Sample records for earth surface temperatures

  1. Digital Earth Workbench: Global Sea Surface Temperature

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Steve Maher

    1999-11-12

    The Digital Earth Workbench is an interactive application that runs on a SGI Onyx Infinite Reality system and is controlled by an Immersive Workbench, tracked stereo glasses, and a tracked wand. The application allows an unprecedented freedom to roam georeferenced datasets at multiple resolutions and timescales. This animation is one of a series of direct creen captures of the application in operation. The occasional menu appearance denotes direct intervention by the operator to add or delete data or to activate a new control option.

  2. What Is the Atmosphere's Effect on Earth's Surface Temperature?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xubin Zeng

    2010-01-01

    It is frequently stated in textbooks and scholarly articles that the surface temperature of Earth is 33°C warmer than it would be without the atmosphere and that this difference is due to the greenhouse effect. This Forum shows that the atmosphere effect leads to warming of only 20°C. This new conclusion requires a revision to all of the relevant literature

  3. Modeling the Surface Temperature of Earth-like Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vladilo, Giovanni; Silva, Laura; Murante, Giuseppe; Filippi, Luca; Provenzale, Antonello

    2015-05-01

    We introduce a novel Earth-like planet surface temperature model (ESTM) for habitability studies based on the spatial–temporal distribution of planetary surface temperatures. The ESTM adopts a surface energy balance model (EBM) complemented by: radiative–convective atmospheric column calculations, a set of physically based parameterizations of meridional transport, and descriptions of surface and cloud properties more refined than in standard EBMs. The parameterization is valid for rotating terrestrial planets with shallow atmospheres and moderate values of axis obliquity (? ? 45{}^\\circ ). Comparison with a 3D model of atmospheric dynamics from the literature shows that the equator-to-pole temperature differences predicted by the two models agree within ? 5 K when the rotation rate, insolation, surface pressure and planet radius are varied in the intervals 0.5? {? }/{{{? }}\\oplus }? 2, 0.75? S/{{S}\\circ }? 1.25, 0.3? p/(1 bar)? 10, and 0.5? R/{{R}\\oplus }? 2, respectively. The ESTM has an extremely low computational cost and can be used when the planetary parameters are scarcely known (as for most exoplanets) and/or whenever many runs for different parameter configurations are needed. Model simulations of a test-case exoplanet (Kepler-62e) indicate that an uncertainty in surface pressure within the range expected for terrestrial planets may impact the mean temperature by ? 60 K. Within the limits of validity of the ESTM, the impact of surface pressure is larger than that predicted by uncertainties in rotation rate, axis obliquity, and ocean fractions. We discuss the possibility of performing a statistical ranking of planetary habitability taking advantage of the flexibility of the ESTM.

  4. Retrieval of surface temperature by remote sensing. [of earth surface using brightness temperature of air pollutants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gupta, S. K.; Tiwari, S. N.

    1976-01-01

    A simple procedure and computer program were developed for retrieving the surface temperature from the measurement of upwelling infrared radiance in a single spectral region in the atmosphere. The program evaluates the total upwelling radiance at any altitude in the region of the CO fundamental band (2070-2220 1/cm) for several values of surface temperature. Actual surface temperature is inferred by interpolation of the measured upwelling radiance between the computed values of radiance for the same altitude. Sensitivity calculations were made to determine the effect of uncertainty in various surface, atmospheric and experimental parameters on the inferred value of surface temperature. It is found that the uncertainties in water vapor concentration and surface emittance are the most important factors affecting the accuracy of the inferred value of surface temperature.

  5. Earth Observatory Data and Images - Sea Surface Temperature

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Visitors can use sea surface temperature data to build animations that show seasonal and yearly fluctuations, and compare them to data from other selected months and years. The animations can be constructed in map or globe formats and may be viewed on the website or downloaded.

  6. Spatiotemporal correlation structure of the Earth's surface temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fredriksen, Hege-Beate; Rypdal, Kristoffer; Rypdal, Martin

    2015-04-01

    We investigate the spatiotemporal temperature variability for several gridded instrumental and climate model data sets. The temporal variability is analysed by estimating the power spectral density and studying the differences between local and global temperatures, land and sea, and among local temperature records at different locations. The spatiotemporal correlation structure is analysed through cross-spectra that allow us to compute frequency-dependent spatial autocorrelation functions (ACFs). Our results are then compared to theoretical spectra and frequency-dependent spatial ACFs derived from a fractional stochastic-diffusive energy balance model (FEBM). From the FEBM we expect both local and global temperatures to have a long-range persistent temporal behaviour, and the spectral exponent (?) is expected to increase by a factor of two when going from local to global scales. Our comparison of the average local spectrum and the global spectrum shows good agreement with this model, although the FEBM has so far only been studied for a pure land planet and a pure ocean planet, respectively, with no seasonal forcing. Hence it cannot capture the substantial variability among the local spectra, in particular between the spectra for land and sea, and for equatorial and non-equatorial temperatures. Both models and observation data show that land temperatures in general have a low persistence, while sea surface temperatures show a higher, and also more variable degree of persistence. Near the equator the spectra deviate from the power-law shape expected from the FEBM. Instead we observe large variability at time scales of a few years due to ENSO, and a flat spectrum at longer time scales, making the spectrum more reminiscent of that of a red noise process. From the frequency-dependent spatial ACFs we observe that the spatial correlation length increases with increasing time scale, which is also consistent with the FEBM. One consequence of this is that longer-lasting structures must also be wider in space. The spatial correlation length is also observed to be longer for land than for sea. The climate model simulations studied are mainly CMIP5 control runs of length 500-1000 yr. On time scales up to several centuries we do not observe that the difference between the local and global spectral exponents vanish. This also follows from the FEBM and shows that the dynamics is spatiotemporal (not just temporal) even on these time scales.

  7. EU Surface Temperature for All Corners of Earth - the EUSTACE project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rayner, Nick; Auchmann, Renate; Bessembinder, Janette; Brönnimann, Stefan; Brugnara, Yuri; Carrea, Laura; Ghent, Darren; Good, Elizabeth; Herring, Katie; Høyer, Jacob; Kennedy, John; Klein Tank, Albert; Lindgren, Finn; Morice, Colin; Merchant, Chris; Remedios, John; Stephens, Ag; Tonboe, Rasmus

    2015-04-01

    Day-to-day variations in surface air temperature affect society in many ways; however, daily surface air temperature measurements are not available everywhere. A global daily analysis cannot be achieved with measurements made in situ alone, so incorporation of satellite retrievals is needed. To achieve this, we must develop an understanding of the relationships between traditional (land and marine) surface air temperature measurements and retrievals of surface skin temperature from satellite measurements, i.e. Land Surface Temperature, Ice Surface Temperature, Sea Surface Temperature and Lake Surface Water Temperature. These relationships can be derived either empirically or with the help of a physical model. Here we discuss the science needed to produce a fully-global daily analysis (or ensemble of analyses) of surface air temperature on the centennial scale, integrating different ground-based and satellite-borne data types. Information contained in the satellite retrievals would be used to create globally-complete fields in the past, using statistical models of how surface air temperature varies in a connected way from place to place. As the data volumes involved are considerable, such work would need to include partnerships with statisticians and computer scientists to enable the development of new "Big Data" analysis methods. To achieve this, the EUSTACE project will: • provide new, consistent, multi-component estimates of uncertainty in satellite retrievals of surface skin temperature; • identify inhomogeneities in daily surface air temperature measurement series from meteorological stations and correct for these over Europe; • estimate surface air temperature over all surfaces of Earth from surface skin temperature retrievals from satellites; • use new statistical techniques to provide information on higher spatial and temporal scales than currently available, making optimum use of the information in data-rich eras. EUSTACE will undertake this work between January 2015 and June 2018. An overview will be given of the challenges faced, together with information on how interested users can become involved.

  8. Global relationships among the earth's radiation budget, cloudiness, volcanic aerosols, and surface temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ardanuy, Philip E.; Kyle, H. L.; Hoyt, Douglas

    1992-01-01

    Global relationships among the earth's radiation budget, cloudiness, solar constant, volcanic aerosols, and surface temperature are analyzed using data obtained by the Nimbus-7 spacecraft. It was found that these parameters were interrelated on interannual time scales, demonstrating that the interannual variability in the earth's climate (i.e., radiation budget) is detectable and observable by current spaceborne instruments. The degree of global interannual variation is on the order of tenths of percent.

  9. Digital Earth Workbench: Sea Surface Temperature with Cloud Cover

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Steve Maher

    1999-11-12

    The Digital Earth Workbench is an interactive application that runs on a SGI Onyx Infinite Reality system and is controlled by an Immersive Workbench, tracked stereo glasses, and a tracked wand. The application allows an unprecedented freedom to roam georeferenced datasets at multiple resolutions and timescales. This animation is one of a series of direct creen captures of the application in operation. The occasional menu appearance denotes direct intervention by the operator to add or delete data or to activate a new control option.

  10. Global Relationships among the Earth's Radiation Budget, Cloudiness, Volcanic Aerosols, and Surface Temperature.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ardanuy, Philip E.; Kyle, H. Lee; Hoyt, Douglas

    1992-10-01

    The analyses of Cess are extended to consider global relationships among the earth's radiation budget (including solar insulation and changes in optically active gass), cloudiness, solar constant, volcanic aerosols, and surface temperature. Interannual variability and correlations between Nimbus-7 THIR/TOMS cloud amount, ERB WFOV longwave, shortwaye, and net radiation, and SAM II aerosol optical depths, along with Hansen and Lebedeff's surface temperature analyses, are assessed.Solar luminosity is apparently related to the global surface temperature in the 1979-1990 time period based on the Nimbus-7 observations and an extended Hansen and Lebedeff temperature dataset. The 0.40°C range in observed global temperatures may be partitioned into a 0.15°C component due to a 2 W m2 change in the solar constant and a 0.22°C component due to the increasing concentration of CO2 and other greenhouse gases. A relatively large component of the variance in the global temperature, cloudiness, and radiation budget signals is due to interannual earth system variability over time periods much shorter than a solar cycle (e.g., 2-4 years), for which the solar luminosity experiences no comparable fluctuation.The Nimbus-7 observations indicate that the global, annual cloud amount varies by +0.3% to 0.5% with a pronounced quasi-biennial periodicity and is inversely proportional to the outgoing longwave flux and surface temperature. The time dependence of aerosols injected into the stratosphere by the explosive 1982 eruption of El Chichón is found to be important, along with the global cloud amount, in describing the time dependence of the earth's albedo during the period.The sign of the relationship between the earth's surface temperature and the net radiation is of fundamental importance. The Nimbus-7 ERB net radiation observations compared to surface temperature analyses imply a stable climate (at least about some set point that is dictated by other conditions such as the concentration of C02 and other greenhouse gases, that do not apply over the relatively short time interval considered here).When considering future mission we conclude that reliable and well-characterized satellite datasets with of ideally one to two decades or more are required to perform quantitative analyses of the relationships among different elements of the earth's climate system. To accomplish this, the instruments' calibration should be maintained and valid to a stability that permits the analysis of interannual global fluctuations at the 0.2% level.

  11. No direct correlation between galactic cosmic rays and earth surface temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahluwalia, H. S.

    2013-12-01

    We have searched for a correlation between galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) and global earth surface air temperature (GST) datasets going back to the year 1900. The linear correlation coefficient between GCRs and GST varies erratically, exhibiting both positive and negative values over time scales varying from about 5-20 years. Since the finding of no persistent correlation is not supported by predictive theory but is what one should expect for two random, un-correlated time series, we infer that GCRs do not influence global surface air temperature.

  12. Earth's Surface

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Houghton Mifflin Science

    This self-contained module on Earth's crust includes a range of fun activities that students can perform in the classroom and at home with family members. They impart important concepts such as observation, identification, measurement, and differentiation.

  13. What Is the Atmosphere’s Effect on Earth's Surface Temperature?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Xubin

    2010-04-01

    It is frequently stated in textbooks and scholarly articles that the surface temperature of Earth is 33°C warmer than it would be without the atmosphere and that this difference is due to the greenhouse effect. This Forum shows that the atmosphere effect leads to warming of only 20°C. This new conclusion requires a revision to all of the relevant literature in K-12, undergraduate, and graduate education material and to science papers and reports. The greenhouse effect on Earth's surface temperature is well understood qualitatively and is regarded as basic knowledge about Earth's climate and climate change. The 33°C warming has been used to quantify the greenhouse effect of greenhouse gases, or of greenhouse gases and clouds, in K-12 educational material (e.g., http://epa.gov/climatechange/kids/greenhouse.html), undergraduate freshman introductory textbooks on weather and climate [e.g., Ahrens, 2008], and graduate textbooks on climate [e.g., Peixoto and Oort, 1992]. Some textbooks and various other publications have less stringently attributed the warming to the greenhouse effect [e.g., Wallace and Hobbs, 2006; Le Treut et al., 2007; American Meteorological Society, 2000].

  14. Earth System Science at NASA: Teleconnections Between Sea Surface Temperature and Epidemics in Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meeson, Blanche W.

    2000-01-01

    The research carried out in the Earth Sciences in NASA and at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center will be the focus of the presentations. In addition, one research project that links sea surface temperature to epidemics in Africa will be highlighted. At GSFC research interests span the full breath of disciplines in Earth Science. Branches and research groups focus on areas as diverse as planetary geomagnetics and atmospheric chemistry. These organizations focus on atmospheric sciences (atmospheric chemistry, climate and radiation, regional processes, atmospheric modeling), hydrological sciences (snow, ice, oceans, and seasonal-to-interannual prediction), terrestrial physics (geology, terrestrial biology, land-atmosphere interactions, geophysics), climate modeling (global warming, greenhouse gases, climate change), on sensor development especially using lidar and microwave technologies, and on information technologies, that enable support of scientific and technical research.

  15. South Pacific Decadal Variability Since the 1790s and Changes in Earth Surface Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linsley, B. K.; Wu, H. C.; Dassie, E. P.; Schrag, D. P.

    2014-12-01

    Changes in oceanic heat storage may be partly responsible for the most recent stall (or hiatus) in rising Earth surface temperatures since ~2000 C.E. Instrumental data indicates that this most recent stall is coincident with a phase reversal of the North Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). The main locations for this heat exchange with the atmosphere appear to be the tropical and mid-latitude regions of the surface ocean, primarily in the Pacific. We have been investigating poorly understood decadal surface ocean variability in the South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ) region. Despite very sparse instrumental water temperature data in the South Pacific to define the decadal changes at the sea surface and in the upper water column, the available data suggests a disproportionately large role of the Southwest Pacific in decadal-scale changes in heat sequestration. We have generated coral Sr/Ca-derived sea surface temperature (SST) time-series extending back to 1791 C.E. from Fiji, Tonga and Rarotonga (FTR) in the SPCZ region of the subtropical Southwest Pacific and show that decadal-scale SST fluctuations in this broad region are concurrent with the PDO at least since ~1930 C.E. Beginning in the mid-20th century, when more reliable instrumental temperature and ocean heat content data exist, decades of warmer South Pacific subtropical SST co-occur with elevated South Pacific upper ocean (0-700m) heat content. These decadal-scale South Pacific warming events coincide with decadal-scale stalls or plateaus in rising global temperatures. Cross wavelet coherence analysis reveals an increase in the frequency of decadal SST variability from a period near 30 years throughout the 1800s to ~20 years in the later half of the 20th century. Our results provide strong supporting evidence that decadal-scale changes in global surface temperatures are in-part, related to heat storage in the upper water column in the subtropical Pacific. Our results also suggest that decadal-scale stalls in rising global surface temperature are to be expected in the near-future and may be predictable.

  16. HoloGlobe: Sea Surface Temperature and Temperature Anomaly on a Flat Earth (with Dates)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Jim Strong

    1996-08-10

    This is one of a series of animations that were produced to be part of the narrated video shown in the HoloGlobe exhibit at the Smithsonian Museum of Natural History and the Earth Today exhibit at the Smithsonian Air and Space Museum.

  17. HoloGlobe: Sea Surface Temperature and Temperature Anomaly on a Flat Earth

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Jim Strong

    1996-08-10

    This is one of a series of animations that were produced to be part of the narrated video shown in the HoloGlobe exhibit at the Smithsonian Museum of Natural History and the Earth Today exhibit at the Smithsonian Air and Space Museum.

  18. Negative feedback mechanism for the long-term stabilization of earth's surface temperature

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James C. G. Walker; P. B. Hays; J. F. Kasting

    1981-01-01

    We suggest that the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is buffered, over geological time scales, by a negative feedback mechanism in which the rate of weathering of silicate minerals (followed by deposition of carbonate minerals) depends on surface temperature, and surface temperature, in turn, depends on carbon dioxide partial pressure through the green effect. Although the quantitative

  19. Relationship Between the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Measurements and Surface Temperatures of Selected Ocean Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pandey, Dhirendra, K.; Lee, Robert B., III; Brown, Shannon B.; Paden, Jack; Spence, Peter L.; Thomas, Susan; Wilson, Robert S.; Al-Hajjah, Aiman

    2001-01-01

    Clear sky longwave radiances and fluxes are compared with the sea surface temperatures for three oceanic regions: Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific. The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) measurements were obtained by the three thermistor bolometers: total channel which measures the radiation arising from the earth-atmosphere system between 0.3 - greater than 100 micrometers; the window channel which measures the radiation from 8-12 micrometers; and the shortwave channel which measures the reflected energy from 0.3 - less than 5.0 micrometers. These instruments have demonstrated measurement precisions of approximately 0.3% on the International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90) between ground and on-orbit sensor calibrations. In this work we have used eight months of clear sky earth-nadir-view radiance data starting from January 1998 through August 1998. We have found a very strong correlation of 0.97 between the CERES window channel's weekly averaged unfiltered spectral radiance values at satellite altitude (350 km) and the corresponding weekly averaged sea surface temperature (SST) data covering all the oceanic regions. Such correlation can be used in predicting the sea surface temperatures using the present CERES Terra's window channel radiances at satellite altitude very easily.

  20. Earth's Changing Surface

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

    2008-01-07

    Overview: The Earth's Changing Surface SciPack explores how Earth's ever-changing surface is due to continuous natural processes such as tectonic activity, earthquakes, volcanic activities, weathering and erosion, and sedimentation and the reformation of rock. The focus is on topics supporting Standards and Benchmarks related to how and why these processes occur, and how elements cycle through the land, oceans, and atmosphere as a result of these processes. This SciPack looks at Earth as a system that exists in dynamic equilibrium. In addition to comprehensive inquiry-based learning materials tied to Science Education Standards and Benchmarks, the SciPack includes the following additional components: Pedagogical Implications section addressing common misconceptions, teaching resources and strand maps linking grade band appropriate content to standards. Access to one-on-one support via e-mail to content "Wizards". Final Assessment which can be used to certify mastery of the concepts. Learning Outcomes: Earth's Changing Surface: Changing Earth From Within Explain that both Earth's surface and interior are in motion and describe the causes the motion. Describe how heat within Earth comes from two main sources: radioactive decay and residual heat (gravitational energy left over from the formation of Earth). Explain the fact that the vast majority of earthquakes and volcanic activities which occur near plate boundaries are caused by the movement of the plates. Describe that changes on Earth's surface also happen on the ocean floor to create forms such as ocean basins, mountains and volcanoes. Earth's Changing Surface: Sculpting the Landscape Distinguish between changes in Earth's surface that are abrupt, such as earthquakes and volcanoes and changes that happen very slowly such as uplift and wearing down of mountains. Identify rates of landscape formation. Infer from present data that the processes that shape the earth today are similar to events that occurred in the past. Identify agents of change as destructive, constructive, or both. Describe how erosion by way of waves, wind, glaciers, gravity, running water, etc., causes change in geological features. Earth's Changing Surface: Humans as Agents of Change Distinguish natural processes that shape the surface of Earth from human impact factors that change the surface of Earth. Explain how human activities such as river control, mining, and deforestation have had an effect on the shape of Earth's surface. Describe how human activities do not create new processes but cause changes in the rate and scale of natural processes.

  1. How will Earth's surface temperature change in future decades? Judith L. Lean1

    E-print Network

    , volcanic and solar activity, and anthropogenic influences, we anticipate global and regional changes will increase global surface temperature 0.15 ± 0.03°C, at a rate 50% greater than predicted by IPCC. But as a result of declining solar activity in the subsequent five years, average temperature in 2019 is only 0

  2. Solar activity cycles in interannual global and hemisphere temperatures on the earth's surface

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. V. Kuznetsova; L. B. Tsirulnik

    2004-01-01

    We study solar activity and surface temperature variations (in the first place at periods of main solar cycles: ˜ 11 and ˜ 22 yrs) to understand a possible influence of solar activity on climate changes. The problems are trends, quasi-periodicities and noise in solar and climate processes. The basic idea in identifying a possible origin of the observed increase in

  3. Effects of temperature-dependent molecular absorption coefficients on the thermal infrared remote sensing of the earth surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wan, Zhengming; Dozier, Jeff

    1992-01-01

    The effect of temperature-dependent molecular absorption coefficients on thermal infrared spectral signatures measured from satellite sensors is investigated by comparing results from the atmospheric transmission and radiance codes LOWTRAN and MODTRAN and the accurate multiple scattering radiative transfer model ATRAD for different atmospheric profiles. The sensors considered include the operational NOAA AVHRR and two research instruments planned for NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS): MODIS-N (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer-Nadir-Mode) and ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer). The difference in band transmittance is as large as 6 percent for some thermal bands within atmospheric windows and more than 30 percent near the edges of these atmospheric windows. The effect of temperature-dependent molecular absorption coefficients on satellite measurements of sea-surface temperature can exceed 0.6 K. Quantitative comparison and factor analysis indicate that more accurate measurements of molecular absorption coefficients and better radiative transfer simulation methods are needed to achieve SST accuracy of 0.3 K, as required for global numerical models of climate, and to develop land-surface temperature algorithms at the 1-K accuracy level.

  4. Sea Surface Temperature

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2009-07-09

    Explore the relationship between sea surface temperature (SST) and Earth's climate system, and consider the effects that changes in SST are having in the Arctic and beyond in this interactive activity produced for Teachers' Domain featuring data and visualization from NOAA.

  5. HoloGlobe: Sea Surface Temperature Anomaly on a Flat Earth

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Jim Strong

    1996-08-10

    This is one of a series of animations that were produced to be part of the narrated video shown in the HoloGlobe exhibit at the Smithsonian Museum of Natural History and the Earth Today exhibit at the Smithsonian Air and Space Museum.

  6. HoloGlobe: Sea Surface Temperature Anomaly on a Flat Earth (with Dates)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Jim Strong

    1996-08-10

    This is one of a series of animations that were produced to be part of the narrated video shown in the HoloGlobe exhibit at the Smithsonian Museum of Natural History and the Earth Today exhibit at the Smithsonian Air and Space Museum.

  7. The Carbon Dioxide Concentration in Earth’s atmosphere and Its Possible Influence on the Temperature at the Surface - as discussed in Sweden in 1894-96

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willson, Lee Anne M.

    2014-01-01

    On November 15, 1894, Arvid Högbom, geologist, presented a paper at a meeting of the Swedish Chemical Society (“Kemistsamfundet) in Uppsala. His title: “On the probability of secular changes in the atmosphere’s carbonic acid concentration”. The possibility that changes in the carbon dioxide concentration would produce changes in the surface temperature came up in the discussion after the talk. In the audience was Svante Arrhenius. In early 1896, at another meeting of Kemistsamfundet, Arrhenius followed up on this with a paper “The influence of the carbonic acid concentration on the temperature at the surface of the Earth”. Both papers were published in Svensk Kemisk Tidscrift - Vol. 6 and Vol. 7 - as part of the minutes of the corresponding meetings. Arrhenius continued to pursue the idea, presenting and writing about it outside of Sweden. Most histories credit Arrhenius’s work as the first on global warming, although some mention Högbom’s prior report. Högbom’s paper has never been translated from the Swedish, at least not so far as I have been able to discover. I will present a translation and review of Högbom’s elegant paper and Arrhenius's initial response.

  8. Characterizing an Integrated Annual Global Measure of the Earth's Maximum Land Surface Temperatures from 2003 to 2012 Reveals Strong Biogeographic Influences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mildrexler, D. J.; Zhao, M.; Running, S. W.

    2014-12-01

    Land Surface Temperature (LST) is a good indicator of the surface energy balance because it is determined by interactions and energy fluxes between the atmosphere and the ground. The variability of land surface properties and vegetation densities across the Earth's surface changes these interactions and gives LST a unique biogeographic influence. Natural and human-induced disturbances modify the surface characteristics and alter the expression of LST. This results in a heterogeneous and dynamic thermal environment. Measurements that merge these factors into a single global metric, while maintaining the important biophysical and biogeographical factors of the land surface's thermal environment are needed to better understand integrated temperature changes in the Earth system. Using satellite-based LST we have developed a new global metric that focuses on one critical component of LST that occurs when the relationship between vegetation density and surface temperature is strongly coupled: annual maximum LST (LSTmax). A 10 year evaluation of LSTmax histograms that include every 1-km pixel across the Earth's surface reveals that this integrative measurement is strongly influenced by the biogeographic patterns of the Earth's ecosystems, providing a unique comparative view of the planet every year that can be likened to the Earth's thermal maximum fingerprint. The biogeographical component is controlled by the frequency and distribution of vegetation types across the Earth's land surface and displays a trimodal distribution. The three modes are driven by ice covered polar regions, forests, and hot desert/shrubland environments. In ice covered areas the histograms show that the heat of fusion results in a convergence of surface temperatures around the melting point. The histograms also show low interannual variability reflecting two important global land surface dynamics; 1) only a small fraction of the Earth's surface is disturbed in any given year, and 2) when considered at the global scale, the positive and negative climate forcings resulting from the aggregate effects of the loss of vegetation to disturbances and the regrowth from natural succession are roughly in balance. Changes in any component of the histogram can be tracked and would indicate a major change in the Earth system.

  9. Surface Temperature Data Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, James; Ruedy, Reto

    2012-01-01

    Small global mean temperature changes may have significant to disastrous consequences for the Earth's climate if they persist for an extended period. Obtaining global means from local weather reports is hampered by the uneven spatial distribution of the reliably reporting weather stations. Methods had to be developed that minimize as far as possible the impact of that situation. This software is a method of combining temperature data of individual stations to obtain a global mean trend, overcoming/estimating the uncertainty introduced by the spatial and temporal gaps in the available data. Useful estimates were obtained by the introduction of a special grid, subdividing the Earth's surface into 8,000 equal-area boxes, using the existing data to create virtual stations at the center of each of these boxes, and combining temperature anomalies (after assessing the radius of high correlation) rather than temperatures.

  10. Rare Earth Optical Temperature Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chubb, Donald L. (Inventor); Jenkins, Phillip (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A rare earth optical temperature sensor is disclosed for measuring high temperatures. Optical temperature sensors exist that channel emissions from a sensor to a detector using a light pipe. The invention uses a rare earth emitter to transform the sensed thermal energy into a narrow band width optical signal that travels to a detector using a light pipe. An optical bandpass filter at the detector removes any noise signal outside of the band width of the signal from the emitter.

  11. Our contaminated atmosphere: The danger of climate change, phases 1 and 2. [effect of atmospheric particulate matter on surface temperature and earth's radiation budget

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cimorelli, A. J.; House, F. B.

    1974-01-01

    The effects of increased concentrations of atmospheric particulate matter on average surface temperature and on the components of the earth's radiation budget are studied. An atmospheric model which couples particulate loading to surface temperature and to changes in the earth's radiation budget was used. A determination of the feasibility of using satellites to monitor the effect of increased atmospheric particulate concentrations is performed. It was found that: (1) a change in man-made particulate loading of a factor of 4 is sufficient to initiate an ice age; (2) variations in the global and hemispheric weighted averages of surface temperature, reflected radiant fluz and emitted radiant flux are nonlinear functions of particulate loading; and (3) a black satellite sphere meets the requirement of night time measurement sensitivity, but not the required day time sensitivity. A nonblack, spherical radiometer whose external optical properties are sensitive to either the reflected radiant fluz or the emitted radiant flux meets the observational sensitivity requirements.

  12. Hydrohalite in cold sea ice: Laboratory observations of single crystals, surface accumulations, and migration rates under a temperature gradient, with application to “Snowball Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Light, Bonnie; Brandt, Richard E.; Warren, Stephen G.

    2009-07-01

    When NaCl precipitates out of a saturated solution, it forms anhydrous crystals of halite at temperatures above +0.11°C, but at temperatures below this threshold it instead precipitates as the dihydrate "hydrohalite," NaCl · 2H2O. When sea ice is cooled, hydrohalite begins to precipitate within brine inclusions at about -23°C. In this work, hydrohalite crystals are examined in laboratory experiments: their formation, their shape, and their response to warming and desiccation. Sublimation of a sea ice surface at low temperature leaves a lag deposit of hydrohalite, which has the character of a fine powder. The precipitation of hydrohalite in brine inclusions raises the albedo of sea ice, and the subsequent formation of a surface accumulation further raises the albedo. Although these processes have limited climatic importance on the modern Earth, they would have been important in determining the surface types present in regions of net sublimation on the tropical ocean in the cold phase of a Snowball Earth event. However, brine inclusions in sea ice migrate downward to warmer ice, so whether salt can accumulate on the surface depends on the relative rates of sublimation and migration. The migration rates are measured in a laboratory experiment at temperatures from -2°C to -32°C; the migration appears to be too slow to prevent formation of a salt crust on Snowball Earth.

  13. Climate change stored below the earth`s surface

    SciTech Connect

    Cermak, V.; Safanda, J.; Kresl, M. [and others

    1997-12-31

    Earth`s subsurface has a certain capability to remember what has happened on its surface tens to hundreds (or even thousands) years ago. Long-term climate changes accompanied by variations in tile mean annual temperature determine tile soil temperature, the time variations of which then propagate downwards with an attenuated amplitude and delayed phase. Ground surface temperature (GST) history, reflecting the past climate, can thus be evaluated by analysing its excursions left on the present-day temperature-depth T(z) distribution measured by precise temperature logging in the boreholes. Whereas the depths of several hundred metres may still keep and reveal a reliable record oil the climate of the past several centuries, tile uppermost layer of 100-150 in presents a plentiful archive of the recent global warming. Several characteristic examples of extracted climate recollections from holes all over the world will be resented and discussed.

  14. Rare Earth Optical Temperature Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chubb, Donald L.; Wolford, David S.

    2000-01-01

    A new optical temperature sensor suitable for high temperatures (greater than 1700 K) and harsh environments is introduced. The key component of the sensor is the rare earth material contained at the end of a sensor that is in contact with the sample being measured. The measured narrow wavelength band emission from the rare earth is used to deduce the sample temperature. A simplified relation between the temperature and measured radiation was verified experimentally. The upper temperature limit of the sensor is determined by material limits to be approximately 2000 C. The lower limit, determined by the minimum detectable radiation, is found to be approximately 700 K. At high temperatures 1 K resolution is predicted. Also, millisecond response times are calculated.

  15. The Sun-Earth Connection The Temperature of the Earth

    E-print Network

    Walter, Frederick M.

    AST248 The Sun-Earth Connection #12;The Temperature of the Earth The Earth is in equilibrium ­ the heat absorbed from the Sun with ­ the heat radiated by the Earth. Heat in = heat out #12;Heat constant) ­ L is the solar luminosity ­ d is the distance from the Earth to the Sun, 1AU ­ The solar

  16. Global Sea SurfaceTemperature

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This illustration of Earth's sea surface temperature was obtained from two weeks of infrared observations by the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR), an instrument on board NOAA-7, during July 1984. Temperatures are color coded with red being warmest and decreasing through oranges, yellows, greens, and blues. The caption provides a brief description of the features seen in the image.

  17. EARTH SURFACE PROCESSES AND LANDFORMS Earth Surf. Process. Landforms (2009)

    E-print Network

    Heimsath, Arjun M.

    2009-01-01

    EARTH SURFACE PROCESSES AND LANDFORMS Earth Surf. Process. Landforms (2009) Copyright © 2009 John.1790 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.Chichester, UKESPEarth Surface Processes and LandformsEARTH SURFACE Research GroupEarth Surf. Process. Landforms0197-93371096-9837Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd

  18. EARTH SURFACE PROCESSES AND LANDFORMS Earth Surf. Process. Landforms (2009)

    E-print Network

    Heimsath, Arjun M.

    2009-01-01

    EARTH SURFACE PROCESSES AND LANDFORMS Earth Surf. Process. Landforms (2009) Copyright © 2009 John.1764 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.Chichester, UKESPEarth Surface Processes and LandformsEARTH SURFACE Research GroupEarth Surf. Process. Landforms0197-93371096-9837Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd

  19. Surface and Interior of Earth

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Roberta Johnson

    2000-07-01

    This section of the Windows to the Universe web site provides information and images about Earth including detailed information about Earth's interior layers, Earth's surface, and plate tectonics. Windows to the Universe is a user-friendly learning system pertaining to the Earth and Space sciences. The objective of this project is to develop an innovative and engaging web site that spans the Earth and Space sciences and includes a rich array of documents, including images, movies, animations, and data sets that explore the Earth and Space sciences and the historical and cultural ties between science, exploration and the human experience. Links at the top of each page allow users to navigate between beginner, intermediate and advanced levels.

  20. EARTH SURFACE PROCESSES AND LANDFORMS Earth Surf. Process. Landforms (2010)

    E-print Network

    2010-01-01

    EARTH SURFACE PROCESSES AND LANDFORMS Earth Surf. Process. Landforms (2010) Copyright © 2010 John at the global scale, whether by agriculture or by more direct earth-moving operations (e.g. Hooke, 2000

  1. DIATOMACEOUS EARTH SURFACE TREATMENT FOR STORED WHEAT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diatomaceous earth (DE) can be used as a surface treatment in stored wheat to control pest infestations. However, it is not known how the thickness of the DE-treated wheat layer or grain temperature impacts effectiveness. When adult Rhizopertha dominica (F.), lesser grain borers, were released in e...

  2. The Surface of the Earth

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Roberta Johnson

    2000-07-01

    The Surface of the Earth is a Windows to the Universe Exploratour and provides information and images about landforms, plate tectonics, Earth's layers, the lithosphere, plates, moving plates, and the water cycle, . This tour also explains the formation of mountains, volcanoes, craters, rocks and minerals, the ocean floor, oceans, ocean levels, poles, rivers, lakes, and deserts. Windows to the Universe is a user-friendly learning system pertaining to the Earth and Space sciences. The objective of this project is to develop an innovative and engaging web site that spans the Earth and Space sciences and includes a rich array of documents, including images, movies, animations, and data sets that explore the Earth and Space sciences and the historical and cultural ties between science, exploration and the human experience. Links at the top of each page allow users to navigate between beginner, intermediate, and advanced options for each topic level.

  3. Sea Surface Temperatures

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1999-10-30

    Users can search for and view sea surface temperature imagery. They may choose from the latest image, or browse archived imagery that dates back approximately two weeks. Links to other sea surface temperature datasets are included.

  4. EARTH SURFACE PROCESSES AND LANDFORMS Earth Surf. Process. Landforms (2010)

    E-print Network

    Howat, Ian M.

    2010-01-01

    EARTH SURFACE PROCESSES AND LANDFORMS Earth Surf. Process. Landforms (2010) Copyright © 2010 John , Abu Saleh Khan8 and A.K.M. Zeaul Hoque8 1 School of Earth Sciences, Ohio State University, Columbus OH environments. First, repeat-pass interferometric SAR measurements from the Japanese Earth Resources Satellite

  5. EARTH SURFACE PROCESSES AND LANDFORMS Earth Surf. Process. Landforms (2010)

    E-print Network

    Lancaster, Stephen T.

    2010-01-01

    EARTH SURFACE PROCESSES AND LANDFORMS Earth Surf. Process. Landforms (2010) Copyright © 2010 John. Jefferson,1 * G.E. Grant,2 S.L. Lewis3 and S.T. Lancaster3 1 Department of Geography and Earth Sciences, Department of Geography and Earth Sciences, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, 9201 University City

  6. A more accurate scheme for calculating Earth’s skin temperature

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ben-Jei Tsuang; Chia-Ying Tu; Jeng-Lin Tsai; John A. Dracup; Klaus Arpe; Tilden Meyers

    2009-01-01

    The theoretical framework of the vertical discretization of a ground column for calculating Earth’s skin temperature is presented.\\u000a The suggested discretization is derived from the evenly heat-content discretization with the optimal effective thickness for\\u000a layer-temperature simulation. For the same level number, the suggested discretization is more accurate in skin temperature\\u000a as well as surface ground heat flux simulations than those

  7. Surface Temperature Analysis

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS)

    This site, NASA GISS Surface Temperature (GISTEMP) analysis, provides a measure of the changing global surface temperature with monthly resolution for the period since 1880, when a reasonably global distribution of meteorological stations was established. Data for individual stations, aggregate data, graphs, charts, maps, and animations are included, and tables of data are also linked to the site.

  8. GLOBAL SURFACE TEMPERATURE CHANGE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Hansen; R. Ruedy; M. Sato; K. Lo

    2010-01-01

    We update the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) analysis of global surface temperature change, compare alternative analyses, and address questions about perception and reality of global warming. Satellite-observed night lights are used to identify measurement stations located in extreme darkness and adjust temperature trends of urban and periurban stations for nonclimatic factors, verifying that urban effects on analyzed global

  9. Dropping Two Balls Near the Earth's Surface

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    David M. Harrison

    The representation depicts two balls being dropped near the Earth's surface in an interactive simulation. The user can control the initial horizontal speed of one ball and observe the path and acceleration of both balls as they fall and hit the Earth's surface at the same time.

  10. Global Sea Surface Temperature and MODIS

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Stuart Snodgrass

    2000-04-19

    MODIS provides frequent (every 1-2 days) global views of many of the Earths vital signs. This image shows a true-color land surface and a false color sea surface temperature map (red and yellow are warmer, blues are cooler).

  11. Global Surface Temperature Change

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Hansen; R. Ruedy; M. Sato

    We update the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) analysis of global surface temperature change, compare alternative analyses, and address questions about perception and reality of global warming. Satellite-observed nightlights are used to identify measurement stations located in extreme darkness and adjust temperature trends of urban and peri-urban stations for non-climatic factors, verifying that urban effects on analyzed global change

  12. Earth

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This lithograph depicts a view of Earth taken from Apollo 10 during its journey to the Moon in May 1969. False-color satellite images showing chlorophyll concentration, sea surface temperature, topography, and ozone concentration are also featured. The images are accompanied by a brief description, some statistical facts, and a list of important dates in the history of Earth exploration.

  13. Platinum in Earth surface environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reith, F.; Campbell, S. G.; Ball, A. S.; Pring, A.; Southam, G.

    2014-04-01

    Platinum (Pt) is a rare precious metal that is a strategic commodity for industries in many countries. The demand for Pt has more than doubled in the last 30 years due to its role in the catalytic conversion of CO, hydrocarbons and NOx in modern automobiles. To explore for new Pt deposits, process ores and deal with ecotoxicological effects of Pt mining and usage, the fundamental processes and pathways of Pt dispersion and re-concentration in surface environments need to be understood. Hence, the aim of this review is to develop a synergistic model for the cycling of Pt in Earth surface environments. This is achieved by integrating the geological/(biogeo)chemical literature, which focuses on naturally occurring Pt mobility around ore deposits, with the environmental/ecotoxicological literature dealing with anthropogenic Pt dispersion. In Pt deposits, Pt occurs as sulfide-, telluride- and arsenide, native metal and alloyed to other PGEs and iron (Fe). Increased mining and utilization of Pt combined with the burning of fossil fuels have led to the dispersion of Pt-containing nano- and micro-particles. Hence, soils and sediments in industrialized areas, urban environments and along major roads are now commonly Pt enriched. Platinum minerals, nuggets and anthropogenic particles are transformed by physical and (bio)geochemical processes. Complexation of Pt ions with chloride, thiosulfate, ammonium, cyanide, low- and high molecular weight organic acids (LMWOAs and HMWOAs) and siderophores can facilitate Pt mobilization. Iron-oxides, clays, organic matter and (micro)biota are known to sequester Pt-complexes and -particles. Microbes and plants are capable of bioaccumulating and reductively precipitating mobile Pt complexes. Bioaccumulation can lead to toxic effects on plants and animals, including humans. (Bio)mineralization in organic matter-rich sediments can lead to the formation of secondary Pt particles and -grains. Ultimately, Pt is enriched in oceanic sediments, where Pt is commonly concentrated in manganese (Mn) oxides. When these sediments are subducted, Pt re-enters the magmatic cycle. In conclusion, this review demonstrates that geological, geochemical as well as biological and most recently anthropological processes are strongly interlinked in driving the cycling of Pt in surface environments.

  14. Sea Surface Temperature Climatology

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Earth Education Online

    This interactive animation shows global sea surface temperature averages for the same months over a number of years. Click on the map to see values for a particular month. This takes leads to a viewer that allows users to manipulate the figure, zooming in to a particular spot, altering the size, or changing the format.

  15. Superhydrophobic surfaces engineered using diatomaceous earth.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Nuno M; Reis, Rui L; Mano, João F

    2013-05-22

    We present a simple method to prepare superhydrophobic surfaces using siliceous exoskeleton of diatoms, a widespread group of algae. This makes diatomaceous earth an accessible and cheap natural material. A micro/nanoscale hierarchical topography was achieved by coating a glass surface with diatomaceous earth, giving rise to a superhydrophilic surface. Superhydrophobic surfaces were obtained by a further surface chemical modification through fluorosilanization. The wettability of the superhydrophobic surface can be modified by Argon plasma treatment in a controlled way by exposure time variation. The chemical surface modification by fluorosilanization and posterior fluorinated SH surface modification by plasma treatment was analyzed by XPS. Using appropriated hollowed masks only specific areas on the surface were exposed to plasma permitting to pattern hydrophilic features with different geometries on the superhydrophobic surface. We showed that the present strategy can be also applied in other substrates, including thermoplastics, enlarging the potential applicability of the resulting surfaces. PMID:23647196

  16. How Do Map Projections Distort Earth's Surface?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2008-09-10

    This site, part of Exploring Earth Investigation by McDougal Littell and TERC, examines how map projects distort Earth's surface. The investigations "were designed to build students' knowledge of Earth Science conceptsâ?¦and to raise student awareness of Earth as a system of interconnected components and processes." On the site, visitors will find information on representing the spherical Earth on a flat map, the different common projections used, and how to measure the properties of the projections. Many sections contain interactive features and questions which allow students to investigate and understand the ways that flattening the Earth creates problems with maps and what cartographers have done to minimize the distortion. This is an excellent site for any Earth Science classroom as an introductory lecture or out-of-class exploration.

  17. Initiation of clement surface conditions on the earliest Earth

    PubMed Central

    Sleep, N. H.; Zahnle, K.; Neuhoff, P. S.

    2001-01-01

    In the beginning the surface of the Earth was extremely hot, because the Earth as we know it is the product of a collision between two planets, a collision that also created the Moon. Most of the heat within the very young Earth was lost quickly to space while the surface was still quite hot. As it cooled, the Earth's surface passed monotonically through every temperature regime between silicate vapor to liquid water and perhaps even to ice, eventually reaching an equilibrium with sunlight. Inevitably the surface passed through a time when the temperature was around 100°C at which modern thermophile organisms live. How long this warm epoch lasted depends on how long a thick greenhouse atmosphere can be maintained by heat flow from the Earth's interior, either directly as a supplement to insolation, or indirectly through its influence on the nascent carbonate cycle. In both cases, the duration of the warm epoch would have been controlled by processes within the Earth's interior where buffering by surface conditions played little part. A potentially evolutionarily significant warm period of between 105 and 107 years seems likely, which nonetheless was brief compared to the vast expanse of geological time. PMID:11259665

  18. Initiation of clement surface conditions on the earliest Earth.

    PubMed

    Sleep, N H; Zahnle, K; Neuhoff, P S

    2001-03-27

    In the beginning the surface of the Earth was extremely hot, because the Earth as we know it is the product of a collision between two planets, a collision that also created the Moon. Most of the heat within the very young Earth was lost quickly to space while the surface was still quite hot. As it cooled, the Earth's surface passed monotonically through every temperature regime between silicate vapor to liquid water and perhaps even to ice, eventually reaching an equilibrium with sunlight. Inevitably the surface passed through a time when the temperature was around 100 degrees C at which modern thermophile organisms live. How long this warm epoch lasted depends on how long a thick greenhouse atmosphere can be maintained by heat flow from the Earth's interior, either directly as a supplement to insolation, or indirectly through its influence on the nascent carbonate cycle. In both cases, the duration of the warm epoch would have been controlled by processes within the Earth's interior where buffering by surface conditions played little part. A potentially evolutionarily significant warm period of between 10(5) and 10(7) years seems likely, which nonetheless was brief compared to the vast expanse of geological time. PMID:11259665

  19. Composition and temperature of Earth's inner core

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lars Stixrudeand; Evgeny Wasserman; Ronald E. Cohen

    1997-01-01

    We compare a theoretical prediction of the equation of state of iron at high pressures and temperatures to the properties of the Earth's inner core. The theoretical result is based on a first principles treatment of the static pressure and the pressure due to thermal excitation of electrons and an approximate ab initio (cell model) treatment of the vibrational pressure.

  20. Influence of Land-Surface Evapotranspiration on the Earth's Climate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Shukla; Y. Mintz

    1982-01-01

    Calculations with a numerical model of the atmosphere show that the global fields of rainfall, temperature, and motion strongly depend on the landsurface evapotranspiration. This confirms the long-held idea that the surface vegetation, which produces the evapotransporation, is an important factor in the earth's climate.

  1. Comparing the Surfaces of Earth and Mars

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Roberta Johnson

    2000-07-01

    Comparing the Surfaces of Earth and Mars is a Windows to the Universe Exploratour and provides information and images about different features found on the surface and the geography of both planets: continents, craters, volcanoes, plate tectonics, rocks, soils, water, and polar caps. Windows to the Universe is a user-friendly learning system pertaining to the Earth and Space sciences. The objective of this project is to develop an innovative and engaging web site that spans the Earth and Space sciences and includes a rich array of documents, including images, movies, animations, and data sets that explore the Earth and Space sciences and the historical and cultural ties between science, exploration and the human experience. Links at the top of each page allow users to navigate between beginner, intermediate, and advanced options for each topic level.

  2. Deformation of the Earths Surface by Local Mass Loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mojzes, Marcel; Kollar, Pavol; Valko, Milos

    2010-05-01

    The mass of big building cause a deformation of the Earth crust up to long distance from area of realization. The elastic and rheological effects are modelled as viscoelastic and plastic. In both cases exists new factor-time. More deeply knowledge of mechanical properties of materials and modern computer equipment allow construct very precise model reaction of the Earth surface on loading in time. Geodesists and geophysicists need to know this laws of surface deformation and theirs time evolution for geodetic nets design, for analysis of repeated measurements or analysis time series. The poster contents the mathematical modelling of the Earth elastic surface deformation caused by symmetric loading of its boundary, time evolution of vertical displacements and local deformation caused temperature effects.

  3. Energy balance at the Earth's surface: Heat flux history in Eastern Canada

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hugo Beltrami; Jingfeng Wang; Rafael L. Bras

    2000-01-01

    The heat exchange at the air\\/ground interface is determined by many complex processes making the energy balance at the earth's surface extremely difficult to quantify and model. A new methodology allows heat flux at the Earth's surface to be estimated using ground surface temperature history reconstructed from geothermal data. We found that over a large region in eastern and central

  4. Earth Mover's Distances on Discrete Surfaces Justin Solomon

    E-print Network

    Kazhdan, Michael

    Earth Mover's Distances on Discrete Surfaces Justin Solomon Stanford University Raif Rustamov for Informatics Abstract We introduce a novel method for computing the earth mover's dis- tance (EMD) between: Optimal transportation, Wasserstein metric, earth mover's distance, finite elements, geometric median

  5. EARTH SURFACE PROCESSES AND LANDFORMS Earth Surf. Process. Landforms 34, 15071521 (2009)

    E-print Network

    Heimsath, Arjun M.

    2009-01-01

    EARTH SURFACE PROCESSES AND LANDFORMS Earth Surf. Process. Landforms 34, 1507­1521 (2009) Copyright Geomorphological Research GroupEarth Surf. Process. Landforms0197-93371096-9837Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons

  6. EARTH SURFACE PROCESSES AND LANDFORMS Earth Surf. Process. Landforms 34, 11261135 (2009)

    E-print Network

    Briner, Jason P.

    2009-01-01

    EARTH SURFACE PROCESSES AND LANDFORMS Earth Surf. Process. Landforms 34, 1126­1135 (2009) Copyright Geomorphological Research GroupEarth Surf. Process. Landforms0197-93371096-9837Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons

  7. EARTH SURFACE PROCESSES AND LANDFORMS Earth Surf. Process. Landforms 34, 11081120 (2009)

    E-print Network

    2009-01-01

    EARTH SURFACE PROCESSES AND LANDFORMS Earth Surf. Process. Landforms 34, 1108­1120 (2009) Copyright Geomorphological Research GroupEarth Surf. Process. Landforms0197-93371096-9837Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons

  8. EARTH SURFACE PROCESSES AND LANDFORMS Earth Surf. Process. Landforms 34, 13931407 (2009)

    E-print Network

    Canberra, University of

    2009-01-01

    EARTH SURFACE PROCESSES AND LANDFORMS Earth Surf. Process. Landforms 34, 1393­1407 (2009) Copyright Geomorphological Research GroupEarth Surf. Process. Landforms0197-93371096-9837Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons

  9. Monitoring Earth Surface Dynamics With Optical Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leprince, Sébastien; Berthier, Etienne; Ayoub, François; Delacourt, Christophe; Avouac, Jean-Philippe

    2008-01-01

    The increasing availability of high-quality optical satellite images should allow, in principle, continuous monitoring of Earth's surface changes due to geologic processes, climate change, or anthropic activity. For instance, sequential optical images have been used to measure displacements at Earth's surface due to coseismic ground deformation [e.g., Van Puymbroeck et al., 2000], ice flow [Scambos et al., 1992; Berthier et al., 2005], sand dune migration [Crippen, 1992], and landslides [Kääb, 2002; Delacourt et al., 2004]. Surface changes related to agriculture, deforestation, urbanization, and erosion-which do not involve ground displacement-might also be monitored, provided that the images can be registered with sufficient accuracy. Although the approach is simple in principle, its use is still limited, mainly because of geometric distortion of the images induced by the imaging system, biased correlation techniques, and implementation difficulties.

  10. EARTH SURFACE PROCESSES AND LANDFORMS Earth Surf. Process. Landforms 35, 78101 (2010)

    E-print Network

    Cardinale, Bradley J.

    2010-01-01

    EARTH SURFACE PROCESSES AND LANDFORMS Earth Surf. Process. Landforms 35, 78­101 (2010) Copyright in Earth Science (MYRES) III, titled `Dynamic Interactions of Life and its Landscape'. This paper collaboration among Earth surface scientists and ecologists: it represents the con- sensus view

  11. Monitoring Earth Surface Dynamics With Optical Imagery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Leprince; E. Berthier; F. Ayoub; C. Delacourt; J. Avouac

    2007-01-01

    Optical images can be used to measure accurately a variety of Earth surface processes such as co-seismic ground deformation, ice-flow, landsliding and sand-dunes migration. Although the technique of correlating multi- temporal images is not new, it is not widely used yet due to technical limitations - mainly geometric distortion of the images induced by the imaging system, biased correlation techniques,

  12. Global surface temperatures and the atmospheric electrical circuit

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Colin Price

    1993-01-01

    To monitor future global temperature trends, it would be extremely useful if parameters nonlinearly related to surface temperature could be found, thereby amplifying any warming signal that may exist. Evidence that global thunderstorm activity is nonlinearly related to diurnal, seasonal and interannual temperature variations is presented. Since global thunderstorm activity is also well correlated with the earth's ionospheric potential, it

  13. Planet temperatures with surface cooling parameterized

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levenson, Barton Paul

    2011-06-01

    A semigray (shortwave and longwave) surface temperature model is developed from conditions on Venus, Earth and Mars, where the greenhouse effect is mostly due to carbon dioxide and water vapor. In addition to estimating longwave optical depths, parameterizations are developed for surface cooling due to shortwave absorption in the atmosphere, and for convective (sensible and latent) heat transfer. An approximation to the Clausius-Clapeyron relation provides water-vapor feedback. The resulting iterative algorithm is applied to three "super-Earths" in the Gliese 581 system, including the "Goldilocks" planet g ( Vogt et al., 2010). Surprisingly, none of the three appear habitable. One cannot accurately locate a star's habitable zone without data or assumptions about a planet's atmosphere.

  14. Alkaline Earth Core Level Photoemission Spectroscopy of High-Temperature Superconductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vasquez, R.

    1993-01-01

    This paper examines photoemission measurements of the alkaline Earth core levels of high-temperature superconductors and related materials, models that seek to explain the large negative shifts observed relative to the corresponding alkaline Earth metals, and the effect of lattice site disorder on the core level spectra and the presence or absence of intrinsic surface peaks.

  15. Earth

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) planet profile provides data and images of the planet Earth. These data include planet size, orbit facts, distance from the Sun, rotation and revolution times, temperature, atmospheric composition, density, surface materials and albedo. Images with descriptions show Earth features such as the Ross Ice Shelf in Antarctica, Simpson Desert in Australia, Mt. Etna in Sicily, the Cassiar Mountains in Canada, the Strait of Gibraltar, Mississippi River, Grand Canyon, Wadi Kufra Oasis in Libya, and Moon images such as Hadley Rille, Plum Crater, massifs and Moon rocks. These images were taken with the Galileo Spacecraft and by the Apollo missions.

  16. Global surface temperatures and the atmospheric electrical circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, Colin

    1993-01-01

    To monitor future global temperature trends, it would be extremely useful if parameters nonlinearly related to surface temperature could be found, thereby amplifying any warming signal that may exist. Evidence that global thunderstorm activity is nonlinearly related to diurnal, seasonal and interannual temperature variations is presented. Since global thunderstorm activity is also well correlated with the earth's ionospheric potential, it appears that variations of ionospheric potential, that can be measured at a single location, may be able to supply valuable information regarding global surface temperature fluctuations. The observations presented enable a prediction that a 1 percent increase in global surface temperatures may result in a 20 percent increase in ionospheric potential.

  17. Trends in Surface Temperature from AIRS.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruzmaikin, A.; Aumann, H. H.

    2014-12-01

    To address possible causes of the current hiatus in the Earth's global temperature we investigate the trends and variability in the surface temperature using retrievals obtained from the measurements by the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) and its companion instrument, the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU), onboard of Aqua spacecraft in 2002-2014. The data used are L3 monthly means on a 1x1degree spatial grid. We separate the land and ocean temperatures, as well as temperatures in Artic, Antarctic and desert regions. We find a monotonic positive trend for the land temperature but not for the ocean temperature. The difference in the regional trends can help to explain why the global surface temperature remains almost unchanged but the frequency of occurrence of the extreme events increases under rising anthropogenic forcing. The results are compared with the model studies. This work was supported by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory of the California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  18. SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE MONTHLY AVERAGE AND

    E-print Network

    385: SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE MONTHLY AVERAGE AND ANOMALY CHARTS NORTHEASTERN PACIFIC OCEAN 1947 SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE MONTHLY AVERAGE AND ANOMALY CHARTS NORTHEASTERN PACIFIC OCEAN, 1947 Part I- -Sea surface temperature monthly average charts, northeastern Pacific Ocean 5 Part II- -Sea

  19. Middle Pliocene sea surface temperatures: a global reconstruction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Harry Dowsett; John Barron; Richard Poore

    1996-01-01

    Identification and analyses of Pliocene marine microfossils from 64 globally distributed stratigraphic sequences have been used to produce a middle Pliocene sea surface temperature reconstruction of the Earth. This reconstruction shows little or no change from current conditions in low latitude regions and significant warming of the ocean surface at mid and higher latitudes of both hemispheres. This pattern of

  20. Revised Estimate of Earth's Surface Heat Flow: 47 +- 2 TW

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, J. H.; Davies, D. R.

    2012-04-01

    Earth's surface heat flow provides a fundamental constraint on solid Earth dynamics. However, deriving an estimate of the total surface heat flux is complex, due to the inhomogeneous distribution of heat flow measurements and difficulties in measuring heat flux in young oceanic crust, arising due to hydrothermal circulation. A database of 38347 measurements (provided by G. Laske & G. Masters), representing a 55% increase on the number of measurements used previously, and the methods of Geographical Information Science (GIS), is used to derive a revised estimate of Earth's surface heat flux (Davies & Davies, 2010). To account for hydrothermal circulation in young oceanic crust, we use a model estimate of the heat flux, following the work of Jaupart et al., 2007; while for the rest of the globe, in an attempt to overcome the inhomogeneous distribution of measurements, we develop an average for different geological units. Two digital geology data sets are used to define the global geology: (i) continental geology - Hearn et al., 2003; and (ii) the global data-set of CCGM - Commission de la Carte Géologique du Monde, 2000. This leads to > 93,000 polygons defining Earth's geology. The influence of clustering is limited by intersecting the geology polygons with a 1 by 1 degree (at the equator) equal area grid. The average heat flow is evaluated for each geology class. The contribution of each geology class to the global surface heat flow is derived by multiplying this estimated average surface heat flux with the area of that geology class. The surface heat flow contributions of all the geology classes are summed. For Antarctica we use an estimate based on depth to Curie temperature and include a 1TW contribution from hot-spots in young ocean age. Geology classes with less than 50 readings are excluded. The raw data suggests that this method of correlating heat flux with geology has some power. Our revised estimate for Earth's global surface heat flux is 47 ± 2 TW, which is similar but slightly higher than previous estimates (e.g. Pollack et al., 1993 - 45 ± 1 TW; and Jaupart et al., 2007, - 46 ± 3 TW). It is difficult to reconcile such a high heat flow with estimates of internal heat sources in a monotonically cooling mantle. We will discuss alternative solutions and the extension of this work to produce a best estimate of the local heat flux globally.

  1. Emerging geothermometers for estimating slab surface temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plank, Terry; Cooper, Lauren B.; Manning, Craig E.

    2009-09-01

    Soon after its creation, the upper part of the oceanic lithosphere becomes hydrated owing to prolonged interaction with sea water. As oceanic slabs sink into the mantle at subduction zones and experience increasing temperatures and pressures, they dehydrate and release fluids. Such slab fluids drive mantle melting and return ocean water to the Earth's surface through arc volcanism. The efficiency of this process, as well as the chemical make-up of slab fluids, depends on the pressure and temperature conditions experienced by the slabs as they subduct. A growing body of experimental data provides the basis for new geothermometers (for example the ratio of water to cerium) that, when combined with data from melt inclusions in volcanic crystals, predict that slab-fluid temperatures vary from 750 to 950 °C for different subduction zones. Such high values indicate that fluids that exit the slab when it is below the arc are likely to be like melts or solute-rich fluids. Slab surface temperatures inferred from these geothermometers are at the upper end of those predicted by thermal models, implying that fluids could be released at relatively shallow depths and efficiently returned to the surface.

  2. New constraints on equatorial temperatures during a Late Neoproterozoic snowball Earth glaciation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ewing, Ryan C.; Eisenman, Ian; Lamb, Michael P.; Poppick, Laura; Maloof, Adam C.; Fischer, Woodward W.

    2014-11-01

    Intense glaciation during the end of Cryogenian time (?635 million years ago) marks the coldest climate state in Earth history - a time when glacial deposits accumulated at low, tropical paleolatitudes. The leading idea to explain these deposits, the snowball Earth hypothesis, predicts globally frozen surface conditions and subfreezing temperatures, with global climate models placing surface temperatures in the tropics between -20 °C and -60 °C. However, precise paleosurface temperatures based upon geologic constraints have remained elusive and the global severity of the glaciation undetermined. Here we make new geologic observations of tropical periglacial, aeolian and fluvial sedimentary structures formed during the end-Cryogenian, Marinoan glaciation in South Australia; these observations allow us to constrain ancient surface temperatures. We find periglacial sand wedges and associated deformation suggest that ground temperatures were sufficiently warm to allow for ductile deformation of a sandy regolith. The wide range of deformation structures likely indicate the presence of a paleoactive layer that penetrated 2-4 m below the ground surface. These observations, paired with a model of ground temperature forced by solar insolation, constrain the local mean annual surface temperature to within a few degrees of freezing. This temperature constraint matches well with our observations of fluvial deposits, which require temperatures sufficiently warm for surface runoff. Although this estimate coincides with one of the coldest near sea-level tropical temperatures in Earth history, if these structures represent peak Marinaon glacial conditions, they do not support the persistent deep freeze of the snowball Earth hypothesis. Rather, surface temperatures near 0 °C allow for regions of seasonal surface melting, atmosphere-ocean coupling and possible tropical refugia for early metazoans. If instead these structures formed during glacial onset or deglaciation, then they have implications for the timescale and character for the transition into or out of a snowball state.

  3. Rare Earth element yttrium's effect on high-temperature wear and friction performance of tin coating by the technique of ion plating on H13 steel surface

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xianping Sun; Lijun Wei; Yao Huang; Leigang Wang

    2010-01-01

    Using the technique of ion plating, TiN coating was prepared on H13 steel substrate and the high-temperature wear test was applied. The composition, phase structures and geometrical morphology of TiN serial-coatings were analyzed by use of SEM, XRD and 3D-topography instrument. As the transitional layer, the improvement effects of RE element yttrium on high temperature friction and wear behaviors of

  4. MODIS Land Surface Temperature Products

    E-print Network

    California at Santa Barbara, University of

    MODIS Land Surface Temperature Products Users' Guide Zhengming Wan ICESS, University of California, Santa Barbara March 2006 #12;ALERT --- This document is a living document that describes the MODIS Land of the LST products. Described is the current state of the MODIS LST products. The purpose of the document

  5. Monitoring Earth Surface Dynamics With Optical Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leprince, Sebastien

    Despite the increasing availability of high-quality optical satellite images, continuous monitoring of Earth's surface changes is still of limited use due to technical limitations. To overcome these limitations, this thesis presents a processing chain to accurately orthorectify and co-register sets of satellite and aerial images, which, associated with a precise correlation technique, allow for the measurement of horizontal ground deformations with accuracy better than 1/10 of the pixel size. The irregular resampling problem is addressed to avoid introducing aliasing in the orthorectified images. Image registration and correlation is achieved with an iterative, unbiased processor that estimates the phase plane in the Fourier domain for sub-pixel shift detection. Errors due to the imaging system are calibrated and modeled, topography artifacts are characterized and solutions are proposed to compensate or to filter them. A software package implementing these procedures, Co-registration of Optically Sensed Images and Correlation (COSI-Corr), is available from the Caltech Tectonics Observatory website. The procedure is validated in several different contexts, and applied to seismo-tectonics and glaciology studies. Accurate measurements of horizontal co-seismic displacements in the near fault zone allow unambiguous imaging of surface ruptures. It is shown that measurements of surface ruptures from optical aerial and satellite images compare well with field measurements, and that in addition they have the potential of densely measuring the fault perpendicular component, and the off-fault distributed slip. When combined with seismic waveform modeling, fault geometry and surface offsets add crucial constraints to describe in details the seismic faulting process. Dense maps of glacier velocity are reported for several glaciers in Europe and in the Himalayas. Optical image correlation proves robust even in challenging mountainous areas, allowing accurate measurements of glacier flow velocity. Seasonal variations of glacier flow velocity are well identified, suggesting that such measurements can be used to better study the effects of climate change, and to refine the tuning of numerical glacier models.

  6. Using Vegetation, Precipitation, and Surface Temperature to Study Climate Zones

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The type of climate present in a particular location depends on several variables, including surface temperature and annual precipitation. One indicator of a locale' s climate is the vegetation present, a relationship used by the Koeppen system of climate classification. Using a microset of satellite data to investigate vegetation of a particular climate zone, students will identify factors that influence an area's climate. They will explore the relationship between amount of vegetation, precipitation, and surface temperature to study Earth's climate zones.

  7. High temperature rare earth solid lubricants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sliney, H. E.

    1970-01-01

    Rare earth trifluorides have potential use as lubricating fillers for mechanical carbons and as coatings on metallic substrates. Friction experiments show that they are effective in reducing metallic wear.

  8. Could the Earth's surface Ultraviolet irradiance be blamed for the global warming? A new effect may exist

    E-print Network

    Chen, Jilong; Zhao, Juan; Zheng, Yujun

    2014-01-01

    Whether natural factors could interpret the rise of the Earth's surface temperature is still controversial. Though numerous recent researches have reported apparent correlations between solar activity and the Earth's climate, solar activity has encountered a big problem when describing the rapid global warming after 1970s. Our investigation shows the good positive correlations between the Earth's surface Ultraviolet irradiance (280-400 nm) and the Earth's surface temperature both in temporal and spatial variations by analyzing the global surface Ultraviolet irradiance (280-400 nm) and global surface temperature data from 1980-1999. The rise of CO$_2$ cannot interpret the good positive correlations, and we could even get an opposite result to the good correlations when employing the rise of CO$_2$ to describe the relation between them. Based on the good positive correlations, we suggest a new effect, named "Highly Excited Water Vapor" (HEWV) effect, which can interpret how the Sun influences the Earth's surfac...

  9. Plant transpiration and net entropy exchange on the Earth’s surface in a Czech watershed

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Miroslav Tesa?; ?ubomír Lichner; Jan ?ermák

    2007-01-01

    The influence of plant transpiration on the entropy exchange was quantified as associated with the degradation of solar energy\\u000a on the Earth’s surface covered by plants. Two surfaces were studied: (1) productive surface — plant transpiration taken as\\u000a equal to the potential one, (2) non-productive surface — plant transpiration taken as equal to zero. The entropy exchanges\\u000a associated with the

  10. The impacts of climate change on terrestrial Earth surface systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knight, Jasper; Harrison, Stephan

    2013-01-01

    National and international policy initiatives have focused on reducing carbon emissions as a means by which to limit future climate warming. Much less attention has been paid by policymakers to monitoring, modelling and managing the impacts of climate change on the dynamics of Earth surface systems, including glaciers, rivers, mountains and coasts. This is a critical omission, however, as Earth surface systems provide water and soil resources, sustain ecosystem services and strongly influence biogeochemical climate feedbacks in ways that are as yet uncertain. We argue that there is a significant policy gap regarding the management of Earth surface systems' impacts under climate change that needs to be closed to facilitate the sustainability of cross-national Earth surface resource use. It is also a significant challenge to the scientific community to better understand Earth surface systems' sensitivity to climate forcing.

  11. Rare Earth Doped High Temperature Ceramic Selective Emitters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chubb, Donald L.; Pal, AnnaMarie; Patton, Martin O.; Jenkins, Phillip P.

    1999-01-01

    As a result of their electron structure, rare earth ions in crystals at high temperature emit radiation in several narrow bands rather than in a continuous blackbody manner. This study develops a spectral emittance model for films of rare earth containing materials. Although there are several possible rare earth doped high temperature materials, this study was confined to rare earth aluminum garnets. Good agreement between experimental and theoretical spectral emittances was found for erbium, thulium and erbium-holmium aluminum garnets. Spectral emittances of these films are sensitive to temperature differences across the film. Emitter efficiency is also a sensitive function of temperature. For thulium aluminum garnet the efficiency is 0.38 at 1700 K but only 0.19 at 1262 K.

  12. MODIS Global Sea Surface Temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Every day the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) measures sea surface temperature over the entire globe with high accuracy. This false-color image shows a one-month composite for May 2001. Red and yellow indicates warmer temperatures, green is an intermediate value, while blues and then purples are progressively colder values. The new MODIS sea surface temperature product will be particularly useful in studies of temperature anomalies, such as El Nino, as well as research into how air-sea interactions drive changes in weather and climate patterns. In the high resolution image, notice the amazing detail in some of the regional current patterns. For instance, notice the cold water currents that move from Antarctica northward along South America's west coast. These cold, deep waters upwell along an equatorial swath around and to the west of the Galapagos Islands. Note the warm, wide currents of the Gulf Stream moving up the United States' east coast, carrying Caribbean warmth toward Newfoundland and across the Atlantic toward Western Europe. Note the warm tongue of water extending from Africa's east coast to well south of the Cape of Good Hope. MODIS was launched in December 1999 aboard NASA's Terra satellite. For more details on this and other MODIS data products, please see NASA Unveils Spectacular Suite of New Global Data Products from MODIS. Image courtesy MODIS Ocean Group, NASA GSFC, and the University of Miami

  13. Evaluation of Surface Fatigue Strength Based on Surface Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Gang; Nakanishi, Tsutomu

    Surface temperature is considered to be an integrated index that is dependent on not only the load and the dimensions at the contact point but also the sliding velocity, rolling velocity, surface roughness, and lubrication conditions. Therefore, the surface durability of rollers and gears can be evaluated more exactly and simply by the use of surface temperature rather than Hertzian stress. In this research, surface temperatures of rollers under different rolling and sliding conditions are measured using a thermocouple. The effects of load P, mean velocity Vm and sliding velocity Vs on surface temperature are clarified. An experimental formula, which expresses the linear relationship between surface temperature and the P0.86Vs1.31Vm-0.83 value, is used to determine surface temperature. By comparing calculated and measured temperature on the tooth surface of a gear, this formula is confirmed to be applicable for gear tooth surface temperature calculation.

  14. Thermal conductivity of earth materials at high temperatures.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schatz, J. F.; Simmons, G.

    1972-01-01

    The total thermal conductivity (lattice plus radiative) of several important earth materials is measured in the temperature range from 500 to 1900 K. A new technique is used in which a CO2 laser generates a low-frequency temperature wave at one face of a small disk-shaped sample, and an infrared detector views the opposite face to detect the phase of the emerging radiation. Phase data at several frequencies yield the simultaneous determination of the thermal diffusivity and the mean extinction coefficient of the material. The lattice, radiative, and total thermal conductivities are then calculated. Results for single-crystal and polycrystalline forsterite-rich olivines and an enstatite indicate that, even in relatively pure large-grained material, the radiative conductivity does not increase rapidly with temperature. The predicted maximum total thermal conductivity at a depth of 400 km in an olivine mantle is 0.020 cal/cm/sec/deg C, which is less than twice the surface value.

  15. External Resource: Surface Air Temperature Trends of the Caribbean

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1900-01-01

    This activity allows learners/students to use real satellite data to determine the changes in near-surface air temperature at different times of the year over the Caribbean Sea. Upon completion of the activity, learners should be able to state how Earth's

  16. Daily High-Resolution-Blended Analyses for Sea Surface Temperature

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard W. Reynolds; Thomas M. Smith; Chunying Liu; Dudley B. Chelton; Kenneth S. Casey; Michael G. Schlax

    2007-01-01

    Two new high-resolution sea surface temperature (SST) analysis products have been developed using optimum interpolation (OI). The analyses have a spatial grid resolution of 0.25° and a temporal resolution of 1 day. One product uses the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) infrared satellite SST data. The other uses AVHRR and Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR) on the NASA Earth

  17. Current Tropical Sea Surface Temperatures

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This animation shows the most recent Sea Surface Temperature (SST) data available for the Gulf of Mexico and the Atlantic Coast region. Users can see the progression of warm waters (shown in yellow, orange, and red) slowly filling the Gulf of Mexico. This natural annual warming contributes to the possible formation of hurricanes in the Gulf. The animation updates every 24 hours, and still images of the data are also available. There is also imagery of the most recent 10-day average of SST anomalies in the Pacific Ocean, which is used by scientists for studying El Nino and La Nina. Warmer colors (yellow, red, orange) indicate positive anomalies (temperatures above normal). The imagery is from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for EOS (AMSR-E) aboard the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Aqua satellite.

  18. Re-Evaluation of the Earth's Surface Energy Balance Using a New Method of Heat Fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, S. Y.; Deng, Y.; Wang, J.

    2014-12-01

    The recently proposed and tested model of surface heat fluxes, based on the theory of maximum entropy production (MEP), was used for re-evaluating the global mean annual energy balance over the Earth's surface. Compared to the commonly used bulk transfer models, the MEP model predicted heat fluxes are constrained by surface radiation fluxes satisfying energy balance and independent of temperature/moisture gradient, wind speed and roughness lengths. The MEP model holds for the entire range of soil moisture from dryness to saturation over land surfaces. It provides the first global maps of water heat fluxes at ocean surfaces as well as at snow/ice covered polar regions. The MEP model is less sensitive to the uncertainties of model input (surface radiation fluxes, temperature and/or humidity) parameters and free of location specific tuning (empirical) parameters. Ten years of earth surface radiation fluxes, surface temperature data products from Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System supplemented (when needed) by the surface specific humidity data from Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications were used to reproduce global annual surface energy budgets. The MEP modeled global annual sensible heat fluxes are in close agreement with both previous studies and ocean content climatology (OHC) data from Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, while those of latent heat fluxes are significantly lower than previous estimates. The net surface-atmosphere heat exchange according to the MEP model is consistent with the OHC data.

  19. NEO-SURFACE: Near Earth Objects - SURvey oF Asteroids Close to the Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dotto, E.; Perna, D.; Ieva, S.; Barucci, M. A.; Bernardi, F.; Fornasier, S.; Brucato, J. R.; De Luise, F.; Perozzi, E.; Micheli, M.; Rossi, A.

    2014-04-01

    NEO-SURFACE (Near Earth Objects - SURvey oF Asteroids Close to the Earth) is a survey we carry out in order to increase the present knowledge of the physical properties of NEOs. It includes V+NIR spectroscopy and photometry of i) the so-called Potentially Hazardous Asteroids (PHAs) which make threatening close approaches to the Earth, and ii) the suitable targets for future rendez-vous space missions

  20. Secular variation prediction of the Earth’s magnetic field using core surface flows 

    E-print Network

    Beggan, Ciarán D.

    2009-01-01

    The Earth’s magnetic field is generated by fluid motion of liquid iron in the outer core. Flows at the top of the outer core are believed to be responsible for the secular variation (SV) observed at the surface of the ...

  1. Valence state at the surface of rare-earth metals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Börje Johansson

    1979-01-01

    The valence state of a rare-earth metal surface is investigated by using general properties of the surface tension of metals. Thereby it is concluded that samarium is likely to have a divalent or partly divalent surface on top of its trivalent bulk phase, which agrees with recent spectroscopic observations. Also californium metal is discussed from this point of view. Finally,

  2. Earth Surface Patterns in 200 Years (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, B.

    2009-12-01

    What kinds of patterns will characterize Earth's surface in 200 years? This question is addressed using a complex systems dynamical framework for distinct levels of description in a hierarchy, in which time scale and spatial extent increase and number of variables decrease with level, and in which levels are connected nonlinearly to each other via self-organization and slaving and linearly to the external environment. Self-organized patterns linking the present to 200 years in the future must be described dynamically on a level with a time scale of centuries. Human-landscape coupling will play a prominent role in the formation of these patterns as population peaks and interactions become nonlinear over these time scales. Three related examples illustrate this approach. First, the response of human-occupied coastlines to rising sea level. Coastlines in wealthy regions develop a spatially varying boom and bust pattern, with response amplified by structures meant to delay the effects of sea level rise. Coastlines in economically disadvantaged regions experience a subdued response, with populations developing a culture of displacement that minimizes human-landscape interactions in a context of scarce resources. Second, the evolution of nation-state borders with degrading ecosystems, declining resource availability and increasing transportation costs. The maintenance of strong borders as selective filtration systems (goods, capital and people) is based on a cost-benefit analysis in which the economic benefits accruing from long distance, globalized resource exploitation are weighed against policing and infrastructure costs. As costs rise above benefits, borders fragment, with a transition to local barriers and conflicts, and mobile peoples moving to resources. Third, trends in urbanization and development of megacities under economic and environmental stress. The pattern of rapid growth of megacities through inward migration, with displaced people occupying high-risk urban landscapes such as flood plains or steep slopes and existing on the margins of the formal economic system, switches to outmigration as precarious slum dwellers respond to human-induced natural disasters, crumbling infrastructure and economic decline. Inefficient foraging along outward migration pathways from the urban center drives positive feedbacks that propel a radiating pattern and eventually lead to dispersal. These anticipated patterns represent a fragmentation of economic and power concentrations and networks, and localization of the presently globalized coupled human-landscape system. Long-time-scale models illustrating the fragmentation process and prospects for model testing will be discussed. Supported by the Geomorphology and Land Use Dynamics Program of the US National Science Foundation.

  3. Temperature Dependence of Elastic Constants of Alkaline Earth Oxide Solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, S. P.

    A simple and straightforward theoretical model is developed to investigate the elastic constants of alkaline earth oxide solids under the effect of temperature. The calculation are performed with the help of high temperature equation of state (EOS) derived from Tallon's method based on thermodynamic analysis. The results obtained for these solids are discussed and compared with experimental data under the effect of high temperature. The results are found to be in good agreement with available experimental results

  4. Mission to Earth: LANDSAT Views the World. [Color imagery of the earth's surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Short, N. M.; Lowman, P. D., Jr.; Freden, S. C.; Finch, W. A., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    The LANDSAT program and system is described. The entire global land surface of Earth is visualized in 400 color plates at a scale and resolution that specify natural land cultural features in man's familiar environments. A glossary is included.

  5. Comparisons of borehole temperature-depth profiles and surface air temperatures in the northern plains of the USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Robert N.; Gosnold, William D.

    1999-08-01

    Temperature-depth profiles measured in boreholes contain a record of temperature changes at the Earth's surface. The degree to which these profiles and surface air temperature records track each other is quantitatively assessed for the northern plains of the USA. Surface air temperature records are used as a forcing function to generate synthetic transient temperature profiles which are compared with transient temperatures derived from borehole temperature-depth data. These comparisons indicate that surface air and ground temperatures are correlated. Furthermore, these comparisons yield a long-term mean temperature tied to the meteorological record which provides a context for interpreting contemporary warming trends. Our results indicate that warming recorded in surface air temperature time series represents a positive departure above baseline temperature estimates.

  6. Clouds, surface temperature, and the tropical and subtropical radiation budget

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dhuria, Harbans L.; Kyle, H. Lee

    1980-01-01

    Solar energy drives both the Earth's climate and biosphere, but the absorbed energy is unevenly distributed over the Earth. The tropical regions receive excess energy which is then transported by atmospheric and ocean currents to the higher latitudes. All regions at a given latitude receive the same top of the atmosphere solar irradiance (insolation). However, the net radiation received from the Sun in the tropics and subtropics varies greatly from one region to another depending on local conditions. Over land, variations in surface albedo are important. Over both land and ocean, surface temperature, cloud amount, and cloud type are also important. The Nimbus-7 cloud and Earth radiation budget (ERB) data sets are used to examine the affect of these parameters.

  7. A Plume Model of Transient Diachronous Uplift at the Earth's Surface

    E-print Network

    Rudge, John

    transient temperature anomalies are larger. We suspect that the stratigraphic expression of transientA Plume Model of Transient Diachronous Uplift at the Earth's Surface John F. Rudge a,b,, Max E variation of convection on timescales of 1­10 Ma. Recently, it has been demonstrated that transient uplift

  8. Surface molecular degradation of 3D glass polymer composite under low earth orbit simulated space environment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Firas Awaja; Jin Bum Moon; Shengnan Zhang; Michael Gilbert; Chun Gon Kim; Paul J. Pigram

    2010-01-01

    Epoxy resin reinforced with 3D parabeam glass fibre was subjected to low earth orbit (LEO) simulation conditions comprising ultra high vacuum, temperature cycling (TC), and ultraviolet (UV) radiation and atomic oxygen (AO) bombardment. Inspection of the same composite using only a selection of these hazardous conditions provided comparison measures to identify the effect of each condition on the surface degradation

  9. EFFECTS OFTEMPERATURE-DEPENDENTMOLECULARABSORPTION COEFFICIENTS ON THE THERMALINFRAREDREMOTE SENSING OF THE EARTH SURFACE

    E-print Network

    Dozier, Jeff

    planned for NASA's Earth Observing Sys- tem (EOS): MODIS-N (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer instruments on the NOAA satellites 12, 31, the EOS's specified accuracies for SST and land-surface temperature (LST) represent great challenges in the sensor design and algorithm develop- ments. In the later

  10. 30 CFR 717.15 - Disposal of excess rock and earth materials on surface areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Disposal of excess rock and earth materials on surface areas. 717.15 ...§ 717.15 Disposal of excess rock and earth materials on surface areas. Excess rock and earth materials produced from an underground...

  11. 30 CFR 717.15 - Disposal of excess rock and earth materials on surface areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Disposal of excess rock and earth materials on surface areas. 717.15 ...§ 717.15 Disposal of excess rock and earth materials on surface areas. Excess rock and earth materials produced from an underground...

  12. 30 CFR 717.15 - Disposal of excess rock and earth materials on surface areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Disposal of excess rock and earth materials on surface areas. 717.15 ...§ 717.15 Disposal of excess rock and earth materials on surface areas. Excess rock and earth materials produced from an underground...

  13. Thermal Conductivity of Earth Materials at High Temperatures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John F. Schatz; Gene Simmons

    1972-01-01

    The total thermal conductivity (lattice plus radiative) of several important earth materials is measured in the temperature range 500ø-1900øK. A new technique is used in which a CO. laser generates a low-frequency temperature wave at one face of a small disk-shaped sample, and an infrared detector views the opposite face to detect the phase of the emerging radiation. Phase data

  14. The energy balance of the earth' surface : a practical approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bruin de H. A. R

    1982-01-01

    This study is devoted to the energy balance of the earth's surface with a special emphasis on practical applications. A simple picture of the energy exchange processes that take place at the ground is the following. Per unit time and area an amount of radiant energy is supplied to the surface. This radiation originates partly from the sun, but an~

  15. Aspects Of The Atmospheric Surface Layers On Mars And Earth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. E. Larsen; H. E. Jørgensen; L. Landberg; J. E. Tillman

    2002-01-01

    The structures of mean flow and turbulence in the atmospheric surface boundary layer have been extensively studied on Earth, and to a far less extent on Mars, where only the Viking missions and the Pathfinder mission have delivered in-situ data. Largely the behaviour of surface-layer turbulence and mean flow on Mars is found to obey the same scaling laws as

  16. Twentieth-century sea surface temperature trends

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. Cane; A. C. Clement; A. Kaplan

    1997-01-01

    An analysis of historical sea surface temperatures provides evidence for global warming since 1900, in line with land-based analyses of global temperature trends, and also shows that over the same period, the eastern equatorial Pacific cooled and the zonal sea surface temperature gradient strengthened. Recent theoretical studies have predicted such a pattern as a response of the coupled ocean-atmosphere system

  17. Ocean Currents and Sea Surface Temperature

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2007-01-01

    In this classroom activity, students access sea surface temperature and wind speed data from a NASA site, plot data, compare data, and draw conclusions about surface current and sea surface temperature and link their gained understanding to concerns about global climate change.

  18. Disparity of tropospheric and surface temperature trends: New evidence

    E-print Network

    Douglass, D H; Singer, F; Knappenberger, P C; Michaels, P J

    2004-01-01

    Observations suggest that the earth's surface has been warming relative to the troposphere for the last 25 years; this is not only difficult to explain but also contrary to the results of climate models. We provide new evidence that the disparity is real. Introducing an additional data set, R2 2 meter temperatures, a diagnostic variable related to tropospheric temperature profiles, we find trends derived from it to be in close agreement with satellite measurements of tropospheric temperature. This suggests that the disparity likely is a result of near-surface processes. We find that the disparity does not occur uniformly across the globe, but is primarily confined to tropical regions which are primarily oceanic. Since the ocean measurements are sea surface temperatures, we suggest that the disparity is probably associated with processes at the ocean-atmosphere interface. Our study thus makes unlikely some of the explanations advanced to account for the disparity; it also demonstrates the importance of disting...

  19. High superconducting transition temperatures of new rare earth ternary borides

    PubMed Central

    Matthias, Bernd T.; Corenzwit, E.; Vandenberg, J. M.; Barz, H. E.

    1977-01-01

    A new group of ternary borides has been found that show either ferromagnetism or superconductivity. Their general formula is MRh4B4 where M is a transition or rare-earth element. Their superconducting transition temperatures range from approximately 2.5 K for the Sm compound to approximately 12 K for the Lu compound. PMID:16578751

  20. Estimating ultraviolet radiation at the earth's surface

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manuel Nunez; Bruce Forgan; Colin Roy

    1994-01-01

    Surface ultraviolet (UV) irradiance depends not only on stratospheric ozone amounts, but also varies with time and date, latitude, cloud amount and aerosol load. Any assessment of the effect of stratospheric ozone depletion on surface UV irradiance must take into consideration all of the above parameters. Measurements in the UV-B region may be accomplished using filter and detector combinations which

  1. On the average temperature of airless spherical bodies and the magnitude of Earth's atmospheric thermal effect.

    PubMed

    Volokin, Den; ReLlez, Lark

    2014-01-01

    The presence of atmosphere can appreciably warm a planet's surface above the temperature of an airless environment. Known as a natural Greenhouse Effect (GE), this near-surface Atmospheric Thermal Enhancement (ATE) as named herein is presently entirely attributed to the absorption of up-welling long-wave radiation by greenhouse gases. Often quoted as 33 K for Earth, GE is estimated as a difference between planet's observed mean surface temperature and an effective radiating temperature calculated from the globally averaged absorbed solar flux using the Stefan-Boltzmann (SB) radiation law. This approach equates a planet's average temperature in the absence of greenhouse gases or atmosphere to an effective emission temperature assuming ATE???GE. The SB law is also routinely employed to estimating the mean temperatures of airless bodies. We demonstrate that this formula as applied to spherical objects is mathematically incorrect owing to Hölder's inequality between integrals and leads to biased results such as a significant underestimation of Earth's ATE. We derive a new expression for the mean physical temperature of airless bodies based on an analytic integration of the SB law over a sphere that accounts for effects of regolith heat storage and cosmic background radiation on nighttime temperatures. Upon verifying our model against Moon surface temperature data provided by the NASA Diviner Lunar Radiometer Experiment, we propose it as a new analytic standard for evaluating the thermal environment of airless bodies. Physical evidence is presented that Earth's ATE should be assessed against the temperature of an equivalent airless body such as the Moon rather than a hypothetical atmosphere devoid of greenhouse gases. Employing the new temperature formula we show that Earth's total ATE is ~90 K, not 33 K, and that ATE?=?GE?+?TE, where GE is the thermal effect of greenhouse gases, while TE?>?15 K is a thermodynamic enhancement independent of the atmospheric infrared back radiation. It is concluded that the contribution of greenhouse gases to Earth's ATE defined as GE?=?ATE - TE might be greater than 33 K, but will remain uncertain until the strength of the hereto identified TE is fully quantified by future research. PMID:26034697

  2. External Resource: Using Vegetation, Precipitation, and Surface Temperature to Study Climate Zones

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1900-01-01

    This My NASA Data activity explores the relationship between amount of vegetation, precipitation, and surface temperature to study Earth's climate zones. Each fifty minute activity allows learners/students to use a micro-set of satellite data to investiga

  3. COMPARISON OF LAND SURFACE EMISSIVITY AND RADIOMETRIC TEMPERATURE DERIVED FROM MODIS AND ASTER SENSORS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study compares surface emissivity and radiometric temperature products derived using data collected with the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission Reflectance Radiometer (ASTER) sensors, on the Earth Observation System (EOS) - Terra satel...

  4. Validating MODIS land surface temperature products using long-term nighttime ground measurements

    E-print Network

    Liang, Shunlin

    Validating MODIS land surface temperature products using long-term nighttime ground measurements, United States b Atmospheric Turbulence and Diffusion Division, NOAA, United States Received 29 August Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), onboard the NASA Terra and Aqua Earth Observing System satellites

  5. Solar and geomagnetic activity, extremely low frequency magnetic and electric fields and human health at the Earth’s surface

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. J. Palmer; M. J. Rycroft; M. Cermack

    2006-01-01

    The possibility that conditions on the Sun and in the Earth’s magnetosphere can affect human health at the Earth’s surface has been debated for many decades. This work reviews the research undertaken in the field of heliobiology, focusing on the effect of variations of geomagnetic activity on human cardiovascular health. Data from previous research are analysed for their statistical significance,

  6. Historical Landsat data comparisons: illustrations of the Earth's changing surface

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) EROS Data Center (EDC) has managed the Landsat data archive for more than two decades. This archive provides a rich collection of information about the Earth's land surface. Major changes to the surface of the planet can be detected, measured, and analyzed using Landsat data. The effects of desertification, deforestation, pollution, cataclysmic volcanic activity, and other natural and anthropogenic events can be examined using data acquired from the Landsat series of Earth-observing satellites. The information obtainable from the historical and current Landsat data play a key role in studying surface changes through time. This document provides an overview of the Landsat program and illustrates the application of the data to monitor changes occurring on the surface of the Earth. To reveal changes that have taken place within the past 20 years, pairs and triplicates of images were constructed from the Landsat multispectral scanner (MSS) and thematic mapper (TM) sensors. Landsat MSS data provide a historical record of the Earth's land surface from the early 1970's to the early 1990's. Landsat TM data provide land surface information from the early 1980's to the present.

  7. Ocean surfaces on Snowball Earth: implications for survival of surface life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, S.

    2003-04-01

    The ocean surfaces on a Neoproterozoic Snowball Earth would vary with latitude and evolve through time. The high-latitude and mid-latitude oceans would consist of snow-covered sea-glaciers (self-sustaining ice shelves), with surface albedo 0.8. At low latitudes in regions of net sublimation, the ocean surfaces would consist of (1) bare sea ice with salt inclusions, (2) an evaporite deposit of hydrohalite, and (3) bubbly glacier ice emerging from equatorward flow of sea-glaciers. Their albedos would be 0.6-0.75. These high albedos, when used in climate models for the early part of the snowball event, imply surface air temperatures well below freezing at all latitudes in all seasons. Yet there is evidence that photosynthetic eukaryotic algae survived the snowball events, requiring liquid water at or near the surface. Possible locations for survival of surface life are (a) at geothermal hotspots on coastlines, (b) in the ocean under widespread thin tropical sea ice, and (c) in enclosed tropical seas or lakes under thin ice. Radiative transfer modeling of the penetration of sunlight, estimates of sublimation rates from climate models, and computation of ice velocities from ice-flow models of sea-glaciers, indicate that ice on the tropical ocean would have been several hundred meters thick, ruling out (b). Thin ice might survive on a lake or nearly-landlocked sea with low salt content, beyond reach of the sea-glaciers. However, only a narrow range of conditions would allow a refugium under such ice to persist. The most likely refugium is therefore isolated geothermal hotspots, as proposed by Hoffman and Schrag. References: (1) Warren, S.G., R.E. Brandt, T.C. Grenfell, and C.P. McKay, 2002: Snowball Earth: Ice thickness on the tropical ocean. J. Geophys. Res. (Oceans), 107, 10.1029/2001JC001123. (2) Warren, S.G., D. Pollard, and R.E. Brandt, 2002: Ocean surfaces on Snowball Earth. In preparation.

  8. Geophysical, petrological and mineral physics constraints on Earth's surface topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerri, Mattia; Cammarano, Fabio; Tackley, Paul J.

    2015-04-01

    Earth's surface topography is controlled by isostatically compensated density variations within the lithosphere, but dynamic topography - i.e. the topography due to adjustment of surface to mantle convection - is an important component, specially at a global scale. In order to separate these two components it is fundamental to estimate crustal and mantle density structure and rheological properties. Usually, crustal density is constrained from interpretation of available seismic data (mostly VP profiles) based on empirical relationships such those in Brocher [2005]. Mantle density structure is inferred from seismic tomography models. Constant coefficients are used to interpret seismic velocity anomalies in density anomalies. These simplified methods are unable to model the effects that pressure and temperature variations have on mineralogical assemblage and physical properties. Our approach is based on a multidisciplinary method that involves geophysical observables, mineral physics constraints, and petrological data. Mantle density is based on the thermal interpretation of global seismic tomography models assuming various compositional structures, as in Cammarano et al. [2011]. We further constrain the top 150 km by including heat-flow data and considering the thermal evolution of the oceanic lithosphere. Crustal density is calculated as in Guerri and Cammarano [2015] performing thermodynamic modeling of various average chemical compositions proposed for the crust. The modeling, performed with the code PerpleX [Connolly, 2005], relies on the thermodynamic dataset from Holland and Powell [1998]. Compressional waves velocity and crustal layers thickness from the model CRUST 1.0 [Laske et al., 2013] offer additional constrains. The resulting lithospheric density models are tested against gravity (GOCE) data. Various crustal and mantle density models have been tested in order to ascertain the effects that uncertainties in the estimate of those features have on the modeled topography. We also test several viscosity models, either radially symmetric, the V1 profile from Mitrovica and Forte [2004], or more complex laterally varying structures. All the property fields are expanded in spherical harmonics, until degree 24, and implemented in the code StagYY [Tackley, 2008] to perform mantle instantaneous flow modeling and compute surface topography and gravitational field. Our results show the importance of constraining the crustal and mantle density structure relying on a multidisciplinary approach that involves experimentally robust thermodynamic datasets. Crustal density field has a strong effect on the isostatic component of topography. The models that we test, CRUST 1.0 and those in Guerri and Cammarano [2015], produce strong differences in the computed isostatic topography, in the range ±600 m. For the lithospheric mantle, relying on experimentally robust material properties constraints is necessary to infer a reliable density model that takes into account chemical heterogeneities. This approach is also fundamental to correctly interpret seismic models in temperature, a crucial parameter, necessary to determine the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary, where static effects on topography leave place to dynamic ones. The comparison between results obtained with different viscosity fields, either radially symmetric or vertically and laterally varying, shows how lateral viscosity variations affect the results, in particular the modeled geoid, at different wavelengths. References: Brocher, T. M. (2005), Empirical Relations between Elastic Wavespeeds and Density in the Earth's Crust, Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, 95(6), 2081-2092. Cammarano, F., P. J. Tackley, and L. Boschi (2011), Seismic, petrological and geodynamical constraints on thermal and compositional structure of the upper mantle: global thermochemical models, Geophys. J. Int. Connolly, J. A. D. (2005), Computation of phase equilibria by linear programming: A tool for geodynamic modeling and its application to subduction zone decarbonation, Earth and

  9. Radiometric surface temperature components for row crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Land surface temperature is a boundary condition often used in assessing soil moisture status and energy exchange from the soil-vegetation-atmosphere interface. For row crops having incomplete canopy cover, the radiometric surface temperature is a composite of sunlit and shaded vegetation and substr...

  10. Dynamic Surface Temperature Measurements in ICs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Josep Altet; Wilfrid Claeys; Stefan Dilhaire; Antonio Rubio

    2006-01-01

    Measuring techniques of the die surface temperature in integrated circuits are reported as very appropriate for failure analysis, for thermal characterization, and for testing modern devices. The paper is arranged as a survey of techniques oriented towards measuring the temperature dynamics of the circuit surface and presenting and discussing both the merits and drawbacks of each technique with regard to

  11. Sea surface temperature measurements with AIRS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aumann, H.

    2003-01-01

    The comparison of global sea surface skin temperature derived from cloud-free AIRS super window channel at 2616 cm-1 (sst2616) with the Real-Time Global Sea Surface Temperature for September 2002 shows surprisingly small standard deviation of 0.44K.

  12. Titan Surface Temperatures from Cassini CIRS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jennings, Donald E.; Flasar, F.M.; Kundle, V.G.; Samuelson, R.E.; Pearl, J.C.; Nixon, C.A.; Carlson, R.C.; Mamoutkine, A.A.; Brasunas, J.C.; Guandique, E.; Achterberg, R.K.; Bjoraker, M.H.; Romani, P.N.; Segura, M.E.; Albright, S.A.; Elliott, M.H.; Tingley, J.S.; Calcutt, S.; Coustenis, A.; Bezard, B.; Courtin, R.

    2008-01-01

    Thermal radiation from the surface of Titan reaches space through a spectral window at 19-microns wavelength. After removing the effects of the atmosphere, measurement of this radiance gives the brightness temperature of the surface. The Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) has made such measurements during the Cassini prime mission. These observations cover a wide range of emission angles, thereby constraining the contributions from atmospheric radiance and opacity. With the more complete latitude coverage and much larger dataset, we have been able to improve upon the original results from Voyager IRIS. CIRS measures an equatorial surface brightness temperature, averaged over longitude, of 93.7 +/- 0.6 K. This agrees with the HASI temperature at the Huygens landing site. The latitude dependence of surface brightness temperature exhibits an approximately 2 K decrease toward the South Pole and 3 K decrease toward the North Pole. The lower surface temperatures seen at high latitudes are consistent with conditions expected for lake formation.

  13. Ferromagnetic order at Tb surfaces above the bulk Curie temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Rau, C.; Jin, C.; Robert, M.

    1988-04-15

    The magnetic order at surfaces of the 4f rare-earth metal terbium is investigated using electron capture spectroscopy (ECS), which probes the electron spin polarization (ESP) of the topmost surface layer. In ECS, the capture of spin-polarized electrons during grazing-angle ion-surface interaction is used to determine the ESP due to long- and short-ranged surface magnetic order. It is found that long-ranged ferromagnetic order exists far above the bulk Curie temperature, measured to be T/sub C//sub b/ = 220 K. At 140 K, the long-ranged ESP amounts to 24%. With increasing temperature, the ESP first decreases montonically up to the bulk Neel temperature T/sub N//sub b/ = 228 K, then exhibits a pronounced maximum at T = 238 K, and ultimately vanishes at the surface Curie temperature T/sub C//sub s/ = 248 K. These striking results on enhanced magnetic order at Tb surfaces suggest the presence of very large surface anisotropies.

  14. Earthlike planets: Surfaces of Mercury, Venus, earth, moon, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, B.; Malin, M. C.; Greeley, R.

    1981-01-01

    The surfaces of the earth and the other terrestrial planets of the inner solar system are reviewed in light of the results of recent planetary explorations. Past and current views of the origin of the earth, moon, Mercury, Venus and Mars are discussed, and the surface features characteristic of the moon, Mercury, Mars and Venus are outlined. Mechanisms for the modification of planetary surfaces by external factors and from within the planet are examined, including surface cycles, meteoritic impact, gravity, wind, plate tectonics, volcanism and crustal deformation. The origin and evolution of the moon are discussed on the basis of the Apollo results, and current knowledge of Mercury and Mars is examined in detail. Finally, the middle periods in the history of the terrestrial planets are compared, and future prospects for the exploration of the inner planets as well as other rocky bodies in the solar system are discussed.

  15. Surface waves on periodic horizontal structures over a flat earth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. B. Tran

    1978-01-01

    An analytic theory is presented for the surface waves supported by three types of transmission lines: a Goubau line (C-line), a coaxial line with periodic 360 deg circumferential slots (C-line) and a coaxial line with periodic partial circumferential slots (R-line), in free space as well as in the presence of a lossy flat earth. The theory for the surface waves

  16. Earth surface effects on active faults: An eigenvalue asymptotic analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ioan R. Ionescu; Darko Volkov

    2008-01-01

    We study in this paper an eigenvalue problem (of Steklov type), modeling slow slip events (such as silent earthquakes, or earthquake nucleation phases) occurring on geological faults. We focus here on a half space formulation with traction free boundary condition: this simulates the earth surface where displacements take place and can be picked up by GPS measurements. We construct an

  17. Seasonal Changes in Titan's Surface Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jennings, Donald E.; Nixon, Conor A.; Cottini, Valeria

    2010-04-01

    The Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) (Flasar, 2004) on Cassini measures brightness temperatures at the surface of Titan near 19 microns wavelength where the atmospheric opacity is low. During the Cassini mission CIRS has collected a large dataset covering all latitudes with a range of viewing geometries. When latitude maps from the recent northern spring equinox are compared with maps from earlier in the mission (Jennings, 2009) they show changes in temperature distribution that are similar to predictions of seasonal variation at the surface (Tokano, 2005). During late northern winter Titan's surface temperatures were about 1 K colder at the north pole than at the south pole. In the period around equinox the north-south distribution was more symmetric and matched the latitude dependence observed by Voyager 1, also near northern spring equinox (Flasar, 1981; Courtin, 2002). Seasonal changes in surface temperature have implications for evaporation of volatiles and may help determine surface composition and structure.

  18. Titan's Surface Temperatures Measured by Cassini CIRS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jennings, Donald E.; Flasar, F. M.; Kundle, V. G.; Samuelson, R. E.; Pearl, J. C.; Nixon, C. A.; Carlson, R. C.; Mamoutkine, A. A.; Brasunas, J. C.; Guandique, E.; Arhterberg, R. K.; Bjoraker, G. L.; Romani, P. N.; Segura, M. E.; Albright, S. A.; Elliott, M. H.; Tingley, J. S.; Calcutt, S.; Coustenis, A.; Bezard, B.; Courtin, R.

    2008-01-01

    A large fraction of 19-micron thermal radiation from the surface of Titan reaches space through a spectral window of low atmospheric opacity. The emergent radiance, after removing the effect of the atmosphere, gives the brightness temperature of the surface. This atmospheric window is covered by the far-infrared channel of the Composite Infrared spectrometer1 (CIRS) on Cassini. In mapping Titan surface temperatures, CIRS is able to improve upon results of Voyager IRIS, by taking advantage of improved latitude coverage and a much larger dataset. Observations are from a wide range of emission angles and thereby provide constraints on the atmospheric opacity and radiance that are used to derive the surface temperature. CIRS finds an average equatorial surface brightness temperature of 93.7+/-0.6 K, virtually identical to the HASI temperature at the Huygens landing site. Mapping in latitude shows that the surface temperature decreases toward the poles by about 2 K in the south and 3 K in the north. This surface temperature distribution is consistent with the formation of lakes seen at high latitudes on Titan.

  19. Earth's surface loading study using InSAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amelung, F.; Zhao, W.; Doin, M. P.

    2014-12-01

    Earth's surface loading/unloading such as glacier retreat, lake water level change, ocean tide, cause measurable (centimeter to millimeter) surface deformation from Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (InSAR). Such seasonal or decadal deformation signals are useful for the estimation of the amount of load and the parameterization of crust and upper mantle - typically under an elastic or a visco-elastic mechanism. Since 2010, we established a study of surface loading using small baseline InSAR time-series analysis. Four sites are included in this study, which are Vatnajokull ice cap, Lake Yamzho Yumco, Petermann glacier, and Barnes ice cap using different satellites such as ERS1/2, Envisat, Radarsat-2, TerraSAR-X. We present results that mainly answer three questions: 1) Is InSAR time-series capable for the detection of millimeter level deformation due to surface loading; 2) When the Earth's rheology is known, how much load change occured; 3) When the surface loading is known, what are the Earth's parameters such as Young's modulus, viscosity. For glacier retreat problem, we introduce a new model for the ice mass loss estimation considering the spatial distribution of ice loss. For lake unloading problem, modeled elastic parameters are useful for the comparison to other 1-D models, e.g. the model based on seismic data.

  20. Inverse analysis of inner surface temperature history from outer surface temperature measurement of a pipe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubo, S.; Ioka, S.; Onchi, S.; Matsumoto, Y.

    2010-06-01

    When slug flow runs through a pipe, nonuniform and time-varying thermal stresses develop and there is a possibility that thermal fatigue occurs. Therefore it is necessary to know the temperature distributions and the stress distributions in the pipe for the integrity assessment of the pipe. It is, however, difficult to measure the inner surface temperature directly. Therefore establishment of the estimation method of the temperature history on inner surface of pipe is needed. As a basic study on the estimation method of the temperature history on the inner surface of a pipe with slug flow, this paper presents an estimation method of the temperature on the inner surface of a plate from the temperature on the outer surface. The relationship between the temperature history on the outer surface and the inner surface is obtained analytically. Using the results of the mathematical analysis, the inverse analysis method of the inner surface temperature history estimation from the outer surface temperature history is proposed. It is found that the inner surface temperature history can be estimated from the outer surface temperature history by applying the inverse analysis method, even when it is expressed by the multiple frequency components.

  1. Titan's Surface Temperatures from Cassini CIRS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jennings, Donald E.; Cottini, Valeria; Nixon, Conor A.

    2010-01-01

    The surface brightness temperature of Titan can be measured from Cassini through a spectral window at 19 microns where the atmosphere is low in opacity. The Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) on Cassini observes this wavelength in its far-infrared channel. Because the Cassini tour has provided global coverage and a range of viewing geometries, CIRS has been able to go beyond the earlier flyby results of Voyager IRIS Near the equator, CIRS measures the zonally-averaged surface brightness temperature to be 917 K, very close to the temperature found at the surface by Huygens. Latitude maps show that Titan's surface temperatures drop off by about 2 K toward the south and by about 3 K toward the north. This temperature distribution is consistent with Titan's late northern winter when the data were taken. As the seasons progress, CIRS is continuing to search for corresponding changes in the temperatures of the surface and lower atmosphere. CIRS is also extending global mapping to both latitude and longitude to look for correlations between surface temperatures and geological features.

  2. Modeling surface temperature distributions in forest landscapes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holbo, H. R.; Luvall, J. C.

    1989-01-01

    A model of the frequency distributions of the spatial variability in surface temperature is presented. Surface temperature data are obtained from two daytime and two nighttime flights of the Thermal IR Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) over forest land in western Oregon in August, 1985. The temperature values are corrected for atmospheric attenuation and thermal radiation emission with the LOWTRAN-6 algorithm. The temperature distributions were modeled with a two-parameter beta probability density distribution and the fit of the model was evaluated by comparison with the TIMS data set. Use of the model's parameters to identify and classify surface types shows good discrimination among various surfaces for the daytime images, with less distinct discrimination for the nighttime images.

  3. Ocean Remote Sensing: Sea Surface Temperature Imagery

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This site presents rapidly processed estimates of sea surface temperature for various regions along the east coast of the United States, including the Gulf Stream, Chesapeake Bay, the Gulf of Mexico and the Bahamas. The imagery includes both single pass data and composite data from multiple passes. Included at this site is a primer on the measurement of sea surface temperature. Additional links satellite links are provided. See related links for the topics.

  4. Mapping the downwelling atmospheric radiation at the Earth's surface: A research strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raschke, E.

    1986-01-01

    A strategy is presented along with background material for determining downward atmospheric radiation at the Earth's surface on a regional scale but over the entire globe, using available information on the temperature and humidity of the air near the ground and at cloud base altitudes. Most of these parameters can be inferred from satellite radiance measurements. Careful validation of the derived radiances will be required using ground-based direct measurements of radiances, to avoid systematic biases of these derived field quantities.

  5. Satellite and surface temperature data at odds?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James Hansen; Helene Wilson; Makiko Sato; Reto Ruedy; Kathy Shah; Erik Hansen

    1995-01-01

    Based on a series of scientific papers, from Spencer and Christy (1990) to Christy and McNider (1994), a perception has been created in the popular media that satellite measurements of global temperature change are inconsistent with surface measurements and with climate model predictions of global warming rates. Such conclusions, if warranted, would be important. Global temperature change is the most

  6. Global trends of measured surface air temperature

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James Hansen; Sergej Lebedeff

    1987-01-01

    We analyze surface air temperature data from available meteorological stations with principal focus on the period 1880-1985. The temperature changes at mid- and high latitude stations separated by less than 1000 km are shown to be highly correlated; at low latitudes the correlation falls off more rapidly with distance for nearby stations. We combine the station data in a way

  7. Geomagnetic effects on the average surface temperature

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Ballatore

    2004-01-01

    Several results have previously shown as the solar activity can be related to the cloudiness and the surface solar radiation intensity (Svensmark and Friis-Christensen, J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys., 59, 1225, 1997; Veretenenkoand Pudovkin, J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys., 61, 521, 1999). Here, the possible relationships between the averaged surface temperature and the solar wind parameters or geomagnetic activity indices

  8. Nonlinear diffusion filtering of data on the Earth's surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ?underlík, Róbert; Mikula, Karol; Tunega, Martin

    2013-02-01

    The paper deals with data filtering on closed surfaces using linear and nonlinear diffusion equations. We define a surface finite-volume method to approximate numerically parabolic partial differential equations on closed surfaces, namely on a sphere, ellipsoid or the Earth's surface. The closed surface as a computational domain is approximated by a polyhedral surface created by planar triangles and we construct a dual co-volume grid. On the co-volumes we define a weak formulation of the problem by applying Green's theorem to the Laplace-Beltrami operator. Then the finite-volume method is applied to discretize the weak formulation. Weak forms of elliptic operators are expressed through surface gradients. In our numerical scheme we use a piece-wise linear approximation of a solution in space and the backward Euler time discretization. Furthermore, we extend a linear diffusion on surface to the regularized surface Perona-Malik model. It represents a nonlinear diffusion equation, which at the same time reduces noise and preserves main edges and other details important for a correct interpretation of the real data. We present four numerical experiments. The first one has an illustrative character showing how an additive noise is filtered out from an artificial function defined on a sphere. Other three examples deal with the real geodetic data on the Earth's surface, namely (i) we reduce a stripping noise from the GOCE satellite only geopotential model up to degree 240, (ii) we filter noise from the real GOCE measurements (the component T_{zz}), and (iii) we reduce a stripping noise from the satellite only mean dynamic topography at oceans. In all experiments we focus on a comparison of the results obtained by both the linear and nonlinear models presenting advantages of the nonlinear diffusion.

  9. A Unified and Coherent Land Surface Emissivity Earth System Data Record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knuteson, R. O.; Borbas, E. E.; Hulley, G. C.; Hook, S. J.; Anderson, M. C.; Pinker, R. T.; Hain, C.; Guillevic, P. C.

    2014-12-01

    Land Surface Temperature and Emissivity (LST&E) data are essential for a wide variety of studies from calculating the evapo-transpiration of plant canopies to retrieving atmospheric water vapor. LST&E products are generated from data acquired by sensors in low Earth orbit (LEO) and by sensors in geostationary Earth orbit (GEO). Although these products represent the same measure, they are produced at different spatial, spectral and temporal resolutions using different algorithms. The different approaches used to retrieve the temperatures and emissivities result in discrepancies and inconsistencies between the different products. NASA has identified a major need to develop long-term, consistent, and calibrated data and products that are valid across multiple missions and satellite sensors. This poster will introduce the land surface emissivity product of the NASA MEASUREs project called A Unified and Coherent Land Surface Temperature and Emissivity (LST&E) Earth System Data Record (ESDR). To develop a unified high spectral resolution emissivity database, the MODIS baseline-fit emissivity database (MODBF) produced at the University of Wisconsin-Madison and the ASTER Global Emissivity Database (ASTER GED) produced at JPL will be merged. The unified Emissivity ESDR will be produced globally at 5km in mean monthly time-steps and for 12 bands from 3.6-14.3 micron and extended to 417 bands using a PC regression approach. The poster will introduce this data product. LST&E is a critical ESDR for a wide variety of studies in particular ecosystem and climate modeling.

  10. Surface modification of high temperature iron alloys

    DOEpatents

    Park, J.H.

    1995-06-06

    A method and article of manufacture of a coated iron based alloy are disclosed. The method includes providing an iron based alloy substrate, depositing a silicon containing layer on the alloy surface while maintaining the alloy at a temperature of about 700--1200 C to diffuse silicon into the alloy surface and exposing the alloy surface to an ammonia atmosphere to form a silicon/oxygen/nitrogen containing protective layer on the iron based alloy. 13 figs.

  11. Concept of a space optoelectronic system for environmental monitoring of the near-earth space, atmosphere, and earth surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eltsov, Anatoli V.; Karasev, Vladimir I.; Kolotkov, Vjacheslav V.; Kondranin, Timothy V.

    1997-06-01

    The sharp increase of the man-induced pressure on the environment and hence the need to predict and monitor natural anomalies makes global monitoring of the ecosphere of planet Earth an issue of vital importance. The notion of the ecosphere covers three basic shells closely interacting with each other: the near-Earth space, the atmosphere and the Earth surface. In the near-Earth space (covering 100 to 2000 km altitudes) the primary objects of monitoring are: functioning artificial space objects, the fragments of their constructions or space rubbish (which by estimation amounts to 3.5 million pieces including 30,000 to 70,000 objects having dimensions sufficient for heavy damaging or even destroying functioning space objects) and objects of space origin (asteroids, meteorites and comets) whose trajectories come closely enough to the Earth. Maximum concentrations of space rubbish observed on orbits with altitudes of 800, 1000 and 1500 km and inclinations of 60 to 100 deg. are related in the first place to spacecraft launch requirements. Taking into account the number of launches implemented by different countries in the framework of their own space programs the probability of collision of functioning spacecraft with space rubbish may be estimation increase from (1.5 - 3.5)% at present to (15 - 40)% by 2020. Besides, registration of space radiation flow intensity and the solar activity is no less important in this space area. Subject to control in the atmosphere are time and space variations in temperature fields, humidity, tracing gas concentrations, first of all ozone and greenhouse gases, the state of the cloud cover, wind velocity, etc. The range of objects to be under environmental management of Earth surface is just as diverse and essentially should include the state of the surface and the near-surface layer of seas and oceans, internal reservoirs, the cryosphere and the land surface along with vegetation cover, natural resources and human activities. No matter how large the space (from several meters to hundreds of kilometers) and time (from an hour to several months) scales of the above monitoring might be there is a common dominating factor which could favor creation of a general- purpose observation and control system based on passive optoelectronic instrumentation of different levels of sophistication. This dominating factor refers to the possibility of obtaining information about the state of objects by way to recording parameters of radiation emitted by them in wavelengths of 250 nm to tens of microns. The fact that phenomena and processes occurring in the atmosphere are closely interrelated gives implications as to the structure of such a system which is supposed to be a common information network basically consisting of an orbiting constellation of a number of small-size spacecraft equipped with optoelectronic instrumentation of different complexity, and a ground segment to provide acquisition and processing of information about the status of every ecosphere shell including comprehensive thematic analysis. The existing domestic (based on the `Meteor', `Resurs-O', `Okean', etc. spacecraft) and foreign (NOAA, SPOT, LANDSAT, ERS, etc.) space systems are designed for solution of only a limited number of atmosphere monitoring issues, namely those related to meteorology and studies of natural resources. As for the near-Earth space there are at present only ground facilities whose monitoring capabilities are also limited. It should be noted that in recent years in the USA similar activities have been in full swing targeted at creation of a system like the one mentioned above (the Earth Observation System). A system comprising four spacecraft of the NOAA series and a distributed ground network for receiving analog (with 4 km spatial resolution) and digital (with 1 km spatial resolution) multispectral data pertaining to the status of the atmosphere and the underlying surface is currently operational. This system presents some unique features which make it in several applications superior to existing counterparts. The

  12. All exposed rocks on Earth's surface expe-rience erosion; the fastest rates are docu-

    E-print Network

    Ahmad, Sajjad

    688 ABSTRACT All exposed rocks on Earth's surface expe- rience erosion; the fastest rates are docu hyperaridity, tectonic stability, flat and hori- zontal surfaces (i.e., no relief), and effective surface-lived landforms on Earth Ari Matmon The Institute of Earth Sciences, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Givat Ram

  13. Understanding Surface Temperature Variability during the Pliocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haywood, Alan; Hunter, Stephen; Dowsett, Harry; Prescott, Caroline; Dolan, Aisling

    2015-04-01

    Surface temperatures during the Pliocene have often been characterised as being warm and relatively stable. The link between Milankovitch cycles, insolation and global ice volume (as demonstrated by the magnitude of negative and positive benthic oxygen isotope excursions), appears to have been weaker in the Pliocene compared to the Pleistocene. However, the marine benthic oxygen isotope record may over represent the signal of temperature change from the high latitudes. Away from ice sheet regions, where stronger ice sheet/sea-ice albedo feedbacks are expected in response to changes in insolation, the magnitude of surface temperature variability due to Milankovitch cycles would have been the same, or very similar, in the Pliocene (compared to the Quaternary). Pleistocene and Holocene surface temperatures have not been generalised in the same way as the Pliocene and studies concentrate on reconstructing, modelling and understanding discrete climate events, as well as critical climate transitions. It is appreciated that whilst an event, or events, may have a similar signature in terms of the magnitude of any benthic oxygen isotope (or ice core) excursion, they may still display unique surface temperature characteristics that distinguish one glacial or interglacial from another. This realisation has been possible due to the number of high resolution surface temperature records available. Compared to the Quaternary there are relatively few high-resolution surface temperature records to help constrain the nature of local to regional Pliocene surface temperature variability, although new records are emerging quickly. Regardless of this, our current understanding of Pliocene surface temperature variability at a regional as well as global scale is still emerging. Here we use Hadley Centre Coupled Climate Model version 3 (HadCM3) to explore the nature of Pliocene surface temperature variability and to explore the premise that individual benthic oxygen isotope events in the Pliocene will have unique characteristics of surface temperature change caused just by variations in insolation. Firstly, we focus our attention on intervals within the mid Pliocene Warm Period (3.3 to 3 million years ago) that are characterised by negative benthic isotope excursions, and therefore are presumed to represent relatively warm "interglacial-like" events (specifically Marine Isotope Stages K1, KM5c, G17 and KM3). Secondly, we also present results from the first fully transient simulation using a full complexity climate model (FAMOUS) for the interval between the "glacial" event M2 and "interglacial" event KM3. We demonstrate how comparing model simulations that capture the effects of orbital variability with newly generated high resolution proxy records of surface temperature change can alter our current understanding of where (geographically) models perform well or poorly compared to data. We conclude that even when considering orbital forcing alone, discrete climate events in the Pliocene were indeed characterised by unique regional signals of surface temperature change, and that broad generalisations concerning Pliocene surface temperature patterns are at best incomplete.

  14. Determining the source characteristics of explosions near the Earth's surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasyanos, Michael E.; Ford, Sean R.

    2015-05-01

    We present a method to determine source characteristics of explosions near the Earth's surface. The technique accounts for the reduction in amplitudes as the explosion depth approaches the free surface and less energy is coupled into the ground. We apply the method to the Humming Roadrunner series of shallow explosions in New Mexico where the yields and depths are known. Knowledge of the material properties is needed for both source coupling/excitation and the free surface effect. Although there is the expected trade-off between depth and yield, the estimated yields are close to the known values when the depth is constrained to the free surface. We then apply the method to a regionally recorded explosion in Syria. We estimate an explosive yield less than the 60 t claimed by sources in the open press. The modifications to the method allow us to apply the technique to new classes of events.

  15. Applications of surface analytical techniques in Earth Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Gujie; Li, Yubiao; Gerson, Andrea R.

    2015-03-01

    This review covers a wide range of surface analytical techniques: X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning photoelectron microscopy (SPEM), photoemission electron microscopy (PEEM), dynamic and static secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS), electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), atomic force microscopy (AFM). Others that are relatively less widely used but are also important to the Earth Sciences are also included: Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), low energy electron diffraction (LEED) and scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM). All these techniques probe only the very top sample surface layers (sub-nm to several tens of nm). In addition, we also present several other techniques i.e. Raman microspectroscopy, reflection infrared (IR) microspectroscopy and quantitative evaluation of minerals by scanning electron microscopy (QEMSCAN) that penetrate deeper into the sample, up to several ?m, as all of them are fundamental analytical tools for the Earth Sciences. Grazing incidence synchrotron techniques, sensitive to surface measurements, are also briefly introduced at the end of this review. (Scanning) transmission electron microscopy (TEM/STEM) is a special case that can be applied to characterisation of mineralogical and geological sample surfaces. Since TEM/STEM is such an important technique for Earth Scientists, we have also included it to draw attention to the capability of TEM/STEM applied as a surface-equivalent tool. While this review presents most of the important techniques for the Earth Sciences, it is not an all-inclusive bibliography of those analytical techniques. Instead, for each technique that is discussed, we first give a very brief introduction about its principle and background, followed by a short section on approaches to sample preparation that are important for researchers to appreciate prior to the actual sample analysis. We then use examples from publications (and also some of our known unpublished results) within the Earth Sciences to show how each technique is applied and used to obtain specific information and to resolve real problems, which forms the central theme of this review. Although this review focuses on applications of these techniques to study mineralogical and geological samples, we also anticipate that researchers from other research areas such as Material and Environmental Sciences may benefit from this review.

  16. The 60-year solar modulation of global air temperature: the Earth’s rotation and atmospheric circulation connection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Mazzarella

    2007-01-01

    Summary  Spectral analysis of geomagnetic activity, global air temperature, Earth’s rotation rate and zonal circulation, when smoothed\\u000a from secular trend and periods shorter than 23 years, shows a concentration of energy around the 60-year period explaining\\u000a more than 80% of the entire variance. This information has enabled the set-up of a cascade physical model that integrates\\u000a the Sun-atmosphere-Earth system as a

  17. A Study of Surface Temperatures, Clouds and Net Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dhuria, Harbans

    1996-01-01

    This study focused on the seasonal relationships and interactions of climate parameters such as the surface temperatures, net radiation, long wave flux, short wave flux, and clouds on a global basis. Five years of observations (December 1984 to November 1989) from the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) and the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Program (ISCCP) were used to study both seasonal variations and interannual variations by use of a basic radiation budget equation. In addition, the study was extended to include an analysis of the cloud forcing due El-Nino's impact on the ERBE parameters.

  18. SEASONAL CHANGES IN TITAN'S SURFACE TEMPERATURES

    SciTech Connect

    Jennings, D. E.; Cottini, V.; Nixon, C. A.; Flasar, F. M.; Kunde, V. G.; Samuelson, R. E.; Romani, P. N.; Hesman, B. E. [Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Carlson, R. C.; Gorius, N. J. P. [Department of Physics, Catholic University of America, Washington, DC 20064 (United States); Coustenis, A. [LESIA, Observatoire de Paris-Meudon, 92195 Meudon Cedex (France); Tokano, T., E-mail: donald.e.jennings@nasa.gov [Institut fuer Geophysik und Meteorologie, Universitaet zu Koeln, Albertus-Magnus-Platz, 50923 Koeln (Germany)

    2011-08-10

    Seasonal changes in Titan's surface brightness temperatures have been observed by Cassini in the thermal infrared. The Composite Infrared Spectrometer measured surface radiances at 19 {mu}m in two time periods: one in late northern winter (LNW; L{sub s} = 335 deg.) and another centered on northern spring equinox (NSE; L{sub s} = 0 deg.). In both periods we constructed pole-to-pole maps of zonally averaged brightness temperatures corrected for effects of the atmosphere. Between LNW and NSE a shift occurred in the temperature distribution, characterized by a warming of {approx}0.5 K in the north and a cooling by about the same amount in the south. At equinox the polar surface temperatures were both near 91 K and the equator was at 93.4 K. We measured a seasonal lag of {Delta}L{sub S} {approx} 9{sup 0} in the meridional surface temperature distribution, consistent with the post-equinox results of Voyager 1 as well as with predictions from general circulation modeling. A slightly elevated temperature is observed at 65{sup 0} S in the relatively cloud-free zone between the mid-latitude and southern cloud regions.

  19. Profiles of electron temperature and Bz along Earth's magnetotail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artemyev, A. V.; Petrukovich, A. A.; Nakamura, R.; Zelenyi, L. M.

    2013-06-01

    We study the electron temperature distribution and the structure of the current sheet along the magnetotail using simultaneous observations from THEMIS spacecraft. We perform a statistical study of 40 crossings of the current sheet when the three spacecraft THB, THC, and THD were distributed along the tail in the vicinity of midnight with coordinates XB \\in [-30 RE, -20 RE], XC \\in [-20 RE, -15 RE], and XD ~ -10 RE. We obtain profiles of the average electron temperature \\mlab Te\\mrab and the average magnetic field \\mlab Bz\\mrab along the tail. Electron temperature and \\mlab Bz\\mrab increase towards the Earth with almost the same rates (i.e., ratio \\mlab Te\\mrab/\\mlab Bz\\mrab ? 2 keV/7 nT is approximately constant along the tail). We also use statistics of 102 crossings of the current sheet from THB and THC to estimate dependence of Te and Bz distributions on geomagnetic activity. The ratio \\mlab Te \\mrab/\\mlab Bz\\mrab depends on geomagnetic activity only slightly. Additionally we demonstrate that anisotropy of the electron temperature \\mlab T?/T?\\mrab ? 1.1 is almost constant along the tail for X \\in [-30 RE, -10 RE].

  20. Evaluation of Split-Window Land Surface Temperature Algorithms for Generating Climate Data Records

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yunyue Yu; Jeffrey L. Privette; Ana C. Pinheiro

    2008-01-01

    Land surface temperature (LST) is a key indicator of the Earth's surface energy and is used in a range of hydrological, meteorological, and climatological applications. As needed for most modeling and climate analysis applications, LST products that are generated from polar-orbiting meteorological satellite sensors have spatial resolutions from several hundred meters to several kilometers and have (quasi) daily temporal resolution.

  1. Climate radiative feedbacks and adjustments at the Earth's surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colman, R. A.

    2015-04-01

    Climate radiative feedbacks are traditionally defined at top of atmosphere (TOA); however, strong radiative feedbacks also occur at the surface, with profound effect on the surface heat budget and hydrological cycle. "Rapid responses" to radiative forcing also occur and may also be expected to affect the surface. This study evaluates surface radiation changes, using a combined Partial Radiative Perturbation-Gregory approach, under abrupt increases in CO2 in a climate model. We find significant surface rapid radiative response from changes in clouds, relative humidity, and latent heat flux. As surface temperature increases, strong water vapor feedback exceeds net cooling from atmospheric and surface temperature changes, resulting in increased surface evaporation. Feedbacks from clouds are smaller, with complex horizontal and vertical structures. Surface longwave feedback structures differ widely from those of the TOA and are dominated by lower troposphere changes. Lapse rate, cloud, and albedo feedbacks are small equatorward of around 50° of latitude but stronger at high latitudes. The approach here allows precise evaluation of the rich structure of surface radiative feedbacks.

  2. Differences between near-surface equivalent temperature and temperature trends for the Eastern United States. Equivalent temperature as an alternative measure of heat content

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davey, C.A.; Pielke, R.A., Sr.; Gallo, K.P.

    2006-01-01

    There is currently much attention being given to the observed increase in near-surface air temperatures during the last century. The proper investigation of heating trends, however, requires that we include surface heat content to monitor this aspect of the climate system. Changes in heat content of the Earth's climate are not fully described by temperature alone. Moist enthalpy or, alternatively, equivalent temperature, is more sensitive to surface vegetation properties than is air temperature and therefore more accurately depicts surface heating trends. The microclimates evident at many surface observation sites highlight the influence of land surface characteristics on local surface heating trends. Temperature and equivalent temperature trend differences from 1982-1997 are examined for surface sites in the Eastern U.S. Overall trend differences at the surface indicate equivalent temperature trends are relatively warmer than temperature trends in the Eastern U.S. Seasonally, equivalent temperature trends are relatively warmer than temperature trends in winter and are relatively cooler in the fall. These patterns, however, vary widely from site to site, so local microclimate is very important. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Simulations of ultra-long wavelength interferometers in Earth orbit and on the lunar surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Mo; Huang, Mao-Hai; Yan, Yi-Hua

    2015-03-01

    We present simulations of interferometers in Earth orbit and on the lunar surface to guide the design and optimization of space-based ultra-long wavelength missions, such as those pioneered by China's Chang'e Program. We choose parameters and present simulations using simulated data to identify inter-dependencies and constraints on science and engineering parameters. A regolith model is created for the lunar surface array simulation, and the results show that the lunar regolith will have an undesirable effect on the observations. We estimate data transmission requirements, calculate sensitivities for both cases, and discuss the trade-off between brightness temperature sensitivity and angular resolution for the Earth orbit array case.

  4. Modelling global fresh surface water temperature

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. P. H. van Beek; T. Eikelboom; M. T. H. van Vliet; M. F. P. Bierkens

    2011-01-01

    Temperature directly determines a range of water physical properties including vapour pressure, surface tension,\\u000adensity and viscosity, and the solubility of oxygen and other gases. Indirectly water temperature acts as a strong\\u000acontrol on fresh water biogeochemistry, influencing sediment concentration and transport, water quality parameters\\u000a(e.g. pH, nitrogen, phosphor, dissolved oxygen), chemical reaction rates, phytoplankton and zooplankton\\u000acomposition and the

  5. Ground surface temperature and continental heat gain: Uncertainties from underground.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beltrami, Hugo; Matharoo, Gurpreet S.; Smerdon, Jason E.

    2015-04-01

    Temperature changes at the Earth's surface propagate and are recorded underground as perturbations to the equilibrium thermal regime associated with heat flow from the Earth's interior. Interpretation of these downward propagating subsurface temperature anomalies in terms of surface climate is the central role of Borehole Climatology. Robust determination of the steady-state geothermal regime is nevertheless crucial for these efforts, because it is the reference against which climate induced subsurface temperature anomalies are estimated. Here we examine the effects of data noise on the determination of the subsurface steady-state geothermal regime and the subsequent impact on estimates of ground surface temperature (GST) history and heat gain. We perform sets of Monte Carlo experiments using 1000 Gaussian noise realizations and depth sections of 100 and 200 m as depth intervals for steady-state estimates, as well as a range of data sampling intervals from 10 m to 0.02 m. Results indicate that typical uncertainties for 50-year averages are on the order of +/- 0.02 K for the most recent 100-year period. These uncertainties grow with decreasing sampling interval reaching about +/- 0.1 K for a 10-m sampling interval under identical conditions and target period. Uncertainties increase for progressively older periods, reaching +/- 0.3 K at 500 years before present for a 10-m sampling interval. The uncertainties in reconstructed GST histories for the Northern Hemisphere for the most recent 50-yr period can reach a maximum of +/- 0.5 K in some areas. We suggest that continuous logging should be the preferred approach when measuring geothermal data for climate reconstructions, and that for those using the International Heat Flow Commission database for borehole climatology, the steady-state thermal conditions should be estimated from boreholes as deep as possible and using a large fitting depth range (~100 m).

  6. Solar turbulence in earth's global and regional temperature anomalies Nicola Scafetta,1,2

    E-print Network

    Scafetta, Nicola

    Solar turbulence in earth's global and regional temperature anomalies Nicola Scafetta,1,2 Paolo a study of the influence of solar activity on the earth's temperature. In particular, we focus on the repercussion of the fluctuations of the solar irradiance on the temperature of the Northern and Southern

  7. High temperature heat pipe experiments in low earth orbit

    SciTech Connect

    Woloshun, K.; Merrigan, M.A.; Sena, J.T. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Critchley, E. [Phillips Lab., Kirtland AFB, NM (United States)

    1993-02-01

    Although high temperature, liquid metal heat pipe radiators have become a standard component on most high power space power system designs, there is no experimental data on the operation of these heat pipes in a zero gravity or micro-gravity environment. Experiments to benchmark the transient and steady state performance of prototypical heat pipe space radiator elements are in preparation for testing in low earth orbit. It is anticipated that these heat pipes will be tested aborad the Space Shuttle in 1995. Three heat pipes will be tested in a cargo bay Get Away Special (GAS) canister. The heat pipes are SST/potassium, each with a different wick structure; homogeneous, arterial, and annular gap, the heat pipes have been designed, fabricated, and ground tested. In this paper, the heat pipe designs are specified, and transient and steady-state ground test data are presented.

  8. High temperature heat pipe experiments in low earth orbit

    SciTech Connect

    Woloshun, K.; Merrigan, M.A.; Sena, J.T. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Critchley, E. (Phillips Lab., Kirtland AFB, NM (United States))

    1993-01-01

    Although high temperature, liquid metal heat pipe radiators have become a standard component on most high power space power system designs, there is no experimental data on the operation of these heat pipes in a zero gravity or micro-gravity environment. Experiments to benchmark the transient and steady state performance of prototypical heat pipe space radiator elements are in preparation for testing in low earth orbit. It is anticipated that these heat pipes will be tested aborad the Space Shuttle in 1995. Three heat pipes will be tested in a cargo bay Get Away Special (GAS) canister. The heat pipes are SST/potassium, each with a different wick structure; homogeneous, arterial, and annular gap, the heat pipes have been designed, fabricated, and ground tested. In this paper, the heat pipe designs are specified, and transient and steady-state ground test data are presented.

  9. Factors Changing Earth's Surface (title provided or enhanced by cataloger)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This Classroom Connectors lesson plan discusses the factors which cause changes to the surface of the Earth. This includes identifying various types of landforms, geologic structures and movements, processes that form rocks, and understanding rock and soil cycles. The site provides goals, objectives, an outline, time required, materials, activities, and closure ideas for the lesson. The Classroom Connectors address content with an activity approach while incorporating themes necessary to raise the activity to a higher cognition level. The major motivation is to employ instructional strategies that bring the students physically and mentally into touch with the science they are studying.

  10. Temperature Responsive Hydrogels with Engineered Surface Patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Changjie; Hu, Zhibing; Li, Yong

    1998-10-01

    The surface structures of hydrogels play important roles for many potential applications. In this experiment, tiny gold squares arranged in a square lattice on the surface of a dehydrated N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPA) gel using the sputter-deposit method. A periodic surface array can serve as a grating to diffract light or a microelectrode array to monitor cell activity. The grating constant can be continuously changed by environmental stimuli such as temperature, electric field and salt solution. Such a gel with a period surface array has been successfully used for measuring swelling ratio, internal strain, and shear modulus of gels. Especially, it is an efficient way to characterize gel locally. Such a gel with engineered surface structure has potential for optical filters, microelectrode arrays and sensor applications. set of curly braces; then put the associated URL in the set. The command may go anywhere in the abstract. the text in the first curly braces will show the printed version.

  11. Toward a unified science of the Earth's surface: Opportunities for synthesis among hydrology,

    E-print Network

    Power, Mary Eleanor

    Toward a unified science of the Earth's surface: Opportunities for synthesis among hydrology of a predictive science of Earth surface dynamics integrates many disciplines and approaches, including hydrology. Power, I. Rodriguez-Iturbe, V. Voller, and P. Wilcock (2006), Toward a unified science of the Earth

  12. AUTOMATIC GENERATION OF BALD EARTH DIGITAL ELEVATION MODELS FROM DIGITAL SURFACE MODELS CREATED USING AIRBORNE IFSAR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yandong Wang; Bryan Mercer; Vincent C. Tao; Jayanti Sharma; Scott Crawford

    This paper presents a novel approach for the automatic generation of 'bald-earth' digital elevation models (DEMs) from digital surface models (DSMs) created using STAR-3i - the Intermap Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (IFSAR) system. The method uses a hierarchical surface fitting technique to yield bald earth DEMs. It first generates a hierarchy of images from the original DSMs, and bald earth

  13. HoloGlobe: Sea Surface Temperature Climatology on a Globe (with Dates)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Jim Strong

    1996-08-10

    This is one of a series of animations that were produced to be part of the narrated video shown in the HoloGlobe exhibit at the Smithsonian Museum of Natural History and the Earth Today exhibit at the Smithsonian Air and Space Museum. In this animation, colors represent sea surface temperatures in degrees centigrade, with blue representing temperatures less than 4 degrees, cyan representing temperatures between 4 and 11 degrees, green representing temperatures between 11 and 18 degrees, yellow representing temperatures between 18 and 25 degrees, orange representing temperatures between 25 and 32 degrees, and deep red representing temperatures greater than 32 degrees.

  14. Global surface air temperatures: update through 1987

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James Hansen; Sergej Lebedeff

    1988-01-01

    Data from meteorological stations show that surface air temperatures in the 1980s are the warmest in the history of instrumental records. The four warmest years on record are all in the 1980s, with the warmest years in our analysis being 1981 and 1987. The rate of warming between the mid 1960s and the present is higher than that which occurred

  15. Global surface air temperatures: Update through 1987

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James Hansen; Sergej Lebedeff

    1988-01-01

    Data from meteorological stations show that surface air temperatures in the 1980s are the warmest in the history of instrumental records. The four warmest years on record are all in the 1980s, with the warmest years in our analysis being 1981 and 1987. The rate of warming between the mid 1960s and the present is higher than that which occurred

  16. http://www.ustream.tv/recorded/27347154 Exploring Earth's Temperature In More Detail

    E-print Network

    Toohey, Darin W.

    it mean to have 100 units? We have two ways to think of this. If Earth were flat, the "100 units" wouldhttp://www.ustream.tv/recorded/27347154 Exploring Earth's Temperature In More Detail See online.10 #12;A schematic of Earth's energy budget a bit more complex model! Fig. 3.19 #12;Does this look

  17. Efficacy of surface applications with diatomaceous earth to control Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) (Coleoptera: Boxtrichidae) in stored wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Commercial formulations of diatomaceous earth (DE) products are labeled for use as surface treatments in stored wheat. However, they have not been evaluated as such against the lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica (F.), a major pest of stored wheat. An experiment was conducted at two temperature...

  18. Design of a Surface Albedo Modification Payload for Near Earth Asteroid (NEA) Mitigation 

    E-print Network

    Ge, Shen

    2011-10-21

    The development of the Surface Albedo Treatment System (SATS) onboard a spacecraft mission to the near earth asteroid (NEA) Apophis in 2012 is an innovative concept of deflecting NEAs from possible impact with the Earth through altering...

  19. Global patterns in lake surface temperature trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Reilly, C.; Sharma, S.; Gray, D.; Hampton, S. E.; Read, J. S.; Rowley, R.; McIntyre, P. B.; Lenters, J. D.; Schneider, P.; Hook, S. J.

    2014-12-01

    Temperature profoundly affects dynamics in the water bodieson which human societies depend worldwide. Even relatively small water temperature changes can alter lake thermal structure with implications for water level, nutrient cycling, ecosystem productivity, and food web dynamics. As air temperature increases with climate change and human land use transforms watersheds, rising water temperatures have been reported for individual lakes or regions, but a global synthesis is lacking; such a synthesis is foundational for understanding the state of freshwater resources. We investigated global patterns in lake surface water temperatures between 1985 and 2009 using in-situ and satellite data from 236 lakes. We demonstrate that lakes are warming significantly around the globe, at an average rate of 0.34 °C per decade. The breadth of lakes in this study allowed examination of the diversity of drivers across global lakes, and highlighted the importance of ice cover in determining the suite of morphological and climate drivers for lake temperature dynamics. These empirical results are consistent with modeled predictions of climate change, taking into account the extent to which water warming can be modulated by local environmental conditions and thus defy simple correlations with air temperature. The water temperature changes we report have fundamental importance for thermal structure and ecosystem functioning in global water resources; recognition of the extent to which lakes are currently in transition should have broad implications for regional and global models as well as for management.

  20. Global modeling of fresh surface water temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bierkens, M. F.; Eikelboom, T.; van Vliet, M. T.; Van Beek, L. P.

    2011-12-01

    Temperature determines a range of water physical properties, the solubility of oxygen and other gases and acts as a strong control on fresh water biogeochemistry, influencing chemical reaction rates, phytoplankton and zooplankton composition and the presence or absence of pathogens. Thus, in freshwater ecosystems the thermal regime affects the geographical distribution of aquatic species through their growth and metabolism, tolerance to parasites, diseases and pollution and life history. Compared to statistical approaches, physically-based models of surface water temperature have the advantage that they are robust in light of changes in flow regime, river morphology, radiation balance and upstream hydrology. Such models are therefore better suited for projecting the effects of global change on water temperature. Till now, physically-based models have only been applied to well-defined fresh water bodies of limited size (e.g., lakes or stream segments), where the numerous parameters can be measured or otherwise established, whereas attempts to model water temperature over larger scales has thus far been limited to regression type of models. Here, we present a first attempt to apply a physically-based model of global fresh surface water temperature. The model adds a surface water energy balance to river discharge modelled by the global hydrological model PCR-GLOBWB. In addition to advection of energy from direct precipitation, runoff and lateral exchange along the drainage network, energy is exchanged between the water body and the atmosphere by short and long-wave radiation and sensible and latent heat fluxes. Also included are ice-formation and its effect on heat storage and river hydraulics. We used the coupled surface water and energy balance model to simulate global fresh surface water temperature at daily time steps on a 0.5x0.5 degree grid for the period 1970-2000. Meteorological forcing was obtained from the CRU data set, downscaled to daily values with ECMWF ERA40 re-analysis data. We compared our simulation results with daily temperature data from rivers and lakes (USGS, limited to the USA) and compared mean monthly temperatures with those recorded in the GEMS data set. Results show that the model is able to capture well the mean monthly surface temperature for the majority of the GEMS stations both in time as well as in space, while the inter-annual variability as derived from the USGS data was captured reasonably well. Results are poorest for the arctic rivers, possibly because the timing of ice-breakup is predicted too late in the year due to the lack of including a mechanical break-up mechanism. The spatio-temporal variation of water temperature reveals large temperature differences between water and atmosphere for the higher latitudes, while considerable lateral transport of heat can be observed for rivers crossing hydroclimatic zones such as the Nile, the Mississippi and the large rivers flowing into the Arctic. Overall, our model results show great promise for future projection of global fresh surface water temperature under global change.

  1. A Simple Downscaling Algorithm for Remotely Sensed Land Surface Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandholt, I.; Nielsen, C.; Stisen, S.

    2009-05-01

    The method is illustrated using a combination of MODIS NDVI data with a spatial resolution of 250m and 3 Km Meteosat Second Generation SEVIRI LST data. Geostationary Earth Observation data carry a large potential for assessment of surface state variables. Not the least the European Meteosat Second Generation platform with its SEVIRI sensor is well suited for studies of the dynamics of land surfaces due to its high temporal frequency (15 minutes) and its red, Near Infrared (NIR) channels that provides vegetation indices, and its two split window channels in the thermal infrared for assessment of Land Surface Temperature (LST). For some applications the spatial resolution in geostationary data is too coarse. Due to the low statial resolution of 4.8 km at nadir for the SEVIRI sensor, a means of providing sub pixel information is sought for. By combining and properly scaling two types of satellite images, namely data from the MODIS sensor onboard the polar orbiting platforms TERRA and AQUA and the coarse resolution MSG-SEVIRI, we exploit the best from two worlds. The vegetation index/surface temperature space has been used in a vast number of studies for assessment of air temperature, soil moisture, dryness indices, evapotranspiration and for studies of land use change. In this paper, we present an improved method to derive a finer resolution Land Surface Temperature (LST). A new, deterministic scaling method has been applied, and is compared to existing deterministic downscaling methods based on LST and NDVI. We also compare our results from in situ measurements of LST from the Dahra test site in West Africa.

  2. Global trends of measured surface air temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, James; Lebedeff, Sergej

    1987-01-01

    The paper presents the results of surface air temperature measurements from available meteorological stations for the period of 1880-1985. It is shown that the network of meteorological stations is sufficient to yield reliable long-term, decadal, and interannual temperature changes for both the Northern Hemisphere and the Southern Hemisphere, despite the fact that most stations are located on the continents. The results indicate a global warming of about 0.5-0.7 C in the past century, with warming of similar magnitude in both hemispheres. A strong warming trend between 1965 and 1980 raised the global mean temperature in 1980 and 1981 to the highest level in the period of instrumental records. Selected graphs of the temperature change in each of the eight latitude zones are included.

  3. Fitting the observed changes of global surface temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Courtillot, V.; Le Mouël, J.; Kossobokov, V. G.; Gibert, D.; Lopes, F.

    2012-12-01

    The quality of the fit of a trivial or, conversely, delicately-designed model to the observed natural phenomena is the fundamental pillar stone of any forecasting, including forecasting of the Earth's Climate. Using precise mathematical and logical systems outside their range of applicability can be scientifically groundless, unwise, and even dangerous. The temperature data sets are naturally in the basis of any hypothesizing on variability and forecasting the Earth's Climate. Leaving open the question of the global temperature definitions and their determination (T), we have analyzed hemispheric and global monthly temperature anomaly series produced by the Climate Research Unit of the University of East Anglia (CRUTEM4 database) and more recently by the Berkeley Earth Surface Temperature consortium (BEST database). We first fit the data in 1850-2010 with polynomials of degrees 1 to 9 and compare it with exponential fit by the adjusted R-squared criterion that takes into consideration the number of free parameters of the model. In all the cases considered, the adjusted R-squared values for polynomials are larger than for the exponential as soon as the degree exceeds 1 or 2. The polynomial fits become even more satisfactory as soon as degree 5 or 6 is reached. Extrapolations of these trends outside of the data domain show quick divergence. For example, the CRUTEM4vNH fit in the decade 2010-2020, for degrees 2 to 5, rises steeply then, for degrees 6 to 9, reverses to steep decreasing: the reversal in extrapolated trends arises from improved ability to fit the observed "~60-yr" wave in 150 years of data prior to 2010. The extrapolations prior to 1850 are even more erratic, linked with the increased dispersion of the early data. When focusing the analysis of fits on 1900-2010 we find that the apparent oscillations of T can be modeled by a series of linear segments: An optimal fit suggests 4 slope breaks indicating two clear transitions in 1940 and 1975, and two that are less certain in 1905 and 2005. Interestingly, the Pacific Decadal Oscillation index underwent major changes around 1940-1950 and 1974-1984, i.e. the time of the breaks in slope of the T curve, suggesting a good correlation at the multi-decadal scale between the derivatives of T and PDO index. Therefore, one may speculate that the Earth's climate system may have entered a new multi-decadal regime in the last years of the 20th century and we should expect global temperature to remain constant or decrease slightly while the PDO index remains dominantly negative up to about 2030.

  4. Skylab earth resources experiment package /EREP/ - Sea surface topography experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonbun, F. O.; Marsh, J. G.; Mcgoogan, J. T.; Leitao, C. D.; Vincent, S.; Wells, W. T.

    1976-01-01

    The S-193 Skylab radar altimeter was operated in a round-the-world pass on Jan. 31, 1974. The main purpose of this experiment was to test and 'measure' the variation of the sea surface topography using the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) geoid model as a reference. This model is based upon 430,000 satellite and 25,000 ground gravity observations. Variations of the sea surface on the order of -40 to +60 m were observed along this pass. The 'computed' and 'measured' sea surfaces have an rms agreement on the order of 7 m. This is quite satisfactory, considering that this was the first time the sea surface has been observed directly over a distance of nearly 35,000 km and compared to a computed model. The Skylab orbit for this global pass was computed using the Goddard Earth Model (GEM 6) and S-band radar tracking data, resulting in an orbital height uncertainty of better than 5 m over one orbital period.

  5. Appendix A: Winter MHB Surface Temperature Maps This section shows surface temperature contours, which are generated using the ASA

    E-print Network

    Chen, Changsheng

    . The surface temperature structure in Mt. Hope Bay on 21 February 1999. The relevant values of Fall River sea31 Appendix A: Winter MHB Surface Temperature Maps This section shows surface temperature contours contours are generated based on these linear temperature interpolations. #12;32 Figure A1. The surface

  6. Do planetary encounters reset surfaces of near Earth asteroids?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nesvorný, David; Bottke, William F.; Vokrouhlický, David; Chapman, Clark R.; Rafkin, Scot

    2010-10-01

    Processes such as the solar wind sputtering and micrometeorite impacts can modify optical properties of surfaces of airless bodies. This explains why spectra of the main belt asteroids, exposed to these 'space weathering' processes over eons, do not match the laboratory spectra of ordinary chondrite (OC) meteorites. In contrast, an important fraction of Near Earth Asteroids (NEAs), defined as Q-types in the asteroid taxonomy, display spectral attributes that are a good match to OCs. Here we study the possibility that the Q-type NEAs underwent recent encounters with the terrestrial planets and that the tidal gravity (or other effects) during these encounters exposed fresh OC material on the surface (thus giving it the Q-type spectral properties). We used numerical integrations to determine the statistics of encounters of NEAs to planets. The results were used to calculate the fraction and orbital distribution of Q-type asteroids expected in the model as a function of the space weathering timescale, tsw (see main text for definition), and maximum distance, r?, at which planetary encounters can reset the surface. We found that tsw ˜ 10 6 yr (at 1 AU) and r? ˜ 5 Rpl, where Rpl is the planetary radius, best fit the data. Values tsw < 10 5 yr would require that r? > 20 Rpl, which is probably implausible because these very distant encounters should be irrelevant. Also, the fraction of Q-type NEAs would be probably much larger than the one observed if tsw > 10 7 yr. We found that tsw ? q2, where q is the perihelion distance, expected if the solar wind sputtering controls tsw, provides a better match to the orbital distribution of Q-type NEAs than models with fixed tsw. We also discuss how the Earth magnetosphere and radiation effects such as YORP can influence the spectral properties of NEAs.

  7. A Revised Estimate of Earth's Surface Heat Flux: 47TW ± 2TW

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, J.; Davies, R.

    2011-12-01

    Earth's surface heat flux provides a fundamental constraint on solid Earth dynamics. However, deriving an estimate of the total surface heat flux is complex, due to the inhomogeneous distribution of heat flow measurements and difficulties in measuring heat flux in young oceanic crust, arising due to hydrothermal circulation. We derive a revised estimate of Earth's surface heat flux using a database of 38347 measurements (provided by G. Laske and G. Masters), representing a 55% increase on the number of measurements used previously, and the methods of Geographical Information Science (GIS) (Davies & Davies, 2010). To account for hydrothermal circulation in young oceanic crust, we use a model estimate of the heat flux, following the work of Jaupart et al., 2007; while for the rest of the globe, in an attempt to overcome the inhomogeneous distribution of measurements, we develop an average for different geological units. Two digital geology data sets are used to define the global geology: (i) continental geology - Hearn et al., 2003; and (ii) the global data-set of CCGM - Commission de la Carte Géologique du Monde, 2000. This leads to > 93,000 polygons defining Earth's geology. To limit the influence of clustering, we intersect the geology polygons with a 1 by 1 degree (at the equator) equal area grid. For each geology class the average heat flow in the resulting polygons is evaluated. The contribution of that geology class to the global surface heat flow is derived by multiplying the estimated surface heat flux with the area of that geology class. The total surface heat flow contributions of all the geology classes are summed. For Antarctica we use an estimate based on depth to Curie temperature and include a 1TW contribution from hot-spots in young ocean age. Geology classes with less than 50 readings are excluded. The raw data suggests that this method of correlating heat flux with geology has some power. Our revised estimate for Earth's global surface heat flux is 47 ± 2 TW, which is similar but slightly higher than previous estimates (e.g. Pollack et al., 1993 - 45 ± 1 TW; and Jaupart et al., 2007, - 46 ± 3 TW). It is challenging to reconcile such a high heat flow with estimates of internal heat sources in a monotonically cooling mantle. We will discuss alternative explanations and also how this work can be extended to produce a best estimate of the local heat flux globally.

  8. Solar Flare Intermittency and the Earth's Temperature Anomalies Nicola Scafetta1,2

    E-print Network

    Scafetta, Nicola

    Solar Flare Intermittency and the Earth's Temperature Anomalies Nicola Scafetta1,2 and Bruce J; published 17 June 2003) We argue that Earth's short-term temperature anomalies and the solar flare data sets that corresponds to the one that would be induced by the solar flare intermittency. The mean

  9. Global surface air temperatures - Update through 1987

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, James; Lebedeff, Sergej

    1988-01-01

    Data from meteorological stations show that surface air temperatures in the 1980s are the warmest in the history of instrumental records. The four warmest years on record are all in the 1980s, with the warmest years in the analysis being 1981 and 1987. The rate of warming between the mid-1960s and the present is higher than that which occurrred in the previous period of rapid warming between the 1880s and 1940.

  10. A global monthly sea surface temperature climatology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dennis J. Shea; Keyin E. Trenberth; Richard W. Reynolds

    1992-01-01

    The paper presents a new global 2 deg x 2 deg monthly sea surface temperature (SST) climatology, referred here to as the Shea-Trenberth-Reynolds (STR) climatology, which was derived by modifying a 1950-1979-based SST climatology from the Climate Analysis Center (CAC), by using data from the Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set to improve the SST estimates in the regions of the Kuroshio

  11. Martian Meteorites Record Surface Temperatures on Mars

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    G. Jeffrey Taylor

    This site from Planetary Science Research Discoveries at the University of Hawaii uses recent research on using the ages of Martian meteorites to explore the history of surface temperature on Mars. Results of geochemical analyses from two very different meteorites indicate that Mars has experienced only very brief warm, wet periods during the past 4 billion years. Photographs, satellite images, thin sections, and graphs help illustrate the research.

  12. On The Determination Of The Earth's Model – The Mean Equipotential Surface

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Burša; G. V. Demianov; M. I. Yurkina

    1998-01-01

    The sea surface cannot be used as reference for Major Vertical Datum definition because its deviations from the ideal equipotential surface are very large compared to rms in the observed quantities. The quasigeoid is not quite suitable as the surface representing the most accurate Earth's model without some additional conditions, because it depends on the reference field. The normal Earth's

  13. High-Temperature Sprayable Phosphor Coating Developed for Measuring Surface Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bencic, Timothy J.

    2003-01-01

    The use of phosphor thermography for noncontact temperature measurements in harsh environments has been proven over the last decade, but it has suffered from difficult application procedures such as vapor deposition or sputtering techniques. We have developed a high-temperature-sensitive paint that is easily applied with commercially available paint-spraying equipment and have successfully demonstrated it to temperatures up to 1500 C. Selected phosphors have also shown measurable signals to 1700 C, thus allowing a combination of phosphors to be used in high-temperature binders to make surface temperature measurements from ambient to over 1500 C. Phosphor thermography is an optical technique that measures the time response of fluorescence light, which is a function of the phosphor temperature. The phosphors are excited with short wavelength light (ultraviolet or blue), and they emit light at a longer wavelength. This technique has a benefit over other temperature measurements, such as thermocouples and infrared thermography, in difficult environments such as high blackbody backgrounds, vibration, flames, high electromagnetic noise, or where special windows may be needed. In addition, the sprayable phosphor paints easily cover large or complicated structures, providing full-surface information with a single measurement. Oak Ridge National Laboratories developed and tested the high-temperature binders and phosphors under the direction of the NASA Glenn Research Center. Refractory materials doped with rare earth metals were selected for their performance at high temperature. Survivability, adhesion, and material compatibility tests were conducted at high temperatures in a small furnace while the fluorescent response from the phosphors was being measured. A painted sample in a furnace with a clearly visible fluorescing dot excited by a pulsed laser is shown. Measuring the decay time of this fluorescence yields the surface temperature. One new paint was recently tested in a rocket test stand at Glenn. The floor of a square duct nozzle was painted, and full-field lifetime decay measurements were acquired for multiple firings of the rocket. Good agreement with predicted results was obtained, matching temperature gradients along the length of the nozzle and clearly showing shock structures. These good results were very satisfactory given that the measurements were made looking through the combustion plume. Infrared pyrometry was incapable of making the surface measurements because of the interference from the rocket exhaust, which contaminated the infrared signature.

  14. Laboratory invesitgations: Low earth orbit environment chemistry with spacecraft surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Cross, J.B.

    1989-01-01

    Long-term space operations that require exposure of material to the low earth orbit (LEO) environment must take into account the effects of this highly oxidative atmosphere on material properties and the possible contamination of the spacecraft surroundings. Ground-based laboratory experiments at Los Alamos using a newly developed hyperthermal atomic oxygen (AO) source have shown that not only are hydrocarbon based materials effected but that inorganic materials such as MoS/sub 2/ are also oxidized and that thin (750A) protective coatings such as Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ can be breached, producing oxidation of the underlying substrate material. Gas-phase reaction products, such as SO/sub 2/ from oxidation of MoS/sub 2/ and CO and CO/sub 2/ from hydrocarbon materials, have been detected and have consequences in terms of spacecraft contamination. Energy loss through gas-surface collisions causing spacecraft drag has been measured for a few select surfaces and has been found to be highly dependent on the surface reactivity. 10 refs., 11 figs.

  15. Laboratory investigations: Low Earth orbit environment chemistry with spacecraft surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cross, Jon B.

    1990-01-01

    Long-term space operations that require exposure of material to the low earth orbit (LEO) environment must take into account the effects of this highly oxidative atmosphere on material properties and the possible contamination of the spacecraft surroundings. Ground-based laboratory experiments at Los Alamos using a newly developed hyperthermal atomic oxygen (AO) source have shown that not only are hydrocarbon based materials effected but that inorganic materials such as MoS2 are also oxidized and that thin protective coatings such as Al2O3 can be breached, producing oxidation of the underlying substrate material. Gas-phase reaction products, such as SO2 from oxidation of MoS2 and CO and CO2 from hydrocarbon materials, have been detected and have consequences in terms of spacecraft contamination. Energy loss through gas-surface collisions causing spacecraft drag has been measured for a few select surfaces and has been found to be highly dependent on the surface reactivity.

  16. Surface temperature and salinity variations between Tasmania and Antarctica, 19931999

    E-print Network

    the temperature data. The Levitus climatological and Reynolds satellite monthly mean sea surface temperature dataSurface temperature and salinity variations between Tasmania and Antarctica, 1993­1999 Alexis 2002. [1] Continuous surface temperature and salinity measurements have been collected onboard a supply

  17. Land surface air temperature mapping using TOVS and AVHRR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Lakshmi; K. Czajkowski; R. Dubayah; J. Susskind

    2001-01-01

    Surface air temperature is an important variable in land surface hydrological studies. This paper evaluates the ability of satellites to map air temperature across large land surface areas. Algorithms recently have been developed that derive surface air temperature using observations from the TOVS (TIROS Operational Vertical Sounder) suite of instruments and also from the AVHRR (Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer),

  18. Combined Visualization of Wind Waves and Water Surface Temperature

    E-print Network

    Jaehne, Bernd

    Combined Visualization of Wind Waves and Water Surface Temperature Roland Rocholz1 , Sven Wanner1 comparison of the space-time evolution of the waves and the surface temperature distribution . The temperature images are mapped in false color onto that virtual surface. Shading, based on the surface slope

  19. Eye surface temperature detects stress response in budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus).

    PubMed

    Ikkatai, Yuko; Watanabe, Shigeru

    2015-08-01

    Previous studies have suggested that stressors not only increase body core temperature but also body surface temperature in many animals. However, it remains unclear whether surface temperature could be used as an alternative to directly measure body core temperature, particularly in birds. We investigated whether surface temperature is perceived as a stress response in budgerigars. Budgerigars have been used as popular animal models to investigate various neural mechanisms such as visual perception, vocal learning, and imitation. Developing a new technique to understand the basic physiological mechanism would help neuroscience researchers. First, we found that cloacal temperature correlated with eye surface temperature. Second, eye surface temperature increased after handling stress. Our findings suggest that eye surface temperature is closely related to cloacal temperature and that the stress response can be measured by eye surface temperature in budgerigars. PMID:26103119

  20. Stratospheric Impact of Varying Sea Surface Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, Paul A.; Nash, Eric R.; Nielsen, Jon E.; Waugh, Darryn; Pawson, Steven

    2004-01-01

    The Finite-Volume General Circulation Model (FVGCM) has been run in 50 year simulations with the: 1) 1949-1999 Hadley Centre sea surface temperatures (SST), and 2) a fixed annual cycle of SSTs. In this presentation we first show that the 1949-1999 FVGCM simulation produces a very credible stratosphere in comparison to an NCEP/NCAR reanalysis climatology. In particular, the northern hemisphere has numerous major and minor stratospheric warming, while the southern hemisphere has only a few over the 50-year simulation. During the northern hemisphere winter, temperatures are both warmer in the lower stratosphere and the polar vortex is weaker than is found in the mid-winter southern hemisphere. Mean temperature differences in the lower stratosphere are shown to be small (less than 2 K), and planetary wave forcing is found to be very consistent with the climatology. We then will show the differences between our varying SST simulation and the fixed SST simulation in both the dynamics and in two parameterized trace gases (ozone and methane). In general, differences are found to be small, with subtle changes in planetary wave forcing that lead to reduced temperatures in the SH and increased temperatures in the NH.

  1. Earthquake Lights: Time-dependent Earth Surface - Ionosphere Coupling Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasko, V. P.

    2012-12-01

    Co-seismic luminescence, commonly referred to as Earthquake lights (EQLs), is an atmospheric luminous phenomenon occurring during strong earthquakes and lasting from a fraction of a second to a few minutes [e.g., Derr, J. S., Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am., 63, 2177, 1973; St-Laurent, F., et al., Phys. Chem. Earth, 31, 305, 2006; Herauld and Lira, Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 11, 1025, 2011]. Laboratory experiments of Freund, F. T., et al. [JGR, 105, 11001, 2000; JASTP, 71, 1824, 2009, and references therein] demonstrate that rocks subjected to stress force can generate electric currents. During earthquakes these currents can deliver significant amounts of net positive charge to the ground-air interface leading to enhancements in the electric field and corona discharges around ground objects [Freund et al., 2009]. The eyewitness reports [Herauld and Lira, 2011] indicate similarities of the blue glow observed during EQLs to St. Elmo's fire observed during thunderstorms around wing tips of airplanes or around the tall masts of sailing ships [e.g., Wescott, E.M., et al., GRL, 23, 3687, 1996]. Recent work indicates that the vertical currents induced in the stressed rock can map to ionospheric altitudes and create 10s of % variations in the total electron content in the Earth's ionosphere above the earthquake active region [Kuo, C. L., et al., JGR, 116, A10317, 2011]. The magnitudes of the vertical currents estimated by Kuo et al. [2011] based on work by Freund et al. [2009] range from 0.01 to 10 ?A/m2. In this talk we report results from a new time-dependent model allowing to calculate currents induced in the ambient atmosphere and corona currents under application of vertical stressed rock currents with arbitrary time variation. We will report test results documenting the model performance under conditions: (1) relaxation toward the classic global electric circuit conditions in fair weather regions when ionosphere is maintained at 300 kV with respect to the ground; (2) relaxation toward the steady state conditions when the earth-air surface charge is maintained by balance of the current induced by stressed rock and ambient atmospheric current [Kuo et al., 2011]; and (3) a 2 min duration model episode in which the stressed rock current reaches value of 0.4 ?A/m2 producing electric fields at the ground on the order of 0.5 kV/cm leading to an additional injection of positive corona current. One of the interesting results of this modeling is that the reduced electric field (i.e., field normalized by air density) remains low at the ground-air interface due to the injection of the positive corona charge and at high altitudes due to the naturally high conductivity of the Earth's atmosphere. At the intermediate altitudes in clear air above earthquake region the reduced electric field can dynamically reach values exceeding both relativistic (~2 kV/cm when scaled to the ground level) and conventional (~30 kV/cm ground value) breakdown thresholds. The exact geometry would depend on the spatial extent of the earthquake active region, ambient atmospheric conductivity and the time dynamics of the driving stress rock current. We suggest that the enhancements of the reduced electric field in clear air at high altitudes in the Earth atmosphere is a likely scenario leading to transient (sub-second duration) flashes some time observed during earthquakes [Herauld and Lira, 2011].

  2. Comparison of land surface emissivity and radiometric temperature derived from MODIS and ASTER sensors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frédéric Jacob; Thomas Schmugge; Éric Vermote; Andrew French; Kenta Ogawa

    2004-01-01

    This study compared surface emissivity and radiometric temperature retrievals derived from data collected with the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) sensors, onboard the NASA's Earth Observation System (EOS)-TERRA satellite. Two study sites were selected: a semi-arid area located in northern Chihuahuan desert, USA, and a Savannah landscape located in central Africa. Atmospheric

  3. Is Air Temperature Enough to Predict Lake Surface Temperature?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piccolroaz, S.; Toffolon, M.; Majone, B.

    2014-12-01

    Lake surface water (LST) is a key factor that controls most of the physical and ecological processes occurring in lakes. Reliable estimates are especially important in the light of recent studies, which revealed that inland water bodies are highly sensitive to climate, and are rapidly warming throughout the world. However, an accurate estimation of LST usually requires a significant amount of information that is not always available. In this work, we present an application of air2water, a lumped model that simulates LST as a function of air temperature only. In addition, air2water allows for a qualitative evaluation of the depth of the epilimnion during the annual stratification cycle. The model consists in a simplification of the complete heat budget of the well-mixed surface layer, and has a few parameters (from 4 to 8 depending on the version) that summarize the role of the different heat flux components. Model calibration requires only air and water temperature data, possibly covering sufficiently long historical periods in order to capture inter-annual variability and long-term trends. During the calibration procedure, the information included in input data is retrieved to directly inform model parameters, which can be used to classify the thermal behavior of the lake. In order to investigate how thermal dynamics are related to morphological features, the model has been applied to 14 temperate lakes characterized by different morphological and hydrological conditions, by different sources of temperature data (buoys, satellite), and by variable frequency of acquisition. A good agreement between observed and simulated LST has been achieved, with a RMSE in the order of 1°C, which is fully comparable to the performances of more complex process-based models. This application allowed for a deeper understanding of the thermal response of lakes as a function of their morphology, as well as for specific analyses as for example the investigation of the exceptional warming of Lake Superior in summer 1998.

  4. Surface Temperature Humidity Reference System Handbook - November 2005

    SciTech Connect

    MT Ritsche

    2005-11-30

    The Surface Temperature and Humidity Reference (SURTHREF) system is intended to provide accurate reference values of ambient temperature and relative humidity for comparison with radiosonde prelaunch values.

  5. Do Planetary Encounters Reset Surfaces of Near Earth Asteroids?

    E-print Network

    Nesvorny, David; Vokrouhlicky, David; Chapman, Clark R; Rafkin, Scot

    2010-01-01

    Processes such as the solar wind sputtering and micrometeorite impacts can modify optical properties of surfaces of airless bodies. This explains why spectra of the main belt asteroids, exposed to these `space weathering' processes over eons, do not match the laboratory spectra of ordinary chondrite (OC) meteorites. In contrast, an important fraction of Near Earth Asteroids (NEAs), defined as Q-types in the asteroid taxonomy, display spectral attributes that are a good match to OCs. Here we study the possibility that the Q-type NEAs underwent recent encounters with the terrestrial planets and that the tidal gravity (or other effects) during these encounters exposed fresh OC material on the surface (thus giving it the Q-type spectral properties). We used numerical integrations to determine the statistics of encounters of NEAs to planets. The results were used to calculate the fraction and orbital distribution of Q-type asteroids expected in the model as a function of the space weathering timescale, t_sw (see m...

  6. Getting Beneath the Surface with the OpenEarth Framework (OEF) Virtual Globe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. R. Nadeau; J. L. Moreland; C. Baru; C. J. Crosby

    2009-01-01

    Virtual globes like Google Earth and NASA WorldWind show layers of data overlaid atop the Earth's terrain. But leading Earth science research efforts, such as EarthScope, are focused on 3D and 4D questions about the structure and evolution of the North American continent and processes controlling earthquakes and volcanoes. These research questions are fundamentally about phenomena beneath the surface, for

  7. Cylinder surface, temperature may affect LPG odorization

    SciTech Connect

    McWilliams, H.

    1988-01-01

    A study of possible odorant fade in propane by the Arthur D. Little Co. (Boston) has indicated that oxidation of interior surfaces of LPG containers may cause the odorant, ethyl mercaptan, to fade. The oxidation, ferous oxide, is a black, easily oxidizable powder that is the monoxide of iron. The study, contracted for by the Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC), is part of that agency's study of residential LP-gas systems. Another study is currently underway by an NLPGA task force headed by Bob Reid of Petrolane (Long Beach, Calif.). It may not be finished until the end of next year. Recently, the Propane Gas Association of Canada completed a study of odorant fade with the conclusion that much more study is needed on the subject. In addition to the cylinder surface problem, the CPSC study indicated that ambient temperatures might also affect the presence of odorant in product. This article reviews some of the results.

  8. Sea surface temperature variability: patterns and mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Deser, Clara; Alexander, Michael A; Xie, Shang-Ping; Phillips, Adam S

    2010-01-01

    Patterns of sea surface temperature (SST) variability on interannual and longer timescales result from a combination of atmospheric and oceanic processes. These SST anomaly patterns may be due to intrinsic modes of atmospheric circulation variability that imprint themselves upon the SST field mainly via surface energy fluxes. Examples include SST fluctuations in the Southern Ocean associated with the Southern Annular Mode, a tripolar pattern of SST anomalies in the North Atlantic associated with the North Atlantic Oscillation, and a pan-Pacific mode known as the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (with additional contributions from oceanic processes). They may also result from coupled ocean-atmosphere interactions, such as the El Niño-Southern Oscillation phenomenon in the tropical Indo-Pacific, the tropical Atlantic Niño, and the cross-equatorial meridional modes in the tropical Pacific and Atlantic. Finally, patterns of SST variability may arise from intrinsic oceanic modes, notably the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation. PMID:21141660

  9. High temperature surface protection. [10 gas turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, S. R.

    1978-01-01

    Alloys of the MCrAlX type are the basis for high temperature surface protection systems in gas turbines. M can be one or more of Ni, Co, or Fe and X denotes a reactive metal added to enhance oxide scale adherence. The selection and formation as well as the oxidation, hot corrosion and thermal fatigue performance of MCrAlX coatings are discussed. Coatings covered range from simple aluminides formed by pack cementation to the more advanced physical vapor deposition overlay coatings and developmental plasma spray deposited thermal barrier coatings.

  10. Sea Surface Temperature and Vegetation Index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This is a composite MODIS image showing the 'green wave' of spring in North America and sea surface temperature in the ocean, collected over an 8-day period during the first week in April 2000. On land, the darker green pixels show where the most green foliage is being produced due to photosynthetic activity. Yellows on land show where there is little or no productivity and red is a boundary zone. In the ocean, orange and yellows show warmer waters and blues show colder values.

  11. A global monthly sea surface temperature climatology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shea, Dennis J.; Trenberth, Kevin E.; Reynolds, Richard W.

    1992-01-01

    The paper presents a new global 2 deg x 2 deg monthly sea surface temperature (SST) climatology, referred here to as the Shea-Trenberth-Reynolds (STR) climatology, which was derived by modifying a 1950-1979-based SST climatology from the Climate Analysis Center (CAC), by using data from the Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set to improve the SST estimates in the regions of the Kuroshio and the Gulf Stream. A comparison of the STR climatology with the Alexander and Mobley SST climatology showed that the STR climatology is warmer in the Northern Hemisphere, and colder poleward of 45 deg S.

  12. On the correlation between air temperature and the core Earth processes: Further investigations using a continuous wavelet analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefano Sello

    2011-01-01

    In a recent article by Dickey, J. O., Marcus, S.L. and O. de Viron, 2011, the authors show evidences for correlations in the multi-decadal variability of Earth's rotation rate [i.e., length of day (LOD)], the angular momentum of the core (CAM), and natural surface air temperature (SAT). Previous investigators have already found that the LOD fluctuations are largely attributed to

  13. Observations of Lightning on Earth from the Lunar Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, S. J.; Buechler, D. E.; Christian, H. J., Jr.; Stahl, H. P.

    2007-01-01

    The NASA Optical Transient Detector (OTD) launched into a 70deg inclination orbit in April 1995 aboard the MicroLab-1 satellite and the Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) launched into a 35deg inclination orbit in November 1997 (and still operating today) aboard the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission have produced the most comprehensive global observations of lightning activity on Earth. The OTD collected data for 5-yr from an altitude of 740 km while the LIS, in its 10th year of operations, is still collecting data from its current altitude of 402 km. From these altitudes the OTD observes an individual storm within its field of view for approx.3 min and the LIS for approx.90 sec as the satellites orbit the earth. Figures 1-4 show the combined LIS/OTD distribution of lightning for day and night during the Northern Hemisphere warm season from April through August (Fig. 1,2) and the cool season from October through February (Fig. 3,4) as might be observed from the lunar surface (12-h daylight and 12-h nighttime observations). The day and night plots are for the twelve hour periods centered on local noon and midnight. The total viewtime of the global lightning activity is 200 hours or less, depending on latitude (Fig. 5). Most of the observed lightning occurs over the northern hemisphere land areas as reported in previous studies. More lightning activity is seen at the higher northern latitudes during the day. The greatest lightning maxima occurs in the southeastern US, during the day. The corresponding region at night shows much less lightning activity. In contrast, there is a maxima in lightning activity at night over the high Plains area of the U.S. This region had lower lightning rates during the daytime period. During the cold season, the southern hemisphere has significantly more lightning. The maxima in Central Africa is still present, and a secondary maxima is observed in South Africa. In South America, the maxima in Argentina occurs at night in association with large-scale mesoscale convective storm complexes. This is the region on the earth having the greatest frequency of extreme storms with flash rates exceeding 1000 flashes/min. daytime maxima is seen extending from Northern Argentina to Brazil. In the US., the Gulf of Mexico and the Gulf Coast states exhibit a maximum in lightning activity both day and night.

  14. TWO SURFACE TEMPERATURE RETRIEVAL METHODS COMPARED OVER AGRICULTURAL LAND

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accurate, spatially distributed surface temperatures are required for modeling evapotranspiration (ET) over agricultural fields under wide ranging conditions, including stressed and unstressed vegetation. Modeling approaches that use surface temperature observations, however, have the burden of esti...

  15. On Atmospheric Refraction and its Bearing on the Transmission of Electromagnetic Waves Round the Earth's Surface

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J A Fleming

    1913-01-01

    In this Paper the author considers the conditions under which true atmospheric refraction would be sufficient to carry a ray of light or electromagnetic radiation sent out horizontally from any point on the earth's surface round the earth parallel to its surface. It is now generally agreed that pure diffraction is insufficient to account for all the phenomena of long-distance

  16. TOWARDS A UNIFIED SCIENCE OF THE EARTH'S SURFACE: OPPORTUNITIES FOR SYNTHESIS BETWEEN HYDROLOGY, GEOMORPHOLOGY AND ECOLOGY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chris Paola; Efi Foufoula-Georgiou; William E. Dietrich; Miki Hondzo; David Mohrig; Gary Parker; Mary E. Power; Ignacio Rodriguez-Iturbe; Vaughan Voller; Peter Wilcock

    2005-01-01

    The Earth's surface is shaped by the interaction of tectonics, water, sediment, solutes, and biota over a wide range of spatial and temporal scales and across diverse environments. Development of a predictive science of Earth-surface dynamics would integrate many disciplines and approaches, including hydrology, geomorphology, atmospheric science, biology, sedimentary and structural geology, and ecology. This paper discusses challenges, opportunities, and

  17. Science Syllabus for Middle and Junior High Schools. Block D, The Earth's Changing Surface.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of General Education Curriculum Development.

    This syllabus begins with a list of program objectives and performance criteria for the study of three general topic areas in earth science and a list of 22 science processes. Following this information is a listing of concepts and understandings for subtopics within the general topic areas: (1) the earth's surface--surface features, rock…

  18. Evaluation of satellite land surface temperatures using ground measurements from surface radiation budget network

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yunyue Yu; Dan Tarpley; M. K. Rama Varma Raja; Konstantin Vinnikov; Mitch D. Goldberg

    2008-01-01

    Evaluation of satellite land surface temperature (LST) is one of the most difficult tasks in LST retrieval algorithm development, because of spatial and temporal variability of land surface temperature and surface emissivity variations. A large number of high quality \\

  19. The Breath of Planet Earth: Atmospheric Circulation. Assimilation of Surface Wind Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atlas, Robert; Bloom, Stephen; Otterman, Joseph

    2000-01-01

    Differences in air pressure are a major cause of atmospheric circulation. Because heat excites the movement of atoms, warm temperatures cause, air molecules to expand. Because those molecules now occupy a larger space, the pressure that their weight exerts is decreased. Air from surrounding high-pressure areas is pushed toward the low-pressure areas, creating circulation. This process causes a major pattern of global atmosphere movement known as meridional circulation. In this form of convection, or vertical air movement, heated equatorial air rises and travels through the upper atmosphere toward higher latitudes. Air just above the equator heads toward the North Pole, and air just below the equator moves southward. This air movement fills the gap created where increased air pressure pushes down cold air. The ,cold air moves along the surface back toward the equator, replacing the air masses that rise there. Another influence on atmospheric. circulation is the Coriolis force. Because of the Earth's rotation, large-scale wind currents move in the direction of this axial spin around low-pressure areas. Wind rotates counterclockwise in the Northern Hemisphere and clockwise in the Southern Hemisphere. just as the Earth's rotation affects airflow, so too does its surface. In the phenomenon of orographic lifting, elevated topographic features such as mountain ranges lift air as it moves up their surface.

  20. Potential for extreme loss in high-latitude Earth surface processes due to climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aalto, Juha; Venäläinen, Ari; Heikkinen, Risto K.; Luoto, Miska

    2014-06-01

    Climatically driven Earth surface processes (ESPs) govern landscape and ecosystem dynamics in high-latitude regions. However, climate change is expected to alter ESP activity at yet uncertain rate and amplitude. We examined the sensitivity of key ESPs (cryoturbation, solifluction, nivation, and palsa mires) to changing climate by modeling their distribution in regard to climate, local topography, and soil variables in northern Fennoscandia. The distributions of ESPs were then forecasted under two future time periods, 2040-2069 and 2070-2099, using ensemble modeling and three emission scenarios. Increase of 2°C in current temperature conditions caused an almost complete loss of ESPs, highlighting the extreme climatic sensitivity of high-latitude geomorphic processes. Forecasts based on three scenarios suggest a disappearance of suitable climate for studied ESPs by the end of this century. This could initiate multiple opposing feedback between land surface and atmosphere through changes in albedo, heat fluxes, and biogeochemical cycles.

  1. Long-term changes in net radiation at the Earth's surface: uncertainties and implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheffield, Justin; Coccia, Gabriele; Siemann, Amanda; Wood, Eric

    2014-05-01

    Net radiation at the earth's surface plays a key role in terrestrial water, energy and carbon fluxes, but there is large uncertainty in its variation over decadal time scales. Globally, surface and satellite measurements indicate global dimming in solar radiation over many regions since the mid-20th century and then brightening over recent decades due to changes in cloudiness and aerosols. Changes in longwave radiation are driven by long-term increases in greenhouse gases and inter-annual variations in short-lived constituents such as dust and black carbon. These increases are partially offset, however, by increases in surface temperature. Current estimates of these components of the net radiation balance from satellite remote sensing are inconsistent because of inhomogeneities from changes in satellites, sensor calibration, retrieval algorithms, and so on, in addition to systematic biases. Estimates from direct ground observations are hampered by sparse spatial networks and often short-term records, and estimates based on denser networks of meteorological data are affected by errors in empirical radiation models. Some of the largest uncertainties are in the characterization of the global distribution and temporal changes in surface shortwave albedo and infrared emissivity, especially in regions with seasonal and patchy snow cover. This paper presents comparisons of legacy satellite-derived datasets (e.g. ISCCP, GEWEX/SRB) and recently developed datasets based on updated algorithms and homogenized data sources (e.g. NASA Princeton-Measures, HIRS) in the context of long-term changes in the net radiation balance at the earth's surface. We compare these with ground observations and empirical estimates based on meteorological data from in-situ sources and reanalysis. In particular we focus on the uncertainties in the magnitude and variation in surface albedo and emissivity, and their contribution to uncertainties in net radiation. We discuss the implications of these uncertainties on estimates of long-term changes in the terrestrial water cycle and trends in drought severity.

  2. SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE MONTHLY AVERAGE AND ANOMALY CHARTS

    E-print Network

    442^ SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE MONTHLY AVERAGE AND ANOMALY CHARTS EASTERN TROPICAL PACIFIC OCEAN. Pautzke, Commissioner Bureau of Commercial Fisheries, Donald L. McKernan, Director SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE I - Sea surface temperature monthly average charts, eastern tropical Pacific Ocean, 1947-58 7

  3. Understanding and predicting changes in North Atlantic Sea Surface Temperature

    E-print Network

    Fox-Kemper, Baylor

    Understanding and predicting changes in North Atlantic Sea Surface Temperature by S. G. Yeager B and predicting changes in North Atlantic Sea Surface Temperature written by S. G. Yeager has been approved Atlantic Sea Surface Temperature Thesis directed by Prof. Baylor Fox-Kemper Abstract The mechanisms

  4. MONTHLY SEA-SURFACE TEMPERATURE ANOMALY GRAPHS FOR ATLANTIC COAST

    E-print Network

    MONTHLY SEA-SURFACE TEMPERATURE ANOMALY GRAPHS FOR ATLANTIC COAST STATIONS by Franklin StearnsKeman, Director Monthly Sea-Surface Temperature Anomaly Graphs For Atlantic Coast Stations by Franklin Stearns. December 19^4 #12;Monthly Sea-Surface Temperature Anomaly Graphs For Atlantic Coast Stations by Franklin

  5. Estimating Sea Surface Temperature From Infrared Satellite and In Situ Temperature Data

    E-print Network

    1 Estimating Sea Surface Temperature From Infrared Satellite and In Situ Temperature Data W., 80303 64295 Darmstadt, I-21020 Ispra Germany ITALY Abstract Sea surface temperature (SST) is a critical and the atmosphere. Introduction As one of easiest ocean variables to observe, sea surface temperature (SST) has

  6. Body surface temperatures of jerboas ( Allactaga ) in uniform thermal environments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard W. Hill; Douglas M. Lay; James H. Veghte

    1974-01-01

    Body surface temperatures of threeAllactaga elater and oneA. hotsoni were measured by infrared radiography at ambient temperatures of 1° to 42°C. In each test the radiant temperature of environmental surfaces was the same as air temperature.

  7. Earth's surface fluid variations and deformations from GPS and GRACE in global warming

    E-print Network

    Jin, Shuanggen; Feng, Guiping

    2011-01-01

    Global warming is affecting our Earth's environment. For example, sea level is rising with thermal expansion of water and fresh water input from the melting of continental ice sheets due to human-induced global warming. However, observing and modeling Earth's surface change has larger uncertainties in the changing rate and the scale and distribution of impacts due to the lack of direct measurements. Nowadays, the Earth observation from space provides a unique opportunity to monitor surface mass transfer and deformations related to climate change, particularly the global positioning system (GPS) and the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) with capability of estimating global land and ocean water mass. In this paper, the Earth's surface fluid variations and deformations are derived and analyzed from global GPS and GRACE measurements. The fluids loading deformation and its interaction with Earth system, e.g., Earth Rotation, are further presented and discussed.

  8. Radon progeny in hydrometeors at the earth's surface.

    PubMed

    Voltaggio, M

    2012-07-01

    During atmospheric thermal inversions, dew and hoarfrost concentrate gamma emitting radionuclides of the short-lived (222)Rn progeny ((214)Pb and (214)Bi), causing an increase in the total natural gamma background from the ground. To highlight this phenomenon, a volcanic zone of high (222)Rn flux was studied during the winter season 2010-11. High-specific short-lived radon progeny activities up to 122 Bq g(-1) were detected in hydrometeors forming at the earth's surface (ESHs), corresponding to a mean increase of up to 17 % of the normal gamma background value. A theoretical model, depending on radon flux from soil and predicting the radon progeny concentrations in hydrometeors forming at the ESHs is presented. The comparison between model and field data shows a good correspondence. Around nuclear power plants or in nuclear facilities that use automatic NaI or CsI total gamma spectroscopy systems for monitoring radioactive contamination, hydrometeors forming at the ESHs in sites with a high radon flux could represent a relevant source of false alarms of radioactive contamination. PMID:22039270

  9. Heat flux calibration of a near earth spacecraft temperature alarm system in rarefied flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caruso, P. S., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    Description of the aerodynamic molecular beam testing performed on the near earth spacecraft temperature alarm system that is designed to provide in-flight temperature information useful for safeguarding scientific equipment during perigee maneuvers. The temperature/heat flux calibration results obtained are summarized.

  10. Sea surface salinity has a massive influence on Earth's climate. With Aquarius, scientists will have a new way to measure that influence in a

    E-print Network

    Waliser, Duane E.

    Sea surface salinity has a massive influence on Earth's climate. With Aquarius, scientists global temperatures. But when it comes to ocean salinity, the picture gets fuzzier. Researchers use surface salinity is influencing the ocean. Aquarius is poised to provide a missing link in satellite

  11. Ultraviolet radiation climatology of the Earth`s surface and lower atmosphere. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Madronich, S. [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States). Atmospheric Chemistry Div.; Stamnes, K. [Univ. of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK (United States). Dept. of Physics

    1999-03-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation is the driving force of tropospheric chemistry and is furthermore detrimental to most living tissues. A three year modeling program was carried out to characterize the UV radiation in the lower atmosphere, with the objective of development a climatology of UV biologically active radiation, and of photo-dissociation reaction rates that are key to tropospheric chemistry. A comprehensive model, the Tropospheric Ultraviolet-Visible (TUV) model, was developed and made available to the scientific community. The model incorporates updated spectroscopic data, recent advances in radiative transfer theory, and allows flexible customization for the needs of different users. The TUV model has been used in conjunction with satellite-derived measurements of total atmospheric ozone and cloud amount, to develop a global climatology of UV radiation reaching the surface of the Earth. Initial validation studies are highly encouraging, showing that model predictions agree with direct measurements to ca. 5--10% at times when environmental conditions are well known, and to 10--30% for monthly averages when local environmental conditions can only be estimated remotely from satellite-based measurements. Additional validation studies are continuing.

  12. Influence of Sea Surface Temperature on Humidity and Temperature in the Outflow of Tropical Deep Convection

    E-print Network

    Johnson, Richard H.

    Influence of Sea Surface Temperature on Humidity and Temperature in the Outflow of Tropical Deep upper-tropospheric temperature and humidity by the Mea- surement of Ozone and Water Vapor by Airbus In of temperature and humidity and to investigate the influence of the sea surface temperature (SST) on the outflow

  13. Surface Color and Effect of Temperature Change

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-08-03

    This activity builds the basic understanding that the heating (indicated by temperature differences) of an object is related to the object’s surface color. Materials required for this investigation include a pair of thermometers, light and dark construction paper, a heat lamp, and two foam cups and two large containers. The resource includes teaching tips and questions to guide student discussion. This is chapter 3 of Meteorology: An Educator's Resource for Inquiry-Based Learning for Grades 5-9. The guide includes a discussion of learning science, the use of inquiry in the classroom, instructions for making simple weather instruments, and more than 20 weather investigations ranging from teacher-centered to guided and open inquiry investigations.

  14. Radar cross-section of Earth surfaces measured by spaceborne precipitation radar (TRMM PR)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Satake; H. Hanado; T. Kozu

    2000-01-01

    Normalized radar cross section of Earth's surfaces are investigated using surface reflectivity data measured by a spaceborne radar, the Precipitation Radar boarded on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM PR). Homogeneous surfaces larger than 220 km of the PR's observation swath are selected for the investigation site, including rain forests, oceans, and some land areas. `Surface Sigma-O' products of the

  15. Temperature distribution along the surface of evaporating droplets.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kai; Ma, Liran; Xu, Xuefeng; Luo, Jianbin; Guo, Dan

    2014-03-01

    The surface temperature can significantly affect the flow field of drying droplets. Most previous studies assumed a monotonic temperature variation along the droplet surface. However, the present analyses indicate that a nonmonotonic spatial distribution of the surface temperature should occur. Three different patterns of the surface temperature distribution may appear during the evaporation process of liquid droplets: (i) the surface temperature increases monotonically from the center to the edge of the droplet; (ii) the surface temperature exhibits a nonmonotonic spatial distribution along the droplet surface; (iii) the surface temperature decreases monotonically from the center to the edge of the droplet. These surface temperature distributions can be explained by combining the evaporative cooling at the droplet surface and the heat conduction across the substrate and the liquid. Furthermore, a "phase diagram" for the distribution of the surface temperature is introduced and the effect of the spatial temperature distribution along the droplet surface on the flow structure of the droplet is discussed. The results may provide a better understanding of the Marangoni effect of drying droplets and provide a potential way to control evaporation-driven deposition as well as the assembly of colloids and other materials. PMID:24730849

  16. Temperature dependence of the surface free energy and surface stress: An atomistic calculation for Cu(110)

    E-print Network

    Mishin, Yuri

    Temperature dependence of the surface free energy and surface stress: An atomistic calculation is applied to compute the temperature dependencies of and for the 110 Cu surface using Monte Carlo temperature, eij is a strain tensor of the surface, and ij is the Kronecker sym- bol. Two of the Cartesian

  17. Efficacy of surface applications with diatomaceous earth to control Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) in stored wheat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erika A. Vardeman; Frank H. Arthur; James R. Nechols; James F. Campbell

    2007-01-01

    Commercial formulations of diatomaceous earth (DE) products labeled for use as grain protectants usually specify on the label the depth for using them as a surface treatment, which is often 30.5cm. An experiment was conducted at two temperatures (27 and 32°C) and three exposure intervals (7, 10 and 14d), at a relative humidity of 57–60% to determine if Rhyzopertha dominica

  18. Modelling the rheology of MgO under Earth's mantle pressure, temperature and strain rates.

    PubMed

    Cordier, Patrick; Amodeo, Jonathan; Carrez, Philippe

    2012-01-12

    Plate tectonics, which shapes the surface of Earth, is the result of solid-state convection in Earth's mantle over billions of years. Simply driven by buoyancy forces, mantle convection is complicated by the nature of the convecting materials, which are not fluids but polycrystalline rocks. Crystalline materials can flow as the result of the motion of defects--point defects, dislocations, grain boundaries and so on. Reproducing in the laboratory the extreme deformation conditions of the mantle is extremely challenging. In particular, experimental strain rates are at least six orders of magnitude larger than in nature. Here we show that the rheology of MgO at the pressure, temperature and strain rates of the mantle is accessible by multiscale numerical modelling starting from first principles and with no adjustable parameters. Our results demonstrate that extremely low strain rates counteract the influence of pressure. In the mantle, MgO deforms in the athermal regime and this leads to a very weak phase. It is only in the lowermost lower mantle that the pressure effect could dominate and that, under the influence of lattice friction, a viscosity of the order of 10(21)-10(22) pascal seconds can be defined for MgO. PMID:22237109

  19. Modeling Lunar Borehole Temperature in order to Reconstruct Historical Total Solar Irradiance and Estimate Surface Temperature in Permanently Shadowed Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, G.; Cahalan, R. F.; Miyahara, H.; Ohmura, A.

    2007-12-01

    The Moon is an ideal place to reconstruct historical total solar irradiance (TSI). With undisturbed lunar surface albedo and the very low thermal diffusivity of lunar regolith, changes in solar input lead to changes in lunar surface temperature that diffuse downward to be recorded in the temperature profile in the near-surface layer. Using regolith thermal properties from Apollo, we model the heat transfer in the regolith layer, and compare modeled surface temperature to Apollo observations to check model performance. Using as alternative input scenarios two reconstructed TSI time series from 1610 to 2000 (Lean, 2000; Wang, Lean, and Sheeley 2005), we conclude that the two scenarios can be distinguished by detectable differences in regolith temperature, with the peak difference of about 10 mK occuring at a depth of about 10 m (Miyahara et al., 2007). The possibility that water ice exists in permanently shadowed areas near the lunar poles (Nozette et al., 1997; Spudis et al, 1998), makes it of interest to estimate surface temperature in such dark regions. "Turning off" the Sun in our time dependent model, we found it would take several hundred years for the surface temperature to drop from ~~100K immediately after sunset down to a nearly constant equilibrium temperature of about 24~~38 K, with the range determined by the range of possible input from Earth, from 0 W/m2 without Earth visible, up to about 0.1 W/m2 at maximum Earth phase. A simple equilibrium model (e.g., Huang 2007) is inappropriate to relate the Apollo-observed nighttime temperature to Earth's radiation budget, given the long multi- centennial time scale needed for equilibration of the lunar surface layer after sunset. Although our results provide the key mechanisms for reconstructing historical TSI, further research is required to account for topography of lunar surfaces, and new measurements of regolith thermal properties will also be needed once a new base of operations is established. References Huang, S., (2007), Surface Temperatures at the Nearside of the Moon as a Record of the Radiation Budget of Earth's Climate System, Advances in Space Research, doi:10.1016/j.asr.2007.04.093. Lean, J., Geophys. Res. Lett., (2000), 27(16), 2425-2428. Miyahara, H., G. Wen, R. F. Cahalan, and A. Ohmura, (2007), Deriving Historical Total Solar Irradiance from Lunar Borehole Temperatures, submitted to Geophy. Res. Lett. Nozette, S., E. M. Shoemaker, P. D. Spudis, and C. L. Lichtenberg, The possibility of ice on the Moon, Science, 278, 144-145, 1997. Spudis, P.D., T. Cook, M. Robinson, B. Bussey, and B. Fessler, Topography of the southe polar region from Clementine stereo imaging, New views of the Moon, Integrated remotely sensed, geophysical, and sample datasets, Lunar Planet. Inst., [CD-ROM], abstract 6010, 1998. Wang, Y. M., J. L. Lean and N. R. Sheeley (2005), Astrophys. J., 625, 522-538.

  20. Surface Characterization of Alkali and Alkaline Earth Metals on Single Crystal Refractory Metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magera, Gerald Glenn

    1995-11-01

    The experiments were conducted on the clean surfaces of W(110), Mo(110) and Nb(110) under ultrahigh vacuum conditions using techniques of line-of-sight thermal desorption mass spectrometry, Auger electron spectroscopy and retarding potential work function measurement. The clean work functions for W(110), Mo(110) and Nb(110) were found to be 5.38 eV, 5.08 eV and 4.62 eV, respectively. The behavior of the work function was characteristic of alkali and alkaline earth metal adsorption onto refractory metal surfaces with the minimum work function for the three surfaces of approximately 1.50 eV for cesium and 2.20 eV for barium. The results of the change in work function versus adsorption of cesium onto the bariated surfaces of W(110), Mo(110) and Nb(110) were similar. The energies of desorption for the different binding states were calculated for the various adsorbate-metal systems using first order desorption kinetics, that is, the adsorbates desorb at a rate linearly dependent on coverage. The desorption spectra for cesium from the various metal surfaces showed three distinct desorption sites, while barium had a more continuous decrease in activation energy of desorption up to a monolayer of coverage. The main difference between the desorption of the two adsorbates was the temperature of the terminal (lowest coverage) desorption energy site. The highest terminal desorption energy for cesium occurred on the W(110) surface at a temperature of 1200 K, while barium does not start to desorb from the W(110) surface until the temperature reaches approximately 1700 K. The temperature difference between the binding states of cesium and barium on all three of the substrates allowed for the adsorption and desorption of cesium without altering the barium adlayer. The desorption behavior of cesium from the various barium/substrate surfaces, like the work function change, was also very similar. As the coverage of pre -adsorbed barium increased, the activation energy of the cesium decreased.

  1. Surface and near-surface atmospheric temperatures for the Mars Exploration Rover landing sites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Spanovich; M. D. Smith; P. H. Smith; M. J. Wolff; P. R. Christensen; S. W. Squyres

    2006-01-01

    Downward-looking spectra of the martian surface from the Miniature Thermal Emission spectrometer (Mini-TES), onboard each of the two Mars Exploration Rovers, are modeled in order to retrieve surface and near-surface atmospheric temperatures. By fitting the observed radiance in the vicinity of the 15-?m CO2 absorption feature, the surface temperature and the near-surface atmospheric temperature, approximately 1.1 m above the surface,

  2. Surface and near-surface atmospheric temperatures for the Mars Exploration Rover landing sites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Spanovich; M. D. Smith; P. H. Smith; M. J. Wolff; P. R. Christensen; S. W. Squyres

    2006-01-01

    Downward-looking spectra of the martian surface from the Miniature Thermal Emission spectrometer (Mini-TES), onboard each of the two Mars Exploration Rovers, are modeled in order to retrieve surface and near-surface atmospheric temperatures. By fitting the observed radiance in the vicinity of the 15-mum CO2 absorption feature, the surface temperature and the near-surface atmospheric temperature, approximately 1.1 m above the surface,

  3. Deformation of earth's surface caused loading of tall building

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kollar, P.; Mojzeš, M.; Va?ko, M.

    2010-06-01

    Tall buildings can cause deformations of the earth's crust for long distances from the area of their realization. Monitoring the deformation of tall big buildings from geodetic networks realised near the building can also have deformations from this point of view, and analysis of the measurements can result in false conclusions. The loading effect of the earth crust must be excluded from the measurement parameters. The paper presents a model computation of the loading effect produced by tall buildings constructed of simple geometric forms on the earth's crust.

  4. Comparison of Continuous Wave CO2 Doppler Lidar Calibration using Earth Surface Targets in Laboratory and Airborne Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jarzembski, Maurice A.; Vandana, Srivastava

    1999-01-01

    Earth's surface signal was measured using a continuous wave 9.1 micron lidar over varying Californian terrain during a 1995 NASA airborne mission. These measurements were compared with laboratory backscatter measurements of various Earth surfaces giving good agreement, suggesting that the lidar efficiency can be estimated fairly well using Earth's surface signal.

  5. Development and evaluation of an Earth System Model with surface gravity waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, Fangli; Song, Zhenya; Bao, Ying

    2015-04-01

    The critical role of oceanic surface waves in climate system is attracting more and more attention. We set up an Earth System Model, which is named as the First Institute of Oceanography-Earth System Model (FIO-ESM), composed of a coupled physical climate model and a coupled carbon cycle model. A surface wave model is introduced through including the nonbreaking wave-induced vertical mixing, which can improve the performance of climate model especially in the simulation of upper ocean mixed layer depth in the southern ocean, into the ocean general circulation model. The FIO-ESM is employed to conduct Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) experiments. The historical simulation of FIO-ESM's physical climate model for 1850-2005 shows that the simulated patterns of surface air temperature (SAT), rainfall, and El Ni~no-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) match those of the observations. Future projections under the four scenarios of RCP2.6, RCP4.5, RCP6.0, and RCP8.5 are also conducted and the global averaged SAT in 2100 would be 0.007 C, 1.10 C, 1.85 C, and 3.92 C higher than that in 2005, respectively. The historical simulation and future projection under RCP8.5 with global carbon cycle show the SAT and atmospheric CO2 concentration are well reproduced in the historical period and the global averaged SAT would increase by 3.90 C in 2100, which is quite similar to the physical climate model's result. Further analysis shows surface wave makes projected SAT in RCP2.6 about 2 C cooler in the Arctic area and 2 C warmer in the southern ocean.

  6. Development and evaluation of an Earth System Model with surface gravity waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, Fangli; Song, Zhenya; Bao, Ying; Song, Yajuan; Shu, Qi; Huang, Chuanjiang; Zhao, Wei

    2013-09-01

    The critical role of oceanic surface waves in climate system is attracting more and more attention. We set up an Earth System Model, which is named as the First Institute of Oceanography-Earth System Model (FIO-ESM), composed of a coupled physical climate model and a coupled carbon cycle model. A surface wave model is introduced through including the nonbreaking wave-induced vertical mixing, which can improve the performance of climate model especially in the simulation of upper ocean mixed layer depth in the southern ocean, into the ocean general circulation model. The FIO-ESM is employed to conduct Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) experiments. The historical simulation of FIO-ESM's physical climate model for 1850-2005 shows that the simulated patterns of surface air temperature (SAT), rainfall, and El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) match those of the observations. Future projections under the four scenarios of RCP2.6, RCP4.5, RCP6.0, and RCP8.5 are also conducted and the global averaged SAT in 2100 would be -0.007°C, 1.10°C, 1.85°C, and 3.92°C higher than that in 2005, respectively. The historical simulation and future projection under RCP8.5 with global carbon cycle show the SAT and atmospheric CO2 concentration are well reproduced in the historical period and the global averaged SAT would increase by 3.90°C in 2100, which is quite similar to the physical climate model's result. Further analysis shows surface wave makes projected SAT in RCP2.6 about 2°C cooler in the Arctic area and 2°C warmer in the southern ocean.

  7. Spatiotemporal correlations in Earth's temperature field from fractional stochastic-diffusive energy balance models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rypdal, Kristoffer; Rypdal, Martin; Fredriksen, Hege-Beate

    2015-04-01

    In the Earth temperature field, spatiotemporal long-range dependence is usually explained as a result of nonlinear cross-scale coupling and cascading. In this contribution we challenge that paradigm, demonstrating that the observed correlation structure can arise from simple, linear, conceptual models. A two-dimensional stochastic-diffusive energy balance model (EBM) formulated on a sphere by G. R. North et al., J. Climate, 24:5850-5862, 2011, is explored and generalized. We compute instantaneous and frequency-dependent spatial autocorrelation functions, and local temporal power spectral densities for local sites and for spatially averaged signal up to the global scale. On time scales up to the relaxation time scale given by the effective heat capacities of the ocean mixed layer and land surface, respectively, we obtain scaling features reminiscent of what can be derived from the observed temperature field. On longer time scales, however, the EBM predicts a transition to a white-noise scaling, which is not reflected in the observed records. We propose and explore a fractional generalization (FEBM), which can be considered as a spatiotemporal version of the zero-dimensional, long-memory EBM of M. Rypdal and K. Rypdal, J. Climate, 27:5240-5258, 2014. The fractional equation introduces a power-law (rather than exponential) impulse response representing the delayed action due to the slow heat exchange between the mixed layer and the deep ocean. It is demonstrated that this generalized model describes qualitatively the main spatiotemporal correlation characteristics of the temperature field derived from instrumental data and from a 500 yr control run of the Nor-ESM model. For instance, the FEBM implies temporal power-law spectra where the spectral exponent for globally averaged temperature is twice that of local temperatures, and spatial autocorrelation lengths increases with time scale, in good agreement with the Nor-ESM simulations. It also reproduces the long-time response to a step-function forcing in the Nor-ESM model.

  8. Temperature Contours and Ghost Surfaces for Chaotic Magnetic Fields

    E-print Network

    Hudson, Stuart

    Temperature Contours and Ghost Surfaces for Chaotic Magnetic Fields 2008 International Sherwood be constructed globally when the field lines lie on nested toroidal surfaces. ­ The temperature takes the simple After destruction of the KAM surfaces, the cantori severely inhibit field line flow, and thus present

  9. Surface Temperature Assimilation in the Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bosilovich, Michael G.; Radakovich, Jon D.; daSilva, Arlindo; Houser, Paul R.; Atlas, Robert M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) is a global land parameterization that uses prescribed meteorology as forcing in order to determine regular gridded land surface states (temperature and moisture) and other properties (e.g. water and heat fluxes). In the present experiment, the assimilation of surface skin temperature is incorporated into the land parameterizations. The meteorological forcing was derived from the Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS-3) Data Assimilation System (DAS) for the full year of 1998 GLDAS can use several land parameterizations, but here we use the Mosaic land surface model and the Common Land Model (CLM). TOVS surface temperature observations are assimilated into GLDAS. The TOVS observations are less frequent that observations used in previous experiments (ISCCP). The purpose of this presentation is to evaluate the impact of the TOVS assimilation on both Mosaic and CLM. We will especially consider the impact of coarse temporal observations on the assimilation and bias correction.

  10. UV Surface Environment of Earth-like Planets Orbiting FGKM Stars through Geological Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rugheimer, S.; Segura, A.; Kaltenegger, L.; Sasselov, D.

    2015-06-01

    The UV environment of a host star affects the photochemistry in the atmosphere, and ultimately the surface UV environment for terrestrial planets and therefore the conditions for the origin and evolution of life. We model the surface UV radiation environment for Earth-sized planets orbiting FGKM stars in the circumstellar Habitable Zone for Earth through its geological evolution. We explore four different types of atmospheres corresponding to an early-Earth atmosphere at 3.9 Gyr ago and three atmospheres covering the rise of oxygen to present-day levels at 2.0 Gyr ago, 0.8 Gyr ago, and modern Earth. In addition to calculating the UV flux on the surface of the planet, we model the biologically effective irradiance, using DNA damage as a proxy for biological damage. We find that a pre-biotic Earth (3.9 Gyr ago) orbiting an F0V star receives 6 times the biologically effective radiation as around the early Sun and 3520 times the modern Earth–Sun levels. A pre-biotic Earth orbiting GJ 581 (M3.5 V) receives 300 times less biologically effective radiation, about 2 times modern Earth–Sun levels. The UV fluxes calculated here provide a grid of model UV environments during the evolution of an Earth-like planet orbiting a range of stars. These models can be used as inputs into photo-biological experiments and for pre-biotic chemistry and early life evolution experiments.

  11. Oxidation resistance of 9-12% Cr steels: effect of rare earth surface treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Dogan, Omer N.; Alman, David A.; Jablonski, Paul D.

    2005-02-01

    Medium Cr steels have been used in fossil fired power plants for many years because of their excellent high temperature stability and mechanical properties. The environment in a fossil fired power plant is extremely aggressive in terms of corrosion, especially oxidation. This is only accelerated as the operating temperature increases to 650C and beyond. For any new steel to be qualified for power plant use, in addition to adequate strength at the operating temperature, material wastage from all corrosion processes must be kept to a minimum acceptable level. The use of medium Cr steels provides a means to improve overall corrosion resistance. Three medium Cr are under development for use as high temperature power plant steels: 0.08C-(9-12)Cr-1.2Ni-0.7Mo-3.0Cu-3.0Co-0.5Ti. Oxidation tests were performed on the steels for times greater than 1000 hours in order to determine the oxidation kinetics and extent of material wastage. Also, rare earth oxides were incorporated into the outer surface layers of the steels to see if the oxidation resistance could be improved. These results will be compared to current power plant steels.

  12. Mars encounters cause fresh surfaces on some near-Earth asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeMeo, Francesca E.; Binzel, Richard P.; Lockhart, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    All airless bodies are subject to the space environment, and spectral differences between asteroids and meteorites suggest many asteroids become weathered on very short (<1 Myr) timescales. The spectra of some asteroids, particularly Q-types, indicate surfaces that appear young and fresh, implying they have been recently been exposed. Previous work found that Earth encounters were the dominant freshening mechanism and could be responsible for all near-Earth object (NEO) Q-types. In this work we increase the known NEO Q-type sample of by a factor of three. We present the orbital distributions of 64 Q-type near-Earth asteroids, and seek to determine the dominant mechanisms for refreshing their surfaces. Our sample reveals two important results: (i) the relatively steady fraction of Q-types with increasing semi-major axis and (ii) the existence of Q-type near-Earth asteroids with Minimum Orbit Intersection Distances (MOID) that do not have orbit solutions that cross Earth. Both of these are evidence that Earth-crossing is not the only scenario by which NEO Q-types are freshened. The high Earth-MOID asteroids represent 10% of the Q-type population and all are in Amor orbits. While surface refreshing could also be caused by Main Belt collisions or mass shedding from YORP spinup, all high Earth-MOID Q-types have the possibility of encounters with Mars indicating Mars could be responsible for a significant fraction of NEOs with fresh surfaces.

  13. Internal geophysics (Physics of Earth's interior) Jump conditions and dynamic surface tension at permeable

    E-print Network

    Internal geophysics (Physics of Earth's interior) Jump conditions and dynamic surface tension was first addressed in the context of solid Earth geophysics (Corrieu C. R. Geoscience xxx (2014) xxx into account the curvature of the interface as well as the density and viscosity changes. Independently of any

  14. On the inhomogeneity of the transition surface layer of the solid core of the earth

    SciTech Connect

    Pikin, S. A., E-mail: pikin@ns.crys.ras.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation)

    2012-05-15

    Different geophysical data and conclusions of theoretical models, which can give information about the behavior of the solid and liquid cores of the Earth as well as about the existence of a transition layer as a temperature-hysteresis region at a relatively weak first-order phase transition, are compared. It is concluded that liquid inclusions inevitably exist in this region; these inclusions are involved (due to the complex convective processes occurring in the liquid core) in the transport of light materials from some areas of the solid-core surface. The porosity and permeability of the transition layer determine the seismic acoustic inhomogeneities in these areas, which contact the convective flows in the liquid core. In particular, this explains the well-known 'east-west' effect. Obviously, the model of the crystalline core is not the only possible alternative for a model of a core with a metallic glasslike structure.

  15. Satellite-derived sea surface temperature: Introduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Njoku, E. G.

    1983-01-01

    Satellites now play an increasing role in systematic monitoring of the global oceans. Measurements of sea surface temperature (SST) are of primary importance in understanding heat storage and transport within the ocean and cross the ocean-atmosphere boundary. In some regions, local changes in SST of only 1 to 2 C have major effects on global climate and weather patterns. The satellite measurements provide a data base complementary to the (sometimes) accurate but sparsely-distributed point measurements available from ships and buoys. The demands placed on satellite sensors are stringent. Accuracies of better than 1 C are required and are often desired to a few tenths of a degree. Furthermore, measurement accuracies must be stable spatially and temporally in order for satellite data to be used with confidence in models of air-sea interaction and climate. There now exists a need to evaluate objectively the performance of the latest generation of sensors under a sufficient variety of environmental conditions to indicate present accuracies, deficiencies, and potential for improvement.

  16. Technique for the Estimation of Surface Temperatures from Embedded Temperature Sensing for Rapid, High Energy Surface Deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Watkins, Tyson R.; Schunk, Peter Randall; Roberts, Scott A.

    2014-07-01

    Temperature histories on the surface of a body that has been subjected to a rapid, high-energy surface deposition process can be di#14;fficult to determine, especially if it is impossible to directly observe the surface or attach a temperature sensor to it. In this report, we explore two methods for estimating the temperature history of the surface through the use of a sensor embedded within the body very near to the surface. First, the maximum sensor temperature is directly correlated with the peak surface temperature. However, it is observed that the sensor data is both delayed in time and greatly attenuated in magnitude, making this approach unfeasible. Secondly, we propose an algorithm that involves fitting the solution to a one-dimensional instantaneous energy solution problem to both the sensor data and to the results of a one-dimensional CVFEM code. This algorithm is shown to be able to estimate the surface temperature {+-}~20#14;{degrees}C.

  17. A free plate surface and weak oceanic crust produce single-sided subduction on Earth

    E-print Network

    Kaus, Boris

    A free plate surface and weak oceanic crust produce single-sided subduction on Earth F. Crameri,1 P features of terrestrial plates: (1) the presence of a free deformable upper surface and (2) the presence of weak hydrated crust atop subducting slabs. We show that assuming a free surface, rather than

  18. Surface waves on periodic array of imperfectly conducting vertical dipoles over the flat earth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Richmond; R. Garbacz

    1979-01-01

    The theory is developed for surface waves on a periodic array of imperfectly conducting vertical dipoles over the flat earth. Expressions are presented for the surface-wave fields and for the transcendental equation whose root determines the complex propagation constant of the surface wave. Contour plots are included showing the attenuation constant and phase velocity as functions of dipole spacing and

  19. Role of surface oxygen-to-metal ratio on the wettability of rare-earth oxides

    E-print Network

    Khan, Sami

    Hydrophobic surfaces that are robust can have widespread applications in drop-wise condensation, anti-corrosion, and anti-icing. Recently, it was shown that the class of ceramics comprising the lanthanide series rare-earth ...

  20. Radiogenic isotopes: systematics and applications to earth surface processes and chemical stratigraphy

    E-print Network

    Banner, Jay L.

    Radiogenic isotopes: systematics and applications to earth surface processes and chemical Accepted 23 June 2003 Abstract Radiogenic isotopes have wide application to chemical stratigraphy briefly reviews the principles of radiogenic isotope geochemistry and the distribution of a number

  1. Inference of sea surface temperature, near surface wind, and atmospheric water by Fourier analysis of Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenkranz, P. W.

    1981-01-01

    The Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer measures thermal microwave emission from the earth in both polarizations at wavelengths of 0.8, 1.4, 1.7, 2.8 and 4.6 cm. Similar instruments were launched on Nimbus 7 and Seasat. Both spatial resolution on the earth and relative sensitivity to different geophysical parameters change with wavelength. Therefore, spatial Fourier components of geophysical parameters are inferred from the corresponding Fourier components of the radiometer measurements, taking into account the different dependence of signal-to-noise ratio on spatial frequency for each radiometer wavelength. The geophysical parameters are sea surface temperature, near-surface wind speed, integrated water vapor mass, integrated liquid water mass, and the product of rainfall rate with height of the rain layer. The capabilities and limitations of the inversion method are illustrated by means of data from the North Atlantic and from tropical storms.

  2. GHG Effect on Surface Temperature in Indonesia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. E. Cahyono

    2004-01-01

    The increasing of green house gas emissons into the atmosphere could influence the Climate and Earth Ecosystem. The increasing CO_2 emmision in developed countries and developing countries are influenced by economic growth factor, cheaped price fuel without tax and there is not regulation yet for making arrangement energy efficiency. The result of inventarisation CO_2 emmision related to energy sector between

  3. Temperature-responsive surface-functionalized polyethylene films

    E-print Network

    Ponder, Bill C.

    1998-01-01

    PE-PEG-Pyrene cooligomers were used to functionalize the surface of polyethylene films via an entrapment process. The resultant films yield a temperature responsive surface-solvent interface when immersed in water. The responsiveness of these films...

  4. Spatial patterns of radiative forcing and surface temperature response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shindell, Drew T.; Faluvegi, Greg; Rotstayn, Leon; Milly, George

    2015-06-01

    Examination of effective radiative forcing (ERF), a measure of changes in Earth's energy balance, facilitates understanding the role of various drivers of climate change. For short-lived compounds, ERF can be highly inhomogeneous geographically. The relationship between the spatial patterns of ERF and surface temperature response is poorly characterized, however. We examine that relationship in the latest generation of global climate models. We find that the uneven distribution of historical aerosol, ozone, and land use forcing leads to substantial differences compared to the well-mixed greenhouse gases (WMGHG). There is a stronger response per unit global mean forcing to historical inhomogeneous forcing than to WMGHG both globally and in much of the Northern Hemisphere (NH) extratropics, in fairly good agreement with results inferred from observations. Our results indicate that the enhanced global mean response is attributable to the concentration of inhomogeneous forcing in the NH extratropics, where there is strongest sensitivity to forcing, rather than to processes specific to the inhomogeneous forcers. In many regions, inclusion of inhomogeneous forcing greatly increases the spread in historical temperature changes simulated by the models, suggesting that better forcing characterization could play an important role in improving modeling of decadal-scale regional climate change. Finally, incorporating observed temperatures, the results provide estimates of global historical aerosol forcing (-1.0 ± 0.4 W m-2) consistent with other studies (though with narrower uncertainties) and also provide constraints on NH and NH extratropical historical aerosol forcing (-1.4 ± 0.6 and -1.2 ± 0.6 W m-2, respectively) and aerosol + ozone forcing.

  5. The warming trend of ground surface temperature in the Choshui Alluvial Fan, western central Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, W.; Chang, M.; Chen, J.; Lu, W.; Huang, C. C.; Wang, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Heat storage in subsurface of the continents forms a fundamental component of the global energy budget and plays an important role in the climate system. Several researches revealed that subsurface temperatures were being increased to 1.8-2.8°C higher in mean ground surface temperature (GST) for some Asian cities where are experiencing a rapid growth of population. Taiwan is a subtropic-tropic island with densely populated in the coastal plains surrounding its mountains. We investigate the subsurface temperature distribution and the borehole temperature-depth profiles by using groundwater monitoring wells in years 2000 and 2010. Our data show that the western central Taiwan plain also has been experiencing a warming trend but with a higher temperatures approximately 3-4 °C of GST during the last 250 yrs. We suggest that the warming were mostly due to the land change to urbanization and agriculture. The current GSTs from our wells are approximately 25.51-26.79 °C which are higher than the current surface air temperature (SAT) of 23.65 °C. Data from Taiwan's weather stations also show 1-1.5 °C higher for the GST than the SAT at neighboring stations. The earth surface heat balance data indicate that GST higher than SAT is reasonable. More researches are needed to evaluate the interaction of GST and SAT, and how a warming GST's impact to the SAT and the climate system of the Earth.

  6. Investigations On Gear Tooth Surface And Bulk Temperatures Using ANSYS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P R Thyla; R Rudramoorthy

    In gears, the temperature at the conjunction zone between the meshing tooth faces governs the imminent scuffing failure. Failure due to high tooth temperatures can be prevented with the knowledge of temperature distribution in gear teeth under operation. In this work, the prediction of bulk and surface temperatures of the gear tooth is carried out using finite element method, using

  7. SPATIO-TEMPORAL SEGMENTATION AND ESTIMATION OF OCEAN SURFACE CURRENTS FROM SATELLITE SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE FIELDS

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Laboratory Technop^ole Brest-Iroise, France ABSTRACT The use of satellite Sea Surface Temperature (SST of spatial and temporal information of Sea Surface Temperature (SST). By con- trast, satellite altimetersSPATIO-TEMPORAL SEGMENTATION AND ESTIMATION OF OCEAN SURFACE CURRENTS FROM SATELLITE SEA SURFACE

  8. Low Temperature Resistivity of Yttrium-Based Alloys Containing Small Amounts of Rare Earth Metals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tadashi Sugawara

    1965-01-01

    The resistivity of the dilute alloys of rare earth metals with yttrium has been measured at low temperatures. The result is in qualitative agreement with the recent theories due to Kondo and others on the s--d or s--f scattering. The effective s--f exchange integrals for various rare-earth solutes have been derived from the analysis of the resistivity data and compared

  9. Global Sea Surface Temperature Analyses: Multiple Problems and Their Implications for Climate Analysis, Modeling, and Reanalysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James W. Hurrell; Kevin E. Trenberth

    1999-01-01

    A comprehensive comparison is made among four sea surface temperature (SST) datasets: the optimum interpo- lation (OI) and the empirical orthogonal function reconstructed SST analyses from the National Centers for Environ- mental Prediction (NCEP), the Global Sea-Ice and SST dataset (GISST, version 2.3b) from the United Kingdom Meteorological Office, and the optimal smoothing SST analysis from the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory

  10. A Look at the Berkeley Earth Surface Temperature Project

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In this activity, students analyze a 2011 article by physicist Dr. Richard Muller addressing the climate change skeptic's claim that the scientific data used to support global warming is poor or unreliable. He headed a two-year study where his research team examined sources of data independently of climate scientists, and concluded that despite the imperfections in the available data sets, scientists have managed to avoid bias in data collection and correction. A student worksheet provides questions to guide the investigation. This activity is supported by a textbook chapter, What is Global Warming?, part of the unit, Climate Change, in Global Systems Science (GSS), an interdisciplinary course for high school students that emphasizes how scientists from a wide variety of fields work together to understand significant problems of global impact.

  11. Satellite Derived Earth Surface Temperatures: a Crop Assessment Tool

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christy Lynn Crosiar

    1987-01-01

    The data for this research consist of the following: 23 days of NOAA\\/AVHRR satellite data; AgRISTARS enumerator data (or ground truth data) for 26 counties in three midwestern states (Iowa, Nebraska and North Dakota) and radiosonde observations for nine upper air stations, producing an 8 state coverage. The objectives of this research are threefold: (1) to develop a regression model

  12. From Space to the Rocky Intertidal: Measuring the Body Temperature of the Intertidal Mussel Species, Mytilus californianus using NASA MODIS Surface Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, J.; Lakshmi, V.; Menge, B. A.

    2014-12-01

    The California mussel, Mytilus californianus, is an ecologically important species in the rocky intertidal ecosystems of the U.S. Pacific coast. During low tides, times of emersion, Mytilus californianus is exposed to aerial conditions and its body temperature can vary drastically depending on the amount of solar radiation they experience. Thermal stress from high temperatures during emersion sometimes can lead to mortality of individuals. Conversely, during high tides, times of submersion, body temperatures depend on the temperature of the water that surrounds them. This study used remotely sensed surface temperature observations from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard the NASA Earth Observing System (EOS) Aqua and Terra to predict the body temperatures of Mytilus californianus. Mussel body temperatures were provided by the Partnership for Interdisciplinary Studies of Coastal Oceans (PISCO) and de-tided. This technique divided the mussel body temperatures into times of emersion and times of submersion. During times of emersion, mussel body temperatures were compared to remotely sensed land surface temperatures (LST) and in-situ air temperatures. During times of submersion, mussel body temperatures were compared to remotely sensed sea surface temperatures (SST) and in-situ water temperatures. To identify spatial variation in temperatures, eight different study sites ranging in latitude along the coast of Oregon were analyzed. Additionally, to better understand the temporal variation in temperatures, fourteen years (2000-2013) were analyzed for each study site. Sea surface temperature collected during the Aqua overpass and Terra overpass were strongly correlated with mussel body temperatures but varied by study site. Our results show that remotely sensed temperature could predict average daily mussel temperature within 1°C on average during times of submersion. Being able to use remotely sensed surface temperatures to predict the body temperatures of intertidal mussel species will enhance our ability to predict the effects of climate change on intertidal ecosystems. Additionally, it will lead to more research that investigates using remotely sensed observations to understand dynamics in other ecosystems beside the rocky intertidal.

  13. Clouds not important for control of short-term surface temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Colin

    2012-01-01

    In two recent papers, R. W. Spencer and W. D. Braswell (Remote Sens., 3(8), 1603- 1613, doi:10.3390/rs3081603, 2011) (SB) and R. S. Lindzen and Y.-S. Choi (Asia Pac. J. Atmos. Sci., 47(4), 377-390, doi:10.1007/s13143-011-0023-x, 2011) (LC) argue that clouds act as a primary initiator of surface temperature changes in Earth's climate system. The two sets of authors reached this conclusion by developing a method that tries to determine the Earth's surface temperature by calculating how much energy is stored in the ocean's upper layers, how much of this heat is transferred to the rest of the climate system, how clouds affect the rate at which energy escapes Earth's atmosphere, and how the surface's energy flux changes with temperature. Both studies spurred substantial debate within the media and the public, with the research by SB causing the editor of the journal in which it was published to resign, claiming it should not have been accepted by the journal. Assessing the two studies, Dessler found what he suggests are a number of methodological errors.

  14. In Situ Airborne, Surface, and Submersible Instruments for Earth Science

    E-print Network

    imaging system for earth science research, disaster response, and fire detection is proposed. The primary, and a data processing system with; feature extraction (such as fire detection), image geo-coding, and image and with higher spatial resolution, the system will deliver a 3X to 4X reduction in operating costs compared

  15. Effect of the Earth's surface topography on the quasi-dynamic earthquake cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohtani, M.; Hirahara, K.

    2014-12-01

    For quasi-dynamic earthquake cycle simulations (ECSs) using BIEM, we have developed a method of calculating slip response function (SRF) in a homogeneous elastic medium with an arbitrary shaped Earth's surface topography (Ohtani and Hirahara, 2013; Paper1). In this study, we report the improvement in our method. Following Hok and Fukuyama (2011), we set the Earth's surface as a free surface, in addition to the fault interface, in a homogeneous full-space medium. Then, using the analytic solution in full-space, we can calculate the Earth's surface deformation, then the SRF change. The surface cell setting determines the accuracy. For reducing the computational amount, we use the different sizes of the surface region and its divided subfault cells, depending on the fault depth. Paper1 used the uniform size for surface cells. Here, we improved our method where the Earth's surface cells closer to the trench have the finer sizes for achieving more accuracy. With such numerical SRF, we performed the quasi-dynamic ECS on a model, where the Earth's surface is convex upward. Basically, with this topography, the slip behavior approaches the full-space case, from the half-space with flat surface case. This is because the distance from the Earth's surface to the fault becomes large. When we set two asperities with negative A - B in the positive A - B background at 10km and 35km depths, the two asperities rupture independently. The recurrence time of the shallow asperity is Trshalf = 34.95, Trsflat = 34.89, and Trsactual =32.82 years, when using analytic SRF in half-space, and numerical SRF with flat surface and with actual topography, respectively. For each case, the recurrence time of the deep asperity is Tr1_dhalf = 26.80, Tr1_dflat = 26.89, and Tr1_dactual =26.69 years. Thus, the shallower asperity is more affected by the Earth's surface topography than the deeper one, because the distance change rate from the surface to the fault is larger. On the other hand, when we set the entire seismogenic zone as negative A - B to produce coseismic slip, the slip behavior showed almost no change. This is because the rupture starts from the deep portion, and the deep area has less affected by the Earth's surface topography. We also examined the realistic case assuming the Nankai Trough, the subduction zone located in southeast, Japan.

  16. Downscaling MODIS Land Surface Temperature for Urban Public Health Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Al-Hamdan, Mohammad; Crosson, William; Estes, Maurice, Jr.; Estes, Sue; Quattrochi, Dale; Johnson, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    This study is part of a project funded by the NASA Applied Sciences Public Health Program, which focuses on Earth science applications of remote sensing data for enhancing public health decision-making. Heat related death is currently the number one weather-related killer in the United States. Mortality from these events is expected to increase as a function of climate change. This activity sought to augment current Heat Watch/Warning Systems (HWWS) with NASA remotely sensed data, and models used in conjunction with socioeconomic and heatrelated mortality data. The current HWWS do not take into account intra-urban spatial variation in risk assessment. The purpose of this effort is to evaluate a potential method to improve spatial delineation of risk from extreme heat events in urban environments by integrating sociodemographic risk factors with estimates of land surface temperature (LST) derived from thermal remote sensing data. In order to further improve the consideration of intra-urban variations in risk from extreme heat, we also developed and evaluated a number of spatial statistical techniques for downscaling the 1-km daily MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) LST data to 60 m using Landsat-derived LST data, which have finer spatial but coarser temporal resolution than MODIS. In this paper, we will present these techniques, which have been demonstrated and validated for Phoenix, AZ using data from the summers of 2000-2006.

  17. Downscaling MODIS Land Surface Temperature for Urban Public Health Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Hamdan, M. Z.; Crosson, W. L.; Estes, M. G., Jr.; Estes, S. M.; Quattrochi, D. A.; Johnson, D.

    2013-12-01

    This study is part of a project funded by the NASA Applied Sciences Public Health Program, which focuses on Earth science applications of remote sensing data for enhancing public health decision-making. Heat related death is currently the number one weather-related killer in the United States. Mortality from these events is expected to increase as a function of climate change. This activity sought to augment current Heat Watch/Warning Systems (HWWS) with NASA remotely sensed data, and models used in conjunction with socioeconomic and heat-related mortality data. The current HWWS do not take into account intra-urban spatial variations in risk assessment. The purpose of this effort is to evaluate a potential method to improve spatial delineation of risk from extreme heat events in urban environments by integrating sociodemographic risk factors with land surface temperature (LST) estimates derived from thermal remote sensing data. In order to further improve the assessment of intra-urban variations in risk from extreme heat, we developed and evaluated a number of spatial statistical techniques for downscaling the 1-km daily MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) LST data to 60 m using Landsat-derived LST data, which have finer spatial but coarser temporal resolution than MODIS. We will present these techniques, which have been demonstrated and validated for Phoenix, AZ using data from the summers of 2000-2006.

  18. Shock temperatures and melting of iron at Earth core conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. S. Yoo; N. C. Holmes; M. Ross; D. J. Webb; C. Pike

    1993-01-01

    The temperature of shock compressed iron has been measured to 340 GPa, using well characterized iron films sputtered on transparent diamond substrates and a 1 ns time-resolved optical method. We find a knee on the ([ital P],[ital T]) iron Hugoniot indicating melting at 6350 K and 235 GPa and at 6720 K and 300 GPa. An extrapolation yields an iron

  19. Estimation of Surface Heat Flux and Surface Temperature during Inverse Heat Conduction under Varying Spray Parameters and Sample Initial Temperature

    PubMed Central

    Aamir, Muhammad; Liao, Qiang; Zhu, Xun; Aqeel-ur-Rehman; Wang, Hong

    2014-01-01

    An experimental study was carried out to investigate the effects of inlet pressure, sample thickness, initial sample temperature, and temperature sensor location on the surface heat flux, surface temperature, and surface ultrafast cooling rate using stainless steel samples of diameter 27?mm and thickness (mm) 8.5, 13, 17.5, and 22, respectively. Inlet pressure was varied from 0.2?MPa to 1.8?MPa, while sample initial temperature varied from 600°C to 900°C. Beck's sequential function specification method was utilized to estimate surface heat flux and surface temperature. Inlet pressure has a positive effect on surface heat flux (SHF) within a critical value of pressure. Thickness of the sample affects the maximum achieved SHF negatively. Surface heat flux as high as 0.4024?MW/m2 was estimated for a thickness of 8.5?mm. Insulation effects of vapor film become apparent in the sample initial temperature range of 900°C causing reduction in surface heat flux and cooling rate of the sample. A sensor location near to quenched surface is found to be a better choice to visualize the effects of spray parameters on surface heat flux and surface temperature. Cooling rate showed a profound increase for an inlet pressure of 0.8?MPa. PMID:24977219

  20. The influence of global sea surface temperature variability on the large-scale land surface temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyrrell, Nicholas L.; Dommenget, Dietmar; Frauen, Claudia; Wales, Scott; Rezny, Mike

    2015-04-01

    In global warming scenarios, global land surface temperatures () warm with greater amplitude than sea surface temperatures (SSTs), leading to a land/sea warming contrast even in equilibrium. Similarly, the interannual variability of is larger than the covariant interannual SST variability, leading to a land/sea contrast in natural variability. This work investigates the land/sea contrast in natural variability based on global observations, coupled general circulation model simulations and idealised atmospheric general circulation model simulations with different SST forcings. The land/sea temperature contrast in interannual variability is found to exist in observations and models to a varying extent in global, tropical and extra-tropical bands. There is agreement between models and observations in the tropics but not the extra-tropics. Causality in the land-sea relationship is explored with modelling experiments forced with prescribed SSTs, where an amplification of the imposed SST variability is seen over land. The amplification of to tropical SST anomalies is due to the enhanced upper level atmospheric warming that corresponds with tropical moist convection over oceans leading to upper level temperature variations that are larger in amplitude than the source SST anomalies. This mechanism is similar to that proposed for explaining the equilibrium global warming land/sea warming contrast. The link of the to the dominant mode of tropical and global interannual climate variability, the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), is found to be an indirect and delayed connection. ENSO SST variability affects the oceans outside the tropical Pacific, which in turn leads to a further, amplified and delayed response of.

  1. Changes in biologically active ultraviolet radiation reaching the Earth's surface.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, Richard L; Björn, Lars Olof; Bais, Alkiviadis; Ilyasad, Mohammad

    2003-01-01

    Since publication of the 1998 UNEP Assessment, there has been continued rapid expansion of the literature on UV-B radiation. Many measurements have demonstrated the inverse relationship between column ozone amount and UV radiation, and in a few cases long-term increases due to ozone decreases have been identified. The quantity, quality and availability of ground-based UV measurements relevant to assessing the environmental impacts of ozone changes continue to improve. Recent studies have contributed to delineating regional and temporal differences due to aerosols, clouds, and ozone. Improvements in radiative transfer modelling capability now enable more accurate characterization of clouds, snow-cover, and topographical effects. A standardized scale for reporting UV to the public has gained wide acceptance. There has been increased use of satellite data to estimate geographic variability and trends in UV. Progress has been made in assessing the utility of satellite retrievals of UV radiation by comparison with measurements at the Earth's surface. Global climatologies of UV radiation are now available on the Internet. Anthropogenic aerosols play a more important role in attenuating UV irradiances than has been assumed previously, and this will have implications for the accuracy of UV retrievals from satellite data. Progress has been made inferring historical levels of UV radiation using measurements of ozone (from satellites or from ground-based networks) in conjunction with measurements of total solar radiation obtained from extensive meteorological networks. We cannot yet be sure whether global ozone has reached a minimum. Atmospheric chlorine concentrations are beginning to decrease. However, bromine concentrations are still increasing. While these halogen concentrations remain high, the ozone layer remains vulnerable to further depletion from events such as volcanic eruptions that inject material into the stratosphere. Interactions between global warming and ozone depletion could delay ozone recovery by several years, and this topic remains an area of intense research interest. Future changes in greenhouse gases will affect the future evolution of ozone through chemical, radiative, and dynamic processes In this highly coupled system, an evaluation of the relative importance of these processes is difficult: studies are ongoing. A reliable assessment of these effects on total column ozone is limited by uncertainties in lower stratospheric response to these changes. At several sites, changes in UV differ from those expected from ozone changes alone, possibly as a result of long-term changes in aerosols, snow cover, or clouds. This indicates a possible interaction between climate change and UV radiation. Cloud reflectance measured by satellite has shown a long-term increase at some locations, especially in the Antarctic region, but also in Central Europe, which would tend to reduce the UV radiation. Even with the expected decreases in atmospheric chlorine, it will be several years before the beginning of an ozone recovery can be unambiguously identified at individual locations. Because UV-B is more variable than ozone, any identification of its recovery would be further delayed. PMID:12659535

  2. A Simple Downscaling Algorithm for Remotely Sensed Land Surface Temperature

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Sandholt; C. Nielsen; S. Stisen

    2009-01-01

    The method is illustrated using a combination of MODIS NDVI data with a spatial resolution of 250m and 3 Km Meteosat Second Generation SEVIRI LST data. Geostationary Earth Observation data carry a large potential for assessment of surface state variables. Not the least the European Meteosat Second Generation platform with its SEVIRI sensor is well suited for studies of the

  3. The measurement of sea surface temperature with an infrared radiometer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Braun; D. Mercer

    1970-01-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to make simultaneous measurements of sea surface temperature with infrared and microwave radiometers. Such measurements should be useful for determining the accuracy of satellite radiometer measurements of sea surface temperatures. Measurements were made with RCA personnel as part of PROJECT ROCKFISH, at a test site on the Chesapeake Bay Bridge Tunnel near Norfolk, Virginia.

  4. Neural Network forecasts of the tropical Pacific sea surface temperatures

    E-print Network

    Hsieh, William

    Neural Network forecasts of the tropical Pacific sea surface temperatures Aiming Wu, William W Tang Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, USA Neural Networks (in press) December 11, 2005 title: Forecast of sea surface temperature 1 #12;Neural Network forecasts of the tropical Pacific sea

  5. Optimal surface temperature reconstructions using terrestrial borehole data

    E-print Network

    Bradley, Raymond S.

    climate sensitivity than the other proxy-based reconstructions (though if the assumed forcing historyOptimal surface temperature reconstructions using terrestrial borehole data Michael E. Mann,1 Scott prominent discrepancies with instrumental surface air temperature (SAT) estimates during the 20th century

  6. Imaging the earth's magnetosphere - Effects of plasma flow and temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrido, D. E.; Smith, R. W.; Swift, D. S.; Akasofu, S.-I.

    1991-01-01

    The effects of Doppler shifting on the line centers of the magnetospheric O(+) cross section are investigated, and the resulting structure of the scattering rate as a function of bulk density is explained. Whereas the Doppler shifting frequently results in a decrease of the scattering rate, it is demonstrated that for certain drift speeds the overlap of the cross section and the solar intensity profile can lead to an increased rate, thus enhancing the relative brightness of the image above that obtained when v(p) is zero. Simulated images of the magnetosphere are obtained which are used to show quantitively how the magnetospheric image responds to variations in plasma drift speed and temperature. Changes in the brightness of the magnetospheric images also depend on the variability of the solar flux at 83.4 nm. In regions where there are plasma drifts, the brightness in the image is governed by the structure of the scattering rate, assuming a fixed temperature.

  7. The etching process of boron nitride by alkali and alkaline earth fluorides under high pressure and high temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, W., E-mail: guowei1982cry@163.com [College of Physics and Optoelectronics, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China); National Key Lab of Superhard Materials, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Ma, H.A.; Jia, X. [National Key Lab of Superhard Materials, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China)

    2014-03-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Appropriate etch processes of hBN and cBN under HPHT are proposed. • The degree of the crystallization of hBN was decreased. • A special cBN growth mechanism with a triangular unit is proposed. • Plate-shape cBN crystals with large ratio of length to thickness were obtained. • A strategy provides useful guidance for controlling the cBN morphology. - Abstract: Some new etching processes of hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) and cubic boron nitride (cBN) under high pressure and high temperature in the presence of alkali and alkaline earth fluorides have been discussed. It is found that hBN is etched distinctly by alkali and alkaline earth fluorides and the morphology of hBN is significantly changed from plate-shape to spherical-shape. Based on the “graphitization index” values of hBN, the degree of the crystallization of hBN under high pressure and high temperature decreases in the sequence of LiF > CaF{sub 2} > MgF{sub 2}. This facilitates the formation of high-quality cBN single crystals. Different etch steps, pits, and islands are observed on cBN surface, showing the strong etching by alkali and alkaline earth fluorides and the tendency of layer-by-layer growth. A special layer growth mechanism of cBN with a triangular unit has been found. Furthermore, the morphologies of cBN crystals are apparently affected by a preferential surface etching of LiF, CaF{sub 2} and MgF{sub 2}. Respectively, the plate-shape and tetrahedral cBN crystals can be obtained in the presence of different alkali and alkaline earth fluorides.

  8. UV Surface Environment of Earth-like Planets Orbiting FGKM Stars Through Geological Evolution

    E-print Network

    Rugheimer, S; Kaltenegger, L; Sasselov, D

    2015-01-01

    The UV environment of a host star affects the photochemistry in the atmosphere, and ultimately the surface UV environment for terrestrial planets and therefore the conditions for the origin and evolution of life. We model the surface UV radiation environment for Earth-sized planets orbiting FGKM stars at the 1AU equivalent distance for Earth through its geological evolution. We explore four different types of atmospheres corresponding to an early Earth atmosphere at 3.9 Gyr ago and three atmospheres covering the rise of oxygen to present day levels at 2.0 Gyr ago, 0.8 Gyr ago and modern Earth (Following Kaltenegger et al. 2007). In addition to calculating the UV flux on the surface of the planet, we model the biologically effective irradiance, using DNA damage as a proxy for biological damage. We find that a pre-biotic Earth (3.9 Gyr ago) orbiting an F0V star receives 6 times the biologically effective radiation as around the early Sun and 3520 times the modern Earth-Sun levels. A pre-biotic Earth orbiting GJ...

  9. Reconstructing Earth's Surface Oxidation Across The Archean Proterozoic Transition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. J. Kaufman; Q. Guo; H. Strauss; S. Schröder; J. Gutzmer; B. A. Wing; M. Baker; A. Bekker; Q. Jin; S. Kim; J. Farquhar

    2010-01-01

    The Archean-Proterozoic transition is characterized by the widespread deposition of organic-rich shale, sedimentary iron formation, glacial diamictite, and marine carbonates recording profound carbon isotope anomalies, but notably lacks bedded evaporites. All deposits reflect environmental changes in oceanic and atmospheric redox states, in part associated with Earth's earliest ice ages. Time-series data for multiple sulfur isotopes from carbonate associated sulfate as

  10. Reconstructing Earth's Surface Oxidation Across The Archean- Proterozoic Transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufman, A. J.; Guo, Q.; Strauss, H.; Schröder, S.; Gutzmer, J.; Wing, B. A.; Baker, M.; Bekker, A.; Jin, Q.; Kim, S.; Farquhar, J.

    2010-12-01

    The Archean-Proterozoic transition is characterized by the widespread deposition of organic-rich shale, sedimentary iron formation, glacial diamictite, and marine carbonates recording profound carbon isotope anomalies, but notably lacks bedded evaporites. All deposits reflect environmental changes in oceanic and atmospheric redox states, in part associated with Earth’s earliest ice ages. Time-series data for multiple sulfur isotopes from carbonate associated sulfate as well as sulfides in the glaciogenic Duitschland Formation of the Transvaal Supergroup, South Africa, capture the concomitant buildup of sulfate in the ocean and the loss of mass independent sulfur isotope fractionation. This is arguably associated with the atmospheric rise of oxygen (as well as the protective ozone layer) coincident with profound changes in ocean chemistry and biology. The loss of the MIF signal within the Duitschland succession is in phase with the earliest recorded positive carbon isotope anomaly, convincingly linking these environmental perturbations to the Great Oxidation Event (ca. 2.3 Ga). The emergence of cyanobacteria and oxygenic photosynthesis may be associated with a geochemical “whiff of oxygen” recorded in 2.5 Ga sediments. If true, the delay in the GOE can then be understood in terms of a finite sink for molecular oxygen - ferrous iron, which was abundant in deep Neoarchean seawater and sequestered in a worldwide episode of iron formation deposition ending shortly before accumulation of the Duitschland Formation. Insofar as early Paleoproterozoic glaciation is associated with oxygenation of a methane-rich atmosphere, we conclude that Earth’s earliest ice age(s) and the onset of a modern and far more energetic carbon cycle are directly related to the global expansion of cyanobacteria that released oxygen to the environment, and of eukaryotes that respired it.

  11. Surface tension of low-temperature aqueous solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Horibe, A.; Fukusako, S.; Yamada, M. [Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan)

    1996-03-01

    Measurements of the surface tension have been carried out to determine the effects of both temperature and concentration on the surface tension of aqueous solutions of sodium chloride, propylene glycol, and ethylene glycol. A differential capillary-rise method was employed for the measurements. The results show that the surface tension of the ethylene glycol solution and the propylene glycol solution increases as the concentration of the solution decreases, while for the sodium chloride solution the surface tension increases monotonically as the concentration increases. The surface tension of the liquids was found to be an almost-linear function of temperature from 20{degrees}C to just above the freezing temperature. Equations for the surface tension of the three binary aqueous solutions as a function of temperature and concentration are presented.

  12. Low temperature self-cleaning properties of superhydrophobic surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fajun; Shen, Taohua; Li, Changquan; Li, Wen; Yan, Guilong

    2014-10-01

    Outdoor surfaces are usually dirty surfaces. Ice accretion on outdoor surfaces could lead to serious accidents. In the present work, the superhydrophobic surface based on 1H, 1H, 2H, 2H-Perfluorodecanethiol (PFDT) modified Ag/PDMS composite was prepared to investigate the anti-icing property and self-cleaning property at temperatures below freezing point. The superhydrophobic surface was deliberately polluted with activated carbon before testing. It was observed that water droplet picked up dusts on the cold superhydrophobic surface and took it away without freezing at a measuring temperature of -10 °C. While on a smooth PFDT surface and a rough surface base on Ag/PDMS composite without PFDT modification, water droplets accumulated and then froze quickly at the same temperature. However, at even lower temperature of -12 °C, the superhydrophobic surface could not prevent the surface water from icing. In addition, it was observed that the frost layer condensed from the moisture pay an important role in determining the low temperature self-cleaning properties of a superhydrophobic surface.

  13. A new model of snowball Earth; the core controlled the surface T of the Earth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Maruyama; S. Rino; A. Yoshihara

    2005-01-01

    Previous model The snowball Earth at 0.75-0.60 Ga and presumably at 2.3 Ga has been regarded as caused by decrease of greenhouse effect by atmospheric CO2. Probably not, we will show a new model. We present two new data sets to constraint the model. (1)Growth curve of continental crust by Pb-isotope age of river mouth zircon Growth rate of continental

  14. Representation of heterogeneity effects in earth system modeling: Experience from land surface modeling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Filippo Giorgi; Roni Avissar

    1997-01-01

    The land surface is characterized by pronounced spatial heterogeneity that spans a wide range of scales. This heterogeneity affects the surface energy and water budgets, as well as the land-atmosphere exchanges of momentum, heat, water and other constituents, through a number of highly nonlinear processes. The resolution of present-day Earth (or climate) system models is still too coarse to explicitly

  15. REPRESENTATION OF HETEROGENEITY EFFECTS IN EARTH SYSTEM MODELING: EXPERIENCE FROM LAND SURFACE MODELING

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Filippo Giorgi

    The land surface is characterized by pro- nounced spatial heterogeneity that spans a wide range of scales. This heterogeneity affects the surface energy and water budgets, as well as the land-atmosphere exchanges of momentum, heat, water and other constituents, through a number of highly nonlinear processes. The resolution of present-day Earth (or climate) system models is still too coarse to

  16. Representation of heterogeneity effects in Earth system modeling: Experience from land surface modeling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Filippo Giorgi; Roni Avissar

    1997-01-01

    The land surface is characterized by pronounced spatial heterogeneity that spans a wide range of scales. This heterogeneity affects the surface energy and water budgets, as well as the land-atmosphere exchanges of momentum, heat, water and other constituents, through a number of highly nonlinear processes. The resolution of present-day Earth (or climate) system models is still too coarse to explicitly

  17. Uplifts and tilts at earth's surface induced by pressure transients from hydraulic fractures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1990-01-01

    The pressure transient that spreads through the formation during and after a hydraulic fracture treatment pressurizes the formation and induces a certain swelling. This swelling and the accompanying uplift at the earth's surface can be estimated with poroelastic theory. The uplift may produce a significant signal in tiltmeter devices placed at the surface. This paper reports six fracturing treatments in

  18. Atom manipulation on an insulating surface at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawai, Shigeki; Foster, Adam S.; Canova, Filippo Federici; Onodera, Hiroshi; Kitamura, Shin-Ichi; Meyer, Ernst

    2014-07-01

    Atomic manipulation enables us to fabricate a unique structure at the atomic scale. So far, many atomic manipulations have been reported on conductive surfaces, mainly at low temperature with scanning tunnelling microscopy, but atomic manipulation on an insulator at room temperature is still a long-standing challenge. Here we present a systematic atomic manipulation on an insulating surface by advanced atomic force microscopy, enabling construction of complex patterns such as a ‘Swiss cross’ of substitutional bromine ions in the sodium chloride surface.

  19. Measured and modeled albedos of sea-ice surfaces with implications for Snowball Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carns, Regina C.

    The Snowball Earth episodes were extensive glaciations that occurred during the Neoproterozoic, between 600 and 800 million years ago, during which ice covered much or all of the oceans. These glaciations were a result of ice-albedo feedback, a process likely to occur on any Earthlike planet with oceans covering most of its surface. Modeling shows that sublimation would exceed precipitation over large regions of the ice-covered ocean on a Snowball planet; during the initial stages of the Snowball episode, these areas would be entirely covered by sea ice containing inclusions of brine, and sea ice could remain in smaller regions through the whole episode. At temperatures likely to prevail in the Snowball climate, sodium chloride precipitates within brine inclusions as the hydrated salt hydrohalite (NaCl·2H2O, also known as sodium chloride dehydrate). This work used field measurements, laboratory experiments and modeling to constrain the albedo of sea ice surfaces relevant to Snowball Earth. Field measurements of cold sea ice in McMurdo Sound show an increase in the albedo of natural sea ice with decreasing temperatures. Laboratory experiments on natural sea ice show that brine pockets can become supersaturated with respect to sodium chloride at low temperatures, creating a hysteresis in hydrohalite precipitation and dissolution. Experiments show this effect in laboratory-grown ice of several different compositions: grown from an NaCl solution, grown from artificial seawater, and grown from artificial seawater with added extracellular polysaccharides. Sufficiently cold sea ice in a region of net sublimation will eventually develop a lag deposit of salt as the ice sublimates away from precipitated hydrohalite in brine pockets. No sea ice on modern Earth stays cold and dry long enough for such a deposit to form, so we developed a method for measuring the albedo of ice surfaces in a cold-room laboratory. The method uses a dome with a diffusely reflecting interior surface to emulate the light from an overcast sky. We created a crust of hydrohalite and used this "albedo dome" method to measure albedo of the crust as it developed and dissolved. Using these measurements along with a radiative transfer code, we inferred the complex refractive index for hydrohalite and developed a parameterization for the albedo of hydrohalite crusts of any thickness. These results have implications for Earthlike exoplanets with sizable oceans, which would also be susceptible to ice-albedo feedback. The formation of hydrohalite in sub-eutectic sea ice and the development of a lag deposit in cold, dry conditions could intensify the positive feedback that leads to Snowball conditions. This work shows that the albedo of hydrohalite is much higher than that of snow in the near-infrared, which could make the formation of hydrohalite crusts particularly important to the climates of planets that orbit M-dwarf stars, which output a large fraction of their energy in the near-infrared.

  20. Application of radiometric surface temperature for surface energy balance estimation: John Monteith's contributions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over 25 years ago, Huband and Monteith paper’s investigating the radiative surface temperature and the surface energy balance of a wheat canopy, highlighted the key issues in computing fluxes with radiometric surface temperature. These included the relationship between radiometric and aerodynamic s...

  1. MAIC-2, a latitudinal model for the Martian surface temperature, atmospheric water transport and surface glaciation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ralf Greve; Bjoern Grieger; Oliver J. Stenzel

    2010-01-01

    The Mars Atmosphere-Ice Coupler MAIC-2 is a simple, latitudinal model, which consists of a set of parameterisations for the surface temperature, the atmospheric water transport and the surface mass balance (condensation minus evaporation) of water ice. It is driven directly by the orbital parameters obliquity, eccentricity and solar longitude (Ls) of perihelion. Surface temperature is described by the Local Insolation

  2. Late Quaternary surface circulation in the east equatorial South Atlantic: Evidence from alkenone sea surface temperatures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ralph R. Schneider; Peter J. Müller; Götz Ruhland

    1995-01-01

    Angola Basin and Walvis Ridge records of past sea surface temperatures (SST) derived from the alkenone Uk37 index are used to reconstruct the surface circulation in the east equatorial South Atlantic for the last 200,000 years. Comparison of SST estimates from surface sediments between 5° and 20°S with modern SST data suggests that the alkenone temperatures represent annual mean values

  3. Fibre tip sensors for localised temperature sensing based on rare earth-doped glass coatings.

    PubMed

    Schartner, Erik P; Monro, Tanya M

    2014-01-01

    We report the development of a point temperature sensor, based on monitoring upconversion emission from erbium:ytterbium-doped tellurite coatings on the tips of optical fibres. The dip coating technique allows multiple sensors to be fabricated simultaneously, while confining the temperature-sensitive region to a localised region on the end-face of the fibre. The strong response of the rare earth ions to changing temperature allows a resolution of 0.1-0.3 °C to be recorded over the biologically relevant range of temperatures from 23-39 °C. PMID:25407907

  4. Fibre Tip Sensors for Localised Temperature Sensing Based on Rare Earth-Doped Glass Coatings

    PubMed Central

    Schartner, Erik P.; Monro, Tanya M.

    2014-01-01

    We report the development of a point temperature sensor, based on monitoring upconversion emission from erbium:ytterbium-doped tellurite coatings on the tips of optical fibres. The dip coating technique allows multiple sensors to be fabricated simultaneously, while confining the temperature-sensitive region to a localised region on the end-face of the fibre. The strong response of the rare earth ions to changing temperature allows a resolution of 0.1–0.3 °C to be recorded over the biologically relevant range of temperatures from 23–39 °C. PMID:25407907

  5. High-temperature electrical resistivity of rare-earth metals with variable valence

    SciTech Connect

    Povzner, A.A.; Abel'skii, S.S.

    1986-11-01

    The electrical resistivity of compounds of rare-earth metals at high temperatures is calculated on the basis of allowance for the background mechanism of scattering and the hybridization of local electron states with the states of conduction electrons. An analytic expression is obtained for resistivity in a strong hybridization approximation. It follows from the expression that electrical resistivity may have a negative temperature coefficient within a broad range of high temperatures. The use of a three-band (s, d, f) model makes it possible to explain experimental data on the resistivity of certain rare-earth metals, particularly the connection between the sign of the temperature coefficient of electrical resistivity and the curvature of the relation (T).

  6. Effects of inherent alkali and alkaline earth metallic species on biomass pyrolysis at different temperatures.

    PubMed

    Hu, Song; Jiang, Long; Wang, Yi; Su, Sheng; Sun, Lushi; Xu, Boyang; He, Limo; Xiang, Jun

    2015-09-01

    This work aimed to investigate effects of inherent alkali and alkaline earth metallic species (AAEMs) on biomass pyrolysis at different temperatures. The yield of CO, H2 and C2H4 was increased and that of CO2 was suppressed with increasing temperature. Increasing temperature could also promote depolymerization and aromatization reactions of active tars, forming heavier polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, leading to decrease of tar yields and species diversity. Diverse performance of inherent AAEMs at different temperatures significantly affected the distribution of pyrolysis products. The presence of inherent AAEMs promoted water-gas shift reaction, and enhanced the yield of H2 and CO2. Additionally, inherent AAEMs not only promoted breakage and decarboxylation/decarbonylation reaction of thermally labile hetero atoms of the tar but also enhanced thermal decomposing of heavier aromatics. Inherent AAEMs could also significantly enhance the decomposition of levoglucosan, and alkaline earth metals showed greater effect than alkali metals. PMID:26005925

  7. High temperature radiator materials for applications in the low Earth orbital environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rutledge, Sharon K.; Banks, Bruce A.; Mirtich, Michael J.; Lebed, Richard; Brady, Joyce; Hotes, Deborah; Kussmaul, Michael

    1987-01-01

    Radiators must be constructed of materials which have high emittance in order to efficiently radiate heat from high temperature space power systems. In addition, if these radiators are to be used for applications in the low Earth orbital environment, they must not be detrimentally affected by exposure to atomic oxygen. Four materials selected as candidate radiator materials (304 stainless steel, copper, titanium-6% aluminum-4% vanadium (Ti-6%Al-4%V), and niobium-1% zirconium (Nb-1%Zr)) were surface modified by acid etching, heat treating, abrading, sputter texturing, electrochemical etching, and combinations of the above in order to improve their emittance. Combination treatment techniques with heat treating as the second treatment provided about a factor of two improvement in emittance for 304 stainless steel, Ti-6%Al-4%V, and Nb-1%Zr. A factor of three improvement in emittance occurred for discharge chamber sputter textured copper. Exposure to atomic oxygen in an RF plasma asher did not significantly change the emittance of those samples that had been heat treated as part of their texturing process. An evaluation of oxygen penetration is needed to understand how oxidation affects the mechanical properties of these materials when heat treated.

  8. Fluid flow near the surface of earth's outer core

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeremy Bloxham; Andrew Jackson

    1991-01-01

    This review examines the recent attempts at extracting information on the pattern of fluid flow near the surface of the outer core from the geomagnetic secular variation. Maps of the fluid flow at the core surface are important as they may provide some insight into the process of the geodynamo and may place useful constraints on geodynamo models. In contrast

  9. Effect of temperature on the extraction of rare earth elements by alkylammonium salts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. V. Proyaev; A. A. Kopyrin; V. V. Shokin

    2009-01-01

    The extraction of rare earth elements in the cerium subgroup by tri-n-octylammonium nitrates in the temperature range 283-328°K is discussed. The effects of the temperature dependence of the distribution coefficients on the nature of the extracted metal, the nature and concentration of the salting out agents, and additions of complexone to the aqueous phase were studied. In the majority of

  10. Temperatures in the earth's core from melting-point measurements of iron at high static pressures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Boehler

    1993-01-01

    The most reliable method for determining the temperature gradient at the earth's core is the estimation of Fe and Fe-rich compounds' melting temperature at the pressure of the inner core boundary. Attention is presently given to melting-point measurements on Fe and Fe-O compounds at up to 2 Mbar. An extrapolation of these results to 3.3 Mbar yields an inner core

  11. Rare earth or yttrium, transition metal oxide thermistors. [for temperature compensation of oxygen meters

    SciTech Connect

    Laud, K.R.; Logothetis, E.M.; Park, J.K.

    1980-11-04

    Thermistors comprising transition metal such as iron, rare earth of the lanthanide series or yttrium, and oxygen exhibit sufficient independence to variation in oxygen partial pressure over a range of exhaust gas conditions of internal combustion engines as to make them particularly suitable for temperature compensation of oxygen sensors such as those derived from titania as well as temperature sensing in other oxygen varying environments.

  12. Earth crust structure as a result of rock fracturing at high pressure and temperature conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Victor Nikolaevskiy; Igor Garagash

    2004-01-01

    The well-known features of the Earth's crust are interpreted as the result of rock fracturing under deep thermodynamic conditions. For this aim, triaxial failure data are scaled up to the crust taking into account temperatures and rock types. The critical depth of hydraulically permeable cracks coincides with the Mohorovicic boundary and that relates to the crust genesis. The annihilation of

  13. Titan Surface Temperatures as Measured by Cassini CIRS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jennings, Donald E.; Flasar, F.M.; Kunde, V.G.; Nixon, C.A.; Romani, P.N.; Samuelson, R.E.; Coustenis, A.; Courtin, R.

    2009-01-01

    Thermal radiation from the surface of Titan reaches space through a spectral window of low opacity at 19-microns wavelength. This radiance gives a measure of the brightness temperature of the surface. Composite Infrared Spectrometer' (CIRS) observations from Cassini during its first four years at Saturn have permitted latitude mapping of zonally averaged surface temperatures. The measurements are corrected for atmospheric opacity using the dependence of radiance on emission angle. With the more complete latitude coverage and much larger dataset of CIRS we have improved upon the original results from Voyager IRIS. CIRS measures the equatorial surface brightness temperature to be 93.7+/-0.6 K, the same as the temperature measured at the Huygens landing site. The surface brightness temperature decreases by 2 K toward the south pole and by 3 K toward the north pole. The drop in surface temperature between equator and north pole implies a 50% decrease in methane saturation vapor pressure and relative humidity; this may help explain the large northern lakes. The H2 mole fraction is derived as a by-product of our analysis and agrees with previous results. Evidence of seasonal variation in surface and atmospheric temperatures is emerging from CIRS measurements over the Cassini mission.

  14. Tunguska phenomenon: Discharge processes near the earth's surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gladysheva, O. G.

    2013-09-01

    An investigation of the Tunguska cosmic body's epicenter showed that both dried trees and those that survived the catastrophe are marked with characteristic deteriorations. For the trees that survived near the epicenter (the distance is <4 km), cracks of up to 7 m in length are found on their stems. All the vegetation near the explosion epicenter has traces of uniform scorch that covered the trees even on the land parts isolated by water. On the background of this uniform scorch, a notable feature is carbonization that touched the tree tops and the earth-directed ends of broken branches. All tops of both living and dried trees in the central zone are burned and dead. Carbonization of tops and branch ends was observed up to a distance of 10-15 km from the epicenter; i.e., charge processes took place over an area of more than 500 km2 in size. Carbonized branch ends have a characteristic "bird's nail" shape, which has no analogs on the Earth. Similar deterioration is typical for the crater shape that obtains an anode during arc discharge combustion. It is supposed that the duration of these charge processes could be ?1 min.

  15. Spatial Patterns of Radiative Forcing and Surface Temperature Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shindell, D. T.

    2014-12-01

    Examination of radiative forcing (RF), a key measure of changes in the energy balance of the Earth, facilitates understanding of the role of various drivers of climate change. For short-lived compounds, the RF can be highly inhomogeneous geographically. The relationship between the spatial patterns of RF and climate response is poorly characterized, however. Here we examine the relationship between RF and surface temperature response in the latest generation of climate models. We find that the geographic distribution of historical changes in aerosol and ozone RF strongly influences the response, leading to substantial regional differences with respect to the response to quasi-uniform well-mixed greenhouse gases (WMGHG). In particular, the response in the Northern Hemisphere (NH) extratropics and tropics follows the forcing in those regions fairly closely. There is a stronger global sensitivity to historical aerosol plus ozone RF than to WMGHG RF with equivalent global mean value, as noted previously [D T Shindell, 2014] and a stronger response in much of the NH extratropics, especially in and downwind of industrialized areas. The enhanced response is shown to be particularly large over land plus polar ocean areas, where transient response occurs more rapidly and strong snow and ice albedo feedbacks operate. This response is not attributable to greater forcing over those regions, but rather appears to reflect a broad sensitivity of NH extratropical land areas to NH extratropical forcing. The models show substantial diversity in the enhancement of land+polar ocean response to aerosols plus ozone relative to WMGHG, and for ocean response some models show reduced sensitivity to aerosols plus ozone (though the multi-model mean shows an enhancement), suggesting that different representations of land and ocean adjustment timescales and regional heat transport contribute greatly to the differences in response to inhomogeneous forcing. In addition, areas with greatest variation across the CMIP5 models' simulations of historical surface temperature change are shown to correspond in most cases with areas where aerosol+ozone forcing has enhanced impact, suggesting that better characterization of those forcings could play an important role in improving modeling of regional climate change.

  16. Rare earth chalcogenides for use as high temperature thermoelectric materials

    SciTech Connect

    Michiels, J.

    1996-01-02

    In the first part of the thesis, the electric resistivity, Seebeck coefficient, and Hall effect were measured in X{sub y}(Y{sub 2}S{sub 3}){sub 1-y} (X = Cu, B, or Al), for y = 0.05 (Cu, B) or 0.025-0.075 for Al, in order to determine their potential as high- temperature (HT)(300-1000 C) thermoelectrics. Results indicate that Cu, B, Al- doped Y{sub 2}S{sub 3} are not useful as HT thermoelectrics. In the second part, phase stability of {gamma}-cubic LaSe{sub 1.47-1.48} and NdSe{sub 1.47} was measured periodically during annealing at 800 or 1000 C for the same purpose. In the Nd selenide, {beta} phase increased with time, while the Nd selenide showed no sign of this second phase. It is concluded that the La selenide is not promising for use as HT thermoelectric due to the {gamma}-to-{beta} transformation, whereas the Nd selenide is promising.

  17. A framework for global diurnally-resolved observations of Land Surface Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghent, Darren; Remedios, John

    2014-05-01

    Land surface temperature (LST) is the radiative skin temperature of the land, and is one of the key parameters in the physics of land-surface processes on regional and global scales. Being a key boundary condition in land surface models, which determine the surface to atmosphere fluxes of heat, water and carbon; thus influencing cloud cover, precipitation and atmospheric chemistry predictions within Global models, the requirement for global diurnal observations of LST is well founded. Earth Observation satellites offer an opportunity to obtain global coverage of LST, with the appropriate exploitation of data from multiple instruments providing a capacity to resolve the diurnal cycle on a global scale. Here we present a framework for the production of global, diurnally resolved, data sets for LST which is a key request from users of LST data. We will show how the sampling of both geostationary and low earth orbit data sets could conceptually be employed to build combined, multi-sensor, pole-to-pole data sets. Although global averages already exist for individual instruments and merging of geostationary based LST is already being addressed operationally (Freitas, et al., 2013), there are still a number of important challenges to overcome. In this presentation, we will consider three of the issues still open in LST remote sensing: 1) the consistency amongst retrievals; 2) the clear-sky bias and its quantification; and 3) merging methods and the propagation of uncertainties. For example, the combined use of both geostationary earth orbit (GEO) and low earth orbit (LEO) data, and both infra-red and microwave data are relatively unexplored but are necessary to make the most progress. Hence this study will suggest what is state-of-the-art and how considerable advances can be made, accounting also for recent improvements in techniques and data quality. The GlobTemperature initiative under the Data User Element of ESA's 4th Earth Observation Envelope Programme (2013-2017), which aims to support the wider uptake of global-scale satellite LST by the research and operational user communities, will be a particularly important element in the development and subsequent provision of global diurnal LST. References Freitas, S.C., Trigo, I.F., Macedo, J., Barroso, C., Silva, R., & Perdigao, R., 2013, Land surface temperature from multiple geostationary satellites, International Journal of Remote Sensing, 34, 3051-3068.

  18. A framework for global diurnally-resolved observations of Land Surface Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghent, D.; Remedios, J.; Pinnock, S.

    2013-12-01

    Land surface temperature (LST) is the radiative skin temperature of the land, and is one of the key parameters in the physics of land-surface processes on regional and global scales. Being a key boundary condition in land surface models, which determine the surface to atmosphere fluxes of heat, water and carbon; thus influencing cloud cover, precipitation and atmospheric chemistry predictions within Global models, the requirement for global diurnal observations of LST is well founded. Earth Observation satellites offer an opportunity to obtain global coverage of LST, with the appropriate exploitation of data from multiple instruments providing a capacity to resolve the diurnal cycle on a global scale. Here we present a framework for the production of global, diurnally resolved, data sets for LST which is a key request from users of LST data. We will show how the sampling of both geostationary and low earth orbit data sets could conceptually be employed to build combined, multi-sensor, pole-to-pole data sets. Although global averages already exist for individual instruments and merging of geostationary based LST is already being addressed operationally (Freitas, et al., 2013), there are still a number of important challenges to overcome. In this presentation, we will consider three of the issues still open in LST remote sensing: 1) the consistency amongst retrievals; 2) the clear-sky bias and its quantification; and 3) merging methods and the propagation of uncertainties. For example, the combined use of both geostationary earth orbit (GEO) and low earth orbit (LEO) data, and both infra-red and microwave data are relatively unexplored but are necessary to make the most progress. Hence this study will suggest what is state-of-the-art and how considerable advances can be made, accounting also for recent improvements in techniques and data quality. The GlobTemperature initiative under the Data User Element of ESA's 4th Earth Observation Envelope Programme (2013-2017), which aims to support the wider uptake of global-scale satellite LST by the research and operational user communities, will be a particularly important element in the development and subsequent provision of global diurnal LST. This new project, with its emphasis on promoting the coherence and openness of interactions within the LST and user communities, will be well placed to deliver appropriate data, engage a wide audience and hence be a key promoter of LST research and development for the LST community. References Freitas, S.C., Trigo, I.F., Macedo, J., Barroso, C., Silva, R., & Perdigao, R., 2013, Land surface temperature from multiple geostationary satellites, International Journal of Remote Sensing, 34, 3051-3068.

  19. Land Surface Temperature in ?ód? Obtained from Landsat 5TM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    J?druszkiewicz, Joanna; Zieli?ski, Mariusz

    2012-01-01

    The main aim of this paper is to present the spatial differentiation of Land Surface Temperature LST in ?ód? based on Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (L5TM) images. Analysis was performed for all L5TM images from 2011, with clear sky over ?ód?. Land surface temperature (LST) play an important role in determination of weather conditions in boundary layer of atmosphere, especially connected with convection. Environmental satellites from Landsat series delivers the high resolution images of Earth's surface and according to the estimations made on the ground of it are precise. LST depends widely on surface emissivity. In this paper the emissivity was estimated from MODIS sensor as well as NDVI index, then both method were compared. The processed images allowed to determine the warmest and the coldest areas in the administrative boundaries of ?ód?. The highest LST values has been found in industrial areas and the in the heart of the city. However, there are some places lying in city outskirts, where the LST values are as high, for instance Lodz Airport. On the contrary the lowest LST values occur mostly in terrains covered with vegetation i.e. forests or city parks. G?ównym celem tego opracowania by?o oszacowanie temperatury powierzchni Ziemi w ?odzi, na podstawie obrazów satelitarnych pochodz?cych z satelity Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (L5TM). Analiz? wykonane dla obrazów wszystkich dost?pnych obrazów z 2011 roku, na których zachmurzenie nie wyst?pi?o nad obszarem ?odzi. Temperatura powierzchni Ziemi odgrywa istotn? rol? w kszta?towaniu warunków pogodowych w warstwie granicznej, szczególnie zwi?zanych z konwekcj?. Satelity ?rodowiskowe z serii Landsat dostarczaj? obrazów w du?ej rozdzielczo?ci, dzi?ki czemu pozwalaj? na stosunkowo dok?adne oszacowanie tego parametru. Wielko?? temperatury w du?ym stopniu zale?y od emisyjno?ci danej powierzchni. W niniejszym opracowaniu porównano temperatur? powierzchniow? obliczon? dla emisyjno?ci wyznaczonej z danych spektrometru MODIS, umieszczonego na satelicie Terra, jak równie? dla emisyjno?ci oszacowanej przy wykorzystaniu wska?nika NDVI obliczonego z danych L5TM. Opracowane obrazy satelitarne pozwoli?y na wyznaczenie obszarów w ?odzi, cechuj?cych si? najwy?szymi i najni?szymi warto?ciami temperatury powierzchniowej. Najwy?sze warto?ci LST na obszarze ?odzi wyst?puj? w obszarach przemys?owych, jak równie? w najbardziej centralnej cz??ci miasta. Niekiedy jednak?e obszary o podwy?szonych warto?ciach LST spotykane s? na przedmie?ciach, czego przyk?adem mo?e ?ódzki port lotniczy. Z drugiej strony najni?sze warto?ci LST wyst?puj? w obszarach, na których wyst?puje ro?linno??, przy czym dotyczy to g?ównie obszarów le?nych oraz parków ?ródmiejskich.

  20. Combined land/sea surface-air-temperature trends, 1949-1972

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, R.S.

    1982-04-01

    A major deficiency in most previous studies of fluctuations in the earth's climate based on air temperature records has been the dearth of data from oceanic areas and the Southern Hemisphere. This study analyzes a unique collection of ship-based observations of surface air temperature assembled by the UK Meteorological Office in parallel with the station-based dataset developed by the National Center for Atmospheric Research from the publications World Weather Records and Monthly Climatic Data for the World. Based on this much more geographically comprehensive database, it is concluded that, during the 24-year period 1949 to 1972, no statistically significant warming or cooling trends were evident in the time series of globally averaged surface air temperature measurements. However, temperature trends did vary latitudinally, with significant cooling in northern extra-tropical latitudes, no trend in equatorial latitudes, and significant but not homogeneous warming in southern extra-tropical latitudes. Time series of air temperatures over land and sea exhibited qualitatively similar behavior over the period 1949 to 1972, indicative of both the comparable quality of the two datasets and the probable lack of significant widespread bias in the land-based measurements due to urban development. The results of this study underscore the need for dense and geographically comprehensive measurements from both land and ocean areas and from both hemispheres in analyzing the global behavior of the earth's climate.

  1. Mean Earth'S Equipotential Surface From Topex\\/Poseidon Altimetry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Milan Burša; Jan Kouba; Karel Rad?j; Scott A. True; Viliam Vatrt; Marie Vojtíšková

    1998-01-01

    The geopotential value of W0= (62 636 855.611 ± 0.008) m2s-2which specifies the equipotential surface fitting the mean ocean surface best, was obtained from four years (1993 - 1996) of TOPEX\\/POSEIDON altimeter data (AVISO, 1995). The altimeter calibration error limits the actual accuracy of W0to about (0.2 - 0.5) m2s-2(2 - 5) cm. The same accuracy limits also apply to

  2. Estimation of subsurface thermal structure using sea surface height and sea surface temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kang, Yong Q. (Inventor); Jo, Young-Heon (Inventor); Yan, Xiao-Hai (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A method of determining a subsurface temperature in a body of water is disclosed. The method includes obtaining surface temperature anomaly data and surface height anomaly data of the body of water for a region of interest, and also obtaining subsurface temperature anomaly data for the region of interest at a plurality of depths. The method further includes regressing the obtained surface temperature anomaly data and surface height anomaly data for the region of interest with the obtained subsurface temperature anomaly data for the plurality of depths to generate regression coefficients, estimating a subsurface temperature at one or more other depths for the region of interest based on the generated regression coefficients and outputting the estimated subsurface temperature at the one or more other depths. Using the estimated subsurface temperature, signal propagation times and trajectories of marine life in the body of water are determined.

  3. Cylinder surface, temperature may affect LPG odorization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    McWilliams

    1988-01-01

    A study of possible odorant fade in propane by the Arthur D. Little Co. (Boston) has indicated that oxidation of interior surfaces of LPG containers may cause the odorant, ethyl mercaptan, to fade. The oxidation, ferous oxide, is a black, easily oxidizable powder that is the monoxide of iron. The study, contracted for by the Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC),

  4. Areas of Weakly Anomalous to Anomalous Surface Temperature in Archuleta County, Colorado, as Identified from ASTER Thermal Data

    SciTech Connect

    Hussein, Khalid

    2012-02-01

    Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Publication Date: 2012 Title: Warm Modeled Temperature Archuleta Note: This “Weakly Anomalous to Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset differs from the “Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset for this county (another remotely sensed CIRES product) by showing areas of modeled temperatures between 1? and 2? above the mean, as opposed to the greater than 2? temperatures contained in the “Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset. Edition: First Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains areas of anomalous surface temperature in Archuleta County identified from ASTER thermal data and spatial based insolation model. The temperature is calculated using the Emissivity Normalization Algorithm that separate temperature from emissivity. The incoming solar radiation was calculated using spatial based insolation model developed by Fu and Rich (1999). Then the temperature due to solar radiation was calculated using emissivity derived from ASTER data. The residual temperature, i.e. temperature due to solar radiation subtracted from ASTER temperature was used to identify thermally anomalous areas. Areas that had temperature between 1? and 2? were considered ASTER modeled warm surface exposures (thermal anomalies). Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4144825.235807 m Left: 285446.256851 m Right: 350577.338852 m Bottom: 4096962.250137 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS’1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System ’1984 (WGS ’1984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich Angular Unit: Degree Digital Form: Format Name: Shape file

  5. Areas of Weakly Anomalous to Anomalous Surface Temperature in Routt County, Colorado, as Identified from ASTER Thermal Data

    SciTech Connect

    Hussein, Khalid

    2012-02-01

    Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Publication Date: 2012 Title: Warm Modeled Temperature Routt Edition: First Note: This “Weakly Anomalous to Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset differs from the “Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset for this county (another remotely sensed CIRES product) by showing areas of modeled temperatures between 1? and 2? above the mean, as opposed to the greater than 2? temperatures contained in the “Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset. Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains areas of anomalous surface temperature in Routt County identified from ASTER thermal data and spatial based insolation model. The temperature is calculated using the Emissivity Normalization Algorithm that separate temperature from emissivity. The incoming solar radiation was calculated using spatial based insolation model developed by Fu and Rich (1999). Then the temperature due to solar radiation was calculated using emissivity derived from ASTER data. The residual temperature, i.e. temperature due to solar radiation subtracted from ASTER temperature was used to identify thermally anomalous areas. Areas that had temperature between 1? and 2? were considered ASTER modeled warm surface exposures (thermal anomalies) Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4501071.574000 m Left: 311351.975000 m Right: 359411.975000 m Bottom: 4447521.574000 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS’1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System ’1984 (WGS ’1984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich Angular Unit: Degree Digital Form: Format Name: Shape file

  6. Areas of Weakly Anomalous to Anomalous Surface Temperature in Dolores County, Colorado, as Identified from ASTER Thermal Data

    SciTech Connect

    Hussein, Khalid

    2012-02-01

    Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Publication Date: 2012 Title: Very Warm Modeled Temperature Dolores Edition: First Note: This “Weakly Anomalous to Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset differs from the “Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset for this county (another remotely sensed CIRES product) by showing areas of modeled temperatures between 1? and 2? above the mean, as opposed to the greater than 2? temperatures contained in the “Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset. Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains areas of anomalous surface temperature in Dolores County identified from ASTER thermal data and spatial based insolation model. The temperature is calculated using the Emissivity Normalization Algorithm that separate temperature from emissivity. The incoming solar radiation was calculated using spatial based insolation model developed by Fu and Rich (1999). Then the temperature due to solar radiation was calculated using emissivity derived from ASTER data. The residual temperature, i.e. temperature due to solar radiation subtracted from ASTER temperature was used to identify thermally anomalous areas. Areas that had temperature greater than 2? were considered ASTER modeled very warm surface exposures (thermal anomalies) Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4186234.213315 m Left: 212558.673056 m Right: 232922.811862 m Bottom: 4176781.467043 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS’1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System ’1984 (WGS ’1984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich Angular Unit: Degree Digital Form: Format Name: Shape file

  7. Areas of Weakly Anomalous to Anomalous Surface Temperature in Garfield County, Colorado, as Identified from ASTER Thermal Data

    SciTech Connect

    Hussein, Khalid

    2012-02-01

    Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Publication Date: 2012 Title: Warm Modeled Temperature Garfield Edition: First Note: This “Weakly Anomalous to Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset differs from the “Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset for this county (another remotely sensed CIRES product) by showing areas of modeled temperatures between 1? and 2? above the mean, as opposed to the greater than 2? temperatures contained in the “Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset. Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains areas of anomalous surface temperature in Garfield County identified from ASTER thermal data and spatial based insolation model. The temperature is calculated using the Emissivity Normalization Algorithm that separate temperature from emissivity. The incoming solar radiation was calculated using spatial based insolation model developed by Fu and Rich (1999). Then the temperature due to solar radiation was calculated using emissivity derived from ASTER data. The residual temperature, i.e. temperature due to solar radiation subtracted from ASTER temperature was used to identify thermally anomalous areas. Areas that had temperature between 1? and 2? were considered ASTER modeled warm surface exposures (thermal anomalies) Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4442180.552290 m Left: 268655.053363 m Right: 359915.053363 m Bottom: 4312490.552290 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS’1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System ’1984 (WGS ’1984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich Angular Unit: Degree Digital Form: Format Name: Shape file

  8. Areas of Weakly Anomalous to Anomalous Surface Temperature in Alamosa and Saguache Counties, Colorado, as Identified from ASTER Thermal Data

    SciTech Connect

    Hussein, Khalid

    2012-02-01

    Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Publication Date: 2012 Title: Very Warm Modeled Temperature Alamosa Saguache Edition: First Note: This “Weakly Anomalous to Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset differs from the “Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset for this county (another remotely sensed CIRES product) by showing areas of modeled temperatures between 1? and 2? above the mean, as opposed to the greater than 2? temperatures contained in the “Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset. Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains areas of anomalous surface temperature in Alamosa and Saguache Counties identified from ASTER thermal data and spatial based insolation model. The temperature is calculated using the Emissivity Normalization Algorithm that separate temperature from emissivity. The incoming solar radiation was calculated using spatial based insolation model developed by Fu and Rich (1999). Then the temperature due to solar radiation was calculated using emissivity derived from ASTER data. The residual temperature, i.e. temperature due to solar radiation subtracted from ASTER temperature was used to identify thermally anomalous areas. Areas that had temperature greater than 2? were considered ASTER modeled very warm surface exposures (thermal anomalies) Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4217727.601630 m Left: 394390.400264 m Right: 460179.841813 m Bottom: 4156258.036086 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS’1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System ’1984 (WGS ’1984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich Angular Unit: Degree Digital Form: Format Name: Shape file

  9. Areas of Weakly Anomalous to Anomalous Surface Temperature in Chaffee County, Colorado, as Identified from ASTER Thermal Data

    SciTech Connect

    Hussein, Khalid

    2012-02-01

    Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Publication Date: 2012 Title: Very Warm Modeled Temperature Chaffee Edition: First Note: This “Weakly Anomalous to Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset differs from the “Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset for this county (another remotely sensed CIRES product) by showing areas of modeled temperatures between 1? and 2? above the mean, as opposed to the greater than 2? temperatures contained in the “Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset. Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains areas of anomalous surface temperature in Chaffee County identified from ASTER thermal data and spatial based insolation model. The temperature is calculated using the Emissivity Normalization Algorithm that separate temperature from emissivity. The incoming solar radiation was calculated using spatial based insolation model developed by Fu and Rich (1999). Then the temperature due to solar radiation was calculated using emissivity derived from ASTER data. The residual temperature, i.e. temperature due to solar radiation subtracted from ASTER temperature was used to identify thermally anomalous areas. Areas that had temperature greater than 2? were considered ASTER modeled very warm surface exposures (thermal anomalies) Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4333432.368072 m Left: 366907.700763 m Right: 452457.816015 m Bottom: 4208271.566715 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS’1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System ’1984 (WGS ’1984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich Angular Unit: Degree Digital Form: Format Name: Shape file

  10. Surface Temperatures on Titan; Changes During the Cassini Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jennings, Donald E.; Cottini, Valeria; Nixon, Conor A.

    2010-01-01

    Surface brightness temperatures on Titan measured by the Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) aboard Cassini span the period from late northern winter to early spring. The CIRS observations cover all latitudes and can be used to study meridional changes with season. CIRS previously reported surface temperatures from 2004-2008 which were 93.7 K at the equator with decreases of 2 K toward the south pole and 3 K toward the north pole'. From a comparison of the equinox period with the earlier data, CIRS can now detect a seasonal shift in the latitudinal distribution of temperatures. Around the time of the equinox the meridional distribution was more symmetric about the equator than had been found earlier in the mission. The equatorial surface temperatures remained close to 94 K, but in the south the temperatures had decreased by about 0.5 K and in the north had increased by about 0.5 K. The CIRS equinox results are similar to what was seen near the previous vernal equinox by Voyager IRIS Z. The observed surface temperatures can help constrain the type of surface material by comparison with predictions from general circulation models. Of the three cases treated by Tokano t , our measurements most closely match a porous-ice regolith. As Cassini continues through Titan's northern spring CIRS will extend its temporal and spatial coverage and will continue to search for seasonal variations in surface temperature.

  11. Earth

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2008-10-03

    With three levels to choose from on each page - beginner, intermediate or advanced - this site provides information on our plant Earth. There is a section about water on earth and its many different varities, like freshwater, groundwater, and frozen water. There is information about the chemical make-up of water and many images showing the different water anvironments. There is a section about life in water, such as animals, plants, and plankton.

  12. Temperature dependence of the charge-density-wave gap in the rare-earth tritelluride compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfuner, F.; Lavagnini, M.; Chu, J.-H.; Fisher, I. R.; Degiorgi, L.

    2010-03-01

    The layered rare-earth tritellurides RTe3 (R= Er and Ho) host an unidirectional, incommensurate charge-density-wave (CDW) transition at TCDW1˜ 265 and 280 K and a further transition to a bidirectional CDW state at TCDW2˜ 160 and 120 K for the Er and Ho compound, respectively. We present optical reflectivity data collected as a function of temperature over a very broad energy interval, ranging from the far-infrared up to the ultraviolet. We extract the temperature dependence of the CDW gap and compare it with our previous results on the whole rare-earth series (R=La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Gd, Tb and Dy) as a function of chemical and externally applied pressure. We provide clear-cut evidence that upon destroying the CDW state with increasing temperature and pressure there is a progressive closing of the CDW gap excitation.

  13. Magnetic shielding in a low temperature torsion pendulum experiment. [superconducting cylinders for attenuation earth field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, P. R.

    1979-01-01

    A new type of ether drift experiment searches for anomalous torques on a permanent magnet. A torsion pendulum is used at liquid helium temperature, so that superconducting cylinders can be used to shield magnetic fields. Lead shields attenuate the earth's field, while Nb-Sn shields fastened to the pendulum contain the fields of the magnet. The paper describes the technique by which the earth's field can be reduced below 0.0001 G while simultaneously the moment of the magnet can be reduced by a factor 7 x 10 to the 4th.

  14. Ch.5 Global Temperatures Temperature Concepts

    E-print Network

    Pan, Feifei

    . Ocean Currents and Sea-Surface Temperature #12;Sea-Surface Temperatures #12;The Gulf Stream #12;Earth. Land­Water Heating Differences #12;Three Phases of Water #12;Land Is Opaque #12;Ocean Currents and Sea-Surface Patterns #12;Global Temperature #12;Arctic Sea Ice Changes #12;Air Temperature and the Human Body Learning

  15. Comparison of Continuous Wave CO2 Doppler Lidar Calibration Using Earth Surface Targets in Laboratory and Airborne Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jarzembski, Maurice A.; Srivastava, Vandana

    1999-01-01

    Routine backscatter, beta, measurements by an airborne or space-based lidar from designated earth surfaces with known and fairly uniform beta properties can potentially offer lidar calibration opportunities. This can in turn be used to obtain accurate atmospheric aerosol and cloud beta measurements on large spatial scales. This is important because achieving a precise calibration factor for large pulsed lidars then need not rest solely on using a standard hard target procedure. Furthermore, calibration from designated earth surfaces would provide an inflight performance evaluation of the lidar. Hence, with active remote sensing using lasers with high resolution data, calibration of a space-based lidar using earth's surfaces will be extremely useful. The calibration methodology using the earth's surface initially requires measuring beta of various earth surfaces simulated in the laboratory using a focused continuous wave (CW) CO2 Doppler lidar and then use these beta measurements as standards for the earth surface signal from airborne or space-based lidars. Since beta from the earth's surface may be retrieved at different angles of incidence, beta would also need to be measured at various angles of incidences of the different surfaces. In general, Earth-surface reflectance measurements have been made in the infrared, but the use of lidars to characterize them and in turn use of the Earth's surface to calibrate lidars has not been made. The feasibility of this calibration methodology is demonstrated through a comparison of these laboratory measurements with actual earth surface beta retrieved from the same lidar during the NASA/Multi-center Airborne Coherent Atmospheric Wind Sensor (MACAWS) mission on NASA's DC8 aircraft from 13 - 26 September, 1995. For the selected earth surface from the airborne lidar data, an average beta for the surface was established and the statistics of lidar efficiency was determined. This was compared with the actual lidar efficiency determined with the standard calibrating hard target.

  16. Evaluation of a surface/vegetation parameterization using satellite measurements of surface temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taconet, O.; Carlson, T.; Bernard, R.; Vidal-Madjar, D.

    1986-01-01

    Ground measurements of surface-sensible heat flux and soil moisture for a wheat-growing area of Beauce in France were compared with the values derived by inverting two boundary layer models with a surface/vegetation formulation using surface temperature measurements made from NOAA-AVHRR. The results indicated that the trends in the surface heat fluxes and soil moisture observed during the 5 days of the field experiment were effectively captured by the inversion method using the remotely measured radiative temperatures and either of the two boundary layer methods, both of which contain nearly identical vegetation parameterizations described by Taconet et al. (1986). The sensitivity of the results to errors in the initial sounding values or measured surface temperature was tested by varying the initial sounding temperature, dewpoint, and wind speed and the measured surface temperature by amounts corresponding to typical measurement error. In general, the vegetation component was more sensitive to error than the bare soil model.

  17. Temperature-dependent surface relaxations of Ag,,111... Jianjun Xie*

    E-print Network

    agreement with helium-scattering measurements. The mechanism driving this surface expansion is analyzed interlayer separation may change more strongly with temperature than the bulk lattice parameter. Indeed, en

  18. Surface passivation of nickel-chromium alloys at room temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Jeng, Shin-Puu.

    1988-04-01

    The surface composition and room temperature oxidation of atomically clean single crystal Ni-15%Cr(110) and polycrystalline Ni-23%Cr alloy have been studied using Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), Ion Scattering Spectroscopy (ISS) and Electron Stimulated Ion Desorption (ESID). It was found that Ni segregated preferentially to the surface of Ni-15%Cr(110) in vacuum at temperatures between 500 to 650{degree}C, and the heat segregation was 2550 cal/mole. The surface region of the Ni-Cr alloy was depleted in Ni during Ar ion bombardment at temperatures above 200{degree}C, which is an agreement with the model of preferential sputtering of Ni caused by radiation-enhanced surface segregation of Ni. But the subsurface region of room temperature sputtered Ni-Cr alloy was depleted in Cr. Possible causes for this observation were discussed.

  19. Surface energetics of alkaline-earth metal oxides: Trends in stability and adsorption of small molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bajdich, Michal; Nørskov, Jens K.; Vojvodic, Aleksandra

    2015-04-01

    We present a systematic theoretical investigation of the surface properties, stability, and reactivity of rocksalt type alkaline-earth metal oxides including MgO, CaO, SrO, and BaO. The accuracy of commonly used exchange-correlation density functionals (LDA, PBE, RPBE, PBEsol, BEEF-vdW, and hybrid HSE) and random-phase approximation (RPA) is evaluated and compared to existing experimental values. Calculated surface energies of the four most stable surface facets under vacuum conditions, the (100) surface, the metal and oxygen terminated octopolar (111), and the (110) surfaces, exhibit a monotonic increase in stability from MgO to BaO. On the MgO(100) surface, adsorption of CO, NO, and CH4 is characterized by physisorption while H2O chemisorbs, which is in agreement with experimental findings. We further use the on-top metal adsorption of CO and NO molecules to map out the surface energetics of each alkaline-earth metal oxide surface. The considered functionals all qualitatively predict similar adsorption energy trends. The ordering between the adsorption energies on different surface facets can be attributed to differences in the local geometrical surface structure and the electronic structure of the metal constituent of the alkaline-earth metal oxide. The striking observation that CO adsorption strength is weaker than NO adsorption on the (100) terraces as the period of the alkaline-earth metal in the oxide increases is analyzed in detail in terms of charge redistribution within the ? and ? channels of adsorbates. Finally, we also present oxygen adsorption and oxygen vacancy formation energies in these oxide systems.

  20. Challenges of Low Temperature Plasma-Surface Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graves, David

    2013-09-01

    Low temperature plasma-surface interactions are characterized by complex, coupled interactions of chemical, physical and material phenomena interacting over a wide range of time and length scales. Intriguingly, some of the same kinds of challenges exist in non-low temperature plasma applications, including fusion-wall interactions. In this talk, I will review some of the history of low temperature plasma-surface studies and suggest some grand challenges in this interdisciplinary field. Examples will be presented from plasma-semiconductor surface interactions with an industrial focus. The latest applications of low temperature plasma involve plasma-soft material interactions, in some cases including the presence of water. The developing field of low temperature plasma medicine includes plasma-living tissue interactions. Some of the unique challenges posed by this new field will be briefly addressed.

  1. Earth surface potentials measuring device for large grounding systems testing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Giannini; H. Dzapo

    2004-01-01

    Substation grounding system characteristics need to be examined periodically in order to check that protective functions have not been degraded over a longer period of time. The most important safety parameters are the values of touch and step voltages. However, the surface potential distribution contains additional information concerning grounding grid status and possible characteristics degradation trends. Inspection procedure needs to

  2. Mapping permeability over the surface of the Earth

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gleeson, Tom; Smith, Leslie; Moosdorf, Nils; Hartmann, Jens; Durr, Hans H.; Manning, Andrew H.; van Beek, Ludovicus P. H.; Jellinek, A. Mark

    2011-01-01

    Permeability, the ease of fluid flow through porous rocks and soils, is a fundamental but often poorly quantified component in the analysis of regional-scale water fluxes. Permeability is difficult to quantify because it varies over more than 13 orders of magnitude and is heterogeneous and dependent on flow direction. Indeed, at the regional scale, maps of permeability only exist for soil to depths of 1-2 m. Here we use an extensive compilation of results from hydrogeologic models to show that regional-scale (>5 km) permeability of consolidated and unconsolidated geologic units below soil horizons (hydrolithologies) can be characterized in a statistically meaningful way. The representative permeabilities of these hydrolithologies are used to map the distribution of near-surface (on the order of 100 m depth) permeability globally and over North America. The distribution of each hydrolithology is generally scale independent. The near-surface mean permeability is of the order of -5 x 10-14 m2. The results provide the first global picture of near-surface permeability and will be of particular value for evaluating global water resources and modeling the influence of climate-surface-subsurface interactions on global climate change.

  3. Mapping permeability over the surface of the Earth

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gleeson, T.; Smith, L.; Moosdorf, N.; Hartmann, J.; Durr, H.H.; Manning, A.H.; Van Beek, L. P. H.; Jellinek, A. Mark

    2011-01-01

    Permeability, the ease of fluid flow through porous rocks and soils, is a fundamental but often poorly quantified component in the analysis of regional-scale water fluxes. Permeability is difficult to quantify because it varies over more than 13 orders of magnitude and is heterogeneous and dependent on flow direction. Indeed, at the regional scale, maps of permeability only exist for soil to depths of 1-2 m. Here we use an extensive compilation of results from hydrogeologic models to show that regional-scale (>5 km) permeability of consolidated and unconsolidated geologic units below soil horizons (hydrolithologies) can be characterized in a statistically meaningful way. The representative permeabilities of these hydrolithologies are used to map the distribution of near-surface (on the order of 100 m depth) permeability globally and over North America. The distribution of each hydrolithology is generally scale independent. The near-surface mean permeability is of the order of ???5 ?? 10-14 m2. The results provide the first global picture of near-surface permeability and will be of particular value for evaluating global water resources and modeling the influence of climate-surface-subsurface interactions on global climate change. Copyright ?? 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  4. Tribological performance of surface engineered tool steel at elevated temperatures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Hardell; B. Prakash

    2010-01-01

    Tribological components operating at elevated temperatures can experience high wear, oxidation, thermal fatigue and changes in mechanical properties. In this work, the friction and wear characteristics of plasma nitrided and surface coated (CrN and TiAlN) tool steel during sliding against AISI52100 bearing steel have been studied at room temperature and 400°C respectively using a ball on disc machine. Surface profiler

  5. How do Atmospheres Affect Planetary Temperatures? Activity C Can we Model an Atmosphere's Effect Upon a Planet's Surface Temperature?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-08-03

    In this activity, students simulate the interaction of variables, including carbon dioxide, in a radiation balance exercise using a spreadsheet-based radiation balance model. Through a series of experiments, students attempt to mimic the surface temperatures of Earth, Mercury, Venus and Mars, and account for the influence of greenhouse gases in atmospheric temperatures. The activity supports inquiry into the real-world problem of contemporary climate change. Student-collected data is needed from activity A in the same module, "How do atmospheres interact with solar energy?" to complete this activity. Included in the resource are several student data sheets and a teacher's guide. This activity is part of module 4, "How do Atmospheres Affect Planetary Temperatures?" in Earth Climate Course: What Determines a Planet's Climate? The course aims to help students to develop an understanding of our environment as a system of human and natural processes that result in changes that occur over various space and time scales.

  6. Surface temperature measurement of plasma facing components with active pyrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amiel, S.; Loarer, T.; Pocheau, C.; Roche, H.; Aumeunier, M. H.; Gauthier, E.; Le Niliot, C.; Rigollet, F.

    2012-11-01

    In fusion devices like ITER, plasma facing components will be in metal, (Tungsten and Beryllium), with emissivity in the range of 0.1-0.4. Therefore, surface temperature monitoring by infrared system will become more challenging due to low emissivity and consequently non negligible reflected flux. The active pyrometry method proposed in this paper allows surface temperature measurements independently of reflected and parasitic fluxes. A local increase of the surface temperature (?T(t)~10 °C) introduced by a transient heating source (pulsed or modulated) results in an additional component of the flux collected by the detector. A filtering of the signal allows extracting a temporal flux proportional only to the variation of the emitted flux. The ratio of simultaneous measurements at two wavelengths allows solving the unknown emissivity (same as for classical bicolour pyrometry). In this paper, it is described how the active pyrometry method is adapted to the surface temperature measurements of metallic PFCs independently of the reflected fluxes. Experimental results for carbon and tungsten samples are reported. Finally, it is shown how, by using the active pyrometry, the overall 2D standard IR perturbed by a reflected flux is corrected to recover the full 2D surface temperature close to the real surface temperature.

  7. Global Surface Temperature Change and Uncertainties Since 1861

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, Samuel S. P.; Lau, William K. M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this talk is to analyze the warming trend and its uncertainties of the global and hemi-spheric surface temperatures. By the method of statistical optimal averaging scheme, the land surface air temperature and sea surface temperature observational data are used to compute the spatial average annual mean surface air temperature. The optimal averaging method is derived from the minimization of the mean square error between the true and estimated averages and uses the empirical orthogonal functions. The method can accurately estimate the errors of the spatial average due to observational gaps and random measurement errors. In addition, quantified are three independent uncertainty factors: urbanization, change of the in situ observational practices and sea surface temperature data corrections. Based on these uncertainties, the best linear fit to annual global surface temperature gives an increase of 0.61 +/- 0.16 C between 1861 and 2000. This lecture will also touch the topics on the impact of global change on nature and environment. as well as the latest assessment methods for the attributions of global change.

  8. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms Earth Surf. Process. Landforms (in press) ~WJLEY

    E-print Network

    Ahmad, Sajjad

    ' , US. Geologicol Survey. Denver, Co. USA 2 US Geological Survey. Flagstaff. AZ, USA liB RARY 3 Survey. Menlo Pork. CA, USA 0 F *Correspondence to: Rjchard L. Reynolds, US. Geological Survey. Box 25046 surfaces at Franklin Lake, Soda Lake and West Cronese Lake playas in the Mojave Desert (California), along

  9. Fluid flow near the surface of earth's outer core

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloxham, Jeremy; Jackson, Andrew

    1991-01-01

    This review examines the recent attempts at extracting information on the pattern of fluid flow near the surface of the outer core from the geomagnetic secular variation. Maps of the fluid flow at the core surface are important as they may provide some insight into the process of the geodynamo and may place useful constraints on geodynamo models. In contrast to the case of mantle convection, only very small lateral variations in core density are necessary to drive the flow; these density variations are, by several orders of magnitude, too small to be imaged seismically; therefore, the geomagnetic secular variation is utilized to infer the flow. As substantial differences exist between maps developed by different researchers, the possible underlying reasons for these differences are examined with particular attention given to the inherent problems of nonuniqueness.

  10. Dependence of the Critical Pitting Temperature on surface roughness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. H. Moayed; N. J. Laycock; R. C. Newman

    2003-01-01

    It has been known for many years that highly alloyed stainless steels display a critical pitting temperature (CPT), which is the lowest temperature at which the growth of stable pits is possible. In the work reported here, the effect of varying surface roughness was investigated using potentiostatic and potentiodynamic CPT measurements on 904L stainless steel in 1 M NaCl. The

  11. Surface Temperature: Contouring Isotherms (title provided or enhanced by cataloger)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This interactive feature shows how an isothermal map of surface temperature is drawn. Students can select an individual contour value and watch as a virtual 'pencil' correctly places the line with respect to temperature values on the map. The animation also permits the user to color the spaces between the contour lines on the map.

  12. SURFACE TENSION OF SOME LIQUID OXIDES AND THEIR TEMPERATURE COEFFICIENTS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. D. KINGERY

    1959-01-01

    Surface-tension data are reported for liquid AlâOâ, Bâ; Oâ, GeOâ, Pââsub 5\\/, and SiOâ. Abnormal positive ; temperature coefficients for Bââsub 3\\/, GeOâ, and SiOâ are ; shown to be due mainly to changes in the liquid structure (dissociation) with ; temperature. (auth);

  13. Appendix B. Summer MHB Surface Temperature Maps Figure B1. The surface temperature structure in Mt. Hope Bay on 9 August 1999. The relevant values of

    E-print Network

    Chen, Changsheng

    . The surface temperature structure in Mt. Hope Bay on 9 August 1999. The relevant values of Fall River sea. The surface temperature structure in Mt. Hope Bay on 9 August 1999. The relevant values of Fall River sea47 Appendix B. Summer MHB Surface Temperature Maps Figure B1. The surface temperature structure

  14. Interaction of the lunar surface and dust grains with the solar wind and Earth magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaverka, Jakub; Richterova, Ivana; Pavlu, Jiri; Safrankova, Jana; Nemecek, Zdenek

    2015-04-01

    Interaction of the lunar surface with the solar wind and Earth's magnetosphere leads to it charging by several processes as photoemission, a collection of primary particles, and secondary electron emission. The parameters of a plasma environment strongly influence the charging processes because the energy of electrons and ions is significantly higher in the magnetosphere than in the solar wind, while the particle density is lower in the magnetosphere. Dominant charging currents depend on a lunar position relative to the Earth as well as on the Solar Zenith Angle which influences mainly the current of photoelectrons. The lunar surface potential varies from slightly positive to large negative values with respect to the surrounding plasma. A presence of dust levitating above the surface has been observed by several spacecraft and by astronauts during Apollo missions in the terminator area. We present model calculations of a temporal evolution of the lunar surface potential as well as potentials of dust grains above the surface using by the ARTEMIS data through one crossing of the Earth magnetosphere tail. We show that the lunar surface and levitating dust can be charged to different potentials under the same plasma conditions and we discuss a possibility of the dust grain levitation above the charged surface.

  15. An assessment of remotely sensed land surface temperature

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Isabel F. Trigo; Isabel T. Monteiro; Folke Olesen; Ewa Kabsch

    2008-01-01

    The satellite application facility on land surface analysis (Land SAF) generates, archives, and disseminates land surface temperature (LST) in an operational basis. LST is estimated from the spinning enhanced visible and infrared imager (SEVIRI) onboard Meteosat, making use of a generalized split-windows algorithm. Here SEVIRI LST is compared with retrievals from the moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS), collocated in space

  16. Radar Backscatter Across the Gulf Stream Sea Surface Temperature Front

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nghiem, S. V.; Li, F. K.; Walsh, E. J.; Lou, S. H.

    1998-01-01

    Ocean backscatter signatures were measured by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory airborne NUSCAT K(sub u)-band scatterometer across the Gulf Stream sea surface temperature front. The measurements were made during the Surface Wave Dynamics Experiment (SWADE) off the coast of Virginia and Maryland in the winter of 1991.

  17. Global analyses of sea surface temperature, sea ice, and night marine air temperature since the late nineteenth century

    E-print Network

    Global analyses of sea surface temperature, sea ice, and night marine air temperature since and sea surface temperature (SST) data set, HadISST1, and the nighttime marine air temperature (NMAT) data set, HadMAT1. HadISST1 replaces the global sea ice and sea surface temperature (GISST) data sets

  18. Sea surface temperature as an indicator of ocean currents 

    E-print Network

    Chesbrough, Geoffrey Lynn

    1967-01-01

    of Horizontal Temperature Gradients 24 Chapter V. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOI"?ENDATIONS 1. Conclusions 2. Recommendations APPENDIX A. DETERMINATION OF DIURNAL VARIATION OF SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE IN THE GULF OF MEXICO 1. Procedure 2. FORTRAN Program 3... temperature observations for diurnal variation study 37 6. FORTRAN symbols 7. FORTRAN program 43 45 8. Example data sheet for Crossing A-1 50 LIST OF FIGURES Figure Three areas indicating location of current cross sections Page 52 Depth...

  19. Sea surface temperature trends in Kuwait Bay, Arabian Gulf

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thamer B. Al-Rashidi; Hamdy I. El-Gamily; Carl L. Amos; Karim A. Rakha

    2009-01-01

    The waters of Kuwait Bay, northern Arabian Gulf, are well mixed by macrotidal, semi-diurnal tides. Sea surface temperature\\u000a (SST) is thus a good proxy of water mass temperature in the bay. The factors governing SST have been conveniently sub-divided\\u000a into global, regional and local drivers. This paper provides a study on long-term drivers of temperature change in the northern\\u000a Arabian

  20. High temperature rare earth compounds: Synthesis, characterization and applications in device fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brewer, Joseph Reese

    As the area of nanotechnology continues to grow, the development of new nanomaterials with interesting physical and electronic properties and improved characterization techniques are several areas of research that will be remain vital for continued improvement of devices and the understanding in nanoscale phenomenon. In this dissertation, the chemical vapor deposition synthesis of rare earth (RE) compounds is described in detail. In general, the procedure involves the vaporization of a REClx (RE = Y, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho) in the presence of hydride phase precursors such as decaborane and ammonia at high temperatures and low pressures. Unlike traditional single source precursor techniques such as metal-organic chemical vapor deposition, the materials produced are of extremely high chemical purity. The crystallographic orientation of as-synthesized rare earth hexaboride nanostructures and gadolinium nitride thin films was controlled by judicious choice of specific growth substrates and modeled by analyzing x-ray diffraction powder patterns and crystallographic models. The vapor-liquid-solid mechanism was used in combination with the chemical vapor deposition process to synthesize single crystalline rare earth hexaboride nanostructures. Unlike previously reported synthetic techniques to generate rare earth hexaborides, my synthesis provided control over the tip diameter of the nanomaterials, was applicable to all available rare earth metals and utilized a chemical scheme that was much less toxic. Furthermore, the synthesis provided the first ever doped rare earth hexaboride nanowires. The as produced materials showed excellent electronic properties and could be applicable to many different types of electronic applications. The rare earth hexaboride nanostructures were then implemented into two existing technologies to enhance their characterization capabilities. First, the rare earth hexaboride nanowires were used as a test material for the development of a TEM based local electrode atom probe tomography (LEAP) technique. The TEM based LEAP technique is the first to combine atomic resolution crystallographic imaging with angstrom scale 3D compositional mapping. This technique also provided some of the first quantitative compositional information of the rare earth hexaboride systems and is applicable to a wide range of nanowire materials. Second, due to the rigidity and excellent conductivity of the rare earth hexaborides, nanostructures were grown onto tungsten wires for the development of robust, oxidation resistant nanomanipulator electronic probes for semiconductor device failure analysis.

  1. From Dimming to Brightening: Decadal Changes in Solar Radiation at Earth's Surface

    SciTech Connect

    Wild, Martin F.; Gilgen, Hans; Roesch, Andreas; Ohmura, Atsumu; Long, Charles N.; Dutton, Ellsworth G.; Forgan, B. W.; Kallis, A.; Russak, V.; Tsvetkov, Anatoly

    2005-05-06

    Variations in solar radiation incident at Earth's surface profoundly affect the human and terrestrial environment. A decline in solar radiation at land surfaces has become apparent in many observational records up to 1990, a phenomenon known as global dimming. Newly available surface observations from 1990 to the present, primarily from the Northern Hemisphere, show that the dimming did not persist into the 1990s. Instead, a widespread brightening has been observed since the late 1980s. This reversal is reconcilable with changes in cloudiness and atmospheric transmission and may substantially affect surface climate, the hydrological cycle, glaciers, and ecosystems.

  2. From dimming to brightening: decadal changes in solar radiation at Earth's surface.

    PubMed

    Wild, Martin; Gilgen, Hans; Roesch, Andreas; Ohmura, Atsumu; Long, Charles N; Dutton, Ellsworth G; Forgan, Bruce; Kallis, Ain; Russak, Viivi; Tsvetkov, Anatoly

    2005-05-01

    Variations in solar radiation incident at Earth's surface profoundly affect the human and terrestrial environment. A decline in solar radiation at land surfaces has become apparent in many observational records up to 1990, a phenomenon known as global dimming. Newly available surface observations from 1990 to the present, primarily from the Northern Hemisphere, show that the dimming did not persist into the 1990s. Instead, a widespread brightening has been observed since the late 1980s. This reversal is reconcilable with changes in cloudiness and atmospheric transmission and may substantially affect surface climate, the hydrological cycle, glaciers, and ecosystems. PMID:15879214

  3. Sessile droplet freezing and ice adhesion on aluminum with different surface wettability and surface temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ou, JunFei; Shi, QingWen; Wang, ZhiLe; Wang, FaJun; Xue, MingShan; Li, Wen; Yan, GuiLong

    2015-07-01

    This paper focused on the sessile droplet freezing and ice adhesion on aluminum with different wettability (hydrophilic, common hydrophobic, and superhydrophobic surfaces, coded as HIS, CHS, SHS, respectively) over a surface temperature range of -9°C to -19°C. It was found that SHS could retard the sessile droplet freezing and lower the ice adhesion probably due to the interfacial air pockets (IAPs) on water/SHS interface. However, as surface temperature decreasing, some IAPs were squeezed out and such freezing retarding and adhesion lowering effect for SHS was reduced greatly. For a surface temperature of -19°C, ice adhesion on SHS was even greater than that on CHS. To discover the reason for the squeezing out of IAPs, forces applied to the suspended water on IAPs were analyzed and it was found that the stability of IAPs was associated with surface micro-structures and surface temperature. These findings might be helpful to designing of SHS with good anti-icing properties.

  4. Surface molecular degradation of selected high performance polymer composites under low earth orbit environmental conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Firas Awaja; Jin Bum Moon; Michael Gilbert; Shengnan Zhang; Chun Gon Kim; Paul J. Pigram

    2011-01-01

    Carbon fibre (CF), carbon nanotube (CNT), nano-clay (NanoC), and 3D-glass (3DG) reinforced polymer composites were selected to undergo treatment with an accelerated Low Earth Orbit (LEO) simulated space environment. Surface degradation mechanisms of the selected polymer composites with different types of reinforcements are discussed. The extent of the oxidation reaction at the surface as a result of LEO exposure was

  5. Neglecting sinks for N2O at the earth's surface: does it matter?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alfi Syakila; Carolien Kroeze; Caroline P. Slomp

    2010-01-01

    The uptake of nitrous oxide (N2O) occurs at the surface of the earth both in terrestrial and aquatic systems. This uptake is usually neglected in N2O budget studies. In this article, we discuss the likeliness of N2O uptake in different systems. These systems include soils as well as groundwater systems, riparian zones and surface waters. We address the possible consequences

  6. Surface nanocrystallization mechanism of a rare earth magnesium alloy induced by HVOF supersonic microparticles bombarding

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kaidong Xu; Aihua Wang; Yang Wang; Xuanpu Dong; Xianglin Zhang; Zaowen Huang

    2009-01-01

    A nanostructured surface layer with a thickness up to 60?m was produced on a rare earth Mg–Gd–Y magnesium alloy using a new process named HVOF-SMB (high velocity oxygen-fuel flame supersonic microparticles bombarding). The microstructural features of the treated surface at various depth of the deformed layer were characterized by optical microscopy (OM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high-resolution transmission electron

  7. Improvement of high- and low-temperature characteristics of nickel-metal hydride secondary batteries using rare-earth compounds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katsuhiko Shinyama; Hiroshi Nakamura; Toshiyuki Nohma; Ikuo Yonezu

    2006-01-01

    Improvement of high- and low-temperature characteristics of nickel–metal hydride secondary batteries using rare-earth compounds is discussed. High-temperature charge characteristics are improved by coating a sintered positive electrode with yttrium hydroxide due to the increased oxygen evolution overpotential. Low-temperature discharge characteristics are also improved by adding rare-earth oxides into a negative electrode due to the increased ratio of metallic nickel at

  8. Influence of the Size of Rare Earth Ions on the Surface Crystallization of Complexes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guolun Zhong; Binying Pu; Yu Feng; Kongzhang Yang

    1999-01-01

    ?-A isotherms of RE(TTA)3Phen (RE = La, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb and Y; TTA = thenoyltrifluoroacetone; Phen = 1,10-phenanthroline) mixing with arachidic acid (AA) in molar ratio of 1:1 and influence of rare earth ions in complexes on the surface crystallization of monolayers were studied in this paper.

  9. Water distribution in the top 1 m of the earth's surface soil layer

    E-print Network

    Hubbard, Susan

    Water distribution in the top 1 m of the earth's surface soil layer often controls the success near-sur- face soil water content distribution and flux. Our research focuses on investigation of agri- cultural crops. In this near-sur- face zone, large spatial and temporal variations in soil water

  10. Implications of recent total atmospheric ozone measurements for biologically active ultraviolet radiation reaching the earth's surface

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sasha Madronich

    1992-01-01

    Recent satellite measurements of total atmospheric ozone were analyzed to deduce the changes in biologically active ultraviolet (UV) radiation reaching the Earth's surface from 1979 to 1989. The calculated increases are on average substantially larger than earlier estimates, particularly at mid and high latitudes of both hemispheres. Over the last twenty years, there has been some concern that biologically active

  11. Radar interferometry and its application to changes in the earth's surface

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Didier Massonnet; Kurt L. Feigl

    1998-01-01

    Geophysical applications of radar inter- ferometry to measure changes in the Earth's surface have exploded in the early 1990s. This new geodetic technique calculates the interference pattern caused by the difference in phase between two images acquired by a spaceborne synthetic aperture radar at two distinct times. The resulting interferogram is a contour map of the change in distance between

  12. CLIMATE AND THE OCEAN CIRCULATION' 1. THE ATMOSPHERIC CIRCULATION AND THE HYDROLOGY OF THE EARTH'S SURFACE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SYUKURO MANABE

    The effect of the hydrology of the earth's surface is incorporated into a numerical model of the general circula- tion of the atmosphere developed at the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory of the Environmental Science Services Administration (ESSA). The primitive equation of motion is used for this study. The nine levels of the model are distributed so as to resolve the

  13. TOPO-EUROPE: The geoscience of coupled deep Earth-surface processes

    E-print Network

    Jones, Alan G.

    TOPO-EUROPE: The geoscience of coupled deep Earth-surface processes S.A.P.L. Cloetingh ,1 , P. Soesoo, W. Spakman, R.A. Stephenson, H. Thybo, T. Torsvik, G. de Vicente, F. Wenzel, M.J.R. Wortel, TOPO-EUROPE Working Group2 Received 1 June 2006; accepted 2 February 2007 Available online 19 April 2007 Abstract TOPO-EUROPE

  14. Radiative Forcing - Measured at Earth's Surface - Corroborate the Increasing Greenhouse Effect

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rolf Philipona; B. Duerr; Christoph Marty; Atsumu Ohmura; Martin Wild

    2004-01-01

    The Intergovernmental Panel of Climate Change (IPCC) confirmed concentrations of atmospheric greenhouse gases and radiative forcing to increase as a result of human activities. Nevertheless, changes in radiative forcing related to increasing greenhouse gas concentrations could not be detected with instrumental measurements at Earth's surface so far. Here we show that atmospheric longwave downward radiation significantly increased (+5.2 Wm-2) partly

  15. A Statistical Approach to Monitor Earth's Surface in Remote Sensing Applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Zakeri; E. Kalantari

    2012-01-01

    In Earth's surface monitoring, the most significant signature of the target is the scattering mechanism, i.e., ?-angle, whose evaluation requires special attention and solution. In these investigations, the ?-angle possesses statistical features depending on the type of the scattering. There are several methods, such as target decomposition, eigenvector analysis, and the maximum likelihood estimator, to recognize the target in natural

  16. Circular structures of large scale and great age on the earth's surface

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. Saul

    1978-01-01

    It is pointed out that the earth's surface exhibits faint circular patterns which have not been described before. These circles are characterized by near perfection of outline, by the presence of topographic highs (rims) along parts of their circumferences, and by their generally large scale (diameters from 7 to 700 km). Circles of this nature have been observed clearly in

  17. Dependence of the Runaway Threshold on Surface Water Distributions of Earth-like Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nitta, A.

    2014-12-01

    Liquid water is one of the most important material not only for its large effect on planetary climate but also as a controlling factor of the habitability [e.g. Kasting et al., 1993]. Liquid water on the surface of a planet gets unstable and entirely vaporizes when the planet receives insolation above a certain critical value. In the following, the critical insolation is called the 'runaway threshold' [e.g. Kasting, 1988; Nakajima et al., 1992]. Recently, it is found that the runaway threshold strongly depends on the general circulation of the planetary atmosphere [Abe et al., 2011; Leconte et al., 2013; Wolf and Toon, 2014]. The planetary-scale surface water distribution is determined by the balance between the atmospheric water transport, which depends on the general circulation, and the surface water transport, which depends on the amount of water and topography. In the case of the Earth, large amount of sea water controls the surface water distribution. Generally, the atmospheric circulation transports water poleward, and in contrast, the surface waterflow homogenizes the distribution of surface water. When the surface waterflow is weak, surface water is localized around both poles. On the other hand, if the surface waterflow is strong, liquid water is found at any latitude. We call the former planet a 'land planet', and the latter planet an 'aqua planet'. Abe et al. [2011] discussed the difference of the runaway threshold between Earth-sized aqua and land planets using a 3-D model for the first time. They found that the surface water on a land planet is significantly more stable than that on an aqua planet against the large insolation. However, they discussed only 2 extreme cases of land and aqua planets. Here, we report results of numerical experiments to clarify the effect of waterflow on the runaway threshold of Earth-sized water planets with CCSR/NIES AGCM 5.4g [Numaguchi, 1999]. We assume the present Earth atmosphere with several simplifications. The strength of waterflow is expressed by the `waterflow limit` above which latitude the surface waterflow keeps a wet surface. Then, we found that the runaway threshold continuously varies with the waterflow limit from 180% of the present insolation at the Earth orbit (the case of extremely localized land planet), to 130% (aqua planet).

  18. Fault-rock magnetism from the earth surface trench closed to the Wenchuan Earthquake Surface Rupture Zone imply the different slip dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, D.; Li, H.; Lee, T. Q.; Sun, Z.

    2014-12-01

    The 2008 Mw 7.9 Wenchuan Earthquake had induced two major earthquake surface rupture zones, including the Yingxiu-Beichuan earthquake fault (Y-B F.) and Guanxian-Anxian earthquake fault (G-A F.) earthquake surface rupture zones. This giant earthquake had caused great human and financial loss. After main shock, the Wenchuan earthquake Fault Scientific Drilling project (WFSD) was co-organized by the Ministry of Science and Technology, Ministry of Land and Resources and China Bureau of Seismology, and this project focused on earthquake fault mechanics, earthquake slip process, fault physical and chemical characteristics, mechanical behavior, fluid behavior, fracture energy, and so on. In this study, the fault-rocks in the two trenches close to the two Wenchuan Earthquake surface rupture zone were used to discuss the earthquake slip dynamics, including the Bajiaomiao and Jiulong trenches along the Y-B F. and G-A F. earthquake surface rupture zones, respectively. This study also combined with the recent fault-rock magnetism from the earth surface and WFSD-1. The rock magnetism, from the Bajiaomiao trench and other previous researches, shows that the high susceptibility of the fault gouge along the Yingxiu-Beichuan earthquake fault zone was caused by the new-formed ferrimagnetic minerals, such as magnetite and hematite, so the Y-B F. had experienced high temperature and rapid speed thermal pressurization earthquake slip mechanism. The rock magnetism from the Jiulong trench implied that the slightly low average susceptibility of fault gouge was caused by high content of Fe-sulfides than that of fault breccia and Jurassic sandstones, which was possibly induced by earthquake process or earth surface process after the fault rocks exposed to the surface. If the high content of Fe-sulfides was induced by earthquake process, the G-A F. had experienced the low temperature and slow speed machanical lubrication earthquake slip mechanism. The different earthquake slip mechanism was possibly controlled by the deep structure of the two earthquake faults, such as the fault occurrence. The steep dip character of the Y-B F. could be easy to induce high temperature and rapid speed earthquake slip mechanism, while the low dip angle feature of the G-A F. could be easy to induce low temperature and slow speed earthquake slip mechanism.

  19. Surface plasmon enhanced photoluminescence from copper nanoparticles: Influence of temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Yeshchenko, Oleg A., E-mail: yes@univ.kiev.ua; Bondarchuk, Illya S.; Losytskyy, Mykhaylo Yu. [Physics Department, Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, 64/13 Volodymyrs'ka St., 01601 Kyiv (Ukraine)

    2014-08-07

    Anomalous temperature dependence of surface plasmon enhanced photoluminescence from copper nanoparticles embedded in a silica host matrix has been observed. The quantum yield of photoluminescence increases as the temperature increases. The key role of such an effect is the interplay between the surface plasmon resonance and the interband transitions in the copper nanoparticles occurring at change of the temperature. Namely, the increase of temperature leads to the red shift of the resonance. The shift leads to increase of the spectral overlap of the resonance with photoluminescence band of copper as well as to the decrease of plasmon damping caused by interband transitions. Such mechanisms lead to the increase of surface plasmon enhancement factor and, consequently, to increase of the quantum yield of the photoluminescence.

  20. Land Surface Temperature Measurements form EOS MODIS Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wan, Zhengming

    1996-01-01

    We have developed a physics-based land-surface temperature (LST) algorithm for simultaneously retrieving surface band-averaged emissivities and temperatures from day/night pairs of MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) data in seven thermal infrared bands. The set of 14 nonlinear equations in the algorithm is solved with the statistical regression method and the least-squares fit method. This new LST algorithm was tested with simulated MODIS data for 80 sets of band-averaged emissivities calculated from published spectral data of terrestrial materials in wide ranges of atmospheric and surface temperature conditions. Comprehensive sensitivity and error analysis has been made to evaluate the performance of the new LST algorithm and its dependence on variations in surface emissivity and temperature, upon atmospheric conditions, as well as the noise-equivalent temperature difference (NE(Delta)T) and calibration accuracy specifications of the MODIS instrument. In cases with a systematic calibration error of 0.5%, the standard deviations of errors in retrieved surface daytime and nighttime temperatures fall between 0.4-0.5 K over a wide range of surface temperatures for mid-latitude summer conditions. The standard deviations of errors in retrieved emissivities in bands 31 and 32 (in the 10-12.5 micrometer IR spectral window region) are 0.009, and the maximum error in retrieved LST values falls between 2-3 K. Several issues related to the day/night LST algorithm (uncertainties in the day/night registration and in surface emissivity changes caused by dew occurrence, and the cloud cover) have been investigated. The LST algorithms have been validated with MODIS Airborne Simulator (MAS) dada and ground-based measurement data in two field campaigns conducted in Railroad Valley playa, NV in 1995 and 1996. The MODIS LST version 1 software has been delivered.

  1. Earth's core-mantle boundary - Results of experiments at high pressures and temperatures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elise Knittle; Raymond Jeanloz

    1991-01-01

    Laboratory experiments document that liquid iron reacts chemically with silicates at high pressures (above 2.4 x 10 to the 10th Pa) and temperatures. In particular, (Mg,Fe)SiO3 perovskite, the most abundant mineral of earth's lower mantle, is expected to react with liquid iron to produce metallic alloys (FeO and FeSi) and nonmetallic silicates (SiO2 stishovite and MgSiO3 perovskite) at the pressures

  2. Diurnal variations of Titan's surface temperatures from Cassini - CIRS observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cottini, Valeria; Nixon, C. A.; Jennings, D. E.; Anderson, C. M.; Samuelson, R. E.; Irwin, P. G. J.; Flasar, F. M.

    2010-04-01

    The Cassini Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) observations of Saturn's largest moon, Titan, are providing us with the ability to detect the surface temperature of the planet by studying its outgoing radiance through a spectral window in the thermal infrared at 19 micron (530 cm-1) characterized by low opacity. Since the first acquisitions of CIRS Titan data the instrument has gathered a large amount of spectra covering a wide range of latitudes, longitudes and local times. We retrieve the surface temperature and the atmospheric temperature profile by modeling proper zonally averaged spectra of nadir observations with radiative transfer computations. Our forward model uses the correlated-k approximation for spectral opacity to calculate the emitted radiance, including contributions from collision induced pairs of CH4, N2 and H2, haze, and gaseous emission lines (Irwin et al. 2008). The retrieval method uses a non-linear least-squares optimal estimation technique to iteratively adjust the model parameters to achieve a spectral fit (Rodgers 2000). We show an accurate selection of the wide amount of data available in terms of footprint diameter on the planet and observational conditions, together with the retrieved results. Our results represent formal retrievals of surface brightness temperatures from the Cassini CIRS dataset using a full radiative transfer treatment, and we compare to the earlier findings of Jennings et al. (2009). The application of our methodology over wide areas has increased the planet coverage and accuracy of our knowledge of Titan's surface brightness temperature. In particular we had the chance to look for diurnal variations in surface temperature around the equator: a trend with slowly increasing temperature toward the late afternoon reveals that diurnal temperature changes are present on Titan surface.

  3. Surface Temperatures on Titan: Changes During the Cassini Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jennings, Donald E.; Cottini, V.; Nixon, C. A.

    2010-10-01

    Surface brightness temperatures on Titan measured by the Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) aboard Cassini span the period from late northern winter to early spring. CIRS previously reported surface temperatures from the earlier portion of the mission (2004-08) that showed a temperature of 93.7 K at the equator with decreases of 2 K toward the south pole and 3 K toward the north pole (1). From a comparison of the equinox period with data from the earlier period, CIRS now detects a seasonal shift in the latitudinal distribution of temperatures. Around the time of the equinox the meridional distribution was more symmetric about the equator than had been found earlier in the mission. At equinox the equatorial surface temperatures remained close to 94 K, but in the south the temperatures had decreased by about 0.5 K and in the north had increased by about 0.5 K. The CIRS equinox results are similar to what was seen near the previous northern vernal equinox by Voyager IRIS (2, 3). The observed surface temperatures can help constrain the type of surface material by comparison with predictions from general circulation models. Of the three cases treated by Tokano (4), our measurements most closely match a porous-icy regolith. As Cassini continues through Titan's northern spring CIRS will extend its temporal and spatial coverage and will continue to search for seasonal variations in surface temperature. (1)Jennings et al., Astrophysical Journal Letters 69, L103 (2009). (2)Flasar, F. M., Samuelson, R. E., & Conrath, B. J., Nature 292, 693 (1981). (3)Courtin, R., & Kim, S. J., Planetary and Space Science 50, 309 (2002). (4)Tokano, T., Icarus 204, 619 (2005).

  4. THE UTILITY OF HIGHER RESOLUTION SURFACE TEMPERATURE IMAGERY DERIVED FROM COARSER RESOLUTION VEGETATION INDEX-SURFACE TEMPERATURE DATA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Routine estimation of the land surface energy balance of a region with satellite remote sensing of land surface temperature at high spatial resolutions (i.e., 100s of meters) has not been possible due to low frequency in repeated satellite coverage and cloud cover. More frequent coverage from weathe...

  5. The Nine Planets: Earth

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Bill Arnett

    This page contains details about the planet Earth. Information includes planet diameter, mass, distance from the Sun, orbit, and mythology. Also covered is planet composition, surface features, atmosphere and magnetic field data, temperature on planet, and data on its satellite: the Moon. Links are provided to more images, movies, and information about the Earth and Moon. This site discusses unanswered questions about Earth as well.

  6. Toward a unified science of the Earth's surface: Opportunities for synthesis among hydrology, geomorphology, geochemistry, and ecology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chris Paola; Efi Foufoula-Georgiou; William E. Dietrich; Miki Hondzo; David Mohrig; Gary Parker; Mary E. Power; Ignacio Rodriguez-Iturbe; Vaughan Voller; Peter Wilcock

    2006-01-01

    The Earth's surface is shaped by the interaction of tectonics, water, sediment, solutes, and biota over a wide range of spatial and temporal scales and across diverse environments. Development of a predictive science of Earth surface dynamics integrates many disciplines and approaches, including hydrology, geomorphology, ocean and atmospheric science, sedimentary and structural geology, geochemistry, and ecology. This paper discusses challenges,

  7. Global Sea Surface Temperature Anomalies from June, 2002 to September, 2003 (WMS)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Eric Sokolowsky

    2004-02-12

    The temperature of the surface of the worlds oceans provides a clear indication of the state of the Earths climate and weather. The AMSR-E instrument on the Aqua satellite measures the temperature of the top 1 millimeter of the ocean every day, even through the clouds. If the average sea surface temperature for a particular date is subtracted from the measured temperature for that date, the resulting sea surface temperature anomaly can be used to accurately assess the current state of the oceans. The anomaly can serve as an early warning system for weather phenomena and can be used to indicate forthcoming problems with fish populations and coral reef health. In this visualization of the anomaly covering the period from June, 2002, to September, 2003, the most obvious effects are a successive warming and cooling along the equator to the west of Peru, the signature of an El Nino-La Nina cycle. Around January 1, 2003, a cooler than normal region of the ocean appears in this region as part of a La Nina and flows westward, driven by the trade winds. The waves that appear on the edges of this cooler area are called tropical instability waves.

  8. Microwave Imager Measures Sea Surface Temperature Through Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This image was acquired over Tropical Atlantic and U.S. East Coast regions on Aug. 22 - Sept. 23, 1998. Cloud data were collected by the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES). Sea Surface Temperature (SST) data were collected aboard the NASA/NASDA Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite by The TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI). TMI is the first satellite microwave sensor capable of accurately measuring sea surface temperature through clouds, as shown in this scene. For years scientists have known there is a strong correlation between sea surface temperature and the intensity of hurricanes. But one of the major stumbling blocks for forecasters has been the precise measurement of those temperatures when a storm begins to form. In this scene, clouds have been made translucent to allow an unobstructed view of the surface. Notice Hurricane Bonnie approaching the Carolina Coast (upper left) and Hurricane Danielle following roughly in its path (lower right). The ocean surface has been falsely colored to show a map of water temperature--dark blues are around 75oF, light blues are about 80oF, greens are about 85oF, and yellows are roughly 90oF. A hurricane gathers energy from warm waters found at tropical latitudes. In this image we see Hurricane Bonnie cross the Atlantic, leaving a cooler trail of water in its wake. As Hurricane Danielle followed in Bonnie's path, the wind speed of the second storm dropped markedly, as available energy to fuel the storm dropped off. But when Danielle left Bonnie's wake, wind speeds increased due to temperature increases in surface water around the storm. As a hurricane churns up the ocean, it's central vortex draws surface heat and water into the storm. That suction at the surface causes an upwelling of deep water. At depth, tropical ocean waters are significantly colder than water found near the surface. As they're pulled up to meet the storm, those colder waters essentially leave a footprint in the storm's wake which might last as long as two weeks. Forecasters can quantify the difference in surface temperatures between this footprint and the surrounding temperatures and use that information to better predict storm intensity. If another storm intersects with this cold water trail, it is likely to lose significant strength due to the fact that the colder water does not contain as much potential energy as warm water. TRMM Fact Sheet Predicting Hurricane Intensity Far from Land Remote Sensing Systems Image courtesy TRMM Project, Remote Sensing Systems, and Scientific Visualization Studio, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center

  9. Development of the mechanical cryocooler system for the Sea Land Surface Temperature Radiometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camilletti, Adam; Burgess, Christopher; Donchev, Anton; Watson, Stuart; Weatherstone Akbar, Shane; Gamo-Albero, Victoria; Romero-Largacha, Victor; Caballero-Olmo, Gema

    2014-11-01

    The Sea Land Surface Temperature Radiometer is a dual view Earth observing instrument developed as part of the European Global Monitoring for Environment and Security programme. It is scheduled for launch on two satellites, Sentinel 3A and 3B in 2014. The instrument detectors are cooled to below 85 K by two split Stirling Cryocoolers running in hot redundancy. These coolers form part of a cryocooler system that includes a support structure and drive electronics. Aspects of the system design, including control and reduction of exported vibration are discussed; and results, including thermal performance and exported vibration from the Engineering Model Cryooler System test campaign are presented.

  10. Lake surface water temperature retrieval using advanced very high resolution radiometer and

    E-print Network

    Wunderle, Stefan

    Lake surface water temperature retrieval using advanced very high resolution radiometer high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer sea surface temperature algorithms to derive operational lake surface water temperature (LSWT). A validation study

  11. Temperature Dependence of Surface Tension of Sn-Ag Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohira, Chika; Fujii, Hidetoshi; Morisada, Yoshiaki

    2014-05-01

    The surface tension of molten Sn-Ag alloys was measured using a specially developed high-accuracy sessile drop apparatus. In this apparatus, a molten sample is dropped onto a R-Al2O3 substrate in order to prevent any reaction between the sample and substrate during the heating process. The droplet shape was recorded from two perpendicular directions to confirm its symmetry. The oxygen partial pressure () was controlled by a Mg furnace to a value of about 10-16 to 10-15 Pa. The sample compositions used were Sn-20Ag, Sn-50Ag, and Sn-80Ag (at.%) and were alloyed from pure Sn (99.999%) and Ag (99.99%) in the dropping tube. The accuracy of the experimental results was confirmed by an extremely small scatter. The measured temperature dependence of the surface tension of the molten Sn-50Ag (at.%) alloy indicated a characteristic curve that changed from positive to negative with increasing temperature. Furthermore, the surface tension of the molten Sn-20Ag (at.%) alloy has a temperature dependence that changes from flat to negative, while the Sn-80Ag (at.%) alloy has a negative temperature dependence across the whole temperature range. Based on a theoretical discussion using Butler's equation, these temperature dependencies can be determined by negative straight lines when assuming the surface composition.

  12. Calculation of the flux density of gamma rays above the surface of Venus and the Earth

    SciTech Connect

    Surkov, Yu.A.; Manvelyan, O.S.

    1987-07-01

    In this article the authors present the results of calculating the flux density of unscattered gamma rays as a function of height above the surfaces of Venus and the Earth. At each height they calculate the areas which will collect a certain fraction of the gamma rays. The authors calculate the spectra of scattered gamma rays, as well as their integrated fluxes at various heights above the surface of Venus. They consider how the atmosphere will affect the recording of gamma rays. Their results enable them to evaluate the optimal conditions for measuring the gamma-ray fields above the surfaces of Venus and the Earth and to determine the area of the planet which can be investigated in this way. These results are also necessary if they are to determine the elemental composition of the rock from the characteristic recorded spectrum of gamma radiation.

  13. Radiometric Calibration of an Airborne CO2 Pulsed Doppler Lidar Using a Natural Earth Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cutten, Dean R.; Rothermel, Jeffry; Jarzembski, Maurice A.; Hardesty, R. Michael; Howell, James N.; Tratt, David M.; Srivastava, Vandana; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Radiometric calibration of an airborne CO2 pulsed Doppler lidar has been accomplished using surface retro-reflection signals from the White Sands National Monument, New Mexico, USA. Two circular passes were made at altitudes of 6.26 and 9.26 km. The computed calibration factors for both altitudes are in excellent agreement with the value derived from standard ground-based measurements involving a fixed sandpaper target of known reflectance. This finding corroborates a previous study that successfully calibrated an airborne continuous-wave Doppler lidar using a variety of natural Earth surfaces. The present results indicate that relatively uniform Earth-surface targets can be used for in-flight calibration of pulsed airborne, and, in principal, spaceborne lidars.

  14. Fourier power spectra of the geomagnetic field for circular paths on the Earth's surface.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alldredge, L.R.; Benton, E.R.

    1986-01-01

    The Fourier power spectra of geomagnetic component values, synthesized from spherical harmonic models, have been computed for circular paths on the Earth's surface. They are not found to be more useful than is the spectrum of magnetic energy outside the Earth for the purpose of separating core and crustal sources of the geomagnetic field. The Fourier power spectra of N and E geomagnetic components along nearly polar great circle paths exhibit some unusual characteristics that are explained by the geometric perspective of Fourier series on spheres developed by Yee. -Authors

  15. Applications of thin-film thermocouples for surface temperature measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Lisa C.; Holanda, Raymond

    1994-10-01

    Thin film thermocouples provide a minimally intrusive means of measuring surface temperature in hostile, high temperature environments. Unlike wire thermocouples, thin films do not necessitate any machining of the surface, thereby leaving intact its structural integrity. Thin films are many orders of magnitude thinner than wire, resulting in less disruption to the gas flow and thermal patterns that exist in the operating environment. Thin film thermocouples have been developed for surface temperature measurement on a variety of engine materials. The sensors are fabricated in the NASA Lewis Research Center's Thin Film Sensor Lab, which is a Class 1000 Clean Room. The thermocouples are platinum-13% rhodium vs platinum and are fabricated by the sputtering process. Thin film-to-leadwire connections are made using the parallel-gap welding process. Thermocouples have been developed for use on superalloys, ceramics and ceramic composites, and intermetallics. Some applications of thin film thermocouples are: temperature measurement of Space Shuttle Main Engine turbine blade materials, temperature measurement in gas turbine engine testing of advanced materials, and temperature and heat flux measurements in a diesel engine. Fabrication of thin film thermocouples is described. Sensor durability, drift rate, and maximum temperature capabilities are addressed.

  16. Thermostable DNA Immobilization and Temperature Effects on Surface Hybridization

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Dongbiao; Wang, Xin; Williams, Keeshan; Levicky, Rastislav

    2012-01-01

    Monolayer films of nucleic acids on solid supports are encountered in a range of diagnostic and bioanalytical applications. These applications often rely on elevated temperatures to improve performance; moreover, studies at elevated temperatures can provide fundamental information on layer organization and functionality. To support such applications, this study compares thermostability of oligonucleotide monolayers immobilized to gold by first coating the gold with a nanometer-thick film (an “anchor layer”) of a polymercaptosiloxane, to which DNA oligonucleotides are subsequently tethered through maleimide-thiol conjugation, with thermostability of monolayers formed via widely-used attachment through a terminal thiol moiety on the DNA. The temperature range covered is from 25 to 90 °C. After confirming stability of immobilization and, more importantly, retention of hybridization activity even under the harshest conditions investigated, these thermostable films are used to demonstrate measurements of (1) reversible surface melting transitions and (2) temperature dependence of competitive hybridization, when fully matched and mismatched sequences compete for binding to immobilized DNA oligonucleotides. The competitive hybridization experiments reveal a pronounced impact of temperature on rates of approach to equilibrium, with kinetic freezing into nonequilibrium states close to room temperature and rapid approach to equilibrium at elevated temperatures. Modeling of competitive surface hybridization equilibria using thermodynamic parameters derived from surface melting transitions of the individual sequences is also discussed. PMID:22578171

  17. Reproducibility of UAV-based earth surface topography based on structure-from-motion algorithms.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clapuyt, François; Vanacker, Veerle; Van Oost, Kristof

    2014-05-01

    A representation of the earth surface at very high spatial resolution is crucial to accurately map small geomorphic landforms with high precision. Very high resolution digital surface models (DSM) can then be used to quantify changes in earth surface topography over time, based on differencing of DSMs taken at various moments in time. However, it is compulsory to have both high accuracy for each topographic representation and consistency between measurements over time, as DSM differencing automatically leads to error propagation. This study investigates the reproducibility of reconstructions of earth surface topography based on structure-from-motion (SFM) algorithms. To this end, we equipped an eight-propeller drone with a standard reflex camera. This equipment can easily be deployed in the field, as it is a lightweight, low-cost system in comparison with classic aerial photo surveys and terrestrial or airborne LiDAR scanning. Four sets of aerial photographs were created for one test field. The sets of airphotos differ in focal length, and viewing angles, i.e. nadir view and ground-level view. In addition, the importance of the accuracy of ground control points for the construction of a georeferenced point cloud was assessed using two different GPS devices with horizontal accuracy at resp. the sub-meter and sub-decimeter level. Airphoto datasets were processed with SFM algorithm and the resulting point clouds were georeferenced. Then, the surface representations were compared with each other to assess the reproducibility of the earth surface topography. Finally, consistency between independent datasets is discussed.

  18. Dewetting of liquids on ceramic surfaces at high temperatures.

    PubMed

    Ravishankar, N; Gilliss, Shelley R; Carter, C Barry

    2002-08-01

    The influence of surface structure and chemistry on high-temperature dewetting of silicate liquids on ceramic surfaces has been investigated. Model systems based on well-defined crystallography and known chemistry have been used to illustrate the effect of surface roughness and chemistry on the dewetting process. Reconstructed ceramic surfaces provide ideal substrates to study effects of surface roughness. It has been shown that the morphology of dewet droplets depend on the length scale and the crystallography of the facets on the surface. Complex pattern formation due to solute redistribution during dewetting is illustrated in the case of SiO2 dewetting on (001) rutile substrates. The role of kinetics on the dewetting process has also been clarified. PMID:12533223

  19. Measurement of sea surface temperature from HIRS2/MSU

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Susskind, J.

    1983-01-01

    The High-Resolution Infrared Sounder (HIRS), a 20-channel infrared sounder, and the Microwave Sounding Unit (MSU), a 4-channel microwave sounder, were first launched on the TIROS-N Satellite in November 1978 as an upgraded operational temperature sounding system. Essentially identical instruments have flown on NOAA-6 and NOAA-7 and are scheduled to fly on future operational satellites through the eighties. While HIRS2 and MSU were designed primarily for the purpose of measuring atmospheric temperature profiles, the observed radiances are also sensitive to other meteorological parameters such as sea surface temperature, ground temperature, cloud height and cloud amount, ice extent over ocean, snow cover over land, etc. A physically based processing system for analysis of HIRS2/MSU data was developed to determine the above atmospheric and surface parameters, which when substituted in the radiative transfer equation, match the satellite observations to a given noise level. All parameters are retrieved in a mutually interacting fashion.

  20. Method for Accurate Surface Temperature Measurements During Fast Induction Heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larregain, Benjamin; Vanderesse, Nicolas; Bridier, Florent; Bocher, Philippe; Arkinson, Patrick

    2013-07-01

    A robust method is proposed for the measurement of surface temperature fields during induction heating. It is based on the original coupling of temperature-indicating lacquers and a high-speed camera system. Image analysis tools have been implemented to automatically extract the temporal evolution of isotherms. This method was applied to the fast induction treatment of a 4340 steel spur gear, allowing the full history of surface isotherms to be accurately documented for a sequential heating, i.e., a medium frequency preheating followed by a high frequency final heating. Three isotherms, i.e., 704, 816, and 927°C, were acquired every 0.3 ms with a spatial resolution of 0.04 mm per pixel. The information provided by the method is described and discussed. Finally, the transformation temperature Ac1 is linked to the temperature on specific locations of the gear tooth.

  1. Superrotation in Held & Suarez-like flows with weak surface temperature gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polichtchouk, Inna; Y-K. Cho, James

    2015-04-01

    Using a global general circulation model which solves the dry primitive equations, we investigate the generation of equatorial superrotation in Earth-like planetary atmospheres under zonally-symmetric thermal forcing. In the classic Held and Suarez (1994) setup, which normally does not exhibit equatorial superrotation, a robust transition to superrotation occurs when the equator-to-pole surface equilibrium temperature gradient is weakened. Such a reduced temperature gradient setup can be relevant to Earth-like exoplanets or past and future climates of the Earth. Two factors contribute to the transition in this situation: 1) reduction of equator-ward propagating mid-latitiude Rossby waves that break in the tropics and decelerate the equatorial flow and 2) presence of barotropic instability in the equatorial region that provides stirring to accelerate the equatorial flow. The instability also excites Kelvin waves important for generation and maintenance of superrotation. In addition, we find that superrotation can be artificially enhanced in under-resolved and/or over-dissipated simulations. By achieving numerical convergence, we quantify the roles of the Kelvin waves and the diffusion on superrotation.

  2. Topography, surface properties, and tectonic evolution. [of Venus and comparison with earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgill, G. E.; Warner, J. L.; Malin, M. C.; Arvidson, R. E.; Eliason, E.; Nozette, S.; Reasenberg, R. D.

    1983-01-01

    Differences in atmospheric composition, atmospheric and lithospheric temperature, and perhaps mantle composition, suggest that the rock cycle on Venus is not similar to the earth's. While radar data are not consistent with a thick, widespread and porous regolith like that of the moon, wind-transported regolith could be cemented into sedimentary rock that would be indistinguishable from other rocks in radar returns. The elevation spectrum of Venus is strongly unimodal, in contrast to the earth. Most topographic features of Venus remain enigmatic. Two types of tectonic model are proposed: a lithosphere too thick or buoyant to participate in convective flow, and a lithosphere which, in participating in convective flow, implies the existence of plate tectonics. Features consistent with earth-like plate tectonics have not been recognized.

  3. Annual Global Surface Temperature Anomaly: 1950 through 1998

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Jesse Allen

    1998-11-01

    Global surface temperatures in 1998 set a new record for the period of instrumental measurements, report researchers at the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies who analyze data collected from several thousand meteorological stations around the world. This visualization shows surface temperature anomalies from 1950 through November, 1998. The 1998 warmth was associated partly with a strong El Nino that warmed the air over the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean in the first half of the year and in turn affected weather around the world. Red and yellow colors indicate warmer than normal conditions and blue colors indicates cooler than normal conditions.

  4. Annual North America Surface Temperature Anomaly: 1950 through 1998

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Jesse Allen

    1998-11-01

    Global surface temperatures in 1998 set a new record for the period of instrumental measurements, report researchers at the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies who analyze data collected from several thousand meteorological stations around the world. This visualization shows surface temperature anomalies from 1950 through November, 1998. The 1998 warmth was associated partly with a strong El Nino that warmed the air over the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean in the first half of the year and in turn affected weather around the world. Red and yellow colors indicate warmer than normal conditions and blue colors indicates cooler than normal conditions.

  5. Surface air temperature variability in global climate models

    E-print Network

    Davy, Richard

    2012-01-01

    New results from the Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5) and multiple global reanalysis datasets are used to investigate the relationship between the mean and standard deviation in the surface air temperature. A combination of a land-sea mask and orographic filter were used to investigate the geographic region with the strongest correlation and in all cases this was found to be for low-lying over-land locations. This result is consistent with the expectation that differences in the effective heat capacity of the atmosphere are an important factor in determining the surface air temperature response to forcing.

  6. Long-term changes in sea surface temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, D.E. [Meteorological Office, Bracknell (United Kingdom)

    1994-12-31

    Historical observations of sea surface temperature since 1856 have been improved by applying corrections to compensate for the predominant use of uninsulated or partly insulated buckets until the Second World War. There are large gaps in coverage in the late nineteenth century and around the two world wars, but a range of statistical techniques suggest that these gaps do not severely prejudice estimates of global and regional climatic change. Nonetheless, to improve the analysis on smaller scales, many unused historical data are to be digitized and incorporated. For recent years, satellite-based sea surface temperatures have improved the coverage, after adjustments for their biases relative to in situ data. An initial version of a nominally globally complete sea ice and interpolated sea surface temperature data set, beginning in 1871, has been created for use in numerical simulations of recent climate. Long time series of corrected regional, hemispheric, and global sea surface temperatures are mostly consistent with corresponding night marine air temperature series, and confirm the regionally specific climatic changes portrayed in the Scientific Assessments of the intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. The observations also show an El Nino-like oscillation on bidecadal and longer time scales.

  7. Role of surface oxygen-to-metal ratio on the wettability of rare-earth oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Sami; Azimi, Gisele; Yildiz, Bilge; Varanasi, Kripa K.

    2015-02-01

    Hydrophobic surfaces that are robust can have widespread applications in drop-wise condensation, anti-corrosion, and anti-icing. Recently, it was shown that the class of ceramics comprising the lanthanide series rare-earth oxides (REOs) is intrinsically hydrophobic. The unique electronic structure of the rare-earth metal atom inhibits hydrogen bonding with interfacial water molecules resulting in a hydrophobic hydration structure where the surface oxygen atoms are the only hydrogen bonding sites. Hence, the presence of excess surface oxygen can lead to increased hydrogen bonding and thereby reduce hydrophobicity of REOs. Herein, we demonstrate how surface stoichiometry and surface relaxations can impact wetting properties of REOs. Using X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy and wetting measurements, we show that freshly sputtered ceria is hydrophilic due to excess surface oxygen (shown to have an O/Ce ratio of ˜3 and a water contact angle of ˜15°), which when relaxed in a clean, ultra-high vacuum environment isolated from airborne contaminants reaches close to stoichiometric O/Ce ratio (˜2.2) and becomes hydrophobic (contact angle of ˜104°). Further, we show that airborne hydrocarbon contaminants do not exclusively impact the wetting properties of REOs, and that relaxed REOs are intrinsically hydrophobic. This study provides insight into the role of surface relaxation on the wettability of REOs.

  8. Diurnal Variations of Titan's Surface Temperatures From Cassini -CIRS Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cottini, Valeria; Nixon, Conor; Jennings, Don; Anderson, Carrie; Samuelson, Robert; Irwin, Patrick; Flasar, F. Michael

    The Cassini Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) observations of Saturn's largest moon, Titan, are providing us with the ability to detect the surface temperature of the planet by studying its outgoing radiance through a spectral window in the thermal infrared at 19 m (530 cm-1) characterized by low opacity. Since the first acquisitions of CIRS Titan data the in-strument has gathered a large amount of spectra covering a wide range of latitudes, longitudes and local times. We retrieve the surface temperature and the atmospheric temperature pro-file by modeling proper zonally averaged spectra of nadir observations with radiative transfer computations. Our forward model uses the correlated-k approximation for spectral opacity to calculate the emitted radiance, including contributions from collision induced pairs of CH4, N2 and H2, haze, and gaseous emission lines (Irwin et al. 2008). The retrieval method uses a non-linear least-squares optimal estimation technique to iteratively adjust the model parameters to achieve a spectral fit (Rodgers 2000). We show an accurate selection of the wide amount of data available in terms of footprint diameter on the planet and observational conditions, together with the retrieved results. Our results represent formal retrievals of surface brightness temperatures from the Cassini CIRS dataset using a full radiative transfer treatment, and we compare to the earlier findings of Jennings et al. (2009). The application of our methodology over wide areas has increased the planet coverage and accuracy of our knowledge of Titan's surface brightness temperature. In particular we had the chance to look for diurnal variations in surface temperature around the equator: a trend with slowly increasing temperature toward the late afternoon reveals that diurnal temperature changes are present on Titan surface. References: Irwin, P.G.J., et al.: "The NEMESIS planetary atmosphere radiative transfer and retrieval tool" (2008). JQSRT, Vol. 109, pp. 1136-1150, 2008. Rodgers, C. D.: "Inverse Methods For Atmospheric Sounding: Theory and Practice". World Scientific, Singapore, 2000. Jennings, D.E., et al.: "Titan's Surface Brightness Temperatures." Ap. J. L., Vol. 691, pp. L103-L105, 2009.

  9. Higher Flux from the Young Sun as an Explanation for Warm Temperatures for Early Earth and Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sackmann, I.-Juliana

    2001-01-01

    Observations indicate that the Earth was at least warm enough for liquid water to exist as far back as 4 Gyr ago, namely, as early as half a billion years after the formation of the Earth; in fact, there is evidence suggesting that Earth may have been even warmer then than it is now. These relatively warm temperatures required on early Earth are in apparent contradiction to the dimness of the early Sun predicted by the standard solar models. This problem has generally been explained by assuming that Earth's early atmosphere contained huge amounts of carbon dioxide (CO2), resulting in a large enough greenhouse effect to counteract the effect of a dimmer Sun. However, recent work places an upper limit of 0.04 bar on the partial pressure of CO2 in the period from 2.75 to 2.2 Gyr ago, based on the absence of siderite in paleosols; this casts doubt on the viability of a strong CO2 greenhouse effect on early Earth. The existence of liquid water on early Mars has been even more of a puzzle; even the maximum possible CO2 greenhouse effect cannot yield warm enough Martian surface temperatures. These problems can be resolved simultaneously for both Earth and Mars, if the early Sun was brighter than predicted by the standard solar models. This could be accomplished if the early Sun was slightly more massive than it is now, i.e., if the solar wind was considerably stronger in the past than at present. A slightly more massive young Sun would have left fingerprints on the internal structure of the present Sun. Today, helioseismic observations exist that can measure the internal structure of the Sun with very high precision. The task undertaken here was to compute solar models with the highest precision possible at this time, starting with slightly greater initial masses. These were evolved to the present solar age, where comparisons with the helioseismic observations could be made. Our computations also yielded the time evolution of the solar flux at the planets - a key input to the climates of early Earth and Mars. Early solar mass loss is not the only influence that can alter the internal structure of the present Sun. There are minor uncertainties in the physics of the solar models and in the key observed solar parameters that also affect the present Sun's internal structure. It was therefore imperative to obtain an understanding of the effects of these other uncertainties, in order to disentangle them from the fingerprints that might be left by early solar mass loss. From these considerations, our work was divided into two parts: (1) We first computed the evolution of standard solar models with input parameters varied within their uncertainties, to determine their effect on the observable helioseismic quantities; (2) We then computed non-standard solar models with higher initial masses to test against the helioseismological observations.

  10. Linear analysis of surface temperature dynamics and climate sensitivity 

    E-print Network

    Wu, Wei

    2007-04-25

    in globally and annually averaged temperature for a doubling of the concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere. It is a key determinant of climate change and its large uncertainties remain in recent studies. In this work we employ a statistical..., North 1990, Leung and North 1990, Leung and North 1991, Graves et al. 1993, Kim et al. 1996). They have been successful in modeling climate and climate change related to the surface temperature field and have been making contributions to climate...

  11. Radar backscatter across the Gulf Stream sea surface temperature front

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Son V. Nghiem; Fuk K. Li; Edward J. Walsh; Shu-Hsiang Lou

    2000-01-01

    Ku-band backscatter responses to frontal sea surface temperature (SST) changes are studied and applications of a high-resolution scatterometer to remote sensing of an SST front are suggested. Ocean backscatter signatures were measured with an airborne Ku-band scatterometer across the Gulf Stream SST front during the Surface Wave Dynamics Experiment. Oceanic and atmospheric parameters were measured by buoys, by the Scanning

  12. Atmospheric Precipitable Water and its association with Surface Air Temperatures over Different Climate Regims

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, H.; Fetzer, E. J.; Olsene, E. T.; Granger, S. L.; Kahn, B. H.; Fishbein, E. F.; Chen, L.; Teixeira, J.; Lambrigtsen, B. H.

    2008-12-01

    As a greenhouse gas and a key component in the hydrologic cycle, atmospheric water vapor is very important in the earth's climate system. The relationship between air temperature and water vapor content at the surface and in different layers of the atmosphere have been examined in many studies in trying to better understand the magnitude of water vapor feedback in our climate system. Studies have found large spatial variability and large regional and vertical deviations from the Clapeyron-Clausius relation of constant relative humidity. However, there is an ongoing need to understand the climatology of the relationship between the surface air temperature and total column water vapor, and to examine any potential thresholds associated with sudden changes in this relationship as air temperatures continue to increase. This study uses 5-year total precipitable water vapor records measured by the Atmospheric Infrared Sounders (AIRS) and surface air temperature to examine their relationships at tropical to mid latitude conditions found at 60°S- 60°N for winter and summer seasons. In addition, the relationships will be examined for different climate regimes based on Koppen's system. This will help distinguish the geographical regions and physical processes where different relationships are found. This information will improve our understanding of the regional patterns of water vapor feedback associated with warming climate.

  13. An Analytic Function of Lunar Surface Temperature for Exospheric Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurley, Dana M.; Sarantos, Menelaos; Grava, Cesare; Williams, Jean-Pierre; Retherford, Kurt D.; Siegler, Matthew; Greenhagen, Benjamin; Paige, David

    2014-01-01

    We present an analytic expression to represent the lunar surface temperature as a function of Sun-state latitude and local time. The approximation represents neither topographical features nor compositional effects and therefore does not change as a function of selenographic latitude and longitude. The function reproduces the surface temperature measured by Diviner to within +/-10 K at 72% of grid points for dayside solar zenith angles of less than 80, and at 98% of grid points for nightside solar zenith angles greater than 100. The analytic function is least accurate at the terminator, where there is a strong gradient in the temperature, and the polar regions. Topographic features have a larger effect on the actual temperature near the terminator than at other solar zenith angles. For exospheric modeling the effects of topography on the thermal model can be approximated by using an effective longitude for determining the temperature. This effective longitude is randomly redistributed with 1 sigma of 4.5deg. The resulting ''roughened'' analytical model well represents the statistical dispersion in the Diviner data and is expected to be generally useful for future models of lunar surface temperature, especially those implemented within exospheric simulations that address questions of volatile transport.

  14. An analytic function of lunar surface temperature for exospheric modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurley, Dana M.; Sarantos, Menelaos; Grava, Cesare; Williams, Jean-Pierre; Retherford, Kurt D.; Siegler, Matthew; Greenhagen, Benjamin; Paige, David

    2015-07-01

    We present an analytic expression to represent the lunar surface temperature as a function of Sun-state latitude and local time. The approximation represents neither topographical features nor compositional effects and therefore does not change as a function of selenographic latitude and longitude. The function reproduces the surface temperature measured by Diviner to within ±10 K at 72% of grid points for dayside solar zenith angles of <80°, and at 98% of grid points for nightside solar zenith angles >100°. The analytic function is least accurate at the terminator, where there is a strong gradient in the temperature, and the polar regions. Topographic features have a larger effect on the actual temperature near the terminator than at other solar zenith angles. For exospheric modeling the effects of topography on the thermal model can be approximated by using an effective longitude for determining the temperature. This effective longitude is randomly redistributed with 1 sigma of 4.5°. The resulting "roughened" analytical model well represents the statistical dispersion in the Diviner data and is expected to be generally useful for future models of lunar surface temperature, especially those implemented within exospheric simulations that address questions of volatile transport.

  15. Improved alkaline earth-oxyhalide electrochemical cell for low-temperature use

    SciTech Connect

    Binder, M.; Walker, C.W.

    1988-05-20

    This invention relates in general to an alkaline earth-oxyhalide electrochemical cell and in particular, to an improved alkaline earth oxyhalide electrochemical cell for low temperature use. A typical cell includes a calcium anode, 1M Ca(AlCl/sub 4/)/sub 2/ thionyl chloride/75% Shawinigan - 25% acetone washed Black Pearls 2000 carbon black cathode. The improvement to this cell involves the addition of 10 vol. % bromine to the electrolyte. During discharge at about -30 C, cathode potential is raised by about 0.5 volt providing a cell voltage well above the 2.0 volt minimum which is a standard military specification. Without bromine, cell capacity is about one minute. With the addition of bromine, load voltage is initially 2.5 volts, then slowly decreases to 2.0 volts over about twelve minutes.

  16. Tooth surface and pulp chamber temperatures developed during electrothermal bonding.

    PubMed

    Mizrahi, E; Cleaton-Jones, P; Landy, C

    1996-05-01

    The rationale of electrothermal bonding is based on the premise that when an electric current is passed across the beaks of tweezers holding a stainless steel orthodontic bracket, heat will be generated by virtue of the electrical resistance of the steel bracket. This study was carried out to evaluate the temperatures generated on the tooth surface at the bracket/tooth interface and within the pulp chamber during electrothermal bonding. Temperatures were recorded with 5 and 7.5 A current levels applied as a 1 second pulse with time intervals between pulses of 1, 2, 3, and 4 seconds. The data showed that after three pulses with a 5 A current, the temperature on the tooth surface ranged between 43.3 degrees C (4 second intervals) to 53.6 degrees C (1 second intervals). By using a 7.5 A current, the temperature ranged from 77.5 degrees C (4 second intervals) to 85.9 degrees C (1 second intervals). The pulp chamber temperatures were evaluated in vitro for a mandibular incisor, the maxillary central and lateral incisors, a canine, a premolar, and a molar. The pulp chamber temperature of a mandibular incisor responded most, whereas that of premolars and molars responded least to temperature changes on the labial surface. The increase in mandibular incisor pulp chamber temperature after three pulses was 2.1 degrees C for 5 A and 2.8 degrees C for 7.5 A current while for a premolar the increase ranged from 0.9 degree C to 1.6 degrees C. On the basis of current evidence the increase in pulp chamber temperatures during electrothermal bonding may be considered to be clinically safe. PMID:8638595

  17. Field spectroscopy sampling strategies for improved measurement of Earth surface reflectance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mac Arthur, A.; Alonso, L.; Malthus, T. J.; Moreno, J. F.

    2013-12-01

    Over the last two decades extensive networks of research sites have been established to measure the flux of carbon compounds and water vapour between the Earth's surface and the atmosphere using eddy covariance (EC) techniques. However, contributing Earth surface components cannot be determined and (as the ';footprints' are spatially constrained) these measurements cannot be extrapolated to regional cover using this technique. At many of these EC sites researchers have been integrating spectral measurements with EC and ancillary data to better understand light use efficiency and carbon dioxide flux. These spectroscopic measurements could also be used to assess contributing components and provide support for imaging spectroscopy, from airborne or satellite platforms, which can provide unconstrained spatial cover. Furthermore, there is an increasing interest in ';smart' database and information retrieval systems such as that proposed by EcoSIS and OPTIMISE to store, analyse, QA and merge spectral and biophysical measurements and provide information to end users. However, as Earth surfaces are spectrally heterogeneous and imaging and field spectrometers sample different spatial extents appropriate field sampling strategies require to be adopted. To sample Earth surfaces spectroscopists adopt either single; random; regular grid; transect; or 'swiping' point sampling strategies, although little comparative work has been carried out to determine the most appropriate approach; the work by Goetz (2012) is a limited exception. Mac Arthur et al (2012) demonstrated that, for two full wavelength (400 nm to 2,500 nm) field spectroradiometers, the measurement area sampled is defined by each spectroradiometer/fore optic system's directional response function (DRF) rather than the field-of-view (FOV) specified by instrument manufacturers. Mac Arthur et al (2012) also demonstrated that each reflecting element within the sampled area was not weighted equally in the integrated measurement recorded. There were non-uniformities of spectral response with the spectral ';weighting' per wavelength interval being positionally dependent and unique to each spectroradiometer/fore optic system investigated. However, Mac Arthur et al (2012) did not provide any advice on how to compensate for these systematic errors or advise on appropriate sampling strategies. The work reported here will provide the first systematic study of the effect of field spectroscopy sampling strategies for a range of different Earth surface types. Synthetic Earth surface hyperspectral data cubes for each surface type were generated and convolved with a range of the spectrometer/fore optic system directional response functions generated by Mac Arthur et al 2013, to simulate spectroscopic measurements of Earth surfaces. This has enabled different field sampling strategies to be directly compared and their suitability for each measurement purpose and surface type to be assessed and robust field spectroscopy sampling strategy recommendations to be made. This will be particularly of interest to the carbon and water vapour flux communities and assist the development of sampling strategies for field spectroscopy from rotary-wing Unmanned Aerial Vehicles, which will aid acquiring measurements in the spatial domain, and generally further the use of field spectroscopy for quantitative Earth observation.

  18. Compensation for effects of ambient temperature on rare-earth doped fiber optic thermometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adamovsky, G.; Sotomayor, J. L.; Krasowski, M. J.; Eustace, J. G.

    1989-01-01

    Variations in ambient temperature have a negative effect on the performance of any fiber optic sensing system. A change in ambient temperature may alter the design parameters of fiber optic cables, connectors, sources, detectors, and other fiber optic components and eventually the performance of the entire system. The thermal stability of components is especially important in a system which employs intensity modulated sensors. Several referencing schemes have been developed to account for the variable losses that occur within the system. However, none of these conventional compensating techniques can be used to stabilize the thermal drift of the light source in a system based on the spectral properties of the sensor material. The compensation for changes in ambient temperature becomes especially important in fiber optic thermometers doped with rare earths. Different approaches to solving this problem are searched and analyzed.

  19. Compensation for effects of ambient temperature on rare-earth doped fiber optic thermometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adamovsky, G.; Sotomayor, J. L.; Krasowski, M. J.; Eustace, J. G.

    1990-01-01

    Variations in ambient temperature have a negative effect on the performance of any fiber optic sensing system. A change in ambient temperature may alter the design parameters of fiber optic cables, connectors, sources, detectors, and other fiber optic components and eventually the performance of the entire system. The thermal stability of components is especially important in a system which employs intensity modulated sensors. Several referencing schemes have been developed to account for the variable losses that occur within the system. However, none of these conventional compensating techniques can be used to stabilize the thermal drift of the light source in a system based on the spectral properties of the sensor material. The compensation for changes in ambient temperature becomes especially important in fiber optic thermometers doped with rare earths. Different approaches to solving this problem are searched and analyzed.

  20. Land surface temperature measurements for EOS MODIS data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wan, Zhengming

    1994-01-01

    Work accomplished includes: Beta delivery 1 of the MODIS LST product; the first version of MODIS LST ATBD; update of the atmospheric radiative transfer code ATRAD; the development of a new approach look-up table method; and improvement of the TIR spectrometer. Preliminary feasibility analysis of the look-up table approach is presented in terms of showing the effects on the TIR radiance at the top of the atmosphere of the stratospheric and upper atmospheric temperature profiles, the surface emissivity and temperature, the lower atmospheric temperature and water vapor profiles, and the viewing angle.

  1. Titan's Surface Temperatures Maps from Cassini - CIRS Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cottini, Valeria; Nixon, C. A.; Jennings, D. E.; Anderson, C. M.; Samuelson, R. E.; Irwin, P. G. J.; Flasar, F. M.

    2009-09-01

    The Cassini Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) observations of Saturn's largest moon, Titan, are providing us with the ability to detect the surface temperature of the planet by studying its outgoing radiance through a spectral window in the thermal infrared at 19 ?m (530 cm-1) characterized by low opacity. Since the first acquisitions of CIRS Titan data the instrument has gathered a large amount of spectra covering a wide range of latitudes, longitudes and local times. We retrieve the surface temperature and the atmospheric temperature profile by modeling proper zonally averaged spectra of nadir observations with radiative transfer computations. Our forward model uses the correlated-k approximation for spectral opacity to calculate the emitted radiance, including contributions from collision induced pairs of CH4, N2 and H2, haze, and gaseous emission lines (Irwin et al. 2008). The retrieval method uses a non-linear least-squares optimal estimation technique to iteratively adjust the model parameters to achieve a spectral fit (Rodgers 2000). We show an accurate selection of the wide amount of data available in terms of footprint diameter on the planet and observational conditions, together with the retrieved results. Our results represent formal retrievals of surface brightness temperatures from the Cassini CIRS dataset using a full radiative transfer treatment, and we compare to the earlier findings of Jennings et al. (2009). In future, application of our methodology over wide areas should greatly increase the planet coverage and accuracy of our knowledge of Titan's surface brightness temperature. References: Irwin, P.G.J., et al.: "The NEMESIS planetary atmosphere radiative transfer and retrieval tool" (2008). JQSRT, Vol. 109, pp. 1136-1150, 2008. Rodgers, C. D.: "Inverse Methods For Atmospheric Sounding: Theory and Practice". World Scientific, Singapore, 2000. Jennings, D.E., et al.: "Titan's Surface Brightness Temperatures." Ap. J. L., Vol. 691, pp. L103-L105, 2009.

  2. The Annual March of Convection, Sea Surface Temperature, and Surface Winds in the Tropics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Todd Porter Mitchell

    1990-01-01

    The annual march of convective rainfall and sea surface temperature (SST) in the tropics is described, using satellite measurements and surface observations from ships-of-opportunity. The annual march of the rainfall and SST on the equator is found to be characterized by a strong annual cycle, with the warmest temperatures and heaviest precipitation occurring in March-April. These features of the zonal

  3. Earth materials and earth dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, K; Shankland, T. [and others

    2000-11-01

    In the project ''Earth Materials and Earth Dynamics'' we linked fundamental and exploratory, experimental, theoretical, and computational research programs to shed light on the current and past states of the dynamic Earth. Our objective was to combine different geological, geochemical, geophysical, and materials science analyses with numerical techniques to illuminate active processes in the Earth. These processes include fluid-rock interactions that form and modify the lithosphere, non-linear wave attenuations in rocks that drive plate tectonics and perturb the earth's surface, dynamic recrystallization of olivine that deforms the upper mantle, development of texture in high-pressure olivine polymorphs that create anisotropic velocity regions in the convecting upper mantle and transition zone, and the intense chemical reactions between the mantle and core. We measured physical properties such as texture and nonlinear elasticity, equation of states at simultaneous pressures and temperatures, magnetic spins and bonding, chemical permeability, and thermal-chemical feedback to better characterize earth materials. We artificially generated seismic waves, numerically modeled fluid flow and transport in rock systems and modified polycrystal plasticity theory to interpret measured physical properties and integrate them into our understanding of the Earth. This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL).

  4. Surface roughness change on sandstone induced by temperature increase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlcko, J.; Kompanikova, Z.; Gomez-Heras, M.; Greif, V.; Durmekova, T.; Brcek, M.

    2012-04-01

    Optical surface profilometer allows capturing the information necessary to provide 3D surface measurements in a single image acquisition with a vertical micrometric resolution. The surface topography can be used for analyses, such as roughness evaluation. In this research, roughness changes of two types of sandstone samples were studied before and after heating to 60, 200, 400, 600 and 800 °C. Measurements obtained were converted into 3D 5 mm x 5 mm (25 mm2) topographic maps with a resolution of 2.5 µm. Surface roughness parameter Sq represents quantifies roughness from the maximum deviation along a mean surface and it is calculated as the root mean squared of five peaks and valleys of the specimen using Gaussian filter and 0.80 mm cut-off. The high spatial resolution obtained from visible-light optical surface profilometer is an ideal tool for observing rock surface alterations caused by decay factors. The authors present complete original process of surface roughness determination on rock samples adopting the portable profilometer using free accessible software packages. The different stability of the fabric of sandstones from Králiky and Oravská Jasenica after heating is due to their different mineral composition and different ratio of minerals that are more or less chemically stable at high temperatures, their resistance to thermal stress and other textural factors related to the distribution of grains and matrix. Percentage of minerals chemically stable at higher temperature, such as quartz, calcite, illite and muscovite, in fresh sandstone samples from Králiky is approximately 48%. Conversely, sandstones from Oravská Jasenica have significantly greater percentage of minerals stable at higher temperatures, such as quartz, albite, orthoclase, muscovite, illite and calcite than of other, less stable, minerals such as chlorite, biotite and kaolinite. Hence, percentage of minerals stable at higher temperatures was approximately 81 %. The results show how the ratio of stable and less stable mineral phases is an important factor affecting the resistance of rocks to high temperatures and are reflected in optical surface roughness parameters, which increase with increasing temperature. This work was supported by the Slovak Research and Development Agency under the contract No. APVV-0641-10 and No. APVV-0330-10 and by Geomateriales S2009/MAT-16.

  5. Comparison of Near-Surface Air Temperatures and MODIS Ice-Surface Temperatures at Summit, Greenland (2008-2013)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shuman, Christopher A.; Hall, Dorothy K.; DiGirolamo, Nicolo E.; Mefford, Thomas K.; Schnaubelt, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    We have investigated the stability of the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) infrared-derived ice surface temperature (IST) data from Terra for use as a climate quality data record. The availability of climate quality air temperature data (TA) from a NOAA Global Monitoring Division observatory at Greenlands Summit station has enabled this high temporal resolution study of MODIS ISTs. During a 5 year period (July 2008 to August 2013), more than 2500 IST values were compared with 3-minute average TA values derived from the 1-minute data from NOAAs primary 2 m air temperature sensor. These data enabled an expected small offset between air and surface temperatures at this the ice sheet location to be investigated over multiple annual cycles.

  6. Kinetics of surface dissolution: A coupled thermodynamics-climatic approach for Titan and the Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornet, Thomas; Cordier, Daniel; Le Bahers, Tangui; Bourgeois, Olivier; Fleurant, Cyril; Le Mouélic, Stéphane

    2014-05-01

    Titan, Saturn's major icy moon, like the Earth, possesses large bodies of present liquids on its surface under the form of seas, lakes and rivers, and likely of past liquids in currently empty topographic depressions. Titan's seas and lacustrine depressions strongly differ in shape, which likely suggests a difference in terms of geological formation processes. On the one hand, the seas have dendritic contours, are several hundreds of kilometers in width, and seem to develop in areas with significant reliefs and fluvial networks. On the other hand, lacustrine depressions, be they filled currently or not, are typically isolated, have rounded or lobate contours and seem to grow by coalescence. Their sizes vary from a few kilometers to a few tens of kilometers in diameter, and they seem to develop in relatively flat areas without visible connection with fluvial networks. The depths of the seas and lacustrine depressions have been evaluated to several hundreds of meters for the seas (recent estimates from the Cassini RADAR altimeter echoes analysis over Ligeia Mare indicates a depth of about 170 m), when they are a few hundred/tens of meters for the lacustrine depressions. Given the above morphological settings, several formation mechanisms have been proposed for Titan's lacustrine depressions, the most likely one being associated with the dissolution of the surface, such as what is seen in karstic or karsto-evaporitic areas on Earth. However, due to Titan's surface physical properties (T=90-95 K) and composition, the materials that would be involved in such dissolution processes are exotic. In karstic terrains on Earth, the solvent is water and the solutes are rock minerals (e.g., calcite, dolomite, gypsum, anhydrite and halite). On Titan, the solvent is mainly composed of liquid hydrocarbons (methane and/or ethane) and the solutes are probably made of solid hydrocarbons (acetylene, benzene, butane,...), nitriles (hydrogen cyanide, cyanogen,...), tholins and ices (water, carbon dioxide). With the help of the thermodynamic theory of solid-liquid equilibria, we are able to predict the maximum solubility of Titan's pure solids and Earth's pure minerals in the corresponding relevant liquid. The kinetics of surface dissolution are computed in the model using the estimates of the maximum solubilities associated with a reasonable range of atmospheric precipitation rates estimates for both Titan and the Earth. The comparison between terrestrial and titanian dissolution rates indicates that dissolution should be as significant for the evolution of Titan's surface as it is for Earth's. Quantitative assessment of dissolution rates on Titan will help to constrain the age of its lacustrine depressions.

  7. Earthshine Polarimetry to Extract Signatures of Earth-like Atmosphere and Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, J.; Itoh, Y.; Akitaya, H.; Okazaki, A.; Kawabata, K.; Oasa, Y.; Isogai, M.; Niwa, T.

    2013-12-01

    We present the results of our polarimetric observations of Earthshine on the Moon. We have carried out two Earthshine polarimetry projects. The first one is comparison of Earthshine polarization from land- and ocean-dominant surfaces. Polarimetry may be a method to search a planet with a liquid surface because specular reflection from a liquid surface is expected to produce a greater polarization degree than reflection from a rough surface does. This project aims to evaluate the difference between Earthshine polarization contributed by reflection at a land-dominant surface and that by an ocean-dominant surface. As viewing from Japan, we can observe Earthshine with contribution from a land-dominant surface in waxing phases of the Moon, whereas we can study that from an ocean-dominant surface in the waning phases. We utilized the 60 cm reflecting telescope at the Nishi-Harima Astronomical Observatory located in Hyogo, Japan and the simultaneous imaging/spectrometric polarimeter which enables a simultaneous measurement of four polarized components with a single exposure. In a series of observations from May 2010 to March 2012, twelve data sets were obtained for the waxing phases and seven data sets for the waning. The observations were conducted in V band. The measured polarization degrees increased as the Earth phase approaches a quadrature phase. The maximum polarization degree was roughly ˜8 % for the both phases. Fitting with a function for Rayleigh scattering have yielded the polarization maximum of 7.7×0.4% and 8.4×0.7% for the waxing and waning phases, respectively. Although a larger value has been derived for the waning phases when the Earthshine is contributed by an ocean-dominant surface, the difference is not significant considering uncertainty of the result. The second project is optical spectropolarimetry of Earthshine for Earth phase angles ranging from 49° to 96°. This project aims to derive the phase variation of polarization spectra of the Earth to find a signature pointing toward a distinctive characteristic of the Earth. The observations were conducted on March 9-13, 2011 (UT). We utilized the spectropolarimeter HBS mounted on the 1.88 m telescope at the Okayama Astrophysical Observatory located in Okayama, Japan. The wavelength coverage is 450-850 nm with a resolution of 6 nm. The observed Earthshine polarization degree spectra decreased with increasing wavelength at any phase. We have found that the phase dependence differed with the wavelengths; the maximum polarization for the V band wavelengths occurred at a phase angle of near 90°, whereas that for longer wavelengths is reached at larger phase angles. This is interpreted as indicating that Earthshine polarization at shorter wavelengths is dominated by atmospheric Rayleigh scattering, whereas that at longer wavelengths has an increasingly effective contribution from the Earth surface reflection. The observed wavelength dependence in the phase angles of the maximum polarization for the Earth is suggested to be different from the other terrestrial planetary objects in the Solar System. Therefore our observational result might be a signature pointing toward a distinctive characteristic of the Earth: the atmosphere is scattering in the shorter wavelengths but transparent in the longer wavelengths.

  8. Influence of temperature on the surface growth of Geotrichum candidum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anna Hudecová; Denisa Liptáková

    Growth of filamentous fungus G. candidum was analysed on the surface of skim milk agar as a function of incubation temperature (5 - 37 °C). R adial growth rates of fungus were estimated using growth model of Baranyi which describes the colony diameter as a function of cultivation time. Both Ratkowsky and transformat ion of G-model were used as secondary

  9. Three-way partitioning of sea surface temperature measurement error

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chelton, D.

    1983-01-01

    Given any set of three 2 degree binned anomaly sea surface temperature (SST) data sets by three different sensors, estimates of the mean square error of each sensor estimate is made. The above formalism performed on every possible triplet of sensors. A separate table of error estimates is then constructed for each sensor.

  10. PARTITIONING EVAPOTRANSPIRATION USING DIURNAL SURFACE TEMPERATURE VARIATION 1830

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An approach is proposed in which daily ET, measured with a conventional Bowen ratio technique, is partitioned into E and T using coincident measurements of diurnal soil surface temperature. Sites dominated by woody and herbaceous vegetation in the USDA ARS Walnut Gulch Experimental Watershed were in...

  11. Atlantic Sea Surface Temperatures and Tropical Cyclone Formation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lloyd J. Shapiro; Stanley B. Goldenberg

    1998-01-01

    It has long been accepted that interannual fluctuations in sea surface temperature (SST) in the Atlantic are associated with fluctuations in seasonal Atlantic basin tropical cyclone frequency. To isolate the physical mech- anism responsible for this relationship, a singular value decomposition (SVD) is used to establish the dominant covarying modes of tropospheric wind shear and SST as well as horizontal

  12. Improved global sea surface temperature analyses using optimum interpolation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard W. Reynolds; Thomas M. Smith

    1994-01-01

    The new NOAA operational global sea surface temperature (SST) analysis is described. The analyses use 7 days of in situ (ship and buoy) and satellite SST. These analyses are produced weekly and daily using optimum interpolation (OI) on a 1[degrees] grid. The OI technique requires the specification of data and analysis error statistics. These statistics are derived and show that

  13. Coral Record of Equatorial Sea-Surface Temperatures

    E-print Network

    Coral Record of Equatorial Sea-Surface Temperatures During the Penultimate Deglaciation at Huon, Bradley Pillans, Allan R. Chivas, Akio Omura Uplifted coral terraces at Huon Peninsula, Papua New Guinea. Porites coral, which grew during this period, has oxygen isotopic values and strontium/calcium ratios

  14. Titan's Surface Temperatures Maps from Cassini - CIRS Observations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Valeria Cottini; C. A. Nixon; D. E. Jennings; C. M. Anderson; R. E. Samuelson; P. G. J. Irwin; F. M. Flasar

    2009-01-01

    The Cassini Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) observations of Saturn's largest moon, Titan, are providing us with the ability to detect the surface temperature of the planet by studying its outgoing radiance through a spectral window in the thermal infrared at 19 mum (530 cm-1) characterized by low opacity. Since the first acquisitions of CIRS Titan data the instrument has gathered

  15. Surface temperature and spectral measurements at Santiaguito lava dome, Guatemala

    E-print Network

    Rose, William I.

    Surface temperature and spectral measurements at Santiaguito lava dome, Guatemala Steve T. M, Michigan Technological University, Houghton, Michigan, USA Otoniel Matias INSIVUMEH, Guatemala City, Guatemala Received 4 June 2004; revised 23 July 2004; accepted 20 September 2004; published 13 October 2004

  16. Two Surface Temperature Retrieval Methods Compared Over Agricultural Lands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    French, Andrew N.; Schmugge, Thomas J.; Jacob, Frederic; Ogawa, Kenta; Houser, Paul R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Accurate, spatially distributed surface temperatures are required for modeling evapotranspiration (ET) over agricultural fields under wide ranging conditions, including stressed and unstressed vegetation. Modeling approaches that use surface temperature observations, however, have the burden of estimating surface emissivities. Emissivity estimation, the subject of much recent research, is facilitated by observations in multiple thermal infrared bands. But it is nevertheless a difficult task. Using observations from a multiband thermal sensor, the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), estimated surface emissivities and temperatures are retrieved in two different ways: the temperature emissivity separation approach (TES) and the normalized emissivity approach (NEM). Both rely upon empirical relationships, but the assumed relationships are different. TES relies upon a relationship between the minimum spectral emissivity and the range of observed emissivities. NEM relies upon an assumption that at least one thermal band has a pre-determined emissivity (close to 1.0). The benefits and consequences of each approach will be demonstrated for two different landscapes: one in central Oklahoma, USA and another in southern New Mexico.

  17. Investigation of Aerodynamic and Aerodynamic and Radiometric Land Surface Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crago, Richard D.; Friedl, Mark; Kustas, William; Wang, Ye-Qiao

    2003-01-01

    The overall goal of the project was to reconcile the difference between T(sub s,r) and T(sub aero), while maintaining consistency within models and with theory and data. The project involved collaboration between researchers at Bucknell University, Boston University, University of mode Island, and the USDNARS Hydrology Laboratory. This report focuses on the work done at Bucknell, which used an analytical continuous-source flux model developed by Crago (1998), based on work by Brutsaert and Sugita (1996) to generate fluxes at all levels of the canopy. Named ALARM [Analytical Land- Atmosphere-Radiometer Model] by Suleiman and Crago (2002), the model assumes the foliage has an exponential vertical temperature profile. The same profile is felt by the within-canopy turbulence and 'seen" by a radiometer viewing the surface from any zenith view angle. ALARM converts radiometric surface temperatures taken from any view angle into a clearly-defined version of Taero called the equivalent isothermal surface temperature T(sub s,j), and then calculates the sensible heat flux H using Monin-Obukhov similarity theory. This allows remotely sensed Ts,r measurements to be used to produce high quality sensible and latent heat flux estimates, or to validate or update the surface temperature produced by SVATs in climate or mesoscale models.

  18. Orthogonal Wavelet Analysis: Interannual Variability in the Sea Surface Temperature

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mankin Mak

    1995-01-01

    The unique capability of orthogonal wavelets, which have attractive time-frequency localization properties as exemplified by the Meyer wavelet, is demonstrated in a diagnosis of the interannual variability using a 44-year dataset of the sea surface temperature (SST). This wavelet analysis is performed in conjunction with an empirical orthogonal function analysis and a Fourier analysis to illustrate their complementary capability. The

  19. Analyses of global sea surface temperature 1856-1991

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexey Kaplan; Mark A. Cane; Yochanan Kushnir; Amy C. Clement; M. Benno Blumenthal; Balaji Rajagopalan

    1998-01-01

    Global analyses of monthly sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies from 1856 to 1991 are produced using three statistically based methods: optimal smoothing (OS), the Kalman filter (KF) and optimal interpolation (OI). Each of these is accompanied by estimates of the error covariance of the analyzed fields. The spatial covariance function these methods require is estimated from the available data; the

  20. Surface and Atmospheric Contributions to Passive Microwave Brightness Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Gail Skofronick; Johnson, Benjamin T.

    2010-01-01

    Physically-based passive microwave precipitation retrieval algorithms require a set of relationships between satellite observed brightness temperatures (TB) and the physical state of the underlying atmosphere and surface. These relationships are typically non-linear, such that inversions are ill-posed especially over variable land surfaces. In order to better understand these relationships, this work presents a theoretical analysis using brightness temperature weighting functions to quantify the percentage of the TB resulting from absorption/emission/reflection from the surface, absorption/emission/scattering by liquid and frozen hydrometeors in the cloud, the emission from atmospheric water vapor, and other contributors. The results are presented for frequencies from 10 to 874 GHz and for several individual precipitation profiles as well as for three cloud resolving model simulations of falling snow. As expected, low frequency channels (<89 GHz) respond to liquid hydrometeors and the surface, while the higher frequency channels become increasingly sensitive to ice hydrometeors and the water vapor sounding channels react to water vapor in the atmosphere. Low emissivity surfaces (water and snow-covered land) permit energy downwelling from clouds to be reflected at the surface thereby increasing the percentage of the TB resulting from the hydrometeors. The slant path at a 53deg viewing angle increases the hydrometeor contributions relative to nadir viewing channels and show sensitivity to surface polarization effects. The TB percentage information presented in this paper answers questions about the relative contributions to the brightness temperatures and provides a key piece of information required to develop and improve precipitation retrievals over land surfaces.

  1. Electronic Desorption from Internal Surfaces of Porous Low Temperature Ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grieves, G. A.; Orlando, T. M.

    2006-05-01

    Radiation induced surface desorption from low temperature water ice plays a crucial role in the astrochemistry of icy planetary surfaces, comets and ice-covered interstellar grains. Excitations from low energy electrons (5- 100 eV) or VUV photons can hop between the strongly coupled hydrogen bonding network and migrate until they encounter a surface or a defect where they localize and induce dissociation. Ices deposited at very low temperatures, such as those in interstellar space, exhibit an exceptionally low density and have a highly porous amorphous structure. These pores represent large open structures and enclose a volume of vacuum and give the porous ice an enormous internal surface area. These pores are also likely to play an important role in spontaneous segregation of hydrophobic organic contaminants. The electronic structure of ice at the interface of these pores should resemble that of the outer surface vacuum interface. The effects of porosity and morphology of amorphous and crystalline D2O ices on the electron stimulated generation and trapping of D2 and O2 have been studied by post-irradiation thermal desorption. Molecular deuterium is released in the temperature range from 55 - 105 K for each of the samples, with two notable bursts at 115 and 132 K for porous amorphous ice. The majority of trapped O2 coevolves with desorption of the ice matrix, suggesting that clathrate hydrates may be important trapping sites. Production and trapping of organic polymers within pores from coadsorbed methane and ammonia are also discussed.

  2. An open source Bayesian Monte Carlo isotope mixing model with applications in Earth surface processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arendt, Carli A.; Aciego, Sarah M.; Hetland, Eric A.

    2015-05-01

    The implementation of isotopic tracers as constraints on source contributions has become increasingly relevant to understanding Earth surface processes. Interpretation of these isotopic tracers has become more accessible with the development of Bayesian Monte Carlo (BMC) mixing models, which allow uncertainty in mixing end-members and provide methodology for systems with multicomponent mixing. This study presents an open source multiple isotope BMC mixing model that is applicable to Earth surface environments with sources exhibiting distinct end-member isotopic signatures. Our model is first applied to new ?18O and ?D measurements from the Athabasca Glacier, which showed expected seasonal melt evolution trends and vigorously assessed the statistical relevance of the resulting fraction estimations. To highlight the broad applicability of our model to a variety of Earth surface environments and relevant isotopic systems, we expand our model to two additional case studies: deriving melt sources from ?18O, ?D, and 222Rn measurements of Greenland Ice Sheet bulk water samples and assessing nutrient sources from ?Nd and 87Sr/86Sr measurements of Hawaiian soil cores. The model produces results for the Greenland Ice Sheet and Hawaiian soil data sets that are consistent with the originally published fractional contribution estimates. The advantage of this method is that it quantifies the error induced by variability in the end-member compositions, unrealized by the models previously applied to the above case studies. Results from all three case studies demonstrate the broad applicability of this statistical BMC isotopic mixing model for estimating source contribution fractions in a variety of Earth surface systems.

  3. Surface nanocrystallization and its properties of a rare earth magnesium alloy induced by HVOF–SMB

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kai-Dong Xu; Ji-Na Wang; Ai-Hua Wang; Hua Yan; Xiang-Lin Zhang; Zao-Wen Huang

    2011-01-01

    The nanocrystalline microstructure in the surface of a rare earth magnesium alloy induced by a new process named HVOF–SMB (high velocity oxygen-fuel flame supersonic microparticles bombarding) has been characterized by means of X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The effects of HVOF–SMB on mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of the magnesium alloy have been investigated by microhardness

  4. The effect of lattice temperature on surface damage in fused silica optics

    SciTech Connect

    Bude, J; Guss, G; Matthews, M; Spaeth, M L

    2007-10-31

    We examine the effect of lattice temperature on the probability of surface damage initiation for 355nm, 7ns laser pulses for surface temperatures below the melting point to temperatures well above the melting point of fused silica. At sufficiently high surface temperatures, damage thresholds are dramatically reduced. Our results indicate a temperature activated absorption and support the idea of a lattice temperature threshold of surface damage. From these measurements, we estimate the temperature dependent absorption coefficient for intrinsic silica.

  5. About the Influence of the initial Atmosphere on the Earth's Temperature Distribution during it's Accumulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khachay, Y.; Anfilogov, V.; Antipin, A.

    2012-04-01

    We suggested a new model for accumulation of planets of the Earth's group [1], which is based on the contemporary results of geochemical analyses, which allow to obtain the concentrations of short living radioactive isotopes of 26Al in the matter of the pre planet cloud [2]. With use of that data new estimations of temperature distribution into the growing planetary pre planetary bodies into the Earth's nebular zone had been obtained. For the further Earth's temperature evolution, as it had been showed by the results of numerical modeling, the main role belongs to the temperature distribution in the forming Earth's core and the existence of a dense and transparent atmosphere. The shadow influence of the initial atmosphere had been researched in the paper [3]. We shall give the main consideration to these problems in that paper. It had been shown in [1], that on the earliest accumulation stage the heat release by the decay of 26Al it is sufficient for forming a central melted area and solid relatively thin mainly silicate upper envelope in the pre planetary body, with dimensions, larger than (50-100) km. The impact velocities on that stage are yet not large, therefore by the bodies impact with these or near dimensions liquid and mainly iron their parts merge, but the masses of the pre planetary bodies are not sufficient to gravitational keeping of silicate parts of the cold solid envelope. On that stage they remain into the nebular zone of the proto planet and the mechanism of matter differentiation for the future core and mantle reservoirs realizes. The process takes place yet in small bodies and is in time to finish during less than 10 million years. The next forming of the core and mantle structure continues according to all known estimations about 100 million years. Because of the merging of inner liquid parts of impacting bodies occur due to inelastic impact, the main part of potential energy transforms into heat. That continues up to that time when the iron core mass increases to the main part of the contemporary mass. The silicate particles of different dimensions remain in the proto planet cloud and in the initial atmosphere, reducing it's transparency and release of the heat radiation. On the finishing stage of the core growing the mass of the pre planetary body is sufficient for keeping of the rising part of the silicate envelope of falling bodies. The matter of the growing planet enriches more and more with a touch of silicates. The impact process of accumulated bodies gradually converts to the mechanism of elastic impact, by which only a small part of kinetic energy transforms into the merging by the pre planet body heat. The atmosphere losses the silicate particles and it's transparency exceeds. It is forming either a non melted mantle, or a mantle with a rising melted layer. That results show that the existence of a dense, nontransparent atmosphere leads to temperature growing in the inner areas of the planet during it's accumulation process. 1.Anfilogov V.N., Khachay Yu.V. A possible variant of matter differentiation on the initial stage of Earth's forming. // DAN. 2005, V. 403, N. 6, 803-806. 2.Merk R.,Breuer D., Spohn T., 2002. Numerical modeling of 26Al - Induced radioactive melting of asteroids concerning accretion, Icarus, 159, 183-191. 3.Hayashi C., Nakazawa K., Mizuno H. Earth's melting due to the blanketing effect of primordial dense atmosphere. // Earth and Plenetary Science Letters. (1979). v. 43, 22-28

  6. Finite element simulation of temperature dependent free surface flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engelman, M. S.; Sani, R. L.

    1985-01-01

    The method of Engelman and Sani (1984) for a finite-element simulation of incompressible surface flows with a free and/or moving fluid interface, such as encountered in crystal growth and coating and polymer technology, is extended to temperature-dependent flows, including the effect of temperature-dependent surface tension. The basic algorithm of Saito and Scriven (1981) and Ruschak (1980) has been generalized and implemented in a robust and versatile finite-element code that can be employed with relative ease for the simulation of free-surface problems in complex geometries. As a result, the costly dependence on the Newton-Raphson algorithm has been eliminated by replacing it with a quasi-Newton iterative method, which nearly retains the superior convergence properties of the Newton-Raphson method.

  7. A Subbasin-based framework to represent land surface processes in an Earth System Model

    SciTech Connect

    Tesfa, Teklu K.; Li, Hongyi; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Huang, Maoyi; Ke, Yinghai; Sun, Yu; Liu, Ying

    2014-05-20

    Realistically representing spatial heterogeneity and lateral land surface processes within and between modeling units in earth system models is important because of their implications to surface energy and water exchange. The traditional approach of using regular grids as computational units in land surface models and earth system models may lead to inadequate representation of lateral movements of water, energy and carbon fluxes, especially when the grid resolution increases. Here a new subbasin-based framework is introduced in the Community Land Model (CLM), which is the land component of the Community Earth System Model (CESM). Local processes are represented assuming each subbasin as a grid cell on a pseudo grid matrix with no significant modifications to the existing CLM modeling structure. Lateral routing of water within and between subbasins is simulated with the subbasin version of a recently-developed physically based routing model, Model for Scale Adaptive River Routing (MOSART). As an illustration, this new framework is implemented in the topographically diverse region of the U.S. Pacific Northwest. The modeling units (subbasins) are delineated from high-resolution Digital Elevation Model while atmospheric forcing and surface parameters are remapped from the corresponding high resolution datasets. The impacts of this representation on simulating hydrologic processes are explored by comparing it with the default (grid-based) CLM representation. In addition, the effects of DEM resolution on parameterizing topography and the subsequent effects on runoff processes are investigated. Limited model evaluation and comparison showed that small difference between the averaged forcing can lead to more significant difference in the simulated runoff and streamflow because of nonlinear horizontal processes. Topographic indices derived from high resolution DEM may not improve the overall water balance, but affect the partitioning between surface and subsurface runoff. More systematic analyses are needed to determine the relative merits of the subbasin representation compared to the commonly used grid-based representation, especially when land surface models are approaching higher resolutions.

  8. STAR Concept for Passive Microwave Temperature Sounding from Middle Earth Orbit (MeoSTAR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, William J.; Tanner, Alan B.; Lambrigtsen, Bjorn H.; Doiron, Terence A.; Piepmeier, Jeffrey R.; Ruf, Chris S.

    2004-01-01

    A future mission for a new microwave atmospheric temperature sounder radiometer in a Middle Earth Orbit (MEO) at 11,000 km altitude is described. The MeoSTAR design uses a stationary l-dimensional Synthetic Thinned Array Radiometer in the 50-60 GHz microwave sounding band, to provide a 'pushbroom' image as the satellite orbits. The advantage of this concept is an image with a high spatial resolution and a wide swath with no scanning antenna to disturb the visual and IR sensors on the same satellite.

  9. Rare earth elements in hydrothermal systems: Estimates of standard partial molal thermodynamic properties of aqueous complexes of the rare earth elements at high pressures and temperatures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Johnson R. Haas; Everett L. Shock; David C. Sassani

    1995-01-01

    Standard partial molal thermodynamic properties including association constants for 246 inorganic aqueous rare earth element (REE) complexes with chloride, fluoride, hydroxide, carbonate, sulfate, bicarbonate, nitrate, and orthophosphate can be calculated at pressures from 1 to 5000 bars and temperatures from 0 to 1000°C, using experimental data from the literature and correlation algorithms. Predicted association constants for REE complexes are used

  10. The impact of land surface temperature on soil moisture anomaly detection from passive microwave observations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. M. Parinussa; T. R. H. Holmes; M. T. Yilmaz; W. T. Crow

    2011-01-01

    For several years passive microwave observations have been used to retrieve soil moisture from the Earth's surface. Low frequency observations have the most sensitivity to soil moisture, therefore the current Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) and future Soil Moisture Active and Passive (SMAP) satellite missions observe the Earth's surface in the L-band frequency. In the past, several satellite sensors

  11. The impact of land surface temperature on soil moisture anomaly detection from passive microwave observations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. M. Parinussa; T. R. H. Holmes; W. T. Crow

    2011-01-01

    For several years passive microwave observations have been used to retrieve soil moisture from the Earth's surface. Low frequency observations have the most sensitivity to soil moisture, therefore the modern Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) and future Soil Moisture Active and Passive (SMAP) satellite missions observe the Earth's surface in the L-band frequency. In the past, several satellite sensors

  12. Surface Heat Budgets and Sea Surface Temperature in the Pacific Warm Pool During TOGA COARE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chou, Shu-Hsien; Zhao, Wenzhong; Chou, Ming-Dah

    1998-01-01

    The daily mean heat and momentum fluxes at the surface derived from the SSM/I and Japan's GMS radiance measurements are used to study the temporal and spatial variability of the surface energy budgets and their relationship to the sea surface temperature during the COARE intensive observing period (IOP). For the three time legs observed during the IOP, the retrieved surface fluxes compare reasonably well with those from the IMET buoy, RV Moana Wave, and RV Wecoma. The characteristics of surface heat and momentum fluxes are very different between the southern and northern warm pool. In the southern warm pool, the net surface heat flux is dominated by solar radiation which is, in turn, modulated by the two Madden-Julian oscillations. The surface winds are generally weak, leading to a shallow ocean mixed layer. The solar radiation penetrating through the bottom of the mixed layer is significant, and the change in the sea surface temperature during the IOP does not follow the net surface heat flux. In the northern warm pool, the northeasterly trade wind is strong and undergoes strong seasonal variation. The variation of the net surface heat flux is dominated by evaporation. The two westerly wind bursts associated with the Madden-Julian oscillations seem to have little effect on the net surface heat flux. The ocean mixed layer is deep, and the solar radiation penetrating through the bottom of the mixed layer is small. As opposed to the southern warm pool, the trend of the sea surface temperature in the northern warm pool during the IOP is in agreement with the variation of the net heat flux at the surface.

  13. Amplification of Surface Temperature Trends and Variability in the Tropical Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santer, B. D.; Wigley, T. M. L.; Mears, C.; Wentz, F. J.; Klein, S. A.; Seidel, D. J.; Taylor, K. E.; Thorne, P. W.; Wehner, M. F.; Gleckler, P. J.; Boyle, J. S.; Collins, W. D.; Dixon, K. W.; Doutriaux, C.; Free, M.; Fu, Q.; Hansen, J. E.; Jones, G. S.; Ruedy, R.; Karl, T. R.; Lanzante, J. R.; Meehl, G. A.; Ramaswamy, V.; Russell, G.; Schmidt, G. A.

    2005-09-01

    The month-to-month variability of tropical temperatures is larger in the troposphere than at Earth's surface. This amplification behavior is similar in a range of observations and climate model simulations and is consistent with basic theory. On multidecadal time scales, tropospheric amplification of surface warming is a robust feature of model simulations, but it occurs in only one observational data set. Other observations show weak, or even negative, amplification. These results suggest either that different physical mechanisms control amplification processes on monthly and decadal time scales, and models fail to capture such behavior; or (more plausibly) that residual errors in several observational data sets used here affect their representation of long-term trends.

  14. A Global Merged LandAirSea Surface Temperature Reconstruction Based on Historical Observations (18801997)

    E-print Network

    A Global Merged Land­Air­Sea Surface Temperature Reconstruction Based on Historical Observations 2004) ABSTRACT A merged land­air­sea surface temperature reconstruction analysis is developed an analy- sis of the merged surface temperature is produced. The analysis uses a sea surface temperature

  15. Surface layer temperature inversion in the Bay of Bengal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thadathil, Pankajakshan; Gopalakrishna, V. V.; Muraleedharan, P. M.; Reddy, G. V.; Araligidad, Nilesh; Shenoy, Shrikant

    2002-10-01

    Surface layer temperature inversion occurring in the Bay of Bengal has been addressed. Hydrographic data archived in the Indian Oceanographic Data Center are used to understand various aspects of the temperature inversion of surface layer in the Bay of Bengal, such as occurrence time, characteristics, stability, inter-annual variability and generating mechanisms. Spatially organized temperature inversion occurs in the coastal waters of the western and northeastern Bay during winter (November-February). Although the inversion in the northeastern Bay is sustained until February (with remnants seen even in March), in the western Bay it becomes less organized in January and almost disappears by February. Inversion is confined to the fresh water induced seasonal halocline of the surface layer. Inversions of large temperature difference (of the order of 1.6-2.4°C) and thin layer thickness (10-20 m) are located adjacent to major fresh water inputs from the Ganges, Brahmaputra, Irrawaddy, Krishna and Godavari rivers. The inversion is stable with a mean stability of 3600×10 -8 m -1. Inter-annual variability of the inversion is significantly high and it is caused by the inter-annual variability of fresh water flux and surface cooling in the northern Bay. Fresh water flux leads the occurrence process in association with surface heat flux and advection. The leading role of fresh water flux is understood from the observation that the two occurrence regions of inversion (the western and northeastern Bay) have proximity to the two low salinity (with values about 28-29‰) zones. In the western Bay, the East India Coastal Current brings less saline and cold water from the head of the Bay to the south-west Bay, where it advects over warm, saline water, promoting temperature inversion in this region in association with the surface heat loss. For inversion occurring in the northeastern Bay (where the surface water gains heat from atmosphere), surface advection of the less saline cold water from the head of the Bay and Irrawaddy basin is found to be the major causative factor.

  16. Assessing confidence in Pliocene sea surface temperatures to evaluate predictive models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dowsett, Harry J.; Robinson, Marci M.; Haywood, Alan M.; Hill, Daniel J.; Dolan, Aisling M.; Stoll, Danielle K.; Chan, Wing-Le; Abe-Ouchi, Ayako; Chandler, Mark A.; Rosenbloom, Nan A.; Otto-Bliesner, Bette L.; Bragg, Fran J.; Lunt, Daniel J.; Foley, Kevin M.; Riesselman, Christina R.

    2012-01-01

    In light of mounting empirical evidence that planetary warming is well underway, the climate research community looks to palaeoclimate research for a ground-truthing measure with which to test the accuracy of future climate simulations. Model experiments that attempt to simulate climates of the past serve to identify both similarities and differences between two climate states and, when compared with simulations run by other models and with geological data, to identify model-specific biases. Uncertainties associated with both the data and the models must be considered in such an exercise. The most recent period of sustained global warmth similar to what is projected for the near future occurred about 3.3–3.0 million years ago, during the Pliocene epoch. Here, we present Pliocene sea surface temperature data, newly characterized in terms of level of confidence, along with initial experimental results from four climate models. We conclude that, in terms of sea surface temperature, models are in good agreement with estimates of Pliocene sea surface temperature in most regions except the North Atlantic. Our analysis indicates that the discrepancy between the Pliocene proxy data and model simulations in the mid-latitudes of the North Atlantic, where models underestimate warming shown by our highest-confidence data, may provide a new perspective and insight into the predictive abilities of these models in simulating a past warm interval in Earth history. This is important because the Pliocene has a number of parallels to present predictions of late twenty-first century climate.

  17. Assessing confidence in Pliocene sea surface temperatures to evaluate predictive models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowsett, Harry J.; Robinson, Marci M.; Haywood, Alan M.; Hill, Daniel J.; Dolan, Aisling M.; Stoll, Danielle K.; Chan, Wing-Le; Abe-Ouchi, Ayako; Chandler, Mark A.; Rosenbloom, Nan A.; Otto-Bliesner, Bette L.; Bragg, Fran J.; Lunt, Daniel J.; Foley, Kevin M.; Riesselman, Christina R.

    2012-05-01

    In light of mounting empirical evidence that planetary warming is well underway, the climate research community looks to palaeoclimate research for a ground-truthing measure with which to test the accuracy of future climate simulations. Model experiments that attempt to simulate climates of the past serve to identify both similarities and differences between two climate states and, when compared with simulations run by other models and with geological data, to identify model-specific biases. Uncertainties associated with both the data and the models must be considered in such an exercise. The most recent period of sustained global warmth similar to what is projected for the near future occurred about 3.3-3.0 million years ago, during the Pliocene epoch. Here, we present Pliocene sea surface temperature data, newly characterized in terms of level of confidence, along with initial experimental results from four climate models. We conclude that, in terms of sea surface temperature, models are in good agreement with estimates of Pliocene sea surface temperature in most regions except the North Atlantic. Our analysis indicates that the discrepancy between the Pliocene proxy data and model simulations in the mid-latitudes of the North Atlantic, where models underestimate warming shown by our highest-confidence data, may provide a new perspective and insight into the predictive abilities of these models in simulating a past warm interval in Earth history. This is important because the Pliocene has a number of parallels to present predictions of late twenty-first century climate.

  18. Spatiotemporal temperature profiling of corneal surface during LTK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papaioannou, Thanassis; Maguen, Ezra I.; Grundfest, Warren S.

    2002-06-01

    Accurate prediction of LTK treatments requires refined thermal corneal models which necessitate precise input parameters. The overall objective of this study was to provide detailed information on the spatiotemporal temperature profile of the corneal surface, during in-vitro thermal keratoplasty. LTK was performed in-vitro on freshly harvested porcine eyes (N equals 16) with the Sunrise Technologies corneal shaping system (Model SUN 1000). Spatiotemporal thermal imaging of the irradiated corneas were obtained with a short wave Inframetrics thermal camera (Model PM290). Images were obtained at 8-bits resolution, with ~100 microns spatial and ~17 msec temporal resolution respectively. Treatment pattern consisted of eight spots at 6 mm zone, while lasing was conducted at settings of either 100 mJ and 15 pulses (N equals 8), or 260 mJ and 7 pulses (N equals 8). Temporal and spatial variation of the corneal surface temperatures were calculated at locations of importance to LTK. At the laser spot, temperature profiles consisted of transients coinciding approximately with the laser pulses. Maximum transient temperatures observed were 98.0+/- 4.6 degree(s)C for the high and 56.3+/- 2.6 degree(s)C for the low energy respectively. These temperature transients were superimposed on an envelope of lower-slowly varying temperatures. The maximum temperatures observed for this temperature envelope, were 51.8+/- 3.4 degree(s)C for the high and 35.4+/- 3.4 degree(s)C for the low energy respectively. The evolution of either the maximum temperature transients or the lower temperature envelope, followed exponential growth of the form: T equals A * exp(B*t). Maximum temperatures at locations 0.5 mm and 1 mm away from the laser spot, reached 25.7 degree(s)C and 23.3 degree(s)C for the low energy, and 34 degree(s)C and 25.6 degree(s)C for the high energy settings respectively. Temperature decay constants were approximately 2 to 3 sec, while the spatial temperature profile at the laser spot extended more than 2 mm at 2.5 sec post irradiation. The data obtained may help to refine corneal thermal modeling during LTK, and thus improve predictability of current or future-modified-treatments.

  19. Global Temperature Time Series

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The phenomenon is the rising and falling of temperatures on the Earth's surface. Click to choose a city on a regional map, showing graphs of the daily maximum, minimum, and mean temperatures for a 365 day time period.

  20. Effects of surface disorder and temperature on atomic friction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fajardo, O. Y.; Mazo, J. J.

    2010-07-01

    We have investigated the effect of surface disorder on atomic friction in the stick-slip dynamical regime of a one-dimensional Prandtl-Tomlinson model. We find that disorder in the substrate potential can modify the mean slip length and then it changes the friction force of the system. In particular, the effect of the disorder is more important at low temperatures and close to dynamical transition points or at high loads. We show results for different values of temperature, amplitude of the corrugation potential, dragging velocity, and damping. Special care is put in the comparison between the results of the regular and the disordered cases at many different temperatures and in the understanding of the combined effect of disorder and temperature in the dynamics of the system. To finish, we present some results on the robustness of the results against a change in the effective damping of the system.

  1. Evidence of Lunar Phase Influence on Global Surface Air Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anyamba, Ebby; Susskind, Joel

    2000-01-01

    Intraseasonal oscillations appearing in a newly available 20-year record of satellite-derived surface air temperature are composited with respect to the lunar phase. Polar regions exhibit strong lunar phase modulation with higher temperatures occurs near full moon and lower temperatures at new moon, in agreement with previous studies. The polar response to the apparent lunar forcing is shown to be most robust in the winter months when solar influence is minimum. In addition, the response appears to be influenced by ENSO events. The highest mean temperature range between full moon and new moon in the polar region between 60 deg and 90 deg latitude was recorded in 1983, 1986/87, and 1990/91. Although the largest lunar phase signal is in the polar regions, there is a tendency for meridional equatorward progression of anomalies in both hemispheres so that the warning in the tropics occurs at the time of the new moon.

  2. Inelastic Gas-Surface Interactions at Low Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mantovani, James Gerard

    The effect upon the accommodation coefficient of the long-range behavior of the atom-surface attractive potential is examined. A 1/z('3) attraction is not found to substantially affect the accommodation coefficient compared to a shorter ranged attraction. A possible mechanism by which adsorbed gas particles can cause the accommodation coefficient to increase with decreasing temperature for the He-W system at low temperatures is also discussed. By treating the gas atom-adatom interaction in a very simple way, it is shown that a one-dimensional, quantum mechanical calculation of the accommodation coefficient can have a temperature dependence similar to the experimental data for He-W at low temperatures.

  3. Global surface temperature/heat transfer measurements using infrared imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daryabeigi, Kamran

    1992-01-01

    A series of studies were conducted to evaluate the use of scanning radiometric infrared imaging systems for providing global surface temperature/heat transfer measurements in support of hypersonic wind tunnel testing. The in situ precision of the technique with narrow temperature span setting over the temperature range of 20 to 200 C was investigated. The precision of the technique over wider temperature span settings was also determined. The accuracy of technique for providing aerodynamic heating rates was investigated by performing measurements on a 10.2-centimeter hemisphere model in the Langley 31-inch Mach 10 tunnel, and comparing the results with theoretical predictions. Data from tests conducted on a generic orbiter model in this tunnel are also presented.

  4. Theoretical study of cathode surfaces and high-temperature superconductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, Wolfgang

    1994-01-01

    The surface-dipole properties of model cathode surfaces have been investigated with relativistic scattered-wave cluster calculations. Work-function/coverage curves have been derived from these data by employing the depolarization model of interacting surface dipoles. Accurate values have been obtained for the minimum work functions of several low-work-function surfaces. In the series BaO on bcc W, hcp Os, and fcc Pt, BaO/Os shows a lower and BaO/Pt a higher work function than BaO/W, which is attributed to the different substrate crystal structures involved. Results are also presented on the electronic structure of the high-temperature superconductor YBa2Cu3O7, which has been investigated with fully relativistic calculations for the first time.

  5. JOURNAL DE PHYSIQUE Colloque C5, suppliment au no 5, Tome 40, Mai 1979,page C5-46 High-temperature Hall effect in rare earth metals

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    -temperature Hall effect in rare earth metals M. V. Vedernikov, V. G. Dvunitkin and N. I. Moreva A. F. Ioffe. Abstract. - Up to date the Hall effect in rare earth metals (REM) was studied rather extensively below at http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/jphyscol:1979518 #12;HIGH-TEMPERATURE HALL EFFECT IN RARE EARTH METALS C5

  6. Surface emissivity and temperature retrieval for a hyperspectral sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Borel, C.C.

    1998-12-01

    With the growing use of hyper-spectral imagers, e.g., AVIRIS in the visible and short-wave infrared there is hope of using such instruments in the mid-wave and thermal IR (TIR) some day. The author believes that this will enable him to get around using the present temperature-emissivity separation algorithms using methods which take advantage of the many channels available in hyper-spectral imagers. A simple fact used in coming up with a novel algorithm is that a typical surface emissivity spectrum are rather smooth compared to spectral features introduced by the atmosphere. Thus, a iterative solution technique can be devised which retrieves emissivity spectra based on spectral smoothness. To make the emissivities realistic, atmospheric parameters are varied using approximations, look-up tables derived from a radiative transfer code and spectral libraries. One such iterative algorithm solves the radiative transfer equation for the radiance at the sensor for the unknown emissivity and uses the blackbody temperature computed in an atmospheric window to get a guess for the unknown surface temperature. By varying the surface temperature over a small range a series of emissivity spectra are calculated. The one with the smoothest characteristic is chosen. The algorithm was tested on synthetic data using MODTRAN and the Salisbury emissivity database.

  7. Detectability of Surface and Atmospheric Signatures in the Disk-averaged Spectra of the Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tinetti, G.; Meadows, V. S.; Crisp, D.; Kiang, N.; Fishbein, E.; Kahn, B.; Turnbull, M.

    2006-05-01

    We have developed a spatially and spectrally-resolved computer model of the Earth to explore the observational sensitivity to atmospheric and surface properties, and biosignatures, in disk-averaged spectra.This comprehensive model can also be used to analyze and interpret Earthshine data.Atmospheric, cloud and surface properties from existing observations and modeling studies are input to the model, which uses the Spectral Mapping Atmospheric Radiative Transfer (SMART) model to generate UV to far-IR spatially resolved high-resolution synthetic spectra. Disk-averaged synthetic spectra generated by the model were validated in the visible/Near-IR spectral range against disk- averaged Earth observations taken by the Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer (MGS- TES),the ESA Mars Express Omega instrument, and ground-based observations of earthshine reflected from the unilluminated portion of the Moon. Several atmospheric species can be identified in disk-averaged Earth spectra, and potentially detected depending on the wavelength range and resolving power of the instrument. At optical wavelengths (0.4 to 0.9 microns) O3, H2O, O2 and oxygen dimer (O2)2 are clearly apparent. CH4, N2O, CO2, O3 and H2O produce features in the near-IR (1 to 5 microns). The modeled spectra are also strongly phase-dependent, and a comprehensive 3-D model is needed to accurately model the observations. To explore the detectability of planetary characteristics, we simulated cases not available from the observational data sets, including an experiment to determine the detectability of the vegetation red edge as a function of planetary cloud cover. Our modeling shows that while land surface cover of vegetation on Earth produces a strong disk-averaged signal for a cloudless planet, even when the signal is averaged over the daily time scale, the detectability is significantly reduced in the presence of clouds, but is also a function of the observed planetary phase.

  8. Ultraviolet surface plasmon-mediated low temperature hydrazine decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Siying; Sheldon, Matthew T.; Liu, Wei-Guang; Jaramillo-Botero, Andres; Goddard, William Andrew; Atwater, Harry A.

    2015-01-01

    Conventional methods require elevated temperatures in order to dissociate high-energy nitrogen bonds in precursor molecules such as ammonia or hydrazine used for nitride film growth. We report enhanced photodissociation of surface-absorbed hydrazine (N2H4) molecules at low temperature by using ultraviolet surface plasmons to concentrate the exciting radiation. Plasmonic nanostructured aluminum substrates were designed to provide resonant near field concentration at ? = 248 nm (5 eV), corresponding to the maximum optical cross section for hydrogen abstraction from N2H4. We employed nanoimprint lithography to fabricate 1 mm × 1 mm arrays of the resonant plasmonic structures, and ultraviolet reflectance spectroscopy confirmed resonant extinction at 248 nm. Hydrazine was cryogenically adsorbed to the plasmonic substrate in a low-pressure ambient, and 5 eV surface plasmons were resonantly excited using a pulsed KrF laser. Mass spectrometry was used to characterize the photodissociation products and indicated a 6.2× overall enhancement in photodissociation yield for hydrazine adsorbed on plasmonic substrates compared with control substrates. The ultraviolet surface plasmon enhanced photodissociation demonstrated here may provide a valuable method to generate reactive precursors for deposition of nitride thin film materials at low temperatures.

  9. Sea surface and remotely sensed temperatures off Cape Mendocino, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breaker, L. C.; Arvesen, J. C.; Frydenlund, D.; Myers, J. S.; Short, K.

    1985-01-01

    During September 3 to 5, 1979, a multisensor oceanographic experiment was conducted off Cape Mendocino, California. The purpose of this experiment was to validate the use of remote sensing techniques over an area along the U.S. west coast where coasted upwelling is known to be intense. Remotely sensed mutlispectral data, including thermal infrared imagery, were collected above an upwelling feature off Cape Mendocino. Data were acquired from the TIRNOS-N and NOAA-6 polar orbiting satellites, the NASA Ames Research Center's high altitude U-2 aircraft, and a U.S. Coast Guard C-130 aircraft. Supporting surface truth data over the same feature were collected aboard the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) ship, OCEANOGRAPHER. Atmospheric soundings were also taken aboard the ship. The results indicate that shipboard measurements of sea surface temperatures can be reproduction within 1 C or better through remote observation of absolute infrared radiance values (whether measured aboard the NOAA polar orbiting satellite, the U-2 aircraft, or the Coast Guard aircraft) by using appropriate atmospheric corrections. Also, the patterns of sea surface temperature which were derived independently from the various remote platforms provide a consistent interpretation of the surface temperature field.

  10. Solar and geomagnetic activity, extremely low frequency magnetic and electric fields and human health at the Earth's surface

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. J. Palmer; M. J. Rycroft; M. Cermack

    2006-01-01

    The possibility that conditions on the Sun and in the Earth's magnetosphere can affect human health at the Earth's surface has been debated for many decades. This work reviews the research undertaken in the field of heliobiology, focusing on the effect of variations of geomagnetic activity on human cardiovascular health. Data from previous research are analysed for their statistical significance,

  11. Thermodynamic properties, melting temperature and viscosity of the mantles of Super Earths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stamenkovic, V.; Spohn, T.; Breuer, D.

    2010-12-01

    The recent dicscovery of extrasolar planets with radii of about twice the Earth radius and masses of several Earth masses such as e.g., Corot-7b (approx 5Mearth and 1.6Rearth, Queloz et al. 2009) has increased the interest in the properties of rock at extremely high pressures. While the pressure at the Earth’s core-mantle boundary is about 135GPa, pressures at the base of the mantles of extraterrestrial rocky planets - if these are at all differentiated into mantles and cores - may reach Tera Pascals. Although the properties and the mineralogy of rock at extremely high pressure is little known there have been speculations about mantle convection, plate tectonics and dynamo action in these “Super-Earths”. We assume that the mantles of these planets can be thought of as consisting of perovskite but we discuss the effects of the post-perovskite transition and of MgO. We use the Keane equation of state and the Slater relation (see e.g., Stacey and Davies 2004) to derive an infinite pressure value for the Grüneisen parameter of 1.035. To derive this value we adopted the infinite pressure limit for K’ (pressure derivative of the bulk modulus) of 2.41 as derived by Stacey and Davies (2004) by fitting PREM. We further use the Lindeman law to calculate the melting curve. We gauge the melting curve using the available experimental data for pressures up to 120GPa. The melting temperature profile reaches 6000K at 135GPa and increases to temperatures between 12,000K and 24,000K at 1.1TPa with a preferred value of 21,000K. We find the adiabatic temperature increase to reach 2,500K at 135GPa and 5,400K at 1.1TPa. To calculate the pressure dependence of the viscosity we assume that the rheology is diffusion controlled and calculate the partial derivative with respect to pressure of the activation enthalpy. We cast the partial derivative in terms of an activation volume and use the semi-empirical homologous temperature scaling (e.g., Karato 2008). We find that the activation volume decreases from 2.4cm^3/mol at 135GPa to 1.6cm^3/mol at 1.1TPa. An estimate of the viscosity increase across the mantle to a pressure of 1.1TPa using the adiabat calculated above results in an increase of the viscosity of 19 orders of magnitude. This value raises questions about the differentiation of these planets, heat transfer in their deep interiors, and magnetic field generation.(Ref.: Karato, S. 2008. Deformation of Earth Materials, Cambridge University Press.; Stacey, F.D., Davies, P.M. 2004. PEPI 142: 137; Queloz, D. et al., 2009. Astronomy and Astrophysics 506: 303.)

  12. Development of high temperature solar selective absorbers utilizing rare earth, transitional, and group metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erben, E.; Muehlratzer, A.; Tihanyi, B. A.; Cornils, B.

    1982-04-01

    Development of new selective absorbers for high temperatures above 350-400 C and the application in solar farm and solar tower plants are discussed. Extensive theoretical work has been performed in order to examine the existing potential concerning the available materials and the possible coating methods. Concerning the materials new chemicals will be developed and their integration into high temperature photothermal stacks studied. The new materials include the rare earth metals, transition metals and the elements of the 8th group of the periodic system. The coating methods are chemical vapor deposition (CVD), techniques of catalysis, electroplating, heterogeneous reactions between a gas and a solid phase and topochemic reactions. The characterization of these selective absorber coatings will be carried out by measuring the thermal optical data (alpha, epsilon), by X-ray examination, determination of the mechanical compatibility and chemical analysis.

  13. Low Temperature Geothermal Electricity Generation: Google Earth Virtual Field Trip Activity

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This exploration takes students to Chena Hot Springs Resort in Alaska where they will learn how to produce low temperature geothermal electricity. Teacher's guide, activity sheet and PowerPoint presenation included. The 2008 ATEEC Fellows Institute brought 18 environmental science community college and high school instructors to Alaska. They created virtual field trips using Google Earth. In the activity, explore Chena Hot Springs Resort in Alaska to learn about low temperature geothermal electricity generation. Chena Hot Springs runs their entire facility on renewable energy. Learn how they do it why they do it and the engineering challenges along the way. This activity includes numerous turnkey teaching resources such as a PowerPoint presentation explaining the geothermal heat exchanging process, video interviews with environmental engineers, a teacher's guide and student activity. Users must create a free login to access this resource.

  14. Interdecadal changes of surface temperature since the late nineteenth century

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, D.E.; Folland, C.K.; Bevan, A. [Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research, Bracknell (United Kingdom)] [Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research, Bracknell (United Kingdom); Jones, P.D. [Univ. of East Anglia, Norwich (United Kingdom)] [Univ. of East Anglia, Norwich (United Kingdom)

    1994-07-20

    The authors present global fields of decadal annual surface temperature anomalies, referred to the period 1951-1980, for each decade from 1881-1890 to 1981-1990 and for 1984-1993. In addition, they show decadal calendar-seasonal anomaly fields for the warm decades 1936-1945 and 1981-1990. The fields are based on sea surface temperature (SST) and land surface air temperature data. The SSTs are corrected for the pre-World War II use of uninsulated sea temperature buckets and incorporate adjusted satellite-based SSTs from 1982 onward. These results extend those published in the 1990 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Scientific Assessment. Despite poor data coverage initially and around the two World Wars the generally cold end of the nineteenth century and start to the twentieth century are confirmed, together with the substantial warming between about 1920 and 1940. Slight cooling of the northern hemisphere took place between the 1950s and the mid-1970s, although slight warming continued south of the equator. Recent warmth has been most marked over the northern continents in winter and spring, but the 1980s were warm almost everywhere apart from Greenland, the northwestern Atlantic and the midlatitude North Pacific. Parts of the middle- to high-latitude southern ocean may also have been cool in the 1980s, but in this area the 1951-1980 climatology is unreliable. The impact of the satellite data is reduced because the record of blended satellite and in situ SST is still too short to yield a climatology from which to calculate representative anomalies reflecting climatic change in the southern ocean. However, the authors propose a method of using existing satellite data in a step toward this target. The maps are condensed into global and hemispheric decadal surface temperature anomalies. The authors show the sensitivity of these estimated anomalies to alternative methods of compositing the spatially incomplete fields. 58 refs., 17 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Deriving Surface Soil Moisture from Medium Resolution VNIR/TIR Earth Observation Data combined with 1D simulation process model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petropoulos, George P.; Carlson, Toby N.

    2013-04-01

    Earth Observation (EO) has played an imperative role in extending our abilities for obtaining information on the spatio-temporal distribution of surface soil moisture (SSM). A wide range of techniques have been proposed for this purpose, utilising spectral information acquired from remote sensing instruments operating in different regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. Some of these methods have been based on the integration of satellite-derived estimates of Fractional Vegetation Cover (Fr) and Land Surface Temperature (Ts) in the form of a scatterplot domain, often combining simulations from land surface process model. In this work we present results from the evaluation of one such technique implemented using ENVISAT's Advanced Along Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR) medium resolution sensor imagery and SimSphere land surface model. Validation of the derived SMC maps was undertaken in different sites in Europe representing a variety of climatic, topographic and environmental conditions, for which validated in-situ observations from diverse operational ground observational networks were available. Our results indicated a generally close agreement between the inverted SMC maps and the in-situ observations, with accuracies often comparable to previous studies implemented using different types of EO data. Comparisons of the derived SMC maps regionally against other satellite-derived products also showed largely an explainable distribution of SMC in relation to surface heterogeneity. The present work was conducted in the framework of the PROgRESSIon (Prototyping the Retrievals of Energy Fluxes and Soil Moisture Content) project, funded by the European Space Agency (ESA) Support to Science Element (STSE). The project aims at exploring the development of a series of prototype products for the estimation of turbulent heat fluxes and SMC derived from the synergy of SimSphere land surface model with EO observations from advanced technologically designed medium resolution ESA-funded or co-funded instruments. KEYWORDS: surface soil moisture, remote sensing, triangle, SimSphere, AATSR.

  16. The dependence of surface temperature on IGBTs load and ambient temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, ?aja; Marek, Patsch

    2015-05-01

    Currently, older power electronics and electrotechnics are improvement and at the same time developing new and more efficient devices. These devices produce in their activities a significant part of the heat which, if not effectively drained, causing damage to these elements. In this case, it is important to develop new and more efficient cooling system. The most widespread of modern methods of cooling is the cooling by heat pipe. This contribution is aimed at cooling the insulated-gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) elements by loop heat pipe (LHP). IGBTs are very prone to damage due to high temperatures, and therefore is the important that the surface temperature was below 100°C. It was therefore created a model that examined what impact of surface temperature on the IGBT element and heat removal at different load and constant ambient temperature.

  17. Experimental & Numerical Investigation of Pool Boiling on Engineered Surfaces with Integrated Thin-flim Temperature Sensors 

    E-print Network

    Sathyamurthi, Vijaykumar

    2011-02-22

    The objective of this investigation is to measure and analyze surface temperature fluctuations in pool boiling. The surface temperature fluctuations were recorded on silicon surfaces with and without multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT). Novel Thin...

  18. Long-range Memory in Earth's Global Temperature and its Implications for Future Global Warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rypdal, K.; Oestvand, L.

    2012-12-01

    The Earth's climate is a driven complex system which responds to a variable radiative forcing on a vast range of time scales. The contribution explores the hypothesis that the temporal global temperature response can be modeled as a long-range memory (LRM) stochastic process characterized by a Hurst exponent 0.5temperature records we verify LRM scaling on time scales from months to several decades. We find that the LRM increases when one goes from regional (H= 0.7) to global (H=1.0) records and that LRM is highest in records strongly influenced by the ocean. The increasing trend through the last century cannot be explained as an unforced LRM fluctuation, but the observed 60-yr oscillation can. Analysis of a northern-hemisphere reconstruction for the last two millennia confirms LRM scaling up to at least 250 yr. If this record reconstructs the milennium-scale temperatures correctly there is a significant temperature difference between the Medieval Warm Period and the Little Ice Age which cannot be explained as an inherent LRM fluctuation. We systematically investigate biases and uncertainties of a number of analysis methods, and conclude that for these record lengths it has no meaning to give Hurst exponents with more than one decimal. We also address the serious implications of such memory effects on future global warming due to the stronger disturbance of the Earth's energy balance under sustained forcing.

  19. High Predictive Skill of Global Surface Temperature a Year Ahead

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Folland, C. K.; Colman, A.; Kennedy, J. J.; Knight, J.; Parker, D. E.; Stott, P.; Smith, D. M.; Boucher, O.

    2011-12-01

    We discuss the high skill of real-time forecasts of global surface temperature a year ahead issued by the UK Met Office, and their scientific background. Although this is a forecasting and not a formal attribution study, we show that the main instrumental global annual surface temperature data sets since 1891 are structured consistently with a set of five physical forcing factors except during and just after the second World War. Reconstructions use a multiple application of cross validated linear regression to minimise artificial skill allowing time-varying uncertainties in the contribution of each forcing factor to global temperature to be assessed. Mean cross validated reconstructions for the data sets have total correlations in the range 0.93-0.95,interannual correlations in the range 0.72-0.75 and root mean squared errors near 0.06oC, consistent with observational uncertainties.Three transient runs of the HadCM3 coupled model for 1888-2002 demonstrate quite similar reconstruction skill from similar forcing factors defined appropriately for the model, showing that skilful use of our technique is not confined to observations. The observed reconstructions show that the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) likely contributed to the re-commencement of global warming between 1976 and 2010 and to global cooling observed immediately beforehand in 1965-1976. The slowing of global warming in the last decade is likely to be largely due to a phase-delayed response to the downturn in the solar cycle since 2001-2, with no net ENSO contribution. The much reduced trend in 2001-10 is similar in size to other weak decadal temperature trends observed since global warming resumed in the 1970s. The causes of variations in decadal trends can be mostly explained by variations in the strength of the forcing factors. Eleven real-time forecasts of global mean surface temperature for the year ahead for 2000-2010, based on broadly similar methods, provide an independent test of the ideas of this study. They had the high correlation and root mean square error skill levels compared to observations of 0.74 and 0.07oC respectively. Pseudo-forecasts for the same period reconstructed from somewhat improved forcing data used for this study had the slightly better correlation of 0.80 and root mean squared error of 0.05oC. Finally we compare the statistical forecasts with dynamical hindcasts and forecasts of global surface temperature a year ahead made by the Met Office DePreSys coupled model. The statistical and dynamical forecasts of global surface temperature for 2011 will be compared with preliminary verification data.

  20. Surface fatigue life of high temperature gear materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Townsend, Dennis P.

    1994-04-01

    Three high temperature gear materials were evaluated using spur gear surface fatigue tests. These materials were, VASCO max 350, VASCO matrix 2, and nitralloy N and were evaluated for possible use in high temperature gear applications. The fatigue life of the three high temperature gear materials were compared with the life of the standard AISI 9310 aircraft gear material. Surface fatigue tests were conducted at a lubricant inlet temperature of 321 K (120 F), a lubricant outlet temperature of 350 K (170 F), a maximum Hertz stress of 1.71 GPa (248 ksi), a speed of 10,000 rpm, and with a synthetic paraffinic lubricant. The life of the nitralloy N was approximately the same as the AISI 9310, the life of the VASCO max 350 was much less than the AISI 9310 while the life of the VASCO matrix 2 was several times the life of the AISI 9310. The VASCO max 350 also showed very low fracture toughness with approximately half of the gears failed by tooth fracture through the fatigue spall. The VASCO matrix 2 had approximately 10-percent fracture failure through the fatigue spalls indicating moderate to good fracture toughness.

  1. Getting Beneath the Surface with the OpenEarth Framework (OEF) Virtual Globe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadeau, D. R.; Moreland, J. L.; Baru, C.; Crosby, C. J.

    2009-12-01

    Virtual globes like Google Earth and NASA WorldWind show layers of data overlaid atop the Earth’s terrain. But leading Earth science research efforts, such as EarthScope, are focused on 3D and 4D questions about the structure and evolution of the North American continent and processes controlling earthquakes and volcanoes. These research questions are fundamentally about phenomena beneath the surface, for which the terrain overlays offered by today’s virtual globes are not sufficient. Complex 3D structures revealed by geophysical techniques such as body wave tomography, shear wave splitting, earthquake locations, and subsurface drilling, need to be presented in a 3D context while also integrated with surficial data such as terrain, remotely sensed imagery and geologic mapping. GEON is developing the OpenEarth Framework (OEF) viewer to get beneath the surface of a virtual globe. The OEF viewer is a component of the open architecture of java software libraries and tools for manipulating Earth science data and presenting it visually. The OEF’s 3D visualization abilities are based on NASA WorldWind, extended to display 3D layers below the surface as well as atop it. The OEF displays 3D volumetric data such as seismic tomography as an isosurface that skins the volume by finding 3D boundaries between high and low values. The resulting isosurface is drawn beneath WorldWind’s terrain. The OEF also supports specialized layers to display subsurface structures, from earthquake hypocenters to the structure of the Moho. Multiple overlapping data sets can be combined into the same 3D visualization to build a composite view or to compare alternative versions of the same data. Visual comparison of the data below the surface with terrain, imagery and map data makes it possible to correlate subsurface structures with surface features. The OEF user interface allows isosurface boundary values and color ramps to be adjusted interactively. Multiple isosurfaces can be shown that correspond to the same or alternative data. Cutting planes can be positioned to slice through the data in different directions and display internal structure. Virtual sun-based shading of the terrain and isosurfaces gives a better sense of depth. By extending the WorldWind engine, we also take advantage of virtual globe interactivity and access to multiple WorldWind layers such as topography, satellite imagery, street maps, fault lines, and other geologic data. Beyond the visual support provided by WorldWind, OEF adds multiple software libraries for 2D and 3D data management and processing. Those libraries provide access to common Earth science file formats, including ESRI Shapefiles, ESRI Arc/Info Grids, GeoSoft GXF files, and UCAR NetCDF files. Several standard projection file formats are also supported along with reprojection into common coordinate spaces. The OEF architecture assembles these pieces into a cohesive package with 3D visualizations showing data above, atop, and beneath the terrain of a virtual globe.

  2. Dwarf Planet Ceres: Preliminary Surface Temperatures from Dawn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tosi, Federico; Capria, Maria Teresa; De Sanctis, Maria Cristina; Ammannito, Eleonora; Capaccioni, Fabrizio; Zambon, Francesca; Raponi, Andrea; Russell, Christopher T.; Raymond, Carol A.

    2015-04-01

    After a 7-year cruise, and a 1-year successful mission at asteroid 4 Vesta, the Dawn spacecraft is about to enter orbit around its second and final goal, the dwarf planet Ceres. In the mission phases that have been planned, the VIR imaging spectrometer aboard Dawn will acquire a large amount of hyperspectral data of the surface, to map the surface composition and to retrieve surface temperatures on the dayside of the target. The thermal behavior of the surface of dwarf planet Ceres is related to composition and physical properties that provide information about the nature and evolution of surface materials. The maximum temperature with the Sun overhead was estimated from measurements and modeling to be 235±4 K at 2.77 AU, i.e. comparable to the maximum surface temperature measured by the Rosetta spacecraft on the small asteroid Steins during the close flyby occurred in September 2008. The infrared range longward of 3.5 ?m is crucial to reveal the thermal emission of Ceres on its dayside, which can be used to map surface temperature across different orbits and local solar times (LST), and therefore constrain thermal properties at different spatial scales. Here we show the first spatially-resolved temperature data of dwarf planet Ceres derived in the Approach phase carried out in January and February 2015, with the target seen over tens of VIR pixels in the overall spatial resolution range between 50 km/px and 12.5 km/px (since February 2015, the VIR spatial resolution is better than any observation carried out by the Hubble Space Telescope and the Keck telescope). Broadly regional trends can be derived in this way, waiting for higher resolution coverage that will be achieved at later stages of the mission, under variable phase angles, illumination conditions, and heliocentric distances. To derive surface temperature, we rely on a Bayeasian approach to nonlinear inversion that was applied to the entire dataset of infrared data acquired by the VIR mapping spectrometer aboard the Dawn spacecraft during its orbital phase at asteroid Vesta in 2011-2012, as well as to Rosetta/VIRTIS data obtained during the close flyby of asteroid 21 Lutetia in 2010 and to comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko in the mapping phase carried out since July 2014. This approach allows simultaneous retrieval of surface temperature and emissivity in the 4.5-5.1 ?m range. VIR cannot measure temperatures on the nightside of Ceres, as well as in the northern polar region that will undergo permanent shadowing conditions throughout Dawn's nominal orbital mission phases. Acknowledgements: This work was supported by the Italian Space Agency (ASI), ASI-INAF Contract I/004/12/0. Support of the Dawn Science, Instrument, Operations Teams, as well as of the Dawn at Vesta Participating Scientist program, is gratefully acknowledged. The computational resources used in this research have been supplied by INAF-IAPS through the DataWell project.

  3. Validation of the Version 1 NOAA/NASA Pathfinder Sea Surface Temperature Data Set

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Elizabeth A.

    1998-01-01

    A high-resolution, global satellite-derived sea surface temperature (SST) data set called Pathfinder, from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) aboard the NOAA Polar Orbiters, is available from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory Physical Oceanography Distributed Active Archive Center (JPL PO.DAAC). Suitable for research as well as education, the Pathfinder SST data set is a result of a collaboration between the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and investigators at several universities. NOAA and NASA are the sponsors of the Pathfinder Program, which takes advantage of currently archived Earth science data from satellites. Where necessary, satellite sensors have been intercalibrated, algorithms improved and processing procedures revised, in order to produce long time-series, global measurements of ocean, land and atmospheric properties necessary for climate research. Many Pathfinder data sets are available to researchers now, nearly a decade before the first launch of NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS). The lessons learned from the Pathfinder programs will facilitate the processing and management of terabytes of data from EOS. The Oceans component of Pathfinder has undertaken to reprocess all Global Area Coverage (GAC) data acquired by the 5-channel AVHRRs since 1981. The resultant data products are consistent and stably calibrated [Rao, 1993a, Rao, 1993b, Brown et al., 1993], Earth-gridded SST fields at a variety of spatial and temporal resolutions.

  4. Sea surface temperature of the coastal zones of France

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deschamps, P. Y.; Crepon, M.; Monget, J. M.; Verger, F. (principal investigators); Frouin, R.; Cassanet, J.; Wald, L.

    1982-01-01

    Thermal gradients in French coastal zones for the period of one year were mapped in order to enable a coherent study of certain oceanic features detectable by the variations in the sea surface temperature field and their evolution in time. The phenomena examined were mesoscale thermal features in the English Channel, the Bay of Biscay, and the northwestern Mediterranean; thermal gradients generated by French estuary systems; and diurnal heating in the sea surface layer. The investigation was based on Heat Capacity Mapping Mission imagery.

  5. Low-Latency Lunar Surface Telerobotics from Earth-Moon Libration Points

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lester, Daniel; Thronson, Harley

    2011-01-01

    Concepts for a long-duration habitat at Earth-Moon LI or L2 have been advanced for a number of purposes. We propose here that such a facility could also have an important role for low-latency telerobotic control of lunar surface equipment, both for lunar science and development. With distances of about 60,000 km from the lunar surface, such sites offer light-time limited two-way control latencies of order 400 ms, making telerobotic control for those sites close to real time as perceived by a human operator. We point out that even for transcontinental teleoperated surgical procedures, which require operational precision and highly dexterous manipulation, control latencies of this order are considered adequate. Terrestrial telerobots that are used routinely for mining and manufacturing also involve control latencies of order several hundred milliseconds. For this reason, an Earth-Moon LI or L2 control node could build on the technology and experience base of commercially proven terrestrial ventures. A lunar libration-point telerobotic node could demonstrate exploration strategies that would eventually be used on Mars, and many other less hospitable destinations in the solar system. Libration-point telepresence for the Moon contrasts with lunar telerobotic control from the Earth, for which two-way control latencies are at least six times longer. For control latencies that long, telerobotic control efforts are of the "move-and-wait" variety, which is cognitively inferior to near real-time control.

  6. Earth survey applications division: Research leading to the effective use of space technology in applications relating to the Earth's surface and interior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, L. (editor)

    1980-01-01

    Accomplishments and future plans are described for the following areas: (1) geology - geobotanical indicators and geopotential data; (2) modeling magnetic fields; (3) modeling the structure, composition, and evolution of the Earth's crust; (4) global and regional motions of the Earth's crust and earthquake occurrence; (5) modeling geopotential from satellite tracking data; (6) modeling the Earth's gravity field; (7) global Earth dynamics; (8) sea surface topography, ocean dynamics; and geophysical interpretation; (9) land cover and land use; (10) physical and remote sensing attributes important in detecting, measuring, and monitoring agricultural crops; (11) prelaunch studies using LANDSAT D; (12) the multispectral linear array; (13) the aircraft linear array pushbroom radiometer; and (14) the spaceborne laser ranging system.

  7. The New Horizons Radio Science Experiment: Expected Performance in Measurements of Pluto's Atmospheric Structure, Surface Pressure, and Surface Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinson, D. P.; Linscott, I.; Woods, W. W.; Tyler, G. L.; Bird, M. K.; Paetzold, M.; Strobel, D. F.

    2014-12-01

    The New Horizons (NH) payload includes a Radio Science Experiment (REX) for investigating key characteristics of Pluto and Charon during the upcoming flyby in July 2015. REX flight equipment augments the NH radio transceiver used for spacecraft communications and tracking. The REX hardware implementation requires 1.6 W and 160 g. This presentation will focus on the final design and the predicted performance of two high-priority observations. First, REX will receive signals from a pair of 70-m antennas on Earth - each transmitting 20 kW at 4.2-cm wavelength - during a diametric radio occultation by Pluto. The data recorded by REX will reveal the surface pressure, the temperature structure of the lower atmosphere, and the surface radius. Second, REX will measure the thermal emission from Pluto at 4.2-cm wavelength during two linear scans across the disk at close range when both the dayside and the nightside are visible, allowing the surface temperature and its spatial variations to be determined. Both scans extend from limb to limb with a resolution of about 10 pixels; one bisects Pluto whereas the second crosses the winter pole. We will illustrate the capabilities of REX by reviewing the method of analysis and the precision achieved in a lunar occultation observed by New Horizons in May 2011. Re-analysis of radio occultation measurements by Voyager 2 at Triton is also under way. More generally, REX objectives include a radio occultation search for Pluto's ionosphere; examination of Charon through both radio occultation and radiometry; a search for a radar echo from Pluto's surface; and improved knowledge of the Pluto system mass and the Pluto-Charon mass ratio from a combination of two-way and one-way Doppler frequency measurements.

  8. ULF magnetic signatures at the earth surface due to ground water flow - A possible precursor to earthquakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Draganov, A. B.; Inan, U. S.; Taranenko, Iu. N.

    1991-01-01

    Magnetic field fluctuations at the earth's surface at less than 1 Hz are shown to result from motion with a peak velocity of about 4 cm/s of ground water (about 4 S/m) at about 5 km depth. Surface field changes can occur due to either divergence free fluid motion with transverse spatial wavelengths of a few tens of km, and/or homogeneous flow which displaces local inhomogeneities in the earth magnetic field.

  9. Satellite-Derived Sea Surface Temperature: Workshop-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Njoku, E. G.

    1984-01-01

    Global accuracies and error characteristics of presently orbiting satellite sensors are examined. The workshops are intended to lead to a better understanding of present capabilities for sea surface temperature measurement and to improve measurement concepts for the future. Data from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer AVHRR and Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer is emphasized. Some data from the High Resolution Infrared Sounder HIRS and AVHRR are also examined. Comparisons of satellite data with ship and eXpendable BathyThermograph XBT measurement show standard deviations in the range 0.5 to 1.3 C with biases of less than 0.4 C, depending on the sensor, ocean region, and spatial/temporal averaging. The Sea Surface Temperature SST anomaly maps show good agreement in some cases, but a number of sensor related problems are identified.

  10. Satellite-Derived Sea Surface Temperature: Workshop 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Njoku, E. G.

    1983-01-01

    Satellite measurements of sea surface temperature are now possible using a variety of sensors. The present accuracies of these methods are in the range of 0.5 to 2.0 C. This makes them potentially useful for synoptic studies of ocean currents and for global monitoring of climatological anomalies. To improve confidence in the satellite data, objective evaluations of sensor accuracies are necessary, and the conditions under which these accuracies degrade need to be understood. The Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) on the Nimbus-7 satellite was studied. Sea surface temperatures, derived from November 1979 SMMR data, were compared globally against ship measurements and climatology, using facilities of the JPL Pilot Ocean Data System. Methods for improved data analysis and plans for additional workshops to incorporate data from other sensors were discussed.

  11. Regional Lunar Surface Temperatures, Albedos, and Thermophysical Properties from LRO Diviner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasavada, A. R.; Paige, D. A.; Bandfield, J. L.; Greenhagen, B. T.; Siegler, M. A.; Williams, J.; Lro Diviner Team

    2010-12-01

    The Diviner Lunar Radiometer Experiment (DLRE) on NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter is the first investigation to map the global thermal state of the Moon and its diurnal and seasonal variability. Diviner began mapping in mid-2009 and is now into its second year, and therefore its second cycle of local time coverage. We will present maps of surface temperature and solar-wavelength albedo compiled from the first year of mapping data. Near-surface temperatures on the Moon (and by analogy, Mercury) are controlled by the physical and thermal properties within the first few meters of the surface, such as the local slope, bulk density, thermal conductivity, heat capacity, albedo, and emissivity (and any variations with depth or temperature). These, in turn, can be properties of the composition, particle size and packing, mechanical re-working, and weathering of the material. Existing knowledge of the near-surface structure comes from Apollo in situ measurements as well as prior thermal and radio observations. We will discuss how the local time and spectral coverage within the Diviner data can be used to constrain the regolith thermal and physical properties and their variation with depth. Diviner's temperature maps reveal a lunar surface dominated by the effects of mechanical re-working from impacts, but retaining important differences in thermal behavior due to exposures of blocky material or unusually thick concentrations of loosely packed fines, for example. We will discuss the preparation of these maps for release as higher-level data products to the Planetary Data System. Diviner is a push-broom radiometer that measures solar reflectance and infrared emission in nine spectral bands spanning 0.3 to 400 microns. Spatial resolution is a few hundred meters within and along Diviner's 21-pixel swath. LRO is in a polar, inertially fixed orbit that results in global coverage each Earth month and complete local time/seasonal coverage over an Earth year. Spatial coverage is comprehensive at the highest latitudes, but lower latitudes have gaps between adjacent orbit tracks. As LRO is pioneering NASA's efforts to renew exploration of the Moon, a major goal of Diviner is to characterize and assess the safety of future landing sites.

  12. Empirical orthogonal analysis of Pacific Sea surface temperatures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bryan C. Weare; Alfredo R. Navato; Reginald E. Newell

    1976-01-01

    Am empirical orthogonal function analysis has been performed on monthly mean sea surface temperatures for the greater part of the Pacific Ocean between 55°N and 20°S. The analysis identifies the most important modes of seasonal and non-seasonal variability during the period 1949--1973. A mode is defined spatially in terms of an empirical orthogonal function which describes the degree of coherence

  13. An improved real-time global sea surface temperature analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard W. Reynolds; Diane C. Marsico

    1993-01-01

    The monthly global sea surface temperature (SST) analysis of Reynolds using real-time in situ and satellite SST data has now been improved by using sea ice data to simulate SSTs in ice-covered regions. The simulated SSTs now become the external boundary condition for the analysis solution. This technique eliminates any high-latitude satellite biases and extends the analysis to the ice

  14. Pacific interdecadal variability in this century's sea surface temperatures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yi Chao; Michael Ghil; James C. McWilliams

    2000-01-01

    Analysis of this century's sea surface temperatures over the Pacific Ocean reveals an interdecadal oscillation with a period of 15-20 years. Our results show that the well-known 1976-77 climate regime shift is not unique, but represents one of several phase transitions associated with this interdecadal oscillation, also found around 1924-25, 1941-42, and 1957-58. The oscillation's striking north-south symmetry across the

  15. A study of six operational sea surface temperature analyses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. K. Folland; M. Gordon; D. E. Parker; R. W. Reynolds

    1993-01-01

    This study results from recommendations made by a 1984 WMO Expert Committee on Ocean-Atmosphere Interaction Relevant to Long-Range Forecasting. The committee suggested that comparisons be carried out between monthly sea surface temperature (SST) analyses routinely made in several different countries in near real time. Emphasis was placed on the improvement of such analyses for use in operational long-range forecasting, especially

  16. Ocean backscatter across the Gulf Stream sea surface temperature front

    SciTech Connect

    Nghiem, S.V.; Li, F.K. [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States)

    1997-06-01

    Ocean backscatter was measured by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, with the airborne NUSCAT K{sub u}-band scatterometer, across the Gulf Stream sea surface temperature front during the Surface Wave Dynamics Experiment off the coast of Virginia and Maryland in the winter of 1991. Backscatter across the front between the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration experimental coastal buoy A (44024) on the cold side and Discus C buoy (44023) on the warm side shows a difference of more than 5 dB for vertical polarization in many cases. This large frontal backscatter change is observed in all upwind, downwind, and crosswind directions. The sea surface temperature difference measured by the buoys was about 9{degrees}C. The corresponding difference in wind speed cannot account for the large backscatter change in view of geophysical model functions depending only on neutral wind velocity such as SASS. The measured backscatter also has larger upwind-downwind and upwind-crosswind ratios compared to the model results. Furthermore, NUSCAT data reveal that upwind backscatter on the cold side was smaller than or close to crosswind backscatter on the warm side for incidence angles between 30{degrees} to 50{degrees}. This suggests that the temperature front can be detected by the scatterometer at these incidence angles for different wind directions in the cold and warm sides.

  17. Joint variability of global runoff and global sea surface temperatures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCabe, G.J.; Wolock, D.M.

    2008-01-01

    Global land surface runoff and sea surface temperatures (SST) are analyzed to identify the primary modes of variability of these hydroclimatic data for the period 1905-2002. A monthly water-balance model first is used with global monthly temperature and precipitation data to compute time series of annual gridded runoff for the analysis period. The annual runoff time series data are combined with gridded annual sea surface temperature data, and the combined dataset is subjected to a principal components analysis (PCA) to identify the primary modes of variability. The first three components from the PCA explain 29% of the total variability in the combined runoff/SST dataset. The first component explains 15% of the total variance and primarily represents long-term trends in the data. The long-term trends in SSTs are evident as warming in all of the oceans. The associated long-term trends in runoff suggest increasing flows for parts of North America, South America, Eurasia, and Australia; decreasing runoff is most notable in western Africa. The second principal component explains 9% of the total variance and reflects variability of the El Ni??o-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and its associated influence on global annual runoff patterns. The third component explains 5% of the total variance and indicates a response of global annual runoff to variability in North Aflantic SSTs. The association between runoff and North Atlantic SSTs may explain an apparent steplike change in runoff that occurred around 1970 for a number of continental regions.

  18. Chromium isotopes in siliciclastic sediments and sedimentary rocks as a proxy for Earth surface redox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinhard, C. T.; Planavsky, N. J.; Wang, X.; Owens, J. D.; Johnson, T. M.; Fischer, W. W.; Lyons, T. W.

    2013-12-01

    Chromium (Cr) isotopes are an emerging and potentially promising proxy for tracking redox processes at Earth's surface. However, recent efforts to reconstruct the Cr isotope record through time have primarily focused on sporadically deposited iron-rich chemical sediments, with large temporal gaps and limited capacity to explore the Cr isotope record relative to modern and recent marine processes. However, the basic inorganic chemistry of Cr suggests that anoxic marine basins factor prominently in the global Cr cycle, and that likewise sediments deposited within anoxic basins may offer an unexplored Cr isotope archive throughout Earth's history. We present authigenic ?53Cr data from sediments of the Cariaco Basin, Venezuela--a ';type' environment on the modern Earth for large, perennially anoxic basins with relatively strong hydrological connections to the global ocean. Combined with currently available constraints on the ?53Cr composition of modern Atlantic seawater, these data are consistent with the hypothesis that anoxic marine basins can serve as a chemical archive of the first-order features of seawater ?53Cr variation. We employ a simple quantitative model to explore the implications of this hypothesis for global Cr isotope mass balance and the possible utility of authigenic ?53Cr in anoxically deposited siliciclastic sediments and sedimentary rocks as a global paleoredox proxy. Our focus is a basic analysis of the primary controls on seawater ?53Cr as related to both the marine redox landscape and the processes involved in the weathering and aqueous-particulate transport of Cr at Earth's surface. As a case study, we provide analysis of new bulk ?53Cr data through a Cretaceous Oceanic Anoxic Event (OAE-2), which shows a well-defined ~1.0‰ negative excursion during the event coupled with evidence for a drawdown of the marine Cr reservoir. We present a conceptual model to explain these observations, and interpret this shift to suggest a shutdown of internal oceanic Cr isotope fractionation associated with a perturbation to benthic marine redox.

  19. The Impact of Urbanization on Global Surface Temperature Trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hausfather, Z.; Mosher, S.; Menne, M. J.; Williams, C. N.; Stokes, N.; Jones, D.

    2011-12-01

    Rapid urbanization over the past half century has contributed to a warming bias in some Global Historical Climatological Network (GHCN) temperature records. The extent to which this urban warming bias contributes to global temperature trends remains largely unquantified both in raw and homogenized datasets, and no clear consensus exists on the need for specific urbanization corrections in global temperature reconstructions. In order to determine the magnitude of urbanization bias in the dataset, and to quantify the extent to which the newly adopted GHCN homogenization procedures correct for it, we examine minimum, maximum, and mean temperature trends from stations classified using numerous proxies for urbanity including MODIS, urban boundaries (GRUMP), satellite nightlights, and impermeable surface area, each created from publicly available high-resolution GIS datasets. These urbanity proxies are used to segment stations into separate urban and rural sets, and temperature differences between the two are calculated using both spatial gridding and station pairing approaches. The analysis is performed on raw and homogenized monthly data derived from the Global Historical Climatology Network (GHCN) Daily dataset that includes approximately 24,000 temperature measurement stations during the period from 1960 to present. Homogenized data that have been further adjusted using NASA GISS's Satellite Nightlight urban correction are also evaluated. The magnitude of the urbanization bias in the raw data and the degree to which this bias is mitigated with homogenization is discussed.

  20. Investigating ocean surface solar irradiance using Nimbus-7 Earth Radiation Budget data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chertock, Beth; Frouin, Robert

    1989-01-01

    A new estimation technique is introduced, using a surface solar irradiance database with advanced climate monitoring capabilities. Incorporating the Nimbus-7 Earth Radiation Budget (ERB) planetary albedo data obtained from wide-field-of-view radiometer measurements, the new solar irradiance model uses plane-parallel theory and assumes the isotropy of radiance reflected by the clouds and ocean surface. A brief description of the data, a treatment of the model verification, and a discussion of surface solar irradiance variability are presented. The results demonstrate the model's sensitivity to large-scale seasonal and interannual phenomena. A summary of the investigation is also presented, along with a perspective on potential uses and future development.