southern Hemisphere, despite the fact that most stations are located on the continents. The results indicate a global warming of about 0.5-0.7 C in the past century, with warming of similar magnitude in both hemispheres. A strong warming trend between 1965 and 1980 raised the global mean temperature in 1980 and 1981 to the highest level in the period of instrumental records. Selected graphs of the temperature change in each of the eight latitude zones are included.

Hansen, James; Lebedeff, Sergej

1987-01-01

168

Amplification of surface temperature trends and variability in thetropical atmosphere  

SciTech Connect

The month-to-month variability of tropical temperatures is larger in the troposphere than at the Earth's surface. This amplification behavior is similar in a range of observations and climate model simulations, and is consistent with basic theory. On multi-decadal timescales, tropospheric amplification of surface warming is a robust feature of model simulations, but occurs in only one observational dataset. Other observations show weak or even negative amplification. These results suggest that either different physical mechanisms control amplification processes on monthly and decadal timescales, and models fail to capture such behavior, or (more plausibly) that residual errors in several observational datasets used here affect their representation of long-term trends.

Santer, B.D.; Wigley, T.M.L.; Mears, C.; Wentz, F.J.; Klein,S.A.; Seidel, D.J.; Taylor, K.E.; Thorne, P.W.; Wehner, M.F.; Gleckler,P.J.; Boyle, J.S.; Collins, W.D.; Dixon, K.W.; Doutriaux, C.; Free, M.; Fu, Q.; Hansen, J.E.; Jones, G.S.; Ruedy, R.; Karl, T.R.; Lanzante, J.R.; Meehl, G.A.; Ramaswamy, V.; Russell, G.; Schmidt, G.A.

2005-08-11

169

New surface temperature analyses for climate monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global surface temperature is a critical measure of climate variation. Here the averages of a new surface-temperature analysis are compared to an estimate of the global average which has been used for monitoring surface-temperature variations at NOAA's National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) since 1998. As a replacement to the existing method, this new analysis uses improved methods that provide error estimates as well as the ability to perform analyses on finer spatial scales. Comparisons show only minor global-average differences, and the two estimates indicate essentially the same trend over the historical record, beginning in 1880. The two are most similar after about 1970, a period with a large change in the global-average temperature. The uncertainty estimates computed here account for changes in sampling and for systematic bias uncertainties. The means of the different analyses generally fall within the uncertainty estimates. The uncertainty computed here indicates that anomalies in the 19th century may not be significant, but the 20th century trends are significant.

Smith, Thomas M.; Peterson, Thomas C.; Lawrimore, Jay H.; Reynolds, Richard W.

2005-07-01

170

Earth surface effects on active faults: An eigenvalue asymptotic analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study in this paper an eigenvalue problem (of Steklov type), modeling slow slip events (such as silent earthquakes, or earthquake nucleation phases) occurring on geological faults. We focus here on a half space formulation with traction free boundary condition: this simulates the earth surface where displacements take place and can be picked up by GPS measurements. We construct an appropriate functional framework attached to a formulation suitable for the half space setting. We perform an asymptotic analysis of the solution with respect to the depth of the fault. Starting from an integral representation for the displacement field, we prove that the differences between the eigenvalues and eigenfunctions attached to the half space problem and those attached to the free space problem, is of the order of d-2, where d is a depth parameter: intuitively, this was expected as this is also the order of decay of the derivative of the Green's function for our problem. We actually prove faster decay in case of symmetric faults. For all faults, we rigorously obtain a very useful asymptotic formula for the surface displacement, whose dominant part involves a so called seismic moment. We also provide results pertaining to the analysis of the multiplicity of the first eigenvalue in the line segment fault case. Finally we explain how we derived our numerical method for solving for dislocations on faults in the half plane. It involves integral equations combining regular and Hadamard's hypersingular integration kernels.

Ionescu, Ioan R.; Volkov, Darko

2008-10-01

171

Do Planetary Encounters Reset Surfaces of Near Earth Asteroids?  

E-print Network

Processes such as the solar wind sputtering and micrometeorite impacts can modify optical properties of surfaces of airless bodies. This explains why spectra of the main belt asteroids, exposed to these `space weathering' processes over eons, do not match the laboratory spectra of ordinary chondrite (OC) meteorites. In contrast, an important fraction of Near Earth Asteroids (NEAs), defined as Q-types in the asteroid taxonomy, display spectral attributes that are a good match to OCs. Here we study the possibility that the Q-type NEAs underwent recent encounters with the terrestrial planets and that the tidal gravity (or other effects) during these encounters exposed fresh OC material on the surface (thus giving it the Q-type spectral properties). We used numerical integrations to determine the statistics of encounters of NEAs to planets. The results were used to calculate the fraction and orbital distribution of Q-type asteroids expected in the model as a function of the space weathering timescale, t_sw (see m...

Nesvorny, David; Vokrouhlicky, David; Chapman, Clark R; Rafkin, Scot

2010-01-01

172

Speciation of adsorbed yttrium and rare earth elements on oxide surfaces  

E-print Network

Speciation of adsorbed yttrium and rare earth elements on oxide surfaces Wojciech Piasecki, Dimitri 10 June 2008 Abstract The distribution of yttrium and the rare earth elements (YREE) between natural investigate the applicability of the X-ray results to rare earth elements and to several oxides in addition

Sverjensky, Dimitri A.

173

HoloGlobe: Sea Surface Temperature Climatology on a Globe (with Dates)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is one of a series of animations that were produced to be part of the narrated video shown in the HoloGlobe exhibit at the Smithsonian Museum of Natural History and the Earth Today exhibit at the Smithsonian Air and Space Museum. In this animation, colors represent sea surface temperatures in degrees centigrade, with blue representing temperatures less than 4 degrees, cyan representing temperatures between 4 and 11 degrees, green representing temperatures between 11 and 18 degrees, yellow representing temperatures between 18 and 25 degrees, orange representing temperatures between 25 and 32 degrees, and deep red representing temperatures greater than 32 degrees.

Strong, Jim; Mitchell, Horace; Watters, Tom

1996-08-10

174

Observations of Lightning on Earth from the Lunar Surface  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Optical Transient Detector (OTD) launched into a 70deg inclination orbit in April 1995 aboard the MicroLab-1 satellite and the Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) launched into a 35deg inclination orbit in November 1997 (and still operating today) aboard the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission have produced the most comprehensive global observations of lightning activity on Earth. The OTD collected data for 5-yr from an altitude of 740 km while the LIS, in its 10th year of operations, is still collecting data from its current altitude of 402 km. From these altitudes the OTD observes an individual storm within its field of view for approx.3 min and the LIS for approx.90 sec as the satellites orbit the earth. Figures 1-4 show the combined LIS/OTD distribution of lightning for day and night during the Northern Hemisphere warm season from April through August (Fig. 1,2) and the cool season from October through February (Fig. 3,4) as might be observed from the lunar surface (12-h daylight and 12-h nighttime observations). The day and night plots are for the twelve hour periods centered on local noon and midnight. The total viewtime of the global lightning activity is 200 hours or less, depending on latitude (Fig. 5). Most of the observed lightning occurs over the northern hemisphere land areas as reported in previous studies. More lightning activity is seen at the higher northern latitudes during the day. The greatest lightning maxima occurs in the southeastern US, during the day. The corresponding region at night shows much less lightning activity. In contrast, there is a maxima in lightning activity at night over the high Plains area of the U.S. This region had lower lightning rates during the daytime period. During the cold season, the southern hemisphere has significantly more lightning. The maxima in Central Africa is still present, and a secondary maxima is observed in South Africa. In South America, the maxima in Argentina occurs at night in association with large-scale mesoscale convective storm complexes. This is the region on the earth having the greatest frequency of extreme storms with flash rates exceeding 1000 flashes/min. daytime maxima is seen extending from Northern Argentina to Brazil. In the US., the Gulf of Mexico and the Gulf Coast states exhibit a maximum in lightning activity both day and night.

Goodman, S. J.; Buechler, D. E.; Christian, H. J., Jr.; Stahl, H. P.

2007-01-01

175

Fitting the observed changes of global surface temperatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The quality of the fit of a trivial or, conversely, delicately-designed model to the observed natural phenomena is the fundamental pillar stone of any forecasting, including forecasting of the Earth's Climate. Using precise mathematical and logical systems outside their range of applicability can be scientifically groundless, unwise, and even dangerous. The temperature data sets are naturally in the basis of any hypothesizing on variability and forecasting the Earth's Climate. Leaving open the question of the global temperature definitions and their determination (T), we have analyzed hemispheric and global monthly temperature anomaly series produced by the Climate Research Unit of the University of East Anglia (CRUTEM4 database) and more recently by the Berkeley Earth Surface Temperature consortium (BEST database). We first fit the data in 1850-2010 with polynomials of degrees 1 to 9 and compare it with exponential fit by the adjusted R-squared criterion that takes into consideration the number of free parameters of the model. In all the cases considered, the adjusted R-squared values for polynomials are larger than for the exponential as soon as the degree exceeds 1 or 2. The polynomial fits become even more satisfactory as soon as degree 5 or 6 is reached. Extrapolations of these trends outside of the data domain show quick divergence. For example, the CRUTEM4vNH fit in the decade 2010-2020, for degrees 2 to 5, rises steeply then, for degrees 6 to 9, reverses to steep decreasing: the reversal in extrapolated trends arises from improved ability to fit the observed "~60-yr" wave in 150 years of data prior to 2010. The extrapolations prior to 1850 are even more erratic, linked with the increased dispersion of the early data. When focusing the analysis of fits on 1900-2010 we find that the apparent oscillations of T can be modeled by a series of linear segments: An optimal fit suggests 4 slope breaks indicating two clear transitions in 1940 and 1975, and two that are less certain in 1905 and 2005. Interestingly, the Pacific Decadal Oscillation index underwent major changes around 1940-1950 and 1974-1984, i.e. the time of the breaks in slope of the T curve, suggesting a good correlation at the multi-decadal scale between the derivatives of T and PDO index. Therefore, one may speculate that the Earth's climate system may have entered a new multi-decadal regime in the last years of the 20th century and we should expect global temperature to remain constant or decrease slightly while the PDO index remains dominantly negative up to about 2030.

Courtillot, V.; Le Mouël, J.; Kossobokov, V. G.; Gibert, D.; Lopes, F.

2012-12-01

176

Getting Beneath the Surface with the OpenEarth Framework (OEF) Virtual Globe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Virtual globes like Google Earth and NASA WorldWind show layers of data overlaid atop the Earth's terrain. But leading Earth science research efforts, such as EarthScope, are focused on 3D and 4D questions about the structure and evolution of the North American continent and processes controlling earthquakes and volcanoes. These research questions are fundamentally about phenomena beneath the surface, for

D. R. Nadeau; J. L. Moreland; C. Baru; C. J. Crosby

2009-01-01

177

Martian Meteorites Record Surface Temperatures on Mars  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from Planetary Science Research Discoveries at the University of Hawaii uses recent research on using the ages of Martian meteorites to explore the history of surface temperature on Mars. Results of geochemical analyses from two very different meteorites indicate that Mars has experienced only very brief warm, wet periods during the past 4 billion years. Photographs, satellite images, thin sections, and graphs help illustrate the research.

Taylor, G. J.; Planetary Science Research Discoveries, University O.

178

A global monthly sea surface temperature climatology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents a new global 2 deg x 2 deg monthly sea surface temperature (SST) climatology, referred here to as the Shea-Trenberth-Reynolds (STR) climatology, which was derived by modifying a 1950-1979-based SST climatology from the Climate Analysis Center (CAC), by using data from the Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set to improve the SST estimates in the regions of the Kuroshio

Dennis J. Shea; Keyin E. Trenberth; Richard W. Reynolds

1992-01-01

179

Global surface air temperatures - Update through 1987  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Data from meteorological stations show that surface air temperatures in the 1980s are the warmest in the history of instrumental records. The four warmest years on record are all in the 1980s, with the warmest years in the analysis being 1981 and 1987. The rate of warming between the mid-1960s and the present is higher than that which occurrred in the previous period of rapid warming between the 1880s and 1940.

Hansen, James; Lebedeff, Sergej

1988-01-01

180

Surface properties of low-temperature plasma treated wool fabrics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Induced surface properties of wool fabrics created by the sputtering of low-temperature plasma treatment, such as surface lustre, wettability, surface electrostatic and dyeability, have been investigated. After the low-temperature plasma treatment, the treated wool fabric specimens exhibited better hydrophilicity and surface electrostatic properties at room temperature, together with improved dyeing rate. Study of the surfaces of the specimens showed that

C. W. Kan; K. Chan; C. W. M. Yuen; M. H. Miao

1998-01-01

181

High temperature low friction surface coating  

DOEpatents

A high temperature, low friction, flexible coating for metal surfaces which are subject to rubbing contact includes a mixture of three parts graphite and one part cadmium oxide, ball milled in water for four hours, then mixed with thirty percent by weight of sodium silicate in water solution and a few drops of wetting agent. The mixture is sprayed 12-15 microns thick onto an electro-etched metal surface and air dried for thirty minutes, then baked for two hours at 65.degree. C. to remove the water and wetting agent, and baked for an additional eight hours at about 150.degree. C. to produce the optimum bond with the metal surface. The coating is afterwards burnished to a thickness of about 7-10 microns.

Bhushan, Bharat (Watervliet, NY)

1980-01-01

182

Hot as You Like It: Models of the Long-term Temperature History of Earth Under Different Geological Assumptions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The long-term temperature history of the Earth is a subject of continued, vigorous debate. Past models of the climate of early Earth that utilize paleosol contraints on carbon dioxide struggle to maintain temperatures significantly greater than 0°C. In these models, the incoming stellar radiation is much lower than today, consistent with an expectation that the Sun was significantly fainter at that time. In contrast to these models, many proxies for ancient temperatures suggest much warmer conditions. The surface of the planet seems to have been generally free of glaciers throughout this period, other than a brief glaciation at ~2.9 billion years ago and extensive glaciation at ~2.4 billion years ago. Such glacier-free conditions suggest mean surface temperatures greater than 15°C. Measurements of oxygen isotopes in phosphates are consistent with temperatures in the range of 20-30°C; and similar measurements in cherts suggest temperatures over 50°C. This sets up a paradox. Models constrained by one set of geological proxies cannot reproduce the warm temperatures consistent with another set of geological proxies. In this presentation, we explore several potential resolutions to this paradox. First, we model the early Earth under modern-day conditions, but with the lower solar luminosity expected at the time. The next simulation allows carbon dioxide concentrations to increase up to the limits provided by paleosol constraints. Next, we lower the planet's surface albedo in a manner consistent with greater ocean coverage prior to the complete growth of continents. Finally, we remove all constraints on carbon dioxide and attempt to maximize surface temperatures without any geological constraints on model parameters. This set of experiments will allow us to set up potential resolutions to the paradox, and to drive a conversation on which solutions are capable of incorporating the greatest number of geological and geochemical constraints.

Domagal-Goldman, S.; Sheldon, N. D.

2012-12-01

183

16 CFR 1505.7 - Maximum acceptable surface temperatures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Maximum acceptable surface temperatures. The maximum acceptable surface temperatures for electrically operated...Thermal inertia type 1 Temperatures °C. °F. A ...than 0.0045 (e.g., glass). Type 3:...

2012-01-01

184

16 CFR 1505.7 - Maximum acceptable surface temperatures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Maximum acceptable surface temperatures. The maximum acceptable surface temperatures for electrically operated...Thermal inertia type 1 Temperatures °C. °F. A ...than 0.0045 (e.g., glass). Type 3:...

2011-01-01

185

16 CFR 1505.7 - Maximum acceptable surface temperatures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Maximum acceptable surface temperatures. The maximum acceptable surface temperatures for electrically operated...Thermal inertia type 1 Temperatures °C. °F. A ...than 0.0045 (e.g., glass). Type 3:...

2013-01-01

186

16 CFR 1505.7 - Maximum acceptable surface temperatures.  

...Maximum acceptable surface temperatures. The maximum acceptable surface temperatures for electrically operated...Thermal inertia type 1 Temperatures °C. °F. A ...than 0.0045 (e.g., glass). Type 3:...

2014-01-01

187

MODIS Surface Temperatures for Cryosphere Studies (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have used Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) land-surface temperature (LST) and ice-surface temperature (IST) products for several applications in studies of the cryosphere. A climate-quality climate data record (CDR) of the IST of the Greenland ice sheet has been developed and was one of the data sources used to monitor the extreme melt event covering nearly the entire Greenland ice sheet on 11 - 12 July 2012. The IST CDR is available online for users to employ in models, and to study temperature distributions and melt trends on the ice sheet. We continue to assess accuracy of the IST product through comparative analysis with air temperature data from the NOAA Logan temperature sensor at Summit Station, Greenland. We find a small offset between the air temperature and the IST with the IST being slightly lower which is consistent with findings of other studies. The LST data product has been applied in studies of snow melt in regions where snow is a significant water resource. We have used LST data in seasonally snow-covered areas such as the Wind River Range, Wyoming, to monitor the relationship between LST and seasonal streamflow. A close association between a sudden and sustained increase in LST and complete snowmelt, and between melt-season maximum LST and maximum daily streamflow has been documented. Use of LST and MODIS snow-cover and products in hydrological models increases the accuracy of the modeled prediction of runoff. The IST and LST products have also been applied to study of sea ice, e.g. extent and concentration, and lake ice, such as determining ice-out dates, and these efforts will also be described.

Hall, D. K.; Comiso, J. C.; DiGirolamo, N. E.; Shuman, C. A.; Riggs, G. A.

2013-12-01

188

Five Years of Monitoring Mars' Daytime Surface Temperatures (Animation)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Animation

This movie shows the daytime temperature of the surface of Mars as measured by the Thermal Emission Spectrometer instrument on NASA's Mars Global Surveyor orbiter. These temperatures clearly show the growth and retreat of the martian northern and southern polar ice caps. The caps grow in winter and are composed of carbon dioxide ice with temperatures as low as minus 125 degrees Celsius (minus 195 degrees Fahrenheit). In the summer the caps retreat to relatively small areas around the poles. The movie also demonstrates the large difference in temperatures between the northern hemisphere's summer (beginning when solar longitude, or Ls, is 90 degrees) and the southern hemisphere's summer (beginning when Ls is 270 degrees). This difference is because the orbit of Mars around the Sun is more elliptical than Earth's orbit. As on Earth, a hemisphere's summer is when that hemisphere is tilted toward the Sun, but on Mars, the planet's distance from the Sun varies much more than on Earth. Mars is closest to the Sun, and therefore warmest, during the southern summer season. In northern summer, when Mars' northern hemisphere is tilted toward the Sun, the planet is farther from the Sun.

Seasons on Mars are determined by the position of Mars in its orbit around the Sun. The position is measured in degrees of solar longitude (Ls) around the orbit, beginning at 0 degrees Ls at the northern spring equinox, progressing to 90 degrees Ls at the start of northern summer, 180 degrees Ls at the fall equinox, 270 degrees Ls at the start of northern winter, and finally back to 360 degrees, or 0 degrees, Ls at the spring equinox.

The Thermal Emission Spectrometer is operated by a team led at Arizona State University, Tempe. Mars Global Surveyor left Earth on Nov. 7, 1996, and began orbiting Mars on Sept. 12, 1997. JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, manages Mars Global Surveyor for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington.

2005-01-01

189

Appendix A: Winter MHB Surface Temperature Maps This section shows surface temperature contours, which are generated using the ASA  

E-print Network

. The surface temperature structure in Mt. Hope Bay on 21 February 1999. The relevant values of Fall River sea31 Appendix A: Winter MHB Surface Temperature Maps This section shows surface temperature contours contours are generated based on these linear temperature interpolations. #12;32 Figure A1. The surface

Chen, Changsheng

190

Radon progeny in hydrometeors at the earth's surface.  

PubMed

During atmospheric thermal inversions, dew and hoarfrost concentrate gamma emitting radionuclides of the short-lived (222)Rn progeny ((214)Pb and (214)Bi), causing an increase in the total natural gamma background from the ground. To highlight this phenomenon, a volcanic zone of high (222)Rn flux was studied during the winter season 2010-11. High-specific short-lived radon progeny activities up to 122 Bq g(-1) were detected in hydrometeors forming at the earth's surface (ESHs), corresponding to a mean increase of up to 17 % of the normal gamma background value. A theoretical model, depending on radon flux from soil and predicting the radon progeny concentrations in hydrometeors forming at the ESHs is presented. The comparison between model and field data shows a good correspondence. Around nuclear power plants or in nuclear facilities that use automatic NaI or CsI total gamma spectroscopy systems for monitoring radioactive contamination, hydrometeors forming at the ESHs in sites with a high radon flux could represent a relevant source of false alarms of radioactive contamination. PMID:22039270

Voltaggio, M

2012-07-01

191

Science Syllabus for Middle and Junior High Schools. Block D, The Earth's Changing Surface.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This syllabus begins with a list of program objectives and performance criteria for the study of three general topic areas in earth science and a list of 22 science processes. Following this information is a listing of concepts and understandings for subtopics within the general topic areas: (1) the earth's surface--surface features, rock…

New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of General Education Curriculum Development.

192

Inversion of Earth's changing shape to weigh sea level in static equilibrium with surface mass redistribution  

Microsoft Academic Search

We develop a spectral inversion method for mass redistribution on the Earth's surface given geodetic measurements of the solid Earth's geometrical shape, using the elastic load Love numbers. First, spectral coefficients are geodetically estimated to some degree. Spatial inversion then finds the continental surface mass distribution that would force geographic variations in relative sea level such that it is self-consistent

Geoffrey Blewitt; Peter Clarke

2003-01-01

193

Distribution of UV radiation at the Earth's surface from TOMS-measured UV-backscattered radiances  

Microsoft Academic Search

Daily global maps of monthly integrated UV-erythemal irradiance (290-400 nm) at the Earth's surface are estimated using the ozone amount, cloud transmittance, aerosol amounts, and surface reflectivity from the solar UV radiation backscattered from the Earth's atmosphere as measured by the total ozone mapping spectrometer (TOMS) and independently measured values of the extraterrestrial solar irradiance. The daily irradiance values at

J. R. Herman; N. Krotkov; E. Celarier; D. Larko; G. Labow

1999-01-01

194

Analytical effective method for verification of a satellite pass over a region of the Earth surface  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analytical method is proposed in this work for verification whether an artificial earth satellite during its orbital motion passes over a region of the earth surface. The method is based on undisturbed Kepler's approximation of the orbit and approximation of the region by a circular segment S. In order to define the situational condition, a conic surface is used

Atanas Atanassov

2003-01-01

195

Analytical Method for Verification of a Satellite Pass over a Region of the Earth Surface  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analytical method is proposed in this work for verification whether an artificial earth satellite during its orbital motion passes over a region of the earth surface. The method is based on undisturbed Keppler's approximation of the orbit and approximation of the region by a circular segment S. In order to define the situational condition, a conic surface is used

Atanas Marinov Atanassov

2010-01-01

196

Monitoring Earth Surface Deformations with InSAR Technology: Principle and Some critical Issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synthetic aperture radar interferometry, InSAR, is a novel remote sensing technique to measure earth surface deformation. It is capable of obtaining dense information related to the deformation of a large area efficiently, economically and effectively. Therefore, InSAR is a promising technology for monitoring the earth surface deformation related to some natural hazardous events, such as earthquake, volcano eruption, land subsidence,

Yongqi CHEN; Guobao ZHANG; Xiaoli DING; Zhilin LI

197

Ultraviolet radiation climatology of the Earth`s surface and lower atmosphere. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Ultraviolet (UV) radiation is the driving force of tropospheric chemistry and is furthermore detrimental to most living tissues. A three year modeling program was carried out to characterize the UV radiation in the lower atmosphere, with the objective of development a climatology of UV biologically active radiation, and of photo-dissociation reaction rates that are key to tropospheric chemistry. A comprehensive model, the Tropospheric Ultraviolet-Visible (TUV) model, was developed and made available to the scientific community. The model incorporates updated spectroscopic data, recent advances in radiative transfer theory, and allows flexible customization for the needs of different users. The TUV model has been used in conjunction with satellite-derived measurements of total atmospheric ozone and cloud amount, to develop a global climatology of UV radiation reaching the surface of the Earth. Initial validation studies are highly encouraging, showing that model predictions agree with direct measurements to ca. 5--10% at times when environmental conditions are well known, and to 10--30% for monthly averages when local environmental conditions can only be estimated remotely from satellite-based measurements. Additional validation studies are continuing.

Madronich, S. [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States). Atmospheric Chemistry Div.; Stamnes, K. [Univ. of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK (United States). Dept. of Physics

1999-03-01

198

Stratospheric Impact of Varying Sea Surface Temperatures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Finite-Volume General Circulation Model (FVGCM) has been run in 50 year simulations with the: 1) 1949-1999 Hadley Centre sea surface temperatures (SST), and 2) a fixed annual cycle of SSTs. In this presentation we first show that the 1949-1999 FVGCM simulation produces a very credible stratosphere in comparison to an NCEP/NCAR reanalysis climatology. In particular, the northern hemisphere has numerous major and minor stratospheric warming, while the southern hemisphere has only a few over the 50-year simulation. During the northern hemisphere winter, temperatures are both warmer in the lower stratosphere and the polar vortex is weaker than is found in the mid-winter southern hemisphere. Mean temperature differences in the lower stratosphere are shown to be small (less than 2 K), and planetary wave forcing is found to be very consistent with the climatology. We then will show the differences between our varying SST simulation and the fixed SST simulation in both the dynamics and in two parameterized trace gases (ozone and methane). In general, differences are found to be small, with subtle changes in planetary wave forcing that lead to reduced temperatures in the SH and increased temperatures in the NH.

Newman, Paul A.; Nash, Eric R.; Nielsen, Jon E.; Waugh, Darryn; Pawson, Steven

2004-01-01

199

High-Temperature Sprayable Phosphor Coating Developed for Measuring Surface Temperatures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of phosphor thermography for noncontact temperature measurements in harsh environments has been proven over the last decade, but it has suffered from difficult application procedures such as vapor deposition or sputtering techniques. We have developed a high-temperature-sensitive paint that is easily applied with commercially available paint-spraying equipment and have successfully demonstrated it to temperatures up to 1500 C. Selected phosphors have also shown measurable signals to 1700 C, thus allowing a combination of phosphors to be used in high-temperature binders to make surface temperature measurements from ambient to over 1500 C. Phosphor thermography is an optical technique that measures the time response of fluorescence light, which is a function of the phosphor temperature. The phosphors are excited with short wavelength light (ultraviolet or blue), and they emit light at a longer wavelength. This technique has a benefit over other temperature measurements, such as thermocouples and infrared thermography, in difficult environments such as high blackbody backgrounds, vibration, flames, high electromagnetic noise, or where special windows may be needed. In addition, the sprayable phosphor paints easily cover large or complicated structures, providing full-surface information with a single measurement. Oak Ridge National Laboratories developed and tested the high-temperature binders and phosphors under the direction of the NASA Glenn Research Center. Refractory materials doped with rare earth metals were selected for their performance at high temperature. Survivability, adhesion, and material compatibility tests were conducted at high temperatures in a small furnace while the fluorescent response from the phosphors was being measured. A painted sample in a furnace with a clearly visible fluorescing dot excited by a pulsed laser is shown. Measuring the decay time of this fluorescence yields the surface temperature. One new paint was recently tested in a rocket test stand at Glenn. The floor of a square duct nozzle was painted, and full-field lifetime decay measurements were acquired for multiple firings of the rocket. Good agreement with predicted results was obtained, matching temperature gradients along the length of the nozzle and clearly showing shock structures. These good results were very satisfactory given that the measurements were made looking through the combustion plume. Infrared pyrometry was incapable of making the surface measurements because of the interference from the rocket exhaust, which contaminated the infrared signature.

Bencic, Timothy J.

2003-01-01

200

The international surface temperature initiative's global land surface databank  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The International Surface Temperature Initiative (ISTI) consists of an end-to-end process for land surface air temperature analyses. The foundation is the establishment of a global land surface Databank. This builds upon the groundbreaking efforts of scientists in the 1980s and 1990s. While using many of their principles, a primary aim is to improve aspects including data provenance, version control, openness and transparency, temporal and spatial coverage, and improved methods for merging disparate sources. The initial focus is on daily and monthly timescales. A Databank Working Group is focused on establishing Stage-0 (original observation forms) through Stage-3 data (merged dataset without quality control). More than 35 sources of data have already been added and efforts have now turned to development of the initial version of the merged dataset. Methods have been established for ensuring to the extent possible the provenance of all data from the point of observation through all intermediate steps to final archive and access. Databank submission procedures were designed to make the process of contributing data as easy as possible. All data are provided openly and without charge. We encourage the use of these data and feedback from interested users.

Lawrimore, J. H.; Rennie, J.; Gambi de Almeida, W.; Christy, J.; Flannery, M.; Gleason, B.; Klein-Tank, A.; Mhanda, A.; Ishihara, K.; Lister, D.; Menne, M. J.; Razuvaev, V.; Renom, M.; Rusticucci, M.; Tandy, J.; Thorne, P. W.; Worley, S.

2013-09-01

201

Potential for extreme loss in high-latitude Earth surface processes due to climate change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

driven Earth surface processes (ESPs) govern landscape and ecosystem dynamics in high-latitude regions. However, climate change is expected to alter ESP activity at yet uncertain rate and amplitude. We examined the sensitivity of key ESPs (cryoturbation, solifluction, nivation, and palsa mires) to changing climate by modeling their distribution in regard to climate, local topography, and soil variables in northern Fennoscandia. The distributions of ESPs were then forecasted under two future time periods, 2040-2069 and 2070-2099, using ensemble modeling and three emission scenarios. Increase of 2°C in current temperature conditions caused an almost complete loss of ESPs, highlighting the extreme climatic sensitivity of high-latitude geomorphic processes. Forecasts based on three scenarios suggest a disappearance of suitable climate for studied ESPs by the end of this century. This could initiate multiple opposing feedback between land surface and atmosphere through changes in albedo, heat fluxes, and biogeochemical cycles.

Aalto, Juha; Venäläinen, Ari; Heikkinen, Risto K.; Luoto, Miska

2014-06-01

202

On the correlation between air temperature and the core Earth processes: Further investigations using a continuous wavelet analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a recent article by Dickey, J. O., Marcus, S.L. and O. de Viron, 2011, the authors show evidences for correlations in the multi-decadal variability of Earth's rotation rate [i.e., length of day (LOD)], the angular momentum of the core (CAM), and natural surface air temperature (SAT). Previous investigators have already found that the LOD fluctuations are largely attributed to

Stefano Sello

2011-01-01

203

Low earth orbiting Nadir Etalon Sounding Spectrometer instrument concept for temperature, moisture and trace species, LeoNESS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A concept for a low earth orbiting nadir etalon spectrometer sounder (LeoNESS) is described which can achieve retrieval of temperature, H2O, surface, boundary conditions, cloudiness, and trace species with an accuracy that meets or exceeds the AIRS specifications. Options employing 65-K and 30-K detectors are examined; the former may be implemented via passive radiative cooling. The concept, which is derived from the Cryogenic Limb Array Etalon Spectrometer, has the potential for improving the horizontal and vertical resolution.

Kumer, J. B.; Sterritt, L. W.; Roche, A. E.; Rosenberg, W. J.; Morrow, H. E.; Shenk, W. E.; Susskind, J.

1992-01-01

204

Sea surface temperature variability: patterns and mechanisms.  

PubMed

Patterns of sea surface temperature (SST) variability on interannual and longer timescales result from a combination of atmospheric and oceanic processes. These SST anomaly patterns may be due to intrinsic modes of atmospheric circulation variability that imprint themselves upon the SST field mainly via surface energy fluxes. Examples include SST fluctuations in the Southern Ocean associated with the Southern Annular Mode, a tripolar pattern of SST anomalies in the North Atlantic associated with the North Atlantic Oscillation, and a pan-Pacific mode known as the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (with additional contributions from oceanic processes). They may also result from coupled ocean-atmosphere interactions, such as the El Niño-Southern Oscillation phenomenon in the tropical Indo-Pacific, the tropical Atlantic Niño, and the cross-equatorial meridional modes in the tropical Pacific and Atlantic. Finally, patterns of SST variability may arise from intrinsic oceanic modes, notably the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation. PMID:21141660

Deser, Clara; Alexander, Michael A; Xie, Shang-Ping; Phillips, Adam S

2010-01-01

205

Room temperature Bloch surface wave polaritons  

E-print Network

Polaritons are hybrid light-matter quasi-particles that have gathered a significant attention for their capability to show room temperature and out-of-equilibrium Bose-Einstein condensation. More recently, a novel class of ultrafast optical devices have been realized by using flows of polariton fluids, such as switches, interferometers and logical gates. However, polariton lifetimes and propagation distance are strongly limited by photon losses and accessible in-plane momenta in usual microcavity samples. In this work, we show experimental evidence of the formation of room temperature propagating polariton states arising from the strong coupling between organic excitons and a Bloch surface wave. This result, which was only recently predicted, paves the way for the realization of polariton devices that could allow lossless propagation up to macroscopic distances.

Lerario, Giovanni; Ballarini, Dario; Dominici, Lorenzo; De Giorgi, Milena; Liscidini, Marco; Gerace, Dario; Sanvitto, Daniele; Gigli, Giuseppe

2014-01-01

206

Antarctic surface temperature and pressure data  

SciTech Connect

This document presents monthly mean surface temperature and pressure data from 30 Antarctic stations. These data were assembled primarily from World Weather Records volumes for 1951--1960 and 1961--1979 and from Monthly Climatic Data for the World records since 1961. The periods of record vary by station. The earliest data are from 1903, and the most recent data are from 1988. All the assembled data were assessed for quality and for long-term homogeneity through the use of interstation comparison techniques. These data are available free of charge as a numeric data package (NDP) from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center. The NDP consists of this document and a magnetic tape containing machine-readable data files. This document provides tabular listings of the temperature and pressure data, describes how the data were processed, defines limitations and restrictions of the data, and provides reprints of pertinent literature. 25 refs., 3 figs., 11 tabs.

Jones, P.D.; Limbert, D.W.S.; Boden, T.A. (ed.) (East Anglia Univ. (UK). Climatic Research Unit; British Antarctic Survey, Cambridge (UK); Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

1989-09-01

207

A global monthly sea surface temperature climatology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper presents a new global 2 deg x 2 deg monthly sea surface temperature (SST) climatology, referred here to as the Shea-Trenberth-Reynolds (STR) climatology, which was derived by modifying a 1950-1979-based SST climatology from the Climate Analysis Center (CAC), by using data from the Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set to improve the SST estimates in the regions of the Kuroshio and the Gulf Stream. A comparison of the STR climatology with the Alexander and Mobley SST climatology showed that the STR climatology is warmer in the Northern Hemisphere, and colder poleward of 45 deg S.

Shea, Dennis J.; Trenberth, Kevin E.; Reynolds, Richard W.

1992-01-01

208

Sea Surface Temperature and Vegetation Index  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is a composite MODIS image showing the 'green wave' of spring in North America and sea surface temperature in the ocean, collected over an 8-day period during the first week in April 2000. On land, the darker green pixels show where the most green foliage is being produced due to photosynthetic activity. Yellows on land show where there is little or no productivity and red is a boundary zone. In the ocean, orange and yellows show warmer waters and blues show colder values.

2002-01-01

209

A global monthly sea surface temperature climatology  

SciTech Connect

The paper presents a new global 2 deg x 2 deg monthly sea surface temperature (SST) climatology, referred here to as the Shea-Trenberth-Reynolds (STR) climatology, which was derived by modifying a 1950-1979-based SST climatology from the Climate Analysis Center (CAC), by using data from the Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set to improve the SST estimates in the regions of the Kuroshio and the Gulf Stream. A comparison of the STR climatology with the Alexander and Mobley SST climatology showed that the STR climatology is warmer in the Northern Hemisphere, and colder poleward of 45 deg S. 22 refs.

Shea, D.J.; Trenberth, K.E.; Reynolds, R.W. (NCAR, Boulder, CO (United States) NOAA, Climate Analysis Center, Washington, DC (United States))

1992-09-01

210

Combined Visualization of Wind Waves and Water Surface Temperature  

E-print Network

Combined Visualization of Wind Waves and Water Surface Temperature Roland Rocholz1 , Sven Wanner1 comparison of the space-time evolution of the waves and the surface temperature distribution . The temperature images are mapped in false color onto that virtual surface. Shading, based on the surface slope

Jaehne, Bernd

211

AT 351 Lab 3: Seasons and Surface Temperature (Ch. 3)  

E-print Network

AT 351 Lab 3: Seasons and Surface Temperature (Ch. 3) Question #1: Seasons (20 pts) A. In your own identical temperatures. Other than latitude, what 4 factors control surface temperature? Please explain 300 0 5 10 15 20 Temperature (C) HeightaboveSurface(m) Figure 1 Aberdeen, SD 0 50 100 150 200 250 16

Rutledge, Steven

212

Correspondence SATELLITE AND SURFACE TEMPERATURE DATA AT ODDS?  

E-print Network

Correspondence SATELLITE AND SURFACE TEMPERATURE DATA AT ODDS? Reply to John R. Christy and Roy W temperature change are inconsistent with surface measurements and with climate model predictions of global for complementary temperature measurements, left the impression that surface and tropospheric temperature trends

Fridlind, Ann

213

Surface temperature and salinity variations between Tasmania and Antarctica, 19931999  

E-print Network

the temperature data. The Levitus climatological and Reynolds satellite monthly mean sea surface temperature dataSurface temperature and salinity variations between Tasmania and Antarctica, 1993­1999 Alexis 2002. [1] Continuous surface temperature and salinity measurements have been collected onboard a supply

214

Gravitational large bolides influence on the Earth's surface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The authors consider the zones of elongate negative gravity anomalies that accompany some astroblemes and conclude that the formation of such "tails" associated with the energy influence of the asteroids. After analyzing the morphological elements of Popigai crater and concluding that the ballistic trajectory of Popigai cosmic body (CB) had orientation from SE to NW [1], the authors found that this direction corresponds to the position of the linear zone of negative gravity anomalies [2]. Earlier, in the analysis of this zone with using a gravity model EGM08, Czech researchers concluded that it was formed by the fall of three satellites of Popigai CB. However, traces of large impact events here are unknown and unlikely to be detected. Earlier analysis of the Russian Gravity maps 2010, scale 1:2500,000 [2], showed the presence of gravity tails for all large craters (D ? 15 km) produced by bodies for which we can assume a trajectory with a relatively low angle to the Earth's surface. However, the proven structures of large diameter are quite few in Russia. That is why it is important to check this pattern on a global scale. Indeed, the gravity imprints of CB trajectories show up in the new shaded model of "Global marine gravity" [3] for hundreds of astroblemes not specified in [2]. The data obtained can be an additional basis for definition of the CB trajectory direction along with other morphological elements of astroblemes considered by the authors earlier [4]. Furthermore, gravity can be useful to prove the impact origin of many less certain structures, such as submerged structures. Visual observation of submerged craters is difficult, and analysis of geophysical evidence in this case is simpler than the analysis of morphology. The surface gravity anomalies mimic round shape of craters and it can be assigned to the impact category in the presence of tails, even if in the absence of data, which can reveal rootless anomalies. Question "what are the linear tail zones of negative gravity anomalies and how were they formed" is waiting for his answer. Taking into account the often-observed bends of tail-shaped depressions, a more likely explanation would be in terms of gradual destruction of the body on its way through the atmosphere. As a result, there forms a chain of smaller fragments and particles after the body (the tail), which impacts a longer area of land. References 1. Khazanovitch-Wulff K.K., Mikheeva A.V. and Kuznetsov V.F. Structural elements of some astroblemes indicating directions of cosmic body trajectories // New Concepts in Global Tectonics JOURNAL, Volume 1, Number 3, p.11-19. September 2013. www.ncgt.org 2. Khazanovitch-Wulff K. K. and Mikheeva A. V. Negative gravity anomalies as the tails of astroblemes // NCGT Journal, v. 1, no. 2, p.4-15. June 2013. www.ncgt.org 3. Sandwell D.T., Smith W. H. F. Global marine gravity from retracked Geosat and ERS-1 altimetry: Ridge segmentation versus spreading rate. J. Geophys. Res., 2009. V.114, B01411. 4. Mikheeva A.V. The complete catalog of the Earth's impact structures - 2013. URL: labmpg.sscc.ru/impact/index1.html.

Mikheeva, Anna; Khazanovitch-Wulff, Konstantin

2014-05-01

215

Sea Ice Surface Temperature From the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global sea ice products are produced from the Earth Observing System (EOS) Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on board both the Terra and Aqua satellites. Daily sea ice extent and ice-surface temperature (IST) products are available at 1- and 4-km resolution. Validation activities have been undertaken to assess the accuracy of the MODIS IST product at the South Pole station

D. K. Hall; J. R. Key; K. A. Casey; G. A. Riggs; D. J. Cavalieri

2003-01-01

216

Hydrohalite in cold sea ice: Laboratory observations of single crystals, surface accumulations, and migration rates under a temperature  

E-print Network

, and migration rates under a temperature gradient, with application to ``Snowball Earth'' Bonnie Light,1 Richard of single crystals, surface accumulations, and migration rates under a temperature gradient the fractional volumes of ice, gas, brine, and precipitated salt. [3] Temperatures within sea ice exhibit a wide

Warren, Stephen

217

Modern average global sea-surface temperature  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The data contained in this data set are derived from the NOAA Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer Multichannel Sea Surface Temperature data (AVHRR MCSST), which are obtainable from the Distributed Active Archive Center at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in Pasadena, Calif. The JPL tapes contain weekly images of SST from October 1981 through December 1990 in nine regions of the world ocean: North Atlantic, Eastern North Atlantic, South Atlantic, Agulhas, Indian, Southeast Pacific, Southwest Pacific, Northeast Pacific, and Northwest Pacific. This data set represents the results of calculations carried out on the NOAA data and also contains the source code of the programs that made the calculations. The objective was to derive the average sea-surface temperature of each month and week throughout the whole 10-year series, meaning, for example, that data from January of each year would be averaged together. The result is 12 monthly and 52 weekly images for each of the oceanic regions. Averaging the images in this way tends to reduce the number of grid cells that lack valid data and to suppress interannual variability.

Schweitzer, Peter N.

1993-01-01

218

Calculating the temperature dependence of the specific heat for rare-earth arsenates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Equations have been derived for the temperature dependence of the specific heat for 14 rare-earth arsenates. The standard specific heats of some of them have also been calculated by Debye's and Ivanova's methods.

Sharipova, Z. M.; Kasenov, B. K.

1990-12-01

219

Surface Temperature Humidity Reference System Handbook - November 2005  

SciTech Connect

The Surface Temperature and Humidity Reference (SURTHREF) system is intended to provide accurate reference values of ambient temperature and relative humidity for comparison with radiosonde prelaunch values.

MT Ritsche

2005-11-30

220

Temperature Dependence of Resistivity of Sintered Rare-Earth Permanent-Magnet Materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the resistivity of rare-earth permanent-magnet materials over the temperature range -40°C to +150°C. We investigated three different materials from four manufacturers, including Nd2 Fe14 B, SmCo5 , and Sm2 Co17 , and measured their resistivities and temperature coefficients. We found that rare-earth permanent-magnet materials show an anisotropic resistivity behavior. In fact, the resistivity anisotropy causes larger resistivity difference

Sami Ruoho; Minna Haavisto; Eelis Takala; Timo Santa-Nokki; Martti Paju

2010-01-01

221

Earth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The following aspects of the planet Earth are discussed: plate tectonics, the interior of the planet, the formation of the Earth, and the evolution of the atmosphere and hydrosphere. The Earth's crust, mantle, and core are examined along with the bulk composition of the planet.

Carr, M. H.

1984-01-01

222

Satellite Sensed Skin Sea Surface Temperature  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Quantitative predictions of spatial and temporal changes the global climate rely heavily on the use of computer models. Unfortunately, such models cannot provide the basis for climate prediction because key physical processes are inadequately treated. Consequently, fine tuning procedures are often used to optimize the fit between model output and observational data and the validation of climate models using observations is essential if model based predictions of climate change are to be treated with any degree of confidence. Satellite Sea Surface Temperature (SST) observations provide high spatial and temporal resolution data which is extremely well suited to the initialization, definition of boundary conditions and, validation of climate models. In the case of coupled ocean-atmosphere models, the SST (or more correctly the 'Skin' SST (SSST)) is a fundamental diagnostic variable to consider in the validation process. Daily global SST maps derived from satellite sensors also provide adequate data for the detection of global patterns of change which, unlike any other SST data set, repeatedly extend into the southern hemisphere extra-tropical regions. Such data are essential to the success of the spatial 'fingerprint' technique, which seeks to establish a north-south asymmetry where warming is suppressed in the high latitude Southern Ocean. Some estimates suggest that there is a greater than 80% chance of directly detecting significant change (97.5 % confidence level) after 10-12 years of consistent global observations of mean sea surface temperature. However, these latter statements should be qualified with the assumption that a negligible drift in the observing system exists and that biases between individual instruments required to derive a long term data set are small. Given that current estimates for the magnitude of global warming of 0.015 K yr(sup -1) - 0.025 K yr(sup -1), satellite SST data sets need to be both accurate and stable if such a warming trend is to be confidently detected. Some of these activities are focussed to develop and deploy instrumentation suitable for the collection of precise in situ measurements of the SSST which can be used to improve the accuracy of satellite measurements, while others develop techniques to generate improved global analyses of sea surface temperature using historical data.

Donlon, Craig

1997-01-01

223

Ground surface temperature simulation for different land covers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryA model for predicting temperature time series for dry and wet land surfaces is described, as part of a larger project to assess the impact of urban development on the temperature of surface runoff and coldwater streams. Surface heat transfer processes on impervious and pervious land surfaces were investigated for both dry and wet weather periods. The surface heat transfer equations were combined with a numerical approximation of the 1-D unsteady heat diffusion equation to calculate pavement and soil temperature profiles to a depth of 10 m. Equations to predict the magnitude of the radiative, convective, conductive and evaporative heat fluxes at a dry or wet surface, using standard climate data as input, were developed. A model for the effect of plant canopies on surface heat transfer was included for vegetated land surfaces. Given suitable climate data, the model can simulate the land surface and sub-surface temperatures continuously throughout a six month time period or for a single rainfall event. Land surface temperatures have been successfully simulated for pavements, bare soil, short and tall grass, a forest, and two agricultural crops (corn and soybeans). The simulations were run for three different locations in US, and different years as imposed by the availability of measured soil temperature and climate data. To clarify the effect of land use on surface temperatures, the calibrated coefficients for each land use and the same soil coefficients were used to simulate surface temperatures for a six year climate data set from Albertville, MN. Asphalt and concrete give the highest surface temperatures, as expected, while vegetated surfaces gave the lowest. Bare soil gives surface temperatures that lie between those for pavements and plant-covered surfaces. The soil temperature model predicts hourly surface temperatures of bare soil and pavement with root-mean-square errors (RMSEs) of 1-2 °C, and hourly surface temperatures of vegetation-covered surfaces with RMSEs of 1-3 °C.

Herb, William R.; Janke, Ben; Mohseni, Omid; Stefan, Heinz G.

2008-07-01

224

Areas of Anomalous Surface Temperature in Routt County, Colorado, as Identified from ASTER Thermal Data  

SciTech Connect

Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Publication Date: 2012 Title: Very Warm Modeled Temperature Routt Edition: First Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains areas of anomalous surface temperature in Routt County identified from ASTER thermal data and spatial based insolation model. The temperature is calculated using the Emissivity Normalization Algorithm that separate temperature from emissivity. The incoming solar radiation was calculated using spatial based insolation model developed by Fu and Rich (1999). Then the temperature due to solar radiation was calculated using emissivity derived from ASTER data. The residual temperature, i.e. temperature due to solar radiation subtracted from ASTER temperature was used to identify thermally anomalous areas. Areas that had temperature greater than 2? were considered ASTER modeled very warm surface exposures (thermal anomalies) Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4501071.574000 m Left: 311351.975000 m Right: 359681.975000 m Bottom: 4447251.574000 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS’1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System ’1984 (WGS ’1984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich Angular Unit: Degree Digital Form: Format Name: Shape file

Khalid Hussein

2012-02-01

225

Areas of Anomalous Surface Temperature in Dolored County, Colorado, as Identified from ASTER Thermal Data  

SciTech Connect

Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Publication Date: 2012 Title: Very Warm Modeled Temperature Dolores Edition: First Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains areas of anomalous surface temperature in Dolores County identified from ASTER thermal data and spatial based insolation model. The temperature is calculated using the Emissivity Normalization Algorithm that separate temperature from emissivity. The incoming solar radiation was calculated using spatial based insolation model developed by Fu and Rich (1999). Then the temperature due to solar radiation was calculated using emissivity derived from ASTER data. The residual temperature, i.e. temperature due to solar radiation subtracted from ASTER temperature was used to identify thermally anomalous areas. Areas that had temperature greater than 2? were considered ASTER modeled very warm surface exposures (thermal anomalies) Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4186234.213315 m Left: 212558.673056 m Right: 232922.811862 m Bottom: 4176781.467043 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS’1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System ’1984 (WGS ’1984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich Angular Unit: Degree Digital Form: Format Name: Shape file

Khalid Hussein

2012-02-01

226

Areas of Anomalous Surface Temperature in Garfield County, Colorado, as Identified from ASTER Thermal Data  

SciTech Connect

Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Publication Date: 2012 Title: Very Warm Modeled Temperature Garfield Edition: First Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains areas of anomalous surface temperature in Garfield County identified from ASTER thermal data and spatial based insolation model. The temperature is calculated using the Emissivity Normalization Algorithm that separate temperature from emissivity. The incoming solar radiation was calculated using spatial based insolation model developed by Fu and Rich (1999). Then the temperature due to solar radiation was calculated using emissivity derived from ASTER data. The residual temperature, i.e. temperature due to solar radiation subtracted from ASTER temperature was used to identify thermally anomalous areas. Areas that had temperature greater than 2? were considered ASTER modeled very warm surface exposures (thermal anomalies) Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4441550.552290 m Left: 271445.053363 m Right: 359825.053363 m Bottom: 4312490.552290 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS’1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System ’1984 (WGS ’1984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich Angular Unit: Degree Digital Form: Format Name: Shape file

Khalid Hussein

2012-02-01

227

Areas of Anomalous Surface Temperature in Chaffee County, Colorado, as Identified from ASTER Thermal Data  

SciTech Connect

Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Publication Date: 2012 Title: Very Warm Modeled Temperature Chaffee Edition: First Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains areas of anomalous surface temperature in Chaffee County identified from ASTER thermal data and spatial based insolation model. The temperature is calculated using the Emissivity Normalization Algorithm that separate temperature from emissivity. The incoming solar radiation was calculated using spatial based insolation model developed by Fu and Rich (1999). Then the temperature due to solar radiation was calculated using emissivity derived from ASTER data. The residual temperature, i.e. temperature due to solar radiation subtracted from ASTER temperature was used to identify thermally anomalous areas. Areas that had temperature greater than 2? were considered ASTER modeled very warm surface exposures (thermal anomalies) Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4333432.368072 m Left: 366907.700763 m Right: 452457.816015 m Bottom: 4208271.566715 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS’1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System ’1984 (WGS ’1984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich Angular Unit: Degree Digital Form: Format Name: Shape file

Khalid Hussein

2012-02-01

228

Areas of Anomalous Surface Temperature in Archuleta County, Colorado, as Identified from ASTER Thermal Data  

SciTech Connect

Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Publication Date: 2012 Title: Very Warm Modeled Temperature Archuleta Edition: First Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains areas of anomalous surface temperature in Archuleta County identified from ASTER thermal data and spatial based insolation model. The temperature is calculated using the Emissivity Normalization Algorithm that separate temperature from emissivity. The incoming solar radiation was calculated using spatial based insolation model developed by Fu and Rich (1999). Then the temperature due to solar radiation was calculated using emissivity derived from ASTER data. The residual temperature, i.e. temperature due to solar radiation subtracted from ASTER temperature was used to identify thermally anomalous areas. Areas that had temperature greater than 2? were considered ASTER modeled very warm surface exposures (thermal anomalies) Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4144691.792023 m Left: 285531.662851 m Right: 348694.182686 m Bottom: 4097005.210304 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS’1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System ’1984 (WGS ’1984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich Angular Unit: Degree Digital Form: Format Name: Shape file

Khalid Hussein

2012-02-01

229

The effect of Mars surface and Phobos propellant production on Earth launch mass  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fuel and oxidizer produced on the surface of Mars and on the Martian Moon Phobos can reduce the cumulative mass of fuel and oxidizer which must be launched to low Earth orbit for Mars exploration missions. A scenario in which ten conjunction class trajectory missions over a twenty year period land a surface base and propellant production facilities on the Martian surface and on Phobos was examined. Production of oxygen on Phobos provides the greatest benefit. If all the propellant for Mars operations and Earth return is produced at Phobos and on Mars, a 30% reduction in cumulative low Earth orbit mass can be achieved at the end of the 20 year period.

Babb, Gus R.; Stump, William R.

1986-01-01

230

Surface heterogeneity effects on regional-scale fluxes in stable boundary layers: surface temperature transitions  

E-print Network

transitions in surface temperature. Temperature differences between patches of 6 K and 3 K are explored. The surface temperature heterogeneity has important effects on the mean wind speed and potential temperature temperatures results in decreased magni- tude of the average surface heat flux with a corresponding increase

Stoll, Rob

231

Modelling the rheology of MgO under Earth's mantle pressure, temperature and strain rates.  

PubMed

Plate tectonics, which shapes the surface of Earth, is the result of solid-state convection in Earth's mantle over billions of years. Simply driven by buoyancy forces, mantle convection is complicated by the nature of the convecting materials, which are not fluids but polycrystalline rocks. Crystalline materials can flow as the result of the motion of defects--point defects, dislocations, grain boundaries and so on. Reproducing in the laboratory the extreme deformation conditions of the mantle is extremely challenging. In particular, experimental strain rates are at least six orders of magnitude larger than in nature. Here we show that the rheology of MgO at the pressure, temperature and strain rates of the mantle is accessible by multiscale numerical modelling starting from first principles and with no adjustable parameters. Our results demonstrate that extremely low strain rates counteract the influence of pressure. In the mantle, MgO deforms in the athermal regime and this leads to a very weak phase. It is only in the lowermost lower mantle that the pressure effect could dominate and that, under the influence of lattice friction, a viscosity of the order of 10(21)-10(22) pascal seconds can be defined for MgO. PMID:22237109

Cordier, Patrick; Amodeo, Jonathan; Carrez, Philippe

2012-01-12

232

Validation of the land-surface temperature products retrieved from Terra Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer data  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the status of land-surface temperature (LST) standard products retrieved from Earth Observing System (EOS) Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data. Based on estimates of the channel-dependence error and noise equivalent temperature difference (NEDT) and the calibration accuracy of MODIS thermal–infrared data, the impact of instrument performance on the accuracy of LST is discussed. A double-screen scheme based

Zhengming Wan; Yulin Zhang; Qincheng Zhang; Zhao-liang Li

2002-01-01

233

Surfaces of Constant Temperature for Glauber Dynamics  

E-print Network

The wavefunction of a single spin system in a prepared initial state evolves to equilibrium with a heat bath. The average spin $$q(t) = p_{\\uparrow}(t) - p_{\\downarrow}(t)$$ exhibits a characteristic time for this evolution. With the proper choice of spin flip rates, a dynamical Ising model (Glauber) can be constructed with the same characteristic time for transition of the average spin to equilibrium. The Glauber dynamics are expressed as a Markoff process that possesses many of the same physical characteristics as its quantum mechanical counterpart. In addition, since the classical trajectories are those of an ergodic process (the time averages of a single trajectory are equivalent to the ensemble averages), the surfaces of constant temperature, in terms of the model parameters, may be derived for the single spin system.

David Ford

2006-01-17

234

Surfaces of Constant Temperature in Time  

E-print Network

The inverse relationship between energy and time is as familiar as Planck's constant. From the point of view of a system with many states, perhaps a better representation of the system is a vector of characteristic times (one per state) for example, a canonically distributed system. In the vector case the inverse relationship persists, this time as a relation between the $L_2$ norms. That relationship is derived herein. An unexpected benefit of the vectorized time viewpoint is the determination of surfaces of constant temperature in terms of the time coordinates. The results apply to all empirically accessible systems, that is situations where details of the dynamics are recorded at the microscopic level of detail. This includes all manner of simulation data of statistical mechanical systems as well as experimental data from actual systems (e.g. the internet, financial market data) where statistical physical methods have been applied.

David Ford

2005-10-11

235

Downscaling of land surface temperatures from SEVIRI  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Land surface temperature (LST) determines the radiance emitted by the surface and hence is an important boundary condition of the energy balance. In urban areas, detailed knowledge about the diurnal cycle in LST can contribute to understand the urban heat island (UHI). Although the increased surface temperatures compared to the surrounding rural areas (surface urban heat island, SUHI) have been measured by satellites and analysed for several decades, an operational SUHI monitoring is still not available due to the lack of sensors with appropriate spatiotemporal resolution. While sensors on polar orbiting satellites are still restricted to approx. 100 m spatial resolution and coarse temporal coverage (about 1-2 weeks), sensors on geostationary platforms have high temporal (several times per hour) and poor spatial resolution (>3 km). Further, all polar orbiting satellites have a similar equator crossing time and hence the SUHI can at best be observed at two times a day. A downscaling DS scheme for LST from the Spinning Enhanced Visible Infra-Red Imager (SEVIRI) sensor onboard the geostationary meteorological Meteosat 8 to spatial resolutions between 100 and 1000 m was developed and tested for Hamburg. Various data were tested as predictors, including multispectral data and derived indices, morphological parameters from interferometric SAR and multitemporal thermal data. All predictors were upscaled to the coarse resolution approximating the point spread function of SEVIRI. Then empirical relationships between the predictors and LST were derived which are then transferred to the high resolution domain, assuming they are scale invariant. For validation LST data from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) and the Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) for two dates were used. Aggregated parameters from multi-temporal thermal data (in particular annual cycle parameters and principal components) proved particularly suitable. The results for the highest resolution of 100 m showed a high explained variance (R^2 = 0.71) and relatively low root mean square errors (RMSE = 2.2 K) for the ASTER scene and slightly higher errors (R^2 = 0.73, RMSE = 2.53) for the ETM+ scene. A considerable percentage of the error was systematic due to the different viewing geometry of the sensors (the high resolution LST was overestimated about 1.3 K for ASTER and 0.66 K for ETM+). This shows that DS of SEVIRI LST is possible up to a resolution of 100 m for urban areas and that multitemporal thermal data are particularly suitable as predictors. Further, the scheme was used to produce an entire diurnal cycle in high resolution. While essential characteristics of the diurnal cycle were well reproduced, certain artefacts resulting from the multitemporal predictors from different seasons (like phenology and different water surface temperatures) were generated. Eventually, the bias and its dependence on the viewing geometry and topography are currently investigated.

Bechtel, B.; Zaksek, K.

2013-12-01

236

How do Atmospheres Affect Planetary Temperatures? Activity C Can we Model an Atmosphere's Effect Upon a Planet's Surface Temperature?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students simulate the interaction of variables, including carbon dioxide, in a radiation balance exercise using a spreadsheet-based radiation balance model. Through a series of experiments, students attempt to mimic the surface temperatures of Earth, Mercury, Venus and Mars, and account for the influence of greenhouse gases in atmospheric temperatures. The activity supports inquiry into the real-world problem of contemporary climate change. Student-collected data is needed from activity A in the same module, "How do atmospheres interact with solar energy?" to complete this activity. Included in the resource are several student data sheets and a teacher's guide. This activity is part of module 4, "How do Atmospheres Affect Planetary Temperatures?" in Earth Climate Course: What Determines a Planet's Climate? The course aims to help students to develop an understanding of our environment as a system of human and natural processes that result in changes that occur over various space and time scales.

237

Influence of rare-earth metals on the high-temperature strength of Ni 3 Al-based alloys  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of the content of reaction- and surface-active alloying elements (rare-earth metals (REMs)) and the method of\\u000a their introduction into cast high-temperature ??-Ni3Al-based intermetallic alloys, which are thermally stable natural eutectic composites, on their structure-phase state and\\u000a the mechanical properties is studied. The life of low-alloy heterophase ?? + ? cast high-temperature light Ni3Al-based alloys is shown can be

K. B. Povarova; N. K. Kazanskaya; A. A. Drozdov; O. A. Bazyleva; M. V. Kostina; A. V. Antonova; A. E. Morozov

2011-01-01

238

Relating Temperature Dependence of Atom Scattering Spectra to Surface Corrugation  

E-print Network

Relating Temperature Dependence of Atom Scattering Spectra to Surface Corrugation W. W. Hayes of the surface corrugation can be directly related to the temperature dependence of atom scattering spectra atomic mass, piz is the surface-normal component of the incident momentum, TS is the temperature, k

Manson, Joseph R.

239

Urban Land Use and Surface Cover: Effects on Soil Temperatures  

E-print Network

Urban Land Use and Surface Cover: Effects on Soil Temperatures Sarah B. Celestian and Chris A. In the root zone within 30 cm of the ground surface, temperature fluctuations strongly influence biotic different surface cover types impact diel patterns of soil root-zone temperatures in an urban Southwest

Hall, Sharon J.

240

Disparity of tropospheric and surface temperature trends: New evidence  

E-print Network

Disparity of tropospheric and surface temperature trends: New evidence David H. Douglass,1 Benjamin surface temperatures, we suggest that the disparity is probably associated with processes at the ocean (2004), Disparity of tropospheric and surface temperature trends: New evidence, Geophys. Res. Lett., 31

Douglass, David H.

241

Understanding and predicting changes in North Atlantic Sea Surface Temperature  

E-print Network

Understanding and predicting changes in North Atlantic Sea Surface Temperature by S. G. Yeager B and predicting changes in North Atlantic Sea Surface Temperature written by S. G. Yeager has been approved Atlantic Sea Surface Temperature Thesis directed by Prof. Baylor Fox-Kemper Abstract The mechanisms

Fox-Kemper, Baylor

242

SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE MONTHLY AVERAGE AND ANOMALY CHARTS  

E-print Network

442^ SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE MONTHLY AVERAGE AND ANOMALY CHARTS EASTERN TROPICAL PACIFIC OCEAN. Pautzke, Commissioner Bureau of Commercial Fisheries, Donald L. McKernan, Director SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE I - Sea surface temperature monthly average charts, eastern tropical Pacific Ocean, 1947-58 7

243

MONTHLY SEA-SURFACE TEMPERATURE ANOMALY GRAPHS FOR ATLANTIC COAST  

E-print Network

MONTHLY SEA-SURFACE TEMPERATURE ANOMALY GRAPHS FOR ATLANTIC COAST STATIONS by Franklin StearnsKeman, Director Monthly Sea-Surface Temperature Anomaly Graphs For Atlantic Coast Stations by Franklin Stearns. December 19^4 #12;Monthly Sea-Surface Temperature Anomaly Graphs For Atlantic Coast Stations by Franklin

244

Mars encounters cause fresh surfaces on some near-Earth asteroids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

All airless bodies are subject to the space environment, and spectral differences between asteroids and meteorites suggest many asteroids become weathered on very short (<1 Myr) timescales. The spectra of some asteroids, particularly Q-types, indicate surfaces that appear young and fresh, implying they have been recently been exposed. Previous work found that Earth encounters were the dominant freshening mechanism and could be responsible for all near-Earth object (NEO) Q-types. In this work we increase the known NEO Q-type sample of by a factor of three. We present the orbital distributions of 64 Q-type near-Earth asteroids, and seek to determine the dominant mechanisms for refreshing their surfaces. Our sample reveals two important results: (i) the relatively steady fraction of Q-types with increasing semi-major axis and (ii) the existence of Q-type near-Earth asteroids with Minimum Orbit Intersection Distances (MOID) that do not have orbit solutions that cross Earth. Both of these are evidence that Earth-crossing is not the only scenario by which NEO Q-types are freshened. The high Earth-MOID asteroids represent 10% of the Q-type population and all are in Amor orbits. While surface refreshing could also be caused by Main Belt collisions or mass shedding from YORP spinup, all high Earth-MOID Q-types have the possibility of encounters with Mars indicating Mars could be responsible for a significant fraction of NEOs with fresh surfaces.

DeMeo, Francesca E.; Binzel, Richard P.; Lockhart, Matthew

2014-01-01

245

On the errors of spherical harmonic developments of gravity at the surface of the earth  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spherical harmonic expansion of the external gravity field of the earth is divergent at the surface of the earth. From the practical point of view a truncated series can be used if the errors are small. The errors are of two types: the truncation error and the downward continuation error. This report investigates the latter, which is caused by

L. Sjoeberg

1977-01-01

246

Gravity Gradients on the Earth's Surface as Deduced from Satellite Orbits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The variation of gravity on the earth's surface is computed in three mutually perpendicular directions: the horizontal anomalous variations along the geocentric latitude and longitude curves, and the vertical component along the plumb line. The numerical results obtained from Kozai's and Gaposchkin's latest harmonic coefficients indicate a correlation between the anomalous vertical gravity gradient and the earth's continental topography.

W. Kohnlein

1967-01-01

247

Connecting Atlantic temperature variability and biological cycling in two earth system models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Connections between the interdecadal variability in North Atlantic temperatures and biological cycling have been widely hypothesized. However, it is unclear whether such connections are due to small changes in basin-averaged temperatures indicated by the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) Index, or whether both biological cycling and the AMO index are causally linked to changes in the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC). We examine interdecadal variability in the annual and month-by-month diatom biomass in two Earth System Models with the same formulations of atmospheric, land, sea ice and ocean biogeochemical dynamics but different formulations of ocean physics and thus different AMOC structures and variability. In the isopycnal-layered ESM2G, strong interdecadal changes in surface salinity associated with changes in AMOC produce spatially heterogeneous variability in convection, nutrient supply and thus diatom biomass. These changes also produce changes in ice cover, shortwave absorption and temperature and hence the AMO Index. Off West Greenland, these changes are consistent with observed changes in fisheries and support climate as a causal driver. In the level-coordinate ESM2M, nutrient supply is much higher and interdecadal changes in diatom biomass are much smaller in amplitude and not strongly linked to the AMO index.

Gnanadesikan, Anand; Dunne, John P.; Msadek, Rym

2014-05-01

248

Ground vs. Surface Air Temperature Trends: Implications for Borehole Surface Temperature Reconstructions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have analyzed the relationship between surface air temperature (SAT), ground surface temperature (GST), and snowcover (SNC) over the terrestrial Northern Hemisphere based on a simulation with the NASA/GISS model 'E' employing observed SST and radiative forcing changes from 1951-1998. While SAT is the dominant influence on GST during the warm-season, it resolves only half of the variance in GST during the cold-season, with SNC and pre-conditioning by prior warm-season SAT also exhibiting a sizeable and, in places, dominant influence. A significant deficit of warming of GST relative to SAT (0.2 degrees C) during the period of greatest trend 1971-1998 is shown to be associated primarily with decreasing cold-season snowcover and a consequent greater associated exposure of the ground surface to winter cold air outbreaks.

Mann, M. E.; Schmidt, G. A.

2003-04-01

249

Simulations of the snow covered sea ice surface temperature and microwave effective temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

The snow surface on thick multiyear sea ice in winter is on average colder than the air because of the negative radiation balance. Beneath the snow surface there is a strong temperature gradient in winter with increasing temperatures towards the ice-water interface temperature at the freezing point around -1.8 °C. The sea ice surface temperature and the thermal microwave brightness

Rasmus T. Tonboe; Gorm Dybkjcr; Jacob L. Høyer

2011-01-01

250

Estimating Sea Surface Temperature From Infrared Satellite and In Situ Temperature Data  

E-print Network

1 Estimating Sea Surface Temperature From Infrared Satellite and In Situ Temperature Data W., 80303 64295 Darmstadt, I-21020 Ispra Germany ITALY Abstract Sea surface temperature (SST) is a critical and the atmosphere. Introduction As one of easiest ocean variables to observe, sea surface temperature (SST) has

251

Oxidation resistance of 9-12% Cr steels: effect of rare earth surface treatment  

SciTech Connect

Medium Cr steels have been used in fossil fired power plants for many years because of their excellent high temperature stability and mechanical properties. The environment in a fossil fired power plant is extremely aggressive in terms of corrosion, especially oxidation. This is only accelerated as the operating temperature increases to 650C and beyond. For any new steel to be qualified for power plant use, in addition to adequate strength at the operating temperature, material wastage from all corrosion processes must be kept to a minimum acceptable level. The use of medium Cr steels provides a means to improve overall corrosion resistance. Three medium Cr are under development for use as high temperature power plant steels: 0.08C-(9-12)Cr-1.2Ni-0.7Mo-3.0Cu-3.0Co-0.5Ti. Oxidation tests were performed on the steels for times greater than 1000 hours in order to determine the oxidation kinetics and extent of material wastage. Also, rare earth oxides were incorporated into the outer surface layers of the steels to see if the oxidation resistance could be improved. These results will be compared to current power plant steels.

Dogan, Omer N.; Alman, David A.; Jablonski, Paul D.

2005-02-01

252

On the inhomogeneity of the transition surface layer of the solid core of the earth  

SciTech Connect

Different geophysical data and conclusions of theoretical models, which can give information about the behavior of the solid and liquid cores of the Earth as well as about the existence of a transition layer as a temperature-hysteresis region at a relatively weak first-order phase transition, are compared. It is concluded that liquid inclusions inevitably exist in this region; these inclusions are involved (due to the complex convective processes occurring in the liquid core) in the transport of light materials from some areas of the solid-core surface. The porosity and permeability of the transition layer determine the seismic acoustic inhomogeneities in these areas, which contact the convective flows in the liquid core. In particular, this explains the well-known 'east-west' effect. Obviously, the model of the crystalline core is not the only possible alternative for a model of a core with a metallic glasslike structure.

Pikin, S. A., E-mail: pikin@ns.crys.ras.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation)

2012-05-15

253

Analytical Method for Verification of a Satellite Pass over a Region of the Earth Surface  

E-print Network

An analytical method is proposed in this work for verification whether an artificial earth satellite during its orbital motion passes over a region of the earth surface. The method is based on undisturbed Keppler's approximation of the orbit and approximation of the region by a circular segment S. In order to define the situational condition, a conic surface is used with apex in the earth centre, cutting out the circular segment. The tangents of the conical surface with Keppler's plane determine the time intervals in which the satellite trace on the earth surface occurs inside the segment S. The transformation of these tangents in the plane of Keppler's orbit and the determination of their crossing points with Keppler's ellipse lies in the basis of the examined method.

Atanassov, Atanas Marinov

2010-01-01

254

A free plate surface and weak oceanic crust produce single-sided subduction on Earth  

E-print Network

A free plate surface and weak oceanic crust produce single-sided subduction on Earth F. Crameri,1 P features of terrestrial plates: (1) the presence of a free deformable upper surface and (2) the presence of weak hydrated crust atop subducting slabs. We show that assuming a free surface, rather than

Kaus, Boris

255

VQ6. Earth Surface, Snow/Ice and Shallow Water Benthic  

E-print Network

VQ6. Earth Surface, Snow/Ice and Shallow Water Benthic Composition What is the land surface soil's polar regions? · How can measurements of rock and soil composition be used to understand and mitigate terrestrial surface? · Science Issue ­ The composition and distribution of the exposed rock and soil substrate

Christian, Eric

256

Snowball Earth: Sensitivity to sea ice and surface albedo  

Microsoft Academic Search

The snowball Earth theory, that low-latitude continents became glaciated after sea ice extended from the poles to the equator during the Neoproterozoic (1000--545 Ma), has sparked a flood of numerical modelling studies investigating all phases of the proposed extreme climatic cycle. Modelling studies have both supported and refuted the original 'hard' snowball theory, as well as offered alternative theories such

Jeffrey Philip Lewis

2007-01-01

257

Analytical Method for Verification of a Satellite Pass over a Region of the Earth Surface  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analytical method is proposed in this work for verification whether an\\u000aartificial earth satellite during its orbital motion passes over a region of\\u000athe earth surface. The method is based on undisturbed Keppler's approximation\\u000aof the orbit and approximation of the region by a circular segment S. In order\\u000ato define the situational condition, a conic surface is used

Atanas Marinov Atanassov

2010-01-01

258

Global surface wave resonances of the earth magnetosphere and their possible manifestation  

E-print Network

In this paper global surface wave modes supported by plasma discontinuities at both the magnetopause and the plasmapause are considered. The ionosphere at the ends of the magnetic field lines of the earth outer magnetosphere is considered as reflecting boundaries of the surface waves that propagate along the plasma boundaries. As a result a standing wave structure along the magnetic field fluxes of the outer magnetosphere, i.e. surface wave resonance structure can be formed. Due to quantized wavenumbers along the magnetic field lines, the surface wave resonance possesses quantified frequencies in a following way: f = nfres, where fres is frequency of the corresponding fundamental surface wave resonance and n is an integer. Global Pc5 pulsations have been observed and interpreted mostly as cavity modes of the earth magnetosphere. The global Pc5 pulsations however could alternatively be interpreted as ultra low-frequency surface wave resonances of the earth magnetosphere that do not necessarily involve the cavi...

Nenovski, Petko

2014-01-01

259

Changes in biologically active ultraviolet radiation reaching the Earth's surface.  

PubMed

Since publication of the 1998 UNEP Assessment, there has been continued rapid expansion of the literature on UV-B radiation. Many measurements have demonstrated the inverse relationship between column ozone amount and UV radiation, and in a few cases long-term increases due to ozone decreases have been identified. The quantity, quality and availability of ground-based UV measurements relevant to assessing the environmental impacts of ozone changes continue to improve. Recent studies have contributed to delineating regional and temporal differences due to aerosols, clouds, and ozone. Improvements in radiative transfer modelling capability now enable more accurate characterization of clouds, snow-cover, and topographical effects. A standardized scale for reporting UV to the public has gained wide acceptance. There has been increased use of satellite data to estimate geographic variability and trends in UV. Progress has been made in assessing the utility of satellite retrievals of UV radiation by comparison with measurements at the Earth's surface. Global climatologies of UV radiation are now available on the Internet. Anthropogenic aerosols play a more important role in attenuating UV irradiances than has been assumed previously, and this will have implications for the accuracy of UV retrievals from satellite data. Progress has been made inferring historical levels of UV radiation using measurements of ozone (from satellites or from ground-based networks) in conjunction with measurements of total solar radiation obtained from extensive meteorological networks. We cannot yet be sure whether global ozone has reached a minimum. Atmospheric chlorine concentrations are beginning to decrease. However, bromine concentrations are still increasing. While these halogen concentrations remain high, the ozone layer remains vulnerable to further depletion from events such as volcanic eruptions that inject material into the stratosphere. Interactions between global warming and ozone depletion could delay ozone recovery by several years, and this topic remains an area of intense research interest. Future changes in greenhouse gases will affect the future evolution of ozone through chemical, radiative, and dynamic processes In this highly coupled system, an evaluation of the relative importance of these processes is difficult: studies are ongoing. A reliable assessment of these effects on total column ozone is limited by uncertainties in lower stratospheric response to these changes. At several sites, changes in UV differ from those expected from ozone changes alone, possibly as a result of long-term changes in aerosols, snow cover, or clouds. This indicates a possible interaction between climate change and UV radiation. Cloud reflectance measured by satellite has shown a long-term increase at some locations, especially in the Antarctic region, but also in Central Europe, which would tend to reduce the UV radiation. Even with the expected decreases in atmospheric chlorine, it will be several years before the beginning of an ozone recovery can be unambiguously identified at individual locations. Because UV-B is more variable than ozone, any identification of its recovery would be further delayed. PMID:12659535

McKenzie, Richard L; Björn, Lars Olof; Bais, Alkiviadis; Ilyasad, Mohammad

2003-01-01

260

Temperature distribution along the surface of evaporating droplets.  

PubMed

The surface temperature can significantly affect the flow field of drying droplets. Most previous studies assumed a monotonic temperature variation along the droplet surface. However, the present analyses indicate that a nonmonotonic spatial distribution of the surface temperature should occur. Three different patterns of the surface temperature distribution may appear during the evaporation process of liquid droplets: (i) the surface temperature increases monotonically from the center to the edge of the droplet; (ii) the surface temperature exhibits a nonmonotonic spatial distribution along the droplet surface; (iii) the surface temperature decreases monotonically from the center to the edge of the droplet. These surface temperature distributions can be explained by combining the evaporative cooling at the droplet surface and the heat conduction across the substrate and the liquid. Furthermore, a "phase diagram" for the distribution of the surface temperature is introduced and the effect of the spatial temperature distribution along the droplet surface on the flow structure of the droplet is discussed. The results may provide a better understanding of the Marangoni effect of drying droplets and provide a potential way to control evaporation-driven deposition as well as the assembly of colloids and other materials. PMID:24730849

Zhang, Kai; Ma, Liran; Xu, Xuefeng; Luo, Jianbin; Guo, Dan

2014-03-01

261

Temperature distribution along the surface of evaporating droplets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The surface temperature can significantly affect the flow field of drying droplets. Most previous studies assumed a monotonic temperature variation along the droplet surface. However, the present analyses indicate that a nonmonotonic spatial distribution of the surface temperature should occur. Three different patterns of the surface temperature distribution may appear during the evaporation process of liquid droplets: (i) the surface temperature increases monotonically from the center to the edge of the droplet; (ii) the surface temperature exhibits a nonmonotonic spatial distribution along the droplet surface; (iii) the surface temperature decreases monotonically from the center to the edge of the droplet. These surface temperature distributions can be explained by combining the evaporative cooling at the droplet surface and the heat conduction across the substrate and the liquid. Furthermore, a "phase diagram" for the distribution of the surface temperature is introduced and the effect of the spatial temperature distribution along the droplet surface on the flow structure of the droplet is discussed. The results may provide a better understanding of the Marangoni effect of drying droplets and provide a potential way to control evaporation-driven deposition as well as the assembly of colloids and other materials.

Zhang, Kai; Ma, Liran; Xu, Xuefeng; Luo, Jianbin; Guo, Dan

2014-03-01

262

Surface phase behavior in binary polymer mixtures. III. Temperature dependence of surface enrichment and of wetting  

E-print Network

Surface phase behavior in binary polymer mixtures. III. Temperature dependence of surface over a wide temperature and composition range. A divergence of the surface excess was indicated temperature Tc consists of two coexisting phases. Where one of the phases is favored at the mixture surface

Klein, Jacob

263

Temperature dependence of the surface free energy and surface stress: An atomistic calculation for Cu(110)  

E-print Network

Temperature dependence of the surface free energy and surface stress: An atomistic calculation is applied to compute the temperature dependencies of and for the 110 Cu surface using Monte Carlo temperature, eij is a strain tensor of the surface, and ij is the Kronecker sym- bol. Two of the Cartesian

Mishin, Yuri

264

Exploring indicators for quantifying surface urban heat islands of European cities with MODIS land surface temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The term urban heat island describes the phenomenon of altered temperatures in urban areas compared to their rural hinterlands. A surface urban heat island encompasses the patterns of land surface temperatures in urban areas. The classical indicator to describe a surface urban heat island is the difference between urban and rural surface temperatures. However, several other indicators for this purpose

Nina Schwarz; Sven Lautenbach; Ralf Seppelt

265

Modeling Lunar Borehole Temperature in order to Reconstruct Historical Total Solar Irradiance and Estimate Surface Temperature in Permanently Shadowed Regions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Moon is an ideal place to reconstruct historical total solar irradiance (TSI). With undisturbed lunar surface albedo and the very low thermal diffusivity of lunar regolith, changes in solar input lead to changes in lunar surface temperature that diffuse downward to be recorded in the temperature profile in the near-surface layer. Using regolith thermal properties from Apollo, we model the heat transfer in the regolith layer, and compare modeled surface temperature to Apollo observations to check model performance. Using as alternative input scenarios two reconstructed TSI time series from 1610 to 2000 (Lean, 2000; Wang, Lean, and Sheeley 2005), we conclude that the two scenarios can be distinguished by detectable differences in regolith temperature, with the peak difference of about 10 mK occuring at a depth of about 10 m (Miyahara et al., 2007). The possibility that water ice exists in permanently shadowed areas near the lunar poles (Nozette et al., 1997; Spudis et al, 1998), makes it of interest to estimate surface temperature in such dark regions. "Turning off" the Sun in our time dependent model, we found it would take several hundred years for the surface temperature to drop from ~~100K immediately after sunset down to a nearly constant equilibrium temperature of about 24~~38 K, with the range determined by the range of possible input from Earth, from 0 W/m2 without Earth visible, up to about 0.1 W/m2 at maximum Earth phase. A simple equilibrium model (e.g., Huang 2007) is inappropriate to relate the Apollo-observed nighttime temperature to Earth's radiation budget, given the long multi- centennial time scale needed for equilibration of the lunar surface layer after sunset. Although our results provide the key mechanisms for reconstructing historical TSI, further research is required to account for topography of lunar surfaces, and new measurements of regolith thermal properties will also be needed once a new base of operations is established. References Huang, S., (2007), Surface Temperatures at the Nearside of the Moon as a Record of the Radiation Budget of Earth's Climate System, Advances in Space Research, doi:10.1016/j.asr.2007.04.093. Lean, J., Geophys. Res. Lett., (2000), 27(16), 2425-2428. Miyahara, H., G. Wen, R. F. Cahalan, and A. Ohmura, (2007), Deriving Historical Total Solar Irradiance from Lunar Borehole Temperatures, submitted to Geophy. Res. Lett. Nozette, S., E. M. Shoemaker, P. D. Spudis, and C. L. Lichtenberg, The possibility of ice on the Moon, Science, 278, 144-145, 1997. Spudis, P.D., T. Cook, M. Robinson, B. Bussey, and B. Fessler, Topography of the southe polar region from Clementine stereo imaging, New views of the Moon, Integrated remotely sensed, geophysical, and sample datasets, Lunar Planet. Inst., [CD-ROM], abstract 6010, 1998. Wang, Y. M., J. L. Lean and N. R. Sheeley (2005), Astrophys. J., 625, 522-538.

Wen, G.; Cahalan, R. F.; Miyahara, H.; Ohmura, A.

2007-12-01

266

Low Temperature Resistivity of Yttrium-Based Alloys Containing Small Amounts of Rare Earth Metals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The resistivity of the dilute alloys of rare earth metals with yttrium has been measured at low temperatures. The result is in qualitative agreement with the recent theories due to Kondo and others on the s--d or s--f scattering. The effective s--f exchange integrals for various rare-earth solutes have been derived from the analysis of the resistivity data and compared

Tadashi Sugawara

1965-01-01

267

Evolution of land surface air temperature trend  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The global climate has been experiencing significant warming at an unprecedented pace in the past century. This warming is spatially and temporally non-uniform, and one needs to understand its evolution to better evaluate its potential societal and economic impact. Here, the evolution of global land surface air temperature trend in the past century is diagnosed using the spatial-temporally multidimensional ensemble empirical mode decomposition method. We find that the noticeable warming (>0.5 K) started sporadically over the global land and accelerated until around 1980. Both the warming rate and spatial structure have changed little since. The fastest warming in recent decades (>0.4 K per decade) occurred in northern mid-latitudes. From a zonal average perspective, noticeable warming (>0.2 K since 1900) first took place in the subtropical and subpolar regions of the Northern Hemisphere, followed by subtropical warming in the Southern Hemisphere. The two bands of warming in the Northern Hemisphere expanded from 1950 to 1985 and merged to cover the entire Northern Hemisphere.

Ji, Fei; Wu, Zhaohua; Huang, Jianping; Chassignet, Eric P.

2014-06-01

268

GHG Effect on Surface Temperature in Indonesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing of green house gas emissons into the atmosphere could influence the Climate and Earth Ecosystem. The increasing CO_2 emmision in developed countries and developing countries are influenced by economic growth factor, cheaped price fuel without tax and there is not regulation yet for making arrangement energy efficiency. The result of inventarisation CO_2 emmision related to energy sector between

W. E. Cahyono

2004-01-01

269

Demagnetization curves of four rare-earth-cobalt magnet types at temperatures 300–1000 K  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intrinsic demagnetization curves and the temperature dependence of specific magnetization states were measured with a dc magnetometer on four types of sintered rare-earth-cobalt permanent magnets at temperatures from 300 to 1000 K. All magnetic properties vary reversibly with temperatures up to limits of 650–850 K, depending on the alloy. Precipitation-hardened magnets of the 1–7 or the 1–5 types and the

S. Liu; H. F. Mildrum; K. J. Strnat

1982-01-01

270

Idea Bank: Warming to Global Warming--Sunspots and Sea-Surface Temperature  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In the problem-based laboratory activity described here, students evaluate the causality of changes on the solar surface in regard to climate change and warming in Earth's environment. They use graphing calculators and real-time data from the internet to research the possible effects of sunspot activity on ocean temperatures in the Atlantic. The 5E constructivist instructional model--Engage, Explore, Explain, Elaborate, and Evaluate (Bybee 1997)--is used to analyze a false hypothesis linking sea-surface temperature to the Sun.

Landstrom, Erich

2008-04-01

271

THE SURFACE DIFFUSION OF TUNGSTEN AT VERY HIGH TEMPERATURES  

E-print Network

L-385 THE SURFACE DIFFUSION OF TUNGSTEN AT VERY HIGH TEMPERATURES VU THIEN BINH, R. UZAN and M a determination of the surface diffusion coefficient of tungsten at extreme high temperatures. (*) Centre de septembre 1978) Résumé. 2014 Le coefficient d'auto-diffusion de surface du tungstène est déterminé pour des

Boyer, Edmond

272

Temperature Contours and Ghost Surfaces for Chaotic Magnetic Fields  

E-print Network

Temperature Contours and Ghost Surfaces for Chaotic Magnetic Fields 2008 International Sherwood be constructed globally when the field lines lie on nested toroidal surfaces. ­ The temperature takes the simple After destruction of the KAM surfaces, the cantori severely inhibit field line flow, and thus present

Hudson, Stuart

273

Surface temperature trends in Russia over the past five centuries reconstructed from borehole temperatures  

E-print Network

Surface temperature trends in Russia over the past five centuries reconstructed from borehole in Russia and nearby areas to reconstruct the ground surface temperature history (GSTH) over the past five. D. Duchkov, I. V. Golovanova, S. Huang, V. A. Shchapov, and J. E. Smerdon, Surface temperature

Smerdon, Jason E.

274

Microwave emission and scattering from Earth surface and atmosphere  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nonlinear Electromagnetic (EM) wave interactions with the upper atmosphere were investigated during the period 15 December 1985 to 15 June 1986. Topics discussed include: the simultaneous excitation of ionospheric density irregularities and Earth's magnetic field fluctuations; the electron acceleration by Langmuir wave turbulence; and the occurrence of artificial spread F. The role of thermal effects in generating ionospheric irregularities by Whistler waves, intense Quasi-DC electric fields, atmospheric gravity waves, and electrojets was investigated. A model was developed to explain the discrete spectrum of the resonant ultralow frequency (ULF) waves that are commonly observed in the magnetosphere.

Kong, J. A.; Lee, M. C.

1986-01-01

275

Observe an animation of the Coriolis effect over Earth's surface  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Find a Flash animation for the Coriolis Effect, the apparent deflection of a wind or current due to earth rotation. One animation shows a plane flying from Anchorage, Alaska toward Miami, Florida. In the second animation, a plane takes off from Tierra del Fuego toward Rio de Janeiro. In both cases, the pilots would miss their destination because the targets moved in respect to the original straight line path of the plane. For the northern hemisphere the plane would end up to the right of the target, to the left, for the southern hemisphere. The animation can be paused and rewound to stress important points.

Studio, Nasa/goddard S.; Institution, Smithsonian; National Science Foundation (NSF); Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA); Global Change Research Project (GCRP); National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)

276

The Earth Institute, Columbia University14 Annual Donor Report 2009 15 Heat waves are on the rise as the climate changes and average temperatures increase.  

E-print Network

to cooling cities and helping control stormwater pollution, among other benefits. Scientists at the Earth environments. Their plants lower surface temperatures to comfortable levels, control stormwater sewage overflows, remove air pollution, absorb acid rain and provide insulation for the buildings beneath them

277

Tunguska phenomenon: Discharge processes near the earth's surface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An investigation of the Tunguska cosmic body's epicenter showed that both dried trees and those that survived the catastrophe are marked with characteristic deteriorations. For the trees that survived near the epicenter (the distance is <4 km), cracks of up to 7 m in length are found on their stems. All the vegetation near the explosion epicenter has traces of uniform scorch that covered the trees even on the land parts isolated by water. On the background of this uniform scorch, a notable feature is carbonization that touched the tree tops and the earth-directed ends of broken branches. All tops of both living and dried trees in the central zone are burned and dead. Carbonization of tops and branch ends was observed up to a distance of 10-15 km from the epicenter; i.e., charge processes took place over an area of more than 500 km2 in size. Carbonized branch ends have a characteristic "bird's nail" shape, which has no analogs on the Earth. Similar deterioration is typical for the crater shape that obtains an anode during arc discharge combustion. It is supposed that the duration of these charge processes could be ?1 min.

Gladysheva, O. G.

2013-09-01

278

Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With three levels to choose from on each page - beginner, intermediate or advanced - this site provides information on our plant Earth. There is a section about water on earth and its many different varities, like freshwater, groundwater, and frozen water. There is information about the chemical make-up of water and many images showing the different water anvironments. There is a section about life in water, such as animals, plants, and plankton.

2008-10-03

279

The solar energy incident on a plane at the earth surface; Situation in Belgium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The solar energy, incident yearly on a plane surface at the earth surface, is calculated, as a function of the fixed orientation of the plane. Distinction has been made between direct sun radiation, diffuse sky radiation and diffuse ground reflection. Statistical data for the clouding was taken into account. The mathematical models have been kept as simple and as general

A. De Vos; G. De Mey

1977-01-01

280

REPRESENTATION OF HETEROGENEITY EFFECTS IN EARTH SYSTEM MODELING: EXPERIENCE FROM LAND SURFACE MODELING  

Microsoft Academic Search

The land surface is characterized by pro- nounced spatial heterogeneity that spans a wide range of scales. This heterogeneity affects the surface energy and water budgets, as well as the land-atmosphere exchanges of momentum, heat, water and other constituents, through a number of highly nonlinear processes. The resolution of present-day Earth (or climate) system models is still too coarse to

Filippo Giorgi

281

Representation of heterogeneity effects in earth system modeling: Experience from land surface modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The land surface is characterized by pronounced spatial heterogeneity that spans a wide range of scales. This heterogeneity affects the surface energy and water budgets, as well as the land-atmosphere exchanges of momentum, heat, water and other constituents, through a number of highly nonlinear processes. The resolution of present-day Earth (or climate) system models is still too coarse to explicitly

Filippo Giorgi; Roni Avissar

1997-01-01

282

Representation of heterogeneity effects in Earth system modeling: Experience from land surface modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The land surface is characterized by pronounced spatial heterogeneity that spans a wide range of scales. This heterogeneity affects the surface energy and water budgets, as well as the land-atmosphere exchanges of momentum, heat, water and other constituents, through a number of highly nonlinear processes. The resolution of present-day Earth (or climate) system models is still too coarse to explicitly

Filippo Giorgi; Roni Avissar

1997-01-01

283

Implications of solar irradiance variability upon long-term changes in the Earth's atmospheric temperatures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

From 1979 through 1987, it is believed that variability in the incoming solar energy played a significant role in changing the Earth's climate. Using high-precision spacecraft radiometric measurements, the incoming total solar irradiance (total amount of solar power per unit area) and the Earth's mean, global atmospheric temperatures were found to vary in phase with each other. The observed irradiance and temperature changes appeared to be correlated with the 11-year cycle of solar magnetic activity. During the period from 1979 through 1985, both the irradiance and temperature decreased. From 1985 to 1987, they increased. The irradiance changed approximately 0.1 percent, while the temperature varied as much as 0.6 C. During the 1979-1987 period, the temperatures were forecasted to rise linearly because of the anthropogenic build-up of carbon dioxide and the hypothesized 'global warming', 'greenhouse effect', scenarios. Contrary to these scenarios, the temperatures were found to vary in a periodic manner in phase with the solar irradiance changes. The observed correlations between irradiance and temperature variabilily suggest that the mean, global temperature of the Earth may decline between 1990 and 1997 as solar magnetic activity decreases.

Lee, Robert B., III

1992-01-01

284

A potential bias in coral reconstruction of sea surface temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Isotopic measurements in corals are used to reconstruct past sea surface temperature. These reconstructions are based on calibration regression analyses using paired measurements of modern isotopic composition and sea surface temperature. It is shown that error in these measurements of sea surface temperature can lead to substantial bias in reconstruction. Provided the variance of the measurement error is known or can be estimated, a simple correction can eliminate this bias.

Solow, Andrew R.; Huppert, Amit

2004-03-01

285

16 CFR 1505.7 - Maximum acceptable surface temperatures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR ELECTRICALLY OPERATED TOYS OR OTHER ELECTRICALLY OPERATED ARTICLES INTENDED FOR USE BY CHILDREN...maximum acceptable surface temperatures for electrically operated toys shall be as follows: Surface type (as described—in §...

2010-01-01

286

Temperature-responsive surface-functionalized polyethylene films.  

E-print Network

??PE-PEG-Pyrene cooligomers were used to functionalize the surface of polyethylene films via an entrapment process. The resultant films yield a temperature responsive surface-solvent interface when… (more)

Ponder, Bill C.

2012-01-01

287

Middle Pliocene Sea Surface Temperature Variability Harry J. Dowsett1  

E-print Network

, NC 27708 Abstract Estimates of sea surface temperature (SST) based upon foraminifer, diatom, important oceanic fronts in the Southern Ocean were situated significantly closer to the Antarctic continent

288

Low temperature carburization of high surface area tungsten powders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reductive decomposition of WO3 precursor powder gives high surface area ?-W at temperatures above 650 °C, ?-W at temperatures below 575 °C, and mixtures of ?-W and ?-W (in various ratios) at intermediate temperatures. The carburization behavior of these powders in flowing CO over the temperature range 350 °–700 °C is sensitive to the initial crystalline state of the powder.

L. Gao; B. H. Kear

1995-01-01

289

Pre-earthquake Electromagnetic Waves Propagation from the Underground Seismic Source to the Earth's Surface  

Microsoft Academic Search

A static and quasi-static model is proposed for describing the characteristics and the propagation of pre-electromagnetic waves from the seismic focal zone to the Earth's surface and the near-Earth space. Such waves are supposed to be generated by changes in the state of stress in the hypocentral focal volume during the earthquake preparation. In formulating the model, the realistic case

V. Malvezzi; A. Cirella; L. Conti; V. Sgrigna

2003-01-01

290

Over the horizon sky wave radar simulator for ionosphere and earth surface sounding  

Microsoft Academic Search

A software tool for the simulation of the received echo of an over the horizon sky wave radar in pulse mode has been developed. The tool accounts for several models of the pulse radar Tx\\/Rx configuration, the antenna pattern, the electron ionospheric structure and the land\\/sea backscattering of the Earth’s surface. Some simulation products are presented and discussed assuming the

Fabrizio Cuccoli; Luca Facheris; Francesco Sermi

2011-01-01

291

Underestimation of solar global and diffuse radiation measured at Earth's surface  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change perspectives intensified investigations of the radiative balance of the Earth-atmosphere system. At the top of the atmosphere, solar irradiance is known with absolute uncertainty of 0.3% and theoretical models agree with albedo measurements, but solar shortwave radiation observations at Earth's surface are less than those calculated by radiative-transfer models. This model observation discrepancy (10-25 Wm-2) led to a

Rolf Philipona

2002-01-01

292

Long-term global earth surface ultraviolet radiation exposure derived from ISCCP and TOMS satellite measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

A long-term (1983–2000) global dataset of Earth’s surface daily-integrated UV exposure was developed from a combination of ISCCP-D1 3h reflectance measurements (in order to resolve the diurnal variation of cloud conditions) and TOMS total ozone amount. The inversion algorithm developed in our previous study was employed with modifications addressing the conversion of visible reflectance to UV albedo and narrowband UV

Pubu Ciren; Zhanqing Li

2003-01-01

293

SPATIO-TEMPORAL SEGMENTATION AND ESTIMATION OF OCEAN SURFACE CURRENTS FROM SATELLITE SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE FIELDS  

E-print Network

Laboratory Technop^ole Brest-Iroise, France ABSTRACT The use of satellite Sea Surface Temperature (SST of spatial and temporal information of Sea Surface Temperature (SST). By con- trast, satellite altimetersSPATIO-TEMPORAL SEGMENTATION AND ESTIMATION OF OCEAN SURFACE CURRENTS FROM SATELLITE SEA SURFACE

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

294

The warming trend of ground surface temperature in the Choshui Alluvial Fan, western central Taiwan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Heat storage in subsurface of the continents forms a fundamental component of the global energy budget and plays an important role in the climate system. Several researches revealed that subsurface temperatures were being increased to 1.8-2.8°C higher in mean ground surface temperature (GST) for some Asian cities where are experiencing a rapid growth of population. Taiwan is a subtropic-tropic island with densely populated in the coastal plains surrounding its mountains. We investigate the subsurface temperature distribution and the borehole temperature-depth profiles by using groundwater monitoring wells in years 2000 and 2010. Our data show that the western central Taiwan plain also has been experiencing a warming trend but with a higher temperatures approximately 3-4 °C of GST during the last 250 yrs. We suggest that the warming were mostly due to the land change to urbanization and agriculture. The current GSTs from our wells are approximately 25.51-26.79 °C which are higher than the current surface air temperature (SAT) of 23.65 °C. Data from Taiwan's weather stations also show 1-1.5 °C higher for the GST than the SAT at neighboring stations. The earth surface heat balance data indicate that GST higher than SAT is reasonable. More researches are needed to evaluate the interaction of GST and SAT, and how a warming GST's impact to the SAT and the climate system of the Earth.

Chen, W.; Chang, M.; Chen, J.; Lu, W.; Huang, C. C.; Wang, Y.

2013-12-01

295

Downscaling MODIS Land Surface Temperature for Urban Public Health Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study is part of a project funded by the NASA Applied Sciences Public Health Program, which focuses on Earth science applications of remote sensing data for enhancing public health decision-making. Heat related death is currently the number one weather-related killer in the United States. Mortality from these events is expected to increase as a function of climate change. This activity sought to augment current Heat Watch/Warning Systems (HWWS) with NASA remotely sensed data, and models used in conjunction with socioeconomic and heat-related mortality data. The current HWWS do not take into account intra-urban spatial variations in risk assessment. The purpose of this effort is to evaluate a potential method to improve spatial delineation of risk from extreme heat events in urban environments by integrating sociodemographic risk factors with land surface temperature (LST) estimates derived from thermal remote sensing data. In order to further improve the assessment of intra-urban variations in risk from extreme heat, we developed and evaluated a number of spatial statistical techniques for downscaling the 1-km daily MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) LST data to 60 m using Landsat-derived LST data, which have finer spatial but coarser temporal resolution than MODIS. We will present these techniques, which have been demonstrated and validated for Phoenix, AZ using data from the summers of 2000-2006.

Al-Hamdan, M. Z.; Crosson, W. L.; Estes, M. G., Jr.; Estes, S. M.; Quattrochi, D. A.; Johnson, D.

2013-12-01

296

Global Sea Surface Temperature Analyses: Multiple Problems and Their Implications for Climate Analysis, Modeling, and Reanalysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comprehensive comparison is made among four sea surface temperature (SST) datasets: the optimum interpo- lation (OI) and the empirical orthogonal function reconstructed SST analyses from the National Centers for Environ- mental Prediction (NCEP), the Global Sea-Ice and SST dataset (GISST, version 2.3b) from the United Kingdom Meteorological Office, and the optimal smoothing SST analysis from the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory

James W. Hurrell; Kevin E. Trenberth

1999-01-01

297

Demagnetization curves of four rare-earth-cobalt magnet types at temperatures 300-1000 K  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Intrinsic demagnetization curves and the temperature dependence of specific magnetization states were measured with a dc magnetometer on four types of sintered rare-earth-cobalt permanent magnets at temperatures from 300 to 1000 K. All magnetic properties vary reversibly with temperatures up to limits of 650-850 K, depending on the alloy. Precipitation-hardened magnets of the 1-7 or the 1-5 types and the common sintered SmCo5 all exhibit quite different temperature characteristics. The MHc of 1-7 type magnets decreases gradually with increasing temperature. Its temperature dependence can be well described by a simple exponential function. The MHc of SmCo5 drops sharply with increasing temperature and becomes very small at about 750 K. The cerium magnet shows a distinct kink in MHc versus T at 550 K, separating two temperature regions in which clearly different mechanisms are responsible for the coercivity.

Liu, S.; Mildrum, H. F.; Strnat, K. J.

1982-03-01

298

A new parameterization scheme for estimating surface energy fluxes with continuous surface temperature, air temperature, and surface net radiation measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

study develops a method for estimating surface energy fluxes (surface sensible heat flux (H), latent heat flux (LE), and soil heat flux (G)) simultaneously from continuous observations of surface temperature (Ts), air temperature (Ta), and net radiation (Rn) without calculating various resistances. First, H, LE, and G are parameterized by some constant parameters that remain fairly invariant during a given day and some known functions related to Ts and Ta. Second, these constant parameters are solved by a minimization technique based on surface energy balance. Data from ground-based measurements at the Yucheng station were used to evaluate the performance of the developed method. Results show that the simplified parameterization schemes well reproduce H, LE, and G with a root mean square error (RMSE) of ˜20 W/m2 at the instantaneous time scale, and perform better at the daily scale. For the estimates of H, LE, and G using the known Ts, Ta, and Rn measured at the Yucheng station as inputs, the RMSE is ˜60 W/m2 at the instantaneous time scale and ˜20 W/m2 at the daily scale. The requirement of continuous observations throughout a day in the developed method could be met by remotely sensed data from geostationary meteorological satellites. Fewer input variables and the obviation of calculating various resistances give the method the potential to generate surface fluxes over a large area.

Lu, Jing; Tang, Ronglin; Tang, Huajun; Li, Zhao-Liang

2014-02-01

299

High-temperature electrical resistivity of rare-earth metals with variable valence  

SciTech Connect

The electrical resistivity of compounds of rare-earth metals at high temperatures is calculated on the basis of allowance for the background mechanism of scattering and the hybridization of local electron states with the states of conduction electrons. An analytic expression is obtained for resistivity in a strong hybridization approximation. It follows from the expression that electrical resistivity may have a negative temperature coefficient within a broad range of high temperatures. The use of a three-band (s, d, f) model makes it possible to explain experimental data on the resistivity of certain rare-earth metals, particularly the connection between the sign of the temperature coefficient of electrical resistivity and the curvature of the relation (T).

Povzner, A.A.; Abel'skii, S.S.

1986-11-01

300

High temperature radiator materials for applications in the low Earth orbital environment  

SciTech Connect

Radiators must be constructed of materials which have high emittance in order to efficiently radiate heat from high temperature space power systems. In addition, if these radiators are to be used for applications in the low Earth orbital environment, they must not be detrimentally affected by exposure to atomic oxygen. Four materials selected as candidate radiator materials 304 stainless steel, copper, titanium-6% aluminum-4% vanadium (Ti-6%Al-4%V), and niobium-1% zirconium (Nb-1%Zr) were surface modified by acid etching, heat treating, abrading, sputter texturing, electrochemical etching, and combinations of the above in order to improve their emittance. Combination treatment techniques with heat treating as the second treatment provided about a factor of two improvement in emittance for 304 stainless steel, Ti-6%Al-4%V, and Nb-1%Zr. A factor of three improvement in emittance occurred for discharge chamber sputter textured copper. Exposure to atomic oxygen in RF plasma asher did not significantly change the emittance of those samples that had been heat treated as part of their texturing process. An evaluation of oxygen penetration is needed to understand how oxidation affects the mechanical properties of these materials when heat treated.

Rutledge, S.K.; Banks, B.A.; Mirtich, M.J. [Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, OH (United States); Lebed, R. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Brady, J.; Hotes, D.; Kussmaul, M. [Cleveland State Univ., OH (United States)

1994-09-01

301

Fibre tip sensors for localised temperature sensing based on rare Earth-doped glass coatings.  

PubMed

We report the development of a point temperature sensor, based on monitoring upconversion emission from erbium:ytterbium-doped tellurite coatings on the tips of optical fibres. The dip coating technique allows multiple sensors to be fabricated simultaneously, while confining the temperature-sensitive region to a localised region on the end-face of the fibre. The strong response of the rare earth ions to changing temperature allows a resolution of 0.1-0.3 °C to be recorded over the biologically relevant range of temperatures from 23-39 °C. PMID:25407907

Schartner, Erik P; Monro, Tanya M

2014-01-01

302

Missing the Hockey Season? Come to this Briefing! Understanding Changes in Earth's Temperature and Climate  

E-print Network

Missing the Hockey Season? Come to this Briefing! Understanding Changes in Earth's Temperature and Climate: The Science Behind the Hockey Stick Graphs and Model Simulations LUNCHEON BRIEFING Wednesday, April 6 11:30 a.m., Room 253, Senate Russell Building The NHL may have cancelled their season

303

Estimation of surface heat flux and surface temperature during inverse heat conduction under varying spray parameters and sample initial temperature.  

PubMed

An experimental study was carried out to investigate the effects of inlet pressure, sample thickness, initial sample temperature, and temperature sensor location on the surface heat flux, surface temperature, and surface ultrafast cooling rate using stainless steel samples of diameter 27 mm and thickness (mm) 8.5, 13, 17.5, and 22, respectively. Inlet pressure was varied from 0.2 MPa to 1.8 MPa, while sample initial temperature varied from 600°C to 900°C. Beck's sequential function specification method was utilized to estimate surface heat flux and surface temperature. Inlet pressure has a positive effect on surface heat flux (SHF) within a critical value of pressure. Thickness of the sample affects the maximum achieved SHF negatively. Surface heat flux as high as 0.4024 MW/m(2) was estimated for a thickness of 8.5 mm. Insulation effects of vapor film become apparent in the sample initial temperature range of 900°C causing reduction in surface heat flux and cooling rate of the sample. A sensor location near to quenched surface is found to be a better choice to visualize the effects of spray parameters on surface heat flux and surface temperature. Cooling rate showed a profound increase for an inlet pressure of 0.8 MPa. PMID:24977219

Aamir, Muhammad; Liao, Qiang; Zhu, Xun; Aqeel-ur-Rehman; Wang, Hong; Zubair, Muhammad

2014-01-01

304

Estimation of Surface Heat Flux and Surface Temperature during Inverse Heat Conduction under Varying Spray Parameters and Sample Initial Temperature  

PubMed Central

An experimental study was carried out to investigate the effects of inlet pressure, sample thickness, initial sample temperature, and temperature sensor location on the surface heat flux, surface temperature, and surface ultrafast cooling rate using stainless steel samples of diameter 27?mm and thickness (mm) 8.5, 13, 17.5, and 22, respectively. Inlet pressure was varied from 0.2?MPa to 1.8?MPa, while sample initial temperature varied from 600°C to 900°C. Beck's sequential function specification method was utilized to estimate surface heat flux and surface temperature. Inlet pressure has a positive effect on surface heat flux (SHF) within a critical value of pressure. Thickness of the sample affects the maximum achieved SHF negatively. Surface heat flux as high as 0.4024?MW/m2 was estimated for a thickness of 8.5?mm. Insulation effects of vapor film become apparent in the sample initial temperature range of 900°C causing reduction in surface heat flux and cooling rate of the sample. A sensor location near to quenched surface is found to be a better choice to visualize the effects of spray parameters on surface heat flux and surface temperature. Cooling rate showed a profound increase for an inlet pressure of 0.8?MPa. PMID:24977219

Aamir, Muhammad; Liao, Qiang; Zhu, Xun; Aqeel-ur-Rehman; Wang, Hong

2014-01-01

305

Inversion land surface temperature by using TM data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The land surface temperature (LST) plays an important role in the process of interaction between surface and atmosphere. It is widely need in meteorology, geology, hydrology, ecological and many other fields. This article uses the ETM+ data of February 16th, 2002 and August 27th, 2002, using the single window algorithm to retrieve the LST in the southern area of Gansu province. First step is removing cloud for image. Secondly, classifies the type of surface by dividing into three types of water surface, snow surfaces (winter) and natural surface. Then, estimate the emissivity according to the classification in order to calculate surface temperature. Through the analysis of spatial distribution of land surface temperature in the study area, the result shows QinZhiHao's single window algorithm is consistent with the reality.

Guo, Jianmao; Shi, Junyi; Han, Xiangyun; Zheng, Tengfei; Wang, Qi

2012-10-01

306

Influence of lunar topography on simulated surface temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The surface temperature of the Moon is one of the essential parameters for the lunar exploration, especially to evaluate the Moon thermophysical features. The distribution of the temperature is heavily influenced by the Moon topography, which, however, is rarely studied in the state-of-art surface temperature models. Therefore, this paper takes the Moon topography into account to improve the surface temperature model, Racca model. The main parameters, such as slopes along the longitude and latitude directions, are estimated with the topography data from Chang'E-1 satellite and the Horn algorithm. Then the effective solar illumination model is then constructed with the slopes and the relative position to the subsolar point. Finally, the temperature distribution over the Moon surface is obtained with the effective illumination model and the improved Racca model. The results indicate that the distribution of the temperature is very sensitive to the fluctuation of the Moon surface. The change of the surface temperature is up to 150 K in some places compared to the result without considering the topography. In addition, the variation of the surface temperature increases with the distance from the subsolar point and the elevation, along both latitude and longitude directions. Furthermore, the simulated surface temperature coincides well with the brightness temperature in 37 GHz observed by the microwave sounder onboard Chang'E-2 satellite. The corresponded emissivity map not only eliminates the influence of the topography, but also hints the inherent properties of the lunar regolith just below the surface. Last but not the least, the distribution of the permanently shadowed regions (PSRs) in the lunar pole area is also evaluated with the simulated surface temperature result.

Zhiguo, Meng; Yi, Xu; Zhanchuan, Cai; Shengbo, Chen; Yi, Lian; Hang, Huang

2014-11-01

307

Sea Surface Temperature Trends of the Gulf Stream  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students use NASA satellite data to explore the seasonal changes in sea surface temperatures of the Gulf Stream. Students use NASA's Live Active Server (LAS) to generate data of sea surface temperatures in the Gulf Stream, which they then graph and analyze.

Roettger, Rex; Nasa

308

EARTH SURFACE PROCESSES AND LANDFORMS Earth Surf. Process. Landforms 35, 531548 (2010)  

E-print Network

of a geomorphic reclamation model for quarries on slopes J.F. Martín-Duque,1 * M.A. Sanz,1 J.M. Bodoque,2 A. Lucía principles to land reclamation after surface mining has been reported in the literature since the mid-1990s, mostly from Australia, Canada and the USA. This paper discusses the reclamation problems of contour

309

Low temperature self-cleaning properties of superhydrophobic surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Outdoor surfaces are usually dirty surfaces. Ice accretion on outdoor surfaces could lead to serious accidents. In the present work, the superhydrophobic surface based on 1H, 1H, 2H, 2H-Perfluorodecanethiol (PFDT) modified Ag/PDMS composite was prepared to investigate the anti-icing property and self-cleaning property at temperatures below freezing point. The superhydrophobic surface was deliberately polluted with activated carbon before testing. It was observed that water droplet picked up dusts on the cold superhydrophobic surface and took it away without freezing at a measuring temperature of -10 °C. While on a smooth PFDT surface and a rough surface base on Ag/PDMS composite without PFDT modification, water droplets accumulated and then froze quickly at the same temperature. However, at even lower temperature of -12 °C, the superhydrophobic surface could not prevent the surface water from icing. In addition, it was observed that the frost layer condensed from the moisture pay an important role in determining the low temperature self-cleaning properties of a superhydrophobic surface.

Wang, Fajun; Shen, Taohua; Li, Changquan; Li, Wen; Yan, Guilong

2014-10-01

310

Magnetic shielding in a low temperature torsion pendulum experiment. [superconducting cylinders for attenuation earth field  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new type of ether drift experiment searches for anomalous torques on a permanent magnet. A torsion pendulum is used at liquid helium temperature, so that superconducting cylinders can be used to shield magnetic fields. Lead shields attenuate the earth's field, while Nb-Sn shields fastened to the pendulum contain the fields of the magnet. The paper describes the technique by which the earth's field can be reduced below 0.0001 G while simultaneously the moment of the magnet can be reduced by a factor 7 x 10 to the 4th.

Phillips, P. R.

1979-01-01

311

Temperature dependent mobility measurements of alkali earth ions in superfluid helium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mobility measurements of impurity ions in superfluid helium are reported. Alkali earth ions were produced with a laser sputtering technique and were drawn inside the liquid by an electric field. The experiments were carried out in the temperature region from 1.27 up to 1.66 K. The temperature dependence of the mobility of Be^+-ions (measured here for the first time) differs from that of the other alkali earth ions Mg^+, Ca^+, Sr^+ and Ba^+, but behaves similar to that of He^+ (M. Foerste, H. Günther, O. Riediger, J. Wiebe, G. zu Putlitz, Z. Phys. B) 104, 317 (1997). Theories of Atkins (A. Atkins, Phys. Rev.) 116, 1339 (1959) and Cole (M.W. Cole, R.A. Bachmann Phys. Rev. B) 15, 1388 (1977) predict a different defect structure for He^+ and the alkali earth ions: the helium ion is assumed to form a snowball like structure whereas for the alkali earth ions a bubble structure is assumed. If the temperature dependence is a characteristic feature for the different structures, then it seems likely that the Be^+ ion builds a snowball like structure.

Putlitz, Gisbert Zu; Baumann, I.; Foerste, M.; Jungmann, K.; Riediger, O.; Tabbert, B.; Wiebe, J.; Zühlke, C.

1998-05-01

312

Atom manipulation on an insulating surface at room temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atomic manipulation enables us to fabricate a unique structure at the atomic scale. So far, many atomic manipulations have been reported on conductive surfaces, mainly at low temperature with scanning tunnelling microscopy, but atomic manipulation on an insulator at room temperature is still a long-standing challenge. Here we present a systematic atomic manipulation on an insulating surface by advanced atomic force microscopy, enabling construction of complex patterns such as a ‘Swiss cross’ of substitutional bromine ions in the sodium chloride surface.

Kawai, Shigeki; Foster, Adam S.; Canova, Filippo Federici; Onodera, Hiroshi; Kitamura, Shin-Ichi; Meyer, Ernst

2014-07-01

313

Comparison of Continuous Wave CO2 Doppler Lidar Calibration Using Earth Surface Targets in Laboratory and Airborne Measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Routine backscatter, beta, measurements by an airborne or space-based lidar from designated earth surfaces with known and fairly uniform beta properties can potentially offer lidar calibration opportunities. This can in turn be used to obtain accurate atmospheric aerosol and cloud beta measurements on large spatial scales. This is important because achieving a precise calibration factor for large pulsed lidars then need not rest solely on using a standard hard target procedure. Furthermore, calibration from designated earth surfaces would provide an inflight performance evaluation of the lidar. Hence, with active remote sensing using lasers with high resolution data, calibration of a space-based lidar using earth's surfaces will be extremely useful. The calibration methodology using the earth's surface initially requires measuring beta of various earth surfaces simulated in the laboratory using a focused continuous wave (CW) CO2 Doppler lidar and then use these beta measurements as standards for the earth surface signal from airborne or space-based lidars. Since beta from the earth's surface may be retrieved at different angles of incidence, beta would also need to be measured at various angles of incidences of the different surfaces. In general, Earth-surface reflectance measurements have been made in the infrared, but the use of lidars to characterize them and in turn use of the Earth's surface to calibrate lidars has not been made. The feasibility of this calibration methodology is demonstrated through a comparison of these laboratory measurements with actual earth surface beta retrieved from the same lidar during the NASA/Multi-center Airborne Coherent Atmospheric Wind Sensor (MACAWS) mission on NASA's DC8 aircraft from 13 - 26 September, 1995. For the selected earth surface from the airborne lidar data, an average beta for the surface was established and the statistics of lidar efficiency was determined. This was compared with the actual lidar efficiency determined with the standard calibrating hard target.

Jarzembski, Maurice A.; Srivastava, Vandana

1999-01-01

314

Sea surface temperature as an indicator of ocean currents  

E-print Network

of the Problem II. STATUS OF THE QUESTION III. PROCEDURE 1. Data 2. Selection of Areas and Times of Investigation 3. Bathythermograph Cross Sections 10 10 10 4. Diurnal Correction for Sea Surface Temperature Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 5. Sea... of Horizontal Temperature Gradients 24 Chapter V. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOI"?ENDATIONS 1. Conclusions 2. Recommendations APPENDIX A. DETERMINATION OF DIURNAL VARIATION OF SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE IN THE GULF OF MEXICO 1. Procedure 2. FORTRAN Program 3...

Chesbrough, Geoffrey Lynn

2012-06-07

315

Possible rainfall reduction through reduced surface temperatures due to overgrazing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Surface temperature reduction in terrain denuded of vegetation (as by overgrazing) is postulated to decrease air convection, reducing cloudiness and rainfall probability during weak meteorological disturbances. By reducing land-sea daytime temperature differences, the surface temperature reduction decreases daytime circulation of thermally driven local winds. The described desertification mechanism, even when limited to arid regions, high albedo soils, and weak meteorological disturbances, can be an effective rainfall reducing process in many areas including most of the Mediterranean lands.

Otterman, J.

1975-01-01

316

Sea Ice Surface Temperature Product from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Global sea ice products are produced from the Earth Observing System (EOS) Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on board both the Terra and Aqua satellites. Daily sea ice extent and ice-surface temperature (IST) products are available at 1- and 4-km resolution. Validation activities have been undertaken to assess the accuracy of the MODIS IST product at the South Pole station in Antarctica and in the Arctic Ocean using near-surface air-temperature data from a meteorological station and drifting buoys. Results from the study areas show that under clear skies, the MODIS ISTs are very close to those of the near-surface air temperatures with a bias of -1.1 and -1.2 K, and an uncertainty of 1.6 and 1.7 K, respectively. It is shown that the uncertainties would be reduced if the actual temperature of the ice surface were reported instead of the near-surface air temperature. It is not possible to get an accurate IST from MODIS in the presence of even very thin clouds or fog, however using both the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-EOS (AMSR-E) and the MODIS on the Aqua satellite, it may be possible to develop a relationship between MODIS-derived IST and ice temperature derived from the AMSR-E. Since the AMSR-E measurements are generally unaffected by cloud cover, they may be used to complement the MODIS IST measurements.

Hall, Dorothy K.; Key, Jeffrey R.; Casey, Kimberly A.; Riggs, George A.; Cavalieri, Donald J.

2003-01-01

317

SURFACES SR-ECTIVES - HAUTE TEMPERATURE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Efficient conversion of solar energy into heat requires a spectrally selective surface to function as a one-way valve be- tween the incident radiation and heat transfer system. The tandem action of a solar absorber overlying an infrared reflector gives this action, provided the absorber is transparent in the thermal infrared \\/l\\/. Our group has fabricated such tandem stacks, dura- ble

B. O. Seraphin; D. C. Booth; D. D. Allred

318

Temperature Contours and Ghost Surfaces for Chaotic Magnetic Fields  

SciTech Connect

Steady state solutions for anisotropic heat transport in a chaotic magnetic field are determined numerically and compared to a set of 'ghost surfaces' -surfaces constructed via an action-gradient flow between the minimax and minimizing periodic orbits. The ghost surfaces are in remarkable agreement with the temperature contours.

Hudson, S. R.; Breslau, J. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, PO Box 451, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)

2008-03-07

319

Temperature Contours and Ghost-Surfaces for Chaotic Magnetic Fields  

SciTech Connect

Steady state solutions for anisotropic heat transport in a chaotic magnetic field are determined numerically and compared to a set of "ghost-surfaces", surfaces constructed via an action-gradient flow between the minimax and minimizing periodic orbits. The ghost-surfaces are in remarkable agreement with the temperature contours.

S.R. Hudson and J. Breslau

2008-01-31

320

Land Surface Temperature and Emissivity Estimation from MODIS Observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Land surface temperature (LST) is a key variable for studying global or regional land surface processes, energy and water cycle, and thus, has important applications in various areas. LST retrieval, however, is a difficult subject and a challenge issue due to complex interactions between land surface and atmosphere. Based on the water vapor dependent (WVD) and the extended water vapor

H. Liu; L. Xu; J. Ding; Bianba Ciren; Z. Liu; Basang Zhuoga; X. Deng; S. Zhang

2009-01-01

321

Volume temperature relationship for iron at 330 GPa and the Earth's core density deficit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Estimates of core density deficit (cdd) of the Earth's outer core recently reported by Anderson and Isaak [Another look at the core density deficit of Earth's outer core, Phys. Earth Planet Int. 131 (2002) 19-27] are questionable in view of the serious errors in the pressure-volume and bulk modulus data due to an inadequacy in the calibration process used by Mao et al. [Static compression of iron to 300 GPa and Fe 0.8Ni 0.2 alloy to 200 GPa: implications for the core, J. Geophys. Res. 94 (1990) 21737-21742]. The data used by Anderson and Isaak deviate significantly from the corresponding values derived from seismology. In the present study we have used the input data on density, isothermal bulk modulus and its pressure derivative from Stacey and Davis [High pressure equations of state with application to lower mantle and core, Phys. Earth Planet Int. 142 (2004) 137-184] which are consistent with the seismological data. Volumes of hexagonal close-packed iron have been calculated at different temperatures under isobaric conditions at P = 330 GPa, the inner core boundary (ICB) pressure using the relationship between thermal pressure and volume expansion based on the lattice potential theory originally due to Born and Huang [Dynamical Theory of Crystal Lattices, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1954, p. 50]. The formulation for thermal pressure used by Anderson and Isaak has been modified by taking into account the variations of thermal expansivity ? and isothermal bulk modulus KT with temperature. Values of cdd are then estimated corresponding to different temperatures ranging from 4000 to 8000 K. The results for cdd at different temperatures obtained in the present study are significantly higher than those estimated by Anderson and Isaak suggesting that the cdd for the Earth's outer core is nearly 10%. The effects of nickel when an Fe-Ni alloy replaces Fe are estimated and found to be insignificant.

Shanker, J.; Singh, B. P.; Srivastava, S. K.

2004-12-01

322

Global shortwave energy budget at the earth's surface from ERBE observations  

SciTech Connect

A method is proposed to compute the net solar (shortwave) irradiance at the earth's surface from Earth Radiation Budget Experiments (ERBE) data from S4 data (monthly averaged broadband planetary albedo). Net surface shortwave irradiance is obtained for the shortwave irradiance incident at the top of the atmosphere (known) by subtracting both the shortwave energy flux reflected by the earth-atmosphere system (measured) and the energy flux absorbed by the atmosphere (modeled). Precalculated atmospheric- and surface-dependent functions that characterize scattering and absorption in the atmosphere are used along with four surface types: ocean, vegetation, desert, snow/ice. Over the tropical Pacific Ocean, the estimates compare well with the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) B3 data. Over snow/ice, vegetation, and desert no comparison is made with other satellite-based estimates, but theoretical calculations using the discrete ordinate method suggest that over highly reflective surfaces (snow/ice, desert) the model may substantially overestimate the absorbed solar energy flux at the surface, especially when clouds are optically thick. The monthly surface shortwave irradiance fields produced for 1986 exhibit the main features characteristic of the earth's climate. Our values are generally higher than Esbensen and Kushnir's by as much as 80 W m[sup [minus]2] in the tropical oceans. The difference between clear-sky and actual irradiances normalized to top-of-atmosphere clear-sky irradiance is higher in the midlatitude regions of storm tracks than in the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ), suggesting the higher cloud coverage in midlatitudes is more effective at reducing surface shortwave irradiance than opaque, convective, sparser clouds in the ITCZ. Surface albedo estimates are realistic, generally not exceeding 0.06 in the ocean, as high as 0.9 in polar regions, and reaching 0.5 in the Sahara and Arabian deserts. 33 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

Breon, F.M.; Frouin, R. (California Space Institute, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, CA (United States)); Gautier, C. (Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States))

1994-02-01

323

Surface Temperature and Surface-Layer Turbulence in a Convective Boundary Layer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous laboratory and atmospheric experiments have shown that turbulence influences the surface temperature in a convective boundary layer. The main objective of this study is to examine land-atmosphere coupled heat transport mechanism for different stability conditions. High frequency infrared imagery and sonic anemometer measurements were obtained during the boundary layer late afternoon and sunset turbulence (BLLAST) experimental campaign. Temporal turbulence data in the surface-layer are then analyzed jointly with spatial surface-temperature imagery. The surface-temperature structures (identified using surface-temperature fluctuations) are strongly linked to atmospheric turbulence as manifested in several findings. The surface-temperature coherent structures move at an advection speed similar to the upper surface-layer or mixed-layer wind speed, with a decreasing trend with increase in stability. Also, with increasing instability the streamwise surface-temperature structure size decreases and the structures become more circular. The sequencing of surface- and air-temperature patterns is further examined through conditional averaging. Surface heating causes the initiation of warm ejection events followed by cold sweep events that result in surface cooling. The ejection events occur about 25 % of the time, but account for 60-70 % of the total sensible heat flux and cause fluctuations of up to 30 % in the ground heat flux. Cross-correlation analysis between air and surface temperature confirms the validity of a scalar footprint model.

Garai, Anirban; Pardyjak, Eric; Steeneveld, Gert-Jan; Kleissl, Jan

2013-07-01

324

Late Quaternary surface circulation in the east equatorial South Atlantic: Evidence from alkenone sea surface temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Angola Basin and Walvis Ridge records of past sea surface temperatures (SST) derived from the alkenone Uk37 index are used to reconstruct the surface circulation in the east equatorial South Atlantic for the last 200,000 years. Comparison of SST estimates from surface sediments between 5° and 20°S with modern SST data suggests that the alkenone temperatures represent annual mean values

Ralph R. Schneider; Peter J. Müller; Götz Ruhland

1995-01-01

325

Pre-earthquake Electromagnetic Waves Propagation from the Underground Seismic Source to the Earth's Surface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A static and quasi-static model is proposed for describing the characteristics and the propagation of pre-electromagnetic waves from the seismic focal zone to the Earth's surface and the near-Earth space. Such waves are supposed to be generated by changes in the state of stress in the hypocentral focal volume during the earthquake preparation. In formulating the model, the realistic case of pre-electromagnetic waves propagating in a stratified lithosphere with different values of electrical conductivity has been taken into account. Different elementary (dipolar) and real (volumetric) sources as well as the presence of a vertical fault have also been considered. The electric and magnetic fields are determined by the model at any lithospheric layer and at the Earth's surface.

Malvezzi, V.; Cirella, A.; Conti, L.; Sgrigna, V.

2003-12-01

326

Modeling ultraviolet radiation at the Earth`s surface. Part I: The sensitivity of ultraviolet irradiances to atmospheric changes  

SciTech Connect

A discrete-ordinate radiative transfer model is employed for the prediction of surface UV irradiances. A wide-ranging sensitivity study is undertaken to show how changes to the model input parameters affect UV irradiances at the surface. The effects of surface albedo, surface pressure, aerosol, cloud, and ozone on the UV irradiances are examined as well as the effects of model resolution. The ozone vertical profile and the temperature of the ozone layer are found to strongly influence UVB (280-320 nm) surface irradiances; the irradiance at 305 nm can be changed by as much as 17% for a fixed amount of total column ozone. The surface albedo is found to have a maximum influence on wavelengths near 320 nm; an uncertainty in the surface albedo of 0.2 leads to an 8% error in the UVB prediction. Clouds and tropospheric aerosol decrease the UV, their influence depending little on wavelength. Stratospheric aerosol is shown to be able to enhance the midwinter UVB surface irradiances while decreasing the UVA (320-400 nm) surface irradiances. 36 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

Forster, P.M. [Univ. of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading (United Kingdom)] [Univ. of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading (United Kingdom)

1995-11-01

327

Method for preparing high cure temperature rare earth iron compound magnetic material  

DOEpatents

Insertion of light elements such as H,C, or N in the R.sub.2 Fe.sub.17 (R=rare earth metal) series has been found to modify the magnetic properties of these compounds, which thus become prospective candidates for high performance permanent magnets. The most spectacular changes are increases of the Curie temperature, T.sub.c, of the magnetization, M.sub.s, and of coercivity, H.sub.c, upon interstitial insertion. A preliminary product having a component R--Fe--C,N phase is produced by a chemical route. Rare earth metal and iron amides are synthesized followed by pyrolysis and sintering in an inert or reduced atmosphere, as a result of which, the R--Fe--C,N phases are formed. Fabrication of sintered rare earth iron nitride and carbonitride bulk magnet is impossible via conventional process due to the limitation of nitridation method.

Huang, Yuhong (West Hills, CA); Wei, Qiang (West Hills, CA); Zheng, Haixing (Oak Park, CA)

2002-01-01

328

Surface temperature changes in response to handling in domestic chickens.  

PubMed

Stress-induced hyperthermia (SIH) occurs in numerous species and is characterised by an increase in core body temperature, and a decrease in surface temperature, of between 0.5 and 1.5°C within 10 to 15 min of the onset of "emotional stress". The aim of the current study was to ascertain whether the husbandry-relevant procedure of handling resulted in measurable changes in surface body temperature in chickens, as measured using infrared thermography. Baseline temperatures for 19 domestic hens were compared to temperatures immediately, and up to 20 min following handling (catching and brief restraint by a human). Surface head, eye and comb temperatures were plotted to investigate the pattern of temperature change. In response to handling, comb temperature decreased significantly, showing a rapid 2°C drop. Eye temperature showed an initial decrease then rose to levels significantly higher than handling. Head temperature increased over the 20 min post-handling period, to reach levels significantly higher than baseline. It can be concluded that surface temperature changes assessed using infrared thermography, in particular of the hen's comb, are sensitive to husbandry procedures such as handling and represent a potentially useful method for assessing stress-induced hyperthermia in chickens. PMID:23816981

Edgar, J L; Nicol, C J; Pugh, C A; Paul, E S

2013-07-01

329

Circular structures of large scale and great age on the earth's surface  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is pointed out that the earth's surface exhibits faint circular patterns which have not been described before. These circles are characterized by near perfection of outline, by the presence of topographic highs (rims) along parts of their circumferences, and by their generally large scale (diameters from 7 to 700 km). Circles of this nature have been observed clearly in

J. M. Saul

1978-01-01

330

The oldest ice on Earth in Beacon Valley, Antarctica: new evidence from surface exposure dating  

E-print Network

; ice; sublimation; Antarctica 1. Introduction Beacon Valley in the Dry Valleys region, Ant- arcticaThe oldest ice on Earth in Beacon Valley, Antarctica: new evidence from surface exposure dating Jo March 2000 Abstract Beacon Valley, Antarctica, contains unique remnants of glacier ice underneath a till

Marchant, David R.

331

Radar interferometry and its application to changes in the earth's surface  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geophysical applications of radar inter- ferometry to measure changes in the Earth's surface have exploded in the early 1990s. This new geodetic technique calculates the interference pattern caused by the difference in phase between two images acquired by a spaceborne synthetic aperture radar at two distinct times. The resulting interferogram is a contour map of the change in distance between

Didier Massonnet; Kurt L. Feigl

1998-01-01

332

CLIMATE AND THE OCEAN CIRCULATION' 1. THE ATMOSPHERIC CIRCULATION AND THE HYDROLOGY OF THE EARTH'S SURFACE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of the hydrology of the earth's surface is incorporated into a numerical model of the general circula- tion of the atmosphere developed at the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory of the Environmental Science Services Administration (ESSA). The primitive equation of motion is used for this study. The nine levels of the model are distributed so as to resolve the

SYUKURO MANABE

333

What kind and what magnitude of creep movements take place at the earth's surface?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Creep movements on the earth's surface, divided into global and regional patterns, are discussed. Average values of 10 to 20 cm\\/year occur for selected global profiles. An enhancement of these values might take place along special sections and at times of large decoupling earthquakes. Average regional creep rates of several cm\\/year may be found along prominent fault zones. Preseismic, coseismic,

R. Meissner

1978-01-01

334

Determination of the gravity disturbance on the earth's topographic surface from airborne gravity gradient data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The test flight of the gravity gradiometer survey system was taken in a flat area. In the future the test will be carried out in the rough mountain area and the topographic effect has to be taken into account. In this report the analytical downward continuation method was used to determine the gravity disturbance on the earth's topographic surface. The

Yan M. Wang

1988-01-01

335

Titan Surface Temperatures as Measured by Cassini CIRS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thermal radiation from the surface of Titan reaches space through a spectral window of low opacity at 19-microns wavelength. This radiance gives a measure of the brightness temperature of the surface. Composite Infrared Spectrometer' (CIRS) observations from Cassini during its first four years at Saturn have permitted latitude mapping of zonally averaged surface temperatures. The measurements are corrected for atmospheric opacity using the dependence of radiance on emission angle. With the more complete latitude coverage and much larger dataset of CIRS we have improved upon the original results from Voyager IRIS. CIRS measures the equatorial surface brightness temperature to be 93.7+/-0.6 K, the same as the temperature measured at the Huygens landing site. The surface brightness temperature decreases by 2 K toward the south pole and by 3 K toward the north pole. The drop in surface temperature between equator and north pole implies a 50% decrease in methane saturation vapor pressure and relative humidity; this may help explain the large northern lakes. The H2 mole fraction is derived as a by-product of our analysis and agrees with previous results. Evidence of seasonal variation in surface and atmospheric temperatures is emerging from CIRS measurements over the Cassini mission.

Jennings, Donald E.; Flasar, F.M.; Kunde, V.G.; Nixon, C.A.; Romani, P.N.; Samuelson, R.E.; Coustenis, A.; Courtin, R.

2009-01-01

336

Earth surface reflectivity climatology at 340–380 nm from TOMS data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 340-380 nm (UV) Lambertian equivalent reflectivities (LER) of the Earth's surface, between the latitudes +70 ø , are constructed from 14.5 years of radiances measured by Nimbus-7\\/total ozone mapping spectrometer (November 1978 to May 1993). The surface LER values are obtained from the minimum reflectivity values for each 1 ø x 1.25 ø (latitude x longitude) pixel with statistically

J. R. Herman; E. A. Celarier

1997-01-01

337

Modeling ultraviolet radiation at the Earth`s surface. Part II: Model and instrument comparison  

SciTech Connect

High-resolution measurements in the spectral region of 280-400 nm using a double monochromator are compared with detailed radiative transfer calculations at Reading, United Kingdom (52{degrees}N, 0{degrees}), for clear and totally overcast days, using aerosol and cloud information deduced from empirical methods. For clear skies, instrument and model agree well in the UVA (320-400 nm), but agreement is worse in the UVB (280-320 nm). A number of possible reasons for the discrepancies are explored. Volcanic aerosols in the stratosphere of the model are found to improve agreement between the model and the instrument for high solar zenith angles by increasing the model UVB irradiances by as much as 6%. Convolving the model surface irradiances with the bandpass of the instrument leads to smaller differences between instrument and model at short wavelengths and also reduces the noisiness of the difference. When the model included stratospheric aerosol and the instrument`s bandpass function, UVB irradiances within 10% of the measured irradiances could be produced by the model for clear skies. For cloudy conditions, differences between instrument and model are larger, reaching 20%, integrated over the UVB. 17 refs., 20 figs., 1 tab.

Forster, P.M. de; Shine, K.P.; Webb, A.R. [Univ. of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading (United Kingdom)] [Univ. of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading (United Kingdom)

1995-11-01

338

Soil moisture estimation using a slope indicator between land surface temperature and net surface shortwave radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Regional drought can be monitored by remote sensing based soil moisture indictors in thermal infrared and optical wavelengths. According to previous studies, only single temporal remotely sensed data is participated in the calculation of those instantaneous soil moisture indictors, and some of which require observed meteorology parameters. The present study proposes a novel soil moisture indicator that theoretically developed with multi-temporal LST (Land Surface Temperature) and NSSR (Net Surface Shortwave Radiation). To assess the validity of this indictor, deduction of the linear relationship between LST and NSSR has been conducted based on the earth's surface energy budget, and the slope K of the linear relationship was found probably to be a promising soil moisture indictor. In addition to the deduction, LST and NSSR have been simulated with different underlying surfaces and atmospheric conditions by CoLM (Common Land Model). Based on the simulated data, the linear relationship between LST and NSSR was proved to be correct. Further study showed that the variation of average surface soil moisture in the morning and slope K of the linear relationship kept consistent, and the correlation coefficient was nearly 0.8 with each different atmospheric condition, which indicated that slope K is capable of determining surface soil moisture. Finally, two MODIS data were used to map regional K and then used to classify the drought grade of Anhui province during a serious drought. Results showed that the drought monitored by slope K was corresponded with the meteorology statistics. Further, synchronous TVDI were also acquired to test and verify K in regional scale, results showed that the correlation coefficients of the linear fitting between K and TVDI reached 0.93 and 0.88 for the two time phases, respectively, which has also demonstrated that K is capable of monitoring drought. This study can provide a novel method to monitor drought in the none-observation area. Even though the indictor is theoretically developed with multi-temporal LST and NSSR, it remains feasible with the polar orbiting satellites data with some reasonable assumptions, which has also expanded the application with the proposed indictor.

Song, X.; Leng, P.; Li, Z.; Tang, B.; Li, X.; Ma, J.; Zhou, F.

2012-04-01

339

Estimation of subsurface thermal structure using sea surface height and sea surface temperature  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method of determining a subsurface temperature in a body of water is disclosed. The method includes obtaining surface temperature anomaly data and surface height anomaly data of the body of water for a region of interest, and also obtaining subsurface temperature anomaly data for the region of interest at a plurality of depths. The method further includes regressing the obtained surface temperature anomaly data and surface height anomaly data for the region of interest with the obtained subsurface temperature anomaly data for the plurality of depths to generate regression coefficients, estimating a subsurface temperature at one or more other depths for the region of interest based on the generated regression coefficients and outputting the estimated subsurface temperature at the one or more other depths. Using the estimated subsurface temperature, signal propagation times and trajectories of marine life in the body of water are determined.

Kang, Yong Q. (Inventor); Jo, Young-Heon (Inventor); Yan, Xiao-Hai (Inventor)

2012-01-01

340

Magnetic Phase Transition in Rare Earth Metal Holmium at Low Temperatures and High Pressures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The heavy rare earth metal Holmium has been studied under high pressures and low temperatures using a designer diamond anvil cell and neutron diffraction using a Paris-Edinburgh Cell at the Spallation Neutrons and Pressure (SNAP) Diffractometer. The electrical resistance measurement using designer diamond shows a change in slope at the Neel temperature as the temperature is lowered at high pressures. At atmospheric pressure TN=120 K and decreases with a slope of -4.7 K/GPa as pressure is increased, until reaching 9 GPa, at which pressure the magnetic ordering is lost. This correlates to the pressure at which there is a structural change from an hcp phase to an ?-Sm structure. Neutron diffraction measurements made above and below the Neel temperature at increasing pressures show the reversibility of the change between the paramagnetic and antiferromagnetic states. The parameters of the low temperature incommensurate magnetic phase will be reported at various pressures.

Thomas, Sarah; Uhoya, Walter; Wenger, Lowell; Vohra, Yogesh

2012-02-01

341

Application of Satellite-Derived Land Surface Temperature to Minimum Temperature Forecasting  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Satellite-derived land surface temperature (LST) is studied for the purpose of understanding regional skin temperature dependency and variability, and its relationship to corresponding, site-specific air temperature. Skin temperature is highly correlated with surface-air temperature although it differs depending on land surface characteristics, terrain, and atmospheric conditions on a diurnal and seasonal scale. The high temporal resolution of the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) -12 sounder is used to compare the diurnal cycles of LST and surface-air temperature. The minimum for both temperatures occurs near sunrise and LST is found to agree closely with surface-air temperatures a period of hours before sunrise on clear sky nights. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)-derived LST renders more horizontal temperature structure - with its high spatial resolution (1 km at nadir) compared to the GOES-12 sounder (10 km). Nighttime MODIS-derived LST is extrapolated to the time of minimum temperature for a number of case study days and these are grouped by season and atmospheric conditions. These composites show that the variation in LST mirror the variation in minimum surface-air temperature under similar conditions.

Jones, P. R.; Jedlovec, G. J.; Suggs, R. J.; Haines, S. L.

2004-01-01

342

Measurements of the temporal variation of snow surface temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The snow surface temperature is a critical state variable in the snow surface energy balance equation that is used in numerous hydrological and weather modeling applications. However, owing to the complex and dynamic nature of the snow crystals making up the snow-air interface, it remains imperfectly understood and often inadequately represented in models. The snow surface temperature is a difficult property to measure directly, so infrared radiometers are often used to infer the surface temperature from solving the longwave radiation balance. In this study, the snow surface temperature was measured using infrared thermocouples sampled at 2 Hz over a frozen boreal fen for two winter seasons. Fourier and wavelet analyses were used to examine the temporal variation of the surface temperature in order to identify and separate contributions from coherent turbulent motions and those caused by changes in cloud conditions. Furthermore, the degree of coherence between the snow surface and overlying air temperatures was quantified for different meteorological conditions. This research contributes towards the goal of identifying new techniques for measuring heat fluxes at the snow-air interface.

Helgason, W.

2013-12-01

343

Surface Temperatures on Titan; Changes During the Cassini Mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Surface brightness temperatures on Titan measured by the Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) aboard Cassini span the period from late northern winter to early spring. The CIRS observations cover all latitudes and can be used to study meridional changes with season. CIRS previously reported surface temperatures from 2004-2008 which were 93.7 K at the equator with decreases of 2 K toward the south pole and 3 K toward the north pole'. From a comparison of the equinox period with the earlier data, CIRS can now detect a seasonal shift in the latitudinal distribution of temperatures. Around the time of the equinox the meridional distribution was more symmetric about the equator than had been found earlier in the mission. The equatorial surface temperatures remained close to 94 K, but in the south the temperatures had decreased by about 0.5 K and in the north had increased by about 0.5 K. The CIRS equinox results are similar to what was seen near the previous vernal equinox by Voyager IRIS Z. The observed surface temperatures can help constrain the type of surface material by comparison with predictions from general circulation models. Of the three cases treated by Tokano t , our measurements most closely match a porous-ice regolith. As Cassini continues through Titan's northern spring CIRS will extend its temporal and spatial coverage and will continue to search for seasonal variations in surface temperature.

Jennings, Donald E.; Cottini, Valeria; Nixon, Conor A.

2010-01-01

344

Understanding and predicting changes in North Atlantic Sea Surface Temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mechanisms associated with sea surface temperature variability in the North Atlantic are explored using observation-based reconstructions of the historical surface states of the atmosphere and ocean as well as simulations run with the Community Earth System Model, version 1 (CESM1). The relationship between air-sea heat flux and SST between 1948 and 2009 yields evidence of a positive heat flux feedback at work in the subpolar gyre region on quasi-decadal timescales. Warming of the high latitude Atlantic precedes an atmospheric response which resembles a negative NAO state. The historical flux data set is used to estimate temporal variations in North Atlantic deep water formation which suggest that NAO variations drove strong decadal changes in thermohaline circulation strength in the last half century. Model simulations corroborate the observation-based inferences that substantial changes in the strength of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) ensued as a result of NAO-driven water mass perturbations, and that changes in the large-scale ocean circulation played a significant role in modulating North Atlantic SST. Surface forcing perturbation experiments show that the simulated low-frequency AMOC variability is mainly driven by turbulent buoyancy forcing over the Labrador Sea region, and that the decadal ocean variability, in uncoupled experiments, derives from low-frequency variability in the overlying atmospheric state. Surface momentum forcing accounts for most of the interannual variability in AMOC at all latitudes, and also most of the decadal AMOC variability south of the Equator. We show that the latter relates to the trend in wind stress forcing of the Southern Ocean, but that Southern Ocean forcing explains very little of the North Atlantic signal. The sea surface height in the Labrador Sea is identified as a strongly buoyancy-forced observable which supports its use as a monitor of AMOC strength. The dynamics which characterize the model mean overturning and gyre circulations, and which explain the model response to surface momentum and buoyancy forcing perturbations, are investigated in terms of mean and time-varying vorticity balances. The significant effect of bottom vortex stretching, noted in previous studies, is shown here to play a key role in a variety of time-dependent phenomena, such as the covariation of overturning and gyre circulations, the variation of the barotropic streamfunction in the intergyre-gyre region, and changes in AMOC associated with momentum forcing perturbations. We show that latitudinal changes in the AMOC vorticity balance explains the attenuation of buoyancy-forced signals south of Cape Hatteras, and that the dominant frictional balance near the Equator greatly inhibits the propagation of AMOC variability signals from one hemisphere to the other. The long persistence of buoyancy-forced, high-latitude circulation anomalies results in significant predictability of SST in the subpolar gyre. This is demonstrated with an analysis of initialized, fully coupled retrospective predictions of the mid-1990s warming in that region. The atmospheric response is shown to be relatively unimportant on timescales of up to 10 years, but skill for longer lead times is inhibited by an incorrect heat flux feedback in the North Atlantic in the coupled CESM1.

Yeager, S. G.

345

A physically based model of global freshwater surface temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Temperature determines a range of physical properties of water and exerts a strong control on surface water biogeochemistry. Thus, in freshwater ecosystems the thermal regime directly affects the geographical distribution of aquatic species through their growth and metabolism and indirectly through their tolerance to parasites and diseases. Models used to predict surface water temperature range between physically based deterministic models and statistical approaches. Here we present the initial results of a physically based deterministic model of global freshwater surface temperature. The model adds a surface water energy balance to river discharge modeled by the global hydrological model PCR-GLOBWB. In addition to advection of energy from direct precipitation, runoff, and lateral exchange along the drainage network, energy is exchanged between the water body and the atmosphere by shortwave and longwave radiation and sensible and latent heat fluxes. Also included are ice formation and its effect on heat storage and river hydraulics. We use the coupled surface water and energy balance model to simulate global freshwater surface temperature at daily time steps with a spatial resolution of 0.5° on a regular grid for the period 1976-2000. We opt to parameterize the model with globally available data and apply it without calibration in order to preserve its physical basis with the outlook of evaluating the effects of atmospheric warming on freshwater surface temperature. We validate our simulation results with daily temperature data from rivers and lakes (U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), limited to the USA) and compare mean monthly temperatures with those recorded in the Global Environment Monitoring System (GEMS) data set. Results show that the model is able to capture the mean monthly surface temperature for the majority of the GEMS stations, while the interannual variability as derived from the USGS and NOAA data was captured reasonably well. Results are poorest for the Arctic rivers because the timing of ice breakup is predicted too late in the year due to the lack of including a mechanical breakup mechanism. Moreover, surface water temperatures for tropical rivers were overestimated, most likely due to an overestimation of rainfall temperature and incoming shortwave radiation. The spatiotemporal variation of water temperature reveals large temperature differences between water and atmosphere for the higher latitudes, while considerable lateral transport of heat can be observed for rivers crossing hydroclimatic zones, such as the Nile, the Mississippi, and the large rivers flowing to the Arctic. Overall, our model results show promise for future projection of global surface freshwater temperature under global change.

Beek, Ludovicus P. H.; Eikelboom, Tessa; Vliet, Michelle T. H.; Bierkens, Marc F. P.

2012-09-01

346

Dear Colleague Letter - Earth Sciences  

NSF Publications Database

... Sections: Surface Earth Processes Section and Deep Earth Processes Section. The Surface Earth ... and human interactions with the geosphere. The Deep Earth Processes Section will support research on ...

347

Fourier power spectra of the geomagnetic field for circular paths on the Earth's surface.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Fourier power spectra of geomagnetic component values, synthesized from spherical harmonic models, have been computed for circular paths on the Earth's surface. They are not found to be more useful than is the spectrum of magnetic energy outside the Earth for the purpose of separating core and crustal sources of the geomagnetic field. The Fourier power spectra of N and E geomagnetic components along nearly polar great circle paths exhibit some unusual characteristics that are explained by the geometric perspective of Fourier series on spheres developed by Yee. -Authors

Alldredge, L.R.; Benton, E.R.

1986-01-01

348

Homogenization of Chinese Daily Surface Air Temperatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extreme climate events have large potential of impacts on the society and economy. However, analysis of long-term changes in climate extremes need to use homogeneous time series of high resolution climatic data (e.g., daily or sub-daily), to diminish non-climatic influences. Thus, more and more attention has been drawn to the development of high quality daily climatic data. Since both temporal and spatial variations are much larger in daily data than in the corresponding monthly or annual data, it is important and yet more difficult to choose a reference series for homogenization of daily data. We tested and compared different methods to select reference series. The reference series that leads to the best match of detected changepoints with metadata information is selected and used to perform homogeneity test for data time series from stations within the grid box. Specifically, we divided the whole country into 2.5-by-2.5 degree lat-long grid boxes. The time series of the averages of observations at all stations in each grid box was considered to be the series representing the climatic variations/changes in each grid box. We calculated the correlation coefficient of annual data series at each station with the average series of annual data in each grid box, and chose the five stations of highest correlations. Then, we obtained the daily difference series between each chosen station and the average series in each grid box, and applied the PMTred method to test the homogeneity of the daily difference series, We chose the homogeneous station as the reference station for testing inhomogeneities in other station's series in the grid box, using the PMTred method. In addition to testing the daily series, we also tested the corresponding annual and monthly series. We adjusted for change points that are identified in both daily and monthly/annual series and also supported by metadata. Daily maximum and minimum temperatures recorded at 822 Chinese stations were tested in this study. The results show that site relocations are the main source of inhomogeneity. The impacts of inhomogeneities on the estimates of climate trends and extremes were assessed. The resulting daily data set is also compared with a previous version of homogenized temperature data set.

Wenhui, X.; Quingxiang, L.; Wang, X. L.; Su, Y.; Yani, Z.; Lijuan, C.

2012-04-01

349

Linear analysis of surface temperature dynamics and climate sensitivity  

E-print Network

series of 2D time-dependent non-orthogonal eigenmodes of global surface temperature are analytically derived and their geographic patterns are presented. The amplitudes of these modes have temporal characteristics and present exponentially decaying...

Wu, Wei

2007-04-25

350

Temporal and spatial variability of surface temperature over Texas  

E-print Network

Surface temperature is one of the most fundamental aspects of the climate system, and its study has been the focus of extensive research in the field of climatology for years. Examination of its temporal and spatial fluctuations can provide...

Moninski, Anthony David

2012-06-07

351

Variations in FASST Predictions of Soil Surface Temperatures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents the results of a systematic investigation of the variation in soil surface temperatures predicted by the numerical model FASST (Fast All Seasons Soil Strength), using different values of soil physical, thermal, and optical parameters....

L. Peck

2006-01-01

352

Low Temperature Studies of Anomalous Surface Shielding and Related Phenomena.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Experiments were conducted to determine the force of gravity on positions and electrons. An anomalous, low temperature shielding effect was discovered in copper and studied. It is believed that sharp increases in the microwave surface conductivity of copp...

W. M. Fairbank

1986-01-01

353

Ground surface temperatures in Canada: Spatial and temporal variability  

E-print Network

of high frequency noise [Karl et al., 1989] and also because of the large number of energy exchange temperature histories (GSTHs) and surface heat flux histor- ies from geothermal data in Canada [Beltrami et al

Long, Bernard

354

Finite element analysis of the magnetic field in rare-earth permanent magnet systems, with consideration of temperature dependence  

Microsoft Academic Search

A finite element method for the solution of the electromagnetic field taking account of the temperature properties of rare-earth magnets is presented. The nonuniform distribution of magnetization caused by the temperature-dependent properties of rare-earth permanent magnets is considered, and both reversible and irreversible changes in the magnetic strength of magnets with temperature are investigated. An analysis of the thermoelectromagnetic coupled

S. Chen; K. J. Binns; Z. Liu; D. W. Shimmin

1992-01-01

355

THERM Simulations of Window Indoor Surface Temperatures for Predicting Condensation  

SciTech Connect

As part of a ''round robin'' project, the performance of two wood windows and a Calibrated Transfer Standard was modeled using the THERM heat-transfer simulation program. The resulting interior surface temperatures can be used as input to condensation resistance rating procedures. The Radiation and Condensation Index features within THERM were used to refine the accuracy of simulation results. Differences in surface temperatures between the ''Basic'' calculations and those incorporating the Radiation and/or Condensation Index features are demonstrated and explained.

Kohler, Christian; Arasteh, Dariush; Mitchell, Robin

2001-05-18

356

Reproducibility of UAV-based earth surface topography based on structure-from-motion algorithms.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A representation of the earth surface at very high spatial resolution is crucial to accurately map small geomorphic landforms with high precision. Very high resolution digital surface models (DSM) can then be used to quantify changes in earth surface topography over time, based on differencing of DSMs taken at various moments in time. However, it is compulsory to have both high accuracy for each topographic representation and consistency between measurements over time, as DSM differencing automatically leads to error propagation. This study investigates the reproducibility of reconstructions of earth surface topography based on structure-from-motion (SFM) algorithms. To this end, we equipped an eight-propeller drone with a standard reflex camera. This equipment can easily be deployed in the field, as it is a lightweight, low-cost system in comparison with classic aerial photo surveys and terrestrial or airborne LiDAR scanning. Four sets of aerial photographs were created for one test field. The sets of airphotos differ in focal length, and viewing angles, i.e. nadir view and ground-level view. In addition, the importance of the accuracy of ground control points for the construction of a georeferenced point cloud was assessed using two different GPS devices with horizontal accuracy at resp. the sub-meter and sub-decimeter level. Airphoto datasets were processed with SFM algorithm and the resulting point clouds were georeferenced. Then, the surface representations were compared with each other to assess the reproducibility of the earth surface topography. Finally, consistency between independent datasets is discussed.

Clapuyt, François; Vanacker, Veerle; Van Oost, Kristof

2014-05-01

357

Areas of Weakly Anomalous to Anomalous Surface Temperature in Chaffee County, Colorado, as Identified from ASTER Thermal Data  

SciTech Connect

Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Publication Date: 2012 Title: Very Warm Modeled Temperature Chaffee Edition: First Note: This “Weakly Anomalous to Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset differs from the “Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset for this county (another remotely sensed CIRES product) by showing areas of modeled temperatures between 1? and 2? above the mean, as opposed to the greater than 2? temperatures contained in the “Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset. Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains areas of anomalous surface temperature in Chaffee County identified from ASTER thermal data and spatial based insolation model. The temperature is calculated using the Emissivity Normalization Algorithm that separate temperature from emissivity. The incoming solar radiation was calculated using spatial based insolation model developed by Fu and Rich (1999). Then the temperature due to solar radiation was calculated using emissivity derived from ASTER data. The residual temperature, i.e. temperature due to solar radiation subtracted from ASTER temperature was used to identify thermally anomalous areas. Areas that had temperature greater than 2? were considered ASTER modeled very warm surface exposures (thermal anomalies) Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4333432.368072 m Left: 366907.700763 m Right: 452457.816015 m Bottom: 4208271.566715 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS’1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System ’1984 (WGS ’1984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich Angular Unit: Degree Digital Form: Format Name: Shape file

Khalid Hussein

2012-02-01

358

Areas of Weakly Anomalous to Anomalous Surface Temperature in Alamosa and Saguache Counties, Colorado, as Identified from ASTER Thermal Data  

SciTech Connect

Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Publication Date: 2012 Title: Very Warm Modeled Temperature Alamosa Saguache Edition: First Note: This “Weakly Anomalous to Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset differs from the “Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset for this county (another remotely sensed CIRES product) by showing areas of modeled temperatures between 1? and 2? above the mean, as opposed to the greater than 2? temperatures contained in the “Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset. Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains areas of anomalous surface temperature in Alamosa and Saguache Counties identified from ASTER thermal data and spatial based insolation model. The temperature is calculated using the Emissivity Normalization Algorithm that separate temperature from emissivity. The incoming solar radiation was calculated using spatial based insolation model developed by Fu and Rich (1999). Then the temperature due to solar radiation was calculated using emissivity derived from ASTER data. The residual temperature, i.e. temperature due to solar radiation subtracted from ASTER temperature was used to identify thermally anomalous areas. Areas that had temperature greater than 2? were considered ASTER modeled very warm surface exposures (thermal anomalies) Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4217727.601630 m Left: 394390.400264 m Right: 460179.841813 m Bottom: 4156258.036086 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS’1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System ’1984 (WGS ’1984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich Angular Unit: Degree Digital Form: Format Name: Shape file

Khalid Hussein

2012-02-01

359

Areas of Weakly Anomalous to Anomalous Surface Temperature in Routt County, Colorado, as Identified from ASTER Thermal Data  

SciTech Connect

Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Publication Date: 2012 Title: Warm Modeled Temperature Routt Edition: First Note: This “Weakly Anomalous to Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset differs from the “Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset for this county (another remotely sensed CIRES product) by showing areas of modeled temperatures between 1? and 2? above the mean, as opposed to the greater than 2? temperatures contained in the “Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset. Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains areas of anomalous surface temperature in Routt County identified from ASTER thermal data and spatial based insolation model. The temperature is calculated using the Emissivity Normalization Algorithm that separate temperature from emissivity. The incoming solar radiation was calculated using spatial based insolation model developed by Fu and Rich (1999). Then the temperature due to solar radiation was calculated using emissivity derived from ASTER data. The residual temperature, i.e. temperature due to solar radiation subtracted from ASTER temperature was used to identify thermally anomalous areas. Areas that had temperature between 1? and 2? were considered ASTER modeled warm surface exposures (thermal anomalies) Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4501071.574000 m Left: 311351.975000 m Right: 359411.975000 m Bottom: 4447521.574000 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS’1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System ’1984 (WGS ’1984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich Angular Unit: Degree Digital Form: Format Name: Shape file

Khalid Hussein

2012-02-01

360

Areas of Weakly Anomalous to Anomalous Surface Temperature in Archuleta County, Colorado, as Identified from ASTER Thermal Data  

SciTech Connect

Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Publication Date: 2012 Title: Warm Modeled Temperature Archuleta Note: This “Weakly Anomalous to Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset differs from the “Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset for this county (another remotely sensed CIRES product) by showing areas of modeled temperatures between 1? and 2? above the mean, as opposed to the greater than 2? temperatures contained in the “Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset. Edition: First Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains areas of anomalous surface temperature in Archuleta County identified from ASTER thermal data and spatial based insolation model. The temperature is calculated using the Emissivity Normalization Algorithm that separate temperature from emissivity. The incoming solar radiation was calculated using spatial based insolation model developed by Fu and Rich (1999). Then the temperature due to solar radiation was calculated using emissivity derived from ASTER data. The residual temperature, i.e. temperature due to solar radiation subtracted from ASTER temperature was used to identify thermally anomalous areas. Areas that had temperature between 1? and 2? were considered ASTER modeled warm surface exposures (thermal anomalies). Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4144825.235807 m Left: 285446.256851 m Right: 350577.338852 m Bottom: 4096962.250137 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS’1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System ’1984 (WGS ’1984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich Angular Unit: Degree Digital Form: Format Name: Shape file

Khalid Hussein

2012-02-01

361

Areas of Weakly Anomalous to Anomalous Surface Temperature in Dolores County, Colorado, as Identified from ASTER Thermal Data  

SciTech Connect

Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Publication Date: 2012 Title: Very Warm Modeled Temperature Dolores Edition: First Note: This “Weakly Anomalous to Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset differs from the “Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset for this county (another remotely sensed CIRES product) by showing areas of modeled temperatures between 1? and 2? above the mean, as opposed to the greater than 2? temperatures contained in the “Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset. Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains areas of anomalous surface temperature in Dolores County identified from ASTER thermal data and spatial based insolation model. The temperature is calculated using the Emissivity Normalization Algorithm that separate temperature from emissivity. The incoming solar radiation was calculated using spatial based insolation model developed by Fu and Rich (1999). Then the temperature due to solar radiation was calculated using emissivity derived from ASTER data. The residual temperature, i.e. temperature due to solar radiation subtracted from ASTER temperature was used to identify thermally anomalous areas. Areas that had temperature greater than 2? were considered ASTER modeled very warm surface exposures (thermal anomalies) Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4186234.213315 m Left: 212558.673056 m Right: 232922.811862 m Bottom: 4176781.467043 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS’1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System ’1984 (WGS ’1984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich Angular Unit: Degree Digital Form: Format Name: Shape file

Khalid Hussein

2012-02-01

362

Areas of Weakly Anomalous to Anomalous Surface Temperature in Garfield County, Colorado, as Identified from ASTER Thermal Data  

SciTech Connect

Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Publication Date: 2012 Title: Warm Modeled Temperature Garfield Edition: First Note: This “Weakly Anomalous to Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset differs from the “Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset for this county (another remotely sensed CIRES product) by showing areas of modeled temperatures between 1? and 2? above the mean, as opposed to the greater than 2? temperatures contained in the “Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset. Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains areas of anomalous surface temperature in Garfield County identified from ASTER thermal data and spatial based insolation model. The temperature is calculated using the Emissivity Normalization Algorithm that separate temperature from emissivity. The incoming solar radiation was calculated using spatial based insolation model developed by Fu and Rich (1999). Then the temperature due to solar radiation was calculated using emissivity derived from ASTER data. The residual temperature, i.e. temperature due to solar radiation subtracted from ASTER temperature was used to identify thermally anomalous areas. Areas that had temperature between 1? and 2? were considered ASTER modeled warm surface exposures (thermal anomalies) Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4442180.552290 m Left: 268655.053363 m Right: 359915.053363 m Bottom: 4312490.552290 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS’1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System ’1984 (WGS ’1984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich Angular Unit: Degree Digital Form: Format Name: Shape file

Khalid Hussein

2012-02-01

363

Hydromagnetic Steady Flow of Maxwell Fluid over a Bidirectional Stretching Surface with Prescribed Surface Temperature and Prescribed Surface Heat Flux  

PubMed Central

This paper investigates the steady hydromagnetic three-dimensional boundary layer flow of Maxwell fluid over a bidirectional stretching surface. Both cases of prescribed surface temperature (PST) and prescribed surface heat flux (PHF) are considered. Computations are made for the velocities and temperatures. Results are plotted and analyzed for PST and PHF cases. Convergence analysis is presented for the velocities and temperatures. Comparison of PST and PHF cases is given and examined. PMID:23874523

Shehzad, Sabir Ali; Alsaedi, Ahmad; Hayat, Tasawar

2013-01-01

364

Surface temperature measurement of plasma facing components with active pyrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In fusion devices like ITER, plasma facing components will be in metal, (Tungsten and Beryllium), with emissivity in the range of 0.1-0.4. Therefore, surface temperature monitoring by infrared system will become more challenging due to low emissivity and consequently non negligible reflected flux. The active pyrometry method proposed in this paper allows surface temperature measurements independently of reflected and parasitic fluxes. A local increase of the surface temperature (?T(t)~10 °C) introduced by a transient heating source (pulsed or modulated) results in an additional component of the flux collected by the detector. A filtering of the signal allows extracting a temporal flux proportional only to the variation of the emitted flux. The ratio of simultaneous measurements at two wavelengths allows solving the unknown emissivity (same as for classical bicolour pyrometry). In this paper, it is described how the active pyrometry method is adapted to the surface temperature measurements of metallic PFCs independently of the reflected fluxes. Experimental results for carbon and tungsten samples are reported. Finally, it is shown how, by using the active pyrometry, the overall 2D standard IR perturbed by a reflected flux is corrected to recover the full 2D surface temperature close to the real surface temperature.

Amiel, S.; Loarer, T.; Pocheau, C.; Roche, H.; Aumeunier, M. H.; Gauthier, E.; Le Niliot, C.; Rigollet, F.

2012-11-01

365

Investigation of Aerodynamic and Radiometric Land Surface Temperatures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The surface temperature, T(sub s), of a land surface measured by a radiometer, T(sub s,r), and the temperature "felt" by the air, T(sub aero), often differ significantly and are difficult if not impossible to define rigorously. However, recent studies conducted by the principal investigators with several land surface models suggest that this problem can be largely resolved. The main goal of this project was to use model-based and empirical studies to improve understanding and reconcile the difference between T(sub s,r) and T(sub aero), while maintaining consistency within the models and with theory and data. The results from this effort have contributed progress towards the effective use of remotely sensed surface temperature measurements taken from an arbitrary view angle over a partial canopy cover for producing high quality sensible and latent heat flux estimates. In addition, we have developed parameterizations that are designed to improve the representation of the roughness length for heat in climate and mesoscale models. This not only provides improved representation of surface energy balance in such models, but should also facilitate the use of surface temperature measurements for validating or updating the surface temperature produced by SVATs (soil-vegetation-atmosphere schemes) in climate or mesoscale models.

Friedl, Mark; Crago, Richard D.; Kustas, William; Wang, Yeqiao

2002-01-01

366

Topography, surface properties, and tectonic evolution. [of Venus and comparison with earth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Differences in atmospheric composition, atmospheric and lithospheric temperature, and perhaps mantle composition, suggest that the rock cycle on Venus is not similar to the earth's. While radar data are not consistent with a thick, widespread and porous regolith like that of the moon, wind-transported regolith could be cemented into sedimentary rock that would be indistinguishable from other rocks in radar returns. The elevation spectrum of Venus is strongly unimodal, in contrast to the earth. Most topographic features of Venus remain enigmatic. Two types of tectonic model are proposed: a lithosphere too thick or buoyant to participate in convective flow, and a lithosphere which, in participating in convective flow, implies the existence of plate tectonics. Features consistent with earth-like plate tectonics have not been recognized.

Mcgill, G. E.; Warner, J. L.; Malin, M. C.; Arvidson, R. E.; Eliason, E.; Nozette, S.; Reasenberg, R. D.

1983-01-01

367

Global surface-temperature responses to major volcanic eruptions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A previous study showed that significant surface cooling occurs over the landmasses of the northern hemisphere in the first few months after a major eruption in that hemisphere. That work is extended here using new surface-air temperature compilations based on land and marine data for both the northern and southern hemispheres. The results indicate that major northern hemisphere eruptions have

C. B. Sear; P. M. Kelly; P. D. Jones; C. M. Goodess

1987-01-01

368

Radar Backscatter Across the Gulf Stream Sea Surface Temperature Front  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ocean backscatter signatures were measured by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory airborne NUSCAT K(sub u)-band scatterometer across the Gulf Stream sea surface temperature front. The measurements were made during the Surface Wave Dynamics Experiment (SWADE) off the coast of Virginia and Maryland in the winter of 1991.

Nghiem, S. V.; Li, F. K.; Walsh, E. J.; Lou, S. H.

1998-01-01

369

Satellite Measurements of Sea Surface Temperature Through Clouds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurements of sea surface temperature (SST) can be made by satellite microwave radiometry in all weather conditions except rain. Microwaves penetrate clouds with little attenuation, giving an uninterrupted view of the ocean surface. This is a distinct advantage over infrared measurements of SST, which are obstructed by clouds. Comparisons with ocean buoys show a root mean square difference of about

Frank J. Wentz; Chelle Gentemann; Deborah Smith; Dudley Chelton

2000-01-01

370

Low temperature surface passivation for silicon solar cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surface passivation at low processing temperatures becomes an important topic for cheap solar cell processing. In this study, we first give a broad overview of the state of the art in this field. Subsequently, the results of a series of mutually related experiments are given about surface passivation with direct Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapour Deposition (PECVD) of silicon oxide (Si-oxide)

C. Leguijt; P. Lölgen; J. A. Eikelboom; A. W. Weeber; F. M. Schuurmans; W. C. Sinke; P. F. A. Alkemade; P. M. Sarro; C. H. M. Marée; L. A. Verhoef

1996-01-01

371

Surface Specific Heat of an Isotropic Solid at Low Temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of realistic boundary conditions on the computation of the specific heat of an isotropic solid at low temperatures is investigated. Two cases are considered: the surface free of stress and the surface rigidly clamped. The first of these is the one of physical interest. For both cases a term in the specific heat arises which is proportional to

Marc Dupuis; Robert Mazo; Lars Onsager

1960-01-01

372

Areas of Anomalous Surface Temperature in Alamosa and Saguache Counties, Colorado, as Identified from ASTER Thermal Data  

SciTech Connect

Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Publication Date: 2012 Title: Very Warm Modeled Temperature Alamosa Saguache Edition: First Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains areas of anomalous surface temperature in Alamosa and Saguache Counties identified from ASTER thermal data and spatial based insolation model. The temperature is calculated using the Emissivity Normalization Algorithm that separate temperature from emissivity. The incoming solar radiation was calculated using spatial based insolation model developed by Fu and Rich (1999). Then the temperature due to solar radiation was calculated using emissivity derived from ASTER data. The residual temperature, i.e. temperature due to solar radiation subtracted from ASTER temperature was used to identify thermally anomalous areas. Areas that had temperature greater than 2? were considered ASTER modeled very warm surface exposures (thermal anomalies) Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4217727.601630 m Left: 394390.400264 m Right: 460179.841813 m Bottom: 4156258.036086 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS’1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System ’1984 (WGS ’1984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich Angular Unit: Degree Digital Form: Format Name: Shape file

Khalid Hussein

2012-02-01

373

Thermographic analysis of body surface temperature of mammals.  

PubMed

Among mammals, the similarity in body temperature indicates that body size differences in heat loss must match the body size differences in heat production. This study tested the possibility that body surface temperature (Tbs), responsible for heat loss through radiation and convection, may vary systematically with the animal's body mass (M). Tbs was measured by whole body thermography in 53 specimens from 37 eutherian mammals ranging in M from a few grams to several tons. Numerous thermographs were taken from all angles, indoor, with the animals standing still in absence of air convection and of external radiant sources, at the ambient temperature of 20-22°C, 22-25°C, or 25-27°C. Data were analysed as whole body surface average, as average of the "effective" body surface area (those regions with temperatures exceeding ambient temperature by > 1.5°C or by > 5°C), as the peak histogram distribution and as average of the regions with the top 20% temperature values. For all modes of data analysis and at all ambient temperatures Tbs was independent of the animal's M. From these data, the heat loss by radiation and natural convection combined was estimated to vary to the 2/3 power of M. It is concluded that, for the same ambient conditions, the surface temperature responsible for radiation and convection is essentially body-size independent among mammals. PMID:23387846

Mortola, Jacopo P

2013-02-01

374

The effect of deforestation on ground surface temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recorded ground surface temperatures (GSTs) over a period of a year at closely spaced sites in a temperate area (almost no snow or ground freezing) show that forested sites and one with a high water table have colder average temperatures relative to other terrains. At sites in southern British Columbia where trees have been logged and in the southern Yukon

Trevor Lewis

1998-01-01

375

SPATIAL VARIABILITY OF REMOTELY SENSED SURFACE TEMPERATURE AT FIELD SCALE  

EPA Science Inventory

Bare soil surface temperatures (BST) and crop canopy temperatures (CCT) were collected from a 1-ha field in central Arizona using an infrared thermometer to determine whether they were spatially correlated. The measurements were taken from a two-dimensional random sampling patter...

376

Southern Hemisphere surface air temperature variations: 1851--1984  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new compilation of monthly mean surface air temperature data for the Southern Hemisphere for 1851--1984 is presented based on land-based meteorological station data. Where possible, the station data used in the analysis have been assessed for homogeneity. Only reliable or corrected station data have been used in calculating area averages. Grid point temperature estimates have been made by interpolating

P. D. Jones; S. C. B. Raper; T. M. L. Wigley

1986-01-01

377

Surface gravity and Hawking temperature from entropic force viewpoint  

E-print Network

We consider a freely falling holographic screen for the Schwarzschild and Reissner-Nordstr\\"om black holes and evaluate the entropic force \\`a la Verlinde. When the screen crosses the event horizon, the temperature of the screen agrees to the Hawking temperature and the entropic force gives rise to the surface gravity for both of the black holes.

Ee Chang-Young; Myungseok Eune; Kyoungtae Kimm; Daeho Lee

2010-03-10

378

Mean seasonal and spatial variability in global surface air temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using terrestrial observations of shelter-height air temperature and shipboard measurements, a global climatology of mean monthly surface air temperature has been compiled. Data were obtained from ten sources, screened for coding errors, and redundant station records were removed. The combined data base consists of 17 986 independent terrestrial station records and 6 955 oceanic grid-point records. These data were then

D. R. Legates; C. J. Willmott

1990-01-01

379

Scrotal surface, subcutaneous, intratesticular, and intraepididymal temperatures in bulls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sixteen 2-yr-old beef bulls were used in the study. Under caudal epidural analgesia (xylazine HCl, 40 mg), infrared thermography was used to determine scrotal surface temperature (SST) and needle thermistors were used to determine scrotal subcutaneous (SQT) and intratesticular (ITT) temperatures at 3 locations on the posterior aspect of the scrotum: 3 cm from the top of the testis, 3

J. P. Kastelic; G. H. Coulter; R. B. Cook

1995-01-01

380

Perturbation of ground surface temperature reconstructions by groundwater flow?  

E-print Network

the potential effects of groundwater flow (GWF) in porous media on the thermal regime of the subsurface and thus a significant effect on the subsurface temperature regime and thus ground surface temperature (GST) histories from its natural variability and identification of individual contributions of forcing mechanisms

Beltrami, Hugo

381

Thin sectioning and surface replication of ice at low temperature.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We have developed a new technique for making thin sections and surface replicas of ice at temperatures well below 273d K. The ability to make thin sections without melting sample material is important in textural and microstructural studies of ice deformed at low temperatures because of annealing effects we have observed during conventional section making.-from Author

Daley, M.A.; Kirby, S.H.

1984-01-01

382

Penn State's Center for Sports Surface ResearchPenn State's Center for Sports Surface ResearchPenn State's Center for Sports Surface ResearchPenn State's Center for Sports Surface Research Surface Temperature of Synthetic Turf  

E-print Network

Temperature of Synthetic Turf #12;Penn State's Center for Sports Surface ResearchPenn State's Center for Sports Surface Research Surface Temperatures #12;Penn State's Center for Sports Surface ResearchPenn State's Center for Sports Surface Research Surface Temperatures � High surface temperatures � not a new

Kaye, Jason P.

383

Scaled temperature spectrum in the unstable oceanic surface layer  

Microsoft Academic Search

A nondimensional form of the temperature spectrum in a convective near-surface layer was derived empirically as a function of stability parameter ? = z\\/L and surface wave parameter ? = u*\\/(gz)1\\/2, under the assumption of horizontal isotropy, where z is the depth of the measurement, L is the Monin-Obukhov length scale, u* is the surface friction velocity, and g is

Hemantha W. Wijesekera; Clayton A. Paulson; Eric D. Skyllingstad

2004-01-01

384

Global surface temperatures over the past two millennia  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present reconstructions of Northern and Southern Hemisphere mean surface temperature over the past two millennia based on high-resolution 'proxy' temperature data which retain millennial-scale variability. These reconstructions indicate that late 20th century warmth is unprecedented for at least roughly the past two millennia for the Northern Hemisphere. Conclusions for the Southern Hemisphere and global mean temperature are limited by

Michael E. Mann; Philip D. Jones

2003-01-01

385

Scale Effect of Surface Area on the Temperature of the Ground Surface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 1980s, the satellite observations revealed that the daytime surface temperatures of the urban areas were very high compared with the rural area and the heat island was distinct in the daytime (Goward 1981, Carlson et al. 1981). The air temperature, however, shows distinct heat island in the night time and the heat island of the air temperature in the daytime is not significant. This has been a mystery of the urban climate and it has been attributed to the complicated urban structures (Roth et al. 1989, Arnfield 2003, Voogt and Oke 2003). This paper proposes a very simple mechanism which explains this old mystery. The surfaces of the urban areas are covered by large flat surfaces such as roads and walls of buildings while those of the rural areas are covered by many plants which have many small leaves. This difference in the surface geometry, especially the size of the surface area, has great impact on the temperature of the ground surface. To demonstrate the scale effect to the surface temperature, we made some fractal sunshades consist of many small "leaves" and placed under sunshine. The results showed that the fractal sunshade reduced the ground temperature without being heated themselves. The results indicate we can reduce urban ground surface temperature by changing geometry of the surface without using water.

Sakai, S.; Onishi, M.; Nakamura, M.; Furuya, K.

2011-12-01

386

Structural and photophysical properties of rare-earth complexes encapsulated into surface modified mesoporous silica nanoparticles.  

PubMed

The encapsulation of [Eu(dbm)3phen] into functionalized mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSN) has been carried out to study the effect of chemical environments on the photoluminescence properties of the rare-earth complex. Surface functionalization was achieved by the reaction of the silanol groups on the surface of mesoporous silica with different organosilylating agents such as (3-aminopropyl)-triethoxysilane (APTES), (3-mercaptopropyl)-trimethoxysilane (MPTMS), and ethoxytrimethylsilane (ETMS). A change in the luminescence properties of the Eu(dbm)3phen complex has been observed on its encapsulation into surface modified mesoporous silica nanoparticles. The modification of photophysical properties is attributed to the interaction of Eu(dbm)3phen with the different chemical environments in the functionalized mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSN). The luminescence properties of the rare-earth complex in surface-modified MSN increase in the order MSN < MSN-ETMS < MSN-MPTMS < MSN-APTES. The Eu(dbm)3phen complex encapsulated in the functionalized mesoporous silica nanoparticles shows an enhanced luminescence and an increased lifetime compared to the pure rare-earth complex in the solid state and that in unmodified MSN. This implies that some interactions of the lanthanide complexes take place during their incorporation process into the organically modified mesoporous silica nanoparticles. The organically modified mesoporous silica nanoparticles were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and N2 adsorption desorption measurements. The luminescence properties of the encapsulated Eu(dbm)3phen were studied in detail. Moreover, the effect of functionalized MSNs on the structural behaviour of the Eu(dbm)3phen was investigated by solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (SSNMR) techniques using an analogous diamagnetic model complex, Y(dbm)3phen, encapsulated into functionalized MSNs. These studies indicate that the encapsulated rare-earth complex shows some interactions with the functional groups anchored on the surface of MSNs. PMID:24874265

Malba, Chandrashekhar; Sudhakaran, Umayal P; Borsacchi, Silvia; Geppi, Marco; Enrichi, Francesco; Natile, Marta Maria; Armelao, Lidia; Finotto, Tiziano; Marin, Riccardo; Riello, Pietro; Benedetti, Alvise

2014-10-14

387

Autonomous Flying Platforms for Atmospheric and Earth Surface Observations (APAESO) - A pioneering research facility in Cyprus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of Unmanned Aerial Systems (UASs) has increased dramatically in the recent decades. UASs are widely used for different civil applications such as land management, earth sciences, contaminant detection and monitoring and commercial use. The Autonomous Flying Platforms for Atmospheric and Earth Surface Observations project (APAESO) of the Energy, Environment and Water Research Center (EEWRC) at the Cyprus Institute is aimed at the dual purpose of carrying out atmospheric and earth-surface observations in the Mediterranean. The APAESO UAS platforms will provide the unique ability to produce 3D measurements for determining: physical, chemical and radiative atmospheric properties, aerosol and dust concentrations and atmospheric dynamics as well as 2D investigations into: surface morphology, vegetation and land use patterns, archaeological site reconnaissance, contaminant detection and ocean surface properties (biology, waves, currents) at high spatial resolution. Through a modular design philosophy, APAESO will be very adaptable for a variety of scientific investigations enabling scientific collaborations between the Cyprus Institute and national and international research organizations. The Cyprus Institute is currently procuring the "Cruiser", which is a medium size Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) that is capable of carrying a payload of up to 10 kg, fly to altitude of 5000 m AGL with an endurance of up to 10 hours. Within the next phase of the project, the "Cruiser" will be equipped with instruments for atmospheric and earth surface observations. The poster will present the different components of the project: the UAS platform, payload to be integrated and scientific challenges that we are about to tackle and solve.

Lange, Manfred; Teller, Amit; Keleshis, Christos; Ioannou, Stelios; Philimis, Panayiotis; Lelieveld, Jos; Levin, Zev

2010-05-01

388

High-Temperature Surface Thermometry Technique based on Upconversion Nano-Phosphors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Downconversion thermographic phosphors have been extensively used for high-temperature surface thermometry applications (e.g., aerothermodynamics, turbine blades) where temperature-sensitive paint is not viable. In downconversion techniques the phosphorescence is at longer wavelengths than the excitation source. We are developing a new upconversion thermographic phosphor technique that employs rare-earth-doped ceramics whose phosphorescence exhibit a strong temperature dependence. In the upconversion technique the phosphor is excited with near-IR light and emission is at visible wavelengths; thus, it does not require expensive UV windows and does not suffer from interference from background fluorescence. In this work the upconversion phosphors have been characterized in terms of their intensity, lifetimes and spectral content over a temperature range of 300K to 1500K. The technique has been evaluated for applications of 2D surface temperature measurements by using the total integrated intensity and the ratio of emission in different visible color bands. The results indicate that upconversion phosphor thermometry is a promising technique for making non-contact high-surface temperature measurements with good accuracy.

Combs, C.; Clemens, N.; Guo, X.; Song, H.; Zhao, H.; Li, K. K.; Zou, Y. K.; Jiang, H.

2011-11-01

389

Atom manipulation on an insulating surface at room temperature.  

PubMed

Atomic manipulation enables us to fabricate a unique structure at the atomic scale. So far, many atomic manipulations have been reported on conductive surfaces, mainly at low temperature with scanning tunnelling microscopy, but atomic manipulation on an insulator at room temperature is still a long-standing challenge. Here we present a systematic atomic manipulation on an insulating surface by advanced atomic force microscopy, enabling construction of complex patterns such as a 'Swiss cross' of substitutional bromine ions in the sodium chloride surface. PMID:25022312

Kawai, Shigeki; Foster, Adam S; Canova, Filippo Federici; Onodera, Hiroshi; Kitamura, Shin-ichi; Meyer, Ernst

2014-01-01

390

Effects of latent heat release at phase boundaries on flow in the Earth’s mantle, phase boundary topography and dynamic topography at the Earth’s surface  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mantle flow models that do not consider the effects of latent heat on phase boundaries typically predict dynamic surface topography too large to be compatible with observations. Here these effects were implemented in a mantle flow model and resulting changes in dynamic topography and topography of phase boundaries were computed. Inclusion of these effects was found to reduce the rms

Bernhard Steinberger

2007-01-01

391

Field spectroscopy sampling strategies for improved measurement of Earth surface reflectance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the last two decades extensive networks of research sites have been established to measure the flux of carbon compounds and water vapour between the Earth's surface and the atmosphere using eddy covariance (EC) techniques. However, contributing Earth surface components cannot be determined and (as the ';footprints' are spatially constrained) these measurements cannot be extrapolated to regional cover using this technique. At many of these EC sites researchers have been integrating spectral measurements with EC and ancillary data to better understand light use efficiency and carbon dioxide flux. These spectroscopic measurements could also be used to assess contributing components and provide support for imaging spectroscopy, from airborne or satellite platforms, which can provide unconstrained spatial cover. Furthermore, there is an increasing interest in ';smart' database and information retrieval systems such as that proposed by EcoSIS and OPTIMISE to store, analyse, QA and merge spectral and biophysical measurements and provide information to end users. However, as Earth surfaces are spectrally heterogeneous and imaging and field spectrometers sample different spatial extents appropriate field sampling strategies require to be adopted. To sample Earth surfaces spectroscopists adopt either single; random; regular grid; transect; or 'swiping' point sampling strategies, although little comparative work has been carried out to determine the most appropriate approach; the work by Goetz (2012) is a limited exception. Mac Arthur et al (2012) demonstrated that, for two full wavelength (400 nm to 2,500 nm) field spectroradiometers, the measurement area sampled is defined by each spectroradiometer/fore optic system's directional response function (DRF) rather than the field-of-view (FOV) specified by instrument manufacturers. Mac Arthur et al (2012) also demonstrated that each reflecting element within the sampled area was not weighted equally in the integrated measurement recorded. There were non-uniformities of spectral response with the spectral ';weighting' per wavelength interval being positionally dependent and unique to each spectroradiometer/fore optic system investigated. However, Mac Arthur et al (2012) did not provide any advice on how to compensate for these systematic errors or advise on appropriate sampling strategies. The work reported here will provide the first systematic study of the effect of field spectroscopy sampling strategies for a range of different Earth surface types. Synthetic Earth surface hyperspectral data cubes for each surface type were generated and convolved with a range of the spectrometer/fore optic system directional response functions generated by Mac Arthur et al 2013, to simulate spectroscopic measurements of Earth surfaces. This has enabled different field sampling strategies to be directly compared and their suitability for each measurement purpose and surface type to be assessed and robust field spectroscopy sampling strategy recommendations to be made. This will be particularly of interest to the carbon and water vapour flux communities and assist the development of sampling strategies for field spectroscopy from rotary-wing Unmanned Aerial Vehicles, which will aid acquiring measurements in the spatial domain, and generally further the use of field spectroscopy for quantitative Earth observation.

Mac Arthur, A.; Alonso, L.; Malthus, T. J.; Moreno, J. F.

2013-12-01

392

Measuring the Surface Temperature of the Cryosphere using Remote Sensing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A general description of the remote sensing of cryosphere surface temperatures from satellites will be provided. This will give historical information on surface-temperature measurements from space. There will also be a detailed description of measuring the surface temperature of the Greenland Ice Sheet using Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data which will be the focus of the presentation. Enhanced melting of the Greenland Ice Sheet has been documented in recent literature along with surface-temperature increases measured using infrared satellite data since 1981. Using a recently-developed climate data record, trends in the clear-sky ice-surface temperature (IST) of the Greenland Ice Sheet have been studied using the MODIS IST product. Daily and monthly MODIS ISTs of the Greenland Ice Sheet beginning on 1 March 2000 and continuing through 31 December 2010 are now freely available to download at 6.25-km spatial resolution on a polar stereographic grid. Maps showing the maximum extent of melt for the entire ice sheet and for the six major drainage basins have been developed from the MODIS IST dataset. Twelve-year trends of the duration of the melt season on the ice sheet vary in different drainage basins with some basins melting progressively earlier over the course of the study period. Some (but not all) of the basins also show a progressively-longer duration of melt. The consistency of this IST record, with temperature and melt records from other sources will be discussed.

Hall, Dorothy K.

2012-01-01

393

Global shortwave energy budget at the earth's surface from ERBE observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method is proposed to compute the net solar (shortwave) irradiance at the earth's surface from Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) data in the S4 format. The S4 data are monthly averaged broadband planetary albedo collected at selected times during the day. Net surface shortwave irradiance is obtained from the shortwave irradiance incident at the top of the atmosphere (known) by subtracting both the shortwave energy flux reflected by the earth-atmosphere system (measured) and the energy flux absorbed by the atmosphere (modeled). Precalculated atmospheric- and surface-dependent functions that characterize scattering and absorption in the atmosphere are used, which makes the method easily applicable and computationally efficient. Four surface types are distinguished, namely, ocean, vegetation, desert, and snow/ice. Over the tropical Pacific Ocean, the estimates based on ERBE data compare well with those obtained from International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) B3 data. For the 9 months analyzed the linear correlation coefficient and the standard difference between the two datasets are 0.95 and 14 W/sq m (about 6% of the average shortwave irradiance), respectively, and the bias is 15 W/sq m (higher ERBE values). The bias, a strong function of ISCCP satellite viewing zenith angle, is mostly in the ISCCP-based estimates. Over snow/ice, vegetation, and desert no comparison is made with other satellite-based estimates, but theoretical calculations using the discrete ordinate method suggest that over highly reflective surfaces (snow/ice, desert) the model, which accounts crudely for multiple reflection between the surface and clouds, may substantially overestimate the absorbed solar energy flux at the surface, especially when clouds are optically thick. The monthly surface shortwave irradiance fields produced for 1986 exhibit the main features characteristic of the earth's climate. As found in other studies, our values are generally higher than Esbensen and Kushnir's by as much as 80 W/sq m in the tropical oceans. A cloud parameter, defined as the difference between clear-sky and actual irradiances normalized to top-of-atmosphere clear-sky irradiance, is also examined. This parameter, minimally affected by sun zenith angle, is higher in the midlatitude regions of storm tracks than in the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ), suggesting that, on average, the higher cloud coverage in midlatitudes is more effective at reducing surface shortwave irradiance than opaque, convective, yet sparser clouds in the ITCZ. Surface albedo estimates are realistic, generally not exceeding 0.06 in the ocean, as high as 0.9 in polar regions, and reaching 0.5 in the Sahara and Arabian deserts.

Breon, Francois-Marie; Frouin, Robert

1994-01-01

394

Surface fractal dimensions and textural properties of mesoporous alkaline-earth hydroxyapatites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work examines the surface fractal dimensions (Df) and textural properties of three different alkaline-earth hydroxyapatites. Calcium, strontium and barium hydroxyapatite compounds were successfully synthesized via chemical precipitation method and characterized using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and N2-physisorption measurements. Surface fractal dimensions were determined using single N2-adsorption/desorption isotherms method to quantify the irregular surface of as-prepared compounds. The obtained materials were also characterized through their surface hydroxyl group content, determined by the mass titration method. It was found that the Df values for the three materials covered the range of 0.77 ± 0.04-2.33 ± 0.11; these results indicated that the materials tend to have smooth surfaces, except the irregular surface of barium hydroxyapatite. Moreover, regarding the synthesized calcium hydroxyapatite exhibited better textural properties compared with the synthesized strontium and barium hydroxyapatites for adsorbent purposes. However, barium hydroxyapatite shows irregular surface, indicating a high population of active sites across the surface, in comparison with the others studied hydroxyapatites. Finally, the results showed a linear correlation between the surface hydroxyl group content at the external surface of materials and their surface fractal dimensions.

Vilchis-Granados, J.; Granados-Correa, F.; Barrera-Díaz, C. E.

2013-08-01

395

Rare-earth doped solid-state phosphor with temperature-induced variable chromaticity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A temperature induced variable chromaticity phosphor based upon a rare-earth multi-doped solid-state frequency upconverter is presented. The phosphors are composed of ytterbium-sensitized multiple doped(Tm, Er, Ho) lead-cadmium fluorogermanate glass samples excited by a laser source around 1064 nm. The temperature induced color variation exploits the heat enhanced effective absorption cross-section of the ytterbium sensitizer under multiphonon-assisted anti-Stokes excitation. The temperature enhancement of the energy-transfer mechanism between the sensitizer and the appropriate active light emitter ion allows the selective intensity control of the RGB emission wavelengths due to different upconversion excitation routes. The suitable combination of rare-earth active ions yielded the generation of variable chromaticity light with CIE-1931 coordinates changing from CIE-X=0.283;Y=0.288 at 20°C to CIE-X= 0.349;Y=0.412 at 190 °C, and CIE-X=0.285;Y=0.361 at 25°C to CIE-X=0.367;Y=0.434 at 180°C in Yb3+/Tm3+/Ho3+ and Yb3+/Tm3+/Er3+ multidoped samples, respectively. The viability of producing a low cost solid-state changeable visible color remote distributed temperature indicator in the 25°C - 300°C range is also discussed.

Gouveia-Neto, Artur S.; Bueno, Luciano A.; Nascimento, Raphael; Silva, Elias A.; Costa, Ernande B.

2009-02-01

396

Land Surface Temperature Measurements form EOS MODIS Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We have developed a physics-based land-surface temperature (LST) algorithm for simultaneously retrieving surface band-averaged emissivities and temperatures from day/night pairs of MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) data in seven thermal infrared bands. The set of 14 nonlinear equations in the algorithm is solved with the statistical regression method and the least-squares fit method. This new LST algorithm was tested with simulated MODIS data for 80 sets of band-averaged emissivities calculated from published spectral data of terrestrial materials in wide ranges of atmospheric and surface temperature conditions. Comprehensive sensitivity and error analysis has been made to evaluate the performance of the new LST algorithm and its dependence on variations in surface emissivity and temperature, upon atmospheric conditions, as well as the noise-equivalent temperature difference (NE(Delta)T) and calibration accuracy specifications of the MODIS instrument. In cases with a systematic calibration error of 0.5%, the standard deviations of errors in retrieved surface daytime and nighttime temperatures fall between 0.4-0.5 K over a wide range of surface temperatures for mid-latitude summer conditions. The standard deviations of errors in retrieved emissivities in bands 31 and 32 (in the 10-12.5 micrometer IR spectral window region) are 0.009, and the maximum error in retrieved LST values falls between 2-3 K. Several issues related to the day/night LST algorithm (uncertainties in the day/night registration and in surface emissivity changes caused by dew occurrence, and the cloud cover) have been investigated. The LST algorithms have been validated with MODIS Airborne Simulator (MAS) dada and ground-based measurement data in two field campaigns conducted in Railroad Valley playa, NV in 1995 and 1996. The MODIS LST version 1 software has been delivered.

Wan, Zhengming

1996-01-01

397

Appendix B. Summer MHB Surface Temperature Maps Figure B1. The surface temperature structure in Mt. Hope Bay on 9 August 1999. The relevant values of  

E-print Network

. The surface temperature structure in Mt. Hope Bay on 9 August 1999. The relevant values of Fall River sea. The surface temperature structure in Mt. Hope Bay on 9 August 1999. The relevant values of Fall River sea47 Appendix B. Summer MHB Surface Temperature Maps Figure B1. The surface temperature structure

Chen, Changsheng

398

Global fields of soil moisture and land surface evapotranspiration derived from observed precipitation and surface air temperature  

SciTech Connect

The global fields of normal monthly soil moisture and land surface evapotranspiration are derived with a simple water budget model that has precipitation and potential evapotranspiration as inputs. The precipitation is observed and the potential evapotranspiration is derived from the observed surface air temperature with the empirical regression equation of Thornthwaite. It is shown that at locations where the net surface radiation flux has been measured. The potential evapotranspiration given by the Thornthwaite equation is in good agreement with those obtained with the radiation-based formulations of Priestley and Taylor. Penman, and Budyko, and this provides the justification for the use of the Thornthwaite equation. After deriving the global fields of soil moisture and evapotranspiration, the assumption is made that the potential evapotranspiration given by the Thornthwaite equation and by the Priestley-Taylor equation will everywhere be about the same; and the inverse of the Priestley-Taylor equation is used to obtain the normal monthly global fields of net surface radiation flux minus ground heat storage. This and the derived evapotranspiration are then used in the equation for energy conservation at the surface of the earth to obtain the global fields of normal monthly sensible heat flux from the land surface to the atmosphere. 68 refs., 24 figs., 1 tab.

Mintz, Y.; Walker, G.K. (NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States))

1993-08-01

399

Global fields of soil moisture and land surface evapotranspiration derived from observed precipitation and surface air temperature  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The global fields of normal monthly soil moisture and land surface evapotranspiration are derived with a simple water budget model that has precipitation and potential evapotranspiration as inputs. The precipitation is observed and the potential evapotranspiration is derived from the observed surface air temperature with the empirical regression equation of Thornthwaite (1954). It is shown that at locations where the net surface radiation flux has been measured, the potential evapotranspiration given by the Thornthwaite equation is in good agreement with those obtained with the radiation-based formulations of Priestley and Taylor (1972), Penman (1948), and Budyko (1956-1974), and this provides the justification for the use of the Thornthwaite equation. After deriving the global fields of soil moisture and evapotranspiration, the assumption is made that the potential evapotranspiration given by the Thornthwaite equation and by the Priestley-Taylor equation will everywhere be about the same; the inverse of the Priestley-Taylor equation is used to obtain the normal monthly global fields of net surface radiation flux minus ground heat storage. This and the derived evapotranspiration are then used in the equation for energy conservation at the surface of the earth to obtain the global fields of normal monthly sensible heat flux from the land surface to the atmosphere.

Mintz, Y.; Walker, G. K.

1993-01-01

400

Global analyses of sea surface temperature, sea ice, and night marine air temperature since the late nineteenth century  

E-print Network

Global analyses of sea surface temperature, sea ice, and night marine air temperature since and sea surface temperature (SST) data set, HadISST1, and the nighttime marine air temperature (NMAT) data set, HadMAT1. HadISST1 replaces the global sea ice and sea surface temperature (GISST) data sets

401

Earth materials and earth dynamics  

SciTech Connect

In the project ''Earth Materials and Earth Dynamics'' we linked fundamental and exploratory, experimental, theoretical, and computational research programs to shed light on the current and past states of the dynamic Earth. Our objective was to combine different geological, geochemical, geophysical, and materials science analyses with numerical techniques to illuminate active processes in the Earth. These processes include fluid-rock interactions that form and modify the lithosphere, non-linear wave attenuations in rocks that drive plate tectonics and perturb the earth's surface, dynamic recrystallization of olivine that deforms the upper mantle, development of texture in high-pressure olivine polymorphs that create anisotropic velocity regions in the convecting upper mantle and transition zone, and the intense chemical reactions between the mantle and core. We measured physical properties such as texture and nonlinear elasticity, equation of states at simultaneous pressures and temperatures, magnetic spins and bonding, chemical permeability, and thermal-chemical feedback to better characterize earth materials. We artificially generated seismic waves, numerically modeled fluid flow and transport in rock systems and modified polycrystal plasticity theory to interpret measured physical properties and integrate them into our understanding of the Earth. This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL).

Bennett, K; Shankland, T. [and others

2000-11-01

402

Deforestation: Extracting 3D Bare-Earth Surface from Airborne LiDAR Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bare-earth identification selects points from a LiDAR point cloud so that they can be interpolated to form a repre- sentation of the ground surface from which structures, veg- etation, and other cover have been removed. We triangulate the point cloud and segment the triangles into flat and steep triangles using a Discriminative Random Field (DRF) that uses a data-dependent label

Wei-lwun Lu; James J. Little; Alla Sheffer; Hongbo Fu

2008-01-01

403

MY NASA DATA: Using Vegetation, Precipitation, and Surface Temperature to Study Climate Zones  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students investigate the relationship between precipitation, surface temperature and vegetation for four geographic locations. Students will download graphs of each of the three system components (vegetative index, surface temperature and precipitation) for a specific latitude and longitude point during the period of January 2002-June 2004. After downloading data for three other locations, students will work with a total of 12 graphs to compare and analyze the data. They will then predict the climate zone and identify the climate type for each location. This lesson uses student- and citizen science-friendly microsets of authentic NASA Earth system science data from the MY NASA DATA project. It also includes related links, extensions, an online glossary and a list of related AP Environmental Science topics.

404

Microwave Imager Measures Sea Surface Temperature Through Clouds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This image was acquired over Tropical Atlantic and U.S. East Coast regions on Aug. 22 - Sept. 23, 1998. Cloud data were collected by the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES). Sea Surface Temperature (SST) data were collected aboard the NASA/NASDA Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite by The TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI). TMI is the first satellite microwave sensor capable of accurately measuring sea surface temperature through clouds, as shown in this scene. For years scientists have known there is a strong correlation between sea surface temperature and the intensity of hurricanes. But one of the major stumbling blocks for forecasters has been the precise measurement of those temperatures when a storm begins to form. In this scene, clouds have been made translucent to allow an unobstructed view of the surface. Notice Hurricane Bonnie approaching the Carolina Coast (upper left) and Hurricane Danielle following roughly in its path (lower right). The ocean surface has been falsely colored to show a map of water temperature--dark blues are around 75oF, light blues are about 80oF, greens are about 85oF, and yellows are roughly 90oF. A hurricane gathers energy from warm waters found at tropical latitudes. In this image we see Hurricane Bonnie cross the Atlantic, leaving a cooler trail of water in its wake. As Hurricane Danielle followed in Bonnie's path, the wind speed of the second storm dropped markedly, as available energy to fuel the storm dropped off. But when Danielle left Bonnie's wake, wind speeds increased due to temperature increases in surface water around the storm. As a hurricane churns up the ocean, it's central vortex draws surface heat and water into the storm. That suction at the surface causes an upwelling of deep water. At depth, tropical ocean waters are significantly colder than water found near the surface. As they're pulled up to meet the storm, those colder waters essentially leave a footprint in the storm's wake which might last as long as two weeks. Forecasters can quantify the difference in surface temperatures between this footprint and the surrounding temperatures and use that information to better predict storm intensity. If another storm intersects with this cold water trail, it is likely to lose significant strength due to the fact that the colder water does not contain as much potential energy as warm water. TRMM Fact Sheet Predicting Hurricane Intensity Far from Land Remote Sensing Systems Image courtesy TRMM Project, Remote Sensing Systems, and Scientific Visualization Studio, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center

2002-01-01

405

Our Sun V: A Bright Young Sun Consistent with Helioseismology and Warm Temperatures on Ancient Earth and Mars.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The relatively warm temperatures required on early Earth and Mars have been difficult to account for with warming from greenhouse gases. A slightly more massive young Sun would be brighter than predicted by the standard solar model, simultaneously resolvi...

I. J. Sackmann, A. I. Boothroyd

2001-01-01

406

Compensation for effects of ambient temperature on rare-earth doped fiber optic thermometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Variations in ambient temperature have a negative effect on the performance of any fiber optic sensing system. A change in ambient temperature may alter the design parameters of fiber optic cables, connectors, sources, detectors, and other fiber optic components and eventually the performance of the entire system. The thermal stability of components is especially important in a system which employs intensity modulated sensors. Several referencing schemes have been developed to account for the variable losses that occur within the system. However, none of these conventional compensating techniques can be used to stabilize the thermal drift of the light source in a system based on the spectral properties of the sensor material. The compensation for changes in ambient temperature becomes especially important in fiber optic thermometers doped with rare earths. Different approaches to solving this problem are searched and analyzed.

Adamovsky, G.; Sotomayor, J. L.; Krasowski, M. J.; Eustace, J. G.

1989-01-01

407

Compensation for effects of ambient temperature on rare-earth doped fiber optic thermometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Variations in ambient temperature have a negative effect on the performance of any fiber optic sensing system. A change in ambient temperature may alter the design parameters of fiber optic cables, connectors, sources, detectors, and other fiber optic components and eventually the performance of the entire system. The thermal stability of components is especially important in a system which employs intensity modulated sensors. Several referencing schemes have been developed to account for the variable losses that occur within the system. However, none of these conventional compensating techniques can be used to stabilize the thermal drift of the light source in a system based on the spectral properties of the sensor material. The compensation for changes in ambient temperature becomes especially important in fiber optic thermometers doped with rare earths. Different approaches to solving this problem are searched and analyzed.

Adamovsky, G.; Sotomayor, J. L.; Krasowski, M. J.; Eustace, J. G.

1990-01-01

408

Ch.5 Global Temperatures Temperature Concepts  

E-print Network

. Ocean Currents and Sea-Surface Temperature #12;Sea-Surface Temperatures #12;The Gulf Stream #12;Earth. Land­Water Heating Differences #12;Three Phases of Water #12;Land Is Opaque #12;Ocean Currents and Sea-Surface Patterns #12;Global Temperature #12;Arctic Sea Ice Changes #12;Air Temperature and the Human Body Learning

Pan, Feifei

409

Surface temperatures of insulated glazing units: Infrared thermography laboratory measurements  

SciTech Connect

Data are presented for the distribution of surface temperatures on the warm-side surface of seven different insulated glazing units. Surface temperatures are measured using infrared thermography and an external referencing technique. This technique allows detailed mapping of surface temperatures that is non-intrusive. The glazings were placed between warm and cold environmental chambers that were operated at conditions corresponding to standard design conditions for winter heating. The temperatures conditions are 2 1.1{degrees}C (70{degrees}F) and -17.8{degrees}C (0{degrees}F) on the warm and cold sides, respectively. Film coefficients varied somewhat with average conditions of about 7.6 W/m{sup 2}{circ}K (1.34 Btu/h-ft{sup 2}{circ}{degrees}F) for the warm-side and 28.9 W/m{sup 2}{circ}K (5.1 Btu/h{circ}ft{sup 2}{circ}{degrees}F) for the cold-side. Surface temperature data are plotted for the vertical distribution along the centerline of the IG and for the horizontal distribution along the centerline. This paper is part of larger collaborative effort that studied the same set of glazings.

Griffith, B.T.; Tuerler, D.; Arasteh, D.

1995-12-01

410

ELSEVIER Earth and Planetary Science Letters 165 (1999) 229239 Low-temperature properties of a single crystal of magnetite  

E-print Network

at low temperatures, between 300 K and 10 K, on an oriented 1.5-mm single crystal of magnetite axes, indicating that below Tv the crystal has uniaxial symmetry. The room-temperature saturationELSEVIER Earth and Planetary Science Letters 165 (1999) 229­239 Low-temperature properties

Dunlop, David J.

411

Applications of Thin Film Thermocouples for Surface Temperature Measurement  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thin film thermocouples provide a minimally intrusive means of measuring surface temperature in hostile, high temperature environments. Unlike wire thermocouples, thin films do not necessitate any machining of the surface, therefore leaving intact its structural integrity. Thin films are many orders of magnitude thinner than wire, resulting in less disruption to the gas flow and thermal patterns that exist in the operating environment. Thin film thermocouples have been developed for surface temperature measurement on a variety of engine materials. The sensors are fabricated in the NASA Lewis Research Center's Thin Film Sensor Lab, which is a class 1000 clean room. The thermocouples are platinum-13 percent rhodium versus platinum and are fabricated by the sputtering process. Thin film-to-leadwire connections are made using the parallel-gap welding process. Thermocouples have been developed for use on superalloys, ceramics and ceramic composites, and intermetallics. Some applications of thin film thermocouples are: temperature measurement of space shuttle main engine turbine blade materials, temperature measurement in gas turbine engine testing of advanced materials, and temperature and heat flux measurements in a diesel engine. Fabrication of thin film thermocouples is described. Sensor durability, drift rate, and maximum temperature capabilities are addressed.

Martin, Lisa C.; Holanda, Raymond

1994-01-01

412

Thermostable DNA Immobilization and Temperature Effects on Surface Hybridization  

PubMed Central

Monolayer films of nucleic acids on solid supports are encountered in a range of diagnostic and bioanalytical applications. These applications often rely on elevated temperatures to improve performance; moreover, studies at elevated temperatures can provide fundamental information on layer organization and functionality. To support such applications, this study compares thermostability of oligonucleotide monolayers immobilized to gold by first coating the gold with a nanometer-thick film (an “anchor layer”) of a polymercaptosiloxane, to which DNA oligonucleotides are subsequently tethered through maleimide-thiol conjugation, with thermostability of monolayers formed via widely-used attachment through a terminal thiol moiety on the DNA. The temperature range covered is from 25 to 90 °C. After confirming stability of immobilization and, more importantly, retention of hybridization activity even under the harshest conditions investigated, these thermostable films are used to demonstrate measurements of (1) reversible surface melting transitions and (2) temperature dependence of competitive hybridization, when fully matched and mismatched sequences compete for binding to immobilized DNA oligonucleotides. The competitive hybridization experiments reveal a pronounced impact of temperature on rates of approach to equilibrium, with kinetic freezing into nonequilibrium states close to room temperature and rapid approach to equilibrium at elevated temperatures. Modeling of competitive surface hybridization equilibria using thermodynamic parameters derived from surface melting transitions of the individual sequences is also discussed. PMID:22578171

Ge, Dongbiao; Wang, Xin; Williams, Keeshan; Levicky, Rastislav

2012-01-01

413

Surface characterization of sol-gel derived scintillating rare-earth doped Lu2SiO5 thin films  

E-print Network

Surface characterization of sol-gel derived scintillating rare- earth doped Lu2SiO5 thin films C-marie.nedelec@univ-bpclermont.fr Abstract. Rare earth doped Lu2SiO5 thin films have been prepared by combining sol-gel process and spin of rare earth doping ions. XPS and RBS spectrocopies showed that the composition of the films is close

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

414

STAR Concept for Passive Microwave Temperature Sounding from Middle Earth Orbit (MeoSTAR)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A future mission for a new microwave atmospheric temperature sounder radiometer in a Middle Earth Orbit (MEO) at 11,000 km altitude is described. The MeoSTAR design uses a stationary l-dimensional Synthetic Thinned Array Radiometer in the 50-60 GHz microwave sounding band, to provide a 'pushbroom' image as the satellite orbits. The advantage of this concept is an image with a high spatial resolution and a wide swath with no scanning antenna to disturb the visual and IR sensors on the same satellite.

Wilson, William J.; Tanner, Alan B.; Lambrigtsen, Bjorn H.; Doiron, Terence A.; Piepmeier, Jeffrey R.; Ruf, Chris S.

2004-01-01

415

Limits on CO2 Climate Forcing from Recent Temperature Data of Earth  

E-print Network

The global atmospheric temperature anomalies of Earth reached a maximum in 1998 which has not been exceeded during the subsequent 10 years. The global anomalies are calculated from the average of climate effects occurring in the tropical and the extratropical latitude bands. El Nino/La Nina effects in the tropical band are shown to explain the 1998 maximum while variations in the background of the global anomalies largely come from climate effects in the northern extratropics. These effects do not have the signature associated with CO2 climate forcing. However, the data show a small underlying positive trend that is consistent with CO2 climate forcing with no-feedback.

Douglass, David H

2008-01-01

416

Rare earth elements in hydrothermal systems: Estimates of standard partial molal thermodynamic properties of aqueous complexes of the rare earth elements at high pressures and temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Standard partial molal thermodynamic properties including association constants for 246 inorganic aqueous rare earth element (REE) complexes with chloride, fluoride, hydroxide, carbonate, sulfate, bicarbonate, nitrate, and orthophosphate can be calculated at pressures from 1 to 5000 bars and temperatures from 0 to 1000°C, using experimental data from the literature and correlation algorithms. Predicted association constants for REE complexes are used

Johnson R. Haas; Everett L. Shock; David C. Sassani

1995-01-01

417

High-Temperature Surface-Acoustic-Wave Transducer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aircraft-engine rotating equipment usually operates at high temperature and stress. Non-invasive inspection of microcracks in those components poses a challenge for the non-destructive evaluation community. A low-profile ultrasonic guided wave sensor can detect cracks in situ. The key feature of the sensor is that it should withstand high temperatures and excite strong surface wave energy to inspect surface/subsurface cracks. As far as the innovators know at the time of this reporting, there is no existing sensor that is mounted to the rotor disks for crack inspection; the most often used technology includes fluorescent penetrant inspection or eddy-current probes for disassembled part inspection. An efficient, high-temperature, low-profile surface acoustic wave transducer design has been identified and tested for nondestructive evaluation of structures or materials. The development is a Sol-Gel bismuth titanate-based surface-acoustic-wave (SAW) sensor that can generate efficient surface acoustic waves for crack inspection. The produced sensor is very thin (submillimeter), and can generate surface waves up to 540 C. Finite element analysis of the SAW transducer design was performed to predict the sensor behavior, and experimental studies confirmed the results. One major uniqueness of the Sol-Gel bismuth titanate SAW sensor is that it is easy to implement to structures of various shapes. With a spray coating process, the sensor can be applied to surfaces of large curvatures. Second, the sensor is very thin (as a coating) and has very minimal effect on airflow or rotating equipment imbalance. Third, it can withstand temperatures up to 530 C, which is very useful for engine applications where high temperature is an issue.

Zhao, Xiaoliang; Tittmann, Bernhard R.

2010-01-01

418

Surface Transformations and Water Uptake on Liquid and Solid Butanol near the Melting Temperature  

E-print Network

Water interactions with organic surfaces are of central importance in biological systems and many Earth system processes. Here we describe experimental studies of water collisions and uptake kinetics on liquid and solid butanol from 160 to 200 K. Hyperthermal D2O molecules (0.32 eV) undergo efficient trapping on both solid and liquid butanol, and only a minor fraction scatters inelastically after an 80% loss of kinetic energy to surface modes. Trapped molecules either desorb within a few ms, or are taken up by the butanol phase during longer times. The water uptake and surface residence time increase with temperature above 180 K indicating melting of the butanol surface 4.5 K below the bulk melting temperature. Water uptake changes gradually across the melting point and trapped molecules are rapidly lost by diffusion into the liquid above 190 K. This indicates that liquid butanol maintains a surface phase with limited water permeability up to 5.5 K above the melting point. These surface observations are indic...

Papagiannakopoulos, Panos; Thomson, Erik S; Markovic, Nikola; Pettersson, Jan B C

2013-01-01

419

Estimation of surface temperature in remote pollution measurement experiments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A simple algorithm has been developed for estimating the actual surface temperature by applying corrections to the effective brightness temperature measured by radiometers mounted on remote sensing platforms. Corrections to effective brightness temperature are computed using an accurate radiative transfer model for the 'basic atmosphere' and several modifications of this caused by deviations of the various atmospheric and surface parameters from their base model values. Model calculations are employed to establish simple analytical relations between the deviations of these parameters and the additional temperature corrections required to compensate for them. Effects of simultaneous variation of two parameters are also examined. Use of these analytical relations instead of detailed radiative transfer calculations for routine data analysis results in a severalfold reduction in computation costs.

Gupta, S. K.; Tiwari, S. N.

1978-01-01

420

Method for Accurate Surface Temperature Measurements During Fast Induction Heating  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A robust method is proposed for the measurement of surface temperature fields during induction heating. It is based on the original coupling of temperature-indicating lacquers and a high-speed camera system. Image analysis tools have been implemented to automatically extract the temporal evolution of isotherms. This method was applied to the fast induction treatment of a 4340 steel spur gear, allowing the full history of surface isotherms to be accurately documented for a sequential heating, i.e., a medium frequency preheating followed by a high frequency final heating. Three isotherms, i.e., 704, 816, and 927°C, were acquired every 0.3 ms with a spatial resolution of 0.04 mm per pixel. The information provided by the method is described and discussed. Finally, the transformation temperature Ac1 is linked to the temperature on specific locations of the gear tooth.

Larregain, Benjamin; Vanderesse, Nicolas; Bridier, Florent; Bocher, Philippe; Arkinson, Patrick

2013-07-01

421

Surface air temperature variability in global climate models  

E-print Network

New results from the Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5) and multiple global reanalysis datasets are used to investigate the relationship between the mean and standard deviation in the surface air temperature. A combination of a land-sea mask and orographic filter were used to investigate the geographic region with the strongest correlation and in all cases this was found to be for low-lying over-land locations. This result is consistent with the expectation that differences in the effective heat capacity of the atmosphere are an important factor in determining the surface air temperature response to forcing.

Davy, Richard

2012-01-01

422

Annual Global Surface Temperature Anomaly: 1950 through 1998  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Global surface temperatures in 1998 set a new record for the period of instrumental measurements, report researchers at the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies who analyze data collected from several thousand meteorological stations around the world. This visualization shows surface temperature anomalies from 1950 through November, 1998. The 1998 warmth was associated partly with a strong El Nino that warmed the air over the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean in the first half of the year and in turn affected weather around the world. Red and yellow colors indicate warmer than normal conditions and blue colors indicates cooler than normal conditions.

Allen, Jesse; Hansen, James

1998-11-01

423

Annual North America Surface Temperature Anomaly: 1950 through 1998  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Global surface temperatures in 1998 set a new record for the period of instrumental measurements, report researchers at the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies who analyze data collected from several thousand meteorological stations around the world. This visualization shows surface temperature anomalies from 1950 through November, 1998. The 1998 warmth was associated partly with a strong El Nino that warmed the air over the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean in the first half of the year and in turn affected weather around the world. Red and yellow colors indicate warmer than normal conditions and blue colors indicates cooler than normal conditions.

Allen, Jesse; Hansen, James

1998-11-01

424

Temperature measurement of ratio pyrometers of melting pool surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

The errors in measurement employing quotient pyrometry are a function of the temperature and the effective wavelengths used. They are generated by the spectral emission coefficients of the surface of the test specimen and the spectral transmissivity of the media in the beam path. Temperature-independent deviations up to -30°K have been found for various imaging lenses using calibrated tungsten strip

Mack

1978-01-01

425

20-Year Arctic Summer Seasonal Surface Temperature Trend  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Here the 20-year seasonal surface temperature trend for the summer is shown over the Arctic region. This animation shows the warming and cooling regions in steps from the regions of least change to the areas of greatest change. Blue hues indicate cooling regions; red hues depict warming. Light regions indicate less change while darker regions indicate more. The temperature scale used ranges from -0.4 to +0.4 degrees Celsius in increments of .02 degrees. (See color bar below)

Starr, Cindy; Comiso, Josefino

2003-10-23

426

20-Year Arctic Spring Seasonal Surface Temperature Trend  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Here the 20-year seasonal surface temperature trend for the spring is shown over the Arctic region. This animation shows the warming and cooling regions in steps from the regions of least change to the areas of greatest change. Blue hues indicate cooling regions; red hues depict warming. Light regions indicate less change while darker regions indicate more. The temperature scale used ranges from -0.4 to +0.4 degrees Celsius in increments of .02 degrees. (See color bar below)

Starr, Cindy; Comiso, Josefino

2003-10-23

427

20-Year Arctic Surface Temperature Trend with Alternate Color Scale  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Here the 20-year surface temperature trend is shown over the Arctic region. This still images shows the warming and cooling regions. Blue hues indicate cooling regions; red hues depict warming. Light regions indicate less change while darker regions indicate more. The temperature scale used ranges from -0.14 to +0.4 degrees Celsius in increments of .02 degrees. (See color bar below)

Starr, Cindy; Comiso, Josefino

2003-10-23

428

20-Year Arctic Winter Seasonal Surface Temperature Trend  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Here the 20-year seasonal surface temperature trend for the winter is shown over the Arctic region.