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Sample records for earthquake monitoring center

  1. Comprehensive Seismic Monitoring for Emergency Response and Hazards Assessment: Recent Developments at the USGS National Earthquake Information Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buland, R. P.; Guy, M.; Kragness, D.; Patton, J.; Erickson, B.; Morrison, M.; Bryon, C.; Ketchum, D.; Benz, H.

    2009-12-01

    The USGS National Earthquake Information Center (NEIC) has put into operation a new generation of seismic acquisition, processing and distribution subsystems that seamlessly integrate regional, national and global seismic network data for routine monitoring of earthquake activity and response to large, damaging earthquakes. The system, Bulletin Hydra, was designed to meet Advanced National Seismic System (ANSS) design goals to handle thousands of channels of real-time seismic data, compute and distribute time-critical seismic information for emergency response applications, and manage the integration of contributed earthquake products and information, arriving from near-real-time up to six weeks after an event. Bulletin Hydra is able meet these goals due to a modular, scalable, and flexible architecture that supports on-the-fly consumption of new data, readily allows for the addition of new scientific processing modules, and provides distributed client workflow management displays. Through the Edge subsystem, Bulletin Hydra accepts waveforms in half a dozen formats. In addition, Bulletin Hydra accepts contributed seismic information including hypocenters, magnitudes, moment tensors, unassociated and associated picks, and amplitudes in a variety of formats including earthworm import/export pairs and EIDS. Bulletin Hydra has state-driven algorithms for computing all IASPEI standard magnitudes (e.g. mb, mb_BB, ML, mb_LG, Ms_20, and Ms_BB) as well as Md, Ms(VMAX), moment tensor algorithms for modeling different portions of the wave-field at different distances (e.g. teleseismic body-wave, centroid, and regional moment tensors), and broadband depth. All contributed and derived data are centrally managed in an Oracle database. To improve on single station observations, Bulletin Hydra also does continuous real-time beam forming of high-frequency arrays. Finally, workflow management displays are used to assist NEIC analysts in their day-to-day duties. All combined

  2. Building the Southern California Earthquake Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, T. H.; Henyey, T.; McRaney, J. K.

    2004-12-01

    Kei Aki was the founding director of the Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC), a multi-institutional collaboration formed in 1991 as a Science and Technology Center (STC) under the National Science Foundation (NSF) and the U. S. Geological Survey (USGS). Aki and his colleagues articulated a system-level vision for the Center: investigations by disciplinary working groups would be woven together into a "Master Model" for Southern California. In this presentation, we will outline how the Master-Model concept has evolved and how SCEC's structure has adapted to meet scientific challenges of system-level earthquake science. In its first decade, SCEC conducted two regional imaging experiments (LARSE I & II); published the "Phase-N" reports on (1) the Landers earthquake, (2) a new earthquake rupture forecast for Southern California, and (3) new models for seismic attenuation and site effects; it developed two prototype "Community Models" (the Crustal Motion Map and Community Velocity Model) and, perhaps most important, sustained a long-term, multi-institutional, interdisciplinary collaboration. The latter fostered pioneering numerical simulations of earthquake ruptures, fault interactions, and wave propagation. These accomplishments provided the impetus for a successful proposal in 2000 to reestablish SCEC as a "stand alone" center under NSF/USGS auspices. SCEC remains consistent with the founders' vision: it continues to advance seismic hazard analysis through a system-level synthesis that is based on community models and an ever expanding array of information technology. SCEC now represents a fully articulated "collaboratory" for earthquake science, and many of its features are extensible to other active-fault systems and other system-level collaborations. We will discuss the implications of the SCEC experience for EarthScope, the USGS's program in seismic hazard analysis, NSF's nascent Cyberinfrastructure Initiative, and other large collaboratory programs.

  3. Accessing Data From the Southern California Earthquake Data Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, E.; Kahler, K.; Clayton, R. W.

    2001-12-01

    The Southern California Earthquake Data Center (SCEDC) archives and provides public access to earthquake parametric and waveform data gathered by the TriNet seismic network, southern California's earthquake monitoring network since January 1 2001. The parametric data includes earthquake locations, magnitudes, moment-tensor solutions (for some events), and phase picks. The waveform data consists of continuous recordings of 150 broadband stations, and triggered seismograms from 200 accelerometers and 200 short-period instruments. Since the Data Center and TriNet have the same Oracle database system, users can have access to earthquake data in near real-time, which usually means within a few minutes of the origin time. Catalog searches of the modern data can be done through the web interface http://www.scecdc.scec.org/catalog-search. User access to the data is via STP (Seismic Transfer Program) which can be accessed through a interactive web interface at the URL http://www.scedc.scedc.org/stp.html or through a client program that directly connects to the Data Center. The latter is a simple 'C' program for Solaris and Linux platforms and is downloadable from http://www.scecdc.scec.org/software.html. With STP, the waveform data is directly transfered to the user's computer and is converted to a number of formats, including SAC and MiniSEED. Byte-swapping is automatically taken care of. The older data is still available through the 'dbsort' program. These data are being converted to the new database over the coming year and will be uniformly accessible with the new interfaces.

  4. Active Seismic Monitoring for Earthquake Forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artamonova, M.; Korneev, V.

    2005-12-01

    Earthquake prediction remains high priority issue for disaster prevention. Study of the M6.0 2004 Parkfield and M7.0 1989 Loma Prieta strike-slip earthquakes on the San Andreas Fault (SAF) reveal seismicity peaks in the surrounding crust several months prior to the main events. Earthquakes directly within the SAF zone were intentionally excluded from the analysis because they manifest stress-release processes rather than stress accumulation. The observed increase in seismicity is interpreted as a signature of the increasing stress level in the surrounding crust, while the peak that occurs several months prior to the main event and the subsequent decrease in seismicity are attributed to damage-induced softening processes. Furthermore, in both cases there is a distinctive zone of low seismic activity that surrounds the epicentral region in the pre-event period. The increase of seismicity in the crust surrounding a potential future event and the development of a low-seismicity epicentral zone can be regarded as promising precursory information that could help signal the arrival of large earthquakes. We modeled the seismicity precursor phenomena using finite-element 2D model capable to replicate non-linear breaking of elastic rock. The distinctive seismicity peak was observed for a model simulating SAF properties at Park field. Such peaks are likely to be a good mid-term precursors allowing to declare alerts several months before earthquakes and pointing on their epicenter regions. The short tern alerts require use of active sources and their proper placement in order to monitor the developments of rock softening processes.

  5. Earthquake monitoring at the Cerro Prieto geothermal field

    SciTech Connect

    Majer, E.L.; McEvilly, T.V.

    1980-02-01

    A three-week study in spring 1978 revealed more moderate earthquake activity (one or two events/day, M/sub L/ greater than or equal to 1) in the Cerro Prieto production zone. Plotting these events on a Wadati diagram we estimated an 0.4 Poisson's ratio for the upper 1 to 2 km of the field. The events were centered near the western edge of the production zone, near well M-6, and indicated strikeslip movement on north-south faults. To monitor the earthquake activity and propagation characteristics within the production zone, a five-station, semi-permanent array was put into operation in September 1979. The stations are closely spaced (1 to 2 km), surrounding a central station at M-6. Each station consists of a three-component 4.5-Hz geophone in a 100-m well connected to a 12-bit triggered-digital-cassette recorder. Although each station operates independently, they are interconnected via a hard-wire link to a central site. The purpose of this link is twofold: first, to allow telemetry of any selected station to the central site for visual monitoring; second, to provide an automatic daily time calibration to keep inter-station errors to less than 5 ms. The data from these stations will be used to monitor earthquake activity and wave propagation characteristics associated with fluid withdrawal and/or injection in the geothermal reservoir.

  6. An overview of the National Earthquake Information Center acquisition software system, Edge/Continuous Waveform Buffer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Patton, John M.; Ketchum, David C.; Guy, Michelle R.

    2015-01-01

    This document provides an overview of the capabilities, design, and use cases of the data acquisition and archiving subsystem at the U.S. Geological Survey National Earthquake Information Center. The Edge and Continuous Waveform Buffer software supports the National Earthquake Information Center’s worldwide earthquake monitoring mission in direct station data acquisition, data import, short- and long-term data archiving, data distribution, query services, and playback, among other capabilities. The software design and architecture can be configured to support acquisition and (or) archiving use cases. The software continues to be developed in order to expand the acquisition, storage, and distribution capabilities.

  7. Earthquake Observation through Groundwater Monitoring in South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piao, J.; Woo, N. C.

    2014-12-01

    According to previous researches, the influence of the some earthquakes can be detected by groundwater monitoring. Even in some countries groundwater monitoring is being used as an important tool to identify earthquake precursors and prediction measures. Thus, in this study we attempt to catch the anomalous changes in groundwater produced by earthquakes occurred in Korea through the National Groundwater Monitoring Network (NGMN). For observing the earthquake impacts on groundwater more effectively, from the National Groundwater Monitoring Network we selected 28 stations located in the five earthquake-prone zones in South Korea. And we searched the responses to eight earthquakes with M ≥2.5 which occurred in the vicinity of five earthquake-prone zones in 2012. So far, we tested the groundwater monitoring data (water-level, temperature and electrical conductivity). Those data have only been treated to remove barometric pressure changes. Then we found 29 anomalous changes, confirming that groundwater monitoring data can provide valuable information on earthquake effects. To identify the effect of the earthquake from mixture signals of water-level, other signals must be separated from the original data. Periodic signals will be separated from the original data using Fast Fourier Transform (FFT). After that we will attempt to separate precipitation effect, and determine if the anomalies were generated by earthquake or not.

  8. Twitter earthquake detection: Earthquake monitoring in a social world

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Earle, Paul; Bowden, Daniel C.; Guy, Michelle R.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is investigating how the social networking site Twitter, a popular service for sending and receiving short, public text messages, can augment USGS earthquake response products and the delivery of hazard information. Rapid detection and qualitative assessment of shaking events are possible because people begin sending public Twitter messages (tweets) with in tens of seconds after feeling shaking. Here we present and evaluate an earthquake detection procedure that relies solely on Twitter data. A tweet-frequency time series constructed from tweets containing the word "earthquake" clearly shows large peaks correlated with the origin times of widely felt events. To identify possible earthquakes, we use a short-term-average, long-term-average algorithm. When tuned to a moderate sensitivity, the detector finds 48 globally-distributed earthquakes with only two false triggers in five months of data. The number of detections is small compared to the 5,175 earthquakes in the USGS global earthquake catalog for the same five-month time period, and no accurate location or magnitude can be assigned based on tweet data alone. However, Twitter earthquake detections are not without merit. The detections are generally caused by widely felt events that are of more immediate interest than those with no human impact. The detections are also fast; about 75% occur within two minutes of the origin time. This is considerably faster than seismographic detections in poorly instrumented regions of the world. The tweets triggering the detections also provided very short first-impression narratives from people who experienced the shaking.

  9. Remote sensing hazard monitoring and assessment in Yushu earthquake disaster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Qi; Xu, Feng; Chen, Shirong

    2011-12-01

    Yushu Earthquake of magnitude 7.1 Richter in 2010 has brought a huge loss of personal lives and properties to China. National Disaster Reduction Center of China implemented the disaster assessment by using remote sensing images and field investigation. Preliminary judgment of disaster scope and damage extent was acquired by change detection. And the building region of hard-hit area Jiegu town was partitioned into 3-level grids in airborne remote sensing images by street, type of use, structure, and about 685 girds were numbered. Hazard assessment expert group were sent to implement field investigation according to each grid. The housing damage scope and extent of loss were defined again integrated field investigation data and local government reported information. Though remote sensing technology has played an important role in huge disaster monitoring and assessment, the automatic capability of disaster information extraction flow, three-dimensional disaster monitoring mode and bidirectional feedback mechanism of products and services should still be further improved.

  10. Monitoring the Pollino Earthquake Swarm (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roessler, D.; Passarelli, L.; Govoni, A.; Rivalta, E.

    2014-12-01

    The Mercure Basin (MB) and the Castrovillari Fault (CF) in the Pollino range (southern Apennines, Italy) representone of the most prominent seismic gaps in the Italian seismic catalog, with no M>6 earthquakes during the lastcenturies. In recent times, the MB has been repeatedly interested by seismic swarms.The most energetic swarm started in 2010 and still active in 2014. The seismicity culminated in autumn 2012 with a M=5 event on October 25. In contrast, the CF appears aseismic. Only the northern part of the CF has experienced microseismicity.The range host a number of additional sub-parallel faults.Their rheology is unclear. Current debates include the potential of the MB and the CF to host largeearthquakes and the level and the style of deformation.Understanding the seismicity and the behaviour of the faultsis therefore necessary to assess the seismic hazard. The GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences and INGV, Italy, have been jointly monitoring the ongoing seismicity using a small-aperture seismic array, integrated in a temporary seismic network. Using the array, we automatically detect about ten times more earthquakes than currently included inlocal catalogues corresponding to completeness above M~0.5.In the course of the swarm, seismicity has mainly migrated within the Mercure Basin.However, the eastward spread towards the northern tio of the CF in 2013 marksa phase with seismicity located outside of the Mercure Basin.The event locations indicate spatially distinct clusters with different mechanisms across the E-W trending Pollino Fault.The clusters differ in strike and dip.Calibration of the local magnitude scale confirms earlier studies further north in the Apennines. The station corrections show N-S variation indicating that the Pollino Fault forms an important structural boundary.

  11. The USGS National Earthquake Information Center's Response to the Wenchuan, China Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Earle, P. S.; Wald, D. J.; Benz, H.; Sipkin, S.; Dewey, J.; Allen, T.; Jaiswal, K.; Buland, R.; Choy, G.; Hayes, G.; Hutko, A.

    2008-12-01

    Immediately after detecting the May 12th, 2008 Mw 7.9 Wenchuan Earthquake, the USGS National Earthquake Information Center (NEIC) began a coordinated effort to understand and communicate the earthquake's seismological characteristics, tectonic context, and humanitarian impact. NEIC's initial estimates of magnitude and location were distributed within 30 minutes of the quake by e-mail and text message to 70,000 users via the Earthquake Notification System. The release of these basic parameters automatically triggered the generation of more sophisticated derivative products that were used by relief and government agencies to plan their humanitarian response to the disaster. Body-wave and centroid moment tensors identified the earthquake's mechanism. Predictive ShakeMaps provided the first estimates of the geographic extent and amplitude of shaking. The initial automated population exposure estimate generated and distributed by the Prompt Assessment of Global Earthquakes for Response (PAGER) system stated that 1.2 million people were exposed to severe-to-extreme shaking (Modified Mercalli Intensity VIII or greater), indicating a large-scale disaster had occurred. NEIC's modeling of the mainshock and aftershocks was continuously refined and expanded. The length and orientation of the fault were determined from aftershocks, finite-fault models, and back-projection source imaging. Firsthand accounts of shaking intensity were collected and mapped by the "Did You Feel It" system. These results were used to refine our ShakeMaps and PAGER exposure estimates providing a more accurate assessment of the extent and enormity of the disaster. The products were organized and distributed in an event-specific summary poster and via the USGS Earthquake Program web pages where they were viewed by millions and reproduced by major media outlets (over 1/2 billion hits were served that month). Rather than just a point showing magnitude and epicenter, several of the media's schematic maps

  12. Earthquake monitoring for multi-temporal images of Ziyuan-3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qing; Jiang, Yong-hua; Zhang, Guo; Sheng, Qing-hong

    2015-12-01

    With frequent occurrence of earthquake disaster, earthquake monitoring becomes increasingly concerned. Global observing by optical remote sensing is an emerging technology widely applied in monitoring temporal changes of topography in earthquake. It provides advantages of large width of observation, fast data acquisition and high time effectiveness. This technique takes advantages of accurate image registration of pre-seismic and post-seismic to spot surface rupture zones. Therefore, the spatial alignment accuracy of multi temporal images becomes a problem that hinder the earthquake monitoring. Considering the adverse impact of different imaging angle, camera lens distortion and other factors on image registration, a new approach of high accurate registration based on constraining positioning consistency in rational function model (RFM) is proposed. Ziyuan3 images of Yutian country in Xinjiang are used to perform the earthquake monitoring experiment. After applying the proposed method, registration accuracy of pre-seismic and postseismic images is better than 0.6 pixel; surface rupture zones caused by earthquake are acquired promptly.

  13. Recent improvements in earthquake and tsunami monitoring in the Caribbean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gee, L.; Green, D.; McNamara, D.; Whitmore, P.; Weaver, J.; Huang, P.; Benz, H.

    2007-12-01

    Following the catastrophic loss of life from the December 26, 2004, Sumatra-Andaman Islands earthquake and tsunami, the U.S. Government appropriated funds to improve monitoring along a major portion of vulnerable coastal regions in the Caribbean Sea, the Gulf of Mexico, and the Atlantic Ocean. Partners in this project include the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the Puerto Rico Seismic Network (PRSN), the Seismic Research Unit of the University of the West Indies, and other collaborating institutions in the Caribbean region. As part of this effort, the USGS is coordinating with Caribbean host nations to design and deploy nine new broadband and strong-motion seismic stations. The instrumentation consists of an STS-2 seismometer, an Episensor accelerometer, and a Q330 high resolution digitizer. Six stations are currently transmitting data to the USGS National Earthquake Information Center, where the data are redistributed to the NOAA's Tsunami Warning Centers, regional monitoring partners, and the IRIS Data Management Center. Operating stations include: Isla Barro Colorado, Panama; Gun Hill Barbados; Grenville, Grenada; Guantanamo Bay, Cuba; Sabaneta Dam, Dominican Republic; and Tegucigalpa, Honduras. Three additional stations in Barbuda, Grand Turks, and Jamaica will be completed during the fall of 2007. These nine stations are affiliates of the Global Seismographic Network (GSN) and complement existing GSN stations as well as regional stations. The new seismic stations improve azimuthal coverage, increase network density, and provide on-scale recording throughout the region. Complementary to this network, NOAA has placed Deep-ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunami (DART) stations at sites in regions with a history of generating destructive tsunamis. Recently, NOAA completed deployment of 7 DART stations off the coasts of Montauk Pt, NY; Charleston, SC; Miami, FL; San Juan, Puerto Rico; New

  14. Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC) Summer Internship Programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benthien, M. L.; Perry, S.; Jordan, T. H.

    2004-12-01

    For the eleventh consecutive year, the Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC) coordinated undergraduate research experiences in summer 2004, allowing 35 students with a broad array of backgrounds and interests to work with the world's preeminent earthquake scientists and specialists. Students participate in interdisciplinary, system-level earthquake science and information technology research, and several group activities throughout the summer. Funding for student stipends and activities is made possible by the NSF Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU) program. SCEC coordinates two intern programs: The SCEC Summer Undergraduate Research Experience (SCEC/SURE) and the SCEC Undergraduate Summer in Earthquake Information Technology (SCEC/USEIT). SCEC/SURE interns work one-on-one with SCEC scientists at their institutions on a variety of earthquake science research projects. The goals of the program are to expand student participation in the earth sciences and related disciplines, encourage students to consider careers in research and education, and to increase diversity of students and researchers in the earth sciences. 13 students participated in this program in 2004. SCEC/USEIT is an NSF REU site that brings undergraduate students from across the country to the University of Southern California each summer. SCEC/USEIT interns interact in a team-oriented research environment and are mentored by some of the nation's most distinguished geoscience and computer science researchers. The goals of the program are to allow undergraduates to use advanced tools of information technology to solve problems in earthquake research; close the gap between computer science and geoscience; and engage non-geoscience majors in the application of earth science to the practical problems of reducing earthquake risk. SCEC/USEIT summer research goals are structured around a grand challenge problem in earthquake information technology. For the past three years the students have

  15. Northern California Earthquake Data Center: Data Sets and Data Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuhauser, D. S.; Allen, R. M.; Zuzlewski, S.

    2015-12-01

    The Northern California Earthquake Data Center (NCEDC) provides a permanent archive and real-time data distribution services for a unique and comprehensive data set of seismological and geophysical data sets encompassing northern and central California. We provide access to over 85 terabytes of continuous and event-based time series data from broadband, short-period, strong motion, and strain sensors as well as continuous and campaign GPS data at both standard and high sample rates. The Northen California Seismic System (NCSS), operated by UC Berkeley and USGS Menlo Park, has recorded over 900,000 events from 1984 to the present, and the NCEDC serves catalog, parametric information, moment tensors and first motion mechanisms, and time series data for these events. We also serve event catalogs, parametric information, and event waveforms for DOE enhanced geothermal system monitoring in northern California and Nevada. The NCEDC provides a several ways for users to access these data. The most recent development are web services, which provide interactive, command-line, or program-based workflow access to data. Web services use well-established server and client protocols and RESTful software architecture that allow users to easily submit queries and receive the requested data in real-time rather than through batch or email-based requests. Data are returned to the user in the appropriate format such as XML, RESP, simple text, or MiniSEED depending on the service and selected output format. The NCEDC supports all FDSN-defined web services as well as a number of IRIS-defined and NCEDC-defined services. We also continue to support older email-based and browser-based access to data. NCEDC data and web services can be found at http://www.ncedc.org and http://service.ncedc.org.

  16. Monitoring seismic velocity changes associated with the 2014 Mw 6.0 South Napa earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taira, T.; Brenguier, F.; Kong, Q.

    2014-12-01

    We analyze ambient seismic noise wavefield to explore temporal variations in seismic velocity associated with the 24 August 2014 Mw 6.0 South Napa earthquake. We estimate relative velocity changes (dv/v) with MSNoise [Lecocq et al., 2014, SRL] by analyzing continuous waveforms collected at 10 seismic stations that locate near the epicenter of the 2014 South Napa earthquake. Following Brenguier et al. [2008, Science], our preliminary analysis focuses on the vertical component waveforms in a frequency range of 0.1-0.9 Hz. We determine the reference Green's function (GF) for each station pair as the average of 1-day stacks of GFs obtained in the time interval, January through July 2014. We estimate the time history of dv/v by measuring delay times between 10-day stacks of GF and reference GF. We find about 0.07% velocity reduction immediately after the 2014 South Napa earthquake by measuring the delay times between stacked and reference GFs. Our preliminary result also reveals a post-seismic relaxation process. The velocity reduction is down to 0.04% about 20 days after the 2014 South Napa earthquake. We have implemented an automated system to monitor the time history of dv/v (http://earthquakes.berkeley.edu/~taira/SNapa/SNapa_Noise.html) by using waveforms archived at the Northern California Earthquake Data Center. We will characterize the detailed temporal evolution of velocity change associated with the 2014 South Napa earthquake.

  17. Web Services and Other Enhancements at the Northern California Earthquake Data Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuhauser, D. S.; Zuzlewski, S.; Allen, R. M.

    2012-12-01

    The Northern California Earthquake Data Center (NCEDC) provides data archive and distribution services for seismological and geophysical data sets that encompass northern California. The NCEDC is enhancing its ability to deliver rapid information through Web Services. NCEDC Web Services use well-established web server and client protocols and REST software architecture to allow users to easily make queries using web browsers or simple program interfaces and to receive the requested data in real-time rather than through batch or email-based requests. Data are returned to the user in the appropriate format such as XML, RESP, or MiniSEED depending on the service, and are compatible with the equivalent IRIS DMC web services. The NCEDC is currently providing the following Web Services: (1) Station inventory and channel response information delivered in StationXML format, (2) Channel response information delivered in RESP format, (3) Time series availability delivered in text and XML formats, (4) Single channel and bulk data request delivered in MiniSEED format. The NCEDC is also developing a rich Earthquake Catalog Web Service to allow users to query earthquake catalogs based on selection parameters such as time, location or geographic region, magnitude, depth, azimuthal gap, and rms. It will return (in QuakeML format) user-specified results that can include simple earthquake parameters, as well as observations such as phase arrivals, codas, amplitudes, and computed parameters such as first motion mechanisms, moment tensors, and rupture length. The NCEDC will work with both IRIS and the International Federation of Digital Seismograph Networks (FDSN) to define a uniform set of web service specifications that can be implemented by multiple data centers to provide users with a common data interface across data centers. The NCEDC now hosts earthquake catalogs and waveforms from the US Department of Energy (DOE) Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) monitoring networks. These

  18. Real-time earthquake monitoring: Early warning and rapid response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    A panel was established to investigate the subject of real-time earthquake monitoring (RTEM) and suggest recommendations on the feasibility of using a real-time earthquake warning system to mitigate earthquake damage in regions of the United States. The findings of the investigation and the related recommendations are described in this report. A brief review of existing real-time seismic systems is presented with particular emphasis given to the current California seismic networks. Specific applications of a real-time monitoring system are discussed along with issues related to system deployment and technical feasibility. In addition, several non-technical considerations are addressed including cost-benefit analysis, public perceptions, safety, and liability.

  19. Lessons Learned from Creating the Public Earthquake Resource Center at CERI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patterson, G. L.; Michelle, D.; Johnston, A.

    2004-12-01

    The Center for Earthquake Research and Information (CERI) at the University of Memphis opened the Public Earthquake Resource Center (PERC) in May 2004. The PERC is an interactive display area that was designed to increase awareness of seismology, Earth Science, earthquake hazards, and earthquake engineering among the general public and K-12 teachers and students. Funding for the PERC is provided by the US Geological Survey, The NSF-funded Mid America Earthquake Center, and the University of Memphis, with input from the Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology. Additional space at the facility houses local offices of the US Geological Survey. PERC exhibits are housed in a remodeled residential structure at CERI that was donated by the University of Memphis and the State of Tennessee. Exhibits were designed and built by CERI and US Geological Survey staff and faculty with the help of experienced museum display subcontractors. The 600 square foot display area interactively introduces the basic concepts of seismology, real-time seismic information, seismic network operations, paleoseismology, building response, and historical earthquakes. Display components include three 22" flat screen monitors, a touch sensitive monitor, 3 helicorder elements, oscilloscope, AS-1 seismometer, life-sized liquefaction trench, liquefaction shake table, and building response shake table. All displays include custom graphics, text, and handouts. The PERC website at www.ceri.memphis.edu/perc also provides useful information such as tour scheduling, ask a geologist, links to other institutions, and will soon include a virtual tour of the facility. Special consideration was given to address State science standards for teaching and learning in the design of the displays and handouts. We feel this consideration is pivotal to the success of any grass roots Earth Science education and outreach program and represents a valuable lesson that has been learned at CERI over the last several

  20. Utilizing online monitoring of water wells for detecting earthquake precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reuveni, Y.; Anker, Y.; Inbar, N.; Yellin-Dror, A.; Guttman, J.; Flexer, A.

    2015-12-01

    Groundwater reaction to earthquakes is well known and documented, mostly as changes in water levels or springs discharge, but also as changes in groundwater chemistry. During 2004 groundwater level undulations preceded a series of moderate (ML~5) earthquakes, which occurred along the Dead Sea Rift System (DSRS). In order to try and validate these preliminary observations monitoring of several observation wells was initiated. The monitoring and telemetry infrastructure as well as the wells were allocated specifically for the research by the Israeli National Water Company (Mekorot LTD.). Once several earthquake events were skipped due to insufficient sampling frequency and owing to insufficient storage capacity that caused loss of data, it was decided to establish an independent monitoring system. This current stage of research had commenced at 2011 and just recently became fully operative. At present there are four observation wells that are located along major faults, adjacent to the DSRS. The wells must be inactive and with a confined production layer. The wells are equipped with sensors for groundwter level, water conductivity and groundwater temperature measurements. The data acquisition and transfer resolution is of one minute and the dataset is being transferred through a GPRS network to a central database server. Since the start of the present research stage, most of the earthquakes recorded at the vicinity of the DSRS were smaller then ML 5, with groundwater response only after the ground movement. Nonetheless, distant earthquakes occurring as far as 300 km along a DSRS adjacent fault (ML~3), were noticed at the observation wells. A recent earthquake precursory reoccurrence was followed by a 5.5ML earthquake with an epicenter near the eastern shore of the Red Sea about 400km south to the wells that alerted the quake (see figure). In both wells anomalies is water levels and conductivity were found few hours before the quake, although any single anomaly cannot

  1. USGS NEIC Earthquake Monitoring, Response and Research in the Northern Pacific Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayes, G. P.

    2012-12-01

    A major component of USGS National Earthquake Information Center (NEIC) operations are those related to the monitoring of and response to global earthquakes. In this presentation I will discuss the monitoring capabilities of the NEIC in the Alaska-Aleutians and Kuril-Kamchatka arc regions, and how these might affect our response to major subduction zone earthquakes. I will focus in particular on our capabilities for the rapid characterization of earthquake magnitude and mechanism, issues vital for subsequent real-time shaking and tsunami risk assessments. Such rapid assessments are made possible by the availability of nearby long-period data, from the Global Seismic Network and other regional networks available in real time at the NEIC. In Alaska, available data facilitates accurate magnitude assessments for even the largest earthquakes in as little as 5-10 minutes. In Kamchatka, however, such response times are delayed a further 10-15 minutes by the limited availability of regional data. These issues impact the generation and accuracy of downstream response products produced in real time after a major global event. In the second part of this presentation, I will highlight the timeline over which these products, such as ShakeMap and PAGER, become available, and when and how they were produced in real time following the 2011 M9.0 Tohoku earthquake in Japan. The NEIC was aware of great size of this earthquake in less than 20 minutes; with more regional data from the region, this time could be reduced to less than 10 minutes for future earthquakes. Our response to this event was a demonstration of the major advances made since a similar sized earthquake in Sumatra in 2004, while at the same time highlighting where further improvements are necessary in the future, in response to the growing needs of our society for immediate, accurate and actionable information. Many of the advances and improvements made to rapid earthquake characterization and response stem from

  2. Recent Progress and Development on Multi-parameters Remote Sensing Application in Earthquake Monitoring in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Xuhui; Zhang, Xuemin; Hong, Shunying; Jing, Feng; Zhao, Shufan

    2014-05-01

    In the last ten years, a few national research plans and scientific projects on remote sensing application in Earthquake monitoring research are implemented in China. Focusing on advancing earthquake monitoring capability searching for the way of earthquake prediction, satellite electromagnetism, satellite infrared and D-InSAR technology were developed systematically and some remarkable progress were achieved by statistical research on historical earthquakes and summarized initially the space precursory characters, which laid the foundation for gradually promoting the practical use. On the basis of these works, argumentation on the first space-based platform has been finished in earthquake stereoscope observation system in China, and integrated earthquake remote sensing application system has been designed comprehensively. To develop the space-based earthquake observational system has become a major trend of technological development in earthquake monitoring and prediction. We shall pay more emphasis on the construction of the space segment of China earthquake stereoscope observation system and Imminent major scientific projects such as earthquake deformation observation system and application research combined INSAR, satellite gravity and GNSS with the goal of medium and long term earthquake monitoring and forcasting, infrared observation and technical system and application research with the goal of medium and short term earthquake monitoring and forcasting, and satellite-based electromagnetic observation and technical system and application system with the goal of short term and imminent earthquake monitoring.

  3. Korea Integrated Seismic System (KISS) and Earthquake Monitoring for Korea Train eXpress (KTX).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jung Ho; Chi, Heon Cheol; Seub Lim, In; Kim, Geun Young; Shin, Jin Soo

    2010-05-01

    Since 2002 Korea Integrated Seismic System (KISS) has been playing main role in real-time seismic data exchange between different seismic networks operated by four earthquake monitoring institutes: KMA, KEPRI, KINS and KIGAM. Seismic data from different seismic networks are gathered into the data pool of KISS where clients can receive data in real-time. Before expanding and modernizing of Korean seismic stations, the consortium of the four institutes made the standard criteria of seismic observation such as instrument, data format, and communication protocol for the purpose of integrating seismic networks. More than 160 digital stations (velocity or accelerometer) installed from 1998 to 2009 in Korea could be easily linked to KISS in real time due to the standard criteria. When a big earthquake happens, the observed peak acceleration value can be used as the instrumental intensity on the local site and the distribution of peak accelerations shows roughly the severity of the damaged area. Real Time Intensity Color Mapping (RTICOM) is developed to generate every second contour map of the nationwide intensity based on the peak acceleration values retrieved through KISS from local stations. RTICOM can be used for rapid evaluation of the intensity and decision making against earthquake damages. For the purpose of rapid response to earthquake hazard, Korea Train eXpress (KTX) constructed real-time monitoring system using accelerometers installed on bridges and tunnels. KTX monitoring center receives every second PGA data and monitoring system displays these data on the dedicated screen. The frequency zone of data is considered only below 10 Hz in other to reduce artificial false alarms. If a higher PGA value overcomes the pre-determined level then an alarm will happen with making sound and brightening red and yellow lights. The KTX control center would make repaid decision whether express train should be stopped immediately or not.

  4. Helping safeguard Veterans Affairs' hospital buildings by advanced earthquake monitoring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kalkan, Erol; Banga, Krishna; Ulusoy, Hasan S.; Fletcher, Jon Peter B.; Leith, William S.; Blair, James L.

    2012-01-01

    In collaboration with the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA), the National Strong Motion Project of the U.S. Geological Survey has recently installed sophisticated seismic systems that will monitor the structural integrity of hospital buildings during earthquake shaking. The new systems have been installed at more than 20 VA medical campuses across the country. These monitoring systems, which combine sensitive accelerometers and real-time computer calculations, are capable of determining the structural health of each structure rapidly after an event, helping to ensure the safety of patients and staff.

  5. Earthquake Monitoring at Different Scales with Seiscomp3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grunberg, M.; Engels, F.

    2013-12-01

    In the last few years, the French National Network of Seismic Survey (BCSF-RENASS) had to modernize its old and aging earthquake monitoring system coming from an inhouse developement. After having tried and conducted intensive tests on several real time frameworks such as EarthWorm and Seiscomp3 we have finaly adopted in 2012 Seiscomp3. Our actual system runs with two pipelines in parallel: the first one is tuned at a global scale to monitor the world seismicity (for event's magnitude > 5.5) and the second one is tuned at a national scale for the monitoring of the metropolitan France. The seismological stations used for the "world" pipeline are coming mainly from Global Seismographic Network (GSN), whereas for the "national" pipeline the stations are coming from the RENASS short period network and from the RESIF broadband network. More recently we have started to tune seiscomp3 at a smaller scale to monitor in real time the geothermal project (a R&D program in Deep Geothermal Energy) in the North-East part of France. Beside the use of the real time monitoring capabilities of Seiscomp3 we have also used a very handy feature to playback a 4 month length dataset at a local scale for the Rambervillers earthquake (22/02/2003, Ml=5.4) leading to the build of roughly 2000 aftershock's detections and localisations.

  6. Integrating geomatics and structural investigation in post-earthquake monitoring of ancient monumental Buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dominici, Donatella; Galeota, Dante; Gregori, Amedeo; Rosciano, Elisa; Alicandro, Maria; Elaiopoulos, Michail

    2014-06-01

    The old city center of L’Aquila is rich in historical buildings of considerable merit. On April 6th 2009 a devastating earthquake caused significant structural damages, affecting especially historical and monumental masonry buildings. The results of a study carried out on a monumental building, former headquarters of the University of L’Aquila (The Camponeschi building, XVI century) are presented in this paper. The building is situated in the heart of the old city center and was seriously damaged by the earthquake. Preliminary visual damage analysis carried out immediately after the quake, clearly evidenced the building’s complexity, raising the need for direct and indirect investigation on the structure. Several non-destructive test methods were then performed in situ to better characterize the masonry typology and the damage distribution, as well. Subsequently, a number of representative control points were identified on the building’s facades to represent, by their motion over time, the evolution of the structural displacements and deformations. In particular, a surveying network consisting of 27 different points was established. A robotic total station mounted on top of a concrete pillar was used for periodically monitoring the surveying control network. Stability of the pillar was checked through a GNSS static survey repeated before any set of measurements. The present study evidences the interesting possibilities of combining geomatics with structural investigation during post-earthquake monitoring of ancient monumental buildings.

  7. Monitoring the ionosphere during the earthquake on GPS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, V. M.; Smirnova, E. V.

    The problem of stability estimation of physical state of an atmosphere attracts a rapt attention of the world community but it is still far from being solved A lot of global atmospheric processes which have direct influence upon all forms of the earth life have been detected The comprehension of cause effect relations stipulating their origin and development is possible only on the basis of long-term sequences of observations data of time-space variations of the atmosphere characteristics which should be received on a global scale and in the interval of altitudes as brand as possible Such data can be obtained only with application satellite systems The latest researches have shown that the satellite systems can be successfully used for global and continuous monitoring ionosphere of the Earth In turn the ionosphere can serve a reliable indicator of different kinds of effects on an environment both of natural and anthropogenic origin Nowadays the problem of the short-term forecast of earthquakes has achieved a new level of understanding There have been revealed indisputable factors which show that the ionosphere anomalies observed during the preparation of seismic events contain the information allowing to detect and to interpret them as earthquake precursors The partial decision of the forecast problem of earthquakes on ionospheric variations requires the processing data received simultaneously from extensive territories Such requirements can be met only on the basis of ground-space system of ionosphere monitoring The navigating systems

  8. High resolution strain sensor for earthquake precursor observation and earthquake monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wentao; Huang, Wenzhu; Li, Li; Liu, Wenyi; Li, Fang

    2016-05-01

    We propose a high-resolution static-strain sensor based on a FBG Fabry-Perot interferometer (FBG-FP) and a wavelet domain cross-correlation algorithm. This sensor is used for crust deformation measurement, which plays an important role in earthquake precursor observation. The Pound-Drever-Hall (PDH) technique based on a narrow-linewidth tunable fiber laser is used to interrogate the FBG-FPs. A demodulation algorithm based on wavelet domain cross-correlation is used to calculate the wavelength difference. The FBG-FP sensor head is fixed on the two steel alloy rods which are installed in the bedrock. The reference FBG-FP is placed in a strain-free state closely to compensate the environment temperature fluctuation. A static-strain resolution of 1.6 n(epsilon) can be achieved. As a result, clear solid tide signals and seismic signals can be recorded, which suggests that the proposed strain sensor can be applied to earthquake precursor observation and earthquake monitoring.

  9. CISN ShakeAlert Earthquake Early Warning System Monitoring Tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henson, I. H.; Allen, R. M.; Neuhauser, D. S.

    2015-12-01

    CISN ShakeAlert is a prototype earthquake early warning system being developed and tested by the California Integrated Seismic Network. The system has recently been expanded to support redundant data processing and communications. It now runs on six machines at three locations with ten Apache ActiveMQ message brokers linking together 18 waveform processors, 12 event association processes and 4 Decision Module alert processes. The system ingests waveform data from about 500 stations and generates many thousands of triggers per day, from which a small portion produce earthquake alerts. We have developed interactive web browser system-monitoring tools that display near real time state-of-health and performance information. This includes station availability, trigger statistics, communication and alert latencies. Connections to regional earthquake catalogs provide a rapid assessment of the Decision Module hypocenter accuracy. Historical performance can be evaluated, including statistics for hypocenter and origin time accuracy and alert time latencies for different time periods, magnitude ranges and geographic regions. For the ElarmS event associator, individual earthquake processing histories can be examined, including details of the transmission and processing latencies associated with individual P-wave triggers. Individual station trigger and latency statistics are available. Detailed information about the ElarmS trigger association process for both alerted events and rejected events is also available. The Google Web Toolkit and Map API have been used to develop interactive web pages that link tabular and geographic information. Statistical analysis is provided by the R-Statistics System linked to a PostgreSQL database.

  10. Array monitoring of swarm earthquakes in the Pollino range (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roessler, Dirk; Passarelli, Luigi; Govoni, Aladino; Rivalta, Eleonora

    2014-05-01

    The Mercure Basin (MB) and the Castrovillari Fault (CF) in the Pollino range (southern Apennines, Italy) represent one of the most prominent seismic gaps in the Italian seismic catalog, with no M>6 earthquakes during the last centuries. In recent times, the MB has been repeatedly interested by seismic swarms, with the most energetic swarm started in 2010 and still active in 2013. The seismic activity culminated in autumn 2012 with a M=5 event on October 25. In contrast, the CF appears aseismic. Only the northern part of the CF has experienced microseismicity. The rheology of these faults is unclear. Current debates include the potential of the MB and the CF to host large earthquakes and the level and the style of deformation. Understanding the seismicity and the behaviour of the faults is therefore necessary to assess the seismic hazard. We have been monitoring the ongoing seismicity using a small-aperture seismic array, integrated in a temporary seismic network. The instruments are provided by the GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences and INGV, Italy, and are operated in close collaboration between both institutes. Automatized seismic array methods are applied to resolve the spatio-temporal evolution of the seismicity in great detail. Using the GFZ array, we detect about ten times more earthquakes than currently included in automatic local catalogues. The increase corresponds to an improvement in complete event detection down to M~0.5. Event locations and the magnitude-frequency distribution are analysed to characterise the swarm and investigate the possible role of fluids for earthquake triggering. In the course of the swarm, seismicity has mainly migrated within the Mercure Basin. However, the spread towards the northern end of the Castrovillari fault to the east in 2013 marks a swarm phase with seismicity located outside of the Mercure Basin. The observations characterize the behaviour of the faults and their inter-connection.

  11. Archiving and Distributing Seismic Data at the Southern California Earthquake Data Center (SCEDC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appel, V. L.

    2002-12-01

    The Southern California Earthquake Data Center (SCEDC) archives and provides public access to earthquake parametric and waveform data gathered by the Southern California Seismic Network and since January 1, 2001, the TriNet seismic network, southern California's earthquake monitoring network. The parametric data in the archive includes earthquake locations, magnitudes, moment-tensor solutions and phase picks. The SCEDC waveform archive prior to TriNet consists primarily of short-period, 100-samples-per-second waveforms from the SCSN. The addition of the TriNet array added continuous recordings of 155 broadband stations (20 samples per second or less), and triggered seismograms from 200 accelerometers and 200 short-period instruments. Since the Data Center and TriNet use the same Oracle database system, new earthquake data are available to the seismological community in near real-time. Primary access to the database and waveforms is through the Seismogram Transfer Program (STP) interface. The interface enables users to search the database for earthquake information, phase picks, and continuous and triggered waveform data. Output is available in SAC, miniSEED, and other formats. Both the raw counts format (V0) and the gain-corrected format (V1) of COSMOS (Consortium of Organizations for Strong-Motion Observation Systems) are now supported by STP. EQQuest is an interface to prepackaged waveform data sets for select earthquakes in Southern California stored at the SCEDC. Waveform data for large-magnitude events have been prepared and new data sets will be available for download in near real-time following major events. The parametric data from 1981 to present has been loaded into the Oracle 9.2.0.1 database system and the waveforms for that time period have been converted to mSEED format and are accessible through the STP interface. The DISC optical-disk system (the "jukebox") that currently serves as the mass-storage for the SCEDC is in the process of being replaced

  12. Earthquake!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markle, Sandra

    1987-01-01

    A learning unit about earthquakes includes activities for primary grade students, including making inferences and defining operationally. Task cards are included for independent study on earthquake maps and earthquake measuring. (CB)

  13. Earthquakes

    MedlinePlus

    An earthquake happens when two blocks of the earth suddenly slip past one another. Earthquakes strike suddenly, violently, and without warning at any time of the day or night. If an earthquake occurs in a ...

  14. Earthquakes

    MedlinePlus

    An earthquake happens when two blocks of the earth suddenly slip past one another. Earthquakes strike suddenly, violently, and without warning at any time of the day or night. If an earthquake occurs in a populated area, it may cause ...

  15. Developing Performance Measures for the CISN Earthquake Early Warning Testing Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maechling, P. J.; Jordan, T. H.; Liukis, M.; Callaghan, S.

    2009-12-01

    Seismologists and engineers from the California Integrated Seismic Network (CISN) recently began a three year USGS-funded effort to integrate Earthquake Early Warning (EEW) processing into the CISN real-time earthquake monitoring system. Seismologists and computer scientists from the Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC) are collaborating with CISN and USGS on this project by developing tools and techniques needed to perform independent evaluation of EEW system performance. This effort will build on the current CISN EEW Algorithm Testing Center which is designed to produce comparative performance evaluations for three real-time implementations of CISN EEW algorithms currently in development. The CISN EEW Testing Center (CTC) will implement independent, and collaborative, testing and evaluation of CISN EEW forecasts and CISN EEW system performance. Introduction of independent testing of scientific forecasts can accelerate acceptance of such forecasts. An important goal of the CISN EEW Testing Center is to reduce controversy around forecast results. Retrospective testing, that is forecasting a past event from historical data, is commonly used during forecast development. However, the broader scientific community may not accept retrospective forecast results due to the possibility that the forecasts were biased because the actual values were known when the forecast was made. The CTC’s use of prospective testing for CISN EEW forecasts builds confidence in the CTC EEW performance results. The CTC will be designed to assess both the seismological accuracy and the system performance of CISN EEW. CISN EEW algorithms can forecast seismological information such as final magnitude and peak ground motions for an event and the CTC will compare the accuracy of these forecasts against the final observational results for the event. The CTC will also evaluate the CISN EEW system performance and reliability by collecting and summarizing speed of performance, false alarm

  16. Southern California Earthquake Center--Virtual Display of Objects (SCEC-VDO): An Earthquake Research and Education Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, S.; Maechling, P.; Jordan, T.

    2006-12-01

    Interns in the program Southern California Earthquake Center/Undergraduate Studies in Earthquake Information Technology (SCEC/UseIT, an NSF Research Experience for Undergraduates Site) have designed, engineered, and distributed SCEC-VDO (Virtual Display of Objects), an interactive software used by earthquake scientists and educators to integrate and visualize global and regional, georeferenced datasets. SCEC-VDO is written in Java/Java3D with an extensible, scalable architecture. An increasing number of SCEC-VDO datasets are obtained on the fly through web services and connections to remote databases; and user sessions may be saved in xml-encoded files. Currently users may display time-varying sequences of earthquake hypocenters and focal mechanisms, several 3-dimensional fault and rupture models, satellite imagery - optionally draped over digital elevation models - and cultural datasets including political boundaries. The ability to juxtapose and interactively explore these data and their temporal and spatial relationships has been particularly important to SCEC scientists who are evaluating fault and deformation models, or who must quickly evaluate the menace of evolving earthquake sequences. Additionally, SCEC-VDO users can annotate the display, plus script and render animated movies with adjustable compression levels. SCEC-VDO movies are excellent communication tools and have been featured in scientific presentations, classrooms, press conferences, and television reports.

  17. Earthquakes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walter, Edward J.

    1977-01-01

    Presents an analysis of the causes of earthquakes. Topics discussed include (1) geological and seismological factors that determine the effect of a particular earthquake on a given structure; (2) description of some large earthquakes such as the San Francisco quake; and (3) prediction of earthquakes. (HM)

  18. Earthquakes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pakiser, Louis C.

    One of a series of general interest publications on science topics, the booklet provides those interested in earthquakes with an introduction to the subject. Following a section presenting an historical look at the world's major earthquakes, the booklet discusses earthquake-prone geographic areas, the nature and workings of earthquakes, earthquake…

  19. Monitoring road losses for Lushan 7.0 earthquake disaster utilization multisource remote sensing images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, He; Yang, Siquan; Li, Suju; He, Haixia; Liu, Ming; Xu, Feng; Lin, Yueguan

    2015-12-01

    Earthquake is one major nature disasters in the world. At 8:02 on 20 April 2013, a catastrophic earthquake with Ms 7.0 in surface wave magnitude occurred in Sichuan province, China. The epicenter of this earthquake located in the administrative region of Lushan County and this earthquake was named the Lushan earthquake. The Lushan earthquake caused heavy casualties and property losses in Sichuan province. After the earthquake, various emergency relief supplies must be transported to the affected areas. Transportation network is the basis for emergency relief supplies transportation and allocation. Thus, the road losses of the Lushan earthquake must be monitoring. The road losses monitoring results for Lushan earthquake disaster utilization multisource remote sensing images were reported in this paper. The road losses monitoring results indicated that there were 166 meters' national roads, 3707 meters' provincial roads, 3396 meters' county roads, 7254 meters' township roads, and 3943 meters' village roads were damaged during the Lushan earthquake disaster. The damaged roads mainly located at Lushan County, Baoxing County, Tianquan County, Yucheng County, Mingshan County, and Qionglai County. The results also can be used as a decision-making information source for the disaster management government in China.

  20. Romanian Data Center: A modern way for seismic monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neagoe, Cristian; Marius Manea, Liviu; Ionescu, Constantin

    2014-05-01

    The main seismic survey of Romania is performed by the National Institute for Earth Physics (NIEP) which operates a real-time digital seismic network. The NIEP real-time network currently consists of 102 stations and two seismic arrays equipped with different high quality digitizers (Kinemetrics K2, Quanterra Q330, Quanterra Q330HR, PS6-26, Basalt), broadband and short period seismometers (CMG3ESP, CMG40T, KS2000, KS54000, KS2000, CMG3T,STS2, SH-1, S13, Mark l4c, Ranger, gs21, Mark l22) and acceleration sensors (Episensor Kinemetrics). The data are transmitted at the National Data Center (NDC) and Eforie Nord (EFOR) Seismic Observatory. EFOR is the back-up for the NDC and also a monitoring center for the Black Sea tsunami events. NIEP is a data acquisition node for the seismic network of Moldova (FDSN code MD) composed of five seismic stations. NIEP has installed in the northern part of Bulgaria eight seismic stations equipped with broadband sensors and Episensors and nine accelerometers (Episensors) installed in nine districts along the Danube River. All the data are acquired at NIEP for Early Warning System and for primary estimation of the earthquake parameters. The real-time acquisition (RT) and data exchange is done by Antelope software and Seedlink (from Seiscomp3). The real-time data communication is ensured by different types of transmission: GPRS, satellite, radio, Internet and a dedicated line provided by a governmental network. For data processing and analysis at the two data centers Antelope 5.2 TM is being used running on 3 workstations: one from a CentOS platform and two on MacOS. Also a Seiscomp3 server stands as back-up for Antelope 5.2 Both acquisition and analysis of seismic data systems produce information about local and global parameters of earthquakes. In addition, Antelope is used for manual processing (event association, calculation of magnitude, creating a database, sending seismic bulletins, calculation of PGA and PGV, etc.), generating

  1. Quantifying 10 years of improved earthquake-monitoring performance in the Caribbean region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McNamara, Daniel E.; Hillebrandt-Andrade, Christa; Saurel, Jean-Marie; Huerfano-Moreno, V.; Lynch, Lloyd

    2015-01-01

    Over 75 tsunamis have been documented in the Caribbean and adjacent regions during the past 500 years. Since 1500, at least 4484 people are reported to have perished in these killer waves. Hundreds of thousands are currently threatened along the Caribbean coastlines. Were a great tsunamigenic earthquake to occur in the Caribbean region today, the effects would potentially be catastrophic due to an increasingly vulnerable region that has seen significant population increases in the past 40–50 years and currently hosts an estimated 500,000 daily beach visitors from North America and Europe, a majority of whom are not likely aware of tsunami and earthquake hazards. Following the magnitude 9.1 Sumatra–Andaman Islands earthquake of 26 December 2004, the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Intergovernmental Coordination Group (ICG) for the Tsunami and other Coastal Hazards Early Warning System for the Caribbean and Adjacent Regions (CARIBE‐EWS) was established and developed minimum performance standards for the detection and analysis of earthquakes. In this study, we model earthquake‐magnitude detection threshold and P‐wave detection time and demonstrate that the requirements established by the UNESCO ICG CARIBE‐EWS are met with 100% of the network operating. We demonstrate that earthquake‐monitoring performance in the Caribbean Sea region has improved significantly in the past decade as the number of real‐time seismic stations available to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration tsunami warning centers have increased. We also identify weaknesses in the current international network and provide guidance for selecting the optimal distribution of seismic stations contributed from existing real‐time broadband national networks in the region.

  2. Earthquakes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roper, Paul J.; Roper, Jere Gerard

    1974-01-01

    Describes the causes and effects of earthquakes, defines the meaning of magnitude (measured on the Richter Magnitude Scale) and intensity (measured on a modified Mercalli Intensity Scale) and discusses earthquake prediction and control. (JR)

  3. Monitoring of ULF (ultra-low-frequency) Geomagnetic Variations Associated with Earthquakes

    PubMed Central

    Hayakawa, Masashi; Hattori, Katsumi; Ohta, Kenji

    2007-01-01

    ULF (ultra-low-frequency) electromagnetic emission is recently recognized as one of the most promising candidates for short-term earthquake prediction. This paper reviews previous convincing evidence on the presence of ULF emissions before a few large earthquakes. Then, we present our network of ULF monitoring in the Tokyo area by describing our ULF magnetic sensors and we finally present a few, latest results on seismogenic electromagnetic emissions for recent large earthquakes with the use of sophisticated signal processings.

  4. Real-time earthquake monitoring using a search engine method.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Haijiang; Chen, Enhong; Zheng, Yi; Kuang, Wenhuan; Zhang, Xiong

    2014-01-01

    When an earthquake occurs, seismologists want to use recorded seismograms to infer its location, magnitude and source-focal mechanism as quickly as possible. If such information could be determined immediately, timely evacuations and emergency actions could be undertaken to mitigate earthquake damage. Current advanced methods can report the initial location and magnitude of an earthquake within a few seconds, but estimating the source-focal mechanism may require minutes to hours. Here we present an earthquake search engine, similar to a web search engine, that we developed by applying a computer fast search method to a large seismogram database to find waveforms that best fit the input data. Our method is several thousand times faster than an exact search. For an Mw 5.9 earthquake on 8 March 2012 in Xinjiang, China, the search engine can infer the earthquake's parameters in <1 s after receiving the long-period surface wave data. PMID:25472861

  5. The Development of an Earthquake Preparedness Plan for a Child Care Center in a Geologically Hazardous Region.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wokurka, Linda

    The director of a child care center at a community college in California developed an earthquake preparedness plan for the center which met state and local requirements for earthquake preparedness at schools. The plan consisted of: (1) the identification and reduction of nonstructural hazards in classrooms, office, and staff rooms; (2) storage of…

  6. Advanced Real-time Monitoring System and Simulation Researches for Earthquakes and Tsunamis in Japan -Towards Disaster Mitigation on Earthquakes and Tsunamis-

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyodo, M.; Kaneda, Y.; Takahashi, N.; Baba, T.; Hori, T.; Kawaguchi, K.; Araki, E.; Matsumoto, H.; Nakamura, T.; Kamiya, S.; Ariyoshi, K.; Nakano, M.; Choi, J. K.; Nishida, S.

    2014-12-01

    How to mitigate and reduce damages by Earthquakes and Tsunamis? This is very important and indispensable problem for Japan and other high seismicity countries.Based on lessons learned from the 2004 Sumatra Earthquake/Tsunamis and the 2011 East Japan Earthquake/Tsunami, we recognized the importance of real-time monitoring of these natural hazards. As real-time monitoring system, DONET1 (Dense Ocean floor Network for Earthquakes and Tsunamis) was deployed and DONET2 is being developed around the Nankai trough Southwestern Japan for Seismology and Earthquake/Tsunami Early Warning. Based on simulation researches, DONET1 and DONET2 with multi-kinds of sensors such as broadband seismometers and precise pressure gauges will be expected to monitor slow events such as low frequency tremors and slow earthquakes for the estimation of seismic stage which is the inter-seismic or pre-seismic stage. In advanced simulation researches such as the recurrence cycle of mega thrust earthquakes, the data assimilation is very powerful tool to improve the reliability. Furthermore, tsunami inundations, seismic responses on buildings/city and agent simulations are very important towards future disaster mitigation programs and related measures. Finally, real-time monitoring data and advanced simulations will be integrated for precise Earthquake/Tsunami Early Warning and Estimation of damages in future compound disasters on Earthquakes and Tsunamis. We will introduce the present progress of advanced researches and future scope for disaster mitigation researches on earthquakes and Tsunamis.

  7. Real-time earthquake monitoring using a search engine method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Haijiang; Chen, Enhong; Zheng, Yi; Kuang, Wenhuan; Zhang, Xiong

    2014-12-01

    When an earthquake occurs, seismologists want to use recorded seismograms to infer its location, magnitude and source-focal mechanism as quickly as possible. If such information could be determined immediately, timely evacuations and emergency actions could be undertaken to mitigate earthquake damage. Current advanced methods can report the initial location and magnitude of an earthquake within a few seconds, but estimating the source-focal mechanism may require minutes to hours. Here we present an earthquake search engine, similar to a web search engine, that we developed by applying a computer fast search method to a large seismogram database to find waveforms that best fit the input data. Our method is several thousand times faster than an exact search. For an Mw 5.9 earthquake on 8 March 2012 in Xinjiang, China, the search engine can infer the earthquake’s parameters in <1 s after receiving the long-period surface wave data.

  8. Real-time earthquake monitoring using a search engine method

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Haijiang; Chen, Enhong; Zheng, Yi; Kuang, Wenhuan; Zhang, Xiong

    2014-01-01

    When an earthquake occurs, seismologists want to use recorded seismograms to infer its location, magnitude and source-focal mechanism as quickly as possible. If such information could be determined immediately, timely evacuations and emergency actions could be undertaken to mitigate earthquake damage. Current advanced methods can report the initial location and magnitude of an earthquake within a few seconds, but estimating the source-focal mechanism may require minutes to hours. Here we present an earthquake search engine, similar to a web search engine, that we developed by applying a computer fast search method to a large seismogram database to find waveforms that best fit the input data. Our method is several thousand times faster than an exact search. For an Mw 5.9 earthquake on 8 March 2012 in Xinjiang, China, the search engine can infer the earthquake’s parameters in <1 s after receiving the long-period surface wave data. PMID:25472861

  9. Everyday Earthquakes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svec, Michael

    1996-01-01

    Describes methods to access current earthquake information from the National Earthquake Information Center. Enables students to build genuine learning experiences using real data from earthquakes that have recently occurred. (JRH)

  10. Recent Experiences Operating a Large, International Network of Electromagnetic Earthquake Monitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bleier, T.; Dunson, J. C.; Lemon, J.

    2014-12-01

    Leading a 5-nation international collaboration, QuakeFinder currently has a network of 168 instruments along with a Data Center that processes the 10 GB of data each day, 7 days a week. Each instrument includes 3-axis induction magnetometers, positive and negative ion sensors, and a geophone. These ground instruments are augmented with GOES weather satellite infrared monitoring of California (and in the future—other countries). The nature of the signals we are trying to detect and identify to enable forecasts for significant earthquakes (>M5) involves refining algorithms that both identify quake-related signals at some distance and remove a myriad of natural and anthropogenic noise. Maximum detection range was further investigated this year. An initial estimated maximum detection distance of 10 miles (16 km) was challenged with the onset of a M8.2 quake near Iquique, Chile on April 1, 2014. We will discuss the different strategies used to push the limits of detection for this quake which was 93 miles (149 km) from the instrument that had just been installed 2 months before the quake. Identifying and masking natural and man-made noise to reduce the number of misses and false alarms, and to increase the number of "hits" in a limited earthquake data set continues to be a top priority. Several novel approaches were tried, and the resulting progress will be discussed.

  11. Remote monitoring of the earthquake cycle using satellite radar interferometry.

    PubMed

    Wright, Tim J

    2002-12-15

    The earthquake cycle is poorly understood. Earthquakes continue to occur on previously unrecognized faults. Earthquake prediction seems impossible. These remain the facts despite nearly 100 years of intensive study since the earthquake cycle was first conceptualized. Using data acquired from satellites in orbit 800 km above the Earth, a new technique, radar interferometry (InSAR), has the potential to solve these problems. For the first time, detailed maps of the warping of the Earth's surface during the earthquake cycle can be obtained with a spatial resolution of a few tens of metres and a precision of a few millimetres. InSAR does not need equipment on the ground or expensive field campaigns, so it can gather crucial data on earthquakes and the seismic cycle from some of the remotest areas of the planet. In this article, I review some of the remarkable observations of the earthquake cycle already made using radar interferometry and speculate on breakthroughs that are tantalizingly close. PMID:12626271

  12. Real-Time GPS Monitoring for Earthquake Rapid Assessment in the San Francisco Bay Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillemot, C.; Langbein, J. O.; Murray, J. R.

    2012-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey Earthquake Science Center has deployed a network of eight real-time Global Positioning System (GPS) stations in the San Francisco Bay area and is implementing software applications to continuously evaluate the status of the deformation within the network. Real-time monitoring of the station positions is expected to provide valuable information for rapidly estimating source parameters should a large earthquake occur in the San Francisco Bay area. Because earthquake response applications require robust data access, as a first step we have developed a suite of web-based applications which are now routinely used to monitor the network's operational status and data streaming performance. The web tools provide continuously updated displays of important telemetry parameters such as data latency and receive rates, as well as source voltage and temperature information within each instrument enclosure. Automated software on the backend uses the streaming performance data to mitigate the impact of outages, radio interference and bandwidth congestion on deformation monitoring operations. A separate set of software applications manages the recovery of lost data due to faulty communication links. Displacement estimates are computed in real-time for various combinations of USGS, Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) and Bay Area Regional Deformation (BARD) network stations. We are currently comparing results from two software packages (one commercial and one open-source) used to process 1-Hz data on the fly and produce estimates of differential positions. The continuous monitoring of telemetry makes it possible to tune the network to minimize the impact of transient interruptions of the data flow, from one or more stations, on the estimated positions. Ongoing work is focused on using data streaming performance history to optimize the quality of the position, reduce drift and outliers by switching to the best set of stations within the network, and

  13. Korea Integrated Seismic System tool(KISStool) for seismic monitoring and data sharing at the local data center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, J.; Chi, H. C.; Lim, I.; Jeong, B.

    2011-12-01

    The Korea Integrated Seismic System(KISS) is a back-bone seismic network which distributes seismic data to different organizations in near-real time at Korea. The association of earthquake monitoring institutes has shared their seismic data through the KISS from 2003. Local data centers operating remote several stations need to send their free field seismic data to NEMA(National Emergency Management Agency) by the law of countermeasure against earthquake hazard in Korea. It is very important the efficient tool for local data centers which want to rapidly detect local seismic intensity and to transfer seismic event information toward national wide data center including PGA, PGV, dominant frequency of P-wave, raw data, and etc. We developed the KISStool(Korea Integrated Seismic System tool) for easy and convenient operation seismic network in local data center. The KISStool has the function of monitoring real time waveforms by clicking station icon on the Google map and real time variation of PGA, PGV, and other data by opening the bar type monitoring section. If they use the KISStool, any local data center can transfer event information to NEMA(National Emergency Management Agency), KMA(Korea Meteorological Agency) or other institutes through the KISS using UDP or TCP/IP protocols. The KISStool is one of the most efficient methods to monitor and transfer earthquake event at local data center in Korea. KIGAM will support this KISStool not only to the member of the monitoring association but also local governments.

  14. A Potential of Borehole Strainmeters for Continuous Monitoring of Stress Change Associated with Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soh, Inho; Chang, Chandong

    2016-04-01

    conduct Coulomb stress transfer models to estimate the stress drops using various earthquake parameters (earthquake magnitudes, fault length, and slip displacement), and the modelled transferred stress drops at the strainmeter site are estimated to be similar to (or an order of magnitude lower than) those determined from the strainmeter data. Our study demonstrates that there is a strong applicability of the strainmeter data for continuous stress monitoring with a special emphasis on earthquakes.

  15. Current Development at the Southern California Earthquake Data Center (SCEDC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appel, V. L.; Clayton, R. W.

    2005-12-01

    Over the past year, the SCEDC completed or is near completion of three featured projects: Station Information System (SIS) Development: The SIS will provide users with an interface into complete and accurate station metadata for all current and historic data at the SCEDC. The goal of this project is to develop a system that can interact with a single database source to enter, update and retrieve station metadata easily and efficiently. The system will provide accurate station/channel information for active stations to the SCSN real-time processing system, as will as station/channel information for stations that have parametric data at the SCEDC i.e., for users retrieving data via STP. Additionally, the SIS will supply information required to generate dataless SEED and COSMOS V0 volumes and allow stations to be added to the system with a minimum, but incomplete set of information using predefined defaults that can be easily updated as more information becomes available. Finally, the system will facilitate statewide metadata exchange for both real-time processing and provide a common approach to CISN historic station metadata. Moment Tensor Solutions: The SCEDC is currently archiving and delivering Moment Magnitudes and Moment Tensor Solutions (MTS) produced by the SCSN in real-time and post-processing solutions for events spanning back to 1999. The automatic MTS runs on all local events with magnitudes > 3.0, and all regional events > 3.5. The distributed solution automatically creates links from all USGS Simpson Maps to a text e-mail summary solution, creates a .gif image of the solution, and updates the moment tensor database tables at the SCEDC. Searchable Scanned Waveforms Site: The Caltech Seismological Lab has made available 12,223 scanned images of pre-digital analog recordings of major earthquakes recorded in Southern California between 1962 and 1992 at http://www.data.scec.org/research/scans/. The SCEDC has developed a searchable web interface that allows

  16. Twitter Seismology: Earthquake Monitoring and Response in a Social World

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowden, D. C.; Earle, P. S.; Guy, M.; Smoczyk, G.

    2011-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is investigating how the social networking site Twitter, a popular service for sending and receiving short, public, text messages, can augment USGS earthquake response products and the delivery of hazard information. The potential uses of Twitter for earthquake response include broadcasting earthquake alerts, rapidly detecting widely felt events, qualitatively assessing earthquake damage effects, communicating with the public, and participating in post-event collaboration. Several seismic networks and agencies are currently distributing Twitter earthquake alerts including the European-Mediterranean Seismological Centre (@LastQuake), Natural Resources Canada (@CANADAquakes), and the Indonesian meteorological agency (@infogempabmg); the USGS will soon distribute alerts via the @USGSted and @USGSbigquakes Twitter accounts. Beyond broadcasting alerts, the USGS is investigating how to use tweets that originate near the epicenter to detect and characterize shaking events. This is possible because people begin tweeting immediately after feeling an earthquake, and their short narratives and exclamations are available for analysis within 10's of seconds of the origin time. Using five months of tweets that contain the word "earthquake" and its equivalent in other languages, we generate a tweet-frequency time series. The time series clearly shows large peaks correlated with the origin times of widely felt events. To identify possible earthquakes, we use a simple Short-Term-Average / Long-Term-Average algorithm similar to that commonly used to detect seismic phases. As with most auto-detection algorithms, the parameters can be tuned to catch more or less events at the cost of more or less false triggers. When tuned to a moderate sensitivity, the detector found 48 globally-distributed, confirmed seismic events with only 2 false triggers. A space-shuttle landing and "The Great California ShakeOut" caused the false triggers. This number of

  17. Correlation of major eastern earthquake centers with mafic/ultramafic basement masses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kane, Martin Francis

    1977-01-01

    Extensive gravity highs and associated magnetic anomalies are present in or near seven major eastern North American earthquake areas as defined by Hadley and Devine (1974). The seven include the five largest of the eastern North American earthquake .centers. The immediate localities of the gravity anomalies are, however, relatively free of seismicity, particularly the largest events. The anomalies are presumably caused by extensive mafic or ultramafic masses embedded in the crystalline basement. Laboratory experiments show that serpentinized gabbro and dunite fail under stress in a creep mode rather than in a stick-slip mode. A possible explanation of the correlation between the earthquake patterns and the anomalies is that the mafic/ultramafic masses are serpentinized and can only sustain low stress fields thereby acting to concentrate regional stress outside their boundaries. The proposed model is analogous to the hole-in-plate problem of mechanics whereby stresses around a hole in a stressed plate may. reach values several times the average.

  18. Potential utilization of the NASA/George C. Marshall Space Flight Center in earthquake engineering research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scholl, R. E. (Editor)

    1979-01-01

    Earthquake engineering research capabilities of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) facilities at George C. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), Alabama, were evaluated. The results indicate that the NASA/MSFC facilities and supporting capabilities offer unique opportunities for conducting earthquake engineering research. Specific features that are particularly attractive for large scale static and dynamic testing of natural and man-made structures include the following: large physical dimensions of buildings and test bays; high loading capacity; wide range and large number of test equipment and instrumentation devices; multichannel data acquisition and processing systems; technical expertise for conducting large-scale static and dynamic testing; sophisticated techniques for systems dynamics analysis, simulation, and control; and capability for managing large-size and technologically complex programs. Potential uses of the facilities for near and long term test programs to supplement current earthquake research activities are suggested.

  19. Earthquake!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez, Hildo

    2000-01-01

    Examines the types of damage experienced by California State University at Northridge during the 1994 earthquake and what lessons were learned in handling this emergency are discussed. The problem of loose asbestos is addressed. (GR)

  20. Integrated monitoring of pre-earthquake signals in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, L. C.; Lin, C. H.

    2014-12-01

    In the search of possible earthquake precursors in the Taiwan area, there have been continuous measurements of the gravity, geomagnetic perturbation, crustal deformation, ionospheric disturbance, ground water level, and leaky gas (Radon ) from the crust in the past two decades. In 2010, a major project "Integrated Earthquake Precursors and Early Warning for Seismic Disaster Prevention in Taiwan" was initiated by the Ministry of Science and Technology. Under this project, the gamma-ray sensors, downhole strainmeters, telluric electric field measurements and thermal infrared ray analysis are further established. In addition, an electric coupling model for the lithosphere-atmosphere-ionosphere was developed. In this talk, some important results from the integrated observations and theoretical models for pre-earthquake signals will be presented.

  1. Effects of a major earthquake on calls to regional poison control centers.

    PubMed

    Nathan, A R; Olson, K R; Everson, G W; Kearney, T E; Blanc, P D

    1992-03-01

    We retrospectively evaluated the effect of the Loma Prieta earthquake on calls to 2 designated regional poison control centers (San Francisco and Santa Clara) in the area. In the immediate 12 hours after the earthquake, there was an initial drop (31%) in call volume, related to telephone system overload and other technical problems. Calls from Bay Area counties outside of San Francisco and Santa Clara decreased more dramatically than those from within the host counties where the poison control centers are located. In the next 2 days, each poison control center then handled a 27% increase in call volume. Requests for information regarding safety of water supplies and other environmental concerns were significantly increased. The number of cases of actual poisoning exposure decreased, particularly poison and drug ingestions in children. Most calls directly related to the earthquake included spills and leaks of hazardous materials and questions about water and food safety. Regional poison control centers play an essential role in the emergency medical response to major disasters and are critically dependent on an operational telephone system. PMID:1595244

  2. 88 hours: the U.S. Geological Survey National Earthquake Information Center response to the March 11, 2011 Mw 9.0 Tohoku earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wald, David J.; Hayes, Gavin P.; Benz, Harley M.; Earle, Paul; Briggs, Richard W.

    2011-01-01

    The M 9.0 11 March 2011 Tohoku, Japan, earthquake and associated tsunami near the east coast of the island of Honshu caused tens of thousands of deaths and potentially over one trillion dollars in damage, resulting in one of the worst natural disasters ever recorded. The U.S. Geological Survey National Earthquake Information Center (USGS NEIC), through its responsibility to respond to all significant global earthquakes as part of the National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program, quickly produced and distributed a suite of earthquake information products to inform emergency responders, the public, the media, and the academic community of the earthquake's potential impact and to provide scientific background for the interpretation of the event's tectonic context and potential for future hazard. Here we present a timeline of the NEIC response to this devastating earthquake in the context of rapidly evolving information emanating from the global earthquake-response community. The timeline includes both internal and publicly distributed products, the relative timing of which highlights the inherent tradeoffs between the requirement to provide timely alerts and the necessity for accurate, authoritative information. The timeline also documents the iterative and evolutionary nature of the standard products produced by the NEIC and includes a behind-the-scenes look at the decisions, data, and analysis tools that drive our rapid product distribution.

  3. The Pacific Tsunami Warning Center's Response to the Tohoku Earthquake and Tsunami

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinstein, S. A.; Becker, N. C.; Shiro, B.; Koyanagi, K. K.; Sardina, V.; Walsh, D.; Wang, D.; McCreery, C. S.; Fryer, G. J.; Cessaro, R. K.; Hirshorn, B. F.; Hsu, V.

    2011-12-01

    The largest Pacific basin earthquake in 47 years, and also the largest magnitude earthquake since the Sumatra 2004 earthquake, struck off of the east coast of the Tohoku region of Honshu, Japan at 5:46 UTC on 11 March 2011. The Tohoku earthquake (Mw 9.0) generated a massive tsunami with runups of up to 40m along the Tohoku coast. The tsunami waves crossed the Pacific Ocean causing significant damage as far away as Hawaii, California, and Chile, thereby becoming the largest, most destructive tsunami in the Pacific Basin since 1960. Triggers on the seismic stations at Erimo, Hokkaido (ERM) and Matsushiro, Honshu (MAJO), alerted Pacific Tsunami Warning Center (PTWC) scientists 90 seconds after the earthquake began. Four minutes after its origin, and about one minute after the earthquake's rupture ended, PTWC issued an observatory message reporting a preliminary magnitude of 7.5. Eight minutes after origin time, the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) issued its first international tsunami message in its capacity as the Northwest Pacific Tsunami Advisory Center. In accordance with international tsunami warning system protocols, PTWC then followed with its first international tsunami warning message using JMA's earthquake parameters, including an Mw of 7.8. Additional Mwp, mantle wave, and W-phase magnitude estimations based on the analysis of later-arriving seismic data at PTWC revealed that the earthquake magnitude reached at least 8.8, and that a destructive tsunami would likely be crossing the Pacific Ocean. The earthquake damaged the nearest coastal sea-level station located 90 km from the epicenter in Ofunato, Japan. The NOAA DART sensor situated 600 km off the coast of Sendai, Japan, at a depth of 5.6 km recorded a tsunami wave amplitude of nearly two meters, making it by far the largest tsunami wave ever recorded by a DART sensor. Thirty minutes later, a coastal sea-level station at Hanasaki, Japan, 600 km from the epicenter, recorded a tsunami wave amplitude of

  4. Real-Time Data Processing Systems and Products at the Alaska Earthquake Information Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruppert, N. A.; Hansen, R. A.

    2007-05-01

    The Alaska Earthquake Information Center (AEIC) receives data from over 400 seismic sites located within the state boundaries and the surrounding regions and serves as a regional data center. In 2007, the AEIC reported ~20,000 seismic events, with the largest event of M6.6 in Andreanof Islands. The real-time earthquake detection and data processing systems at AEIC are based on the Antelope system from BRTT, Inc. This modular and extensible processing platform allows an integrated system complete from data acquisition to catalog production. Multiple additional modules constructed with the Antelope toolbox have been developed to fit particular needs of the AEIC. The real-time earthquake locations and magnitudes are determined within 2-5 minutes of the event occurrence. AEIC maintains a 24/7 seismologist-on-duty schedule. Earthquake alarms are based on the real- time earthquake detections. Significant events are reviewed by the seismologist on duty within 30 minutes of the occurrence with information releases issued for significant events. This information is disseminated immediately via the AEIC website, ANSS website via QDDS submissions, through e-mail, cell phone and pager notifications, via fax broadcasts and recorded voice-mail messages. In addition, automatic regional moment tensors are determined for events with M>=4.0. This information is posted on the public website. ShakeMaps are being calculated in real-time with the information currently accessible via a password-protected website. AEIC is designing an alarm system targeted for the critical lifeline operations in Alaska. AEIC maintains an extensive computer network to provide adequate support for data processing and archival. For real-time processing, AEIC operates two identical, interoperable computer systems in parallel.

  5. Data Sets and Data Services at the Northern California Earthquake Data Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuhauser, D. S.; Zuzlewski, S.; Allen, R. M.

    2014-12-01

    The Northern California Earthquake Data Center (NCEDC) houses a unique and comprehensive data archive and provides real-time services for a variety of seismological and geophysical data sets that encompass northern and central California. We have over 80 terabytes of continuous and event-based time series data from broadband, short-period, strong motion, and strain sensors as well as continuous and campaign GPS data at both standard and high sample rates in both raw and RINEX format. The Northen California Seismic System (NCSS), operated by UC Berkeley and USGS Menlo Park, has recorded over 890,000 events from 1984 to the present, and the NCEDC provides catalog, parametric information, moment tensors and first motion mechanisms, and time series data for these events. We also host and provide event catalogs, parametric information, and event waveforms for DOE enhanced geothermal system monitoring in northern California and Nevada. The NCEDC provides a variety of ways for users to access these data. The most recent development are web services, which provide interactive, command-line, or program-based workflow access to data. Web services use well-established server and client protocols and RESTful software architecture that allow users to easily submit queries and receive the requested data in real-time rather than through batch or email-based requests. Data are returned to the user in the appropriate format such as XML, RESP, simple text, or MiniSEED depending on the service and selected output format. The NCEDC supports all FDSN-defined web services as well as a number of IRIS-defined and NCEDC-defined services. We also continue to support older email-based and browser-based access to data. NCEDC data and web services can be found at http://www.ncedc.org and http://service.ncedc.org.

  6. Onsite infectious agents and toxins monitoring in 12 May Sichuan earthquake affected areas.

    PubMed

    Yao, Maosheng; Zhu, Tong; Li, Kejun; Dong, Shuofei; Wu, Yan; Qiu, Xinghua; Jiang, Bo; Chen, Liansheng; Zhen, Shiqi

    2009-11-01

    At 14:28 on 12 May 2008, Sichuan Province of China suffered a devastating earthquake measuring 8.0 on the Richter scale with more than 80 000 human lives lost and millions displaced. With inadequate shelter, poor access to health services, and disrupted ecology, the survivors were at enormous risk of infectious disease outbreaks. This work, believed to be unprecedented, was carried out to contain a possible outbreak through onsite monitoring of airborne biological agents in the high-risk areas. In such a mission, a mobile laboratory was developed using a customized vehicle along with state-of-art bioaerosol and molecular equipment and tools, and deployed to Sichuan 11 days after the earthquake. Using a high volume bioaerosol sampler (RCS High Flow) and Button Inhalable Aerosol Sampler equipped with gelatin filters, a total of 55 air samples, among which are 28 filter samples, were collected from rubble, medical centers, and camps of refugees, troops and rescue workers between 23 May and 9 June, 2008. After pre-treatment of the air samples, quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), gel electrophoresis, limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) assay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were applied to detect infectious agents and to quantify environmental toxins and allergens. The results revealed that, while high levels of endotoxin (180 approximately 975 ng/m3) and (1,3)-beta-d-glucans (11 approximately 100 ng/m3) were observed, infectious agents such as Bacillus anthracis, Bordetella pertussis, Neisseria meningitidis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, influenza A virus, bird flu virus (H5N1), enteric viruses, and Meningococcal meningitis were found below their detection limits. The total bacterial concentrations were found to range from 250 to 2.5 x 10(5) DNA copies/L. Aspergillus fumigatus (Asp f 1) and dust mite allergens (Der p 1 and Der f 1) were also found below their detection limits. PMID:19890556

  7. Rotation change in the orientation of the center-of-figure frame caused by large earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jiangcun; Sun, Wenke; Jin, Shuanggen; Sun, Heping; Xu, Jianqiao

    2016-05-01

    A method to estimate the rotation change in the orientation of the center-of-figure (CF) frame caused by earthquakes is the first time proposed. This method involves using the point dislocation theory based on a spherical, non-rotating, perfectly elastic and isotropic (SNREI) Earth. The rotation change in the orientation is related solely to the toroidal displacements of degree one induced by the vertical dip slip dislocation, and the spheroidal displacements induced by an earthquake have no contribution. The effects of two recent large earthquakes, the 2004 Sumatra and the 2011 Tohoku-Oki, are studied. Results showed that the Sumatra and Tohoku-Oki earthquakes both caused the CF frame to rotate by at least tens of μas (micro-arc-second). Although the visible co-seismic displacements are identified and removed from the coordinate time series, the rotation change due to the unidentified ones and errors in removal is non-negligible. Therefore, the rotation change in the orientation of the CF frame due to seismic deformation should be taken into account in the future in reference frame and geodesy applications.

  8. Development of regional earthquake early warning and structural health monitoring system and real-time ground motion forecasting using front-site waveform data (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motosaka, M.

    2009-12-01

    This paper presents firstly, the development of an integrated regional earthquake early warning (EEW) system having on-line structural health monitoring (SHM) function, in Miyagi prefecture, Japan. The system makes it possible to provide more accurate, reliable and immediate earthquake information for society by combining the national (JMA/NIED) EEW system, based on advanced real-time communication technology. The author has planned to install the EEW/SHM system to the public buildings around Sendai, a million city of north-eastern Japan. The system has been so far implemented in two buildings; one is in Sendai, and the other in Oshika, a front site on the Pacific Ocean coast for the approaching Miyagi-ken Oki earthquake. The data from the front-site and the on-site are processed by the analysis system which was installed at the analysis center of Disaster Control Research Center, Tohoku University. The real-time earthquake information from JMA is also received at the analysis center. The utilization of the integrated EEW/SHM system is addressed together with future perspectives. Examples of the obtained data are also described including the amplitude depending dynamic characteristics of the building in Sendai before, during, and after the 2008/6/14 Iwate-Miyagi Nairiku Earthquake, together with the historical change of dynamic characteristics for 40 years. Secondary, this paper presents an advanced methodology based on Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) for forward forecasting of ground motion parameters, not only PGA, PGV, but also Spectral information before S-wave arrival using initial part of P-waveform at a front site. The estimated ground motion information can be used as warning alarm for earthquake damage reduction. The Fourier Amplitude Spectra (FAS) estimated before strong shaking with high accuracy can be used for advanced engineering applications, e.g. feed-forward structural control of a building of interest. The validity and applicability of the method

  9. EQInfo - earthquakes world-wide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Bernd; Herrnkind, Stephan

    2014-05-01

    EQInfo is a free Android app providing recent earthquake information from various earthquake monitoring centers as GFZ, EMSC, USGS and others. It allows filtering of agency, region and magnitude as well as controlling update interval, institute priority and alarm types. Used by more than 25k active users and beeing in the top ten list of Google Play, EQInfo is one of the most popular apps for earthquake information.

  10. Earthquake Education and Public Information Centers: A Collaboration Between the Earthquake Country Alliance and Free-Choice Learning Institutions in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degroot, R. M.; Springer, K.; Brooks, C. J.; Schuman, L.; Dalton, D.; Benthien, M. L.

    2009-12-01

    In 1999 the Southern California Earthquake Center initiated an effort to expand its reach to multiple target audiences through the development of an interpretive trail on the San Andreas fault at Wallace Creek and an earthquake exhibit at Fingerprints Youth Museum in Hemet. These projects and involvement with the San Bernardino County Museum in Redlands beginning in 2007 led to the creation of Earthquake Education and Public Information Centers (EPIcenters) in 2008. The impetus for the development of the network was to broaden participation in The Great Southern California ShakeOut. In 2009 it has grown to be more comprehensive in its scope including its evolution into a statewide network. EPIcenters constitute a variety of free-choice learning institutions, representing museums, science centers, libraries, universities, parks, and other places visited by a variety of audiences including families, seniors, and school groups. They share a commitment to demonstrating and encouraging earthquake preparedness. EPIcenters coordinate Earthquake Country Alliance activities in their county or region, lead presentations or organize events in their communities, or in other ways demonstrate leadership in earthquake education and risk reduction. The San Bernardino County Museum (Southern California) and The Tech Museum of Innovation (Northern California) serve as EPIcenter regional coordinating institutions. They interact with over thirty institutional partners who have implemented a variety of activities from displays and talks to earthquake exhibitions. While many activities are focused on the time leading up to and just after the ShakeOut, most EPIcenter members conduct activities year round. Network members at Kidspace Museum in Pasadena and San Diego Natural History Museum have formed EPIcenter focus groups on early childhood education and safety and security. This presentation highlights the development of the EPIcenter network, synergistic activities resulting from this

  11. Providing Seismotectonic Information to the Public Through Continuously Updated National Earthquake Information Center Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernardino, M. J.; Hayes, G. P.; Dannemann, F.; Benz, H.

    2012-12-01

    One of the main missions of the United States Geological Survey (USGS) National Earthquake Information Center (NEIC) is the dissemination of information to national and international agencies, scientists, and the general public through various products such as ShakeMap and earthquake summary posters. During the summer of 2012, undergraduate and graduate student interns helped to update and improve our series of regional seismicity posters and regional tectonic summaries. The "Seismicity of the Earth (1900-2007)" poster placed over a century's worth of global seismicity data in the context of plate tectonics, highlighting regions that have experienced great (M+8.0) earthquakes, and the tectonic settings of those events. This endeavor became the basis for a series of more regionalized seismotectonic posters that focus on major subduction zones and their associated seismicity, including the Aleutian and Caribbean arcs. The first round of these posters were inclusive of events through 2007, and were made with the intent of being continually updated. Each poster includes a regional tectonic summary, a seismic hazard map, focal depth cross-sections, and a main map that illustrates the following: the main subduction zone and other physiographic features, seismicity, and rupture zones of historic great earthquakes. Many of the existing regional seismotectonic posters have been updated and new posters highlighting regions of current seismological interest have been created, including the Sumatra and Java arcs, the Middle East region and the Himalayas (all of which are currently in review). These new editions include updated lists of earthquakes, expanded tectonic summaries, updated relative plate motion vectors, and major crustal faults. These posters thus improve upon previous editions that included only brief tectonic discussions of the most prominent features and historic earthquakes, and which did not systematically represent non-plate boundary faults. Regional tectonic

  12. Space Radiation Monitoring Center at SINP MSU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalegaev, Vladimir; Barinova, Wera; Barinov, Oleg; Bobrovnikov, Sergey; Dolenko, Sergey; Mukhametdinova, Ludmila; Myagkova, Irina; Nguen, Minh; Panasyuk, Mikhail; Shiroky, Vladimir; Shugay, Julia

    2015-04-01

    Data on energetic particle fluxes from Russian satellites have been collected in Space monitoring data center at Moscow State University in the near real-time mode. Web-portal http://smdc.sinp.msu.ru/ provides operational information on radiation state of the near-Earth space. Operational data are coming from space missions ELECTRO-L1, Meteor-M2. High-resolution data on energetic electron fluxes from MSU's satellite VERNOV with RELEC instrumentation on board are also available. Specific tools allow the visual representation of the satellite orbit in 3D space simultaneously with particle fluxes variations. Concurrent operational data coming from other spacecraft (ACE, GOES, SDO) and from the Earth's surface (geomagnetic indices) are used to represent geomagnetic and radiation state of near-Earth environment. Internet portal http://swx.sinp.msu.ru provides access to the actual data characterizing the level of solar activity, geomagnetic and radiation conditions in heliosphere and the Earth's magnetosphere in the real-time mode. Operational forecasting services automatically generate alerts on particle fluxes enhancements above the threshold values, both for SEP and relativistic electrons, using data from LEO and GEO orbits. The models of space environment working in autonomous mode are used to generalize the information obtained from different missions for the whole magnetosphere. On-line applications created on the base of these models provide short-term forecasting for SEP particles and relativistic electron fluxes at GEO and LEO, Dst and Kp indices online forecasting up to 1.5 hours ahead. Velocities of high-speed streams in solar wind on the Earth orbit are estimated with advance time of 3-4 days. Visualization system provides representation of experimental and modeling data in 2D and 3D.

  13. Earthquakes for Kids

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hazards Data & Products Learn Monitoring Research Earthquakes for Kids Kid's Privacy Policy Earthquake Topics for Education FAQ Earthquake Glossary For Kids Prepare Google Earth/KML Files Earthquake Summary Posters ...

  14. The Northern California Earthquake Data Center: Seismic and Geophysical Data for Northern California and Beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuhauser, D.; Klein, F.; Zuzlewski, S.; Gee, L.; Oppenheimer, D.; Romanowicz, B.

    2004-12-01

    The Northern California Earthquake Data Center (NCEDC) is an archive and distribution center for geophysical data for networks in northern and central California. The NCEDC provides timeseries data from seismic, strain, electro-magnetic, a variety of creep, tilt, and environmental sensors, and continuous and campaign GPS data in raw and RINEX formats. The NCEDC has a wide variety of interfaces for data retrieval. Timeseries data are available via a web interface and standard queued request methods such as NetDC (developed in collaboration with the IRIS DMC and other international data centers), BREQ_FAST, and EVT_FAST. Interactive data retrieval methods include STP, developed by the SCEDC, and FISSURES DHI (Data Handling Interface), an object-oriented interface developed by IRIS. The Sandia MATSEIS system is being adapted to use the FISSURES DHI interface to provide an enhanced GUI-based seismic analysis system for MATLAB. Northern California and prototype ANSS worldwide earthquake catalogs are searchable from web interfaces, and supporting phase and amplitude data can be retrieved when available. Future data sets planned for the NCEDC are seismic and strain data from the EarthScope Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) and SAFOD. The NCEDC is a joint project of the UC Berkeley Seismological Laboratory and USGS Menlo Park.

  15. Application of Collocated GPS and Seismic Sensors to Earthquake Monitoring and Early Warning

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xingxing; Zhang, Xiaohong; Guo, Bofeng

    2013-01-01

    We explore the use of collocated GPS and seismic sensors for earthquake monitoring and early warning. The GPS and seismic data collected during the 2011 Tohoku-Oki (Japan) and the 2010 El Mayor-Cucapah (Mexico) earthquakes are analyzed by using a tightly-coupled integration. The performance of the integrated results is validated by both time and frequency domain analysis. We detect the P-wave arrival and observe small-scale features of the movement from the integrated results and locate the epicenter. Meanwhile, permanent offsets are extracted from the integrated displacements highly accurately and used for reliable fault slip inversion and magnitude estimation. PMID:24284765

  16. Application of collocated GPS and seismic sensors to earthquake monitoring and early warning.

    PubMed

    Li, Xingxing; Zhang, Xiaohong; Guo, Bofeng

    2013-01-01

    We explore the use of collocated GPS and seismic sensors for earthquake monitoring and early warning. The GPS and seismic data collected during the 2011 Tohoku-Oki (Japan) and the 2010 El Mayor-Cucapah (Mexico) earthquakes are analyzed by using a tightly-coupled integration. The performance of the integrated results is validated by both time and frequency domain analysis. We detect the P-wave arrival and observe small-scale features of the movement from the integrated results and locate the epicenter. Meanwhile, permanent offsets are extracted from the integrated displacements highly accurately and used for reliable fault slip inversion and magnitude estimation. PMID:24284765

  17. Implications of the World Trade Center Health Program (WTCHP) for the Public Health Response to the Great East Japan Earthquake

    PubMed Central

    CRANE, Michael A.; CHO, Hyunje G.; LANDRIGAN, Phillip J.

    2013-01-01

    The attacks on the World Trade Center (WTC) on September 11, 2001 resulted in a serious burden of physical and mental illness for the 50,000 rescue workers that responded to 9/11 as well as the 400,000 residents and workers in the surrounding areas of New York City. The Zadroga Act of 2010 established the WTC Health Program (WTCHP) to provide monitoring and treatment of WTC exposure-related conditions and health surveillance for the responder and survivor populations. Several reports have highlighted the applicability of insights gained from the WTCHP to the public health response to the Great East Japan Earthquake. Optimal exposure monitoring processes and attention to the welfare of vulnerable exposed sub-groups are critical aspects of the response to both incidents. The ongoing mental health care concerns of 9/11 patients accentuate the need for accessible and appropriately skilled mental health care in Fukushima. Active efforts to demonstrate transparency and to promote community involvement in the public health response will be highly important in establishing successful long-term monitoring and treatment programs for the exposed populations in Fukushima. PMID:24317449

  18. Implications of the World Trade Center Health Program (WTCHP) for the public health response to the Great East Japan Earthquake.

    PubMed

    Crane, Michael A; Cho, Hyunje G; Landrigan, Phillip J

    2014-01-01

    The attacks on the World Trade Center (WTC) on September 11, 2001 resulted in a serious burden of physical and mental illness for the 50,000 rescue workers that responded to 9/11 as well as the 400,000 residents and workers in the surrounding areas of New York City. The Zadroga Act of 2010 established the WTC Health Program (WTCHP) to provide monitoring and treatment of WTC exposure-related conditions and health surveillance for the responder and survivor populations. Several reports have highlighted the applicability of insights gained from the WTCHP to the public health response to the Great East Japan Earthquake. Optimal exposure monitoring processes and attention to the welfare of vulnerable exposed sub-groups are critical aspects of the response to both incidents. The ongoing mental health care concerns of 9/11 patients accentuate the need for accessible and appropriately skilled mental health care in Fukushima. Active efforts to demonstrate transparency and to promote community involvement in the public health response will be highly important in establishing successful long-term monitoring and treatment programs for the exposed populations in Fukushima. PMID:24317449

  19. Earthquake.

    PubMed

    Cowen, A R; Denney, J P

    1994-04-01

    On January 25, 1 week after the most devastating earthquake in Los Angeles history, the Southern California Hospital Council released the following status report: 928 patients evacuated from damaged hospitals. 805 beds available (136 critical, 669 noncritical). 7,757 patients treated/released from EDs. 1,496 patients treated/admitted to hospitals. 61 dead. 9,309 casualties. Where do we go from here? We are still waiting for the "big one." We'll do our best to be ready when Mother Nature shakes, rattles and rolls. The efforts of Los Angeles City Fire Chief Donald O. Manning cannot be overstated. He maintained department command of this major disaster and is directly responsible for implementing the fire department's Disaster Preparedness Division in 1987. Through the chief's leadership and ability to forecast consequences, the city of Los Angeles was better prepared than ever to cope with this horrendous earthquake. We also pay tribute to the men and women who are out there each day, where "the rubber meets the road." PMID:10133439

  20. Basin-centered asperities in great subduction zone earthquakes: A link between slip, subsidence, and subduction erosion?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wells, R.E.; Blakely, R.J.; Sugiyama, Y.; Scholl, D. W.; Dinterman, P.A.

    2003-01-01

    Published areas of high coseismic slip, or asperities, for 29 of the largest Circum-Pacific megathrust earthquakes are compared to forearc structure revealed by satellite free-air gravity, bathymetry, and seismic profiling. On average, 71% of an earthquake's seismic moment and 79% of its asperity area occur beneath the prominent gravity low outlining the deep-sea terrace; 57% of an earthquake's asperity area, on average, occurs beneath the forearc basins that lie within the deep-sea terrace. In SW Japan, slip in the 1923, 1944, 1946, and 1968 earthquakes was largely centered beneath five forearc basins whose landward edge overlies the 350??C isotherm on the plate boundary, the inferred downdip limit of the locked zone. Basin-centered coseismic slip also occurred along the Aleutian, Mexico, Peru, and Chile subduction zones but was ambiguous for the great 1964 Alaska earthquake. Beneath intrabasin structural highs, seismic slip tends to be lower, possibly due to higher temperatures and fluid pressures. Kilometers of late Cenozoic subsidence and crustal thinning above some of the source zones are indicated by seismic profiling and drilling and are thought to be caused by basal subduction erosion. The deep-sea terraces and basins may evolve not just by growth of the outer arc high but also by interseismic subsidence not recovered during earthquakes. Basin-centered asperities could indicate a link between subsidence, subduction erosion, and seismogenesis. Whatever the cause, forearc basins may be useful indicators of long-term seismic moment release. The source zone for Cascadia's 1700 A.D. earthquake contains five large, basin-centered gravity lows that may indicate potential asperities at depth. The gravity gradient marking the inferred downdip limit to large coseismic slip lies offshore, except in northwestern Washington, where the low extends landward beneath the coast. Transverse gravity highs between the basins suggest that the margin is seismically segmented and

  1. Disasters; the 2010 Haitian earthquake and the evacuation of burn victims to US burn centers.

    PubMed

    Kearns, Randy D; Holmes, James H; Skarote, Mary Beth; Cairns, Charles B; Strickland, Samantha Cooksey; Smith, Howard G; Cairns, Bruce A

    2014-09-01

    Response to the 2010 Haitian earthquake included an array of diverse yet critical actions. This paper will briefly review the evacuation of a small group of patients with burns to burn centers in the southeastern United States (US). This particular evacuation brought together for the first time plans, groups, and organizations that had previously only exercised this process. The response to the Haitian earthquake was a glimpse at what the international community working together can do to help others, and relieve suffering following a catastrophic disaster. The international response was substantial. This paper will trace one evacuation, one day for one unique group of patients with burns to burn centers in the US and review the lessons learned from this process. The patient population with burns being evacuated from Haiti was very small compared to the overall operation. Nevertheless, the outcomes included a better understanding of how a larger event could challenge the limited resources for all involved. This paper includes aspects of the patient movement, the logistics needed, and briefly discusses reimbursement for the care provided. PMID:24411582

  2. Novel Algorithms Enabling Rapid, Real-Time Earthquake Monitoring and Tsunami Early Warning Worldwide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lomax, A.; Michelini, A.

    2012-12-01

    We have introduced recently new methods to determine rapidly the tsunami potential and magnitude of large earthquakes (e.g., Lomax and Michelini, 2009ab, 2011, 2012). To validate these methods we have implemented them along with other new algorithms within the Early-est earthquake monitor at INGV-Rome (http://early-est.rm.ingv.it, http://early-est.alomax.net). Early-est is a lightweight software package for real-time earthquake monitoring (including phase picking, phase association and event detection, location, magnitude determination, first-motion mechanism determination, ...), and for tsunami early warning based on discriminants for earthquake tsunami potential. In a simulation using archived broadband seismograms for the devastating M9, 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami, Early-est determines: the epicenter within 3 min after the event origin time, discriminants showing very high tsunami potential within 5-7 min, and magnitude Mwpd(RT) 9.0-9.2 and a correct shallow-thrusting mechanism within 8 min. Real-time monitoring with Early-est givess similar results for most large earthquakes using currently available, real-time seismogram data. Here we summarize some of the key algorithms within Early-est that enable rapid, real-time earthquake monitoring and tsunami early warning worldwide: >>> FilterPicker - a general purpose, broad-band, phase detector and picker (http://alomax.net/FilterPicker); >>> Robust, simultaneous association and location using a probabilistic, global-search; >>> Period-duration discriminants TdT0 and TdT50Ex for tsunami potential available within 5 min; >>> Mwpd(RT) magnitude for very large earthquakes available within 10 min; >>> Waveform P polarities determined on broad-band displacement traces, focal mechanisms obtained with the HASH program (Hardebeck and Shearer, 2002); >>> SeisGramWeb - a portable-device ready seismogram viewer using web-services in a browser (http://alomax.net/webtools/sgweb/info.html). References (see also: http

  3. Volcano and Earthquake Monitoring Plan for the Yellowstone Volcano Observatory, 2006-2015

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yellowstone Volcano Observatory

    2006-01-01

    To provide Yellowstone National Park (YNP) and its surrounding communities with a modern, comprehensive system for volcano and earthquake monitoring, the Yellowstone Volcano Observatory (YVO) has developed a monitoring plan for the period 2006-2015. Such a plan is needed so that YVO can provide timely information during seismic, volcanic, and hydrothermal crises and can anticipate hazardous events before they occur. The monitoring network will also provide high-quality data for scientific study and interpretation of one of the largest active volcanic systems in the world. Among the needs of the observatory are to upgrade its seismograph network to modern standards and to add five new seismograph stations in areas of the park that currently lack adequate station density. In cooperation with the National Science Foundation (NSF) and its Plate Boundary Observatory Program (PBO), YVO seeks to install five borehole strainmeters and two tiltmeters to measure crustal movements. The boreholes would be located in developed areas close to existing infrastructure and away from sensitive geothermal features. In conjunction with the park's geothermal monitoring program, installation of new stream gages, and gas-measuring instruments will allow YVO to compare geophysical phenomena, such as earthquakes and ground motions, to hydrothermal events, such as anomalous water and gas discharge. In addition, YVO seeks to characterize the behavior of geyser basins, both to detect any precursors to hydrothermal explosions and to monitor earthquakes related to fluid movements that are difficult to detect with the current monitoring system. Finally, a monitoring network consists not solely of instruments, but requires also a secure system for real-time transmission of data. The current telemetry system is vulnerable to failures that could jeopardize data transmission out of Yellowstone. Future advances in monitoring technologies must be accompanied by improvements in the infrastructure for

  4. New approach for earthquake/tsunami monitoring using dense GPS networks

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xingxing; Ge, Maorong; Zhang, Yong; Wang, Rongjiang; Xu, Peiliang; Wickert, Jens; Schuh, Harald

    2013-01-01

    In recent times increasing numbers of high-rate GPS stations have been installed around the world and set-up to provide data in real-time. These networks provide a great opportunity to quickly capture surface displacements, which makes them important as potential constituents of earthquake/tsunami monitoring and warning systems. The appropriate GPS real-time data analysis with sufficient accuracy for this purpose is a main focus of the current GPS research. In this paper we propose an augmented point positioning method for GPS based hazard monitoring, which can achieve fast or even instantaneous precise positioning without relying on data of a specific reference station. The proposed method overcomes the limitations of the currently mostly used GPS processing approaches of relative positioning and global precise point positioning. The advantages of the proposed approach are demonstrated by using GPS data, which was recorded during the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake in Japan. PMID:24045328

  5. New approach for earthquake/tsunami monitoring using dense GPS networks.

    PubMed

    Li, Xingxing; Ge, Maorong; Zhang, Yong; Wang, Rongjiang; Xu, Peiliang; Wickert, Jens; Schuh, Harald

    2013-01-01

    In recent times increasing numbers of high-rate GPS stations have been installed around the world and set-up to provide data in real-time. These networks provide a great opportunity to quickly capture surface displacements, which makes them important as potential constituents of earthquake/tsunami monitoring and warning systems. The appropriate GPS real-time data analysis with sufficient accuracy for this purpose is a main focus of the current GPS research. In this paper we propose an augmented point positioning method for GPS based hazard monitoring, which can achieve fast or even instantaneous precise positioning without relying on data of a specific reference station. The proposed method overcomes the limitations of the currently mostly used GPS processing approaches of relative positioning and global precise point positioning. The advantages of the proposed approach are demonstrated by using GPS data, which was recorded during the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake in Japan. PMID:24045328

  6. Quantifying 10 years of Improvements in Earthquake and Tsunami Monitoring in the Caribbean and Adjacent Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Hillebrandt-Andrade, C.; Huerfano Moreno, V. A.; McNamara, D. E.; Saurel, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    The magnitude-9.3 Sumatra-Andaman Islands earthquake of December 26, 2004, increased global awareness to the destructive hazard of earthquakes and tsunamis. Post event assessments of global coastline vulnerability highlighted the Caribbean as a region of high hazard and risk and that it was poorly monitored. Nearly 100 tsunamis have been reported for the Caribbean region and Adjacent Regions in the past 500 years and continue to pose a threat for its nations, coastal areas along the Gulf of Mexico, and the Atlantic seaboard of North and South America. Significant efforts to improve monitoring capabilities have been undertaken since this time including an expansion of the United States Geological Survey (USGS) Global Seismographic Network (GSN) (McNamara et al., 2006) and establishment of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Intergovernmental Coordination Group (ICG) for the Tsunami and other Coastal Hazards Warning System for the Caribbean and Adjacent Regions (CARIBE EWS). The minimum performance standards it recommended for initial earthquake locations include: 1) Earthquake detection within 1 minute, 2) Minimum magnitude threshold = M4.5, and 3) Initial hypocenter error of <30 km. In this study, we assess current compliance with performance standards and model improvements in earthquake and tsunami monitoring capabilities in the Caribbean region since the first meeting of the UNESCO ICG-Caribe EWS in 2006. The three measures of network capability modeled in this study are: 1) minimum Mw detection threshold; 2) P-wave detection time of an automatic processing system and; 3) theoretical earthquake location uncertainty. By modeling three measures of seismic network capability, we can optimize the distribution of ICG-Caribe EWS seismic stations and select an international network that will be contributed from existing real-time broadband national networks in the region. Sea level monitoring improvements both offshore and

  7. Network of seismo-geochemical monitoring observatories for earthquake prediction research in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaudhuri, Hirok; Barman, Chiranjib; Iyengar, A.; Ghose, Debasis; Sen, Prasanta; Sinha, Bikash

    2013-08-01

    Present paper deals with a brief review of the research carried out to develop multi-parametric gas-geochemical monitoring facilities dedicated to earthquake prediction research in India by installing a network of seismo-geochemical monitoring observatories at different regions of the country. In an attempt to detect earthquake precursors, the concentrations of helium, argon, nitrogen, methane, radon-222 (222Rn), polonium-218 (218Po), and polonium-214 (214Po) emanating from hydrothermal systems are monitored continuously and round the clock at these observatories. In this paper, we make a cross correlation study of a number of geochemical anomalies recorded at these observatories. With the data received from each of the above observatories we attempt to make a time series analysis to relate magnitude and epicentral distance locations through statistical methods, empirical formulations that relate the area of influence to earthquake scale. Application of the linear and nonlinear statistical techniques in the recorded geochemical data sets reveal a clear signature of long-range correlation in the data sets.

  8. [High Resolution Remote Sensing Monitoring and Assessment of Secondary Geological Disasters Triggered by the Lushan Earthquake].

    PubMed

    Wang, Fu-tao; Wang, Shi-xin; Zhou, Yi; Wang, Li-tao; Yan, Fu-li; Li, Wen-jun; Liu, Xiong-fei

    2016-01-01

    The secondary geological disasters triggered by the Lushan earthquake on April 20, 2013, such as landslides, collapses, debris flows, etc., had caused great casualties and losses. We monitored the number and spatial distribution of the secondary geological disasters in the earthquake-hit area from airborne remote sensing images, which covered areas about 3 100 km2. The results showed that Lushan County, Baoxing County and Tianquan County were most severely affected; there were 164, 126 and 71 secondary geological disasters in these regions. Moreover, we analyzed the relationship between the distribution of the secondary geological disasters, geological structure and intensity. The results indicate that there were 4 high-hazard zones in the monitored area, one focused within six kilometers from the epicenter, and others are distributed along the two main fault zones of the Longmen Mountain. More than 97% secondary geological disasters occurred in zones with a seismic intensity of VII to IX degrees, a slope between 25 A degrees and 50 A degrees, and an altitude of between 800 and 2 000 m. At last, preliminary suggestions were proposed for the rehabilitation and reconstruction planning of Lushan earthquake. According to the analysis result, airborne and space borne remote sensing can be used accurately and effectively in almost real-time to monitor and assess secondary geological disasters, providing a scientific basis and decision making support for government emergency command and post-disaster reconstruction. PMID:27228764

  9. Earthquake monitoring of eastern Washington: Annual technical report, 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Malone, S.

    1987-10-01

    This report covers operations and research on the seismicity and structure of eastern Washington and northeastern Oregon for the year, July 1, 1986 to June 30, 1987. The report covers the operation of the regional seismograph network including station maintenance and calibration, data processing and operational problems. A detailed description of the current network including telemetry routing through the BPA microwave system is included. This section also details a new VCO system developed to improve the center-frequency stability and reliability of our field stations. The seismicity of the past year and a description of the catalog is covered.

  10. Real-time seismic monitoring of the integrated cape girardeau bridge array and recorded earthquake response

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Celebi, M.

    2006-01-01

    This paper introduces the state of the art, real-time and broad-band seismic monitoring network implemented for the 1206 m [3956 ft] long, cable-stayed Bill Emerson Memorial Bridge in Cape Girardeau (MO), a new Mississippi River crossing, approximately 80 km from the epicentral region of the 1811-1812 New Madrid earthquakes. The bridge was designed for a strong earthquake (magnitude 7.5 or greater) during the design life of the bridge. The monitoring network comprises a total of 84 channels of accelerometers deployed on the superstructure, pier foundations and at surface and downhole free-field arrays of the bridge. The paper also presents the high quality response data obtained from the network. Such data is aimed to be used by the owner, researchers and engineers to assess the performance of the bridge, to check design parameters, including the comparison of dynamic characteristics with actual response, and to better design future similar bridges. Preliminary analyses of ambient and low amplitude small earthquake data reveal specific response characteristics of the bridge and the free-field. There is evidence of coherent tower, cable, deck interaction that sometimes results in amplified ambient motions. Motions at the lowest tri-axial downhole accelerometers on both MO and IL sides are practically free from any feedback from the bridge. Motions at the mid-level and surface downhole accelerometers are influenced significantly by feedback due to amplified ambient motions of the bridge. Copyright ASCE 2006.

  11. Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hamill, John F.

    2009-01-01

    The Grand Canyon of the Colorado River, one of the world's most spectacular gorges, is a premier U.S. National Park and a World Heritage Site. The canyon supports a diverse array of distinctive plants and animals and contains cultural resources significant to the region's Native Americans. About 15 miles upstream of Grand Canyon National Park sits Glen Canyon Dam, completed in 1963, which created Lake Powell. The dam provides hydroelectric power for 200 wholesale customers in six western States, but it has also altered the Colorado River's flow, temperature, and sediment-carrying capacity. Over time this has resulted in beach erosion, invasion and expansion of nonnative species, and losses of native fish. Public concern about the effects of Glen Canyon Dam operations prompted the passage of the Grand Canyon Protection Act of 1992, which directs the Secretary of the Interior to operate the dam 'to protect, mitigate adverse impacts to, and improve values for which Grand Canyon National Park and Glen Canyon National Recreation Area were established...' This legislation also required the creation of a long-term monitoring and research program to provide information that could inform decisions related to dam operations and protection of downstream resources.

  12. Cloud-based systems for monitoring earthquakes and other environmental quantities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clayton, R. W.; Olson, M.; Liu, A.; Chandy, M.; Bunn, J.; Guy, R.

    2013-12-01

    There are many advantages to using a cloud-based system to record and analyze environmental quantities such as earthquakes, radiation, various gases, dust and meteorological parameters. These advantages include robustness and dynamic scalability, and also reduced costs. In this paper, we present our experiences over the last three years in developing a cloud-based earthquake monitoring system (the Community Seismic Network). This network consists of over 600 sensors (accelerometers) in the S. California region that send data directly to the Google App Engine where they are analyzed. The system is capable of handing many other types of sensor data and generating a situation-awareness analysis as a product. Other advantages to the cloud-based system are integration with other peer networks, and being able to deploy anywhere in the world without have to build addition computing infrastructure.

  13. Recorded earthquake responses from the integrated seismic monitoring network of the Atwood Building, Anchorage, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Celebi, M.

    2006-01-01

    An integrated seismic monitoring system with a total of 53 channels of accelerometers is now operating in and at the nearby free-field site of the 20-story steel-framed Atwood Building in highly seismic Anchorage, Alaska. The building has a single-story basement and a reinforced concrete foundation without piles. The monitoring system comprises a 32-channel structural array and a 21-channel site array. Accelerometers are deployed on 10 levels of the building to assess translational, torsional, and rocking motions, interstory drift (displacement) between selected pairs of adjacent floors, and average drift between floors. The site array, located approximately a city block from the building, comprises seven triaxial accelerometers, one at the surface and six in boreholes ranging in depths from 15 to 200 feet (???5-60 meters). The arrays have already recorded low-amplitude shaking responses of the building and the site caused by numerous earthquakes at distances ranging from tens to a couple of hundred kilometers. Data from an earthquake that occurred 186 km away traces the propagation of waves from the deepest borehole to the roof of the building in approximately 0.5 seconds. Fundamental structural frequencies [0.58 Hz (NS) and 0.47 Hz (EW)], low damping percentages (2-4%), mode coupling, and beating effects are identified. The fundamental site frequency at approximately 1.5 Hz is close to the second modal frequencies (1.83 Hz NS and 1.43 EW) of the building, which may cause resonance of the building. Additional earthquakes prove repeatability of these characteristics; however, stronger shaking may alter these conclusions. ?? 2006, Earthquake Engineering Research Institute.

  14. Continuous Monitoring of Potential Geochemical and Geomagnetic Earthquake Precursors: Lessons Learned

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burjanek, J.; Faeh, D.; Surbeck, H.; Balderer, W.; Kaestli, P.; Gassner, G.

    2014-12-01

    In the last decades different studies have addressed short-term earthquake precursors by focusing on the observation of a wide variety of physical phenomena that can precede strong earthquakes. This includes anomalous seismicity patterns, ground water level changes, gas emissions, geochemical changes in groundwater, seismo-electromagnetic phenomena, seismo-ionospheric coupling, surface deformations etc. Some cases of the potential precursors observed in the past where later found as an artifact of sensor-system malfunctioning. Therefore, such monitoring needs to be long-term, time-stamped and continuous, with a professional quality assurance procedure. Moreover, it is important to correlate data recorded with multi-sensor systems. We present a case study of running a multi-sensor system in Valais, Switzerland. The Valais is the area of highest seismic hazard in Switzerland and has experienced a magnitude 6 or larger event every 100 years on average. The system consists of seismic, geodetic (GPS), geochemical and geomagnetic instruments. Here we focus on the latter two. In particular, the observation of possible geochemical earthquake precursory signals is carried out by the installation of two instruments: 1) field fluorometer for monitoring of the fluorescence spectral analysis of water, which can monitor 3 different wavelength bands, temperature and turbidity; 2) geochemical gas concentration sensors, which monitor radon, CO2, and CH4 gases. The geomagnetic observations are performed by three component coil magnetometers. All instrument are designed to run in continuous mode and stream data in real-time. In this presentation we focus mainly on operational aspects of such system. We discuss problems faced during operation, feasibility of the installation, and in general lessons learned for potential future applications.

  15. Southern California Earthquake Center/Undergraduate Studies in Earthquake Information Technology (SCEC/UseIT): Towards the Next Generation of Internship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, S.; Benthien, M.; Jordan, T. H.

    2005-12-01

    The SCEC/UseIT internship program is training the next generation of earthquake scientist, with methods that can be adapted to other disciplines. UseIT interns work collaboratively, in multi-disciplinary teams, conducting computer science research that is needed by earthquake scientists. Since 2002, the UseIT program has welcomed 64 students, in some two dozen majors, at all class levels, from schools around the nation. Each summer''s work is posed as a ``Grand Challenge.'' The students then organize themselves into project teams, decide how to proceed, and pool their diverse talents and backgrounds. They have traditional mentors, who provide advice and encouragement, but they also mentor one another, and this has proved to be a powerful relationship. Most begin with fear that their Grand Challenge is impossible, and end with excitement and pride about what they have accomplished. The 22 UseIT interns in summer, 2005, were primarily computer science and engineering majors, with others in geology, mathematics, English, digital media design, physics, history, and cinema. The 2005 Grand Challenge was to "build an earthquake monitoring system" to aid scientists who must visualize rapidly evolving earthquake sequences and convey information to emergency personnel and the public. Most UseIT interns were engaged in software engineering, bringing new datasets and functionality to SCEC-VDO (Virtual Display of Objects), a 3D visualization software that was prototyped by interns last year, using Java3D and an extensible, plug-in architecture based on the Eclipse Integrated Development Environment. Other UseIT interns used SCEC-VDO to make animated movies, and experimented with imagery in order to communicate concepts and events in earthquake science. One movie-making project included the creation of an assessment to test the effectiveness of the movie''s educational message. Finally, one intern created an interactive, multimedia presentation of the UseIT program.

  16. Monitoring the mental well-being of caregivers during the Haiti-earthquake.

    PubMed Central

    Van der Auwera, Marcel; Debacker, Michel; Hubloue, Ives

    2012-01-01

    Introduction During disaster relief, personnel’s safety is very important. Mental well being is a part of this safety issue. There is however a lack of objective mental well being monitoring tools, usable on scene, during disaster relief. This study covers the use of validated tools towards detection of psychological distress and monitoring of mental well being of disaster relief workers, during the Belgian First Aid and Support Team deployment after the Haiti earthquake in 2010. Methodology The study was conducted using a demographic questionnaire combined with validated measuring instruments: Belbin Team Role, Compassion Fatigue and Satisfaction Self-Test for Helpers, DMAT PsySTART, K6+ Self Report. A baseline measurement was performed before departure on mission, and measurements were repeated at day 1 and day 7 of the mission, at the end of mission, and 7 days, 30 days and 90 days post mission. Results 23 out of the 27 team members were included in the study. Using the Compassion Fatigue and Satisfaction Self-Test for Helpers as a monitoring tool, a stable condition was monitored in 7 participants, a dip in 5 participants, an arousal in 10 participants and a double pattern in 1 participant. Conclusions The study proved the ability to monitor mental well being and detect psychological distress, by self administered validated tools, during a real disaster relief mission. However for practical reasons some tools should be adapted to the specific use in the field. This study opens a whole new research area within the mental well being and monitoring field. Citation: Van der Auwera M, Debacker M, Hubloue I. Monitoring the mental well-being of caregivers during the Haiti-earthquake.. PLoS Currents Disasters. 2012 Jul 18 PMID:22953241

  17. USGS contributions to earthquake and tsunami monitoring in the Caribbean Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNamara, D.; Caribbean Project Team, U.; Partners, C.

    2007-05-01

    USGS Caribbean Project Team: Lind Gee, Gary Gyure, John Derr, Jack Odum, John McMillan, David Carver, Jim Allen, Susan Rhea, Don Anderson, Harley Benz Caribbean Partners: Christa von Hillebrandt-Andrade-PRSN, Juan Payero ISU-UASD,DR, Eduardo Camacho - UPAN, Panama, Lloyd Lynch - SRU,Gonzalo Cruz - UNAH,Honduras, Margaret Wiggins-Grandison - Jamaica, Judy Thomas - CERO Barbados, Sylvan McIntyre - NADMA Grenada, E. Bermingham - STRI. The magnitude-9 Sumatra-Andaman Islands earthquake of December 26, 2004, increased global awareness of the destructive hazard posed by earthquakes and tsunamis. In response to this tragedy, the US government undertook a collaborative project to improve earthquake and tsunami monitoring along a major portion of vulnerable coastal regions, in the Caribbean Sea, the Gulf of Mexico, and the Atlantic Ocean. Seismically active areas of the Caribbean Sea region pose a tsunami risk for Caribbean islands, coastal areas along the Gulf of Mexico, and the Atlantic seaboard of North America. Nearly 100 tsunamis have been reported for the Caribbean region in the past 500 years, including 14 tsunamis reported in Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands. Partners in this project include the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the Smithsonian Institute, the National Oceanic and Aeronautic Administration (NOAA), and several partner institutions in the Caribbean region. This presentation focuses on the deployment of nine broadband seismic stations to monitor earthquake activity in the Caribbean region that are affiliated with the Global Seismograph Network (GSN). By the end of 2006, five stations were transmitting data to the USGS National Earthquake Information Service (NEIS), and regional partners through Puerto Rico seismograph network (PRSN) Earthworm systems. The following stations are currently operating: SDDR - Sabaneta Dam Dominican Republic, BBGH - Gun Hill Barbados, GRGR - Grenville, Grenada, BCIP - Barro Colorado, Panama, TGUH - Tegucigalpa

  18. New Continuous Timeseries Data at the Northern California Earthquake Data Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuhauser, D. S.; Dietz, L.; Zuzlewski, S.; Kohler, W.; Gee, L.; Oppenheimer, D.; Romanowicz, B.

    2005-12-01

    The Northern California Earthquake Data Center (NCEDC) is an archive and distribution center for geophysical data for networks in northern and central California. Recent discovery of non-volcanic tremors in northern and central California has sparked user interest in access to a wider range of continuous seismic data in the region. The NCEDC has responded by expanding its archiving and distribution to all new available continuous data from northern California seismic networks (the USGS NCSN, the UC Berkeley BDSN, the Parkfield HRSN borehole network, and local USArray stations) at all available sample rates, to provide access to all recent real-time timeseries data, and to restore from tape and archive all NCSN continuous data from 2001-present. All new continuous timeseries data will also be available in near-real-time from the NCEDC via the DART (Data Available in Real Time) system, which allows users to directly download daily Telemetry MiniSEED files or to extract and retrieve the timeseries of their selection. The NCEDC will continue to create and distribute event waveform collections for all events detected by the Northern California Seismic System (NCSS), the northern California component of the California Integrated Seismic Network (CISN). All new continuous and event timeseries will be archived in daily intervals and are accessible via the same data request tools (NetDC, BREQ_FAST, EVT_FAST, FISSURES/DHI, STP) as previously archived waveform data. The NCEDC is a joint project of the UC Berkeley Seismological Laboratory and USGS Menlo Park.

  19. The Southern California Earthquake Center/Undergraduate Studies in Earthquake Information Technology (SCEC/UseIT) Internship Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, S.; Jordan, T.

    2006-12-01

    Our undergraduate research program, SCEC/UseIT, an NSF Research Experience for Undergraduates site, provides software for earthquake researchers and educators, movies for outreach, and ways to strengthen the technical career pipeline. SCEC/UseIT motivates diverse undergraduates towards science and engineering careers through team-based research in the exciting field of earthquake information technology. UseIT provides the cross-training in computer science/information technology (CS/IT) and geoscience needed to make fundamental progress in earthquake system science. Our high and increasing participation of women and minority students is crucial given the nation"s precipitous enrollment declines in CS/IT undergraduate degree programs, especially among women. UseIT also casts a "wider, farther" recruitment net that targets scholars interested in creative work but not traditionally attracted to summer science internships. Since 2002, SCEC/UseIT has challenged 79 students in three dozen majors from as many schools with difficult, real-world problems that require collaborative, interdisciplinary solutions. Interns design and engineer open-source software, creating increasingly sophisticated visualization tools (see "SCEC-VDO," session IN11), which are employed by SCEC researchers, in new curricula at the University of Southern California, and by outreach specialists who make animated movies for the public and the media. SCEC-VDO would be a valuable tool for research-oriented professional development programs.

  20. Open Access to Decades of NCSN Waveforms at the Northern California Earthquake Data Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuhauser, D.; Klein, F.; Zuzlewski, S.; Jensen, E. G.; Oppenheimer, D.; Gee, L.; Romanowicz, B.

    2003-12-01

    The USGS in Menlo Park has operated the Northern California Seismic Network (NCSN) since 1967 and has generated digital seismograms since 1984. Since its inception, the NCSN has recorded 2900 distinct channels at over 500 distinct sites. Although originally used only for earthquake location and coda magnitude, these seismograms are now of interest to seismologists for studying earth structure, precision relocations through cross correlation timing, and analysis of strong motion records. Until recently, the NCSN waveform data were available only through research accounts and special request methods due to incomplete instrument responses. Over the past 2 years, the USGS has assembled the necessary descriptions for both historic and current NCSN instrumentation. The NCEDC and USGS jointly developed a procedure to assemble the hardware attributes and instrument responses for the NCSN data channels using a combination of a simple spreadsheet that defines the attributes of each data channel, and a limited number of attribute files for classes of sensors and shared digitizers. These files are used by programs developed by the NCEDC to populate the NCEDC hardware tracking database tables and then to generate both the simple response and the full SEED instrument response database tables. As a result, the NCSN waveform data can now be distributed in SEED format with any of the NCEDC standard waveform request methods. The NCEDC provides access to waveform data through Web forms, email requests, and programming interfaces. The SeismiQuery Web interface provides information about data holdings. NetDC allows users to retrieve inventory information, instrument responses, and waveforms in SEED format. STP provides both a Web and programming interface to retrieve data in SEED or other user-friendly formats. Through the California Integrated Seismic Network, we are working with the SCEDC to provide unified access to California earthquake data. The NCEDC is a joint project of the UC

  1. Data and Visualizations in the Southern California Earthquake Center's Fault Information System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, S.

    2003-12-01

    The Southern California Earthquake Center's Fault Information System (FIS) provides a single point of access to fault-related data and models from multiple databases and datasets. The FIS is built of computer code, metadata and Web interfaces based on Web services technology, which enables queries and data interchange irrespective of computer software or platform. Currently we have working prototypes of programmatic and browser-based access. The first generation FIS may be searched and downloaded live, by automated processes, as well as interactively, by humans using a browser. Users get ascii data in plain text or encoded in XML. Via the Earthquake Information Technology (EIT) Interns (Juve and others, this meeting), we are also testing the effectiveness of querying multiple databases using a fault database ontology. For more than a decade, the California Geological Survey (CGS), SCEC, and the U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) have put considerable, shared resources into compiling and assessing published fault data, then providing the data on the Web. Several databases now exist, with different formats, datasets, purposes, and users, in various stages of completion. When fault databases were first envisioned, the full power of today's internet was not yet recognized, and the databases became the Web equivalents of review papers, where one could read an overview summation of a fault, then copy and paste pertinent data. Today, numerous researchers also require rapid queries and downloads of data. Consequently, the first components of the FIS are MySQL databases that deliver numeric values from earlier, text-based databases. Another essential service provided by the FIS is visualizations of fault representations such as those in SCEC's Community Fault Model. The long term goal is to provide a standardized, open-source, platform-independent visualization technique. Currently, the FIS makes available fault model viewing software for users with access to Matlab or Java3D

  2. Southern California Earthquake Center - SCEC1: Final Report Summary Alternative Earthquake Source Characterization for the Los Angeles Region

    SciTech Connect

    Foxall, B

    2003-02-26

    The objective my research has been to synthesize current understanding of the tectonics and faults of the Los Angeles Basin and surrounding region to quantify uncertainty in the characterization of earthquake sources used for geologically- and geodetically-based regional earthquake likelihood models. This work has focused on capturing epistemic uncertainty; i.e. uncertainty stemming from ignorance of the true characteristics of the active faults in the region and of the tectonic forces that drive them. In the present context, epistemic uncertainty has two components: First, the uncertainty in source geometrical and occurrence rate parameters deduced from the limited geological, geophysical and geodetic observations available; and second. uncertainties that result from fundamentally different interpretations of regional tectonic deformation and faulting. Characterization of the large number of active and potentially active faults that need to be included in estimating earthquake occurrence likelihoods for the Los Angeles region requires synthesis and evaluation of large amounts of data and numerous interpretations. This was accomplished primarily through a series of carefully facilitated workshops, smaller meetings involving key researchers, and email groups. The workshops and meetings were made possible by the unique logistical and financial resources available through SCEC, and proved to be extremely effective forums for the exchange and critical debate of data and interpretations that are essential in constructing fully representative source models. The main products from this work are a complete source model that characterizes all know or potentially active faults in the greater Los Angeles region. which includes the continental borderland as far south as San Diego, the Ventura Basin, and the Santa Barbara Channel. The model constitutes a series of maps and representative cross-sections that define alternative fault geometries, a table containing rault

  3. Role of WEGENER (World Earthquake GEodesy Network for Environmental Hazard Research) in monitoring natural hazards (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozener, H.; Zerbini, S.; Bastos, M. L.; Becker, M. H.; Meghraoui, M.; Reilinger, R. E.

    2013-12-01

    WEGENER was originally the acronym for Working Group of European Geoscientists for the Establishment of Networks for Earth-science Research. It was founded in March 1981 in response to an appeal delivered at the Journées Luxembourgeoises de Geodynamique in December 1980 to respond with a coordinated European proposal to a NASA Announcement of Opportunity inviting participation in the Crustal Dynamics and Earthquake Research Program. WEGENER, during the past 33 years, has always kept a close contact with the Agencies and Institutions responsible for the development and maintenance of the global space geodetic networks with the aim to make them aware of the scientific needs and outcomes of the project which might have an influence on the general science policy trends. WEGENER served as Inter-commission Project 3.2, between Commission 1 and Commission 3, of the International Association of Geodesy (IAG) until 2012. Since then, WEGENER project has become the Sub-commission 3.5 of IAG commission 3, namely Tectonics and Earthquake Geodesy. In this presentation, we briefly review the accomplishments of WEGENER as originally conceived and outline and justify the new focus of the WEGENER consortium. The remarkable and rapid evolution of the present state of global geodetic monitoring in regard to the precision of positioning capabilities (and hence deformation) and global coverage, the development of InSAR for monitoring strain with unprecedented spatial resolution, and continuing and planned data from highly precise satellite gravity and altimetry missions, encourage us to shift principal attention from mainly monitoring capabilities by a combination of space and terrestrial geodetic techniques to applying existing observational methodologies to the critical geophysical phenomena that threaten our planet and society. Our new focus includes developing an improved physical basis to mitigate earthquake, tsunami, and volcanic risks, and the effects of natural and

  4. Change of permeability caused by 2011 Tohoku earthquake detected from pore pressure monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinoshita, C.; Kano, Y.; Ito, H.

    2013-12-01

    Earthquake-induced groundwater changes which are the pre- and co-seismic changes have been long reported (e.g. Roeloffs, 1996). For example, 1995 Kobe earthquake, water inflow into observation tunnel changed at Rokko (Fujimori et al., 1995), at the times of 1964 Alaska earthquake (M8.6) (Coble, 1967) and 1999 Taiwan Chi-Chi earthquake (M7.6) (Chia et al., 2001), groundwater leve were fluctuated. The shaking of seismic waves and crack formation by crustal deformation are proposed as one causes but the mechanism is controversial. We are monitoring pore pressure from 2005 to measure the stress changes at Kamioka mine, Gifu prefecture, central Japan. Barometric pressure and strain are observed to correct the pore pressure data. In general, the pore pressure changes associate with the meteorological effects, Earth tides and crustal deformation. Increase of pore pressure depends on the precipitation which flows into the ground. Especially, snow effects are bigger than the usual rainfall because our observation site has heavy snow in winter season. Melted snow flows in the ground and pore pressure increases at the March to April every year. When the 2011 Tohoku earthquake (M9.0) occurred, pore pressure remarkably decreased because the permeability increases by crustal deformation at Kamioka region. Thus, we estimated the hydraulic diffusivity before and after the earthquake from pore pressure response to crustal deformation. We made separated analyses on three frequency bands. First is the high frequency band, especially, seismic response. Second is response to Earth tides. Third frequency band is that of barometric response which is lower than other two bands. At high frequency band, we confirmed that the deformation occurred under undrained condition and estimated the bulk modulus from pore pressure and strain data. Next, tidal response is extracted from pore pressure which applied to every three months data of pore pressure, barometric pressure and strain. Time window

  5. Continued Swift/XRT monitoring observations of the Galactic center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degenaar, N.; Wijnands, R.; Reynolds, M. T.; Miller, J. M.; Kennea, J. A.; Gehrels, N.; Haggard, D.; Ponti, G.; Burrows, D. N.

    2014-02-01

    We report on continued X-ray monitoring observations of the Galactic center with the Swift/XRT (Atel #5847). Between 2014 February 2 and 6 the XRT count rate at the position of Sgr A* and the nearby transient magnetar SGR J1745-29 varied between ~1E-2 and 3E-2 counts s-1.

  6. Postseismic Deformation after the 1964 Great Alaskan Earthquake: Collaborative Research with Goddard Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freymueller, Jeffrey T.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to carry out GPS observations on the Kenai Peninsula, southern Alaska, in order to study the postseismic and contemporary deformation following the 1964 Alaska earthquake. All of the research supported in this grant was carried out in collaboration with Dr. Steven Cohen of Goddard Space Flight Center. The research funding from this grant primarily supported GPS fieldwork, along with the acquisition of computer equipment to allow analysis and modeling of the GPS data. A minor amount of salary support was provided by the PI, but the great majority of the salary support was provided by the Geophysical Institute. After the expiration of this grant, additional funding was obtained from the National Science Foundation to continue the work. This grant supported GPS field campaigns in August 1995, June 1996, May-June and September 1997, and May-June 1998. We initially began the work by surveying leveling benchmarks on the Kenai peninsula that had been surveyed after the 1964 earthquake. Changes in height from the 1964 leveling data to the 1995+ GPS data, corrected for the geoid-ellipsoid separation, give the total elevation change since the earthquake. Beginning in 1995, we also identified or established sites that were suitable for long-term surveying using GPS. In the subsequent annual GPS campaigns, we made regular measurements at these GPS marks, and steadily enhanced our set of points for which cumulative postseismic uplift data were available. From 4 years of Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements, we find significant spatial variations in present-day deformation between the eastern and western Kenai peninsula, Alaska. Sites in the eastern Kenai peninsula and Prince William Sound move to the NNW relative to North America, in the direction of Pacific-North America relative plate motion. Velocities decrease in magnitude from nearly the full plate rate in southern Prince William Sound to about 30 mm/yr at Seward and to about 5 mm

  7. Real-Time Seismic Monitoring of Thenewcape Girardeau (mo) Bridge and Recorded Earthquake Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    çelebi, Mehmet

    This paper introduces the state of the art, real-time and broad-band seismic monitoring network implemented for the 1206 m [3956 ft] long, cable-stayed Bill Emerson Memorial Bridge in Cape Girardeau (MO), a new Mississippi River crossing, approximately 80 km from the epicentral region of the 1811-1812 New Madrid earthquakes. Design of the bridge accounted for the possibility of a strong earthquake (magnitude 7.5 or greater) during the design life of the bridge. The monitoring network consists of a superstructure and two free-field arrays and comprises a total of 84 channels of accelerometers deployed on the superstructure, pier foundations and free-field in the vicinity of the bridge. The paper also introduces the high quality response data obtained from the network. Such data is aimed to be used by the owner, researchers and engineers to (1) assess the performance of the bridge, (2) check design parameters, including the comparison of dynamic characteristics with actual response, and (3) better design future similar bridges. Preliminary analyses of low-amplitude ambient vibration data and that from a small earthquake reveal specific response characteristics of this new bridge and the free-field in its proximity. There is coherent tower-cabledeck interaction that sometimes results in amplified ambient motions. Also, while the motions at the lowest (tri-axial) downhole accelerometers on both MO and IL sides are practically free-from any feedback from the bridge, the motions at the middle downhole and surface accelerometers are significantly influenced by amplified ambient motions of the bridge.

  8. Application of multimode airborne digital camera system in Wenchuan earthquake disaster monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xue; Li, Qingting; Fang, Junyong; Tong, Qingxi; Zheng, Lanfen

    2009-06-01

    Remote sensing, especially airborne remote sensing, can be an invaluable technique for quick response to natural disasters. Timely acquired images by airborne remote sensing can provide very important information for the headquarters and decision makers to be aware of the disaster situation, and make effective relief arrangements. The image acquisition and processing of Multi-mode Airborne Digital Camera System (MADC) and its application in Wenchuan earthquake disaster monitoring are presented in this paper. MADC system is a novel airborne digital camera developed by Institute of Remote Sensing Applications, Chinese Academy of Sciences. This camera system can acquire high quality images in three modes, namely wide field, multi-spectral (hyper-spectral) and stereo conformation. The basic components and technical parameters of MADC are also presented in this paper. MADC system played a very important role in the disaster monitoring of Wenchuan earthquake. In particular, the map of dammed lakes in Jianjiang river area was produced and provided to the front line headquarters. Analytical methods and information extraction techniques of MADC are introduced. Some typical analytical and imaging results are given too. Suggestions for the design and configuration of the airborne sensors are discussed at the end of this paper.

  9. Analogue models of subduction megathrust earthquakes: improving rheology and monitoring technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brizzi, Silvia; Corbi, Fabio; Funiciello, Francesca; Moroni, Monica

    2015-04-01

    duration and rupture width. Experimental monitoring has been performed by means of both PEP and PIV (i.e., Particle Image Velocimetry) algorithms. PEP differs from classic cross-correlation techniques (i.e., PIV) in its ability to provide sparse velocity vectors at points coincident with particle barycentre positions, allowing a lagrangian description of the velocity field and a better spatial resolution (i.e., ≈ 0.03 mm2) with respect to PIV. Results show that PEP algorithm is able to identify a greater number of analogue earthquakes (i.e., ≈ 20% more than PIV algorithm), decreasing the minimum detectable magnitude from 6.6 to 4.5. Furthermore, earthquake source parameters (e.g., hypocentre position, rupture limits and slip distribution) are more accurately defined. PEP algorithm is then suitable to potentially gain new insights on seismogenic process of STF, by extending the analysable magnitude range of analogue earthquakes and having implications on applicability of scaling relationship, such as Gutenberg - Richter law, to experimental results.

  10. The academic health center in complex humanitarian emergencies: lessons learned from the 2010 Haiti earthquake.

    PubMed

    Babcock, Christine; Theodosis, Christian; Bills, Corey; Kim, Jimin; Kinet, Melodie; Turner, Madeleine; Millis, Michael; Olopade, Olufunmilayo; Olopade, Christopher

    2012-11-01

    On January 12, 2010, a 7.0-magnitude earthquake struck Haiti. The event disrupted infrastructure and was marked by extreme morbidity and mortality. The global response to the disaster was rapid and immense, comprising multiple actors-including academic health centers (AHCs)-that provided assistance in the field and from home. The authors retrospectively examine the multidisciplinary approach that the University of Chicago Medicine (UCM) applied to postearthquake Haiti, which included the application of institutional structure and strategy, systematic deployment of teams tailored to evolving needs, and the actual response and recovery. The university mobilized significant human and material resources for deployment within 48 hours and sustained the effort for over four months. In partnership with international and local nongovernmental organizations as well as other AHCs, the UCM operated one of the largest and more efficient acute field hospitals in the country. The UCM's efforts in postearthquake Haiti provide insight into the role AHCs can play, including their strengths and limitations, in complex disasters. AHCs can provide necessary intellectual and material resources as well as technical expertise, but the cost and speed required for responding to an emergency, and ongoing domestic responsibilities, may limit the response of a large university and hospital system. The authors describe the strong institutional backing, the detailed predeployment planning and logistical support UCM provided, the engagement of faculty and staff who had previous experience in complex humanitarian emergencies, and the help of volunteers fluent in the local language which, together, made UCM's mission in postearthquake Haiti successful. PMID:23018336

  11. Application for temperature and humidity monitoring of data center environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albert, Ş.; Truşcǎ, M. R. C.; Soran, M. L.

    2015-12-01

    The technology and computer science registered a large development in the last years. Most systems that use high technologies require special working conditions. The monitoring and the controlling are very important. The temperature and the humidity are important parameters in the operation of computer systems, industrial and research, maintaining it between certain values to ensure their proper functioning being important. Usually, the temperature is maintained in the established range using an air conditioning system, but the humidity is affected. In the present work we developed an application based on a board with own firmware called "AVR_NET_IO" using a microcontroller ATmega32 type for temperature and humidity monitoring in Data Center of INCDTIM. On this board, temperature sensors were connected to measure the temperature in different points of the Data Center and outside of this. Humidity monitoring is performed using data from integrated sensors of the air conditioning system, thus achieving a correlation between humidity and temperature variation. It was developed a software application (CM-1) together with the hardware, which allows temperature monitoring and register inside Data Center and trigger an alarm when variations are greater with 3°C than established limits of the temperature.

  12. Real-time earthquake monitoring for tsunami warning in the Indian Ocean and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanka, W.; Saul, J.; Weber, B.; Becker, J.; Harjadi, P.; Fauzi; Gitews Seismology Group

    2010-12-01

    The Mw = 9.3 Sumatra earthquake of 26 December 2004 generated a tsunami that affected the entire Indian Ocean region and caused approximately 230 000 fatalities. In the response to this tragedy the German government funded the German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS) Project. The task of the GEOFON group of GFZ Potsdam was to develop and implement the seismological component. In this paper we describe the concept of the GITEWS earthquake monitoring system and report on its present status. The major challenge for earthquake monitoring within a tsunami warning system is to deliver rapid information about location, depth, size and possibly other source parameters. This is particularly true for coast lines adjacent to the potential source areas such as the Sunda trench where these parameters are required within a few minutes after the event in order to be able to warn the population before the potential tsunami hits the neighbouring coastal areas. Therefore, the key for a seismic monitoring system with short warning times adequate for Indonesia is a dense real-time seismic network across Indonesia with densifications close to the Sunda trench. A substantial number of supplementary stations in other Indian Ocean rim countries are added to strengthen the teleseismic monitoring capabilities. The installation of the new GITEWS seismic network - consisting of 31 combined broadband and strong motion stations - out of these 21 stations in Indonesia - is almost completed. The real-time data collection is using a private VSAT communication system with hubs in Jakarta and Vienna. In addition, all available seismic real-time data from the other seismic networks in Indonesia and other Indian Ocean rim countries are acquired also directly by VSAT or by Internet at the Indonesian Tsunami Warning Centre in Jakarta and the resulting "virtual" network of more than 230 stations can jointly be used for seismic data processing. The seismological processing software as part

  13. Long term ocean bottom pressure monitoring in the Logatchev Hydrothermal Field - indications for tremor, earthquakes, uplift and subsidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gennerich, H.-H.; Villinger, H.

    2009-04-01

    The mid oceanic spreading axes are centers of recent ore generation, accommodate little known chemotropic biological communities, 90 per cent of the global volcanism and contribute 25 per cent of the heat released from the earth. But little is known about these systems because their location in the depth of the oceans and much less about their changes in time. Target of a joint multidisciplinary approach to learn more about the temporal variations of a hydrothermal field has been the Logatchev Hydrothermal Field (LHF) at the Mid Atlantic Ridge in the framework of the SPP1144 of the German Research Foundation. It was chosen because of its high representativity with its moderate spreading rate, the mixture of basaltic and mantle rocks in the subsurface and its pronounced bathymetric relief. In the Logatchev Hydrothermal Field (LHF) hydrothermal activity is observed at several distinct sites. Focussed high-temperature outlets at black smokers were found as well as diffuse warm water outflow. Four locations in the LHF were equipped with instruments, to monitor physical parameters for about one year. At "OBP-site" an ocean-bottom-pressure-meter (OBP) and an ocean-bottom-tilt-meter (OBT) were installed, monitoring water pressure, temperature as well as the sea floor inclination. At "Mooring-site" a sensor chain scanned the temperatures of the bottom water every 6 minutes in 1 m intervals, from the sea floor to 25 m vertically above. The adjoining mussel fields Quest and Irina2 were instrumented with 12 temperature loggers each, registering the temperatures. In this poster data of the long term ocean bottom pressure monitoring are presented and discussed in context with temperature data regarding their meaning for tectonic processes. Earthquakes and very low frequency tremor activity are recognized. Temperature monitoring and CTD measurements help to separate sea floor uplift and subsidence from oceanographic signals.

  14. Long-Span Continuous Self-Potential Measurements Around Earthquake Swarms for Monitoring Crustal Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshimura, R.; Oshiman, N.; Yamazaki, K.; Uyeshima, M.; Ogawa, T.

    2008-12-01

    Earthquake swarm activity has been continuously observed around the southeastern flank of Ontake stratovolcano since 1976. A large earthquake with the depth about 2 km and a magnitude of 6.8 occurred in 1984 in the southeastern flank of the volcano. Recently, Kimata et al. (2004) revealed uplift ground deformation above the earthquake swarm area by using repeated leveling. Furthermore, MagnetoTelluric (MT) soundings estimated a low resistivity region with the depth about 2km beneath the uplift area (Kasaya et al., 2002). In order to investigate a relationship between tectonic movements and subsurface low resistivity zone, Yoshimura et al. (2007) carried out self-potential (SP) measurements from 2003 to 2005 around the earthquake swarm areas. As the result of SP measurements, a torus-shape positive SP anomaly has been detected at the eastern part of the survey profile. This anomaly is located between recent active clusters of earthquakes and near the ground uplift detected by Kimata et al. (2004). Given that the obtained anomaly delineates the subsurface fluid"fs motion due to thermal or crustal activities, it could be expected that the anomaly varies in association with fluctuation of crustal activities. In February 2007, we established a continuous SP observation network with the aim of monitoring the crustal/hydrothermal activity by reference to the obtained SP distribution. This network consists of 8 Pb- PbCl2 electrodes and uses metallic telephone lines as insulated cables for measuring SP. Voltage differences between electrodes are measured at an interval of 1 sec. This observation technique, called "Network-MT", has been developed to determine large-scale electrical conductivity structure and the spatial distribution of the telluric potentials (Uyeshima, 2007). As a preliminary result of longitudinal data analysis, night time daily median values showed remarkable stepwise SP time variations with relaxation time about 15 days in August 2007. Additionally

  15. Earthquake Monitoring: SeisComp3 at the Swiss National Seismic Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clinton, J. F.; Diehl, T.; Cauzzi, C.; Kaestli, P.

    2011-12-01

    The Swiss Seismological Service (SED) has an ongoing responsibility to improve the seismicity monitoring capability for Switzerland. This is a crucial issue for a country with low background seismicity but where a large M6+ earthquake is expected in the next decades. With over 30 stations with spacing of ~25km, the SED operates one of the densest broadband networks in the world, which is complimented by ~ 50 realtime strong motion stations. The strong motion network is expected to grow with an additional ~80 stations over the next few years. Furthermore, the backbone of the network is complemented by broadband data from surrounding countries and temporary sub-networks for local monitoring of microseismicity (e.g. at geothermal sites). The variety of seismic monitoring responsibilities as well as the anticipated densifications of our network demands highly flexible processing software. We are transitioning all software to the SeisComP3 (SC3) framework. SC3 is a fully featured automated real-time earthquake monitoring software developed by GeoForschungZentrum Potsdam in collaboration with commercial partner, gempa GmbH. It is in its core open source, and becoming a community standard software for earthquake detection and waveform processing for regional and global networks across the globe. SC3 was originally developed for regional and global rapid monitoring of potentially tsunamagenic earthquakes. In order to fulfill the requirements of a local network recording moderate seismicity, SED has tuned configurations and added several modules. In this contribution, we present our SC3 implementation strategy, focusing on the detection and identification of seismicity on different scales. We operate several parallel processing "pipelines" to detect and locate local, regional and global seismicity. Additional pipelines with lower detection thresholds can be defined to monitor seismicity within dense subnets of the network. To be consistent with existing processing

  16. Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center Overview of FRMAC Operations

    SciTech Connect

    1998-03-01

    In the event of a major radiological emergency, 17 federal agencies with various statutory responsibilities have agreed to coordinate their efforts at the emergency scene under the umbrella of the Federal Radiological Emergency Response Plan. This cooperative effort will ensure that all federal radiological assistance fully supports their efforts to protect the public. the mandated federal cooperation ensures that each agency can obtain the data critical to its specific responsibilities. This Overview of Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC) describes the FRMAC response activities to a major radiological emergency. It also describes the federal assets and subsequent operational activities which provide federal radiological monitoring and assessment of the off-site areas.

  17. Continued Chandra monitoring observations of the Galactic Center magnetar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rea, Nanda; Haggard, Daryl; Baganoff, Fred; Heinke, Craig; Israel, Gian Luca; Ponti, Gabriele

    2014-02-01

    We have observed SGR J1745-29 (Kennea et al. 2013, ApJ 770, L24; Mori et al. 2013, ApJ 770, L23; Rea et al. 2013, ApJ 775, L34) with the ACIS-S camera onboard Chandra for about 47ks starting on 2014-02-21 (ObsID 16508), as part of the on-going Chandra X-ray monitoring of the Galactic Center region (PIs: Haggard, Baganoff, Rea).

  18. Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center Monitoring Manual Volume 2, Radiation Monitoring and Sampling

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Aerial Measurement Systems

    2012-07-31

    The FRMAC Monitoring and Sampling Manual, Volume 2 provides standard operating procedures (SOPs) for field radiation monitoring and sample collection activities that are performed by the Monitoring group during a FRMAC response to a radiological emergency.

  19. Rapid monitoring in vaccination campaigns during emergencies: the post-earthquake campaign in Haiti

    PubMed Central

    Sugerman, David; Brennan, Muireann; Cadet, Jean Ronald; Ernsly, Jackson; Lacapère, François; Danovaro-Holliday, M Carolina; Mubalama, Jean-Claude; Nandy, Robin

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Problem The earthquake that struck Haiti in January 2010 caused 1.5 million people to be displaced to temporary camps. The Haitian Ministry of Public Health and Population and global immunization partners developed a plan to deliver vaccines to those residing in these camps. A strategy was needed to determine whether the immunization targets set for the campaign were achieved. Approach Following the vaccination campaign, staff from the Ministry of Public Health and Population interviewed convenience samples of households – in specific predetermined locations in each of the camps – regarding receipt of the emergency vaccinations. A camp was targeted for “mop-up vaccination” – i.e. repeat mass vaccination – if more than 25% of the children aged 9 months to 7 years in the sample were found not to have received the emergency vaccinations. Local setting Rapid monitoring was implemented in camps located in the Port-au-Prince metropolitan area. Camps that housed more than 5000 people were monitored first. Relevant changes By the end of March 2010, 72 (23%) of the 310 vaccinated camps had been monitored. Although 32 (44%) of the monitored camps were targeted for mop-up vaccination, only six of them had received such repeat mass vaccination when checked several weeks after monitoring. Lessons learnt Rapid monitoring was only marginally beneficial in achieving immunization targets in the temporary camps in Port-au-Prince. More research is needed to evaluate the utility of conventional rapid monitoring, as well as other strategies, during post-disaster vaccination campaigns that involve mobile populations, particularly when there is little capacity to conduct repeat mass vaccination. PMID:24347735

  20. Microplate boundaries as obstacles to pre-earthquake strain transfer in Western Turkey: Inferences from continuous geochemical monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    İnan, Sedat; Pabuçcu, Zümer; Kulak, Furkan; Ergintav, Semih; Tatar, Orhan; Altunel, Erhan; Akyüz, Serdar; Tan, Onur; Seyis, Cemil; Çakmak, Rahşan; Saatçılar, Ruhi; Eyidoğan, Haluk

    2012-04-01

    Warm and hot spring water chemistry changes as well as soil gas radon release patterns have been monitored in Western Turkey, alongside regional seismicity, providing a multi-disciplinary approach. From January 2009 to May 2011, 33 earthquakes with ML between 4.0 and 6.0 occurred in this seismically very active region; the ML 6.0 earthquake occurred on 19 May 2011 in Simav town of Kütahya Province at a location midway between dense multidisciplinary monitoring networks of Marmara Region (MR) and the Aegean Extensional Province (AEP). We previously reported on noteworthy precursory anomalies prior to several earthquakes (ML ⩾ 4) in the MR and AEP, but no precursory anomaly was detected prior to the ML 6.0 event on 19 May 2011 in Simav, Kütahya Province, midway between dense multidisciplinary monitoring MR and AEP networks. Although these networks operate within the theoretical strain radii of this earthquake (Dobrovolsky et al., 1979), no reliable anomaly were found. Geodetic studies based on GPS data have identified crustal blocks in this region. The epicentral area of the Simav event is located within a block tectonically separated from AEP and MR. Thus, we speculate that pre-earthquake strain accumulation within the Simav block did not effectively transfer to adjacent blocks where the MR and AEP networks are located, thereby providing an explanation for the absence of detectable anomalies. Moreover, prior to some earthquakes quadrant features of geochemical transients have been found; suggesting that soil radon anomalies appear in compressional quadrant(s) of pre-earthquake strain distribution.

  1. Robust Satellite Techniques (RST) for monitoring earthquake prone areas by satellite TIR observations: The case of 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake (Taiwan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genzano, N.; Filizzola, C.; Paciello, R.; Pergola, N.; Tramutoli, V.

    2015-12-01

    For more than 13 years a multi-temporal data-analysis method, named Robust Satellite Techniques (RST), has been being applied to satellite Thermal InfraRed (TIR) monitoring of seismically active regions. It gives a clear definition of a TIR anomaly within a validation/confutation scheme devoted to verify if detected anomalies can be associated or not to the time and location of the occurrence of major earthquakes. In this scheme, the confutation part (i.e. verifying if similar anomalies do not occur in the absence of a significant seismic activity) assumes a role even much important than the usual validation component devoted to verify the presence of anomalous signal transients before (or in association with) specific seismic events. Since 2001, RST approach has been being used to study tens of earthquakes with a wide range of magnitudes (from 4.0 to 7.9) occurred in different continents and in various geo-tectonic settings. In this paper such a long term experience is exploited in order to give a quantitative definition of a significant sequence of TIR anomalies (SSTA) in terms of the required space-time continuity constraints (persistence), identifying also the different typologies of known spurious sequences of TIR anomalies that have to be excluded from the following validation steps. On the same basis, taking also into account for the physical models proposed for justifying the existence of a correlation between TIR anomalies and earthquakes occurrence, specific validation rules (in line with the ones used by the Collaboratory for the Study of Earthquake Predictability - CSEP - Project) have been defined to drive the validation process. In this work, such an approach is applied for the first time to a long-term dataset of night-time GMS-5/VISSR (Geostationary Meteorological Satellite/Visible and Infrared Spin-Scan Radiometer) TIR measurements, comparing SSTAs and earthquakes with M > 4 which occurred in a wide area around Taiwan, in the month of September of

  2. The effects of educational program on health volunteers’ knowledge regarding their approach to earthquake in health centers in Tehran

    PubMed Central

    JOUHARI, ZAHRA; PIRASTEH, AFSHAR; GHASSEMI, GHOLAM REZA; BAZRAFKAN, LEILA

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The people's mental, intellectual and physical non-readiness to confront earthquake may result in disastrous outcomes. This research aimed to study of effects of a training intervention on health connector’s knowledge regarding their approach to earthquake in health-training centers in East of Tehran. Methods This research which is a semi-experimental study was designed and executed in 2011, using a questionnaire with items based on the information of Crisis Management Org. After a pilot study and making the questionnaire valid and reliable, we determined the sample size. Then, the questionnaires were completed before and after the training program by 82 health connectors at health-treatment centers in the East of Tehran. Finally, the collected data were analyzed by SPSS 14, using paired sample t–test and Pearson's correlation coefficient. Results Health connectors were women with the mean age of 43.43±8.51 years. In this research, the mean score of connectors’ knowledge before and after the training was 35.15±4.3 and 43.73±2.91 out of 48, respectively. The difference was statistically significant (p=0.001). The classes were the most important source of information for the health connectors. Conclusion The people's knowledge to confront earthquake can be increased by holding training courses and workshops. Such training courses and workshops have an important role in data transfer and readiness of health connectors. PMID:25927068

  3. Towards real-time regional earthquake simulation I: real-time moment tensor monitoring (RMT) for regional events in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Shiann-Jong; Liang, Wen-Tzong; Cheng, Hui-Wen; Tu, Feng-Shan; Ma, Kuo-Fong; Tsuruoka, Hiroshi; Kawakatsu, Hitoshi; Huang, Bor-Shouh; Liu, Chun-Chi

    2014-01-01

    We have developed a real-time moment tensor monitoring system (RMT) which takes advantage of a grid-based moment tensor inversion technique and real-time broad-band seismic recordings to automatically monitor earthquake activities in the vicinity of Taiwan. The centroid moment tensor (CMT) inversion technique and a grid search scheme are applied to obtain the information of earthquake source parameters, including the event origin time, hypocentral location, moment magnitude and focal mechanism. All of these source parameters can be determined simultaneously within 117 s after the occurrence of an earthquake. The monitoring area involves the entire Taiwan Island and the offshore region, which covers the area of 119.3°E to 123.0°E and 21.0°N to 26.0°N, with a depth from 6 to 136 km. A 3-D grid system is implemented in the monitoring area with a uniform horizontal interval of 0.1° and a vertical interval of 10 km. The inversion procedure is based on a 1-D Green's function database calculated by the frequency-wavenumber (fk) method. We compare our results with the Central Weather Bureau (CWB) catalogue data for earthquakes occurred between 2010 and 2012. The average differences between event origin time and hypocentral location are less than 2 s and 10 km, respectively. The focal mechanisms determined by RMT are also comparable with the Broadband Array in Taiwan for Seismology (BATS) CMT solutions. These results indicate that the RMT system is realizable and efficient to monitor local seismic activities. In addition, the time needed to obtain all the point source parameters is reduced substantially compared to routine earthquake reports. By connecting RMT with a real-time online earthquake simulation (ROS) system, all the source parameters will be forwarded to the ROS to make the real-time earthquake simulation feasible. The RMT has operated offline (2010-2011) and online (since January 2012 to present) at the Institute of Earth Sciences (IES), Academia Sinica

  4. Hydrochemical monitoring results in relation to the vogtland-nw bohemian earthquake swarm period 2000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kämpf, H.; Bräuer, K.; Dulski, P.; Faber, E.; Koch, U.; Mrlina, J.; Strauch, G.; Weise, S. M.

    2003-04-01

    The Vogtland-NW Bohemian earthquake swarm area/Central Europe is characterised by carbon dioxide- rich mineral springs and mofetts. The August-December 2000 earthquake period was the strongest compared with the December 1985/86 swarms occurred in the area of Novy Kostel, Czech Republic. Here, we present first results of long-term hydrochemical monitoring studies before, during and after the 2000 swarm period. The swarm 2000 lasted from August 28 until December 26 and consisted of altogether nine sub-swarm episodes, each of them lasting for several days. At the mineral spring Wettinquelle, Bad Brambach/Germany the water chemistry and isotope (D, 18O) composition was monitored weekly and two-weekly, respectively, since May 2000. The mineral spring Wettinquelle is located in a distance of about 10 km from the epicentral area of Novy Kostel. The aim of our investigation was to look for seismic induced or seismic coupled changes of the chemical and isotope composition of the mineral water. We had to separate seismohydrological effects from seasonal and hydrological caused changes. The seasonal caused shifts were found for water temperature and alkaline elements (Li, Na, K, Rb and Cs) as well as for discharge, conductivity, hydrogenecarbonate- concentration, and the concentration of the alkaline earth's (Ca, Mg, Sr). Strain related anomalies which could influence the hydrogeochemistry of the mineral water seems to be visible in the iron- concentration of the spring water, in the methane- concentration of the free gas component and caused probably changes of the groundwater level of the well H3 located about 5 km SE of the Wettinquelle at Skalna.

  5. Long-term blood pressure changes induced by the 2009 L'Aquila earthquake: assessment by 24 h ambulatory monitoring.

    PubMed

    Giorgini, Paolo; Striuli, Rinaldo; Petrarca, Marco; Petrazzi, Luisa; Pasqualetti, Paolo; Properzi, Giuliana; Desideri, Giovambattista; Omboni, Stefano; Parati, Gianfranco; Ferri, Claudio

    2013-09-01

    An increased rate of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events has been described during and immediately after earthquakes. In this regard, few data are available on long-term blood pressure control in hypertensive outpatients after an earthquake. We evaluated the long-term effects of the April 2009 L'Aquila earthquake on blood pressure levels, as detected by 24 h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. Before/after (mean±s.d. 6.9±4.5/14.2±5.1 months, respectively) the earthquake, the available 24 h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring data for the same patients were extracted from our database. Quake-related daily life discomforts were evaluated through interviews. We enrolled 47 patients (25 female, age 52±14 years), divided into three groups according to antihypertensive therapy changes after versus before the earthquake: unchanged therapy (n=24), increased therapy (n=17) and reduced therapy (n=6). Compared with before the quake, in the unchanged therapy group marked increases in 24 h (P=0.004), daytime (P=0.01) and nighttime (P=0.02) systolic blood pressure were observed after the quake. Corresponding changes in 24 h (P=0.005), daytime (P=0.01) and nighttime (P=0.009) diastolic blood pressure were observed. Daily life discomforts were reported more frequently in the unchanged therapy and increased therapy groups than the reduced therapy group (P=0.025 and P=0.018, respectively). In conclusion, this study shows that patients with unchanged therapy display marked blood pressure increments up to more than 1 year after an earthquake, as well as long-term quake-related discomfort. Our data suggest that particular attention to blood pressure levels and adequate therapy modifications should be considered after an earthquake, not only early after the event but also months later. PMID:23595046

  6. Advanced earthquake monitoring system for U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs medical buildings--instrumentation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kalkan, Erol; Banga, Krishna; Ulusoy, Hasan S.; Fletcher, Jon Peter B.; Leith, William S.; Reza, Shahneam; Cheng, Timothy

    2012-01-01

    In collaboration with the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA), the National Strong Motion Project (NSMP; http://nsmp.wr.usgs.gov/) of the U.S. Geological Survey has been installing sophisticated seismic systems that will monitor the structural integrity of 28 VA hospital buildings located in seismically active regions of the conterminous United States, Alaska, and Puerto Rico during earthquake shaking. These advanced monitoring systems, which combine the use of sensitive accelerometers and real-time computer calculations, are designed to determine the structural health of each hospital building rapidly after an event, helping the VA to ensure the safety of patients and staff. This report presents the instrumentation component of this project by providing details of each hospital building, including a summary of its structural, geotechnical, and seismic hazard information, as well as instrumentation objectives and design. The structural-health monitoring component of the project, including data retrieval and processing, damage detection and localization, automated alerting system, and finally data dissemination, will be presented in a separate report.

  7. Monitoring of the stress state variations of the Southern California for the purpose of earthquake prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gokhberg, M.; Garagash, I.; Bondur, V.; Steblov, G. M.

    2014-12-01

    The three-dimensional geomechanical model of Southern California was developed, including a mountain relief, fault tectonics and characteristic internal features such as the roof of the consolidated crust and Moho surface. The initial stress state of the model is governed by the gravitational forces and horizontal tectonic motions estimated from GPS observations. The analysis shows that the three-dimensional geomechanical models allows monitoring of the changes in the stress state during the seismic process in order to constrain the distribution of the future places with increasing seismic activity. This investigation demonstrates one of possible approach to monitor upcoming seismicity for the periods of days - weeks - months. Continuous analysis of the stress state was carried out during 2009-2014. Each new earthquake with М~1 and above from USGS catalog was considered as the new defect of the Earth crust which has some definite size and causes redistribution of the stress state. Overall calculation technique was based on the single function of the Earth crust damage, recalculated each half month. As a result each half month in the upper crust layers and partially in the middle layers we revealed locations of the maximal values of the stress state parameters: elastic energy density, shear stress, proximity of the earth crust layers to their strength limit. All these parameters exhibit similar spatial and temporal distribution. How follows from observations all four strongest events with М ~ 5.5-7.2 occurred in South California during the analyzed period were prefaced by the parameters anomalies in peculiar advance time of weeks-months in the vicinity of 10-50 km from the upcoming earthquake. After the event the stress state source disappeared. The figure shows migration of the maximums of the stress state variations gradients (parameter D) in the vicinity of the epicenter of the earthquake 04.04.2010 with М=7.2 in the period of 01.01.2010-01.05.2010. Grey lines

  8. Earthquake prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turcotte, Donald L.

    1991-01-01

    The state of the art in earthquake prediction is discussed. Short-term prediction based on seismic precursors, changes in the ratio of compressional velocity to shear velocity, tilt and strain precursors, electromagnetic precursors, hydrologic phenomena, chemical monitors, and animal behavior is examined. Seismic hazard assessment is addressed, and the applications of dynamical systems to earthquake prediction are discussed.

  9. Self-Powered WSN for Distributed Data Center Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Brunelli, Davide; Passerone, Roberto; Rizzon, Luca; Rossi, Maurizio; Sartori, Davide

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring environmental parameters in data centers is gathering nowadays increasing attention from industry, due to the need of high energy efficiency of cloud services. We present the design and the characterization of an energy neutral embedded wireless system, prototyped to monitor perpetually environmental parameters in servers and racks. It is powered by an energy harvesting module based on Thermoelectric Generators, which converts the heat dissipation from the servers. Starting from the empirical characterization of the energy harvester, we present a power conditioning circuit optimized for the specific application. The whole system has been enhanced with several sensors. An ultra-low-power micro-controller stacked over the energy harvesting provides an efficient power management. Performance have been assessed and compared with the analytical model for validation. PMID:26729135

  10. Self-Powered WSN for Distributed Data Center Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Brunelli, Davide; Passerone, Roberto; Rizzon, Luca; Rossi, Maurizio; Sartori, Davide

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring environmental parameters in data centers is gathering nowadays increasing attention from industry, due to the need of high energy efficiency of cloud services. We present the design and the characterization of an energy neutral embedded wireless system, prototyped to monitor perpetually environmental parameters in servers and racks. It is powered by an energy harvesting module based on Thermoelectric Generators, which converts the heat dissipation from the servers. Starting from the empirical characterization of the energy harvester, we present a power conditioning circuit optimized for the specific application. The whole system has been enhanced with several sensors. An ultra-low-power micro-controller stacked over the energy harvesting provides an efficient power management. Performance have been assessed and compared with the analytical model for validation. PMID:26729135

  11. Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center: Phase I Response

    SciTech Connect

    C. Riland; D. R. Bowman; R. Lambert; R. Tighe

    1999-09-30

    A Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC) is established in response to a Lead Federal Agency (LFA) or State request when a radiological emergency is anticipated or has occurred. The FRMAC coordinates the off-site monitoring, assessment, and analysis activities during such an emergency. The FRMAC response is divided into three phases. FRMAC Phase 1 is a rapid, initial-response capability that can interface with Federal or State officials and is designed for a quick response time and rapid radiological data collection and assessment. FRMAC Phase 1 products provide an initial characterization of the radiological situation and information on early health effects to officials responsible for making and implementing protective action decisions.

  12. MUG-OBS - Multiparameter Geophysical Ocean Bottom System : a new instrumental approach to monitor earthquakes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    hello, yann; Charvis, Philippe; Yegikyan, Manuk; verfaillie, Romain; Rivet, Diane

    2016-04-01

    Real time monitoring of seismic activity is a major issue for early warning of earthquakes and tsunamis. It can be done using regional scale wired nodes, such as Neptune in Canada and in the U.S, or DONET in Japan. Another approach to monitor seismic activity at sea is to deploying repeatedly OBS array like during the amphibious Cascadia Initiative (four time 1-year deployments), the Japanese Pacific Array (broadband OBSs "ocean-bottom broadband dispersion survey" with 2-years autonomy), the Obsismer program in the French Lesser Antilles (eight time 6-months deployments) and the Osisec program in Ecuador (four time 6-months deployments). These autonomous OBSs are self-recovered or recovered using an ROV. These systems are costly including ship time, and require to recover the OBS before to start working on data. Among the most recent alternative we developed a 3/4 years autonomy ocean bottom system with 9 channels (?) allowing the acquisition of different seismic or environmental parameters. MUG-OBS is a free falling instrument rated down to 6000 m. The installation of the sensor is monitored by acoustic commands from the surface and a health bulletin with data checking is recovered by acoustic during the installation. The major innovation is that it is possible to recover the data any time on demand (regularly every 6-months or after a crisis) using one of the 6 data-shuttles released from the surface by acoustic command using a one day fast cruise boat of opportunity. Since sensors stayed at the same location for 3 years, it is a perfect tool to monitor large seismic events, background seismic activity and aftershock distribution. Clock, drift measurement and GPS localization is automatic when the shuttle reaches the surface. For remote areas, shuttles released automatically and a seismic events bulletin is transmitted. Selected data can be recovered by two-way Iridium satellite communication. After a period of 3 years the main station is self-recovered by

  13. GNSS-monitoring of Natural Hazards: Ionospheric Detection of Earthquakes and Volcano Eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shults, K.; Astafyeva, E.; Lognonne, P. H.

    2015-12-01

    During the last few decades earthquakes as sources of strong perturbations in the ionosphere have been reported by many researchers, and in the last few years the seismo-ionosphere coupling has been more and more discussed (e.g., Calais and Minster, 1998, Phys. Earth Planet. Inter., 105, 167-181; Afraimovich et al., 2010, Earth, Planets, Space, V.62, No.11, 899-904; Rolland et al., 2011, Earth Planets Space, 63, 853-857). Co-volcanic ionospheric perturbations have come under the scrutiny of science only in recent years but observations have already shown that mass and energy injections of volcanic activities can also excite oscillations in the ionosphere (Heki, 2006, Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L14303; Dautermann et al., 2009, Geophys. Res., 114, B02202). The ionospheric perturbations are induced by acoustic and gravity waves generated in the neutral atmosphere by seismic source or volcano eruption. The upward propagating vibrations of the atmosphere interact with the plasma in the ionosphere by the particle collisions and excite variations of electron density detectable with dual-frequency receivers of the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS). In addition to co-seismic ionospheric disturbances (CID) observations, ionospheric GNSS measurements have recently proved to be useful to obtain ionospheric images for the seismic fault allowing to provide information on its' parameters and localization (Astafyeva et al., 2011, Geophys. Res. Letters, 38, L22104). This work describes how the GNSS signals can be used for monitoring of natural hazards on examples of the 9 March 2011 M7.3 Tohoku Foreshock and April 2015 M7.8 Nepal earthquake as well as the April 2015 Calbuco volcano eruptions. We also show that use of high-resolution GNSS data can aid to plot the ionospheric images of seismic fault.

  14. Monitoring of fluid-rock interaction in active fault zones: a new method of earthquake prediction/forecasting?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claesson, L.; Skelton, A.; Graham, C.; Dietl, C.; Morth, M.; Torssander, P.

    2003-12-01

    We propose a new method for earthquake forecasting based on the "prediction in hindsight" of a Mw 5.8 earthquake on Iceland, on September 16, 2002. The "prediction in hindsight" is based on geochemical monitoring of geothermal water at site HU-01 located within the Tj”rnes Fracture Zone, northern Iceland, before and after the earthquake. During the 4 weeks before the earthquake exponential (<800%) increases in the concentration of Cu, Zn and Fe in the fluid, was measured, together with a linear increase of Na/Ca and a slight increase of δ 18O. We relate the hydrogeochemical changes before the earthquake to influx of fluid which interacted with the host rock at higher temperatures and suggest that fluid flow was facilitated by stress-induced modification of rock permeability, which enabled more rapid fluid-rock interaction. Stepwise increases (13-35 %) in the concentration of, Ba, Ca, K, Li, Na, Rb, S, Si, Sr, Cl, Br and SO4 and negative shifts in δ 18O and δ D was detected in the fluid immediately after the earthquake, which we relate to seismically-induced source switching and consequent influx of older (or purer) ice age meteoric waters. The newly tapped source reservoir has a chemically and isotopically distinct ice-age meteoric water signature, which is the result of a longer residence in the crust. The immediancy of these changes is consistent with experimentally-derived timescales of fault-sealing in response to coupled deformation and fluid flow, interpreted as source-switching. These precursory changes may be used to "predict" the earthquake up to 2 weeks before it occurs.

  15. Products and Services Available from the Southern California Earthquake Data Center (SCEDC) and the Southern California Seismic Network (SCSN)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, E.; Chen, S.; Chowdhury, F.; Bhaskaran, A.; Hutton, K.; Given, D.; Hauksson, E.; Clayton, R. W.

    2009-12-01

    The SCEDC archives continuous and triggered data from nearly 3000 data channels from 375 SCSN recorded stations. The SCSN and SCEDC process and archive an average of 12,000 earthquakes each year, contributing to the southern California earthquake catalog that spans from 1932 to present. The SCEDC provides public, searchable access to these earthquake parametric and waveform data through its website www.data.scec.org and through client applications such as STP, NETDC and DHI. New data products: ● The SCEDC is distributing synthetic waveform data from the 2008 ShakeOut scenario (Jones et al., USGS Open File Rep., 2008-1150) and (Graves et al. 2008; Geophys. Res. Lett.) This is a M 7.8 earthquake on the southern San Andreas fault. Users will be able to download 40 sps velocity waveforms in SAC format from the SCEDC website. The SCEDC is also distributing synthetic GPS data (Crowell et al., 2009; Seismo. Res. Letters.) for this scenario as well. ● The SCEDC has added a new web page to show the latest tomographic model of Southern California. This model is based on Tape et al., 2009 Science. New data services: ● The SCEDC is exporting data in QuakeML format. This is an xml format that has been adopted by the Advanced National Seismic System (ANSS). This data will also be available as a web service. ● The SCEDC is exporting data in StationXML format. This is an xml format created by the SCEDC and adopted by ANSS to fully describe station metadata. This data will also be available as a web service. ● The stp 1.6 client can now access both the SCEDC and the Northern California Earthquake Data Center (NCEDC) earthquake and waveform archives. In progress - SCEDC to distribute 1 sps GPS data in miniSEED format: ● As part of a NASA Advanced Information Systems Technology project in collaboration with Jet Propulsion Laboratory and Scripps Institution of Oceanography, the SCEDC will receive real time 1 sps streams of GPS displacement solutions from the California

  16. Statistical monitoring of aftershock sequences: a case study of the 2015 Mw7.8 Gorkha, Nepal, earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogata, Yosihiko; Tsuruoka, Hiroshi

    2016-03-01

    Early forecasting of aftershocks has become realistic and practical because of real-time detection of hypocenters. This study illustrates a statistical procedure for monitoring aftershock sequences to detect anomalies to increase the probability gain of a significantly large aftershock or even an earthquake larger than the main shock. In particular, a significant lowering (relative quiescence) in aftershock activity below the level predicted by the Omori-Utsu formula or the epidemic-type aftershock sequence model is sometimes followed by a large earthquake in a neighboring region. As an example, we detected significant lowering relative to the modeled rate after approximately 1.7 days after the main shock in the aftershock sequence of the Mw7.8 Gorkha, Nepal, earthquake of April 25, 2015. The relative quiescence lasted until the May 12, 2015, M7.3 Kodari earthquake that occurred at the eastern end of the primary aftershock zone. Space-time plots including the transformed time can indicate the local places where aftershock activity lowers (the seismicity shadow). Thus, the relative quiescence can be hypothesized to be related to stress shadowing caused by probable slow slips. In addition, the aftershock productivity of the M7.3 Kodari earthquake is approximately twice as large as that of the M7.8 main shock.

  17. The Evolution of the Federal Monitoring and Assessment Center

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Aerial Measurement System

    2012-07-31

    The Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC) is a federal emergency response asset whose assistance may be requested by the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), the Department of Defense (DoD), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and state and local agencies to respond to a nuclear or radiological incident. It is an interagency organization with representation from the Department of Energy’s National Nuclear Security Administration (DOE/NNSA), the Department of Defense (DoD), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), and other federal agencies. FRMAC, in its present form, was created in 1987 when the radiological support mission was assigned to the DOE’s Nevada Operations Office by DOE Headquarters. The FRMAC asset, including its predecessor entities, was created, grew, and evolved to function as a response to radiological incidents. Radiological emergency response exercises showed the need for a coordinated approach to managing federal emergency monitoring and assessment activities. The mission of FRMAC is to coordinate and manage all federal radiological environmental monitoring and assessment activities during a nuclear or radiological incident within the United States in support of state,local, tribal governments, DHS, and the federal coordinating agency. Radiological emergency response professionals with the DOE’s national laboratories support the Radiological Assistance Program (RAP), National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC), the Aerial MeasuringSystem (AMS), and the Radiation Emergency Assistance Center/Training Site (REAC/TS). These teams support the FRMAC to provide: Atmospheric transport modeling; Radiation monitoring; Radiological analysis and data assessments; and Medical advice for radiation injuries In support of field operations, the FRMAC provides geographic

  18. A new era for low frequency Galactic center transient monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kassim, N. E.; Hyman, S. D.; Intema, H.; Lazio, T. J. W.

    2014-05-01

    An upgrade of the low frequency observing system of the VLA developed by NRL and NRAO, called low band (LB), will open a new era of Galactic center (GC) transient monitoring. Our previous searches using the VLA and GMRT have revealed a modest number of radio-selected transients, but have been severely sensitivity and observing time limited. The new LB system, currently accessing the 236--492 MHz frequency range, promises ≥5 × improved sensitivity over the legacy VLA system. The new system is emerging from commissioning in time to catch any enhanced sub-GHz emission from the G2 cloud event, and we review existing limits based on recent observations. We also describe a proposed 24/7 commensal system, called the LOw Band Observatory (LOBO). LOBO offers over 100 VLA GC monitoring hours per year, possibly revealing new transients and helping validate ASTRO2010's anticipation of a new era of transient radio astronomy. A funded LOBO pathfinder called the VLA Low Frequency Ionosphere and Transient Experiment (VLITE) is under development. Finally, we consider the impact of LB and LOBO on our GC monitoring program.

  19. Early Results of Three-Year Monitoring of Red Wood Ants' Behavioral Changes and Their Possible Correlation with Earthquake Events.

    PubMed

    Berberich, Gabriele; Berberich, Martin; Grumpe, Arne; Wöhler, Christian; Schreiber, Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    Short-term earthquake predictions with an advance warning of several hours or days are currently not possible due to both incomplete understanding of the complex tectonic processes and inadequate observations. Abnormal animal behaviors before earthquakes have been reported previously, but create problems in monitoring and reliability. The situation is different with red wood ants (RWA; Formica rufa-group (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)). They have stationary mounds on tectonically active, gas-bearing fault systems. These faults may be potential earthquake areas. For three years (2009-2012), two red wood ant mounds (Formica rufa-group), located at the seismically active Neuwied Basin (Eifel, Germany), have been monitored 24/7 by high-resolution cameras with both a color and an infrared sensor. Early results show that ants have a well-identifiable standard daily routine. Correlation with local seismic events suggests changes in the ants' behavior hours before the earthquake: the nocturnal rest phase and daily activity are suppressed, and standard daily routine does not resume until the next day. At present, an automated image evaluation routine is being applied to the more than 45,000 hours of video streams. Based on this automated approach, a statistical analysis of the ants' behavior will be carried out. In addition, other parameters (climate, geotectonic and biological), which may influence behavior, will be included in the analysis. PMID:26487310

  20. First Results of 3 Year Monitoring of Red Wood Ants' Behavioural Changes and Their Possible Correlation with Earthquake Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berberich, Gabriele; Berberich, Martin; Grumpe, Arne; Wöhler, Christian; Schreiber, Ulrich

    2013-04-01

    Short-term earthquake predictions with an advance warning of several hours or days can currently not be performed reliably and remain limited to only a few minutes before the event. Abnormal animal behaviours prior to earthquakes have been reported previously but their detection creates problems in monitoring and reliability. A different situation is encountered for red wood ants (RWA; Formica rufa-group (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). They have stationary nest sites on tectonically active, gas-bearing fault systems. These faults may be potential earthquake areas and are simultaneously information channels deeply reaching into the crust. A particular advantage of monitoring RWA is their high sensitivity to environmental changes. Besides an evolutionarily developed extremely strong temperature sensitivity of 0.25 K, they have chemoreceptors for the detection of CO2 concentrations and a sensitivity for electromagnetic fields. Changes of the electromagnetic field are discussed or short-lived "thermal anomalies" are reported as trigger mechanisms for bioanomalies of impending earthquakes. For 3 years, we have monitored two Red Wood Ant mounds (Formica rufa-group), located at the seismically active Neuwied Basin (Eifel, Germany), 24/7 by high-resolution cameras equipped with a colour and infrared sensor. In the Neuwied Basin, an average of about 100 earthquakes per year with magnitudes up to M 3.9 occur located on different tectonic fault regimes (strike-slip faults and/or normal or thrust faults). The RWA mounds are located on two different fault regimes approximately 30 km apart. First results show that the ants have a well-identifiable standard daily routine. Correlation with local seismic events suggests changes in the ants' behaviour hours before the earthquake event: The nocturnal rest phase and daily activity are suppressed, and standard daily routine is continued not before the next day. Additional parameters that might have an effect on the ants' daily routine

  1. Results of seismological monitoring in the Cascade Range 1962-1989: earthquakes, eruptions, avalanches and other curiosities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weaver, C.S.; Norris, R.D.; Jonientz-Trisler, C.

    1990-01-01

    Modern monitoring of seismic activity at Cascade Range volcanoes began at Longmire on Mount Rainier in 1958. Since then, there has been an expansion of the regional seismic networks in Washington, northern Oregon and northern California. Now, the Cascade Range from Lassen Peak to Mount Shasta in the south and Newberry Volcano to Mount Baker in the north is being monitored for earthquakes as small as magnitude 2.0, and many of the stratovolcanoes are monitored for non-earthquake seismic activity. This monitoring has yielded three major observations. First, tectonic earthquakes are concentrated in two segments of the Cascade Range between Mount Rainier and Mount Hood and between Mount Shasta and Lassen Peak, whereas little seismicity occurs between Mount Hood and Mount Shasta. Second, the volcanic activity and associated phenomena at Mount St. Helens have produced intense and widely varied seismicity. And third, at the northern stratovolcanoes, signals generated by surficial events such as debris flows, icequakes, steam emissions, rockfalls and icefalls are seismically recorded. Such records have been used to alert authorities of dangerous events in progress. -Authors

  2. Emergency radiological monitoring and analysis United States Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center

    SciTech Connect

    Thome, D.J.

    1994-09-01

    The United States Federal Radiological Emergency Response Plan (FRERP) provides the framework for integrating the various Federal agencies responding to a major radiological emergency. Following a major radiological incident the FRERP authorizes the creation of the Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC). The FRMAC is established to coordinate all Federal agencies involved in the monitoring and assessment of the off-site radiological conditions in support of the impacted states and the Lead Federal Agency (LFA). Within the FRMAC, the Monitoring and Analysis Division is responsible for coordinating all FRMAC assets involved in conducting a comprehensive program of environmental monitoring, sampling, radioanalysis and quality assurance. This program includes: (1) Aerial Radiological Monitoring - Fixed Wing and Helicopter, (2) Field Monitoring and Sampling, (3) Radioanalysis - Mobile and Fixed Laboratories, (4) Radiation Detection Instrumentation - Calibration and Maintenance, (5) Environmental Dosimetry, and (6) An integrated program of Quality Assurance. To assure consistency, completeness and the quality of the data produced, a methodology and procedures handbook is being developed. This paper discusses the structure, assets and operations of FRMAC monitoring and analysis and the content and preparation of this handbook.

  3. Monitoring seismic velocity changes caused by the 2014 Northern Aegean earthquake using continuous ambient noise records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evangelidis, Christos; Daskalakis, Emmanouil; Tsogka, Chrysoula

    2016-04-01

    The 24 May 2014 Northern Aegean earthquake (6.9 Mw), an event on the Northern Aegean Trough (NAT), ruptured on two different fault segments with a total ruptured length of ~100 km. For the second delayed segment, rupture propagated eastward from the hypocenter for ˜65 km with a supershear velocity (5.5 km/s). Low-aftershock seismicity on the supershear segment implies a simple and linear fault geometry there. An effort to monitor temporal seismic velocity changes across the ruptured area of the Northern Aegean earthquake is underway. In recent years, neighboring seismic broadband stations near active faults have been successfully used to detect such changes. The crosscorrelation functions (CCF) of ambient noise records between stations yields the corresponding traveltimes for those inter-station paths. Moreover, the auto-correlation functions (ACF) at each station produce the seismic responce for a coincident source and receiver position. Possible temporal changes of the measured traveltimes from CCFs and ACFs correspond to seismic velocity changes. Initially, we investigate the characteristics and sources of the ambient seismic noise as recorded at permanent seismic stations installed around NAT at the surrounding islands and in mainland Greece and Turkey. The microseismic noise levels show a clear seasonal variation at all stations. The noise levels across the double frequency band (DF; period range 4-8 s) reflect the local sea-weather conditions within a range of a few hundred kilometers. Three years of continuous seismic records framing the main shock have been analysed from ~15 stations within a radius of 100 km from the epicentre. We observe a clear decrease of seismic velocities most likely corresponding to the co-seismic shaking. The spatial variation of this velocity drop is imaged from all inter-station paths that correspond to CCF measurements and for station sites that correspond to ACF measurements. Thus, we explore a possible correlation between co

  4. The study of key issues about integration of GNSS and strong-motion records for real-time earthquake monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, Rui; Zhang, Pengfei; Zhang, Rui; Liu, Jinhai

    2016-08-01

    This paper has studied the key issues about integration of GNSS and strong-motion records for real-time earthquake monitoring. The validations show that the consistence of the coordinate system must be considered firstly to exclude the system bias between GNSS and strong-motion. The GNSS sampling rate is suggested about 1-5 Hz, and we should give the strong-motion's baseline shift with a larger dynamic noise as its variation is very swift. The initialization time of solving the baseline shift is less than one minute, and ambiguity resolution strategy is not greatly improved the solution. The data quality is very important for the solution, we advised to use multi-frequency and multi-system observations. These ideas give an important guide for real-time earthquake monitoring and early warning by the tight integration of GNSS and strong-motion records.

  5. Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center Monitoring Manual Volume 1, Operations

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Aerial Measurement Systems

    2012-07-31

    The Monitoring division is primarily responsible for the coordination and direction of: Aerial measurements to delineate the footprint of radioactive contaminants that have been released into the environment. Monitoring of radiation levels in the environment; Sampling to determine the extent of contaminant deposition in soil, water, air and on vegetation; Preliminary field analyses to quantify soil concentrations or depositions; and Environmental and personal dosimetry for FRMAC field personnel, during a Consequence Management Response Team (CMRT) and Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC) response. Monitoring and sampling techniques used during CM/FRMAC operations are specifically selected for use during radiological emergencies where large numbers of measurements and samples must be acquired, analyzed, and interpreted in the shortest amount of time possible. In addition, techniques and procedures are flexible so that they can be used during a variety of different scenarios; e.g., accidents involving releases from nuclear reactors, contamination by nuclear waste, nuclear weapon accidents, space vehicle reentries, or contamination from a radiological dispersal device. The Monitoring division also provides technicians to support specific Health and Safety Division activities including: The operation of the Hotline; FRMAC facility surveys; Assistance with Health and Safety at Check Points; and Assistance at population assembly areas which require support from the FRMAC. This volume covers deployment activities, initial FRMAC activities, development and implementation of the monitoring and assessment plan, the briefing of field teams, and the transfer of FRMAC to the EPA.

  6. Logic-centered architecture for ubiquitous health monitoring.

    PubMed

    Lewandowski, Jacek; Arochena, Hisbel E; Naguib, Raouf N G; Chao, Kuo-Ming; Garcia-Perez, Alexeis

    2014-09-01

    One of the key points to maintain and boost research and development in the area of smart wearable systems (SWS) is the development of integrated architectures for intelligent services, as well as wearable systems and devices for health and wellness management. This paper presents such a generic architecture for multiparametric, intelligent and ubiquitous wireless sensing platforms. It is a transparent, smartphone-based sensing framework with customizable wireless interfaces and plug'n'play capability to easily interconnect third party sensor devices. It caters to wireless body, personal, and near-me area networks. A pivotal part of the platform is the integrated inference engine/runtime environment that allows the mobile device to serve as a user-adaptable personal health assistant. The novelty of this system lays in a rapid visual development and remote deployment model. The complementary visual Inference Engine Editor that comes with the package enables artificial intelligence specialists, alongside with medical experts, to build data processing models by assembling different components and instantly deploying them (remotely) on patient mobile devices. In this paper, the new logic-centered software architecture for ubiquitous health monitoring applications is described, followed by a discussion as to how it helps to shift focus from software and hardware development, to medical and health process-centered design of new SWS applications. PMID:25192566

  7. The Savannah River Technology Center environmental monitoring field test platform

    SciTech Connect

    Rossabi, J.

    1993-03-05

    Nearly all industrial facilities have been responsible for introducing synthetic chemicals into the environment. The Savannah River Site is no exception. Several areas at the site have been contaminated by chlorinated volatile organic chemicals. Because of the persistence and refractory nature of these contaminants, a complete clean up of the site will take many years. A major focus of the mission of the Environmental Sciences Section of the Savannah River Technology Center is to develop better, faster, and less expensive methods for characterizing, monitoring, and remediating the subsurface. These new methods can then be applied directly at the Savannah River Site and at other contaminated areas in the United States and throughout the world. The Environmental Sciences Section has hosted field testing of many different monitoring technologies over the past two years primarily as a result of the Integrated Demonstration Program sponsored by the Department of Energy`s Office of Technology Development. This paper provides an overview of some of the technologies that have been demonstrated at the site and briefly discusses the applicability of these techniques.

  8. Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center Analytical Response

    SciTech Connect

    E.C. Nielsen

    2003-04-01

    The Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC) is authorized by the Federal Radiological Emergency Response Plan to coordinate all off-site radiological response assistance to state and local government s, in the event of a major radiological emergency in the United States. The FRMAC is established by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, to coordinate all Federal assets involved in conducting a comprehensive program of radiological environmental monitoring, sampling, radioanalysis, quality assurance, and dose assessment. During an emergency response, the initial analytical data is provided by portable field instrumentation. As incident responders scale up their response based on the seriousness of the incident, local analytical assets and mobile laboratories add additional capability and capacity. During the intermediate phase of the response, data quality objectives and measurement quality objectives are more rigorous. These higher objectives will require the use of larger laboratories, with greater capacity and enhanced capabilities. These labs may be geographically distant from the incident, which will increase sample management challenges. This paper addresses emergency radioanalytical capability and capacity and its utilization during FRMAC operations.

  9. Combination of High Rate, Real-Time GNSS and Accelerometer Observations and Rapid Seismic Event Notification for Earthquake Early Warning and Volcano Monitoring with a Focus on the Pacific Rim.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimakov, L. G.; Passmore, P.; Raczka, J.; Alvarez, M.; Jackson, M.

    2014-12-01

    Scientific GNSS networks are moving towards a model of real-time data acquisition, epoch-by-epoch storage integrity, and on-board real-time position and displacement calculations. This new paradigm allows the integration of real-time, high-rate GNSS displacement information with acceleration and velocity data to create very high-rate displacement records. The mating of these two instruments allows the creation of a new, very high-rate (200 sps) displacement observable that has the full-scale displacement characteristics of GNSS and high-precision dynamic motions of seismic technologies. It is envisioned that these new observables can be used for earthquake early warning studies, volcano monitoring, and critical infrastructure monitoring applications. Our presentation will focus on the characteristics of GNSS, seismic, and strong motion sensors in high dynamic environments, including historic earthquakes in Southern California and the Pacific Rim, replicated on a shake table, over a range of displacements and frequencies. We will explore the optimum integration of these sensors from a filtering perspective including simple harmonic impulses over varying frequencies and amplitudes and under the dynamic conditions of various earthquake scenarios. In addition we will discuss implementation of a Rapid Seismic Event Notification System that provides quick delivery of digital data from seismic stations to the acquisition and processing center and a full data integrity model for real-time earthquake notification that provides warning prior to significant ground shaking.

  10. Products and Services Available from the Southern California Earthquake Data Center (SCEDC) and the Southern California Seismic Network (SCSN)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, E.; Bhaskaran, A.; Chen, S.; Chowdhury, F. R.; Meisenhelter, S.; Hutton, K.; Given, D.; Hauksson, E.; Clayton, R. W.

    2010-12-01

    cooperation with QCN and CSN is exploring ways to archive and distribute data from high density low cost networks. As a starting point the SCEDC will store a dataset from QCN and CSN and distribute it through a separate STP client. New archival methods: ● The SCEDC is exploring the feasibility of archiving and distributing waveform data using cloud computing such as Google Apps. A month of continuous data from the SCEDC archive will be stored in Google Apps and a client developed to access it in a manner similar to STP. XML formats: ● The SCEDC is now distributing earthquake parameter data through web services in QuakeML format. ● The SCEDC in collaboration with the Northern California Earthquake Data Center (NCEDC) and USGS Golden has reviewed and revised the StationXML format to produce version 2.0. The new version includes a rules on extending the schema, use of named complex types, and greater consistency in naming conventions. Based on this work we plan to develop readers and writers of the StationXML format.

  11. Restoration of accelerator facilities damaged by Great East Japan Earthquake at Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center, Tohoku University.

    PubMed

    Wakui, Takashi; Itoh, Masatoshi; Shimada, Kenzi; Yoshida, Hidetomo P; Shinozuka, Tsutomu; Sakemi, Yasuhiro

    2014-01-01

    The Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center (CYRIC) of Tohoku University is a joint-use institution for education and research in a wide variety of fields ranging from physics to medicine. Accelerator facilities at the CYRIC provide opportunities for implementing a broad research program, including medical research using positron emission tomography (PET), with accelerated ions and radioisotopes. At the Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011, no human injuries occurred and a smooth evacuation was made in the CYRIC, thanks to the anti-earthquake measures such as the renovation of the cyclotron building in 2009 mainly to provide seismic strengthening, fixation of shelves to prevent the falling of objects, and securement of the width of the evacuation route. The preparation of an emergency response manual was also helpful. However, the accelerator facilities were damaged because of strong shaking that continued for a few minutes. For example, two columns on which a 930 cyclotron was placed were damaged, and thereby the 930 cyclotron was inclined. All the elements of beam transport lines were deviated from the beam axis. Some peripheral devices in a HM12 cyclotron were broken. Two shielding doors fell from the carriage onto the floor and blocked the entrances to the rooms. The repair work on the accelerator facilities was started at the end of July 2011. During the repair work, the joint use of the accelerator facilities was suspended. After the repair work was completed, the joint use was re-started at October 2012, one and a half years after the earthquake. PMID:25030295

  12. Connecting slow earthquakes to huge earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obara, Kazushige; Kato, Aitaro

    2016-07-01

    Slow earthquakes are characterized by a wide spectrum of fault slip behaviors and seismic radiation patterns that differ from those of traditional earthquakes. However, slow earthquakes and huge megathrust earthquakes can have common slip mechanisms and are located in neighboring regions of the seismogenic zone. The frequent occurrence of slow earthquakes may help to reveal the physics underlying megathrust events as useful analogs. Slow earthquakes may function as stress meters because of their high sensitivity to stress changes in the seismogenic zone. Episodic stress transfer to megathrust source faults leads to an increased probability of triggering huge earthquakes if the adjacent locked region is critically loaded. Careful and precise monitoring of slow earthquakes may provide new information on the likelihood of impending huge earthquakes.

  13. Connecting slow earthquakes to huge earthquakes.

    PubMed

    Obara, Kazushige; Kato, Aitaro

    2016-07-15

    Slow earthquakes are characterized by a wide spectrum of fault slip behaviors and seismic radiation patterns that differ from those of traditional earthquakes. However, slow earthquakes and huge megathrust earthquakes can have common slip mechanisms and are located in neighboring regions of the seismogenic zone. The frequent occurrence of slow earthquakes may help to reveal the physics underlying megathrust events as useful analogs. Slow earthquakes may function as stress meters because of their high sensitivity to stress changes in the seismogenic zone. Episodic stress transfer to megathrust source faults leads to an increased probability of triggering huge earthquakes if the adjacent locked region is critically loaded. Careful and precise monitoring of slow earthquakes may provide new information on the likelihood of impending huge earthquakes. PMID:27418504

  14. Earthquake and ambient vibration monitoring of the steel-frame UCLA factor building

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kohler, M.D.; Davis, P.M.; Safak, E.

    2005-01-01

    Dynamic property measurements of the moment-resisting steel-frame University of California, Los Angeles, Factor building are being made to assess how forces are distributed over the building. Fourier amplitude spectra have been calculated from several intervals of ambient vibrations, a 24-hour period of strong winds, and from the 28 March 2003 Encino, California (ML = 2.9), the 3 September 2002 Yorba Linda, California (ML = 4.7), and the 3 November 2002 Central Alaska (Mw = 7.9) earthquakes. Measurements made from the ambient vibration records show that the first-mode frequency of horizontal vibration is between 0.55 and 0.6 Hz. The second horizontal mode has a frequency between 1.6 and 1.9 Hz. In contrast, the first-mode frequencies measured from earthquake data are about 0.05 to 0.1 Hz lower than those corresponding to ambient vibration recordings indicating softening of the soil-structure system as amplitudes become larger. The frequencies revert to pre-earthquake levels within five minutes of the Yorba Linda earthquake. Shaking due to strong winds that occurred during the Encino earthquake dominates the frequency decrease, which correlates in time with the duration of the strong winds. The first shear wave recorded from the Encino and Yorba Linda earthquakes takes about 0.4 sec to travel up the 17-story building. ?? 2005, Earthquake Engineering Research Institute.

  15. The response of academic medical centers to the 2010 Haiti earthquake: the Mount Sinai School of Medicine experience.

    PubMed

    Ripp, Jonathan A; Bork, Jacqueline; Koncicki, Holly; Asgary, Ramin

    2012-01-01

    On January 12, 2010, Haiti was struck by a 7.0 earthquake which left the country in a state of devastation. In the aftermath, there was an enormous relief effort in which academic medical centers (AMC) played an important role. We offer a retrospective on the AMC response through the Mount Sinai School of Medicine (MSSM) experience. Over the course of the year that followed the Earthquake, MSSM conducted five service trips in conjunction with two well-established groups which have provided service to the Haitian people for over 15 years. MSSM volunteer personnel included nurses, resident and attending physicians, and specialty fellows who provided expertise in critical care, emergency medicine, wound care, infectious diseases and chronic disease management of adults and children. Challenges faced included stressful and potentially hazardous working conditions, provision of care with limited resources and cultural and language barriers. The success of the MSSM response was due largely to the strength of its human resources and the relationship forged with effective relief organizations. These service missions fulfilled the institution's commitment to social responsibility and provided a valuable training opportunity in advocacy. For other AMCs seeking to respond in future emergencies, we suggest early identification of a partner with field experience, recruitment of administrative and faculty support across the institution, significant pre-departure orientation and utilization of volunteers to fundraise and advocate. Through this process, AMCs can play an important role in disaster response. PMID:22232447

  16. Utilizing Changes in Repeating Earthquakes to Monitor Evolving Processes and Structure Before and During Volcanic Eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hotovec-Ellis, Alicia

    Repeating earthquakes are two or more earthquakes that share the same source location and source mechanism, which results in the earthquakes having highly similar waveforms when recorded at a seismic instrument. Repeating earthquakes have been observed in a wide variety of environments: from fault systems (such as the San Andreas and Cascadia subduction zone), to hydrothermal areas and volcanoes. Volcano seismologists are particularly concerned with repeating earthquakes, as they have been observed at volcanoes along the entire range of eruptive style and are often a prominent feature of eruption seismicity. The behavior of repeating earthquakes sometimes changes with time, which possibly reflects subtle changes in the mechanism creating the earthquakes. In Chapter 1, we document an example of repeating earthquakes during the 2009 eruption of Redoubt volcano that became increasingly frequent with time, until they blended into harmonic tremor prior to several explosions. We interpreted the source of the earthquakes as stick-slip on a fault near the conduit that slipped increasingly often as the explosion neared in response to the build-up of pressure in the system. The waveforms of repeating earthquakes may also change, even if the behavior does not. We can quantify changes in waveform using the technique of coda wave interferometry to differentiate between changes in source and medium. In Chapters 2 and 3, we document subtle changes in the coda of repeating earthquakes related to small changes in the near-surface velocity structure at Mount St. Helens before and during its eruption in 2004. Velocity changes have been observed prior to several volcanic eruptions, are thought to occur in response to volumetric strain and the opening or closing of cracks in the subsurface. We compared continuous records of velocity change against other geophysical data, and found that velocities at Mount St. Helens change in response to snow loading, fluid saturation, shaking from

  17. Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty seismic monitoring: 2012 USNAS report and recent explosions, earthquakes, and other seismic sources

    SciTech Connect

    Richards, Paul G.

    2014-05-09

    A comprehensive ban on nuclear explosive testing is briefly characterized as an arms control initiative related to the Non-Proliferation Treaty. The work of monitoring for nuclear explosions uses several technologies of which the most important is seismology-a physics discipline that draws upon extensive and ever-growing assets to monitor for earthquakes and other ground-motion phenomena as well as for explosions. This paper outlines the basic methods of seismic monitoring within that wider context, and lists web-based and other resources for learning details. It also summarizes the main conclusions, concerning capability to monitor for test-ban treaty compliance, contained in a major study published in March 2012 by the US National Academy of Sciences.

  18. ESTABLISHMENT OF THE WESTERN REGIONAL CENTER FOR BIOLOGICAL MONITORING AND ASSESSMENT OF FRESHWATER ECOSYSTEMS:

    EPA Science Inventory

    Initial Center Objectives 1. Coordinate the establishment of the Advisory Board for the newly formed Western Regional Center for Biological Monitoring and Assessment of Freshwater Ecosystems. The responsibility of the Advisory Board will be to set research, education, and outr...

  19. Chest injuries transferred to trauma centers after the 1999 Taiwan earthquake.

    PubMed

    Yi-Szu, W; Chung-Ping, H; Tzu-Chieh, L; Dar-Yu, Y; Tain-Cheng, W

    2000-11-01

    To better understand the effects of delayed medical care and long transportation times when emergency medical services (EMS) failed after the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan earthquake, we analyzed the patterns and outcomes of patients with chest injuries who were transferred to an unaffected back-up hospital. The medical records of 164 trauma patients who were transferred to Taichung Veterans General Hospital from September 21 to September 24, 1999 were reviewed. Of the 164 patients, 26 (15.9%) had chest injuries. Chest injuries were caused by blunt trauma in all cases. Minor chest injury was noted in 16 patients (61.5%). Mortality developed in two patients, who were transferred after first aid in the field hospital and were in shock status on arrival to emergency department of the back-up hospital. Inadequate resuscitation attributable to insufficient manpower in field hospitals and long transportation times to back-up hospitals are the major problems to be solved in developing disaster plans. For evacuation of overwhelming casualties and for support of medical resources, transportation by helicopter is suggested in aftermath of a large earthquake. PMID:11103738

  20. Citizen Monitoring during Hazards: The Case of Fukushima Radiation after the 2011 Japanese Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hultquist, C.; Cervone, G.

    2015-12-01

    Citizen-led movements producing scientific environmental information are increasingly common during hazards. After the Japanese earthquake-triggered tsunami in 2011, the government produced airborne remote sensing data of the radiation levels after the Fukushima nuclear reactor failures. Advances in technology enabled citizens to monitor radiation by innovative mobile devices built from components bought on the Internet. The citizen-led Safecast project measured on-ground levels of radiation in the Fukushima prefecture which total 14 million entries to date in Japan. This non-authoritative citizen science collection recorded radiation levels at specific coordinates and times is available online, yet the reliability and validity of the data had not been assessed. The nuclear incident provided a case for assessment with comparable dimensions of citizen science and authoritative data. To perform a comparison of the datasets, standardization was required. The sensors were calibrated scientifically but collected using different units of measure. Radiation decays over time so temporal interpolation was necessary for comparison of measurements as being the same time frame. Finally, the GPS located points were selected within the overlapping spatial extent of 500 meters. This study spatially analyzes and statistically compares citizen-volunteered and government-generated radiation data. Quantitative measures are used to assess the similarity and difference in the datasets. Radiation measurements from the same geographic extents show similar spatial variations which suggests that citizen science data can be comparable with government-generated measurements. Validation of Safecast demonstrates that we can infer scientific data from unstructured and not vested data. Citizen science can provide real-time data for situational awareness which is crucial for decision making during disasters. This project provides a methodology for comparing datasets of radiological measurements

  1. Ambient noise-based monitoring of seismic velocity changes associated with the 2014 Mw 6.0 South Napa earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taira, Taka'aki; Brenguier, Florent; Kong, Qingkai

    2015-09-01

    We perform an ambient noise-based monitoring to explore temporal variations of crustal seismic velocities before, during, and after the 24 August 2014 Mw 6.0 South Napa earthquake. A velocity drop of about 0.08% is observed immediately after the South Napa earthquake. Spatial variability of the velocity reduction is most correlated with the pattern of the peak ground velocity of the South Napa mainshock, which suggests that fracture damage in rocks induced by the dynamic strain is likely responsible for the coseismic velocity change. About 50% of the velocity reduction is recovered at the first 50 days following the South Napa mainshock. This postseismic velocity recovery may suggest a healing process of damaged rocks.

  2. Monitoring Earthquake Fault Slip from Space: Model Implications for a High Precision, High Resolution Dedicated Gravity Mission (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rundle, J. B.; Sachs, M. K.; Tiampo, K. F.; Fernandez, J.; Turcotte, D. L.; Donnellan, A.; Heien, E. M.; Kellogg, L. H.

    2013-12-01

    Monitoring deformation produced by slip on earthquake faults can be carried out via GPS or InSAR measurements. Both of these types of observations have their advantages and disadvantages, in terms of cost, availability, and technical difficulty. It has been suggested that another method to accomplish many of the same objectives would be via a dedicated gravity mission. The GRACE mission has shown that it is possible to make detailed gravity measurements from space for climate dynamics and other purposes. An important question is what level of accuracy will be needed for precise estimation of fault slip in earthquakes of interest to researchers. To answer this question, we turn to numerical simulations of earthquake fault systems and use these to estimate gravity changes. Rundle (1978) considered the question of gravity changes from dilation sources and thrust faults, and found that gravity changes in these cases were free air anomaly (dilation) and Bouguer anomaly (thrust fault). Walsh and Rice (1978) computed these by a different method and found the same result. Okada (1991) listed gravity and potential Green functions for all possible sources for the general case. Hayes et al (2006) then took the Okada Greens functions and applied them computed from an earlier version of Virtual California earthquake fault system simulations. Those simulations only involved vertical strike slip faults. The current far more advanced generation of Virtual California simulations involves faults of any orientation, dip, and rake. In this talk, we discuss these computations and the implications they have for accuracies needed for a dedicated gravity monitoring mission. Preliminary results are in agreement with previous results from Hayes et al (2006). Computed gravity changes are in the range of tens to hundreds of microgals over distances of few to many tens of kilometers. These values are presumably well within the range of measurement for a modern gravity mission flown either at

  3. Early Results of Three-Year Monitoring of Red Wood Ants’ Behavioral Changes and Their Possible Correlation with Earthquake Events

    PubMed Central

    Berberich, Gabriele; Berberich, Martin; Grumpe, Arne; Wöhler, Christian; Schreiber, Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary For three years (2009–2012), two red wood ant mounds (Formica rufa-group), located at the seismically active Neuwied Basin (Eifel, Germany), have been monitored 24/7 by high-resolution cameras. Early results show that ants have a well-identifiable standard daily routine. Correlation with local seismic events suggests changes in the ants’ behavior hours before the earthquake: the nocturnal rest phase and daily activity are suppressed, and standard daily routine does not resume until the next day. At present, an automated image evaluation routine is being applied to the video streams. Based on this automated approach, a statistical analysis of the ant behavior will be carried out. Abstract Short-term earthquake predictions with an advance warning of several hours or days are currently not possible due to both incomplete understanding of the complex tectonic processes and inadequate observations. Abnormal animal behaviors before earthquakes have been reported previously, but create problems in monitoring and reliability. The situation is different with red wood ants (RWA; Formica rufa-group (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)). They have stationary mounds on tectonically active, gas-bearing fault systems. These faults may be potential earthquake areas. For three years (2009–2012), two red wood ant mounds (Formica rufa-group), located at the seismically active Neuwied Basin (Eifel, Germany), have been monitored 24/7 by high-resolution cameras with both a color and an infrared sensor. Early results show that ants have a well-identifiable standard daily routine. Correlation with local seismic events suggests changes in the ants’ behavior hours before the earthquake: the nocturnal rest phase and daily activity are suppressed, and standard daily routine does not resume until the next day. At present, an automated image evaluation routine is being applied to the more than 45,000 hours of video streams. Based on this automated approach, a statistical analysis of

  4. The Development of Several Electromagnetic Monitoring Strategies and Algorithms for Validating Pre-Earthquake Electromagnetic Signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bleier, T. E.; Dunson, J. C.; Roth, S.; Mueller, S.; Lindholm, C.; Heraud, J. A.

    2012-12-01

    QuakeFinder, a private research group in California, reports on the development of a 100+ station network consisting of 3-axis induction magnetometers, and air conductivity sensors to collect and characterize pre-seismic electromagnetic (EM) signals. These signals are combined with daily Infra Red signals collected from the GOES weather satellite infrared (IR) instrument to compare and correlate with the ground EM signals, both from actual earthquakes and boulder stressing experiments. This presentation describes the efforts QuakeFinder has undertaken to automatically detect these pulse patterns using their historical data as a reference, and to develop other discriminative algorithms that can be used with air conductivity sensors, and IR instruments from the GOES satellites. The overall big picture results of the QuakeFinder experiment are presented. In 2007, QuakeFinder discovered the occurrence of strong uni-polar pulses in their magnetometer coil data that increased in tempo dramatically prior to the M5.1 earthquake at Alum Rock, California. Suggestions that these pulses might have been lightning or power-line arcing did not fit with the data actually recorded as was reported in Bleier [2009]. Then a second earthquake occurred near the same site on January 7, 2010 as was reported in Dunson [2011], and the pattern of pulse count increases before the earthquake occurred similarly to the 2007 event. There were fewer pulses, and the magnitude of them was decreased, both consistent with the fact that the earthquake was smaller (M4.0 vs M5.4) and farther away (7Km vs 2km). At the same time similar effects were observed at the QuakeFinder Tacna, Peru site before the May 5th, 2010 M6.2 earthquake and a cluster of several M4-5 earthquakes.

  5. Managing Multi-center Flow Cytometry Data for Immune Monitoring.

    PubMed

    White, Scott; Laske, Karoline; Welters, Marij Jp; Bidmon, Nicole; van der Burg, Sjoerd H; Britten, Cedrik M; Enzor, Jennifer; Staats, Janet; Weinhold, Kent J; Gouttefangeas, Cécile; Chan, Cliburn

    2014-01-01

    With the recent results of promising cancer vaccines and immunotherapy1-5, immune monitoring has become increasingly relevant for measuring treatment-induced effects on T cells, and an essential tool for shedding light on the mechanisms responsible for a successful treatment. Flow cytometry is the canonical multi-parameter assay for the fine characterization of single cells in solution, and is ubiquitously used in pre-clinical tumor immunology and in cancer immunotherapy trials. Current state-of-the-art polychromatic flow cytometry involves multi-step, multi-reagent assays followed by sample acquisition on sophisticated instruments capable of capturing up to 20 parameters per cell at a rate of tens of thousands of cells per second. Given the complexity of flow cytometry assays, reproducibility is a major concern, especially for multi-center studies. A promising approach for improving reproducibility is the use of automated analysis borrowing from statistics, machine learning and information visualization21-23, as these methods directly address the subjectivity, operator-dependence, labor-intensive and low fidelity of manual analysis. However, it is quite time-consuming to investigate and test new automated analysis techniques on large data sets without some centralized information management system. For large-scale automated analysis to be practical, the presence of consistent and high-quality data linked to the raw FCS files is indispensable. In particular, the use of machine-readable standard vocabularies to characterize channel metadata is essential when constructing analytic pipelines to avoid errors in processing, analysis and interpretation of results. For automation, this high-quality metadata needs to be programmatically accessible, implying the need for a consistent Application Programming Interface (API). In this manuscript, we propose that upfront time spent normalizing flow cytometry data to conform to carefully designed data models enables automated

  6. Space Monitoring Data Center at Moscow State University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalegaev, Vladimir; Bobrovnikov, Sergey; Barinova, Vera; Myagkova, Irina; Shugay, Yulia; Barinov, Oleg; Dolenko, Sergey; Mukhametdinova, Ludmila; Shiroky, Vladimir

    Space monitoring data center of Moscow State University provides operational information on radiation state of the near-Earth space. Internet portal http://swx.sinp.msu.ru/ gives access to the actual data characterizing the level of solar activity, geomagnetic and radiation conditions in the magnetosphere and heliosphere in the real time mode. Operational data coming from space missions (ACE, GOES, ELECTRO-L1, Meteor-M1) at L1, LEO and GEO and from the Earth’s surface are used to represent geomagnetic and radiation state of near-Earth environment. On-line database of measurements is also maintained to allow quick comparison between current conditions and conditions experienced in the past. The models of space environment working in autonomous mode are used to generalize the information obtained from observations on the whole magnetosphere. Interactive applications and operational forecasting services are created on the base of these models. They automatically generate alerts on particle fluxes enhancements above the threshold values, both for SEP and relativistic electrons using data from LEO orbits. Special forecasting services give short-term forecast of SEP penetration to the Earth magnetosphere at low altitudes, as well as relativistic electron fluxes at GEO. Velocities of recurrent high speed solar wind streams on the Earth orbit are predicted with advance time of 3-4 days on the basis of automatic estimation of the coronal hole areas detected on the images of the Sun received from the SDO satellite. By means of neural network approach, Dst and Kp indices online forecasting 0.5-1.5 hours ahead, depending on solar wind and the interplanetary magnetic field, measured by ACE satellite, is carried out. Visualization system allows representing experimental and modeling data in 2D and 3D.

  7. Managing Multi-center Flow Cytometry Data for Immune Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    White, Scott; Laske, Karoline; Welters, Marij JP; Bidmon, Nicole; van der Burg, Sjoerd H; Britten, Cedrik M; Enzor, Jennifer; Staats, Janet; Weinhold, Kent J; Gouttefangeas, Cécile; Chan, Cliburn

    2014-01-01

    With the recent results of promising cancer vaccines and immunotherapy1–5, immune monitoring has become increasingly relevant for measuring treatment-induced effects on T cells, and an essential tool for shedding light on the mechanisms responsible for a successful treatment. Flow cytometry is the canonical multi-parameter assay for the fine characterization of single cells in solution, and is ubiquitously used in pre-clinical tumor immunology and in cancer immunotherapy trials. Current state-of-the-art polychromatic flow cytometry involves multi-step, multi-reagent assays followed by sample acquisition on sophisticated instruments capable of capturing up to 20 parameters per cell at a rate of tens of thousands of cells per second. Given the complexity of flow cytometry assays, reproducibility is a major concern, especially for multi-center studies. A promising approach for improving reproducibility is the use of automated analysis borrowing from statistics, machine learning and information visualization21–23, as these methods directly address the subjectivity, operator-dependence, labor-intensive and low fidelity of manual analysis. However, it is quite time-consuming to investigate and test new automated analysis techniques on large data sets without some centralized information management system. For large-scale automated analysis to be practical, the presence of consistent and high-quality data linked to the raw FCS files is indispensable. In particular, the use of machine-readable standard vocabularies to characterize channel metadata is essential when constructing analytic pipelines to avoid errors in processing, analysis and interpretation of results. For automation, this high-quality metadata needs to be programmatically accessible, implying the need for a consistent Application Programming Interface (API). In this manuscript, we propose that upfront time spent normalizing flow cytometry data to conform to carefully designed data models enables

  8. The Design, Implementation, and Evaluation of a Bilingual Placement and Monitoring Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golub, Lester S.

    In 1981, the Bilingual Placement and Monitoring Instructional Support System (BPMIS) Center in the School District of Lancaster (Pennsylvania) was established. Partially supported by Title VII funds, the Center provides comprehensive services to assure sound educational placement, continuous monitoring, successful transition into all…

  9. First Results of 3 Year Monitoring of Red Wood Ants' Behavioural Changes and Their Possible Correlation with Earthquake Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berberich, Gabriele; Berberich, Martin; Grumpe, Arne; Wöhler, Christian; Schreiber, Ulrich

    2013-04-01

    Short-term earthquake predictions with an advance warning of several hours or days can currently not be performed reliably and remain limited to only a few minutes before the event. Abnormal animal behaviours prior to earthquakes have been reported previously but their detection creates problems in monitoring and reliability. A different situation is encountered for red wood ants (RWA; Formica rufa-group (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). They have stationary nest sites on tectonically active, gas-bearing fault systems. These faults may be potential earthquake areas and are simultaneously information channels deeply reaching into the crust. A particular advantage of monitoring RWA is their high sensitivity to environmental changes. Besides an evolutionarily developed extremely strong temperature sensitivity of 0.25 K, they have chemoreceptors for the detection of CO2 concentrations and a sensitivity for electromagnetic fields. Changes of the electromagnetic field are discussed or short-lived "thermal anomalies" are reported as trigger mechanisms for bioanomalies of impending earthquakes. For 3 years, we have monitored two Red Wood Ant mounds (Formica rufa-group), located at the seismically active Neuwied Basin (Eifel, Germany), 24/7 by high-resolution cameras equipped with a colour and infrared sensor. In the Neuwied Basin, an average of about 100 earthquakes per year with magnitudes up to M 3.9 occur located on different tectonic fault regimes (strike-slip faults and/or normal or thrust faults). The RWA mounds are located on two different fault regimes approximately 30 km apart. First results show that the ants have a well-identifiable standard daily routine. Correlation with local seismic events suggests changes in the ants' behaviour hours before the earthquake event: The nocturnal rest phase and daily activity are suppressed, and standard daily routine is continued not before the next day. Additional parameters that might have an effect on the ants' daily routine

  10. Results of subionospheric radio LF monitoring prior to the Tokachi (M=8, Hokkaido, 25 September 2003) earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shvets, A. V.; Hayakawa, M.; Maekawa, S.

    2004-10-01

    Results of simultaneous LF subionospheric monitoring over two different propagation paths prior to the very strong Tokachi earthquake (near the east coast of Hokkaido Island, 25 September 2003) of magnitude 8.3 are presented firstly. Nighttime amplitude fluctuations of the Japanese Time Standard Transmitter (JG2AS, 40kHz) signal received at Moshiri (Japan, 142°E, 44°N) and at Petropavlovsk-Kamchatski (Russia, 158°E, 53°N) were analyzed. As a possible precursory signature we observed synchronous intensification of quasi periodical 16-day variations of the dispersion in the signals received at both observation stations before the earthquake. The strongest deviations observed as a rule were depletions of signal amplitude probably connected with increase of loss in the ionosphere by the enhancement of turbulence. This is due to dissipation of internal gravity waves (IGW) at the lower ionosphere heights. A scheme for seismo-IGW-planetary waves (PW) interconnection has been justified to explain the observed connection with strong earthquakes. It considers the seasonal variability in the signal.

  11. The Community Seismic Network and Quake-Catcher Network: Monitoring building response to earthquakes through community instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, M.; Kohler, M. D.; Heaton, T. H.; Clayton, R. W.; Chandy, M.; Cochran, E.; Lawrence, J. F.

    2013-12-01

    The Community Seismic Network (CSN) and Quake-Catcher Network (QCN) are dense networks of low-cost ($50) accelerometers that are deployed by community volunteers in their homes in California. In addition, many accelerometers are installed in public spaces associated with civic services, publicly-operated utilities, university campuses, and high-rise buildings. Both CSN and QCN consist of observation-based structural monitoring which is carried out using records from one to tens of stations in a single building. We have deployed about 150 accelerometers in a number of buildings ranging between five and 23 stories in the Los Angeles region. In addition to a USB-connected device which connects to the host's computer, we have developed a stand-alone sensor-plug-computer device that directly connects to the internet via Ethernet or WiFi. In the case of CSN, the sensors report data to the Google App Engine cloud computing service consisting of data centers geographically distributed across the continent. This robust infrastructure provides parallelism and redundancy during times of disaster that could affect hardware. The QCN sensors, however, are connected to netbooks with continuous data streaming in real-time via the distributed computing Berkeley Open Infrastructure for Network Computing software program to a server at Stanford University. In both networks, continuous and triggered data streams use a STA/LTA scheme to determine the occurrence of significant ground accelerations. Waveform data, as well as derived parameters such as peak ground acceleration, are then sent to the associated archives. Visualization models of the instrumented buildings' dynamic linear response have been constructed using Google SketchUp and MATLAB. When data are available from a limited number of accelerometers installed in high rises, the buildings are represented as simple shear beam or prismatic Timoshenko beam models with soil-structure interaction. Small-magnitude earthquake records

  12. A Survey Study of Significent Achievements Accomplished By Snon-mainstreamt Seismologists In ¸ Earthquake Monitoring and Prediction Science In China Since 1970

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, I. W.

    -direction abnormality monitoring instrument, and data processing with an effective network of instruments in China, active seismic areas and their main parameters can be intersected and calculated. (5) Impending earthquake prediction using the characteristic dynamic changes of the satellite infrared impending earthquake precursors. (6) Analysis and calculations of the power source of the global crustal movement. The paper summarizes the authorSs findings in these respects most 1 that are still unknown to seismologists in the west. Key Words: earthquake prediction, imminent earthquake prediction, occurrence time, epicenter location, magnitude, pre- cursors, sensors, instrument, astronomy-seismology, planet positions, magnetic storm. 2

  13. Real Earthquakes, Real Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schomburg, Aaron

    2003-01-01

    One teacher took her class on a year long earthquake expedition. The goal was to monitor the occurrences of real earthquakes during the year and mark their locations with push pins on a wall-sized world map in the hallway outside the science room. The purpose of the project was to create a detailed picture of the earthquakes that occurred…

  14. Synergistic combination of systems for structural health monitoring and earthquake early warning for structural health prognosis and diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Stephen; Beck, James L.

    2012-04-01

    Earthquake early warning (EEW) systems are currently operating nationwide in Japan and are in beta-testing in California. Such a system detects an earthquake initiation using online signals from a seismic sensor network and broadcasts a warning of the predicted location and magnitude a few seconds to a minute or so before an earthquake hits a site. Such a system can be used synergistically with installed structural health monitoring (SHM) systems to enhance pre-event prognosis and post-event diagnosis of structural health. For pre-event prognosis, the EEW system information can be used to make probabilistic predictions of the anticipated damage to a structure using seismic loss estimation methodologies from performance-based earthquake engineering. These predictions can support decision-making regarding the activation of appropriate mitigation systems, such as stopping traffic from entering a bridge that has a predicted high probability of damage. Since the time between warning and arrival of the strong shaking is very short, probabilistic predictions must be rapidly calculated and the decision making automated for the mitigation actions. For post-event diagnosis, the SHM sensor data can be used in Bayesian updating of the probabilistic damage predictions with the EEW predictions as a prior. Appropriate Bayesian methods for SHM have been published. In this paper, we use pre-trained surrogate models (or emulators) based on machine learning methods to make fast damage and loss predictions that are then used in a cost-benefit decision framework for activation of a mitigation measure. A simple illustrative example of an infrastructure application is presented.

  15. Passive seismic monitoring of natural and induced earthquakes: case studies, future directions and socio-economic relevance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bohnhoff, Marco; Dresen, Georg; Ellsworth, William L.; Ito, Hisao

    2010-01-01

    An important discovery in crustal mechanics has been that the Earth’s crust is commonly stressed close to failure, even in tectonically quiet areas. As a result, small natural or man-made perturbations to the local stress field may trigger earthquakes. To understand these processes, Passive Seismic Monitoring (PSM) with seismometer arrays is a widely used technique that has been successfully applied to study seismicity at different magnitude levels ranging from acoustic emissions generated in the laboratory under controlled conditions, to seismicity induced by hydraulic stimulations in geological reservoirs, and up to great earthquakes occurring along plate boundaries. In all these environments the appropriate deployment of seismic sensors, i.e., directly on the rock sample, at the earth’s surface or in boreholes close to the seismic sources allows for the detection and location of brittle failure processes at sufficiently low magnitude-detection threshold and with adequate spatial resolution for further analysis. One principal aim is to develop an improved understanding of the physical processes occurring at the seismic source and their relationship to the host geologic environment. In this paper we review selected case studies and future directions of PSM efforts across a wide range of scales and environments. These include induced failure within small rock samples, hydrocarbon reservoirs, and natural seismicity at convergent and transform plate boundaries. Each example represents a milestone with regard to bridging the gap between laboratory-scale experiments under controlled boundary conditions and large-scale field studies. The common motivation for all studies is to refine the understanding of how earthquakes nucleate, how they proceed and how they interact in space and time. This is of special relevance at the larger end of the magnitude scale, i.e., for large devastating earthquakes due to their severe socio-economic impact.

  16. Catalog of earthquake hypocenters at Alaskan volcanoes: January 1 through December 31, 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dixon, James P.; Stihler, Scott D.; Power, John A.

    2008-01-01

    Between January 1 and December 31, 2007, AVO located 6,664 earthquakes of which 5,660 occurred within 20 kilometers of the 33 volcanoes monitored by the Alaska Volcano Observatory. Monitoring highlights in 2007 include: the eruption of Pavlof Volcano, volcanic-tectonic earthquake swarms at the Augustine, Illiamna, and Little Sitkin volcanic centers, and the cessation of episodes of unrest at Fourpeaked Mountain, Mount Veniaminof and the northern Atka Island volcanoes (Mount Kliuchef and Korovin Volcano). This catalog includes descriptions of : (1) locations of seismic instrumentation deployed during 2007; (2) earthquake detection, recording, analysis, and data archival systems; (3) seismic velocity models used for earthquake locations; (4) a summary of earthquakes located in 2007; and (5) an accompanying UNIX tar-file with a summary of earthquake origin times, hypocenters, magnitudes, phase arrival times, location quality statistics, daily station usage statistics, and all files used to determine the earthquake locations in 2007.

  17. Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. comprehensive earthquake management plan: Emergency Operations Center training manual

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-02-28

    The objective of this training is to: describe the responsibilities, resources, and goals of the Emergency Operations Center and be able to evaluate and interpret this information to best direct and allocate emergency, plant, and other resources to protect life and the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant.

  18. Earthquakes & Volcanoes, Volume 21, Number 1, 1989: Featuring the U.S. Geological Survey's National Earthquake Information Center in Golden, Colorado, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey; Spall, Henry, (Edited By); Schnabel, Diane C.

    1989-01-01

    Earthquakes and Volcanoes is published bimonthly by the U.S. Geological Survey to provide current information on earthquakes and seismology, volcanoes, and related natural hazards of interest to both generalized and specialized readers. The Secretary of the Interior has determined that the publication of this periodical is necessary in the transaction of the public business required by law of this Department. Use of funds for printing this periodical has been approved by the Office of Management and Budget through June 30, 1989. Any use of trade, product, or firm names is for descriptive purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Government.

  19. The continuous automatic monitoring network installed in Tuscany (Italy) since late 2002, to study earthquake precursory phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierotti, Lisa; Cioni, Roberto

    2010-05-01

    Since late 2002, a continuous automatic monitoring network (CAMN) was designed, built and installed in Tuscany (Italy), in order to investigate and define the geochemical response of the aquifers to the local seismic activity. The purpose of the investigation was to identify eventual earthquake precursors. The CAMN is constituted by two groups of five measurement stations each. A first group has been installed in the Serchio and Magra graben (Garfagnana and Lunigiana Valleys, Northern Tuscany), while the second one, in the area of Mt. Amiata (Southern Tuscany), an extinct volcano. Garfagnana, Lunigiana and Mt. Amiata regions belong to the inner zone of the Northern Apennine fold-and-thrust belt. This zone has been involved in the post-collision extensional tectonics since the Upper Miocene-Pliocene. Such tectonic activity has produced horst and graben structures oriented from N-S to NW-SE that are transferred by NE-SW system. Both Garfagnana (Serchio graben) and Lunigiana (Magra graben) belong to the most inner sector of the belt where the seismic sources, responsible for the strongest earthquakes of the northern Apennine, are located (e.g. the M=6.5 earthquake of September 1920). The extensional processes in southern Tuscany have been accompanied by magmatic activity since the Upper Miocene, developing effusive and intrusive products traditionally attributed to the so-called Tuscan Magmatic Province. Mt. Amiata, whose magmatic activity ceased about 0.3 M.y. ago, belongs to the extensive Tyrrhenian sector that is characterized by high heat flow and crustal thinning. The whole zone is characterized by wide-spread but moderate seismicity (the maximum recorded magnitude has been 5.1 with epicentre in Piancastagnaio, 1919). The extensional regime in both the Garfagnana-Lunigiana and Mt. Amiata area is confirmed by the focal mechanisms of recent earthquakes. An essential phase of the monitoring activities has been the selection of suitable sites for the installation of

  20. Monitoring of earthquake precursors by multi-parameter stations in Eskisehir region (Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuce, G.; Ugurluoglu, D. Y.; Adar, N.; Yalcin, T.; Yaltirak, C.; Streil, T.; Oeserd, V. O.

    2010-04-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the geochemical and hydrogeological effects of earthquakes on fluids in aquifers, particularly in a seismically active area such as Eskisehir (Turkey) where the Thrace-Eskisehir Fault Zone stretches over the region. The study area is also close to the North Anatolian Fault Zone generating devastating earthquakes such as the ones experienced in 1999, reactivating the Thrace-Eskisehir Fault. In the studied area, Rn and CO2 gas concentrations, redox potential, electrical conductivity, pH, water level, water temperature, and the climatic parameters were continuously measured in five stations for about a year. Based on the gathered data from the stations, some ambiguous anomalies in geochemical parameters and Rn concentration of groundwater were observed as precursors several days prior to an earthquake. According to the mid-term observations of this study, well-water level changes were found to be a good indicator for seismic estimations in the area, as it comprises naturally filtered anomalies reflecting only the changes due to earthquakes. Also, the results obtained from this study suggest that both the changes in well-water level and gas-water chemistry need to be interpretated together for more accurate estimations. Valid for the studied area, it can be said that shallow earthquakes with epicentral distances of <30 km from the observation stations have more influence on hydrochemical parameters of groundwater and well-water level changes. Although some hydrochemical anomalies were observed in the area, it requires further observations in order to be able to identify them as precursors.

  1. Earthquake Alert System feasibility study

    SciTech Connect

    Harben, P.E.

    1991-12-01

    An Earthquake Alert System (EAS) could give several seconds to several tens of seconds warning before the strong motion from a large earthquake arrives. Such a system would include a large network of sensors distributed within an earthquake-prone region. The sensors closest to the epicenter of a particular earthquake would transmit data at the speed of light to a central processing center, which would broadcast an area-wide alarm in advance of the spreading elastic wave energy from the earthquake. This is possible because seismic energy travels slowly (3--6 km/s) compared to the speed of light. Utilities, public and private institutions, businesses, and the general public would benefit from an EAS. Although many earthquake protection systems exist that automatically shut down power, gas mains, etc. when ground motion at a facility reaches damaging levels, not EAS -- that is, a system that can provide warning in advance of elastic wave energy arriving at a facility -- has ever been developed in the United States. A recent study by the National Academy of Sciences (NRC, 1991) concludes that an EAS is technically feasible and strongly recommends installing a prototype system that makes use of existing microseismic stations as much as possible. The EAS concept discussed here consists of a distributed network of remote seismic stations that measure weak and strong earth motion and transmit the data in real time to central facility. This facility processes the data and issues warning broadcasts in the form of information packets containing estimates of earthquake location, zero time (the time the earthquake began), magnitude, and reliability of the predictions. User of the warning broadcasts have a dedicated receiver that monitors the warning broadcast frequency. The user also has preprogrammed responses that are automatically executed when the warning information packets contain location and magnitude estimates above a facility`s tolerance.

  2. Earthquake Alert System feasibility study

    SciTech Connect

    Harben, P.E.

    1991-12-01

    An Earthquake Alert System (EAS) could give several seconds to several tens of seconds warning before the strong motion from a large earthquake arrives. Such a system would include a large network of sensors distributed within an earthquake-prone region. The sensors closest to the epicenter of a particular earthquake would transmit data at the speed of light to a central processing center, which would broadcast an area-wide alarm in advance of the spreading elastic wave energy from the earthquake. This is possible because seismic energy travels slowly (3--6 km/s) compared to the speed of light. Utilities, public and private institutions, businesses, and the general public would benefit from an EAS. Although many earthquake protection systems exist that automatically shut down power, gas mains, etc. when ground motion at a facility reaches damaging levels, not EAS -- that is, a system that can provide warning in advance of elastic wave energy arriving at a facility -- has ever been developed in the United States. A recent study by the National Academy of Sciences (NRC, 1991) concludes that an EAS is technically feasible and strongly recommends installing a prototype system that makes use of existing microseismic stations as much as possible. The EAS concept discussed here consists of a distributed network of remote seismic stations that measure weak and strong earth motion and transmit the data in real time to central facility. This facility processes the data and issues warning broadcasts in the form of information packets containing estimates of earthquake location, zero time (the time the earthquake began), magnitude, and reliability of the predictions. User of the warning broadcasts have a dedicated receiver that monitors the warning broadcast frequency. The user also has preprogrammed responses that are automatically executed when the warning information packets contain location and magnitude estimates above a facility's tolerance.

  3. 88 hours: The U.S. Geological Survey National Earthquake Information Center response to the 11 March 2011 Mw 9.0 Tohoku earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hayes, G.P.; Earle, P.S.; Benz, H.M.; Wald, D.J.; Briggs, R.W.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a timeline of NEIC response to a major global earthquake for the first time in a formal journal publication. We outline the key observations of the earthquake made by the NEIC and its partner agencies, discuss how these analyses evolved, and outline when and how this information was released to the public and to other internal and external parties. Our goal in the presentation of this material is to provide a detailed explanation of the issues faced in the response to a rare, giant earthquake. We envisage that the timeline format of this presentation can highlight technical and procedural successes and shortcomings, which may in turn help prompt research by our academic partners and further improvements to our future response efforts. We have shown how NEIC response efforts have significantly improved over the past six years since the great 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake. We are optimistic that the research spawned from this disaster, and the unparalleled dense and diverse data sets that have been recorded, can lead to similar-and necessary-improvements in the future.

  4. A survey conducted immediately after the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake: evaluation of infectious risks associated with sanitary conditions in evacuation centers.

    PubMed

    Tokuda, Koichi; Kunishima, Hiroyuki; Gu, Yoshiaki; Endo, Shiro; Hatta, Masumitsu; Kanamori, Hajime; Aoyagi, Tetsuji; Ishibashi, Noriomi; Inomata, Shinya; Yano, Hisakazu; Kitagawa, Miho; Kaku, Mitsuo

    2014-08-01

    In cooperation with the Miyagi prefectural government, we conducted a survey of the management of sanitation at evacuation centers and the health of the evacuees by visiting 324 evacuation centers at two weeks after the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake. The facilities often used as evacuation centers were community centers (36%), schools (32.7%) and Nursing homes (10.2%). It was more difficult to maintain a distance of at least 1 m between evacuees at the evacuation centers with a larger number of residents. At evacuation centers where the water supply was not restored, hygienic handling of food and the hand hygiene of the cooks were less than adequate. Among evacuation centers with ≤50 evacuees, there was a significant difference in the prevalence rate of digestive symptoms between the centers with and without persons in charge of health matters (0.3% vs. 2.1%, respectively, p < 0.001). The following three factors had an important influence on the level of sanitation at evacuation centers and the health of evacuees: 1) the size of the evacuation center, 2) the status of the water supply, and 3) the allocation of persons in charge of health matters. Given that adjusting the number of evacuees to fit the size of the evacuation center and prompt restoration of the water supply are difficult to achieve immediately after an earthquake, promptly placing persons in charge of health matters at evacuation centers is a practicable and effective measure, and allocation of at least one such person per 50 evacuees is desirable. PMID:24861538

  5. A Survey Study of Significent Achievements Accomplished By Snon-mainstreamt Seismologists In ¸ Earthquake Monitoring and Prediction Science In China Since 1970

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, I. W.

    -direction abnormality monitoring instrument, and data processing with an effective network of instruments in China, active seismic areas and their main parameters can be intersected and calculated. (5) Impending earthquake prediction using the characteristic dynamic changes of the satellite infrared impending earthquake precursors. (6) Analysis and calculations of the power source of the global crustal movement. The paper summarizes the authorSs findings in these respects most 1 that are still unknown to seismologists in the west. 2

  6. NCEER seminars on earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pantelic, J.

    1987-01-01

    In May of 1986, the National Center for Earthquake Engineering Research (NCEER) in Buffalo, New York, held the first seminar in its new monthly forum called Seminars on Earthquakes. The Center's purpose in initiating the seminars was to educate the audience about earthquakes, to facilitate cooperation between the NCEER and visiting researchers, and to enable visiting speakers to learn more about the NCEER   

  7. A robust satellite technique for monitoring seismically active areas: The case of Bhuj Gujarat earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genzano, N.; Aliano, C.; Filizzola, C.; Pergola, N.; Tramutoli, V.

    2007-02-01

    A robust satellite data analysis technique (RAT) has been recently proposed as a suitable tool for satellite TIR surveys in seismically active regions and already successfully tested in different cases of earthquakes (both high and medium-low magnitudes). In this paper, the efficiency and the potentialities of the RAT technique have been tested even when it is applied to a wide area with extremely variable topography, land coverage and climatic characteristics (the whole Indian subcontinent). Bhuj-Gujarat's earthquake (occurred on 26th January 2001, MS ˜ 7.9) has been considered as a test case in the validation phase, while a relatively unperturbed period (no earthquakes with MS ≥ 5, in the same region and in the same period) has been analyzed for confutation purposes. To this aim, 6 years of Meteosat-5 TIR observations have been processed for the characterization of the TIR signal behaviour at each specific observation time and location. The anomalous TIR values, detected by RAT, have been evaluated in terms of time-space persistence in order to establish the existence of actually significant anomalous transients. The results indicate that the studied area was affected by significant positive thermal anomalies which were identified, at different intensity levels, not far from the Gujarat coast (since 15th January, but with a clearer evidence on 22nd January) and near the epicentral area (mainly on 21st January). On 25th January (1 day before Gujarat's earthquake) significant TIR anomalies appear on the Northern Indian subcontinent, showing a remarkable coincidence with the principal tectonic lineaments of the region (thrust Himalayan boundary). On the other hand, the results of the confutation analysis indicate that no meaningful TIR anomalies appear in the absence of seismic events with MS ≥ 5.

  8. A summary of ground motion effects at SLAC (Stanford Linear Accelerator Center) resulting from the Oct 17th 1989 earthquake

    SciTech Connect

    Ruland, R.E.

    1990-08-01

    Ground motions resulting from the October 17th 1989 (Loma Prieta) earthquake are described and can be correlated with some geologic features of the SLAC site. Recent deformations of the linac are also related to slow motions observed over the past 20 years. Measured characteristics of the earthquake are listed. Some effects on machine components and detectors are noted. 18 refs., 16 figs.

  9. A framework for rapid post-earthquake assessment of bridges and restoration of transportation network functionality using structural health monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omenzetter, Piotr; Ramhormozian, Shahab; Mangabhai, Poonam; Singh, Ravikash; Orense, Rolando

    2013-04-01

    Quick and reliable assessment of the condition of bridges in a transportation network after an earthquake can greatly assist immediate post-disaster response and long-term recovery. However, experience shows that available resources, such as qualified inspectors and engineers, will typically be stretched for such tasks. Structural health monitoring (SHM) systems can therefore make a real difference in this context. SHM, however, needs to be deployed in a strategic manner and integrated into the overall disaster response plans and actions to maximize its benefits. This study presents, in its first part, a framework of how this can be achieved. Since it will not be feasible, or indeed necessary, to use SHM on every bridge, it is necessary to prioritize bridges within individual networks for SHM deployment. A methodology for such prioritization based on structural and geotechnical seismic risks affecting bridges and their importance within a network is proposed in the second part. An example using the methodology application to selected bridges in the medium-sized transportation network of Wellington, New Zealand is provided. The third part of the paper is concerned with using monitoring data for quick assessment of bridge condition and damage after an earthquake. Depending on the bridge risk profile, it is envisaged that data will be obtained from either local or national seismic monitoring arrays or SHM systems installed on bridges. A method using artificial neural networks is proposed for using data from a seismic array to infer key ground motion parameters at an arbitrary bridges site. The methodology is applied to seismic data collected in Christchurch, New Zealand. Finally, how such ground motion parameters can be used in bridge damage and condition assessment is outlined.

  10. Catalog of earthquake hypocenters at Alaskan volcanoes: January 1 through December 31, 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dixon, James P.; Stihler, Scott D.; Power, John A.; Searcy, Cheryl K.

    2011-01-01

    Between January 1 and December 31, 2010, the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) located 3,405 earthquakes, of which 2,846 occurred within 20 kilometers of the 33 volcanoes with seismograph subnetworks. There was no significant seismic activity in 2010 at these monitored volcanic centers. Seismograph subnetworks with severe outages in 2009 were repaired in 2010 resulting in three volcanic centers (Aniakchak, Korovin, and Veniaminof) being relisted in the formal list of monitored volcanoes. This catalog includes locations and statistics of the earthquakes located in 2010 with the station parameters, velocity models, and other files used to locate these earthquakes.

  11. Hatfield Marine Science Center Dynamic Revetment Project DSL permit #45455-FP, Monitoring Report February 2012

    EPA Science Inventory

    A Dynamic Revetment (gravel beach) was installed in November, 2011 on the shoreline along the northeastern edge of the Hatfield Marine Science Center (HMSC) to mitigate erosion that threatened HMSC critical infrastructure. Shoreline topographic and biological monitoring was init...

  12. Hatfield Marine Science Center Dynamic Revetment Project DSL permit #45455-FP, Monitoring Report February, 2013

    EPA Science Inventory

    A Dynamic Revetment (gravel beach) was installed in November, 2011 on the shoreline along the northeastern edge of the Hatfield Marine Science Center (HMSC) to mitigate erosion that threatened HMSC critical infrastructure. Shoreline topographic and biological monitoring was init...

  13. Monitoring of the Permeable Pavement Demonstration Site at the Edison Environmental Center (Poster)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a poster on the permeable pavement parking lot at the Edison Environmental Center. The monitoring scheme for the project is discussed in-depth with graphics explaining the instrumentation installed at the site.

  14. The environmental program at Kennedy Space Center - Baseline to monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knott, W. M.

    1980-01-01

    KSC has developed an environmental program to ensure that its activities do not adversely affect the surrounding environment. Two essential elements of the total program are the baseline and monitoring programs. The goal of the baseline program is to collect sufficient information about the environment prior to Shuttle launches so that adverse changes in the environment - if and when they occur after the Shuttle program becomes active - can be detected and cause-effect relationships established when possible. The goal of the monitoring program is to use information from the baseline program along with survey and sampling operations during the period of initial Shuttle launches to document adverse changes in the environment.

  15. Improved earthquake monitoring in the central and eastern United States in support of seismic assessments for critical facilities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leith, William S.; Benz, Harley M.; Herrmann, Robert B.

    2011-01-01

    Evaluation of seismic monitoring capabilities in the central and eastern United States for critical facilities - including nuclear powerplants - focused on specific improvements to understand better the seismic hazards in the region. The report is not an assessment of seismic safety at nuclear plants. To accomplish the evaluation and to provide suggestions for improvements using funding from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009, the U.S. Geological Survey examined addition of new strong-motion seismic stations in areas of seismic activity and addition of new seismic stations near nuclear power-plant locations, along with integration of data from the Transportable Array of some 400 mobile seismic stations. Some 38 and 68 stations, respectively, were suggested for addition in active seismic zones and near-power-plant locations. Expansion of databases for strong-motion and other earthquake source-characterization data also was evaluated. Recognizing pragmatic limitations of station deployment, augmentation of existing deployments provides improvements in source characterization by quantification of near-source attenuation in regions where larger earthquakes are expected. That augmentation also supports systematic data collection from existing networks. The report further utilizes the application of modeling procedures and processing algorithms, with the additional stations and the improved seismic databases, to leverage the capabilities of existing and expanded seismic arrays.

  16. Medical Relief Response by Miyako Public Health Center after the Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami, 2011.

    PubMed

    Yanagihara, Hiroki

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To improve disaster preparedness, we investigated the response of medical relief activities managed by Iwate Prefectural Miyako Public Health Center during the post-acute phase of the Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami on March 11, 2011.Methods The study divided the post-disaster period into three approximate time segments: Period I (time of disaster through late March), Period II (mid-April), and Period III (end of May in Miyako City, early July in Yamada Town). We reviewed records on medical relief activities conducted by medical assistance teams (MATs) in Miyako City and Yamada Town.Results Miyako Public Health Center had organized a meeting to coordinate medical relief activities from Period I to Period III. According to demand for medical services and recovery from the local medical institutions (LMIs) in the affected area, MATs were deployed and active on evacuation centers in each area assigned. The number of patients examined by MATs in Miyako rose to approximately 250 people per day in Period I and decreased to 100 in Period III. However, in Yamada, the number surged to 700 in Period I, fell to 100 in Period II, and decreased to 50 in Period III. This difference could be partly explained as follows. In Miyako, most evacuees had consulted LMIs which restarted medical services after disaster, and the number of LMIs restarted had already reached 29 (94% of the whole) in Period I. In Yamada, most evacuees who had consulted MATs in Period I had almost moved to LMIs restarted in Period II. During the same time, a division of roles and coordination on medical services provision was conducted, such as MATs mainly in charge of primary emergency triage, in response to the number of LMIs restarted which reached 1 (20%) in Period I and 3 (60%) in Period II. Following Period III, more than 80% of patients in Miyako had been a slight illness, such as need for health guidance, and the number of people who underwent emergency medical transport

  17. Reducing atmospheric noise in RST analysis of TIR satellite radiances for earthquakes prone areas satellite monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisi, Mariano; Filizzola, Carolina; Genzano, Nicola; Paciello, Rossana; Pergola, Nicola; Tramutoli, Valerio

    Space-time fluctuations of the Earth's emitted Thermal Infrared (TIR) radiation observed from satellite from months to weeks before an earthquake are reported in several studies. Among the others, a Robust Satellite data analysis Technique (RST) was proposed (and applied to different satellite sensors in various geo-tectonic contexts) to discriminate anomalous signal transients possibly associated with earthquake occurrence from normal TIR signal fluctuations due to other possible causes (e.g. solar diurnal-annual cycle, meteorological conditions, changes in observational conditions, etc.). Variations in satellite view angle depending on satellite's passages (for polar satellites) and atmospheric water vapour fluctuations were recognized in the past as the main factors affecting the residual signal variability reducing the overall Signal-to-Noise (S/N) ratio and the potential of the RST-based approach in identifying seismically related thermal anomalies. In this paper we focus on both factors for the first time, applying the RST approach to geostationary satellites (which guarantees stable view angles) and using Land Surface Temperature (LST) data products (which are less affected by atmospheric water vapour variability) instead of just TIR radiances at the sensor. The first results, obtained in the case of the Abruzzo earthquake (6 April 2009, MW ∼ 6.3) by analyzing 6 years of SEVIRI (Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager on board the geostationary Meteosat Second Generation satellite) LST products provided by EUMETSAT, seem to confirm the major sensitivity of the proposed approach in detecting perturbations of the Earth's thermal emission a few days before the main shock. The results achieved in terms of increased S/N ratio (in validation) and reduced "false alarms" rate (in confutation) are discussed comparing results obtained by applying RST to LST products with those achieved by applying an identical RST analysis (using the same MSG-SEVIRI 2005

  18. GREENHOUSE GAS (GHG) MITIGATION AND MONITORING TECHNOLOGY PERFORMANCE: ACTIVITIES OF THE GHG TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION CENTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation and monitoring technology performance activities of the GHG Technology Verification Center. The Center is a public/private partnership between Southern Research Institute and the U.S. EPA's Office of Research and Development. It...

  19. (Stanford Linear Accelerator Center) annual environmental monitoring report, January--December 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-05-01

    This progress report discusses environmental monitoring activities at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center for 1989. Topics include climate, site geology, site water usage, land use, demography, unusual events or releases, radioactive and nonradioactive releases, compliance summary, environmental nonradiological program information, environmental radiological program information, groundwater protection monitoring ad quality assurance. 5 figs., 7 tabs. (KJD)

  20. Radon progeny monitoring at the Eastern North Atlantic (ENA), Graciosa Island ARM facility and a potential earthquake precursory signal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbosa, Susana; Mendes, Virgilio B.; Azevedo, Eduardo B.

    2016-04-01

    Radon has been considered a promising earthquake precursor, the main rationale being an expected increase in radon exhalation in soil and rocks due to stress associated with the preparatory stages of an earthquake. However, the precursory nature of radon is far from being convincingly demonstrated so far. A major hindrance is the many meteorological and geophysical factors diving radon temporal variability, including the geophysical parameters influencing its emanation (grain size, moisture content, temperature), as well as the meteorological factors (atmospheric pressure, moisture, temperature, winds) influencing its mobility. Despite the challenges, radon remains one of the strongest candidates as a potential earthquake precursor, and it is of crucial importance to investigate the many factors driving its variability and its potential association with seismic events. Continuous monitoring of radon progeny is performed at the Eastern North Atlantic (ENA) facility located in the Graciosa island (Azores, 39N; 28W), a fixed site of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement programme (ARM), established and supported by the Department of Energy (DOE) of the United States of America with the collaboration of the local government and University of the Azores. The Azores archipelago is associated with a complex geodynamic setting on the Azores triple junction where the American, Eurasian and African litospheric plates meet, resulting in significant seismic and volcanic activity. A considerable advantage of the monitoring site is the availability of a comprehensive dataset of concurrent meteorological observations performed at the ENA facility and freely available from the ARM data archive, enabling a detailed analysis of the environmental factors influencing the temporal variability of radon's progeny. Gamma radiation is being measured continuously every 15 minutes since May 2015. The time series of gamma radiation counts is dominated by sharp peaks lasting a few hours and

  1. Seismic Monitoring and Post-Seismic Investigations following the 12 January 2010 Mw 7.0 Haiti Earthquake (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altidor, J.; Dieuseul, A.; Ellsworth, W. L.; Given, D. D.; Hough, S. E.; Janvier, M. G.; Maharrey, J. Z.; Meremonte, M. E.; Mildor, B. S.; Prepetit, C.; Yong, A.

    2010-12-01

    We report on ongoing efforts to establish seismic monitoring in Haiti. Following the devastating M7.0 Haiti earthquake of 12 January 2010, the Bureau des Mines et de l’Energie worked with the U.S. Geological Survey and other scientific institutions to investigate the earthquake and to better assess hazard from future earthquakes. We deployed several types of portable instruments to record aftershocks: strong-motion instruments within Port-au-Prince to investigate the variability of shaking due to local geological conditions, and a combination of weak-motion, strong-motion, and broadband instruments around the Enriquillo-Plaintain Garden fault (EPGF), primarily to improve aftershock locations and to lower the magnitude threshold of aftershock recording. A total of twenty instruments were deployed, including eight RefTek instruments and nine strong-motion (K2) accelerometers deployed in Port-au-Prince in collaboration with the USGS, and three additional broadband stations deployed in the epicentral region in collaboration with the University of Nice. Five K2s have remained in operation in Port-au-Prince since late June; in late June two instruments were installed in Cap-Haitien and Port de Paix in northern Haiti to provide monitoring of the Septentrional fault. A permanent strong-motion (NetQuakes) instrument was deployed in late June at the US Embassy. Five additional NetQuakes instruments will be deployed by the BME in late 2010/early 2011. Addionally, the BME has collaborated with other scientific institutions, including Columbia University, the Institut Géophysique du Globe, University of Nice, the University of Texas at Austin, and Purdue University, to conduct other types of investigations. These studies include, for example, sampling of uplifted corals to establish a chronology of prior events in the region of the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden fault, surveys of geotechnical properties to develop microzonation maps of metropolitan Port-au-Prince, surveys of

  2. On the Potential Uses of Static Offsets Derived From Low-Cost Community Instruments and Crowd-Sourcing for Earthquake Monitoring and Rapid Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minson, S. E.; Brooks, B. A.; Murray, J. R.; Iannucci, R. A.

    2013-12-01

    We explore the efficacy of low-cost community instruments (LCCIs) and crowd-sourcing to produce rapid estimates of earthquake magnitude and rupture characteristics which can be used for earthquake loss reduction such as issuing tsunami warnings and guiding rapid response efforts. Real-time high-rate GPS data are just beginning to be incorporated into earthquake early warning (EEW) systems. These data are showing promising utility including producing moment magnitude estimates which do not saturate for the largest earthquakes and determining the geometry and slip distribution of the earthquake rupture in real-time. However, building a network of scientific-quality real-time high-rate GPS stations requires substantial infrastructure investment which is not practicable in many parts of the world. To expand the benefits of real-time geodetic monitoring globally, we consider the potential of pseudorange-based GPS locations such as the real-time positioning done onboard cell phones or on LCCIs that could be distributed in the same way accelerometers are distributed as part of the Quake Catcher Network (QCN). While location information from LCCIs often have large uncertainties, their low cost means that large numbers of instruments can be deployed. A monitoring network that includes smartphones could collect data from potentially millions of instruments. These observations could be averaged together to substantially decrease errors associated with estimated earthquake source parameters. While these data will be inferior to data recorded by scientific-grade seismometers and GPS instruments, there are features of community-based data collection (and possibly analysis) that are very attractive. This approach creates a system where every user can host an instrument or download an application to their smartphone that both provides them with earthquake and tsunami warnings while also providing the data on which the warning system operates. This symbiosis helps to encourage

  3. Structural Health Monitoring Sensor Development at NASA Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prosser, W. H.; Wu, M. C.; Allison, S. G.; DeHaven, S. L.; Ghoshal, A.

    2002-01-01

    NASA is applying considerable effort on the development of sensor technology for structural health monitoring (SHM). This research is targeted toward increasing the safety and reliability of aerospace vehicles, while reducing operating and maintenance costs. Research programs are focused on applications to both aircraft and space vehicles. Sensor technologies under development span a wide range including fiber-optic sensing, active and passive acoustic sensors, electromagnetic sensors, wireless sensing systems, MEMS, and nanosensors. Because of their numerous advantages for aerospace applications, fiber-optic sensors are one of the leading candidates and are the major focus of this presentation. In addition, recent advances in active and passive acoustic sensing will also be discussed.

  4. Moment Tensor Catalogue of Important Earthquakes in Turkey and Surrounding Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalafat, D.; Kekovali, K.; Ocal, M.; Gülen, L.

    2009-12-01

    We have prepared a catalogue of fault-source parameters of important earthquakes that have occurred during the period 1938-2008 in Turkey and surrounding regions. This catalogue contains source parameters of total 738 earthquakes with M≥4.0. The source parameters of 341 recent earthquakes were calculated, and that of 397 old earthquakes were compiled from published sources. The missing parameters of old earthquakes were calculated in order to obtain a complete and integrated database. The Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute (KOERI) seismic network has been improved significantly by the installation of 96 3-component, broad-band stations in recent years. This enabled the calculation of source parameters of recent 341 (M≥4.0) earthquakes that have occurred in the region. The fault plane solutions of the earthquakes were calculated using regional moment tensor inversion method (Dreger, 2002), and running under zSacWin software (Yilmazer, 2003). Thus, fault mechanism (Moment Tensor/Source Parameters) database of 738 earthquakes were compiled in a standard digital format. This catalogue can be obtained from the National Earthquake Monitoring Center of the Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute. Map showing the fault plane solutions contained in the catalogue for the period 1938-2008 (Kalafat et al. 2009 and other sources). The size of the focal spheres is proportional to the magnitude of the earthquake.

  5. GONAF - A deep Geophysical Observatory at the North Anatolian Fault: Permanent downhole monitoring of a pending major earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulut, Fatih; Bohnhoff, Marco; Dresen, Georg; Raub, Christina; Kilic, Tugbay; Kartal, Recai F.; Tuba Kadirioglu, F.; Nurlu, Murat; Ito, Hisao; Malin, Peter E.

    2014-05-01

    The North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ hereafter) is a right-lateral transform plate boundary between the Anatolian plate and Eurasia accommodating a relative plate motion of ~25 mm/yr. Almost the entire fault zone has failed during the last century as a westward migrating sequence of destructive earthquakes leaving a very high probability of a forthcoming large event to the Sea of Marmara segments. This area did not host any M>7 earthquake since 1766. Therefore, listening to the Sea of Marmara segments at a very low detection threshold is required to address how the brittle deformation develops along a critically-stressed fault segment prior to a potential failure. GONAF-ICDP project has been developed to design a downhole seismic network surrounding the Sea of Marmara segments of the NAFZ deploying 300 m deep boreholes equipped with a chain of sensitive seismographs. Natural and city-induced noise is attenuated through the unconsolidated subsurface formation and therefore provides ideal boundary conditions for seismic monitoring within the intact rocks at greater depths. A typical GONAF borehole consists of 1 Hz vertical sensor at every 75 m depth increment and a combination of 1Hz, 2Hz and 15 Hz 3C sensors at 300 m depth. By now, three boreholes were successfully implemented in the Tuzla and Yalova-Çınarcık regions. The plan is to complete four more GONAF boreholes in 2014. Our preliminary results show that GONAF waveform recordings will broaden the magnitude range down to ~M -1 in the target area providing a better characterization of seismically active features in time and space.

  6. Occupational radiation monitoring at a large medical center in Japan.

    PubMed

    ALMasri, Hussein Y; Kakinohana, Yasumasa; Yogi, Tadashi

    2014-07-01

    Occupational radiation dose monitoring is a method of ensuring that radiation levels are within the regulatory limits. Our objective in this study was to evaluate the radiation doses experienced by personnel at a radiology facility between 2001 and 2010. Overall, 2418 annual dose records for workers who were categorized into four occupational groups were analyzed. The groups included: (1) radiologists, (2) radiologic technologists, (3) nurses, and (4) other workers, who belong to other hospital departments, but who participate partially in some radiologic procedures. The dose distribution was found to be skewed, with 76 % of personnel having received no measurable doses and almost 2 % having received doses of more than 2 mSv. The weighted-average annual doses ranged from 0.13 to 0.57, 0.9 to 2.12, 0.01 to 0.19, and 0.01 to 0.09 mSv for the radiologists, radiologic technologists, nurses, and the other workers, respectively. The radiologic technologists received the highest radiation exposure among the four groups. It was found that the average annual doses were decreasing over time for the radiologists, radiologic technologists, and others, whereas they were increasing for the nurses. Nurses play an important role in assisting radiologists and patients during various radiologic procedures, which might have increased their average annual dose. During the 10-year period of this study, there was no incidence of a dose exceeding the annual dose limit of 20 mSv. Furthermore, there was no detectable neutron exposure. PMID:24570292

  7. A cost effective wireless structural health monitoring network for buildings in earthquake zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pentaris, F. P.; Stonham, J.; Makris, J. P.

    2014-10-01

    The design, programming and implementation of a cost effective wireless structural health monitoring system (wSHMs) is presented, able to monitor the seismic and/or man-made acceleration in buildings. This system actually operates as a sensor network exploiting internet connections that commonly exist, aiming to monitor the structural health of the buildings being installed. Key-feature of wSHMs is that it can be implemented in Wide Area Network mode to cover many remote structures and buildings, on metropolitan scale. Acceleration data is able to send, in real time, from dozens of buildings of a broad metropolitan area, to a central database, where they are analyzed in order to depict possible structural damages or nonlinear characteristics and alert for non-appropriateness of specific structures.

  8. Monitoring shallow resistivity changes prior to the 12 May 2008 M 8.0 Wenchuan earthquake on the Longmen Shan tectonic zone, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Jun; Xie, Tao; Li, Mei; Wang, Yali; Ren, Yuexia; Gao, Shude; Wang, Lanwei; Zhao, Jialiu

    2016-04-01

    An active source measurement of shallow resistivity using fixed-electrode quasi-Schlumberger arrays has been conducted at Pixian, Jiangyou and Wudu stations on the Longmen Shan tectonic zone in western China, with the hope of detecting earthquake-associated changes. For the duration of the monitoring experiment, a gradual decrease of apparent resistivity of up to 6.7% several years prior to the 12 May 2008 M 8.0 Wenchuan earthquake had been recorded clearly at Pixian station, approximately 35 km from the epicenter. The change of apparent resistivity was monitored with a fixed Schlumberger array of AB/MN spacings of 736 m/226 m in the direction of N57.5°E, giving precisions in measured daily averages of 0.16% or less. A coseismic resistivity drop of up to 5.3% was observed at Jiangyou station, using a Schlumberger array of AB/MN spacings of 710 m/90 m in the direction of N10°E. No fluctuation of resistivity was detected at Wudu station at the time of the Wenchuan mainshock. While the focus of this paper is on monitoring or tracking resistivity variations prior to, during, and after the Wenchuan earthquake, we also aim to compare resistivity records of the Wenchuan earthquake to those of the M 7.8 Tangshan and M 7.2 Songpan earthquakes of 1976. Attempts to explain the observed resistivity variations have been made. The results show that the resistivity variations observed at all three stations are in approximate agreement with resistivity-stress behavior deduced from in situ experiments, focal mechanisms, a simplified dynamical model, static stress analyses, and field investigations from along the Longmen Shan fault zone.

  9. Development of a component centered fault monitoring and diagnosis knowledge based system for space power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, S. C.; Lollar, Louis F.

    1988-01-01

    The overall approach currently being taken in the development of AMPERES (Autonomously Managed Power System Extendable Real-time Expert System), a knowledge-based expert system for fault monitoring and diagnosis of space power systems, is discussed. The system architecture, knowledge representation, and fault monitoring and diagnosis strategy are examined. A 'component-centered' approach developed in this project is described. Critical issues requiring further study are identified.

  10. Earthquake history of Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    von Hake, C. A.

    1977-01-01

    Seventeen earthquakes, intensity V or greater, have centered in Texas since 1882, when the first shock was reported. The strongest earthquake, a maximum intensity VIII, was in western Texas in 1931 and was felt over 1 165 000 km 2. Three shocks in the Panhandle region in 1925, 1936, and 1943 were widely felt. 

  11. A model for earthquake acceleration monitoring with wireless sensor networks in a structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujiwara, Takahiro; Nakamura, Yugo; Jinno, Kousei; Matsubara, Taku; Uehara, Hideyuki

    2014-03-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) technologies have attracted much attention to collect damage information in a natural disaster. WSNs to monitor temperature or humidity usually collect data once in some seconds or some minutes. Since structural health monitoring (SHM), meanwhile, aims to make a diagnosis for the state of a structure based on detected acceleration, WSNs are a promising technology to collect acceleration data. One concern to employ WSNs in SHM is to detect phenomena at a high sampling rate under energy-aware condition. In this paper, we describe a model for seismic acceleration monitoring, configured with multi-layer networks: WSNs, a wireless distribution system (WDS) and a database server, where the WDS is mainly operating in a wireless local area network (WLAN). Examining the performance in the test bed for the monitoring system, the results showed the system was capable of collecting acceleration at a rate of 100 sampling per second (sps) even in the fashion of intermittent operation, and capable of storing data into a database. We also suggest that the method using intermittent operation with appropriate sampling rate is effective in providing a long time operation for the system by considering in the response motion of a structure.

  12. Real-time Implementation of the Waveloc Technique for Monitoring Earthquake Swarms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maggi, A.; Langet, N.; Michelini, A.

    2013-12-01

    Monitoring regions with high swarm-type seismicity (e.g. volcanoes, certain tectonic regions) is a challenge for the traditional pick-associate-locate type algorithms that form the basis of most seismicity monitoring software. Over the past few years, new approaches that avoid the association phase by direct migration of some characteristic function of the recorded seismograms have started to be implemented, and have shown great promise (see related abstract on the Waveloc method applied to Piton de la Fournaise volcano). Implementing such methods in real-time is an essential step in proving their usefulness and robustness in swarm-monitoring situations. Here we describe the work in progress on adapting the Waveloc migration technique to real-time operation. The resulting software package, RT-Waveloc, is currently in the prototype stage, and we hope to have a version that can be distributed to the scientific community for beta-testing within a year. The development of RT-Waveloc is financed by the EU NERA project.

  13. Permeable Pavement Monitoring at the Edison Environmental Center Demonstration Site - Abstract

    EPA Science Inventory

    The EPA’s Urban Watershed Management Branch (UWMB) is monitoring an instrumented, working, 110-space pervious pavement parking at EPA’s Edison Environmental Center (EEC). Permeable pavement systems are classified as stormwater best management practices (BMPs) which reduce runo...

  14. Permeable Pavement Monitoring at the Edison Environmental Center Demonstration Site - presentation

    EPA Science Inventory

    The EPA’s Urban Watershed Management Branch has been monitoring an instrumented 110-space pervious pavement parking lot. The lot is used by EPA personnel and visitors to the Edison Environmental Center. The design includes 28-space rows of three permeable pavement types: asphal...

  15. Real-Time seismic waveforms monitoring with BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS) observations for the 2015 Mw 7.8 Nepal earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, T.

    2015-12-01

    Nowadays more and more high-rate Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) data become available in real time, which provide more opportunities to monitor the seismic waveforms. China's GNSS, BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS), has already satisfied the requirement of stand-alone precise positioning in Asia-Pacific region with 14 in-orbit satellites, which promisingly suggests that BDS could be applied to the high-precision earthquake monitoring as GPS. In the present paper, real-time monitoring of seismic waveforms using BDS measurements is assessed. We investigate a so-called "variometric" approach to measure real-time seismic waveforms with high-rate BDS observations. This approach is based on time difference technique and standard broadcast products which are routinely available in real time. The 1HZ BDS data recorded by Beidou Experimental Tracking Stations (BETS) during the 2015 Mw 7.8 Nepal earthquake is analyzed. The results indicate that the accuracies of velocity estimation from BDS are 2-3 mm/s in horizontal components and 8-9 mm/s in vertical component, respectively, which are consistent with GPS. The seismic velocity waveforms during earthquake show good agreement between BDS and GPS. Moreover, the displacement waveforms is reconstructed by an integration of velocity time series with trend removal. The displacement waveforms with the accuracy of 1-2 cm are derived by comparing with post-processing GPS precise point positioning (PPP).

  16. Lessons learned from the introduction of autonomous monitoring to the EUVE science operations center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, M.; Girouard, F.; Kronberg, F.; Ringrose, P.; Abedini, A.; Biroscak, D.; Morgan, T.; Malina, R. F.

    1995-01-01

    The University of California at Berkeley's (UCB) Center for Extreme Ultraviolet Astrophysics (CEA), in conjunction with NASA's Ames Research Center (ARC), has implemented an autonomous monitoring system in the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE) science operations center (ESOC). The implementation was driven by a need to reduce operations costs and has allowed the ESOC to move from continuous, three-shift, human-tended monitoring of the science payload to a one-shift operation in which the off shifts are monitored by an autonomous anomaly detection system. This system includes Eworks, an artificial intelligence (AI) payload telemetry monitoring package based on RTworks, and Epage, an automatic paging system to notify ESOC personnel of detected anomalies. In this age of shrinking NASA budgets, the lessons learned on the EUVE project are useful to other NASA missions looking for ways to reduce their operations budgets. The process of knowledge capture, from the payload controllers for implementation in an expert system, is directly applicable to any mission considering a transition to autonomous monitoring in their control center. The collaboration with ARC demonstrates how a project with limited programming resources can expand the breadth of its goals without incurring the high cost of hiring additional, dedicated programmers. This dispersal of expertise across NASA centers allows future missions to easily access experts for collaborative efforts of their own. Even the criterion used to choose an expert system has widespread impacts on the implementation, including the completion time and the final cost. In this paper we discuss, from inception to completion, the areas where our experiences in moving from three shifts to one shift may offer insights for other NASA missions.

  17. Environmental assessment of the Carlsbad Environmental Monitoring and Research Center Facility

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    This Environmental Assessment has been prepared to determine if the Carlsbad Environmental Monitoring and Research Center (the Center), or its alternatives would have significant environmental impacts that must be analyzed in an Environmental Impact Statement. DOE`s proposed action is to continue funding the Center. While DOE is not funding construction of the planned Center facility, operation of that facility is dependent upon continued funding. To implement the proposed action, the Center would initially construct a facility of approximately 2,300 square meters (25,000 square feet). The Phase 1 laboratory facilities and parking lot will occupy approximately 1.2 hectares (3 acres) of approximately 8.9 hectares (22 acres) of land which were donated to New Mexico State University (NMSU) for this purpose. The facility would contain laboratories to analyze chemical and radioactive materials typical of potential contaminants that could occur in the environment in the vicinity of the DOE Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site or other locations. The facility also would have bioassay facilities to measure radionuclide levels in the general population and in employees of the WIPP. Operation of the Center would meet the DOE requirement for independent monitoring and assessment of environmental impacts associated with the planned disposal of transuranic waste at the WIPP.

  18. Real time of earthquakes prone areas by RST analysis of satellite TIR radiances: results of continuous monitoring over Italy and Turkey regions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tramutoli, V.; Filizzola, C.; Genzano, N.; Lisi, M.; Paciello, R.; Pergola, N.

    2012-04-01

    Meteorological satellites offering global coverage, continuity of observations and long term time series (starting even 30 years ago) offer a unique possibility not only to learn from the past but also to guarantee continuous monitoring whereas other observation technologies are lacking because too expensive or (like in the case of earthquake precursor studies) or considered useless by decision-makers. Space-time fluctuations of Earth's emitted Thermal Infrared (TIR) radiation have been observed from satellite months to weeks before earthquakes occurrence. The general RST approach has been proposed (since 2001) in order to discriminate normal (i.e. related to the change of natural factor and/or observation conditions) TIR signal fluctuations from anomalous signal transient possibly associated to earthquake occurrence. Since then several earthquakes occurred in Europe, Africa and America have been studied by analyzing decades of satellite observations always using a validation/confutation approach in order to verify the presence/absence of anomalous space-time TIR transients in presence/absence of significant seismic activity. In the framework of PRE-EARTHQUAKES EU-FP7 Project (www.pre-earthquakes.org) , starting from October 2010 (still continuing) RST approach has been applied to MSG/SEVIRI data to generate TIR anomaly maps over Italian peninsula, continuously for all the midnight slots. Since September 2011 the same monitoring activity (still continuing) started for Turkey region. For the first time a similar analysis has been performed in real-time, systematically analyzing TIR anomaly maps in order to identify day by day possible significant (e.g. persistent in the space-time domain) thermal anomalies. During 2011 only in very few cases (1 in Italy in July and 2 in the Turkish region in September and November) the day by day analysis enhanced significant anomalies that in two cases were communicated to the other PRE-EARTHQUAKES partners asking for their

  19. MUG-OBS - Multiparameter Geophysical Ocean Bottom System : a new instrumental approach to monitor earthquakes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hello, Y.; Yegikyan, M.; Charvis, P.; Verfaillie, R.; Philippe, O.

    2015-12-01

    There are several attempts to monitor real time seismic activity, using regional scale wired nodes, such as Neptune in Canada and in the U.S, Antares in France or DONET in Japan.On another hand there are also initiatives in deploying repeatedly OBS array like during the amphibious Cascadia Initiative (four 1-year deployments), the Japanese Pacific Array (broadband OBSs "ocean-bottom broadband dispersion survey" with 2-years autonomy), the Obsismer program in the French Lesser Antilles (eight 6-months deployments) and the Osisec program in Ecuador (four 6-months deployments). These OBSs are autonomous, they are self-recovered or recovered using an ROV. These systems are costly including ship time, and require to recover the OBS before to start working on data.Among the most recent alternative we developed a 3-years autonomy OBS equipped with a Nanometrics Trillium 120 s, a triaxial accelerometer, a differential, an absolute pressure gauge, and a hydrophone. MUG-OBS is a free falling instrument rated down to 6000 m. The installation of the sensor is monitored by acoustic commands from the surface and a health bulletin with data checking is recovered by acoustic during the installation. The major innovation is that it is possible to recover the data any time on demand (regularly every 6-months or after a seismic crisis) utilizing one of the 6 data-shuttles released from the surface by acoustic command using a one day fast cruise boat of opportunity. Since sensors stayed at the same location for 3 years (when an OBS is redeployed on the same site, it will not land in the same place), it is a perfect tool to monitor slow seismic events, background seismic activity and aftershock distribution. Clock, drift measurement and GPS localization is automatic when the shuttle reaches the surface. A new version is being developed; for remote areas, shuttles released automatically and a seismic events bulletin is transmitted. Selected data can be recovered by two- way Iridium

  20. Exploring Earthquakes in Real-Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bravo, T. K.; Kafka, A. L.; Coleman, B.; Taber, J. J.

    2013-12-01

    Earthquakes capture the attention of students and inspire them to explore the Earth. Adding the ability to view and explore recordings of significant and newsworthy earthquakes in real-time makes the subject even more compelling. To address this opportunity, the Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS), in collaboration with Moravian College, developed ';jAmaSeis', a cross-platform application that enables students to access real-time earthquake waveform data. Students can watch as the seismic waves are recorded on their computer, and can be among the first to analyze the data from an earthquake. jAmaSeis facilitates student centered investigations of seismological concepts using either a low-cost educational seismograph or streamed data from other educational seismographs or from any seismic station that sends data to the IRIS Data Management System. After an earthquake, students can analyze the seismograms to determine characteristics of earthquakes such as time of occurrence, distance from the epicenter to the station, magnitude, and location. The software has been designed to provide graphical clues to guide students in the analysis and assist in their interpretations. Since jAmaSeis can simultaneously record up to three stations from anywhere on the planet, there are numerous opportunities for student driven investigations. For example, students can explore differences in the seismograms from different distances from an earthquake and compare waveforms from different azimuthal directions. Students can simultaneously monitor seismicity at a tectonic plate boundary and in the middle of the plate regardless of their school location. This can help students discover for themselves the ideas underlying seismic wave propagation, regional earthquake hazards, magnitude-frequency relationships, and the details of plate tectonics. The real-time nature of the data keeps the investigations dynamic, and offers students countless opportunities to explore.

  1. A Novel Cloud-Based Service Robotics Application to Data Center Environmental Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Russo, Ludovico Orlando; Rosa, Stefano; Maggiora, Marcello; Bona, Basilio

    2016-01-01

    This work presents a robotic application aimed at performing environmental monitoring in data centers. Due to the high energy density managed in data centers, environmental monitoring is crucial for controlling air temperature and humidity throughout the whole environment, in order to improve power efficiency, avoid hardware failures and maximize the life cycle of IT devices. State of the art solutions for data center monitoring are nowadays based on environmental sensor networks, which continuously collect temperature and humidity data. These solutions are still expensive and do not scale well in large environments. This paper presents an alternative to environmental sensor networks that relies on autonomous mobile robots equipped with environmental sensors. The robots are controlled by a centralized cloud robotics platform that enables autonomous navigation and provides a remote client user interface for system management. From the user point of view, our solution simulates an environmental sensor network. The system can easily be reconfigured in order to adapt to management requirements and changes in the layout of the data center. For this reason, it is called the virtual sensor network. This paper discusses the implementation choices with regards to the particular requirements of the application and presents and discusses data collected during a long-term experiment in a real scenario. PMID:27509505

  2. What kind of disturbances did March 11, 2011 Tohoku Earthquake and Tsunamis leave continental margin ecosystems? : Lessons from five years monitoring research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitazato, Hiroshi; Kijima, Akihiro; Kogure, Kazuhiro; Hara, Motoyuki; Nagata, Toshi; Fujikura, Kasunori; Sonoda, Akira

    2016-04-01

    On March 11, 2011, huge earthquake with M9.0 took place at Japan Trench area off Northeast Japan. Vigorous disturbances of marine environments and ecosystems have taken place at coastal areas where huge tsunamis swept sediments and organisms away from the coastal areas to deeper oceans. Distributional pattern of sediments and organisms in coves and bays have strongly changed after tsunamis. Marine ecosystems at Northeast Japan have totally disturbed and damaged. Scientists from Tohoku University, the University of Tokyo and JAMSTEC have started to monitor how much marine ecosystem disturbed and how it may recover. A research team, named Tohoku Ecosystem-Associated Marine Sciences, continually makes research on marine ecosystems as ten years monitoring project funded by MEXT, Japan since 2011. On 2016, it takes five years from the Earthquake and Tsunami occurred. What happens marine ecosystems at Tohoku area during these years. Water column ecosystems are rather easy to recover from disturbances. Seaweed communities have strongly damaged, but, they gradually recover. Sediment communities have not recovered yet as sediment distribution is different from before earthquake and tsunamis. Most difficulties are scars in human minds. We, scientists, try to share scientific activities and results with local peoples including fishermen and local governments for better understanding of both oceanic conditions and fishery resources. Disaster risk reduction should accelerate with resilience of community structure. But, mental resilience is the most effective way to recover human activities at the damaged areas.

  3. Signal Coherence and Improved Bandwidth in Kilometer-Scale Water-Pipe Tilt-Meters for Monitoring Slow Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilham, R.; Suszek, N.; Flake, R.; Szeliga, W.; Melbourne, T.

    2005-12-01

    Slow earthquakes have been detected by GPS networks in numerous subduction zones but signals are frequently close to detection levels. Although strain-meters and tilt-meters possess a thousandfold higher resolution (~ 1 nstrain & 1 nrad), noise levels in these instruments tend to be site specific and it is sometimes considered necessary to instal clusters to distinguish tectonic signal from local noise. This approach to strain measurement can more than double the cost of initial installation. We report here first results from a half-km-long water pipe tiltmeter in which a test for signal coherence is an inherent product of the geometry of the instrument. An appealing feature of water-pipe tiltmeters is that they cost 25% less than a borehole strain-meter, assume long good long term stability within days of installation, and unlike the decade-longevity of borehole systems, have an indefinite life span. In a Michelson tilt-meter, tilt of the earth's surface is manifest as a rise in water level at one end of the pipe and an equal and opposite reduction in water level at the other. In newly installed tiltmeters in the Cascadia region we have introduced a central transducer that effectively provides two 250-m-long independent measures of tilt in each 500 m long pipe, and hence a measure of signal coherence for little extra cost. Data from each sensor are telemetered via radio modem to a remote computer at rates of 1-6 samples/minute. Initial results from four 500 m long water pipes installed in the Cascadia region, reveal that a secular drift level of better than 0.1 microradian/yr is established within a week of installation and that the two half-tiltmeters track each other closely at all periods. Noise levels are frequency dependent and vary form 0.2 nrad at hourly periods to 100 nrad at yearly periods. Atmospheric and aperiodic ocean loading appears to be the largest souce of noise at periods of several days to weeks in the bandwidth where slow earthquakes are

  4. Monitoring transmitted waves across a fault with a high potential for mining induced earthquakes -the Ezulwini gold mine in South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawakata, H.; Yoshimitsu, N.; Nakatani, M.; Philipp, J.; Doi, I.; Naoi, M. M.; Ward, T.; Visser, V.; Morema, G.; Khambule, S.; Masakale, T.; Milev, A.; Durrheim, R. J.; Ribeiro, L.; Ward, M.; Ogasawara, H.

    2011-12-01

    It gives us important information about earthquake processes to monitor transmitted waves across a fault with a high potential for earthquake generation. In laboratory experiments, the decreases in elastic wave speed (e.g., Yoshimitsu et al., 2009) and attenuation parameter Q (Yoshimitsu and Kawakata, 2011) have been found prior to the faulting. In South African gold mines, we can specify a fault with a high potential for mining induced earthquakes of relatively large magnitude based on mining plans. In addition, the seismic line can be set at the depth of a few kilometers, so that the transmitted waves propagate through only hard rock. Hence, we started to monitor transmitted waves across a fault that has a high potential for an M˜2 earthquake at about 1 km deep in the Ezulwini gold mine. We installed a piezoelectric transmitter as a wave source about 20 m away from the fault in the hanging wall. Three accelerometers of 3-component were also installed in alignment with the transmitter; one is about 7 m away from the fault in the hanging wall, and the other two are about 7 m and 13 m away from the fault in the footwall, respectively. Then, the total length of our seismic line is ˜ 33 m long. The frequency response of accelerometers is within ±3 dB from 1 Hz to 10 kHz. For 10 minutes from midnight everyday, when there is no blasting, the elastic waves are transmitted every 0.05 seconds, and the received waves are recorded at 400 ksps on 14bit. Transmitted signals can be clearly recognized in stacked waveforms of all channels, although signal-to-noise ratios are high enough only in a frequency range from 3 kHz up to 10 kHz. The waveforms of three components are rotated so that one component (radial component) is parallel to the seismic line. Then, P waves are dominant in radial components for two sites in the footwall. On the other hand, at the nearest site in the hanging wall, near field term and/or intermediate term seem to be included. In addition to the

  5. Does Size and Location of the Vital Signs Monitor Matter? A Study of Two Trauma Centers

    PubMed Central

    Sarcevic, Aleksandra; Marsic, Ivan; Burd, Randall S.

    2010-01-01

    We report the results of an observational study in which we compared how the size and location of the vital signs monitor impact teamwork at two trauma centers. Our observations focused on three factors: information exchange, situational awareness, and ergonomic issues. We found that the smaller display was difficult to view and required more team communication and workarounds, such as periodic verbal reports. The larger and closer display, although accessible to more team members, did not uniformly improve team’s situational awareness because vital signals were not verbalized and the monitor was often ignored. We suggest introducing multiple larger and closer displays, while keeping the practice of periodic verbal reporting. PMID:21347070

  6. Environmental monitoring and research at the John F. Kennedy Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, C. R.; Hinkle, C. R.; Knott, W. M.; Summerfield, B. R.

    1992-01-01

    The Biomedical Operations and Research Office at the NASA John F. Kennedy Space Center has been supporting environmental monitoring and research since the mid-1970s. Program elements include monitoring of baseline conditions to document natural variability in the ecosystem, assessments of operations and construction of new facilities, and ecological research focusing on wildlife habitat associations. Information management is centered around development of a computerized geographic information system that incorporates remote sensing and digital image processing technologies along with traditional relational data base management capabilities. The proactive program is one in which the initiative is to anticipate potential environmental concerns before they occur and, by utilizing in-house expertise, develop impact minimization or mitigation strategies to reduce environmental risk.

  7. Earthquake swarms in Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, Tine B.; Voss, Peter H.; Dahl-Jensen, Trine

    2014-05-01

    Earthquake swarms occur primarily near active volcanoes and in areas with frequent tectonic activity. However, intraplate earthquake swarms are not an unknown phenomenon. They are located near zones of weakness, e.g. in regions with geological contrasts, where dynamic processes are active. An earthquake swarm is defined as a period of increased seismicity, in the form of a cluster of earthquakes of similar magnitude, occurring in the same general area, during a limited time period. There is no obvious main shock among the earthquakes in a swarm. Earthquake swarms occur in Greenland, which is a tectonically stable, intraplate environment. The first earthquake swarms in Greenland were detected more than 30 years ago in Northern and North-Eastern Greenland. However, detection of these low-magnitude events is challenging due to the enormous distances and the relatively sparse network of seismographs. The seismograph coverage of Greenland has vastly improved since the international GLISN-project was initiated in 2008. Greenland is currently coved by an open network of 19 BB seismographs, most of them transmitting data in real-time. Additionally, earthquake activity in Greenland is monitored by seismographs in Canada, Iceland, on Jan Mayen, and on Svalbard. The time-series of data from the GLISN network is still short, with the latest station been added in NW Greenland in 2013. However, the network has already proven useful in detecting several earthquake swarms. In this study we will focus on two swarms: one occurring near/on the East Greenland coast in 2008, and another swarm occurring in the Disko-area near the west coast of Greenland in 2010. Both swarms consist of earthquakes with local magnitudes between 1.9 and 3.2. The areas, where the swarms are located, are regularly active with small earthquakes. The earthquake swarms are analyzed in the context of the general seismicity and the possible relationship to the local geological conditions.

  8. RAPID: Collaboration Results from Three NASA Centers in Commanding/Monitoring Lunar Assets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torres, R. Jay; Allan, Mark; Hirsh, Robert; Wallick, Michael N.

    2009-01-01

    Three NASA centers are working together to address the challenge of operating robotic assets in support of human exploration of the Moon. This paper describes the combined work to date of the Ames Research Center (ARC), Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and Johnson Space Center (JSC) on a common support framework to control and monitor lunar robotic assets. We discuss how we have addressed specific challenges including time-delayed operations, and geographically distributed collaborative monitoring and control, to build an effective architecture for integrating a heterogeneous collection of robotic assets into a common work. We describe the design of the Robot Application Programming Interface Delegate (RAPID) architecture that effectively addresses the problem of interfacing a family of robots including the JSC Chariot, ARC K-10 and JPL ATHLETE rovers. We report on lessons learned from the June 2008 field test in which RAPID was used to monitor and control all of these assets. We conclude by discussing some future directions to extend the RAPID architecture to add further support for NASA's lunar exploration program.

  9. Evaluating the Imbalance Between Increasing Hemodialysis Patients and Medical Staff Shortage After the Great East Japan Earthquake: Report From a Hemodialysis Center Near the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plants.

    PubMed

    Koshiba, Takaaki; Nishiuchi, Takamitsu; Akaihata, Hidenori; Haga, Nobuhiro; Kojima, Yoshiyuki; Kubo, Hajime; Kasahara, Masato; Hayashi, Masayuki

    2016-04-01

    The Great East Japan Earthquake in 2011 caused an unprecedented imbalance between an increasing number of hemodialysis patients and medical staff shortage in the Sousou area, the site of the Fukushima nuclear power plants. In 2014, capacity of our hemodialysis center reached a critical limit due to such an imbalance. We attempted to evaluate the effort of medical staff to clarify to what extent their burden had increased post-disaster. The ratio of total dialysis sessions over total working days of medical staff was determined as an approximate indicator of effort per month. The mean value of each year was compared. Despite fluctuations of the ratio, the mean value did not differ from 2010 to 2013. However, the ratio steadily increased in 2014, and there was a significant increase in the mean value. This proposed indicator of the effort of medical staff appears to reflect what we experienced, although its validity must be carefully examined in future studies. PMID:26935477

  10. Source Process of the Mw 5.0 Au Sable Forks, New York, Earthquake Sequence from Local Aftershock Monitoring Network Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, W.; Seeber, L.; Armbruster, J. G.

    2002-12-01

    On April 20, 2002, a Mw 5 earthquake occurred near the town of Au Sable Forks, northeastern Adirondacks, New York. The quake caused moderate damage (MMI VII) around the epicentral area and it is well recorded by over 50 broadband stations in the distance ranges of 70 to 2000 km in the Eastern North America. Regional broadband waveform data are used to determine source mechanism and focal depth using moment tensor inversion technique. Source mechanism indicates predominantly thrust faulting along 45° dipping fault plane striking due South. The mainshock is followed by at least three strong aftershocks with local magnitude (ML) greater than 3 and about 70 aftershocks are detected and located in the first three months by a 12-station portable seismographic network. The aftershock distribution clearly delineate the mainshock rupture to the westerly dipping fault plane at a depth of 11 to 12 km. Preliminary analysis of the aftershock waveform data indicates that orientation of the P-axis rotated 90° from that of the mainshock, suggesting a complex source process of the earthquake sequence. We achieved an important milestone in monitoring earthquakes and evaluating their hazards through rapid cross-border (Canada-US) and cross-regional (Central US-Northeastern US) collaborative efforts. Hence, staff at Instrument Software Technology, Inc. near the epicentral area joined Lamont-Doherty staff and deployed the first portable station in the epicentral area; CERI dispatched two of their technical staff to the epicentral area with four accelerometers and a broadband seismograph; the IRIS/PASSCAL facility shipped three digital seismographs and ancillary equipment within one day of the request; the POLARIS Consortium, Canada sent a field crew of three with a near real-time, satellite telemetry based earthquake monitoring system. The Polaris station, KSVO, powered by a solar panel and batteries, was already transmitting data to the central Hub in London, Ontario, Canada within

  11. The meteorological monitoring system for the Kennedy Space Center/Cape Canaveral Air Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dianic, Allan V.

    1994-01-01

    The Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Station (CCAS) are involved in many weather-sensitive operations. Manned and unmanned vehicle launches, which occur several times each year, are obvious example of operations whose success and safety are dependent upon favorable meteorological conditions. Other operations involving NASA, Air Force, and contractor personnel, including daily operations to maintain facilities, refurbish launch structures, prepare vehicles for launch, and handle hazardous materials, are less publicized but are no less weather-sensitive. The Meteorological Monitoring System (MMS) is a computer network which acquires, processes, disseminates, and monitors near real-time and forecast meteorological information to assist operational personnel and weather forecasters with the task of minimizing the risk to personnel, materials, and the surrounding population. CLIPS has been integrated into the MMS to provide quality control analysis and data monitoring. This paper describes aspects of the MMS relevant to CLIPS including requirements, actual implementation details, and results of performance testing.

  12. The in-the-ear recording concept: user-centered and wearable brain monitoring.

    PubMed

    Looney, David; Kidmose, Preben; Park, Cheolsoo; Ungstrup, Michael; Rank, Mike; Rosenkranz, Karin; Mandic, Danilo

    2012-01-01

    The integration of brain monitoring based on electroencephalography (EEG) into everyday life has been hindered by the limited portability and long setup time of current wearable systems as well as by the invasiveness of implanted systems (e.g. intracranial EEG). We explore the potential to record EEG in the ear canal, leading to a discreet, unobtrusive, and user-centered approach to brain monitoring. The in-the-ear EEG (Ear-EEG) recording concept is tested using several standard EEG paradigms, benchmarked against standard onscalp EEG, and its feasibility proven. Such a system promises a number of advantages, including fixed electrode positions, user comfort, robustness to electromagnetic interference, feedback to the user, and ease of use. The Ear-EEG platform could also support additional biosensors, extending its reach beyond EEG to provide a powerful health-monitoring system for those applications that require long recording periods in a natural environment. PMID:23247157

  13. Products and Services Available from the Southern California Earthquake Data Center (SCEDC) and the Southern California Seismic Network (SCSN)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, S. E.; Yu, E.; Bhaskaran, A.; Chowdhury, F. R.; Meisenhelter, S.; Hutton, K.; Given, D.; Hauksson, E.; Clayton, R. W.

    2011-12-01

    Currently, the SCEDC archives continuous and triggered data from nearly 8400 data channels from 425 SCSN recorded stations, processing and archiving an average of 6.4 TB of continuous waveforms and 12,000 earthquakes each year. The SCEDC provides public access to these earthquake parametric and waveform data through its website www.data.scec.org and through client applications such as STP and DHI. This poster will describe the most significant developments at the SCEDC during 2011. New website design: ? The SCEDC has revamped its website. The changes make it easier for users to search the archive, discover updates and new content. These changes also improve our ability to manage and update the site. New data holdings: ? Post processing on El Mayor Cucapah 7.2 sequence continues. To date there have been 11847 events reviewed. Updates are available in the earthquake catalog immediately. ? A double difference catalog (Hauksson et. al 2011) spanning 1981 to 6/30/11 will be available for download at www.data.scec.org and available via STP. ? A focal mechanism catalog determined by Yang et al. 2011 is available for distribution at www.data.scec.org. ? Waveforms from Southern California NetQuake stations are now being stored in the SCEDC archive and available via STP as event associated waveforms. Amplitudes from these stations are also being stored in the archive and used by ShakeMap. ? As part of a NASA/AIST project in collaboration with JPL and SIO, the SCEDC will receive real time 1 sps streams of GPS displacement solutions from the California Real Time Network (http://sopac.ucsd.edu/projects/realtime; Genrich and Bock, 2006, J. Geophys. Res.). These channels will be archived at the SCEDC as miniSEED waveforms, which then can be distributed to the user community via applications such as STP. Improvements in the user tool STP: ? STP sac output now includes picks from the SCSN. New archival methods: ? The SCEDC is exploring the feasibility of archiving and distributing

  14. Wilson Corners SWMU 001 2015 Annual Long Term Monitoring Report Kennedy Space Center, Florida

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawson, Emily M.

    2016-01-01

    This document presents the findings of the 2015 Long Term Monitoring (LTM) that was completed at the Wilson Corners site, located at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration John F. Kennedy Space Center, Florida. The objectives of the 2015 LTM event were to evaluate the groundwater flow direction and gradient, to monitor the vertical and horizontal extent of the volatile organic compounds (VOCs; including the upgradient and sidegradient extents, which are monitored every five years), and to monitor select locations internal to the dissolved groundwater plume. The 2015 LTM event included several upgradient and sidegradient monitoring wells that are not sampled annually to verify the extent of VOCs in this portion of the site. The December 2015 LTM groundwater sampling event included, depth to groundwater measurements, 40 VOC samples collected using passive diffusion bags, and one VOC sample collected using low-flow techniques. Additionally, monitoring well MW0052DD was overdrilled and abandoned using rotasonic drilling techniques. The following conclusions can be made based on the 2015 LTM results: groundwater flow is generally to the west with northwest and southwest flow components from the water table to approximately 55 feet below land surface (ft BLS); peripheral monitoring wells generally delineate VOCs to groundwater cleanup target levels (GCTLs) except for monitoring wells MW0088, MW0090, MW0095, and NPSHMW0039, which had vinyl chloride (VC) concentrations near the GCTL and MW0062, which had trichloroethene (TCE), cis-1,2-dichloroethenen (cDCE), and VC concentrations above natural attenuation default concentrations (NADCs); VOCs in interior downgradient wells generally fluctuate within historic ranges except for monitoring wells in the north-northwest portion of the site, which have increasing VC concentrations indicating potential plume migration and expansion; Historically, the vertical extents of the VOCs were delineated by monitoring wells

  15. Acoustic monitoring of earthquakes along the Blanco Transform Fault zone and Gorda Plate and their tectonic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dziak, Robert Paul

    Hydroacoustic tertiary (T-) waves are seismically generated acoustic waves that propagate over great distances in the ocean sound channel with little loss in signal strength. Hydrophone recorded T-waves can provide a lower earthquake detection threshold and an improved epicenter location accuracy for oceanic earthquakes than land-based seismic networks. Thus detection and location of NE Pacific ocean earthquakes along the Blanco Transform Fault (BTFZ) and Gorda plate using the U.S. Navy's SOSUS (SOund SUrveillance System) hydrophone arrays afford greater insight into the current state of stress and crustal deformation mechanics than previously available. Acoustic earthquake information combined with bathymetry, submersible observations, earthquake source- parameter estimates, petrologic samples, and water-column chemistry renders a new tectonic view of the southern Juan de Fuca plate boundaries. Chapter 2 discusses development of seismo-acoustic analysis techniques using the well-documented April 1992 Cape Mendocino earthquake sequence. Findings include a hydrophone detection threshold estimate (M ~ 2.4), and T-wave propagation path modeling to approximate earthquake acoustic source energy. Empirical analyses indicate that acoustic energy provides a reasonable magnitude and seismic moment estimate of oceanic earthquakes not detected by seismic networks. Chapters 3 documents a probable volcanogenic T-wave event swarm along a pull-apart basin within the western BTFZ during January 1994. Response efforts yielded evidence of anomalous water-column 3He concentrations, pillow- lava volcanism, and the first discovery of active hydrothermal vents along an oceanic fracture zone. Chapter 4 discusses the detection of a NE-SW trending microearthquake band along the mid-Gorda plate which was active from initiation of SOSUS recording in August 1991 through July 1992, then abruptly ceased. It is proposed that eventual termination of the Gorda plate seismicity band is due to

  16. The “NetBoard”: Network Monitoring Tools Integration for INFN Tier-1 Data Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Girolamo, D.; dell'Agnello and, L.; Zani, S.

    2012-12-01

    The monitoring and alert system is fundamental for the management and the operation of the network in a large data center such as an LHC Tier-1. The network of the INFN Tier-1 at CNAF is a multi-vendor environment: for its management and monitoring several tools have been adopted and different sensors have been developed. In this paper, after an overview on the different aspects to be monitored and the tools used for them (i.e. MRTG, Nagios, Arpwatch, NetFlow, Syslog, etc), we will describe the “NetBoard”, a monitoring toolkit developed at the INFN Tier-1. NetBoard, developed for a multi-vendor network, is able to install and auto-configure all tools needed for its monitoring, either via network devices discovery mechanism or via configuration file or via wizard. In this way, we are also able to activate different types of sensors and Nagios checks according to the equipment vendor specifications. Moreover, when a new device is connected in the LAN, NetBoard can detect where it is plugged. Finally the NetBoard web interface allows to have the overall status of the entire network “at a glance”, both the local and the geographical (including the LHCOPN and the LHCONE) link utilization, health status of network devices (with active alerts) and flow analysis.

  17. Testing hypotheses of earthquake occurrence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kagan, Y. Y.; Jackson, D. D.; Schorlemmer, D.; Gerstenberger, M.

    2003-12-01

    We present a relatively straightforward likelihood method for testing those earthquake hypotheses that can be stated as vectors of earthquake rate density in defined bins of area, magnitude, and time. We illustrate the method as it will be applied to the Regional Earthquake Likelihood Models (RELM) project of the Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC). Several earthquake forecast models are being developed as part of this project, and additional contributed forecasts are welcome. Various models are based on fault geometry and slip rates, seismicity, geodetic strain, and stress interactions. We would test models in pairs, requiring that both forecasts in a pair be defined over the same set of bins. Thus we offer a standard "menu" of bins and ground rules to encourage standardization. One menu category includes five-year forecasts of magnitude 5.0 and larger. Forecasts would be in the form of a vector of yearly earthquake rates on a 0.05 degree grid at the beginning of the test. Focal mechanism forecasts, when available, would be also be archived and used in the tests. The five-year forecast category may be appropriate for testing hypotheses of stress shadows from large earthquakes. Interim progress will be evaluated yearly, but final conclusions would be made on the basis of cumulative five-year performance. The second category includes forecasts of earthquakes above magnitude 4.0 on a 0.05 degree grid, evaluated and renewed daily. Final evaluation would be based on cumulative performance over five years. Other types of forecasts with different magnitude, space, and time sampling are welcome and will be tested against other models with shared characteristics. All earthquakes would be counted, and no attempt made to separate foreshocks, main shocks, and aftershocks. Earthquakes would be considered as point sources located at the hypocenter. For each pair of forecasts, we plan to compute alpha, the probability that the first would be wrongly rejected in favor of

  18. Real time electromagnetic monitoring system used for short-term earthquakes forecast related to the seismic-active Vrancea zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanica, Dumitru; Armand Stanica, Dragos

    2016-04-01

    The existence of the pre-seismic electromagnetic signals related to the earthquakes is still under scientific debate and requires new reliable information about their possible inter-relationship. In this paper, to obtain new insights into the seismic active Vrancea zone (Romania), a 3-D magnetotelluric imaging has been used to strengthen the connection between the geodynamic model and a possible generation mechanism of the intermediate depth earthquakes. Consequently, it is considered that before an earthquake initiation, due to the torsion effect, a high stress reached inside the seismogenic volume that may generates dehydration and rupture processes of the rocks, associated with the fluid migration through the lithospheric faults system, what leads to the resistivity changes. These changes have been investigated by using ULF electromagnetic data recorded in real time at the Geodynamic Observatory Provita de Sus (GOPS), placed on the Carpathian Electrical Conductivity Anomaly (CECA) at about 100km far from the seismic active Vrancea zone. The daily mean distribution of the normalized function Bzn(f) = Bz(f)/Bperp(f) (where: Bz is vertical component of the geomagnetic field; Bperp is geomagnetic component perpendicular to strike; f is frequency in Hz) and its standard deviation are performed by using a FFT band-pass filter analysis in the ULF range 0.001Hz to 0.0083Hz, for which a 2-D geoelectrical structure under GOPS has been identified. To provide reliable information in anticipating the likelihood occurrence of an earthquake of Mw higher than 4, a statistical analysis based on standardized random variable equation has been used to identify the anomalous intervals on the new time series (Bzn*) carried out in a span of three years (2013-2015). The final conclusion is that the Bzn* shows a significant anomalous effect some days (weeks) before an impending earthquake and it should be used for short-term earthquakes forecast.

  19. Using Ambient Seismic Noise to Monitor Post-Seismic Relaxation After the 2010 Mw 7.1 Darfield Earthquake, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savage, M. K.; Heckels, R.; Townend, J.

    2015-12-01

    Quantifying seismic velocity changes following large earthquakes can provide insights into the crustal response of the earth. The use of ambient seismic noise to monitor these changes is becoming increasingly widespread. Cross-correlations of long-duration ambient noise records can be used to give stable impulse response functions without the need for repeated seismic events. Temporal velocity changes were detected in the four months following the September 2010 Mw 7.1 Darfield event in South Island, New Zealand, using temporary seismic networks originally deployed to record aftershocks in the region. The arrays consisted of stations lying on and surrounding the fault, with a maximum inter-station distance of 156km. The 2010-2011 Canterbury earthquake sequence occurred largely on previously unknown and buried faults. The Darfield earthquake was the first and largest in a sequence of events that hit the region, rupturing the Greendale Fault. A surface rupture of nearly 30km was observed. The sequence also included the Mw 6.3 February 2011 Christchurch event, which caused widespread damage throughout the city and resulted in almost 200 deaths. Nine-component, day-long Green's functions were computed for frequencies between 0.1 - 1.0 Hz for full waveform seismic data from immediately after the 4th September 2010 earthquake until mid-January 2011. Using the moving window cross-spectral method, stacks of daily functions covering the study period (reference functions), were compared to consecutive 10 day stacks of cross-correlations to measure time delays between them. These were then inverted for seismic velocity changes with respect to the reference functions. Over the study period an increase in seismic velocity of 0.25% ± 0.02% was determined proximal to the Greendale fault. These results are similar to studies in other regions, and we attribute the changes to post-seismic relaxation through crack-healing of the Greendale Fault and throughout the region.

  20. Wilson Corners SWMU 001 2014 Annual Long Term Monitoring Report Kennedy Space Center, Florida

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langenbach, James

    2015-01-01

    This document presents the findings of the 2014 Long Term Monitoring (LTM) that was completed at the Wilson Corners site, located at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC), Florida. The goals of the 2014 annual LTM event were to evaluate the groundwater flow direction and gradient and to monitor the vertical and downgradient horizontal extent of the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in groundwater at the site. The LTM activities consisted of an annual groundwater sampling event in December 2014, which included the collection of water levels from the LTM wells. During the annual groundwater sampling event, depth to groundwater was measured and VOC samples were collected using passive diffusion bags (PDBs) from 30 monitoring wells. In addition to the LTM sampling, additional assessment sampling was performed at the site using low-flow techniques based on previous LTM results and assessment activities. Assessment of monitoring well MW0052DD was performed by collecting VOC samples using low-flow techniques before and after purging 100 gallons from the well. Monitoring well MW0064 was sampled to supplement shallow VOC data north of Hot Spot 2 and east of Hot Spot 4. Monitoring well MW0089 was sampled due to its proximity to MW0090. MW0090 is screened in a deeper interval and had an unexpected detection of trichloroethene (TCE) during the 2013 LTM, which was corroborated during the March 2014 verification sampling. Monitoring well MW0130 was sampled to provide additional VOC data beneath the semi-confining clay layer in the Hot Spot 2 area.

  1. The Observing System Monitoring Center: an Emerging Source for Integrated In-Situ Ocean Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hankin, S.; Habermann, T.; Kern, K.; Little, M.; Mendelssohn, R.; Neufeld, D.; O'Brien, K.; Simons, B.

    2011-12-01

    The Observing System Monitoring Center (OSMC) was originally conceived to serve as a tool to assist managers in monitoring the performance of the integrated global in-situ ocean observing system. For much of the past decade, the OSMC has been storing real time data and metadata from ocean observation sources such as the Global Telecommunications System (GTS), IOC sea level monitoring center, and others. The goal of the OSMC has been to maintain a record of all of the observations that represent the global climate data record. Though the initial purpose of the OSMC was mainly to track platform and observing subsystem performance, it has become clear that the data represented in the OSMC would be a valuable source for anyone interested in ocean processes. This presentation will discuss the implementation details involved in making the OSMC data available to the general public. We'll also discuss how we leveraged the NOAA-led Unified Access Framework (UAF), which defines a framework built upon community-accepted standards and conventions, in order to assist in the creation of the data services. By adhering to these well known and widely used standards and conventions, we ensure that the OSMC data will be available to users through many popular tools, including both web-based services and desktop clients. Additionally, we will also be discussing the modernized OSMC suite of user interfaces which intends to provide access to both ocean data and platform metrics for people ranging from ocean novices to scientific experts.

  2. Ghana's experience in the establishment of a national data center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekua, Amponsah Paulina; Yaw, Serfor-Armah

    2012-08-01

    The government of Ghana in a bilateral agreement with the Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) has established a National Data Center in Ghana with the aim of monitoring the testing of nuclear explosions. Seismic, hydroacoustic, radionuclide and infrasound methods are used for the monitoring. The data center was commissioned on 3 February, 2010 at the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission. At present Ghana does not have any operational, centralised data (seismic, hydroacoustic, radionuclide and infrasound) acquisition system with the capability of accessing data from other international stations. Hence, the need of setting up the National Data Center which would enable us constantly monitor, manage and coordinate both natural and man-made seismic activities in the country and around the globe, upload data to the International Data Center (IDC) as well as receive and use International Monitoring System (IMS) data and IDC products for treaty verification and compliance. Apart from these, the center also accesses and analyzes seismic waveforms relevant to its needs from the International Data Center; makes data available to its stakeholder institutions for earthquake disaster mitigation; reports on all aspects of disasters related to earthquake to the relevant government agencies that deal with disasters; makes recommendations to the government of Ghana on earthquake safety measures; provides information to assist government institutions to develop appropriate land and building policies. The center in collaboration with stakeholder agencies periodically organises public lectures on earthquake disaster risk mitigation.

  3. Triggering of volcanic activity by large earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avouris, D.; Carn, S. A.; Waite, G. P.

    2011-12-01

    Statistical analysis of temporal relationships between large earthquakes and volcanic eruptions suggests seismic waves may trigger eruptions even over great distances, although the causative mechanism is not well constrained. In this study the relationship between large earthquakes and subtle changes in volcanic activity was investigated in order to gain greater insight into the relationship between dynamic stress and volcanic response. Daily measurements from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), onboard the Aura satellite, provide constraints on volcanic sulfur dioxide (SO2) emission rates as a measure of subtle changes in activity. An SO2 timeseries was produced from OMI data for thirteen persistently active volcanoes. Seismic surface-wave amplitudes were modeled from the source mechanisms of moment magnitude (Mw) ≥7 earthquakes, and peak dynamic stress (PDS) was calculated. The SO2 timeseries for each volcano was used to calculate a baseline threshold for comparison with post-earthquake emission. Delay times for an SO2 response following each earthquake at each volcano were analyzed and compared to a random catalog. The delay time analysis was inconclusive. However, an analysis based on the occurrence of large earthquakes showed a response at most volcanoes. Using the PDS calculations as a filtering criterion for the earthquake catalog, the SO2 mass for each volcano was analyzed in 28-day windows centered on the earthquake origin time. If the average SO2 mass after the earthquake was greater than an arbitrary percentage of pre-earthquake mass, we identified the volcano as having a response to the event. This window analysis provided insight on what type of volcanic activity is more susceptible to triggering by dynamic stress. The volcanoes with lava lakes included in this study, Ambrym, Gaua, Villarrica, and Erta Ale, showed a clear response to dynamic stress while the volcanoes with lava domes, Merapi, Semeru, and Bagana showed no response at all. Perhaps

  4. Statistical analysis of the induced Basel 2006 earthquake sequence: introducing a probability-based monitoring approach for Enhanced Geothermal Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachmann, C. E.; Wiemer, S.; Woessner, J.; Hainzl, S.

    2011-08-01

    Geothermal energy is becoming an important clean energy source, however, the stimulation of a reservoir for an Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) is associated with seismic risk due to induced seismicity. Seismicity occurring due to the water injection at depth have to be well recorded and monitored. To mitigate the seismic risk of a damaging event, an appropriate alarm system needs to be in place for each individual experiment. In recent experiments, the so-called traffic-light alarm system, based on public response, local magnitude and peak ground velocity, was used. We aim to improve the pre-defined alarm system by introducing a probability-based approach; we retrospectively model the ongoing seismicity in real time with multiple statistical forecast models and then translate the forecast to seismic hazard in terms of probabilities of exceeding a ground motion intensity level. One class of models accounts for the water injection rate, the main parameter that can be controlled by the operators during an experiment. By translating the models into time-varying probabilities of exceeding various intensity levels, we provide tools which are well understood by the decision makers and can be used to determine thresholds non-exceedance during a reservoir stimulation; this, however, remains an entrepreneurial or political decision of the responsible project coordinators. We introduce forecast models based on the data set of an EGS experiment in the city of Basel. Between 2006 December 2 and 8, approximately 11 500 m3 of water was injected into a 5-km-deep well at high pressures. A six-sensor borehole array, was installed by the company Geothermal Explorers Limited (GEL) at depths between 300 and 2700 m around the well to monitor the induced seismicity. The network recorded approximately 11 200 events during the injection phase, more than 3500 of which were located. With the traffic-light system, actions where implemented after an ML 2.7 event, the water injection was

  5. Estimated airborne release of plutonium from the 102 Building at the General Electric Vallecitos Nuclear Center, Vallecitos, California, as a result of damage from severe wind and earthquake hazard

    SciTech Connect

    Mishima, J.; Ayer, J.E.; Hays, I.D.

    1980-12-01

    This report estimates the potential airborne releases of plutonium as a consequence of various severities of earthquake and wind hazard postulated for the 102 Building at the General Electric Vallecitos Nuclear Center in California. The releases are based on damage scenarios developed by other specialists. The hazard severities presented range up to a nominal velocity of 230 mph for wind hazard and are in excess of 0.8 g linear acceleration for earthquakes. The consequences of thrust faulting are considered. The approaches and factors used to estimate the releases are discussed. Release estimates range from 0.003 to 3 g Pu.

  6. GPS Monitoring of Surface Change During and Following the Fortuitous Occurrence of the M(sub w) = 7.3 Landers Earthquake in our Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, M. Meghan

    1998-01-01

    Accomplishments: (1) Continues GPS monitoring of surface change during and following the fortuitous occurrence of the M(sub w) = 7.3 Landers earthquake in our network, in order to characterize earthquake dynamics and accelerated activity of related faults as far as 100's of kilometers along strike. (2) Integrates the geodetic constraints into consistent kinematic descriptions of the deformation field that can in turn be used to characterize the processes that drive geodynamics, including seismic cycle dynamics. In 1991, we installed and occupied a high precision GPS geodetic network to measure transform-related deformation that is partitioned from the Pacific - North America plate boundary northeastward through the Mojave Desert, via the Eastern California shear zone to the Walker Lane. The onset of the M(sub w) = 7.3 June 28, 1992, Landers, California, earthquake sequence within this network poses unique opportunities for continued monitoring of regional surface deformation related to the culmination of a major seismic cycle, characterization of the dynamic behavior of continental lithosphere during the seismic sequence, and post-seismic transient deformation. During the last year, we have reprocessed all three previous epochs for which JPL fiducial free point positioning products available and are queued for the remaining needed products, completed two field campaigns monitoring approx. 20 sites (October 1995 and September 1996), begun modeling by development of a finite element mesh based on network station locations, and developed manuscripts dealing with both the Landers-related transient deformation at the latitude of Lone Pine and the velocity field of the whole experiment. We are currently deploying a 1997 observation campaign (June 1997). We use GPS geodetic studies to characterize deformation in the Mojave Desert region and related structural domains to the north, and geophysical modeling of lithospheric behavior. The modeling is constrained by our

  7. An Evaluation of North Korea’s Nuclear Test by Belbasi Nuclear Tests Monitoring Center-KOERI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Necmioglu, O.; Meral Ozel, N.; Semin, K.

    2009-12-01

    Bogazici University and Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute (KOERI) is acting as the Turkish National Data Center (NDC) and responsible for the operation of the International Monitoring System (IMS) Primary Seismic Station (PS-43) under Belbasi Nuclear Tests Monitoring Center for the verification of compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) since February 2000. The NDC is responsible for operating two arrays which are part of the IMS, as well as for transmitting data from these stations to the International Data Centre (IDC) in Vienna. The Belbasi array was established in 1951, as a four-element (Benioff 1051) seismic array as part of the United States Atomic Energy Detection System (USAEDS). Turkish General Staff (TGS) and U.S. Air Force Technical Application Center (AFTAC) under the Defense and Economic Cooperation Agreement (DECA) jointly operated this short period array. The station was upgraded and several seismometers were added to array during 1951 and 1994 and the station code was changed from BSRS (Belbasi Seismic Research Station) to BRTR-PS43 later on. PS-43 is composed of two sub-arrays (Ankara and Keskin): the medium-period array with a ~40 km radius located in Ankara and the short-period array with a ~3 km radius located in Keskin. Each array has a broadband element located at the middle of the circular geometry. Short period instruments are installed at depth 30 meters from the surface while medium and broadband instruments are installed at depth 60 meters from surface. On 25 May 2009, The Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK) claimed that it had conducted a nuclear test. Corresponding seismic event was recorded by IMS and IDC released first automatic estimation of time (00:54:43 GMT), location (41.2896°N and 129.0480°E) and the magnitude (4.52 mb) of the event in less than two hours time (USGS: 00:54:43 GMT; 41.306°N, 129.029°E; 4.7 mb) During our preliminary analysis of the 25th May 2009 DPRK

  8. Response to the great East Japan earthquake of 2011 and the Fukushima nuclear crisis: the case of the Laboratory Animal Research Center at Fukushima Medical University.

    PubMed

    Katahira, Kiyoaki; Sekiguchi, Miho

    2013-01-01

    A magnitude 9.0 great earthquake, the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake, occurred on March 11, 2011, and subsequent Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (Fukushima NPS) accidents stirred up natural radiation around the campus of Fukushima Medical University (FMU). FMU is located in Fukushima City, and is 57 km to the northwest of Fukushima NPS. Due to temporary failure of the steam boilers, the air conditioning system for the animal rooms, all autoclaves, and a cage washer could not be used at the Laboratory Animal Research Center (LARC) of FMU. The outside air temperature dropped to zero overnight, and the temperature inside the animal rooms fell to 10°C for several hours. We placed sterilized nesting materials inside all cages to encourage rodents to create nests. The main water supply was cut off for 8 days in all, while supply of steam and hot water remained unavailable for 12 days. It took 20 days to restore the air conditioning system to normal operation at the facility. We measured radiation levels in the animal rooms to confirm the safety of care staff and researchers. On April 21, May 9, and June 17, the average radiation levels at a central work table in the animal rooms with HEPA filters were 46.5, 44.4, and 43.4 cpm, respectively, which is equal to the background level of the equipment. We sincerely hope our experiences will be a useful reference regarding crisis management for many institutes having laboratory animals. PMID:23615301

  9. A real-time navigation monitoring expert system for the Space Shuttle Mission Control Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lui; Fletcher, Malise

    1993-03-01

    The ONAV (Onboard Navigation) Expert System has been developed as a real time console assistant for use by ONAV flight controllers in the Mission Control Center at the Johnson Space Center. This expert knowledge based system is used to monitor the Space Shuttle onboard navigation system, detect faults, and advise flight operations personnel. This application is the first knowledge-based system to use both telemetry and trajectory data from the Mission Operations Computer (MOC). To arrive at this stage, from a prototype to real world application, the ONAV project has had to deal with not only AI issues but operating environment issues. The AI issues included the maturity of AI languages and the debugging tools, verification, and availability, stability and size of the expert pool. The environmental issues included real time data acquisition, hardware suitability, and how to achieve acceptance by users and management.

  10. A real-time navigation monitoring expert system for the Space Shuttle Mission Control Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Lui; Fletcher, Malise

    1993-01-01

    The ONAV (Onboard Navigation) Expert System has been developed as a real time console assistant for use by ONAV flight controllers in the Mission Control Center at the Johnson Space Center. This expert knowledge based system is used to monitor the Space Shuttle onboard navigation system, detect faults, and advise flight operations personnel. This application is the first knowledge-based system to use both telemetry and trajectory data from the Mission Operations Computer (MOC). To arrive at this stage, from a prototype to real world application, the ONAV project has had to deal with not only AI issues but operating environment issues. The AI issues included the maturity of AI languages and the debugging tools, verification, and availability, stability and size of the expert pool. The environmental issues included real time data acquisition, hardware suitability, and how to achieve acceptance by users and management.