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1

Public Earthquake Resource Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Public Earthquake Resource Center at the University of Memphis provides information about the New Madrid seismic zone and earthquake hazards in general. Students and the general public can learn about earthquakes; examine science fair ideas, a reading list, and earthquake images; or explore a career as an earthquake scientist. For educators there are links to teacher's resources, lesson plans, online learning materials, and field trip information. Other features include links to additional information about the New Madrid seismic zone, earthquake preparedness tips, other earthquake-related organizations, and a site where citizens can report earthquakes.

2

Alaska Earthquake Information Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Alaska Earthquake Information Center contains information on seismology and tsunami research, education and outreach projects, and earthquake preparedness. There are also maps, reports, and a database on recent earthquakes and a map of historical Alaskan earthquakes, active faults, and rupture zones.

3

PACIFIC EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING RESEARCH CENTER  

E-print Network

PACIFIC EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING RESEARCH CENTER PEER Testbed Study on a Laboratory Building, Berkeley PEER Report 2005/12 Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center College of Engineering to "exercise" the PEER performance-based earthquake engineering methodology. All projects involved

Adolphs, Ralph

4

Alaska Earthquake Information Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Housed at the Geophysical Institute at the University of Alaska Fairbanks, the Alaska Earthquake Information Center reports and provides information on seismic activity in Alaska. While its southern Pacific coast colleague, California, gets a lot more attention when it comes to earthquakes, Alaska experienced a magnitude 6.7 earthquake already this summer and was rocked by a 7.9 in 2002. The site offers links to general information about the center, general earthquake information, research activities at the center, education and outreach materials (including information on seismology education projects), and much more. The site is well populated with materials and should provide a great resources for those interested in North American seismic events.

5

AEIC: Arizona Earthquake Information Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Arizona Earthquake Information Center (AEIC) conducts research and distributes information about Arizona earthquakes in order to increase the knowledge about the causes and hazards of earthquakes. The website provides recent seismographs for many places including the Grand Canyon and Flagstaff along with a map of the fault system. Researchers can find a catalog of Arizona Earthquakes for the period of 1830 to 1998. Users can view an index map of recent earthquakes in the Intermountain West region of Utah as well.

6

National Earthquake Information Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a very extensive site about earthquakes. It is the USGS (United States Geological Survey) National Earthquake Information site. The site provides access to near real time earthquake data from around the world, as well as data for recent earthquakes (last 3 weeks). The site can also be searched for information on specific earthquakes by time or location. There is a General Earthquake Information section with extensive earthquake education materials as well as information on seismicity, earthquake magnitude, preparedness, predictions, and locations.

7

Accessing Data From the Southern California Earthquake Data Center  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Southern California Earthquake Data Center (SCEDC) archives and provides public access to earthquake parametric and waveform data gathered by the TriNet seismic network, southern California's earthquake monitoring network since January 1 2001. The parametric data includes earthquake locations, magnitudes, moment-tensor solutions (for some events), and phase picks. The waveform data consists of continuous recordings of 150 broadband stations, and

E. Yu; K. Kahler; R. W. Clayton

2001-01-01

8

PACIFIC EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING RESEARCH CENTER  

E-print Network

of the intensity measures is also shown to be useful for characterizing the effect of near-fault ground motionsPACIFIC EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING RESEARCH CENTER Vector-Valued Ground Motion Intensity Measures University PEER Report 2006/08 Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center College of Engineering

Baker, Jack W.

9

Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC), a National Science Foundation (NSF) Science and Technology Center, aims to reduce earthquake hazard by defining the locations of future earthquakes, calculating expected ground motions, and conveying this information to the general public. The SCECùs homepage contains access to research and data, including links to databases for strong motion and seismograms, and a searchable and sortable bibliographic database of publications. Also available are GPS data and a network of GPS stations. A link to the Earthquake Information Network provides a searchable list of up-to-date internet earthquakes resources. Note, in order to access the SCEC Publications Database, a username and password are required. Use your own name for the username, and enter -webview as the password. SCEC is a first rate resource for earthquake engineers.

10

Southern California earthquake data center  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Southern California Earthquake Center Data Center (SCECDC) is the component of SCEC that stores the seismological, geodetic, and strong-motion data collected in southern California. These data are to be integrated into a probabilistic seismic hazard analysis of southern California known locally as the ``master model.'' The SCECDC is located at Caltech in Pasadena, and has been on-line since January.

Katrin Douglass; Lisa Wald

1992-01-01

11

Southern California Earthquake Data Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

To say that there are a few earthquake research centers in Southern California is a bit like saying that Chicago sits on a lake of some size. It's a bit of an obvious remark, but given that there are a number of such projects, it's important to take a look at some of the more compelling ones out there. One such important resource is the Southern California Earthquake Data Center, sponsored by a host of organizations, including the California Institute of Technology and the United States Geological Survey. Visitors to the project site can peruse some of its recent work, which includes a clickable map of the region that features information on recent earthquakes in California and Nevada. Equally compelling is the clickable fault map of Southern California where visitors can learn about the local faults and recent activity along each fault. Another key element of the site is the historical earthquake database, which may be of interest to both the general public and those who are studying this area.

2005-11-03

12

Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC) Home Page  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the home page of the Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC), a consortium of universities and research institutions dedicated to gathering information about earthquakes in Southern California, integrate that knowledge into a comprehensive and predictive understanding of earthquake phenomena, and communicate this understanding to end-users and the general public in order to increase earthquake awareness, reduce economic losses, and save lives. News of recent earthquake research, online resources and educational information is available here.

13

Earthquake Hazards Program - National Earthquake Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Users can access a selection of technical information and data about earthquakes in the U.S. and around the world. A current worldwide list of earthquakes is available, as are data on geophysical solutions, a catalog search, an automatic data request function, mining seismicity information, and a registry of seismograph stations.

14

Northern California Earthquake Data Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A project between the University of California Berkeley Seismological Laboratory and the United State Geological Survey, the Northern California Earthquake Data Center (NCEDC) "is a long-term archive and distribution center for seismological and geodetic data for Northern and Central California." Educators and students can examine recent seismograms from the Berkeley Digital Seismic Network. Researchers will benefit from the site's enormous amount of data collections including BARD; a system of 67 constantly operating Global Positioning System receivers in Northern California. By reading the annual reports, educators will also learn about the center's many outreach activities from talks and lab tours to the production of classroom resources for kindergarten through twelfth grade teachers. This site is also reviewed in the October 17, 2003 NSDL Physical Sciences Report.

15

The Center for Earthquake Research and Information  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Center for Earthquake Research and Information (CERI) at the University of Memphis offers an assortment of educational materials about earthquake causes, impacts, and safety. Educators and students can find science fair ideas, lesson plans, earthquake survivor stories, and much more. Within the technical information link, users can find seismic data, information on recent earthquakes, and materials on the seismic networks. The Public Awareness link furnishes interesting earthquake myths and folklore, facts about the New Madrid Fault System, and tips on how to survive an earthquake. The website also presents the many research projects at CERI.

16

Archiving and Distributing Seismic Data at the Southern California Earthquake Data Center (SCEDC)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Southern California Earthquake Data Center (SCEDC) archives and provides public access to earthquake parametric and waveform data gathered by the Southern California Seismic Network and since January 1, 2001, the TriNet seismic network, southern California's earthquake monitoring network. The parametric data in the archive includes earthquake locations, magnitudes, moment-tensor solutions and phase picks. The SCEDC waveform archive prior to

V. L. Appel

2002-01-01

17

Northern California Earthquake Data Center (NCEDC)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the home page of the Northern California Earthquake Data Center (NCEDC) which is a joint project of the University of California Berkeley Seismological Laboratory and the U. S. Geological Survey at Menlo Park. The NCEDC is an archive for seismological and geodetic data for Northern and Central California. Accessible through this page are news items, recent earthquake information, links to earthquake catalogs, seismic waveform data sets, and Global Positioning System information. Most data sets are accessible for downloading via ftp.

18

Building the Southern California Earthquake Center  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kei Aki was the founding director of the Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC), a multi-institutional collaboration formed in 1991 as a Science and Technology Center (STC) under the National Science Foundation (NSF) and the U. S. Geological Survey (USGS). Aki and his colleagues articulated a system-level vision for the Center: investigations by disciplinary working groups would be woven together into

T. H. Jordan; T. Henyey; J. K. McRaney

2004-01-01

19

Center for Earthquake Research and Information  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the homepage of the Center for Earthquake Research and Information (CERI) at the University of Memphis. Scientific users can access technical information on earthquakes in the New Madrid zone and central U.S., databases and catalogs, damage reports, and links to other earthquake data. For the general public there is basic information, facts, and frequently asked questions about earthquakes; preparedness tips; a link to request speakers or presentations; and a link to a site where earthquakes can be reported. For eduators there are links to teachers' guides and lesson plans, preparedness tips, and CERI tour information. For graduate students there is information about CERI graduate studies, admissions and application information, and course descriptions.

20

Earthquake Processing System at the Alaska Earthquake Information Center  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Alaska Earthquake Information Center (AEIC) has the responsibility to record, locate, catalog, and alert Government entities and the public about the occurrence of earthquakes originating within the State of Alaska. Currently, we catalog about 25,000 events per year in and around the State of Alaska, utilizing a network of over 550 seismic stations. In order to handle this many stations recording such a large number of events, we have had to choose operating procedures that are both efficient and robust to be able to function with our staff of 12 people. After much evaluation of competing systems, we chose Antelope as the architecture that would allow us to best grow our capabilities in the proper directions. In this presentation we will illustrate many of our unique implementations of the Antelope tools, and the many additional modules constructed with the Antelope toolbox that have been developed to fit particular needs of AEIC. In addition to simply cataloging the many events in Alaska, we are responsible for rapid notification, ShakeMaps, several local, regional and teleseismic magnitudes (including regional moment tensors), early warning of critical structures such as the Trans-Alaska Oil Pipeline, and assistance with tsunami mitigation and warnings.

Hansen, Roger; Staff, Aeic

2010-05-01

21

Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC) Summer Internship Programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the eleventh consecutive year, the Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC) coordinated undergraduate research experiences in summer 2004, allowing 35 students with a broad array of backgrounds and interests to work with the world's preeminent earthquake scientists and specialists. Students participate in interdisciplinary, system-level earthquake science and information technology research, and several group activities throughout the summer. Funding for student

M. L. Benthien; S. Perry; T. H. Jordan

2004-01-01

22

Earthquakes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Provided by the British Geological Survey, the Earthquakes Web site contains numerous educational topics for kids. Best suited for junior high school students and older, the site contains information on macroseismology (or the observable effects of earthquakes on people, buildings, and nature); seismic hazards; earthquake monitoring; recent and historical earthquakes; and more. Other links on the site include a Questions and Answers page, earthquake references, and additional educational links culminating in an informative and helpful source of online science learning. [JAB

23

USGS Earthquake Hazards Program: Monitoring Networks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The United States Geological Survey (USGS) supports a variety of networks for monitoring earthquakes and crustal deformation. These include the Advanced National Seismic System (ANSS), which provides uniform broadband and strong-motion coverage of the continental U.S.; the National Strong Motion Program (NSMP), which is responsible for recording damaging earthquakes in the United States on the ground and in man-made structures in densely urbanized areas; and the Global Seismic Network (GSN), which includes 100+ stations in more than 80 countries on all continents. There is also an extensive list of links to U.S. regional networks and cooperators, arranged by central, eastern, or western area of the country, and links to other networks and organizations that exchange or support seismic data collection.

24

The USGS National Earthquake Information Center's Response to the Wenchuan, China Earthquake  

Microsoft Academic Search

Immediately after detecting the May 12th, 2008 Mw 7.9 Wenchuan Earthquake, the USGS National Earthquake Information Center (NEIC) began a coordinated effort to understand and communicate the earthquake's seismological characteristics, tectonic context, and humanitarian impact. NEIC's initial estimates of magnitude and location were distributed within 30 minutes of the quake by e-mail and text message to 70,000 users via the

P. S. Earle; D. J. Wald; H. Benz; S. Sipkin; J. Dewey; T. Allen; K. Jaiswal; R. Buland; G. Choy; G. Hayes; A. Hutko

2008-01-01

25

Overview of the Multidisciplinary Center for Earthquake Engineering Research (MCEER)  

E-print Network

the structural and socioeconomic impacts of earthquakes. Sponsored principally by NSF, the State of New YorkOverview of the Multidisciplinary Center for Earthquake Engineering Research (MCEER) Michel Bruneau ABSTRACT New strategies and technologies to reduce escalating losses are the thrust of MCEER's program

Bruneau, Michel

26

Northern California Earthquake Data Center Data Retrieval (title provided or enhanced by cataloger)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Northern California Earthquake Data Center (NCEDC) offers various types of earthquake-related data. Most of the datasets are available on the WWW. A few require the establishment of a research account. Available information includes: earthquake catalogs and lists; seismic waveform data from the Berkeley Digital Seismic Network, the Northern California Seismic Network, the Parkfield High-Resolution Seismic Network, and the Calpine/Unocal Geysers Network; Global Positioning System data from continuous monitoring stations; and Berkeley Digital Seismic Network temperature, electromagnetic and strain data.

27

Seismic Monitor: Current Global Earthquake Readings  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This map shows the most recent seismic activity across the globe. Each circle represents an earthquake, with larger circles indicating stronger quakes. The color signifies how long ago the earthquake occurred, from red (less than one day old) to yellow (two weeks old). Earthquakes that occured more than two weeks ago are represented by black diamonds and purple dots. Seismic stations are represented by triangles. A link is provided to a more detailed, interactive map that displays additional information.

28

Geo-center movement caused by huge earthquakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study we investigate co-seismic geo-center change based on a dislocation theory for a spherically symmetric, non-rotating, perfectly elastic and isotropic model. We first introduce the basic theory with emphasis on the dislocation Love numbers of degree 1, and then we present methods for computing co-seismic geo-center movement. It is found that the geo-center change reaches maximum value when ? = 45° and ? = 90°, i.e., a 45° declined dip fault causes the maximum geo-center movement. As an application, we apply the methods to compute the geo-center movement caused by the 2004 Sumatra earthquake (Mw9.3) and the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake (Mw9.0). Results show that the maximum co-seismic geo-center movements for the two events are 0.87 mm and 0.43 mm, respectively.

Sun, Wenke; Dong, Jie

2014-05-01

29

Lessons Learned from Creating the Public Earthquake Resource Center at CERI  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Center for Earthquake Research and Information (CERI) at the University of Memphis opened the Public Earthquake Resource Center (PERC) in May 2004. The PERC is an interactive display area that was designed to increase awareness of seismology, Earth Science, earthquake hazards, and earthquake engineering among the general public and K-12 teachers and students. Funding for the PERC is provided

G. L. Patterson; D. Michelle; A. Johnston

2004-01-01

30

Radar options for global earthquake monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fine temporal sampling is essential for disaster management, e.g. of flooding, fires, landslides, hurricanes, and earthquakes. A powerful technique for mapping such natural hazards is synthetic aperture radar (SAR) interferometry, providing displacement measurements at the subwavelength scale and decorrelation estimates. Pre-seismic deformation, one of the most elusive aspects of earthquakes, will require much finer temporal sampling than present InSAR capabilities

S. N. Madsen; C. Chen; W. Edelstein

2002-01-01

31

Recent improvements in earthquake and tsunami monitoring in the Caribbean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Following the catastrophic loss of life from the December 26, 2004, Sumatra-Andaman Islands earthquake and tsunami, the U.S. Government appropriated funds to improve monitoring along a major portion of vulnerable coastal regions in the Caribbean Sea, the Gulf of Mexico, and the Atlantic Ocean. Partners in this project include the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the Puerto Rico Seismic Network (PRSN), the Seismic Research Unit of the University of the West Indies, and other collaborating institutions in the Caribbean region. As part of this effort, the USGS is coordinating with Caribbean host nations to design and deploy nine new broadband and strong-motion seismic stations. The instrumentation consists of an STS-2 seismometer, an Episensor accelerometer, and a Q330 high resolution digitizer. Six stations are currently transmitting data to the USGS National Earthquake Information Center, where the data are redistributed to the NOAA's Tsunami Warning Centers, regional monitoring partners, and the IRIS Data Management Center. Operating stations include: Isla Barro Colorado, Panama; Gun Hill Barbados; Grenville, Grenada; Guantanamo Bay, Cuba; Sabaneta Dam, Dominican Republic; and Tegucigalpa, Honduras. Three additional stations in Barbuda, Grand Turks, and Jamaica will be completed during the fall of 2007. These nine stations are affiliates of the Global Seismographic Network (GSN) and complement existing GSN stations as well as regional stations. The new seismic stations improve azimuthal coverage, increase network density, and provide on-scale recording throughout the region. Complementary to this network, NOAA has placed Deep-ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunami (DART) stations at sites in regions with a history of generating destructive tsunamis. Recently, NOAA completed deployment of 7 DART stations off the coasts of Montauk Pt, NY; Charleston, SC; Miami, FL; San Juan, Puerto Rico; New Orleans, LA; and Bermuda as part of the U.S. tsunami warning system expansion. DART systems consist of an anchored seafloor pressure recorder (BPR) and a companion moored surface buoy for real-time communications. The new stations are a second-generation design (DART II) equipped with two- way satellite communications that allow NOAA's Tsunami Warning Centers to set stations in event mode in anticipation of possible tsunamis or retrieve the high-resolution (15-s intervals) data in one-hour blocks for detailed analysis. Combined with development of sophisticated wave propagation and site-specific inundation models, the DART data are being used to forecast wave heights for at-risk coastal communities. NOAA expects to deploy a total of 39 DART II buoy stations by 2008 (32 in the Pacific and 7 in the Atlantic, Caribbean and Gulf regions). The seismic and DART networks are two components in a comprehensive and fully-operational global observing system to detect and warn the public of earthquake and tsunami threats. NOAA and USGS are working together to make important strides in enhancing communication networks so residents and visitors can receive earthquake and tsunami watches and warnings around the clock.

Gee, L.; Green, D.; McNamara, D.; Whitmore, P.; Weaver, J.; Huang, P.; Benz, H.

2007-12-01

32

Southern California Earthquake Center Geologic Vertical Motion Database  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Southern California Earthquake Center Geologic Vertical Motion Database (VMDB) integrates disparate sources of geologic uplift and subsidence data at 104- to 106-year time scales into a single resource for investigations of crustal deformation in southern California. Over 1800 vertical deformation rate data points in southern California and northern Baja California populate the database. Four mature data sets are now

Nathan A. Niemi; Michael Oskin; Thomas K. Rockwell

2008-01-01

33

Towards an Earthquake Monitoring System for Indian Ocean Tsunami Early Warning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Mw=9.3 Sumatra earthquake of December 26, 2004, generated a tsunami that effected the entire Indian Ocean region and caused approximately 230,000 fatalities. The German human aid program for the Indian Ocean region started immediately after the disaster with substantial funding of 45M Euro for the proposed German Indian Ocean Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS). In this presentation we describe the concept of the Earthquake Monitoring System and report on its present status: The major challenge for a Earthquake Monitoring System (ESM) is to deliver information about location, size, source parameters and possibly rupture process as early as possible before the potential tsunami hits the neighboring coastal areas. Tsunamigenic earthquakes are expected to occur in subduction zones close to coast lines. This is particularly true for the Sunda trench off-shore Indonesia, but also in the Macran subduction zone off-shore Iran. Key for an Indian Ocean monitoring system with short warning times is therefore a dense real-time seismic network in Indonesia, supplemented by a substantial number of stations in other countries and territories within and around the Indian Ocean. 40 new broadband and strong motion stations will be installed during the GITEWS project until 2010. The EMS Control Center will be based on an enhanced version of the widely used SeisComP software and the GEOFON earthquake information system prototype presently operated at the GFZ-Potsdam (http://geofon.gfz- potsdam.de/db/eqinfo.php). However, the Control Center software under development at the moment will be more reliable, faster and automatic but with operator supervison. It will use sophisticated visualisation tools, offer the posibility for manual correction and re-calculation, flexible configuration and support for distributed processing. Is large redundancy for algorithms, moduls and hardware assures easy integration into larger multi-sensor, multi-hazard control centers and decision support systems. A first prototype of the EMS Control Center software will be ready in mid 2007.

Kraft, T.; Hanka, W.; Saul, J.; Heinloo, A.; Reinhardt, J.; Weber, B.; Becker, J.; Thoms, H.; Pahlke, D.

2006-12-01

34

Real-time earthquake monitoring: Early warning and rapid response  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A panel was established to investigate the subject of real-time earthquake monitoring (RTEM) and suggest recommendations on the feasibility of using a real-time earthquake warning system to mitigate earthquake damage in regions of the United States. The findings of the investigation and the related recommendations are described in this report. A brief review of existing real-time seismic systems is presented with particular emphasis given to the current California seismic networks. Specific applications of a real-time monitoring system are discussed along with issues related to system deployment and technical feasibility. In addition, several non-technical considerations are addressed including cost-benefit analysis, public perceptions, safety, and liability.

1991-01-01

35

Southern California Earthquake Center--Virtual Display of Objects (SCEC-VDO): An Earthquake Research and Education Tool  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interns in the program Southern California Earthquake Center\\/Undergraduate Studies in Earthquake Information Technology (SCEC\\/UseIT, an NSF Research Experience for Undergraduates Site) have designed, engineered, and distributed SCEC-VDO (Virtual Display of Objects), an interactive software used by earthquake scientists and educators to integrate and visualize global and regional, georeferenced datasets. SCEC-VDO is written in Java\\/Java3D with an extensible, scalable architecture. An

S. Perry; P. Maechling; T. Jordan

2006-01-01

36

Recent Progress and Development on Multi-parameters Remote Sensing Application in Earthquake Monitoring in China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the last ten years, a few national research plans and scientific projects on remote sensing application in Earthquake monitoring research are implemented in China. Focusing on advancing earthquake monitoring capability searching for the way of earthquake prediction, satellite electromagnetism, satellite infrared and D-InSAR technology were developed systematically and some remarkable progress were achieved by statistical research on historical earthquakes and summarized initially the space precursory characters, which laid the foundation for gradually promoting the practical use. On the basis of these works, argumentation on the first space-based platform has been finished in earthquake stereoscope observation system in China, and integrated earthquake remote sensing application system has been designed comprehensively. To develop the space-based earthquake observational system has become a major trend of technological development in earthquake monitoring and prediction. We shall pay more emphasis on the construction of the space segment of China earthquake stereoscope observation system and Imminent major scientific projects such as earthquake deformation observation system and application research combined INSAR, satellite gravity and GNSS with the goal of medium and long term earthquake monitoring and forcasting, infrared observation and technical system and application research with the goal of medium and short term earthquake monitoring and forcasting, and satellite-based electromagnetic observation and technical system and application system with the goal of short term and imminent earthquake monitoring.

Shen, Xuhui; Zhang, Xuemin; Hong, Shunying; Jing, Feng; Zhao, Shufan

2014-05-01

37

Major improvements in progress for Southern California Earthquake Monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

Major improvements in seismic and strong-motion monitoring networks are being implemented in southern California to better meet the needs of emergency response personnel, structural engineers, and the research community in promoting earthquake hazard reduction. Known as the TriNet project, the improvements are being coordinated by the California Institute of Technology (Caltech), the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and the California Division

Jim Mori; Hiroo Kanamori; James Davis; Egill Hauksson; Robert Clayton; Thomas Heaton; Lucile Jones; Anthony Shakal; Ron Porcella

1998-01-01

38

Long Baseline Tilt Meter Array to Monitor Cascadia's Slow Earthquakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five biaxial Michelson tilt meters are currently being installed in the Puget Lowlands near Seattle to monitor dynamic tilt changes accompanying episodic slow earthquakes that occur at 20-40 km depth. Each tilt meter consists of a 1-2 m deep, 500-m-long, 15-cm diameter, horizontal, half-filled water-pipe, terminated by float sensors with sub-micron water-level resolution, similar to those that have operated unattended

N. Suszek; R. Bilham; R. Flake; T. I. Melbourne; M. Miller

2004-01-01

39

Lessons Learned from Creating the Public Earthquake Resource Center at CERI  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Center for Earthquake Research and Information (CERI) at the University of Memphis opened the Public Earthquake Resource Center (PERC) in May 2004. The PERC is an interactive display area that was designed to increase awareness of seismology, Earth Science, earthquake hazards, and earthquake engineering among the general public and K-12 teachers and students. Funding for the PERC is provided by the US Geological Survey, The NSF-funded Mid America Earthquake Center, and the University of Memphis, with input from the Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology. Additional space at the facility houses local offices of the US Geological Survey. PERC exhibits are housed in a remodeled residential structure at CERI that was donated by the University of Memphis and the State of Tennessee. Exhibits were designed and built by CERI and US Geological Survey staff and faculty with the help of experienced museum display subcontractors. The 600 square foot display area interactively introduces the basic concepts of seismology, real-time seismic information, seismic network operations, paleoseismology, building response, and historical earthquakes. Display components include three 22" flat screen monitors, a touch sensitive monitor, 3 helicorder elements, oscilloscope, AS-1 seismometer, life-sized liquefaction trench, liquefaction shake table, and building response shake table. All displays include custom graphics, text, and handouts. The PERC website at www.ceri.memphis.edu/perc also provides useful information such as tour scheduling, ask a geologist, links to other institutions, and will soon include a virtual tour of the facility. Special consideration was given to address State science standards for teaching and learning in the design of the displays and handouts. We feel this consideration is pivotal to the success of any grass roots Earth Science education and outreach program and represents a valuable lesson that has been learned at CERI over the last several years. Another critical lesson that has been learned is to employ K-12 education professionals and utilize undergrad and graduate student workers in the University's Department of Education. Such staff members are keenly aware of the pressures and needs in diverse communities such as Shelby County, Tennessee and are uniquely suited to design and implement new and innovative programs that provide substantive short-term user benefits and promote long-term relationships with the K-12 teachers, students, and teacher's organizations.

Patterson, G. L.; Michelle, D.; Johnston, A.

2004-12-01

40

An Earthquake Just Occurred Can I Read About It on NOAA's Tsunami Warning Centers' Websites?  

E-print Network

An Earthquake Just Occurred ­ Can I Read About It on NOAA's Tsunami Warning Centers' Websites with responsibility for recording and reporting earthquake activity nationwide. According to the West Coast, we can provide an early alert in most situations." Obviously, not all earthquakes generate tsunamis

41

Active Faults in the Los Angeles Metropolitan Region Southern California Earthquake Center Group C  

Microsoft Academic Search

Group C of the Southern California Earthquake Center was charged with an evaluation of earthquake fault sources in the Los Angeles Basin and nearby urbanized areas based on fault geology. The objective was to determine the location of active faults and their slip rates and earthquake recurrence intervals. This includes the location and dip of those faults reaching the surface

James F. Dolan; Eldon M. Gath; Lisa B. Grant; Mark Legg; Scott Lindvall; Karl Mueller; Michael Oskin; Daniel F. Ponti; Charles M. Rubin; Thomas K. Rockwell; Jerome A. Treiman; Chris Walls; Robert S. Yeats

42

Southern California Earthquake Center Operates 1991 present, $3 -$5 million per year  

E-print Network

Southern California Earthquake Center · Operates 1991 ­ present, $3 - $5 million per year · NSF of transform boundaries; corner magnitude 8.1 #12;Southern California earthquakes, mostly located using precise faults Quake rates elsewhere Putting it all together ... Uniform California Earthquake Rupture Forecast

43

Map prepared by U.S. Geological Survey National Earthquake Information Center  

E-print Network

Map prepared by U.S. Geological Survey National Earthquake Information Center 14 January 2010 Version 3 Map not approved for release by Director USGS EARTHQUAKE SUMMARY MAPU.S. DEPARTMENT (unpublished earthquake catalog) (Engdahl, 2003) Global Seismic Hazard Assessment Program PLATE TECTONICS

Abbott Jr., Richard N.

44

D a t a s o u r c e s Alaska earthquake data from the Alaska Earthquake Information Center (www.aeic.alaska.edu)  

E-print Network

D a t a s o u r c e s Alaska earthquake data from the Alaska Earthquake Information Center (www.aeic.alaska.edu) Lower 48 earthquake data drawn from the ANSS composite catalog (http://www.ncedc.org/cnss/catalog-search.html) Earthquake occurrence rate in Alaska 1 9 6 0

West, Michael

45

Conversion of Historic Seismic Data at the Southern California Earthquake Data Center (SCEDC)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Southern California Earthquake Data Center (SCEDC) archives and provides public access to continuous and event-based earthquake parametric and waveform data gathered by the Southern California Seismic Network. The mission of the SCEDC is to maintain an easily-accessible, well-organized, high-quality, searchable archive of earthquake data for research in seismology and earthquake engineering. The SCEDC has compiled and converted all available

V. L. Appel; R. W. Clayton

2003-01-01

46

Earthquake Monitoring at Different Scales with Seiscomp3  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the last few years, the French National Network of Seismic Survey (BCSF-RENASS) had to modernize its old and aging earthquake monitoring system coming from an inhouse developement. After having tried and conducted intensive tests on several real time frameworks such as EarthWorm and Seiscomp3 we have finaly adopted in 2012 Seiscomp3. Our actual system runs with two pipelines in parallel: the first one is tuned at a global scale to monitor the world seismicity (for event's magnitude > 5.5) and the second one is tuned at a national scale for the monitoring of the metropolitan France. The seismological stations used for the "world" pipeline are coming mainly from Global Seismographic Network (GSN), whereas for the "national" pipeline the stations are coming from the RENASS short period network and from the RESIF broadband network. More recently we have started to tune seiscomp3 at a smaller scale to monitor in real time the geothermal project (a R&D program in Deep Geothermal Energy) in the North-East part of France. Beside the use of the real time monitoring capabilities of Seiscomp3 we have also used a very handy feature to playback a 4 month length dataset at a local scale for the Rambervillers earthquake (22/02/2003, Ml=5.4) leading to the build of roughly 2000 aftershock's detections and localisations.

Grunberg, M.; Engels, F.

2013-12-01

47

Integrating geomatics and structural investigation in post-earthquake monitoring of ancient monumental Buildings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The old city center of L’Aquila is rich in historical buildings of considerable merit. On April 6th 2009 a devastating earthquake caused significant structural damages, affecting especially historical and monumental masonry buildings. The results of a study carried out on a monumental building, former headquarters of the University of L’Aquila (The Camponeschi building, XVI century) are presented in this paper. The building is situated in the heart of the old city center and was seriously damaged by the earthquake. Preliminary visual damage analysis carried out immediately after the quake, clearly evidenced the building’s complexity, raising the need for direct and indirect investigation on the structure. Several non-destructive test methods were then performed in situ to better characterize the masonry typology and the damage distribution, as well. Subsequently, a number of representative control points were identified on the building’s facades to represent, by their motion over time, the evolution of the structural displacements and deformations. In particular, a surveying network consisting of 27 different points was established. A robotic total station mounted on top of a concrete pillar was used for periodically monitoring the surveying control network. Stability of the pillar was checked through a GNSS static survey repeated before any set of measurements. The present study evidences the interesting possibilities of combining geomatics with structural investigation during post-earthquake monitoring of ancient monumental buildings.

Dominici, Donatella; Galeota, Dante; Gregori, Amedeo; Rosciano, Elisa; Alicandro, Maria; Elaiopoulos, Michail

2014-06-01

48

Monitoring fault zone environments with correlations of earthquake waveforms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We develop a new technique for monitoring temporal changes in fault zone environments based on cross-correlation of earthquake waveforms recorded by pairs of stations. The method is applied to waveforms of ˜10 000 earthquakes observed during 100 d around the 1999 M 7.1 Duzce mainshock by a station located in the core damage zone of the North Anatolian Fault and a nearby station. To overcome clock problems, the correlation functions are realigned on a dominant peak. Consequently, the analysis focuses on measurements of coherency rather than traveltimes, and is associated with correlation coefficient of groups of events with a reference wavelet. Examination of coherency in different frequency bands reveals clear changes at a narrow band centred around 0.8 Hz. The results show a rapid drop of ˜1-2 per cent of the coherency at the time of the Duzce event followed by gradual recovery with several prominent oscillations over 4 d. The observed changes likely reflect evolution of permeability and fluid motion in the core damage zone of the North Anatolian Fault. Compared to noise correlation processing, our analysis of earthquake waveform correlation (i) benefits from high level of coherence with short duration recorded signals, (ii) has considerably finer temporal sampling of fault dynamics after mainshocks than is possible with noise correlation, (iii) uses the coherence level to track property variations, which may be more robust than traveltime fluctuations in the coda of noise correlations. Studies utilizing both earthquake and noise waveforms at multiple pairs of stations across fault damage zones can improve significantly the understanding of fault zone processes.

Roux, Philippe; Ben-Zion, Yehuda

2014-02-01

49

Array monitoring of swarm earthquakes in the Pollino range (Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Mercure Basin (MB) and the Castrovillari Fault (CF) in the Pollino range (southern Apennines, Italy) represent one of the most prominent seismic gaps in the Italian seismic catalog, with no M>6 earthquakes during the last centuries. In recent times, the MB has been repeatedly interested by seismic swarms, with the most energetic swarm started in 2010 and still active in 2013. The seismic activity culminated in autumn 2012 with a M=5 event on October 25. In contrast, the CF appears aseismic. Only the northern part of the CF has experienced microseismicity. The rheology of these faults is unclear. Current debates include the potential of the MB and the CF to host large earthquakes and the level and the style of deformation. Understanding the seismicity and the behaviour of the faults is therefore necessary to assess the seismic hazard. We have been monitoring the ongoing seismicity using a small-aperture seismic array, integrated in a temporary seismic network. The instruments are provided by the GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences and INGV, Italy, and are operated in close collaboration between both institutes. Automatized seismic array methods are applied to resolve the spatio-temporal evolution of the seismicity in great detail. Using the GFZ array, we detect about ten times more earthquakes than currently included in automatic local catalogues. The increase corresponds to an improvement in complete event detection down to M~0.5. Event locations and the magnitude-frequency distribution are analysed to characterise the swarm and investigate the possible role of fluids for earthquake triggering. In the course of the swarm, seismicity has mainly migrated within the Mercure Basin. However, the spread towards the northern end of the Castrovillari fault to the east in 2013 marks a swarm phase with seismicity located outside of the Mercure Basin. The observations characterize the behaviour of the faults and their inter-connection.

Roessler, Dirk; Passarelli, Luigi; Govoni, Aladino; Rivalta, Eleonora

2014-05-01

50

Earthquakes  

MedlinePLUS

An earthquake happens when two blocks of the earth suddenly slip past one another. Earthquakes strike suddenly, violently, and without warning at any time of the day or night. If an earthquake occurs in a populated area, it may cause ...

51

Southern California Earthquake Center Crustal Motion Map Version 3.0  

Microsoft Academic Search

To measure current deformation in southern California, the Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC) has been collecting and analyzing geodetic data from a wide range of sources, and providing the results in the form of station velocities. These crustal motion results can be used to study tectonic processes and relate crustal deformation to earthquake potential. The most recent update (SCEC Crustal

Z. Shen; D. Agnew; Y. Bock; M v Domselaar; D. Dong; T. A. Herring; K. W. Hudnut; D. D. Jackson; R. W. King; S. McClusky; R. Nikolaidis; M. Wang

2001-01-01

52

Archiving and Distributing Seismic Data at the Southern California Earthquake Data Center (SCEDC)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Southern California Earthquake Data Center (SCEDC) archives and provides public access to earthquake parametric and waveform data gathered by the Southern California Seismic Network and since January 1, 2001, the TriNet seismic network, southern California's earthquake monitoring network. The parametric data in the archive includes earthquake locations, magnitudes, moment-tensor solutions and phase picks. The SCEDC waveform archive prior to TriNet consists primarily of short-period, 100-samples-per-second waveforms from the SCSN. The addition of the TriNet array added continuous recordings of 155 broadband stations (20 samples per second or less), and triggered seismograms from 200 accelerometers and 200 short-period instruments. Since the Data Center and TriNet use the same Oracle database system, new earthquake data are available to the seismological community in near real-time. Primary access to the database and waveforms is through the Seismogram Transfer Program (STP) interface. The interface enables users to search the database for earthquake information, phase picks, and continuous and triggered waveform data. Output is available in SAC, miniSEED, and other formats. Both the raw counts format (V0) and the gain-corrected format (V1) of COSMOS (Consortium of Organizations for Strong-Motion Observation Systems) are now supported by STP. EQQuest is an interface to prepackaged waveform data sets for select earthquakes in Southern California stored at the SCEDC. Waveform data for large-magnitude events have been prepared and new data sets will be available for download in near real-time following major events. The parametric data from 1981 to present has been loaded into the Oracle 9.2.0.1 database system and the waveforms for that time period have been converted to mSEED format and are accessible through the STP interface. The DISC optical-disk system (the "jukebox") that currently serves as the mass-storage for the SCEDC is in the process of being replaced with a series of inexpensive high-capacity (1.6 Tbyte) magnetic-disk RAIDs. These systems are built with PC-technology components, using 16 120-Gbyte IDE disks, hot-swappable disk trays, two RAID controllers, dual redundant power supplies and a Linux operating system. The system is configured over a private gigabit network that connects to the two Data Center servers and spans between the Seismological Lab and the USGS. To ensure data integrity, each RAID disk system constantly checks itself against its twin and verifies file integrity using 128-bit MD5 file checksums that are stored separate from the system. The final level of data protection is a Sony AIT-3 tape backup of the files. The primary advantage of the magnetic-disk approach is faster data access because magnetic disk drives have almost no latency. This means that the SCEDC can provide better "on-demand" interactive delivery of the seismograms in the archive.

Appel, V. L.

2002-12-01

53

Implementation of Near Real-Time Methods Using Surface Waves to Determine Earthquake Source Characteristics at the National Earthquake Information Center  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss the implementation of two near real-time methods for determining earthquake source characteristics using long-period surface waves at the US Geological Survey's National Earthquake Information Center (USGS/NEIC). Long-period (60 to 300 s) seismic waveforms are well suited for this purpose because they can be well modeled using simple propagation models and are less sensitive to source complexity than short period (1 s) waves that are commonly used for earthquake monitoring. A prototype system for Surface wave Location and Association in Quasi Real time (SLAQR) that employs very long period (> 60 s) vertical-component surface waves has been implemented in test mode using data from the Global Seismographic Network (GSN). SLAQR continuously back-projects waveform envelopes on a global grid using surface wave dispersion relations. Preliminary results show that this method, as currently in operation at the NEIC, can consistently locate global earthquakes down to a magnitude 5.5. The magnitude determination, which is based on a simple empirical relationship, is generally accurate to within 0.2 magnitude units. More importantly, SLAQR can provide reliable locations and magnitudes for very large earthquakes, such as the 2004/2005 Sumatra events, within 30-40 minutes of their origin time. Furthermore, since the magnitude calculation is based on long period data, magnitudes for slow earthquakes such as some ridge and tsunami earthquakes are not underestimated as commonly occurs in shorter period analysis. Future development will focus on a reliable triggering algorithm for automated event detection and the continuous calculation of moment tensors and earthquake depths from the spectral amplitude and phase measurements already produced by the system. A fully automatic system to determine centroid moment tensors using three component surface waves with periods between 150-300 s is also running at the NEIC. Two versions are currently operational: one in a research/evaluation mode and another fully incorporated into the NEIC Hydra system. New improvements in the area of reliability assessment are currently being tested. Future work will investigate the finite fault information contained in the centroid time and centroid location parameters, how to incorporate a priori knowledge of the fault orientation, and the use of noise characteristics in the automatic selection of channels.

Polet, J.; Thio, H. K.; Earle, P.

2008-12-01

54

Monitoring of ULF (ultra-low-frequency) Geomagnetic Variations Associated with Earthquakes  

PubMed Central

ULF (ultra-low-frequency) electromagnetic emission is recently recognized as one of the most promising candidates for short-term earthquake prediction. This paper reviews previous convincing evidence on the presence of ULF emissions before a few large earthquakes. Then, we present our network of ULF monitoring in the Tokyo area by describing our ULF magnetic sensors and we finally present a few, latest results on seismogenic electromagnetic emissions for recent large earthquakes with the use of sophisticated signal processings.

Hayakawa, Masashi; Hattori, Katsumi; Ohta, Kenji

2007-01-01

55

Southern California Earthquake Center--Virtual Display of Objects (SCEC-VDO): An Earthquake Research and Education Tool  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interns in the program Southern California Earthquake Center/Undergraduate Studies in Earthquake Information Technology (SCEC/UseIT, an NSF Research Experience for Undergraduates Site) have designed, engineered, and distributed SCEC-VDO (Virtual Display of Objects), an interactive software used by earthquake scientists and educators to integrate and visualize global and regional, georeferenced datasets. SCEC-VDO is written in Java/Java3D with an extensible, scalable architecture. An increasing number of SCEC-VDO datasets are obtained on the fly through web services and connections to remote databases; and user sessions may be saved in xml-encoded files. Currently users may display time-varying sequences of earthquake hypocenters and focal mechanisms, several 3-dimensional fault and rupture models, satellite imagery - optionally draped over digital elevation models - and cultural datasets including political boundaries. The ability to juxtapose and interactively explore these data and their temporal and spatial relationships has been particularly important to SCEC scientists who are evaluating fault and deformation models, or who must quickly evaluate the menace of evolving earthquake sequences. Additionally, SCEC-VDO users can annotate the display, plus script and render animated movies with adjustable compression levels. SCEC-VDO movies are excellent communication tools and have been featured in scientific presentations, classrooms, press conferences, and television reports.

Perry, S.; Maechling, P.; Jordan, T.

2006-12-01

56

Earthquakes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson on earthquakes is based on naturalist John Muir's experiences with two significant earthquakes, the 1872 earthquake on the east side of the Sierra Nevada Mountains, and the Great San Francisco Earthquake of 1906. Students will learn to explain that earthquakes are sudden motions along breaks in the crust called faults, and list the major geologic events including earthquakes, volcanic eruptions and mountain building, which are the result of crustal plate motions. A downloadable, printable version (PDF) of the lesson plan is available.

57

Synergistic combination of systems for structural health monitoring and earthquake early warning  

E-print Network

Synergistic combination of systems for structural health monitoring and earthquake early warning-trained surrogate models (or emulators) based on machine learning methods to make fast damage and loss predictions in a robust SHM system is as a tool for post-earthquake structural damage and loss assessment. Acknowledging

Heaton, Thomas H.

58

Romanian Data Center: A modern way for seismic monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main seismic survey of Romania is performed by the National Institute for Earth Physics (NIEP) which operates a real-time digital seismic network. The NIEP real-time network currently consists of 102 stations and two seismic arrays equipped with different high quality digitizers (Kinemetrics K2, Quanterra Q330, Quanterra Q330HR, PS6-26, Basalt), broadband and short period seismometers (CMG3ESP, CMG40T, KS2000, KS54000, KS2000, CMG3T,STS2, SH-1, S13, Mark l4c, Ranger, gs21, Mark l22) and acceleration sensors (Episensor Kinemetrics). The data are transmitted at the National Data Center (NDC) and Eforie Nord (EFOR) Seismic Observatory. EFOR is the back-up for the NDC and also a monitoring center for the Black Sea tsunami events. NIEP is a data acquisition node for the seismic network of Moldova (FDSN code MD) composed of five seismic stations. NIEP has installed in the northern part of Bulgaria eight seismic stations equipped with broadband sensors and Episensors and nine accelerometers (Episensors) installed in nine districts along the Danube River. All the data are acquired at NIEP for Early Warning System and for primary estimation of the earthquake parameters. The real-time acquisition (RT) and data exchange is done by Antelope software and Seedlink (from Seiscomp3). The real-time data communication is ensured by different types of transmission: GPRS, satellite, radio, Internet and a dedicated line provided by a governmental network. For data processing and analysis at the two data centers Antelope 5.2 TM is being used running on 3 workstations: one from a CentOS platform and two on MacOS. Also a Seiscomp3 server stands as back-up for Antelope 5.2 Both acquisition and analysis of seismic data systems produce information about local and global parameters of earthquakes. In addition, Antelope is used for manual processing (event association, calculation of magnitude, creating a database, sending seismic bulletins, calculation of PGA and PGV, etc.), generating ShakeMap products and interaction with global data centers. National Data Center developed tools to enable centralizing of data from software like Antelope and Seiscomp3. These tools allow rapid distribution of information about damages observed after an earthquake to the public. Another feature of the developed application is the alerting of designated persons, via email and SMS, based on the earthquake parameters. In parallel, Seiscomp3 sends automatic notifications (emails) with the earthquake parameters. The real-time seismic network and software acquisition and data processing used in the National Data Center development have increased the number of events detected locally and globally, the increase of the quality parameters obtained by data processing and potentially increasing visibility on the national and internationally.

Neagoe, Cristian; Marius Manea, Liviu; Ionescu, Constantin

2014-05-01

59

Earthquakes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students explore the causes of earthquakes and their impact on the geology of an area and on human societies. They begin by looking at the role tectonic plates play in creating the forces that cause earthquakes, to help them understand why earthquakes occur when and where they do. Hands-on activities illustrate how rocks can withstand a certain amount of stress, but that every material has its breaking point. When rocks break underground, an earthquake occurs. In the last section, students explore the impact earthquakes have on humans and look at the efforts scientists are making to better understand and predict these sometimes deadly events.

2006-01-01

60

Tectonic earthquakes in Greenland: An overview of the monitoring achievements during the last decades  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The seismic monitoring in Greenland has been greatly improved during the last decades, and has provided new insight into the earthquake activity. Results from the earthquake monitoring in Greenland during this period are presented, and these results show; a large increase of the number of detected earthquakes, an improved detection threshold, new areas of high seismicity, several earthquake clusters and seismicity below the ice cap. Despite the improved monitoring, events detection is still performed manually, by analyzing all of the real time data. With a station separation of around 400km many earthquakes are only detected on one or two stations which make automatic detection very difficult. But improved instrumentation has enabled the use of single station location technique. Results from and challenges using this method are presented. The development of the seismic monitoring have gone from having only three seismic stations placed in Greenland in the 1970'ties, till today where there are 17 permanent stations and a similar number of temporary stations placed in Greenland. All equipped with broadband sensors and 12 of the permanent stations transmit data in real time. The resent major improvement of the seismic monitoring is performed by the Greenland ice sheet monitoring network (GLISN, http://glisn.info). The primary goal of GLISN is to provide broadband seismic data for the detection of Glacial earthquakes. GLISN will be fully implemented when the Iridium real time data transfer is in operation at five stations, hopefully by mid 2012.

Voss, P.

2011-12-01

61

Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC) Communication, Education and Outreach Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The SCEC Communication, Education, and Outreach Program (CEO) offers student research experiences, web-based education tools, classroom curricula, museum displays, public information brochures, online newsletters, and technical workshops and publications. This year, much progress has been made on the development of the Electronic Encyclopedia of Earthquakes (E3), a collaborative project with CUREE and IRIS. The E3 development system is now fully

M. L. Benthien

2003-01-01

62

Twitter Seismology: Earthquake Monitoring and Response in a Social World  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is investigating how the social networking site Twitter, a popular service for sending and receiving short, public, text messages, can augment USGS earthquake response products and the delivery of hazard information. The potential uses of Twitter for earthquake response include broadcasting earthquake alerts, rapidly detecting widely felt events, qualitatively assessing earthquake damage effects, communicating with the public, and participating in post-event collaboration. Several seismic networks and agencies are currently distributing Twitter earthquake alerts including the European-Mediterranean Seismological Centre (@LastQuake), Natural Resources Canada (@CANADAquakes), and the Indonesian meteorological agency (@infogempabmg); the USGS will soon distribute alerts via the @USGSted and @USGSbigquakes Twitter accounts. Beyond broadcasting alerts, the USGS is investigating how to use tweets that originate near the epicenter to detect and characterize shaking events. This is possible because people begin tweeting immediately after feeling an earthquake, and their short narratives and exclamations are available for analysis within 10's of seconds of the origin time. Using five months of tweets that contain the word "earthquake" and its equivalent in other languages, we generate a tweet-frequency time series. The time series clearly shows large peaks correlated with the origin times of widely felt events. To identify possible earthquakes, we use a simple Short-Term-Average / Long-Term-Average algorithm similar to that commonly used to detect seismic phases. As with most auto-detection algorithms, the parameters can be tuned to catch more or less events at the cost of more or less false triggers. When tuned to a moderate sensitivity, the detector found 48 globally-distributed, confirmed seismic events with only 2 false triggers. A space-shuttle landing and "The Great California ShakeOut" caused the false triggers. This number of detections is very small compared to the 5,175 earthquakes in the USGS PDE global earthquake catalog for the same five month time period, and no accurate location or magnitude can be assigned based on Tweet data alone. However, Twitter earthquake detections are not without merit. The detections are generally caused by widely felt events that are of more immediate interest than those with no human impact. The detections are also fast; about 80% occurred within 2 minutes of the origin time. This is considerably faster than seismographic detections in poorly instrumented regions of the world. The tweets triggering the detections also provided (very) short first-impression narratives from people who experienced the shaking. The USGS will continue investigating how to use Twitter and other forms of social media to augment is current suite of seismographically derived products.

Bowden, D. C.; Earle, P. S.; Guy, M.; Smoczyk, G.

2011-12-01

63

Earthquakes!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A strong earthquake struck Istanbul, Turkey on Monday, only weeks after a major quake in the same area claimed more than 15,500 lives. This site, from The Why Files (see the August 9, 1996 Scout Report), offers background information on the science of earthquakes, with particular emphasis on the recent tectonic activity in Turkey.

64

Simplifying Construction of Complex Workflows for Non-Expert Users of the Southern California Earthquake Center Community Modeling Environment  

E-print Network

90292, (3) Southern California Earthquake Center, USC, Los Angeles CA, 90089, USA, {Corresponding Author of the Community Modeling Environment developed by the Southern California Earthquake Center, these toolsSimplifying Construction of Complex Workflows for Non-Expert Users of the Southern California

Kim, Jihie

65

Data and Visualizations in the Southern California Earthquake Center's Fault Information System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Southern California Earthquake Center's Fault Information System (FIS) provides a single point of access to fault-related data and models from multiple databases and datasets. The FIS is built of computer code, metadata and Web interfaces based on Web services technology, which enables queries and data interchange irrespective of computer software or platform. Currently we have working prototypes of programmatic

S. Perry

2003-01-01

66

Earthquake  

MedlinePLUS

... during an earthquake, even if there is no fire. If You Are Outside When the Shaking Starts... Find a clear spot (away from buildings, power lines, trees, streetlights) and drop to the ground. Stay there ...

67

Glacier quakes mimicking volcanic earthquakes: The challenge of monitoring ice-clad volcanoes and some solutions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Swarms of repeating earthquakes at volcanoes are often a sign of volcanic unrest. However, glaciers also can generate repeating seismic signals, so detecting unrest at glacier-covered volcanoes can be a challenge. We have found that multi-day swarms of shallow, low-frequency, repeating earthquakes occur regularly at Mount Rainier, a heavily glaciated stratovolcano in Washington, but that most swarms had escaped recognition until recently. Typically such earthquakes were too small to be routinely detected by the seismic network and were often buried in the noise on visual records, making the few swarms that had been detected seem more unusual and significant at the time they were identified. Our comprehensive search for repeating earthquakes through the past 10 years of continuous seismic data uncovered more than 30 distinct swarms of low-frequency earthquakes at Rainier, each consisting of hundreds to thousands of events. We found that these swarms locate high on the glacier-covered edifice, occur almost exclusively between late fall and early spring, and that their onset coincides with heavy snowfalls. We interpret the correlation with snowfall to indicate a seismically observable glacial response to snow loading. Efforts are underway to confirm this by monitoring glacier motion before and after a major snowfall event using ground based radar interferometry. Clearly, if the earthquakes in these swarms reflect a glacial source, then they are not directly related to volcanic activity. However, from an operational perspective they make volcano monitoring difficult because they closely resemble earthquakes that often precede and accompany volcanic eruptions. Because we now have a better sense of the background level of such swarms and know that their occurrence is seasonal and correlated with snowfall, it will now be easier to recognize if future swarms at Rainier are unusual and possibly related to volcanic activity. To methodically monitor for such unusual activity, we are implementing an automatic detection algorithm to continuously search for repeating earthquakes at Mount Rainier, an algorithm that we eventually intend to apply to other Cascade volcanoes. We propose that a comprehensive routine that characterizes background levels of repeating earthquakes and the degree of correlation with weather and seasonal forcing, combined with real-time monitoring for repeating earthquakes, will provide a means to more rapidly discriminate between glacier seismicity and seismicity related to volcanic activity on monitored glacier-clad volcanoes.

Allstadt, K.; Carmichael, J. D.; Malone, S. D.; Bodin, P.; Vidale, J. E.; Moran, S. C.

2012-12-01

68

K12 Education Program Lessons Learned at the Center for Earthquake Research and Information  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Center for Earthquake Research and Information at the University of Memphis has been committed to increasing awareness for Seismic Hazard, Earthquake Engineering, and Earth Science among Mid-America's policy-makers, engineers, emergency managers, the general public, and K-12 teachers and students for nearly three decades. During that time we have learned many lessons related to providing effective education and outreach programs, especially for K-12 students. The lessons learned from these activities may be particularly appropriate for other regions where large earthquakes occur infrequently but have disproportionately high consequence areas due to low attenuation of seismic waves. Effective education programs in these settings must provide a consistent message across many states to a wide variety of socio-economic groups and professional communities through the leveraged resources of various groups and agencies. It is also beneficial to hire and train staff with K-12 teaching experience to work directly K-12 education organizations, and science curriculum coordinators.

Patterson, G. L.; Dry, M.

2003-12-01

69

Correlation of major eastern earthquake centers with mafic/ultramafic basement masses  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Extensive gravity highs and associated magnetic anomalies are present in or near seven major eastern North American earthquake areas as defined by Hadley and Devine (1974). The seven include the five largest of the eastern North American earthquake .centers. The immediate localities of the gravity anomalies are, however, relatively free of seismicity, particularly the largest events. The anomalies are presumably caused by extensive mafic or ultramafic masses embedded in the crystalline basement. Laboratory experiments show that serpentinized gabbro and dunite fail under stress in a creep mode rather than in a stick-slip mode. A possible explanation of the correlation between the earthquake patterns and the anomalies is that the mafic/ultramafic masses are serpentinized and can only sustain low stress fields thereby acting to concentrate regional stress outside their boundaries. The proposed model is analogous to the hole-in-plate problem of mechanics whereby stresses around a hole in a stressed plate may. reach values several times the average.

Kane, Martin Francis

1977-01-01

70

Potential utilization of the NASA/George C. Marshall Space Flight Center in earthquake engineering research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Earthquake engineering research capabilities of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) facilities at George C. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), Alabama, were evaluated. The results indicate that the NASA/MSFC facilities and supporting capabilities offer unique opportunities for conducting earthquake engineering research. Specific features that are particularly attractive for large scale static and dynamic testing of natural and man-made structures include the following: large physical dimensions of buildings and test bays; high loading capacity; wide range and large number of test equipment and instrumentation devices; multichannel data acquisition and processing systems; technical expertise for conducting large-scale static and dynamic testing; sophisticated techniques for systems dynamics analysis, simulation, and control; and capability for managing large-size and technologically complex programs. Potential uses of the facilities for near and long term test programs to supplement current earthquake research activities are suggested.

Scholl, R. E. (editor)

1979-01-01

71

88 hours: the U.S. Geological Survey National Earthquake Information Center response to the March 11, 2011 Mw 9.0 Tohoku earthquake  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The M 9.0 11 March 2011 Tohoku, Japan, earthquake and associated tsunami near the east coast of the island of Honshu caused tens of thousands of deaths and potentially over one trillion dollars in damage, resulting in one of the worst natural disasters ever recorded. The U.S. Geological Survey National Earthquake Information Center (USGS NEIC), through its responsibility to respond to all significant global earthquakes as part of the National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program, quickly produced and distributed a suite of earthquake information products to inform emergency responders, the public, the media, and the academic community of the earthquake's potential impact and to provide scientific background for the interpretation of the event's tectonic context and potential for future hazard. Here we present a timeline of the NEIC response to this devastating earthquake in the context of rapidly evolving information emanating from the global earthquake-response community. The timeline includes both internal and publicly distributed products, the relative timing of which highlights the inherent tradeoffs between the requirement to provide timely alerts and the necessity for accurate, authoritative information. The timeline also documents the iterative and evolutionary nature of the standard products produced by the NEIC and includes a behind-the-scenes look at the decisions, data, and analysis tools that drive our rapid product distribution.

David J Wald; Gavin P Hayes; Harley M Benz; Paul S Earle; Richard Briggs

2011-01-01

72

Effects of a major earthquake on calls to regional poison control centers.  

PubMed Central

We retrospectively evaluated the effect of the Loma Prieta earthquake on calls to 2 designated regional poison control centers (San Francisco and Santa Clara) in the area. In the immediate 12 hours after the earthquake, there was an initial drop (31%) in call volume, related to telephone system overload and other technical problems. Calls from Bay Area counties outside of San Francisco and Santa Clara decreased more dramatically than those from within the host counties where the poison control centers are located. In the next 2 days, each poison control center then handled a 27% increase in call volume. Requests for information regarding safety of water supplies and other environmental concerns were significantly increased. The number of cases of actual poisoning exposure decreased, particularly poison and drug ingestions in children. Most calls directly related to the earthquake included spills and leaks of hazardous materials and questions about water and food safety. Regional poison control centers play an essential role in the emergency medical response to major disasters and are critically dependent on an operational telephone system. PMID:1595244

Nathan, A. R.; Olson, K. R.; Everson, G. W.; Kearney, T. E.; Blanc, P. D.

1992-01-01

73

EQInfo - earthquakes world-wide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

EQInfo is a free Android app providing recent earthquake information from various earthquake monitoring centers as GFZ, EMSC, USGS and others. It allows filtering of agency, region and magnitude as well as controlling update interval, institute priority and alarm types. Used by more than 25k active users and beeing in the top ten list of Google Play, EQInfo is one of the most popular apps for earthquake information.

Weber, Bernd; Herrnkind, Stephan

2014-05-01

74

Towards implementation of the GRiD MT algorithm for near real-time calculation of moment tensors at the Alaska Earthquake Information Center  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Alaska Earthquake Information Center (AEIC) locates approximately 30,000 earthquakes a year and is the primary source for earthquake information for the state of Alaska. This information is vital for the state; the most seismically active in the Union and home to significant infrastructure such as the Trans-Alaska Pipeline and Anchorage, a city with a population of over 295,000. The ability to quickly characterize an earthquake's moment and mechanism and make this information available to the public is a fundamental component of the AEIC's mission. In order to enhance the AEIC's capabilities in this regard, we are implementing the GRiD MT algorithm. This algorithm monitors a grid of potential sources by continuously cross-correlating pre-computed Green's functions with a data stream, allowing source locations and mechanisms to be determined rapidly. The algorithm has been employed effectively by the Berkeley Seismological Laboratory, the Earthquake Research Institute at the University of Tokyo, and by Academia Sinica in Taiwan. We show preliminary results for Alaska obtained by running the off-line, research version of the GRiD MT code for a 8°×8° grid that covers Anchorage and a segment of the Aleutian megathrust. Because even broad-band instruments may be off scale in the event of a large earthquake, we applied the algorithm to both strong-motion and high-rate GPS data. The results show that the algorithm is able to quickly produce accurate moment tensors for test cases employing both synthetic and real data. Based on these encouraging initial results, we are now incorporating GRiD MT into the AEIC's monitoring infrastructure by developing an interface for the Antelope real-time system and by expanding the grid to cover a larger portion of the Alaska region. Moment tensors determined by GRiD MT will complement the AEIC's existing real-time monitoring capability.

Macpherson, K. A.; Ruppert, N. A.; Dreger, D. S.; Lombard, P. N.; Freymueller, J. T.; Nicolsky, D.; Guilhem, A.

2013-12-01

75

The Northern California Earthquake Management System: A Unified System From Realtime Monitoring to Data Distribution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The longstanding cooperation between the USGS Menlo Park and UC Berkeley's Seismological Laboratory for monitoring earthquakes and providing data to the research community is achieving a new level of integration. While station support and data collection for each network (NC, BK, BP) remain the responsibilities of the host institution, picks, codas and amplitudes will be produced and shared between the

D. Neuhauser; L. Dietz; P. Lombard; F. Klein; S. Zuzlewski; W. Kohler; M. Hellweg; J. Luetgert; D. Oppenheimer; B. Romanowicz

2006-01-01

76

Real-Time Data Processing Systems and Products at the Alaska Earthquake Information Center  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Alaska Earthquake Information Center (AEIC) receives data from over 400 seismic sites located within the state boundaries and the surrounding regions and serves as a regional data center. In 2007, the AEIC reported ~20,000 seismic events, with the largest event of M6.6 in Andreanof Islands. The real-time earthquake detection and data processing systems at AEIC are based on the Antelope system from BRTT, Inc. This modular and extensible processing platform allows an integrated system complete from data acquisition to catalog production. Multiple additional modules constructed with the Antelope toolbox have been developed to fit particular needs of the AEIC. The real-time earthquake locations and magnitudes are determined within 2-5 minutes of the event occurrence. AEIC maintains a 24/7 seismologist-on-duty schedule. Earthquake alarms are based on the real- time earthquake detections. Significant events are reviewed by the seismologist on duty within 30 minutes of the occurrence with information releases issued for significant events. This information is disseminated immediately via the AEIC website, ANSS website via QDDS submissions, through e-mail, cell phone and pager notifications, via fax broadcasts and recorded voice-mail messages. In addition, automatic regional moment tensors are determined for events with M>=4.0. This information is posted on the public website. ShakeMaps are being calculated in real-time with the information currently accessible via a password-protected website. AEIC is designing an alarm system targeted for the critical lifeline operations in Alaska. AEIC maintains an extensive computer network to provide adequate support for data processing and archival. For real-time processing, AEIC operates two identical, interoperable computer systems in parallel.

Ruppert, N. A.; Hansen, R. A.

2007-05-01

77

Application of Collocated GPS and Seismic Sensors to Earthquake Monitoring and Early Warning  

PubMed Central

We explore the use of collocated GPS and seismic sensors for earthquake monitoring and early warning. The GPS and seismic data collected during the 2011 Tohoku-Oki (Japan) and the 2010 El Mayor-Cucapah (Mexico) earthquakes are analyzed by using a tightly-coupled integration. The performance of the integrated results is validated by both time and frequency domain analysis. We detect the P-wave arrival and observe small-scale features of the movement from the integrated results and locate the epicenter. Meanwhile, permanent offsets are extracted from the integrated displacements highly accurately and used for reliable fault slip inversion and magnitude estimation. PMID:24284765

Li, Xingxing; Zhang, Xiaohong; Guo, Bofeng

2013-01-01

78

Providing Seismotectonic Information to the Public Through Continuously Updated National Earthquake Information Center Products  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the main missions of the United States Geological Survey (USGS) National Earthquake Information Center (NEIC) is the dissemination of information to national and international agencies, scientists, and the general public through various products such as ShakeMap and earthquake summary posters. During the summer of 2012, undergraduate and graduate student interns helped to update and improve our series of regional seismicity posters and regional tectonic summaries. The "Seismicity of the Earth (1900-2007)" poster placed over a century's worth of global seismicity data in the context of plate tectonics, highlighting regions that have experienced great (M+8.0) earthquakes, and the tectonic settings of those events. This endeavor became the basis for a series of more regionalized seismotectonic posters that focus on major subduction zones and their associated seismicity, including the Aleutian and Caribbean arcs. The first round of these posters were inclusive of events through 2007, and were made with the intent of being continually updated. Each poster includes a regional tectonic summary, a seismic hazard map, focal depth cross-sections, and a main map that illustrates the following: the main subduction zone and other physiographic features, seismicity, and rupture zones of historic great earthquakes. Many of the existing regional seismotectonic posters have been updated and new posters highlighting regions of current seismological interest have been created, including the Sumatra and Java arcs, the Middle East region and the Himalayas (all of which are currently in review). These new editions include updated lists of earthquakes, expanded tectonic summaries, updated relative plate motion vectors, and major crustal faults. These posters thus improve upon previous editions that included only brief tectonic discussions of the most prominent features and historic earthquakes, and which did not systematically represent non-plate boundary faults. Regional tectonic summaries provide the public with immediate background information useful for teaching and media related purposes and are an essential component to many NEIC products. As part of the NEIC's earthquake response, rapid earthquake summary posters are created in the hours following a significant global earthquake. These regional tectonic summaries are included in each earthquake summary poster along with a discussion of the event, written by research scientists at the NEIC, often with help from regional experts. Now, through the efforts of this and related studies, event webpages will automatically contain a regional tectonic summary immediately after an event has been posted. These new summaries include information about plate boundary interactions and other associated tectonic elements, trends in seismicity and brief descriptions of significant earthquakes that have occurred in a region. The tectonic summaries for the following regions have been updated as part of this work: South America, the Caribbean, Alaska and the Aleutians, Kuril-Kamchatka, Japan and vicinity, and Central America, with newly created summaries for Sumatra and Java, the Mediterranean, Middle East, and the Himalayas. The NEIC is currently planning to integrate concise stylized maps with each tectonic summary for display on the USGS website.

Bernardino, M. J.; Hayes, G. P.; Dannemann, F.; Benz, H.

2012-12-01

79

Novel Algorithms Enabling Rapid, Real-Time Earthquake Monitoring and Tsunami Early Warning Worldwide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have introduced recently new methods to determine rapidly the tsunami potential and magnitude of large earthquakes (e.g., Lomax and Michelini, 2009ab, 2011, 2012). To validate these methods we have implemented them along with other new algorithms within the Early-est earthquake monitor at INGV-Rome (http://early-est.rm.ingv.it, http://early-est.alomax.net). Early-est is a lightweight software package for real-time earthquake monitoring (including phase picking, phase association and event detection, location, magnitude determination, first-motion mechanism determination, ...), and for tsunami early warning based on discriminants for earthquake tsunami potential. In a simulation using archived broadband seismograms for the devastating M9, 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami, Early-est determines: the epicenter within 3 min after the event origin time, discriminants showing very high tsunami potential within 5-7 min, and magnitude Mwpd(RT) 9.0-9.2 and a correct shallow-thrusting mechanism within 8 min. Real-time monitoring with Early-est givess similar results for most large earthquakes using currently available, real-time seismogram data. Here we summarize some of the key algorithms within Early-est that enable rapid, real-time earthquake monitoring and tsunami early warning worldwide: >>> FilterPicker - a general purpose, broad-band, phase detector and picker (http://alomax.net/FilterPicker); >>> Robust, simultaneous association and location using a probabilistic, global-search; >>> Period-duration discriminants TdT0 and TdT50Ex for tsunami potential available within 5 min; >>> Mwpd(RT) magnitude for very large earthquakes available within 10 min; >>> Waveform P polarities determined on broad-band displacement traces, focal mechanisms obtained with the HASH program (Hardebeck and Shearer, 2002); >>> SeisGramWeb - a portable-device ready seismogram viewer using web-services in a browser (http://alomax.net/webtools/sgweb/info.html). References (see also: http://alomax.net/pub_list.html): Lomax, A. and A. Michelini (2012), Tsunami early warning within 5 minutes, Pure and Applied Geophysics, 169, nnn-nnn, doi: 10.1007/s00024-012-0512-6. Lomax, A. and A. Michelini (2011), Tsunami early warning using earthquake rupture duration and P-wave dominant period: the importance of length and depth of faulting, Geophys. J. Int., 185, 283-291, doi: 10.1111/j.1365-246X.2010.04916.x. Lomax, A. and A. Michelini (2009b), Tsunami early warning using earthquake rupture duration, Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, L09306, doi:10.1029/2009GL037223. Lomax, A. and A. Michelini (2009a), Mwpd: A Duration-Amplitude Procedure for Rapid Determination of Earthquake Magnitude and Tsunamigenic Potential from P Waveforms, Geophys. J. Int.,176, 200-214, doi:10.1111/j.1365-246X.2008.03974.x

Lomax, A.; Michelini, A.

2012-12-01

80

Development of volcano monitoring technique using repeating earthquakes observed by the Volcano Observation Network of NIED  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After the Grate East Japan Earthquake (M9.0) on March 11, 2011, the M6.4 earthquake occurred beneath Mt. Fuji on March 15, 2011. Although the hypocenter seemed to be very close to an assumed magma chamber of Fuji volcano, no anomalies in volcanic activity have been observed until August 2012. As an example, after the M6.1 earthquake occurred in 1998 at southwest of Iwate volcano, a change of seismic velocity structure (e.g. Nishimura et al., 2000) was observed as well as active seismicity and crustal deformation. It had affected waveforms of repeating earthquakes occurring at a plate subduction zone, that is, the waveform similarities were reduced just after the earthquake due to upwelling of magma. In this study, first we analyzed for Mt. Fuji where such changes are expected by the occurrence of the earthquake to try to develop a tool for monitoring active volcanoes using the Volcano Observation network (V-net) data. We used seismic waveform data of repeating earthquakes observed by short period seismometers of V-net and the High Sensitivity Seismograph Network Japan (Hi-net) stations near Fuji volcano after 2007. The seismic data were recorded with a sampling rate of 100 Hz, and we applied 4-8 Hz band pass filter to reduce noise. The repeating earthquakes occurred at the plate subduction zone and their catalog is compiled by Hi-net data (Kimura et al., 2006). We extracted repeating earthquake groups that include earthquakes before and after the M6.4 earthquake on March 15, 2011. A waveform of the first event of the group and waveforms of the other events are compared and calculated cross-correlation coefficients. We adjusted P wave arrivals of each event and calculate the coefficients and lag times of the latter part of the seismic waves with the time window of 1.25 s. We searched the best fit maximizing the cross-correlation coefficients with 0.1 s shift time at each time window. As a result we found three remarkable points at this time. [1] Comparing lag times of (a) a pair that both earthquakes are before March 15, 2011, and (b) a pair that before and after March 15, 2011, (b) has bigger time delay at several stations than (a). [2] The delays for several pairs of earthquakes are obtained at NIED V-net stations established just around Mt. Fuji. On the other hand Hi-net stations which are far from the edifice have the smaller delays. [3] Some stations, FJNV, FJHV, FJYV, located on the west part of the edifice have bigger delays than the others. An obvious delay comes out at the S wave coda part, and does not in the P wave coda part or S wave. As one of the possibilities to create the delays, it is considered that, for example, seismic velocity structure beneath Mt. Fuji had changed since the M6.4 earthquake. In the case of the unrest of Iwate volcano in 1998, waves passing through the magma chamber had got delayed (e.g. Yamawaki et al., 2004). It is important to install borehole type seismometers just around a volcano, like V-net stations, to get high quality seismograms for precise study like this analysis and to get some changes of volcano activities.

Kohno, Y.; Ueda, H.; Kimura, H.; Nagai, M.; Miyagi, Y.; Fujita, E.; Kozono, T.; Tanada, T.

2012-12-01

81

Probabilistic micro-earthquake location for reservoir monitoring  

E-print Network

. Roel Snieder Center for Wave Phenomena Colorado School of Mines Golden, Colorado 80401 (1) 303 273 submitted to the Faculty and the Board of Trustees of the Colorado School of Mines in partial fulfillment uniformity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 2.3.4 Mutual information . . . . . . . . . . . .

Snieder, Roel

82

Implications of the World Trade Center Health Program (WTCHP) for the Public Health Response to the Great East Japan Earthquake  

PubMed Central

The attacks on the World Trade Center (WTC) on September 11, 2001 resulted in a serious burden of physical and mental illness for the 50,000 rescue workers that responded to 9/11 as well as the 400,000 residents and workers in the surrounding areas of New York City. The Zadroga Act of 2010 established the WTC Health Program (WTCHP) to provide monitoring and treatment of WTC exposure-related conditions and health surveillance for the responder and survivor populations. Several reports have highlighted the applicability of insights gained from the WTCHP to the public health response to the Great East Japan Earthquake. Optimal exposure monitoring processes and attention to the welfare of vulnerable exposed sub-groups are critical aspects of the response to both incidents. The ongoing mental health care concerns of 9/11 patients accentuate the need for accessible and appropriately skilled mental health care in Fukushima. Active efforts to demonstrate transparency and to promote community involvement in the public health response will be highly important in establishing successful long-term monitoring and treatment programs for the exposed populations in Fukushima. PMID:24317449

CRANE, Michael A.; CHO, Hyunje G.; LANDRIGAN, Phillip J.

2013-01-01

83

New approach for earthquake/tsunami monitoring using dense GPS networks  

PubMed Central

In recent times increasing numbers of high-rate GPS stations have been installed around the world and set-up to provide data in real-time. These networks provide a great opportunity to quickly capture surface displacements, which makes them important as potential constituents of earthquake/tsunami monitoring and warning systems. The appropriate GPS real-time data analysis with sufficient accuracy for this purpose is a main focus of the current GPS research. In this paper we propose an augmented point positioning method for GPS based hazard monitoring, which can achieve fast or even instantaneous precise positioning without relying on data of a specific reference station. The proposed method overcomes the limitations of the currently mostly used GPS processing approaches of relative positioning and global precise point positioning. The advantages of the proposed approach are demonstrated by using GPS data, which was recorded during the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake in Japan. PMID:24045328

Li, Xingxing; Ge, Maorong; Zhang, Yong; Wang, Rongjiang; Xu, Peiliang; Wickert, Jens; Schuh, Harald

2013-01-01

84

New approach for earthquake/tsunami monitoring using dense GPS networks.  

PubMed

In recent times increasing numbers of high-rate GPS stations have been installed around the world and set-up to provide data in real-time. These networks provide a great opportunity to quickly capture surface displacements, which makes them important as potential constituents of earthquake/tsunami monitoring and warning systems. The appropriate GPS real-time data analysis with sufficient accuracy for this purpose is a main focus of the current GPS research. In this paper we propose an augmented point positioning method for GPS based hazard monitoring, which can achieve fast or even instantaneous precise positioning without relying on data of a specific reference station. The proposed method overcomes the limitations of the currently mostly used GPS processing approaches of relative positioning and global precise point positioning. The advantages of the proposed approach are demonstrated by using GPS data, which was recorded during the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake in Japan. PMID:24045328

Li, Xingxing; Ge, Maorong; Zhang, Yong; Wang, Rongjiang; Xu, Peiliang; Wickert, Jens; Schuh, Harald

2013-01-01

85

Southern California Earthquake Center - SCEC1: Final Report Summary Alternative Earthquake Source Characterization for the Los Angeles Region  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective my research has been to synthesize current understanding of the tectonics and faults of the Los Angeles Basin and surrounding region to quantify uncertainty in the characterization of earthquake sources used for geologically- and geodetically-based regional earthquake likelihood models. This work has focused on capturing epistemic uncertainty; i.e. uncertainty stemming from ignorance of the true characteristics of the

Foxall

2003-01-01

86

Basin-centered asperities in great subduction zone earthquakes: A link between slip, subsidence, and subduction erosion?  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Published areas of high coseismic slip, or asperities, for 29 of the largest Circum-Pacific megathrust earthquakes are compared to forearc structure revealed by satellite free-air gravity, bathymetry, and seismic profiling. On average, 71% of an earthquake's seismic moment and 79% of its asperity area occur beneath the prominent gravity low outlining the deep-sea terrace; 57% of an earthquake's asperity area, on average, occurs beneath the forearc basins that lie within the deep-sea terrace. In SW Japan, slip in the 1923, 1944, 1946, and 1968 earthquakes was largely centered beneath five forearc basins whose landward edge overlies the 350??C isotherm on the plate boundary, the inferred downdip limit of the locked zone. Basin-centered coseismic slip also occurred along the Aleutian, Mexico, Peru, and Chile subduction zones but was ambiguous for the great 1964 Alaska earthquake. Beneath intrabasin structural highs, seismic slip tends to be lower, possibly due to higher temperatures and fluid pressures. Kilometers of late Cenozoic subsidence and crustal thinning above some of the source zones are indicated by seismic profiling and drilling and are thought to be caused by basal subduction erosion. The deep-sea terraces and basins may evolve not just by growth of the outer arc high but also by interseismic subsidence not recovered during earthquakes. Basin-centered asperities could indicate a link between subsidence, subduction erosion, and seismogenesis. Whatever the cause, forearc basins may be useful indicators of long-term seismic moment release. The source zone for Cascadia's 1700 A.D. earthquake contains five large, basin-centered gravity lows that may indicate potential asperities at depth. The gravity gradient marking the inferred downdip limit to large coseismic slip lies offshore, except in northwestern Washington, where the low extends landward beneath the coast. Transverse gravity highs between the basins suggest that the margin is seismically segmented and could produce a variety of large earthquakes. Published in 2003 by the American Geophysical Union.

Wells, R.E.; Blakely, R.J.; Sugiyama, Y.; Scholl, D.W.; Dinterman, P.A.

2003-01-01

87

Disasters; the 2010 Haitian earthquake and the evacuation of burn victims to US burn centers.  

PubMed

Response to the 2010 Haitian earthquake included an array of diverse yet critical actions. This paper will briefly review the evacuation of a small group of patients with burns to burn centers in the southeastern United States (US). This particular evacuation brought together for the first time plans, groups, and organizations that had previously only exercised this process. The response to the Haitian earthquake was a glimpse at what the international community working together can do to help others, and relieve suffering following a catastrophic disaster. The international response was substantial. This paper will trace one evacuation, one day for one unique group of patients with burns to burn centers in the US and review the lessons learned from this process. The patient population with burns being evacuated from Haiti was very small compared to the overall operation. Nevertheless, the outcomes included a better understanding of how a larger event could challenge the limited resources for all involved. This paper includes aspects of the patient movement, the logistics needed, and briefly discusses reimbursement for the care provided. PMID:24411582

Kearns, Randy D; Holmes, James H; Skarote, Mary Beth; Cairns, Charles B; Strickland, Samantha Cooksey; Smith, Howard G; Cairns, Bruce A

2014-09-01

88

The Southern California Earthquake Center\\/Undergraduate Studies in Earthquake Information Technology (SCEC\\/UseIT) Internship Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our undergraduate research program, SCEC\\/UseIT, an NSF Research Experience for Undergraduates site, provides software for earthquake researchers and educators, movies for outreach, and ways to strengthen the technical career pipeline. SCEC\\/UseIT motivates diverse undergraduates towards science and engineering careers through team-based research in the exciting field of earthquake information technology. UseIT provides the cross-training in computer science\\/information technology (CS\\/IT) and

S. Perry; T. Jordan

2006-01-01

89

Feasibility of acoustic monitoring of strength drop precursory to earthquake occurrence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rate- and state-dependent friction law (RSF), proposed on the basis of laboratory experiments, has been extensively applied to modeling of earthquake stick-slip cycles. A simple spring-slider model obeying RSF predicts a significant decrease of the frictional strength ? (the state of contact) that is localized within a few years preceding the earthquake occurrence. On the other hand, recent laboratory experiments successfully monitored the history of the strength by simultaneously measuring the P-wave transmissivity | T| across the frictional interface using a 1-MHz transducer. This suggests a possibility of earthquake forecast by monitoring the strength of a natural fault by acoustic methods. The present paper explores the feasibility of such monitoring in the field on the basis of the physics of RSF combined with the linear slip model (LSM) employed in the classical acoustic methodology for monitoring an imperfectly welded interface. The characteristic frequency f c , around which | T| (or reflectivity | R|) has a good sensitivity to the interface strength, is shown to be proportional to the strength and inversely proportional to the representative scale of real contacts. For natural faults, f c is estimated to be 1 to 100 Hz, which is practicable in the field. The changes of | T| and | R| depend on the ratio of the strength drop to the absolute strength level, the latter of which is not constrained by RSF simulations. Expected changes in wave amplitude in the preslip period would be several percent for strong faults and several tens percent for weak faults, which may be detectable by acoustic methods such as seismic reflection surveys.

Kame, Nobuki; Nagata, Kohei; Nakatani, Masao; Kusakabe, Tetsuya

2014-12-01

90

Monitoring the mental well-being of caregivers during the Haiti-earthquake.  

PubMed Central

Introduction During disaster relief, personnel’s safety is very important. Mental well being is a part of this safety issue. There is however a lack of objective mental well being monitoring tools, usable on scene, during disaster relief. This study covers the use of validated tools towards detection of psychological distress and monitoring of mental well being of disaster relief workers, during the Belgian First Aid and Support Team deployment after the Haiti earthquake in 2010. Methodology The study was conducted using a demographic questionnaire combined with validated measuring instruments: Belbin Team Role, Compassion Fatigue and Satisfaction Self-Test for Helpers, DMAT PsySTART, K6+ Self Report. A baseline measurement was performed before departure on mission, and measurements were repeated at day 1 and day 7 of the mission, at the end of mission, and 7 days, 30 days and 90 days post mission. Results 23 out of the 27 team members were included in the study. Using the Compassion Fatigue and Satisfaction Self-Test for Helpers as a monitoring tool, a stable condition was monitored in 7 participants, a dip in 5 participants, an arousal in 10 participants and a double pattern in 1 participant. Conclusions The study proved the ability to monitor mental well being and detect psychological distress, by self administered validated tools, during a real disaster relief mission. However for practical reasons some tools should be adapted to the specific use in the field. This study opens a whole new research area within the mental well being and monitoring field. Citation: Van der Auwera M, Debacker M, Hubloue I. Monitoring the mental well-being of caregivers during the Haiti-earthquake.. PLoS Currents Disasters. 2012 Jul 18 PMID:22953241

Van der Auwera, Marcel; Debacker, Michel; Hubloue, Ives

2012-01-01

91

USGS contributions to earthquake and tsunami monitoring in the Caribbean Region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

USGS Caribbean Project Team: Lind Gee, Gary Gyure, John Derr, Jack Odum, John McMillan, David Carver, Jim Allen, Susan Rhea, Don Anderson, Harley Benz Caribbean Partners: Christa von Hillebrandt-Andrade-PRSN, Juan Payero ISU-UASD,DR, Eduardo Camacho - UPAN, Panama, Lloyd Lynch - SRU,Gonzalo Cruz - UNAH,Honduras, Margaret Wiggins-Grandison - Jamaica, Judy Thomas - CERO Barbados, Sylvan McIntyre - NADMA Grenada, E. Bermingham - STRI. The magnitude-9 Sumatra-Andaman Islands earthquake of December 26, 2004, increased global awareness of the destructive hazard posed by earthquakes and tsunamis. In response to this tragedy, the US government undertook a collaborative project to improve earthquake and tsunami monitoring along a major portion of vulnerable coastal regions, in the Caribbean Sea, the Gulf of Mexico, and the Atlantic Ocean. Seismically active areas of the Caribbean Sea region pose a tsunami risk for Caribbean islands, coastal areas along the Gulf of Mexico, and the Atlantic seaboard of North America. Nearly 100 tsunamis have been reported for the Caribbean region in the past 500 years, including 14 tsunamis reported in Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands. Partners in this project include the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the Smithsonian Institute, the National Oceanic and Aeronautic Administration (NOAA), and several partner institutions in the Caribbean region. This presentation focuses on the deployment of nine broadband seismic stations to monitor earthquake activity in the Caribbean region that are affiliated with the Global Seismograph Network (GSN). By the end of 2006, five stations were transmitting data to the USGS National Earthquake Information Service (NEIS), and regional partners through Puerto Rico seismograph network (PRSN) Earthworm systems. The following stations are currently operating: SDDR - Sabaneta Dam Dominican Republic, BBGH - Gun Hill Barbados, GRGR - Grenville, Grenada, BCIP - Barro Colorado, Panama, TGUH - Tegucigalpa, Honduras. These stations complement the existing GSN stations SJG - San Juan, Puerto Rico, SDV - Santo Domingo, Venezuela, TEIG - Tepich, Yucatan, Mexico, and JTS - Costa, Rica. 2007 will see the construction of two additional stations in Guantanamo Bay, Cuba and Barbuda. Planned stations in Jamaica and Grand Turks are awaiting local approval. In this presentation we examine noise conditions at the five operating sites and assess the capabilities of the current seismic network using three different measures of capability. The three measures of network capability are: 1) minimum Mw detection threshold; 2) response time of the automatic processing system and; 3) theoretical earthquake location errors. The new seismic stations are part of a larger effort to monitor and mitigate tsunami hazard in the region. Destructive earthquakes and tsunamis are known to be a threat in various parts of the Caribbean. We demonstrate that considerable improvement in network magnitude threshold, response time and earthquake location error have been achieved.

McNamara, D.; Caribbean Project Team, U.; Partners, C.

2007-05-01

92

Near-Real time, High Resolution Reservoir Monitoring and Modeling with Micro-earthquake Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a micro-earthquake recording and automated processing system along with a methodology to provide near-real time, high resolution reservoir monitoring and modeling. An interactive program for testing micro-earthquake network designs helps identify configurations for optimum accuracy and resolution. We select the Northwest Geysers, California geothermal field to showcase the usefulness of the system. The system's inexpensive recorders requires very little time or expertise to install, and the automated processing requires merely placing flash memory chips (or telemetry) into a computer. Together these make the deployment of a large numbers of sensors feasible and thus rapid, high resolution results possible. Data are arranged into input files for tomography for Vp, Vs, Qp and Qs, and their combinations to provide for interpretation in terms of rock properties. Micro-earthquake source parameters include seismic moments, full moment tensor solutions, stress drops, source durations, radiated energy, and hypocentral locations. The methodology for interpretation is to utilize visualization with GUI analysis to cross compare tomography and source property results along with borehole or other independent information and rock physics to identify reservoir properties. The system can potentially provide information heretofore unattainable or affordable to many small companies, organizations, and countries around the world.

Hutchings, L. J.; Jarpe, S.; Boyle, K. L.; Bonner, B. P.; Viegas, G.; Philson, H.; Statz-Boyer, P.; Majer, E.

2011-12-01

93

Strength Drop as a Detectable Earthquake Precursor by means of Acoustic Monitoring at a Natural Scale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rate- and state-dependent friction law (RSF), proposed on the basis of laboratory experiments, has been extensively applied to modeling earthquake stick-slip cycle. Simple spring-slider models with RSF predicted a significant decrease of frictional strength Phi (state of contact) that was localized within a few years preceding the occurrence of an earthquake. This suggested a possibility of earthquake forecast by monitoring the strength of a natural fault by means of acoustic methodology. Recent laboratory experiments, on the other hand, successfully monitored the histories of strength in two major servo-controlled velocity-step- and hold-slide-tests by means of simultaneously measured P-wave transmissivity |T| across the frictional interface using a 1 MHz transducer. However, critical problems remained that how such acoustic monitoring can be realized at a natural scale and how large changes can really occur. The present paper explored the feasibility based on physics of RSF combined with displacement discontinuity model (DDM) proposed in the classical acoustic methodology for monitoring mechanical properties of a partially contacted interface. It was here theoretically derived that I times greater strength and J times greater L on a natural fault than those in laboratory lead to a relationship fc^fld=(I/J) fc^lab, where L is a characteristic slip distance, fc is a characteristic frequency around which |T| is proportional to the strength, and superscripts indicate in the field and in laboratory, respectively. To start with the observed quantities of the order of strength 10MPa, L^lab=1micron and fc^lab=1MHz, fc^fld was estimated as 100 Hz for values of 100MPa strength and L=10cm assumed in seismic cycle simulations and it could be as low as 1 Hz for recently reported large L=1m and weak strength of 10MPa for the 2012 Mw9.0 Tohoku earthquake. The frequency range between 1 to 100 Hz would be seismically observable in the field. Expected change of |T| in the preslip period would depend on the ratio of the strength change to the absolute value, whereas the ratio is arbitrary in the simulations. The ratio could be more than 50 % if a weak fault is considered, and it would be easily detected by acoustic methods such as seismic reflection surveys.

Kame, N.; Nagata, K.; Nakatani, M.; Kusakabe, T.

2013-12-01

94

UNLV’s environmentally friendly Science and Engineering Building is monitored for earthquake shaking  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The University of Nevada Las Vegas’ (UNLV) Science and Engineering Building is at the cutting edge of environmentally friendly design. As the result of a recent effort by the U.S. Geological Survey’s National Strong Motion Project in cooperation with UNLV, the building is now also in the forefront of buildings installed with structural monitoring systems to measure response during earthquakes. This is particularly important because this is the first such building in Las Vegas. The seismic instrumentation will provide essential data to better understand the structural performance of buildings, especially in this seismically active region.

Kalkan, Erol; Savage, Woody; Reza, Shahneam; Knight, Eric; Tian, Ying

2013-01-01

95

Southern California Earthquake Center/Undergraduate Studies in Earthquake Information Technology (SCEC/UseIT): Towards the Next Generation of Internship  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The SCEC/UseIT internship program is training the next generation of earthquake scientist, with methods that can be adapted to other disciplines. UseIT interns work collaboratively, in multi-disciplinary teams, conducting computer science research that is needed by earthquake scientists. Since 2002, the UseIT program has welcomed 64 students, in some two dozen majors, at all class levels, from schools around the nation. Each summer''s work is posed as a ``Grand Challenge.'' The students then organize themselves into project teams, decide how to proceed, and pool their diverse talents and backgrounds. They have traditional mentors, who provide advice and encouragement, but they also mentor one another, and this has proved to be a powerful relationship. Most begin with fear that their Grand Challenge is impossible, and end with excitement and pride about what they have accomplished. The 22 UseIT interns in summer, 2005, were primarily computer science and engineering majors, with others in geology, mathematics, English, digital media design, physics, history, and cinema. The 2005 Grand Challenge was to "build an earthquake monitoring system" to aid scientists who must visualize rapidly evolving earthquake sequences and convey information to emergency personnel and the public. Most UseIT interns were engaged in software engineering, bringing new datasets and functionality to SCEC-VDO (Virtual Display of Objects), a 3D visualization software that was prototyped by interns last year, using Java3D and an extensible, plug-in architecture based on the Eclipse Integrated Development Environment. Other UseIT interns used SCEC-VDO to make animated movies, and experimented with imagery in order to communicate concepts and events in earthquake science. One movie-making project included the creation of an assessment to test the effectiveness of the movie''s educational message. Finally, one intern created an interactive, multimedia presentation of the UseIT program.

Perry, S.; Benthien, M.; Jordan, T. H.

2005-12-01

96

USGS: Earthquakes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Earthquake Center, from the U.S. Geological Survey, provides information about recent and historic earthquakes throughout the world. Maps and animations of the world and the USA illustrate the locations of earthquakes occurring within the last seven days or the last month. Maps and lists of historic earthquakes are also provided along with scientific data, an earthquake search tool, ShakeMaps, seismogram displays, and more. In addition, a large collection of "learning links" provides interactive tools, lesson plans, and activities for K-12 classrooms.

2007-03-30

97

Earthquake Monitoring: SeisComp3 at the Swiss National Seismic Network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Swiss Seismological Service (SED) has an ongoing responsibility to improve the seismicity monitoring capability for Switzerland. This is a crucial issue for a country with low background seismicity but where a large M6+ earthquake is expected in the next decades. With over 30 stations with spacing of ~25km, the SED operates one of the densest broadband networks in the world, which is complimented by ~ 50 realtime strong motion stations. The strong motion network is expected to grow with an additional ~80 stations over the next few years. Furthermore, the backbone of the network is complemented by broadband data from surrounding countries and temporary sub-networks for local monitoring of microseismicity (e.g. at geothermal sites). The variety of seismic monitoring responsibilities as well as the anticipated densifications of our network demands highly flexible processing software. We are transitioning all software to the SeisComP3 (SC3) framework. SC3 is a fully featured automated real-time earthquake monitoring software developed by GeoForschungZentrum Potsdam in collaboration with commercial partner, gempa GmbH. It is in its core open source, and becoming a community standard software for earthquake detection and waveform processing for regional and global networks across the globe. SC3 was originally developed for regional and global rapid monitoring of potentially tsunamagenic earthquakes. In order to fulfill the requirements of a local network recording moderate seismicity, SED has tuned configurations and added several modules. In this contribution, we present our SC3 implementation strategy, focusing on the detection and identification of seismicity on different scales. We operate several parallel processing "pipelines" to detect and locate local, regional and global seismicity. Additional pipelines with lower detection thresholds can be defined to monitor seismicity within dense subnets of the network. To be consistent with existing processing procedures, the nonlinloc algorithm was implemented for manual and automatic locations using 1D and 3D velocity models; plugins for improved automatic phase picking and Ml computation were developed; and the graphical user interface for manual review was extended (including pick uncertainty definition; first motion focal mechanisms; interactive review of station magnitude waveforms; full inclusion of strong motion data). SC3 locations are fully compatible with those derived from the existing in-house processing tools and are stored in a database derived from the QuakeML data model. The database is shared with the SED alerting software, which merges origins from both SC3 and external sources in realtime and handles the alerting procedure. With the monitoring software being transitioned to SeisComp3, acquisition, archival and dissemination of SED waveform data now conforms to the seedlink and ArcLink protocols and continuous archives can be accessed via SED and all EIDA (European Integrated Data Archives) web-sites. Further, a SC3 module for waveform parameterisation has been developed, allowing rapid computation of peak values of ground motion and other engineering parameters within minutes of a new event. An output of this module is USGS ShakeMap XML. n minutes of a new event. An output of this module is USGS ShakeMap XML.

Clinton, J. F.; Diehl, T.; Cauzzi, C.; Kaestli, P.

2011-12-01

98

Noise reduction in radon monitoring data using Kalman filter and application of results in earthquake precursory process research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Monitoring the concentration of radon gas is an established method for geophysical analyses and research, particularly in earthquake studies. A continuous radon monitoring station was implemented in Jooshan hotspring, Kerman province, south east Iran. The location was carefully chosen as a widely reported earthquake-prone zone. A common issue during monitoring of radon gas concentration is the possibility of noise disturbance by different environmental and instrumental parameters. A systematic mathematical analysis aiming at reducing such noises from data is reported here; for the first time, the Kalman filter (KF) has been used for radon gas concentration monitoring. The filtering is incorporated based on several seismic parameters of the area under study. A novel anomaly defined as "radon concentration spike crossing" is also introduced and successfully used in the study. Furthermore, for the first time, a mathematical pattern of a relationship between the radius of potential precursory phenomena and the distance between epicenter and the monitoring station is reported and statistically analyzed.

Namvaran, Mojtaba; Negarestani, Ali

2014-06-01

99

Rapid monitoring in vaccination campaigns during emergencies: the post-earthquake campaign in Haiti  

PubMed Central

Abstract Problem The earthquake that struck Haiti in January 2010 caused 1.5 million people to be displaced to temporary camps. The Haitian Ministry of Public Health and Population and global immunization partners developed a plan to deliver vaccines to those residing in these camps. A strategy was needed to determine whether the immunization targets set for the campaign were achieved. Approach Following the vaccination campaign, staff from the Ministry of Public Health and Population interviewed convenience samples of households – in specific predetermined locations in each of the camps – regarding receipt of the emergency vaccinations. A camp was targeted for “mop-up vaccination” – i.e. repeat mass vaccination – if more than?25% of the children aged 9 months to 7 years in the sample were found not to have received the emergency vaccinations. Local setting Rapid monitoring was implemented in camps located in the Port-au-Prince metropolitan area. Camps that housed more than?5000 people were monitored first. Relevant changes By the end of March 2010, 72 (23%) of the 310 vaccinated camps had been monitored. Although 32 (44%) of the monitored camps were targeted for mop-up vaccination, only six of them had received such repeat mass vaccination when checked several weeks after monitoring. Lessons learnt Rapid monitoring was only marginally beneficial in achieving immunization targets in the temporary camps in Port-au-Prince. More research is needed to evaluate the utility of conventional rapid monitoring, as well as other strategies, during post-disaster vaccination campaigns that involve mobile populations, particularly when there is little capacity to conduct repeat mass vaccination. PMID:24347735

Sugerman, David; Brennan, Muireann; Cadet, Jean Ronald; Ernsly, Jackson; Lacapère, François; Danovaro-Holliday, M Carolina; Mubalama, Jean-Claude; Nandy, Robin

2013-01-01

100

The Swift/XRT monitoring campaign of the Galactic center  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Starting in 2006, the Galactic center has been monitored on a nearly daily basis with the X-ray telescope on-board the Swift satellite. The short pointed observations have offered a unique view of the long-term X-ray behavior of Sgr A*, in particular of its X-ray flaring properties. The Swift campaign also provides an excellent setup to closely monitor the interaction of the supermassive black hole with the gaseous object G2. Because of the unique daily sampling, the Swift program may prove to serve as an important trigger for other observatories at different wavelengths. I will report on the latest results of the Swift X-ray monitoring campaign of the Galactic center.

Degenaar, Nathalie; Reynolds, M.; Miller, J. M.; Wijnands, R.; Kennea, J. A.; Haggard, D.; Gehrels, N.; Ponti, G.; Baganoff, F. K.; Markoff, S.; Altamirano, D.; Burrows, D. N.

2014-01-01

101

The Swift Monitoring Campaign of the Galactic center  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Starting in 2006, the Galactic center has been monitored on a nearly daily basis with the X-ray telescope on-board the Swift satellite. The short pointed observations have offered a unique view of the long-term X-ray behavior of Sgr A*, in particular of its X-ray flaring properties. The Swift campaign also provides an excellent setup to closely monitor the interaction of the supermassive black hole with the gaseous object G2. Because of the unique daily sampling, the Swift program may prove to serve as an important trigger for other observatories at different wavelengths. We present the latest results of the Swift X-ray monitoring campaign of the Galactic center.

Degenaar, Nathalie

102

Postseismic Deformation after the 1964 Great Alaskan Earthquake: Collaborative Research with Goddard Space Flight Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this project was to carry out GPS observations on the Kenai Peninsula, southern Alaska, in order to study the postseismic and contemporary deformation following the 1964 Alaska earthquake. All of the research supported in this grant was carried out in collaboration with Dr. Steven Cohen of Goddard Space Flight Center. The research funding from this grant primarily supported GPS fieldwork, along with the acquisition of computer equipment to allow analysis and modeling of the GPS data. A minor amount of salary support was provided by the PI, but the great majority of the salary support was provided by the Geophysical Institute. After the expiration of this grant, additional funding was obtained from the National Science Foundation to continue the work. This grant supported GPS field campaigns in August 1995, June 1996, May-June and September 1997, and May-June 1998. We initially began the work by surveying leveling benchmarks on the Kenai peninsula that had been surveyed after the 1964 earthquake. Changes in height from the 1964 leveling data to the 1995+ GPS data, corrected for the geoid-ellipsoid separation, give the total elevation change since the earthquake. Beginning in 1995, we also identified or established sites that were suitable for long-term surveying using GPS. In the subsequent annual GPS campaigns, we made regular measurements at these GPS marks, and steadily enhanced our set of points for which cumulative postseismic uplift data were available. From 4 years of Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements, we find significant spatial variations in present-day deformation between the eastern and western Kenai peninsula, Alaska. Sites in the eastern Kenai peninsula and Prince William Sound move to the NNW relative to North America, in the direction of Pacific-North America relative plate motion. Velocities decrease in magnitude from nearly the full plate rate in southern Prince William Sound to about 30 mm/yr at Seward and to about 5 mm/yr near Anchorage. In contrast, sites in the western Kenai peninsula move to the SW, in a nearly trenchward direction, with a velocity of about 20 mm/yr. The data are consistent with the shallow plate interface offshore and beneath the eastern Kenai and Prince William Sound being completely locked or nearly so, with elastic strain accumulation resulting in rapid motion in the direction of relative plate motion of sites in the overriding plate. The velocities of sites in the western Kenai, along strike to the southwest, are opposite in sign with those predicted from elastic strain accumulation. These data are incompatible with a significant locked region in this segment of the plate boundary. Trenchward velocities are found also for some sites in the Anchorage area. We interpret the trenchward velocities as being caused by a continuing postseismic transient from the 1964 great Alaska earthquake.

Freymueller, Jeffrey T.

1999-01-01

103

The continuous automatic monitoring network installed in Tuscany (Italy) since late 2002, to study earthquake precursory phenomena  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since late 2002, a continuous automatic monitoring network (CAMN) was designed, built and installed in Tuscany (Italy), in order to investigate and define the geochemical response of the aquifers to the local seismic activity. The purpose of the investigation was to identify eventual earthquake precursors. The CAMN is constituted by two groups of five measurement stations each. A first group

Lisa Pierotti; Roberto Cioni

2010-01-01

104

A statistical study of ionospheric earthquake precursors monitored by using equatorial ionization anomaly of GPS TEC in Taiwan during 20012007  

E-print Network

to construct daily latitude-time-TEC (LTT) plots to monitor the crest of equatorial ion- ization anomaly (EIA.0 earthquakes in Taiwan during 2001­2007, and therefore the aver- age recurrence is about 15 (14.6 = (365 � 6

Chen, Yuh-Ing

105

Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center Monitoring Manual Volume 2, Radiation Monitoring and Sampling  

SciTech Connect

The FRMAC Monitoring and Sampling Manual, Volume 2 provides standard operating procedures (SOPs) for field radiation monitoring and sample collection activities that are performed by the Monitoring group during a FRMAC response to a radiological emergency.

NSTec Aerial Measurement Systems

2012-07-31

106

Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center Overview of FRMAC Operations  

SciTech Connect

In the event of a major radiological emergency, 17 federal agencies with various statutory responsibilities have agreed to coordinate their efforts at the emergency scene under the umbrella of the Federal Radiological Emergency Response Plan. This cooperative effort will ensure that all federal radiological assistance fully supports their efforts to protect the public. the mandated federal cooperation ensures that each agency can obtain the data critical to its specific responsibilities. This Overview of Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC) describes the FRMAC response activities to a major radiological emergency. It also describes the federal assets and subsequent operational activities which provide federal radiological monitoring and assessment of the off-site areas.

NONE

1998-03-01

107

Seismic ACROSS Transmitter Installed at Morimachi above the Subducting Philippine Sea Plate for the Test Monitoring of the Seismogenic Zone of Tokai Earthquake not yet to Occur  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Here we report the first seismic monitoring system in active and constant operation for the wave propagation characteristics in tectonic region just above the subducting plate driving the coming catastrophic earthquakes. Developmental works of such a system (ACROSS; acronym for Accurately Controlled, Routinely Operated, Signal System) have been started in 1994 at Nagoya University and since 1996 also at TGC (Tono Geoscience Center) of JAEA promoted by Hyogoken Nanbu Earthquakes (1995 Jan.17, Mj=7.3). The ACROSS is a technology system including theory of signal and data processing based on the brand new concept of measurement methodology of Green function between a signal source and observation site. The works done for first generation system are reported at IWAM04 and in JAEA report (Kumazawa et al.,2007). The Meteorological Research Institute of JMA has started a project of test monitoring of Tokai area in 2004 in corporation with Shizuoka University to realize the practical use of the seismic ACROSS for earthquake prediction researches. The first target was set to Tokai Earthquake not yet to take place. The seismic ACROSS transmitter was designed so as to be appropriate for the sensitive monitoring of the deep active fault zone on the basis of the previous technology elements accumulated so far. The ground coupler (antenna) is a large steel-reinforced concrete block (over 20m3) installed in the basement rocks in order to preserve the stability. Eccentric moment of the rotary transmitter is 82 kgm at maximum, 10 times larger than that of the first generation. Carrier frequency of FM signal for practical use can be from 3.5 to 15 Hz, and the signal phase is accurately controlled by a motor with vector inverter synchronized with GPS clock with a precision of 10-4 radian or better. By referring to the existing structure model in this area (Iidaka et al., 2003), the site of the transmitting station was chosen at Morimachi so as to be appropriate for detecting the reflected wave from an anticipated fault plane of Tokai Earthquake, the boundary between Eurasian lithosphere and the subducting Philippine Sea Plate. Further several trials of new transmission protocol and also remote control are being made for the transmitter network of the next generation. The whole system appears working well as reported by Yoshida et al. (2008, This meeting).

Kunitomo, T.; Kumazawa, M.; Masuda, T.; Morita, N.; Torii, T.; Ishikawa, Y.; Yoshikawa, S.; Katsumata, A.; Yoshida, Y.

2008-12-01

108

Continued Chandra monitoring observations of the Galactic Center magnetar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have observed SGR J1745-29 (Kennea et al. 2013, ApJ 770, L24; Mori et al. 2013, ApJ 770, L23; Rea et al. 2013, ApJ 775, L34) with the ACIS-S camera onboard Chandra for about 47ks starting on 2014-02-21 (ObsID 16508), as part of the on-going Chandra X-ray monitoring of the Galactic Center region (PIs: Haggard, Baganoff, Rea).

Rea, Nanda; Haggard, Daryl; Baganoff, Fred; Heinke, Craig; Israel, Gian Luca; Ponti, Gabriele

2014-02-01

109

Monitoring of fluid-rock interaction in active fault zones: a new method of earthquake prediction/forecasting?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a new method for earthquake forecasting based on the "prediction in hindsight" of a Mw 5.8 earthquake on Iceland, on September 16, 2002. The "prediction in hindsight" is based on geochemical monitoring of geothermal water at site HU-01 located within the Tj”rnes Fracture Zone, northern Iceland, before and after the earthquake. During the 4 weeks before the earthquake exponential (<800%) increases in the concentration of Cu, Zn and Fe in the fluid, was measured, together with a linear increase of Na/Ca and a slight increase of ? 18O. We relate the hydrogeochemical changes before the earthquake to influx of fluid which interacted with the host rock at higher temperatures and suggest that fluid flow was facilitated by stress-induced modification of rock permeability, which enabled more rapid fluid-rock interaction. Stepwise increases (13-35 %) in the concentration of, Ba, Ca, K, Li, Na, Rb, S, Si, Sr, Cl, Br and SO4 and negative shifts in ? 18O and ? D was detected in the fluid immediately after the earthquake, which we relate to seismically-induced source switching and consequent influx of older (or purer) ice age meteoric waters. The newly tapped source reservoir has a chemically and isotopically distinct ice-age meteoric water signature, which is the result of a longer residence in the crust. The immediancy of these changes is consistent with experimentally-derived timescales of fault-sealing in response to coupled deformation and fluid flow, interpreted as source-switching. These precursory changes may be used to "predict" the earthquake up to 2 weeks before it occurs.

Claesson, L.; Skelton, A.; Graham, C.; Dietl, C.; Morth, M.; Torssander, P.

2003-12-01

110

Efficacy of intrathoracic impedance and remote monitoring in patients with an implantable device after the 2011 great East Japan earthquake.  

PubMed

Several studies have revealed that stress after catastrophic disasters can trigger cardiovascular events, however, little is known about its association with the occurrence of heart failure in past earthquakes. The objective of the present study was to determine whether the Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011, increased the incidence of worsening heart failure in chronic heart failure (CHF) patients with implantable devices. Furthermore, we examined whether intrathoracic impedance using remote monitoring was effective for the management of CHF.We enrolled 44 CHF patients (32 males, mean age 63 ± 12 years) with implantable devices that can check intrathoracic impedance using remote monitoring. We defined the worsening heart failure as accumulated impedance under reference impedance exceeding 60 ohms-days (fluid index threshold), and compared the incidence of worsening heart failure and arrhythmic events 30 days before and after March 11.Within the 30 days after March 11, 10 patients exceeded the threshold compared with only 2 patients in the preceding 30 days (P < 0.05). Although 9 patients using remote monitoring among the 10 patients with threshold crossings were not hospitalized, one patient without the system was hospitalized due to acute decompensated heart failure. On the contrary, arrhythmic events did not change between before and after March 11.Our results suggest that earthquake-induced stress causes an increased risk of worsening heart failure without changes in arrhythmia. Furthermore, intrathoracic impedance using remote monitoring may be a useful tool for the management of CHF in catastrophic disasters. PMID:24463930

Suzuki, Hitoshi; Yamada, Shinya; Kamiyama, Yoshiyuki; Takeishi, Yasuchika

2014-01-01

111

Results of seismological monitoring in the Cascade Range 1962-1989: earthquakes, eruptions, avalanches and other curiosities  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Modern monitoring of seismic activity at Cascade Range volcanoes began at Longmire on Mount Rainier in 1958. Since then, there has been an expansion of the regional seismic networks in Washington, northern Oregon and northern California. Now, the Cascade Range from Lassen Peak to Mount Shasta in the south and Newberry Volcano to Mount Baker in the north is being monitored for earthquakes as small as magnitude 2.0, and many of the stratovolcanoes are monitored for non-earthquake seismic activity. This monitoring has yielded three major observations. First, tectonic earthquakes are concentrated in two segments of the Cascade Range between Mount Rainier and Mount Hood and between Mount Shasta and Lassen Peak, whereas little seismicity occurs between Mount Hood and Mount Shasta. Second, the volcanic activity and associated phenomena at Mount St. Helens have produced intense and widely varied seismicity. And third, at the northern stratovolcanoes, signals generated by surficial events such as debris flows, icequakes, steam emissions, rockfalls and icefalls are seismically recorded. Such records have been used to alert authorities of dangerous events in progress. -Authors

Weaver, C. S.; Norris, R. D.; Jonientz-Trisler, C.

1990-01-01

112

First Results of 3 Year Monitoring of Red Wood Ants' Behavioural Changes and Their Possible Correlation with Earthquake Events  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Short-term earthquake predictions with an advance warning of several hours or days can currently not be performed reliably and remain limited to only a few minutes before the event. Abnormal animal behaviours prior to earthquakes have been reported previously but their detection creates problems in monitoring and reliability. A different situation is encountered for red wood ants (RWA; Formica rufa-group (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). They have stationary nest sites on tectonically active, gas-bearing fault systems. These faults may be potential earthquake areas and are simultaneously information channels deeply reaching into the crust. A particular advantage of monitoring RWA is their high sensitivity to environmental changes. Besides an evolutionarily developed extremely strong temperature sensitivity of 0.25 K, they have chemoreceptors for the detection of CO2 concentrations and a sensitivity for electromagnetic fields. Changes of the electromagnetic field are discussed or short-lived "thermal anomalies" are reported as trigger mechanisms for bioanomalies of impending earthquakes. For 3 years, we have monitored two Red Wood Ant mounds (Formica rufa-group), located at the seismically active Neuwied Basin (Eifel, Germany), 24/7 by high-resolution cameras equipped with a colour and infrared sensor. In the Neuwied Basin, an average of about 100 earthquakes per year with magnitudes up to M 3.9 occur located on different tectonic fault regimes (strike-slip faults and/or normal or thrust faults). The RWA mounds are located on two different fault regimes approximately 30 km apart. First results show that the ants have a well-identifiable standard daily routine. Correlation with local seismic events suggests changes in the ants' behaviour hours before the earthquake event: The nocturnal rest phase and daily activity are suppressed, and standard daily routine is continued not before the next day. Additional parameters that might have an effect on the ants' daily routine (including climate data, earth tides, lunar phases and biological parameters) are recorded and correlated with the analysed daily activity. Additionally, nest air measurements (CO2, Helium, Radon, H2S and CH4) are performed at intervals. At present, an automated image analysis routine is being applied to the acquired more than 45,000 hours of video stream data. It is a valuable tool to objectively identify and classify the ants' activity on top of mounds and to examine possible correlations with earthquakes. Based on this automated approach, a statistical analysis of the ants' behaviour is intended. The investigation and results presented here are a first access to a completely new research complex. The key question is whether the ants' behavioural changes and their correlation with earthquake events are statistically significant and if a detection by an automated system is possible. Long-term studies have to show whether confounding factors and climatic influences can clearly be distinguished. Although the first results suggest that it is promising to consolidate and extend the research to determine a pattern for exceptional situations, there is, however, still a long way to go for a usable automated earthquake warning system. References Berberich G (2010): Identifikation junger gasführender Störungszonen in der West- und Hocheifel mit Hilfe von Bioindikatoren. Dissertation. Essen, 293 S. Berberich G, Klimetzek D, Wöhler C., and Grumpe A (2012): Statistical Correlation between Red Wood Ant Sites and Neotectonic Strike-Slip Faults. Geophysical Research Abstracts Vol. 14, EGU2012-3518 Berberich G, Berberich M, Grumpe A, Wöhler C., and Schreiber U (2012): First Results of 3 Year Monitoring of Red Wood Ants' Behavioural Changes and Their Possible Correlation with Earthquake Events. Animals, ISSN 2076-2615,. Special Issue "Biological Anomalies Prior to Earthquakes") (in prep.) Dologlou E. (2010): Recent aspects on possible interrelation between precursory electric signals and anomalous bioeffects. Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 10, 1951-1955. Kir

Berberich, Gabriele; Berberich, Martin; Grumpe, Arne; Wöhler, Christian; Schreiber, Ulrich

2013-04-01

113

Magma Ascent to Submarine Volcanoes: Real-Time Monitoring by Means of Teleseismic Observations of Earthquake Swarms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earthquake swarm occurrence belongs to reliable indicators of magmatic activity in the Earth crust. Their occurrence beneath submarine portions of volcanic arcs brings valuable information on plumbing systems of this unsufficiently understood environment and reveals recently active submarine volcanoes. Utilisation of teleseismically recorded data (NEIC, GCMT Project) enables to observe magmatic activity in almost real time. We analysed seismicity pattern in two areas - the Andaman-Nicobar region in April 2012 and the southern Ryukyu in April 2013. In both regions, the swarms are situated 80-100 km above the Wadati-Benioff zone of the subducting slab. Foci of the swarm earthquakes delimit a seismogenic layer at depths between 9 - 35 km that should be formed by brittle and fractured rock environment. Repeated occurrence of earthquakes clustered in swarms excludes large accumulations of melted rocks in this layer. Magma reservoirs should be situated at depths greater than 35 km. Upward magma migration from deeper magma reservoirs to shallow magma chambers or to the seafloor induce earthquake swarms by increasing tectonic stress and/or decreasing friction at faults. Frequency of earthquake swarm occurrence in the investigated areas has made a volcanic eruption at the seafloor probable. Moreover, epicentral zones of the swarms often coincide with distinct elevations at the seafloor - seamounts and seamount ranges. High accuracy of global seismological data enabled also to observe migration of earthquakes during individual swarms (Fig. 1), probably reflecting dike and/or sill propagation. Triggering of earthquake swarms by distant strong earthquakes was repeatedly observed in the Andaman-Nicobar region. The presented study documents high accuracy of hypocentral determinations published by the above mentioned data centers and usefulness of the EHB relocation procedure. Epicentral map of the October 2002 earthquake swarm in southern Ryukyu showing E-W migration of events during the swarm. The swarm occurred during 29 hours on October 23 - 25 in the magnitude range 4.0 - 5.2. Open circles - epicenters of all 54 events of the swarm; red circles - epicenters of events that occurred in a particular time interval of the swarm development: (a) - starting 3 hours; (b) - following 4 hours; (c) - final 22 hours.

Spicak, A.; Vanek, J.; Kuna, V. M.

2013-12-01

114

Coseismic crustal deformation from the 1994 Hokkaido-Toho-Oki earthquake monitored by a nationwide continuous GPS array in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a brand-new nationwide continuous GPS array, we monitored coseismic displacements from the October 4, 1994 Hokkaido-Toho-Oki (Kurile islands) earthquake (MJMA=8.1). Based on 2-week time series of site coordinates of 21 GPS stations, we present a coseismic deformation field of whole Hokkaido within 1 cm precision. For example, the station at Nemuro, 170 km west of the epicenter, moved 44

Hiromichi Tsuji; Yuki Hatanaka; Takeshi Sagiya; Manabu Hashimoto

1995-01-01

115

The Use of Space Technologies to Monitor and Respond to Earthquakes Economic Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the role of space based technologies like remote sensing (RS) and Global Navigation and Satellite Systems (GNSS) for earthquake disaster management. The space based technologies like GNSS and RS applications can help in prediction, preparation, response and recovery phases of the disaster management cycle. After an earthquake mapping the extents of damages, locating the urgency of the

A. M. Eren; W. Peeters; J. Farrow

2007-01-01

116

The Evolution of the Federal Monitoring and Assessment Center  

SciTech Connect

The Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC) is a federal emergency response asset whose assistance may be requested by the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), the Department of Defense (DoD), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and state and local agencies to respond to a nuclear or radiological incident. It is an interagency organization with representation from the Department of Energy’s National Nuclear Security Administration (DOE/NNSA), the Department of Defense (DoD), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), and other federal agencies. FRMAC, in its present form, was created in 1987 when the radiological support mission was assigned to the DOE’s Nevada Operations Office by DOE Headquarters. The FRMAC asset, including its predecessor entities, was created, grew, and evolved to function as a response to radiological incidents. Radiological emergency response exercises showed the need for a coordinated approach to managing federal emergency monitoring and assessment activities. The mission of FRMAC is to coordinate and manage all federal radiological environmental monitoring and assessment activities during a nuclear or radiological incident within the United States in support of state,local, tribal governments, DHS, and the federal coordinating agency. Radiological emergency response professionals with the DOE’s national laboratories support the Radiological Assistance Program (RAP), National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC), the Aerial MeasuringSystem (AMS), and the Radiation Emergency Assistance Center/Training Site (REAC/TS). These teams support the FRMAC to provide: ? Atmospheric transport modeling ? Radiation monitoring ? Radiological analysis and data assessments ? Medical advice for radiation injuries In support of field operations, the FRMAC provides geographic information systems, communications, mechanical, electrical, logistics, and administrative support. The size of the FRMAC is tailored to the incident and is comprised of emergency response professionals drawn from across the federal government. State and local emergency response teams may also integrate their operations with FRMAC, but are not required to.

NSTec Aerial Measurement System

2012-07-31

117

Monitoring the West Bohemian Earthquake Swarm in 2008/2009 by a Small Aperture Seismic Array  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earthquake swarms consist of a large number of earthquakes that are strongly clustered in space and time without being dominated by a single distinct main shock. Thus their characteristics differ from typical mainshock-aftershock sequences at tectonic plate boundaries. West Bohemia, a region that is situated at the border of Germany and the Czech Republic, is well known for the periodic occurrence of such earthquake swarms. During the last 50 years 12 rich earthquake swarms with maximum magnitudes ML,max>2.0 occured in this region. The most recent intense earthquake swarm in West Bohemia was observed in winter 2008/2009 by a temporal small aperture seismic array at 10 km epicentral distance. The purpose of the installation was the detection of eathquakes with small magnitudes (ML<0). We show that the small aperture seismic array substantially lowers the detection threshold to about Mc = -0.5, when compared to the regional networks operating in West Bohemia (Mc > 0.0). We identify earthquakes using a FK detector (moving time windows) combined with a conventional STA/LTA trigger. The investigated earthquake catalog consists of 14530 earthquakes in the local magnitude range of -1.2 ? ML ? 2.7. In the course of this work the main temporal features (frequency-magnitude distribution, occurrence rate of aftershock sequences and interevent-time distribution) of the recent 2008/2009 earthquake swarm are presented and discussed. The temporal event distribution contains significant information about the structural environment and the triggering mechanism, neither of which are well understood so far. During the main phase of the swarm in October 2008, the b value of the Gutenberg-Richter relation generally decreases with time. A possible interpretation is a successive stress accumulation due to a propagating rupture front. Our investigation of the temporal evolution of the coefficient of variation (interevent-times) suggests that the swarm earthquake activity of the 2008/2009 swarm terminates in January 2009.

Hiemer, S.; Roessler, D.; Scherbaum, F.

2010-12-01

118

Products and Services Available from the Southern California Earthquake Data Center (SCEDC) and the Southern California Seismic Network (SCSN)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The SCEDC archives continuous and triggered data from nearly 3000 data channels from 375 SCSN recorded stations. The SCSN and SCEDC process and archive an average of 12,000 earthquakes each year, contributing to the southern California earthquake catalog that spans from 1932 to present. The SCEDC provides public, searchable access to these earthquake parametric and waveform data through its website www.data.scec.org and through client applications such as STP, NETDC and DHI. New data products: ? The SCEDC is distributing synthetic waveform data from the 2008 ShakeOut scenario (Jones et al., USGS Open File Rep., 2008-1150) and (Graves et al. 2008; Geophys. Res. Lett.) This is a M 7.8 earthquake on the southern San Andreas fault. Users will be able to download 40 sps velocity waveforms in SAC format from the SCEDC website. The SCEDC is also distributing synthetic GPS data (Crowell et al., 2009; Seismo. Res. Letters.) for this scenario as well. ? The SCEDC has added a new web page to show the latest tomographic model of Southern California. This model is based on Tape et al., 2009 Science. New data services: ? The SCEDC is exporting data in QuakeML format. This is an xml format that has been adopted by the Advanced National Seismic System (ANSS). This data will also be available as a web service. ? The SCEDC is exporting data in StationXML format. This is an xml format created by the SCEDC and adopted by ANSS to fully describe station metadata. This data will also be available as a web service. ? The stp 1.6 client can now access both the SCEDC and the Northern California Earthquake Data Center (NCEDC) earthquake and waveform archives. In progress - SCEDC to distribute 1 sps GPS data in miniSEED format: ? As part of a NASA Advanced Information Systems Technology project in collaboration with Jet Propulsion Laboratory and Scripps Institution of Oceanography, the SCEDC will receive real time 1 sps streams of GPS displacement solutions from the California Real Time Network (http://sopac.ucsd.edu/projects/realtime; Genrich and Bock, 2006, J. Geophys. Res.). These channels will be archived at the SCEDC as miniSEED waveforms, which then can be distributed to the user community via applications such as STP.

Yu, E.; Chen, S.; Chowdhury, F.; Bhaskaran, A.; Hutton, K.; Given, D.; Hauksson, E.; Clayton, R. W.

2009-12-01

119

Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center Monitoring Manual Volume 1, Operations  

SciTech Connect

The Monitoring division is primarily responsible for the coordination and direction of: Aerial measurements to delineate the footprint of radioactive contaminants that have been released into the environment. Monitoring of radiation levels in the environment; Sampling to determine the extent of contaminant deposition in soil, water, air and on vegetation; Preliminary field analyses to quantify soil concentrations or depositions; and Environmental and personal dosimetry for FRMAC field personnel, during a Consequence Management Response Team (CMRT) and Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC) response. Monitoring and sampling techniques used during CM/FRMAC operations are specifically selected for use during radiological emergencies where large numbers of measurements and samples must be acquired, analyzed, and interpreted in the shortest amount of time possible. In addition, techniques and procedures are flexible so that they can be used during a variety of different scenarios; e.g., accidents involving releases from nuclear reactors, contamination by nuclear waste, nuclear weapon accidents, space vehicle reentries, or contamination from a radiological dispersal device. The Monitoring division also provides technicians to support specific Health and Safety Division activities including: The operation of the Hotline; FRMAC facility surveys; Assistance with Health and Safety at Check Points; and Assistance at population assembly areas which require support from the FRMAC. This volume covers deployment activities, initial FRMAC activities, development and implementation of the monitoring and assessment plan, the briefing of field teams, and the transfer of FRMAC to the EPA.

NSTec Aerial Measurement Systems

2012-07-31

120

Earthquake and ambient vibration monitoring of the steel-frame UCLA factor building  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Dynamic property measurements of the moment-resisting steel-frame University of California, Los Angeles, Factor building are being made to assess how forces are distributed over the building. Fourier amplitude spectra have been calculated from several intervals of ambient vibrations, a 24-hour period of strong winds, and from the 28 March 2003 Encino, California (ML = 2.9), the 3 September 2002 Yorba Linda, California (ML = 4.7), and the 3 November 2002 Central Alaska (Mw = 7.9) earthquakes. Measurements made from the ambient vibration records show that the first-mode frequency of horizontal vibration is between 0.55 and 0.6 Hz. The second horizontal mode has a frequency between 1.6 and 1.9 Hz. In contrast, the first-mode frequencies measured from earthquake data are about 0.05 to 0.1 Hz lower than those corresponding to ambient vibration recordings indicating softening of the soil-structure system as amplitudes become larger. The frequencies revert to pre-earthquake levels within five minutes of the Yorba Linda earthquake. Shaking due to strong winds that occurred during the Encino earthquake dominates the frequency decrease, which correlates in time with the duration of the strong winds. The first shear wave recorded from the Encino and Yorba Linda earthquakes takes about 0.4 sec to travel up the 17-story building. ?? 2005, Earthquake Engineering Research Institute.

Kohler, M.D.; Davis, P.M.; Safak, E.

2005-01-01

121

Monitoring Earthquake Fault Slip from Space: Model Implications for a High Precision, High Resolution Dedicated Gravity Mission (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Monitoring deformation produced by slip on earthquake faults can be carried out via GPS or InSAR measurements. Both of these types of observations have their advantages and disadvantages, in terms of cost, availability, and technical difficulty. It has been suggested that another method to accomplish many of the same objectives would be via a dedicated gravity mission. The GRACE mission has shown that it is possible to make detailed gravity measurements from space for climate dynamics and other purposes. An important question is what level of accuracy will be needed for precise estimation of fault slip in earthquakes of interest to researchers. To answer this question, we turn to numerical simulations of earthquake fault systems and use these to estimate gravity changes. Rundle (1978) considered the question of gravity changes from dilation sources and thrust faults, and found that gravity changes in these cases were free air anomaly (dilation) and Bouguer anomaly (thrust fault). Walsh and Rice (1978) computed these by a different method and found the same result. Okada (1991) listed gravity and potential Green functions for all possible sources for the general case. Hayes et al (2006) then took the Okada Greens functions and applied them computed from an earlier version of Virtual California earthquake fault system simulations. Those simulations only involved vertical strike slip faults. The current far more advanced generation of Virtual California simulations involves faults of any orientation, dip, and rake. In this talk, we discuss these computations and the implications they have for accuracies needed for a dedicated gravity monitoring mission. Preliminary results are in agreement with previous results from Hayes et al (2006). Computed gravity changes are in the range of tens to hundreds of microgals over distances of few to many tens of kilometers. These values are presumably well within the range of measurement for a modern gravity mission flown either at low altitudes, or via UAVs.

Rundle, J. B.; Sachs, M. K.; Tiampo, K. F.; Fernandez, J.; Turcotte, D. L.; Donnellan, A.; Heien, E. M.; Kellogg, L. H.

2013-12-01

122

Monitoring Earthquake Hazards from Space: Requirements and Technology Asessment for Future Remote Sensing Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The advent of satellite synthetic aperture radar interferometry (InSAR) has revolutionized our capability to observe crustal deformation, particularly when combined with continuous GPS arrays. ERS-1 and -2 data have revealed the complex deformation fields of many earthquakes, and have provided evidence of stress transfer, and earthquake triggering, between neighboring faults in southern California. It is clear that InSAR capabilities are

C. A. Raymond; P. R. Lundgren; S. N. Madsen

2002-01-01

123

The Savannah River Technology Center environmental monitoring field test platform  

SciTech Connect

Nearly all industrial facilities have been responsible for introducing synthetic chemicals into the environment. The Savannah River Site is no exception. Several areas at the site have been contaminated by chlorinated volatile organic chemicals. Because of the persistence and refractory nature of these contaminants, a complete clean up of the site will take many years. A major focus of the mission of the Environmental Sciences Section of the Savannah River Technology Center is to develop better, faster, and less expensive methods for characterizing, monitoring, and remediating the subsurface. These new methods can then be applied directly at the Savannah River Site and at other contaminated areas in the United States and throughout the world. The Environmental Sciences Section has hosted field testing of many different monitoring technologies over the past two years primarily as a result of the Integrated Demonstration Program sponsored by the Department of Energy`s Office of Technology Development. This paper provides an overview of some of the technologies that have been demonstrated at the site and briefly discusses the applicability of these techniques.

Rossabi, J.

1993-03-05

124

Re-centering variable friction device for vibration control of structures subjected to near-field earthquakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper proposes a re-centering variable friction device (RVFD) for control of civil structures subjected to near-field earthquakes. The proposed hybrid device has two sub-components. The first sub-component of this hybrid device consists of shape memory alloy (SMA) wires that exhibit a unique hysteretic behavior and full recovery following post-transformation deformations. The second sub-component of the hybrid device consists of variable friction damper (VFD) that can be intelligently controlled for adaptive semi-active behavior via modulation of its voltage level. In general, installed SMA devices have the ability to re-center structures at the end of the motion and VFDs can increase the energy dissipation capacity of structures. The full realization of these devices into a singular, hybrid form which complements the performance of each device is investigated in this study. A neuro-fuzzy model is used to capture rate- and temperature-dependent nonlinear behavior of the SMA components of the hybrid device. An optimal fuzzy logic controller (FLC) is developed to modulate voltage level of VFDs for favorable performance in a RVFD hybrid application. To obtain optimal controllers for concurrent mitigation of displacement and acceleration responses, tuning of governing fuzzy rules is conducted by a multi-objective heuristic optimization. Then, numerical simulation of a multi-story building is conducted to evaluate the performance of the hybrid device. Results show that a re-centering variable friction device modulated with a fuzzy logic control strategy can effectively reduce structural deformations without increasing acceleration response during near-field earthquakes.

Ozbulut, Osman E.; Hurlebaus, Stefan

2011-11-01

125

Identification and health monitoring of an instrumented building using earthquake response data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the identification of finite dimensional, linear, time-invariant models of a 4-story building in the state space representation using multiple data sets of earthquake response. The building, instrumented with 31 accelerometers, is located on the University of California, Irvine campus. Multiple data sets, recorded during the 2005 Yucaipa, 2005 San Clemente, 2008 Chino Hills, and 2009 Inglewood earthquakes, are used for identification and validation. Considering the response of the building as the output and the ground motion as the input, the state space models that represent the underlying dynamics of the building in the discrete-time domain corresponding to each data set are identified. The four state space models identified demonstrate that the response of the building is amplitude dependent with the response frequency, and damping, being dependent on the magnitude of ground excitation. The practical application of this finding is that the consistency of this building response to future earthquakes can be quickly assessed, within the range of ground excitations considered (0.005g - 0.074g), for consistency with prior response - this assessment of consistent response is discussed and demonstrated with reference to the four earthquake events considered in this study. Inclusion of data sets relating to future earthquakes will enable the findings to be extended to a wider range of ground excitation magnitudes.

Ulusoy, Hasan S.; Feng, Maria Q.; Fanning, Paul J.

2010-04-01

126

The response of academic medical centers to the 2010 Haiti earthquake: the Mount Sinai School of Medicine experience.  

PubMed

On January 12, 2010, Haiti was struck by a 7.0 earthquake which left the country in a state of devastation. In the aftermath, there was an enormous relief effort in which academic medical centers (AMC) played an important role. We offer a retrospective on the AMC response through the Mount Sinai School of Medicine (MSSM) experience. Over the course of the year that followed the Earthquake, MSSM conducted five service trips in conjunction with two well-established groups which have provided service to the Haitian people for over 15 years. MSSM volunteer personnel included nurses, resident and attending physicians, and specialty fellows who provided expertise in critical care, emergency medicine, wound care, infectious diseases and chronic disease management of adults and children. Challenges faced included stressful and potentially hazardous working conditions, provision of care with limited resources and cultural and language barriers. The success of the MSSM response was due largely to the strength of its human resources and the relationship forged with effective relief organizations. These service missions fulfilled the institution's commitment to social responsibility and provided a valuable training opportunity in advocacy. For other AMCs seeking to respond in future emergencies, we suggest early identification of a partner with field experience, recruitment of administrative and faculty support across the institution, significant pre-departure orientation and utilization of volunteers to fundraise and advocate. Through this process, AMCs can play an important role in disaster response. PMID:22232447

Ripp, Jonathan A; Bork, Jacqueline; Koncicki, Holly; Asgary, Ramin

2012-01-01

127

The Response of Academic Medical Centers to the 2010 Haiti Earthquake: The Mount Sinai School of Medicine Experience  

PubMed Central

On January 12, 2010, Haiti was struck by a 7.0 earthquake which left the country in a state of devastation. In the aftermath, there was an enormous relief effort in which academic medical centers (AMC) played an important role. We offer a retrospective on the AMC response through the Mount Sinai School of Medicine (MSSM) experience. Over the course of the year that followed the Earthquake, MSSM conducted five service trips in conjunction with two well-established groups which have provided service to the Haitian people for over 15 years. MSSM volunteer personnel included nurses, resident and attending physicians, and specialty fellows who provided expertise in critical care, emergency medicine, wound care, infectious diseases and chronic disease management of adults and children. Challenges faced included stressful and potentially hazardous working conditions, provision of care with limited resources and cultural and language barriers. The success of the MSSM response was due largely to the strength of its human resources and the relationship forged with effective relief organizations. These service missions fulfilled the institution's commitment to social responsibility and provided a valuable training opportunity in advocacy. For other AMCs seeking to respond in future emergencies, we suggest early identification of a partner with field experience, recruitment of administrative and faculty support across the institution, significant pre-departure orientation and utilization of volunteers to fundraise and advocate. Through this process, AMCs can play an important role in disaster response. PMID:22232447

Ripp, Jonathan A.; Bork, Jacqueline; Koncicki, Holly; Asgary, Ramin

2012-01-01

128

Catalog of Earthquake Hypocenters at Alaskan Volcanoes: January 1 through December 31, 2007  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Between January 1 and December 31, 2007, AVO located 6,664 earthquakes of which 5,660 occurred within 20 kilometers of the 33 volcanoes monitored by the Alaska Volcano Observatory. Monitoring highlights in 2007 include: the eruption of Pavlof Volcano, volcanic-tectonic earthquake swarms at the Augustine, Illiamna, and Little Sitkin volcanic centers, and the cessation of episodes of unrest at Fourpeaked Mountain, Mount Veniaminof and the northern Atka Island volcanoes (Mount Kliuchef and Korovin Volcano). This catalog includes descriptions of : (1) locations of seismic instrumentation deployed during 2007; (2) earthquake detection, recording, analysis, and data archival systems; (3) seismic velocity models used for earthquake locations; (4) a summary of earthquakes located in 2007; and (5) an accompanying UNIX tar-file with a summary of earthquake origin times, hypocenters, magnitudes, phase arrival times, location quality statistics, daily station usage statistics, and all files used to determine the earthquake locations in 2007.

Dixon, James P.; Stihler, Scott D.; Power, John A.

2008-01-01

129

Real Earthquakes, Real Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One teacher took her class on a year long earthquake expedition. The goal was to monitor the occurrences of real earthquakes during the year and mark their locations with push pins on a wall-sized world map in the hallway outside the science room. The purpose of the project was to create a detailed picture of the earthquakes that occurred…

Schomburg, Aaron

2003-01-01

130

Monitoring velocity variations in the crust using earthquake doublets: An application to the Calaveras fault, California  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a technique that greatly improves the precision in measuring temporal variations of crustal velocities using an earthquake doublet, or pair of microearthquakes that have nearly identical waveforms and the same hypocenter and magnitude but occur on different dates. We compute differences in arrival times between seismograms recorded at the same station in the frequency domain by cross correlation

G. Poupinet; V. L. Ellsworth; J. Frechet

1984-01-01

131

(abstract) GPS Monitoring of Crustal Deformation and the Earthquake Cycle in Costa Rica  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper will discuss the objectives, approach, and anticipated results of a study of earthquakes in Costa Rica. GPS measurements will be taken and field surveys will be made. Assessments of seismic strain accumulation and post-seismic deformation will be made in an effort to understand the effect these processes have on regional tectonic models.

Lundgren, Paul R.

1994-01-01

132

Migration of seismicity and earthquake interactions monitored by GPS in SE Asia triple junction: Sulawesi, Indonesia  

E-print Network

: Sulawesi, Indonesia Christophe Vigny,1 Hugo Perfettini,1,2 Andrea Walpersdorf,1,2 Anne Lemoine,1 Wim Simons] Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements made in Sulawesi, Indonesia, from 1992 to 1999 detected, fault, fluids, seismotectonics, earthquake, Indonesia 1. Introduction [2] The Eurasian, Philippine Sea

Vigny, Christophe

133

Taiwan Nantou County earthquake 0327 Taiwan Nantou County earthquake  

E-print Network

Taiwan Nantou County earthquake 20130327 1 #12;0327 Taiwan Nantou County earthquake Source, Intensity 5 #12;I II III IV V VI VII Intensity Shake map of the March 27 Earthquake The peak ground and Technology Center for Disaster Reduction (NCDR) #12;Earthquake Response and Evacuation are a Part of Students

134

Southern California Earthquake Center\\/Undergraduate Studies in Earthquake Information Technology (SCEC\\/UseIT): Towards the Next Generation of Internship  

Microsoft Academic Search

The SCEC\\/UseIT internship program is training the next generation of earthquake scientist, with methods that can be adapted to other disciplines. UseIT interns work collaboratively, in multi-disciplinary teams, conducting computer science research that is needed by earthquake scientists. Since 2002, the UseIT program has welcomed 64 students, in some two dozen majors, at all class levels, from schools around the

S. Perry; M. Benthien; T. H. Jordan

2005-01-01

135

Products and Services Available from the Southern California Earthquake Data Center (SCEDC) and the Southern California Seismic Network (SCSN)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The SCEDC archives continuous and triggered data from nearly 3000 data channels from 375 SCSN recorded stations. The SCSN and SCEDC process and archive an average of 12,000 earthquakes each year, contributing to the southern California earthquake catalog that spans from 1932 to present. The SCEDC provides public, searchable access to these earthquake parametric and waveform data through its website

E. Yu; S. Chen; F. Chowdhury; A. Bhaskaran; K. Hutton; D. Given; E. Hauksson; R. W. Clayton

2009-01-01

136

Permeable Pavement Monitoring at the Edison Environmental Center Demonstration Site  

EPA Science Inventory

The presentation covers the following monitoring objectives at the demonstration site at Edison, NJ: Hydrologic performance, water quality performance, urban heat island effects, maintenance effects and infiltration water parameters. There will be a side by side monitoring of ...

137

Space Monitoring Data Center at Moscow State University  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Space monitoring data center of Moscow State University provides operational information on radiation state of the near-Earth space. Internet portal http://swx.sinp.msu.ru/ gives access to the actual data characterizing the level of solar activity, geomagnetic and radiation conditions in the magnetosphere and heliosphere in the real time mode. Operational data coming from space missions (ACE, GOES, ELECTRO-L1, Meteor-M1) at L1, LEO and GEO and from the Earth’s surface are used to represent geomagnetic and radiation state of near-Earth environment. On-line database of measurements is also maintained to allow quick comparison between current conditions and conditions experienced in the past. The models of space environment working in autonomous mode are used to generalize the information obtained from observations on the whole magnetosphere. Interactive applications and operational forecasting services are created on the base of these models. They automatically generate alerts on particle fluxes enhancements above the threshold values, both for SEP and relativistic electrons using data from LEO orbits. Special forecasting services give short-term forecast of SEP penetration to the Earth magnetosphere at low altitudes, as well as relativistic electron fluxes at GEO. Velocities of recurrent high speed solar wind streams on the Earth orbit are predicted with advance time of 3-4 days on the basis of automatic estimation of the coronal hole areas detected on the images of the Sun received from the SDO satellite. By means of neural network approach, Dst and Kp indices online forecasting 0.5-1.5 hours ahead, depending on solar wind and the interplanetary magnetic field, measured by ACE satellite, is carried out. Visualization system allows representing experimental and modeling data in 2D and 3D.

Kalegaev, Vladimir; Bobrovnikov, Sergey; Barinova, Vera; Myagkova, Irina; Shugay, Yulia; Barinov, Oleg; Dolenko, Sergey; Mukhametdinova, Ludmila; Shiroky, Vladimir

138

CONTINUOUS MONITORING FOR NITRATE IN USGS WATER SCIENCE CENTERS ACROSS THE U.S.  

E-print Network

1 CONTINUOUS MONITORING FOR NITRATE IN USGS WATER SCIENCE CENTERS ACROSS THE U.S. USGS scientists-time monitoring approaches to allow for continuous nitrate information available in real-time. Currently, USGS and its partners monitor nitrate continuously at nearly 80 locations. (Access WaterQualityWatch website

Torgersen, Christian

139

The 2010 Mw 8.8 Maule megathrust earthquake of Central Chile, monitored by GPS.  

PubMed

Large earthquakes produce crustal deformation that can be quantified by geodetic measurements, allowing for the determination of the slip distribution on the fault. We used data from Global Positioning System (GPS) networks in Central Chile to infer the static deformation and the kinematics of the 2010 moment magnitude (M(w)) 8.8 Maule megathrust earthquake. From elastic modeling, we found a total rupture length of ~500 kilometers where slip (up to 15 meters) concentrated on two main asperities situated on both sides of the epicenter. We found that rupture reached shallow depths, probably extending up to the trench. Resolvable afterslip occurred in regions of low coseismic slip. The low-frequency hypocenter is relocated 40 kilometers southwest of initial estimates. Rupture propagated bilaterally at about 3.1 kilometers per second, with possible but not fully resolved velocity variations. PMID:21527673

Vigny, C; Socquet, A; Peyrat, S; Ruegg, J-C; Métois, M; Madariaga, R; Morvan, S; Lancieri, M; Lacassin, R; Campos, J; Carrizo, D; Bejar-Pizarro, M; Barrientos, S; Armijo, R; Aranda, C; Valderas-Bermejo, M-C; Ortega, I; Bondoux, F; Baize, S; Lyon-Caen, H; Pavez, A; Vilotte, J P; Bevis, M; Brooks, B; Smalley, R; Parra, H; Baez, J-C; Blanco, M; Cimbaro, S; Kendrick, E

2011-06-17

140

Migration of seismicity and earthquake interactions monitored by GPS in SE Asia triple junction: Sulawesi, Indonesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements made in Sulawesi, Indonesia, from 1992 to 1999 detected coseismic and transient postseismic deformation related to the 1 January 1996, Mw = 7.9 earthquake on the North Sulawesi (Minahassa) trench. These motions are superimposed on the long-term secular motion (40 mm\\/yr) of the left-lateral Palu fault in central Sulawesi and continued for about 1.5-2 years.

Christophe Vigny; Hugo Perfettini; Andrea Walpersdorf; Anne Lemoine; Wim Simons; Danny van Loon; Boudewijn Ambrosius; Colleen Stevens; Rob McCaffrey; Peter Morgan; Yehuda Bock; Cecep Subarya; Parluhutan Manurung; Joenil Kahar; Hasanuddin Z. Abidin; Samad H. Abu

2002-01-01

141

Catalog of earthquake hypocenters at Alaskan Volcanoes: January 1 through December 31, 2010  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Between January 1 and December 31, 2010, the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) located 3,405 earthquakes, of which 2,846 occurred within 20 kilometers of the 33 volcanoes with seismograph subnetworks. There was no significant seismic activity in 2010 at these monitored volcanic centers. Seismograph subnetworks with severe outages in 2009 were repaired in 2010 resulting in three volcanic centers (Aniakchak, Korovin, and Veniaminof) being relisted in the formal list of monitored volcanoes. This catalog includes locations and statistics of the earthquakes located in 2010 with the station parameters, velocity models, and other files used to locate these earthquakes.

Dixon, James P.; Stihler, Scott D.; Power, John A.; Searcy, Cheryl K.

2011-01-01

142

PNG ON THE MOVE- GPS MONITORING OF PLATE TECTONICS AND EARTHQUAKES  

E-print Network

PNG is one of the most tectonically active countries in the world. Major earthquakes and volcanic eruptions resulting from this tectonic activity pose significant threats to PNG's population and fragile infrastructure. Modern surveying techniques such as GPS can measure movement of tectonic plates to within a centimetre anywhere in PNG. These measurements have provided a much better understanding of PNG's tectonic setting and also have the potential to significantly improve the accuracy of PNG’s geodetic datum. This paper highlights contributions made by The Australian National University, the National Mapping Bureau, RVO and UniTech's Department of Surveying and Land Studies showing some startling results from these surveys.

Richard Stanaway

143

THE KASHMIR EARTHQUAKE OF OCTOBER 8, 2005 A QUICKLOOK REPORT  

E-print Network

THE KASHMIR EARTHQUAKE OF OCTOBER 8, 2005 A QUICKLOOK REPORT Ahmad Jan Durrani Amr Salah Elnashai Youssef M.A. Hashash Sung Jig Kim Arif Masud Mid-America Earthquake Center University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Mid-America Earthquake CenterMid-America Earthquake Center #12;2Mid-America Earthquake

Masud, Arif

144

Real time earthquake forecasting in Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have applied an earthquake clustering epidemic model to real time data at the Italian Earthquake Data Center operated by the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV) for short-term forecasting of moderate and large earthquakes in Italy. In this epidemic-type model every earthquake is regarded, at the same time, as being triggered by previous events and triggering following earthquakes.

M. Murru; R. Console; G. Falcone

2009-01-01

145

88 hours: The U.S. Geological Survey National Earthquake Information Center response to the 11 March 2011 Mw 9.0 Tohoku earthquake  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This article presents a timeline of NEIC response to a major global earthquake for the first time in a formal journal publication. We outline the key observations of the earthquake made by the NEIC and its partner agencies, discuss how these analyses evolved, and outline when and how this information was released to the public and to other internal and external parties. Our goal in the presentation of this material is to provide a detailed explanation of the issues faced in the response to a rare, giant earthquake. We envisage that the timeline format of this presentation can highlight technical and procedural successes and shortcomings, which may in turn help prompt research by our academic partners and further improvements to our future response efforts. We have shown how NEIC response efforts have significantly improved over the past six years since the great 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake. We are optimistic that the research spawned from this disaster, and the unparalleled dense and diverse data sets that have been recorded, can lead to similar-and necessary-improvements in the future.

Hayes, G. P.; Earle, P. S.; Benz, H. M.; Wald, D. J.; Briggs, R. W.

2011-01-01

146

A survey conducted immediately after the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake: evaluation of infectious risks associated with sanitary conditions in evacuation centers.  

PubMed

In cooperation with the Miyagi prefectural government, we conducted a survey of the management of sanitation at evacuation centers and the health of the evacuees by visiting 324 evacuation centers at two weeks after the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake. The facilities often used as evacuation centers were community centers (36%), schools (32.7%) and Nursing homes (10.2%). It was more difficult to maintain a distance of at least 1 m between evacuees at the evacuation centers with a larger number of residents. At evacuation centers where the water supply was not restored, hygienic handling of food and the hand hygiene of the cooks were less than adequate. Among evacuation centers with ?50 evacuees, there was a significant difference in the prevalence rate of digestive symptoms between the centers with and without persons in charge of health matters (0.3% vs. 2.1%, respectively, p < 0.001). The following three factors had an important influence on the level of sanitation at evacuation centers and the health of evacuees: 1) the size of the evacuation center, 2) the status of the water supply, and 3) the allocation of persons in charge of health matters. Given that adjusting the number of evacuees to fit the size of the evacuation center and prompt restoration of the water supply are difficult to achieve immediately after an earthquake, promptly placing persons in charge of health matters at evacuation centers is a practicable and effective measure, and allocation of at least one such person per 50 evacuees is desirable. PMID:24861538

Tokuda, Koichi; Kunishima, Hiroyuki; Gu, Yoshiaki; Endo, Shiro; Hatta, Masumitsu; Kanamori, Hajime; Aoyagi, Tetsuji; Ishibashi, Noriomi; Inomata, Shinya; Yano, Hisakazu; Kitagawa, Miho; Kaku, Mitsuo

2014-08-01

147

On the Potential Uses of Static Offsets Derived From Low-Cost Community Instruments and Crowd-Sourcing for Earthquake Monitoring and Rapid Response  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We explore the efficacy of low-cost community instruments (LCCIs) and crowd-sourcing to produce rapid estimates of earthquake magnitude and rupture characteristics which can be used for earthquake loss reduction such as issuing tsunami warnings and guiding rapid response efforts. Real-time high-rate GPS data are just beginning to be incorporated into earthquake early warning (EEW) systems. These data are showing promising utility including producing moment magnitude estimates which do not saturate for the largest earthquakes and determining the geometry and slip distribution of the earthquake rupture in real-time. However, building a network of scientific-quality real-time high-rate GPS stations requires substantial infrastructure investment which is not practicable in many parts of the world. To expand the benefits of real-time geodetic monitoring globally, we consider the potential of pseudorange-based GPS locations such as the real-time positioning done onboard cell phones or on LCCIs that could be distributed in the same way accelerometers are distributed as part of the Quake Catcher Network (QCN). While location information from LCCIs often have large uncertainties, their low cost means that large numbers of instruments can be deployed. A monitoring network that includes smartphones could collect data from potentially millions of instruments. These observations could be averaged together to substantially decrease errors associated with estimated earthquake source parameters. While these data will be inferior to data recorded by scientific-grade seismometers and GPS instruments, there are features of community-based data collection (and possibly analysis) that are very attractive. This approach creates a system where every user can host an instrument or download an application to their smartphone that both provides them with earthquake and tsunami warnings while also providing the data on which the warning system operates. This symbiosis helps to encourage people to both become users of the warning system and to contribute data to the system. Further, there is some potential to take advantage of the LCCI hosts' computing and communications resources to do some of the analysis required for the warning system. We will present examples of the type of data which might be observed by pseudorange-based positioning for both actual earthquakes and laboratory tests as well as performance tests of potential earthquake source modeling derived from pseudorange data. A highlight of these performance tests is a case study of the 2011 Mw 9 Tohoku-oki earthquake.

Minson, S. E.; Brooks, B. A.; Murray, J. R.; Iannucci, R. A.

2013-12-01

148

U.S. EPA Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program Advanced Monitoring Systems (AMS) Center  

E-print Network

Pont Corporate Environmental Engineering Group Observers: Dick Burrows, U.S. Army Center for Health Promotion for Microcystins in Freshwater Sources Monitoring Technologies for Measuring Stored Carbon Dioxide from

149

Monitoring of the Permeable Pavement Demonstration Site at the Edison Environmental Center (Poster)  

EPA Science Inventory

This is a poster on the permeable pavement parking lot at the Edison Environmental Center. The monitoring scheme for the project is discussed in-depth with graphics explaining the instrumentation installed at the site. ...

150

(Stanford Linear Accelerator Center) annual environmental monitoring report, January--December 1989  

SciTech Connect

This progress report discusses environmental monitoring activities at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center for 1989. Topics include climate, site geology, site water usage, land use, demography, unusual events or releases, radioactive and nonradioactive releases, compliance summary, environmental nonradiological program information, environmental radiological program information, groundwater protection monitoring ad quality assurance. 5 figs., 7 tabs. (KJD)

Not Available

1990-05-01

151

U.S. EPA Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program Advanced Monitoring Systems (AMS) Center  

E-print Network

1 U.S. EPA Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program Advanced Monitoring Systems (AMS, announced that the ETV AMS Center has received support from the EPA Environmental Technology Council (ETC) to fund four proposals for verification of water monitoring technologies: Evaluation of Nitrate Sensors

152

GREENHOUSE GAS (GHG) MITIGATION AND MONITORING TECHNOLOGY PERFORMANCE: ACTIVITIES OF THE GHG TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION CENTER  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation and monitoring technology performance activities of the GHG Technology Verification Center. The Center is a public/private partnership between Southern Research Institute and the U.S. EPA's Office of Research and Development. It...

153

GONAF - A deep Geophysical Observatory at the North Anatolian Fault: Permanent downhole monitoring of a pending major earthquake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ hereafter) is a right-lateral transform plate boundary between the Anatolian plate and Eurasia accommodating a relative plate motion of ~25 mm/yr. Almost the entire fault zone has failed during the last century as a westward migrating sequence of destructive earthquakes leaving a very high probability of a forthcoming large event to the Sea of Marmara segments. This area did not host any M>7 earthquake since 1766. Therefore, listening to the Sea of Marmara segments at a very low detection threshold is required to address how the brittle deformation develops along a critically-stressed fault segment prior to a potential failure. GONAF-ICDP project has been developed to design a downhole seismic network surrounding the Sea of Marmara segments of the NAFZ deploying 300 m deep boreholes equipped with a chain of sensitive seismographs. Natural and city-induced noise is attenuated through the unconsolidated subsurface formation and therefore provides ideal boundary conditions for seismic monitoring within the intact rocks at greater depths. A typical GONAF borehole consists of 1 Hz vertical sensor at every 75 m depth increment and a combination of 1Hz, 2Hz and 15 Hz 3C sensors at 300 m depth. By now, three boreholes were successfully implemented in the Tuzla and Yalova-Ç?narc?k regions. The plan is to complete four more GONAF boreholes in 2014. Our preliminary results show that GONAF waveform recordings will broaden the magnitude range down to ~M -1 in the target area providing a better characterization of seismically active features in time and space.

Bulut, Fatih; Bohnhoff, Marco; Dresen, Georg; Raub, Christina; Kilic, Tugbay; Kartal, Recai F.; Tuba Kadirioglu, F.; Nurlu, Murat; Ito, Hisao; Malin, Peter E.

2014-05-01

154

The continuous automatic monitoring network installed in Tuscany (Italy) since late 2002, to study earthquake precursory phenomena  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since late 2002, a continuous automatic monitoring network (CAMN) was designed, built and installed in Tuscany (Italy), in order to investigate and define the geochemical response of the aquifers to the local seismic activity. The purpose of the investigation was to identify eventual earthquake precursors. The CAMN is constituted by two groups of five measurement stations each. A first group has been installed in the Serchio and Magra graben (Garfagnana and Lunigiana Valleys, Northern Tuscany), while the second one, in the area of Mt. Amiata (Southern Tuscany), an extinct volcano. Garfagnana, Lunigiana and Mt. Amiata regions belong to the inner zone of the Northern Apennine fold-and-thrust belt. This zone has been involved in the post-collision extensional tectonics since the Upper Miocene-Pliocene. Such tectonic activity has produced horst and graben structures oriented from N-S to NW-SE that are transferred by NE-SW system. Both Garfagnana (Serchio graben) and Lunigiana (Magra graben) belong to the most inner sector of the belt where the seismic sources, responsible for the strongest earthquakes of the northern Apennine, are located (e.g. the M=6.5 earthquake of September 1920). The extensional processes in southern Tuscany have been accompanied by magmatic activity since the Upper Miocene, developing effusive and intrusive products traditionally attributed to the so-called Tuscan Magmatic Province. Mt. Amiata, whose magmatic activity ceased about 0.3 M.y. ago, belongs to the extensive Tyrrhenian sector that is characterized by high heat flow and crustal thinning. The whole zone is characterized by wide-spread but moderate seismicity (the maximum recorded magnitude has been 5.1 with epicentre in Piancastagnaio, 1919). The extensional regime in both the Garfagnana-Lunigiana and Mt. Amiata area is confirmed by the focal mechanisms of recent earthquakes. An essential phase of the monitoring activities has been the selection of suitable sites for the installation of monitoring stations. This has been carried out on the basis of: i) hydrogeologic and structural studies in order to assess the underground fluid circulation regime; ii) a detailed geochemical study of all the natural manifestations present in the selected territories, such as cold and hot springs and gas emission zones; iii) logistical aspects. Therefore, a detailed hydrogeochemical study was performed in 2002. A total of 150 water points were sampled in Garfagnana/Lunigiana area (N-W Tuscany) and analysed. Based on the results of this multidisciplinary study, five water points suitable for the installation of the monitoring stations, were selected. They are: Bagni di Lucca (Bernabò spring), Gallicano (Capriz spring) and Pieve Fosciana (Prà di Lama spring) in Garfagnana, Equi Terme (main spring feeding the swimming pool of the thermal resort) and Villafranca in Lunigiana (well feeding the public swimming pool). In the Amiata area, in the preliminary campaign, 69 water points were sampled and analyzed and five sites were selected. They are Piancastagnaio, Santa Fiora, Pian dei Renai and Bagnore, which are fed by the volcanic aquifer, and Bagno Vignoni borehole, which is fed by the evaporite carbonate aquifer. The installation and start-up process of the monitoring systems in the Garfagnana-Lunigiana area begun in November 2002; in the Monte Amiata region it begun in June 2003. From the day of installation, a periodic water sampling and manual measurement of the main physical and physicochemical parameters have been carried out on a monthly basis. Such activity has the double function of performing a cross-check of the monitoring instrumentation, and carrying out additional chemical and isotopic analysis. The continuous automatic monitoring stations operate with flowing water (about 5 litres per minute) and record the following parameters: temperature (T), pH, electrical conductivity (EC), redox potential (ORP) and the content of CO2 and CH4 dissolved in water. Data are acquired once per second; the average value, median value and variance of the samples collec

Pierotti, Lisa; Cioni, Roberto

2010-05-01

155

A cost effective wireless structural health monitoring network for buildings in earthquake zones  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The design, programming and implementation of a cost effective wireless structural health monitoring system (wSHMs) is presented, able to monitor the seismic and/or man-made acceleration in buildings. This system actually operates as a sensor network exploiting internet connections that commonly exist, aiming to monitor the structural health of the buildings being installed. Key-feature of wSHMs is that it can be implemented in Wide Area Network mode to cover many remote structures and buildings, on metropolitan scale. Acceleration data is able to send, in real time, from dozens of buildings of a broad metropolitan area, to a central database, where they are analyzed in order to depict possible structural damages or nonlinear characteristics and alert for non-appropriateness of specific structures.

Pentaris, F. P.; Stonham, J.; Makris, J. P.

2014-10-01

156

New discoveries in dynamics of an M8 earthquake-phenomena and their implications from the 2003 Tokachi-oki earthquake using a long term monitoring cabled observatory  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the 2003 Tokachi-oki earthquake of M8, seafloor phenomena such as a generation process of tsunami, seafloor uplifts, turbidity current, etc., were observed using a cabled observatory installed on the seafloor. The turbidity current was observed as a benthic storm caused presumably by the mainshock. The seafloor uplifts were observed at the mainshock and continuously after the mainshock. The uplifts

Hitoshi Mikada; Kyohiko Mitsuzawa; Hiroyuki Matsumoto; Tomoki Watanabe; Shigehiko Morita; Riyo Otsuka; Hiroko Sugioka; Toshitaka Baba; Eiichiro Araki; Kiyoshi Suyehiro

2006-01-01

157

Structural Health Monitoring Sensor Development at NASA Langley Research Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA is applying considerable effort on the development of sensor technology for structural health monitoring (SHM). This research is targeted toward increasing the safety and reliability of aerospace vehicles, while reducing operating and maintenance costs. Research programs are focused on applications to both aircraft and space vehicles. Sensor technologies under development span a wide range including fiber-optic sensing, active and passive acoustic sensors, electromagnetic sensors, wireless sensing systems, MEMS, and nanosensors. Because of their numerous advantages for aerospace applications, fiber-optic sensors are one of the leading candidates and are the major focus of this presentation. In addition, recent advances in active and passive acoustic sensing will also be discussed.

Prosser, W. H.; Wu, M. C.; Allison, S. G.; DeHaven, S. L.; Ghoshal, A.

2002-01-01

158

Products and Services Available from the Southern California Earthquake Data Center (SCEDC) and the Southern California Seismic Network (SCSN)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currently the SCEDC archives continuous and triggered data from nearly 5000 data channels from 425 SCSN recorded stations, processing and archiving an average of 12,000 earthquakes each year. The SCEDC provides public access to these earthquake parametric and waveform data through its website www.data.scec.org and through client applications such as STP and DHI. This poster will describe the most significant

E. Yu; A. Bhaskaran; S. Chen; F. R. Chowdhury; S. Meisenhelter; K. Hutton; D. Given; E. Hauksson; R. W. Clayton

2010-01-01

159

Earthquake Monitoring at 9° 50'N on the East Pacific Rise RIDGE 2000 Integrated Studies Site  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the fall of 2003 nine ocean bottom seismometers (OBSs) were deployed from the R/V Keldysh within the `bull's-eye' region of the R2K ISS at 9° 49'N - 9° 51'N on the East Pacific Rise as part of the Ridge 2000 Integrated Studies Site. These instruments were recovered using the R/V Atlantis in April 2004, and twelve more were deployed to take their place for a second year of monitoring (with three years total planned). During the turn-around cruise, two short temporary deployments (~4-8 days), of an additional 3 OBSs each, were accomplished to provide very dense instrument spacing (a few 100 m) around specific vents where in situ chemical monitoring was taking place (Luther et al.). Good data were collected on seven of the nine long deployment and six short deployment OBSs. We will present early results from analysis of these data including an estimate of the level of activity observed through-out the seven month period of the first deployment, and preliminary epicenters. Data will also be shown from the short temporary deployments. Early analysis of these data indicates an event rate of ~8 events per day for events where arrivals are apparent on at least three instruments, and may therefore expect to be located. Also notable in these data are pulses and prolonged periods of what appear to be tremor. This tremor is not generally coherent or synchronous from station to station and is therefore likely a very localized phenomena associated with hydrothermal fluid flow. The exceptionally well characterized and monitored seafloor at this site will allow for unprecedented correlation of observed seismic activity with local biology, geology, geochemical and hydrothermal monitoring. In addition, past and future detailed geophysical imaging of this area will provide an excellent context for observed faulting and fracturing.

Tolstoy, M.; Waldhauser, F.; Kim, W.

2004-12-01

160

Real time of earthquakes prone areas by RST analysis of satellite TIR radiances: results of continuous monitoring over Italy and Turkey regions.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Meteorological satellites offering global coverage, continuity of observations and long term time series (starting even 30 years ago) offer a unique possibility not only to learn from the past but also to guarantee continuous monitoring whereas other observation technologies are lacking because too expensive or (like in the case of earthquake precursor studies) or considered useless by decision-makers. Space-time fluctuations of Earth's emitted Thermal Infrared (TIR) radiation have been observed from satellite months to weeks before earthquakes occurrence. The general RST approach has been proposed (since 2001) in order to discriminate normal (i.e. related to the change of natural factor and/or observation conditions) TIR signal fluctuations from anomalous signal transient possibly associated to earthquake occurrence. Since then several earthquakes occurred in Europe, Africa and America have been studied by analyzing decades of satellite observations always using a validation/confutation approach in order to verify the presence/absence of anomalous space-time TIR transients in presence/absence of significant seismic activity. In the framework of PRE-EARTHQUAKES EU-FP7 Project (www.pre-earthquakes.org) , starting from October 2010 (still continuing) RST approach has been applied to MSG/SEVIRI data to generate TIR anomaly maps over Italian peninsula, continuously for all the midnight slots. Since September 2011 the same monitoring activity (still continuing) started for Turkey region. For the first time a similar analysis has been performed in real-time, systematically analyzing TIR anomaly maps in order to identify day by day possible significant (e.g. persistent in the space-time domain) thermal anomalies. During 2011 only in very few cases (1 in Italy in July and 2 in the Turkish region in September and November) the day by day analysis enhanced significant anomalies that in two cases were communicated to the other PRE-EARTHQUAKES partners asking for their attention. In this paper results of such analysis will be presented which seem to confirm results independently achieved (unfortunately without their knowledge) by other authors applying a similar approach to EOS/MODIS data over California region.

Tramutoli, V.; Filizzola, C.; Genzano, N.; Lisi, M.; Paciello, R.; Pergola, N.

2012-04-01

161

Real-Time Earthquake Forecasting in Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

We apply an earthquake clustering epidemic model to real-time data of the Italian Earthquake Data Center operated by the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia since January 2006 for short-term moderate and large earthquakes forecasting in Italy based on smoothed seismicity. The forecast uses earthquake data only, with no explicit use of tectonic, geologic, or geodetic information. In this model

M. Murru; R. Console; G. Falcone

2006-01-01

162

Understanding Earthquakes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource features links to: an earthquake quiz; a rotating globe showing earthquake locations; famous earthquake accounts by Mark Twain, Jack London, Charles Darwin, and John Muir; a Java animation of the gradual buildup of stress that leads to earthquakes; a three-page history of seismology to 1910; and other educational and earthquake websites.

163

Environmental assessment of the Carlsbad Environmental Monitoring and Research Center Facility  

SciTech Connect

This Environmental Assessment has been prepared to determine if the Carlsbad Environmental Monitoring and Research Center (the Center), or its alternatives would have significant environmental impacts that must be analyzed in an Environmental Impact Statement. DOE`s proposed action is to continue funding the Center. While DOE is not funding construction of the planned Center facility, operation of that facility is dependent upon continued funding. To implement the proposed action, the Center would initially construct a facility of approximately 2,300 square meters (25,000 square feet). The Phase 1 laboratory facilities and parking lot will occupy approximately 1.2 hectares (3 acres) of approximately 8.9 hectares (22 acres) of land which were donated to New Mexico State University (NMSU) for this purpose. The facility would contain laboratories to analyze chemical and radioactive materials typical of potential contaminants that could occur in the environment in the vicinity of the DOE Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site or other locations. The facility also would have bioassay facilities to measure radionuclide levels in the general population and in employees of the WIPP. Operation of the Center would meet the DOE requirement for independent monitoring and assessment of environmental impacts associated with the planned disposal of transuranic waste at the WIPP.

NONE

1995-10-01

164

Source Process of the Mw 5.0 Au Sable Forks, New York, Earthquake Sequence from Local Aftershock Monitoring Network Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On April 20, 2002, a Mw 5 earthquake occurred near the town of Au Sable Forks, northeastern Adirondacks, New York. The quake caused moderate damage (MMI VII) around the epicentral area and it is well recorded by over 50 broadband stations in the distance ranges of 70 to 2000 km in the Eastern North America. Regional broadband waveform data are used to determine source mechanism and focal depth using moment tensor inversion technique. Source mechanism indicates predominantly thrust faulting along 45° dipping fault plane striking due South. The mainshock is followed by at least three strong aftershocks with local magnitude (ML) greater than 3 and about 70 aftershocks are detected and located in the first three months by a 12-station portable seismographic network. The aftershock distribution clearly delineate the mainshock rupture to the westerly dipping fault plane at a depth of 11 to 12 km. Preliminary analysis of the aftershock waveform data indicates that orientation of the P-axis rotated 90° from that of the mainshock, suggesting a complex source process of the earthquake sequence. We achieved an important milestone in monitoring earthquakes and evaluating their hazards through rapid cross-border (Canada-US) and cross-regional (Central US-Northeastern US) collaborative efforts. Hence, staff at Instrument Software Technology, Inc. near the epicentral area joined Lamont-Doherty staff and deployed the first portable station in the epicentral area; CERI dispatched two of their technical staff to the epicentral area with four accelerometers and a broadband seismograph; the IRIS/PASSCAL facility shipped three digital seismographs and ancillary equipment within one day of the request; the POLARIS Consortium, Canada sent a field crew of three with a near real-time, satellite telemetry based earthquake monitoring system. The Polaris station, KSVO, powered by a solar panel and batteries, was already transmitting data to the central Hub in London, Ontario, Canada within a day after the field crew arrived in the Au Sable Forks area. This collaboration allowed us to maximize the scarce resources available for monitoring this damaging earthquake and its aftershocks in the Northeastern U.S.

Kim, W.; Seeber, L.; Armbruster, J. G.

2002-12-01

165

Earthquake swarms in Greenland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earthquake swarms occur primarily near active volcanoes and in areas with frequent tectonic activity. However, intraplate earthquake swarms are not an unknown phenomenon. They are located near zones of weakness, e.g. in regions with geological contrasts, where dynamic processes are active. An earthquake swarm is defined as a period of increased seismicity, in the form of a cluster of earthquakes of similar magnitude, occurring in the same general area, during a limited time period. There is no obvious main shock among the earthquakes in a swarm. Earthquake swarms occur in Greenland, which is a tectonically stable, intraplate environment. The first earthquake swarms in Greenland were detected more than 30 years ago in Northern and North-Eastern Greenland. However, detection of these low-magnitude events is challenging due to the enormous distances and the relatively sparse network of seismographs. The seismograph coverage of Greenland has vastly improved since the international GLISN-project was initiated in 2008. Greenland is currently coved by an open network of 19 BB seismographs, most of them transmitting data in real-time. Additionally, earthquake activity in Greenland is monitored by seismographs in Canada, Iceland, on Jan Mayen, and on Svalbard. The time-series of data from the GLISN network is still short, with the latest station been added in NW Greenland in 2013. However, the network has already proven useful in detecting several earthquake swarms. In this study we will focus on two swarms: one occurring near/on the East Greenland coast in 2008, and another swarm occurring in the Disko-area near the west coast of Greenland in 2010. Both swarms consist of earthquakes with local magnitudes between 1.9 and 3.2. The areas, where the swarms are located, are regularly active with small earthquakes. The earthquake swarms are analyzed in the context of the general seismicity and the possible relationship to the local geological conditions.

Larsen, Tine B.; Voss, Peter H.; Dahl-Jensen, Trine

2014-05-01

166

The Parkfield, California, Earthquake Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This report decribes research being carried out in Parkfield, California whose purpose is to better understand the physics of earthquakes: what actually happens on the fault and in the surrounding region before, during and after an earthquake. Ultimately, scientists hope to better understand the earthquake process and, if possible, to provide a scientific basis for earthquake prediction. Topics include the scientific background for the experiment, including the tectonic setting at Parkfield, historical earthquake activity on this section of the San Andreas fault, the monitoring and data collecting activities currently being carried out, and plans for future research. Data are also available to view in real time and to download.

167

Advancing Research Methodology for Measuring & Monitoring Patient-centered Communication in Cancer Care  

Cancer.gov

A critical step in facilitating the delivery of patient-centered communication (PCC) as part of routine cancer care delivery is creating a measurement and monitoring system that will allow for the ongoing assessment, tracking, and improvement of these six functions of patient-centered communication. To build the foundation of such a system and to advance research methodology in this area, the ORB has collaborated with the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) on a research project conducted within AHRQ's DEcIDE network.

168

Environmental monitoring and research at the John F. Kennedy Space Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Biomedical Operations and Research Office at the NASA John F. Kennedy Space Center has been supporting environmental monitoring and research since the mid-1970s. Program elements include monitoring of baseline conditions to document natural variability in the ecosystem, assessments of operations and construction of new facilities, and ecological research focusing on wildlife habitat associations. Information management is centered around development of a computerized geographic information system that incorporates remote sensing and digital image processing technologies along with traditional relational data base management capabilities. The proactive program is one in which the initiative is to anticipate potential environmental concerns before they occur and, by utilizing in-house expertise, develop impact minimization or mitigation strategies to reduce environmental risk.

Hall, C. R.; Hinkle, C. R.; Knott, W. M.; Summerfield, B. R.

1992-01-01

169

Testing hypotheses of earthquake occurrence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a relatively straightforward likelihood method for testing those earthquake hypotheses that can be stated as vectors of earthquake rate density in defined bins of area, magnitude, and time. We illustrate the method as it will be applied to the Regional Earthquake Likelihood Models (RELM) project of the Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC). Several earthquake forecast models are being developed as part of this project, and additional contributed forecasts are welcome. Various models are based on fault geometry and slip rates, seismicity, geodetic strain, and stress interactions. We would test models in pairs, requiring that both forecasts in a pair be defined over the same set of bins. Thus we offer a standard "menu" of bins and ground rules to encourage standardization. One menu category includes five-year forecasts of magnitude 5.0 and larger. Forecasts would be in the form of a vector of yearly earthquake rates on a 0.05 degree grid at the beginning of the test. Focal mechanism forecasts, when available, would be also be archived and used in the tests. The five-year forecast category may be appropriate for testing hypotheses of stress shadows from large earthquakes. Interim progress will be evaluated yearly, but final conclusions would be made on the basis of cumulative five-year performance. The second category includes forecasts of earthquakes above magnitude 4.0 on a 0.05 degree grid, evaluated and renewed daily. Final evaluation would be based on cumulative performance over five years. Other types of forecasts with different magnitude, space, and time sampling are welcome and will be tested against other models with shared characteristics. All earthquakes would be counted, and no attempt made to separate foreshocks, main shocks, and aftershocks. Earthquakes would be considered as point sources located at the hypocenter. For each pair of forecasts, we plan to compute alpha, the probability that the first would be wrongly rejected in favor of the second, and beta, the probability that the second would be wrongly rejected in favor of the first. Computing alpha and beta requires knowing the theoretical distribution of likelihood scores under each hypothesis, which we will estimate by simulations. Each forecast is given equal status; there is no "null hypothesis" which would be accepted by default. Forecasts and test results would be archived and posted on the RELM web site. The same methods can be applied to any region with adequate monitoring and sufficient earthquakes. If fewer than ten events are forecasted, the likelihood tests may not give definitive results. The tests do force certain requirements on the forecast models. Because the tests are based on absolute rates, stress models must be explicit about how stress increments affect past seismicity rates. Aftershocks of triggered events must be accounted for. Furthermore, the tests are sensitive to magnitude, so forecast models must specify the magnitude distribution of triggered events. Models should account for probable errors in magnitude and location by appropriate smoothing of the probabilities, as the tests will be "cold hearted:" near misses won't count.

Kagan, Y. Y.; Jackson, D. D.; Schorlemmer, D.; Gerstenberger, M.

2003-12-01

170

Statistical analysis of the induced Basel 2006 earthquake sequence: introducing a probability-based monitoring approach for Enhanced Geothermal Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geothermal energy is becoming an important clean energy source, however, the stimulation of a reservoir for an Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) is associated with seismic risk due to induced seismicity. Seismicity occurring due to the water injection at depth have to be well recorded and monitored. To mitigate the seismic risk of a damaging event, an appropriate alarm system needs to be in place for each individual experiment. In recent experiments, the so-called traffic-light alarm system, based on public response, local magnitude and peak ground velocity, was used. We aim to improve the pre-defined alarm system by introducing a probability-based approach; we retrospectively model the ongoing seismicity in real time with multiple statistical forecast models and then translate the forecast to seismic hazard in terms of probabilities of exceeding a ground motion intensity level. One class of models accounts for the water injection rate, the main parameter that can be controlled by the operators during an experiment. By translating the models into time-varying probabilities of exceeding various intensity levels, we provide tools which are well understood by the decision makers and can be used to determine thresholds non-exceedance during a reservoir stimulation; this, however, remains an entrepreneurial or political decision of the responsible project coordinators. We introduce forecast models based on the data set of an EGS experiment in the city of Basel. Between 2006 December 2 and 8, approximately 11 500 m3 of water was injected into a 5-km-deep well at high pressures. A six-sensor borehole array, was installed by the company Geothermal Explorers Limited (GEL) at depths between 300 and 2700 m around the well to monitor the induced seismicity. The network recorded approximately 11 200 events during the injection phase, more than 3500 of which were located. With the traffic-light system, actions where implemented after an ML 2.7 event, the water injection was reduced and then stopped after another ML 2.5 event. A few hours later, an earthquake with ML 3.4, felt within the city, occurred, which led to bleed-off of the well. A risk study was later issued with the outcome that the experiment could not be resumed. We analyse the statistical features of the sequence and show that the sequence is well modelled with the Omori-Utsu law following the termination of water injection. Based on this model, the sequence will last 31+29/-14 years to reach the background level. We introduce statistical models based on Reasenberg and Jones and Epidemic Type Aftershock Sequence (ETAS) models, commonly used to model aftershock sequences. We compare and test different model setups to simulate the sequences, varying the number of fixed and free parameters. For one class of the ETAS models, we account for the flow rate at the injection borehole. We test the models against the observed data with standard likelihood tests and find the ETAS model accounting for the on flow rate to perform best. Such a model may in future serve as a valuable tool for designing probabilistic alarm systems for EGS experiments.

Bachmann, C. E.; Wiemer, S.; Woessner, J.; Hainzl, S.

2011-08-01

171

Response to the great East Japan earthquake of 2011 and the Fukushima nuclear crisis: the case of the Laboratory Animal Research Center at Fukushima Medical University.  

PubMed

A magnitude 9.0 great earthquake, the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake, occurred on March 11, 2011, and subsequent Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (Fukushima NPS) accidents stirred up natural radiation around the campus of Fukushima Medical University (FMU). FMU is located in Fukushima City, and is 57 km to the northwest of Fukushima NPS. Due to temporary failure of the steam boilers, the air conditioning system for the animal rooms, all autoclaves, and a cage washer could not be used at the Laboratory Animal Research Center (LARC) of FMU. The outside air temperature dropped to zero overnight, and the temperature inside the animal rooms fell to 10°C for several hours. We placed sterilized nesting materials inside all cages to encourage rodents to create nests. The main water supply was cut off for 8 days in all, while supply of steam and hot water remained unavailable for 12 days. It took 20 days to restore the air conditioning system to normal operation at the facility. We measured radiation levels in the animal rooms to confirm the safety of care staff and researchers. On April 21, May 9, and June 17, the average radiation levels at a central work table in the animal rooms with HEPA filters were 46.5, 44.4, and 43.4 cpm, respectively, which is equal to the background level of the equipment. We sincerely hope our experiences will be a useful reference regarding crisis management for many institutes having laboratory animals. PMID:23615301

Katahira, Kiyoaki; Sekiguchi, Miho

2013-01-01

172

GPS Monitoring of Surface Change During and Following the Fortuitous Occurrence of the M(sub w) = 7.3 Landers Earthquake in our Network  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Accomplishments: (1) Continues GPS monitoring of surface change during and following the fortuitous occurrence of the M(sub w) = 7.3 Landers earthquake in our network, in order to characterize earthquake dynamics and accelerated activity of related faults as far as 100's of kilometers along strike. (2) Integrates the geodetic constraints into consistent kinematic descriptions of the deformation field that can in turn be used to characterize the processes that drive geodynamics, including seismic cycle dynamics. In 1991, we installed and occupied a high precision GPS geodetic network to measure transform-related deformation that is partitioned from the Pacific - North America plate boundary northeastward through the Mojave Desert, via the Eastern California shear zone to the Walker Lane. The onset of the M(sub w) = 7.3 June 28, 1992, Landers, California, earthquake sequence within this network poses unique opportunities for continued monitoring of regional surface deformation related to the culmination of a major seismic cycle, characterization of the dynamic behavior of continental lithosphere during the seismic sequence, and post-seismic transient deformation. During the last year, we have reprocessed all three previous epochs for which JPL fiducial free point positioning products available and are queued for the remaining needed products, completed two field campaigns monitoring approx. 20 sites (October 1995 and September 1996), begun modeling by development of a finite element mesh based on network station locations, and developed manuscripts dealing with both the Landers-related transient deformation at the latitude of Lone Pine and the velocity field of the whole experiment. We are currently deploying a 1997 observation campaign (June 1997). We use GPS geodetic studies to characterize deformation in the Mojave Desert region and related structural domains to the north, and geophysical modeling of lithospheric behavior. The modeling is constrained by our existing and continued GPS measurements, which will provide much needed data on far-field strain accumulation across the region and on the deformational response of continental lithosphere during and following a large earthquake, forming the basis for kinematic and dynamic modeling of secular and seismic-cycle deformation. GPS geodesy affords both regional coverage and high precision that uniquely bear on these problems.

Miller, M. Meghan

1998-01-01

173

The meteorological monitoring system for the Kennedy Space Center/Cape Canaveral Air Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Station (CCAS) are involved in many weather-sensitive operations. Manned and unmanned vehicle launches, which occur several times each year, are obvious example of operations whose success and safety are dependent upon favorable meteorological conditions. Other operations involving NASA, Air Force, and contractor personnel, including daily operations to maintain facilities, refurbish launch structures, prepare vehicles for launch, and handle hazardous materials, are less publicized but are no less weather-sensitive. The Meteorological Monitoring System (MMS) is a computer network which acquires, processes, disseminates, and monitors near real-time and forecast meteorological information to assist operational personnel and weather forecasters with the task of minimizing the risk to personnel, materials, and the surrounding population. CLIPS has been integrated into the MMS to provide quality control analysis and data monitoring. This paper describes aspects of the MMS relevant to CLIPS including requirements, actual implementation details, and results of performance testing.

Dianic, Allan V.

1994-01-01

174

Predictable earthquakes?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Summary: A world wide network has been continuously monitoring the secular change of the Earth's physical processes as recorded on the Earth like the geomagnetic field, the Earth's rotation, etc. The database, which has been collected by the observatories, gives us a chance to make a study of the temporal behaviour of the Earth's magnetic field and to understand the features of these and related phenomena. The long-term magnetic field data show a close qualitative relation both to the secular change of climate and to the variation in the sunspot cycle. On the other hand the fluctuations in the Earth's rotation also show a good correlation to the sunspot and climatic phenomena. This is a very important fact because the decade fluctuation in Earth's rotation depends on those streams in the outer core, which produce the long-term variation in the Earth's magnetic field. This result means that it may not be unrealistic to think of a rather strong interaction between the internal and external magnetic fields of the Earth, and the mechanical implications of this interaction. The outer reason(s) of both solar and the mentioned terrestrial physical processes is one of the possible theories, which is able to include and explain these observed facts. The calculated Earth's orbit, perpendicular to the ecliptic plane (so called Z-direction), and rather the 1st derivative in time of this orbital motion (Z-acceleration) is direct relation to the gravitational perturbations of the (primarily giant) planets. Therefore this time series gives us a chance to investigate the dynamical effects of the giant planets on the Earth. We ended up with quite accurate data sets both in the time series of the Earth's rotation (we used the so called dT-time series which is the measure of the cumulative discrepancy of Earth's rotation in time, and length of day [l.o.d.], which is the 1st derivative in time of dT, and the 1st derivative in time of l.o.d., which is related to the rotational acceleration) and global number of earthquake for this period from published literature which give us a great picture about the dynamical geophysical phenomena. Methodology: The computing of linear correlation coefficients gives us a chance to quantitatively characterise the relation among the data series, if we suppose a linear dependence in the first step. The correlation coefficients among the Earth's rotational acceleration and Z-orbit acceleration (perpendicular to the ecliptic plane) and the global number of the earthquakes were compared. The results clearly demonstrate the common feature of both the Earth's rotation and Earth's Z-acceleration around the Sun and also between the Earth's rotational acceleration and the earthquake number. This fact might means a strong relation among these phenomena. The mentioned rather strong correlation (r = 0.75) and the 29 year period (Saturn's synodic period) was clearly shown in the counted cross correlation function, which gives the dynamical characteristic of correlation, of Earth's orbital- (Z-direction) and rotational acceleration. This basic period (29 year) was also obvious in the earthquake number data sets with clear common features in time. Conclusion: The Core, which involves the secular variation of the Earth's magnetic field, is the only sufficiently mobile part of the Earth with a sufficient mass to modify the rotation which probably effects on the global time distribution of the earthquakes. Therefore it might means that the secular variation of the earthquakes is inseparable from the changes in Earth's magnetic field, i.e. the interior process of the Earth's core belongs to the dynamical state of the solar system. Therefore if the described idea is real the global distribution of the earthquakes in time is predictable.

Martini, D.

2002-12-01

175

Near real-time model to monitor SST anomalies related to undersea earthquakes and SW monsoon phenomena from TRMM-AQUA satellite data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Near real-time interactive computer model has been developed to extract daily mean global Sea Surface Temperature (SST) values of 1440x720 pixels, each one covering 0.25° x0.25° lat-long area and SST anomalies from longer period means pertaining to any required oceanic grid size of interest. The core MATLAB code uses the daily binary files (3-day aggregate values) of global SST data (derived from TRMM/TMI-AQUA/AMSRE satellite sensors) available on near real-time basis through the REMSS/NASA website and converts these SSTs into global/regional maps and displays as well as digitised text data tables for further analysis. As demonstrated applications of the model, the SST data for the period between 2003-2009 has been utilised to study (a) SST anomalies before, during and after the occurrence of two great under-sea earthquakes of 26 December 2004 and 28 March 2005 near the western coast of Sumatra and (b) variation of pixel numbers with SSTs between 27-31° C within (i) Nino 4 region and (ii) a broader western Pacific region (say Nino-BP) affected by ENSO events before (January-May) and during (June-October) Monsoon onset/progress. Preliminary results of these studies have been published (Chakravarty, The Open Oceanography Journal, 2009 and Chakravarty, IEEE Xplore, 2009). The results of the SST-earthquake analysis indicate a small but consistent warming of 0.2-0.3° C in the 2° x2° grid area near the earthquake epicentre starting a week earlier to a week later for the event of 26 December 2004. The changes observed in SST for the second earthquake is also indicated but with less clarity owing to the mixing of land and ocean surfaces and hence less number of SST pixels available within the 2° x 2° grid area near the corresponding epicen-tre. Similar analysis for the same period of non-earthquake years did not show any such SST anomalies. These results have far reaching implications to use SST as a possible parameter to be monitored for signalling occurrence of impending under-sea earthquakes sometimes leading to tsunamis. The results of the analysis for the ENSO-Monsoon rainfall relation show that the time series of SST distribution within the Nino 4 or Nino-BP regions with larger number of pixels with SSTs between 27-28° C is generally a favourable condition for normal rainfall condi-tion. While both Nino 4 and Nino-BP provide similar results, Nino-BP region is found to be a more sensitive region for such assessment of monitoring the trend of SW monsoon rainfall over India. This result has the potential to be used in the prognosis of overall rainfall pattern of the monsoon season at weekly intervals which may serve as vital information for Indian agricul-tural production. While simple geophysical models are able to explain the above correlations, more detailed modelling of the plate tectonics and heat fluxes (for undersea earthquakes) and ocean-cloud interaction/dynamics (for ENSO and Monsoon rainfall pattern) would need to be undertaken.

Chakravarty, Subhas

176

Ghana's experience in the establishment of a national data center  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The government of Ghana in a bilateral agreement with the Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) has established a National Data Center in Ghana with the aim of monitoring the testing of nuclear explosions. Seismic, hydroacoustic, radionuclide and infrasound methods are used for the monitoring. The data center was commissioned on 3 February, 2010 at the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission. At present Ghana does not have any operational, centralised data (seismic, hydroacoustic, radionuclide and infrasound) acquisition system with the capability of accessing data from other international stations. Hence, the need of setting up the National Data Center which would enable us constantly monitor, manage and coordinate both natural and man-made seismic activities in the country and around the globe, upload data to the International Data Center (IDC) as well as receive and use International Monitoring System (IMS) data and IDC products for treaty verification and compliance. Apart from these, the center also accesses and analyzes seismic waveforms relevant to its needs from the International Data Center; makes data available to its stakeholder institutions for earthquake disaster mitigation; reports on all aspects of disasters related to earthquake to the relevant government agencies that deal with disasters; makes recommendations to the government of Ghana on earthquake safety measures; provides information to assist government institutions to develop appropriate land and building policies. The center in collaboration with stakeholder agencies periodically organises public lectures on earthquake disaster risk mitigation.

Ekua, Amponsah Paulina; Yaw, Serfor-Armah

2012-08-01

177

Temporal Evolution of Effective Upper Mantle Viscosity from Postseismic Response to the 2006-2007 Great Kuril Earthquakes: Four Years of GPS Monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transient surface deformation was still observed by GPS 40 years after two giant (M ~9) megathrust earthquakes in the 20th century: the 1960 Chile and the 1964 Alaska events [Hu et al., 2004; Suito and Freymueller, 2009]. The postseismic signal was attributed to viscoelastic relaxation in the Maxwell mantle wedge with constant viscosity on the order of 10^19 Pa s. In contrast, postseismic deformation for 3-4 years after the 2002 M 7.9 Denali and the 1997 M 7.6 Manyi, Tibet earthquakes requires much lower Maxwell viscosity on the order of 10^17 - 10^18 Pa s [Freed et al, 2006; Ryder et al., 2007; Biggs et al., 2009]. Also these early postseismic GPS and InSAR time series suggest an increase in viscosity with time, which would be inconsistent with a uniform Maxwell viscosity. Here we analyze surface deformation following the doublet of the 2006-2007 M > 8 Kuril megathrust earthquakes using 4 years of postseismic continuous GPS time series on the Kuril GPS Array. We split time series into four annual intervals starting at epoch 2007.5, i.e., about 7 months after the 2006 earthquake, and search for the best-fitting Maxwell viscosity year by year, after accounting for afterslip and the background interseismic strain signal. Earlier we showed that the contribution of afterslip to the Kuril postseismic displacement is small since about epoch 2007.5 [Kogan et al, 2011]. The background interseismic strain signal was not measured on the central Kurils at the stations showing the largest postseismic motion because observations started several months after the earthquakes. From analysis of trench-parallel gravity anomalies, Song and Simons [2003] proposed weak interseismic locking at the subduction interface in the central Kurils. If this hypothesis holds, we can expect small interseismic velocities at the sites affected by postseismic deformation. We tested three simple variants of corrections for interseismic motion of these sites, ranging from 0 to the mean velocity at the SW and NE arc segments. Regardless of the variant to correct for interseismic motion, the best-fitting viscosity evolves from 2 × 10^17 Pa s in Year 1 to 1 × 10^18 Pa s in Year 4. The increase with time in the effective Maxwell viscosity of the asthenosphere suggests that the actual physical mechanism is dislocation creep with the power-law dependence of strain rate on stress. For such nonlinear rheology, the effective viscosity several decades following the Kuril doublet may be much higher than what we inferred from 4 years of GPS monitoring.

Kogan, M. G.; Vasilenko, N. F.; Frolov, D. I.; Freymueller, J. T.; Prytkov, A. S.

2012-12-01

178

The earth's absolute gravitation potential function in the prospect 'gravitational potential metering' of geological objects and earthquake centers  

E-print Network

The direct problem of the detection of the Earth's absolute gravitation potential maximum value (MGP) was solved. The inverse problem finding of the Earth maximum gravitation (where there is a maximum of gravitation field intensity and a potential function has a 'bending point') with the help of MGP was solved as well. The obtained results show that the revealed Earth maximum gravitation coincides quite strictly with the cseismic D" layer on the border of the inner and outer (liquid) core. The validity of the method of an absolute gravitation potential detection by the equal- potential velocity was proved as 'gravitation potential measurement' or 'Vs-gravity method'. The prospects of this method for detecting of low-power or distant geological objects with abnormal density and the possible earthquakes with low density was shown.

Aleksandr Fridrikson; Marina Kasatochkina

2009-04-08

179

Earthquake prediction  

SciTech Connect

Mainland China is situated at the eastern edge of the Eurasian seismic system and is the largest intra-continental region of shallow strong earthquakes in the world. Based on nine earthquakes with magnitudes ranging between 7.0 and 7.9, the book provides observational data and discusses successes and failures of earthquake prediction. Derived from individual earthquakes, observations of various phenomena and seismic activities occurring before and after earthquakes, led to the establishment of some general characteristics valid for earthquake prediction.

Ma, Z.; Fu, Z.; Zhang, Y.; Wang, C.; Zhang, G.; Liu, D.

1989-01-01

180

Earthquake Myths  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site serves to belie several popular myths about earthquakes. Students will learn that most earthquakes do not occur in the early morning and one cannot be swallowed up by an earthquake. In addition, there is no such thing as earthquake weather and California is not falling into the ocean. On the more practical side, students can learn that good building codes do not insure good buildings, it is safer under a table than in a doorway during an earthquake, and most people do not panic during an earthquake.

181

Lecture Demonstrations on Earthquakes for K-12 Teachers and Students  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lecture Demonstrations on Earthquakes for K-12 Teachers and Students Since 1975, the Center for Earthquake Research and Information, (CERI), at The University of Memphis, has strived to satisfy its information transfer directives through diverse education and outreach efforts, providing technical and non-technical earthquake information to the general public, K-16 teachers and students, professional organizations, and state and federal organizations via all forms of written and electronic communication. <> Through these education and outreach efforts, CERI tries to increase earthquake hazard awareness to help limit future losses. <>In the past three years, education programs have reached over 20,000 K-16 students and teachers through in-service training workshops for teachers and earthquake/earth science lecture demonstrations for students. The presentations include an hour-long lecture demonstration featuring graphics and an informal question and answer format. Graphics used include seismic hazard maps, damage photos, plate tectonic maps, layers of the Earth, and more, all adapted for the audience. Throughout this presentation, manipulatives such as a Slinky, Silly Putty, a foam Earth with depth and temperature features, and Popsicle sticks are used to demonstrate seismic waves, the elasticity of the Earth, the Earth's layers and their features, and the brittleness of the crust. Toward the end, a demonstration featuring a portable shake table with a dollhouse mounted on it is used to illustrate earthquake-shaking effects. This presentation is also taken to schools when they are unable to visit CERI. Following this presentation, groups are then taken to the Public Earthquake Resource Center at CERI, a space featuring nine displays, seven of which are interactive. The interactive displays include a shake table and building blocks, a trench with paleoliquefaction features, computers with web access to seismology sites, a liquefaction model, an oscilloscope and attached geophone, a touch-screen monitor, and various manipulatives. CERI is also developing suitcase kits and activities for teachers to borrow and use in their classrooms. The suitcase kits include activities based on state learning standards, such as layers of the Earth and plate tectonics. Items included in the suitcase modules include a shake table and dollhouse, an oscilloscope and geophone, a resonance model, a Slinky, Silly putty, Popsicle sticks, and other items. Almost all of the activities feature a lecture demonstration component. These projects would not be possible without leveraged funding from the Mid-America Earthquake Center (MAEC) and the Center for Earthquake Research and Information, with additional funding from the National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (NEHRP).

Dry, M. D.; Patterson, G. L.

2005-12-01

182

An Evaluation of North Korea’s Nuclear Test by Belbasi Nuclear Tests Monitoring Center-KOERI  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bogazici University and Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute (KOERI) is acting as the Turkish National Data Center (NDC) and responsible for the operation of the International Monitoring System (IMS) Primary Seismic Station (PS-43) under Belbasi Nuclear Tests Monitoring Center for the verification of compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) since February 2000. The NDC is responsible for operating two arrays which are part of the IMS, as well as for transmitting data from these stations to the International Data Centre (IDC) in Vienna. The Belbasi array was established in 1951, as a four-element (Benioff 1051) seismic array as part of the United States Atomic Energy Detection System (USAEDS). Turkish General Staff (TGS) and U.S. Air Force Technical Application Center (AFTAC) under the Defense and Economic Cooperation Agreement (DECA) jointly operated this short period array. The station was upgraded and several seismometers were added to array during 1951 and 1994 and the station code was changed from BSRS (Belbasi Seismic Research Station) to BRTR-PS43 later on. PS-43 is composed of two sub-arrays (Ankara and Keskin): the medium-period array with a ~40 km radius located in Ankara and the short-period array with a ~3 km radius located in Keskin. Each array has a broadband element located at the middle of the circular geometry. Short period instruments are installed at depth 30 meters from the surface while medium and broadband instruments are installed at depth 60 meters from surface. On 25 May 2009, The Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK) claimed that it had conducted a nuclear test. Corresponding seismic event was recorded by IMS and IDC released first automatic estimation of time (00:54:43 GMT), location (41.2896°N and 129.0480°E) and the magnitude (4.52 mb) of the event in less than two hours time (USGS: 00:54:43 GMT; 41.306°N, 129.029°E; 4.7 mb) During our preliminary analysis of the 25th May 2009 DPRK event, we saw a very clear P arrival at 01:05:47 (GMT) at BRTR SP array. The result of the f-k analysis performed in Geotool software, installed at NDC facilities in 2008 and is in full use currently, was also indicating that the arrival belongs to the DPRK event. When comparing our f-k results (calculated at 1-2 Hz) with IDC-REB, however, we have noticed that our calculation and therefore corresponding residuals (calculated with reference to REB residuals) are much better in comparison to REB. The reasons of this ambiguity have been explored and for the first time a comprehensive seismological analysis of a Nuclear Test has been conducted in Turkey. CTBT has an important role for the implementation of the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons and it is a key element for the pursuit of nuclear disarmament. In this study, we would like to reflect the technical and scientific aspects of the 25 May 2009 DPRK event analysis, together with our involvement in CTBT(O) affairs, which we believe it brings new dimensions to Turkey especially in the area of Geophysics.

Necmioglu, O.; Meral Ozel, N.; Semin, K.

2009-12-01

183

Earthquakes related to hydraulic mining and natural seismic activity in western New York State  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have monitored the seismic activity of western New York since 1970 using a combination of up to eight permanent seismograph stations and several portable stations. Our investigation centered on the Attica-Dale area, the site of several damaging earthquakes in this century. Although the background level of seismicity was found to be extremely low, less than one event per month

Jon B. Fletcher; Lynn R. Sykes

1977-01-01

184

Estimated airborne release of plutonium from the 102 Building at the General Electric Vallecitos Nuclear Center, Vallecitos, California, as a result of damage from severe wind and earthquake hazard  

SciTech Connect

This report estimates the potential airborne releases of plutonium as a consequence of various severities of earthquake and wind hazard postulated for the 102 Building at the General Electric Vallecitos Nuclear Center in California. The releases are based on damage scenarios developed by other specialists. The hazard severities presented range up to a nominal velocity of 230 mph for wind hazard and are in excess of 0.8 g linear acceleration for earthquakes. The consequences of thrust faulting are considered. The approaches and factors used to estimate the releases are discussed. Release estimates range from 0.003 to 3 g Pu.

Mishima, J.; Ayer, J.E.; Hays, I.D.

1980-12-01

185

Community based monitoring under national rural health mission in Maharashtra: status at primary health centers.  

PubMed

This study compares the implementation of community-based monitoring (CBM) in 45 primary health centers (PHCs) in the pilot phase in Maharashtra with the equal number of randomly selected PHCs not implementing CBM (non-CBM) from the same districts. Information was collected by teams from Community Medicine Departments by visiting selected PHCs. Establishment of monitoring committees and training of medical officers (MOs) had been completed as required but only 36.36% MOs were trained. Only 43.18% MOs received the facility report card. Most of the MOs (90.90%) attended Jansunwai and opined that it had increased community awareness and the barriers between the people and PHC staff were broken. There was no difference in fund utilization and meetings of Rugna Kalyan Samittees. Percentage of Institutional deliveries and women receiving Janani Suraksha Yojana benefits among home deliveries was more in the non-CBM group of PHCs. PMID:24748362

Doke, Prakash Prabhakarrao; Kulkarni, Ashok Purshottamrao; Lokare, Pushpa Omprakash; Tambe, Muralidhar; Shinde, Ratnendra R; Khamgaonkar, Mohan B

2014-01-01

186

A real-time navigation monitoring expert system for the Space Shuttle Mission Control Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The ONAV (Onboard Navigation) Expert System has been developed as a real time console assistant for use by ONAV flight controllers in the Mission Control Center at the Johnson Space Center. This expert knowledge based system is used to monitor the Space Shuttle onboard navigation system, detect faults, and advise flight operations personnel. This application is the first knowledge-based system to use both telemetry and trajectory data from the Mission Operations Computer (MOC). To arrive at this stage, from a prototype to real world application, the ONAV project has had to deal with not only AI issues but operating environment issues. The AI issues included the maturity of AI languages and the debugging tools, verification, and availability, stability and size of the expert pool. The environmental issues included real time data acquisition, hardware suitability, and how to achieve acceptance by users and management.

Wang, Lui; Fletcher, Malise

1993-01-01

187

Inside Earthquakes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

By watching this National Geographic video, you will witness the destructive power of earthquakes. You will watch home videos taken during earthquake tremors and you will go inside the Earth for the birth of a quake.

2010-01-01

188

Earthquake Demonstration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This demonstration uses an "earthquake machine" constructed from bricks, sand paper, and a winch, to simulate the buildup of elastic strain energy prior to a seismic event and the release of that energy during an earthquake.

189

Monitoring, sampling and analysis of fine particulates -- Results and experiences from DOE's Federal Energy Technology Center  

SciTech Connect

The overall goal of the DOE fine particulate program is to ensure that the best science and technology is available for any regulatory decision-making related to the health and environmental impacts of ambient fine particulate matter and regional haze. Interest primarily lies in the particulate fraction having aerodynamic diameters of 2.5 microns and less (PM2.5). Particulates of this size are the focus of the newly established National Ambient Air Quality Standards. As such, the Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC) is establishing a fine particulate sampling station at the Center's Pittsburgh site located in South Park Township, PA. This sampling station is one of a group of stations scattered throughout Pennsylvania, West Virginia, and Ohio that constitute the Upper Ohio River Valley Project. The station is equipped with a full complement of fine particulate and gaseous monitors including the following: (1) R and P Sequential FRM sampler, (2) Grimm PM2.5 continuous sampler, (3) TSI Dustrak PM2.5 continuous sampler, (4) R and P TEOM equipped with an AccuSampler, (5) Andersen speciation sampler, (6) MetOne speciation sampler, (7) EcoChem continuous PAH monitor, (8) Total peroxide monitor that employs the Greg Kok method, (9) Burkard 7 day pollen and mold spore sampler, (10) Continuous gas monitors for O{sub 3}, SO{sub 2}, NH{sub 3}, CO, H{sub 2}S, NO{sub y}, NO{sub x}, and (11) Meteorological instruments. The presentation will describe the initial results for the summer 1999 season from the above instruments. The chemical analysis of the aqueous extracts of the FRM filters will be discussed, including the anions present as determined by ion chromatography, and the metals present.

White, C.M.; Anderson, R.; Martello, D.; Rohar, P.; George, E.; Irdi, G.; Veloski, G.; Tamilia, J.; Lynn, R.; Waldner, K.; Hickey, R.; Feeley, T.; Casuccio, G.S.; Schlaegle, S.F.; Doerr, A.

1999-07-01

190

Earthquake prediction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mainland China is situated at the eastern edge of the Eurasian seismic system and is the largest intra-continental region of shallow strong earthquakes in the world. Based on nine earthquakes with magnitudes ranging between 7.0 and 7.9, the book provides observational data and discusses successes and failures of earthquake prediction. Derived from individual earthquakes, observations of various phenomena and seismic

Z. Ma; Z. Fu; Y. Zhang; C. Wang; G. Zhang; D. Liu

1989-01-01

191

Seismotectonics of the May 19, 2011 Simav- Kutahya Earthquake Activity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aftershock sequence of May 19, 2011 Simav earthquake (Mw = 5.8) is relocated with a new 1-D seismic velocity model and focal mechanisms of largest aftershocks are determined. The May 19, 2011 Simav-Kutahya earthquake is occured in the most seismically active region of western Turkey. During six months after the mainshock, more than 5000 earthquakes are recorded and aftershocks followed over a period of almost two years. In this study, more than 7600 aftershocks occured between years 2011 and 2012 with magnitudes greater than 1.8 relocated. Waveform data is collected by 13 three component seismic stations from three different networks (Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute (NEMC-National Earthquake Monitoring Center), Prime Ministry Disaster and Emergency Management Presidency, Department of Earthquake and Canakkale Onsekiz Mart University Geophysics Department). These seismic stations are deployed closer than 80 km epicentral distance in the Simav-Kutahya. Average crustal velocity and average crustal thickness for the region are computed as 5.68 km/sn and 37.6 km, respectively. The source mechanism of fifty aftershocks with magnitudes greater than 4.0 are derived from first motion P phases. Analysis of focal mechanisms indicate mainly normal fault motions with oblique slip.

Komec Mutlu, Ahu

2014-05-01

192

Prospective Tests of Southern California Earthquake Forecasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

We are testing earthquake forecast models prospectively using likelihood ratios. Several investigators have developed such models as part of the Southern California Earthquake Center's project called Regional Earthquake Likelihood Models (RELM). Various models are based on fault geometry and slip rates, seismicity, geodetic strain, and stress interactions. Here we describe the testing procedure and present preliminary results. Forecasts are expressed

D. D. Jackson; D. Schorlemmer; M. Gerstenberger; Y. Y. Kagan; A. Helmstetter; S. Wiemer; N. Field

2004-01-01

193

Post disaster monitoring for the Great East Japan Earthquake with a new L-band airborne SAR "Pi-SAR-L2"  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new L-band airborne SAR, Polarimetric and interferometry Synthetic Aperture Radar with L-band type-2 (Pi-SAR-L2) was developed in April 2012 by Japan Aerospace exploration Agency(JAXA). Pi-SAR-L2 employs a L-band with a band width of 85 MHz (1,215 - 1,300 MHz) with a peak power of 3.5 kW boarded on the Galfstream II. Pi-SAR-L2 conducted its first acquisitions for calibrations and validations over Tomakomai, Hokkaido, where is a test site with some corner reflectors in April 2012. The Great East Japan Earthquake with a magnitude 9.0 occurred at 14:46 on 11 Mar. 2011 and terribly big Tsunami attacked Tohoku district after the earthquake. The tsunami caused huge damage along its coast in Touhoku. Pi-SAR-L2 acquired these post disaster regions in Fukushima and Miyagi Prefectures along the coast on the way to Hokkaido in April 2012, some region still remain flooded area and debris caused by Tsumani. We will present Pi-SAR-L2 systems and specifications, and discuss monitoring these damages.

Kawano, Noriyuki

2013-04-01

194

West Nile Virus activity in central Iowa bird populations and the utility of wildlife rehabilitation centers in monitoring wildlife disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is known about the frequency or occurrence of West Nile Virus (WNV) in many Iowa wildlife species, including birds. The lack of knowledge about WNV in Iowa birds is partially due to difficulties associated with monitoring wildlife health. We evaluated the utility of wildlife rehabilitation centers for providing information about wildlife health and disease monitoring, and assessed where on

Natalie Randall

2011-01-01

195

Real-time prediction of earthquake ground motion using real-time monitoring, and improvement strategy of JMA EEW based on the lessons from M9 Tohoku Earthquake (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this presentation, a new approach of real-time prediction of seismic ground motion for Earthquake Early Warning (EEW) is explained, in which real-time monitor is used but hypocentral location and magnitude are not required. Improvement strategy of the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) is also explained based on the lessons learned from the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake (Mw9.0). During the Tohoku Earthquake, EEW system of JMA issued warnings before the S-wave arrival and more than 15 s earlier than the strong ground motion in the Tohoku district. So it worked well as rapidly as designed. However, it under-predicted the seismic intensity for the Kanto district due to the very large extent of the fault rupture, and it issued some false alarms due to multiple simultaneous aftershocks. To address these problems, a new method of time-evolutional prediction is proposed that uses the real-time monitor of seismic wave propagation. This method makes it possible to predict ground motion without a hypocenter and magnitude. Effects of rupture directivity, source extent and simultaneous multiple events are substantially included in this method. In the time evolutional prediction, future wavefield is predicted from the wavefield at a certain time, that is u(x, t+?t)=P(u(x, t)), where u is the wave motion at location x at lapse time t, and P is the prediction operator. The determination of detailed distribution of current wavefield is an important key, so that dense seismic observation network is required. Here, current wavefield, u(x, t), observed by the real time monitoring is used as the initial condition, and then wave propagation is predicted based on time evolutional approach. The method is based on the following three techniques. To enhance the estimation of the current wavefield, data assimilation is applied. The data assimilation is a technique to produce artificially denser network, which is widely used for numerical weather forecast and oceanography. Propagation is predicted using P from the distribution of current wave motion, u(x, t), estimated from the data assimilation technique. For P, finite difference technique or boundary integral equation method, such as Kirchhoff integral, is used. Kirchhoff integral is qualitatively approximated by Huygens principle. Site amplification is an important factor to determine the seismic ground motion in addition to source and propagation factors. Site factor is usually frequency-dependent, and should be corrected in real time manner for EEW. The frequency-dependence is reproduced using a causal filter in the time domain applying bilinear transform and pre-warping techniques. Our final goal is the time evolutional prediction of seismic waveforms. Instead of the waveforms, prediction of the seismic intensity is applied in a preliminary version of this method, in which real-time observation of seismic intensities is used. JMA intends to introduce the preliminary version into their system within a couple of years, and integrate it with the current method which is based on the hypocenter and magnitude.

Hoshiba, M.

2013-12-01

196

Virtual Earthquake  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive feature shows students how an earthquake epicenter is located and how Richter magnitude is determined. They will use recordings of seismograms from three stations (provided in the activity), learn the difference between the focus and epicenter of an earthquake, and that the magnitude of an earthquake is an estimate of the amount of energy that it has released.

Novak, Gary

197

Photovoltaic Performance and Reliability Database: A Gateway to Experimental Data Monitoring Projects for PV at the Florida Solar Energy Center  

DOE Data Explorer

This site is the gateway to experimental data monitoring projects for photovoltaic (PV) at the Florida Solar Energy Center. The website and the database were designed to facilitate and standardize the processes for archiving, analyzing and accessing data collected from dozens of operational PV systems and test facilities monitored by FSEC's Photovoltaics and Distributed Generation Division. [copied from http://www.fsec.ucf.edu/en/research/photovoltaics/data_monitoring/index.htm

198

Cost-effective monitoring of ground motion related to earthquakes, landslides, or volcanic activity by joint use of a single-frequency GPS and a MEMS accelerometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

detection and precise estimation of strong ground motion are crucial for rapid assessment and early warning of geohazards such as earthquakes, landslides, and volcanic activity. This challenging task can be accomplished by combining GPS and accelerometer measurements because of their complementary capabilities to resolve broadband ground motion signals. However, for implementing an operational monitoring network of such joint measurement systems, cost-effective techniques need to be developed and rigorously tested. We propose a new approach for joint processing of single-frequency GPS and MEMS (microelectromechanical systems) accelerometer data in real time. To demonstrate the performance of our method, we describe results from outdoor experiments under controlled conditions. For validation, we analyzed dual-frequency GPS data and images recorded by a video camera. The results of the different sensors agree very well, suggesting that real-time broadband information of ground motion can be provided by using single-frequency GPS and MEMS accelerometers.

Tu, R.; Wang, R.; Ge, M.; Walter, T. R.; Ramatschi, M.; Milkereit, C.; Bindi, D.; Dahm, T.

2013-08-01

199

Earthquake Research Institute, University of Tokyo  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Earthquake Research Institute (ERI) at the University of Tokyo acts as the primary association for fundamental geophysical research in Japan and oversees the Earthquake Predication Center and the Volcanic Eruption Prediction Program. The website offers the latest earthquake and volcano news. While a few of the research projects are described only in Japanese, visitors can learn about the Ocean Hemisphere Network Project, Special Project for Earthquake Disaster Mitigation in Urban Areas, and the Marine Seismic Survey. The web site offers links to numerous earthquake databases and to the Institute's many research centers.

200

Understanding Earthquakes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article provides a brief description of the recent earthquakes in Pakistan and Sumatra and continues with an investigation of earthquakes and their causes. Topics include the relationship of earthquakes to plate tectonics and the structure of the Earth, especially faults; factors that contribute to the strength (magnitude) of earthquakes; and the uncertainties of earthquake prediction. There is also an overview of a research project to drill into the San Andreas fault, and a history of the development of the theory of plate tectonics. A bibliography and links to additional information are also provided.

Tenenbaum, David

1999-09-02

201

Glacial earthquakes.  

PubMed

We have detected dozens of previously unknown, moderate earthquakes beneath large glaciers. The seismic radiation from these earthquakes is depleted at high frequencies, explaining their nondetection by traditional methods. Inverse modeling of the long-period seismic waveforms from the best-recorded earthquake, in southern Alaska, shows that the seismic source is well represented by stick-slip, downhill sliding of a glacial ice mass. The duration of sliding in the Alaska earthquake is 30 to 60 seconds, about 15 to 30 times longer than for a regular tectonic earthquake of similar magnitude. PMID:14512505

Ekström, Göran; Nettles, Meredith; Abers, Geoffrey A

2003-10-24

202

MONITORING ROUTINE MINE SEISMICITY IN THE CONTERMINOUS UNITED STATES  

Microsoft Academic Search

We are applying standard U.S. Geological Survey\\/National Earthquake Information Center (USGS\\/NEIC) earthquake detection and location methodologies to monitor routine mine seismicity in the conterminous U.S. Our principal goal is to develop knowledge of mining seismicity in districts from which teleseismically recorded mining- associated seismic events might occur. This knowledge would provide a basis for understanding future seismic events from these

James W. Dewey; Alena L. Leeds

203

Prompt Assessment of Global Earthquakes for Response (PAGER): An Automated System to Estimate Impact Following Significant Earthquakes Worldwide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The US Geological Survey's National Earthquake Information Center (USGS/NEIC) is developing a system to rapidly assess societal impact immediately following significant global earthquakes. NEIC's near realtime earthquake solutions are being monitored to automatically identify quakes that likely caused human suffering or damage to infrastructure, or that will attract significant media attention. Our goal is to help the USGS fulfill its mission to provide critical earthquake-related information to emergency response agencies, government agencies, the scientific community, the media, and the general public. Currently, it takes several hours to days for the media and other organizations to provide an assessment of a damaging earthquake. Our system, known as Prompt Assessment of Global Earthquakes for Response (PAGER), will estimate the severity of damage caused by an earthquake immediately following its location and magnitude estimation (minutes to an hour). PAGER will assess the situation based on estimated and any observed ground motions, total population exposed to varying degrees of shaking, and vulnerability of the affected region. We expect that an automated summary impact statement and associated alarms can be deployed within seconds of computing the ground-motion estimates, well before ground truth damage estimates arrive. The USGS is collaborating with the US Agency for International Development (USAID) to develop a prototype system. The prototype will estimate ground motions using modifications to the methodology developed for ShakeMap, extended to the entire globe. Since strong-motion recordings will rarely be available for global earthquakes in realtime, we will rely on predicted rather than observed ground motions. Site corrections will be approximated using a combination of elevation and topographic slope (see Wald et al. this meeting) and the exposed population will be determined using Oak Ridge National Lab's Landscan2002 global population database. PAGER will be an iterative system with new alarms issued as better estimates of magnitude, location, fault orientation, finite fault effects, and felt reports become available. We will present details of the assessment algorithm and examples from the prototype system.

Earle, P. S.; Wald, D. J.; Lastowka, L. A.; Quitoriano, V.; Donnelly, M. J.

2004-12-01

204

Satellite Geodetic Constraints On Earthquake Processes: Implications of the 1999 Turkish Earthquakes for Fault Mechanics and Seismic Hazards on the San Andreas Fault  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Our principal activities during the initial phase of this project include: 1) Continued monitoring of postseismic deformation for the 1999 Izmit and Duzce, Turkey earthquakes from repeated GPS survey measurements and expansion of the Marmara Continuous GPS Network (MAGNET), 2) Establishing three North Anatolian fault crossing profiles (10 sitedprofile) at locations that experienced major surface-fault earthquakes at different times in the past to examine strain accumulation as a function of time in the earthquake cycle (2004), 3) Repeat observations of selected sites in the fault-crossing profiles (2005), 4) Repeat surveys of the Marmara GPS network to continue to monitor postseismic deformation, 5) Refining block models for the Marmara Sea seismic gap area to better understand earthquake hazards in the Greater Istanbul area, 6) Continuing development of models for afterslip and distributed viscoelastic deformation for the earthquake cycle. We are keeping close contact with MIT colleagues (Brad Hager, and Eric Hetland) who are developing models for S. California and for the earthquake cycle in general (Hetland, 2006). In addition, our Turkish partners at the Marmara Research Center have undertaken repeat, micro-gravity measurements at the MAGNET sites and have provided us estimates of gravity change during the period 2003 - 2005.

Reilinger, Robert

2005-01-01

205

Tenth U.S. National Conference on Earthquake Engineering Frontiers of Earthquake Engineering  

E-print Network

Tenth U.S. National Conference on Earthquake Engineering Frontiers of Earthquake Engineering July 21-25, 2014 Anchorage, Alaska10NCEE WAVE METHOD FOR SYSTEM IDENTIFICATION AND HEALTH MONITORING � extension to fitting Timoshenko beam model, Proceedings of the 10th National Conference in Earthquake

Southern California, University of

206

Earthquake Plotting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity has students gather and plot records of earthquakes. It is designed to be either long or short term, depending on the needs of the instructor. Students will gain practice working with map coordinates while becoming familiar with the frequency of earthquake occurrences, the location and magnitude of earthquakes, and the locations of plate boundaries. In addition, this exercise will illustrate the importance of measurements, data storage, analysis and worldwide scientific collaboration.

Rauch, Arden

207

Seismological investigation of earthquakes in the New Madrid Seismic Zone. Final report, September 1986--December 1992  

SciTech Connect

Earthquake activity in the New Madrid Seismic Zone had been monitored by regional seismic networks since 1975. During this time period, over 3,700 earthquakes have been located within the region bounded by latitudes 35{degrees}--39{degrees}N and longitudes 87{degrees}--92{degrees}W. Most of these earthquakes occur within a 1.5{degrees} x 2{degrees} zone centered on the Missouri Bootheel. Source parameters of larger earthquakes in the zone and in eastern North America are determined using surface-wave spectral amplitudes and broadband waveforms for the purpose of determining the focal mechanism, source depth and seismic moment. Waveform modeling of broadband data is shown to be a powerful tool in defining these source parameters when used complementary with regional seismic network data, and in addition, in verifying the correctness of previously published focal mechanism solutions.

Herrmann, R.B.; Nguyen, B. [Saint Louis Univ., MO (US). Dept. of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences

1993-08-01

208

Overlap in the 2011 AVO and AEIC earthquake catalogs Michael West  

E-print Network

, The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) located 3500 earthquakes along the Alaska-Aleutian volcanic arc. The Alaska Earthquake Information Center (AEIC) located 25,000 earthquakes during the same time. While AEIC covers the entire state of Alaska

West, Michael

209

Izmit Earthquake  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lab allows students to look at variety of data from the North Anatolian fault in Turkey. Specifically, students have the oportunity to: interpret seismograms from the Izmit earthquake in 1999 (while accessing some seismograph station information from IRIS) make and interpret an earthquake focal mechanism solution based on these seismograms locate the earthquake epicenter calculate the moment magnitude of the earthquake using published data showing epicenter locations and displacement measurements intepret historical data from the North Anatolian fault and tectonic-scale plate motion information to see what patterns occur in the regional seismicity.

Titus, Sarah

210

Hidden earthquakes  

SciTech Connect

Seismologists generally look for earthquakes to happen along visible fault lines, e.g., the San Andreas fault. The authors maintain that another source of dangerous quakes has been overlooked: the release of stress along a fault that is hidden under a fold in the earth's crust. The paper describes the differences between an earthquake which occurs on a visible fault and one which occurs under an anticline and warns that Los Angeles greatest earthquake threat may come from a small quake originating under downtown Los Angeles, rather than a larger earthquake which occurs 50 miles away at the San Andreas fault.

Stein, R.S.; Yeats, R.S.

1989-06-01

211

1964 Great Alaska Earthquake: a photographic tour of Anchorage, Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

On March 27, 1964, at 5:36 p.m., a magnitude 9.2 earthquake, the largest recorded earthquake in U.S. history, struck southcentral Alaska (fig. 1). The Great Alaska Earthquake (also known as the Good Friday Earthquake) occurred at a pivotal time in the history of earth science, and helped lead to the acceptance of plate tectonic theory (Cox, 1973; Brocher and others, 2014). All large subduction zone earthquakes are understood through insights learned from the 1964 event, and observations and interpretations of the earthquake have influenced the design of infrastructure and seismic monitoring systems now in place. The earthquake caused extensive damage across the State, and triggered local tsunamis that devastated the Alaskan towns of Whittier, Valdez, and Seward. In Anchorage, the main cause of damage was ground shaking, which lasted approximately 4.5 minutes. Many buildings could not withstand this motion and were damaged or collapsed even though their foundations remained intact. More significantly, ground shaking triggered a number of landslides along coastal and drainage valley bluffs underlain by the Bootlegger Cove Formation, a composite of facies containing variably mixed gravel, sand, silt, and clay which were deposited over much of upper Cook Inlet during the Late Pleistocene (Ulery and others, 1983). Cyclic (or strain) softening of the more sensitive clay facies caused overlying blocks of soil to slide sideways along surfaces dipping by only a few degrees. This guide is the document version of an interactive web map that was created as part of the commemoration events for the 50th anniversary of the 1964 Great Alaska Earthquake. It is accessible at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Alaska Science Center website: http://alaska.usgs.gov/announcements/news/1964Earthquake/. The website features a map display with suggested tour stops in Anchorage, historical photographs taken shortly after the earthquake, repeat photography of selected sites, scanned documents, and small-scale maps, as well as links to slideshows of additional photographs and Google Street View™ scenes. Buildings in Anchorage that were severely damaged, sites of major landslides, and locations of post-earthquake engineering responses are highlighted. The web map can be used online as a virtual tour or in a physical self-guided tour using a web-enabled Global Positioning System (GPS) device. This publication serves the purpose of committing most of the content of the web map to a single distributable document. As such, some of the content differs from the online version.

Thoms, Evan E.; Haeussler, Peter J.; Anderson, Rebecca D.; McGimsey, Robert G.

2014-01-01

212

Earthquakes 101  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

By watching this National Geographic video, you will learn all about earthquakes! You will learn what causes them, how many occur daily, and where they usually happen. The video will also tell you about some of the earthquakes that have occurred in the United States.

2010-01-01

213

Plotting Earthquakes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students plot daily earthquake locations on a world map. They will understand that earthquakes are not randomly distributed around the Earth, but occur at plate interfaces, and learn to identify the 'Ring of Fire' around the Pacific Basin.

Gilhooly, Brian

2010-10-12

214

Plotting Earthquakes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners discover how to plot earthquakes on a map by exploring recent earthquake activity in California and Nevada. Within this activity, learners also practice using latitudinal and longitudinal lines and make predictions. This detailed lesson plan includes key vocabulary words, background information for educators, extension ideas, and resources.

Sciences, California A.

2012-06-26

215

Statistical analysis of the induced Basel 2006 earthquake sequence: introducing a probability-based monitoring approach for Enhanced Geothermal Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geothermal energy is becoming an important clean energy source, however, the stimulation of a reservoir for an Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) is associated with seismic risk due to induced seismicity. Seismicity occurring due to the water injection at depth have to be well recorded and monitored. To mitigate the seismic risk of a damaging event, an appropriate alarm system needs

C. E. Bachmann; S. Wiemer; J. Woessner; S. Hainzl

2011-01-01

216

Broadband characteristics of earthquakes recorded during a dome-building eruption at Mount St. Helens, Washington, between October 2004 and May 2005: Chapter 5 in A volcano rekindled: the renewed eruption of Mount St. Helens, 2004-2006  

USGS Publications Warehouse

From October 2004 to May 2005, the Center for Earthquake Research and Information of the University of Memphis operated two to six broadband seismometers within 5 to 20 km of Mount St. Helens to help monitor recent seismic and volcanic activity. Approximately 57,000 earthquakes identified during the 7-month deployment had a normal magnitude distribution with a mean magnitude of 1.78 and a standard deviation of 0.24 magnitude units. Both the mode and range of earthquake magnitude and the rate of activity varied during the deployment. We examined the time domain and spectral characteristics of two classes of events seen during dome building. These include volcano-tectonic earthquakes and lower-frequency events. Lower-frequency events are further classified into hybrid earthquakes, low-frequency earthquakes, and long-duration volcanic tremor. Hybrid and low-frequency earthquakes showed a continuum of characteristics that varied systematically with time. A progressive loss of high-frequency seismic energy occurred in earthquakes as magma approached and eventually reached the surface. The spectral shape of large and small earthquakes occurring within days of each other did not vary with magnitude. Volcanic tremor events and lower-frequency earthquakes displayed consistent spectral peaks, although higher frequencies were more favorably excited during tremor than earthquakes.

Horton, Stephen P.; Norris, Robert D.; Moran, Seth C.

2008-01-01

217

Putting Down Roots in Earthquake Country  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Putting Down Roots in Earthquake Country is an informational Web site provided by the Southern California Earthquake Center. Citizens can learn about the San Andreas fault, other California faults, how to build and maintain an earthquake safe house, how to survive an earthquake, how they are measured and what the magnitude means, common earthquake myths, and much more. As a safety and an educational site, this unique resource does a good job of presenting a lot of information, illustrations, and graphics in an easy-to-follow format that helps explain this powerful and potentially deadly natural occurrence.

218

Interoperable Access to Near Real Time Ocean Observations with the Observing System Monitoring Center  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Observing System Monitoring Center (OSMC), a project funded by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Climate Observations Division (COD), exists to join the discrete 'networks' of In Situ ocean observing platforms -- ships, surface floats, profiling floats, tide gauges, etc. - into a single, integrated system. The OSMC is addressing this goal through capabilities in three areas focusing on the needs of specific user groups: 1) it provides real time monitoring of the integrated observing system assets to assist management in optimizing the cost-effectiveness of the system for the assessment of climate variables; 2) it makes the stream of real time data coming from the observing system available to scientific end users into an easy-to-use form; and 3) in the future, it will unify the delayed-mode data from platform-focused data assembly centers into a standards- based distributed system that is readily accessible to interested users from the science and education communities. In this presentation, we will be focusing on the efforts of the OSMC to provide interoperable access to the near real time data stream that is available via the Global Telecommunications System (GTS). This is a very rich data source, and includes data from nearly all of the oceanographic platforms that are actively observing. We will discuss how the data is being served out using a number of widely used 'web services' (including OPeNDAP and SOS) and downloadable file formats (KML, csv, xls, netCDF), so that it can be accessed in web browsers and popular desktop analysis tools. We will also be discussing our use of the Environmental Research Division's Data Access Program (ERDDAP), available from NOAA/NMFS, which has allowed us to achieve our goals of serving the near real time data. From an interoperability perspective, it's important to note that access to the this stream of data is not just for humans, but also for machine-to-machine requests. We'll also delve into how we configured access to the near real time ocean observations in accordance with the Climate and Forecast (CF) metadata conventions describing the various 'feature types' associated with particular in situ observation types, or discrete sampling geometries (DSG). Wrapping up, we'll discuss some of the ways this data source is already being used.

O'Brien, K.; Hankin, S.; Mendelssohn, R.; Simons, R.; Smith, B.; Kern, K. J.

2013-12-01

219

Earthquake Precursors in Thermal Infrared Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of an agreement between NASA and the Arab Youth Venture Foundation (AYVF), three engineering students from the United Arab Emirates (UAE) participated in a 10-week experiential learning program this summer. This educational program is managed by the NASA Ames Research Center Office of Education and Public Outreach and is administered by the Education Associates Program (EAP). One of the research projects under this program tested the hypothesis that signals emitted by the Earth’s surface prior to the occurrence of an earthquake, including thermal infrared (TIR) emissions, can be detected through appropriate analysis of data collected by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite sensors. After applying a set of preprocessing algorithms to the satellite data, we analyzed MODIS images showing the TIR emitted by a ground area in the days prior to an eventual earthquake. We used computing tools and software, such as MATLAB and ENVI, to isolate these pre-seismic signals from the background noise. The development of a technique to monitor pre-seismic signals holds promise in finding a method to predict earthquakes.

Alqassim, S. S.; Vanderbilt, V. C.

2010-12-01

220

Activity remotely triggered in volcanic and geothermal centers in California and Washington by the 3 November 2002 Mw=7.9 Alaska earthquake  

Microsoft Academic Search

The M=7.9 Alaska earthquake of 3 November 2002 was followed by bursts of remotely triggered earthquakes at several volcanic and geothermal areas across the western United States at epicentral distances of 2,500 to 3,660 km. Husen et al. (this session) describe the triggered response for Yellowstone caldera, Wyoming. Here we highlight the triggered response for the Geysers geothermal field in

D. P. Hill; S. Prejean; D. Oppenheimer; A. M. Pitt; S. D. Malone; K. Richards-Dinger

2002-01-01

221

Earthquakes Living Lab: Locating Earthquakes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students use U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) real-time, real-world seismic data from around the planet to identify where earthquakes occur and look for trends in earthquake activity. They explore where and why earthquakes occur, learning about faults and how they influence earthquakes. Looking at the interactive maps and the data, students use Microsoft® Excel® to conduct detailed analysis of the most-recent 25 earthquakes; they calculate mean, median, mode of the data set, as well as identify the minimum and maximum magnitudes. Students compare their predictions with the physical data, and look for trends to and patterns in the data. A worksheet serves as a student guide for the activity.

Civil And Environmental Engineering Department

222

Earthquake Effects and Experiences  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This portion of the United States Geological Survey's (USGS) frequently-asked-questions feature on earthquakes addresses what individuals might actually experience during an earthquake. Topics include earthquake motion (rolling or shaking), earthquake effects (ground shaking, surface faulting, ground failure, etc.), earthquake magnitude, what an earthquake feels like, and others. There are also links to additional resources on earthquake effects and experiences.

2010-11-23

223

Earthquake Effects and Experiences  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This portion of the United States Geological Survey's (USGS) frequently-asked-questions feature on earthquakes addresses what individuals might actually experience during an earthquake. Topics include earthquake motion (rolling or shaking), earthquake effects (ground shaking, surface faulting, ground failure, etc.), earthquake magnitude, what an earthquake feels like, and others. There are also links to additional resources on earthquake effects and experiences.

224

Using Back-Projection of Surface Waves for Near Real-Time Determination of Global Earthquake Locations, Magnitudes and Mechanisms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We will discuss our recent progress in the implementation of a global earthquake detection and analysis system using back-projection of long-period (60-120 s) surface waves. A prototype system for Surface wave Location and Association in Quasi Real time (SLAQR) has been operational in test mode at the United States Geological Survey National Earthquake Information Center (USGS NEIC) using data from around 40 stations of the Global Seismographic Network. The algorithm does not require a human operator to select or analyze data and uses a Rayleigh wave back-projection approach consisting of a continuous progressive conversion of time series into spectrograms and the mapping of those spectrograms onto a grid of locations and origin times. It distinguishes itself by its straightforward adaptation into a routine monitoring system and its constant load approach. This method provides a reliable estimate of the moment of global earthquakes without saturating and thus is particularly useful for large earthquakes. It can also act as a backup to the current NEIC monitoring software and detect events that are missed, or underestimated, by the current system. Particularly important in this regard are long-period “tsunami” earthquakes and slow oceanic transform earthquakes. Our newly added calculation of moment tensors and earthquake depths employs the same spectral parameters already calculated for the determination of magnitudes and locations. We have analyzed the results of this prototype system for the time period of March 2009 to April 2010, to assess its performance and calibrate the produced magnitudes with those in the final NEIC earthquake catalog. Our analysis shows that the system performs well for events greater than magnitude 5.5 and determines reliable magnitudes and locations for global events shallower than 150 km in depth. We have also tested a new extension to this system to determine earthquake moment tensors and depths, and have found that it performs well for very large events, but will require changes to the current system to be functional for smaller earthquakes.

Polet, J.; Thio, H. K.; Earle, P. S.

2010-12-01

225

Anthropogenic Triggering of Large Earthquakes  

PubMed Central

The physical mechanism of the anthropogenic triggering of large earthquakes on active faults is studied on the basis of experimental phenomenology, i.e., that earthquakes occur on active tectonic faults, that crustal stress values are those measured in situ and, on active faults, comply to the values of the stress drop measured for real earthquakes, that the static friction coefficients are those inferred on faults, and that the effective triggering stresses are those inferred for real earthquakes. Deriving the conditions for earthquake nucleation as a time-dependent solution of the Tresca-Von Mises criterion applied in the framework of poroelasticity yields that active faults can be triggered by fluid overpressures < 0.1?MPa. Comparing this with the deviatoric stresses at the depth of crustal hypocenters, which are of the order of 1–10?MPa, we find that injecting in the subsoil fluids at the pressures typical of oil and gas production and storage may trigger destructive earthquakes on active faults at a few tens of kilometers. Fluid pressure propagates as slow stress waves along geometric paths operating in a drained condition and can advance the natural occurrence of earthquakes by a substantial amount of time. Furthermore, it is illusory to control earthquake triggering by close monitoring of minor “foreshocks”, since the induction may occur with a delay up to several years. PMID:25156190

Mulargia, Francesco; Bizzarri, Andrea

2014-01-01

226

Locating Earthquakes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This portal provides access to a variety of resources explaining the methods used to determine the location and depth of an earthquake. The resources include the 'Travel Time Information and Calculator', an online tool that lets users choose a seismic station location and a recent earthquake, and see how long it takes different types of seismic waves to travel from the epicenter to their locations. There is also a discussion of how earthquake depths are determined by examining the characteristics of the S- and P-waves, an animation of seismic waveforms, and a selection of activities, slideshows, and other references.

227

Locating Earthquakes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This portal provides access to a variety of resources explaining the methods used to determine the location and depth of an earthquake. The resources include the 'Travel Time Information and Calculator', an online tool that lets users choose a seismic station location and a recent earthquake, and see how long it takes different types of seismic waves to travel from the epicenter to their locations. There is also a discussion of how earthquake depths are determined by examining the characteristics of the S- and P-waves, an animation of seismic waveforms, and a selection of activities, slideshows, and other references.

2012-04-17

228

Satellite relay telemetry of seismic data in earthquake prediction and control  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Satellite Telemetry Earthquake Monitoring Program was started in FY 1968 to evaluate the applicability of satellite relay telemetry in the collection of seismic data from a large number of dense seismograph clusters laid out along the major fault systems of western North America. Prototype clusters utilizing phone-line telemetry were then being installed by the National Center for Earthquake Research (NCER) in 3 regions along the San Andreas fault in central California; and the experience of installing and operating the clusters and in reducing and analyzing the seismic data from them was to provide the raw materials for evaluation in the satellite relay telemetry project.

Jackson, Wayne H.; Eaton, Jerry P.

1971-01-01

229

Earthquake Twitter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Twitter messages offer first-hand accounts of earthquakes within minutes. Analyses of their content and geographic distribution can be a useful supplement to instrument-based estimates of quake location and magnitude.

Earle, Paul

2010-04-01

230

Earthquake Location  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Earthquake location is an interesting and significant aspect of seismology. Locating earthquakes is necessary for compiling useful seismicity information, calculating magnitudes, and study of fault zones, Earth structure and the earthquake process. Methods of earthquake location involve understanding of seismic waves, wave propagation, interpretation of seismograms, Earth velocity structure, triangulation, and the concepts (and mathematics) of inverse problems. Because earthquake location can be approached with relatively simple to very complex methods, it can be included in various levels of educational curricula and for "in-depth" study. Progressively developing a deep understanding of concepts, computational techniques and applications (and the capabilities, limitations and uncertainties of these applications) is a characteristic of science and an opportunity to "learn science by doing science." A number of methods that vary from simple to complex are available for learning about earthquake location. The methods also allow connections to other important concepts in seismology and provide a variety of approaches that address different learning styles and can be used for reinforcement and assessment. Uses online and/or real-time data Has minimal/no quantitative component

Braile, Larry

231

Ground-water-level monitoring for earthquake prediction; a progress report based on data collected in Southern California, 1976-79  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey is conducting a research program to determine if groundwater-level measurements can be used for earthquake prediction. Earlier studies suggest that water levels in wells may be responsive to small strains on the order of 10 to the minus 8th power to 10 to the minus 10th power (dimensionless). Water-level data being collected in the area of the southern California uplift show response to earthquakes and other natural and manmade effects. The data are presently (1979) being made ready for computer analysis. The completed analysis may indicate the presence of precursory earthquake information. (USGS)

Moyle, W. R., Jr.

1980-01-01

232

Groundwater monitoring program plan and conceptual site model for the Al-Tuwaitha Nuclear Research Center in Iraq.  

SciTech Connect

The Radiation Protection Center of the Iraqi Ministry of Environment is developing a groundwater monitoring program (GMP) for the Al-Tuwaitha Nuclear Research Center located near Baghdad, Iraq. The Al-Tuwaitha Nuclear Research Center was established in about 1960 and is currently being cleaned-up and decommissioned by Iraq's Ministry of Science and Technology. This Groundwater Monitoring Program Plan (GMPP) and Conceptual Site Model (CSM) support the Radiation Protection Center by providing:A CSM describing the hydrogeologic regime and contaminant issues,recommendations for future groundwater characterization activities, anddescriptions of the organizational elements of a groundwater monitoring program. The Conceptual Site Model identifies a number of potential sources of groundwater contamination at Al-Tuwaitha. The model also identifies two water-bearing zones (a shallow groundwater zone and a regional aquifer). The depth to the shallow groundwater zone varies from approximately 7 to 10 meters (m) across the facility. The shallow groundwater zone is composed of a layer of silty sand and fine sand that does not extend laterally across the entire facility. An approximately 4-m thick layer of clay underlies the shallow groundwater zone. The depth to the regional aquifer varies from approximately 14 to 17 m across the facility. The regional aquifer is composed of interfingering layers of silty sand, fine-grained sand, and medium-grained sand. Based on the limited analyses described in this report, there is no severe contamination of the groundwater at Al-Tuwaitha with radioactive constituents. However, significant data gaps exist and this plan recommends the installation of additional groundwater monitoring wells and conducting additional types of radiological and chemical analyses.

Copland, John Robin; Cochran, John Russell

2013-07-01

233

Cooperative Monitoring Center Occasional Paper/11: Cooperative Environmental Monitoring in the Coastal Regions of India and Pakistan  

SciTech Connect

The cessation of hostilities between India and Pakistan is an immediate need and of global concern, as these countries have tested nuclear devices, and have the capability to deploy nuclear weapons and long-range ballistic missiles. Cooperative monitoring projects among neighboring countries in South Asia could build regional confidence, and, through gradual improvements in relations, reduce the threat of war and the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. This paper discusses monitoring the trans-border movement of flow and sediment in the Indian and Pakistani coastal areas. Through such a project, India and Pakistan could initiate greater cooperation, and engender movement towards the resolution of the Sir Creek territorial dispute in their coastal region. The Joint Working Groups dialogue being conducted by India and Pakistan provides a mechanism for promoting such a project. The proposed project also falls within a regional framework of cooperation agreed to by several South Asian countries. This framework has been codified in the South Asian Seas Action Plan, developed by Bangladesh, India, Maldives, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. This framework provides a useful starting point for Indian and Pakistani cooperative monitoring in their trans-border coastal area. The project discussed in this paper involves computer modeling, the placement of in situ sensors for remote data acquisition, and the development of joint reports. Preliminary computer modeling studies are presented in the paper. These results illustrate the cross-flow connections between Indian and Pakistani coastal regions and strengthen the argument for cooperation. Technologies and actions similar to those suggested for the coastal project are likely to be applied in future arms control and treaty verification agreements. The project, therefore, serves as a demonstration of cooperative monitoring technologies. The project will also increase people-to-people contacts among Indian and Pakistani policy makers and scientists. In the perceptions of the general public, the project will crystallize the idea that the two countries share ecosystems and natural resources, and have a vested interest in increased collaboration.

Rajen, Gauray

1999-06-01

234

A National Tracking Center for Monitoring Shipments of HEU, MOX, and Spent Nuclear Fuel: How do we implement?  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear material safeguards specialists and instrument developers at US Department of Energy (USDOE) National Laboratories in the United States, sponsored by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Office of NA-24, have been developing devices to monitor shipments of UF6 cylinders and other radioactive materials , . Tracking devices are being developed that are capable of monitoring shipments of valuable radioactive materials in real time, using the Global Positioning System (GPS). We envision that such devices will be extremely useful, if not essential, for monitoring the shipment of these important cargoes of nuclear material, including highly-enriched uranium (HEU), mixed plutonium/uranium oxide (MOX), spent nuclear fuel, and, potentially, other large radioactive sources. To ensure nuclear material security and safeguards, it is extremely important to track these materials because they contain so-called “direct-use material” which is material that if diverted and processed could potentially be used to develop clandestine nuclear weapons . Large sources could be used for a dirty bomb also known as a radioactive dispersal device (RDD). For that matter, any interdiction by an adversary regardless of intent demands a rapid response. To make the fullest use of such tracking devices, we propose a National Tracking Center. This paper describes what the attributes of such a center would be and how it could ultimately be the prototype for an International Tracking Center, possibly to be based in Vienna, at the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA).

Mark Schanfein

2009-07-01

235

The World Trade Center Attack: Similarities to the 1988 earthquake in Armenia: time to teach the public life-supporting first aid?  

Microsoft Academic Search

On 7 December 1988, a severe earthquake hit in Armenia, a former republic of the Soviet Union (USSR); on 11 September 2001, a manmade attack of similar impact hit New York City. These events share similar implications for the role of the uninjured survivor. With basic training, the uninjured survivors could save lives without tools or resuscitation equipment. This article

David Crippen

2001-01-01

236

Stanford Center for Position, Navigation & Time  

E-print Network

Monitoring · Precision survey, mapping, geodesy and seismic monitoring of earthquake faults. · Future. Position, Navigation & Time Technology Critical to the global economy Time Technology · Broadband

Straight, Aaron

237

Predicting Earthquakes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Five moderate-to-strong earthquakes struck California in June 2005. Could the cluster of quakes be a harbinger of the Big One? Another earthquake-prone area, New Madrid, near Memphis, Tennessee, has had more than its share of impressive quakes and strain is building along its fault lines. This radio broadcast discusses these two seismic zones, the new data based on years of GPS (Global Positioning System) measurements that may give scientists more information, and how the Earth generates the stress which leads to earthquakes. There is also discussion of the danger of tsunamis in the Virgin Islands and the need for a worldwide tsunami warning network. The broadcast is 18 minutes in length.

238

Deep earthquakes  

SciTech Connect

Earthquakes are often recorded at depths as great as 650 kilometers or more. These deep events mark regions where plates of the earth's surface are consumed in the mantle. But the earthquakes themselves present a conundrum: the high pressures and temperatures at such depths should keep rock from fracturing suddenly and generating a tremor. This paper reviews the research on this problem. Almost all deep earthquakes conform to the pattern described by Wadati, namely, they generally occur at the edge of a deep ocean and define an inclined zone extending from near the surface to a depth of 600 kilometers of more, known as the Wadati-Benioff zone. Several scenarios are described that were proposed to explain the fracturing and slipping of rocks at this depth.

Frohlich, C.

1989-01-01

239

Earthquake Machine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a demonstration of the principle of elastic rebound for the cause and recurrence of earthquakes. Under the Elastic Rebound Theory, the continuous motion of plates on Earth causes stress to build up at the boundaries between the plates, where friction keeps the boundaries locked. Stress is continually building up, and earthquakes act to relieve that stress. In the demonstration, the two sides of a fault are represented by sandpaper-covered blocks resting on a sandpaper-covered board. A weight rests on the block to apply a chosen amount of pressure on the sandpaper (defining the frictional strength of the fault). A spring is attached to the block and to a string, on which a constant pull is maintained. This apparatus is used to discover when the stress causes the blocks to move. Conclusions on earthquake recurrence (seismicity) may then be drawn.

Barker, Jeffrey

240

Earthquakes in Arkansas and vicinity 1699-2010  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This map summarizes approximately 300 years of earthquake activity in Arkansas. It is one in a series of similar State earthquake history maps. Work on the Arkansas map was done in collaboration with the Arkansas Geological Survey. The earthquake data plotted on the map are from several sources: the Arkansas Geological Survey, the Center for Earthquake Research and Information, the National Center for Earthquake Engineering Research, and the Mississippi Department of Environmental Quality. In addition to earthquake locations, other materials presented include seismic hazard and isoseismal maps and related text. Earthquakes are a legitimate concern in Arkansas and parts of adjacent states. Arkansas has undergone a number of significant felt earthquakes since 1811. At least two of these events caused property damage: a magnitude 4.7 earthquake in 1931, and a magnitude 4.3 earthquake in 1967. The map shows all historical and instrumentally located earthquakes in Arkansas and vicinity between 1811 and 2010. The largest historic earthquake in the vicinity of the State was an intensity XI event, on December 16, 1811; the first earthquake in the New Madrid sequence. This violent event and the earthquakes that followed caused considerable damage to the then sparsely settled region.

Dart, Richard L.; Ausbrooks, Scott M.

2011-01-01

241

77 FR 53225 - National Earthquake Prediction Evaluation Council (NEPEC)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...USGS-GX12GG00995NP00] National Earthquake Prediction Evaluation Council (NEPEC...to Public Law 96-472, the National Earthquake Prediction Evaluation Council (NEPEC...the U.S. Geological Survey National Earthquake Information Center (NEIC), 1711...

2012-08-31

242

Lecture Demonstrations on Earthquakes for K-12 Teachers and Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lecture Demonstrations on Earthquakes for K-12 Teachers and Students Since 1975, the Center for Earthquake Research and Information, (CERI), at The University of Memphis, has strived to satisfy its information transfer directives through diverse education and outreach efforts, providing technical and non-technical earthquake information to the general public, K-16 teachers and students, professional organizations, and state and federal organizations via

M. D. Dry; G. L. Patterson

2005-01-01

243

Network for Earthquake Engineering Simulation (NEES)NEED IMPACT STATEMENT  

E-print Network

Network for Earthquake Engineering Simulation (NEES)NEED IMPACT STATEMENT INITIATIVE In October E. Brown, Jr. Network for Earthquake Engineering Simulation, or NEES, which is an integral component of the U.S. National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (NEHRP). Purdue's NEEScomm Center serves

Ginzel, Matthew

244

The parkfield, california, earthquake prediction experiment.  

PubMed

Five moderate (magnitude 6) earthquakes with similar features have occurred on the Parkfield section of the San Andreas fault in central California since 1857. The next moderate Parkfield earthquake is expected to occur before 1993. The Parkfield prediction experiment is designed to monitor the details of the final stages of the earthquake preparation process; observations and reports of seismicity and aseismic slip associated with the last moderate Parkfield earthquake in 1966 constitute much of the basis of the design of the experiment. PMID:17739363

Bakun, W H; Lindh, A G

1985-08-16

245

Santa Barbara Earthquake History  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource provides eyewitness accounts and historical photographs from notable damaging earthquakes that have occurred in or near Santa Barbara County, California. It also contains a catalog of all earthquakes that have been felt in the greater Santa Barbara region between 1800 and 1960. Major earthquakes covered include the 1812 Santa Barbara Earthquake, the 1857 Fort Tejon Earthquake, the 1902 Los Alamos Earthquakes, the 1925 Santa Barbara Earthquake, the 1927 Lompoc Earthquake, and the 1978 Goleta Earthquake. For each earthquake there is a brief description and a map showing the location. Some have other details and photographs.

246

Integrated System for Earthquake Early Warning and Quick Response Against Strong Motion - In Case of the Tokyo Metro Company  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In July 2005, an earthquake of M6.0 attacked the Tokyo metropolitan area. This earthquake occurred at 35.5N and 140.2E with about 73km in depth, and the maximum JMA intensity was 5+ corresponding to MMI VIII approximately. This earthquake occurred at north-west of Chiba prefecture and caused a traffic disturbance widely in Tokyo metropolitan area. All the train operation had been stopped for a long time after the earthquake, although a severe damage was not caused even in the area of high intensity. The longest down time for the train operation was more than seven hours. After the earthquake, we proposed a new system for early warning and quick response. Tokyo Metro Company accepted our proposal, and we replaced and built the new early warning/quick response system as followed. The system consists of two seismometer networks. One is the early warning system FREQL network with six seismometers to control or stop the train operation immediately after the earthquake occurrence. And the other is the portable digital seismometer AcCo network distributing 33 seismometers in every about three kilometers mesh to grasp more detailed seismic motion on their service area. The information from both FREQL network and AcCo network are gathered to the operation center and displayed on the individual monitoring system. The monitoring system for AcCo can indicate the integrated information from AcCo and FREQL on the subway network image. The AcCo monitoring system is also installed on the control table for each subway line. At the time of the earthquake, the early warning system detects at first the earthquake immediately and then the 33 local seismometers inform the actual earthquake motion of each site independently and rapidly. This system realized quick response and restart of the train operation because the early warning became faster and checking zone after earthquake was optimized. This updated system is expected to realize quicker response during and after. For the large system as the train operation, it is necessary for the control against the earthquake to equip the system not only to issue the early warning but also to support the quick and rational recovery work after the earthquake.

Sato, T.; Saita, J.; Nakamura, Y.

2007-12-01

247

The EM Earthquake Precursor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many attempts have been made to determine a sound forecasting method regarding earthquakes and warn the public in turn. Presently, the animal kingdom leads the precursor list alluding to a transmission related source. By applying the animal-based model to an electromagnetic (EM) wave model, various hypotheses were formed, but the most interesting one required the use of a magnetometer with a differing design and geometry. To date, numerous, high-end magnetometers have been in use in close proximity to fault zones for potential earthquake forecasting; however, something is still amiss. The problem still resides with what exactly is forecastable and the investigating direction of EM. After the 1989 Loma Prieta Earthquake, American earthquake investigators predetermined magnetometer use and a minimum earthquake magnitude necessary for EM detection. This action was set in motion, due to the extensive damage incurred and public outrage concerning earthquake forecasting; however, the magnetometers employed, grounded or buried, are completely subject to static and electric fields and have yet to correlate to an identifiable precursor. Secondly, there is neither a networked array for finding any epicentral locations, nor have there been any attempts to find even one. This methodology needs dismissal, because it is overly complicated, subject to continuous change, and provides no response time. As for the minimum magnitude threshold, which was set at M5, this is simply higher than what modern technological advances have gained. Detection can now be achieved at approximately M1, which greatly improves forecasting chances. A propagating precursor has now been detected in both the field and laboratory. Field antenna testing conducted outside the NE Texas town of Timpson in February, 2013, detected three strong EM sources along with numerous weaker signals. The antenna had mobility, and observations were noted for recurrence, duration, and frequency response. Next, two directional techniques were employed, resulting in three mapped, potential epicenters. The remaining, weaker signals presented similar directionality results to more epicentral locations. In addition, the directional results of the Timpson field tests lead to the design and construction of a third prototype antenna. In a laboratory setting, experiments were created to fail igneous rock types within a custom-designed Faraday Cage. An antenna emplaced within the cage detected EM emissions, which were both reproducible and distinct, and the laboratory results paralleled field results. With a viable system and continuous monitoring, a fracture cycle could be established and observed in real-time. Sequentially, field data would be reviewed quickly for assessment; thus, leading to a much improved earthquake forecasting capability. The EM precursor determined by this method may surpass all prior precursor claims, and the general public will finally receive long overdue forecasting.

Jones, K. B., II; Saxton, P. T.

2013-12-01

248

Earthquake Vulnerability  

E-print Network

This report is available as an online document at www.nbmg.unr.edu. Please use links on the tables to view summary reports for scenarios involving earthquakes of magnitude 5.0, 5.5, 6.0, 6.5, and 7.0 for 38 communities in Nevada.

Jonathan G. Price; Gary Johnson; Christine M. Ballard; Heather Armeno; Jonathan G. Price; Gary Johnson; Christine M. Ballard; Heather Armeno; Irene Seeley Linda D. Goar

249

Earthquake Analysis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Earth science students are expected to master the travel-time curves of the seismic waves generated at the focus of an earthquake and recorded at seismograph stations. Commonly, students are required to calculate the distance to the epicenter and the time

Espinoza, Fernando

2000-04-01

250

Earthquake Seismology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The elastic waves radiating from earthquakes are of several different types; their paths explore all regions of the earth; and the separate quakes, each one a highly localized wave source for a brief interval of time, occur in nearly all geographic areas....

M. A. Tuve, I. S. Sacks, L. T. Aldrich, J. Frez, F. G. Saa

1964-01-01

251

Is earthquake triggering driven by small earthquakes?  

PubMed

Using a catalog of seismicity for Southern California, we measure how the number of triggered earthquakes increases with the earthquake magnitude. The trade-off between this relation and the distribution of earthquake magnitudes controls the relative role of small compared to large earthquakes. We show that seismicity triggering is driven by the smallest earthquakes, which trigger fewer events than larger earthquakes, but which are much more numerous. We propose that the nontrivial scaling of the number of triggered earthquakes emerges from the fractal spatial distribution of seismicity. PMID:12906641

Helmstetter, Agnès

2003-08-01

252

The development of a remote monitoring system for the Nuclear Science Center reactor  

E-print Network

With funding provided by Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (NERI), design of Secure, Transportable, Autonomous Reactors (STAR) to aid countries with insufficient energy supplies is underway. The development of a new monitoring system that allows...

Jiltchenkov, Dmitri Victorovich

2012-06-07

253

Cooperative Monitoring Center Occasional Paper/7: A Generic Model for Cooperative Border Security  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a generic model for dealing with security problems along borders between countries. It presents descriptions and characteristics of various borders and identifies the threats to border security, while emphasizing cooperative monitoring solutions.

Netzer, Colonel Gideon

1999-03-01

254

Earthquake light: 1995 Kobe earthquake in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

There were eyewitness reports of earthquake light, co-seismic luminous phenomena in the 1995 Kobe earthquake (Hyogo-ken Nanbu earthquake) in Japan. The Kobe earthquake occurred at 5:46 a.m. (LT) on January 17, 1995 around the Hanshin area in Japan. The M7.2 earthquake strongly attacked Kobe City. On that early morning, two young persons on Mt. Rokko (northeast side of Kobe) saw

Masashi Kamogawa; Hideho Ofuruton; Yoshi-Hiko Ohtsuki

2005-01-01

255

Monitoring and Modeling of Ground Deformation at Three Sisters volcanic center, central Oregon Cascade Range, 1997-2009 (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modeling of InSAR, GPS, and leveling data indicates that uplift of a broad area centered ~6 km west of the summit of South Sister volcano started in 1997 and is continuing at a declining rate. Surface displacements were measured every summer when possible since August 1992 with InSAR, annually since August 2001 using GPS and leveling surveys, and since May 2001 using continuous GPS. Our best-fit model to the deformation data is a vertical, prolate, spheroidal point-pressure source located 4.9-5.4 km below the surface. A more complicated source of this type that includes dip as a free model parameter does not improve the fit to data significantly, and other source types including tabular bodies (dike or sill) produce decidedly poorer results. The source inflation rate decreased exponentially during 2001-2006 with a 1/e decay time of 5.3 ± 1.1 years. The net increase in source volume from September 1997 to August 2006 was 36-42 x 106 m3. A swarm of ~300 small (maximum magnitude 1.9) earthquakes occurred beneath the deforming area in March 2004; no other unusual seismicity has been noted. We attribute surface deformation to intrusion of magma, perhaps at the brittle-ductile transition in hot, thermally altered crust beneath the active Three Sisters volcanic center. Elastic models like those we investigated cannot distinguish between ongoing intrusion at a declining rate and viscoelastic response of the overlying crust and hydrothermal system to an intrusion that might have ended some time ago. Repeated gravity surveys that began in 2002 might help to resolve this ambiguity; gravity results through summer 2009 will be presented separately at this meeting. Similar deformation episodes in the past probably would have gone unnoticed if, as we suspect, most are caused by small intrusions that do not culminate in eruptions.

Dzurisin, D.; Lisowski, M.; Wicks, C. W.

2009-12-01

256

Investigations of Anomalous Earthquakes at Active Volcanoes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation investigates the link between volcanic unrest and the occurrence of moderate-to-large earthquakes with a specific type of focal mechanism. Vertical compensated-linear-vector-dipole (vertical-CLVD) earthquakes have vertical pressure or tension axes and seismic radiation patterns that are inconsistent with the double-couple model of slip on a planar fault. Prior to this work, moderate-to-large vertical-CLVD earthquakes were known to be geographically associated with volcanic centers, and vertical-CLVD earthquakes were linked to a tsunami in the Izu-Bonin volcanic arc and a subglacial fissure eruption in Iceland. Vertical-CLVD earthquakes are some of the largest and most anomalous earthquakes to occur in volcanic systems, yet their physical mechanisms remain controversial largely due to the small number of observations. Five vertical-CLVD earthquakes with vertical pressure axes are identified near Nyiragongo volcano in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Three earthquakes occur within days of a fissure eruption at Nyiragongo, and two occur several years later in association with the refilling of the lava lake in the summit crater of the volcano. Detailed study of these events shows that the earthquakes have slower source processes than tectonic earthquakes with similar magnitudes and locations. All five earthquakes are interpreted as resulting from slip on inward-dipping ring-fault structures located above deflating shallow magma chambers. The Nyiragongo study supports the interpretation that vertical-CLVD earthquakes may be causally related to dynamic physical processes occurring inside the edifices or magmatic plumbing systems of active volcanoes. Two seismicity catalogs from the Global Centroid Moment Tensor (CMT) Project are used to search for further examples of shallow earthquakes with robust vertical-CLVD focal mechanisms. CMT solutions for approximately 400 target earthquakes are calculated and 86 vertical-CLVD earthquakes are identified near active volcanoes. Together with the Nyiragongo study, this work increases the number of well-studied vertical-CLVD earthquakes from 14 to 101. Vertical-CLVD earthquakes have focal depths in the upper ˜10 km of the Earth's crust, and ˜80% have centroid locations within 30 km of an active volcanic center. Vertical-CLVD earthquakes are observed near several different types of volcanoes in a variety of geographic and tectonic settings, but most vertical-CLVD earthquakes are observed near basaltic-to-andesitic stratovolcanoes and submarine volcanoes in subduction zones. Vertical-CLVD earthquakes are linked to tsunamis, volcanic earthquake swarms, effusive and explosive eruptions, and caldera collapse, and approximately 70% are associated with documented volcanic eruptions or episodes of volcanic unrest. Those events with vertical pressure axes typically occur after volcanic eruptions initiate, whereas events with vertical tension axes commonly occur before the start of volcanic unrest. Both types of vertical-CLVD earthquakes have longer source durations than tectonic earthquakes of the same magnitude. The isotropic and pure vertical-CLVD components of the moment tensor cannot be independently resolved using our long-period seismic dataset. As a result, several physical mechanisms can explain the retrieved deviatoric vertical-CLVD moment tensors, including dip-slip motion on ring faults, volume exchange between two reservoirs, the opening and closing of tensile cracks, and volumetric sources. An evaluation of these mechanisms is performed using constraints obtained from detailed studies of individual vertical-CLVD earthquakes. Although no single physical mechanism can explain all of the characteristics of vertical-CLVD earthquakes, a ring-faulting model consisting of slip on inward- or outward-dipping ring faults triggered by the inflation or deflation of a shallow magma chamber can account for their seismic radiation patterns and source durations, as well as their temporal relationships with volcanic unrest. The observation that most vertical-CLVD earthquakes a

Shuler, Ashley Elizabeth

257

Stalking the next Parkfield earthquake  

SciTech Connect

The 30-kilometer section of the San Andreas fault midway between San Francisco and Los Angeles is the most well understood and most intensely monitored fault in the world. The geology of the area, its rock mechanics, the study of its past earthquakes, and prediction efforts for the next quake are described.

Kerr, R.A.

1984-01-06

258

*jplynch@stanford.edu; phone 1-650-723-6213; fax 1-650-725-9755; The John A. Blume Earthquake Engineering Center, Stanford University; Stanford, CA 94305;  

E-print Network

monitoring systems has limited their widespread use, with only critical structures (suspension bridges, dams Suspension Bridge constructed in 1997 in Hong Kong; a 600 channel structural monitoring system was installed monitoring system on the Alamosa Canyon Bridge Jerome P. Lynch*a , Arvind Sundararajan b , Kincho H. Law

Stanford University

259

Upgrading the Digital Electronics of the PEP-II Bunch Current Monitors at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center  

SciTech Connect

The testing of the upgrade prototype for the bunch current monitors (BCMs) in the PEP-II storage rings at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) is the topic of this paper. Bunch current monitors are used to measure the charge in the electron/positron bunches traveling in particle storage rings. The BCMs in the PEP-II storage rings need to be upgraded because components of the current system have failed and are known to be failure prone with age, and several of the integrated chips are no longer produced making repairs difficult if not impossible. The main upgrade is replacing twelve old (1995) field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) with a single Virtex II FPGA. The prototype was tested using computer synthesis tools, a commercial signal generator, and a fast pulse generator.

Kline, Josh; /SLAC

2006-08-28

260

Darwin's earthquake.  

PubMed

Charles Darwin experienced a major earthquake in the Concepción-Valdivia region of Chile 175 years ago, in February 1835. His observations dramatically illustrated the geologic principles of James Hutton and Charles Lyell which maintained that the surface of the earth was subject to alterations by natural events, such as earthquakes, volcanoes, and the erosive action of wind and water, operating over very long periods of time. Changes in the land created new environments and fostered adaptations in life forms that could lead to the formation of new species. Without the demonstration of the accumulation of multiple crustal events over time in Chile, the biologic implications of the specific species of birds and tortoises found in the Galapagos Islands and the formulation of the concept of natural selection might have remained dormant. PMID:21038753

Lee, Richard V

2010-07-01

261

Patient-Centered Technological Assessment and Monitoring of Depression for Low-Income Patients  

PubMed Central

Depression is a significant challenge for ambulatory care because it worsens health status and outcomes, increases health care utilizations and costs, and elevates suicide risk. An automatic telephonic assessment (ATA) system that links with tasks and alerts to providers may improve quality of depression care and increase provider productivity. We used ATA system in a trial to assess and monitor depressive symptoms of 444 safety-net primary care patients with diabetes. We assessed system properties, evaluated preliminary clinical outcomes, and estimated cost savings. The ATA system is feasible, reliable, valid, safe, and likely cost-effective for depression screening and monitoring for low-income primary care population. PMID:24525531

Wu, Shinyi; Vidyanti, Irene; Liu, Pai; Hawkins, Caitlin; Ramirez, Magaly; Guterman, Jeffrey; Gross-Schulman, Sandra; Sklaroff, Laura Myerchin; Ell, Kathleen

2014-01-01

262

Earthquake Information System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

IAEMIS (Integrated Automated Emergency Management Information System) is the principal tool of an earthquake preparedness program developed by Martin Marietta and the Mid-America Remote Sensing Center (MARC). It is a two-component set of software, data and procedures to provide information enabling management personnel to make informed decisions in disaster situations. The NASA-developed program ELAS, originally used to analyze Landsat data, provides MARC with a spatially-oriented information management system. Additional MARC projects include land resources management, and development of socioeconomic data.

1991-01-01

263

Improvements of the RST (Robust Satellite Techniques) approach for the thermal monitoring of the earthquake prone areas: an analysis on Italian peninsula in the period 2004-2012  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the past, a Robust Satellite data analysis Technique (RST) was proposed to investigate possible relations between earthquake occurrence and space-time fluctuations of Earth's emitted TIR radiation observed from satellite. Based on a statistically definition of 'TIR anomalies' it allowed their identification even in very different natural (e.g. related to atmosphere and/or surface) and observational (e.g. related to time/season, but also to solar and satellite zenithal angles) conditions. RST approach has been implemented on different, polar and geostationary satellite systems (e.g. MSG/SEVIRI, GOES/IMAGER, EOS/MODIS, NOAA/AVHRR, etc.) and to earthquakes with a wide range of magnitudes (from 4.0 to 7.9) occurred in different tectonic contexts in all the world. In this paper, in order to further reduce false positives due to particular meteorological conditions, a refined RST approach is presented and validated on a long time series (9 years) of TIR satellite records collected by the geostationary satellite sensor MSG/SEVIRI over the Italian peninsula. The space-time persistence analysis performed on TIR anomaly maps shows: - a significant reduction of false positives; - several sequences of TIR anomalies, in a significant space-time relation with earthquakes with M>4. The relations among particular features of TIR anomalies (e.g. space-time extension and intensity) and earthquakes (e.g. magnitude, depth, focal mechanism) will be also discussed.

Genzano, N.; Paciello, R.; Pergola, N.; Tramutoli, V.

2013-12-01

264

Source Process of the Mw 5.0 Au Sable Forks, New York, Earthquake Sequence from Local Aftershock Monitoring Network Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

On April 20, 2002, a Mw 5 earthquake occurred near the town of Au Sable Forks, northeastern Adirondacks, New York. The quake caused moderate damage (MMI VII) around the epicentral area and it is well recorded by over 50 broadband stations in the distance ranges of 70 to 2000 km in the Eastern North America. Regional broadband waveform data are

W. Kim; L. Seeber; J. G. Armbruster

2002-01-01

265

The Ability of the United States Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center to Collect and Disseminate Environmental Measurements during Radiological Emergencies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC) is the United States response organization for radiological emergencies. The FRMAC is structured as an operations center and employs the combined resources of several federal agencies to respond to any disaster resulting in the release of radioactivity. The mission of the FRMAC is to support state and local authorities in the gathering

James Essex Craig Marianno

2007-01-01

266

Long Period Earthquakes Beneath California's Young and Restless Volcanoes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The newly established USGS California Volcano Observatory has the broad responsibility of monitoring and assessing hazards at California's potentially threatening volcanoes, most notably Mount Shasta, Medicine Lake, Clear Lake Volcanic Field, and Lassen Volcanic Center in northern California; and Long Valley Caldera, Mammoth Mountain, and Mono-Inyo Craters in east-central California. Volcanic eruptions occur in California about as frequently as the largest San Andreas Fault Zone earthquakes-more than ten eruptions have occurred in the last 1,000 years, most recently at Lassen Peak (1666 C.E. and 1914-1917 C.E.) and Mono-Inyo Craters (c. 1700 C.E.). The Long Valley region (Long Valley caldera and Mammoth Mountain) underwent several episodes of heightened unrest over the last three decades, including intense swarms of volcano-tectonic (VT) earthquakes, rapid caldera uplift, and hazardous CO2 emissions. Both Medicine Lake and Lassen are subsiding at appreciable rates, and along with Clear Lake, Long Valley Caldera, and Mammoth Mountain, sporadically experience long period (LP) earthquakes related to migration of magmatic or hydrothermal fluids. Worldwide, the last two decades have shown the importance of tracking LP earthquakes beneath young volcanic systems, as they often provide indication of impending unrest or eruption. Herein we document the occurrence of LP earthquakes at several of California's young volcanoes, updating a previous study published in Pitt et al., 2002, SRL. All events were detected and located using data from stations within the Northern California Seismic Network (NCSN). Event detection was spatially and temporally uneven across the NCSN in the 1980s and 1990s, but additional stations, adoption of the Earthworm processing system, and heightened vigilance by seismologists have improved the catalog over the last decade. LP earthquakes are now relatively well-recorded under Lassen (~150 events since 2000), Clear Lake (~60 events), Mammoth Mountain (~320 events), and Long Valley Caldera (~40 events). LP earthquakes are notably absent under Mount Shasta. With the exception of Long Valley Caldera where LP earthquakes occur at depths of ?5 km, hypocenters are generally between 15-25 km. The rates of LP occurrence over the last decade have been relatively steady within the study areas, except at Mammoth Mountain, where years of gradually declining LP activity abruptly increased after a swarm of unusually deep (20 km) VT earthquakes in October 2012. Epicenter locations relative to the sites of most recent volcanism vary across volcanic centers, but most LP earthquakes fall within 10 km of young vents. Source models for LP earthquakes often involve the resonance of fluid-filled cracks or nonlinear flow of fluids along irregular cracks (reviewed in Chouet and Matoza, 2013, JVGR). At mid-crustal depths the relevant fluids are likely to be low-viscosity basaltic melt and/or exsolved CO2-rich volatiles (Lassen, Clear Lake, Mammoth Mountain). In the shallow crust, however, hydrothermal waters/gases are likely involved in the generation of LP seismicity (Long Valley Caldera).

Pitt, A. M.; Dawson, P. B.; Shelly, D. R.; Hill, D. P.; Mangan, M.

2013-12-01

267

CTEPP DATA COLLECTION FORM 07: CHILD DAY CARE CENTER POST-MONITORING  

EPA Science Inventory

This data collection form is used to provide information on the child's daily activities and potential exposures to pollutants at their homes. It includes questions on chemicals applied and cigarettes smoked at the home over the 48-hr monitoring period. It also collects informati...

268

Cooperative Monitoring Center Occasional Paper\\/8: Cooperative Border Security for Jordan: Assessment and Options  

Microsoft Academic Search

This document is an analysis of options for unilateral and cooperative action to improve the security of Jordan's borders. Sections describe the current political, economic, and social interactions along Jordan's borders. Next, the document discusses border security strategy for cooperation among neighboring countries and the adoption of confidence-building measures. A practical cooperative monitoring system would consist of hardware for early

Qojas

1999-01-01

269

Biological monitoring of mercury exposure in individuals referred to a toxicological center in Venezuela  

Microsoft Academic Search

People in developing countries are often considered at greater risk of mercury (Hg) poisoning due to a variety of factors including a lack of awareness regarding their occupational risks. Individuals requiring urine mercury (U-Hg) analysis at the Center for Toxicological Investigations of the University of Carabobo (CITUC), between 1998 and 2002 were studied to identify demographic characteristics associated to U-Hg

Maritza Rojas; David Seijas; Olga Agreda; Maritza Rodríguez

2006-01-01

270

CTEPP DATA COLLECTION FORM 05: CHILD DAY CARE CENTER PRE-MONITORING QUESTIONNAIRE  

EPA Science Inventory

This data collection form is used to identify the potential sources of pollutants at the day care center. The day care teacher is asked questions related to the age of their day care building; age and frequency of cleaning carpets or rugs; types of heating and air conditioning de...

271

MONITORING TOXIC ORGANIC GASES AND PARTICLES NEAR THE WORLD TRADE CENTER AFTER SEPTEMBER 11, 2001  

EPA Science Inventory

The September 11, 2001 attack on the World Trade Center (WTC) resulted in an intense fire and the subsequent, complete collapse of the two main structures and adjacent buildings, as well as significant damage to many surrounding buildings within and around the WTC complex. Thi...

272

Monitoring postseismic deformation of the Mw=6.4 February 24, 2004 Al Hoceima (Morocco) earthquake using Multi-Temporal InSAR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Al Hoceima earthquakes of the May 26, 1994 (Mw=6.0) and February 24, 2004 (Mw=6.4) are the largest seismic events that affected the northern part of Morocco in the last century. The Al Hoceima region is located in the east-west-trending imbricated thrust-and-fold system of the Rif Mountain range that results from the African-Eurasian convergence. The transpressive tectonics and existence of a complex fault network with thrust, normal and strike-slip faulting in the Rif probably reflect the rapidly changing local tectonic regime with block rotations during the Neogene and Quaternary (Meghraoui et al., 1996). The 1994 and 2004 earthquake sequence occurred on conjugate strike-slip faults trending approximately NNE-SSW and NW-SE. The best coseismic model of the 2004 earthquake from InSAR suggests a curved right-lateral strike-slip fault about 21 km-long and 16.5 km-wide, dipping 87-88o eastward with a strike changing from N85oW in the south to N50oW in the north (Cakir et al., 2006). We study the postseismic deformation of the 2004 (Mw=6.4) Al Hoceima earthquake using Multi-Temporal InSAR (MT-InSAR) technique. InSAR time series calculated from 14 ERS-2 SAR images reveals subtle ground movements on the Al Hoceima region between 2004 and 2010 where remarkable coseismic displacement was observed after the earthquake. We used Stanford Method (STaMPS; Hooper, 2008) for analyzing the SAR data that takes the advantage of spatial correlation between pixels and does not use any temporal deformation model in the persistent scatterer identification step. MT-InSAR analysis shows cumulative line-of-sight (LOS) up to 4 cm uplift and subsidence in the region of coseismic surface deformation. Preliminary analysis suggests that the postseismic deformation is likely associated with afterslip.

Cetin, Esra; Cakir, Ziyadin; Meghraoui, Mustapha

2014-05-01

273

Understanding Intraplate Tectonic for the Global Earthquake Satellite System (GESS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

NASA is currently proposing the Global Earthquake Satellite System (GESS) to monitor seismically active regions. GESS would be instrumental in monitoring intraplate activity especially in remote regions of the world. The potential hazard of intraplate tectonics is poorly understood compared with the tectonic regimes at the plate boundaries. Many of the most devastating earthquakes of the 20th century occurred at

J. Yates; P. D. Lowman

2002-01-01

274

Defeating Earthquakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 2004 M=9.2 Sumatra earthquake claimed what seemed an unfathomable 228,000 lives, although because of its size, we could at least assure ourselves that it was an extremely rare event. But in the short space of 8 years, the Sumatra quake no longer looks like an anomaly, and it is no longer even the worst disaster of the Century: 80,000 deaths in the 2005 M=7.6 Pakistan quake; 88,000 deaths in the 2008 M=7.9 Wenchuan, China quake; 316,000 deaths in the M=7.0 Haiti, quake. In each case, poor design and construction were unable to withstand the ferocity of the shaken earth. And this was compounded by inadequate rescue, medical care, and shelter. How could the toll continue to mount despite the advances in our understanding of quake risk? The world's population is flowing into megacities, and many of these migration magnets lie astride the plate boundaries. Caught between these opposing demographic and seismic forces are 50 cities of at least 3 million people threatened by large earthquakes, the targets of chance. What we know for certain is that no one will take protective measures unless they are convinced they are at risk. Furnishing that knowledge is the animating principle of the Global Earthquake Model, launched in 2009. At the very least, everyone should be able to learn what his or her risk is. At the very least, our community owes the world an estimate of that risk. So, first and foremost, GEM seeks to raise quake risk awareness. We have no illusions that maps or models raise awareness; instead, earthquakes do. But when a quake strikes, people need a credible place to go to answer the question, how vulnerable am I, and what can I do about it? The Global Earthquake Model is being built with GEM's new open source engine, OpenQuake. GEM is also assembling the global data sets without which we will never improve our understanding of where, how large, and how frequently earthquakes will strike, what impacts they will have, and how those impacts can be lessened by our actions. Using these global datasets will help to make the model as uniform as possible. The model must be built by scientists in the affected countries with GEM's support, augmented by their insights and data. The model will launch in 2014; to succeed it must be open, international, independent, and continuously tested. But the mission of GEM is not just the likelihood of ground shaking, but also gaging the economic and social consequences of earthquakes, which greatly amplify the losses. For example, should the municipality of Istanbul retrofit schools, or increase its insurance reserves and recovery capacity? Should a homeowner in a high-risk area move or strengthen her building? This is why GEM is a public-private partnership. GEM's fourteen public sponsors and eight non-governmental organization members are standing for the developing world. To extend GEM into the financial world, we draw upon the expertise of companies. GEM's ten private sponsors have endorsed the acquisition of public knowledge over private gain. In a competitive world, this is a courageous act. GEM is but one link in a chain of preparedness: from earth science and engineering research, through groups like GEM, to mitigation, retrofit or relocate decisions, building codes and insurance, and finally to prepared hospitals, schools, and homes. But it is a link that our community can make strong.

Stein, R. S.

2012-12-01

275

IRIS: Recent Earthquake Teachable Moments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page offers a compilation of multimedia resources for creating "teachable moments" on the earthquakes. Of particular note is the material for the earthquake/tsunami that struck northern Japan in 2011. Tectonic maps, computer animations, seismograms, aerial and ground photographs, Power Point slides for teachers, news footage, preliminary rupture models, and a comparison map that shows tectonic similarities between the coast of northeastern Japan and the west coast of the United States are available. This web site is maintained by IRIS, the Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology, a consortium of laboratories and data collection centers who act in concert to ensure flow of data to the international seismological research community.

2011-03-16

276

USGS Earthquake Hazards Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the homepage of the Earthquake Hazards Program (EHP) of the United States Geological Survey (USGS). This page points to information on earthquakes in Northern California, the United States, and the world. Topics include reports on recent large earthquakes, real-time earthquake maps, real-time shaking maps, real-time seismograms, earthquake network reports and updates, recent and significant earthquakes, and earthquake news releases. Users will be able to view maps and click on them. The EHP is part of the National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (NEHRP) lead by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA).

277

Space weather monitoring by ground-based means carried out in Polar Geophysical Center at Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A real-time information on geophysical processes in polar regions is very important for goals of Space Weather monitoring by the ground-based means. The modern communication systems and computer technology makes it possible to collect and process the data from remote sites without significant delays. A new acquisition equipment based on microprocessor modules and reliable in hush climatic conditions was deployed at the Roshydromet networks of geophysical observations in Arctic and is deployed at observatories in Antarctic. A contemporary system for on-line collecting and transmitting the geophysical data from the Arctic and Antarctic stations to AARI has been realized and the Polar Geophysical Center (PGC) arranged at AARI ensures the near-real time processing and analyzing the geophysical information from 11 stations in Arctic and 5 stations in Antarctic. The space weather monitoring by the ground based means is one of the main tasks standing before the Polar Geophysical Center. As studies by Troshichev and Janzhura, [2012] showed, the PC index characterizing the polar cap magnetic activity appeared to be an adequate indicator of the solar wind energy that entered into the magnetosphere and the energy that is accumulating in the magnetosphere. A great advantage of the PC index application over other methods based on satellite data is a permanent on-line availability of information about magnetic activity in both northern and southern polar caps. A special procedure agreed between Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute (AARI) and Space Institute of the Danish Technical University (DTUSpace) ensures calculation of the unified PC index in quasi-real time by magnetic data from the Thule and Vostok stations (see public site: http://pc-index.org). The method for estimation of AL and Dst indices (as indicators of state of the disturbed magnetosphere) based on data on foregoing PC indices has been elaborated and testified in the Polar Geophysical Center. It is demonstrated that the PC index can be successfully used to monitor the state of the magnetosphere (space weather monitoring) and the readiness of the magnetosphere to producing substorm or storm (space weather nowcasting).

Janzhura, Alexander

278

Integration and Dissemination of Citizen Reported and Seismically Derived Earthquake Information via Social  

E-print Network

Integration and Dissemination of Citizen Reported and Seismically Derived Earthquake Information Horvath3 1 U.S. Geological Survey National Earthquake Information Center, Golden, CO, USA 2 National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO, USA 3 U.S. Geological Survey National Earthquake Information Center

Gruchalla, Kenny

279

X-ray Weekly Monitoring of the Galactic Center Sgr A* with Suzaku  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A small gas cloud, G2, is on an orbit almost straight into the supermassive blackhole Sgr A* by spring 2014. This event gives us a rare opportunity to test the mass feeding onto the blackhole by a gas. To catch a possible rise of the mass accretion from the cloud, we have been performing the bi-week monitoring of Sgr A* in autumn and spring in the 2013 fiscal year. The key feature of Suzaku is the high-sensitivity wide-band X-ray spectroscopy all in one observatory. It is characterized by a large effective area combined with low background and good energy resolution, in particular a good line spread function in the low-energy range. Since the desired flare events associated with the G2 approach is a transient event, the large effective area is critical and powerful tools to hunt them. The first monitoring in 2013 autumn was successfully made. The X-rays from Sgr A* and its nearby emission were clearly resolved from the bright transient source AX J1745.6-2901. No very large flare from Sgr A*was found during the monitoring. We also may report the X-ray properties of two serendipitous sources, the neutron star binary AX J1745.6-2901 and a magnetar SGR J1745-29.

Maeda, Yoshitomo; Nobukawa, Masayoshi; Hayashi, Takayuki; Iizuka, Ryo; Saitoh, Takayuki; Murakami, Hiroshi

280

Cooperative Monitoring Center Occasional Paper/9: De-Alerting Strategic Ballistic Missiles  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a framework for evaluating the technical merits of strategic ballistic missile de-alerting measures, and it uses the framework to evaluate a variety of possible measures for silo-based, land-mobile, and submarine-based missiles. De-alerting measures are defined for the purpose of this paper as reversible actions taken to increase the time or effort required to launch a strategic ballistic missile. The paper does not assess the desirability of pursuing a de-alerting program. Such an assessment is highly context dependent. The paper postulates that if de-alerting is desirable and is used as an arms control mechanism, de-alerting measures should satisfy specific cirteria relating to force security, practicality, effectiveness, significant delay, and verifiability. Silo-launched missiles lend themselves most readily to de-alerting verification, because communications necessary for monitoring do not increase the vulnerabilty of the weapons by a significant amount. Land-mobile missile de-alerting measures would be more challenging to verify, because monitoring measures that disclose the launcher's location would potentially increase their vulnerability. Submarine-launched missile de-alerting measures would be extremely challlenging if not impossible to monitor without increasing the submarine's vulnerability.

Connell, Leonard W.; Edenburn, Michael W.; Fraley, Stanley K.; Trost, Lawrence C.

1999-03-01

281

A smartphone application for earthquakes that matter!  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Smartphone applications have swiftly become one of the most popular tools for rapid reception of earthquake information for the public, some of them having been downloaded more than 1 million times! The advantages are obvious: wherever someone's own location is, they can be automatically informed when an earthquake has struck. Just by setting a magnitude threshold and an area of interest, there is no longer the need to browse the internet as the information reaches you automatically and instantaneously! One question remains: are the provided earthquake notifications always relevant for the public? What are the earthquakes that really matters to laypeople? One clue may be derived from some newspaper reports that show that a while after damaging earthquakes many eyewitnesses scrap the application they installed just after the mainshock. Why? Because either the magnitude threshold is set too high and many felt earthquakes are missed, or it is set too low and the majority of the notifications are related to unfelt earthquakes thereby only increasing anxiety among the population at each new update. Felt and damaging earthquakes are the ones that matter the most for the public (and authorities). They are the ones of societal importance even when of small magnitude. A smartphone application developed by EMSC (Euro-Med Seismological Centre) with the financial support of the Fondation MAIF aims at providing suitable notifications for earthquakes by collating different information threads covering tsunamigenic, potentially damaging and felt earthquakes. Tsunamigenic earthquakes are considered here to be those ones that are the subject of alert or information messages from the PTWC (Pacific Tsunami Warning Centre). While potentially damaging earthquakes are identified through an automated system called EQIA (Earthquake Qualitative Impact Assessment) developed and operated at EMSC. This rapidly assesses earthquake impact by comparing the population exposed to each expected level of shaking intensity with empirical models of fatality losses calibrated on past earthquakes in each country. Non-seismic detections and macroseismic questionnaires collected online are combined to identify as many as possible of the felt earthquakes regardless their magnitude. Non seismic detections include Twitter earthquake detections, developed by the US Geological Survey, where the number of tweets containing the keyword "earthquake" is monitored in real time and flashsourcing, developed by the EMSC, which detect traffic surges on its rapid earthquake information website caused by the natural convergence of eyewitnesses who rush to the Internet to investigate the cause of the shaking that they have just felt. All together, we estimate that the number of detected felt earthquakes is around 1 000 per year, compared with the 35 000 earthquakes annually reported by the EMSC! Felt events are already the subject of the web page "Latest significant earthquakes" on EMSC website (http://www.emsc-csem.org/Earthquake/significant_earthquakes.php) and of a dedicated Twitter service @LastQuake. We will present the identification process of the earthquakes that matter, the smartphone application itself (to be released in May) and its future evolutions.

Bossu, Rémy; Etivant, Caroline; Roussel, Fréderic; Mazet-Roux, Gilles; Steed, Robert

2014-05-01

282

Continental dynamics and continental earthquakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two key research projects in geoscience field in China since the IUGG meeting in Birmingham in 1999, the project of “East Asian Continental Geodynamics” and the project of “Mechanism and Prediction of Strong Continental Earthquakes” are introduced in this paper. Some details of two projects, such as their sub-projects, some initial research results published are also given here. Because of the large magnitude of the November 14, 2001 Kunlun Mountain Pass M S=8.1 earthquake, in the third part of this paper, some initial research results are reviewed for the after-shock monitoring and the multi-discipline field survey, the impact and disaster of this earthquake on the construction site of Qinghai-Xizang (Tibet) railway and some other infrastructure.

Dong-Ning, Zhang; Guo-Min, Zhang; Pei-Zhen, Zhang

2003-09-01

283

Rapid Earthquake Loss Assessment After Damaging Earthquakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter summarizes the work done over last decades regarding the development of new approaches and setting up of new\\u000a applications for earthquake rapid response systems that function to estimate earthquake losses in quasi real time after an\\u000a earthquake. After a critical discussion of relevant earthquake loss estimation methodologies, the essential features and the\\u000a characteristics of the available loss estimation

Mustafa Erdik; Karin Sesetyan; M. Betul Demircioglu; Ufuk Hancilar; Can Zulfikar

284

Earthquakes Locating within/outside OBS Network 37403 total earthquakes -6162 within network  

E-print Network

is associated with the Cobb overlapping spreading center. The black box centered on the network shows the area12006 Earthquakes Locating within/outside OBS Network 37403 total earthquakes - 6162 within network Outside Network Inside Network 0 1 2 3 4 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 b = 2.1 b = 1.9 b = 1.7 Local

Wilcock, William

285

Identified EM Earthquake Precursors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many attempts have been made to determine a sound forecasting method regarding earthquakes and warn the public in turn. Presently, the animal kingdom leads the precursor list alluding to a transmission related source. By applying the animal-based model to an electromagnetic (EM) wave model, various hypotheses were formed, but the most interesting one required the use of a magnetometer with a differing design and geometry. To date, numerous, high-end magnetometers have been in use in close proximity to fault zones for potential earthquake forecasting; however, something is still amiss. The problem still resides with what exactly is forecastable and the investigating direction of EM. After a number of custom rock experiments, two hypotheses were formed which could answer the EM wave model. The first hypothesis concerned a sufficient and continuous electron movement either by surface or penetrative flow, and the second regarded a novel approach to radio transmission. Electron flow along fracture surfaces was determined to be inadequate in creating strong EM fields, because rock has a very high electrical resistance making it a high quality insulator. Penetrative flow could not be corroborated as well, because it was discovered that rock was absorbing and confining electrons to a very thin skin depth. Radio wave transmission and detection worked with every single test administered. This hypothesis was reviewed for propagating, long-wave generation with sufficient amplitude, and the capability of penetrating solid rock. Additionally, fracture spaces, either air or ion-filled, can facilitate this concept from great depths and allow for surficial detection. A few propagating precursor signals have been detected in the field occurring with associated phases using custom-built loop antennae. Field testing was conducted in Southern California from 2006-2011, and outside the NE Texas town of Timpson in February, 2013. The antennae have mobility and observations were noted for recurrence, duration, and frequency response. At the Southern California field sites, one loop antenna was positioned for omni-directional reception and also detected a strong First Schumann Resonance; however, additional Schumann Resonances were absent. At the Timpson, TX field sites, loop antennae were positioned for directional reception, due to earthquake-induced, hydraulic fracturing activity currently conducted by the oil and gas industry. Two strong signals, one moderately strong signal, and approximately 6-8 weaker signals were detected in the immediate vicinity. The three stronger signals were mapped by a biangulation technique, followed by a triangulation technique for confirmation. This was the first antenna mapping technique ever performed for determining possible earthquake epicenters. Six and a half months later, Timpson experienced two M4 (M4.1 and M4.3) earthquakes on September 2, 2013 followed by a M2.4 earthquake three days later, all occurring at a depth of five kilometers. The Timpson earthquake activity now has a cyclical rate and a forecast was given to the proper authorities. As a result, the Southern California and Timpson, TX field results led to an improved design and construction of a third prototype antenna. With a loop antenna array, a viable communication system, and continuous monitoring, a full fracture cycle can be established and observed in real-time. In addition, field data could be reviewed quickly for assessment and lead to a much more improved earthquake forecasting capability. The EM precursors determined by this method appear to surpass all prior precursor claims, and the general public will finally receive long overdue forecasting.

Jones, Kenneth, II; Saxton, Patrick

2014-05-01

286

Review of earthquake activity and current status of seismic monitoring in the region of the Bradley Lake Hydroelectric Project, southern Kenai Peninsula, Alaska, December 1981-May 1983  

SciTech Connect

A project investigating seismic hazards in the Bradley Lake area of Kenai Peninsula is summarized. Hypocenters of 91 shallow (depth less than 20 km) earthquakes that occurred between December 1981 and May 1983 indicate that the pattern of recent crustal activity around the southern Kenai Peninsula has remained stable relative to the data prior to December 1981. The earthquakes are generally smaller than about magnitude 2.5. Most of the activity occurred east of the Border Ranges fault, and several concentrations can be observed in an otherwise diffuse distribution of activity. In general there is a poor correlation of the shallow activity with mapped fault traces. A more reliable estimate of the depth to the Benioff zone beneath Bradley Lake can be made from the greater number of available hypocenters of well-recorded earthquakes now available. Using the current velocity model, the depth to the top of the Benioff zone is 37 +- 5 km. A strong-motion record was obtained from the SMA-1 instrument co-located at the site of the central high-gain station BRLK, about 2 km from the proposed dam site. A preliminary estimate of 0.14 g (1 g = 980 cm/sec/sup 2/) was obtained for the maximum peak-to-peak horizontal acceleration on the record, but at present the event which caused the trigger is uncertain. Two new stations were installed southeast of Kachemak Bay in June 1983 in order to improve the accuracy of hypocenter determinations for continuing shallow earthquake activity that is observed in this area. 12 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

Stephens, C.D.; Lahr, J.C.; Page, R.A.; Rogers, J.A.

1983-01-01

287

Anomalous Schumann resonance observed in China, possibly associated with Honshu, Japan Earthquake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Schumann resonance (hereafter SR) occurs in the cavity between the Earth and the ionosphere, and it is originated by the global lightning activities [1]. Some recent publications showed that anomalous SR phenomena may occur before major earthquakes [2-4]. Considering good prospects for the application of SR in Earthquake monitoring, we have established four observatories in Yunnan province, a region with frequent seismicity in the southwest of China. Our instruments can provide three components of magnetic field in 0-30 Hz, including BNS(North-South component), BEW(East-West component) and BV (Vertical component). The sample frequency is 100 Hz. In this research, we use high quality data recorded at Yongsheng observatory (geographic coordinates: 26.7° N, 100.77°E) to analyze SR phenomena to find out anomalous effects possibly related with the Ms9.0 Earthquake (epicenter: 38.297° N, 142.372° E) near the east coast of Honshu, Japan on 11 March 2011. We select the data 15 days before and after the earthquake. SR in BNS and SR in BEWappear different in background characteristics. Frequencies of four SR modes in BNSare generally higher than that in BEW. Amplitude of SR in BNSis strong at around 05:00 LT, 15:00 LT and 23:00 LT of the day, while amplitude of SR in BEW is just intense around 16:00 LT, corresponding to about 08:00 UT. Because American, African and Asian thunderstorm centers play their dominant roles respectively in the intervals of 21:00UT±1h, 15:00UT±1h and 08:00UT±1h [1, 3], we can see that SR in BEWis most sensitive to signals from Asian center and SR in BNS is in good response to three centers. SR in BNS and SR in BEW have presented different features in the aspect of anomalous effects related with earthquakes. BEW component gives us a clear picture of anomalous SR phenomena, which are characterized by increase in amplitude of four SR modes and increase in frequency at first SR mode several days before the earthquake. The amplitude of four SR modes began to increase four days before Honshu earthquake (7th March). And this continued to the day of the earthquake (11th March). Then it fell to the usual intensity after the earthquake (12th March). The frequency at first SR mode in BEW unconventionally exceeded the first mode frequency in BNS with an enhancement of 0.7 Hz on 8th and 9th March. We did not find similar anomalous effects in BNS. The anomalous effects in BEW may be caused by interference between direct path from Asian center to the observatory and disturbed path scattered by the perturbation in the ionosphere over Honshu. More detailed analysis is going on. 1. Nickolaenko A P and Hayakawa M, Resonances in the Earth-ionosphere cavity. 2002: Kluwer Academic Pub. 2. Hayakawa M, Ohta K, Nickolaenko A P, et al. Anomalous effect in Schumann resonance phenomena observed in Japan, possibly associated with the Chi-chi earthquake in Taiwan. Annales geophysicae,2005. pp. 1335-1346. 3. Hayakawa M, Nickolaenko A P, Sekiguchi M, et al., Anomalous ELF phenomena in the Schumann resonance band as observed at Moshiri (Japan) in possible association with an earthquake in Taiwan. Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci, 2008. 8(6): p. 1309-1316. 4. Ohta K, Izutsu J, and Hayakawa M, Anomalous excitation of Schumann resonances and additional anomalous resonances before the 2004 Mid-Niigata prefecture earthquake and the 2007 Noto Hantou Earthquake. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C, 2009. 34(6-7): p. 441-448.

Ouyang, X. Y.; Zhang, X. M.; Shen, X. H.; Miao, Y. Q.

2012-04-01

288

Streamflow, groundwater, and water-quality monitoring by USGS Nevada Water Science Center  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has monitored and assessed the quantity and quality of our Nation's streams and aquifers since its inception in 1879. Today, the USGS provides hydrologic information to aid in the evaluation of the availability and suitability of water for public and domestic supply, agriculture, aquatic ecosystems, mining, and energy development. Although the USGS has no responsibility for the regulation of water resources, the USGS hydrologic data complement much of the data collected by state, county, and municipal agencies, tribal nations, U.S. District Court Water Masters, and other federal agencies such as the Environmental Protection Agency, which focuses on monitoring for regulatory compliance. The USGS continues its mission to provide timely and relevant water-resources data and information that are available to water-resource managers, non-profit organizations, industry, academia, and the public. Data collected by the USGS provide the science needed for informed decision-making related to resource management and restoration, assessment of flood and drought hazards, ecosystem health, and effects on water resources from land-use changes.

Gipson, Marsha L.; Schmidt, Kurtiss

2013-01-01

289

Cooperative Monitoring Center Occasional Paper/8: Cooperative Border Security for Jordan: Assessment and Options  

SciTech Connect

This document is an analysis of options for unilateral and cooperative action to improve the security of Jordan's borders. Sections describe the current political, economic, and social interactions along Jordan's borders. Next, the document discusses border security strategy for cooperation among neighboring countries and the adoption of confidence-building measures. A practical cooperative monitoring system would consist of hardware for early warning, command and control, communications, and transportation. Technical solutions can expand opportunities for the detection and identification of intruders. Sensors (such as seismic, break-wire, pressure-sensing, etc.) can warn border security forces of intrusion and contribute to the identification of the intrusion and help formulate the response. This document describes conceptual options for cooperation, offering three scenarios that relate to three hypothetical levels (low, medium, and high) of cooperation. Potential cooperative efforts under a low cooperation scenario could include information exchanges on military equipment and schedules to prevent misunderstandings and the establishment of protocols for handling emergency situations or unusual circumstances. Measures under a medium cooperation scenario could include establishing joint monitoring groups for better communications, with hot lines and scheduled meetings. The high cooperation scenario describes coordinated responses, joint border patrols, and sharing border intrusion information. Finally, the document lists recommendations for organizational, technical, and operational initiatives that could be applicable to the current situation.

Qojas, M.

1999-03-01

290

Present Status of the Tsukuba Magnet Laboratory. A Report on the Aftereffects of the March 11, 2011 Earthquake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Tsukuba Magnet Laboratory (TML) is located 324 km from the seismic center of the first 9.0 magnitude earthquake that struck Japan on Friday, March 11, 2011. TML suffered peak ground acceleration of 372 Gal. The large 930 and 1030 MHz nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) magnets of TML were severely affected by the earthquake. The hybrid magnet and its control system were not significantly damaged. After the earthquake, serious electricity shortages occurred and our awareness of the importance of energy conservation increased. A control system for a hybrid magnet has been in development for several years. The system has sophisticated monitoring capability, detailed and rapid data recording, and is now nearing completion. The newly developed system provides detailed data; our ability to interpret this data and identify difficulties in the acquisition of critical data is improving. We are now beginning to optimize operations to reduce electricity consumption and achieve higher efficiency magnet operations.

Nimori, Shigeki

2014-10-01

291

Mechanism of tsunami earthquakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanism of the Aleutian islands earthquake of 1946 and the Sanriku earthquake of 1896 is studied on the basis of the data on seismic waves from 5 to 100 s and on tsunamis. These earthquakes generated, despite their relatively small earthquake magnitude, two of the largest and most widespread tsunamis in history. The data obtained at different periods are

Hiroo Kanamori

1972-01-01

292

EARTHQUAKE PREPAREDNESS FOR LABORATORIES  

E-print Network

EARTHQUAKE PREPAREDNESS FOR LABORATORIES By: Christopher E. Kohler (Environmental Health and Safety) and Walter E. Gray (Indiana Geological Survey) Earthquakes occur with little or no warning, and so planning of an earthquake. While most historical earthquakes were minor, Indiana's proximity to two seismic zones

Polly, David

293

2011 TOHOKUCHIHOTAIHEIYOU OKI EARTHQUAKE  

E-print Network

2011 TOHOKUCHIHOTAIHEIYOU OKI EARTHQUAKE M. HORI Earthquake Research Institute, University of Tokyo Seminar on the Honshu Earthquake & Tsunami UCL Institute for Risk & Disaster Reduction March 24, 2011 #12;Earthquake Details · Magnitude in Richter scale 9.0 · Moment Magnitude 9.0 · Location 38.03N, 143.15E · Depth

Guillas, Serge

294

Internet Geography: Earthquakes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site is part of GeoNet Internet Geography, a resource for pre-collegiate British geography students and their instructors. This page focuses on earthquakes and how they occur. Topics covered include the effects of earthquakes, measuring earthquakes, and case studies about specific recent earthquakes.

295

Retrofitting Laboratory Fume Hoods With Face Velocity Monitors at NASA Lewis Research Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Extensive use and reliance on laboratory fume hoods exist at LeRC for the control of chemical hazards (nearly 175 fume hoods). Flow-measuring devices are necessary to continually monitor hood performance. The flow-measuring device should he tied into an energy management control system to detect problems at a central location without relying on the users to convey information of a problem. Compatibility concerns and limitations should always be considered when choosing the most effective flow-measuring device for a particular situation. Good practice on initial hood design and placement will provide a system for which a flow-measuring device may be used to its full potential and effectiveness.

Wagner, Ingrid E.; Bold, Margaret D.; Diamond, David B.; Kall, Phillip M.

1997-01-01

296

Listening to Earthquakes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

At this website, users can listen to the 'sounds' produced by earthquakes. Scientists have taken recordings of vibrations that occur during earthquakes and transformed them into sound files by speeding them up. Through listening, people can better understand the shaking that occurs during earthquakes. An interactive listening quiz lets students hear and compare earthquakes that occurred near each other, but from faults of different lengths. There is also a collection of sounds from historical earthquakes, such as the 1992 magnitude 7.3 Landers Earthquake, and a download page where sounds from various earthquakes can be obtained as .wav files.

297

The Mw=8.8 Maule earthquake aftershock sequence, event catalog and locations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aftershock sequence of the Mw=8.8 Maule earthquake off the coast of Chile in February 2010 is one of the most well-recorded aftershock sequences from a great megathrust earthquake. Immediately following the Maule earthquake, teams of geophysicists from Chile, France, Germany, Great Britain and the United States coordinated resources to capture aftershocks and other seismic signals associated with this significant earthquake. In total, 91 broadband, 48 short period, and 25 accelerometers stations were deployed above the rupture zone of the main shock from 33-38.5°S and from the coast to the Andean range front. In order to integrate these data into a unified catalog, the USGS National Earthquake Information Center develop procedures to use their real-time seismic monitoring system (Bulletin Hydra) to detect, associate, location and compute earthquake source parameters from these stations. As a first step in the process, the USGS has built a seismic catalog of all M3.5 or larger earthquakes for the time period of the main aftershock deployment from March 2010-October 2010. The catalog includes earthquake locations, magnitudes (Ml, Mb, Mb_BB, Ms, Ms_BB, Ms_VX, Mc), associated phase readings and regional moment tensor solutions for most of the M4 or larger events. Also included in the catalog are teleseismic phases and amplitude measures and body-wave MT and CMT solutions for the larger events, typically M5.5 and larger. Tuning of automated detection and association parameters should allow a complete catalog of events to approximately M2.5 or larger for that dataset of more than 164 stations. We characterize the aftershock sequence in terms of magnitude, frequency, and location over time. Using the catalog locations and travel times as a starting point we use double difference techniques to investigate relative locations and earthquake clustering. In addition, phase data from candidate ground truth events and modeling of surface waves can be used to calibrate the velocity structure of central Chile to improve the real-time monitoring.

Meltzer, A.; Benz, H.; Brown, L.; Russo, R. M.; Beck, S. L.; Roecker, S. W.

2011-12-01

298

Radioanalytical Data Quality Objectives and Measurement Quality Objectives during a Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center Response  

SciTech Connect

During the early and intermediate phases of a nuclear or radiological incident, the Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC) collects environmental samples that are analyzed by organizations with radioanalytical capability. Resources dedicated to quality assurance (QA) activities must be sufficient to assure that appropriate radioanalytical measurement quality objectives (MQOs) and assessment data quality objectives (DQOs) are met. As the emergency stabilizes, QA activities will evolve commensurate with the need to reach appropriate DQOs. The MQOs represent a compromise between precise analytical determinations and the timeliness necessary for emergency response activities. Minimum detectable concentration (MDC), lower limit of detection, and critical level tests can all serve as measurements reflecting the MQOs. The relationship among protective action guides (PAGs), derived response levels (DRLs), and laboratory detection limits is described. The rationale used to determine the appropriate laboratory detection limit is described.

E. C. Nielsen

2006-01-01

299

The ICOS Ecosystem network and Thematic Center: an infrastructure to monitor and better understand the ecosystem GHGs exchanges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ICOS Ecosystem network is part of the ICOS European Research Infrastructure (www.icos-infrastructure.eu) together with the Atmospheric and Ocean networks. The ICOS Ecosystem includes highly standardized monitoring sites based on commercially available instruments embedded into an integrated system that is coordinated by the ICOS Ecosystem Thematic Center (ETC) which is responsible for the methodologies advancement, data processing and data distribution. The ecosystem monitoring activity will involve human intervention in field activities and for this reason rigorously standardized protocol for field ecosystem measurements are in preparation also in coordination with others international related activities. The core measurement in the ICOS Ecosystem sites are the main GHGs fluxes that include CO2, H2O, CH4 and N2O, using the eddy covariance method and chambers for the soil effluxes. To better interpret and understand the GHGs exchanges a full series of meteorological data (including spectral reflectance measurements and full radiation and water balance) are also collected and the sites are characterized in terms of carbon stocks, nutrients availability and management and disturbance history. Centralized raw data processing, QAQC and uncertainty estimation, test and development of new methodologies and techniques, assistance to the network and chemical analysis and long term storage of the vegetation and soil samples are the main activities where the ETC is responsible. The ETC, based in Italy and with sections in Belgium and France, is under construction and will be operative in 2013. The Ecosystem network, including the variables collected, the protocols under preparation and the data access and data use policies will be presented together with the Ecosystem Thematic Center role and development strategy. The aim is to identify and discuss integration and collaboration with others similar initiatives, also thanks to the support of the COOPEUS European project that will facilitate coordination between US and EU networks, and to receive the feedbacks from potential users of the infrastructure.

Papale, D.; Ceulemans, R.; Janssens, I.; Loustau, D.; Valentini, R.

2012-12-01

300

The ICOS Ecosystem network and Thematic Center: an infrastructure to monitor and better understand the ecosystem GHGs exchanges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ICOS Ecosystem network is part of the ICOS European Research Infrastructure (www.icos-infrastructure.eu) together with the Atmospheric and Ocean networks. The ecosystem network includes highly standardized monitoring sites based on commercially available instruments embedded into an integrated system that is coordinated by the ICOS Ecosystem Thematic Center (ETC), which is also responsible for the methodologies advancement, data processing and data distribution. The ecosystem monitoring activity will involve human intervention in field activities and for this reason rigorously standardized protocol for field ecosystem measurements are in preparation also in coordination with others international related activities. The core measurement in the ICOS Ecosystem sites are the main GHGs fluxes that include CO2, H2O, CH4 and N2O, using the eddy covariance method and chambers for the soil effluxes. To better interpret and understand the GHGs exchanges a full series of meteorological data (including spectral reflectance measurements and full radiation and water balance) are also collected and the sites are characterized in terms of carbon stocks, nutrients availability and management and disturbance history. Centralized raw data processing, QAQC and uncertainty estimation, test and development of new methodologies and techniques, assistance to the network and chemical analysis and long term storage of the vegetation and soil samples are the main activities where the ETC is responsible. The ETC, based in Italy and with sections in Belgium and France, is under construction and will be operative in 2013. We present the actual status of the Ecosystem network, including the variables collected, the protocols under preparation, the data access and data use policies and the Ecosystem Thematic Center role and development strategy, with special emphasis on the approaches followed to reach high level of to standardization together with the uncertainty quantification.

Janssens, Ivan; Papale, Dario; Ceulemans, Reinhart; Gielen, Bert; Loustau, Denis; de Beeck, Maarten Op; Valentini, Riccardo

2013-04-01

301

The dynamic response of geomagnetic sudden commencement to tectonic zone and large earthquakes in China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on the skin effect of EM waves, geomagnetic storm variations can be used to study the subsurface tectonic structure and faulting to have information of penetration view of the earth’s interior. We collected geomagnetic storm report data for 8 years 2000-2007 from 35 geomagnetic stations in China and calculated the amplitude of the vertical component of geomagnetic storm sudden commencement (?Zssc) to study the correlations between ?Zssc and the occurrence of Ms=6.0-8.1 earthquakes in China and its vicinity (70-140°E, 15-55°N) in the period of Year 2000 to 2008. We found that there were significant correlations between the spatial distribution of amplitude changes of ?Zssc, fault activity and occurrence of large earthquakes. Our study provides a method to monitor possibility of medium-to-short term (0.5-12 months) earthquake. There are 5 ?Zssc zero isoporic lines delineating 5 areas normally distributed in China where we called Zero Isoporic Zone (ZIZ) as following, and apparently they coincide with several tectonic zones and seismic gaps from the past 60 years. 1.?Zssc zero isoporic line in eastern China, extending along the rivers of Heilongjiang and Yalu - Eastern Coastal Area - Taiwan Strait - the South China Sea. 2. ZIZ in Luliang Mountain area, where is east to the Great Bend of the Yellow River; 3. ZIZ in Wuling Mountain area is in south of Yangtze River; 4. ZIZ in Longmenshan Fault Zone in central China. This is one area to note in particular. 5. ZIZ in Middle and South Yunnan region. Longmenshan fault zone located at the geographic center of China, where is a seismic sensitive band to correspond to great earthquakes of around Ms8.0. On May 12, 2008, Wenchuan Earthquake of Ms 8.0 occurred in this area. We noticed that, over the period of January 2000 to May 2008, in 5 great earthquakes of Ms=7.8-8.1 in China and its vicinity, 2 to 5 months before the earthquakes, the ZIZ in Longmenshan Fault Zone showed the translation and deformation changes. It moved to NNW or NNE, rotated and even turned up sudden disappearance. The ZIZ in middle and south Yunnan was characterized by its disappearance and formation of a new isoporic line in western area of the original ZIZ. When ZIZ changes came about, within 0.5-12 months, there were 9 middle-strong earthquakes took place, which made up 64% in total 14 earthquakes that we studied in this area. An exceptional case, which had 3 earthquakes of Ms=6.2,6.4,6.6 in a row, occurred in compactly surrounding regions to ZIZ in Yunnan. In eastern China, ?Zssc zero isoporic line behaved changes of bending,tearing,elongation. It also formed a new ZIZ to connect with other 4 ZIZs. That indicated a great earthquake would occur within next 12 months. The ZIZ change in Wuling Mountain area was in the form of its disappearance, enlargement, connecting to eastern ZIZ or ?Zssc zero isoporic line. They foreshadowed the other 9 earthquakes as well. They are one of the biggest earthquakes in Wuling local history; earthquakes of Ms?6.5 in the East China Sea and Taiwan; earthquakes of Ryukyu Islands of Ms?7.0, and earthquakes in the South China Sea. The corresponding rate is 90%.

Zeng, X.; Zheng, J.; Wang, Z.; Lin, Y.

2009-12-01

302

IRIS: Videos on Plate Tectonics and Earthquakes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a collection of short informational videos on dynamic Earth processes, developed to teach how earthquakes happen and why they are studied. The videos explore tectonic plate motion, elastic rebound, fault models, types of boundaries, locating earthquake epicenters, seismic wave paths, and more. This resource is part of IRIS, the Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology, a consortium of international laboratories and data collection centers.

2011-03-18

303

The Cooperative Monitoring Center: Achieving cooperative security objectives through technical collaborations  

SciTech Connect

The post cold war security environment poses both difficult challenges and encouraging opportunities. Some of the most difficult challenges are related to regional conflict and the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. New and innovative approaches to prevent the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction are essential. More effort must be focused on underlying factors that motivate countries to seek weapons of mass destruction. Historically the emphasis has been on denial: denying information, denying technology, and denying materials necessary to build such weapons. Though still important, those efforts are increasingly perceived to be insufficient, and initiatives that address underlying motivational factors are needed. On the opportunity side, efforts to establish regional dialogue and confidence-building measures are increasing in many areas. Such efforts can result in cooperative agreements on security issues such as border control, demilitarized zones, weapons delivery systems, weapons of mass destruction free zones, environmental agreements, and resource sharing. In some cases, implementing such cooperative agreements will mean acquiring, analyzing, and sharing large quantities of data and sensitive information. These arrangements for ``cooperative monitoring`` are becoming increasingly important to the security of individual countries, regions, and international institutions. However, many countries lack sufficient technical and institutional infrastructure to take full advantage of these opportunities. Constructing a peaceful twenty-first century will require that technology is brought to bear in the most productive and innovative ways to meet the challenges of proliferation and to maximize the opportunities for cooperation.

Pregenzer, A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Nonproliferation and Arms Control Analysis Dept.

1996-08-01

304

The Seminole Serpent Warrior At Miramar, FL, Shows Settlement Locations Enabled Environmental Monitoring Reminiscent Of the Four-corners Kokopelli-like EMF Phenomena, and Related to Earthquakes, Tornados and Hurricanes.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Certain Native Americans of the past seem to have correctly deduced that significant survival information for their tradition-respecting cultures resided in EMF-based phenomena that they were monitoring. This is based upon their myths and the place or cult-hero names they bequeathed us. The sites we have located in FL have been detectable by us visually, usually by faint blue light, or by the elicitation of pin-like prickings, by somewhat intense nervous-system response, by EMF interactions with aural electrochemical systems that can elicit tinitus, and other ways. In the northeast, Cautantowit served as a harbinger of Indian summer, and appears to be another alter ego of the EMF. The Miami, FL Tequesta site along the river clearly correlates with tornado, earthquake and hurricane locations. Sites like the Mohave Deserts giant man may have had similar significance.

Balam Matagamon, Chan; Pawa Matagamon, Sagamo

2004-03-01

305

Long-term monitoring of creep rate along the Hayward fault and evidence for a lasting creep response to 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We present results from over 30 yr of precise surveys of creep along the Hayward fault. Along most of the fault, spatial variability in long-term creep rates is well determined by these data and can help constrain 3D-models of the depth of the creeping zone. However, creep at the south end of the fault stopped completely for more than 6 years after the M7 1989 Loma Prieta Earthquake (LPEQ), perhaps delayed by stress drop imposed by this event. With a decade of detailed data before LPEQ and a decade after it, we report that creep response to that event does indeed indicate the expected deficit in creep.

Lienkaemper, J. J.; Galehouse, J. S.; Simpson, R. W.

2001-01-01

306

Monitoring of fungal loads in seabird rehabilitation centers with comparisons to natural seabird environments in northern California.  

PubMed

Aspergillosis remains a major cause of mortality in captive and rehabilitated seabirds. To date, there has been poor documentation of fungal (particularly Aspergillus spp.) burdens in natural seabird loafing and roosting sites compared with fungal numbers in rehabilitation or captive settings and the various microenvironments that seabirds are exposed to during the rehabilitation process. This study compares fungal, particularly Aspergillus spp., burdens potentially encountered by seabirds in natural and rehabilitation environments. Differences among the various microenvironments in the rehabilitation facility were evaluated to determine the risk of infection when seabirds are experiencing high stress and poor immune function. Aspergillus spp. counts were quantified in three wildlife rehabilitation centers and five natural seabird loafing and roosting sites in northern California using a handheld impact air sampler and a water filtration system. Wildlife rehabilitation centers demonstrated an increase in numbers of conidia of Aspergillus spp. and Aspergillus fumigatus in air and water samples from select aquatic bird rehabilitation centers compared with natural seabird environments in northern California. Various microenvironments in the rehabilitation facility were identified as having higher numbers of conidia of Aspergillus spp. These results suggest that periodic monitoring of multiple local areas, where the birds spend time in a rehabilitation facility, should be done to identify "high risk" sites, where birds should spend minimal time, or sites that should be cleaned more frequently or have improved air flow to reduce exposure to fungal conidia. Overall, these results suggest that seabirds may be more likely to encounter Aspergillus spp. in various microenvironments in captivity, compared with their native habitats, which could increase their risk of developing disease when in a debilitated state. PMID:24712159

Burco, Julia D; Massey, J Gregory; Byrne, Barbara A; Tell, Lisa; Clemons, Karl V; Ziccardi, Michael H

2014-03-01

307

Monitoring the volume activity of nuclides in air during rehabilitation of the site of old storage facilities at the Russian Science Center Kurchatov Institute  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article is devoted to the monitoring of the volume activity of radionuclides, performed in 2003–2006 as part of the unified\\u000a project Reabilitatsiya, during liquidation of old storage sites for radioactive wastes at a special site of the Russian Science\\u000a Center Kurchatov Institute. Methods for dust suppression of radionuclides, means for monitoring the volume activity of aerosols,\\u000a and methods for

V. G. Volkov; G. G. Gorodetskii; Yu. A. Zverkov; A. V. Lemus; V. D. Muzrukova; S. G. Semenov; A. V. Chesnokov; A. D. Shisha; I. Ya. Simanovskaya

2008-01-01

308

Cumulative Earthquake Activity from 1980 through 1995 (WMS)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This animation shows a cumulative view of earthquake activity for the whole world from 1980 through 1995. Each dot on the image represents the number of earthquakes with magnitude greater than 4.2 that have occurred in a 0.35 by 0.35 degree area of the globe since January 1, 1980. A yellow dot represents 1 or 2 earthquakes, an orange dot represents about 10 earthquakes, and a red dot represents 50 to 200 earthquakes. The background image, if present, shows the topography of the ocean floor. As the animation proceeds, the earthquakes clearly accumulate around the topographic features that represent the boundaries of the Earths crustal plates. This animation is based on data from world-wide seismic networks and was obtained from the National Earthquake Center of the United States Geological Survey.

Sokolowsky, Eric; Strong, Jim; Mitchell, Horace; Watters, Tom

2004-02-11

309

1906 San Francisco Earthquake Tsunami  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A series of visualizations of the tsunami generated by the 1906 earthquake. Included are maps of the San Andreas fault offshore, in San Francisco Bay, diagrams of the magnitude of the slip under the San Francisco Bay, and animations of wave height following the earthqake. Two separate animations are featured as QuickTime movies; one is centered on the Golden Gate Bridge, the other shows the whole San Francisco Bay.

Usgs, Tsunami A.

310

Monitoring  

DOEpatents

The invention provides apparatus and methods which facilitate movement of an instrument relative to an item or location being monitored and/or the item or location relative to the instrument, whilst successfully excluding extraneous ions from the detection location. Thus, ions generated by emissions from the item or location can successfully be monitored during movement. The technique employs sealing to exclude such ions, for instance, through an electro-field which attracts and discharges the ions prior to their entering the detecting location and/or using a magnetic field configured to repel the ions away from the detecting location.

Orr, Christopher Henry (Calderbridge, GB); Luff, Craig Janson (Calderbridge, GB); Dockray, Thomas (Calderbridge, GB); Macarthur, Duncan Whittemore (Los Alamos, NM)

2004-11-23

311

Earthquake Magnitude - Linking Earthquake Magnitude and Intensity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Earthquake magnitude is commonly used to represent the size of an earthquake. However, most people want to understand how much impact or damage earthquakes do. These two concepts are linked by shaking. Earthquake magnitude can be measured in a variety of ways, most commonly moment magnitude or Richter magnitude. Shaking is measured in units of acceleration, (often a percentage of g). Damage or intensity can be measured by the modified Mercalli intensity (MMI) scale. In this activity, students will model earthquakes of various magnitudes to determine the amount of shaking that these quakes will cause. They will then convert the shaking to modified Mercalli intensity and generate an isoseismal map for a M8 and M6 earthquake. Uses geophysics to solve problems in other fields Addresses student misconceptions

Baer, Eric

312

Earthquakes and the Web  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity students discover that earthquakes are among Earth's most spectacular natural phenomena and that in understanding what causes earthquakes we can use earthquake or seismic waves to learn about Earth's interior. Students also learn the other aspects of seismology (the study of earthquakes), which are important parts of any Earth Science program. Students will also learn more about how to use the computer as a research and instruction tool. They will find answers in the websites to some questions about earthquakes related to the Regents curriculum. Once they have answered the questions they will try the "Virtual Earthquake" activity on the computer.

Passow, Michael

313

The U.S. Geological Survey's Earthquake Summary Posters: A GIS-based Education and Communication Product for Presenting Consolidated Post-Earthquake Information  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earthquake Summary Posters (ESP's), a new product of the U.S. Geological Survey's Earthquake Program, are produced at the National Earthquake Information Center (NEIC) in Golden. The posters consist of rapidly-generated, GIS-based maps made following significant earthquakes worldwide (typically M>7.0, or events of significant media\\/public interest). ESP's consolidate, in an attractive map format, a large-scale epicentral map, several auxiliary regional overviews

A. Tarr; H. Benz; P. Earle; D. J. Wald

2003-01-01

314

Intracranial Pressure Monitoring in Severe Traumatic Brain Injury in Latin America: Process and Methods for a Multi-Center Randomized Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

Abstract In patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI), the influence on important outcomes of the use of information from intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring to direct treatment has never been tested in a randomized controlled trial (RCT). We are conducting an RCT in six trauma centers in Latin America to test this question. We hypothesize that patients randomized to ICP monitoring will have lower mortality and better outcomes at 6-months post-trauma than patients treated without ICP monitoring. We selected three centers in Bolivia to participate in the trial, based on (1) the absence of ICP monitoring, (2) adequate patient accession and data collection during the pilot phase, (3) preliminary institutional review board approval, and (4) the presence of equipoise about the value of ICP monitoring. We conducted extensive training of site personnel, and initiated the trial on September 1, 2008. Subsequently, we included three additional centers. A total of 176 patients were entered into the trial as of August 31, 2010. Current enrollment is 81% of that expected. The trial is expected to reach its enrollment goal of 324 patients by September of 2011. We are conducting a high-quality RCT to answer a question that is important globally. In addition, we are establishing the capacity to conduct strong research in Latin America, where TBI is a serious epidemic. Finally, we are demonstrating the feasibility and utility of international collaborations that share resources and unique patient populations to conduct strong research about global public health concerns. PMID:22435793

Lujan, Silvia; Dikmen, Sureyya; Temkin, Nancy; Petroni, Gustavo; Pridgeon, Jim; Barber, Jason; Machamer, Joan; Cherner, Mariana; Chaddock, Kelley; Hendrix, Terence; Rondina, Carlos; Videtta, Walter; Celix, Juanita M.; Chesnut, Randall

2012-01-01

315

Precursory signals around epicenters and local active faults prior to inland or coastal earthquakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although earthquakes are still considered as unpredictable phenomenon but scientific efforts during the past decade have revealed some pronounced changes in the quality and quantity of some materials and natural phenomenon on and above the earth’s surface taking place before strong shakes. Pre-earthquake physical and chemical interactions in the earth’s ground may cause anomalies in temperature, surface latent heat flux (SLHF), relative humidity, upwelling index and chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) concentration on the ground or sea surface. Earthquakes are triggered when the energy accumulated in rocks releases causing ruptures in place of faults. The main purpose of this study is to explore and demonstrate possibility of any changes in surface temperature or latent heat flux before, during and after earthquakes. We expect that variations in these factors are accompanied with the increase of Chl-a concentration on the sea surface and upwelling events prior to coastal earthquake events. For monitoring the changes in surface temperature we used NOAA-AVHRR and microwave radiometers like AMSR-E/Aqua data. SLHF data and upwelling indices are provided by National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Reanalysis Project and Pacific Fisheries Environmental Laboratory (PFEL) respectively. Chl-a concentration is also available in MODIS website. Our detailed analyses show significant increase of SLHF and upwelling of nutrient-rich water prior to the main events which is attributed to the raise in surface temperature and Chl-a concentration at that time. Meaningful increases in temperature, relative humidity and SLHF variations from weeks before the earthquakes in epicentral areas and along local active faults are revealed. In addition, considerable anomalies in Chl-a concentration are also attributed to the raise in upwelling index.

Valizadeh Alvan, Habibeh

316

Earthquakes: Hydrogeochemical precursors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earthquake prediction is a long-sought goal. Changes in groundwater chemistry before earthquakes in Iceland highlight a potential hydrogeochemical precursor, but such signals must be evaluated in the context of long-term, multiparametric data sets.

Ingebritsen, S. E.; Manga, M.

2014-10-01

317

Afghanistan Earthquake Hazards Mapped  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of efforts to build capacity within Afghanistan for studying, preparing for, and responding to earthquakes, the U.S. Geological Survey has released a map of potential earthquake hazards within the country.

Zielinski, Sarah

2007-06-01

318

Earthquakes - Discover Our Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site, from Cornell University, describes the origins, effects, measurement, and consequences of earthquakes. The site includes an overview and an exercise section that discusses key points pertaining to earthquakes, followed up with three activities.

Institute for the Study of the Continents (INSTOC) Geoscience Information Project; University, Cornell

319

Small earthquakes, tectonic forces  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Earthquake scaling and frequency-of-occurrence relations require that small earthquakes be just as important as larger ones in redistributing the forces that drive relative displacements across active faults of any dimension, including plate boundaries.

Hanks, T. C.

1992-01-01

320

Science on a Sphere- Japan Earthquake and Tsunami Wave Heights  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

3 animations provide a visual of the March 11, 2011 Japan Earthquake and Tsunami. Predicted Tsunami wave heights from the Center for Tsunami Research, Real-Time Earthquake dataset of hourly images from Feb. 19, 2011 to March 24, 2011. A third video merges these two datasets.

321

Forecast of underwater earthquakes with a great degree of probability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The modes of the instant prognosis of earthquakes and tsunami with probability greater than 0.95 are offered. These modes are based on the principal idea of a simultaneous measurement of elastic and electromagnetic waves from the underground center of earthquakes. Electromagnetic waves with frequency from 1 Hz up to 1000 Hz transmit well on the surface of the Earth, bottom

G. P. Turmov; V. I. Korochentsev; E. V. Gorodetskaya; A. M. Mironenko; D. V. Kislitsin; O. A. Starodubtsev

2000-01-01

322

Near real-time magnitude determination for large crustal earthquakes  

E-print Network

,* a Central Weather Bureau, 64 kung-Yuan Road, Taipei, Taiwan ROC b Southern California Earthquake Center, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089-0740, USA Received 26 December 2001; receivedNear real-time magnitude determination for large crustal earthquakes Yih-Min Wua , Ta-liang Tengb

Wu, Yih-Min

323

Plotting Earthquakes with Near Real-Time Data  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity only requires access to the internet to link to the United States Geological Survey National Earthquake Information Center website and a physiographic chart of the world that has longitude/latitude. Several scientific supply houses sell such physiographic charts. Students plot weekly earthquake data from the NEIC website for several weeks, then work in groups to explain the results.

Slattery, Bill

324

A slow earthquake  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anomalous earthquakes such as creep events, tsunami earthquakes and silent earthquakes have been reported in the recent literature. In this paper we discuss an anomalous ``slow earthquake'' that occurred on June 6, 1960 in southern Chile. Although the surface-wave magnitude of this event is only 6.9, it excited anomalously large long-period multiple surface waves with a seismic moment of 5.6

Hiroo Kanamori; Gordon S. Stewart

1979-01-01

325

Focal mechanism analyses for Virginia and eastern Tennessee earthquakes (1978-1984)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Focal mechanisms are presented for 11 earthquakes from the Giles County, Virginia, seismic zone and its vicinity and for 12 earthquakes from the Central Virginia seismic zone. These earthquakes (0 less than or equal to M less than or equal to 4) were monitored by local networks between January 1978 and October 1984. In Giles County, the data base consists

G. A. Bollinger; A. G. Teague; J. W. Munsey; A. C. Johnston

1985-01-01

326

Crustal earthquake triggering by modern great earthquakes on subduction zone thrusts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

the many questions raised by the recent abundance of great (M > 8.0) subduction thrust earthquakes is their potential to trigger damaging earthquakes on crustal faults within the overriding plate and beneath many of the world's densely populated urban centers. We take advantage of the coincident abundance of great earthquakes globally and instrumental observations since 1960 to assess this triggering potential by analyzing centroids and focal mechanisms from the centroid moment tensor catalog for events starting in 1976 and published reports about the M9.5 1960 Chile and M9.2 1964 Alaska earthquake sequences. We find clear increases in the rates of crustal earthquakes in the overriding plate within days following all subduction thrust earthquakes of M > 8.6, within about ±10° of the triggering event centroid latitude and longitude. This result is consistent with dynamic triggering of more distant increases of shallow seismicity rates at distances beyond ±10°, suggesting that dynamic triggering may be important within the near field too. Crustal earthquake rate increases may also follow smaller M > 7.5 subduction thrust events, but because activity typically occurs offshore in the immediately vicinity of the triggering rupture plane, it cannot be unambiguously attributed to sources within the overriding plate. These observations are easily explained in the context of existing earthquake scaling laws.

Gomberg, Joan; Sherrod, Brian

2014-02-01

327

Redefining Earthquakes and the Earthquake Machine  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Earthquake Machine (EML), a mechanical model of stick-slip fault systems, can increase student engagement and facilitate opportunities to participate in the scientific process. This article introduces the EML model and an activity that challenges ninth-grade students' misconceptions about earthquakes. The activity emphasizes the role of models…

Hubenthal, Michael; Braile, Larry; Taber, John

2008-01-01

328

Title: Earthquake Information for International Students To all International Students at the University of Tokyo  

E-print Network

Title: Earthquake Information for International Students To all International Students devastated by the massive earthquake and tsunami that occurred on March 11, 2011. In Tokyo, planned rolling: http://dir.u-tokyo.ac.jp/en/Center/ International Advising Room earthquake-related information: http

Miyashita, Yasushi

329

Recurrence of Great Earthquakes: Evidence of Double Periodicity Along the Cascadia Subduction Zone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the recognition that the Cascadia subduction zone in the US Pacific Northwest has produced large magnitude earthquakes in the past seven thousand years there has been considerable discussion centered on the dates and intervals between the earthquakes. Accurate information about the intervals between events improves the estimated date and magnitude of the next great earthquake and increases our ability

C. Jurney

2002-01-01

330

Nonuniform prestress from prior earthquakes and the effect on dynamics of branched fault systems  

E-print Network

[Scientists from the U.S. Geol. Surv. Prof. Pap. (USGS), Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC. Introduction [2] Recent earthquakes such as the 1992 Landers (California, Mw 7.3), 1999 Hector Mine (California), and California Division of Mines and Geology (CDMG), 2000; Oglesby et al., 2003]. The Denali fault earthquake

Duan, Benchun

331

THE GREAT SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA SHAKEOUT: Earthquake Science for 22 Million People  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earthquake science is being communicated to and used by the 22 million residents of southern California to improve resiliency to future earthquakes through the Great Southern California ShakeOut. The ShakeOut began when the USGS partnered with the California Geological Survey, Southern California Earthquake Center and many other organizations to bring 300 scientists and engineers together to formulate a comprehensive description

L. Jones; D. Cox; S. Perry; K. Hudnut; M. Benthien; J. Bwarie; M. Vinci; M. Buchanan; K. Long; S. Sinha; L. Collins

2008-01-01

332

Scientific Challenges in Developing the Next Uniform California Earthquake Rupture Forecast (UCERF3)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Working Group on California Earthquake Probabilities (WGCEP) is in the process of developing the next-generation Uniform California Earthquake Rupture Forecast (UCERF version 3). The main goals for this future model, which is being developed jointly by the United States Geological Survey, California Geological Survey, and Southern California Earthquake Center, are to include multi-fault ruptures and spatial and temporal clustering.

E. H. Field

2009-01-01

333

Table-Top Earthquakes: Learn How Earthquakes Really Work  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This easily built classroom apparatus is ideal for gaining a better understanding of how earthquakes work and how they are recorded. The apparatus consists of a heavy object that is dragged steadily with an elastic cord. Although pulled with a constant velocity, the heavy object repeatedly slides and then stops. A small vibration sensor, attached to a computer display, graphically monitors this motion, which mimics the intermittent fault slippage that characterizes earthquake fault zones. Slides from a talk given at the Geological Society of America's Cordilleran Section Centennial meeting on June 2, 1999, show how this table-top demonstration can be used to help meet many of the K-12 teaching goals described in Benchmarks for Science Literacy (American Association for the Advancement of Science, 1993).

Lahr, John

1998-07-01

334

Children's Ideas about Earthquakes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Earthquake, a natural disaster, is among the fundamental problems of many countries. If people know how to protect themselves from earthquake and arrange their life styles in compliance with this, damage they will suffer will reduce to that extent. In particular, a good training regarding earthquake to be received in primary schools is considered…

Simsek, Canan Lacin

2007-01-01

335

Forecasting Earthquakes Using Paleoseismology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online article, from Earth: Inside and Out, takes a look at how paleoseismologists study the sediment around faults to help predict future earthquakes. It covers the role faults play in earthquakes and how sediment evidence is used to reconstruct a site's earthquake history.

336

Operational earthquake forecasting can enhance earthquake preparedness  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We cannot yet predict large earthquakes in the short term with much reliability and skill, but the strong clustering exhibited in seismic sequences tells us that earthquake probabilities are not constant in time; they generally rise and fall over periods of days to years in correlation with nearby seismic activity. Operational earthquake forecasting (OEF) is the dissemination of authoritative information about these time?dependent probabilities to help communities prepare for potentially destructive earthquakes. The goal of OEF is to inform the decisions that people and organizations must continually make to mitigate seismic risk and prepare for potentially destructive earthquakes on time scales from days to decades. To fulfill this role, OEF must provide a complete description of the seismic hazard—ground?motion exceedance probabilities as well as short?term rupture probabilities—in concert with the long?term forecasts of probabilistic seismic?hazard analysis (PSHA).

Jordan, T.H.; Marzocchi, W.; Michael, A.J.; Gerstenberger, M.C.

2014-01-01

337

Lessons in bridge damage learned from the Wenchuan earthquake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A strong earthquake occurred in Wenchuan County, Sichuan Province, China, on May 12, 2008. Shortly after the earthquake, the Turner-Fairbank Highway Research Center of the Federal Highway Administration, in partnership with the Research Institute of Highways, the Ministry of Communication of China, led a reconnaissance team to conduct a post-earthquake bridge performance investigation of the transportation system in the earthquake affected areas. The U.S. transportation system reconnaissance team visited the area during July 20-24, 2008. This paper presents the findings and lessons learned by the team.

Yen, W. Phillip; Chen, Genda; Yashinski, Mark; Hashash, Youssef; Holub, Curtis; Wang, Kehai; Guo, Xiaodong

2009-06-01

338

Earthquake Nucleation and Its Relationship to Earthquake Clustering  

E-print Network

Earthquake clustering phenomena such as aftershocks, foreshocks, and pairing of mainshocks are prominent and characteristic features of earthquake occurrence. Because the earthquake nucleation process controls the time and place of occurrence of earthquakes, non-linear dependence of nucleation times on stress changes can strongly affect the spatial and temporal patterns of earthquake occurrence. Earthquake nucleation on faults with rate- and statedependent fault properties has this characteristic, and appears to quantitatively represent the details and broad statistical patterns of earthquake clustering.

James Dieterich Geological; James H. Dieterich

339

The Depth of Earthquakes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This map of world seismicity illustrates earthquake data for the years 1991 through 1996. It is intended to provide a sense of the depth distribution of earthquakes. Plate boundaries are shown, along with diffuse regions of seismicity, such as in central Asia, and earthquake locations are color-coded to indicate the depths at which they occurred. In addition to the map, selected cross-sections of subduction zones in South America, Tonga, Japan, and the Aleutian Islands are provided. They feature a map showing the orientation of the cross-section and graphs illustrating distribution of earthquake depth versus longitude and number of earthquakes.

2011-05-05

340

The Depth of Earthquakes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This map of world seismicity illustrates earthquake data for the years 1991 through 1996. It is intended to provide a sense of the depth distribution of earthquakes. Plate boundaries are shown, along with diffuse regions of seismicity, such as in central Asia, and earthquake locations are color-coded to indicate the depths at which they occurred. In addition to the map, selected cross-sections of subduction zones in South America, Tonga, Japan, and the Aleutian Islands are provided. They feature a map showing the orientation of the cross-section and graphs illustrating distribution of earthquake depth versus longitude and number of earthquakes.

341

Research on the Relation between Anomalous Infrasonic waves and several Earthquakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is well known that earthquakes can generate infrasound signals often detected by infrasound monitoring system. Some of the observations suggest that infrasound with a typical frequency of a few Hz can be generated by vibrating ground surface and propagate at distances of a few thousands kilometers from an earthquake epicenter. In order to receive the anomalous infrasonic waves before earthquakes, we have built three infrasonic monitoring stations in Beijing. And atmospheric pressure is parallel observing at the same time. At first, two infrasonic monitoring equipment was putted in the same station. The data was observed from them has a very good correlation, this means that the performance of the instruments is good. After half a year, three instruments were putted in different stations. Large amounts of data have been acquired and lots of anomalous information has been found before earthquakes, such as Lushan 7.0 earthquake, Okhotsk 8.0 earthquake and Nantou 6.7 earthquake. The anomalous data before three earthquakes is about 7-8days before each earthquake. Moreover, the co-seismic infrasonic waves have been received, which is the similar to seismic wave, so we can know where the earthquake happened through co-seismic infrasonic waves. Using this method, we can inference where the next earthquake will be happened according to the anomalous information. we developed an infrasound generation model for a so-called slow earthquake to show that such kind of earthquake can generate long-period acoustic-gravity waves often observed several days prior to the strong earthquakes. With this model the atmospheric pressure perturbations generated by slow earthquake were calculated, and the occurrence of low frequencies and high amplitudes in the observed signal was explained. A consistency between the results of simulation and observation data indicates that slow earthquake may be a possible source of atmospheric pressure oscillations observed prior to strong earthquakes.

Zhang, B.

2013-12-01

342

Earthquake Hazard in the Heart of the Homeland  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Evidence that earthquakes threaten the Mississippi, Ohio, and Wabash River valleys of the Central United States abounds. In fact, several of the largest historical earthquakes to strike the continental United States occurred in the winter of 1811-1812 along the New Madrid seismic zone, which stretches from just west of Memphis, Tenn., into southern Illinois. Several times in the past century, moderate earthquakes have been widely felt in the Wabash Valley seismic zone along the southern border of Illinois and Indiana. Throughout the region, between 150 and 200 earthquakes are recorded annually by a network of monitoring instruments, although most are too small to be felt by people. Geologic evidence for prehistoric earthquakes throughout the region has been mounting since the late 1970s. But how significant is the threat? How likely are large earthquakes and, more importantly, what is the chance that the shaking they cause will be damaging?

Gomberg, Joan; Schweig, Eugene

2007-01-01

343

The loma prieta, california, earthquake: an anticipated event.  

PubMed

The first major earthquake on the San Andreas fault since 1906 fulfilled a long-term forecast for its rupture in the southern Santa Cruz Mountains. Severe damage occurred at distances of up to 100 kilometers from the epicenter in areas underlain by ground known to be hazardous in strong earthquakes. Stronger earthquakes will someday strike closer to urban centers in the United States, most of which also contain hazardous ground. The Loma Prieta earthquake demonstrated that meaningful predictions can be made of potential damage patterns and that, at least in well-studied areas, long-term forecasts can be made of future earthquake locations and magnitudes. Such forecasts can serve as a basis for action to reduce the threat major earthquakes pose to the United States. PMID:17735847

1990-01-19

344

Ionospheric disturbances triggered by the 11 March 2011 M9.0 Tohoku earthquake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An earthquake of magnitude 9.0 occurred near the east coast of Honshu (Tohoku area), Japan, producing overwhelming Earth surface motions and inducing devastating tsunamis, which then traveled into the ionosphere and significantly disturbed the electron density within it (hereafter referred to as seismotraveling ionospheric disturbances (STIDs)). The total electron content (TEC) derived from nationwide GPS receiving networks in Japan and Taiwan is employed to monitor STIDs triggered by seismic and tsunami waves of the Tohoku earthquake. The STIDs first appear as a disk-shaped TEC increase about 7 min after the earthquake occurrence centered at about 200 km east of the epicenter, near the west edge of the Japan Trench. Fast propagating disturbances related to Rayleigh waves quickly travel away from the epicenter along the main island of Japan with a speed of 2.3-3.3 km/s, accompanied by sequences of concentric circular TEC wavefronts and followed by circular ripples (close to a tsunami speed of about 720-800 km/h) that travel away from the STID center. These are the most remarkable STIDs ever observed where signatures of Rayleigh waves, tsunami waves, etc., simultaneously appear in the ionosphere.

Liu, Jann-Yenq; Chen, Chia-Hung; Lin, Chien-Hung; Tsai, Ho-Fang; Chen, Chieh-Hung; Kamogawa, Masashi

2011-06-01

345

Seismo Traveling Ionospheric Disturbances Triggered by the 11 March 2011 M9.0 Tohoku Earthquake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An earthquake of magnitude 9.0 occurred near the east coast of Honshu (Tohoku area), Japan producing overwhelming Earth's surface motions and inducing devastating tsunami waves on 11 March 2011. The seismic and tsunami waves further excited atmospheric pressure waves near the Earth's surface, which then traveled into the ionosphere and significantly disturbed the electron density within it, hereafter referred to as the seismo-traveling ionospheric disturbances (STIDs). The total electron content (TEC) derived from nationwide GPS receiving networks in Japan and Taiwan is employed to monitor STIDs triggered by seismic and tsunami waves of the Tohoku earthquake. The STIDs first appear as a disk-shape TEC increase about 7 minutes after the earthquake occurrence centered at about 200 km east of the epicenter, near the west edge of Japan Trench. Fast propagating disturbances related to Rayleigh waves quickly travel away from the epicenter along the main island of Japan with a speed of 2.3-3.3km/s, accompanied by sequences of concentric circular TEC wavefronts (acoustic gravity waves) and followed by circular ripples (tsunami waves whit a speed of about 720-800km/hr) travel away from the STID center together with various confounded acoustic gravity waves of 290-1500 m/s. These are the most remarkable STIDs ever observed where signatures of Rayleigh waves, acoustic gravity waves, and tsunami waves, etc. simultaneously appear in the ionosphere.

Liu, J.; Chen, C.; Lin, C.

2011-12-01

346

Uplift and Subsidence Associated with the Great Aceh-Andaman Earthquake of 2004  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The magnitude 9.2 Indian Ocean earthquake of December 26, 2004, produced broad regions of uplift and subsidence. In order to define the lateral extent and the downdip limit of rupture, scientists from Caltech, Pasadena, Calif.; NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif.; Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, Calif.; the U.S. Geological Survey, Pasadena, Calif.; and the Research Center for Geotechnology, Indonesian Institute of Sciences, Bandung, Indonesia; first needed to define the pivot line separating those regions. Interpretation of satellite imagery and a tidal model were one of the key tools used to do this.

These pre-Sumatra earthquake (a) and post-Sumatra earthquake (b) images of North Sentinel Island in the Indian Ocean, acquired from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) instrument on NASA's Terra spacecraft, show emergence of the coral reef surrounding the island following the earthquake. The tide was 30 plus or minus 14 centimeters lower in the pre-earthquake image (acquired November 21, 2000) than in the post-earthquake image (acquired February 20, 2005), requiring a minimum of 30 centimeters of uplift at this locality. Observations from an Indian Coast Guard helicopter on the northwest coast of the island suggest that the actual uplift is on the order of 1 to 2 meters at this site.

In figures (c) and (d), pre-earthquake and post-earthquake ASTER images of a small island off the northwest coast of Rutland Island, 38 kilometers east of North Sentinel Island, show submergence of the coral reef surrounding the island. The tide was higher in the pre-earthquake image (acquired January 1, 2004) than in the post-earthquake image (acquired February 4, 2005), requiring subsidence at this locality. The pivot line must run between North Sentinel and Rutland islands. Note that the scale for the North Sentinel Island images differs from that for the Rutland Island images.

The tidal model used for this study was based on data from JPL's Topex/Poseidon satellite. The model was used to determine the relative sea surface height at each location at the time each image was acquired, a critical component used to quantify the deformation.

The scientists' method of using satellite imagery to recognize changes in elevation relative to sea surface height and of using a tidal model to place quantitative bounds on coseismic uplift or subsidence is a novel approach that can be adapted to other forms of remote sensing and can be applied to other subduction zones in tropical regions.

ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

2006-01-01

347

Seismic Monitor  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web site provides an interactive map of global seismic activity that is updated every 30 minutes. The site uses data from the National Earthquake Information Center to produce a world map with clickable areas of seismic activity. Users can click on geographical areas of the map, and will be taken to a table which describes the time, location, magnitude and comments about particular seismic events. Information is kept for earthquakes that have occurred in the last 24 hours, 15 days, and five years. For earthquakes of a magnitude of 6.0 and over, links are provided to special information pages that try to explain the where, how and why that particular event occurred. The user can also view the ground motion associated with an event and visit seismology laboratories around the world.

348

Seafloor earthquake measurement system, SEMS IV  

Microsoft Academic Search

Staff of the Telemetry Technology Development Department (2664) have, in support of the U.S. Interior Department Mineral Management Services (MMS), developed and deployed the Seafloor Earthquake Measurement System IV (SEMS IV). The result of this development project is a series of three fully operational seafloor seismic monitor systems located at offshore platforms: Eureka, Grace, and Irene. The instrument probes are

M. R. Platzbecker; J. P. Ehasz; R. J. Franco

1997-01-01

349

Hastings Center  

MedlinePLUS

... Center Report IRB: Ethics & Human Research Special Publications Bioethics Forum blog Over 65 blog Health Care Cost Monitor blog Books and Monographs Bioethics Briefing Book Help with Hard Questions Research Current ...

350

Visualizing Earthquakes at Divergent Plate Margins  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This screenshot from the visualization shows both continental rift zones, and ocean spreading centers, both types of divergent plate boundaries. The visualization shows how earthquakes at all types of divergent margins are shallow and have a low-magnitude. Click the image to enlarge or view the MP4 movie (MP4 Video 79.3MB Aug22 11).The purpose of this activity is to introduce students to the distribution and characteristics of earthquakes associated with divergent plate boundaries. Students will learn about how the magnitude and distribution of earthquakes at divergent boundaries are related to processes that occur at these boundaries and to the geometry and position of the two diverging plates. Because the depth of earthquakes can be difficult for students to visualize in 2D representations, this activity allows students to visualize the 3D distribution of earthquakes within Earth's surface, which is essential for understanding how different types of earthquakes occur in different tectonic settings. Locations featured in the visualization include the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, the East Pacific Rise, and the East African Rift Zone. Talking points and questions are included to facilitate using this visualization as part of an interactive lecture. In addition to playing back the visualization, instructors can also download the visualization software and data set and explore it themselves.

Harwood, Cara

351

Investigating Earthquakes through Regional Seismicity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this module, sudents will use online interactive materials to investigate the nature of earthquakes. The module consists of three major sections, "What is an Earthquake?", "The Distribution of Earthquakes", and "Measuring Earthquakes". Each section presents online material for background and interactive learning activities which help them to understand such characteristics of earthquakes as their associated faults, rates of occurrence, magnitudes, and geographic distribution.

Marquis, John; Hafner, Katrin; Hauksson, Egill

352

The Distribution of Earthquakes: An Earthquake Deficit?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students use online resources to investigate the occurrence of earthquakes in Southern California to decide if there has been a 'deficit', that is, not enough earthquakes in the area in historical time to release the amount of strain energy that plate tectonics is constantly supplying to the crust. In the first two parts, they must determine the appropriate year to begin their study of historic earthquake records (from 1860-1900), and then they must decide if the energy released by past earthquakes has been equivalent to the amount of energy accumulating through the action of plate tectonics over the same number of years. In part three, they perform an analysis of their findings by answering a set of questions. References are included.

Marquis, John

353

Benefits of Earthquake Early Warning to Large Municipalities (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The City of Los Angeles has been involved in the testing of the Cal Tech Shake Alert, Earthquake Early Warning (EQEW) system, since February 2012. This system accesses a network of seismic monitors installed throughout California. The system analyzes and processes seismic information, and transmits a warning (audible and visual) when an earthquake occurs. In late 2011, the City of Los Angeles Emergency Management Department (EMD) was approached by Cal Tech regarding EQEW, and immediately recognized the value of the system. Simultaneously, EMD was in the process of finalizing a report by a multi-discipline team that visited Japan in December 2011, which spoke to the effectiveness of EQEW for the March 11, 2011 earthquake that struck that country. Information collected by the team confirmed that the EQEW systems proved to be very effective in alerting the population of the impending earthquake. The EQEW in Japan is also tied to mechanical safeguards, such as the stopping of high-speed trains. For a city the size and complexity of Los Angeles, the implementation of a reliable EQEW system will save lives, reduce loss, ensure effective and rapid emergency response, and will greatly enhance the ability of the region to recovery from a damaging earthquake. The current Shake Alert system is being tested at several governmental organizations and private businesses in the region. EMD, in cooperation with Cal Tech, identified several locations internal to the City where the system would have an immediate benefit. These include the staff offices within EMD, the Los Angeles Police Department's Real Time Analysis and Critical Response Division (24 hour crime center), and the Los Angeles Fire Department's Metropolitan Fire Communications (911 Dispatch). All three of these agencies routinely manage the collaboration and coordination of citywide emergency information and response during times of crisis. Having these three key public safety offices connected and included in the early testing of an EQEW system will help shape the EQEW policy which will determine the seismic safety of millions of Californians in the years to come.

Featherstone, J.

2013-12-01

354

A continuation of base-line studies for environmentally monitoring Space Transportation Systems at John F. Kennedy Space Center. Volume 2: Chemical studies of rainfall and soil analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of a study which was designed to monitor, characterize, and evaluate the chemical composition of precipitation (rain) which fell at the Kennedy Space Center, Florida (KSC) during the period July 1977 to March 1979 are reported. Results which were obtained from a soil sampling and associated chemical analysis are discussed. The purpose of these studies was to determine the environmental perturbations which might be caused by NASA space activities.

Madsen, B. C.

1980-01-01

355

Istanbul Earthquake Early Warning and Rapid Response System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of the preparations for the future earthquake in Istanbul a Rapid Response and Early Warning system in the metropolitan area is in operation. For the Early Warning system ten strong motion stations were installed as close as possible to the fault zone. Continuous on-line data from these stations via digital radio modem provide early warning for potentially disastrous earthquakes. Considering the complexity of fault rupture and the short fault distances involved, a simple and robust Early Warning algorithm, based on the exceedance of specified threshold time domain amplitude levels is implemented. The band-pass filtered accelerations and the cumulative absolute velocity (CAV) are compared with specified threshold levels. When any acceleration or CAV (on any channel) in a given station exceeds specific threshold values it is considered a vote. Whenever we have 2 station votes within selectable time interval, after the first vote, the first alarm is declared. In order to specify the appropriate threshold levels a data set of near field strong ground motions records form Turkey and the world has been analyzed. Correlations among these thresholds in terms of the epicenter distance the magnitude of the earthquake have been studied. The encrypted early warning signals will be communicated to the respective end users by UHF systems through a "service provider" company. The users of the early warning signal will be power and gas companies, nuclear research facilities, critical chemical factories, subway system and several high-rise buildings. Depending on the location of the earthquake (initiation of fault rupture) and the recipient facility the alarm time can be as high as about 8s. For the rapid response system one hundred 18 bit-resolution strong motion accelerometers were placed in quasi-free field locations (basement of small buildings) in the populated areas of the city, within an area of approximately 50x30km, to constitute a network that will enable early damage assessment and rapid response information after a damaging earthquake. Early response information is achieved through fast acquisition and analysis of processed data obtained from the network. The stations are routinely interrogated on regular basis by the main data center. After triggered by an earthquake, each station processes the streaming strong motion data to yield the spectral accelerations at specific periods, 12Hz filtered PGA and PGV and will send these parameters in the form of SMS messages at every 20s directly to the main data center through a designated GSM network and through a microwave system. A shake map and damage distribution map (using aggregate building inventories and fragility curves) will be automatically generated using the algorithm developed for this purpose. Loss assessment studies are complemented by a large citywide digital database on the topography, geology, soil conditions, building, infrastructure and lifeline inventory. The shake and damage maps will be conveyed to the governor's and mayor's offices, fire, police and army headquarters within 3 minutes using radio modem and GPRS communication. An additional forty strong motion recorders were placed on important structures in several interconnected clusters to monitor the health of these structures after a damaging earthquake.

Erdik, M. O.; Fahjan, Y.; Ozel, O.; Alcik, H.; Aydin, M.; Gul, M.

2003-12-01

356

Earthquake resistant design  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

After having learned about earthquakes in class, through readings and earlier lab assignments, students (in groups of two) are asked to design and construct (using balsa wood, string, paper and glue) a three-story building designed to minimize the effects of shear-wave vibrations that occur during an earthquake. The students are required to research the design concepts on their own and most of the construction work occurs outside of the regular laboratory period. The structures are tested for strength a week before the earthquake occurs - can they support the required load for each floor? On earthquake day, the buildings a tested for a "design earthquake" and then each group is given the opportunity to see how "large" and earthquake their structure can withstand - both in terms of frequency and amplitude variations. In addition to building the structure, each team has to submit a paper reflecting on why they designed and built the structure the way they did.

Malinconico, Lawrence L.

357

Plate Tectonics: Earthquake Epicenter  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson provides an overview of destructive earthquakes and their connection to tectonic movements of the Earth's crust. It includes a discussion of some especially destructive historic earthquakes, and a brief introduction to contintental drift and the theory of plate tectonics. There is also discussion of basic seismology (types of waves) and measures of the magnitude of an earthquake (the Richter Scale). The lesson inlcudes an activity in which students use an online simulator to locate the epicenter of an earthquake using readings from three different seismograph stations. After they have completed the simulation, they attempt to locate the epicenter of a real earthquake using data from the United States Geological Survey (USGS) earthquake website.

Pratte, John

358

United States Geological Survey, Earthquake Hazards Program: Earthquake Research  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site describes the research activities of the Earthquake Hazards Program (EHP) of the United States Geological Survey (USGS). The activities include: borehole geophysics and rock mechanics, crustal deformation, earthquake information, earthquake geology and paleoseismology, hazards, seismology and earth structure, and strong motion seismology, site response, and ground motion. Other links include: earthquake activity, earthquake facts and education, earthquake products, hazards and preparedness, regional websites, and seismic networks.

359

Earthquakes and Volcanoes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This unit provides an introduction for younger students on earthquakes, volcanoes, and how they are related. Topics include evidence of continental drift, types of plate boundaries, types of seismic waves, and how to calculate the distance to the epicenter of an earthquake. There is also information on how earthquake magnitude and intensity are measured, and how seismic waves can reveal the Earth's internal structure. A vocabulary list and downloadable, printable student worksheets are provided.

Medina, Philip

2011-06-27

360

Earthquakes in Utah  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will gain a better understanding of how earthquakes and volcanoes are formed and how they have contributed to the geology of Utah. This web-based lesson will help guide you through a number of websites that will help you gain a better understanding of earthquakes and volcanoes especially happening in Utah. Follow the instructions for each and enjoy. You will need your headphones on for the videos. Site #1 .Watch video on earthquake ...

Ribera, Mr.

2009-02-25

361

Levy Flights and Earthquakes  

E-print Network

Levy flights representation is proposed to describe earthquake characteristics like the distribution of waiting times and position of hypocenters in a seismic region. Over 7500 microearthquakes and earthquakes from 1985 to 1994 were analyzed to test that its spatial and temporal distributions are such that can be described by a Levy flight with anomalous diffusion (in this case in a subdiffusive regime). Earthquake behavior is well described through Levy flights and Levy distribution functions such as results show.

O. Sotolongo-Costa; J. C. Antoranz; A. Posadas; F. Vidal; A. Vazquez

2002-05-27

362

OMG Earthquake! Can Twitter improve earthquake response?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is investigating how the social networking site Twitter, a popular service for sending and receiving short, public, text messages, can augment its earthquake response products and the delivery of hazard information. The goal is to gather near real-time, earthquake-related messages (tweets) and provide geo-located earthquake detections and rough maps of the corresponding felt areas. Twitter and other social Internet technologies are providing the general public with anecdotal earthquake hazard information before scientific information has been published from authoritative sources. People local to an event often publish information within seconds via these technologies. In contrast, depending on the location of the earthquake, scientific alerts take between 2 to 20 minutes. Examining the tweets following the March 30, 2009, M4.3 Morgan Hill earthquake shows it is possible (in some cases) to rapidly detect and map the felt area of an earthquake using Twitter responses. Within a minute of the earthquake, the frequency of “earthquake” tweets rose above the background level of less than 1 per hour to about 150 per minute. Using the tweets submitted in the first minute, a rough map of the felt area can be obtained by plotting the tweet locations. Mapping the tweets from the first six minutes shows observations extending from Monterey to Sacramento, similar to the perceived shaking region mapped by the USGS “Did You Feel It” system. The tweets submitted after the earthquake also provided (very) short first-impression narratives from people who experienced the shaking. Accurately assessing the potential and robustness of a Twitter-based system is difficult because only tweets spanning the previous seven days can be searched, making a historical study impossible. We have, however, been archiving tweets for several months, and it is clear that significant limitations do exist. The main drawback is the lack of quantitative information such as epicenter, magnitude, and strong-motion recordings. Without quantitative data, prioritization of response measures, including building and infrastructure inspection, are not possible. The main advantage of Twitter is speed, especially in sparsely instrumented areas. A Twitter based system potentially could provide a quick notification that there was a possible event and that seismographically derived information will follow. If you are interested in learning more, follow @USGSted on Twitter.

Earle, P. S.; Guy, M.; Ostrum, C.; Horvath, S.; Buckmaster, R. A.

2009-12-01

363

2004), Importance of small earthquakes for stress transfers and earthquake  

E-print Network

Abstract. We estimate the relative importance of small and large earthquakes for static stress changes and for earthquake triggering, assuming that earthquakes are triggered by static stress changes and that earthquakes are located on a fractal network of dimension D. This model predicts that both the number of events triggered by an earthquake of magnitude m and the stress change induced by this earthquake at the location of other earthquakes increase with m as ? 10 Dm/2. The stronger the spatial clustering, the larger the influence of small earthquakes on stress changes at the location of a future event as well as earthquake triggering. If earthquake magnitudes follow the Gutenberg-Richter law with b> D/2, small earthquakes collectively dominate stress transfer and earthquake triggering, because their greater frequency overcomes their smaller individual triggering potential. Using a Southern-California catalog, we observe that the rate of seismicity triggered by an earthquake of magnitude m increases with m as 10 ?m, where ? = 1.00 ± 0.05. We also find that the magnitude distribution of triggered earthquakes is independent of the triggering earthquake’s magnitude m. When ? ? b, small earthquakes are roughly as important to earthquake triggering as larger ones. We evaluate the fractal correlation

Agnès Helmstetter; Yan Y. Kagan; David D. Jackson

364

Eye in the Sky: Earthquakes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource presents a general introduction to earthquakes, including sections on the science, the phenomenon, and effects. It includes an animation of how earthquakes form, and footage of the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake near San Francisco.

365

Are Earthquake Magnitudes Clustered?  

SciTech Connect

The question of earthquake predictability is a long-standing and important challenge. Recent results [Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 098501 (2007); ibid.100, 038501 (2008)] have suggested that earthquake magnitudes are clustered, thus indicating that they are not independent in contrast to what is typically assumed. Here, we present evidence that the observed magnitude correlations are to a large extent, if not entirely, an artifact due to the incompleteness of earthquake catalogs and the well-known modified Omori law. The latter leads to variations in the frequency-magnitude distribution if the distribution is constrained to those earthquakes that are close in space and time to the directly following event.

Davidsen, Joern; Green, Adam [Complexity Science Group, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4 (Canada)

2011-03-11

366

Earthquakes Learning Module  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This earthquake unit was designed to be used with a college course in physical geography. From this module, students learn the location of areas in the United States with the greatest potential for earthquake shaking and the hazards presented by earthquakes. They also learn how geological conditions and building construction affect the amount of destruction during an earthquake. Seismographs and the Richter scale are also covered. The module contains a study guide and outline notes, study questions, and a practice quiz. One feature of the module is a web exploration section with links to fifteen outside sites that augment the instruction.

Haberlin, Rita

367

Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering Portal  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Site aiming to provide useful and educational information in geotechnical earthquake engineering. The site involves topics such as: liquefaction engineering, seismic slope analysis and soil structure interaction.

2008-09-29

368

Earthquakes for Students & Teachers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This USGS Web site presents educational materials about "earth structure, earthquakes, plate tectonics, and earthquake preparedness." Teachers can search the up-to-date information by topic or by grade level (K-12). The site provides a PowerPoint presentation Earthquakes 101, which incorporates images and drawings to help educators easily explain earthquake processes. Users can take Virtual Field Trips to places such as the Calavaras Fault and the Kentucky River Fault Zone. With so many fun learning activities, teachers will certainly benefit by visiting this site.

369

Earthquakes and Plate Tectonics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity, from the Real World Learning Objects Resource Library, allows students to use first-hand data analysis to "determine if there is any pattern to earthquake events and speculate on the causes of earthquakes." Intended to be an introductory activity for a unit of study on earthquakes, this 60-minute activity is complete with learning goals, step-by-step classroom procedures, materials, assessment activities, and resources for further information. The "Content Materials" section contains directions for students and graphics to help students understand earthquakes and plate tectonics. This is an excellent resource for geology and earth science instructors that is ready to use for the classroom.

2007-10-04

370

Learning About Earthquakes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How much do you know about earthquakes? Did you even know that Utah actually has earthquakes and that it has a large fault line that is overdue for a major earthquake? The purpose of this activity is to find the locations of the fault lines in Utah and understand that they are usually earthquake zones. Students will learn how often earthquakes are expected to occur, when Utah is due for another one, and where the next one is expected to occur. This meets the Utah Core Standard 2 for 5th grade science: Students will understand that volcanoes, earthquakes, uplift, weathering, and erosion reshape Earth's surface. Objective 1: Explain the relationship between time and specific geological changes. Objective 2: Explain how volcanoes, earthquakes, and uplift affect Earth's surface. If your friend were moving to Utah from another state, where would you advise them the safest place to buy or build a house would be? Teacher Instruction Put students into groups of 4 or 5 and create a KWL chart about earthquakes. Instruct the groups that they are going to learn about earthquakes in ...

Wallace, Mrs.

2012-02-07

371

Earthquakes in Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Earthquake risk is high in much of the southern half of Alaska, but it is not the same everywhere. This map shows the overall geologic setting in Alaska that produces earthquakes. The Pacific plate (darker blue) is sliding northwestward past southeastern Alaska and then dives beneath the North American plate (light blue, green, and brown) in southern Alaska, the Alaska Peninsula, and the Aleutian Islands. Most earthquakes are produced where these two plates come into contact and slide past each other. Major earthquakes also occur throughout much of interior Alaska as a result of collision of a piece of crust with the southern margin.

Haeussler, Peter J.; Plafker, George

1995-01-01

372

Locating Earthquake Epicenters  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this exercise, students use data from the 1994 Northridge, California, earthquake to locate the earthquake and its time of occurrence, and plot data from Central and South America on a map to delineate plate boundaries. Introductory materials explain how earthquakes are caused, describe the types of seismic waves, and explain that the difference in arrival times may be used to calculate distance to the earthquake. Each portion of the exercise includes instructions, datsets, maps, travel-time graphs, study questions, and tables for entering data. A bibliography is also provided.

Pinter, Nicholas

373

Parkfield, California: Earthquake History  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This report describes the history of seismic activity at Parkfield, California, which is situated on the San Andreas Fault. It points out that moderate-size earthquakes have occurred on the Parkfield section of the San Andreas fault at fairly regular intervals, and that the earthquakes may have been 'characteristic' in the sense that they occurred with some regularity (mean repetition time of about 22 years). This indicates that they may have repeatedly ruptured the same area on the fault. A diagram shows the timing of the earthquakes, and illustrations of the seismic waveforms show the similarities between earthquakes occurring in 1922, 1934, and 1966.

374

Electric field and ion density anomalies in the mid latitude ionosphere: Possible connection with earthquakes?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The problem of earthquake prediction has stimulated the search for a correlation between seismic activity and ionospherical anomalies. We found observational evidence of possible earthquake effects in the near-equatorial and low latitude ionosphere; these ionospheric anomalies have been proposed by Gousheva et al. [Gousheva, M., Glavcheva, R., Danov, D., Angelov P., Hristov, P., Influence of earthquakes on the electric field disturbances in the ionosphere on board of the Intercosmos-Bulgaria-1300 satellite. Compt. Rend. Acad. Bulg. Sci. 58 (8) 911-916, 2005a; Gousheva, M., Glavcheva, R., Danov, D., Angelov, P., Hristov, P., Kirov, B., Georgieva, K., Observation from the Intercosmos-Bulgaria-1300 satellite of anomalies associated with seismic activity. In: Poster Proceeding of 2nd International Conference on Recent Advances in Space Technologies: Space in the Service of Society, RAST '2005, June 9-11, Istanbul, Turkey, pp. 119-123, 2005b; Gousheva, M., Glavcheva, R., Danov, D., Angelov, P., Hristov, P., Kirov, B., Georgieva, K., Satellite monitoring of anomalous effects in the ionosphere probably related to strong earthquakes. Adv. Space Res. 37 (4), 660-665, 2006]. This paper presents new results from observations of the quasi-static electric field and ion density on board INTERCOSMOS-BULGARIA-1300 satellite in the mid latitude ionosphere above sources of moderate earthquakes. Data from INTERCOSMOS-BULGARIA-1300 satellite and seismic data (World Data Center, Denver, Colorado, USA) for magnetically quiet and medium quiet days are juxtaposed in time-space domain. For satellite's orbits in the time period 15.09-01.10.1981 an increase in the horizontal and vertical components of the quasi-static electric field and fluctuations of the ion density are observed over zones of forthcoming seismic events. Some similar post effects are observed too. The emphasis of this paper is put on the anomalies which specify the mid latitude ionosphere. The obtained results contain important information because they confirm our previous results for near-equatorial and low latitude regions.

Gousheva, M. N.; Glavcheva, R. P.; Danov, D. L.; Hristov, P. L.; Kirov, B. B.; Georgieva, K. Y.

2008-07-01

375

Missing Great Earthquakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The occurrence of three earthquakes with Mw greater than 8.8, and six earthquakes larger than Mw8.5, since 2004 has raised interest in the long-term rate of great earthquakes. Past studies have focused on rates since 1900, which roughly marks the start of the instrumental era. Yet substantial information is available for earthquakes prior to 1900. A re-examination of the catalog of global historical earthquakes reveals a paucity of Mw ? 8.5 events during the 18th and 19th centuries compared to the rate during the instrumental era (Hough, 2013, JGR), suggesting that the magnitudes of some documented historical earthquakes have been underestimated, with approximately half of all Mw?8.5 earthquakes missing or underestimated in the 19th century. Very large (Mw?8.5) magnitudes have traditionally been estimated for historical earthquakes only from tsunami observations given a tautological assumption that all such earthquakes generate significant tsunamis. Magnitudes would therefore tend to be underestimated for deep megathrust earthquakes that generated relatively small tsunamis, deep earthquakes within continental collision zones, earthquakes that produced tsunamis that were not documented, outer rise events, and strike-slip earthquakes such as the 11 April 2012 Sumatra event. We further show that, where magnitudes of historical earthquakes are estimated from earthquake intensities using the Bakun and Wentworth (1997, BSSA) method, magnitudes of great earthquakes can be significantly underestimated. Candidate 'missing' great 19th century earthquakes include the 1843 Lesser Antilles earthquake, which recent studies suggest was significantly larger than initial estimates (Feuillet et al., 2012, JGR; Hough, 2013), and an 1841 Kamchatka event, for which Mw9 was estimated by Gusev and Shumilina (2004, Izv. Phys. Solid Ear.). We consider cumulative moment release rates during the 19th century compared to that during the 20th and 21st centuries, using both the Hough (2013) compilation and the Global Earthquake Model (GEM) catalog released in June, 2013. The GEM catalog includes three 19th century earthquakes of M8.5 and three M8.4s, and no 19th century earthquakes larger than 8.5. Cumulative moment release rates are notoriously difficult to estimate, but using the Hough (2013) compilation the 19th century moment release rate appears to be roughly half of the rate during the instrumental era; using the GEM catalog the 19th century rate appears to be roughly ¼ the instrumental rate. Thus, either 1) the global moment release rate varies by a factor of two or more on century time scales, or 2) the best available historical catalogs significantly underestimate great earthquake magnitudes and overall moment release rates. One can also consider whether magnitudes of great earthquakes were systematically underestimated during the first half of the 20th century, prior to the advent of long-period seismometry. We consider whether the 19th century moment release rate can be made consistent with the rate during the instrumental era using individual event magnitudes within the uncertainties estimated by past published studies. Lastly we consider the expected variability in global moment release rate, assuming a linear b-value up to Mmax9.5 and a Poissonian rate.

Hough, S. E.; Martin, S.

2013-12-01

376

Cooperative Monitoring Center Occasional Paper/13: Cooperative monitoring for confidence building: A case study of the Sino-Indian border areas  

SciTech Connect

This occasional paper identifies applicable cooperative monitoring techniques and develops models for possible application in the context of the border between China and India. The 1993 and 1996 Sino-Indian agreements on maintaining peace and tranquility along the Line of Actual Control (LAC) and establishing certain confidence building measures (CBMs), including force reductions and limitation on military exercises along their common border, are used to examine the application of technically based cooperative monitoring in both strengthening the existing terms of the agreements and also enhancing trust. The paper also aims to further the understanding of how and under what conditions technology-based tools can assist in implementing existing agreements on arms control and confidence building. The authors explore how cooperative monitoring techniques can facilitate effective implementation of arms control agreements and CBMS between states and contribute to greater security and stability in bilateral, regional, and global contexts.

SIDHU,WAHEGURU PAL SINGH; YUAN,JING-DONG; BIRINGER,KENT L.

1999-08-01

377

Catalog of Earthquake Hypocenters at Alaskan Volcanoes: January 1 through December 31, 2006  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Between January 1 and December 31, 2006, AVO located 8,666 earthquakes of which 7,783 occurred on or near the 33 volcanoes monitored within Alaska. Monitoring highlights in 2006 include: an eruption of Augustine Volcano, a volcanic-tectonic earthquake swarm at Mount Martin, elevated seismicity and volcanic unrest at Fourpeaked Mountain, and elevated seismicity and low-level tremor at Mount Veniaminof and Korovin Volcano. A new seismic subnetwork was installed on Fourpeaked Mountain. This catalog includes: (1) descriptions and locations of seismic instrumentation deployed in the field during 2006, (2) a description of earthquake detection, recording, analysis, and data archival systems, (3) a description of seismic velocity models used for earthquake locations, (4) a summary of earthquakes located in 2006, and (5) an accompanying UNIX tar-file with a summary of earthquake origin times, hypocenters, magnitudes, phase arrival times, location quality statistics, daily station usage statistics, and all files used to determine the earthquake locations in 2006.

Dixon, James P.; Stihler, Scott D.; Power, John A.; Searcy, Cheryl

2008-01-01

378

Regional characterization of mine blasts, earthquakes, mine tremors, and nuclear explosions using the intelligent seismic event identification system. Final report, 1 April 1992-1 July 1993  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the results of a study of the Intelligent Seismic Event Identification System (ISEIS) which was installed at the Center for Seismic Studies and applied to regional events in the Intelligent Monitoring System (IMS) database. A subset of IMS data has been collected for known events in a database called the Ground Truth Database (GTD) and these events were processed by ISEIS. This has shown that the regional high-frequency PIS ratio discriminates between explosions and earthquakes in the Vogtland region recorded at the GERESSS array. Mine tremors in the Lubin and Upper Silesia resemble earthquakes. Lg spectral ratio was found to separate explosions and earthquakes in the Vogtland region, but the Lubin and Upper Silesia region mine tremors had large scatter. An evaluation was made of the discrimination rules in the ISEIS expert system on the events in four regions (Vogtland. Lubin, Upper Silesia, and Steigen) in the GTD. This report also describes the results of the analysis of the December 31, 1992 event which occurred near the Russian test site on Novaya Zemlya. Analysis of Pn/Sn ratios at NORESS indicated that these ratios were comparable to those measured for Kola Peninsula mine blasts, although the propagation paths were different. The ratios were only slightly greater than those observed for earthquakes in the Greenland Sea. The August 1. 1986 event recorded was re-analyzed and also found to resemble mine blasts. However, other discriminants indicate that the event was probably an earthquake.

Baumgardt, D.R.

1993-07-31

379

Caltech Earthquake Engineering Research Laboratory Technical Reports  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The California Institute of Technology Library System and the Earthquake Engineering Research Laboratory provides the Caltech Earthquake Engineering Research Laboratory Technical Reports Web site. Visitors will find access to technical reports by browsing the categorized sets from the Center for Research on the Prevention of Natural Disasters, Dynamics Laboratory, Earthquake Engineering Research Laboratory, and the Soil Mechanics Laboratory, as well as the section entitled Policy Documents. The materials can also be viewed by year (going back to 1952) or fully searched to gain access to the full-text reports, which include offerings like Impact of Seismic Risk on Lifetime Property Values. Although the topics covered are somewhat limited on the site, those interested will appreciate the well organized and informative resources provided.

380

Earthquake-induced water-level fluctuations at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, June 1992  

SciTech Connect

This report presents earthquake-induced water-level and fluid-pressure data for wells in the Yucca Mountain area, Nevada, during June 1992. Three earthquakes occurred which caused significant water-level and fluid-pressure responses in wells. Wells USW H-5 and USW H-6 are continuously monitored to detect short-term responses caused by earthquakes. Two wells, monitored hourly, had significant, longer-term responses in water level following the earthquakes. On June 28, 1992, a 7.5-magnitude earthquake occurred near Landers, California causing an estimated maximum water-level change of 90 centimeters in well USW H-5. Three hours later a 6.6-magnitude earthquake occurred near Big Bear Lake, California; the maximum water-level fluctuation was 20 centimeters in well USW H-5. A 5.6-magnitude earthquake occurred at Little Skull Mountain, Nevada, on June 29, approximately 23 kilometers from Yucca Mountain. The maximum estimated short-term water-level fluctuation from the Little Skull Mountain earthquake was 40 centimeters in well USW H-5. The water level in well UE-25p {number_sign}1, monitored hourly, decreased approximately 50 centimeters over 3 days following the Little Skull Mountain earthquake. The water level in UE-25p {number_sign}1 returned to pre-earthquake levels in approximately 6 months. The water level in the lower interval of well USW H-3 increased 28 centimeters following the Little Skull Mountain earthquake. The Landers and Little Skull Mountain earthquakes caused responses in 17 intervals of 14 hourly monitored wells, however, most responses were small and of short duration. For several days following the major earthquakes, many smaller magnitude aftershocks occurred causing measurable responses in the continuously monitored wells.

O`Brien, G.M.

1993-07-01

381

Identification of Deep Earthquakes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this project is to identify and apply seismic event discriminants that will reliably separate small crustal earthquakes (magnitudes less than about 4 and depths less than about 40 to 50 km) from small, deep earthquakes (depths between abo...

G. E. Randall, H. E. Hartse

2010-01-01

382

Earthquakes and Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Earthquakes are low-probability, high-consequence events. Though they may occur only once in the life of a school, they can have devastating, irreversible consequences. Moderate earthquakes can cause serious damage to building contents and non-structural building systems, serious injury to students and staff, and disruption of building operations.…

National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, 2008

2008-01-01

383

Earthquakes for Kids  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These resources include sections on the latest quakes, science project ideas, puzzles and games, online activities, a glossary, and cool earthquake facts. In addition, there is an Ask A Geologist section, and earthquake FAQs. One link leads to a teacher page with grade level topics and educational materials.

2002-12-13

384

Earthquakes and Plates  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The representation depicts global distribution of earthquakes. A world map shows the location of large earthquakes that occurred from 1975-1995. A slider at the bottom left of the map allows the user to change the map to reveal the location of major plates or to select both views layered on top of one another.

385

Seismic gaps and earthquakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

McCann et al. [1979] published a widely cited ``seismic gap'' model ascribing earthquake potential categories to 125 zones surrounding the Pacific Rim. Nishenko [1991] published an updated and revised version including probability estimates of characteristic earthquakes with specified magnitudes within each zone. These forecasts are now more than 20 and 10 years old, respectively, and sufficient data now exist to

Yufang Rong; David D. Jackson; Yan Y. Kagan

2003-01-01

386

Seismic gaps and earthquakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

McCann et al. [1979] published a widely cited “seismic gap” model ascribing earthquake potential categories to 125 zones surrounding the Pacific Rim. Nishenko [1991] published an updated and revised version including probability estimates of characteristic earthquakes with specified magnitudes within each zone. These forecasts are now more than 20 and 10 years old, respectively, and sufficient data now exist to

Yufang Rong; David D. Jackson; Yan Y. Kagan

2003-01-01

387

Forecasting southern California earthquakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 1978 and 1979, California has had a significantly higher frequency of moderate to large earthquakes than in the preceding 25 years. In the past such periods have also been associated with major desctructive earthquakes, of magnitude 7 or greater, and the annual probability of occurrence os such an event is now 13 percent in California. The increase in seismicity

C. B. Raleigh; K. Sieh; L. R. Sykes; D. L. Anderson

1982-01-01

388

Forecasting Southern California Earthquakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 1978 and 1979, California has had a significantly higher frequency of moderate to large earthquakes than in the preceding 25 years. In the past such periods have also been associated with major destructive earthquakes, of magnitude 7 or greater, and the annual probability of occurrence of such an event is now 13 percent in California. The increase in seismicity

C. B. Raleigh; K. Sieh; L. R. Sykes; D. L. Anderson

1982-01-01

389

Rupture process of the 1964 Prince William Sound, Alaska, earthquake from the combined inversion of seismic, tsunami, and geodetic data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four great earthquakes (1952, 1960, 1964, and 2004) have occurred since seismic monitoring began and only two since the installation of a global seismic network. A reexamination of the 1964 (M 9.2) Prince William Sound (PWS), Alaska, earthquake is timely due to the 2004 Sumatra earthquake because it adds constraints to the potential range of source parameters for these types

Gene Ichinose; Paul Somerville; Hong Kie Thio; Robert Graves; Dan O'Connell

2007-01-01

390

Near Real-Time Determination of Earthquake Source Properties and Tsunami Potential Using Long Period Surface Waves  

Microsoft Academic Search

We developed and implemented several near real-time methods for determining earthquake source and tsunami characteristics using long period surface waves at Geoscience Australia (GA) and the US Geological Survey National Earthquake Information Center (USGS NEIC). Long period seismic waveforms (60 to 300 seconds) are well suited for the analysis of large earthquakes because they can be well modeled using simple

J. Polet; H. K. Thio; P. Earle; P. R. Cummins; J. Bathgate

2006-01-01

391

NSF Tokyo Report: Seismo-Electromagnetic Research in the Earthquake Remote Sensing Frontier Research Project, EORC/NASDA  

NSF Publications Database

... Report: Seismo-Electromagnetic Research in The Earthquake Remote Sensing Frontier Research Project ... Research Group at the Earth Observations Research Center of the National Space Development Agency of ...

392

Earthquakes and Fault Lines  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of this activity is for students to find the locations of the fault lines in Utah and understand that fault lines are often earthquake zones. They will learn how often earthquakes are expected to occur, when Utah is due for another one, and where the next one is expected to occur. This meets the Utah Core Standard for fifth grade science: Standard 2: Students will understand that volcanoes, earthquakes, uplift, weathering, and erosion reshape Earth's surface. Objective 1,c: Explain the relationship between time and specific geological changes. Objective 2: Explain how volcanoes, earthquakes, and uplift affect Earth's surface. Situation You are from Montana, and your dad just got a new job in Northern Utah. Your family will have to move there. Your parents have heard that Utah has the potential for major earthquakes, and don?t know where to build your new house. They ...

Bennington, Miss

2010-04-26

393

Earthquake Notification Services  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The US Geological Survey Earthquake Hazards Web site contains the Earthquake Notification Services page and service. Users can subscribe to three email lists that include BIGQUAKE -- which sends a message whenever an earthquake with a magnitude of 5.5 or greater occurs anywhere in the world or a magnitude of 4.5 or greater occurs within the 50 US states -- and QEDPOST -- which sends a daily message of the earthquakes located 7 days prior to the current day -- and MTALL -- which sends a message that contains the estimate of the seismic moment tensor for earthquakes with either a body-wave magnitude or surface wave magnitude of 5.5 or greater. Seismologists and other related professionals will appreciate being able to stay abreast of the latest tectonic activity with this helpful tool.

394

Hydrologic and geochemical monitoring in Long Valley caldera, Mono County, California, 1986  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey continued to monitor hydrologic and geochemical conditions in the Long Valley caldera during 1986. The monitoring is directed toward detecting changes in the hydrologic system caused by tectonic or magmatic processes. Data collected during 1986 include chemical and isotopic composition of water from selected streams sites, springs, and wells; pumpage from four geothermal wells; flow rates of selected springs and stream sites; mean daily water or gas temperatures at selected sites; mean daily atmospheric pressures and water level at selected wells, and precipitation records for two sites. Seismicity within the caldera persisted at a relatively low level compared with the more active periods of 1978-84. The most significant events of seismicity that affected hydrologic monitoring sites in Long Valley during 1986 occurred during July , in response to the Chalfant Valley earthquakes, centered about 20 miles southeast of the caldera. Water level records for three wells show distinct responses to the Chalfant Valley earthquakes. (USGS)

Farrar, C. D.; Sorey, M. L.; Rojstaczer, S. A.; Steinemann, A. C.; Clark, M. D.

1989-01-01

395

1 INTRODUCTION Korea has a long history of earthquakes. Earthquake  

E-print Network

1 INTRODUCTION Korea has a long history of earthquakes. Earthquake events are well documented by those historic and recent earthquakes was not very high, and it is believed that Korea belongs to a low to moderate seismicity zone. However, after the Northridge and Kobe earthquakes, there was a growing concern

Spencer Jr., B.F.

396

The magnitude distribution of earthquakes near Southern California faults  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We investigate seismicity near faults in the Southern California Earthquake Center Community Fault Model. We search for anomalously large events that might be signs of a characteristic earthquake distribution. We find that seismicity near major fault zones in Southern California is well modeled by a Gutenberg-Richter distribution, with no evidence of characteristic earthquakes within the resolution limits of the modern instrumental catalog. However, the b value of the locally observed magnitude distribution is found to depend on distance to the nearest mapped fault segment, which suggests that earthquakes nucleating near major faults are likely to have larger magnitudes relative to earthquakes nucleating far from major faults. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

Page, M. T.; Alderson, D.; Doyle, J.

2011-01-01

397

Earthquakes Living Lab: Geology and the 1906 San Francisco Earthquake  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students examine the effects of geology on earthquake magnitudes and how engineers anticipate and prepare for these effects. Using information provided through the Earthquakes Living Lab interface, students investigate how geology, specifically soil type, can amplify the magnitude of earthquakes and their consequences. Students look in-depth at the historical 1906 San Francisco earthquake and its destruction thorough photographs and data. They compare the 1906 California earthquake to another historical earthquake in Kobe, Japan, looking at the geological differences and impacts in the two regions, and learning how engineers, geologists and seismologists work to predict earthquakes and minimize calamity. A worksheet serves as a student guide for the activity.

Civil And Environmental Engineering Department

398

Simulating Earthquakes for Science and Society: Earthquake Visualizations Ideal for use in Science Communication and Education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC) has been developing groundbreaking computer modeling capabilities for studying earthquakes. These visualizations were initially shared within the scientific community but have recently gained visibility via television news coverage in Southern California. Computers have opened up a whole new world for scientists working with large data sets, and students can benefit from the same opportunities (Libarkin & Brick, 2002). For example, The Great Southern California ShakeOut was based on a potential magnitude 7.8 earthquake on the southern San Andreas fault. The visualization created for the ShakeOut was a key scientific and communication tool for the earthquake drill. This presentation will also feature SCEC Virtual Display of Objects visualization software developed by SCEC Undergraduate Studies in Earthquake Information Technology interns. According to Gordin and Pea (1995), theoretically visualization should make science accessible, provide means for authentic inquiry, and lay the groundwork to understand and critique scientific issues. This presentation will discuss how the new SCEC visualizations and other earthquake imagery achieve these results, how they fit within the context of major themes and study areas in science communication, and how the efficacy of these tools can be improved.

de Groot, R.

2008-12-01

399

The USGS Earthquake Notification Service (ENS): Customizable notifications of earthquakes around the globe  

USGS Publications Warehouse

At the beginning of 2006, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Earthquake Hazards Program (EHP) introduced a new automated Earthquake Notification Service (ENS) to take the place of the National Earthquake Information Center (NEIC) "Bigquake" system and the various other individual EHP e-mail list-servers for separate regions in the United States. These included northern California, southern California, and the central and eastern United States. ENS is a "one-stop shopping" system that allows Internet users to subscribe to flexible and customizable notifications for earthquakes anywhere in the world. The customization capability allows users to define the what (magnitude threshold), the when (day and night thresholds), and the where (specific regions) for their notifications. Customization is achieved by employing a per-user based request profile, allowing the notifications to be tailored for each individual's requirements. Such earthquake-parameter-specific custom delivery was not possible with simple e-mail list-servers. Now that event and user profiles are in a structured query language (SQL) database, additional flexibility is possible. At the time of this writing, ENS had more than 114,000 subscribers, with more than 200,000 separate user profiles. On a typical day, more than 188,000 messages get sent to a variety of widely distributed users for a wide range of earthquake locations and magnitudes. The purpose of this article is to describe how ENS works, highlight the features it offers, and summarize plans for future developments.

Wald, Lisa A.; Wald, David J.; Schwarz, Stan; Presgrave, Bruce; Earle, Paul S.; Martinez, Eric; Oppenheimer, David

2008-01-01

400

Implications for earthquake risk reduction in the United States from the Kocaeli, Turkey, earthquake of August 17, 1999  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report documents implications for earthquake risk reduction in the U.S. The magnitude 7.4 earthquake caused 17,127 deaths, 43,953 injuries, and displaced more than 250,000 people from their homes. The report warns that similar disasters are possible in the United States where earthquakes of comparable size strike the heart of American urban areas. Another concern described in the report is the delayed emergency response that was caused by the inadequate seismic monitoring system in Turkey, a problem that contrasts sharply with rapid assessment and response to the September Chi-Chi earthquake in Taiwan. Additionally, the experience in Turkey suggests that techniques for forecasting earthquakes may be improving.

Geological Survey (U.S.)

2000-01-01

401

Can earthquakes be Karen Felzer  

E-print Network

Can earthquakes be predicted? Karen Felzer U.S. Geological Survey #12;Earthquake predictions that most seismologists agree with #12;Long term earthquake probabilities These kinds of predictions to duck and cover! >99% chance that a M 6.7 earthquake will occur in CA within 30 years. 2008 Working

Felzer, Karen

402

Parkfield earthquakes: Characteristic or complementary?  

E-print Network

near-fault strong-motion seismographs recorded the earthquake (near field of the 28 September 2004 Mw 6.0 Parkfield, California, earthquake: implications for nucleation, fault response, earthquakeEarthquake locations and three-dimensional fault zone structure along the creeping section of the San Andreas fault near

Custodio, Susana; Archuleta, Ralph J.

2007-01-01

403

Staying Safe in Earthquake Country  

E-print Network

the most frequent large earthquakes. In southern California, the most recent earthquake on the San Andreas in earthquake country. Seismic hazards in California are sort of a good news/bad news deal. The bad news! The Bad News When most southern Californians think of earthquakes, their minds leap immediately to the San

de Lijser, Peter

404

Simulating Earthquakes for Science and Society: New Earthquake Visualizations Ideal for Use in Science Communication  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC) has been developing groundbreaking computer modeling capabilities for studying earthquakes. These visualizations were initially shared within the scientific community but have recently have gained visibility via television news coverage in Southern California. These types of visualizations are becoming pervasive in the teaching and learning of concepts related to earth science. Computers have opened up a whole new world for scientists working with large data sets, and students can benefit from the same opportunities (Libarkin &Brick, 2002). Earthquakes are ideal candidates for visualization products: they cannot be predicted, are completed in a matter of seconds, occur deep in the earth, and the time between events can be on a geologic time scale. For example, the southern part of the San Andreas fault has not seen a major earthquake since about 1690, setting the stage for an earthquake as large as magnitude 7.7 -- the "big one." Since no one has experienced such an earthquake, visualizations can help people understand the scale of such an event. Accordingly, SCEC has developed a revolutionary simulation of this earthquake, with breathtaking visualizations that are now being distributed. According to Gordin and Pea (1995), theoretically visualization should make science accessible, provide means for authentic inquiry, and lay the groundwork to understand and critique scientific issues. This presentation will discuss how the new SCEC visualizations and other earthquake imagery achieve these results, how they fit within the context of major themes and study areas in science communication, and how the efficacy of these tools can be improved.

de Groot, R. M.; Benthien, M. L.

2006-12-01

405

The Challenge of Centennial Earthquakes to Improve Modern Earthquake Engineering  

SciTech Connect

The recent commemoration of the centennial of the San Francisco and Valparaiso 1906 earthquakes has given the opportunity to reanalyze their damages from modern earthquake engineering perspective. These two earthquakes plus Messina Reggio Calabria 1908 had a strong impact in the birth and developing of earthquake engineering. The study of the seismic performance of some up today existing buildings, that survive centennial earthquakes, represent a challenge to better understand the limitations of our in use earthquake design methods. Only Valparaiso 1906 earthquake, of the three considered centennial earthquakes, has been repeated again as the Central Chile, 1985, Ms = 7.8 earthquake. In this paper a comparative study of the damage produced by 1906 and 1985 Valparaiso earthquakes is done in the neighborhood of Valparaiso harbor. In this study the only three centennial buildings of 3 stories that survived both earthquakes almost undamaged were identified. Since for 1985 earthquake accelerogram at El Almendral soil conditions as well as in rock were recoded, the vulnerability analysis of these building is done considering instrumental measurements of the demand. The study concludes that good performance of these buildings in the epicentral zone of large earthquakes can not be well explained by modern earthquake engineering methods. Therefore, it is recommended to use in the future of more suitable instrumental parameters, such as the destructiveness potential factor, to describe earthquake demand.

Saragoni, G. Rodolfo [Department of Civil Engineering, Universidad of Chile (Chile)

2008-07-08

406

Earthquake Characteristics and Earthquake-Explosion Discrimination.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Theoretical seismograms enable the amplitude and waveform of body waves to be incorporated as constraints in an inversion scheme for an earth model or the source time function of an earthquake or explosion. The lower mantle has long been known from travel...

C. Kisslinger, C. B. Archambeau, V. F. Cormier, G. Lundquist, C. Salvado

1977-01-01

407

An Atlas of ShakeMaps for Selected Global Earthquakes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An atlas of maps of peak ground motions and intensity 'ShakeMaps' has been developed for almost 5,000 recent and historical global earthquakes. These maps are produced using established ShakeMap methodology (Wald and others, 1999c; Wald and others, 2005) and constraints from macroseismic intensity data, instrumental ground motions, regional topographically-based site amplifications, and published earthquake-rupture models. Applying the ShakeMap methodology allows a consistent approach to combine point observations with ground-motion predictions to produce descriptions of peak ground motions and intensity for each event. We also calculate an estimated ground-motion uncertainty grid for each earthquake. The Atlas of ShakeMaps provides a consistent and quantitative description of the distribution and intensity of shaking for recent global earthquakes (1973-2007) as well as selected historic events. As such, the Atlas was developed specifically for calibrating global earthquake loss estimation methodologies to be used in the U.S. Geological Survey Prompt Assessment of Global Earthquakes for Response (PAGER) Project. PAGER will employ these loss models to rapidly estimate the impact of global earthquakes as part of the USGS National Earthquake Information Center's earthquake-response protocol. The development of the Atlas of ShakeMaps has also led to several key improvements to the Global ShakeMap system. The key upgrades include: addition of uncertainties in the ground motion mapping, introduction of modern ground-motion prediction equations, improved estimates of global seismic-site conditions (VS30), and improved definition of stable continental region polygons. Finally, we have merged all of the ShakeMaps in the Atlas to provide a global perspective of earthquake ground shaking for the past 35 years, allowing comparison with probabilistic hazard maps. The online Atlas and supporting databases can be found at http://earthquake.usgs.gov/eqcenter/shakemap/atlas.php/.

Allen, Trevor I.; Wald, David J.; Hotovec, Alicia J.; Lin, Kuowan; Earle, Paul S.; Marano, Kristin D.

2008-01-01

408

Triggered Earthquakes Following Parkfield?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When the M5.0 Arvin earthquake struck approximately 30 hours after the 28 September 2004 M6.0 Parkfield earthquake, it seemed likely if not obvious that the latter had triggered the former. The odds of a M5.0 or greater event occurring by random chance in a given 2-day window is low, on the order of 2%. However, previously published results suggest that remotely triggered earthquakes are observed only following much larger mainshocks, typically M7 or above. Moreover, using a standard beta-statistic approach, one finds no pervasive regional increase of seismicity in the weeks following the Parkfield mainshock. (Neither were any moderate events observed at regional distances following the 1934 and 1966 Parkfield earthquakes.) Was Arvin a remotely triggered earthquake? To address this issue further I compare the seismicity rate changes following the Parkfield mainshock with those following 14 previous M5.3-7.1 earthquakes in central and southern California. I show that, on average, seismicity increased to a distance of at least 120 km following these events. For all but the M7.1 Hector Mine mainshock, this is well beyond the radius of what would be considered a traditional aftershock zone. Average seismicity rates also increase, albeit more weakly, to a distance of about 220 km. These results suggest that even moderate mainshocks in central and southern California do trigger seismicity at distances up to 220 km, supporting the inference that Arvin was indeed a remotely triggered earthquake. In general, only weak triggering is expected following moderate (M5.5-6.5) mainshocks. However, as illustrated by Arvin and, in retrospect, the 1986 M5.5 Oceanside earthquake, which struck just 5 days after the M5.9 North Palm Springs earthquake, triggered events can sometimes be large enough to generate public interest, and anxiety.

Hough, S. E.

2004-12-01

409

Sun, Moon and Earthquakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During a study conducted to find the effect of Earth tides on the occurrence of earthquakes, for small areas [typically 1000km X1000km] of high-seismicity regions, it was noticed that the Sun's position in terms of universal time [GMT] shows links to the sum of EMD [longitude of earthquake location - longitude of Moon's foot print on earth] and SEM [Sun-Earth-Moon angle]. This paper provides the details of this relationship after studying earthquake data for over forty high-seismicity regions of the world. It was found that over 98% of the earthquakes for these different regions, examined for the period 1973-2008, show a direct relationship between the Sun's position [GMT] and [EMD+SEM]. As the time changes from 00-24 hours, the factor [EMD+SEM] changes through 360 degree, and plotting these two variables for earthquakes from different small regions reveals a simple 45 degree straight-line relationship between them. This relationship was tested for all earthquakes and earthquake