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Last update: August 15, 2014.
1

Public Earthquake Resource Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Public Earthquake Resource Center at the University of Memphis provides information about the New Madrid seismic zone and earthquake hazards in general. Students and the general public can learn about earthquakes; examine science fair ideas, a reading list, and earthquake images; or explore a career as an earthquake scientist. For educators there are links to teacher's resources, lesson plans, online learning materials, and field trip information. Other features include links to additional information about the New Madrid seismic zone, earthquake preparedness tips, other earthquake-related organizations, and a site where citizens can report earthquakes.

2

Alaska Earthquake Information Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Alaska Earthquake Information Center contains information on seismology and tsunami research, education and outreach projects, and earthquake preparedness. There are also maps, reports, and a database on recent earthquakes and a map of historical Alaskan earthquakes, active faults, and rupture zones.

3

Saint Louis University Earthquake Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Saint Louis University (SLU) Earthquake Center provides recent Midwest earthquake locations, the history of central U.S. earthquakes, a link for reporting an earthquake, historic earthquake and instrument photographs, and explanations of the Modified Mercalli Intensity Scale. There are earthquake information flyers, links to course websites and course notes, a textbook description, computer tools and earthquake catalogs, and recent theses and dissertations. There are also links to seismic systems and networks as well as SLU network reports.

4

National Earthquake Information Center: Earthquake Search  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site enables the user to access a vast database of earthquakes. Searches may be done using a number of different geographic approaches: a Global or Worldwide search, a Rectangular search by specifying latitudes and longitudes of a rectangular area, and a Circular search by specifying the center latitude and longitude coordinates and a radius. Additional parameters, including dates of events, places of events, magnitude, depth and intensity can be specified before engaging in a search. The results of each search can be viewed in a variety of formats. Users may also view information and data on the following pages: Near Real Time Earthquake List, Current and General Earthquake Information, Seismograph Station Codes, Earthquake Information Sources, Routine U.S. Mining Seismicity, U.S. National Seismograph Networks, Today in Earthquake History, Large Earthquakes in 2001, and Earthquake E-mail Notification. Links to other U.S. Geological Survey earthquake websites are provided.

5

Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC), a National Science Foundation (NSF) Science and Technology Center, aims to reduce earthquake hazard by defining the locations of future earthquakes, calculating expected ground motions, and conveying this information to the general public. The SCECùs homepage contains access to research and data, including links to databases for strong motion and seismograms, and a searchable and sortable bibliographic database of publications. Also available are GPS data and a network of GPS stations. A link to the Earthquake Information Network provides a searchable list of up-to-date internet earthquakes resources. Note, in order to access the SCEC Publications Database, a username and password are required. Use your own name for the username, and enter -webview as the password. SCEC is a first rate resource for earthquake engineers.

6

CSEP Earthquake Forecast Testing Center for Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

One major focus of the next Japanese earthquake prediction research plan 2009-2013 are testable earthquake forecast models. For this purpose, the Earthquake Research Institute joined the Collaboratory for the Study of Earthquake Predictability (CSEP) and installed in an international collaboration a prototype testing center for rigorous evaluation of earthquake forecast models. We report on the implementation of this testing center,

H. Tsuruoka; N. Hirata; D. Schorlemmer; F. Euchner; T. H. Jordan

2008-01-01

7

Mid-America Earthquake Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Understanding earthquakes is a complex process, and the Mid-Americ Earthquake Center is one of three national earthquake engineering research centers set up to work on a variety of approaches to a broad set of related scientific concerns. Based at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, the Center consists of a consortium of nine core institutions and is funded by the National Science Foundation. The Center's primary work is within four areas, including information technology and consequence-based risk management frameworks. Recognizing that they serve a broad range of visitors to their website, the Center has established a number of informative introductions on their homepage for the general public, potential industry partners, members of the press, and K-12 educators. While a number of visitors may be interested in their technical reports and software packages, most visitors will want to look over the graduate and undergraduate teaching modules, which will be of great use to educators in the engineering and geophysical sciences and their students. Additionally, the Center's site provides access to a number of informative webcasts, including presentations on seismic performances of bridges.

8

Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC) Home Page  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the home page of the Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC), a consortium of universities and research institutions dedicated to gathering information about earthquakes in Southern California, integrate that knowledge into a comprehensive and predictive understanding of earthquake phenomena, and communicate this understanding to end-users and the general public in order to increase earthquake awareness, reduce economic losses, and save lives. News of recent earthquake research, online resources and educational information is available here.

9

Earthquake Hazards Program - National Earthquake Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Users can access a selection of technical information and data about earthquakes in the U.S. and around the world. A current worldwide list of earthquakes is available, as are data on geophysical solutions, a catalog search, an automatic data request function, mining seismicity information, and a registry of seismograph stations.

10

Northern California Earthquake Data Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A project between the University of California Berkeley Seismological Laboratory and the United State Geological Survey, the Northern California Earthquake Data Center (NCEDC) "is a long-term archive and distribution center for seismological and geodetic data for Northern and Central California." Educators and students can examine recent seismograms from the Berkeley Digital Seismic Network. Researchers will benefit from the site's enormous amount of data collections including BARD; a system of 67 constantly operating Global Positioning System receivers in Northern California. By reading the annual reports, educators will also learn about the center's many outreach activities from talks and lab tours to the production of classroom resources for kindergarten through twelfth grade teachers. This site is also reviewed in the October 17, 2003 NSDL Physical Sciences Report.

11

Southern California Earthquake Data Center Home  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Southern California Eathquake Center features a variety of links to information on recent and historic earthquakes and faults, as well as seismological data from analog and digital stations and instruments. Materials include an interactive map of southern California showing recent earthquake activity (last hour, last day, last week), a searchable catalog of data on earthquakes from 1932-present, an interactive map of faults in southern California, and interactive map showing historic earthquakes for the region as far back as 1812.

2010-06-18

12

CSEP Earthquake Forecast Testing Center for Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One major focus of the next Japanese earthquake prediction research plan 2009-2013 are testable earthquake forecast models. For this purpose, the Earthquake Research Institute joined the Collaboratory for the Study of Earthquake Predictability (CSEP) and installed in an international collaboration a prototype testing center for rigorous evaluation of earthquake forecast models. We report on the implementation of this testing center, the quality characterization of the earthquake catalog data stream from the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), the definition of a Japanese testing region, and first test results. A first set of three one-year smoothed-seismicity models are fully implemented in the testing center and are under test since 1 September 2008. In the near future, additional models will be introduced and new specialized testing areas will be defined to promote rigorous earthquake prediction research on different topics and regions in Japan.

Tsuruoka, H.; Hirata, N.; Schorlemmer, D.; Euchner, F.; Jordan, T. H.

2008-12-01

13

Northern California Earthquake Data Center (NCEDC)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the home page of the Northern California Earthquake Data Center (NCEDC) which is a joint project of the University of California Berkeley Seismological Laboratory and the U. S. Geological Survey at Menlo Park. The NCEDC is an archive for seismological and geodetic data for Northern and Central California. Accessible through this page are news items, recent earthquake information, links to earthquake catalogs, seismic waveform data sets, and Global Positioning System information. Most data sets are accessible for downloading via ftp.

14

Earthquake-monitoring is inadequate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability to predict earthquakes depends on obtaining a much more detailed picture of the crust than is currently available. The present system of seismic observing stations in the U.S. is inadequate for this task, according to a Nat'l Research Council panel. Of the 1000 seismic recording stations in the country, no more than 2% are fully equipped with the

Greathouse

1981-01-01

15

Multidisciplinary Center for Earthquake Engineering Research  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Founded in 1986, the Multidisciplinary Center for Earthquake Engineering Research (MCEER) is located at the State University of New York at Buffalo. MCEER draws on the expertise of many researchers and industry partners from across the United States, as they are "dedicated to the discovery and development of new knowledge, tools and technologies that equip communities to become more disaster resilient in the face of earthquakes and other extreme events.ïÿý The Center receives funding from a wide range of institutions, including the National Science Foundation, the Federal Highway Administration, and the Department of Homeland Security. Along with the usual conference announcements and newsletters that one might expect to find on a homepage of this sort, visitors can also peruse their archive of webcasts, which include such past presentations as "Seismic Analysis of Woodframe Structures" and "Structural Control Technologies". Visitors will not be surprised to find that there are also a number of special reports on Hurricane Katrina that are worth taking a look at here.

16

Agility of wireless sensor networks for earthquake monitoring of bridges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Applying wireless sensor networks (WSNs) for bridge monitoring has received considerable interests over the past few years. In this paper two WSN-agility problems are identified based on the deployment experiences of WSNs in earthquake monitoring of bridges: (i) timely capturing the earthquake response of bridges and (ii) quasi-realtime processing of the measured data for bridge modal identification in monitoring the

Liang Cheng; Shamim N. Pakzad

2009-01-01

17

Northern California Earthquake Data Center Data Retrieval (title provided or enhanced by cataloger)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Northern California Earthquake Data Center (NCEDC) offers various types of earthquake-related data. Most of the datasets are available on the WWW. A few require the establishment of a research account. Available information includes: earthquake catalogs and lists; seismic waveform data from the Berkeley Digital Seismic Network, the Northern California Seismic Network, the Parkfield High-Resolution Seismic Network, and the Calpine/Unocal Geysers Network; Global Positioning System data from continuous monitoring stations; and Berkeley Digital Seismic Network temperature, electromagnetic and strain data.

18

Robust Distributed Earthquake Monitoring with CISN software in Northern California  

Microsoft Academic Search

Realtime earthquake monitoring in Northern California passed a milestone this June, when the original joint notification system operated by UC Berkeley's Seismological Laboratory and the USGS in Menlo Park was replaced by the CISN Earthquake Monitoring system. The database plays an integral part in this system, providing coordination for processing and publishing event information, as well as being the repository

D. S. Neuhauser; P. N. Lombard; L. D. Dietz; S. Zuzlewski; J. H. Luetgert; W. Kohler; M. Hellweg; D. H. Oppenheimer; B. A. Romanowicz

2009-01-01

19

Earthquake monitoring in australia using satellite radar interferometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Are there any earthquakes in Australia? Although most Australians are not as familiar with earthquakes as citizens in countries\\u000a such as Japan, there are some quakes on the Australian continent every year. Differential Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry\\u000a (DInSAR) has been widely used in recent years for monitoring crustal deformation due to earthquakes, volcanoes, underground\\u000a mining, oil extraction, and so on.

Ge Lin-lin; Eric Cheng; Diana Polonska; Chris Rizos; Clive Collins; Craig Smith

2003-01-01

20

Earthquake Monitoring and Early Warning Systems in Taiwan (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Taiwan region is characterized by a high shortening rate and a strong seismic activity. The Central Weather Bureau (CWB) is responsible for the earthquake monitoring in Taiwan. The CWB seismic network consists of 71 real-time short-period seismic stations in Taiwan region for routinely earthquake monitoring and has recorded about 18,000 events each year in a roughly 400 km x 550 km region. There are 53 real-time broadband stations install for seismological research purposes and reporting moment tensor solution in Taiwan. With the implementation of a real-time strong-motion network by the CWB, earthquake rapid reporting and early warning systems have been developed in Taiwan. The network consists of 110 stations. For rapid reporting system, when a potentially felt earthquake occurs around the Taiwan area, the location, magnitude and shake map of seismic intensities can be automatically reported within about 40 to 60 sec. For large earthquakes, the shaking map and losses can be estimated within 2 min after the earthquake occurrence. For earthquake early warning system, earthquake information could be determined at about 15 to 20 sec after a large earthquake occurrence. Therefore, this system can provide early warning before the arrival of S-wave for metropolitan areas located 70 km away from the epicenter. Recently, onsite earthquake early warning device is developed using MEMS sensor. It focuses on that to offer early warning for areas close to the epicenter.

Wu, Y.

2010-12-01

21

Geo-center movement caused by huge earthquakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study we investigate co-seismic geo-center change based on a dislocation theory for a spherically symmetric, non-rotating, perfectly elastic and isotropic model. We first introduce the basic theory with emphasis on the dislocation Love numbers of degree 1, and then we present methods for computing co-seismic geo-center movement. It is found that the geo-center change reaches maximum value when ? = 45° and ? = 90°, i.e., a 45° declined dip fault causes the maximum geo-center movement. As an application, we apply the methods to compute the geo-center movement caused by the 2004 Sumatra earthquake (Mw9.3) and the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake (Mw9.0). Results show that the maximum co-seismic geo-center movements for the two events are 0.87 mm and 0.43 mm, respectively.

Sun, Wenke; Dong, Jie

2014-05-01

22

Application of remote sensing data in earthquake monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

The power of SAR interferometry in earthquake monitoring has been demonstrated with the Landers earthquake, where the movement of coseismic features have been measured with a typical precision of 2 to 10 millimetre over a 35000 km2 area surrounding the event.The basic results of this technique and its limitations will be discussed and the results obtained on various sites representing

D. Massonnet

1995-01-01

23

A Robust Wireless Network for Earthquake Damage Monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

A centralized wireless network with hierarchical configuration has been investigated for earthquake damage monitoring. Since each link of the network is connected with a single channel, some of the links may not maintain connections due to damage to an antenna or other interruptions on wireless channels in earthquake disaster situations. This paper proposes a concept for a robust wireless network

Takahiro Fujiwara; Shizuo Mizushina; Atsushi Adachi; Takashi Watanabe

24

Seismic Monitor: Current Global Earthquake Readings  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This map shows the most recent seismic activity across the globe. Each circle represents an earthquake, with larger circles indicating stronger quakes. The color signifies how long ago the earthquake occurred, from red (less than one day old) to yellow (two weeks old). Earthquakes that occured more than two weeks ago are represented by black diamonds and purple dots. Seismic stations are represented by triangles. A link is provided to a more detailed, interactive map that displays additional information.

25

Evaluating the Synchronization Capability of Wireless Sensor Networks for Earthquake Monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mid Niigata prefecture earthquake and the Southeast Asia earthquake in 2004 have grown our concern about disaster prevention. We are working to realize a wireless sensor network for earthquake monitoring. By embedding 3D accelerometers to a building, we can know damage of the building when an earthquake occurs. In order to realize the earthquake monitoring, we have evaluated the

Shingo HORIE; Shunsuke SARUWATARI; Narito KURATA; Hiroyuki MORIKAWA; Tomonori AOYAMA

26

Disaster monitoring for Japan Earthquake with satellites by JAXA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) performed disaster monitoring of the Great East Japan Earthquake in 2011. The Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS), "Daichi," acquired 450 scenes of disaster monitoring of the earthquake. JAXA also received more than 5,000 scenes via the International Disaster Charter and Sentinel Asia. JAXA analyzed these images and provided the results to the Government of Japan as well as to the local governments.

Takahashi, Masuo; Shimada, Masanobu; Miyagi, Yousuke; Ohki, Masato; Kawano, Noriyuki; Shiraishi, Tomohiro; Motohka, Takeshi

2011-10-01

27

Earthquake Monitoring and Early Warning Systems in Taiwan (Invited)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Taiwan region is characterized by a high shortening rate and a strong seismic activity. The Central Weather Bureau (CWB) is responsible for the earthquake monitoring in Taiwan. The CWB seismic network consists of 71 real-time short-period seismic stations in Taiwan region for routinely earthquake monitoring and has recorded about 18,000 events each year in a roughly 400 km x

Y. Wu

2010-01-01

28

A high-density earthquake monitoring system using wireless sensornetworks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present a high-density earthquake monitoring system using wireless sensor networks. For high-precision monitoring, we developed Pavenet OS, which is a hard-realtime operating system for sensor nodes, and acceleration sensor board. Sensor nodes of the system sample acceleration with less than 0.3 us jitter with Pavenet OS. The system provides earthquake engineering researchers the ability to measure

Makoto Suzuki; Shunsuke Saruwatari; Narito Kurata; Hiroyuki Morikawa

2007-01-01

29

Enhanced Earthquake Monitoring of the European Arctic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present preliminary results from a cooperative initiative between NORSAR and seismological institutions in NW Russia (Arkhangelsk and Apatity), which each operate seismic networks. To indicate the potential of combining resources to improve the seismic coverage of the European Arctic, we have carried out a comparison based on the first six months of 2013 between the Reviewed Event Bulletin of the CTBT International Data Centre, the NORSAR reviewed regional seismic bulletin (using data from Fennoscandia, Spitsbergen and the Kola Peninsula) and the bulletin produced by the Arkhangelsk seismological center (using data from their own network in combination with the data used to produce the NORSAR bulletin). We show that the addition of the Arkhangelsk network leads to a considerable increase in the number of located seismic events, both at local distances from the individual stations and in the High Arctic. The latter increase is particularly pronounced along the Gakkel Ridge to the north of the Svalbard and Franz-Josef Land archipelagos. A closer investigation shows that the additional events in the High Arctic are included due to the contribution from the station ZFI on Franz-Josef Land in combination with the Spitsbergen stations SPITS and KBS. We also note that the vast majority of the events along the Gakkel Ridge have been located slightly to the south of the ridge. We interpret this as an effect of the lack of recording stations closer to and north of the Gakkel Ridge, and the use of a one-dimensional velocity model which is not fully representative for travel-times along observed propagation paths. We conclude that while the characteristics of earthquake activity in the European Arctic is currently poorly known, the knowledge can be expected to be significantly improved by establishing the appropriate cooperative seismic recording infrastructures.

Kvaerna, Tormod; Schweitzer, Johannes; Antonovskaya, Galina; Kremenetskaya, Elena O.

2014-05-01

30

Radar options for global earthquake monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fine temporal sampling is essential for disaster management, e.g. of flooding, fires, landslides, hurricanes, and earthquakes. A powerful technique for mapping such natural hazards is synthetic aperture radar (SAR) interferometry, providing displacement measurements at the subwavelength scale and decorrelation estimates. Pre-seismic deformation, one of the most elusive aspects of earthquakes, will require much finer temporal sampling than present InSAR capabilities

S. N. Madsen; C. Chen; W. Edelstein

2002-01-01

31

An Effective Earthquake Monitoring Process for Emergency Response  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a There is no doubt that, investigation of durability of surface ground and dynamic characteristics of structures are important\\u000a steps to estimate damage that will be caused by earthquakes. Together with this, it has been widely recognized that, systematical\\u000a and continuous monitoring of earthquakes is indispensable factor for early warning systems.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Japan has 10% of global seismic energy and suffers severely

Yutaka Nakamura

32

GEOFON and its Role in Earthquake Monitoring and Tsunami Warning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although originally not founded nor funded for earthquake monitoring, after the Indian Ocean tsunami disaster in December\\u000a 2004 this became an important issue for the GEOFON program of GFZ Potsdam. The GEOFON earthquake information system is based\\u000a on real-time data feeds of the GEOFON Extended Virtual Network (GEVN), a virtual network of about 300 stations worldwide.\\u000a It comprises most of

Winfried Hanka; Joachim Saul

33

High-Fidelity Synchronized Sampling on Wireless Sensor Networks for Earthquake Monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses the problem of sampling jitter on a wireless sensor network for earthquake moni- toring. Since the earthquake monitoring has many data-sensitive applications such as structural health monitoring and seismology, a wireless sensor network must precisely capture earthquake phenomena. However, the precise earthquake capturing is difficult on wireless sensor networks because sampling error increases due to its distributed

Makoto SUZUKI; Shunsuke SARUWATARI; Narito KURATA; Masateru MINAMI; Hiroyuki MORIKAWA

34

New strategy needed in earthquake, volcano monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent advances in space geodesy provide unprecedented opportunities for measuring and understanding processes related to earthquake occurrence and volcanic eruptions in the United States and elsewhere. The Global Positioning System (GPS) uses Earth-orbiting satellites to obtain relative movements of ground points accurate to a few millimeters, either through periodically repeated surveys or by continuous measurements at permanent sites [Segall and

Wayne Thatcher

1999-01-01

35

Progress of the New Zealand Earthquake Forecast Testing Center  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Steady progress has been made in the last eighteen months in the development of an earthquake forecast testing center for New Zealand. The driving goals of the center have been to: 1) encourage and facilitate the development of new and existing time-dependent forecast models for New Zealand; and 2) examine the models with a series of tests that are appropriate for both the design of the forecast models and also the New Zealand natural lab. The center has begun to explore extensive retrospective testing but ultimately aims to conduct on- going and multi-year testing of models and comparison between models. In order to maintain transparent and widely accepted testing methodologies, we have adopted the testing routines of the Collaboratory for the Study of Earthquake Predictibility (CSEP). Early efforts in the testing center have included improvements to the CSEP testing routines through added computational efficiency. These alternative tests provide equivalent results but reduce the heavy overhead required when running continual testing of multiple models. As with all work done within the center, these additional routines will be available to CSEP and the larger community. Other efforts have included the development of a testing rule-set appropriate to New Zealand and retrospective testing aimed at developing an understanding of characteristics of models implemented within the center.

Gerstenberger, M. C.

2007-12-01

36

Long Baseline Tilt Meter Array to Monitor Cascadia's Slow Earthquakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Five biaxial Michelson tilt meters are currently being installed in the Puget Lowlands near Seattle to monitor dynamic tilt changes accompanying episodic slow earthquakes that occur at 20-40 km depth. Each tilt meter consists of a 1-2 m deep, 500-m-long, 15-cm diameter, horizontal, half-filled water-pipe, terminated by float sensors with sub-micron water-level resolution, similar to those that have operated unattended for the past decade within the Long Valley caldera. The sensors measure water height relative to the base of a pile driven to 10 m depth. A wide-body LVDT attached to this pile outside the reservoir, senses the motion of the core attached to the float within. The voltage indicating the position of the core is sampled 16 times a second, and digitally filtered before transmission via radio modem for storage as 1-minute samples in a remote computer. The computer gathers 16-bit water height, vault temperature, air pressure and various housekeeping data once per minute using remote telemetry. Installed during 2004, the first of the tilt meters, installed in 2004, float sensors at each end, and one in the center of each pipe, permit us to examine tilt signal coherence and local noise. Each adjacent pair of sensors has a tilt resolution of 2e-9 and a range of 8 microradians. We anticipate tilt signals with durations of 0.3-30 days, and amplitudes of less than 0.1 microradian associated with slow earthquakes. Anticipated noise levels in the tilt meters are 10-1000 times lower that these expected signals, similar to or better than signal-to-noise levels from planned strain meters of the PBO array.

Suszek, N.; Bilham, R.; Flake, R.; Melbourne, T. I.; Miller, M.

2004-12-01

37

Research Progress and Accomplishments: 1999-2000, Multidisciplinary Center for Earthquake Engineering Research.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is a selection of papers chronicling the technical achievements of the Multidisciplinary Center for Earthquake Engineering Research during 1999-2000. 11 papers are included in this collection: Modeling Earthquake Impact on Urban Lifeline Systems: Adv...

2000-01-01

38

Real-time earthquake monitoring: Early warning and rapid response  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A panel was established to investigate the subject of real-time earthquake monitoring (RTEM) and suggest recommendations on the feasibility of using a real-time earthquake warning system to mitigate earthquake damage in regions of the United States. The findings of the investigation and the related recommendations are described in this report. A brief review of existing real-time seismic systems is presented with particular emphasis given to the current California seismic networks. Specific applications of a real-time monitoring system are discussed along with issues related to system deployment and technical feasibility. In addition, several non-technical considerations are addressed including cost-benefit analysis, public perceptions, safety, and liability.

1991-01-01

39

USGS Hires Students to Help Improve Earthquake Monitoring  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

A USGS student employee and sophomore at the Colorado School of Mines, was among the first hired by USGS using Recovery Act funding to upgrade the seismic stations of the Advanced National Seismic System (ANSS) Backbone. The USGS is using Recovery Act funding to upgrade its earthquake monitoring net...

2009-06-12

40

Researches on Application of GPS to Earthquake Monitoring and Prediction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The earliest researches on application of GPS to earthquake monitoring and prediction in China began in 1980s, and it was limited to learn some relative technology from other countries and do some test with a few of equipments. As the improvement of software for data processing and the depreciating of hardware, several local GPS network had been gradually set up

Wanju BO; Liangqian GUO; Guohua YANG; Xuesong DU

41

Web Services and Other Enhancements at the Northern California Earthquake Data Center  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Northern California Earthquake Data Center (NCEDC) provides data archive and distribution services for seismological and geophysical data sets that encompass northern California. The NCEDC is enhancing its ability to deliver rapid information through Web Services. NCEDC Web Services use well-established web server and client protocols and REST software architecture to allow users to easily make queries using web browsers or simple program interfaces and to receive the requested data in real-time rather than through batch or email-based requests. Data are returned to the user in the appropriate format such as XML, RESP, or MiniSEED depending on the service, and are compatible with the equivalent IRIS DMC web services. The NCEDC is currently providing the following Web Services: (1) Station inventory and channel response information delivered in StationXML format, (2) Channel response information delivered in RESP format, (3) Time series availability delivered in text and XML formats, (4) Single channel and bulk data request delivered in MiniSEED format. The NCEDC is also developing a rich Earthquake Catalog Web Service to allow users to query earthquake catalogs based on selection parameters such as time, location or geographic region, magnitude, depth, azimuthal gap, and rms. It will return (in QuakeML format) user-specified results that can include simple earthquake parameters, as well as observations such as phase arrivals, codas, amplitudes, and computed parameters such as first motion mechanisms, moment tensors, and rupture length. The NCEDC will work with both IRIS and the International Federation of Digital Seismograph Networks (FDSN) to define a uniform set of web service specifications that can be implemented by multiple data centers to provide users with a common data interface across data centers. The NCEDC now hosts earthquake catalogs and waveforms from the US Department of Energy (DOE) Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) monitoring networks. These data can be accessed through the above web services and through special NCEDC web pages.

Neuhauser, D. S.; Zuzlewski, S.; Allen, R. M.

2012-12-01

42

Lessons Learned from Creating the Public Earthquake Resource Center at CERI  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Center for Earthquake Research and Information (CERI) at the University of Memphis opened the Public Earthquake Resource Center (PERC) in May 2004. The PERC is an interactive display area that was designed to increase awareness of seismology, Earth Science, earthquake hazards, and earthquake engineering among the general public and K-12 teachers and students. Funding for the PERC is provided by the US Geological Survey, The NSF-funded Mid America Earthquake Center, and the University of Memphis, with input from the Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology. Additional space at the facility houses local offices of the US Geological Survey. PERC exhibits are housed in a remodeled residential structure at CERI that was donated by the University of Memphis and the State of Tennessee. Exhibits were designed and built by CERI and US Geological Survey staff and faculty with the help of experienced museum display subcontractors. The 600 square foot display area interactively introduces the basic concepts of seismology, real-time seismic information, seismic network operations, paleoseismology, building response, and historical earthquakes. Display components include three 22" flat screen monitors, a touch sensitive monitor, 3 helicorder elements, oscilloscope, AS-1 seismometer, life-sized liquefaction trench, liquefaction shake table, and building response shake table. All displays include custom graphics, text, and handouts. The PERC website at www.ceri.memphis.edu/perc also provides useful information such as tour scheduling, ask a geologist, links to other institutions, and will soon include a virtual tour of the facility. Special consideration was given to address State science standards for teaching and learning in the design of the displays and handouts. We feel this consideration is pivotal to the success of any grass roots Earth Science education and outreach program and represents a valuable lesson that has been learned at CERI over the last several years. Another critical lesson that has been learned is to employ K-12 education professionals and utilize undergrad and graduate student workers in the University's Department of Education. Such staff members are keenly aware of the pressures and needs in diverse communities such as Shelby County, Tennessee and are uniquely suited to design and implement new and innovative programs that provide substantive short-term user benefits and promote long-term relationships with the K-12 teachers, students, and teacher's organizations.

Patterson, G. L.; Michelle, D.; Johnston, A.

2004-12-01

43

Recent Progress and Development on Multi-parameters Remote Sensing Application in Earthquake Monitoring in China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the last ten years, a few national research plans and scientific projects on remote sensing application in Earthquake monitoring research are implemented in China. Focusing on advancing earthquake monitoring capability searching for the way of earthquake prediction, satellite electromagnetism, satellite infrared and D-InSAR technology were developed systematically and some remarkable progress were achieved by statistical research on historical earthquakes and summarized initially the space precursory characters, which laid the foundation for gradually promoting the practical use. On the basis of these works, argumentation on the first space-based platform has been finished in earthquake stereoscope observation system in China, and integrated earthquake remote sensing application system has been designed comprehensively. To develop the space-based earthquake observational system has become a major trend of technological development in earthquake monitoring and prediction. We shall pay more emphasis on the construction of the space segment of China earthquake stereoscope observation system and Imminent major scientific projects such as earthquake deformation observation system and application research combined INSAR, satellite gravity and GNSS with the goal of medium and long term earthquake monitoring and forcasting, infrared observation and technical system and application research with the goal of medium and short term earthquake monitoring and forcasting, and satellite-based electromagnetic observation and technical system and application system with the goal of short term and imminent earthquake monitoring.

Shen, Xuhui; Zhang, Xuemin; Hong, Shunying; Jing, Feng; Zhao, Shufan

2014-05-01

44

Earthquake monitoring at the Cerro Prieto geothermal field  

Microsoft Academic Search

A three-week study in spring 1978 revealed more moderate earthquake activity (one or two events\\/day, M\\/sub L\\/ greater than or equal to 1) in the Cerro Prieto production zone. Plotting these events on a Wadati diagram we estimated an 0.4 Poisson's ratio for the upper 1 to 2 km of the field. The events were centered near the western edge

E. L. Majer; T. V. McEvilly

1980-01-01

45

Major improvements in progress for Southern California Earthquake Monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

Major improvements in seismic and strong-motion monitoring networks are being implemented in southern California to better meet the needs of emergency response personnel, structural engineers, and the research community in promoting earthquake hazard reduction. Known as the TriNet project, the improvements are being coordinated by the California Institute of Technology (Caltech), the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and the California Division

Jim Mori; Hiroo Kanamori; James Davis; Egill Hauksson; Robert Clayton; Thomas Heaton; Lucile Jones; Anthony Shakal; Ron Porcella

1998-01-01

46

Earthquake disaster monitoring with ALOS\\/PALSAR observation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phased array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar(PALSAR) boarded on Advanced Land Observing Satellite(ALOS) provides high resolution (about 10 m pixel spacing) data even in the night and severe weather conditions, which is useful to monitor natural disasters. A terrible earthquake with 6.3 magnitude struke in central Italy at 0332 (local time) on 6th April 2009, there was huge damege to

Noriyuki Kawano

2010-01-01

47

Helping safeguard Veterans Affairs' hospital buildings by advanced earthquake monitoring  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In collaboration with the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA), the National Strong Motion Project of the U.S. Geological Survey has recently installed sophisticated seismic systems that will monitor the structural integrity of hospital buildings during earthquake shaking. The new systems have been installed at more than 20 VA medical campuses across the country. These monitoring systems, which combine sensitive accelerometers and real-time computer calculations, are capable of determining the structural health of each structure rapidly after an event, helping to ensure the safety of patients and staff.

Kalkan, Erol; Banga, Krishna; Ulusoy, Hasan S.; Fletcher, Jon Peter B.; Leith, William S.; Blair, James L.

2012-01-01

48

Studies of Simulation Calculation of Magnitude of Future Earthquakes Using The Mdcb-5 Model Imminent Earthquake Information Monitoring Instrument Tolerance On The Earthquake Magnitude Is Less Than Ms0.5  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geology Institute, Xian Sub-Institute, Coal Science Research Institute Using the MDCB-5 Type Imminent Earthquake Monitoring Instrument to record the magnitude (voltage value), the duration (number of days) of the earthquake immi- nent abnormal (natural electromagnetic wave) of a certain earthquake, and its relativ- ity with fraction of rock, occurrence of earthquake and release of earthquake wave energy, from point of

W. X. Wang; Y. W. Yang

2002-01-01

49

Integrating geomatics and structural investigation in post-earthquake monitoring of ancient monumental Buildings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The old city center of L’Aquila is rich in historical buildings of considerable merit. On April 6th 2009 a devastating earthquake caused significant structural damages, affecting especially historical and monumental masonry buildings. The results of a study carried out on a monumental building, former headquarters of the University of L’Aquila (The Camponeschi building, XVI century) are presented in this paper. The building is situated in the heart of the old city center and was seriously damaged by the earthquake. Preliminary visual damage analysis carried out immediately after the quake, clearly evidenced the building’s complexity, raising the need for direct and indirect investigation on the structure. Several non-destructive test methods were then performed in situ to better characterize the masonry typology and the damage distribution, as well. Subsequently, a number of representative control points were identified on the building’s facades to represent, by their motion over time, the evolution of the structural displacements and deformations. In particular, a surveying network consisting of 27 different points was established. A robotic total station mounted on top of a concrete pillar was used for periodically monitoring the surveying control network. Stability of the pillar was checked through a GNSS static survey repeated before any set of measurements. The present study evidences the interesting possibilities of combining geomatics with structural investigation during post-earthquake monitoring of ancient monumental buildings.

Dominici, Donatella; Galeota, Dante; Gregori, Amedeo; Rosciano, Elisa; Alicandro, Maria; Elaiopoulos, Michail

2014-06-01

50

Monitoring the ionosphere during the earthquake on GPS data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The problem of stability estimation of physical state of an atmosphere attracts a rapt attention of the world community but it is still far from being solved A lot of global atmospheric processes which have direct influence upon all forms of the earth life have been detected The comprehension of cause effect relations stipulating their origin and development is possible only on the basis of long-term sequences of observations data of time-space variations of the atmosphere characteristics which should be received on a global scale and in the interval of altitudes as brand as possible Such data can be obtained only with application satellite systems The latest researches have shown that the satellite systems can be successfully used for global and continuous monitoring ionosphere of the Earth In turn the ionosphere can serve a reliable indicator of different kinds of effects on an environment both of natural and anthropogenic origin Nowadays the problem of the short-term forecast of earthquakes has achieved a new level of understanding There have been revealed indisputable factors which show that the ionosphere anomalies observed during the preparation of seismic events contain the information allowing to detect and to interpret them as earthquake precursors The partial decision of the forecast problem of earthquakes on ionospheric variations requires the processing data received simultaneously from extensive territories Such requirements can be met only on the basis of ground-space system of ionosphere monitoring The navigating systems

Smirnov, V. M.; Smirnova, E. V.

51

Czech Infrasonic Monitoring System - Measurements in an Earthquake Epicenter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Czech infrasonic monitoring system (micobarograph and ionospheric Doppler measurements) together with seismometer and magnetometer made measurements in the epicenter of a relatively weak (M = 3.8) earthquake on 28 October 2008. At the closest station NKC (distance from the epicenter d = 2.2 km) a microbarograph, seismograph and magnetometer were located, at another close station STC a microbarograph and seismograph were installed. One ionospheric Doppler path was quasi-vertical with the ionospheric reflection point at d = 10 km. One more station with microbarograph and seismograph was located about 155 km apart. As far as we know, these have been the first infrasonic measurements during earthquake in the epicentre zone. Main results: (1) Infrasonic oscillations (~1-12 Hz) in the epicenter region appear to be excited essentially by the vertical seismic oscillations. (2) The observed oscillations are real epicentral infrasound not caused by seismic shaking of the instruments or by meteorological phenomena. (3) Seismo-infrasonic oscillations observed 155 km apart from the epicenter were excited in situ by seismic waves. (4) No earthquake-related infrasonic effects have been observed in the ionosphere. (5) The ratio of observational to theoretical transfer function was around 0.8 due to slightly lower microbarograph sensitivity at frequencies of infrasonic peaks. (6) Necessity to make vibration tests of instruments is pointed out in order to be sure that observed effects are not effects of mechanical shaking of the instrument. The results (1), (2), (3) and (6) seem to be of some relevance to CTBT.

Lastovicka, J.; Chum, J.; Sindelarova, T.

2010-12-01

52

Array monitoring of swarm earthquakes in the Pollino range (Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Mercure Basin (MB) and the Castrovillari Fault (CF) in the Pollino range (southern Apennines, Italy) represent one of the most prominent seismic gaps in the Italian seismic catalog, with no M>6 earthquakes during the last centuries. In recent times, the MB has been repeatedly interested by seismic swarms, with the most energetic swarm started in 2010 and still active in 2013. The seismic activity culminated in autumn 2012 with a M=5 event on October 25. In contrast, the CF appears aseismic. Only the northern part of the CF has experienced microseismicity. The rheology of these faults is unclear. Current debates include the potential of the MB and the CF to host large earthquakes and the level and the style of deformation. Understanding the seismicity and the behaviour of the faults is therefore necessary to assess the seismic hazard. We have been monitoring the ongoing seismicity using a small-aperture seismic array, integrated in a temporary seismic network. The instruments are provided by the GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences and INGV, Italy, and are operated in close collaboration between both institutes. Automatized seismic array methods are applied to resolve the spatio-temporal evolution of the seismicity in great detail. Using the GFZ array, we detect about ten times more earthquakes than currently included in automatic local catalogues. The increase corresponds to an improvement in complete event detection down to M~0.5. Event locations and the magnitude-frequency distribution are analysed to characterise the swarm and investigate the possible role of fluids for earthquake triggering. In the course of the swarm, seismicity has mainly migrated within the Mercure Basin. However, the spread towards the northern end of the Castrovillari fault to the east in 2013 marks a swarm phase with seismicity located outside of the Mercure Basin. The observations characterize the behaviour of the faults and their inter-connection.

Roessler, Dirk; Passarelli, Luigi; Govoni, Aladino; Rivalta, Eleonora

2014-05-01

53

AN INTRODUCTION TO EARTHQUAKE GEODESY : Another Effort for Earthquake Hazard Monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earthquake is one of catastrophic event produce losses to people's life as well as infrastructure damages. Aceh Earthquake following by tsunami was one recent and biggest examples of earthquake's tragedy in the last 40 years. Almost 300,000 peoples were killed and leaving very serious damages on infrastructures. Earthquake happen when the earth's crust fails in response to accumulated deformation. Geodetic

H. Z. Abidin; D. Darmawan; D. A. Sarsito; M. Gamal

54

Southern California Earthquake Center Geologic Vertical Motion Database  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Southern California Earthquake Center Geologic Vertical Motion Database (VMDB) integrates disparate sources of geologic uplift and subsidence data at 104- to 106-year time scales into a single resource for investigations of crustal deformation in southern California. Over 1800 vertical deformation rate data points in southern California and northern Baja California populate the database. Four mature data sets are now represented: marine terraces, incised river terraces, thermochronologic ages, and stratigraphic surfaces. An innovative architecture and interface of the VMDB exposes distinct data sets and reference frames, permitting user exploration of this complex data set and allowing user control over the assumptions applied to convert geologic and geochronologic information into absolute uplift rates. Online exploration and download tools are available through all common web browsers, allowing the distribution of vertical motion results as HTML tables, tab-delimited GIS-compatible text files, or via a map interface through the Google Maps™ web service. The VMDB represents a mature product for research of fault activity and elastic deformation of southern California.

Niemi, Nathan A.; Oskin, Michael; Rockwell, Thomas K.

2008-07-01

55

Archiving and Distributing Seismic Data at the Southern California Earthquake Data Center (SCEDC)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Southern California Earthquake Data Center (SCEDC) archives and provides public access to earthquake parametric and waveform data gathered by the Southern California Seismic Network and since January 1, 2001, the TriNet seismic network, southern California's earthquake monitoring network. The parametric data in the archive includes earthquake locations, magnitudes, moment-tensor solutions and phase picks. The SCEDC waveform archive prior to TriNet consists primarily of short-period, 100-samples-per-second waveforms from the SCSN. The addition of the TriNet array added continuous recordings of 155 broadband stations (20 samples per second or less), and triggered seismograms from 200 accelerometers and 200 short-period instruments. Since the Data Center and TriNet use the same Oracle database system, new earthquake data are available to the seismological community in near real-time. Primary access to the database and waveforms is through the Seismogram Transfer Program (STP) interface. The interface enables users to search the database for earthquake information, phase picks, and continuous and triggered waveform data. Output is available in SAC, miniSEED, and other formats. Both the raw counts format (V0) and the gain-corrected format (V1) of COSMOS (Consortium of Organizations for Strong-Motion Observation Systems) are now supported by STP. EQQuest is an interface to prepackaged waveform data sets for select earthquakes in Southern California stored at the SCEDC. Waveform data for large-magnitude events have been prepared and new data sets will be available for download in near real-time following major events. The parametric data from 1981 to present has been loaded into the Oracle 9.2.0.1 database system and the waveforms for that time period have been converted to mSEED format and are accessible through the STP interface. The DISC optical-disk system (the "jukebox") that currently serves as the mass-storage for the SCEDC is in the process of being replaced with a series of inexpensive high-capacity (1.6 Tbyte) magnetic-disk RAIDs. These systems are built with PC-technology components, using 16 120-Gbyte IDE disks, hot-swappable disk trays, two RAID controllers, dual redundant power supplies and a Linux operating system. The system is configured over a private gigabit network that connects to the two Data Center servers and spans between the Seismological Lab and the USGS. To ensure data integrity, each RAID disk system constantly checks itself against its twin and verifies file integrity using 128-bit MD5 file checksums that are stored separate from the system. The final level of data protection is a Sony AIT-3 tape backup of the files. The primary advantage of the magnetic-disk approach is faster data access because magnetic disk drives have almost no latency. This means that the SCEDC can provide better "on-demand" interactive delivery of the seismograms in the archive.

Appel, V. L.

2002-12-01

56

Collaborative Projects at the Northern California Earthquake Data Center (NCEDC)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NCEDC is a joint project of the UC Berkeley Seismological Laboratory and the USGS Menlo Park to provide a long-term archive and distribution center for geophysical data for northern California. Most data are available via the Web at http://quake.geo.berkeley.edu and research accounts are available for access to specialized datasets. Current efforts continue to expand the available datasets and to enhance distribution methods. The NCEDC currently archives continuous and event seismic waveform data from the BDSN and the USGS NCSN. Data from the BDSN are available in SEED and work is underway to make NCSN data available in this format. This massive project requires assembling and tracking the instrument responses from over 5000 current and historic NCSN data channels. Event waveforms from specialized networks, such as Geysers and Parkfield, are also available. In collaboration with the USGS, the NCEDC has archived a total of 887 channels from 139 sites of the "USGS low-frequency" geophysical network (UL), including data from strainmeters, creep meters, magnetometers, water well levels, and tiltmeters. There are 486 current data channels being updated at the NCEDC on a daily basis. All UL data are available in SEED. Data from the BARD network of over 40 continuously recording GPS sites are archived at the NCEDC in both raw and RINEX format. The NCEDC is now the primary archive for survey-mode GPS and other geodetic data collected in northern California by the USGS, universities, and other agencies. All of the BARD data and GPS data archived from USGS Menlo Park surveys are now available from the NCEDC via FTP. To support more portable and uniform data query programs among data centers, the NCEDC developed a set of Generic Data Center Views (GDVs) that incorporates the basic information that most datacenters maintain about data channels, instrument responses, and waveform inventory. We defined MSQL (Meta SeismiQuery Language), a query language based on the SQL SELECT command, to perform queries on the GDVs, and developed a program which converts the MSQL to an SQL request. MSQL2SQL converts the MSQL command into a parse tree, and defines an API allowing each datacenter to traverse the parse tree and revise it to produce a data center-specific SQL request. The NCEDC converted the IRIS SeismiQuery program to use the GDVs and MSQL, installed it at the NCEDC, and distributed the software to IRIS, SCEC-DC, and other interested parties. The resulting program should be much easier to install and support at other data centers. The NCEDC is also working on several data center integration projects in order to provide users with seamless access to data. The NCEDC is collaborating with IRIS on the NETDC project and with UNAVCO on the GPS Seamless Archive Centers initiative. Through the newly formed California Integrated Seismic Network, we are working with the SCEC-DC to provide unified access to California earthquake data.

Neuhauser, D.; Oppenheimer, D.; Zuzlewski, S.; Gee, L.; Murray, M.; Bassett, A.; Prescott, W.; Romanowicz, B.

2001-12-01

57

Real-Time Data Processing Systems and Products at the Alaska Earthquake Information Center  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Alaska Earthquake Information Center (AEIC) receives data from over 400 seismic sites located within the state boundaries and the surrounding regions and serves as a regional data center. In 2007, the AEIC reported ~20,000 seismic events, with the largest event of M6.6 in Andreanof Islands. The real-time earthquake detection and data processing systems at AEIC are based on the

N. A. Ruppert; R. A. Hansen

2007-01-01

58

CSEP Testing Center and the first results of the earthquake forecast testing experiment in Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Major objectives of the Japanese earthquake prediction research program for the period 2009-2013 are to create earthquake forecasting models and begin the prospective testing of these models against recorded seismicity. For this purpose, the Earthquake Research Institute of the University of Tokyo has joined an international partnership to create a Collaboratory for the Study of Earthquake Predictability (CSEP). Here, we describe a new infrastructure for developing and evaluating forecasting models—the CSEP Japan Testing Center—as well as some preliminary testing results. On 1 November 2009, the Testing Center started a prospective and competitive earthquake predictability experiment using the seismically active and well-instrumented region of Japan as a natural laboratory.

Tsuruoka, H.; Hirata, N.; Schorlemmer, D.; Euchner, F.; Nanjo, K. Z.; Jordan, T. H.

2012-08-01

59

Implementation of Near Real-Time Methods Using Surface Waves to Determine Earthquake Source Characteristics at the National Earthquake Information Center  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss the implementation of two near real-time methods for determining earthquake source characteristics using long-period surface waves at the US Geological Survey's National Earthquake Information Center (USGS/NEIC). Long-period (60 to 300 s) seismic waveforms are well suited for this purpose because they can be well modeled using simple propagation models and are less sensitive to source complexity than short period (1 s) waves that are commonly used for earthquake monitoring. A prototype system for Surface wave Location and Association in Quasi Real time (SLAQR) that employs very long period (> 60 s) vertical-component surface waves has been implemented in test mode using data from the Global Seismographic Network (GSN). SLAQR continuously back-projects waveform envelopes on a global grid using surface wave dispersion relations. Preliminary results show that this method, as currently in operation at the NEIC, can consistently locate global earthquakes down to a magnitude 5.5. The magnitude determination, which is based on a simple empirical relationship, is generally accurate to within 0.2 magnitude units. More importantly, SLAQR can provide reliable locations and magnitudes for very large earthquakes, such as the 2004/2005 Sumatra events, within 30-40 minutes of their origin time. Furthermore, since the magnitude calculation is based on long period data, magnitudes for slow earthquakes such as some ridge and tsunami earthquakes are not underestimated as commonly occurs in shorter period analysis. Future development will focus on a reliable triggering algorithm for automated event detection and the continuous calculation of moment tensors and earthquake depths from the spectral amplitude and phase measurements already produced by the system. A fully automatic system to determine centroid moment tensors using three component surface waves with periods between 150-300 s is also running at the NEIC. Two versions are currently operational: one in a research/evaluation mode and another fully incorporated into the NEIC Hydra system. New improvements in the area of reliability assessment are currently being tested. Future work will investigate the finite fault information contained in the centroid time and centroid location parameters, how to incorporate a priori knowledge of the fault orientation, and the use of noise characteristics in the automatic selection of channels.

Polet, J.; Thio, H. K.; Earle, P.

2008-12-01

60

Improved Data Access From the Northern California Earthquake Data Center  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NCEDC is a joint project of the UC Berkeley Seismological Laboratory and the USGS Menlo Park to provide a long-term archive and distribution center for geophysical data for northern California. Most data are available via the Web at http://quake.geo.berkeley.edu and research accounts are available for access to specialized datasets. Current efforts continue to expand the available datasets, enhance distribution methods, and to provide rapid access to all datasets. The NCEDC archives continuous and event-based seismic and geophysical time-series data from the BDSN, the USGS NCSN, the UNR Seismic Network, the Parkfield HRSN, and the Calpine/Unocal Geysers network. In collaboration with the USGS, the NCEDC has archived a total of 887 channels from 139 sites of the "USGS low-frequency" geophysical network (UL), including data from strainmeters, creep meters, magnetometers, water well levels, and tiltmeters. There are 336 active continuous data channels that are updated at the NCEDC on a daily basis. Geodetic data from the BARD network of over 40 continuously recording GPS sites are archived at the NCEDC in both raw and RINEX format. The NCEDC is the primary archive for survey-mode GPS and other geodetic data collected in northern California by the USGS, universities, and other agencies. All of the BARD data and GPS data archived from USGS Menlo Park surveys are now available through the GPS Seamless Archive Centers (GSAC), and by FTP directly from the NCEDC. Virtually all time-series data at the NCEDC are now available in SEED with complete instrument responses. Assembling, verifying, and maintaining the response information for these networks is a huge task, and is accomplished through the collaborative efforts of the NCEDC and the contributing agencies. Until recently, the NCSN waveform data were available only through research accounts and special request methods due to incomplete instrument responses. In the last year, the USGS compiled the necessary descriptions for for both historic and current NCSN instrumentation. The NCEDC and USGS jointly developed a procedure to create and maintain the hardware attributes and instrument responses at the NCEDC for the 3500 NCSN channels. As a result, the NCSN waveform data can now be distributed in SEED format. The NCEDC provides access to waveform data through Web forms, email requests, and programming interfaces. The SeismiQuery Web interface provides information about data holdings. NetDC allows users to retrieve inventory information, instrument responses, and waveforms in SEED format. STP provides both a Web and programming interface to retrieve data in SEED or other user-friendly formats. Through the newly formed California Integrated Seismic Network, we are working with the SCEDC to provide unified access to California earthquake data.

Neuhauser, D.; Oppenheimer, D.; Zuzlewski, S.; Klein, F.; Jensen, E.; Gee, L.; Murray, M.; Romanowicz, B.

2002-12-01

61

Southern California Earthquake Center--Virtual Display of Objects (SCEC-VDO): An Earthquake Research and Education Tool  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interns in the program Southern California Earthquake Center/Undergraduate Studies in Earthquake Information Technology (SCEC/UseIT, an NSF Research Experience for Undergraduates Site) have designed, engineered, and distributed SCEC-VDO (Virtual Display of Objects), an interactive software used by earthquake scientists and educators to integrate and visualize global and regional, georeferenced datasets. SCEC-VDO is written in Java/Java3D with an extensible, scalable architecture. An increasing number of SCEC-VDO datasets are obtained on the fly through web services and connections to remote databases; and user sessions may be saved in xml-encoded files. Currently users may display time-varying sequences of earthquake hypocenters and focal mechanisms, several 3-dimensional fault and rupture models, satellite imagery - optionally draped over digital elevation models - and cultural datasets including political boundaries. The ability to juxtapose and interactively explore these data and their temporal and spatial relationships has been particularly important to SCEC scientists who are evaluating fault and deformation models, or who must quickly evaluate the menace of evolving earthquake sequences. Additionally, SCEC-VDO users can annotate the display, plus script and render animated movies with adjustable compression levels. SCEC-VDO movies are excellent communication tools and have been featured in scientific presentations, classrooms, press conferences, and television reports.

Perry, S.; Maechling, P.; Jordan, T.

2006-12-01

62

Athens Neutron Monitor Data Processing Center - ANMODAP Center  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cosmic ray measurements in Athens were initiated in November 2000 with a standard 6NM-64 neutron monitor. Within the last years an effort has been made in order to construct an effective database of neutron monitor (NM) and satellite data in real-time, regarding the necessities of space weather monitoring (Athens Neutron Monitor Data Processing Center - ANMODAP Center). The prospective goal of this network is to make possible the receiving of all data in real-time in close sequence from all servers around the globe. The graphical representation of all these data in real-time is available through the website of the station ( http://cosray.phys.uoa.gr). Moreover, a second database that collects data with 1-min resolution operates in a parallel mode. The online services as a special 'Alert' algorithm for Ground Level Enhancements (GLEs) and some models created to analyze aspects of GLEs as the neutron monitor Basic Anisotropic Neutron Ground Level Enhancement (BANGLE) model and the Forbush Decreases (FORD) model as well, are presented. Moreover, a short account on work performed on the possible relationship between the geomagnetic activity level and the biological effects is given.

Mavromichalaki, H.; Gerontidou, M.; Mariatos, G.; Papailiou, M.; Papaioannou, A.; Plainaki, C.; Sarlanis, C.; Souvatzoglou, G.

2009-11-01

63

Romanian Data Center: A modern way for seismic monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main seismic survey of Romania is performed by the National Institute for Earth Physics (NIEP) which operates a real-time digital seismic network. The NIEP real-time network currently consists of 102 stations and two seismic arrays equipped with different high quality digitizers (Kinemetrics K2, Quanterra Q330, Quanterra Q330HR, PS6-26, Basalt), broadband and short period seismometers (CMG3ESP, CMG40T, KS2000, KS54000, KS2000, CMG3T,STS2, SH-1, S13, Mark l4c, Ranger, gs21, Mark l22) and acceleration sensors (Episensor Kinemetrics). The data are transmitted at the National Data Center (NDC) and Eforie Nord (EFOR) Seismic Observatory. EFOR is the back-up for the NDC and also a monitoring center for the Black Sea tsunami events. NIEP is a data acquisition node for the seismic network of Moldova (FDSN code MD) composed of five seismic stations. NIEP has installed in the northern part of Bulgaria eight seismic stations equipped with broadband sensors and Episensors and nine accelerometers (Episensors) installed in nine districts along the Danube River. All the data are acquired at NIEP for Early Warning System and for primary estimation of the earthquake parameters. The real-time acquisition (RT) and data exchange is done by Antelope software and Seedlink (from Seiscomp3). The real-time data communication is ensured by different types of transmission: GPRS, satellite, radio, Internet and a dedicated line provided by a governmental network. For data processing and analysis at the two data centers Antelope 5.2 TM is being used running on 3 workstations: one from a CentOS platform and two on MacOS. Also a Seiscomp3 server stands as back-up for Antelope 5.2 Both acquisition and analysis of seismic data systems produce information about local and global parameters of earthquakes. In addition, Antelope is used for manual processing (event association, calculation of magnitude, creating a database, sending seismic bulletins, calculation of PGA and PGV, etc.), generating ShakeMap products and interaction with global data centers. National Data Center developed tools to enable centralizing of data from software like Antelope and Seiscomp3. These tools allow rapid distribution of information about damages observed after an earthquake to the public. Another feature of the developed application is the alerting of designated persons, via email and SMS, based on the earthquake parameters. In parallel, Seiscomp3 sends automatic notifications (emails) with the earthquake parameters. The real-time seismic network and software acquisition and data processing used in the National Data Center development have increased the number of events detected locally and globally, the increase of the quality parameters obtained by data processing and potentially increasing visibility on the national and internationally.

Neagoe, Cristian; Marius Manea, Liviu; Ionescu, Constantin

2014-05-01

64

Monitoring of ULF (ultra-low-frequency) Geomagnetic Variations Associated with Earthquakes  

PubMed Central

ULF (ultra-low-frequency) electromagnetic emission is recently recognized as one of the most promising candidates for short-term earthquake prediction. This paper reviews previous convincing evidence on the presence of ULF emissions before a few large earthquakes. Then, we present our network of ULF monitoring in the Tokyo area by describing our ULF magnetic sensors and we finally present a few, latest results on seismogenic electromagnetic emissions for recent large earthquakes with the use of sophisticated signal processings.

Hayakawa, Masashi; Hattori, Katsumi; Ohta, Kenji

2007-01-01

65

Earthquakes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This outline of basic information on earthquakes starts with an explanation of an earthquake, including the forces acting on rock, (tension, compression, and shear) and plastic and elastic deformation of rock. Next, the principle of the seismograph, seismometer, and seismogram along with the three types of seismic waves are discussed. Information is then presented to help the student distinguish between the focus and epicenter of an earthquake, describe the world-wide distribution pattern of earthquake activity, and explain the earthquake magnitude (Richter) scale and the Modified Mercalli scale of earthquake intensity. This site also includes an explanation of how the epicenter of an earthquake can be located. There is a discussion of some past earthquakes along with a description of the effects of earthquake activity.

Gore, Pamela

66

Application of Earthquake Early Warning System and Real-time Strong-motion Monitoring System to Earthquake Disaster Mitigation of a High-Rise Building in Tokyo, Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

We apply Earthquake Early Warning System (EEWS) and Real-time Strong-motion Monitoring System (RSMS) to reduce earthquake-related damage of the 29-story building of Kogakuin University in the downtown Tokyo, Shinjuku, Japan. EEWS, which is operated by National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention, is the system to provide earthquake information, such as the location and magnitude of an earthquake,

Tomohiro Kubo; Yoshiaki Hisada; Shigeki Horiuchi; Shunroku Yamamoto

67

Earthquakes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will participate in a virtual earthquake lab where they will locate an epicenter and measure Richter Scale magnitude. They will also plot the positions of earthquakes that occurred that day. 1) Go to Virtual Earthquake website and follow instructions to complete the online lab assignment. 2) Go to the USGS earthquake site. Take a few minutes to explore the earthquakes displayed on the world map. Click on \\"M2.5/4+ Earthquake List\\". Use the world map provided by your teacher to plot the locations ...

Hemedinger, Mrs.

2007-11-26

68

SOCIOECONOMIC BENEFITS OF USING SPACE TECHNOLOGIES TO MONITOR AND RESPOND TO EARTHQUAKES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earthquakes represent a major hazard for populations around the world, causing frequent loss of life, human suffering and enormous damage to homes, other buildings and infrastructure. The Technology Resources for Earthquake Monitoring and Response (TREMOR) Team of 36 space professionals analysed this problem over the course of the International Space University Summer Session Program and published their recommendations in the

Ian A. Christensen; Lauren E. Fletcher; Jonathan J. Liberda; Jose I. Rojas; Cristina Borrero del Pino

2008-01-01

69

Progress Towards Near-Realtime Seismic Moment Tensors at the Alaska Earthquake Information Center  

Microsoft Academic Search

A near-realtime seismic moment tensor inversion routine has been operational at the Alaska Earthquake Information Center (AEIC) in a test mode for over a year. The AEIC real-time earthquake detection system, based on the Antelope software package, triggers the automatic moment-tensor inversion routine. It is based on a software package developed at the Berkeley Seismological Laboratory and performs a time

N. Ratchkovski; R. Hansen

2004-01-01

70

Earthquakes  

MedlinePLUS

... for Pet Owners Frequently Asked Questions Additional Information Tornadoes Preparing for a Tornado (Part 1 of 2) ... Severe Weather Earthquakes Extreme Heat Floods Hurricanes Landslides Tornadoes Tsunamis Volcanoes Wildfires Winter Weather Earthquakes Language: English ...

71

Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC) Communication, Education and Outreach Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The SCEC Communication, Education, and Outreach Program (CEO) offers student research experiences, web-based education tools, classroom curricula, museum displays, public information brochures, online newsletters, and technical workshops and publications. This year, much progress has been made on the development of the Electronic Encyclopedia of Earthquakes (E3), a collaborative project with CUREE and IRIS. The E3 development system is now fully

M. L. Benthien

2003-01-01

72

Design for communications center monitor & control system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Communications center monitor & control system, including power supply sub-system, environment sub-system, fire sub-system, security sub-system and so on, is widely used in school, enterprise, government and other areas. The control system designed by this paper can get temperature and humidity information from RS485 sensor of temperature-humidity. From measuring gate sensor, smoke sensor and leak-water senor, the control system can

Zhigang Lv; Cuixia Liu

2010-01-01

73

Earthquakes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students explore the causes of earthquakes and their impact on the geology of an area and on human societies. They begin by looking at the role tectonic plates play in creating the forces that cause earthquakes, to help them understand why earthquakes occur when and where they do. Hands-on activities illustrate how rocks can withstand a certain amount of stress, but that every material has its breaking point. When rocks break underground, an earthquake occurs. In the last section, students explore the impact earthquakes have on humans and look at the efforts scientists are making to better understand and predict these sometimes deadly events.

2006-01-01

74

Studies On Calculating The Azimuth of Future Earthquake Focal Zones With The Mdcb-5 Model Imminent Earthquake Monitoring Instrument (paper Vi) Determining The Azimuth of A Future Earthquake Focal Zone With The Observation Station  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geology Institute, Xian Sub-Institute, Coal Science Research Institute The MDCB-5 Type Earthquake Imminent Information Monitoring &Measurement Instrument can record the earthquake imminent abnormal variation range (voltage value), and thus indicate the duration of time (number of days) of such abnormal. Us- ing such information during the one to a few days prior to a specific earthquake, and their relativity with

W. X. Wang; Y. W. Yang

2002-01-01

75

The Development of an Earthquake Preparedness Plan for a Child Care Center in a Geologically Hazardous Region.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The director of a child care center at a community college in California developed an earthquake preparedness plan for the center which met state and local requirements for earthquake preparedness at schools. The plan consisted of: (1) the identification and reduction of nonstructural hazards in classrooms, office, and staff rooms; (2) storage of…

Wokurka, Linda

76

Korea Integrated Seismic System tool(KISStool) for seismic monitoring and data sharing at the local data center  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Korea Integrated Seismic System(KISS) is a back-bone seismic network which distributes seismic data to different organizations in near-real time at Korea. The association of earthquake monitoring institutes has shared their seismic data through the KISS from 2003. Local data centers operating remote several stations need to send their free field seismic data to NEMA(National Emergency Management Agency) by the law of countermeasure against earthquake hazard in Korea. It is very important the efficient tool for local data centers which want to rapidly detect local seismic intensity and to transfer seismic event information toward national wide data center including PGA, PGV, dominant frequency of P-wave, raw data, and etc. We developed the KISStool(Korea Integrated Seismic System tool) for easy and convenient operation seismic network in local data center. The KISStool has the function of monitoring real time waveforms by clicking station icon on the Google map and real time variation of PGA, PGV, and other data by opening the bar type monitoring section. If they use the KISStool, any local data center can transfer event information to NEMA(National Emergency Management Agency), KMA(Korea Meteorological Agency) or other institutes through the KISS using UDP or TCP/IP protocols. The KISStool is one of the most efficient methods to monitor and transfer earthquake event at local data center in Korea. KIGAM will support this KISStool not only to the member of the monitoring association but also local governments.

Park, J.; Chi, H. C.; Lim, I.; Jeong, B.

2011-12-01

77

Studies On Determining The Earthquake Occurrence Time With The Mdcb-5 Model Earthquake Imminent Information Monitoring Instrument (paper IV) Making Prediction 1 U 2 Days Or A Few Hours in Advance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The MFCB-5 Type Earthquake Imminent Information Monitoring Instrument is an- other new type of earthquake precursor monitoring instrument developed on the basis of the MDCB-1-4 type instrument. Monitoring was started with this instrument as soon as it was developed. Based on analysis of the information corresponding to six (6) earthquakes during the data obtained during continue monitoring for 44 days,

W. X. Wang; Y. W. Yang

2002-01-01

78

Remote monitoring of the earthquake cycle using satellite radar interferometry.  

PubMed

The earthquake cycle is poorly understood. Earthquakes continue to occur on previously unrecognized faults. Earthquake prediction seems impossible. These remain the facts despite nearly 100 years of intensive study since the earthquake cycle was first conceptualized. Using data acquired from satellites in orbit 800 km above the Earth, a new technique, radar interferometry (InSAR), has the potential to solve these problems. For the first time, detailed maps of the warping of the Earth's surface during the earthquake cycle can be obtained with a spatial resolution of a few tens of metres and a precision of a few millimetres. InSAR does not need equipment on the ground or expensive field campaigns, so it can gather crucial data on earthquakes and the seismic cycle from some of the remotest areas of the planet. In this article, I review some of the remarkable observations of the earthquake cycle already made using radar interferometry and speculate on breakthroughs that are tantalizingly close. PMID:12626271

Wright, Tim J

2002-12-15

79

Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created in 1995, the Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center (GCMRC) was created in order to measure the effects of Glen Canyon Dam operations on natural and physical resources along the Colorado River. As such, the GCMRC's projects also monitor and examine the biological, cultural, and physical resources of the entire Colorado River ecosystem. The materials on their site are divided into five primary sections, including "News & Info", "Research", and "Products". In the "News & Info" area visitors can learn about the endangered species that reside in the area covered by the GCMRC and also take a look at their outreach materials, which include fact sheets, posters, and transcripts from recent symposia. The "Research" area is a bit more technical in nature, containing papers on water flow simulations and elevation data. The site is rounded out by the "Products" area, where visitors can look over new publications and evaluate simulation models.

80

Towards a Better Earthquake and Tsunami Monitoring System: Indian Effort  

Microsoft Academic Search

The December 26, 2004 earthquake (mw 9.3) in the Andaman-Sumatra subduction zone was unprecedented in its size, rupture extent as well as tsunamigenic capacity. Knowledge about the lack of a predecessor to this event was part of the reason for the apparent lack of anticipation and preparedness. Clearly, this event has changed the perception of earthquake\\/tsunami hazard along the Andaman

B. Bansal; G. Gupta

2005-01-01

81

Progress and development on multi-parameters remote sensing application in earthquake monitoring in China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, the progress and development on remote sensing technology applied in earthquake monitoring research are summarized, such as differential interference synthetic aperture radar (D-InSAR), infrared remote sensing, and seismo-ionospheric detecting. Many new monitoring data in this domain have been used, and new data processing methods have been developed to obtain high-precision images about crustal deformation, outgoing longwave radiation (OLR), surface latent heat flux (SLHF), and ionospheric parameters. The development in monitoring technology and data processing technique largely enriches earthquake research information and provides new tools for earthquake stereoscope monitoring system, especially on the space part. Finally, new developing trend in this area was introduced, and some key problems in future work were pointed out.

Shen, Xuhui; Zhang, Xuemin; Hong, Shunying; Jing, Feng; Zhao, Shufan

2013-12-01

82

Multi-source SAR remote sensing data for emergency monitoring to Wenchuan Earthquake damage assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) has significant advantages in disaster monitoring that are all weather, independent of illumination imaging capabilities and strong stereoscopic sense. SAR technology played irreplaceable role in rapid response to Wenchuan Earthquake monitoring and damage assessment. With multi-source and multi-temporal high resolution SAR images, we conduct rapid, systematic and seriate observations regarding to town damage and secondary disaster

Yun Shao; Huaze Gong; Shi'Ang Wang; Fengli Zhang; Wei Tian

2009-01-01

83

Demo Abstract: A High-Density Earthquake Monitoring System Using Wireless Sensor Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present a high-density earthquake mon- itoring system using wireless sensor networks. For high- precision monitoring, we developed Pavenet OS, which is a hard-realtime operating system for sensor nodes, and ac- celeration sensor board. Sensor nodes of the system sample acceleration with less than 0.3 us jitter with Pavenet OS. The system provides earthquake engineering researchers the

Makoto Suzuki; Shunsuke Saruwatari; Hiroyuki Morikawa

84

Correlation of major eastern earthquake centers with mafic/ultramafic basement masses  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Extensive gravity highs and associated magnetic anomalies are present in or near seven major eastern North American earthquake areas as defined by Hadley and Devine (1974). The seven include the five largest of the eastern North American earthquake .centers. The immediate localities of the gravity anomalies are, however, relatively free of seismicity, particularly the largest events. The anomalies are presumably caused by extensive mafic or ultramafic masses embedded in the crystalline basement. Laboratory experiments show that serpentinized gabbro and dunite fail under stress in a creep mode rather than in a stick-slip mode. A possible explanation of the correlation between the earthquake patterns and the anomalies is that the mafic/ultramafic masses are serpentinized and can only sustain low stress fields thereby acting to concentrate regional stress outside their boundaries. The proposed model is analogous to the hole-in-plate problem of mechanics whereby stresses around a hole in a stressed plate may. reach values several times the average.

Kane, Martin Francis

1977-01-01

85

Potential utilization of the NASA/George C. Marshall Space Flight Center in earthquake engineering research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Earthquake engineering research capabilities of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) facilities at George C. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), Alabama, were evaluated. The results indicate that the NASA/MSFC facilities and supporting capabilities offer unique opportunities for conducting earthquake engineering research. Specific features that are particularly attractive for large scale static and dynamic testing of natural and man-made structures include the following: large physical dimensions of buildings and test bays; high loading capacity; wide range and large number of test equipment and instrumentation devices; multichannel data acquisition and processing systems; technical expertise for conducting large-scale static and dynamic testing; sophisticated techniques for systems dynamics analysis, simulation, and control; and capability for managing large-size and technologically complex programs. Potential uses of the facilities for near and long term test programs to supplement current earthquake research activities are suggested.

Scholl, R. E. (editor)

1979-01-01

86

K12 Education Program Lessons Learned at the Center for Earthquake Research and Information  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Center for Earthquake Research and Information at the University of Memphis has been committed to increasing awareness for Seismic Hazard, Earthquake Engineering, and Earth Science among Mid-America's policy-makers, engineers, emergency managers, the general public, and K-12 teachers and students for nearly three decades. During that time we have learned many lessons related to providing effective education and outreach programs, especially for K-12 students. The lessons learned from these activities may be particularly appropriate for other regions where large earthquakes occur infrequently but have disproportionately high consequence areas due to low attenuation of seismic waves. Effective education programs in these settings must provide a consistent message across many states to a wide variety of socio-economic groups and professional communities through the leveraged resources of various groups and agencies. It is also beneficial to hire and train staff with K-12 teaching experience to work directly K-12 education organizations, and science curriculum coordinators.

Patterson, G. L.; Dry, M.

2003-12-01

87

Earthquake!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the types of damage experienced by California State University at Northridge during the 1994 earthquake and what lessons were learned in handling this emergency are discussed. The problem of loose asbestos is addressed. (GR)

Hernandez, Hildo

2000-01-01

88

Earthquakes  

MedlinePLUS

... earthquake is the sudden, rapid shaking of the earth, caused by the breaking and shifting of subterranean ... the forces of plate tectonics have shaped the earth, as the huge plates that form the earth’s ...

89

Earthquakes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

One of the most frightening and destructive phenomena of nature is a severe earthquake and its terrible aftereffects. An earthquake is a sudden movement of the Earth, caused by the abrupt release of strain that has accumulated over a long time. For hundreds of millions of years, the forces of plate tectonics have shaped the Earth as the huge plates that form the Earth's surface slowly move over, under, and past each other. Sometimes the movement is gradual. At other times, the plates are locked together, unable to release the accumulating energy. When the accumulated energy grows strong enough, the plates break free. If the earthquake occurs in a populated area, it may cause many deaths and injuries and extensive property damage. Today we are challenging the assumption that earthquakes must present an uncontrollable and unpredictable hazard to life and property. Scientists have begun to estimate the locations and likelihoods of future damaging earthquakes. Sites of greatest hazard are being identified, and definite progress is being made in designing structures that will withstand the effects of earthquakes.

Shedlock, Kaye M.; Pakiser, Louis Charles

1998-01-01

90

88 hours: the U.S. Geological Survey National Earthquake Information Center response to the March 11, 2011 Mw 9.0 Tohoku earthquake  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The M 9.0 11 March 2011 Tohoku, Japan, earthquake and associated tsunami near the east coast of the island of Honshu caused tens of thousands of deaths and potentially over one trillion dollars in damage, resulting in one of the worst natural disasters ever recorded. The U.S. Geological Survey National Earthquake Information Center (USGS NEIC), through its responsibility to respond to all significant global earthquakes as part of the National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program, quickly produced and distributed a suite of earthquake information products to inform emergency responders, the public, the media, and the academic community of the earthquake's potential impact and to provide scientific background for the interpretation of the event's tectonic context and potential for future hazard. Here we present a timeline of the NEIC response to this devastating earthquake in the context of rapidly evolving information emanating from the global earthquake-response community. The timeline includes both internal and publicly distributed products, the relative timing of which highlights the inherent tradeoffs between the requirement to provide timely alerts and the necessity for accurate, authoritative information. The timeline also documents the iterative and evolutionary nature of the standard products produced by the NEIC and includes a behind-the-scenes look at the decisions, data, and analysis tools that drive our rapid product distribution.

David J Wald; Gavin P Hayes; Harley M Benz; Paul S Earle; Richard Briggs

2011-01-01

91

Earthquake Monitoring at the Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A three-week study in spring 1978 revealed more moderate earthquake activity (one or two events/day, M/sub L/ greater than or equal to 1) in the Cerro Prieto production zone. Plotting these events on a Wadati diagram we estimated an 0.4 Poisson's ratio fo...

E. L. Majer T. V. McEvilly

1980-01-01

92

Scientific results from underwater earthquake monitoring using cabled observatories  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scientific results started appearing in the literature using realtime and continuous time series of data obtained on the seafloor for seismic and micro-tsunamic observations. JAMSTEC has developed three out of a total of eight cabled observatories in the Japanese water. The installed observatories are all operating to aid earthquake studies for disaster mitigation at the future potential hazards, which take

Hitoshi Mikada; K. Hirata; H. Matsumoto; K. Kawaguchi; T. Watanabe; R. Otsuka; S. Morita

2003-01-01

93

Earthquakes and submarine volcanism in the Northeast Pacific: Exploration in the time domain based on 21-years of hydroacoustic monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Monitoring of regional seismic activity in the Northeast Pacific has been accomplished for the past 21 years using US Navy's Sound Surveillance System (SOSUS) hydrophone arrays. Seafloor seismic activity in this region occurs along the spreading center and transform boundaries between the Juan de Fuca, Pacific and North American plates. During the time span, from 1991 through 2011, nearly 50,000 earthquakes were detected and located. The majority of these events were associated with these tectonic boundaries but sections of several plate boundaries were largely aseismic during the this time span. While most of the earthquakes were associated with geological structures revealed in bathymetric maps of the region, there were also less easily explained intraplate events including a swarm of events within the interior of the southern portion of the Juan de Fuca plate. The location and sequential timing of events on portions of the plate boundaries also suggests ordered patterns of stress release. Among the most scientifically significant outcomes of acoustic monitoring was the discovery that deep seafloor magmatic activity can be accompanied by intense (> 1000 events/day) earthquake swarms. The first swarm detected by SOSUS, in 1993, was confirmed to have been associated with an extrusive volcanic eruption which occurred along a segment of the Juan de Fuca spreading center. Notably, this was the first deep spreading center eruption detected, located, and studied while it was active. Subsequently, two more swarms were confirmed to have been associated with volcanic eruptions, one on the Gorda spreading center in 1996 and the other at Axial volcano in 1998. One characteristic of these swarm events is migration of their earthquake locations 10s of km along the ridge axis tracking the movement of magma down-rift. The most rapid magma propagation events have been shown to be associated with seafloor eruptions and dramatic, transient changes in hydrothermal circulation as well as discharges of large volumes of hot water, i.e., megaplumes. Hydroacoustic monitoring using SOSUS, and now augmented with hydrophones deployed on stationary moorings as well as mobile platforms (e.g. gliders), provides a unique means for gaining knowledge concerning a broad diversity of present-day topics of scientific importance including, sources and fate of carbon in the deep ocean, deep ocean micro- and macro-ecosystems, and changes in ocean ambient noise levels.

Hammond, S. R.; Dziak, R. P.; Fox, C. G.

2012-12-01

94

Effects of a major earthquake on calls to regional poison control centers.  

PubMed

We retrospectively evaluated the effect of the Loma Prieta earthquake on calls to 2 designated regional poison control centers (San Francisco and Santa Clara) in the area. In the immediate 12 hours after the earthquake, there was an initial drop (31%) in call volume, related to telephone system overload and other technical problems. Calls from Bay Area counties outside of San Francisco and Santa Clara decreased more dramatically than those from within the host counties where the poison control centers are located. In the next 2 days, each poison control center then handled a 27% increase in call volume. Requests for information regarding safety of water supplies and other environmental concerns were significantly increased. The number of cases of actual poisoning exposure decreased, particularly poison and drug ingestions in children. Most calls directly related to the earthquake included spills and leaks of hazardous materials and questions about water and food safety. Regional poison control centers play an essential role in the emergency medical response to major disasters and are critically dependent on an operational telephone system. PMID:1595244

Nathan, A R; Olson, K R; Everson, G W; Kearney, T E; Blanc, P D

1992-03-01

95

Extending the CISN Earthquake Early Warning (EEW) Web Site into the CISN EEW Testing Center  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As a part of the California Integrated Seismic Network (CISN) earthquake early warning (EEW) algorithm development, funded through USGS NEHRP, we have developed the CISN EEW web site to collect the results of multiple EEW algorithms and to display these results in a comparative manner (www.scec.org/eew). During the last year, the CISN EEW algorithm development group defined a set of EEW algorithm evaluation tests (termed performance summaries). These compare EEW algorithm reports (generated by the real-time or near real-time EEW algorithms) against seismicity data in the ANSS catalog and observed ground motion information available through the SCEC Data Center (SCECDC) and the Northern California Earthquake Data Center (NCEDC). To automatically generate the performance summaries, a software development group at SCEC has integrated elements of the SCEC Collaboratory for the Study of Earthquake Predictability (CSEP) Testing Center into the CISN EEW web site. This has helped establish a CISN EEW Testing Center with capabilities similar to the CSEP Testing Center. After the integration of the CSEP software, the CISN EEW testing center now automatically creates EEW performance summaries and posts them on the CISN EEW web site each day. By leveraging the capabilities of the CSEP Testing Center, the CISN EEW Testing Center has been able to implement several of the testing concepts originally developed on CSEP. These concepts include the following: (a) earthquake, or ground motion, forecasts are reported in standardized data formats, (b) commonly-agreed upon performance evaluation reports are used for all algorithms, (c) observed data is retrieved from 'authorized' data sources and the same observed data is used to evaluate all algorithms, (d) only forecasts and observed data for a specific testing region are considered, and (e) the testing center saves information indicating how results were produced. We present an overview of the CISN EEW Testing Center including the scientific design goals for the system, and a description of the system's current capabilities. We describe the performance summaries specified by the CISN EEW algorithm development group, and how the current CISN EEW Testing Center produces those summaries using the automated testing capabilities from the CSEP software framework.

Zeleznik, M.; Maechling, P. J.; Liukis, M.; Callaghan, S.; Jordan, T. H.

2008-12-01

96

Insights into Oklahoma's Increased Seismicity Aided by Incorporation of the Transportable Array in Regional Earthquake Monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seismicity rates within Oklahoma increased more than an order of magnitude since 2009 roughly concurrent with the arrival of the Earthscope US Array Transportable Array (TA). It can be demonstrated the increased seismicity is not because of increased monitoring capability, but rather a marked increase in earthquake occurrence rates. This unique confluence of additional monitoring and additional seismicity has lead to new insights about the continuing earthquakes within Oklahoma. The additional seismic stations improved event detection within the region but also dramatically improved accuracy in earthquake locations and enabled the determination of 154 first-motion and moment tensor focal mechanisms throughout Oklahoma. Prior to the passage of the TA few if any focal mechanisms had been determined for earthquakes occurring within Oklahoma. These focal mechanisms show primarily strike-slip faulting on steeply dipping faults with strikes between 40-60° and 130-150°. Focal mechanisms associated with the Jones earthquake swarm, occurring just east of Oklahoma City, have clearly different orientations from those outside of the swarm area. The Jones earthquake swarm has a b-value of 1.3 while the remaining portions of Oklahoma continue to have a b-value near 1, even with the increased seismicity rates. The Jones earthquake swarm continues to average nearly 2 earthquakes each day with characteristics that clearly separate it from the rest of the observed earthquakes in Oklahoma. The additional seismic monitoring that the TA provided also helped to identify and more accurately quantify cases of possibly triggered seismicity throughout Oklahoma. The wells identified in possible cases of triggered seismicity represent a small fraction of all oil and gas activities within Oklahoma, but understanding these cases may help to mitigate such occurrences in the future. Accurately identifying cases of triggered seismicity helps to quantify the potential earthquake hazard induced seismicity may pose both in Oklahoma and throughout the country. The effect on the earthquake hazard for Oklahoma is demonstrated by comparing different probabilistic seismic hazard assessments based on the different observed seismicity rates.

Holland, A. A.

2012-12-01

97

Onsite infectious agents and toxins monitoring in 12 May Sichuan earthquake affected areas.  

PubMed

At 14:28 on 12 May 2008, Sichuan Province of China suffered a devastating earthquake measuring 8.0 on the Richter scale with more than 80 000 human lives lost and millions displaced. With inadequate shelter, poor access to health services, and disrupted ecology, the survivors were at enormous risk of infectious disease outbreaks. This work, believed to be unprecedented, was carried out to contain a possible outbreak through onsite monitoring of airborne biological agents in the high-risk areas. In such a mission, a mobile laboratory was developed using a customized vehicle along with state-of-art bioaerosol and molecular equipment and tools, and deployed to Sichuan 11 days after the earthquake. Using a high volume bioaerosol sampler (RCS High Flow) and Button Inhalable Aerosol Sampler equipped with gelatin filters, a total of 55 air samples, among which are 28 filter samples, were collected from rubble, medical centers, and camps of refugees, troops and rescue workers between 23 May and 9 June, 2008. After pre-treatment of the air samples, quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), gel electrophoresis, limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) assay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were applied to detect infectious agents and to quantify environmental toxins and allergens. The results revealed that, while high levels of endotoxin (180 approximately 975 ng/m3) and (1,3)-beta-d-glucans (11 approximately 100 ng/m3) were observed, infectious agents such as Bacillus anthracis, Bordetella pertussis, Neisseria meningitidis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, influenza A virus, bird flu virus (H5N1), enteric viruses, and Meningococcal meningitis were found below their detection limits. The total bacterial concentrations were found to range from 250 to 2.5 x 10(5) DNA copies/L. Aspergillus fumigatus (Asp f 1) and dust mite allergens (Der p 1 and Der f 1) were also found below their detection limits. PMID:19890556

Yao, Maosheng; Zhu, Tong; Li, Kejun; Dong, Shuofei; Wu, Yan; Qiu, Xinghua; Jiang, Bo; Chen, Liansheng; Zhen, Shiqi

2009-11-01

98

EQInfo - earthquakes world-wide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

EQInfo is a free Android app providing recent earthquake information from various earthquake monitoring centers as GFZ, EMSC, USGS and others. It allows filtering of agency, region and magnitude as well as controlling update interval, institute priority and alarm types. Used by more than 25k active users and beeing in the top ten list of Google Play, EQInfo is one of the most popular apps for earthquake information.

Weber, Bernd; Herrnkind, Stephan

2014-05-01

99

Conversion of Historic Seismic Data at the Southern California Earthquake Data Center (SCEDC)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Southern California Earthquake Data Center (SCEDC) archives and provides public access to continuous and event-based earthquake parametric and waveform data gathered by the Southern California Seismic Network. The mission of the SCEDC is to maintain an easily-accessible, well-organized, high-quality, searchable archive of earthquake data for research in seismology and earthquake engineering. The SCEDC has compiled and converted all available historic seismic data to create a single source of southern California earthquake data from 1932-present. The 1932-1976 era of seismic data was key-punched from the original phase cards into CUSP-format on a VAX system. The data was then imported into the SCEDC Oracle database, so phase and epicenter data is available for direct retrieval by users via STP. A problematic four-year span of CEDAR data from 1977-1980 is currently not accessible, but has been converted and is being processed to include magnitude information. The parametric data from 1981 to present has been loaded into the Oracle 9i database system and the waveforms for that time period have been converted to mSEED format and are accessible through the STP interface. Quality control of 1981-2000 historic parametric and waveform data has progressed using a detailed reverse-chronological examination and verification of magnitudes. Current efforts at the SCEDC are focused on continuing to expand the available seismic datasets, enhancing and expanding distribution methods, and providing rapid access to all datasets, historic and modern. Through the California Integrated Seismic Network, the SCEDC is working with the NCEDC to provide unified access to California earthquake data.

Appel, V. L.; Clayton, R. W.

2003-12-01

100

Monitoring Earthquake Liquefaction Processes Using MISR\\/Terra Satellite Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The devastating Gujarat earthquake which hit the province of Gujarat in India on January 26, 2001, provoked an extensive liquefaction process. This presentation reports on the spatio-temporal distribution of this liquefaction-induced surface phenomenon by analyzing time series measurements collected by the MISR sensor on board the Terra platform. The analysis of MISR measurements in the near-infrared spectral domain reveals the

B. Pinty; N. Gobron; M. M. Verstraete; F. Melin; J. Widlowski; Y. Govaerts; D. J. Diner; E. Fielding; D. L. Nelson; R. Madariaga

2002-01-01

101

Monitoring Earthquake Dewatering Processes Using MISR Satellite Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The devastating Gujarat earthquake which hit the province of Gujarat in India on January 26, 2001, provoked an extensive liquefaction process. This presentation reports on the spatio-temporal distribution of this liquefaction-induced surface phenomenon by analyzing time seriesmeasurements collected by the MISR sensor on board the Terra platform.The analysis of MISR measurements in the near-infrared spectral domain reveals the spatial extent

B. Pinty; N. Gobron; M. M. Verstraete; F. Melin; J. Widlowski; Y. Govaerts; D. J. Diner; E. Fielding; D. L. Nelson; R. Madariaga; M. P. Tuttle

2004-01-01

102

U.S. National Seismograph Network improves earthquake monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of a United States National Seismograph Network (USNSN) dates back nearly 30 years. The idea was revived several times over the decades but never funded. For example, a national network was proposed and discussed at great length in the so-called ``Bolt Report'' (U.S. Earthquake Observatories: Recommendations for a New National Network, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 1980). From

Ray Buland

1993-01-01

103

Earthquakes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an online lesson that can be transferred into a classroom instructional activity by the teacher. This lesson simplifies the concepts while pushing the the higher order thinking concepts with scaffolding all concepts of the layers of the earth, plate tectonics, P and S waves, creating a model of an earthquake. Students enjoy this lesson and have been able to improve on assessment after completing the Earthquake lesson. Teachers will enjoy the online printable worksheets that correlate to the lesson/data sheets and the variety of choices while using the interactive tool for whole group instruction. There are many choices for formative assessment as well as summamtive assessment.

U.S. Geological Survey Joy Lopez, M.A., teacher Scott Hassler, Ph.D. Geologist

2011-10-14

104

The April 18, 2008 Illinois earthquake: an ANSS monitoring success  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The largest-magnitude earthquake in the past 20 years struck near Mt. Carmel in southeastern Illinois on Friday morning, 18 April 2008 at 09:36:59 UTC (04:37 CDT). The Mw 5.2 earthquake was felt over an area that spanned Chicago and Atlanta, with about 40,000 reports submitted to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) “Did You Feel It?” system. There were at least six felt aftershocks greater than magnitude 3 and 20 aftershocks with magnitudes greater than 2 located by regional and national seismic networks. Portable instrumentation was deployed by researchers of the University of Memphis and Indiana University (the first portable station was installed at about 23:00 UTC on 18 April). The portable seismographs were deployed both to capture near-source, high-frequency ground motions for significant aftershocks and to better understand structure along the active fault. The previous similar-size earthquake within the Wabash Valley seismic zone (WVSZ) of southeastern Illinois and southwestern Indiana was a magnitude 5.0 in June 1987. The seismicity associated with the WVSZ is thought to occur in a complex horst and graben system of Precambrian igneous and metamorphic units at depths between 12 and 20 km. Paleoliquefaction evidence suggests several major shaking events have occurred within the past 12,000 years (Munson et al. 1997).

Herrmann, R. B.; Withers, M.; Benz, H.

2008-01-01

105

Real-Time Data Processing Systems and Products at the Alaska Earthquake Information Center  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Alaska Earthquake Information Center (AEIC) receives data from over 400 seismic sites located within the state boundaries and the surrounding regions and serves as a regional data center. In 2007, the AEIC reported ~20,000 seismic events, with the largest event of M6.6 in Andreanof Islands. The real-time earthquake detection and data processing systems at AEIC are based on the Antelope system from BRTT, Inc. This modular and extensible processing platform allows an integrated system complete from data acquisition to catalog production. Multiple additional modules constructed with the Antelope toolbox have been developed to fit particular needs of the AEIC. The real-time earthquake locations and magnitudes are determined within 2-5 minutes of the event occurrence. AEIC maintains a 24/7 seismologist-on-duty schedule. Earthquake alarms are based on the real- time earthquake detections. Significant events are reviewed by the seismologist on duty within 30 minutes of the occurrence with information releases issued for significant events. This information is disseminated immediately via the AEIC website, ANSS website via QDDS submissions, through e-mail, cell phone and pager notifications, via fax broadcasts and recorded voice-mail messages. In addition, automatic regional moment tensors are determined for events with M>=4.0. This information is posted on the public website. ShakeMaps are being calculated in real-time with the information currently accessible via a password-protected website. AEIC is designing an alarm system targeted for the critical lifeline operations in Alaska. AEIC maintains an extensive computer network to provide adequate support for data processing and archival. For real-time processing, AEIC operates two identical, interoperable computer systems in parallel.

Ruppert, N. A.; Hansen, R. A.

2007-05-01

106

Earthquakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

I HAVE observed, in several recent numbers of NATURE, various notices of earthquakes, so frequent as to suggest the idea to me (perhaps incorrect) that for several months past they have been more numerous than usual. Since my arrival in West Java I have experienced several severe shocks. On March 28, between 7 and 8 P.M., I was startled by

Henry O. Forbes

1879-01-01

107

Conditional simulation of non-Gaussian random fields for earthquake monitoring systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of conditional simulation of random fields gained a significant interest recently due to its applications to urban earthquake monitoring. In this paper, for the first time in the literature, the method of conditional simulation of non-Gaussian random fields is developed. It combines previous techniques of iterative procedure of unconditional simulation of non-Gaussian fields, and the procedure of conditional

M. Shinozuka; I. Elishakoff

1995-01-01

108

Korea Integrated Seismic System (KISS) and Earthquake Monitoring for Korea Train eXpress (KTX)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 2002 Korea Integrated Seismic System (KISS) has been playing main role in real-time seismic data exchange between different seismic networks operated by four earthquake monitoring institutes: KMA, KEPRI, KINS and KIGAM. Seismic data from different seismic networks are gathered into the data pool of KISS where clients can receive data in real-time. Before expanding and modernizing of Korean seismic

Jung Ho Park; Heon Cheol Chi; In Seub Lim; Geun Young Kim; Jin Soo Shin

2010-01-01

109

The Error Analysis of Global Gravity Field Models according to the Earthquake Monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the GRACE mission was launched in March 2002, there have been a lot of GRACE observational data and products released, including the time-variable global gravity field models with the maximum degree to 120, and 1 month time resolution. The purpose of this paper is how to use these global gravity field model products to analyze the earthquake monitoring according

Z. Zou; H. Li; W. Dan

2007-01-01

110

Building Capacity for Earthquake Monitoring: Linking Regional Networks with the Global Community  

Microsoft Academic Search

Installing or upgrading a seismic monitoring network is often among the mitigation efforts after earthquake disasters, and this is happening in response to the events both in Sumatra during December 2004 and in Pakistan during October 2005. These networks can yield improved hazard assessment, more resilient buildings where they are most needed, and emergency relief directed more quickly to the

R. J. Willemann; A. Lerner-Lam

2006-01-01

111

Earthquake Education and Public Information Centers: A Collaboration Between the Earthquake Country Alliance and Free-Choice Learning Institutions in California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 1999 the Southern California Earthquake Center initiated an effort to expand its reach to multiple target audiences through the development of an interpretive trail on the San Andreas fault at Wallace Creek and an earthquake exhibit at Fingerprints Youth Museum in Hemet. These projects and involvement with the San Bernardino County Museum in Redlands beginning in 2007 led to the creation of Earthquake Education and Public Information Centers (EPIcenters) in 2008. The impetus for the development of the network was to broaden participation in The Great Southern California ShakeOut. In 2009 it has grown to be more comprehensive in its scope including its evolution into a statewide network. EPIcenters constitute a variety of free-choice learning institutions, representing museums, science centers, libraries, universities, parks, and other places visited by a variety of audiences including families, seniors, and school groups. They share a commitment to demonstrating and encouraging earthquake preparedness. EPIcenters coordinate Earthquake Country Alliance activities in their county or region, lead presentations or organize events in their communities, or in other ways demonstrate leadership in earthquake education and risk reduction. The San Bernardino County Museum (Southern California) and The Tech Museum of Innovation (Northern California) serve as EPIcenter regional coordinating institutions. They interact with over thirty institutional partners who have implemented a variety of activities from displays and talks to earthquake exhibitions. While many activities are focused on the time leading up to and just after the ShakeOut, most EPIcenter members conduct activities year round. Network members at Kidspace Museum in Pasadena and San Diego Natural History Museum have formed EPIcenter focus groups on early childhood education and safety and security. This presentation highlights the development of the EPIcenter network, synergistic activities resulting from this collaboration, and lessons learned from interacting with free-choice learning institutions.

Degroot, R. M.; Springer, K.; Brooks, C. J.; Schuman, L.; Dalton, D.; Benthien, M. L.

2009-12-01

112

Hiding earthquakes from scrupulous monitoring eyes of dense local seismic networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accurate and complete cataloguing of aftershocks is essential for a variety of purposes, including the estimation of the mainshock rupture area, the identification of seismic gaps, and seismic hazard assessment. However, immediately following large earthquakes, the seismograms recorded by local networks are noisy, with energy arriving from hundreds of aftershocks, in addition to different seismic phases interfering with one another. This causes deterioration in the performance of detection and location of earthquakes using conventional methods such as the S-P approach. This is demonstrated by results of back-projection analysis of teleseismic data showing that a significant number of events are undetected by the Japan Meteorological Agency, within the first twenty-four hours after the Mw9.0 Tohoku-oki, Japan earthquake. The spatial distribution of the hidden events is not arbitrary. Most of these earthquakes are located close to the trench, while some are located at the outer rise. Furthermore, there is a relatively sharp trench-parallel boundary separating the detected and undetected events. We investigate the cause of these hidden earthquakes using forward modeling. The calculation of raypaths for various source locations and takeoff angles with the "shooting" method suggests that this phenomenon is a consequence of the complexities associated with subducting slab. Laterally varying velocity structure defocuses the seismic energy from shallow earthquakes located near the trench and makes the observation of P and S arrivals difficult at stations situated on mainland Japan. Full waveform simulations confirm these results. Our forward calculations also show that the probability of detection is sensitive to the depth of the event. Shallower events near the trench are more difficult to detect than deeper earthquakes that are located inside the subducting plate for which the shadow-zone effect diminishes. The modeling effort is expanded to include three-dimensional structure in velocity and intrinsic attenuation to evaluate possible laterally varying patterns. Our study suggests that the phenomenon of hidden earthquakes could be present at other regions around the world with active subductions. Considering that many of these subduction zones are not as well monitored as Japan, the number of missed events, especially after large earthquakes, could be significant. The results of this work can help to identify "blind spots" of present seismic networks, and can contribute to improving monitoring activities.

Bogiatzis, P.; Ishii, M.; Kiser, E.

2012-12-01

113

Urban damage Analysis and Surface Deformation Monitoring for 2003 Bam Earthquake Using SAR Interferometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Mw 6.6, 26 December 2003 Bam (Iran) earthquake was the deadliest earthquake in 2003. An estimated 30000 people were killed and 85% of the buildings in the area were damaged or destroyed. This Earthquake was one of the first earthquakes for which Envisat advanced synthetic aperture radar (ASAR) data were available. In this paper we used DInSAR technique for mapping surface deformation at an unprecedented spatial resolution and demonstrated that interferometric observations of the Bam earthquake can not only map surface displacements and constrain fault models, but can also be used for damage mapping using the coherence and correlation magnitude. Our aim is to monitor the deformation due to earthquake and analyse the capability of SAR remote sensing techniques for damage detection in urban areas. In the first step we performed DInSAR process onto SAR images to retrieve displacement fringes. in this regards, we used three-pass interferometry approach , which in it 3 radar images of the same area was combined to form two interferograms and then the interferometric phase field due to topography is removed from the observed phase. In the second step we calculated pre and post- seismic coherence and correlation values from the related phase and amplitude data, respectively. We define a number of indexes based on the pre and co seismic coherence and correlation changes to map damage level. These indexes were calculated as relation between the pre and co-seismic coherence and correlation values. The case study of this research is on the 2003 Bam earthquake with using co-seismic and pre-seismic pairs of Envisat radar images in ascending and descending orbits. The images processed with Doris Software in Linux systems. Finally urban damage analysis was accomplished with ArcGIS software in Windows.The deformation field derived in this study has compared with other publications. We validated the damage maps using imagery acquired by ETM satellite before and after the earthquake. We found a close agreement between our damage maps and those derived from optical images after the earthquake. This suggests that coherence-based damage maps might be used for rapid damage mapping where interferometric data can be made available shortly after a damaging earthquake.

Vajedian, S.; Sarajian, M. R.

2009-04-01

114

Data Center Workload Monitoring, Analysis, and Emulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last ten years we have witnessed a shift from large mainframe computing to commodity, off-the-shelf clusters of servers. Today's data centers contain thousands or tens of thousands of servers, providing services and computation for tens or hundreds of thousands of users. In addition to tra- ditional IT challenges such as server management, security, and performance, data center owners

Justin Moore; Jeff Chase; Keith Farkas; Parthasarathy Ranganathan

115

The Northern California Earthquake Data Center: Seismic and Geophysical Data for Northern California and Beyond  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Northern California Earthquake Data Center (NCEDC) is an archive and distribution center for geophysical data for networks in northern and central California. The NCEDC provides timeseries data from seismic, strain, electro-magnetic, a variety of creep, tilt, and environmental sensors, and continuous and campaign GPS data in raw and RINEX formats. The NCEDC has a wide variety of interfaces for data retrieval. Timeseries data are available via a web interface and standard queued request methods such as NetDC (developed in collaboration with the IRIS DMC and other international data centers), BREQ_FAST, and EVT_FAST. Interactive data retrieval methods include STP, developed by the SCEDC, and FISSURES DHI (Data Handling Interface), an object-oriented interface developed by IRIS. The Sandia MATSEIS system is being adapted to use the FISSURES DHI interface to provide an enhanced GUI-based seismic analysis system for MATLAB. Northern California and prototype ANSS worldwide earthquake catalogs are searchable from web interfaces, and supporting phase and amplitude data can be retrieved when available. Future data sets planned for the NCEDC are seismic and strain data from the EarthScope Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) and SAFOD. The NCEDC is a joint project of the UC Berkeley Seismological Laboratory and USGS Menlo Park.

Neuhauser, D.; Klein, F.; Zuzlewski, S.; Gee, L.; Oppenheimer, D.; Romanowicz, B.

2004-12-01

116

Progress Towards Near-Realtime Seismic Moment Tensors at the Alaska Earthquake Information Center  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A near-realtime seismic moment tensor inversion routine has been operational at the Alaska Earthquake Information Center (AEIC) in a test mode for over a year. The AEIC real-time earthquake detection system, based on the Antelope software package, triggers the automatic moment-tensor inversion routine. It is based on a software package developed at the Berkeley Seismological Laboratory and performs a time domain inversion of three-component seismic data for the seismic moment tensor. We use a library of precalculated Green's functions for a suite of regional velocity models and a range of source depths (from 5 to 200 km with 5 km interval) to compute synthetic seismograms. The resulting moment tensor inversion information is distributed via the web. The Alaska seismic network in its current configuration includes 45 broad-band sites. Stable inversion results can be obtained for events with magnitude 4.0 and greater in the network core area (southern and central Alaska) and 4.5 and greater in the rest of the state including the Aleutian Islands. We will present a catalog of nearly 200 regional moment tensor solutions for Alaska and Aleutian Islands starting from October, 2002 through the present including, the 2002 Denali Fault earthquake sequence.

Ratchkovski, N.; Hansen, R.

2004-12-01

117

Novel Algorithms Enabling Rapid, Real-Time Earthquake Monitoring and Tsunami Early Warning Worldwide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have introduced recently new methods to determine rapidly the tsunami potential and magnitude of large earthquakes (e.g., Lomax and Michelini, 2009ab, 2011, 2012). To validate these methods we have implemented them along with other new algorithms within the Early-est earthquake monitor at INGV-Rome (http://early-est.rm.ingv.it, http://early-est.alomax.net). Early-est is a lightweight software package for real-time earthquake monitoring (including phase picking, phase association and event detection, location, magnitude determination, first-motion mechanism determination, ...), and for tsunami early warning based on discriminants for earthquake tsunami potential. In a simulation using archived broadband seismograms for the devastating M9, 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami, Early-est determines: the epicenter within 3 min after the event origin time, discriminants showing very high tsunami potential within 5-7 min, and magnitude Mwpd(RT) 9.0-9.2 and a correct shallow-thrusting mechanism within 8 min. Real-time monitoring with Early-est givess similar results for most large earthquakes using currently available, real-time seismogram data. Here we summarize some of the key algorithms within Early-est that enable rapid, real-time earthquake monitoring and tsunami early warning worldwide: >>> FilterPicker - a general purpose, broad-band, phase detector and picker (http://alomax.net/FilterPicker); >>> Robust, simultaneous association and location using a probabilistic, global-search; >>> Period-duration discriminants TdT0 and TdT50Ex for tsunami potential available within 5 min; >>> Mwpd(RT) magnitude for very large earthquakes available within 10 min; >>> Waveform P polarities determined on broad-band displacement traces, focal mechanisms obtained with the HASH program (Hardebeck and Shearer, 2002); >>> SeisGramWeb - a portable-device ready seismogram viewer using web-services in a browser (http://alomax.net/webtools/sgweb/info.html). References (see also: http://alomax.net/pub_list.html): Lomax, A. and A. Michelini (2012), Tsunami early warning within 5 minutes, Pure and Applied Geophysics, 169, nnn-nnn, doi: 10.1007/s00024-012-0512-6. Lomax, A. and A. Michelini (2011), Tsunami early warning using earthquake rupture duration and P-wave dominant period: the importance of length and depth of faulting, Geophys. J. Int., 185, 283-291, doi: 10.1111/j.1365-246X.2010.04916.x. Lomax, A. and A. Michelini (2009b), Tsunami early warning using earthquake rupture duration, Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, L09306, doi:10.1029/2009GL037223. Lomax, A. and A. Michelini (2009a), Mwpd: A Duration-Amplitude Procedure for Rapid Determination of Earthquake Magnitude and Tsunamigenic Potential from P Waveforms, Geophys. J. Int.,176, 200-214, doi:10.1111/j.1365-246X.2008.03974.x

Lomax, A.; Michelini, A.

2012-12-01

118

Earthquake.  

PubMed

On January 25, 1 week after the most devastating earthquake in Los Angeles history, the Southern California Hospital Council released the following status report: 928 patients evacuated from damaged hospitals. 805 beds available (136 critical, 669 noncritical). 7,757 patients treated/released from EDs. 1,496 patients treated/admitted to hospitals. 61 dead. 9,309 casualties. Where do we go from here? We are still waiting for the "big one." We'll do our best to be ready when Mother Nature shakes, rattles and rolls. The efforts of Los Angeles City Fire Chief Donald O. Manning cannot be overstated. He maintained department command of this major disaster and is directly responsible for implementing the fire department's Disaster Preparedness Division in 1987. Through the chief's leadership and ability to forecast consequences, the city of Los Angeles was better prepared than ever to cope with this horrendous earthquake. We also pay tribute to the men and women who are out there each day, where "the rubber meets the road." PMID:10133439

Cowen, A R; Denney, J P

1994-04-01

119

From the Testing Center of Regional Earthquake Likelihood Models to the Collaboratory for the Study of Earthquake Predictability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Regional Earthquake Likelihood Models (RELM) project aims to produce and evaluate alternate models of earthquake potential (probability per unit volume, magnitude, and time) for California. Based on differing assumptions, these models are produced to test the validity of their assumptions and to explore which models should be incorporated in seismic hazard and risk evaluation. During the years of the

D. Schorlemmer; M. Gerstenberger; T. Jordan; E. Field; S. Wiemer; L. Jones; D. D. Jackson

120

Development of volcano monitoring technique using repeating earthquakes observed by the Volcano Observation Network of NIED  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After the Grate East Japan Earthquake (M9.0) on March 11, 2011, the M6.4 earthquake occurred beneath Mt. Fuji on March 15, 2011. Although the hypocenter seemed to be very close to an assumed magma chamber of Fuji volcano, no anomalies in volcanic activity have been observed until August 2012. As an example, after the M6.1 earthquake occurred in 1998 at southwest of Iwate volcano, a change of seismic velocity structure (e.g. Nishimura et al., 2000) was observed as well as active seismicity and crustal deformation. It had affected waveforms of repeating earthquakes occurring at a plate subduction zone, that is, the waveform similarities were reduced just after the earthquake due to upwelling of magma. In this study, first we analyzed for Mt. Fuji where such changes are expected by the occurrence of the earthquake to try to develop a tool for monitoring active volcanoes using the Volcano Observation network (V-net) data. We used seismic waveform data of repeating earthquakes observed by short period seismometers of V-net and the High Sensitivity Seismograph Network Japan (Hi-net) stations near Fuji volcano after 2007. The seismic data were recorded with a sampling rate of 100 Hz, and we applied 4-8 Hz band pass filter to reduce noise. The repeating earthquakes occurred at the plate subduction zone and their catalog is compiled by Hi-net data (Kimura et al., 2006). We extracted repeating earthquake groups that include earthquakes before and after the M6.4 earthquake on March 15, 2011. A waveform of the first event of the group and waveforms of the other events are compared and calculated cross-correlation coefficients. We adjusted P wave arrivals of each event and calculate the coefficients and lag times of the latter part of the seismic waves with the time window of 1.25 s. We searched the best fit maximizing the cross-correlation coefficients with 0.1 s shift time at each time window. As a result we found three remarkable points at this time. [1] Comparing lag times of (a) a pair that both earthquakes are before March 15, 2011, and (b) a pair that before and after March 15, 2011, (b) has bigger time delay at several stations than (a). [2] The delays for several pairs of earthquakes are obtained at NIED V-net stations established just around Mt. Fuji. On the other hand Hi-net stations which are far from the edifice have the smaller delays. [3] Some stations, FJNV, FJHV, FJYV, located on the west part of the edifice have bigger delays than the others. An obvious delay comes out at the S wave coda part, and does not in the P wave coda part or S wave. As one of the possibilities to create the delays, it is considered that, for example, seismic velocity structure beneath Mt. Fuji had changed since the M6.4 earthquake. In the case of the unrest of Iwate volcano in 1998, waves passing through the magma chamber had got delayed (e.g. Yamawaki et al., 2004). It is important to install borehole type seismometers just around a volcano, like V-net stations, to get high quality seismograms for precise study like this analysis and to get some changes of volcano activities.

Kohno, Y.; Ueda, H.; Kimura, H.; Nagai, M.; Miyagi, Y.; Fujita, E.; Kozono, T.; Tanada, T.

2012-12-01

121

The “peeling” method to process apparent resistivity data for earthquake precursory monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

Considering the fact that there is only one pair of fixed potential poles in one direction used to monitor the resistivity\\u000a changes under the observatory station which may indicate process of earthquake preparation, based on the precondition that\\u000a the resistivity structure is 1-dimensional under the observatory station, and by way of equivalent model put forward by the\\u000a authors, this paper

Xian-Jin Mao; Jia-Dong Qian

2001-01-01

122

Precursors of large Kamchatka earthquakes based on monitoring of seismic noise  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents results from a monitoring study in high frequency seismic noise in Kamchatka during 1992–2006 and reports\\u000a their use for predicting large regional earthquakes (M ? 6.0) in an epicentral distance range ? within 400 km. The prediction\\u000a is based on an original method using earth tides as the standard external excitation to study patterns of seismic emission.

V. A. Saltykov; Yu. A. Kugaenko; V. I. Sinitsyn; V. N. Chebrov

2008-01-01

123

Elimination of effects of earthquake in monitoring crustal movement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monitoring crustal movements is important in understanding the earth surface and in developing theories about plate tectonics.\\u000a Plate tectonics describes earth crust which consists of a number of plates moving relative to one another. Global plate models\\u000a suggest that plate movements are constant due to the fact that relative movements of plates were represented by averaged plate\\u000a motion. However, if

C. T. Celik; W. Chen; R. M. Bingley

2007-01-01

124

Wireless data acquisition for post-earthquake lifeline performance monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wireless data acquisition system is investigated for monitoring and control of city lifeline in disaster situations. This paper describes an experimental system consisting of a 2.1 GHz TDM and 2.4 GHz hybrid TD-CDMA systems and experimental results obtained to date. The system was able to collect the urgent data (2B\\/terminal) from some 260 k household terminals in 51.7 s

M. Sugiura; S. Ito; M. Atsumi; A. Adachi; T. Fujiwara; T. Watanabe; S. Mizushina

2000-01-01

125

Wireless sensor network for data-center environmental monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data centers' energy consumption has attracted global attention because of the fast growth of the information technology (IT) industry. Up to 60% of the energy consumed in a data center is used for cooling in wasteful ways as a result of lack of environmental information and overcompensated cooling systems. In this project, a wireless sensor network for data-enter environmental monitoring

Michael G. Rodriguez; Luis E. Ortiz Uriarte; Yi Jia; Kazutomo Yoshii; Robert Ross; Peter H. Beckman

2011-01-01

126

Moving Toward Climate Data Integration: The Observing System Monitoring Center  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding climate variability requires the development, maintenance and evaluation of a sustained global climate observing system. The purpose of the Observing System Monitoring Center (OSMC), which is being funded by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) Office of Climate Observation (OCO), is to provide a tool that will assist managers and scientists with monitoring the performance of the global

K. O'Brien; S. Hankin; T. Habermann; K. Kern; R. Schweitzer; M. Little; D. Snowden; J. Cartwright; J. Larocque; J. Li; J. Malczyk; A. Manke

2008-01-01

127

Real-time seismic monitoring of the integrated cape girardeau bridge array and recorded earthquake response  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This paper introduces the state of the art, real-time and broad-band seismic monitoring network implemented for the 1206 m [3956 ft] long, cable-stayed Bill Emerson Memorial Bridge in Cape Girardeau (MO), a new Mississippi River crossing, approximately 80 km from the epicentral region of the 1811-1812 New Madrid earthquakes. The bridge was designed for a strong earthquake (magnitude 7.5 or greater) during the design life of the bridge. The monitoring network comprises a total of 84 channels of accelerometers deployed on the superstructure, pier foundations and at surface and downhole free-field arrays of the bridge. The paper also presents the high quality response data obtained from the network. Such data is aimed to be used by the owner, researchers and engineers to assess the performance of the bridge, to check design parameters, including the comparison of dynamic characteristics with actual response, and to better design future similar bridges. Preliminary analyses of ambient and low amplitude small earthquake data reveal specific response characteristics of the bridge and the free-field. There is evidence of coherent tower, cable, deck interaction that sometimes results in amplified ambient motions. Motions at the lowest tri-axial downhole accelerometers on both MO and IL sides are practically free from any feedback from the bridge. Motions at the mid-level and surface downhole accelerometers are influenced significantly by feedback due to amplified ambient motions of the bridge. Copyright ASCE 2006.

Celebi, M.

2006-01-01

128

Recorded earthquake responses from the integrated seismic monitoring network of the Atwood Building, Anchorage, Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An integrated seismic monitoring system with a total of 53 channels of accelerometers is now operating in and at the nearby free-field site of the 20-story steel-framed Atwood Building in highly seismic Anchorage, Alaska. The building has a single-story basement and a reinforced concrete foundation without piles. The monitoring system comprises a 32-channel structural array and a 21-channel site array. Accelerometers are deployed on 10 levels of the building to assess translational, torsional, and rocking motions, interstory drift (displacement) between selected pairs of adjacent floors, and average drift between floors. The site array, located approximately a city block from the building, comprises seven triaxial accelerometers, one at the surface and six in boreholes ranging in depths from 15 to 200 feet (???5-60 meters). The arrays have already recorded low-amplitude shaking responses of the building and the site caused by numerous earthquakes at distances ranging from tens to a couple of hundred kilometers. Data from an earthquake that occurred 186 km away traces the propagation of waves from the deepest borehole to the roof of the building in approximately 0.5 seconds. Fundamental structural frequencies [0.58 Hz (NS) and 0.47 Hz (EW)], low damping percentages (2-4%), mode coupling, and beating effects are identified. The fundamental site frequency at approximately 1.5 Hz is close to the second modal frequencies (1.83 Hz NS and 1.43 EW) of the building, which may cause resonance of the building. Additional earthquakes prove repeatability of these characteristics; however, stronger shaking may alter these conclusions. ?? 2006, Earthquake Engineering Research Institute.

Celebi, M.

2006-01-01

129

Monitoring the mental well-being of caregivers during the Haiti-earthquake.  

PubMed Central

Introduction During disaster relief, personnel’s safety is very important. Mental well being is a part of this safety issue. There is however a lack of objective mental well being monitoring tools, usable on scene, during disaster relief. This study covers the use of validated tools towards detection of psychological distress and monitoring of mental well being of disaster relief workers, during the Belgian First Aid and Support Team deployment after the Haiti earthquake in 2010. Methodology The study was conducted using a demographic questionnaire combined with validated measuring instruments: Belbin Team Role, Compassion Fatigue and Satisfaction Self-Test for Helpers, DMAT PsySTART, K6+ Self Report. A baseline measurement was performed before departure on mission, and measurements were repeated at day 1 and day 7 of the mission, at the end of mission, and 7 days, 30 days and 90 days post mission. Results 23 out of the 27 team members were included in the study. Using the Compassion Fatigue and Satisfaction Self-Test for Helpers as a monitoring tool, a stable condition was monitored in 7 participants, a dip in 5 participants, an arousal in 10 participants and a double pattern in 1 participant. Conclusions The study proved the ability to monitor mental well being and detect psychological distress, by self administered validated tools, during a real disaster relief mission. However for practical reasons some tools should be adapted to the specific use in the field. This study opens a whole new research area within the mental well being and monitoring field. Citation: Van der Auwera M, Debacker M, Hubloue I. Monitoring the mental well-being of caregivers during the Haiti-earthquake.. PLoS Currents Disasters. 2012 Jul 18

Van der Auwera, Marcel; Debacker, Michel; Hubloue, Ives

2012-01-01

130

Monitoring the mental well-being of caregivers during the Haiti-earthquake.  

PubMed

Introduction During disaster relief, personnel's safety is very important. Mental well being is a part of this safety issue. There is however a lack of objective mental well being monitoring tools, usable on scene, during disaster relief. This study covers the use of validated tools towards detection of psychological distress and monitoring of mental well being of disaster relief workers, during the Belgian First Aid and Support Team deployment after the Haiti earthquake in 2010. Methodology The study was conducted using a demographic questionnaire combined with validated measuring instruments: Belbin Team Role, Compassion Fatigue and Satisfaction Self-Test for Helpers, DMAT PsySTART, K6+ Self Report. A baseline measurement was performed before departure on mission, and measurements were repeated at day 1 and day 7 of the mission, at the end of mission, and 7 days, 30 days and 90 days post mission. Results 23 out of the 27 team members were included in the study. Using the Compassion Fatigue and Satisfaction Self-Test for Helpers as a monitoring tool, a stable condition was monitored in 7 participants, a dip in 5 participants, an arousal in 10 participants and a double pattern in 1 participant. Conclusions The study proved the ability to monitor mental well being and detect psychological distress, by self administered validated tools, during a real disaster relief mission. However for practical reasons some tools should be adapted to the specific use in the field. This study opens a whole new research area within the mental well being and monitoring field. Citation: Van der Auwera M, Debacker M, Hubloue I. Monitoring the mental well-being of caregivers during the Haiti-earthquake.. PLoS Currents Disasters. 2012 Jul 18. PMID:22953241

Van der Auwera, Marcel; Debacker, Michel; Hubloue, Ives

2012-01-01

131

Southern California Earthquake Center/Undergraduate Studies in Earthquake Information Technology (SCEC/UseIT): Towards the Next Generation of Internship  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The SCEC/UseIT internship program is training the next generation of earthquake scientist, with methods that can be adapted to other disciplines. UseIT interns work collaboratively, in multi-disciplinary teams, conducting computer science research that is needed by earthquake scientists. Since 2002, the UseIT program has welcomed 64 students, in some two dozen majors, at all class levels, from schools around the nation. Each summer''s work is posed as a ``Grand Challenge.'' The students then organize themselves into project teams, decide how to proceed, and pool their diverse talents and backgrounds. They have traditional mentors, who provide advice and encouragement, but they also mentor one another, and this has proved to be a powerful relationship. Most begin with fear that their Grand Challenge is impossible, and end with excitement and pride about what they have accomplished. The 22 UseIT interns in summer, 2005, were primarily computer science and engineering majors, with others in geology, mathematics, English, digital media design, physics, history, and cinema. The 2005 Grand Challenge was to "build an earthquake monitoring system" to aid scientists who must visualize rapidly evolving earthquake sequences and convey information to emergency personnel and the public. Most UseIT interns were engaged in software engineering, bringing new datasets and functionality to SCEC-VDO (Virtual Display of Objects), a 3D visualization software that was prototyped by interns last year, using Java3D and an extensible, plug-in architecture based on the Eclipse Integrated Development Environment. Other UseIT interns used SCEC-VDO to make animated movies, and experimented with imagery in order to communicate concepts and events in earthquake science. One movie-making project included the creation of an assessment to test the effectiveness of the movie''s educational message. Finally, one intern created an interactive, multimedia presentation of the UseIT program.

Perry, S.; Benthien, M.; Jordan, T. H.

2005-12-01

132

Role of WEGENER (World Earthquake GEodesy Network for Environmental Hazard Research) in monitoring natural hazards (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

WEGENER was originally the acronym for Working Group of European Geoscientists for the Establishment of Networks for Earth-science Research. It was founded in March 1981 in response to an appeal delivered at the Journées Luxembourgeoises de Geodynamique in December 1980 to respond with a coordinated European proposal to a NASA Announcement of Opportunity inviting participation in the Crustal Dynamics and Earthquake Research Program. WEGENER, during the past 33 years, has always kept a close contact with the Agencies and Institutions responsible for the development and maintenance of the global space geodetic networks with the aim to make them aware of the scientific needs and outcomes of the project which might have an influence on the general science policy trends. WEGENER served as Inter-commission Project 3.2, between Commission 1 and Commission 3, of the International Association of Geodesy (IAG) until 2012. Since then, WEGENER project has become the Sub-commission 3.5 of IAG commission 3, namely Tectonics and Earthquake Geodesy. In this presentation, we briefly review the accomplishments of WEGENER as originally conceived and outline and justify the new focus of the WEGENER consortium. The remarkable and rapid evolution of the present state of global geodetic monitoring in regard to the precision of positioning capabilities (and hence deformation) and global coverage, the development of InSAR for monitoring strain with unprecedented spatial resolution, and continuing and planned data from highly precise satellite gravity and altimetry missions, encourage us to shift principal attention from mainly monitoring capabilities by a combination of space and terrestrial geodetic techniques to applying existing observational methodologies to the critical geophysical phenomena that threaten our planet and society. Our new focus includes developing an improved physical basis to mitigate earthquake, tsunami, and volcanic risks, and the effects of natural and anthropogenic climate change (sea level, ice degradation). In addition, expanded applications of space geodesy to atmospheric studies will remain a major focus with emphasis on ionospheric and tropospheric monitoring to support forecasting extreme events. Towards these ends, we will encourage and foster interdisciplinary, integrated initiatives to develop a range of case studies for these critical problems. Geological studies are needed to extend geodetic deformation studies to geologic time scales, and new modeling approaches will facilitate full exploitation of expanding geodetic databases. In light of this new focus, the WEGENER acronym now represents, 'World Earthquake GEodesy Network for Environmental Hazard Research.

Ozener, H.; Zerbini, S.; Bastos, M. L.; Becker, M. H.; Meghraoui, M.; Reilinger, R. E.

2013-12-01

133

Strength Drop as a Detectable Earthquake Precursor by means of Acoustic Monitoring at a Natural Scale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rate- and state-dependent friction law (RSF), proposed on the basis of laboratory experiments, has been extensively applied to modeling earthquake stick-slip cycle. Simple spring-slider models with RSF predicted a significant decrease of frictional strength Phi (state of contact) that was localized within a few years preceding the occurrence of an earthquake. This suggested a possibility of earthquake forecast by monitoring the strength of a natural fault by means of acoustic methodology. Recent laboratory experiments, on the other hand, successfully monitored the histories of strength in two major servo-controlled velocity-step- and hold-slide-tests by means of simultaneously measured P-wave transmissivity |T| across the frictional interface using a 1 MHz transducer. However, critical problems remained that how such acoustic monitoring can be realized at a natural scale and how large changes can really occur. The present paper explored the feasibility based on physics of RSF combined with displacement discontinuity model (DDM) proposed in the classical acoustic methodology for monitoring mechanical properties of a partially contacted interface. It was here theoretically derived that I times greater strength and J times greater L on a natural fault than those in laboratory lead to a relationship fc^fld=(I/J) fc^lab, where L is a characteristic slip distance, fc is a characteristic frequency around which |T| is proportional to the strength, and superscripts indicate in the field and in laboratory, respectively. To start with the observed quantities of the order of strength 10MPa, L^lab=1micron and fc^lab=1MHz, fc^fld was estimated as 100 Hz for values of 100MPa strength and L=10cm assumed in seismic cycle simulations and it could be as low as 1 Hz for recently reported large L=1m and weak strength of 10MPa for the 2012 Mw9.0 Tohoku earthquake. The frequency range between 1 to 100 Hz would be seismically observable in the field. Expected change of |T| in the preslip period would depend on the ratio of the strength change to the absolute value, whereas the ratio is arbitrary in the simulations. The ratio could be more than 50 % if a weak fault is considered, and it would be easily detected by acoustic methods such as seismic reflection surveys.

Kame, N.; Nagata, K.; Nakatani, M.; Kusakabe, T.

2013-12-01

134

Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center Phased Response Operations  

SciTech Connect

A Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC) is established in response to the Lead Federal Agency (LFA) or state request when a major radiological emergency is anticipated of has occurred. The FRMAC becomes a coalition of federal off-site monitoring and assessment activities to assist the LFA, state(s), local, and tribal authorities. State, local, and tribal authorities are invited to co-locate and prioritize monitoring and assessment efforts in the FRMAC. The Department of Energy is tasked by the Federal Radiological Emergency Response Plan to coordinate the FRMAC.

Riland, C.A.; Bowman, D.R.

1999-06-30

135

New Continuous Timeseries Data at the Northern California Earthquake Data Center  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Northern California Earthquake Data Center (NCEDC) is an archive and distribution center for geophysical data for networks in northern and central California. Recent discovery of non-volcanic tremors in northern and central California has sparked user interest in access to a wider range of continuous seismic data in the region. The NCEDC has responded by expanding its archiving and distribution to all new available continuous data from northern California seismic networks (the USGS NCSN, the UC Berkeley BDSN, the Parkfield HRSN borehole network, and local USArray stations) at all available sample rates, to provide access to all recent real-time timeseries data, and to restore from tape and archive all NCSN continuous data from 2001-present. All new continuous timeseries data will also be available in near-real-time from the NCEDC via the DART (Data Available in Real Time) system, which allows users to directly download daily Telemetry MiniSEED files or to extract and retrieve the timeseries of their selection. The NCEDC will continue to create and distribute event waveform collections for all events detected by the Northern California Seismic System (NCSS), the northern California component of the California Integrated Seismic Network (CISN). All new continuous and event timeseries will be archived in daily intervals and are accessible via the same data request tools (NetDC, BREQ_FAST, EVT_FAST, FISSURES/DHI, STP) as previously archived waveform data. The NCEDC is a joint project of the UC Berkeley Seismological Laboratory and USGS Menlo Park.

Neuhauser, D. S.; Dietz, L.; Zuzlewski, S.; Kohler, W.; Gee, L.; Oppenheimer, D.; Romanowicz, B.

2005-12-01

136

Real-Time Seismic Monitoring of Thenewcape Girardeau (mo) Bridge and Recorded Earthquake Response  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper introduces the state of the art, real-time and broad-band seismic monitoring network implemented for the 1206 m [3956 ft] long, cable-stayed Bill Emerson Memorial Bridge in Cape Girardeau (MO), a new Mississippi River crossing, approximately 80 km from the epicentral region of the 1811-1812 New Madrid earthquakes. Design of the bridge accounted for the possibility of a strong earthquake (magnitude 7.5 or greater) during the design life of the bridge. The monitoring network consists of a superstructure and two free-field arrays and comprises a total of 84 channels of accelerometers deployed on the superstructure, pier foundations and free-field in the vicinity of the bridge. The paper also introduces the high quality response data obtained from the network. Such data is aimed to be used by the owner, researchers and engineers to (1) assess the performance of the bridge, (2) check design parameters, including the comparison of dynamic characteristics with actual response, and (3) better design future similar bridges. Preliminary analyses of low-amplitude ambient vibration data and that from a small earthquake reveal specific response characteristics of this new bridge and the free-field in its proximity. There is coherent tower-cabledeck interaction that sometimes results in amplified ambient motions. Also, while the motions at the lowest (tri-axial) downhole accelerometers on both MO and IL sides are practically free-from any feedback from the bridge, the motions at the middle downhole and surface accelerometers are significantly influenced by amplified ambient motions of the bridge.

çelebi, Mehmet

137

The Swift/XRT monitoring campaign of the Galactic center  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Starting in 2006, the Galactic center has been monitored on a nearly daily basis with the X-ray telescope on-board the Swift satellite. The short pointed observations have offered a unique view of the long-term X-ray behavior of Sgr A*, in particular of its X-ray flaring properties. The Swift campaign also provides an excellent setup to closely monitor the interaction of the supermassive black hole with the gaseous object G2. Because of the unique daily sampling, the Swift program may prove to serve as an important trigger for other observatories at different wavelengths. I will report on the latest results of the Swift X-ray monitoring campaign of the Galactic center.

Degenaar, Nathalie; Reynolds, M.; Miller, J. M.; Wijnands, R.; Kennea, J. A.; Haggard, D.; Gehrels, N.; Ponti, G.; Baganoff, F. K.; Markoff, S.; Altamirano, D.; Burrows, D. N.

2014-01-01

138

Real-time earthquake monitoring for tsunami warning in the Indian Ocean and beyond  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Mw = 9.3 Sumatra earthquake of 26 December 2004 generated a tsunami that affected the entire Indian Ocean region and caused approximately 230 000 fatalities. In the response to this tragedy the German government funded the German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS) Project. The task of the GEOFON group of GFZ Potsdam was to develop and implement the seismological component. In this paper we describe the concept of the GITEWS earthquake monitoring system and report on its present status. The major challenge for earthquake monitoring within a tsunami warning system is to deliver rapid information about location, depth, size and possibly other source parameters. This is particularly true for coast lines adjacent to the potential source areas such as the Sunda trench where these parameters are required within a few minutes after the event in order to be able to warn the population before the potential tsunami hits the neighbouring coastal areas. Therefore, the key for a seismic monitoring system with short warning times adequate for Indonesia is a dense real-time seismic network across Indonesia with densifications close to the Sunda trench. A substantial number of supplementary stations in other Indian Ocean rim countries are added to strengthen the teleseismic monitoring capabilities. The installation of the new GITEWS seismic network - consisting of 31 combined broadband and strong motion stations - out of these 21 stations in Indonesia - is almost completed. The real-time data collection is using a private VSAT communication system with hubs in Jakarta and Vienna. In addition, all available seismic real-time data from the other seismic networks in Indonesia and other Indian Ocean rim countries are acquired also directly by VSAT or by Internet at the Indonesian Tsunami Warning Centre in Jakarta and the resulting "virtual" network of more than 230 stations can jointly be used for seismic data processing. The seismological processing software as part of the GITEWS tsunami control centre is an enhanced version of the widely used SeisComP software and the well established GEOFON earthquake information system operated at GFZ in Potsdam (http://geofon.gfz-potsdam.de/db/eqinfo.php). This recently developed software package (SeisComP3) is reliable, fast and can provide fully automatic earthquake location and magnitude estimates. It uses innovative visualization tools, offers the possibility for manual correction and re-calculation, flexible configuration, support for distributed processing and data and parameter exchange with external monitoring systems. SeisComP3 is not only used for tsunami warning in Indonesia but also in most other Tsunami Warning Centres in the Indian Ocean and Euro-Med regions and in many seismic services worldwide.

Hanka, W.; Saul, J.; Weber, B.; Becker, J.; Harjadi, P.; Fauzi; Gitews Seismology Group

2010-12-01

139

Postseismic Deformation after the 1964 Great Alaskan Earthquake: Collaborative Research with Goddard Space Flight Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this project was to carry out GPS observations on the Kenai Peninsula, southern Alaska, in order to study the postseismic and contemporary deformation following the 1964 Alaska earthquake. All of the research supported in this grant was carried out in collaboration with Dr. Steven Cohen of Goddard Space Flight Center. The research funding from this grant primarily supported GPS fieldwork, along with the acquisition of computer equipment to allow analysis and modeling of the GPS data. A minor amount of salary support was provided by the PI, but the great majority of the salary support was provided by the Geophysical Institute. After the expiration of this grant, additional funding was obtained from the National Science Foundation to continue the work. This grant supported GPS field campaigns in August 1995, June 1996, May-June and September 1997, and May-June 1998. We initially began the work by surveying leveling benchmarks on the Kenai peninsula that had been surveyed after the 1964 earthquake. Changes in height from the 1964 leveling data to the 1995+ GPS data, corrected for the geoid-ellipsoid separation, give the total elevation change since the earthquake. Beginning in 1995, we also identified or established sites that were suitable for long-term surveying using GPS. In the subsequent annual GPS campaigns, we made regular measurements at these GPS marks, and steadily enhanced our set of points for which cumulative postseismic uplift data were available. From 4 years of Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements, we find significant spatial variations in present-day deformation between the eastern and western Kenai peninsula, Alaska. Sites in the eastern Kenai peninsula and Prince William Sound move to the NNW relative to North America, in the direction of Pacific-North America relative plate motion. Velocities decrease in magnitude from nearly the full plate rate in southern Prince William Sound to about 30 mm/yr at Seward and to about 5 mm/yr near Anchorage. In contrast, sites in the western Kenai peninsula move to the SW, in a nearly trenchward direction, with a velocity of about 20 mm/yr. The data are consistent with the shallow plate interface offshore and beneath the eastern Kenai and Prince William Sound being completely locked or nearly so, with elastic strain accumulation resulting in rapid motion in the direction of relative plate motion of sites in the overriding plate. The velocities of sites in the western Kenai, along strike to the southwest, are opposite in sign with those predicted from elastic strain accumulation. These data are incompatible with a significant locked region in this segment of the plate boundary. Trenchward velocities are found also for some sites in the Anchorage area. We interpret the trenchward velocities as being caused by a continuing postseismic transient from the 1964 great Alaska earthquake.

Freymueller, Jeffrey T.

1999-01-01

140

Noise reduction in radon monitoring data using Kalman filter and application of results in earthquake precursory process research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Monitoring the concentration of radon gas is an established method for geophysical analyses and research, particularly in earthquake studies. A continuous radon monitoring station was implemented in Jooshan hotspring, Kerman province, south east Iran. The location was carefully chosen as a widely reported earthquake-prone zone. A common issue during monitoring of radon gas concentration is the possibility of noise disturbance by different environmental and instrumental parameters. A systematic mathematical analysis aiming at reducing such noises from data is reported here; for the first time, the Kalman filter (KF) has been used for radon gas concentration monitoring. The filtering is incorporated based on several seismic parameters of the area under study. A novel anomaly defined as "radon concentration spike crossing" is also introduced and successfully used in the study. Furthermore, for the first time, a mathematical pattern of a relationship between the radius of potential precursory phenomena and the distance between epicenter and the monitoring station is reported and statistically analyzed.

Namvaran, Mojtaba; Negarestani, Ali

2014-06-01

141

Rapid monitoring in vaccination campaigns during emergencies: the post-earthquake campaign in Haiti  

PubMed Central

Abstract Problem The earthquake that struck Haiti in January 2010 caused 1.5 million people to be displaced to temporary camps. The Haitian Ministry of Public Health and Population and global immunization partners developed a plan to deliver vaccines to those residing in these camps. A strategy was needed to determine whether the immunization targets set for the campaign were achieved. Approach Following the vaccination campaign, staff from the Ministry of Public Health and Population interviewed convenience samples of households – in specific predetermined locations in each of the camps – regarding receipt of the emergency vaccinations. A camp was targeted for “mop-up vaccination” – i.e. repeat mass vaccination – if more than?25% of the children aged 9 months to 7 years in the sample were found not to have received the emergency vaccinations. Local setting Rapid monitoring was implemented in camps located in the Port-au-Prince metropolitan area. Camps that housed more than?5000 people were monitored first. Relevant changes By the end of March 2010, 72 (23%) of the 310 vaccinated camps had been monitored. Although 32 (44%) of the monitored camps were targeted for mop-up vaccination, only six of them had received such repeat mass vaccination when checked several weeks after monitoring. Lessons learnt Rapid monitoring was only marginally beneficial in achieving immunization targets in the temporary camps in Port-au-Prince. More research is needed to evaluate the utility of conventional rapid monitoring, as well as other strategies, during post-disaster vaccination campaigns that involve mobile populations, particularly when there is little capacity to conduct repeat mass vaccination.

Sugerman, David; Brennan, Muireann; Cadet, Jean Ronald; Ernsly, Jackson; Lacapere, Francois; Danovaro-Holliday, M Carolina; Mubalama, Jean-Claude; Nandy, Robin

2013-01-01

142

Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center Overview of FRMAC Operations  

SciTech Connect

In the event of a major radiological emergency, 17 federal agencies with various statutory responsibilities have agreed to coordinate their efforts at the emergency scene under the umbrella of the Federal Radiological Emergency Response Plan. This cooperative effort will ensure that all federal radiological assistance fully supports their efforts to protect the public. the mandated federal cooperation ensures that each agency can obtain the data critical to its specific responsibilities. This Overview of Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC) describes the FRMAC response activities to a major radiological emergency. It also describes the federal assets and subsequent operational activities which provide federal radiological monitoring and assessment of the off-site areas.

NONE

1998-03-01

143

Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center Monitoring Manual Volume 2, Radiation Monitoring and Sampling  

SciTech Connect

The FRMAC Monitoring and Sampling Manual, Volume 2 provides standard operating procedures (SOPs) for field radiation monitoring and sample collection activities that are performed by the Monitoring group during a FRMAC response to a radiological emergency.

NSTec Aerial Measurement Systems

2012-07-31

144

Continued Chandra monitoring observations of the Galactic Center magnetar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have observed SGR J1745-29 (Kennea et al. 2013, ApJ 770, L24; Mori et al. 2013, ApJ 770, L23; Rea et al. 2013, ApJ 775, L34) with the ACIS-S camera onboard Chandra for about 47ks starting on 2014-02-21 (ObsID 16508), as part of the on-going Chandra X-ray monitoring of the Galactic Center region (PIs: Haggard, Baganoff, Rea).

Rea, Nanda; Haggard, Daryl; Baganoff, Fred; Heinke, Craig; Israel, Gian Luca; Ponti, Gabriele

2014-02-01

145

New methodology for global earthquake monitoring using joint multi-parameter satellite and in-situ data  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work will present our innovative approach of analyzing multisensor satellite data and ground based measurements to identify electromagnetic EM short-term earthquake precursors Numerous in-situ and space based sensors such as the GPS TEC ground based magnetic observation Rn monitoring atmospheric electrical field and the spaced based MODIS AVHRR GOES METEOSAT DEMETER sensors have provided data from multiple vantage points

D. Ouzounov; S. Pulinets; G. Cervone; M. Kafatos; P. Taylor

2006-01-01

146

Geochemical Fluid-monitoring Results In Relation To The NW Bohemian Earthquake Swarm Period 2000  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The monitoring of the isotope distribution from escaping gases of active continental rifts is a useful tool for the understanding of concealed upper mantle-crust interaction processes. Mantle derived fluid exhalations are known in the earthquake swarm re- gion Vogtland/ NW Bohemia, the western part of the Eger rift in Central Europe. At four locations, gas and isotope composition (C, He, N) were monitored weekly and monthly, respectively, since May 2000: two mofettes (Bublak, Soos) located in the centre of the CO2 plume and two mineral springs (Plesna, Wettinquelle/Bad Bram- bach) located at its periphery. The proportion of MORB-type helium decreases from the centre of the CO2 plume (up to 80%) in the south to the periphery (about 30%) in the north. Besides the periodic gas sampling, a seismohydrological online monitoring started at the same locations likewise since May 2000. From the end of August to the end of December 2000 a period of swarm quake seismicity occurred at what several phases of seismicity could be distinguished. Here, we present results of the first year of our monitoring study (May 2000 to April 2001). Peaks in the CO2 gas flow rate, the gas composition (helium, methane) as well as in the isotope distribution (3He/4He,15N, 13C) were found. Shifts in the gas and isotope composition are interpreted in connection with seasonal, seismohydrological and magmatic processes. The mineral springs show a seasonal induced correlation be- tween water temperature and CO2 content in the free gas phase. Peaks of 3He/4He ratios at the Wettinquelle and the Plesna mineral spring point out crustal contribu- tions several weeks after the beginning of the period of seismicity. Such a trend we have already found after the 12/1994 earthquake swarm. Each monitoring location is characterized by an isotope 'baseline' signature that reflects the balance of upper mantle-crust interaction. The isotope signature of the 'baseline' flux can change dur- ing opening of crustal reservoir. Long-term trends in Bublak and Plesna (1993 to 2000) of 3He/4He show an all-over increase of MORB-type He which point to active mag- matic processes.

Braeuer, K.; Kaempf, H.; Faber, E.; Heinicke, J.; Koch, U.; Strauch, G.; Weise, S. M.

147

Long-term blood pressure changes induced by the 2009 L'Aquila earthquake: assessment by 24 h ambulatory monitoring.  

PubMed

An increased rate of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events has been described during and immediately after earthquakes. In this regard, few data are available on long-term blood pressure control in hypertensive outpatients after an earthquake. We evaluated the long-term effects of the April 2009 L'Aquila earthquake on blood pressure levels, as detected by 24 h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. Before/after (mean±s.d. 6.9±4.5/14.2±5.1 months, respectively) the earthquake, the available 24 h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring data for the same patients were extracted from our database. Quake-related daily life discomforts were evaluated through interviews. We enrolled 47 patients (25 female, age 52±14 years), divided into three groups according to antihypertensive therapy changes after versus before the earthquake: unchanged therapy (n=24), increased therapy (n=17) and reduced therapy (n=6). Compared with before the quake, in the unchanged therapy group marked increases in 24 h (P=0.004), daytime (P=0.01) and nighttime (P=0.02) systolic blood pressure were observed after the quake. Corresponding changes in 24 h (P=0.005), daytime (P=0.01) and nighttime (P=0.009) diastolic blood pressure were observed. Daily life discomforts were reported more frequently in the unchanged therapy and increased therapy groups than the reduced therapy group (P=0.025 and P=0.018, respectively). In conclusion, this study shows that patients with unchanged therapy display marked blood pressure increments up to more than 1 year after an earthquake, as well as long-term quake-related discomfort. Our data suggest that particular attention to blood pressure levels and adequate therapy modifications should be considered after an earthquake, not only early after the event but also months later. PMID:23595046

Giorgini, Paolo; Striuli, Rinaldo; Petrarca, Marco; Petrazzi, Luisa; Pasqualetti, Paolo; Properzi, Giuliana; Desideri, Giovambattista; Omboni, Stefano; Parati, Gianfranco; Ferri, Claudio

2013-09-01

148

Monitoring the West Bohemian earthquake swarm in 2008/2009 by a temporary small-aperture seismic array  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The most recent intense earthquake swarm in West Bohemia lasted from 6 October 2008 to January 2009. Starting 12 days after the onset, the University of Potsdam monitored the swarm by a temporary small-aperture seismic array at 10 km epicentral distance. The purpose of the installation was a complete monitoring of the swarm including micro-earthquakes ( M L < 0). We identify earthquakes using a conventional short-term average/long-term average trigger combined with sliding-window frequency-wavenumber and polarisation analyses. The resulting earthquake catalogue consists of 14,530 earthquakes between 19 October 2008 and 18 March 2009 with magnitudes in the range of - 1.2 ? M L ? 2.7. The small-aperture seismic array substantially lowers the detection threshold to about M c = - 0.4, when compared to the regional networks operating in West Bohemia ( M c > 0.0). In the course of this work, the main temporal features (frequency-magnitude distribution, propagation of back azimuth and horizontal slowness, occurrence rate of aftershock sequences and interevent-time distribution) of the recent 2008/2009 earthquake swarm are presented and discussed. Temporal changes of the coefficient of variation (based on interevent times) suggest that the swarm earthquake activity of the 2008/2009 swarm terminates by 12 January 2009. During the main phase in our studied swarm period after 19 October, the b value of the Gutenberg-Richter relation decreases from 1.2 to 0.8. This trend is also reflected in the power-law behavior of the seismic moment release. The corresponding total seismic moment release of 1.02×1017 Nm is equivalent to M L,max = 5.4.

Hiemer, Stefan; Roessler, Dirk; Scherbaum, Frank

2012-04-01

149

On a possibility for early warning of strong earthquakes by satellite monitoring of anomalous effects in the ionosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper goal is to present simultaneously a satellite monitoring of plasma density variations and ULF\\/VLF wave emissions on the one hand and a ground earthquake monitoring, on the other. The INTERCOSMOS-BULGARIA-1300 satellite was launched on 7th August 1981. It had a perigee of 825 km, an apogee of 906 km and orbit inclination of 81.2. For satellite's orbits over

M. N. Gousheva; R. P. Glavcheva; D. L. Danov; P. S. Angelov; P. L. Hristov; B. B. Kirov; K. Y. Georgieva

2004-01-01

150

Advanced earthquake monitoring system for U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs medical buildings--instrumentation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In collaboration with the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA), the National Strong Motion Project (NSMP; http://nsmp.wr.usgs.gov/) of the U.S. Geological Survey has been installing sophisticated seismic systems that will monitor the structural integrity of 28 VA hospital buildings located in seismically active regions of the conterminous United States, Alaska, and Puerto Rico during earthquake shaking. These advanced monitoring systems, which combine the use of sensitive accelerometers and real-time computer calculations, are designed to determine the structural health of each hospital building rapidly after an event, helping the VA to ensure the safety of patients and staff. This report presents the instrumentation component of this project by providing details of each hospital building, including a summary of its structural, geotechnical, and seismic hazard information, as well as instrumentation objectives and design. The structural-health monitoring component of the project, including data retrieval and processing, damage detection and localization, automated alerting system, and finally data dissemination, will be presented in a separate report.

Kalkan, Erol; Banga, Krishna; Ulusoy, Hasan S.; Fletcher, Jon Peter B.; Leith, William S.; Reza, Shahneam; Cheng, Timothy

2012-01-01

151

Earthquake prediction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The state of the art in earthquake prediction is discussed. Short-term prediction based on seismic precursors, changes in the ratio of compressional velocity to shear velocity, tilt and strain precursors, electromagnetic precursors, hydrologic phenomena, chemical monitors, and animal behavior is examined. Seismic hazard assessment is addressed, and the applications of dynamical systems to earthquake prediction are discussed.

Turcotte, Donald L.

1991-01-01

152

Long-Span Continuous Self-Potential Measurements Around Earthquake Swarms for Monitoring Crustal Activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earthquake swarm activity has been continuously observed around the southeastern flank of Ontake stratovolcano since 1976. A large earthquake with the depth about 2 km and a magnitude of 6.8 occurred in 1984 in the southeastern flank of the volcano. Recently, Kimata et al. (2004) revealed uplift ground deformation above the earthquake swarm area by using repeated leveling. Furthermore, MagnetoTelluric

R. Yoshimura; N. Oshiman; K. Yamazaki; M. Uyeshima; T. Ogawa

2008-01-01

153

Research Progress and Accomplishments: 1997-1999, Multidisciplinary Center for Earthquake Engineering Research.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: A New Application for Remotely Sensed Data: Construction of Building Inventories Using Synthetic Aperture Radar Technology; Improving Earthquake Loss Estimation: Review, Assessment and Extension of Loss Estimation Methodologies; Benchmark Models...

1999-01-01

154

Development a Heuristic Method to Locate and Allocate the Medical Centers to Minimize the Earthquake Relief Operation Time  

PubMed Central

Background Location-allocation is a combinatorial optimization problem, and is defined as Non deterministic Polynomial Hard (NP) hard optimization. Therefore, solution of such a problem should be shifted from exact to heuristic or Meta heuristic due to the complexity of the problem. Locating medical centers and allocating injuries of an earthquake to them has high importance in earthquake disaster management so that developing a proper method will reduce the time of relief operation and will consequently decrease the number of fatalities. Methods: This paper presents the development of a heuristic method based on two nested genetic algorithms to optimize this location allocation problem by using the abilities of Geographic Information System (GIS). In the proposed method, outer genetic algorithm is applied to the location part of the problem and inner genetic algorithm is used to optimize the resource allocation. Results: The final outcome of implemented method includes the spatial location of new required medical centers. The method also calculates that how many of the injuries at each demanding point should be taken to any of the existing and new medical centers as well. Conclusions: The results of proposed method showed high performance of designed structure to solve a capacitated location-allocation problem that may arise in a disaster situation when injured people has to be taken to medical centers in a reasonable time.

AGHAMOHAMMADI, Hossein; SAADI MESGARI, Mohammad; MOLAEI, Damoon; AGHAMOHAMMADI, Hasan

2013-01-01

155

Results of seismological monitoring in the Cascade Range 1962-1989: earthquakes, eruptions, avalanches and other curiosities  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Modern monitoring of seismic activity at Cascade Range volcanoes began at Longmire on Mount Rainier in 1958. Since then, there has been an expansion of the regional seismic networks in Washington, northern Oregon and northern California. Now, the Cascade Range from Lassen Peak to Mount Shasta in the south and Newberry Volcano to Mount Baker in the north is being monitored for earthquakes as small as magnitude 2.0, and many of the stratovolcanoes are monitored for non-earthquake seismic activity. This monitoring has yielded three major observations. First, tectonic earthquakes are concentrated in two segments of the Cascade Range between Mount Rainier and Mount Hood and between Mount Shasta and Lassen Peak, whereas little seismicity occurs between Mount Hood and Mount Shasta. Second, the volcanic activity and associated phenomena at Mount St. Helens have produced intense and widely varied seismicity. And third, at the northern stratovolcanoes, signals generated by surficial events such as debris flows, icequakes, steam emissions, rockfalls and icefalls are seismically recorded. Such records have been used to alert authorities of dangerous events in progress. -Authors

Weaver, C. S.; Norris, R. D.; Jonientz-Trisler, C.

1990-01-01

156

The Evolution of the Federal Monitoring and Assessment Center  

SciTech Connect

The Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC) is a federal emergency response asset whose assistance may be requested by the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), the Department of Defense (DoD), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and state and local agencies to respond to a nuclear or radiological incident. It is an interagency organization with representation from the Department of Energy’s National Nuclear Security Administration (DOE/NNSA), the Department of Defense (DoD), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), and other federal agencies. FRMAC, in its present form, was created in 1987 when the radiological support mission was assigned to the DOE’s Nevada Operations Office by DOE Headquarters. The FRMAC asset, including its predecessor entities, was created, grew, and evolved to function as a response to radiological incidents. Radiological emergency response exercises showed the need for a coordinated approach to managing federal emergency monitoring and assessment activities. The mission of FRMAC is to coordinate and manage all federal radiological environmental monitoring and assessment activities during a nuclear or radiological incident within the United States in support of state,local, tribal governments, DHS, and the federal coordinating agency. Radiological emergency response professionals with the DOE’s national laboratories support the Radiological Assistance Program (RAP), National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC), the Aerial MeasuringSystem (AMS), and the Radiation Emergency Assistance Center/Training Site (REAC/TS). These teams support the FRMAC to provide: ? Atmospheric transport modeling ? Radiation monitoring ? Radiological analysis and data assessments ? Medical advice for radiation injuries In support of field operations, the FRMAC provides geographic information systems, communications, mechanical, electrical, logistics, and administrative support. The size of the FRMAC is tailored to the incident and is comprised of emergency response professionals drawn from across the federal government. State and local emergency response teams may also integrate their operations with FRMAC, but are not required to.

NSTec Aerial Measurement System

2012-07-31

157

Emergency radiological monitoring and analysis United States Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center  

SciTech Connect

The United States Federal Radiological Emergency Response Plan (FRERP) provides the framework for integrating the various Federal agencies responding to a major radiological emergency. Following a major radiological incident the FRERP authorizes the creation of the Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC). The FRMAC is established to coordinate all Federal agencies involved in the monitoring and assessment of the off-site radiological conditions in support of the impacted states and the Lead Federal Agency (LFA). Within the FRMAC, the Monitoring and Analysis Division is responsible for coordinating all FRMAC assets involved in conducting a comprehensive program of environmental monitoring, sampling, radioanalysis and quality assurance. This program includes: (1) Aerial Radiological Monitoring - Fixed Wing and Helicopter, (2) Field Monitoring and Sampling, (3) Radioanalysis - Mobile and Fixed Laboratories, (4) Radiation Detection Instrumentation - Calibration and Maintenance, (5) Environmental Dosimetry, and (6) An integrated program of Quality Assurance. To assure consistency, completeness and the quality of the data produced, a methodology and procedures handbook is being developed. This paper discusses the structure, assets and operations of FRMAC monitoring and analysis and the content and preparation of this handbook.

Thome, D.J.

1994-09-01

158

Magma Ascent to Submarine Volcanoes: Real-Time Monitoring by Means of Teleseismic Observations of Earthquake Swarms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earthquake swarm occurrence belongs to reliable indicators of magmatic activity in the Earth crust. Their occurrence beneath submarine portions of volcanic arcs brings valuable information on plumbing systems of this unsufficiently understood environment and reveals recently active submarine volcanoes. Utilisation of teleseismically recorded data (NEIC, GCMT Project) enables to observe magmatic activity in almost real time. We analysed seismicity pattern in two areas - the Andaman-Nicobar region in April 2012 and the southern Ryukyu in April 2013. In both regions, the swarms are situated 80-100 km above the Wadati-Benioff zone of the subducting slab. Foci of the swarm earthquakes delimit a seismogenic layer at depths between 9 - 35 km that should be formed by brittle and fractured rock environment. Repeated occurrence of earthquakes clustered in swarms excludes large accumulations of melted rocks in this layer. Magma reservoirs should be situated at depths greater than 35 km. Upward magma migration from deeper magma reservoirs to shallow magma chambers or to the seafloor induce earthquake swarms by increasing tectonic stress and/or decreasing friction at faults. Frequency of earthquake swarm occurrence in the investigated areas has made a volcanic eruption at the seafloor probable. Moreover, epicentral zones of the swarms often coincide with distinct elevations at the seafloor - seamounts and seamount ranges. High accuracy of global seismological data enabled also to observe migration of earthquakes during individual swarms (Fig. 1), probably reflecting dike and/or sill propagation. Triggering of earthquake swarms by distant strong earthquakes was repeatedly observed in the Andaman-Nicobar region. The presented study documents high accuracy of hypocentral determinations published by the above mentioned data centers and usefulness of the EHB relocation procedure. Epicentral map of the October 2002 earthquake swarm in southern Ryukyu showing E-W migration of events during the swarm. The swarm occurred during 29 hours on October 23 - 25 in the magnitude range 4.0 - 5.2. Open circles - epicenters of all 54 events of the swarm; red circles - epicenters of events that occurred in a particular time interval of the swarm development: (a) - starting 3 hours; (b) - following 4 hours; (c) - final 22 hours.

Spicak, A.; Vanek, J.; Kuna, V. M.

2013-12-01

159

A new era for low frequency Galactic center transient monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An upgrade of the low frequency observing system of the VLA developed by NRL and NRAO, called low band (LB), will open a new era of Galactic center (GC) transient monitoring. Our previous searches using the VLA and GMRT have revealed a modest number of radio-selected transients, but have been severely sensitivity and observing time limited. The new LB system, currently accessing the 236--492 MHz frequency range, promises ?5 × improved sensitivity over the legacy VLA system. The new system is emerging from commissioning in time to catch any enhanced sub-GHz emission from the G2 cloud event, and we review existing limits based on recent observations. We also describe a proposed 24/7 commensal system, called the LOw Band Observatory (LOBO). LOBO offers over 100 VLA GC monitoring hours per year, possibly revealing new transients and helping validate ASTRO2010's anticipation of a new era of transient radio astronomy. A funded LOBO pathfinder called the VLA Low Frequency Ionosphere and Transient Experiment (VLITE) is under development. Finally, we consider the impact of LB and LOBO on our GC monitoring program.

Kassim, N. E.; Hyman, S. D.; Intema, H.; Lazio, T. J. W.

2014-05-01

160

Performance evaluation of an automatic system for earthquake monitoring in Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

On April 6th 2009, a magnitude Mw=6.3 earthquake occurred in L'Aquila, Central Italy, causing wide damages and killing almost 300 people. The mainshock was followed by thousands of aftershocks and occurred after some months of small but felt earthquakes. This important event, the largest since the 1980 Mw=6.9 Irpinia earthquake, and the huge amount of events occurred in a short

S. Mazza; A. Bono; V. Lauciani; F. Mele; M. Olivieri; S. Pintore; M. Quintiliani; L. Scognamiglio

2009-01-01

161

Coseismic crustal deformation from the 1994 Hokkaido-Toho-Oki earthquake monitored by a nationwide continuous GPS array in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a brand-new nationwide continuous GPS array, we monitored coseismic displacements from the October 4, 1994 Hokkaido-Toho-Oki (Kurile islands) earthquake (MJMA=8.1). Based on 2-week time series of site coordinates of 21 GPS stations, we present a coseismic deformation field of whole Hokkaido within 1 cm precision. For example, the station at Nemuro, 170 km west of the epicenter, moved 44

Hiromichi Tsuji; Yuki Hatanaka; Takeshi Sagiya; Manabu Hashimoto

1995-01-01

162

Passive Seismic Monitoring of Natural and Induced Earthquakes: Case Studies, Future Directions and SocioEconomic Relevance  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a An important discovery in crustal mechanics has been that the Earth’s crust is commonly stressed close to failure, even in\\u000a tectonically quiet areas. As a result, small natural or man-made perturbations to the local stress field may trigger earthquakes.\\u000a To understand these processes, Passive Seismic Monitoring (PSM) with seismometer arrays is a widely used technique that has\\u000a been successfully applied

Marco Bohnhoff; Georg Dresen; William L. Ellsworth; Hisao Ito

163

Coseismic crustal deformation from the 1994 Hokkaido-Toho-Oki Earthquake Monitored by a nationwide continuous GPS array in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a brand-new nationwide continuous GPS array, we monitored coseismic displacements from the October 4, 1994 Hokkaido-Toho-Oki (Kurile islands) earthquake (MJMA=8.1). Based on 2-week time series of site coordinates of 21 GPS stations, we present a coseismic deformation field of whole Hokkaido within 1 cm precision. For example, the station at Nemuro, 170 km west of the epicenter, moved 44

Hiromichi Tsuji; Yuki Hatanaka; Takeshi Sagiya; Manabu Hashimoto

1995-01-01

164

An Assessment of the High-gain Streckeisen STS2 Seismometer for Routine Earthquake Monitoring in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

USGS Open-File report: DRAFT Summary Objective. In this document we report the results of a study to determine if the Streckeisen STS2 high-gain seismometer is appropriate for use by the United States Geological Survey's (USGS) Advanced National Seismic System (ANSS) for routine earthquake monitoring in the United States (US). Issue. At issue is whether the high-gain STS2, with a sensitivity

D. E. McNamara; R. P. Buland; H. M. Benz

165

Does Information Released by Current Web-Based Earthquake Monitoring System Provide Benefits for Mitigation?  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine if the present system can provide enough response time for mitigation and immediate rescue, we designed a prospective study to investigate the reliability of the internet and the timing of earthquake information release from the Central Weather Bureau from November 2001 to April 2002. There were 171 earthquakes with the magnitude greater than 3.0 on the Richter scale.

Hsien-Hung Huang; Hang Chang; Tzong-Luen Wang

2002-01-01

166

Earthquake monitoring with Superconducting Gravimeters and Seismometers - Looking for Rayleigh waves  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is a common fact that earthquakes generate surface waves that can cause a big damage in a region. These waves, known as Rayleigh and Love waves, can be measured with different instruments such as gravimeter or seismometer, and likewise analysed in view of understanding the nature of earthquakes and the determination of the Earth's properties. The main focus of

Rebekka Bratfisch; Jeong Woo Kim; Patrick Wu; Thomas Jahr; Corinna Kroner; Jürgen Neumeyer

2010-01-01

167

The DONET: A real-time seafloor research infrastructure for the precise earthquake and tsunami monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

A project of submarine cabled seafloor observatory network development has been carried out in Japan since 2006. This research has aimed to establish the technology of a large scale real-time seafloor research infrastructure development for earthquake, geodetic and tsunami observation. The project scheduled to install 20 sets of cabled earthquake and tsunami observatory to an active seismogenic zone with mega-thrust

Katsuyoshi KAWAGUCHI; Yoshiyuki KANEDA; E. Araki

2008-01-01

168

Earthquakes for Kids  

MedlinePLUS

... Education FAQ Earthquake Glossary For Kids Prepare Google Earth/KML Files Earthquake Summary Posters Photos Publications Share ... for Education FAQ EQ Glossary For Kids Google Earth/KML Files EQ Summary Posters Photos Publications Monitoring ...

169

New methodology for global earthquake monitoring using joint multi-parameter satellite and in-situ data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work will present our innovative approach of analyzing multisensor satellite data and ground based measurements to identify electromagnetic EM short-term earthquake precursors Numerous in-situ and space based sensors such as the GPS TEC ground based magnetic observation Rn monitoring atmospheric electrical field and the spaced based MODIS AVHRR GOES METEOSAT DEMETER sensors have provided data from multiple vantage points of anomalous conditions such as atmospheric thermal anomalies surface latent heat flux changes ionospheric plasma variability etc Recently past 5 years several post-earthquake analyses have been conducted which have provided strong evidence that TIR GPS TEC and VLF show common anomalous behavior prior to the onset of a strong earthquake We use historical data from multiple sensors in-situ and space based to establish the long term static model for anomalies behavior as well as the normal state Correlation studies between the observable anomalies and subsequent earthquake events were preformed for 2000-2005 over five selected regions California Taiwan Mexico Mediterranean Japan and Indonesia Data mining approach was used to fuse data from multiple sensor platforms in-situ and satellite base with the baseline historical knowledge and to define temporal and spatial connections between multiple qualified parameters precursors as part of the Lithospheric -- Atmospheric --Ionospheric LAI coupling model Additional validations were preformed to determine the specifications for multi-parameter precursor

Ouzounov, D.; Pulinets, S.; Cervone, G.; Kafatos, M.; Taylor, P.

170

Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center Analytical Response  

SciTech Connect

The Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC) is authorized by the Federal Radiological Emergency Response Plan to coordinate all off-site radiological response assistance to state and local government s, in the event of a major radiological emergency in the United States. The FRMAC is established by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, to coordinate all Federal assets involved in conducting a comprehensive program of radiological environmental monitoring, sampling, radioanalysis, quality assurance, and dose assessment. During an emergency response, the initial analytical data is provided by portable field instrumentation. As incident responders scale up their response based on the seriousness of the incident, local analytical assets and mobile laboratories add additional capability and capacity. During the intermediate phase of the response, data quality objectives and measurement quality objectives are more rigorous. These higher objectives will require the use of larger laboratories, with greater capacity and enhanced capabilities. These labs may be geographically distant from the incident, which will increase sample management challenges. This paper addresses emergency radioanalytical capability and capacity and its utilization during FRMAC operations.

E.C. Nielsen

2003-04-01

171

Earthquake monitoring with Superconducting Gravimeters and Seismometers - Looking for Rayleigh waves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is a common fact that earthquakes generate surface waves that can cause a big damage in a region. These waves, known as Rayleigh and Love waves, can be measured with different instruments such as gravimeter or seismometer, and likewise analysed in view of understanding the nature of earthquakes and the determination of the Earth's properties. The main focus of this study is the identification of recurring Rayleigh waves after an earthquake. Induced by an earthquake, two waves can reach a station. One wave travels from the earthquake epicentre to the station by the shortest, direct way and the second one arrives at the station from the other side taking the longer way around the globe. As both waves do not end at the station, they can travel several times around the Earth and thus can come back to the station for more than one time. The number of such cycles depends on the amplitude of the waves and therefore on the magnitude of the earthquake. The amplitude decreases with every cycle around the Earth. Both the gravimeter and the seismometer will be analysed to see if there are differences in the observations after an earthquake, e.g. different amplitudes of Rayleigh waves. For this analysis data from the observatories Moxa (Germany), MunGyung (Korea) and Sutherland (South Africa) are chosen, and in addition three large earthquakes: the Peru earthquake at August, 15th, 2007, with a moment magnitude of 8.0, the Sumatra earthquake at September 12th, 2007, with a moment magnitude of 8.5, and the Sichuan earthquake at May 15th, 2008, with a moment magnitude of 7.9. All stations are equipped with superconducting gravimeters (SG) and seismometers. For the station MunGyung a second analysis is done for a time span in October 2007. Fortunately, four different instruments (a superconducting and an absolute gravimeter, a borehole seismometer and a borehole accelerometer) measured three earthquakes with moment magnitudes between 5.3 and 6.0 near Korea from October 7th to 10th, 2007. This gives us the unique opportunity to compare these four instruments in the earthquake analysis. The analysis shows that SGs have some advantages compared to seismometers for the observation of recurring Rayleigh waves. We can clearly identify more than two Rayleigh waves in each observation of a seismometer and SG, but additionally two more waves in the SG records. The Rayleigh waves are compared to theoretical data for different earth models, which allows an evaluation of these models. The investigation yields information that can be used to study and understand crustal seismic velocities, attenuation, and dispersion.

Bratfisch, Rebekka; Kim, Jeong Woo; Wu, Patrick; Jahr, Thomas; Kroner, Corinna; Neumeyer, Jürgen

2010-05-01

172

Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty seismic monitoring: 2012 USNAS report and recent explosions, earthquakes, and other seismic sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A comprehensive ban on nuclear explosive testing is briefly characterized as an arms control initiative related to the Non-Proliferation Treaty. The work of monitoring for nuclear explosions uses several technologies of which the most important is seismology-a physics discipline that draws upon extensive and ever-growing assets to monitor for earthquakes and other ground-motion phenomena as well as for explosions. This paper outlines the basic methods of seismic monitoring within that wider context, and lists web-based and other resources for learning details. It also summarizes the main conclusions, concerning capability to monitor for test-ban treaty compliance, contained in a major study published in March 2012 by the US National Academy of Sciences.

Richards, Paul G.

2014-05-01

173

Lessons Learned from the Introduction of Autonomous Monitoring to the EUVE Science Operations Center.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The University of California at Berkeley's (UCB) Center for Extreme Ultraviolet Astrophysics (CEA), in conjunction with NASA's Ames Research Center (ARC), has implemented an autonomous monitoring system in the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE) science o...

M. Lewis F. Girouard F. Kronberg P. Ringrose A. Abedini

1995-01-01

174

Re-centering variable friction device for vibration control of structures subjected to near-field earthquakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper proposes a re-centering variable friction device (RVFD) for control of civil structures subjected to near-field earthquakes. The proposed hybrid device has two sub-components. The first sub-component of this hybrid device consists of shape memory alloy (SMA) wires that exhibit a unique hysteretic behavior and full recovery following post-transformation deformations. The second sub-component of the hybrid device consists of variable friction damper (VFD) that can be intelligently controlled for adaptive semi-active behavior via modulation of its voltage level. In general, installed SMA devices have the ability to re-center structures at the end of the motion and VFDs can increase the energy dissipation capacity of structures. The full realization of these devices into a singular, hybrid form which complements the performance of each device is investigated in this study. A neuro-fuzzy model is used to capture rate- and temperature-dependent nonlinear behavior of the SMA components of the hybrid device. An optimal fuzzy logic controller (FLC) is developed to modulate voltage level of VFDs for favorable performance in a RVFD hybrid application. To obtain optimal controllers for concurrent mitigation of displacement and acceleration responses, tuning of governing fuzzy rules is conducted by a multi-objective heuristic optimization. Then, numerical simulation of a multi-story building is conducted to evaluate the performance of the hybrid device. Results show that a re-centering variable friction device modulated with a fuzzy logic control strategy can effectively reduce structural deformations without increasing acceleration response during near-field earthquakes.

Ozbulut, Osman E.; Hurlebaus, Stefan

2011-11-01

175

Monitoring Earthquake Fault Slip from Space: Model Implications for a High Precision, High Resolution Dedicated Gravity Mission (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Monitoring deformation produced by slip on earthquake faults can be carried out via GPS or InSAR measurements. Both of these types of observations have their advantages and disadvantages, in terms of cost, availability, and technical difficulty. It has been suggested that another method to accomplish many of the same objectives would be via a dedicated gravity mission. The GRACE mission has shown that it is possible to make detailed gravity measurements from space for climate dynamics and other purposes. An important question is what level of accuracy will be needed for precise estimation of fault slip in earthquakes of interest to researchers. To answer this question, we turn to numerical simulations of earthquake fault systems and use these to estimate gravity changes. Rundle (1978) considered the question of gravity changes from dilation sources and thrust faults, and found that gravity changes in these cases were free air anomaly (dilation) and Bouguer anomaly (thrust fault). Walsh and Rice (1978) computed these by a different method and found the same result. Okada (1991) listed gravity and potential Green functions for all possible sources for the general case. Hayes et al (2006) then took the Okada Greens functions and applied them computed from an earlier version of Virtual California earthquake fault system simulations. Those simulations only involved vertical strike slip faults. The current far more advanced generation of Virtual California simulations involves faults of any orientation, dip, and rake. In this talk, we discuss these computations and the implications they have for accuracies needed for a dedicated gravity monitoring mission. Preliminary results are in agreement with previous results from Hayes et al (2006). Computed gravity changes are in the range of tens to hundreds of microgals over distances of few to many tens of kilometers. These values are presumably well within the range of measurement for a modern gravity mission flown either at low altitudes, or via UAVs.

Rundle, J. B.; Sachs, M. K.; Tiampo, K. F.; Fernandez, J.; Turcotte, D. L.; Donnellan, A.; Heien, E. M.; Kellogg, L. H.

2013-12-01

176

Earthquake monitoring of the Hanford region, eastern Washington: Annual technical report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report includes the results of routine operations and analysis for the Hanford seismic network as well as the results of specific studies which address the general problem of earthquake hazards in eastern Washington.

Malone

1977-01-01

177

Continuous radon monitoring in soil gas towards earthquake precursory studies in basaltic region  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Koyna-Warna region, near the west coast of India, is well known for reservoir-triggered seismicity. The seismic activity in this region greatly increased following the construction of an artificial reservoir across the Koyna River during the 1960s. A destructive earthquake of M 6.3 occurred on December 10, 1967, and further 19 earthquakes of M>5 have been recorded during the preceding

D. V. Reddy; P. Nagabhushanam; B. S. Sukhija; G. Rajender Reddy

2010-01-01

178

Activity of Very-low-frequency Earthquakes in Japan Monitored by a Sensitive Accelerometer Network  

Microsoft Academic Search

We developed automatically detection method of very-low-frequency (VLF) earthquakes based on semblance analysis in order to spatio-tempotal distribution of VLF earthquakes in Japan. Seismograms observed by a sensitive accelerometer network (Hi-net Tilt) with a station separation of about 20 km were analyzed in this study. Band-pass filter with a pass-band of 0.02-0.05 Hz was applied to the original seismograms; and

Y. Asano; Y. Ito; K. Obara

2006-01-01

179

The Response of Academic Medical Centers to the 2010 Haiti Earthquake: The Mount Sinai School of Medicine Experience  

PubMed Central

On January 12, 2010, Haiti was struck by a 7.0 earthquake which left the country in a state of devastation. In the aftermath, there was an enormous relief effort in which academic medical centers (AMC) played an important role. We offer a retrospective on the AMC response through the Mount Sinai School of Medicine (MSSM) experience. Over the course of the year that followed the Earthquake, MSSM conducted five service trips in conjunction with two well-established groups which have provided service to the Haitian people for over 15 years. MSSM volunteer personnel included nurses, resident and attending physicians, and specialty fellows who provided expertise in critical care, emergency medicine, wound care, infectious diseases and chronic disease management of adults and children. Challenges faced included stressful and potentially hazardous working conditions, provision of care with limited resources and cultural and language barriers. The success of the MSSM response was due largely to the strength of its human resources and the relationship forged with effective relief organizations. These service missions fulfilled the institution's commitment to social responsibility and provided a valuable training opportunity in advocacy. For other AMCs seeking to respond in future emergencies, we suggest early identification of a partner with field experience, recruitment of administrative and faculty support across the institution, significant pre-departure orientation and utilization of volunteers to fundraise and advocate. Through this process, AMCs can play an important role in disaster response.

Ripp, Jonathan A.; Bork, Jacqueline; Koncicki, Holly; Asgary, Ramin

2012-01-01

180

The Development of Several Electromagnetic Monitoring Strategies and Algorithms for Validating Pre-Earthquake Electromagnetic Signals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

QuakeFinder, a private research group in California, reports on the development of a 100+ station network consisting of 3-axis induction magnetometers, and air conductivity sensors to collect and characterize pre-seismic electromagnetic (EM) signals. These signals are combined with daily Infra Red signals collected from the GOES weather satellite infrared (IR) instrument to compare and correlate with the ground EM signals, both from actual earthquakes and boulder stressing experiments. This presentation describes the efforts QuakeFinder has undertaken to automatically detect these pulse patterns using their historical data as a reference, and to develop other discriminative algorithms that can be used with air conductivity sensors, and IR instruments from the GOES satellites. The overall big picture results of the QuakeFinder experiment are presented. In 2007, QuakeFinder discovered the occurrence of strong uni-polar pulses in their magnetometer coil data that increased in tempo dramatically prior to the M5.1 earthquake at Alum Rock, California. Suggestions that these pulses might have been lightning or power-line arcing did not fit with the data actually recorded as was reported in Bleier [2009]. Then a second earthquake occurred near the same site on January 7, 2010 as was reported in Dunson [2011], and the pattern of pulse count increases before the earthquake occurred similarly to the 2007 event. There were fewer pulses, and the magnitude of them was decreased, both consistent with the fact that the earthquake was smaller (M4.0 vs M5.4) and farther away (7Km vs 2km). At the same time similar effects were observed at the QuakeFinder Tacna, Peru site before the May 5th, 2010 M6.2 earthquake and a cluster of several M4-5 earthquakes.

Bleier, T. E.; Dunson, J. C.; Roth, S.; Mueller, S.; Lindholm, C.; Heraud, J. A.

2012-12-01

181

Ground deformation in an area later damaged by an earthquake: monitoring the Avcilar district of Istanbul, Turkey, by satellite radar interferometry 1992-1999  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Avcilar district of Istanbul was severely damaged by the M 7.4 Izmit (Kocaeli) earthquake of 1999. The same area underwent ground subsidence before the earthquake, as revealed by geodetic monitoring. Analysis of 14 synthetic aperture radar images acquired by the ERS-1 and ERS-2 satellites between 1992 and 1999 by interferometry (InSAR) measures the rate of subsidence. Using the General

Samuray Akarvardar; Kurt L. Feigl; Semih Ergintav

2009-01-01

182

Examination of element concentrations in groundwater by ICP-MS for monitoring of pre-earthquake activities.  

PubMed

This study presents the results of hydrogeochemical studies carried out in Zeytun thermal springs in Kahramanmaras, located South Middle Anatolia-Turkey. More than 90 thermal water samples were collected on a regular basis from 2006 to 2008 to measure element concentrations as a monitor of earthquake precursors. Water samples were analyzed using ICP-MS. The observed B, Ba, Br and Ge concentrations for 16 months are in ranges of 79-422, 103-167, 28-93 and 0.3-1.2 microg x L(-1), respectively. Chloride concentrations for these periods are in range of 7-21 mg x L(-1). The data identify some element anomalies before earthquakes. These anomalies are characterized by decreases up to 158% in Ba and Cl concentrations. The occurrence of these anomalies can be attributed to stress/strain induced pressure changes in the subsurface water systems. It can be suggested that the thermal springs in the fault line area are ideal sites for precursors of earthquakes. PMID:23586212

Mehmet, Yaman; Sasmaz, Ahmet

2013-01-01

183

Southern California Earthquake Center\\/Undergraduate Studies in Earthquake Information Technology (SCEC\\/UseIT): Towards the Next Generation of Internship  

Microsoft Academic Search

The SCEC\\/UseIT internship program is training the next generation of earthquake scientist, with methods that can be adapted to other disciplines. UseIT interns work collaboratively, in multi-disciplinary teams, conducting computer science research that is needed by earthquake scientists. Since 2002, the UseIT program has welcomed 64 students, in some two dozen majors, at all class levels, from schools around the

S. Perry; M. Benthien; T. H. Jordan

2005-01-01

184

Real-time earthquake monitoring for tsunami warning in the Indian Ocean and beyond  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Mw = 9.3 Sumatra earthquake of 26 December 2004 generated a tsunami that affected the entire Indian Ocean region and caused approximately 230 000 fatalities. In the response to this tragedy the German government funded the German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS) Project. The task of the GEOFON group of GFZ Potsdam was to develop and implement the

W. Hanka; J. Saul; B. Weber; J. Becker; P. Harjadi; Fauzi

2010-01-01

185

Monitoring Local and Teleseismic Earthquakes Off--Shore San Diego(California) During an OBSIP Test Deployment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Scripps OBS (Ocean Bottom Seismometer) team is one of three groups that provide instrumentation for the US National OBS Instrument Pool (OBSIP). The compact active source LC2000 instruments are being used successfully in numerous experiments, with excellent data quality and return rates. A set of five new passive seismic instruments was test--deployed from November 6th, 2003 through January 8th, 2004 in the San Diego Trough, about 1km below the sea surface, about 40km off--shore San Diego, California. These instruments are equipped with a Nanometrics Trillium 40s 3--component seismometer and a Cox--Webb differential pressure gauge. We recorded more than 30 teleseismic earthquakes suitable for a long-period surface wave study. The vertical--component seismometer recordings are of excellent quality and are often superior to those from similar sensors on land (Guralp CMG-40T). The signal--to--noise ratio on the DPGs depend strongly on the water depth and was expected to be low for the test deployment. Nevertheless, the December 22, 2003 San Simeon/ California earthquake was recorded with high fidelity and non--seismogenic signals are extremely coherent down to very long periods. We also recorded numerous local earthquakes. Many of these occurred off-shore and the OBSs were the closest stations by many tens of kilometers. For example, a magnitude 3.0 earthquake on the Coronado Banks Fault was recorded at station SOL in La Jolla at about 30km distance, with a signal-to-noise ratio too poor to pick the first arrival. The next closest stations were 60km and 80km away, while one of the OBSs was only 20km away. The co-deployment of DPGs allowed us to observe the first P arrival very clearly. We also recorded numerous events that were not recorded on land. About six months later, on June 15, 2004 the greater San Diego area was struck by a magnitude 5.2 earthquake on the San Clemente Fault, about 40km southwest of the OBS test deployment. Though no structural damage was reported, intensity 4 shaking occurred throughout the city, which prompted Amtrak and Sea World to shut down operations for inspections. These events are continous reminders that significant seismic hazard is caused by activity along the only poorly understood, off-shore faults in the California Borderland. Realtime seismic monitoring using cabled or moored seismic observatories is clearly needed.

Laske, G.; Babcock, J.; Hollinshead, C.; Georgieff, P.; Allmann, B.; Orcutt, J.

2004-12-01

186

Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. comprehensive earthquake management plan: Emergency Operations Center training manual  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this training is to: describe the responsibilities, resources, and goals of the Emergency Operations Center and be able to evaluate and interpret this information to best direct and allocate emergency, plant, and other resources to protect life and the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant.

Not Available

1990-02-28

187

Earthquakes: Risk, Detection, Warning, and Research.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Under the National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (NEHRP), the federal government supports efforts to assess and monitor earthquake hazards and risk in the United States. Four federal agencies, responsible for long-term earthquake risk reduction, co...

P. Folger

2010-01-01

188

Migration of seismicity and earthquake interactions monitored by GPS in SE Asia triple junction: Sulawesi, Indonesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements made in Sulawesi, Indonesia, from 1992 to 1999 detected coseismic and transient postseismic deformation related to the 1 January 1996, Mw = 7.9 earthquake on the North Sulawesi (Minahassa) trench. These motions are superimposed on the long-term secular motion (40 mm\\/yr) of the left-lateral Palu fault in central Sulawesi and continued for about 1.5-2 years.

Christophe Vigny; Hugo Perfettini; Andrea Walpersdorf; Anne Lemoine; Wim Simons; Danny van Loon; Boudewijn Ambrosius; Colleen Stevens; Rob McCaffrey; Peter Morgan; Yehuda Bock; Cecep Subarya; Parluhutan Manurung; Joenil Kahar; Hasanuddin Z. Abidin; Samad H. Abu

2002-01-01

189

Migration of seismicity and earthquake interactions monitored by GPS in SE Asia triple junction: Sulawesi, Indonesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements made in Sulawesi, Indonesia, from 1992 to 1999 detected coseismic and transient postseismic deformation related to the 1 January 1996, Mw = 7.9 earthquake on the North Sulawesi (Minahassa) trench. These motions are superimposed on the long-term secular motion (40 mm\\/yr) of the left-lateral Palu fault in central Sulawesi and continued for about 1.5–2 years.

Christophe Vigny; Hugo Perfettini; Andrea Walpersdorf; Anne Lemoine; Wim Simons; Danny van Loon; Boudewijn Ambrosius; Colleen Stevens; Rob McCaffrey; Peter Morgan; Yehuda Bock; Cecep Subarya; Parluhutan Manurung; Joenil Kahar; Hasanuddin Z. Abidin; Samad H. Abu

2002-01-01

190

A novel strong-motion seismic network for community participation in earthquake monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Quake-Catcher Network (QCN) is breaking new ground in seismology by combining new micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) technology with volunteer seismic station distributed computing. Rather than distributing just computations, the QCN allows volunteers to participate in scientific data collection and computation. Using these innovative tools, QCN will increase the number of strong-motion observations for improved earthquake detection and analysis in California,

Elizabeth Cochran; Jesse Lawrence; Carl Christensen; Angela Chung

2009-01-01

191

Towards an Earthquake Monitoring System for Indian Ocean Tsunami Early Warning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Mw=9.3 Sumatra earthquake of December 26, 2004, generated a tsunami that effected the entire Indian Ocean region and caused approximately 230,000 fatalities. The German human aid program for the Indian Ocean region started immediately after the disaster with substantial funding of 45M Euro for the proposed German Indian Ocean Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS). In this presentation we describe

T. Kraft; W. Hanka; J. Saul; A. Heinloo; J. Reinhardt; B. Weber; J. Becker; H. Thoms; D. Pahlke

2006-01-01

192

The Pacific Tsunami Warning Center response to the Mw8.1 Samoan earthquake of September 29, 2009  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over 90% of tsunami-related casualties occur within a few hundred km of the causative event, usually an earthquake. The Mw 8.1 (GCMT) Samoan earthquake and tsunami of September 29, 2009, represents a best-case scenario for response and self-evacuation by a population near the epicenter of a tsunamigenic earthquake. The Samoan population felt over 60 seconds of strong ground shaking and

B. F. Hirshorn; N. Becker; S. Weinstein

2009-01-01

193

88 hours: The U.S. Geological Survey National Earthquake Information Center response to the 11 March 2011 Mw 9.0 Tohoku earthquake  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This article presents a timeline of NEIC response to a major global earthquake for the first time in a formal journal publication. We outline the key observations of the earthquake made by the NEIC and its partner agencies, discuss how these analyses evolved, and outline when and how this information was released to the public and to other internal and external parties. Our goal in the presentation of this material is to provide a detailed explanation of the issues faced in the response to a rare, giant earthquake. We envisage that the timeline format of this presentation can highlight technical and procedural successes and shortcomings, which may in turn help prompt research by our academic partners and further improvements to our future response efforts. We have shown how NEIC response efforts have significantly improved over the past six years since the great 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake. We are optimistic that the research spawned from this disaster, and the unparalleled dense and diverse data sets that have been recorded, can lead to similar-and necessary-improvements in the future.

Hayes, G. P.; Earle, P. S.; Benz, H. M.; Wald, D. J.; Briggs, R. W.

2011-01-01

194

Activity remotely triggered in volcanic and geothermal centers in California and Washington by the 3 November 2002 Mw=7.9 Alaska earthquake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The M=7.9 Alaska earthquake of 3 November 2002 was followed by bursts of remotely triggered earthquakes at several volcanic and geothermal areas across the western United States at epicentral distances of 2,500 to 3,660 km. Husen et al. (this session) describe the triggered response for Yellowstone caldera, Wyoming. Here we highlight the triggered response for the Geysers geothermal field in northern California, Mammoth Mountain and Long Valley caldera in eastern California, the Coso geothermal field in southeastern California, and Mount Rainier in central Washington. The onset of triggered seismicity at each of these areas began 15 to 17 minutes after the Alaska earthquake during the S-wave coda and the early phases of the Love and Raleigh waves with periods of 5 to 40 seconds and dynamic strains of a few microstrain. In each case, the seismicity was characterized by spasmodic bursts of small (M<2 ), brittle-failure earthquakes. The activity persisted for just a few minutes at Mount Rainier and Mammoth Mountain and roughly 30 minutes at the Geysers and Coso geothermal fields. Many of the triggered earthquakes at all three sites were too small for reliable locations (magnitudes M<1), although their small S-P times indicate hypocentral locations within a few km of the nearest seismic station. Borehole dilatometers in vicinity of Mammoth Mountain recorded strain offsets on the order of 0.1 microstrain coincident in time with the triggered seismicity (Johnston et al. this session), and water level in the 3-km-deep LVEW well in the center of Long Valley caldera dropped by ~13 cm during passage of the seismic wave train from the Alaska earthquake followed by a gradual recovery. The Geysers, Coso, and Mount Rainier have no continuous, high-resolution strain instrumentation. A larger earthquake swarm that began 23.5 hours later (21:38 UT on the 4th) in the south moat of Long Valley caldera and included nine M>2 and one M=3.0 earthquake may represent a delayed response to the Alaska earthquake.

Hill, D. P.; Prejean, S.; Oppenheimer, D.; Pitt, A. M.; S. D. Malone; Richards-Dinger, K.

2002-12-01

195

Analysis in natural time domain of geoelectric time series monitored prior two strong earthquakes occurred in Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The short-time prediction of seismic phenomena is currently an important problem in the scientific community. In particular, the electromagnetic processes associated with seismic events take in great interest since the VAN method was implemented. The most important features of this methodology are the seismic electrical signals (SES) observed prior to strong earthquakes. SES has been observed in the electromagnetic series linked to EQs in Greece, Japan and Mexico. By mean of the so-called natural time domain, introduced by Varotsos et al. (2001), they could characterize signals of dichotomic nature observed in different systems, like SES and ionic current fluctuations in membrane channels. In this work we analyze SES observed in geoelectric time series monitored in Guerrero, México. Our analysis concern with two strong earthquakes occurred, on October 24, 1993 (M=6.6) and September 14, 1995 (M=7.3). The time series of the first one displayed a seismic electric signal six days before the main shock and for the second case the time series displayed dichotomous-like fluctuations some months before the EQ. In this work we present the first results of the analysis in natural time domain for the two cases which seems to be agreeing with the results reported by Varotsos. P. Varotsos, N. Sarlis, and E. Skordas, Practica of the Athens Academy 76, 388 (2001).

Ramírez-Rojas, A.; Flores-Marquez, L. E.

2009-12-01

196

Hatfield Marine Science Center Dynamic Revetment Project DSL permit #45455-FP, Monitoring Report February 2012  

EPA Science Inventory

A Dynamic Revetment (gravel beach) was installed in November, 2011 on the shoreline along the northeastern edge of the Hatfield Marine Science Center (HMSC) to mitigate erosion that threatened HMSC critical infrastructure. Shoreline topographic and biological monitoring was init...

197

Monitoring of the Permeable Pavement Demonstration Site at the Edison Environmental Center (Poster)  

EPA Science Inventory

This is a poster on the permeable pavement parking lot at the Edison Environmental Center. The monitoring scheme for the project is discussed in-depth with graphics explaining the instrumentation installed at the site. ...

198

Simulation of scattering of waves in elastic body with cracks during the destruction process: the possibility of application of fractal analysis of seismic waveforms for earthquake hazard monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presently the main tools of monitoring of the state of seismic hazard zone and the preparation process of the large earthquakes are based on the seismicity spatio-temporal structure analysis. The seismicity spatial distribution and temporal rate reflects the changes in the earth crust stress state and changes in it's inner structure prior to large seismic events. It can be considered

D. Kiyashchenko; N. Smirnova; V. Troyan

199

Monitoring the Corniglio Landslide (Parma, Italy) before and after the M=5.4 earthquake of December 2008  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work we present the results of monitoring the Corniglio landslide (CL), a large landslide located in the Northern Apennines, by integrating traditional geomorphologic and geological surveys, digital photogrammetry, GPS and geostatistics. The CL spreads over an area of about 3 km x 1 km, close to Corniglio village (Parma, Italy). We propose a new kinematic framework for the CL as Deep-Seated Slope Gravitational Deformation (DSGSD). Surveys were carried out in six periods, in July and September 2006, March and August 2007, July 2008 (after a M=4 earthquake of 28 December 2007, 10 km far from Corniglio), and finally January 2009 (after several earthquakes occurred in the last days of December 2008, with magnitude from 4 to 5.4 and epicentres located less than 30 km far from Corniglio). Geological survey, interpretation of orthophotographs related to 1976, 1988, 1994, 1996, 1998, 2005, and satellite imagery related to 2003 were integrated for analysing the state of activity of landslide from 1976 to 2009, quantifying the ground displacement vectors. A RTK GPS survey was periodically carried out in order to locate the crown of the main landslide scarp and to identify reactivation of the CL after the earthquakes of the end of December 2008. Then, kriged multitemporal maps representing azimuth and module of ground displacement vectors were built, by evaluating the displacement with time of homologous ground targets on the multitemporal remotely sensed images. Measuring of ground deformations was performed on imagery related to the periods between December 1994 to July 1996, between October and November 1996, as well as the recurrent activity from October 1998 to 2003. In some sector of the main body of the landslide we estimated 70 m of total of ground displacement. The fieldwork results and photogeologic interpretation performed along the the Bratica valley, to the east of the CL, suggest that the occurrence of rigid behaviour lithotypes (Mt. Caio calcareous flysch of Upper Campanian - Maastrichtian and Oligocene Arenarie del Bratica) over both the plastic low - shear strength chaotic deposit of brownish clays ("Melange di Lago" formation, upper Campanian - middle Eocene) and marly clays ("Argille e Calcari" formation, middle Lutetian) represent a critical setting for the stability of the area. Furthermore, relevant east-west trending lineaments seem to be involved into slope movements. These evidences suggests that the CL may be part of a larger DSGSD also including the hill among the Bratica river, the CL main body and the Parma river. The earthquakes involving this area periodically reactivate the main body of landslide.

Virdis, S.; Guastaldi, E.; Rindinella, A.; Disperati, L.; Ciulli, A.

2009-04-01

200

76 FR 61115 - Migrant and Seasonal Farmworkers (MSFWs) Monitoring Report and One-Stop Career Center Complaint...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Farmworkers (MSFWs) Monitoring Report and One-Stop Career Center Complaint/Referral...extension with revision for ETA Form 8429, One-Stop Career Center Complaint/ Referral...delivery to MSFWs. The ETA Form 8429, One-Stop Career Center...

2011-10-03

201

INFREP, a European network for the monitoring of earthquake's induced disturbances in the lower ionosphere.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this communication we present a recently installed network of VLF/LF receivers which covers the central and Eastern Europe for the follow up of the Signal propagation of a suitable number of VLF/LF transmitters on the purpose to detect in real time pre-, co-, and post- earthquakes ionospheric perturbations induced by the tectonic activity which occur in the abovementioned area. In addition the method of analysis for the collected data at the station of Thessaloniki is exposed and an example of the operation of the system is given.

Anastasiadis, H.; Biagi, P. F.; Contadakis, M. E.; Maggipinto, T.; Xenos, T. D.; Xenos, D. T.

202

HOLMES: an event-driven solution to monitor data centers through continuous queries and machine learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Supervisory processes are fundamental when running data center operations striving for fault resilience: any downtime can directly affect the business's income and definitely its reputation. Current monitoring tools rely on experts to configure constant thresholds on single streams, which is not appropriated for dynamic systems and insufficient to capture complex patterns. We present HOLMES, built to support data center experts

Pedro Henriques dos Santos Teixeira; Ricardo Gomes Clemente; Ronald Andreu Kaiser; Denis Almeida Vieira Jr.

2010-01-01

203

Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Mitigation and Monitoring Technology Performance: Activities of the GHG Technology Verification Center  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Technology Verification Center (the Center) is a public\\/private partnership between the Southern Research Institute (SRI) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Office of Research and Development. It provides independent third party testing of the performance of GHG mitigation and monitoring technologies, and was established in response to the belief that there are many viable environmental

Masemore Sushma; David A. Kirchgessner

1999-01-01

204

GREENHOUSE GAS (GHG) MITIGATION AND MONITORING TECHNOLOGY PERFORMANCE: ACTIVITIES OF THE GHG TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION CENTER  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation and monitoring technology performance activities of the GHG Technology Verification Center. The Center is a public/private partnership between Southern Research Institute and the U.S. EPA's Office of Research and Development. It...

205

Monalytics: online monitoring and analytics for managing large scale data centers  

Microsoft Academic Search

To effectively manage large-scale data centers and utility clouds, operators must understand current system and application behaviors. This requires continuous monitoring along with online analysis of the data captured by the monitoring system. As a result, there is a need to move to systems in which both tasks can be performed in an integrated fashion, thereby better able to drive

Mahendra Kutare; Greg Eisenhauer; Chengwei Wang; Karsten Schwan; Vanish Talwar; Matthew Wolf

2010-01-01

206

Structural Health Monitoring Sensor Development at NASA Langley Research Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA is applying considerable effort on the development of sensor technology for structural health monitoring (SHM). This research is targeted toward increasing the safety and reliability of aerospace vehicles, while reducing operating and maintenance costs. Research programs are focused on applications to both aircraft and space vehicles. Sensor technologies under development span a wide range including fiber-optic sensing, active and passive acoustic sensors, electromagnetic sensors, wireless sensing systems, MEMS, and nanosensors. Because of their numerous advantages for aerospace applications, fiber-optic sensors are one of the leading candidates and are the major focus of this presentation. In addition, recent advances in active and passive acoustic sensing will also be discussed.

Prosser, W. H.; Wu, M. C.; Allison, S. G.; DeHaven, S. L.; Ghoshal, A.

2002-01-01

207

BeppoSAX-WFC monitoring of the Galactic Center region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We review the results obtained with the Galactic center campaigns of the BeppoSAX Wide Field X-ray Cameras (WFCs). This pertains to the study of luminous low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs). When pointed at the Galactic center, the WFC field of view contains more than half of the Galactic LMXB population. The results exemplify the excellent WFC capability to detect brief X-ray transients. Firstly, the WFCs expanded the known population of Galactic thermonuclear X-ray bursters by 50%. At least half of all LMXBs are now established to burst and, thus, to contain a neutron star as compact accretor rather than a black hole candidate. We provide a complete list of all 76 currently known bursters, including the new case 1RXS J170854.4-321857. Secondly, the WFCs have uncovered a population of weak transients with peak luminosities up to ~ 1037 erg s-1 and durations from days to weeks. One is the first accretion-powered millisecond pulsar SAX J1808.4-3658. Thirdly, the WFCs contributed considerably towards establishing that nearly all (12 out of 13) luminous low-mass X-ray binaries in Galactic globular clusters contain neutron stars rather than black holes. Thus, the neutron star to black hole ratio in clusters differs from that in the Galactic disk at a marginal confidence level of 97%.

in't Zand, Jean; Verbunt, Frank; Heise, John; Bazzano, Angela; Cocchi, Massimo; Cornelisse, Remon; Kuulkers, Erik; Natalucci, Lorenzo; Ubertini, Pietro

2004-06-01

208

GONAF - A deep Geophysical Observatory at the North Anatolian Fault: Permanent downhole monitoring of a pending major earthquake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ hereafter) is a right-lateral transform plate boundary between the Anatolian plate and Eurasia accommodating a relative plate motion of ~25 mm/yr. Almost the entire fault zone has failed during the last century as a westward migrating sequence of destructive earthquakes leaving a very high probability of a forthcoming large event to the Sea of Marmara segments. This area did not host any M>7 earthquake since 1766. Therefore, listening to the Sea of Marmara segments at a very low detection threshold is required to address how the brittle deformation develops along a critically-stressed fault segment prior to a potential failure. GONAF-ICDP project has been developed to design a downhole seismic network surrounding the Sea of Marmara segments of the NAFZ deploying 300 m deep boreholes equipped with a chain of sensitive seismographs. Natural and city-induced noise is attenuated through the unconsolidated subsurface formation and therefore provides ideal boundary conditions for seismic monitoring within the intact rocks at greater depths. A typical GONAF borehole consists of 1 Hz vertical sensor at every 75 m depth increment and a combination of 1Hz, 2Hz and 15 Hz 3C sensors at 300 m depth. By now, three boreholes were successfully implemented in the Tuzla and Yalova-Ç?narc?k regions. The plan is to complete four more GONAF boreholes in 2014. Our preliminary results show that GONAF waveform recordings will broaden the magnitude range down to ~M -1 in the target area providing a better characterization of seismically active features in time and space.

Bulut, Fatih; Bohnhoff, Marco; Dresen, Georg; Raub, Christina; Kilic, Tugbay; Kartal, Recai F.; Tuba Kadirioglu, F.; Nurlu, Murat; Ito, Hisao; Malin, Peter E.

2014-05-01

209

The continuous automatic monitoring network installed in Tuscany (Italy) since late 2002, to study earthquake precursory phenomena  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since late 2002, a continuous automatic monitoring network (CAMN) was designed, built and installed in Tuscany (Italy), in order to investigate and define the geochemical response of the aquifers to the local seismic activity. The purpose of the investigation was to identify eventual earthquake precursors. The CAMN is constituted by two groups of five measurement stations each. A first group has been installed in the Serchio and Magra graben (Garfagnana and Lunigiana Valleys, Northern Tuscany), while the second one, in the area of Mt. Amiata (Southern Tuscany), an extinct volcano. Garfagnana, Lunigiana and Mt. Amiata regions belong to the inner zone of the Northern Apennine fold-and-thrust belt. This zone has been involved in the post-collision extensional tectonics since the Upper Miocene-Pliocene. Such tectonic activity has produced horst and graben structures oriented from N-S to NW-SE that are transferred by NE-SW system. Both Garfagnana (Serchio graben) and Lunigiana (Magra graben) belong to the most inner sector of the belt where the seismic sources, responsible for the strongest earthquakes of the northern Apennine, are located (e.g. the M=6.5 earthquake of September 1920). The extensional processes in southern Tuscany have been accompanied by magmatic activity since the Upper Miocene, developing effusive and intrusive products traditionally attributed to the so-called Tuscan Magmatic Province. Mt. Amiata, whose magmatic activity ceased about 0.3 M.y. ago, belongs to the extensive Tyrrhenian sector that is characterized by high heat flow and crustal thinning. The whole zone is characterized by wide-spread but moderate seismicity (the maximum recorded magnitude has been 5.1 with epicentre in Piancastagnaio, 1919). The extensional regime in both the Garfagnana-Lunigiana and Mt. Amiata area is confirmed by the focal mechanisms of recent earthquakes. An essential phase of the monitoring activities has been the selection of suitable sites for the installation of monitoring stations. This has been carried out on the basis of: i) hydrogeologic and structural studies in order to assess the underground fluid circulation regime; ii) a detailed geochemical study of all the natural manifestations present in the selected territories, such as cold and hot springs and gas emission zones; iii) logistical aspects. Therefore, a detailed hydrogeochemical study was performed in 2002. A total of 150 water points were sampled in Garfagnana/Lunigiana area (N-W Tuscany) and analysed. Based on the results of this multidisciplinary study, five water points suitable for the installation of the monitoring stations, were selected. They are: Bagni di Lucca (Bernabò spring), Gallicano (Capriz spring) and Pieve Fosciana (Prà di Lama spring) in Garfagnana, Equi Terme (main spring feeding the swimming pool of the thermal resort) and Villafranca in Lunigiana (well feeding the public swimming pool). In the Amiata area, in the preliminary campaign, 69 water points were sampled and analyzed and five sites were selected. They are Piancastagnaio, Santa Fiora, Pian dei Renai and Bagnore, which are fed by the volcanic aquifer, and Bagno Vignoni borehole, which is fed by the evaporite carbonate aquifer. The installation and start-up process of the monitoring systems in the Garfagnana-Lunigiana area begun in November 2002; in the Monte Amiata region it begun in June 2003. From the day of installation, a periodic water sampling and manual measurement of the main physical and physicochemical parameters have been carried out on a monthly basis. Such activity has the double function of performing a cross-check of the monitoring instrumentation, and carrying out additional chemical and isotopic analysis. The continuous automatic monitoring stations operate with flowing water (about 5 litres per minute) and record the following parameters: temperature (T), pH, electrical conductivity (EC), redox potential (ORP) and the content of CO2 and CH4 dissolved in water. Data are acquired once per second; the average value, median value and variance of the samples collec

Pierotti, Lisa; Cioni, Roberto

2010-05-01

210

Source spectra, moment, and energy for recent eastern mediterranean earthquakes: calibration of international monitoring system stations  

SciTech Connect

In the past several years there have been several large (M{sub w} > 7.0) earthquakes in the eastern Mediterranean region (Gulf of Aqaba, Racha, Adana, etc.), many of which have had aftershock deployments by local seismological organizations. In addition to providing ground truth data (GT << 5 km) that is used in regional location calibration and validation, the waveform data can be used to aid in calibrating regional magnitudes, seismic discriminants, and velocity structure. For small regional events (m{sub b} << 4.5), a stable, accurate magnitude is essential in the development of realistic detection threshold curves, proper magnitude and distance amplitude correction processing, formation of an M{sub s}:m{sub b} discriminant, and accurate yield determination of clandestine nuclear explosions. Our approach provides a stable source spectra from which M{sub w} and m{sub b} can be obtained without regional magnitude biases. Once calibration corrections are obtained for earthquakes, the coda-derived source spectra exhibit strong depth-dependent spectral peaking when the same corrections are applied to explosions at the Nevada Test Site (Mayeda and Walter, 1996), chemical explosions in the recent ''Depth of Burial'' experiment in Kazahkstan (Myers et al., 1999), and the recent nuclear test in India. For events in the western U.S. we found that total seismic energy, E, scales as M{sub o}{sup 0.25} resulting in more radiated energy than would be expected under the assumptions of constant stress-drop scaling. Preliminary results for events in the Middle East region also show this behavior, which appears to be the result of intermediate spectra fall-off (f{sup 1.5}) for frequencies ranging between {approx}0.1 and 0.8 Hz for the larger events. We developed a Seismic Analysis Code (SAC) coda processing command that reads in an ASCII flat file that contains calibration information specific for a station and surrounding region, then outputs a coda-derived source spectra, moment estimate, and energy estimate.

Mayeda, K M; Hofstetter, A; Rodgers, A J; Walter, W R

2000-07-26

211

Earthquakes Canada  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the earthquake information page of the Natural Resources Canada Geologic Survey. It contains links to reports, maps, and lists of recent earthquakes, information and hazards as well as earthquake research and network and data archives. Links also connect to information on earthquake hazards, products and publications, a site to report earthquakes, and a link to other earthquake resources.

212

A model for earthquake acceleration monitoring with wireless sensor networks in a structure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) technologies have attracted much attention to collect damage information in a natural disaster. WSNs to monitor temperature or humidity usually collect data once in some seconds or some minutes. Since structural health monitoring (SHM), meanwhile, aims to make a diagnosis for the state of a structure based on detected acceleration, WSNs are a promising technology to collect acceleration data. One concern to employ WSNs in SHM is to detect phenomena at a high sampling rate under energy-aware condition. In this paper, we describe a model for seismic acceleration monitoring, configured with multi-layer networks: WSNs, a wireless distribution system (WDS) and a database server, where the WDS is mainly operating in a wireless local area network (WLAN). Examining the performance in the test bed for the monitoring system, the results showed the system was capable of collecting acceleration at a rate of 100 sampling per second (sps) even in the fashion of intermittent operation, and capable of storing data into a database. We also suggest that the method using intermittent operation with appropriate sampling rate is effective in providing a long time operation for the system by considering in the response motion of a structure.

Fujiwara, Takahiro; Nakamura, Yugo; Jinno, Kousei; Matsubara, Taku; Uehara, Hideyuki

2014-03-01

213

Study on the Operational Methods and Design of Earthquake Monitoring System for Kori Nuclear Unit 1.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study suggests the most effective seismic monitoring system for Kori Unit 1 which is compatible with the most up-to-date regulatory requirements and state-of-the-arts. The detailed technical requirements are also developed for the purchase, installat...

J. R. Lee D. S. Lee Y. P. Seo I. K. Kim W. K. Lee

1993-01-01

214

A statistical study of ionospheric earthquake precursors monitored by using equatorial ionization anomaly of GPS TEC in Taiwan during 2001–2007  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we examine pre-earthquake ionospheric anomalies by the total electron content (TEC) derived from a ground-based receiver of the global positioning system (GPS). A network of eight GPS receivers is used to construct daily latitude-time-TEC (LTT) plots to monitor the crest of equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA) in the Taiwan area. Three parameters of the strength, location, and formation

J. Y. Liu; C. H. Chen; Y. I. Chen; W. H. Yang; K. I. Oyama; K. W. Kuo

2010-01-01

215

New Technology to Help Measurement and Study of Earthquakes  

NSF Publications Database

... movements of earthquake faults throughout southern California. This information should help ... in decades," says Tom Henyey, director of the Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC) in Los ...

216

Earthquake Research Reveals New Information  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This brief, three-part report focuses on NSF-sponsored earthquake safety projects. The first section is on the Simmillennium Project, which investigates computer earthquake modeling techniques. The second section concentrates on hospitals, which are particularly difficult to retrofit for earthquake safety because of the sophisticated diagnostic and treatment systems they contain. The report also gives news of a safety engineering project for elementary school students created by the Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center.

2001-01-01

217

Evidence from in situ pore pressure monitoring of submarine slope failures generated by the December 26, 2004 Great Sumatra Earthquake  

Microsoft Academic Search

The scientific Sumatra Aftershocks cruise was performed onboard the French R\\/V Marion Dufresne during summer 2005 (July, 14 - August, 9), within a relatively short delay from the Great Sumatra Earthquake (26 December 2004). One of the main aims of the cruise was to enquire about submarine mass wasting processes possibly associated with recent earthquake events. Within the whole investigated

N. Sultan; A. Cattaneo; J. Sibuet

2005-01-01

218

Permeable Pavement Monitoring at the Edison Environmental Center Demonstration Site - presentation  

EPA Science Inventory

The EPA?s Urban Watershed Management Branch has been monitoring an instrumented 110-space pervious pavement parking lot. The lot is used by EPA personnel and visitors to the Edison Environmental Center. The design includes 28-space rows of three permeable pavement types: asphal...

219

Permeable Pavement Monitoring at the Edison Environmental Center Demonstration Site - Abstract  

EPA Science Inventory

The EPA?s Urban Watershed Management Branch (UWMB) is monitoring an instrumented, working, 110-space pervious pavement parking at EPA?s Edison Environmental Center (EEC). Permeable pavement systems are classified as stormwater best management practices (BMPs) which reduce runo...

220

Real time of earthquakes prone areas by RST analysis of satellite TIR radiances: results of continuous monitoring over Italy and Turkey regions.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Meteorological satellites offering global coverage, continuity of observations and long term time series (starting even 30 years ago) offer a unique possibility not only to learn from the past but also to guarantee continuous monitoring whereas other observation technologies are lacking because too expensive or (like in the case of earthquake precursor studies) or considered useless by decision-makers. Space-time fluctuations of Earth's emitted Thermal Infrared (TIR) radiation have been observed from satellite months to weeks before earthquakes occurrence. The general RST approach has been proposed (since 2001) in order to discriminate normal (i.e. related to the change of natural factor and/or observation conditions) TIR signal fluctuations from anomalous signal transient possibly associated to earthquake occurrence. Since then several earthquakes occurred in Europe, Africa and America have been studied by analyzing decades of satellite observations always using a validation/confutation approach in order to verify the presence/absence of anomalous space-time TIR transients in presence/absence of significant seismic activity. In the framework of PRE-EARTHQUAKES EU-FP7 Project (www.pre-earthquakes.org) , starting from October 2010 (still continuing) RST approach has been applied to MSG/SEVIRI data to generate TIR anomaly maps over Italian peninsula, continuously for all the midnight slots. Since September 2011 the same monitoring activity (still continuing) started for Turkey region. For the first time a similar analysis has been performed in real-time, systematically analyzing TIR anomaly maps in order to identify day by day possible significant (e.g. persistent in the space-time domain) thermal anomalies. During 2011 only in very few cases (1 in Italy in July and 2 in the Turkish region in September and November) the day by day analysis enhanced significant anomalies that in two cases were communicated to the other PRE-EARTHQUAKES partners asking for their attention. In this paper results of such analysis will be presented which seem to confirm results independently achieved (unfortunately without their knowledge) by other authors applying a similar approach to EOS/MODIS data over California region.

Tramutoli, V.; Filizzola, C.; Genzano, N.; Lisi, M.; Paciello, R.; Pergola, N.

2012-04-01

221

Response changes of some wells in the mainland subsurface fluid monitoring network of China, due to the September 21, 1999, Ms7.6 Chi-Chi Earthquake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

About 60 hydrologic changes in response to the Chi-Chi earthquake with Ms7.6 on September 21, 1999, occurred in 52 wells, including groundwater level, temperature, discharge rate, well pressure and radon, etc., in the subsurface fluid monitoring network. These response changes were mainly co-seismic, but some pre- and post-earthquake changes occurred mainly within 5 days before and after the Chi-Chi earthquake. The response changes of different wells clustering in different tectonic areas showed different features. These changes are distributed in five areas named as A, B, C, D and E. The response changes in A area with short hypo-central distance (less than 550 km) were mainly pre-earthquake changes occurring more than 5 days before the event. Those in area B (in Huanan tectonic block) and C (in Huabei tectonic block) were mainly co-seismic changes. The hypo-central distance is about 1100-1280 and 800-1160 km, respectively. These changes were high-frequency water-level oscillations induced by seismic waves and accompanied by prominent and permanent water-level jumps and drops. There are also some post-seismic changes including discharge rate and water radon and well pressure changes in area C. Those in area D in the Yanshan tectonic block were mainly co-seismic and post-seismic changes including water level, water temperature, and water radon concentration, etc., showing prominent and permanent water-level jumps and drops and rising concentrations of water radon. The hypo-central distance is about 1750-2060 km. Those in Area E were mainly co-seismic changes showing prominent and permanent water-level jump. The hypo-central distance is about 1810-2120 km. Three moderate earthquakes occurred in area D and one strong earthquake occurred in area E 4 months after the Chi-Chi earthquake. The different features of the response changes might be caused by the changes of local hydrologic conditions (like permeability) induced by seismic waves. On the other hand, these response changes might indicate the near-critical conditions in the area where the response changes clustered. Such changes might be understood by the crustal buckling hypothesis. It is thought that the response changes might be a kind of precursor that implies elevated earthquake risk in the region.

Huang, Fu-qiong; Jian, Chun-lin; Tang, Yi; Xu, Gui-ming; Deng, Zhi-hui; Chi, Gong-cai

2004-10-01

222

Collaboratory for the Study of Earthquake Predictability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earthquake prediction is one of the most difficult problems in physical science and, owing to its societal implications, one of the most controversial. The study of earthquake predictability has been impeded by the lack of an adequate experimental infrastructure---the capability to conduct scientific prediction experiments under rigorous, controlled conditions and evaluate them using accepted criteria specified in advance. To remedy this deficiency, the Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC) is working with its international partners, which include the European Union (through the Swiss Seismological Service) and New Zealand (through GNS Science), to develop a virtual, distributed laboratory with a cyberinfrastructure adequate to support a global program of research on earthquake predictability. This Collaboratory for the Study of Earthquake Predictability (CSEP) will extend the testing activities of SCEC's Working Group on Regional Earthquake Likelihood Models, from which we will present first results. CSEP will support rigorous procedures for registering prediction experiments on regional and global scales, community-endorsed standards for assessing probability-based and alarm-based predictions, access to authorized data sets and monitoring products from designated natural laboratories, and software to allow researchers to participate in prediction experiments. CSEP will encourage research on earthquake predictability by supporting an environment for scientific prediction experiments that allows the predictive skill of proposed algorithms to be rigorously compared with standardized reference methods and data sets. It will thereby reduce the controversies surrounding earthquake prediction, and it will allow the results of prediction experiments to be communicated to the scientific community, governmental agencies, and the general public in an appropriate research context.

Schorlemmer, D.; Jordan, T. H.; Zechar, J. D.; Gerstenberger, M. C.; Wiemer, S.; Maechling, P. J.

2006-12-01

223

Exploring Earthquakes in Real-Time  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earthquakes capture the attention of students and inspire them to explore the Earth. Adding the ability to view and explore recordings of significant and newsworthy earthquakes in real-time makes the subject even more compelling. To address this opportunity, the Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS), in collaboration with Moravian College, developed ';jAmaSeis', a cross-platform application that enables students to access real-time earthquake waveform data. Students can watch as the seismic waves are recorded on their computer, and can be among the first to analyze the data from an earthquake. jAmaSeis facilitates student centered investigations of seismological concepts using either a low-cost educational seismograph or streamed data from other educational seismographs or from any seismic station that sends data to the IRIS Data Management System. After an earthquake, students can analyze the seismograms to determine characteristics of earthquakes such as time of occurrence, distance from the epicenter to the station, magnitude, and location. The software has been designed to provide graphical clues to guide students in the analysis and assist in their interpretations. Since jAmaSeis can simultaneously record up to three stations from anywhere on the planet, there are numerous opportunities for student driven investigations. For example, students can explore differences in the seismograms from different distances from an earthquake and compare waveforms from different azimuthal directions. Students can simultaneously monitor seismicity at a tectonic plate boundary and in the middle of the plate regardless of their school location. This can help students discover for themselves the ideas underlying seismic wave propagation, regional earthquake hazards, magnitude-frequency relationships, and the details of plate tectonics. The real-time nature of the data keeps the investigations dynamic, and offers students countless opportunities to explore.

Bravo, T. K.; Kafka, A. L.; Coleman, B.; Taber, J. J.

2013-12-01

224

Lessons learned from the introduction of autonomous monitoring to the EUVE science operations center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The University of California at Berkeley's (UCB) Center for Extreme Ultraviolet Astrophysics (CEA), in conjunction with NASA's Ames Research Center (ARC), has implemented an autonomous monitoring system in the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE) science operations center (ESOC). The implementation was driven by a need to reduce operations costs and has allowed the ESOC to move from continuous, three-shift, human-tended monitoring of the science payload to a one-shift operation in which the off shifts are monitored by an autonomous anomaly detection system. This system includes Eworks, an artificial intelligence (AI) payload telemetry monitoring package based on RTworks, and Epage, an automatic paging system to notify ESOC personnel of detected anomalies. In this age of shrinking NASA budgets, the lessons learned on the EUVE project are useful to other NASA missions looking for ways to reduce their operations budgets. The process of knowledge capture, from the payload controllers for implementation in an expert system, is directly applicable to any mission considering a transition to autonomous monitoring in their control center. The collaboration with ARC demonstrates how a project with limited programming resources can expand the breadth of its goals without incurring the high cost of hiring additional, dedicated programmers. This dispersal of expertise across NASA centers allows future missions to easily access experts for collaborative efforts of their own. Even the criterion used to choose an expert system has widespread impacts on the implementation, including the completion time and the final cost. In this paper we discuss, from inception to completion, the areas where our experiences in moving from three shifts to one shift may offer insights for other NASA missions.

Lewis, M.; Girouard, F.; Kronberg, F.; Ringrose, P.; Abedini, A.; Biroscak, D.; Morgan, T.; Malina, R. F.

1995-01-01

225

Environmental assessment of the Carlsbad Environmental Monitoring and Research Center Facility  

SciTech Connect

This Environmental Assessment has been prepared to determine if the Carlsbad Environmental Monitoring and Research Center (the Center), or its alternatives would have significant environmental impacts that must be analyzed in an Environmental Impact Statement. DOE`s proposed action is to continue funding the Center. While DOE is not funding construction of the planned Center facility, operation of that facility is dependent upon continued funding. To implement the proposed action, the Center would initially construct a facility of approximately 2,300 square meters (25,000 square feet). The Phase 1 laboratory facilities and parking lot will occupy approximately 1.2 hectares (3 acres) of approximately 8.9 hectares (22 acres) of land which were donated to New Mexico State University (NMSU) for this purpose. The facility would contain laboratories to analyze chemical and radioactive materials typical of potential contaminants that could occur in the environment in the vicinity of the DOE Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site or other locations. The facility also would have bioassay facilities to measure radionuclide levels in the general population and in employees of the WIPP. Operation of the Center would meet the DOE requirement for independent monitoring and assessment of environmental impacts associated with the planned disposal of transuranic waste at the WIPP.

NONE

1995-10-01

226

Understanding Earthquakes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource features links to: an earthquake quiz; a rotating globe showing earthquake locations; famous earthquake accounts by Mark Twain, Jack London, Charles Darwin, and John Muir; a Java animation of the gradual buildup of stress that leads to earthquakes; a three-page history of seismology to 1910; and other educational and earthquake websites.

227

Signal Coherence and Improved Bandwidth in Kilometer-Scale Water-Pipe Tilt-Meters for Monitoring Slow Earthquakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Slow earthquakes have been detected by GPS networks in numerous subduction zones but signals are frequently close to detection levels. Although strain-meters and tilt-meters possess a thousandfold higher resolution (~ 1 nstrain & 1 nrad), noise levels in these instruments tend to be site specific and it is sometimes considered necessary to instal clusters to distinguish tectonic signal from local noise. This approach to strain measurement can more than double the cost of initial installation. We report here first results from a half-km-long water pipe tiltmeter in which a test for signal coherence is an inherent product of the geometry of the instrument. An appealing feature of water-pipe tiltmeters is that they cost 25% less than a borehole strain-meter, assume long good long term stability within days of installation, and unlike the decade-longevity of borehole systems, have an indefinite life span. In a Michelson tilt-meter, tilt of the earth's surface is manifest as a rise in water level at one end of the pipe and an equal and opposite reduction in water level at the other. In newly installed tiltmeters in the Cascadia region we have introduced a central transducer that effectively provides two 250-m-long independent measures of tilt in each 500 m long pipe, and hence a measure of signal coherence for little extra cost. Data from each sensor are telemetered via radio modem to a remote computer at rates of 1-6 samples/minute. Initial results from four 500 m long water pipes installed in the Cascadia region, reveal that a secular drift level of better than 0.1 microradian/yr is established within a week of installation and that the two half-tiltmeters track each other closely at all periods. Noise levels are frequency dependent and vary form 0.2 nrad at hourly periods to 100 nrad at yearly periods. Atmospheric and aperiodic ocean loading appears to be the largest souce of noise at periods of several days to weeks in the bandwidth where slow earthquakes are anticipated. One disadvantage of long water pipe tilt meters is that they cannot faithfully record tilts with periods shorter than their fundamental resonant modes (20-30 minutes). We report first results from a hybrid tiltmeter installed in the Andaman islands that uses a 2.5 cm diameter pipe within a 15 cm half-filled water pipe to extend the useful bandwidth to 2 minutes. Water level changes in the two independent tiltmeters are monitored by meniscus float sensors. The meniscus float consists of a 15 cm diameter polypropylene disk weighing 31 gm, perforated by more than 200 holes, and held at the water surface by surface tension equivalent to that experienced by a 1.4 m diameter float. The vertical position of the float is monitored relative to a 10 m deep vertical pile using a 3 mm range LVDT.

Bilham, R.; Suszek, N.; Flake, R.; Szeliga, W.; Melbourne, T.

2005-12-01

228

Advancing Research Methodology for Measuring & Monitoring Patient-centered Communication in Cancer Care  

Cancer.gov

A critical step in facilitating the delivery of patient-centered communication (PCC) as part of routine cancer care delivery is creating a measurement and monitoring system that will allow for the ongoing assessment, tracking, and improvement of these six functions of patient-centered communication. To build the foundation of such a system and to advance research methodology in this area, the ORB has collaborated with the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) on a research project conducted within AHRQ's DEcIDE network.

229

Earthquake swarms in Greenland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earthquake swarms occur primarily near active volcanoes and in areas with frequent tectonic activity. However, intraplate earthquake swarms are not an unknown phenomenon. They are located near zones of weakness, e.g. in regions with geological contrasts, where dynamic processes are active. An earthquake swarm is defined as a period of increased seismicity, in the form of a cluster of earthquakes of similar magnitude, occurring in the same general area, during a limited time period. There is no obvious main shock among the earthquakes in a swarm. Earthquake swarms occur in Greenland, which is a tectonically stable, intraplate environment. The first earthquake swarms in Greenland were detected more than 30 years ago in Northern and North-Eastern Greenland. However, detection of these low-magnitude events is challenging due to the enormous distances and the relatively sparse network of seismographs. The seismograph coverage of Greenland has vastly improved since the international GLISN-project was initiated in 2008. Greenland is currently coved by an open network of 19 BB seismographs, most of them transmitting data in real-time. Additionally, earthquake activity in Greenland is monitored by seismographs in Canada, Iceland, on Jan Mayen, and on Svalbard. The time-series of data from the GLISN network is still short, with the latest station been added in NW Greenland in 2013. However, the network has already proven useful in detecting several earthquake swarms. In this study we will focus on two swarms: one occurring near/on the East Greenland coast in 2008, and another swarm occurring in the Disko-area near the west coast of Greenland in 2010. Both swarms consist of earthquakes with local magnitudes between 1.9 and 3.2. The areas, where the swarms are located, are regularly active with small earthquakes. The earthquake swarms are analyzed in the context of the general seismicity and the possible relationship to the local geological conditions.

Larsen, Tine B.; Voss, Peter H.; Dahl-Jensen, Trine

2014-05-01

230

Collaboratory for the Study of Earthquake Predictability: Design of Prediction Experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Collaboratory for the Study of Earthquake Predictability (CSEP) aims to improve our understanding of earthquake physics and predictability through rigorous, prospective testing of earthquake forecast models. The system-science character of earthquake prediction research demands an open and collaborative structure for experimentation in a variety of fault systems and tectonic settings. Several CSEP Testing Centers are now available to provide adequate infrastructure for predictability research. The first began operations at the Southern California Earthquake Center on 1 September 2007, running automated evaluations of daily forecast models for California and monitoring the five-year forecasts of the Regional Earthquake Likelihood Models (RELM) project. Currently, CSEP testing centers are operational in the United States, New Zealand, Japan, and Switzerland; within these centers, prediction experiments are being conducted in regions covering California, the Western Pacific, New Zealand, Japan, Italy, and the globe. More than 80 prediction models are under test and CSEP is expanding into new areas and new experiments. In this presentation, we focus on the design of rigorous and truly prospective prediction experiments, in which all input data are fully specified, the prediction and evaluation rules are pre-defined, and the entire process is transparent. We also discuss the importance of being able to reproduce experiment results and describe how earthquake prediction researchers can benefit from the CSEP approach.

Schorlemmer, D.; Jackson, D. D.; Zechar, J. D.; Jordan, T. H.

2009-12-01

231

How To Use Site-Monitoring Teams To Evaluate School-Based and School-Linked Health Centers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

School-based and -linked health centers (SBHC and SLHC) are becoming innovative centers for providing health care to adolescents. The Center for Population Options (CPO) has designed a site-monitoring team model for SBHCs and SLHCs. The first phase is preparing for the site visit. This begins with contracting a team leader, assembling the team and…

Center for Population Options, Washington, DC.

232

Environmental monitoring and research at the John F. Kennedy Space Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Biomedical Operations and Research Office at the NASA John F. Kennedy Space Center has been supporting environmental monitoring and research since the mid-1970s. Program elements include monitoring of baseline conditions to document natural variability in the ecosystem, assessments of operations and construction of new facilities, and ecological research focusing on wildlife habitat associations. Information management is centered around development of a computerized geographic information system that incorporates remote sensing and digital image processing technologies along with traditional relational data base management capabilities. The proactive program is one in which the initiative is to anticipate potential environmental concerns before they occur and, by utilizing in-house expertise, develop impact minimization or mitigation strategies to reduce environmental risk.

Hall, C. R.; Hinkle, C. R.; Knott, W. M.; Summerfield, B. R.

1992-01-01

233

The Parkfield, California, Earthquake Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This report decribes research being carried out in Parkfield, California whose purpose is to better understand the physics of earthquakes: what actually happens on the fault and in the surrounding region before, during and after an earthquake. Ultimately, scientists hope to better understand the earthquake process and, if possible, to provide a scientific basis for earthquake prediction. Topics include the scientific background for the experiment, including the tectonic setting at Parkfield, historical earthquake activity on this section of the San Andreas fault, the monitoring and data collecting activities currently being carried out, and plans for future research. Data are also available to view in real time and to download.

234

Skewed orientation groups in scatter plots of earthquake fault plane solutions: Implications for extensional geometry at oceanic spreading centers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

analysis of earthquake focal solutions derived from centroid moment tensors shows well-defined orientation groups in scatterplots of fault plane normals and associated slip line vectors. Consideration of the geometry implied by these orientation groups can allow resolution of the ambiguity inherent in the choice as to which of the two conjugate fault plane solutions should apply, and in many cases, the same classification can be applied to the entire orientation group. Examining scatter plots of data from normal fault earthquakes on spreading ridges typically shows orthogonal relations but there are also many cases where there is a skew with respect to the great circles defined by faults on adjacent transform faults. This can be explained by finite rock strength in the adjacent transforms, requiring resolved shear stress to allow movement, thus requiring rotation of the trajectories of the deviatoric stress axes: anticlockwise for right-lateral transforms and clockwise for left-lateral transforms. This asymmetry also requires formation of tilt block geometries reminiscent of Basin and Range style continental extension.

Lister, G. S.; Tkal?i?, H.; McClusky, S.; Forster, M. A.

2014-03-01

235

Ghana's experience in the establishment of a national data center  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The government of Ghana in a bilateral agreement with the Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) has established a National Data Center in Ghana with the aim of monitoring the testing of nuclear explosions. Seismic, hydroacoustic, radionuclide and infrasound methods are used for the monitoring. The data center was commissioned on 3 February, 2010 at the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission. At present Ghana does not have any operational, centralised data (seismic, hydroacoustic, radionuclide and infrasound) acquisition system with the capability of accessing data from other international stations. Hence, the need of setting up the National Data Center which would enable us constantly monitor, manage and coordinate both natural and man-made seismic activities in the country and around the globe, upload data to the International Data Center (IDC) as well as receive and use International Monitoring System (IMS) data and IDC products for treaty verification and compliance. Apart from these, the center also accesses and analyzes seismic waveforms relevant to its needs from the International Data Center; makes data available to its stakeholder institutions for earthquake disaster mitigation; reports on all aspects of disasters related to earthquake to the relevant government agencies that deal with disasters; makes recommendations to the government of Ghana on earthquake safety measures; provides information to assist government institutions to develop appropriate land and building policies. The center in collaboration with stakeholder agencies periodically organises public lectures on earthquake disaster risk mitigation.

Ekua, Amponsah Paulina; Yaw, Serfor-Armah

2012-08-01

236

Analysis of monitored strain of the National Aquatics Center under snow load  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the large span, the high redundancy and three-dimensional overall stress in the space structure, there are further applications in the civil engineering programs. However, due to the more members, the scatter force path and the complex diversity force transmission modes, which may lead to the complex stress than the ordinary structures in the space ones. In this paper, firstly, the structural strain responses have been analyzed through the numerical simulation with snow loading in the national aquatics center (water cube). Then, according to the strains monitoring data and the relation feature between the temperature loading and structural temperature strains collected from the strain monitoring system on the effect of the snow loading in the national aquatics center, the temperature loading strains are to be separated from the snow loading strains with the neural network technique, from which the monitoring data are got in numerical statement and analyzed, meantime, with which the above numerical simulation results are to be checked and evaluated. The analysis results shown, in summer, owning to the high alteration amplitude of the temperature difference, the temperature loading is the control loading to the space structure; on the other hand, in winter, due to the temperature difference reducing during the process of snowfall, the control loading in the structure is to be transferred from the temperature loading to the snow loading, the effect of the snow loading to the space structure can not to be ignored.

Li, Hui; Zhou, Feng; Zhou, Wensong; Zhu, Yanhuang; Teng, Jun; Ou, Jinping

2010-03-01

237

Signal Coherence and Improved Bandwidth in Kilometer-Scale WaterPipe Tilt-Meters for Monitoring Slow Earthquakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Slow earthquakes have been detected by GPS networks in numerous subduction zones but signals are frequently close to detection levels. Although strain-meters and tilt-meters possess a thousandfold higher resolution (~ 1 nstrain & 1 nrad), noise levels in these instruments tend to be site specific and it is sometimes considered necessary to instal clusters to distinguish tectonic signal from local

R. Bilham; N. Suszek; R. Flake; W. Szeliga; T. Melbourne

2005-01-01

238

Earthquake monitoring of the Hanford region, eastern Washington: Annual technical report 1978, including quarterly technical report 78B  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report covers the results of routine operations as well as several special research projects. The overall aim is to provide a continuing data base of the seismicity of eastern Washington, to study the large scale structure and tectonic framework of the area, and to thereby address the general problem of earthquake hazards in eastern Washington. We first examine the

Malone S. D

1978-01-01

239

Near real-time model to monitor SST anomalies related to undersea earthquakes and SW monsoon phenomena from TRMM-AQUA satellite data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Near real-time interactive computer model has been developed to extract daily mean global Sea Surface Temperature (SST) values of 1440x720 pixels, each one covering 0.25° x0.25° lat-long area and SST anomalies from longer period means pertaining to any required oceanic grid size of interest. The core MATLAB code uses the daily binary files (3-day aggregate values) of global SST data (derived from TRMM/TMI-AQUA/AMSRE satellite sensors) available on near real-time basis through the REMSS/NASA website and converts these SSTs into global/regional maps and displays as well as digitised text data tables for further analysis. As demonstrated applications of the model, the SST data for the period between 2003-2009 has been utilised to study (a) SST anomalies before, during and after the occurrence of two great under-sea earthquakes of 26 December 2004 and 28 March 2005 near the western coast of Sumatra and (b) variation of pixel numbers with SSTs between 27-31° C within (i) Nino 4 region and (ii) a broader western Pacific region (say Nino-BP) affected by ENSO events before (January-May) and during (June-October) Monsoon onset/progress. Preliminary results of these studies have been published (Chakravarty, The Open Oceanography Journal, 2009 and Chakravarty, IEEE Xplore, 2009). The results of the SST-earthquake analysis indicate a small but consistent warming of 0.2-0.3° C in the 2° x2° grid area near the earthquake epicentre starting a week earlier to a week later for the event of 26 December 2004. The changes observed in SST for the second earthquake is also indicated but with less clarity owing to the mixing of land and ocean surfaces and hence less number of SST pixels available within the 2° x 2° grid area near the corresponding epicen-tre. Similar analysis for the same period of non-earthquake years did not show any such SST anomalies. These results have far reaching implications to use SST as a possible parameter to be monitored for signalling occurrence of impending under-sea earthquakes sometimes leading to tsunamis. The results of the analysis for the ENSO-Monsoon rainfall relation show that the time series of SST distribution within the Nino 4 or Nino-BP regions with larger number of pixels with SSTs between 27-28° C is generally a favourable condition for normal rainfall condi-tion. While both Nino 4 and Nino-BP provide similar results, Nino-BP region is found to be a more sensitive region for such assessment of monitoring the trend of SW monsoon rainfall over India. This result has the potential to be used in the prognosis of overall rainfall pattern of the monsoon season at weekly intervals which may serve as vital information for Indian agricul-tural production. While simple geophysical models are able to explain the above correlations, more detailed modelling of the plate tectonics and heat fluxes (for undersea earthquakes) and ocean-cloud interaction/dynamics (for ENSO and Monsoon rainfall pattern) would need to be undertaken.

Chakravarty, Subhas

240

Seismicity and active tectonics at Coloumbo Reef (Aegean Sea, Greece): Monitoring an active volcano at Santorini Volcanic Center using a temporary seismic network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The volcanic center of Santorini Island is the most active volcano of the southern Aegean volcanic arc. ? dense seismic array consisting of fourteen portable broadband seismological stations has been deployed in order to monitor and study the seismo-volcanic activity at the broader area of the Santorini volcanic center between March 2003 and September 2003. Additional recordings from a neighbouring larger scale temporary network (CYCNET) were also used for the relocation of more than 240 earthquakes recorded by both arrays. A double-difference relocation technique was used, in order to obtain optimal focal parameters for the best-constrained earthquakes. The results indicate that the seismic activity of the Santorini volcanic center is strongly associated with the tectonic regime of the broader Southern Aegean Sea area as well as with the volcanic processes. The main cluster of the epicenters is located at the Coloumbo Reef, a submarine volcano of the volcanic system of Santorini Islands. A smaller cluster of events is located near the Anydros Islet, aligned in a NE-SW direction, running almost along the main tectonic feature of the area under study, the Santorini-Amorgos Fault Zone. In contrast, the main Santorini Island caldera is characterized by the almost complete absence of seismicity. This contrast is in very good agreement with recent volcanological and marine studies, with the Coloumbo volcanic center showing an intense high-temperature hydrothermal activity, in comparison to the corresponding low-level activity of the Santorini caldera. The high-resolution hypocentral relocations present a clear view of the volcanic submarine structure at the Coloumbo Reef, showing that the main seismic activity is located within a very narrow vertical column, mainly at depths between 6 and 9 km. The focal mechanisms of the best-located events show that the cluster at the Coloumbo Reef is associated with the "Kameni-Coloumbo Fracture Zone", which corresponds to the western termination of the major ENE-WSW Santorini-Amorgos Fault Zone. Stress-tensor inversion of the available fault plane solutions from Coloumbo Reef, as well as existing neotectonic fault information from NE Santorini (Coloumbo peninsula), suggests that the NE Santorini-Coloumbo faults belong to a single rupture system, with a ~ 30° rotation of the local stress field with respect to the NNW-SSE regional extension field of the southern Aegean Sea. The observed change of the fault plane solutions shows that local conditions at the Coloumbo submarine volcano area control the observed faulting pattern.

Dimitriadis, I.; Karagianni, E.; Panagiotopoulos, D.; Papazachos, C.; Hatzidimitriou, P.; Bohnhoff, M.; Rische, M.; Meier, T.

2009-02-01

241

Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC) overview of FRMAC operations  

SciTech Connect

In the event of a major radiological emergency, 17 federal agencies with various statutory responsibilities have agreed to coordinate their efforts at the emergency scene under the umbrella of the Federal Radiological Emergency Response plan (FRERP). This cooperative effort will assure the designated Lead Federal Agency (LFA) and the state(s) that all federal radiological assistance fully supports their efforts to protect the public. The mandated federal cooperation ensures that each agency can obtain the data critical to its specific responsibilities. This Overview of the Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC) Operations describes the FRMAC response activities to a major radiological emergency. It also describes the federal assets and subsequent operational activities which provide federal radiological monitoring and assessment of the off-site areas. These off-site areas may include one or more affected states.

NONE

1996-02-01

242

Lecture Demonstrations on Earthquakes for K-12 Teachers and Students  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lecture Demonstrations on Earthquakes for K-12 Teachers and Students Since 1975, the Center for Earthquake Research and Information, (CERI), at The University of Memphis, has strived to satisfy its information transfer directives through diverse education and outreach efforts, providing technical and non-technical earthquake information to the general public, K-16 teachers and students, professional organizations, and state and federal organizations via all forms of written and electronic communication. <> Through these education and outreach efforts, CERI tries to increase earthquake hazard awareness to help limit future losses. <>In the past three years, education programs have reached over 20,000 K-16 students and teachers through in-service training workshops for teachers and earthquake/earth science lecture demonstrations for students. The presentations include an hour-long lecture demonstration featuring graphics and an informal question and answer format. Graphics used include seismic hazard maps, damage photos, plate tectonic maps, layers of the Earth, and more, all adapted for the audience. Throughout this presentation, manipulatives such as a Slinky, Silly Putty, a foam Earth with depth and temperature features, and Popsicle sticks are used to demonstrate seismic waves, the elasticity of the Earth, the Earth's layers and their features, and the brittleness of the crust. Toward the end, a demonstration featuring a portable shake table with a dollhouse mounted on it is used to illustrate earthquake-shaking effects. This presentation is also taken to schools when they are unable to visit CERI. Following this presentation, groups are then taken to the Public Earthquake Resource Center at CERI, a space featuring nine displays, seven of which are interactive. The interactive displays include a shake table and building blocks, a trench with paleoliquefaction features, computers with web access to seismology sites, a liquefaction model, an oscilloscope and attached geophone, a touch-screen monitor, and various manipulatives. CERI is also developing suitcase kits and activities for teachers to borrow and use in their classrooms. The suitcase kits include activities based on state learning standards, such as layers of the Earth and plate tectonics. Items included in the suitcase modules include a shake table and dollhouse, an oscilloscope and geophone, a resonance model, a Slinky, Silly putty, Popsicle sticks, and other items. Almost all of the activities feature a lecture demonstration component. These projects would not be possible without leveraged funding from the Mid-America Earthquake Center (MAEC) and the Center for Earthquake Research and Information, with additional funding from the National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (NEHRP).

Dry, M. D.; Patterson, G. L.

2005-12-01

243

Earthquake Myths  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site serves to belie several popular myths about earthquakes. Students will learn that most earthquakes do not occur in the early morning and one cannot be swallowed up by an earthquake. In addition, there is no such thing as earthquake weather and California is not falling into the ocean. On the more practical side, students can learn that good building codes do not insure good buildings, it is safer under a table than in a doorway during an earthquake, and most people do not panic during an earthquake.

244

Photovoltaic Performance and Reliability Database: A Gateway to Experimental Data Monitoring Projects for PV at the Florida Solar Energy Center  

DOE Data Explorer

This site is the gateway to experimental data monitoring projects for photovoltaic (PV) at the Florida Solar Energy Center. The website and the database were designed to facilitate and standardize the processes for archiving, analyzing and accessing data collected from dozens of operational PV systems and test facilities monitored by FSEC's Photovoltaics and Distributed Generation Division. [copied from http://www.fsec.ucf.edu/en/research/photovoltaics/data_monitoring/index.htm

245

Subionospheric VLF/LF monitoring of ionospheric perturbations for the 2004 Mid-Niigata earthquake and their structure and dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports on the detailed spatial structure and temporal dynamics of the ionospheric perturbations associated with the huge 2004 Mid-Niigata earthquake in Japan. The terminator time method in VLF/LF subionospheric propagation has been used to deduce the presence and dynamics of the seismo-ionospheric perturbations by making full use of our Japanese VLF/LF network observations. It is found that significant shifts were observed in terminator time for some selected paths, a few to several days before the earthquake, and we obtained the anisotropic shape of the inferred ionospheric perturbation likely elongated along the fault lines there. The temporal dynamics of inhomogeneity of the perturbations is suggested on the basis of a comparison of the observed terminator time shift and theoretical full-wave computations (2D FDTD and 3D full-wave scattering).

Yamauchi, Takeshi; Maekawa, Shinko; Horie, Takumi; Hayakawa, Masashi; Soloviev, O.

2007-05-01

246

Earthquake Education in Prime Time  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 2001, the Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC) has collaborated on several video production projects that feature important topics related to earthquake science, engineering, and preparedness. These projects have also fostered many fruitful and sustained partnerships with a variety of organizations that have a stake in hazard education and preparedness. The Seismic Sleuths educational video first appeared in the spring

R. de Groot; P. Abbott; M. Benthien

2004-01-01

247

Seismotectonics of the May 19, 2011 Simav- Kutahya Earthquake Activity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aftershock sequence of May 19, 2011 Simav earthquake (Mw = 5.8) is relocated with a new 1-D seismic velocity model and focal mechanisms of largest aftershocks are determined. The May 19, 2011 Simav-Kutahya earthquake is occured in the most seismically active region of western Turkey. During six months after the mainshock, more than 5000 earthquakes are recorded and aftershocks followed over a period of almost two years. In this study, more than 7600 aftershocks occured between years 2011 and 2012 with magnitudes greater than 1.8 relocated. Waveform data is collected by 13 three component seismic stations from three different networks (Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute (NEMC-National Earthquake Monitoring Center), Prime Ministry Disaster and Emergency Management Presidency, Department of Earthquake and Canakkale Onsekiz Mart University Geophysics Department). These seismic stations are deployed closer than 80 km epicentral distance in the Simav-Kutahya. Average crustal velocity and average crustal thickness for the region are computed as 5.68 km/sn and 37.6 km, respectively. The source mechanism of fifty aftershocks with magnitudes greater than 4.0 are derived from first motion P phases. Analysis of focal mechanisms indicate mainly normal fault motions with oblique slip.

Komec Mutlu, Ahu

2014-05-01

248

Earthquake Demonstration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This demonstration uses an "earthquake machine" constructed from bricks, sand paper, and a winch, to simulate the buildup of elastic strain energy prior to a seismic event and the release of that energy during an earthquake.

249

Forecasting earthquakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this video there are scenes of damage from the Northridge Earthquake and interviews with Dr. Andrea Donnelan, Geophysics at JPL, and Dr. Jim Dolan, earthquake geologist from Cal. Tech. The interviews discuss earthquake forecasting by tracking changes in the earth's crust using antenna receiving signals from a series of satellites called the Global Positioning System (GPS).

250

Virtual Earthquake  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive feature shows students how an earthquake epicenter is located and how Richter magnitude is determined. They will use recordings of seismograms from three stations (provided in the activity), learn the difference between the focus and epicenter of an earthquake, and that the magnitude of an earthquake is an estimate of the amount of energy that it has released.

Novak, Gary

251

Earthquake Research Institute, University of Tokyo  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Earthquake Research Institute (ERI) at the University of Tokyo acts as the primary association for fundamental geophysical research in Japan and oversees the Earthquake Predication Center and the Volcanic Eruption Prediction Program. The website offers the latest earthquake and volcano news. While a few of the research projects are described only in Japanese, visitors can learn about the Ocean Hemisphere Network Project, Special Project for Earthquake Disaster Mitigation in Urban Areas, and the Marine Seismic Survey. The web site offers links to numerous earthquake databases and to the Institute's many research centers.

252

Earthquake triggering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this thesis, I present an observational study of multiplet earthquakes as a step towards understanding earthquake triggering. Several subsets of different seismicity catalogs are analyzed for earthquake clustering: (i) a global seismicity catalog of large (Msb{s} ? 7.1) earthquakes; (ii) catalogs of large, shallow (depth < 70km) and deep (depth ? 70km) earthquakes; (iii) regional catalogs in the Philippines and Kurils. Different space, time and magnitude criteria are explored to determine the degree of earthquake clustering for each sub-catalog. The observed earthquake clustering is compared against a null hypothesis: the Poisson process. Multiplets are earthquake clusters which cannot be explained by the Poisson process. We interpret multiplet occurrence as evidence for earthquake triggering. We find multiplets in all the sub-catalogs. The spatial distance within multiplets ranges from across the world, to several kilometers apart and the time within multiplets ranges from days to a few years. Moreover, multiplet occurrence is more common in some areas of the world than in others. Overall, across the global catalogs, approximately 10% of all large earthquakes are triggered by previous earthquakes. Detailed investigations of the source time functions of two multiplet sequences, the Kurils and the Philippines subduction zones revealed that earthquakes within multiplet sequences cannot be differentiated from non-multiplet earthquakes based on the properties of their source time function. This suggests that the rupture process of multiplet and non-multiplet earthquakes are the same. Three earthquake triggering mechanisms are explored: (i) earthquake to earthquake triggering; (ii) triggering due to external forces; (iii) triggering due to human activities. Earthquake to earthquake triggering via static and dynamic stress transfer imparts the most significant stress change and indeed, this thesis shows evidence for this mode of earthquake triggering. Each mechanism, however, changes the existing stress state on faults so that it is either brought closer or further from failure. In fact, if the fault is close enough to failure, an increase in stress by a tiny amount may be sufficient to trigger an earthquake.

Nomanbhoy, Nazli Moez

253

Cost-effective monitoring of ground motion related to earthquakes, landslides, or volcanic activity by joint use of a single-frequency GPS and a MEMS accelerometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

detection and precise estimation of strong ground motion are crucial for rapid assessment and early warning of geohazards such as earthquakes, landslides, and volcanic activity. This challenging task can be accomplished by combining GPS and accelerometer measurements because of their complementary capabilities to resolve broadband ground motion signals. However, for implementing an operational monitoring network of such joint measurement systems, cost-effective techniques need to be developed and rigorously tested. We propose a new approach for joint processing of single-frequency GPS and MEMS (microelectromechanical systems) accelerometer data in real time. To demonstrate the performance of our method, we describe results from outdoor experiments under controlled conditions. For validation, we analyzed dual-frequency GPS data and images recorded by a video camera. The results of the different sensors agree very well, suggesting that real-time broadband information of ground motion can be provided by using single-frequency GPS and MEMS accelerometers.

Tu, R.; Wang, R.; Ge, M.; Walter, T. R.; Ramatschi, M.; Milkereit, C.; Bindi, D.; Dahm, T.

2013-08-01

254

Rapid Estimates of Rupture Extent for Large Earthquakes Using Aftershocks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spatial distribution of aftershocks is closely linked to the rupture extent of the mainshock that preceded them and a rapid analysis of aftershock patterns therefore has potential for use in near real-time estimates of earthquake impact. The correlation between aftershocks and slip distribution has frequently been used to estimate the fault dimensions of large historic earthquakes for which no, or insufficient, waveform data is available. With the advent of earthquake inversions that use seismic waveforms and geodetic data to constrain the slip distribution, the study of aftershocks has recently been largely focused on enhancing our understanding of the underlying mechanisms in a broader earthquake mechanics/dynamics framework. However, in a near real-time earthquake monitoring environment, in which aftershocks of large earthquakes are routinely detected and located, these data may also be effective in determining a fast estimate of the mainshock rupture area, which would aid in the rapid assessment of the impact of the earthquake. We have analyzed a considerable number of large recent earthquakes and their aftershock sequences and have developed an effective algorithm that determines the rupture extent of a mainshock from its aftershock distribution, in a fully automatic manner. The algorithm automatically removes outliers by spatial binning, and subsequently determines the best fitting “strike” of the rupture and its length by projecting the aftershock epicenters onto a set of lines that cross the mainshock epicenter with incremental azimuths. For strike-slip or large dip-slip events, for which the surface projection of the rupture is recti-linear, the calculated strike correlates well with the strike of the fault and the corresponding length, determined from the distribution of aftershocks projected onto the line, agrees well with the rupture length. In the case of a smaller dip-slip rupture with an aspect ratio closer to 1, the procedure gives a measure of the rupture extent and dimensions, but not necessarily the strike. We found that using standard earthquake catalogs, such as the National Earthquake Information Center catalog, we can constrain the rupture extent, rupture direction, and in many cases the type of faulting, of the mainshock with the aftershocks that occur within the first hour after the mainshock. However, this data may not be currently available in near real-time. Since our results show that these early aftershock locations may be used to estimate first order rupture parameters for large global earthquakes, the near real-time availability of these data would be useful for fast earthquake damage assessment.

Polet, J.; Thio, H. K.; Kremer, M.

2009-12-01

255

Preliminary Report on the Seismological and Engineering Aspects of the January 17, 1994 Northridge Earthquake.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Immediately following the 17 January, 1994, Northridge earthquake, the Earthquake Engineering Research Center dispatched a reconnaissance team to the epicentral region. The report, issued one week after the earthquake, provides an overview of the seismolo...

J. P. Moehle

1994-01-01

256

Earthquake risk assessment for Istanbul metropolitan area  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of earthquakes in urban centers prone to disastrous earthquakes necessitates the analysis of associated risk for\\u000a rational formulation of contingency plans and mitigation strategies. In urban centers, the seismic risk is best quantified\\u000a and portrayed through the preparation of “Earthquake Damage and Loss Scenarios.” The components of such scenarios are the\\u000a assessment of the hazard, inventories and the

M. Erdik; N. Aydinoglu; Y. Fahjan; K. Sesetyan; M. Demircioglu; B. Siyahi; E. Durukal; C. Ozbey; Y. Biro; H. Akman; O. Yuzugullu

2003-01-01

257

Earthquake Plotting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Do earthquakes tend to happen in certain locations on Earth? Are there predictable patterns to where earthquakes will occur? The Earth is divided into large tectonic plates that move on a ductile layer of material in the mantle (the Asthenosphere). Earthquakes tend to occur along the boundaries where these plates either collide with one another or try to slide one past the other. Today you will plot on a map the location of every earthquake with a magnitude greater than 4.0 within the past week to see if any patterns appear. You will need Dynamic Crust lab #3 (Earthquake Plotting) from your lab books and your Earth Science Reference Tables. Vocabulary: Use the following website to find definitions to the vocabulary terms in the lab. Geology Dictionary Procedures: Go to this site to find a list of \\"Latest Earthquakes Magnitude 2.5 or Greater in the United States ...

Perry, Mr.

2008-11-18

258

Earthquake Plotting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Do earthquakes tend to happen in certain locations on Earth? Are there predictable patterns to where earthquakes will occur? The Earth is divided into large tectonic plates that move on a ductile layer of material in the mantle (the Asthenosphere). Earthquakes tend to occur along the boundaries where these plates either collide with one another or try to slide one past the other. Today you will plot on a map the location of every earthquake with a magnitude greater than 4.0 within the past week to see if any patterns appear. You will need Dynamic Crust lab #3 (Earthquake Plotting) from your lab books and your Earth Science Reference Tables. Vocabulary: Use the following website to find definitions to the vocabulary terms in the lab. Geology Dictionary Procedures: Go to this site to find a list of \\"Latest Earthquakes Magnitude 2.5 or Greater in the United States ...

Kio, Mr.

2008-12-06

259

Earthquake Plotting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Do earthquakes tend to happen in certain locations on Earth? Are there predictable patterns to where earthquakes will occur? The Earth is divided into large tectonic plates that move on a ductile layer of material in the mantle (the Asthenosphere). Earthquakes tend to occur along the boundaries where these plates either collide with one another or try to slide one past the other. Today you will plot on a map the location of every earthquake with a magnitude greater than 4.0 within the past week to see if any patterns appear. You will need Dynamic Crust lab #3 (Earthquake Plotting) from your lab books and your Earth Science Reference Tables. Vocabulary: Use the following website to find definitions to the vocabulary terms in the lab. Geology Dictionary Procedures: Go to this site to find a list of \\"Latest Earthquakes Magnitude 2.5 or Greater in the United States ...

Science, Vvs E.

2008-12-03

260

Earthquake Plotting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity has students gather and plot records of earthquakes. It is designed to be either long or short term, depending on the needs of the instructor. Students will gain practice working with map coordinates while becoming familiar with the frequency of earthquake occurrences, the location and magnitude of earthquakes, and the locations of plate boundaries. In addition, this exercise will illustrate the importance of measurements, data storage, analysis and worldwide scientific collaboration.

Rauch, Arden

261

Glacial earthquakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have identified a new class of moderate earthquakes (seismic magnitude around 5) that occur beneath glaciers. The previously unknown glacial earthquakes generate long-period (20--60~sec) seismic surface waves that are well recorded on globally distributed seismic stations, but which have previously gone undetected because they do not generate the high-frequency seismic waves on which traditional earthquake detection and location methodologies

G. Ekström; M. Nettles; G. A. Abers

2003-01-01

262

The Terminator Time in subionospheric VLF/LF diurnal variation as recorded by the Romanian VLF/LF radio monitoring system related to earthquake occurrence and volcano erruptions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Romanian VLF/LF monitoring system consisting in a radio receiver and the infrastructure that is necessary to record and transmit the collected data is part of the European international network named INFREP. Information on electromagnetic fields' intensities created by transmitters at a receiving site are indicating the quality of the propagation along the paths between the receivers and transmitters. Studying the ionosphere's influences on the electromagnetic waves' propagation along a certain path is a method to put into evidence possible modifications of its lower structure and composition as earthquakes' precursors. The VLF/LF receiver installed in Romania was put into operation in February 2009 and has already 3 years of testing, functioning and proving its utility in the forecast of some earthquakes or volcanic eruptions. Simultaneously we monitor, in the same site with the VLF/LF receiver, the vertical atmospheric electric field and different other meteorological parameters as: temperature, pressure or rainfall. The global magnetic conditions are emphasized with the help of Daily Geomagnetic Index Kp. At a basic level, the adopted analysis consists in a simple statistical evaluation of the signals by comparing the instantaneous values to the trend of the signal. In this paper we pay attention to the terminator times in subionospheric VLF/LF diurnal variation, which are defined as the times of minimum in amplitude (or phase) around sunrise and sunset. These terminator times are found to shift significantly just around the earthquake. In the case of Kobe earthquake, there were found significant shifts in both morning and evening terminator times and these authors interpreted the shift in terminator time in terms of the lowering of lower ionosphere by using the full-wave mode theory. A LabVIEW application which accesses the VLF/LF receiver through internet was developed. This program opens the receiver's web-page and automatically retrieves the list of data files to synchronize the user-side data with the receiver's data. Missing zipped files are also automatically downloaded. The application appends daily files into monthly and anual files and performs 3D colour-coded maps with graphic representations of VLF and LF signals' intensities versus the minute-of-the-day and the day-of-the-month, facilitating a near real-time observation of VLF and LF electromagnetic waves' propagation. This type of representation, highlights the modification of the terminator time versus the length of the solar-day, improves the user's capability to detect possible propagation anomalies due to ionosphere conditions and allows a quick visual inspection of unexpected behaviors of transmission channels at different frequencies and paths. A very special result, was observed on the recordings made on the propagation path to Iceland (NRK, 37.5kHz). Recordings are made once a minute, for a period of 303 days. Icelandic channel propagation anomalies present in the range of 40-90 days are considered to be precursory phenomena associated with Eyjafjallajokull - Iceland, volcanic eruption occurred in April-May 2010.

Moldovan, I. A.; Moldovan, A. S.; Biagi, P. F.; Ionescu, C.; Schwingenschuh, K.; Boudjada, M. Y.

2012-04-01

263

1964 Great Alaska Earthquake: a photographic tour of Anchorage, Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

On March 27, 1964, at 5:36 p.m., a magnitude 9.2 earthquake, the largest recorded earthquake in U.S. history, struck southcentral Alaska (fig. 1). The Great Alaska Earthquake (also known as the Good Friday Earthquake) occurred at a pivotal time in the history of earth science, and helped lead to the acceptance of plate tectonic theory (Cox, 1973; Brocher and others, 2014). All large subduction zone earthquakes are understood through insights learned from the 1964 event, and observations and interpretations of the earthquake have influenced the design of infrastructure and seismic monitoring systems now in place. The earthquake caused extensive damage across the State, and triggered local tsunamis that devastated the Alaskan towns of Whittier, Valdez, and Seward. In Anchorage, the main cause of damage was ground shaking, which lasted approximately 4.5 minutes. Many buildings could not withstand this motion and were damaged or collapsed even though their foundations remained intact. More significantly, ground shaking triggered a number of landslides along coastal and drainage valley bluffs underlain by the Bootlegger Cove Formation, a composite of facies containing variably mixed gravel, sand, silt, and clay which were deposited over much of upper Cook Inlet during the Late Pleistocene (Ulery and others, 1983). Cyclic (or strain) softening of the more sensitive clay facies caused overlying blocks of soil to slide sideways along surfaces dipping by only a few degrees. This guide is the document version of an interactive web map that was created as part of the commemoration events for the 50th anniversary of the 1964 Great Alaska Earthquake. It is accessible at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Alaska Science Center website: http://alaska.usgs.gov/announcements/news/1964Earthquake/. The website features a map display with suggested tour stops in Anchorage, historical photographs taken shortly after the earthquake, repeat photography of selected sites, scanned documents, and small-scale maps, as well as links to slideshows of additional photographs and Google Street View™ scenes. Buildings in Anchorage that were severely damaged, sites of major landslides, and locations of post-earthquake engineering responses are highlighted. The web map can be used online as a virtual tour or in a physical self-guided tour using a web-enabled Global Positioning System (GPS) device. This publication serves the purpose of committing most of the content of the web map to a single distributable document. As such, some of the content differs from the online version.

Thoms, Evan E.; Haeussler, Peter J.; Anderson, Rebecca D.; McGimsey, Robert G.

2014-01-01

264

Earthquake prediction  

SciTech Connect

This book presents the papers given at a symposium on the forecasting of earthquakes. Topics considered at the symposium included earthquake precursors, aftershocks, seismicity, changes in gravity in epicenters before earthquakes, rock mechanics, seismology, stress fields due to offsets of inclined faults, computerized simulation, geophysical prediction methods, individual and group response to earthquake prediction, the economics of forecasting, the role of institutions, the communication of predictions and warnings, foreshocks, social impacts, the implementation of seismic safety legislation, political aspects, socio-economic factors, and administrative consequences of prediction.

Not Available

1984-01-01

265

Update NEMC Database using Arcgis Software and Example of Simav-Kutahya earthquake sequences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, totally 144043 earthquake data from the Kandilli Observatory Earthquake Research Institute & National Earthquake Monitoring Center (KOERI-NEMC) seismic catalog between 2.0?M?7.9 occured in Turkey for the time interval 1900-2011 were used. The data base includes not only coordinates, date, magnitude and depth of these earthquakes but also location and installation information, field studies, geology, technical properties of 154 seismic stations. Additionally, 1063 historical earthquakes included to the data base. Source parameters of totally 738 earthquakes bigger than M?4.0 occured between the years 1938-2008 were added to the database. In addition, 103 earthquake's source parameters were calculated (bigger than M?4.5) since 2008. In order to test the charateristics of earthquakes, questioning, visualization and analyzing aftershock sequences on 19 May 2011 Simav-Kutahya earthquake were selected and added to the data base. The Simav earthquake (western part of Anatolia) with magnitude Ml= 5.9 occurred at local time 23:15 is investigated, in terms of accurate event locations and source properties of the largest events. The aftershock distribution of Simav earthquake shows the activation of a 17-km long zone, which extends in depth between 5 and 10 km. In order to make contribution to better understand the neotectonics of this region, we analysed the earthquakes using the KOERI (Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute) seismic stations along with the seismic stations that are operated by other communities and recorded suscessfuly the Simav seismic activity in 2011. Source mechanisms of 19 earthquakes with magnitudes between 3.8 ?ML<6.0 were calculated by means of Regional Moment Tensor Inversion (RMT) technique. The mechanism solutions show the presence of east-west direction normal faults in the region. As a result an extensional regime is dominated in the study area. The aim of this study is to store and compile earthquake related data and then built a database in ArcGis enviroment and finally perform queries, analysis, and visualizations using these data. Contributions of this study to earthqauke research can be summarized as quick access to information, effective analysis and easy data updating.

Altuncu Poyraz, S.; Kalafat, D.; Kekovali, K.

2011-12-01

266

Monitoring Stellar Orbits Around the Massive Black Hole in the Galactic Center  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the results of 16 years of monitoring stellar orbits around the massive black hole in the center of the Milky Way, using high-resolution near-infrared techniques. This work refines our previous analysis mainly by greatly improving the definition of the coordinate system, which reaches a long-term astrometric accuracy of ?300 ?as, and by investigating in detail the individual systematic error contributions. The combination of a long-time baseline and the excellent astrometric accuracy of adaptive optics data allows us to determine orbits of 28 stars, including the star S2, which has completed a full revolution since our monitoring began. Our main results are: all stellar orbits are fit extremely well by a single-point-mass potential to within the astrometric uncertainties, which are now ?6× better than in previous studies. The central object mass is (4.31 ± 0.06|_{stat} ± 0.36|_{R_0})× 10^6 M_?, where the fractional statistical error of 1.5% is nearly independent from R 0, and the main uncertainty is due to the uncertainty in R 0. Our current best estimate for the distance to the Galactic center is R 0 = 8.33 ± 0.35 kpc. The dominant errors in this value are systematic. The mass scales with distance as (3.95 ± 0.06) × 106(R 0/8 kpc)2.19 M sun. The orientations of orbital angular momenta for stars in the central arcsecond are random. We identify six of the stars with orbital solutions as late-type stars, and six early-type stars as members of the clockwise-rotating disk system, as was previously proposed. We constrain the extended dark mass enclosed between the pericenter and apocenter of S2 at less than 0.066, at the 99% confidence level, of the mass of Sgr A*. This is two orders of magnitudes larger than what one would expect from other theoretical and observational estimates.

Gillessen, S.; Eisenhauer, F.; Trippe, S.; Alexander, T.; Genzel, R.; Martins, F.; Ott, T.

2009-02-01

267

Broadband characteristics of earthquakes recorded during a dome-building eruption at Mount St. Helens, Washington, between October 2004 and May 2005: Chapter 5 in A volcano rekindled: the renewed eruption of Mount St. Helens, 2004-2006  

USGS Publications Warehouse

From October 2004 to May 2005, the Center for Earthquake Research and Information of the University of Memphis operated two to six broadband seismometers within 5 to 20 km of Mount St. Helens to help monitor recent seismic and volcanic activity. Approximately 57,000 earthquakes identified during the 7-month deployment had a normal magnitude distribution with a mean magnitude of 1.78 and a standard deviation of 0.24 magnitude units. Both the mode and range of earthquake magnitude and the rate of activity varied during the deployment. We examined the time domain and spectral characteristics of two classes of events seen during dome building. These include volcano-tectonic earthquakes and lower-frequency events. Lower-frequency events are further classified into hybrid earthquakes, low-frequency earthquakes, and long-duration volcanic tremor. Hybrid and low-frequency earthquakes showed a continuum of characteristics that varied systematically with time. A progressive loss of high-frequency seismic energy occurred in earthquakes as magma approached and eventually reached the surface. The spectral shape of large and small earthquakes occurring within days of each other did not vary with magnitude. Volcanic tremor events and lower-frequency earthquakes displayed consistent spectral peaks, although higher frequencies were more favorably excited during tremor than earthquakes.

Horton, Stephen P.; Norris, Robert D.; Moran, Seth C.

2008-01-01

268

Parkfield: Earthquake Prediction: A Brief History  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This report describes recent efforts at earthquake prediction, focusing on the modern era beginning in the mid- to late 1970's. Topics include a history of prediction efforts, the measurement of physical parameters in areas where earthquakes occur, and the development of a model upon which predictions could be based. The efforts centered around Parkfield, California, whose well-known seismic history allowed the development of a 'characteristic Parkfield earthquake' model and led to a formal prediction that a moderate-size earthquake would occur at Parkfield between 1985 and 1993. However, the anticipated earthquake did not occur until September 2004.

269

Putting Down Roots in Earthquake Country  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Putting Down Roots in Earthquake Country is an informational Web site provided by the Southern California Earthquake Center. Citizens can learn about the San Andreas fault, other California faults, how to build and maintain an earthquake safe house, how to survive an earthquake, how they are measured and what the magnitude means, common earthquake myths, and much more. As a safety and an educational site, this unique resource does a good job of presenting a lot of information, illustrations, and graphics in an easy-to-follow format that helps explain this powerful and potentially deadly natural occurrence.

270

Plotting Earthquakes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students plot daily earthquake locations on a world map. They will understand that earthquakes are not randomly distributed around the Earth, but occur at plate interfaces, and learn to identify the 'Ring of Fire' around the Pacific Basin.

Gilhooly, Brian

2010-10-12

271

Network-based real-time radiation monitoring system in Synchrotron Radiation Research Center.  

PubMed

The real-time radiation monitoring system (RMS) in the Synchrotron Radiation Research Center (SRRC) has been upgraded significantly during the past years. The new framework of the RMS is built on the popular network technology, including Ethernet hardware connections and Web-based software interfaces. It features virtually no distance limitations, flexible and scalable equipment connections, faster response time, remote diagnosis, easy maintenance, as well as many graphic user interface software tools. This paper briefly describes the radiation environment in SRRC and presents the system configuration, basic functions, and some operational results of this real-time RMS. Besides the control of radiation exposures, it has been demonstrated that a variety of valuable information or correlations could be extracted from the measured radiation levels delivered by the RMS, including the changes of operating conditions, beam loss pattern, radiation skyshine, and so on. The real-time RMS can be conveniently accessed either using the dedicated client program or World Wide Web interface. The address of the Web site is http:// www-rms.srrc.gov.tw. PMID:13678290

Sheu, R J; Wang, J P; Chen, C R; Liu, J; Chang, F D; Jiang, S H

2003-10-01

272

Earthquake Precursors in Thermal Infrared Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of an agreement between NASA and the Arab Youth Venture Foundation (AYVF), three engineering students from the United Arab Emirates (UAE) participated in a 10-week experiential learning program this summer. This educational program is managed by the NASA Ames Research Center Office of Education and Public Outreach and is administered by the Education Associates Program (EAP). One of the research projects under this program tested the hypothesis that signals emitted by the Earth’s surface prior to the occurrence of an earthquake, including thermal infrared (TIR) emissions, can be detected through appropriate analysis of data collected by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite sensors. After applying a set of preprocessing algorithms to the satellite data, we analyzed MODIS images showing the TIR emitted by a ground area in the days prior to an eventual earthquake. We used computing tools and software, such as MATLAB and ENVI, to isolate these pre-seismic signals from the background noise. The development of a technique to monitor pre-seismic signals holds promise in finding a method to predict earthquakes.

Alqassim, S. S.; Vanderbilt, V. C.

2010-12-01

273

Using Back-Projection of Surface Waves for Near Real-Time Determination of Global Earthquake Locations, Magnitudes and Mechanisms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We will discuss our recent progress in the implementation of a global earthquake detection and analysis system using back-projection of long-period (60-120 s) surface waves. A prototype system for Surface wave Location and Association in Quasi Real time (SLAQR) has been operational in test mode at the United States Geological Survey National Earthquake Information Center (USGS NEIC) using data from around 40 stations of the Global Seismographic Network. The algorithm does not require a human operator to select or analyze data and uses a Rayleigh wave back-projection approach consisting of a continuous progressive conversion of time series into spectrograms and the mapping of those spectrograms onto a grid of locations and origin times. It distinguishes itself by its straightforward adaptation into a routine monitoring system and its constant load approach. This method provides a reliable estimate of the moment of global earthquakes without saturating and thus is particularly useful for large earthquakes. It can also act as a backup to the current NEIC monitoring software and detect events that are missed, or underestimated, by the current system. Particularly important in this regard are long-period “tsunami” earthquakes and slow oceanic transform earthquakes. Our newly added calculation of moment tensors and earthquake depths employs the same spectral parameters already calculated for the determination of magnitudes and locations. We have analyzed the results of this prototype system for the time period of March 2009 to April 2010, to assess its performance and calibrate the produced magnitudes with those in the final NEIC earthquake catalog. Our analysis shows that the system performs well for events greater than magnitude 5.5 and determines reliable magnitudes and locations for global events shallower than 150 km in depth. We have also tested a new extension to this system to determine earthquake moment tensors and depths, and have found that it performs well for very large events, but will require changes to the current system to be functional for smaller earthquakes.

Polet, J.; Thio, H. K.; Earle, P. S.

2010-12-01

274

Earthquake Effects and Experiences  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This portion of the United States Geological Survey's (USGS) frequently-asked-questions feature on earthquakes addresses what individuals might actually experience during an earthquake. Topics include earthquake motion (rolling or shaking), earthquake effects (ground shaking, surface faulting, ground failure, etc.), earthquake magnitude, what an earthquake feels like, and others. There are also links to additional resources on earthquake effects and experiences.

2010-11-23

275

Satellite relay telemetry of seismic data in earthquake prediction and control  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Satellite Telemetry Earthquake Monitoring Program was started in FY 1968 to evaluate the applicability of satellite relay telemetry in the collection of seismic data from a large number of dense seismograph clusters laid out along the major fault systems of western North America. Prototype clusters utilizing phone-line telemetry were then being installed by the National Center for Earthquake Research (NCER) in 3 regions along the San Andreas fault in central California; and the experience of installing and operating the clusters and in reducing and analyzing the seismic data from them was to provide the raw materials for evaluation in the satellite relay telemetry project.

Jackson, Wayne H.; Eaton, Jerry P.

1971-01-01

276

Diagnostic yield of inpatient video-electroencephalographic monitoring: Experience from a Chinese comprehensive epilepsy center.  

PubMed

Video-electroencephalographic monitoring (VEEG) is useful in the diagnosis of seizure disorders; however, its diagnostic yield in developing countries is not well known. The current study retrospectively reviewed the charts of 484 consecutive patients who were admitted to our center between July 2012 and September 2013. Of these patients, 298 (61.6%) were admitted for diagnostic clarification and underwent VEEG for a mean duration of 1.3days (range=1-9days). The patients were divided into two groups: those whose diagnosis was changed and those whose diagnosis was not changed as a result of VEEG. A patient with a preadmission diagnosis of epilepsy who was discharged with a diagnosis of nonepileptic events (NEEs) or who was further classified as focal/generalized epilepsy on discharge was included in the "change in diagnosis" group. A patient admitted with an uncertain diagnosis and discharged with a diagnosis of NEEs or epilepsy (including focal epilepsy and generalized epilepsy) was also included in the "change in diagnosis" group. Video-electroencephalographic monitoring recorded typical ictal events (epileptic events or nonepileptic events) in 147 (49.3%) of the patients admitted for diagnostic clarification. In total, 181 (60.7%) patients had a change in diagnosis after VEEG. Among them, 103 (56.9%) patients had a preadmission diagnosis of epilepsy, which was further classified as focal epilepsy (88 patients) or generalized epilepsy (15 patients); the diagnosis of NEEs and epilepsy was clarified in 78 (43.1%) patients. The number of patients diagnosed with NEEs increased from 31 (10.4%) on admission to 88 (29.5%) on discharge. Among all the patients admitted for diagnostic clarification, therapeutic plans were changed for 104 (57.5%) patients. In 117 (39.3%) patients with no diagnostic change, VEEG evaluation provided confirmative diagnostic information in 47 (15.8%) patients and no additional diagnostic information in 70 (23.5%) patients. The study indicates that VEEG is useful in terms of clarifying seizure diagnoses and evaluating seizure frequency. In our cohort study, VEEG of a relatively short mean duration produced a comparable diagnostic yield as that reported in other studies. PMID:24726951

Jin, Bo; Zhao, Zexian; Ding, Yao; Guo, Yi; Shen, Chunhong; Wang, Zhongjin; Tang, Yelei; Zhu, Junming; Ding, Meiping; Wang, Shuang

2014-05-01

277

Deep Earthquakes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Most earthquakes occur in the top 100 miles of the crust of the Earth, but some happen far below that, where the earth is so hot that rocks should simply flow past each other instead of producing the jolts that cause earthquakes. So what causes them? This radio broadcast explains how one geophysicist has performed experiments revealing that rock squeezed under intense pressure contains bits that become soft at different rates. These bits are able to hook up into shear zones that cause the earthquakes. The clip is 2 minutes in length.

278

Earthquake Facts  

MedlinePLUS

... and have smaller magnitudes than earthquakes on the Earth. It appears they are related to the tidal stresses associated with the varying distance between the Earth and Moon. They also occur at great depth, ...

279

Earthquake Location  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Earthquake location is an interesting and significant aspect of seismology. Locating earthquakes is necessary for compiling useful seismicity information, calculating magnitudes, and study of fault zones, Earth structure and the earthquake process. Methods of earthquake location involve understanding of seismic waves, wave propagation, interpretation of seismograms, Earth velocity structure, triangulation, and the concepts (and mathematics) of inverse problems. Because earthquake location can be approached with relatively simple to very complex methods, it can be included in various levels of educational curricula and for "in-depth" study. Progressively developing a deep understanding of concepts, computational techniques and applications (and the capabilities, limitations and uncertainties of these applications) is a characteristic of science and an opportunity to "learn science by doing science." A number of methods that vary from simple to complex are available for learning about earthquake location. The methods also allow connections to other important concepts in seismology and provide a variety of approaches that address different learning styles and can be used for reinforcement and assessment. Uses online and/or real-time data Has minimal/no quantitative component

Braile, Larry

280

A National Tracking Center for Monitoring Shipments of HEU, MOX, and Spent Nuclear Fuel: How do we implement?  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear material safeguards specialists and instrument developers at US Department of Energy (USDOE) National Laboratories in the United States, sponsored by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Office of NA-24, have been developing devices to monitor shipments of UF6 cylinders and other radioactive materials , . Tracking devices are being developed that are capable of monitoring shipments of valuable radioactive materials in real time, using the Global Positioning System (GPS). We envision that such devices will be extremely useful, if not essential, for monitoring the shipment of these important cargoes of nuclear material, including highly-enriched uranium (HEU), mixed plutonium/uranium oxide (MOX), spent nuclear fuel, and, potentially, other large radioactive sources. To ensure nuclear material security and safeguards, it is extremely important to track these materials because they contain so-called “direct-use material” which is material that if diverted and processed could potentially be used to develop clandestine nuclear weapons . Large sources could be used for a dirty bomb also known as a radioactive dispersal device (RDD). For that matter, any interdiction by an adversary regardless of intent demands a rapid response. To make the fullest use of such tracking devices, we propose a National Tracking Center. This paper describes what the attributes of such a center would be and how it could ultimately be the prototype for an International Tracking Center, possibly to be based in Vienna, at the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA).

Mark Schanfein

2009-07-01

281

Deep Defect Centers in Silicon Carbide Monitored with Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electrical data obtained from deep level transient spectroscopy investigations on deep defect centers in the 3C, 4H, and 6H SiC polytypes are reviewed. Emphasis is put on intrinsic defect centers observed in as-grown material and subsequent to ion implantation or electron irradiation as well as on defect centers caused by doping with or implantation of transition metals (vanadium, titanium, chromium, and scandium).

Dalibor, T.; Pensl, G.; Matsunami, H.; Kimoto, T.; Choyke, W. J.; Schöner, A.; Nordell, N.

1997-07-01

282

Deep Defect Centers in Silicon Carbide Monitored with Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrical data obtained from deep level transient spectroscopy investigations on deep defect centers in the 3C, 4H, and 6H SiC polytypes are reviewed. Emphasis is put on intrinsic defect centers observed in as-grown material and subsequent to ion implantation or electron irradiation as well as on defect centers caused by doping with or implantation of transition metals (vanadium, titanium, chromium,

T. Dalibor; G. Pensl; H. Matsunami; T. Kimoto; W. J. Choyke; A. Schöner; N. Nordell

1997-01-01

283

Ground-water-level monitoring for earthquake prediction; a progress report based on data collected in Southern California, 1976-79  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey is conducting a research program to determine if groundwater-level measurements can be used for earthquake prediction. Earlier studies suggest that water levels in wells may be responsive to small strains on the order of 10 to the minus 8th power to 10 to the minus 10th power (dimensionless). Water-level data being collected in the area of the southern California uplift show response to earthquakes and other natural and manmade effects. The data are presently (1979) being made ready for computer analysis. The completed analysis may indicate the presence of precursory earthquake information. (USGS)

Moyle, W. R., Jr.

1980-01-01

284

Greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation and monitoring technology performance: Activities of the GHG Technology Verification Center. Report for January 1998January 1999  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper discusses greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation and monitoring technology performance activities of the GHG Technology Verification Center. The Center is a public\\/private partnership between Southern Research Institute and the US EPA`s Office of Research and Development. The Center is part of EPA`s Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program, which has established 12 verification centers to evaluate a wide range of

S. Masemore; D. A. Kirchgessner

1999-01-01

285

CTEPP NC DATA COLLECTED ON FORM 05: CHILD DAY CARE CENTER PRE-MONITORING QUESTIONNAIRE  

EPA Science Inventory

This data set contains data concerning the potential sources of pollutants at the day care center including the chemicals that have been applied in the past at the day care center by staff members or by commercial contractors. The day care teacher was asked questions related to t...

286

CTEPP-OH DATA COLLECTED ON FORM 05: CHILD DAY CARE CENTER PRE-MONITORING QUESTIONNAIRE  

EPA Science Inventory

This data set contains data for CTEPP-OH concerning the potential sources of pollutants at the day care center including the chemicals that have been applied in the past at the day care center by staff members or by commercial contractors. The day care teacher was asked questions...

287

Discrimination of quarry blasts and earthquakes in the vicinity of Istanbul using soft computing techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this article is to demonstrate the use of feedforward neural networks (FFNNs), adaptive neural fuzzy inference systems (ANFIS), and probabilistic neural networks (PNNs) to discriminate between earthquakes and quarry blasts in Istanbul and vicinity (the Marmara region). The tectonically active Marmara region is affected by the Thrace-Eski?ehir fault zone and especially the North Anatolian fault zone (NAFZ). Local MARNET stations, which were established in 1976 and are operated by the Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute (KOERI), record not only earthquakes that occur in the region, but also quarry blasts. There are a few quarry-blasting areas in the Gaziosmanpa?a, Çatalca, Ömerli, and Hereke regions. Analytical methods were applied to a set of 175 seismic events (2001-2004) recorded by the stations of the local seismic network (ISK, HRT, and CTT stations) operated by the KOERI National Earthquake Monitoring Center (NEMC). Out of a total of 175 records, 148 are related to quarry blasts and 27 to earthquakes. The data sets were divided into training and testing sets for each region. In all the models developed, the input vectors consist of the peak amplitude ratio (S/P ratio) and the complexity value, and the output is a determination of either earthquake or quarry blast. The success of the developed models on regional test data varies between 97.67% and 100%.

Y?ld?r?m, Eray; Gülba?, Ali; Horasan, Gündüz; Do?an, Emrah

2011-09-01

288

Earthquakes in Arkansas and vicinity 1699-2010  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This map summarizes approximately 300 years of earthquake activity in Arkansas. It is one in a series of similar State earthquake history maps. Work on the Arkansas map was done in collaboration with the Arkansas Geological Survey. The earthquake data plotted on the map are from several sources: the Arkansas Geological Survey, the Center for Earthquake Research and Information, the National Center for Earthquake Engineering Research, and the Mississippi Department of Environmental Quality. In addition to earthquake locations, other materials presented include seismic hazard and isoseismal maps and related text. Earthquakes are a legitimate concern in Arkansas and parts of adjacent states. Arkansas has undergone a number of significant felt earthquakes since 1811. At least two of these events caused property damage: a magnitude 4.7 earthquake in 1931, and a magnitude 4.3 earthquake in 1967. The map shows all historical and instrumentally located earthquakes in Arkansas and vicinity between 1811 and 2010. The largest historic earthquake in the vicinity of the State was an intensity XI event, on December 16, 1811; the first earthquake in the New Madrid sequence. This violent event and the earthquakes that followed caused considerable damage to the then sparsely settled region.

Dart, Richard L.; Ausbrooks, Scott M.

2011-01-01

289

Evidence for rainfall-triggered earthquake activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluids are known to be of major importance for the earthquake generation because pore pressure variations alter the strength of faults. Thus they can initiate earthquakes if the crust is close enough to its critical state. Based on the observations of the isolated seismicity below the densely monitored Mt. Hochstaufen, SE Germany, we are now able to demonstrate that the

S. Hainzl; T. Kraft; J. Wassermann; H. Igel; E. Schmedes

2006-01-01

290

Northridge Earthquake Hasn't Stopped; Hills Have Risen  

NSF Publications Database

... with the National Science Foundation's (NSF) Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC) in Los ... from the amount of strain accumulation in southern California. Measurements from a new and growing ...

291

Calibration of Local Magnitude by Using Earthquakes in Western Turkey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent developments on the Network of Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute-National Earthquake Monitoring Center (KOERI-NEMC) after 2006 provided the possibility to determine the ML magnitude of earthquakes with a higher accuracy. In this study 135 events with magnitude 2.0?M?6.0 in between 2006-2010 which recorded by 55 three component broadband stations of NEMC in western Anatolia (Marmara and Aegean regions) were selected. The magnitude formulas were empirically determined trough magnitude calibration of the amplitude and duration of the trace. In this content, the local magnitude scale was basically computed by measuring the maximum shaer wave trace amplitude of horizontal synthesized Wood-Anderson seismograms for each station. The computation of the epicenters allows to estimate the attenuation coeffients of the ML magnitude together with empirical station corrections which were computed by minimizing differencies between ML magnitudes of different type of boadband sensors. Computed ML magnitudes with station and distance corrections were used to calibrate data set ro estimate a new empirical relation for the MD magnitude. Calibration of ML with MD will provide KOERI-NEMC using a reliable earthquake database for seismic hazard inverstigations and tectonic analysis.

Koseoglu Kusmezer, A.; Gorgun, E.; Comoglu, M.; Kekovali, K.; Kalafat, D.

2011-12-01

292

Establishment of Antakya Basin Strong Ground Motion Monitoring System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Turkey is located in one of the most active earthquake zones of the world. The cities located along the North Anatolian Fault (NAF) and the East Anatolian Fault (EAF) are exposed to significant earthquake hazard. The Hatay province near the southern terminus of the EAF has always experienced a significant seismic activity, since it is on the intersection of the northernmost segment of Dead Sea Fault Zone coming from the south, with the Cyprean Arc approaching from south-west. Historical records extending over the last 2000 years indicate that Antakya, founded in the 3rd century B.C., is effected by intensity IX-X earthquakes every 150 years. In the region, the last destructive earthquake occurred in 1872. Destructive earthquakes should be expected in the region in the near future similar to the ones that occurred in the past. The strong response of sedimentary basins to seismic waves was largely responsible for the damage produced by the devastating earthquakes of 1985 Michoacan Earthquake which severely damaged parts of Mexico City, and the 1988 Spitak Earthquake which destroyed most of Leninakan, Armenia. Much of this devastating response was explained by the conversion of seismic body waves to surface waves at the sediment/rock contacts of sedimentary basins. "Antakya Basin Strong Ground Motion Monitoring System" is set up with the aim of monitoring the earthquake response of the Antakya Basin, contributing to our understanding of basin response, contributing to earthquake risk assessment of Antakya, monitoring of regional earthquakes and determining the effects of local and regional earthquakes on the urban environment of Antakya. The soil properties beneath the strong motion stations (S-Wave velocity structure and dominant soil frequency) are determined by array measurements that involve broad-band seismometers. The strong motion monitoring system consists of six instruments installed in small buildings. The stations form a straight line along the short axis of Antakya basin passing through the city center. They are equipped with acceleration sensors, GPS and communication units and operate in continuous recording mode. For on-line data transmission the EDGE mode of available GSM systems are employed. In the array measurements for the determination of soil properties beneath the stations two 4-seismometer sets have been utilized. The system is the first monitoring installment in Turkey dedicated to understanding basin effects. The records obtained will allow for the visualization of the propagation of long-period ground motion in the basin and show the refraction of surface waves at the basin edge. The records will also serve to enhance our capacity to realistically synthesize the strong ground motion in basin-type environments.

Durukal, E.; Özel, O.; Bikce, M.; Gene?, M. C.; Kac?n, S.; Erdik, M.; Safak, E.; Över, S.

2009-04-01

293

Earthquake Shaking - Finding the "Hot Spots"  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A new Southern California Earthquake Center study has quantified how local geologic conditions affect the shaking experienced in an earthquake. The important geologic factors at a site are softness of the rock or soil near the surface and thickness of the sediments above hard bedrock. Even when these 'site effects' are taken into account, however, each earthquake exhibits unique 'hotspots' of anomalously strong shaking. Better predictions of strong ground shaking will therefore require additional geologic data and more comprehensive computer simulations of individual earthquakes.

Field, Ned; Jones, Lucile; Jordan, Tom; Benthien, Mark; Wald, Lisa.

2001-01-01

294

Predicting Earthquakes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Five moderate-to-strong earthquakes struck California in June 2005. Could the cluster of quakes be a harbinger of the Big One? Another earthquake-prone area, New Madrid, near Memphis, Tennessee, has had more than its share of impressive quakes and strain is building along its fault lines. This radio broadcast discusses these two seismic zones, the new data based on years of GPS (Global Positioning System) measurements that may give scientists more information, and how the Earth generates the stress which leads to earthquakes. There is also discussion of the danger of tsunamis in the Virgin Islands and the need for a worldwide tsunami warning network. The broadcast is 18 minutes in length.

295

Deep earthquakes  

SciTech Connect

Earthquakes are often recorded at depths as great as 650 kilometers or more. These deep events mark regions where plates of the earth's surface are consumed in the mantle. But the earthquakes themselves present a conundrum: the high pressures and temperatures at such depths should keep rock from fracturing suddenly and generating a tremor. This paper reviews the research on this problem. Almost all deep earthquakes conform to the pattern described by Wadati, namely, they generally occur at the edge of a deep ocean and define an inclined zone extending from near the surface to a depth of 600 kilometers of more, known as the Wadati-Benioff zone. Several scenarios are described that were proposed to explain the fracturing and slipping of rocks at this depth.

Frohlich, C.

1989-01-01

296

Cooperative Monitoring Center Occasional Paper/7: A Generic Model for Cooperative Border Security  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a generic model for dealing with security problems along borders between countries. It presents descriptions and characteristics of various borders and identifies the threats to border security, while emphasizing cooperative monitoring solutions.

Netzer, Colonel Gideon

1999-03-01

297

Analysis of Instrumentation to Monitor the Hydrologic Performance of Green Infrastructure at the Edison Environmental Center  

EPA Science Inventory

Infiltration is one of the primary functional mechanisms of green infrastructure stormwater controls, so this study explored selection and placement of embedded soil moisture and water level sensors to monitor surface infiltration and infiltration into the underlying soil for per...

298

The Collaboratory for the Study of Earthquake Predictability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Collaboratory for the Study of Earthquake Predictability (CSEP) aims to improve our understanding about the physics and predictability of earthquakes through rigorous and prospective testing of earthquake forecast models. The system-science character of earthquake prediction research demands an open and collaborative structure for experimentation in a variety of fault systems and tectonic regions. Several CSEP Testing Centers are being developed to provide adequate infrastructure for predictability research. The first began operations at the Southern California Earthquake Center on 1 September 2007, running prospective, automated evaluations of 1-day and 3-month forecast models for California as well as the 5-year forecasts of the Regional Earthquake Likelihood Model (RELM) project. During this year, CSEP Testing Centers in New Zealand and Japan started operations and CSEP is expanding in the near future to Europe. A special focus is a world-wide collaboration on global earthquake forecast testing.

Liukis, M.; Schorlemmer, D.; Jordan, T. H.; Working Group, C.

2008-12-01

299

The EM Earthquake Precursor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many attempts have been made to determine a sound forecasting method regarding earthquakes and warn the public in turn. Presently, the animal kingdom leads the precursor list alluding to a transmission related source. By applying the animal-based model to an electromagnetic (EM) wave model, various hypotheses were formed, but the most interesting one required the use of a magnetometer with a differing design and geometry. To date, numerous, high-end magnetometers have been in use in close proximity to fault zones for potential earthquake forecasting; however, something is still amiss. The problem still resides with what exactly is forecastable and the investigating direction of EM. After the 1989 Loma Prieta Earthquake, American earthquake investigators predetermined magnetometer use and a minimum earthquake magnitude necessary for EM detection. This action was set in motion, due to the extensive damage incurred and public outrage concerning earthquake forecasting; however, the magnetometers employed, grounded or buried, are completely subject to static and electric fields and have yet to correlate to an identifiable precursor. Secondly, there is neither a networked array for finding any epicentral locations, nor have there been any attempts to find even one. This methodology needs dismissal, because it is overly complicated, subject to continuous change, and provides no response time. As for the minimum magnitude threshold, which was set at M5, this is simply higher than what modern technological advances have gained. Detection can now be achieved at approximately M1, which greatly improves forecasting chances. A propagating precursor has now been detected in both the field and laboratory. Field antenna testing conducted outside the NE Texas town of Timpson in February, 2013, detected three strong EM sources along with numerous weaker signals. The antenna had mobility, and observations were noted for recurrence, duration, and frequency response. Next, two directional techniques were employed, resulting in three mapped, potential epicenters. The remaining, weaker signals presented similar directionality results to more epicentral locations. In addition, the directional results of the Timpson field tests lead to the design and construction of a third prototype antenna. In a laboratory setting, experiments were created to fail igneous rock types within a custom-designed Faraday Cage. An antenna emplaced within the cage detected EM emissions, which were both reproducible and distinct, and the laboratory results paralleled field results. With a viable system and continuous monitoring, a fracture cycle could be established and observed in real-time. Sequentially, field data would be reviewed quickly for assessment; thus, leading to a much improved earthquake forecasting capability. The EM precursor determined by this method may surpass all prior precursor claims, and the general public will finally receive long overdue forecasting.

Jones, K. B., II; Saxton, P. T.

2013-12-01

300

The wireless networking system of Earthquake precursor mobile field observation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mobile field observation network could be real-time, reliably record and transmit large amounts of data, strengthen the physical signal observations in specific regions and specific period, it can improve the monitoring capacity and abnormal tracking capability. According to the features of scatter everywhere, a large number of current earthquake precursor observation measuring points, networking technology is based on wireless broadband accessing McWILL system, the communication system of earthquake precursor mobile field observation would real-time, reliably transmit large amounts of data to the monitoring center from measuring points through the connection about equipment and wireless accessing system, broadband wireless access system and precursor mobile observation management center system, thereby implementing remote instrument monitoring and data transmition. At present, the earthquake precursor field mobile observation network technology has been applied to fluxgate magnetometer array geomagnetic observations of Tianzhu, Xichang,and Xinjiang, it can be real-time monitoring the working status of the observational instruments of large area laid after the last two or three years, large scale field operation. Therefore, it can get geomagnetic field data of the local refinement regions and provide high-quality observational data for impending earthquake tracking forecast. Although, wireless networking technology is very suitable for mobile field observation with the features of simple, flexible networking etc, it also has the phenomenon of packet loss etc when transmitting a large number of observational data due to the wireless relatively weak signal and narrow bandwidth. In view of high sampling rate instruments, this project uses data compression and effectively solves the problem of data transmission packet loss; Control commands, status data and observational data transmission use different priorities and means, which control the packet loss rate within an acceptable range and do not affect real-time observation curve. After field running test and earthquake tracking project applications, the field mobile observation wireless networking system is operate normally, various function have good operability and show good performance, the quality of data transmission meet the system design requirements and play a significant role in practical applications.

Wang, C.; Teng, Y.; Wang, X.; Fan, X.; Wang, X.

2012-12-01

301

Is Your Class a Natural Disaster? It can be... The Real Time Earthquake Education (RTEE) System  

Microsoft Academic Search

In cooperation with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and its National Earthquake Information Center (NEIC) in Golden, Colorado, we have implemented an autonomous version of the NEIC's real-time earthquake database management and earthquake alert system (Earthworm). This is the same system used professionally by the USGS in its earthquake response operations. Utilizing this system, Penn State University students participating in

J. S. Whitlock; K. Furlong

2003-01-01

302

An information infrastructure for earthquake science  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC), in collaboration with the San Diego Supercomputer Center, the USC Information Sciences Institute,IRIS, and the USGS, has received a large five-year grant from the NSF's ITR Program and its Geosciences Directorate to build a new information infrastructure for earthquake science. In many respects, the SCEC\\/ITR Project presents a microcosm of the IT efforts now

T. H. Jordan

2003-01-01

303

Earthquake Formation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn about the structure of the earth and how an earthquake happens. In one activity, students make a model of the earth including all of its layers. In a teacher-led demonstration, students learn about continental drift. In another activity, students create models demonstrating the different types of faults.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

304

Earthquakes in Mississippi and vicinity 1811-2010  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This map summarizes two centuries of earthquake activity in Mississippi. Work on the Mississippi map was done in collaboration with the Mississippi Department of Environmental Quality, Office of Geology. The earthquake data plotted on the map are from several sources: the Mississippi Department of Environmental Quality, the Center for Earthquake Research and Information, the National Center for Earthquake Engineering Research, and the Arkansas Geological Survey. In addition to earthquake locations, other materials include seismic hazard and isoseismal maps and related text. Earthquakes are a legitimate concern in Mississippi and parts of adjacent States. Mississippi has undergone a number of felt earthquakes since 1811. At least two of these events caused property damage: a magnitude 4.7 earthquake in 1931, and a magnitude 4.3 earthquake in 1967. The map shows all historical and instrumentally located earthquakes in Mississippi and vicinity between 1811 and 2010. The largest historic earthquake in the vicinity of the State was an intensity XI event, on December 16, 1811; the first earthquake in the New Madrid sequence. This violent event and the earthquakes that followed caused considerable damage to the then sparsely settled region.

Dart, Richard L.; Bograd, Michael B. E.

2011-01-01

305

Upgrading the Digital Electronics of the PEP-II Bunch Current Monitors at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center  

SciTech Connect

The testing of the upgrade prototype for the bunch current monitors (BCMs) in the PEP-II storage rings at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) is the topic of this paper. Bunch current monitors are used to measure the charge in the electron/positron bunches traveling in particle storage rings. The BCMs in the PEP-II storage rings need to be upgraded because components of the current system have failed and are known to be failure prone with age, and several of the integrated chips are no longer produced making repairs difficult if not impossible. The main upgrade is replacing twelve old (1995) field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) with a single Virtex II FPGA. The prototype was tested using computer synthesis tools, a commercial signal generator, and a fast pulse generator.

Kline, Josh; /SLAC

2006-08-28

306

User-centered development and testing of a monitoring system that provides feedback regarding physical functioning to elderly people  

PubMed Central

Purpose To involve elderly people during the development of a mobile interface of a monitoring system that provides feedback to them regarding changes in physical functioning and to test the system in a pilot study. Methods and participants The iterative user-centered development process consisted of the following phases: (1) selection of user representatives; (2) analysis of users and their context; (3) identification of user requirements; (4) development of the interface; and (5) evaluation of the interface in the lab. Subsequently, the monitoring and feedback system was tested in a pilot study by five patients who were recruited via a geriatric outpatient clinic. Participants used a bathroom scale to monitor weight and balance, and a mobile phone to monitor physical activity on a daily basis for six weeks. Personalized feedback was provided via the interface of the mobile phone. Usability was evaluated on a scale from 1 to 7 using a modified version of the Post-Study System Usability Questionnaire (PSSUQ); higher scores indicated better usability. Interviews were conducted to gain insight into the experiences of the participants with the system. Results The developed interface uses colors, emoticons, and written and/or spoken text messages to provide daily feedback regarding (changes in) weight, balance, and physical activity. The participants rated the usability of the monitoring and feedback system with a mean score of 5.2 (standard deviation 0.90) on the modified PSSUQ. The interviews revealed that most participants liked using the system and appreciated that it signaled changes in their physical functioning. However, usability was negatively influenced by a few technical errors. Conclusion Involvement of elderly users during the development process resulted in an interface with good usability. However, the technical functioning of the monitoring system needs to be optimized before it can be used to support elderly people in their self-management.

Vermeulen, Joan; Neyens, Jacques CL; Spreeuwenberg, Marieke D; van Rossum, Erik; Sipers, Walther; Habets, Herbert; Hewson, David J; de Witte, Luc P

2013-01-01

307

Glacial earthquakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have identified a new class of moderate earthquakes (seismic magnitude around 5) that occur beneath glaciers. The previously unknown glacial earthquakes generate long-period (20--60~sec) seismic surface waves that are well recorded on globally distributed seismic stations, but which have previously gone undetected because they do not generate the high-frequency seismic waves on which traditional earthquake detection and location methodologies are based. A glacial earthquake on September 4, 1999, beneath the Dall glacier (Denali range, Alaska) was well recorded by the BEAAR temporary broad-band seismic network. Inverse modeling of the regional long-period seismograms shows that the seismic waves are inconsistent with tectonic faulting beneath the glacier, but instead consistent with sudden and massive glacial sliding. Using the centroid-single-force formalism developed by Kawakatsu (1989) for analysis of landslide-generated seismic waves, we obtain an estimate of the product of sliding mass and sliding distance. The value of this parameter for the Dall glacier event is 1.3 x 1014~kg-m, consistent with the displacement of 10~km3 of ice by 13 meters, though we cannot constrain the mass and distance independently. The duration of sliding was approximately 40 seconds. By analysis of data from the Global Seismographic Network for 1999--2001, we have detected and located forty-two glacial earthquakes of similar magnitude beneath the Greenland ice sheet. Preliminary analysis of the five best-recorded earthquakes indicates that these, too, are consistent with glacial sliding. We speculate that the dynamics of these earthquakes are controlled by stick-slip motion of the glacier along its basal surface, and that the phenomenon involves the displacement of a large mass over a relatively short distance. Microearthquakes occur in association with glaciers, and some have been linked to sliding motion at the base, and in particular to motion on so-called sticky spots. Alternatively, rapid variations in pore pressure at the glacier base or the non-linear weakening of a deforming till may generate conditions for rapid lowering of the effective friction, growth of a slipping patch, and sudden large-scale motion of the glacier.

Ekström, G.; Nettles, M.; Abers, G. A.

2003-12-01

308

Investigations of Anomalous Earthquakes at Active Volcanoes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation investigates the link between volcanic unrest and the occurrence of moderate-to-large earthquakes with a specific type of focal mechanism. Vertical compensated-linear-vector-dipole (vertical-CLVD) earthquakes have vertical pressure or tension axes and seismic radiation patterns that are inconsistent with the double-couple model of slip on a planar fault. Prior to this work, moderate-to-large vertical-CLVD earthquakes were known to be geographically associated with volcanic centers, and vertical-CLVD earthquakes were linked to a tsunami in the Izu-Bonin volcanic arc and a subglacial fissure eruption in Iceland. Vertical-CLVD earthquakes are some of the largest and most anomalous earthquakes to occur in volcanic systems, yet their physical mechanisms remain controversial largely due to the small number of observations. Five vertical-CLVD earthquakes with vertical pressure axes are identified near Nyiragongo volcano in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Three earthquakes occur within days of a fissure eruption at Nyiragongo, and two occur several years later in association with the refilling of the lava lake in the summit crater of the volcano. Detailed study of these events shows that the earthquakes have slower source processes than tectonic earthquakes with similar magnitudes and locations. All five earthquakes are interpreted as resulting from slip on inward-dipping ring-fault structures located above deflating shallow magma chambers. The Nyiragongo study supports the interpretation that vertical-CLVD earthquakes may be causally related to dynamic physical processes occurring inside the edifices or magmatic plumbing systems of active volcanoes. Two seismicity catalogs from the Global Centroid Moment Tensor (CMT) Project are used to search for further examples of shallow earthquakes with robust vertical-CLVD focal mechanisms. CMT solutions for approximately 400 target earthquakes are calculated and 86 vertical-CLVD earthquakes are identified near active volcanoes. Together with the Nyiragongo study, this work increases the number of well-studied vertical-CLVD earthquakes from 14 to 101. Vertical-CLVD earthquakes have focal depths in the upper ˜10 km of the Earth's crust, and ˜80% have centroid locations within 30 km of an active volcanic center. Vertical-CLVD earthquakes are observed near several different types of volcanoes in a variety of geographic and tectonic settings, but most vertical-CLVD earthquakes are observed near basaltic-to-andesitic stratovolcanoes and submarine volcanoes in subduction zones. Vertical-CLVD earthquakes are linked to tsunamis, volcanic earthquake swarms, effusive and explosive eruptions, and caldera collapse, and approximately 70% are associated with documented volcanic eruptions or episodes of volcanic unrest. Those events with vertical pressure axes typically occur after volcanic eruptions initiate, whereas events with vertical tension axes commonly occur before the start of volcanic unrest. Both types of vertical-CLVD earthquakes have longer source durations than tectonic earthquakes of the same magnitude. The isotropic and pure vertical-CLVD components of the moment tensor cannot be independently resolved using our long-period seismic dataset. As a result, several physical mechanisms can explain the retrieved deviatoric vertical-CLVD moment tensors, including dip-slip motion on ring faults, volume exchange between two reservoirs, the opening and closing of tensile cracks, and volumetric sources. An evaluation of these mechanisms is performed using constraints obtained from detailed studies of individual vertical-CLVD earthquakes. Although no single physical mechanism can explain all of the characteristics of vertical-CLVD earthquakes, a ring-faulting model consisting of slip on inward- or outward-dipping ring faults triggered by the inflation or deflation of a shallow magma chamber can account for their seismic radiation patterns and source durations, as well as their temporal relationships with volcanic unrest. The observation that most vertical-CLVD earthquakes a

Shuler, Ashley Elizabeth

309

Earthquake tectonics  

SciTech Connect

Earthquakes release a tremendous amount of energy into the subsurface in the form of seismic waves. The seismic wave energy of the San Francisco 1906 (M = 8.2) earthquake was equivalent to over 8 billion tons of TNT (3.3 {times} 10{sup 19} joules). Four basic wave types are propagated form seismic sources, two non-rotational and two rotational. As opposed to the non-rotational R and SH waves, the rotational compressional (RC) and rotational shear (RS) waves carry the bulk of the energy from a seismic source. RC wavefronts propagate in the subsurface and refract similarly to P waves, but are considerably slower. RC waves are critically refracted beneath the air surface interface at velocities less than the velocity of sound in air because they refract at the velocity of sound in air minus the retrograde particle velocity at the top of the wave. They propagate at tsunami waves in the open ocean, and produce loud sounds on land that are heard by humans and animals during earthquakes. The energy of the RS wave dwarfs that of the P, SH, and even the RC wave. The RS wave is the same as what is currently called the S wave in earthquake seismology, and produces both folding and strike-slip faulting at considerable distances from the epicenter. RC and RS waves, propagated during earthquakes from the Santa Ynez fault and a right-slip fault on trend with the Red Mountain fault, produced the Santa Ynez Mountains in California beginning in the middle Pliocene and continuing until the present.

Steward, R.F. (Computer Ideas and Answers, Bakersfield, CA (United States))

1991-02-01

310

Advances in Earthquake Prediction Research and the June 2000 Earthquakes in Iceland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In June 2000, two earthquakes with magnitude 6.6 (Ms) occurred in the central part of the South Iceland seismic zone (SISZ). Earthquakes in this region have, according to historical information, in some cases caused collapse of the majority of houses in areas encompassing 1,000 square kilometers in this relatively densely populated farming region. Because large earthquakes were expected to occur soon, much attention was given to preparedness in the region and for the last two decades it has been the subject of multi- national, mainly European, co-operation in earthquake prediction research and in the development of a high- level micro-earthquake system: the SIL system. Despite intensive surface fissuring caused by the earthquakes and measured accelerations reaching 0.8 g, the earthquakes in 2000 caused no serious injuries and no structural collapse. The relatively minor destruction led to more optimism regarding the safety of living in the area. But it also lead to some optimism about the significance of earthquake prediction research. Both earthquakes had a long-term prediction and the second of the two earthquakes had a short- term warning about place, size and immediacy. In this presentation, I will describe the warnings that were given ahead of the earthquakes. Also, I will reconsider these warnings in light of new results from multi-national earthquake prediction research in Iceland. This modeling work explains several observable patterns caused by crustal process ahead of large earthquakes. Micro-seismic observations and modeling show that, in conditions prevailing in the Icelandic crust, fluids can be carried upward from the brittle-ductile boundary in response to strain, bringing high, near- lithostatic pore pressures into the brittle crust, preparing a region for the release of a large earthquake; monitoring this process will enable long- and short- term earthquakes warnings.

Stefansson, R.

2006-12-01

311

MONITORING TOXIC ORGANIC GASES AND PARTICLES NEAR THE WORLD TRADE CENTER AFTER SEPTEMBER 11, 2001  

EPA Science Inventory

The September 11, 2001 attack on the World Trade Center (WTC) resulted in an intense fire and the subsequent, complete collapse of the two main structures and adjacent buildings, as well as significant damage to many surrounding buildings within and around the WTC complex. Thi...

312

CTEPP DATA COLLECTION FORM 05: CHILD DAY CARE CENTER PRE-MONITORING QUESTIONNAIRE  

EPA Science Inventory

This data collection form is used to identify the potential sources of pollutants at the day care center. The day care teacher is asked questions related to the age of their day care building; age and frequency of cleaning carpets or rugs; types of heating and air conditioning de...

313

Seismicity and active tectonics at Coloumbo Reef (Aegean Sea, Greece): Monitoring an active volcano at Santorini Volcanic Center using a temporary seismic network  

Microsoft Academic Search

The volcanic center of Santorini Island is the most active volcano of the southern Aegean volcanic arc. ? dense seismic array consisting of fourteen portable broadband seismological stations has been deployed in order to monitor and study the seismo-volcanic activity at the broader area of the Santorini volcanic center between March 2003 and September 2003. Additional recordings from a neighbouring

I. Dimitriadis; E. Karagianni; D. Panagiotopoulos; C. Papazachos; P. Hatzidimitriou; M. Bohnhoff; M. Rische; T. Meier

2009-01-01

314

Transaxillary gasless robotic thyroid surgery with nerve monitoring: initial two experince in a North American center.  

PubMed

Minimally invasive thyroid surgery using various techniques is well described. The present study reviews our initial experience with the technique with added intraoperative monitoring to assess its safety and feasibility. The study group consisted of ten consecutive patients with suspicious thyroid nodules who were candidates for thyroid lobectomy from September to December 2009. All patients underwent intraoperative nerve integrity monitoring and postoperative direct laryngoscopy. The patients' demographic information, operative times, learning curve, complications, and postoperative hospital stay were evaluated. All procedures were successfully completed with intraoperative nerve monitoring. No cases were converted to an open procedure. The median age was 38.5 years (? = 13.5) and nine of the ten patients were females. The mean operating time was 131 minutes (range 101-203 minutes) and the mean operating time with the da Vinci system was 55 minutes. All patients were discharged home after an overnight stay. One patient developed transient radial nerve neuropathy that resolved spontaneously. There were no other postoperative complications. None of the patients complained of postoperative neck pain. Postoperative laryngoscopy showed intact and mobile vocal cords in all patients. Robotic endoscopic thyroid surgery with gasless transaxillary approach is feasible and safe in the treatment of suspicious thyroid nodules. Monitoring of the RLN during this approach is feasible. PMID:21395464

Kandil, Emad; Winters, Ryan; Aslam, Rizwan; Friedlander, Paul; Bellows, Charles

2012-03-01

315

CTEPP DATA COLLECTION FORM 07: CHILD DAY CARE CENTER POST-MONITORING  

EPA Science Inventory

This data collection form is used to provide information on the child's daily activities and potential exposures to pollutants at their homes. It includes questions on chemicals applied and cigarettes smoked at the home over the 48-hr monitoring period. It also collects informati...

316

CTEPP NC DATA COLLECTED ON FORM 07: CHILD DAY CARE CENTER POST-MONITORING  

EPA Science Inventory

This data set contains data concerning the child?s daily activities and potential exposures to pollutants at their homes. It included questions on chemicals applied and cigarettes smoked at the home over the 48-h monitoring period. It also collected information on the child?s han...

317

CTEPP-OH DATA COLLECTED ON FORM 07: CHILD DAY CARE CENTER POST-MONITORING  

EPA Science Inventory

This data set contains data concerning the child?s daily activities and potential exposures to pollutants at their homes for CTEPP-OH. It included questions on chemicals applied and cigarettes smoked at the home over the 48-h monitoring period. It also collected information on th...

318

Estimation of Future Earthquake Losses in California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent developments in earthquake hazards and damage modeling, computing, and data management and processing, have made it possible to develop estimates of the levels of damage from earthquakes that may be expected in the future in California. These developments have been mostly published in the open literature, and provide an opportunity to estimate the levels of earthquake damage Californians can expect to suffer during the next several decades. Within the past 30 years, earthquake losses have increased dramatically, mostly because our exposure to earthquake hazards has increased. All but four of the recent damaging earthquakes have occurred distant from California's major population centers. Two, the Loma Prieta earthquake and the San Fernando earthquake, occurred on the edges of major populated areas. Loma Prieta caused significant damage in the nearby Santa Cruz and in the more distant, heavily populated, San Francisco Bay area. The 1971 San Fernando earthquake had an epicenter in the lightly populated San Gabriel Mountains, but caused slightly over 2 billion dollars in damage in the Los Angeles area. As urban areas continue to expand, the population and infrastructure at risk increases. When earthquakes occur closer to populated areas, damage is more significant. The relatively minor Whittier Narrows earthquake of 1987 caused over 500 million dollars in damage because it occurred in the Los Angeles metropolitan area, not at its fringes. The Northridge earthquake had fault rupture directly beneath the San Fernando Valley, and caused about 46 billion dollars in damage. This vast increase in damage from the San Fernando earthquake reflected both the location of the earthquake directly beneath the populated area and the 23 years of continued development and resulting greater exposure to potential damage. We have calculated losses from potential future earthquake, both as scenarios of potential earthquakes and as annualized losses considering all the potential earthquake sources included in the national seismic hazard maps. Initial results give an expected annual loss in California of 2.2 billion dollars. This estimate is based on the 2002 CGS-USGS ground motion data and the 1997 NEHRP soil amplification factors. It should be pointed out that these results are very sensitive to the soil amplification factors used in the analysis. Using amplification factors from Boore, Joyner and Fumal, 1997, which had been used in previous CGS loss estimation studies, the state wide estimated annual loss becomes roughly 3.3 billion dollars. The estimates presented in this study include only structural and non-structural damage to buildings. Experience with real earthquakes suggest that when associated losses, such as losses to contents, inventory and income, are included, the total expected annual would be considerably larger.

Rowshandel, B.; Wills, C. J.; Cao, T.; Reichle, M.; Branum, D.

2003-12-01

319

Utilizing new methodologies to study major earthquakes: Multi-parameter observation of pre-earthquake signals from ground and space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present for the first time new data for joint observations of pre-earthquake signals of atmospheric-thermal, ionospheric, Global Positioning System/Total Electron Content, gravitational, telluric currents and stress related signals in relation to major earthquakes. Our results and the work of others have shown that there were some electromagnetic effects in the atmosphere/ionosphere caused by strong earthquakes. We are studying the Earth's atmospheric electromagnetic environment by developing a multi-sensor model for monitoring the signals related to active tectonic faulting and earthquake processes. Two of the most recent earthquakes in Asia, M7.9 Wenchuan earthquake (China, 2008) and the latest M9.0 Tohoku earthquake/tsunami (Japan, 2011) caused great devastation and significant loss of life, which is another indication that development of an earthquake risk management scheme requires diverse interdisciplinary efforts. In this paper we address what is currently lacking in the studies of pre-earthquake signals: the synergy in the multi-disciplinary observation needed to understand the earthquake process and systematic and abnormal trends within multi-parameters simultaneously, utilizing the integration of ground and space observations. We discuss the lessons learned from both Wenchuan earthquake and Tohoku earthquakes in relation to pre-earthquake signals and how new methodologies could help for the future space- and ground-based observation of earthquake related precursor phenomena.

Ouzounov, D. P.; Pulinets, S. A.; Liu, J. G.; Hattori, K.; Kalenda, P.; Shen, W.; Bobrovskiy, V. S.; Windsor, C.; Kafatos, M.; Taylor, P. T.

2011-12-01

320

Deep low-frequency earthquake swarm in the mid crust beneath Mount Fuji (Japan) in 2000 and 2001  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Beneath Mount Fuji, the highest active volcano in Japan, deep low-frequency (DLF) earthquake activity has been monitored since the early 1980s. The DLF earthquakes occurred in the mid-crustal depth range, and burst-type activity lasting from several minutes to 30 min was detected 10 to 20 times in an ordinary year. The DLF earthquake activity increased sharply in the period from October 2000 to May 2001, showing swarm-like activity. The occurrence rate during the DLF earthquake swarm was approximately 20 times higher than the usual activity, and the wave energy released during the swarm period was twice as high as the total wave energy during the past 20 years. The DLF earthquakes in the period from 1987 to 2001 were relocated by estimating station corrections in order to reduce the effect of the change of seismic station distribution. The epicenters of most DLF earthquakes occurred in an elongated region with a long axis of about 5 km, whose center is located 2 3 km NE from the summit. A few percent of the DLF earthquakes, however, occurred around the summit area, significantly apart from the main epicenter region. The focal depths of well-located DLF events range from 10 to 20 km. During the high activity period in 2000 and 2001, most DLF events occurred within this main hypocenter area. The sharp increase of DLF earthquake activity at Mount Fuji started immediately after magma discharge and intrusion events in the Miyake-jima and Kozu-shima regions in July and August 2000. The tectonic and volcanic activity changes around the area suggest that the DLF earthquake swarm at Mount Fuji was triggered by the change of state of the deep magmatic system around Mount Fuji.

Ukawa, Motoo

2005-11-01

321

Location Calibration Data for CTBT Monitoring at the Prototype International Data Center  

Microsoft Academic Search

- Ground-truth information is essential for location calibration of the International Monitoring System network being developed under the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty. The objective of the calibration effort is to improve the accuracy of seismic event locations and to reduce the size of the error ellipse, both in automatic and in human analyst-reviewed bulletins, in order to meet the On-Site Inspection

I. Bondár; X. Yang; R. G. North; C. Romney

2001-01-01

322

Long Period Earthquakes Beneath California's Young and Restless Volcanoes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The newly established USGS California Volcano Observatory has the broad responsibility of monitoring and assessing hazards at California's potentially threatening volcanoes, most notably Mount Shasta, Medicine Lake, Clear Lake Volcanic Field, and Lassen Volcanic Center in northern California; and Long Valley Caldera, Mammoth Mountain, and Mono-Inyo Craters in east-central California. Volcanic eruptions occur in California about as frequently as the largest San Andreas Fault Zone earthquakes-more than ten eruptions have occurred in the last 1,000 years, most recently at Lassen Peak (1666 C.E. and 1914-1917 C.E.) and Mono-Inyo Craters (c. 1700 C.E.). The Long Valley region (Long Valley caldera and Mammoth Mountain) underwent several episodes of heightened unrest over the last three decades, including intense swarms of volcano-tectonic (VT) earthquakes, rapid caldera uplift, and hazardous CO2 emissions. Both Medicine Lake and Lassen are subsiding at appreciable rates, and along with Clear Lake, Long Valley Caldera, and Mammoth Mountain, sporadically experience long period (LP) earthquakes related to migration of magmatic or hydrothermal fluids. Worldwide, the last two decades have shown the importance of tracking LP earthquakes beneath young volcanic systems, as they often provide indication of impending unrest or eruption. Herein we document the occurrence of LP earthquakes at several of California's young volcanoes, updating a previous study published in Pitt et al., 2002, SRL. All events were detected and located using data from stations within the Northern California Seismic Network (NCSN). Event detection was spatially and temporally uneven across the NCSN in the 1980s and 1990s, but additional stations, adoption of the Earthworm processing system, and heightened vigilance by seismologists have improved the catalog over the last decade. LP earthquakes are now relatively well-recorded under Lassen (~150 events since 2000), Clear Lake (~60 events), Mammoth Mountain (~320 events), and Long Valley Caldera (~40 events). LP earthquakes are notably absent under Mount Shasta. With the exception of Long Valley Caldera where LP earthquakes occur at depths of ?5 km, hypocenters are generally between 15-25 km. The rates of LP occurrence over the last decade have been relatively steady within the study areas, except at Mammoth Mountain, where years of gradually declining LP activity abruptly increased after a swarm of unusually deep (20 km) VT earthquakes in October 2012. Epicenter locations relative to the sites of most recent volcanism vary across volcanic centers, but most LP earthquakes fall within 10 km of young vents. Source models for LP earthquakes often involve the resonance of fluid-filled cracks or nonlinear flow of fluids along irregular cracks (reviewed in Chouet and Matoza, 2013, JVGR). At mid-crustal depths the relevant fluids are likely to be low-viscosity basaltic melt and/or exsolved CO2-rich volatiles (Lassen, Clear Lake, Mammoth Mountain). In the shallow crust, however, hydrothermal waters/gases are likely involved in the generation of LP seismicity (Long Valley Caldera).

Pitt, A. M.; Dawson, P. B.; Shelly, D. R.; Hill, D. P.; Mangan, M.

2013-12-01

323

Earthquakes and plate tectonics.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Earthquakes occur at the following three kinds of plate boundary: ocean ridges where the plates are pulled apart, margins where the plates scrape past one another, and margins where one plate is thrust under the other. Thus, we can predict the general regions on the earth's surface where we can expect large earthquakes in the future. We know that each year about 140 earthquakes of magnitude 6 or greater will occur within this area which is 10% of the earth's surface. But on a worldwide basis we cannot say with much accuracy when these events will occur. The reason is that the processes in plate tectonics have been going on for millions of years. Averaged over this interval, plate motions amount to several mm per year. But at any instant in geologic time, for example the year 1982, we do not know, exactly where we are in the worldwide cycle of strain build-up and strain release. Only by monitoring the stress and strain in small areas, for instance, the San Andreas fault, in great detail can we hope to predict when renewed activity in that part of the plate tectonics arena is likely to take place. -from Author

Spall, H.

1982-01-01

324

Darwin's earthquake.  

PubMed

Charles Darwin experienced a major earthquake in the Concepción-Valdivia region of Chile 175 years ago, in February 1835. His observations dramatically illustrated the geologic principles of James Hutton and Charles Lyell which maintained that the surface of the earth was subject to alterations by natural events, such as earthquakes, volcanoes, and the erosive action of wind and water, operating over very long periods of time. Changes in the land created new environments and fostered adaptations in life forms that could lead to the formation of new species. Without the demonstration of the accumulation of multiple crustal events over time in Chile, the biologic implications of the specific species of birds and tortoises found in the Galapagos Islands and the formulation of the concept of natural selection might have remained dormant. PMID:21038753

Lee, Richard V

2010-07-01

325

United States Earthquakes, 1977.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This publication describes all earthquakes that were reported felt in the United States and nearby territories in 1977. The publication is composed of three major chapters: 'Earthquake Descriptions,' which includes a chronological list of earthquakes by s...

J. L. Coffman C. W. Stover

1979-01-01

326

Earthquake Engineering Research - 1982.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Committee on Earthquake Engineering Research addressed two questions: What progress has research produced in earthquake engineering and which elements of the problem should future earthquake engineering pursue. It examined and reported in separate cha...

1982-01-01

327

United States Earthquakes, 1976.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

All earthquakes that occurred in the United States and nearby territories in 1976 are described. The purpose is to provide a continuous history of U.S. earthquakes for studying seismic risk, evaluating nuclear powerplant sites, designing earthquake-resist...

J. L. Coffman C. W. Stover

1978-01-01

328

IRIS: Recent Earthquake Teachable Moments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page offers a compilation of multimedia resources for creating "teachable moments" on the earthquakes. Of particular note is the material for the earthquake/tsunami that struck northern Japan in 2011. Tectonic maps, computer animations, seismograms, aerial and ground photographs, Power Point slides for teachers, news footage, preliminary rupture models, and a comparison map that shows tectonic similarities between the coast of northeastern Japan and the west coast of the United States are available. This web site is maintained by IRIS, the Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology, a consortium of laboratories and data collection centers who act in concert to ensure flow of data to the international seismological research community.

2011-03-16

329

Improvements of the RST (Robust Satellite Techniques) approach for the thermal monitoring of the earthquake prone areas: an analysis on Italian peninsula in the period 2004-2012  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the past, a Robust Satellite data analysis Technique (RST) was proposed to investigate possible relations between earthquake occurrence and space-time fluctuations of Earth's emitted TIR radiation observed from satellite. Based on a statistically definition of 'TIR anomalies' it allowed their identification even in very different natural (e.g. related to atmosphere and/or surface) and observational (e.g. related to time/season, but also to solar and satellite zenithal angles) conditions. RST approach has been implemented on different, polar and geostationary satellite systems (e.g. MSG/SEVIRI, GOES/IMAGER, EOS/MODIS, NOAA/AVHRR, etc.) and to earthquakes with a wide range of magnitudes (from 4.0 to 7.9) occurred in different tectonic contexts in all the world. In this paper, in order to further reduce false positives due to particular meteorological conditions, a refined RST approach is presented and validated on a long time series (9 years) of TIR satellite records collected by the geostationary satellite sensor MSG/SEVIRI over the Italian peninsula. The space-time persistence analysis performed on TIR anomaly maps shows: - a significant reduction of false positives; - several sequences of TIR anomalies, in a significant space-time relation with earthquakes with M>4. The relations among particular features of TIR anomalies (e.g. space-time extension and intensity) and earthquakes (e.g. magnitude, depth, focal mechanism) will be also discussed.

Genzano, N.; Paciello, R.; Pergola, N.; Tramutoli, V.

2013-12-01

330

Earthquake Hazards Program: NEIC Near Real Time Earthquake List  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The United States Geological Survey's National Earthquake Information Center site offers readers near real time updates of seismological events worldwide. As one can gather from a glimpse at the report, our planet is in a near constant state of geophysical change and upheaval, given the numerous earthquakes registered on a daily basis by the NEIC, sometimes up to a dozen or more. Readers will discover that the NEIC Web site lists, in chronological order, the earthquakes of the past several days, each with its own hyperlink to separate pages that detail geographic location and magnitude of specific events, as well as the faults responsible for geological upsets. Beyond the above, the site lists activity for the past week and month -- all with charts, maps, and detailed descriptions of regions cited.

331

Monitoring postseismic deformation of the Mw=6.4 February 24, 2004 Al Hoceima (Morocco) earthquake using Multi-Temporal InSAR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Al Hoceima earthquakes of the May 26, 1994 (Mw=6.0) and February 24, 2004 (Mw=6.4) are the largest seismic events that affected the northern part of Morocco in the last century. The Al Hoceima region is located in the east-west-trending imbricated thrust-and-fold system of the Rif Mountain range that results from the African-Eurasian convergence. The transpressive tectonics and existence of a complex fault network with thrust, normal and strike-slip faulting in the Rif probably reflect the rapidly changing local tectonic regime with block rotations during the Neogene and Quaternary (Meghraoui et al., 1996). The 1994 and 2004 earthquake sequence occurred on conjugate strike-slip faults trending approximately NNE-SSW and NW-SE. The best coseismic model of the 2004 earthquake from InSAR suggests a curved right-lateral strike-slip fault about 21 km-long and 16.5 km-wide, dipping 87-88o eastward with a strike changing from N85oW in the south to N50oW in the north (Cakir et al., 2006). We study the postseismic deformation of the 2004 (Mw=6.4) Al Hoceima earthquake using Multi-Temporal InSAR (MT-InSAR) technique. InSAR time series calculated from 14 ERS-2 SAR images reveals subtle ground movements on the Al Hoceima region between 2004 and 2010 where remarkable coseismic displacement was observed after the earthquake. We used Stanford Method (STaMPS; Hooper, 2008) for analyzing the SAR data that takes the advantage of spatial correlation between pixels and does not use any temporal deformation model in the persistent scatterer identification step. MT-InSAR analysis shows cumulative line-of-sight (LOS) up to 4 cm uplift and subsidence in the region of coseismic surface deformation. Preliminary analysis suggests that the postseismic deformation is likely associated with afterslip.

Cetin, Esra; Cakir, Ziyadin; Meghraoui, Mustapha

2014-05-01

332

Defeating Earthquakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 2004 M=9.2 Sumatra earthquake claimed what seemed an unfathomable 228,000 lives, although because of its size, we could at least assure ourselves that it was an extremely rare event. But in the short space of 8 years, the Sumatra quake no longer looks like an anomaly, and it is no longer even the worst disaster of the Century: 80,000 deaths in the 2005 M=7.6 Pakistan quake; 88,000 deaths in the 2008 M=7.9 Wenchuan, China quake; 316,000 deaths in the M=7.0 Haiti, quake. In each case, poor design and construction were unable to withstand the ferocity of the shaken earth. And this was compounded by inadequate rescue, medical care, and shelter. How could the toll continue to mount despite the advances in our understanding of quake risk? The world's population is flowing into megacities, and many of these migration magnets lie astride the plate boundaries. Caught between these opposing demographic and seismic forces are 50 cities of at least 3 million people threatened by large earthquakes, the targets of chance. What we know for certain is that no one will take protective measures unless they are convinced they are at risk. Furnishing that knowledge is the animating principle of the Global Earthquake Model, launched in 2009. At the very least, everyone should be able to learn what his or her risk is. At the very least, our community owes the world an estimate of that risk. So, first and foremost, GEM seeks to raise quake risk awareness. We have no illusions that maps or models raise awareness; instead, earthquakes do. But when a quake strikes, people need a credible place to go to answer the question, how vulnerable am I, and what can I do about it? The Global Earthquake Model is being built with GEM's new open source engine, OpenQuake. GEM is also assembling the global data sets without which we will never improve our understanding of where, how large, and how frequently earthquakes will strike, what impacts they will have, and how those impacts can be lessened by our actions. Using these global datasets will help to make the model as uniform as possible. The model must be built by scientists in the affected countries with GEM's support, augmented by their insights and data. The model will launch in 2014; to succeed it must be open, international, independent, and continuously tested. But the mission of GEM is not just the likelihood of ground shaking, but also gaging the economic and social consequences of earthquakes, which greatly amplify the losses. For example, should the municipality of Istanbul retrofit schools, or increase its insurance reserves and recovery capacity? Should a homeowner in a high-risk area move or strengthen her building? This is why GEM is a public-private partnership. GEM's fourteen public sponsors and eight non-governmental organization members are standing for the developing world. To extend GEM into the financial world, we draw upon the expertise of companies. GEM's ten private sponsors have endorsed the acquisition of public knowledge over private gain. In a competitive world, this is a courageous act. GEM is but one link in a chain of preparedness: from earth science and engineering research, through groups like GEM, to mitigation, retrofit or relocate decisions, building codes and insurance, and finally to prepared hospitals, schools, and homes. But it is a link that our community can make strong.

Stein, R. S.

2012-12-01

333

USGS Earthquake Hazards Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the homepage of the Earthquake Hazards Program (EHP) of the United States Geological Survey (USGS). This page points to information on earthquakes in Northern California, the United States, and the world. Topics include reports on recent large earthquakes, real-time earthquake maps, real-time shaking maps, real-time seismograms, earthquake network reports and updates, recent and significant earthquakes, and earthquake news releases. Users will be able to view maps and click on them. The EHP is part of the National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (NEHRP) lead by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA).

334

Selected natural attenuation monitoring data, Operable Unit 1, Naval Undersea Warfare Center, Division Keyport, Washington, June 2001  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Previous investigations have shown that natural attenuation and biodegradation of chlorinated volatile organic compounds (CVOCs) are substantial in shallow ground water beneath the 9-acre former landfill at Operable Unit 1 (OU 1), Naval Undersea Warfare Center (NUWC), Division Keyport, Washington. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has continued to monitor ground-water geochemistry to assure that conditions remain favorable for contaminant biodegradation. This report presents the ground-water geochemical and selected CVOC data collected at OU 1 by the USGS during June 11-14, 2001 in support of the long-term monitoring for natural attenuation. Overall, the June 2001 data indicate that redox conditions in the upper aquifer remain favorable for reductive dechlorination of CVOCs because strongly reducing conditions persisted beneath much of the former landfill. Redox conditions in the intermediate aquifer down gradient of the landfill appear to have become more favorable for reductive dechlorination because June 2001 dissolved hydrogen concentrations indicated strongly reducing conditions there for the first time. Although changes in redox conditions were observed at certain wells during 2001, a longer monitoring period is needed to ascertain if phytoremediation activities are affecting the ground-water chemistry. A minor change to future monitoring is proposed. Filtered organic carbon (previously referred to as dissolved, and defined as that which passes through a 0.45-micrometer membrane filter) should be analyzed in the future rather than unfiltered (previously referred to as total) organic carbon because the filtered analysis may be a better measure of bioavailable organic carbon. Unfiltered and filtered organic carbon data were collected during June 2001 for comparison. Filtered organic carbon data collected in the future could be reasonably compared with historical unfiltered organic carbon data by multiplying the historical data by a factor of about 0.9.

Dinico, Richard Steven

2003-01-01

335

A smartphone application for earthquakes that matter!  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Smartphone applications have swiftly become one of the most popular tools for rapid reception of earthquake information for the public, some of them having been downloaded more than 1 million times! The advantages are obvious: wherever someone's own location is, they can be automatically informed when an earthquake has struck. Just by setting a magnitude threshold and an area of interest, there is no longer the need to browse the internet as the information reaches you automatically and instantaneously! One question remains: are the provided earthquake notifications always relevant for the public? What are the earthquakes that really matters to laypeople? One clue may be derived from some newspaper reports that show that a while after damaging earthquakes many eyewitnesses scrap the application they installed just after the mainshock. Why? Because either the magnitude threshold is set too high and many felt earthquakes are missed, or it is set too low and the majority of the notifications are related to unfelt earthquakes thereby only increasing anxiety among the population at each new update. Felt and damaging earthquakes are the ones that matter the most for the public (and authorities). They are the ones of societal importance even when of small magnitude. A smartphone application developed by EMSC (Euro-Med Seismological Centre) with the financial support of the Fondation MAIF aims at providing suitable notifications for earthquakes by collating different information threads covering tsunamigenic, potentially damaging and felt earthquakes. Tsunamigenic earthquakes are considered here to be those ones that are the subject of alert or information messages from the PTWC (Pacific Tsunami Warning Centre). While potentially damaging earthquakes are identified through an automated system called EQIA (Earthquake Qualitative Impact Assessment) developed and operated at EMSC. This rapidly assesses earthquake impact by comparing the population exposed to each expected level of shaking intensity with empirical models of fatality losses calibrated on past earthquakes in each country. Non-seismic detections and macroseismic questionnaires collected online are combined to identify as many as possible of the felt earthquakes regardless their magnitude. Non seismic detections include Twitter earthquake detections, developed by the US Geological Survey, where the number of tweets containing the keyword "earthquake" is monitored in real time and flashsourcing, developed by the EMSC, which detect traffic surges on its rapid earthquake information website caused by the natural convergence of eyewitnesses who rush to the Internet to investigate the cause of the shaking that they have just felt. All together, we estimate that the number of detected felt earthquakes is around 1 000 per year, compared with the 35 000 earthquakes annually reported by the EMSC! Felt events are already the subject of the web page "Latest significant earthquakes" on EMSC website (http://www.emsc-csem.org/Earthquake/significant_earthquakes.php) and of a dedicated Twitter service @LastQuake. We will present the identification process of the earthquakes that matter, the smartphone application itself (to be released in May) and its future evolutions.

Bossu, Rémy; Etivant, Caroline; Roussel, Fréderic; Mazet-Roux, Gilles; Steed, Robert

2014-05-01

336

Selected natural attenuation monitoring data, Operable Unit 1, Naval Undersea Warfare Center, Division Keyport, Washington, June 2002  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Previous investigations indicated that natural attenuation and biodegradation of chlorinated volatile organic compounds (CVOCs) are substantial in shallow ground water beneath the 9-acre former landfill at Operable Unit 1 (OU 1), Naval Undersea Warfare Center (NUWC), Division Keyport, Washington. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has continued to monitor ground-water geochemistry to assure that conditions remain favorable for contaminant biodegradation. This report presents the geochemical and selected CVOC data for ground water at OU 1, collected by the USGS during June 10-14, 2002, in support of long-term monitoring for natural attenuation. Overall, the geochemical data for June 2002 indicate that redox conditions in the upper-aquifer water remain favorable for reductive dechlorination of chlorinated VOCs because strongly reducing conditions persisted beneath much of the former landfill. Redox conditions in the intermediate aquifer downgradient of the landfill also remained favorable for reductive dechlorination, although the 2002 dissolved hydrogen (H2) concentration from well MW1-28 is questionable. Changes in redox conditions were observed at certain wells during 2002, but a longer monitoring period and more thorough interpretation are needed to ascertain if phytoremediation activities are affecting redox conditions and if biodegradation processes are changing over time. The Navy intends to complete a more thorough interpretation in preparation for the 5-year review of OU 1 scheduled for 2004. There were a few substantial differences between the 2002 concentrations and previously observed concentrations of volatile organic compounds. Total CVOC concentrations in 2002 samples decreased substantially in all piezometers sampled in the northern plantation, and the largest percentages of decrease were for the compounds trichloroethene (TCE) and cis-1,2-dichloroethene (cis-DCE). Changes in total CVOC concentrations in the southern plantation were less consistent. Historically high concentrations were observed in samples from three piezometers, with particularly substantial increases in TCE and cis-DCE concentrations, and historically low concentrations were observed in two piezometers, with particularly substantial decreases in TCE and cis-DCE concentrations. Similarly to the redox chemistry, a longer monitoring period and more thorough interpretation are needed to ascertain if phytoremediation activities are affecting CVOC concentrations and if biodegradation processes are changing over time. No changes in monitoring plans are proposed for June 2003, although the practice of deploying a data sonde downhole while purging the wells will be discontinued. Downhole monitoring added uncertainty to selected measured dissolved H2 concentrations because of the possibility that the sonde and cable created a bridge that resulted in non-equilibrium dissolved H2 concentrations at the wells.

Dinicola, Richard S.

2004-01-01

337

Variability of the Black Sea from My Ocean Black Sea Monitoring and Forecasting Center Products  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

My Ocean project has started provision of the full set of services from 10 January 2012. Regional products in the Black Sea are provided by the Black Sea Marine Forecasting Center (BS MFC). The BS MFC products include operational three-dimensional fields of temperature, salinity, current velocity hindcast, analysis and forecast up to five years (snapshots every three hours or daily averaged fields), reanalysis of the Black Sea dynamics from 1971 to 2002 years, nitrate and phytoplankton daily averaged fields in the upper 200 meter layer and attenuation coefficient analysis. Operational products are simulated by means of assimilation of the sea level anomalies, sea surface temperature and surface chlorophyll concentration, which are products of the Thematic Assembly Centers of My Ocean project, in the models of marine dynamics and ecosystem. Atmospheric forcing for the dynamical model operation is downloaded fro the SKIRON web site. All products are free available in the real-time on the My Ocean project site www.myocean.eu from the My Ocean interactive catalogue in the form of maps on different levels, animations or in digital form. An accuracy of the Black Sea MFC product is estinmated by means fof the comparison of simulations with space remote sensing data or independent in situ measurements by profiling floats or surface drifting buoys. The Black Sea MFC products provide a new insight to the broad range variability of the Black sea dynamics and ecosystem This study is carried out with partial support of the FP6 Sesame project (contract 036949) and FP7 MyOcean project (grant agreement n°218812).

Korotaev, G.; Ratner, Yu.; Kholod, A.; Martynov, M.; Ivanchik, M.; Denmyshev, S.; Dorofeev, V.; Knysh, V.; Moiseenko, V.; Kybryakov, A.; Churilova, T.; Suslin, V.

2012-04-01

338

Retrofitting Laboratory Fume Hoods With Face Velocity Monitors at NASA Lewis Research Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Extensive use and reliance on laboratory fume hoods exist at LeRC for the control of chemical hazards (nearly 175 fume hoods). Flow-measuring devices are necessary to continually monitor hood performance. The flow-measuring device should he tied into an energy management control system to detect problems at a central location without relying on the users to convey information of a problem. Compatibility concerns and limitations should always be considered when choosing the most effective flow-measuring device for a particular situation. Good practice on initial hood design and placement will provide a system for which a flow-measuring device may be used to its full potential and effectiveness.

Wagner, Ingrid E.; Bold, Margaret D.; Diamond, David B.; Kall, Phillip M.

1997-01-01

339

THE GEOLOGIC RISK IN THE LAKE KIVU BASIN AREA PRODUCTED BY EARTHQUAKES. Case of the February 3th 2008 earthquake. By: L.M.Bagalwa(1), F.Lukaya(1), M.Burume(2), J.Moeyerson(3) (1): Goma Volcano Observatory, D.R.Congo (2): Naturals Sciences Research Center  

Microsoft Academic Search

The eastern Democratic Republic of Congo is prone to earthquakes of magnitude greater than or equal to 4 on the Richter scale. The western edge of Lake Kivu, the most populated part of the region is no exception to the solicitation of these earthquakes. Since 1997, the western basin of Lake Kivu is experiencing intense seismicity, several earthquakes of great

Montfort Bagalwa Rukeza

2010-01-01

340

Using of Remote Sensing Techniques for Monitoring the Earthquakes Activities Along the Northern Part of the Syrian Rift System (LEFT-LATERAL),SYRIA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earthquake mitigation can be achieved with a better knowledge of a region's infra-and substructures. High resolution Remote Sensing data can play a significant role to implement Geological mapping and it is essential to learn about the tectonic setting of a region. It is an effective method to identify active faults from different sources of Remote Sensing and compare the capability of some satellite sensors in active faults survey. In this paper, it was discussed a few digital image processing approaches to be used for enhancement and feature extraction related to faults. Those methods include band ratio, filtering and texture statistics . The experimental results show that multi-spectral images have great potentials in large scale active faults investigation. It has also got satisfied results when deal with invisible faults. Active Faults have distinct features in satellite images. Usually, there are obvious straight lines, circular structures and other distinct patterns along the faults locations. Remotely Sensed imagery Landsat ETM and SPOT XS /PAN are often used in active faults mapping. Moderate and high resolution satellite images are the best choice, because in low resolution images, the faults features may not be visible in most cases. The area under study is located Northwest of Syria that is part of one of the very active deformation belt on the Earth today. This area and the western part of Syria are located along the great rift system (Left-Lateral or African- Syrian Rift System). Those areas are tectonically active and caused a lot of seismically events. The AL-Ghab graben complex is situated within this wide area of Cenozoic deformation. The system formed, initially, as a result of the break up of the Arabian plate from the African plate. This action indicates that these sites are active and in a continual movement. In addition to that, the statistic analysis of Thematic Mapper data and the features from a digital elevation model ( DEM )produced from SAR interferometer show the existence of spectral structures at the same sites. The Arabian plate is moving in a NNW direction, whereas the African plate is moving to the North. The left-lateral motion along the Dead Sea Fault accommodates the difference in movement rate between both plates. The analysis of TM Space Imagery and digital image processing of spectral data show that the lineaments along AL-Ghab graben maybe considered as linear conjunctions accompanied with complex fracturing system. This complex is affected by distance stresses accompanied with intensive forces. The digital image processing of Radar imagery showing the presence of active and fresh faulting zones along the AL-Ghab graben. TM and SAR-DTM data, also showed a gradual color tone and interruptions of linear-ellipse shapes which reflecting the presence of discontinuity contours along the fault zone extension .This features refer to abundance of surface morphological features indicate to Fresh Faults. Recent faulting is expressed as freshly exposed soil within the colluvial apron visible by its light tone color. These indicators had been proved by field checks. Furthermore, the statistic digital analysis of the spectral data show that there are distribution of spectral plumes. These plumes are decreasing in intensity and color contrast from the center of the site to the direction of its edges.

Dalati, Moutaz

341

Rapid Earthquake Loss Assessment After Damaging Earthquakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter summarizes the work done over last decades regarding the development of new approaches and setting up of new\\u000a applications for earthquake rapid response systems that function to estimate earthquake losses in quasi real time after an\\u000a earthquake. After a critical discussion of relevant earthquake loss estimation methodologies, the essential features and the\\u000a characteristics of the available loss estimation

Mustafa Erdik; Karin Sesetyan; M. Betul Demircioglu; Ufuk Hancilar; Can Zulfikar

342

The Electronic Encyclopedia of Earthquakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Electronic Encyclopedia of Earthquakes is a collaborative project of the Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC), the Consortia of Universities for Research in Earthquake Engineering (CUREE) and the Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS). This digital library organizes earthquake information online as a partner with the NSF-funded National Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) Digital Library (NSDL) and the Digital Library for Earth System Education (DLESE). When complete, information and resources for over 500 Earth science and engineering topics will be included, with connections to curricular materials useful for teaching Earth Science, engineering, physics and mathematics. Although conceived primarily as an educational resource, the Encyclopedia is also a valuable portal to anyone seeking up-to-date earthquake information and authoritative technical sources. "E3" is a unique collaboration among earthquake scientists and engineers to articulate and document a common knowledge base with a shared terminology and conceptual framework. It is a platform for cross-training scientists and engineers in these complementary fields and will provide a basis for sustained communication and resource-building between major education and outreach activities. For example, the E3 collaborating organizations have leadership roles in the two largest earthquake engineering and earth science projects ever sponsored by NSF: the George E. Brown Network for Earthquake Engineering Simulation (CUREE) and the EarthScope Project (IRIS and SCEC). The E3 vocabulary and definitions are also being connected to a formal ontology under development by the SCEC/ITR project for knowledge management within the SCEC Collaboratory. The E3 development system is now fully operational, 165 entries are in the pipeline, and the development teams are capable of producing 20 new, fully reviewed encyclopedia entries each month. Over the next two years teams will complete 450 entries, which will populate the E3 collection to a level that fully spans earthquake science and engineering. Scientists, engineers, and educators who have suggestions for content to be included in the Encyclopedia can visit www.earthquake.info now to complete the "Suggest a Web Page" form.

Benthien, M.; Marquis, J.; Jordan, T.

2003-12-01

343

Nuclear-monitoring research at the Center for Seismic Studies. Rept. for 1 Oct 89-1 Oct 90  

SciTech Connect

The research presented in this report covers activity by the research staff of the Center for Seismic Studies for the period between 1 October 1989 and 1 October 1990. The report is divided into five sections covering topics relevant to underground nuclear test monitoring of the Soviet Union. Data for these studies came from the Scandinavian arrays NORESS, ARCESS, and FINESA; the IRIS stations within the Soviet Union; and hand digitized records of Soviet underground nuclear explosions recorded at stations of the Soviet Seismic Network. A brief description of the contents of the report are given below. The first section is composed of two reports by Ryaboy that review Soviet literature focused on the seismic characteristics of the crust and upper-mantle near the IRIS stations in the Soviet Union. The first report discusses the crust and upper mantle velocity and Q structure beneath the stations, and the second discusses lateral heterogeneity of the upper mantle inferred from refraction data.

Carter, J.; Coyne, J.; Israelsson, H.; Riviere-Barbier, F.; Ryaboy, V.

1991-05-13

344

The ICOS Ecosystem network and Thematic Center: an infrastructure to monitor and better understand the ecosystem GHGs exchanges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ICOS Ecosystem network is part of the ICOS European Research Infrastructure (www.icos-infrastructure.eu) together with the Atmospheric and Ocean networks. The ecosystem network includes highly standardized monitoring sites based on commercially available instruments embedded into an integrated system that is coordinated by the ICOS Ecosystem Thematic Center (ETC), which is also responsible for the methodologies advancement, data processing and data distribution. The ecosystem monitoring activity will involve human intervention in field activities and for this reason rigorously standardized protocol for field ecosystem measurements are in preparation also in coordination with others international related activities. The core measurement in the ICOS Ecosystem sites are the main GHGs fluxes that include CO2, H2O, CH4 and N2O, using the eddy covariance method and chambers for the soil effluxes. To better interpret and understand the GHGs exchanges a full series of meteorological data (including spectral reflectance measurements and full radiation and water balance) are also collected and the sites are characterized in terms of carbon stocks, nutrients availability and management and disturbance history. Centralized raw data processing, QAQC and uncertainty estimation, test and development of new methodologies and techniques, assistance to the network and chemical analysis and long term storage of the vegetation and soil samples are the main activities where the ETC is responsible. The ETC, based in Italy and with sections in Belgium and France, is under construction and will be operative in 2013. We present the actual status of the Ecosystem network, including the variables collected, the protocols under preparation, the data access and data use policies and the Ecosystem Thematic Center role and development strategy, with special emphasis on the approaches followed to reach high level of to standardization together with the uncertainty quantification.

Janssens, Ivan; Papale, Dario; Ceulemans, Reinhart; Gielen, Bert; Loustau, Denis; de Beeck, Maarten Op; Valentini, Riccardo

2013-04-01

345

The ICOS Ecosystem network and Thematic Center: an infrastructure to monitor and better understand the ecosystem GHGs exchanges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ICOS Ecosystem network is part of the ICOS European Research Infrastructure (www.icos-infrastructure.eu) together with the Atmospheric and Ocean networks. The ICOS Ecosystem includes highly standardized monitoring sites based on commercially available instruments embedded into an integrated system that is coordinated by the ICOS Ecosystem Thematic Center (ETC) which is responsible for the methodologies advancement, data processing and data distribution. The ecosystem monitoring activity will involve human intervention in field activities and for this reason rigorously standardized protocol for field ecosystem measurements are in preparation also in coordination with others international related activities. The core measurement in the ICOS Ecosystem sites are the main GHGs fluxes that include CO2, H2O, CH4 and N2O, using the eddy covariance method and chambers for the soil effluxes. To better interpret and understand the GHGs exchanges a full series of meteorological data (including spectral reflectance measurements and full radiation and water balance) are also collected and the sites are characterized in terms of carbon stocks, nutrients availability and management and disturbance history. Centralized raw data processing, QAQC and uncertainty estimation, test and development of new methodologies and techniques, assistance to the network and chemical analysis and long term storage of the vegetation and soil samples are the main activities where the ETC is responsible. The ETC, based in Italy and with sections in Belgium and France, is under construction and will be operative in 2013. The Ecosystem network, including the variables collected, the protocols under preparation and the data access and data use policies will be presented together with the Ecosystem Thematic Center role and development strategy. The aim is to identify and discuss integration and collaboration with others similar initiatives, also thanks to the support of the COOPEUS European project that will facilitate coordination between US and EU networks, and to receive the feedbacks from potential users of the infrastructure.

Papale, D.; Ceulemans, R.; Janssens, I.; Loustau, D.; Valentini, R.

2012-12-01

346

Identified EM Earthquake Precursors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many attempts have been made to determine a sound forecasting method regarding earthquakes and warn the public in turn. Presently, the animal kingdom leads the precursor list alluding to a transmission related source. By applying the animal-based model to an electromagnetic (EM) wave model, various hypotheses were formed, but the most interesting one required the use of a magnetometer with a differing design and geometry. To date, numerous, high-end magnetometers have been in use in close proximity to fault zones for potential earthquake forecasting; however, something is still amiss. The problem still resides with what exactly is forecastable and the investigating direction of EM. After a number of custom rock experiments, two hypotheses were formed which could answer the EM wave model. The first hypothesis concerned a sufficient and continuous electron movement either by surface or penetrative flow, and the second regarded a novel approach to radio transmission. Electron flow along fracture surfaces was determined to be inadequate in creating strong EM fields, because rock has a very high electrical resistance making it a high quality insulator. Penetrative flow could not be corroborated as well, because it was discovered that rock was absorbing and confining electrons to a very thin skin depth. Radio wave transmission and detection worked with every single test administered. This hypothesis was reviewed for propagating, long-wave generation with sufficient amplitude, and the capability of penetrating solid rock. Additionally, fracture spaces, either air or ion-filled, can facilitate this concept from great depths and allow for surficial detection. A few propagating precursor signals have been detected in the field occurring with associated phases using custom-built loop antennae. Field testing was conducted in Southern California from 2006-2011, and outside the NE Texas town of Timpson in February, 2013. The antennae have mobility and observations were noted for recurrence, duration, and frequency response. At the Southern California field sites, one loop antenna was positioned for omni-directional reception and also detected a strong First Schumann Resonance; however, additional Schumann Resonances were absent. At the Timpson, TX field sites, loop antennae were positioned for directional reception, due to earthquake-induced, hydraulic fracturing activity currently conducted by the oil and gas industry. Two strong signals, one moderately strong signal, and approximately 6-8 weaker signals were detected in the immediate vicinity. The three stronger signals were mapped by a biangulation technique, followed by a triangulation technique for confirmation. This was the first antenna mapping technique ever performed for determining possible earthquake epicenters. Six and a half months later, Timpson experienced two M4 (M4.1 and M4.3) earthquakes on September 2, 2013 followed by a M2.4 earthquake three days later, all occurring at a depth of five kilometers. The Timpson earthquake activity now has a cyclical rate and a forecast was given to the proper authorities. As a result, the Southern California and Timpson, TX field results led to an improved design and construction of a third prototype antenna. With a loop antenna array, a viable communication system, and continuous monitoring, a full fracture cycle can be established and observed in real-time. In addition, field data could be reviewed quickly for assessment and lead to a much more improved earthquake forecasting capability. The EM precursors determined by this method appear to surpass all prior precursor claims, and the general public will finally receive long overdue forecasting.

Jones, Kenneth, II; Saxton, Patrick

2014-05-01

347

Investigation on the Possible Relationship between Magnetic Pulsations and Earthquakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The sun is the main source of energy to the solar system, and it plays a major role in affecting the ionosphere, atmosphere and the earth surface. The connection between solar wind and the ground magnetic pulsations has been proven empirically by several researchers previously (H. J. Singer et al., 1977, E. W. Greenstadt, 1979, I. A. Ansari 2006 to name a few). In our preliminary statistical analysis on relationship between solar and seismic activities (Jusoh and Yumoto, 2011, Jusoh et al., 2012), we observed a high possibility of solar-terrestrial coupling. We observed high tendency of earthquakes to occur during lower phase solar cycles which significantly related with solar wind parameters (i.e solar wind dynamic pressure, speed and input energy). However a clear coupling mechanism was not established yet. To connect the solar impact on seismicity, we investigate the possibility of ground magnetic pulsations as one of the connecting agent. In our analysis, the recorded ground magnetic pulsations are analyzed at different ranges of ultra low frequency; Pc3 (22-100 mHz), Pc4 (6.7-22 mHz) and Pc5 (1.7-6.7 mHz) with the occurrence of local earthquake events at certain time periods. This analysis focuses at 2 different major seismic regions; north Japan (mid latitude) and north Sumatera, Indonesia (low latitude). Solar wind parameters were obtained from the Goddard Space Flight Center, NASA via the OMNIWeb Data Explorer and the Space Physics Data Facility. Earthquake events were extracted from the Advanced National Seismic System (ANSS) database. The localized Pc3-Pc5 magnetic pulsations data were extracted from Magnetic Data Acquisition System (MAGDAS)/Circum Pan Magnetic Network (CPMN) located at Ashibetsu (Japan); for earthquakes monitored at north Japan and Langkawi (Malaysia); for earthquakes observed at north Sumatera. This magnetometer arrays has established by International Center for Space Weather Science and Education, Kyushu University, Japan. From the results, we observed significant correlations between ground magnetic pulsations and solar wind speed at difference earthquake epicenter depths. The details of the analysis will be discussed in the presentation.

Jusoh, M.; Liu, H.; Yumoto, K.; Uozumi, T.; Takla, E. M.; Yousif Suliman, M. E.; Kawano, H.; Yoshikawa, A.; Asillam, M.; Hashim, M.

2012-12-01

348

EARTHQUAKE TRIGGERING AND SPATIAL-TEMPORAL RELATIONS IN THE VICINITY OF YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA  

SciTech Connect

It is well accepted that the 1992 M 5.6 Little Skull Mountain earthquake, the largest historical event to have occurred within 25 km of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, was triggered by the M 7.2 Landers earthquake that occurred the day before. On the premise that earthquakes can be triggered by applied stresses, we have examined the earthquake catalog from the Southern Great Basin Digital Seismic Network (SGBDSN) for other evidence of triggering by external and internal stresses. This catalog now comprises over 12,000 events, encompassing five years of consistent monitoring, and has a low threshold of completeness, varying from M 0 in the center of the network to M 1 at the fringes. We examined the SGBDSN catalog response to external stresses such as large signals propagating from teleseismic and regional earthquakes, microseismic storms, and earth tides. Results are generally negative. We also examined the interplay of earthquakes within the SGBDSN. The number of ''foreshocks'', as judged by most criteria, is significantly higher than the background seismicity rate. In order to establish this, we first removed aftershocks from the catalog with widely used methodology. The existence of SGBDSN foreshocks is supported by comparing actual statistics to those of a simulated catalog with uniform-distributed locations and Poisson-distributed times of occurrence. The probabilities of a given SGBDSN earthquake being followed by one having a higher magnitude within a short time frame and within a close distance are at least as high as those found with regional catalogs. These catalogs have completeness thresholds two to three units higher in magnitude than the SGBDSN catalog used here. The largest earthquake in the SGBDSN catalog, the M 4.7 event in Frenchman Flat on 01/27/1999, was preceded by a definite foreshock sequence. The largest event within 75 km of Yucca Mountain in historical time, the M 5.7 Scotty's Junction event of 08/01/1999, was also preceded by foreshocks. The monitoring area of the SGBDSN has been in a long period of very low moment release rate since February of 1999. The seismicity catalog to date suggests that the next significant (M > 4) earthquake within the SGBDSN will be preceded by foreshocks.

na

2001-02-08

349

T-phase Recorded Offshore and Onshore Eastern Taiwan: Effects of Bathymetry and Earthquake Radiation Patterns  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

T-phase is energy excited by earthquakes or explosions that travels through ocean at least in some part of its path. T-phase energy attenuates little when it travels. As a result, it has potentials to provide monitoring ability for small earthquakes and explosions at far away distances. However, to use T-phase to locate events, it is necessary to know if it is mainly converted from P-wave or from S-wave? It will be also interesting to know what causes the variations of T-phase amplitude at different parts of the T-phase. Taiwan is among the best regions to monitor earthquakes due to its dense seismic networks. As a result, there are high quality earthquake catalogs available to provide accurate earthquake locations and focal mechanism information for us to test the different hypotheses. Here we study 60 well-located earthquakes that have also generated T-Phase being recorded by an ocean bottom seismometer (OBS) and a station on an island offshore Taiwan. For each earthquake, we have calculated the traveltime for the P-wave and S-wave to arrive at the conversion points at 1000 m water depth where the SOFAR channel's center is located. Such traveltime then was added to the traveltime of the ocean path from the conversion point to the OBS so we can have a theoretical total traveltimes for the P to T-phase and S to T-phase arrivals to the OBS. We have done such calculation for more than 2000 conversion points along the 1000 m water depth contour line offshore eastern Taiwan. We found the arrival time and the duration of the T-phases from the 60 earthquakes are more consistent with a S-wave converted to acoustic wave at the available conversion points constrained by the regional bathymetry. Such conversion is very effective on generating the T-phase. However, there are also examples of T-phase energy excited by scattering of the abyssal seafloor when earthquakes occur under the ocean basin. We have applied the same analyses using a broadband station on an island, and got similar results. We are currently studying the factors contributing the amplitude variations of the T-phases.

CHUA, J.

2013-12-01

350

The Mw=8.8 Maule earthquake aftershock sequence, event catalog and locations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aftershock sequence of the Mw=8.8 Maule earthquake off the coast of Chile in February 2010 is one of the most well-recorded aftershock sequences from a great megathrust earthquake. Immediately following the Maule earthquake, teams of geophysicists from Chile, France, Germany, Great Britain and the United States coordinated resources to capture aftershocks and other seismic signals associated with this significant earthquake. In total, 91 broadband, 48 short period, and 25 accelerometers stations were deployed above the rupture zone of the main shock from 33-38.5°S and from the coast to the Andean range front. In order to integrate these data into a unified catalog, the USGS National Earthquake Information Center develop procedures to use their real-time seismic monitoring system (Bulletin Hydra) to detect, associate, location and compute earthquake source parameters from these stations. As a first step in the process, the USGS has built a seismic catalog of all M3.5 or larger earthquakes for the time period of the main aftershock deployment from March 2010-October 2010. The catalog includes earthquake locations, magnitudes (Ml, Mb, Mb_BB, Ms, Ms_BB, Ms_VX, Mc), associated phase readings and regional moment tensor solutions for most of the M4 or larger events. Also included in the catalog are teleseismic phases and amplitude measures and body-wave MT and CMT solutions for the larger events, typically M5.5 and larger. Tuning of automated detection and association parameters should allow a complete catalog of events to approximately M2.5 or larger for that dataset of more than 164 stations. We characterize the aftershock sequence in terms of magnitude, frequency, and location over time. Using the catalog locations and travel times as a starting point we use double difference techniques to investigate relative locations and earthquake clustering. In addition, phase data from candidate ground truth events and modeling of surface waves can be used to calibrate the velocity structure of central Chile to improve the real-time monitoring.

Meltzer, A.; Benz, H.; Brown, L.; Russo, R. M.; Beck, S. L.; Roecker, S. W.

2011-12-01

351

Monitoring patient-centered outcomes through the progression of breast reconstruction: a multicentered prospective longitudinal evaluation.  

PubMed

Studies have shown that having breast reconstruction has a positive influence on patient satisfaction and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) at the conclusion of treatment. However, no study has critically evaluated changes to these patient-reported outcomes during the process of undergoing breast reconstruction. This study was to prospectively evaluate changes to patient-centered metrics through the progression of breast reconstruction. An IRB-approved prospective, multi-institutional study was performed for all patients undergoing breast reconstruction between 2009 and 2011. The Breast-Q reconstruction questionnaire was used for evaluation of HRQoL and was administered at five intervals in the perioperative period. Longitudinal evaluation was performed to assess changes to HRQoL metrics during this perioperative interval. One hundred and ten patients were enrolled, and 100 patients (91.9 %) completed appropriate follow-up. Preoperative HRQoL scores were higher in patients electing to forgo reconstruction (P < 0.004), while postoperative HRQoL scores consistently deteriorated at multiple time points following mastectomy as compared to reconstructed patients. On subgroup analysis, results indicated lower initial HRQoL scores in delayed reconstruction (P < 0.05) as compared to immediate reconstruction. These scores did, however, merge at approximately 9 months postoperatively. Changes to HRQoL outcomes occur through progression of breast reconstruction. Within the first year of surgery, early decreases are mirrored by significant increases at later time points above baseline levels when evaluating most forms of reconstruction. Choosing against reconstruction will likely result in continued deterioration of HRQoL for patients undergoing cancer surgery, but steady improvements can be expected if delayed reconstruction is chosen. PMID:24951266

Chao, Li-Fen; Patel, Ketan M; Chen, Shin-Cheh; Lam, Hung-Bun; Lin, Chia-Yu; Liu, Hsueh-Erh; Cheng, Ming-Huei

2014-07-01

352

Listening to Earthquakes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

At this website, users can listen to the 'sounds' produced by earthquakes. Scientists have taken recordings of vibrations that occur during earthquakes and transformed them into sound files by speeding them up. Through listening, people can better understand the shaking that occurs during earthquakes. An interactive listening quiz lets students hear and compare earthquakes that occurred near each other, but from faults of different lengths. There is also a collection of sounds from historical earthquakes, such as the 1992 magnitude 7.3 Landers Earthquake, and a download page where sounds from various earthquakes can be obtained as .wav files.

353

Earthquake occurrence and effects.  

PubMed

Although earthquakes are mainly concentrated in zones close to boundaries of tectonic plates of the Earth's lithosphere, infrequent events away from the main seismic regions can cause major disasters. The major cause of damage and injury following earthquakes is elastic vibration, rather than fault displacement. This vibration at a particular site will depend not only on the size and distance of the earthquake but also on the local soil conditions. Earthquake prediction is not yet generally fruitful in avoiding earthquake disasters, but much useful planning to reduce earthquake effects can be done by studying the general earthquake hazard in an area, and taking some simple precautions. PMID:2347628

Adams, R D

1990-01-01

354

Multiple asperity model for earthquake prediction  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Large earthquakes often occur as multiple ruptures reflecting strong variations of stress level along faults. Dense instrument networks with which the volcano Kilauea is monitored provided detailed data on changes of seismic velocity, strain accumulation and earthquake occurrence rate before the 1975 Hawaii 7.2-mag earthquake. During the ???4 yr of preparation time the mainshock source volume had separated into crustal volumes of high stress levels embedded in a larger low-stress volume, showing respectively high- and low-stress precursory anomalies. ?? 1981 Nature Publishing Group.

Wyss, M.; Johnston, A. C.; Klein, F. W.

1981-01-01

355

Virtual Courseware: Earthquake  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Virtual Earthquake is an interactive web-based program designed to introduce the concepts of how an earthquake epicenter is located and how the Richter magnitude of an earthquake is determined. Virtual Earthquake shows the recordings of an earthquake's seismic waves detected by instruments far away from the earthquake. The instrument recording the seismic waves is called a seismograph and the recording is a seismogram. The point of origin of an earthquake is called its focus and the point on the earth's surface directly above the focus is the epicenter. You are to locate the epicenter of an earthquake by making simple measurements on three seismograms that are generated by the Virtual Earthquake program. Additionally, you will be required to determine the Richter Magnitude of that quake from the same recordings. Richter Magnitude is an estimate of the amount of energy released during an earthquake.

Novak, Gary

2000-04-25

356

Earthquake Photo Collections  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collection of earthquake photos, published by the United States Geological Survey (USGS), contains links to photos for specific earthquakes, as well as links to other USGS image collections and non-USGS collections. Highlights include photos from the 1906 San Francisco earthquake, the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake, and the 1994 earthquake in Northridge, California. There is also a link to the USGS photo library (general geologic topics), and links to collections published by universities, museums, other government organizations, and professional organizations.

2011-06-21

357

Toward real-time regional earthquake simulation of Taiwan earthquakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We developed a Real-time Online earthquake Simulation system (ROS) to simulate regional earthquakes in Taiwan. The ROS uses a centroid moment tensor solution of seismic events from a Real-time Moment Tensor monitoring system (RMT), which provides all the point source parameters including the event origin time, hypocentral location, moment magnitude and focal mechanism within 2 minutes after the occurrence of an earthquake. Then, all of the source parameters are automatically forwarded to the ROS to perform an earthquake simulation, which is based on a spectral-element method (SEM). We have improved SEM mesh quality by introducing a thin high-resolution mesh layer near the surface to accommodate steep and rapidly varying topography. The mesh for the shallow sedimentary basin is adjusted to reflect its complex geometry and sharp lateral velocity contrasts. The grid resolution at the surface is about 545 m, which is sufficient to resolve topography and tomography data for simulations accurate up to 1.0 Hz. The ROS is also an infrastructural service, making online earthquake simulation feasible. Users can conduct their own earthquake simulation by providing a set of source parameters through the ROS webpage. For visualization, a ShakeMovie and ShakeMap are produced during the simulation. The time needed for one event is roughly 3 minutes for a 70 sec ground motion simulation. The ROS is operated online at the Institute of Earth Sciences, Academia Sinica (http://ros.earth.sinica.edu.tw/). Our long-term goal for the ROS system is to contribute to public earth science outreach and to realize seismic ground motion prediction in real-time.

Lee, S.; Liu, Q.; Tromp, J.; Komatitsch, D.; Liang, W.; Huang, B.

2013-12-01

358

Japanese earthquake predictability experiment with multiple runs before and after the 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The current Japanese national earthquake prediction program emphasizes the importance of modeling as well as monitoring for a sound scientific development of earthquake prediction research. One major focus of the current program is to move toward creating testable earthquake forecast models. For this purpose, in 2009 we joined the Collaboratory for the Study of Earthquake Predictability (CSEP) and installed, through an international collaboration, the CSEP Testing Centre, an infrastructure to encourage researchers to develop testable models for Japan. We started Japanese earthquake predictability experiment on November 1, 2009. The experiment consists of 12 categories, with 4 testing classes with different time spans (1 day, 3 months, 1 year and 3 years) and 3 testing regions called 'All Japan,' 'Mainland,' and 'Kanto.' A total of 160 models, as of August 2013, were submitted, and are currently under the CSEP official suite of tests for evaluating the performance of forecasts. We will present results of prospective forecast and testing for periods before and after the 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake. Because a seismic activity has changed dramatically since the 2011 event, performances of models have been affected very much. In addition, as there is the problem of authorized catalogue related to the completeness magnitude, most models did not pass the CSEP consistency tests. Also, we will discuss the retrospective earthquake forecast experiments for aftershocks of the 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake. Our aim is to describe what has turned out to be the first occasion for setting up a research environment for rigorous earthquake forecasting in Japan.

Hirata, N.; Tsuruoka, H.; Yokoi, S.

2011-12-01

359

Japanese earthquake predictability experiment with multiple runs before and after the 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The current Japanese national earthquake prediction program emphasizes the importance of modeling as well as monitoring for a sound scientific development of earthquake prediction research. One major focus of the current program is to move toward creating testable earthquake forecast models. For this purpose, in 2009 we joined the Collaboratory for the Study of Earthquake Predictability (CSEP) and installed, through an international collaboration, the CSEP Testing Centre, an infrastructure to encourage researchers to develop testable models for Japan. We started Japanese earthquake predictability experiment on November 1, 2009. The experiment consists of 12 categories, with 4 testing classes with different time spans (1 day, 3 months, 1 year and 3 years) and 3 testing regions called 'All Japan,' 'Mainland,' and 'Kanto.' A total of 160 models, as of August 2013, were submitted, and are currently under the CSEP official suite of tests for evaluating the performance of forecasts. We will present results of prospective forecast and testing for periods before and after the 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake. Because a seismic activity has changed dramatically since the 2011 event, performances of models have been affected very much. In addition, as there is the problem of authorized catalogue related to the completeness magnitude, most models did not pass the CSEP consistency tests. Also, we will discuss the retrospective earthquake forecast experiments for aftershocks of the 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake. Our aim is to describe what has turned out to be the first occasion for setting up a research environment for rigorous earthquake forecasting in Japan.

Hirata, N.; Tsuruoka, H.; Yokoi, S.

2013-12-01

360

Interpretations on the Geologic Setting of Yogyakarta Earthquakes 2006 (Central Java, Indonesia) Based on Integration of Aftershock Monitoring and Existing Geologic, Geophysical and Remote Sensing Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The unprecedented 26 May 2006 Yogyakarta earthquake (central Java, Indonesia) that took victims of 5,700 lives was generally accepted to have a depth of about 10 km and moment magnitude of 6.4. However, the definition of location of active fault is still under debate as the epicenter of mainshock was reported quite differently by several institutions. Many researchers believe that the Opak fault which is located at the eastern boundary of Yogyakarta low-land area (or Yogyakarta Basin) and the high-land region of Southern Mountains was the source of year 2006 earthquakes. However, our result of aftershocks observation suggests that the ruptured zone was not located along the Opak fault but from an unknown fault located about 10 km to the east from it and within the Southern Mountains domain. Unfortunately, surface geologic manifestations are scarce as this area is now largely covered by limestone. Therefore the suspected active fault system must be studied through interpretations of the subsurface geology and evaluation of the Cenozoic geo-history of the region utilizing existing geologic, geophysical and remote sensing data. This work suggests that the Yogyakarta Basin is a volcano-tectonic depression formed gradually since the early Tertiary period (Oligo-Miocene or older). Geological and geophysical evidence suggest that structural trends changed from the Oligocene NE-SW towards the Oligo-Miocene NNE-SSW and the Plio-Pleistocene NW-SE and E-W directions. The ruptured "X" fault during the Yogyakarta earthquakes 2006 is likely to be a NNE-SSW trending fault which is parallel to the Opak fault and both were firstly active in the Oligo-Miocene as sinistral strike-slip faults. However, while the Opak fault had changed into a normal faulting after the Pliocene, the evidence from Kali Ngalang and Kali Widoro suggests that the "X" fault system was still reactivated as a strike-slip one during the Plio-Pleistocene orogeny. As this new interpretation of active fault causes spatial discrepancy between locations of earthquakes epicenters and highly damaged regions, other geo-engineering factors must be considerably important in determining the final scale of seismic hazards. The most vulnerable areas for seismic hazards are those located nearest to the ruptured fault and are underlain by thick Quaternary unconsolidated deposits. In case of regions along the fault line, seismic hazards seem to reach more distance region, such as the case of Gantiwarno region, as the seismic waves can travel more easily along the fault line.

Setijadji, L. D.; Watanabe, K.; Fukuoka, K.; Ehara, S.; Setiadji, Y.; Rahardjo, W.; Susilo, A.; Barianto, D. H.; Harijoko, A.; Sudarno, I.; Pramumijoyo, S.; Hendrayana, H.; Akmalludin, A.; Nishijima, J.; Itaya, T.

2007-05-01

361

Long-term monitoring of creep rate along the Hayward fault and evidence for a lasting creep response to 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We present results from over 30 yr of precise surveys of creep along the Hayward fault. Along most of the fault, spatial variability in long-term creep rates is well determined by these data and can help constrain 3D-models of the depth of the creeping zone. However, creep at the south end of the fault stopped completely for more than 6 years after the M7 1989 Loma Prieta Earthquake (LPEQ), perhaps delayed by stress drop imposed by this event. With a decade of detailed data before LPEQ and a decade after it, we report that creep response to that event does indeed indicate the expected deficit in creep.

Lienkaemper, J. J.; Galehouse, J. S.; Simpson, R. W.

2001-01-01

362

1906 San Francisco Earthquake Tsunami  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A series of visualizations of the tsunami generated by the 1906 earthquake. Included are maps of the San Andreas fault offshore, in San Francisco Bay, diagrams of the magnitude of the slip under the San Francisco Bay, and animations of wave height following the earthqake. Two separate animations are featured as QuickTime movies; one is centered on the Golden Gate Bridge, the other shows the whole San Francisco Bay.

Usgs, Tsunami A.

363

Center for Integration of Natural Disaster Information  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey's Center for Integration of Natural Disaster Information (CINDI) is a research and operational facility that explores methods for collecting, integrating, and communicating information about the risks posed by natural hazards and the effects of natural disasters. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is mandated by the Robert Stafford Act to warn citizens of impending landslides, volcanic eruptions, and earthquakes. The USGS also coordinates with other Federal, State, and local disaster agencies to monitor threats to communities from floods, coastal storms, wildfires, geomagnetic storms, drought, and outbreaks of disease in wildlife populations.

U.S. Geological Survey

2001-01-01

364

Design and characterization of the beam monitor detectors of the Italian National Center of Oncological Hadron-therapy (CNAO)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new hadron-therapy facility implementing an active beam scanning technique has been developed at the Italian National Center of Oncological Hadron-therapy (CNAO). This paper presents the design and the characterization of the beam monitor detectors developed for the on-line monitoring and control of the dose delivered during a treatment at CNAO. The detectors are based on five parallel-plate transmission ionization chambers with either a single large electrode or electrodes segmented in 128 strips (strip chambers) and 32×32 pixels (pixel chamber). The detectors are arranged in two independent boxes with an active area larger than 200×200 mm2 and a total water equivalent thickness along the beam path of about 0.9 mm. A custom front-end chip with 64 channels converts the integrated ionization channels without dead-time. The detectors were tested at the clinical proton beam facility of the Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI) which implements a spot scanning technique, each spot being characterized by a predefined number of protons delivered with a pencil beam in a specified point of the irradiation field. The short-term instability was measured by delivering several identical spots in a time interval of few tenths of seconds and is found to be lower than 0.3%. The non-uniformity, measured by delivering sequences of spots in different points of the detector surface, results to be lower than 1% in the single electrode chambers and lower than 1.5% in the strip and pixel chambers, reducing to less than 0.5% and 1% in the restricted 100×100 mm2 central area of the detector.

Giordanengo, S.; Donetti, M.; Garella, M. A.; Marchetto, F.; Alampi, G.; Ansarinejad, A.; Monaco, V.; Mucchi, M.; Pecka, I. A.; Peroni, C.; Sacchi, R.; Scalise, M.; Tomba, C.; Cirio, R.

2013-01-01

365

FAST TRACK PAPER: Observations of stress relaxation before earthquakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Theory and observations suggest that seismic shear wave splitting, caused by fluid-saturated stress-aligned microcracks, directly monitors low-level deformation before fracturing, faulting and earthquakes occur. In the past, it had been assumed that the accumulation of stress before earthquakes continued until stress was released by faulting at the time of the earthquake. However, new data and reappraisal of existing data sets

Yuan Gao; Stuart Crampin

2004-01-01

366

Deep infrasound radiated by the Sumatra earthquake and tsunami  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infrasound arrays in the Pacific and Indian oceans that are part of the International Monitoring System (IMS) of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) recorded distinct signatures associated with the 26 December 2004 Sumatra earthquake (M\\/9, http:\\/\\/earthquake.usgs.gov\\/) and tsunami. Although the radiation of infrasound from large continental earthquakes is established [e.g., Le Pichon et al., 2003], the results presented

M. Garcés; P. Caron; C. Hetzer; A. Le Pichon; H. Bass; D. Drob; J. Bhattacharyya

2005-01-01

367

Intracranial Pressure Monitoring in Severe Traumatic Brain Injury in Latin America: Process and Methods for a Multi-Center Randomized Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

Abstract In patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI), the influence on important outcomes of the use of information from intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring to direct treatment has never been tested in a randomized controlled trial (RCT). We are conducting an RCT in six trauma centers in Latin America to test this question. We hypothesize that patients randomized to ICP monitoring will have lower mortality and better outcomes at 6-months post-trauma than patients treated without ICP monitoring. We selected three centers in Bolivia to participate in the trial, based on (1) the absence of ICP monitoring, (2) adequate patient accession and data collection during the pilot phase, (3) preliminary institutional review board approval, and (4) the presence of equipoise about the value of ICP monitoring. We conducted extensive training of site personnel, and initiated the trial on September 1, 2008. Subsequently, we included three additional centers. A total of 176 patients were entered into the trial as of August 31, 2010. Current enrollment is 81% of that expected. The trial is expected to reach its enrollment goal of 324 patients by September of 2011. We are conducting a high-quality RCT to answer a question that is important globally. In addition, we are establishing the capacity to conduct strong research in Latin America, where TBI is a serious epidemic. Finally, we are demonstrating the feasibility and utility of international collaborations that share resources and unique patient populations to conduct strong research about global public health concerns.

Lujan, Silvia; Dikmen, Sureyya; Temkin, Nancy; Petroni, Gustavo; Pridgeon, Jim; Barber, Jason; Machamer, Joan; Cherner, Mariana; Chaddock, Kelley; Hendrix, Terence; Rondina, Carlos; Videtta, Walter; Celix, Juanita M.; Chesnut, Randall

2012-01-01

368

The U.S. Geological Survey's Earthquake Summary Posters: A GIS-based Education and Communication Product for Presenting Consolidated Post-Earthquake Information  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earthquake Summary Posters (ESP's), a new product of the U.S. Geological Survey's Earthquake Program, are produced at the National Earthquake Information Center (NEIC) in Golden. The posters consist of rapidly-generated, GIS-based maps made following significant earthquakes worldwide (typically M>7.0, or events of significant media\\/public interest). ESP's consolidate, in an attractive map format, a large-scale epicentral map, several auxiliary regional overviews

A. Tarr; H. Benz; P. Earle; D. J. Wald

2003-01-01

369

Earthquake Magnitude - Linking Earthquake Magnitude and Intensity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Earthquake magnitude is commonly used to represent the size of an earthquake. However, most people want to understand how much impact or damage earthquakes do. These two concepts are linked by shaking. Earthquake magnitude can be measured in a variety of ways, most commonly moment magnitude or Richter magnitude. Shaking is measured in units of acceleration, (often a percentage of g). Damage or intensity can be measured by the modified Mercalli intensity (MMI) scale. In this activity, students will model earthquakes of various magnitudes to determine the amount of shaking that these quakes will cause. They will then convert the shaking to modified Mercalli intensity and generate an isoseismal map for a M8 and M6 earthquake. Uses geophysics to solve problems in other fields Addresses student misconceptions

Baer, Eric

370

Development of a telecare system based on ZigBee mesh network for monitoring blood pressure of patients with hemodialysis in health care centers.  

PubMed

In Taiwan, the number of the patients needing dialysis increases rapidly in recent years. Because there is risk in every hemodialysis session, monitoring physiological status, such as blood pressure measurement every 30 min to 1 h is needed during about 4 h hemodialysis process. Therefore, an assisted measurement on blood pressure is needful in dialysis care centers. Telecare system (TCS) is regarded as one of important technique in the medical care. In this study, we utilized ZigBee wireless technique to establish a mesh network for monitoring blood pressure automatically and data storage in medical record system for display and further analysis. Moreover, while the blood pressure exceeds the normal range, the system could send a warning signal to remind, or inform the relatives and clinicians in health care center through the personal handy-phone system (PHS) immediately. The proposed system provides an assisted device for monitoring patients' blood pressure during hemodialysis process and saving medical manpower. PMID:20703683

Du, Yi-Chun; Lee, You-Yun; Lu, Yun-Yuan; Lin, Chia-Hung; Wu, Ming-Jei; Chen, Chung-Lin; Chen, Tainsong

2011-10-01

371

Avian Flu / Earthquake Prediction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This radio broadcast includes a discussion of the avian flu spreading though Southeast Asia, Russia and parts of Europe. Topics include whether the outbreak is a pandemic in the making, and what preparations might be made to control the outbreak. The next segment of the broadcast discusses earthquake prediction, in light of the 2005 earthquake in Pakistan. Two seismologists discuss what was learned in the Parkfield project, an experiment in earthquake prediction conducted in California. Other topics include the distribution of large versus small earthquakes; how poor construction magnifies earthquake devastation; and the relationship of plate tectonics to the Pakistan earthquake.

372

Rapid Earthquake Viewer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Rapid Earthquake Viewer (REV) provides access to earthquake data from seismograph recording stations around the world. The Earthquake View lets users select an earthquake and see data at various stations. The Station View allows users to see if any ground motion has been recorded at a particular station. Lesson plans are being developed for REV, aimed primarly at the middle school level. The resource provides several techniques to help users contextualize and understand seismic data. REV is related to GEE, the Global Earthquake Explorer, a fully-functional earthquake analysis tool.

373

Earthquake Education in Prime Time  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since 2001, the Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC) has collaborated on several video production projects that feature important topics related to earthquake science, engineering, and preparedness. These projects have also fostered many fruitful and sustained partnerships with a variety of organizations that have a stake in hazard education and preparedness. The Seismic Sleuths educational video first appeared in the spring season 2001 on Discovery Channel's Assignment Discovery. Seismic Sleuths is based on a highly successful curriculum package developed jointly by the American Geophysical Union and The Department of Homeland Security Federal Emergency Management Agency. The California Earthquake Authority (CEA) and the Institute for Business and Home Safety supported the video project. Summer Productions, a company with a reputation for quality science programming, produced the Seismic Sleuths program in close partnership with scientists, engineers, and preparedness experts. The program has aired on the National Geographic Channel as recently as Fall 2004. Currently, SCEC is collaborating with Pat Abbott, a geology professor at San Diego State University (SDSU) on the video project Written In Stone: Earthquake Country - Los Angeles. Partners on this project include the California Seismic Safety Commission, SDSU, SCEC, CEA, and the Insurance Information Network of California. This video incorporates live-action demonstrations, vivid animations, and a compelling host (Abbott) to tell the story about earthquakes in the Los Angeles region. The Written in Stone team has also developed a comprehensive educator package that includes the video, maps, lesson plans, and other supporting materials. We will present the process that facilitates the creation of visually effective, factually accurate, and entertaining video programs. We acknowledge the need to have a broad understanding of the literature related to communication, media studies, science education, and hazard response to create a program that is both educational and provides a public service. Seismic Sleuths and Written in Stone are the harbingers of a new genre of earthquake programs that are the antithesis of the 1974 film Earthquake and the 2004 miniseries 10.5. Film producers and those in the earthquake education community are demonstrating that it is possible to tell an exciting story, inspire awareness, and encourage empowerment without sensationalism.

de Groot, R.; Abbott, P.; Benthien, M.

2004-12-01

374

The regional earthquake research and prediction NETWORK  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A project for complex regional NETWORK for prediction the earthquake s time place epicenter depth magnitude and intensity using reliable precursors is proposed and shortly analyzed The precursors list includes usual geophysical and seismological monitoring of the region including hydrochemical monitoring of water sources and their Radon and Helium concentrations crust temperature and hydrogeodeformation field monitoring of the electromagnetic field under on and above Earth surface meteorological monitoring of the atmosphere including earthquake clouds and electrical charge distributions near space monitoring aimed to estimate the Sun or Earth origin of variations and biological precursors The Project is based on contemporary data acquisition system for preliminary archiving testing visualizing and analyzing the data The theoretical part of the Project includes wide interdisciplinary research based on the unification of standard Earth sciences and using of nonlinear inverse problem methods for discovering the empirical and hidden dependences between variables By means of special software the complex environmental and real time analyzed Satellite data shall be used to prepare regional daily risk estimations The imminent when earthquake s predictions are based on the correlation between geomagnetic quakes and the incoming minimum or maximum of tidal gravitational potential There is unique correspondence between the geomagnetic quake signal and the maximum of the monitoring point of the predicted earthquake energy density The

Mavrodiev, S.

375

Tracking Earthquake Cascades  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In assessing their risk to society, earthquakes are best characterized as cascades that can propagate from the natural environment into the socio-economic (built) environment. Strong earthquakes rarely occur as isolated events; they usually cluster in foreshock-mainshock-aftershock sequences, seismic swarms, and extended sequences of large earthquakes that propagate along major fault systems. These cascades are regulated by stress-mediated interactions among faults driven by tectonic loading. Within these cascades, each large event can itself cause a chain reaction in which the primary effects of faulting and ground shaking induce secondary effects, including tsunami, landslides, liquefaction, and set off destructive processes within the built environment, such as fires and radiation leakage from nuclear plants. Recent earthquakes have demonstrated how the socio-economic effects of large earthquakes can reverberate for many years. To reduce earthquake risk and improve the resiliency of communities to earthquake damage, society depends on five geotechnologies for tracking earthquake cascades: long-term probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA), short-term (operational) earthquake forecasting, earthquake early warning, tsunami warning, and the rapid production of post-event information for response and recovery (see figure). In this presentation, I describe how recent advances in earthquake system science are leading to improvements in this geotechnology pipeline. In particular, I will highlight the role of earthquake simulations in predicting strong ground motions and their secondary effects before and during earthquake cascades

Jordan, T. H.

2011-12-01

376

Earthquake in Campania-Basilicata, Italy, November 23, 1980.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

On November 23, 1980, south-central Italy was struck by a disastrous earthquake that affected the regions of Campania and Basilicata and the provinces of Naples, Salerno, Avellino, and Potenza. The magnitude 6.8 earthquake, which was centered about 100 km...

E. L. Krinitzsky J. L. Stratta L. E. Escalante U. Morelli

1981-01-01

377

Plotting Earthquakes with Near Real-Time Data  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity only requires access to the internet to link to the United States Geological Survey National Earthquake Information Center website and a physiographic chart of the world that has longitude/latitude. Several scientific supply houses sell such physiographic charts. Students plot weekly earthquake data from the NEIC website for several weeks, then work in groups to explain the results.

Slattery, Bill

378

Quantitative Estimation of the Reproducibility of GPS RO Data for Climate monitoring: Inter-comparison of CHAMP Refractivity Climate Records 2002-2006 from Different Data Centers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To claim that Global Positioning System (GPS) radio occultation (RO) observations can be used as a climate benchmark dataset, we need to quantify the uncertainty of GPS RO-derived variables to the ionosphere correction and inversion procedures. Currently, multi-year GPS RO climate data can be obtained from the GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam (GFZ), Germany, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), Pasadena, CA, USA, the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR), Boulder, CO, USA, and the Wegener Center of the University of Graz (WegC), Graz, Austria. Different centers used different assumptions, initializations, and implementations in the ionosphere correction and inversion procedures, which may introduce refractivity uncertainties among centers. In this study, five years (2002-2006) of monthly mean climatologies (MMC) of inversed refractivity from the GPS RO experiment aboard the German satellite CHAMP (CHAllenging Minisatellite Payload) generated by the above four centers were compared. The absolute values of fractional refractivity anomalies among centers are in general less than 0.2% below 25 km. The median absolute deviations among centers are less than 0.2% globally. This provides confidences of the feasibility of the inversion schemes among centers although the true atmospheric refractivity profiles are not available. Because the de-seasonalized fractional refractivity anomalies are very consistent in time, and with a periodical pattern, trends of each center at different vertical layers at different latitudinal zones agree well. The uncertainty of the trend for fractional refractivity anomalies among centers for the Global is within ± 0.04%/5 yrs. The primarily causes of the trend uncertainty is owing to different quality control methods used among four centers. We used NCEP reanalysis in the same period to estimate the sampling errors. After removing the sampling errors, the uncertainty of the trend for refractivity fractional anomalies among centers is between -0.03 to 0.01 %/5 yrs. This can be considered as an upper bound for the usage of GPS RO data for the global trend monitoring.

Ho, S.-P.; Kirchengast, G.; Leroy, S.; Wickert, J.; Mannucci, A. J.; Steiner, A.; Kuo, Y.-H.; Rocken, C.; Hunt, D.; Schreiner, W.

2009-04-01

379

Speeding earthquake disaster relief  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In coping with recent multibillion-dollar earthquake disasters, scientists and emergency managers have found new ways to speed and improve relief efforts. This progress is founded on the rapid availability of earthquake information from seismograph networks.

Mortensen, Carl; Donlin, Carolyn; Page, Robert A.; Ward, Peter

1995-01-01

380

United States Earthquakes, 1978.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This publication describes all earthquakes that were reported felt in the United States and nearby territories in 1978. The publication is composed of four major chapters: 'Earthquake Descriptions,' which includes a summary of macroseismic data reported f...

C. W. Stover C. A. Hake

1980-01-01

381

United States Earthquakes, 1979.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This publication describes all earthquakes that were reported felt in the United States and nearby territories in 1979. The publication is composed of four major chapters: 'Earthquake Descriptions,' which includes a summary of macroseismic data reported f...

C. W. Stover C. A. von Hake

1981-01-01

382

Earthquakes in Your State  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is part of Planet Diary and is an online investigation of where earthquakes occur. Students research past earthquakes to see if any have occurred in their region. This activity has an accompanying page of websites for further research.

383

Supercomputing meets seismology in earthquake exhibit  

SciTech Connect

When the California Academy of Sciences created the "Earthquake: Evidence of a Restless Planet" exhibit, they called on Lawrence Livermore to help combine seismic research with the latest data-driven visualization techniques. The outcome is a series of striking visualizations of earthquakes, tsunamis and tectonic plate evolution. Seismic-wave research is a core competency at Livermore. While most often associated with earthquakes, the research has many other applications of national interest, such as nuclear explosion monitoring, explosion forensics, energy exploration, and seismic acoustics. For the Academy effort, Livermore researchers simulated the San Andreas and Hayward fault events at high resolutions. Such calculations require significant computational resources. To simulate the 1906 earthquake, for instance, visualizing 125 seconds of ground motion required over 1 billion grid points, 10,000 time steps, and 7.5 hours of processor time on 2,048 cores of Livermore's Sierra machine.

Blackwell, Matt; Rodger, Arthur; Kennedy, Tom

2013-10-03

384

Crustal earthquake triggering by modern great earthquakes on subduction zone thrusts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

the many questions raised by the recent abundance of great (M > 8.0) subduction thrust earthquakes is their potential to trigger damaging earthquakes on crustal faults within the overriding plate and beneath many of the world's densely populated urban centers. We take advantage of the coincident abundance of great earthquakes globally and instrumental observations since 1960 to assess this triggering potential by analyzing centroids and focal mechanisms from the centroid moment tensor catalog for events starting in 1976 and published reports about the M9.5 1960 Chile and M9.2 1964 Alaska earthquake sequences. We find clear increases in the rates of crustal earthquakes in the overriding plate within days following all subduction thrust earthquakes of M > 8.6, within about ±10° of the triggering event centroid latitude and longitude. This result is consistent with dynamic triggering of more distant increases of shallow seismicity rates at distances beyond ±10°, suggesting that dynamic triggering may be important within the near field too. Crustal earthquake rate increases may also follow smaller M > 7.5 subduction thrust events, but because activity typically occurs offshore in the immediately vicinity of the triggering rupture plane, it cannot be unambiguously attributed to sources within the overriding plate. These observations are easily explained in the context of existing earthquake scaling laws.

Gomberg, Joan; Sherrod, Brian

2014-02-01

385

Associating an ionospheric parameter with major earthquake occurrence throughout the world  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With time, ionospheric variation analysis is gaining over lithospheric monitoring in serving precursors for earthquake forecast. The current paper highlights the association of major (Ms ? 6.0) and medium (4.0 ? Ms < 6.0) earthquake occurrences throughout the world in different ranges of the Ionospheric Earthquake Parameter (IEP) where `Ms' is earthquake magnitude on the Richter scale. From statistical and graphical analyses, it is concluded that the probability of earthquake occurrence is maximum when the defined parameter lies within the range of 0-75 (lower range). In the higher ranges, earthquake occurrence probability gradually decreases. A probable explanation is also suggested.

Ghosh, D.; Midya, S. K.

2014-02-01

386

Earthquake in the Classroom  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn how engineers construct buildings to withstand damage from earthquakes by building their own structures with toothpicks and marshmallows. Students test how earthquake-proof their buildings are by testing them on an earthquake simulated in a pan of Jell-O®.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

387

Buildings and Earthquakes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Earthquakes happen when forces in the Earth cause violent shaking of the ground. Earthquakes can be very destructive to buildings and other man-made structures. Design and build various types of buildings, then test your buildings for earthquake resistance using a shake table and a force sensor that measures how hard a force pushes or pulls your building.

Consortium, The C.

2012-05-21

388

Earthquake activity in Oklahoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oklahoma is one of the most seismically active areas in the southern Mid-Continent. From 1897 to 1988, over 700 earthquakes are known to have occurred in Oklahoma. The earliest documented Oklahoma earthquake took place on December 2, 1897, near Jefferson, in Grant County. The largest known Oklahoma earthquake happened near El Reno on April 9, 1952. This magnitude 5.5 (mb)

K. V. Luza; J. E. Jr. Lawson

1989-01-01

389

Alaskan Earthquake of 1964  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students will describe how a natural event, the Alaskan Earthquake of 1964, affected human activity. They will study a fact sheet with an account of the earthquake, examine maps of the tectonic plates in the vicinity of Alaska, model plate collisions using sponges, and make lists of what might happen during an earthquake in a hypothetical Alaskan city.

Mazzetti, Linda

2010-06-22

390

The Impact of the Wenchuan Earthquake on Birth Outcomes  

PubMed Central

Background Earthquakes and other catastrophic events frequently occurring worldwide can be considered as outliers and cause a growing and urgent need to improve our understanding of the negative effects imposed by such disasters. Earthquakes can intensively impact the birth outcomes upon psychological and morphological development of the unborn children, albeit detailed characteristics remain obscure. Methods and Findings We utilized the birth records at Du Jiang Yan and Peng Zhou counties to investigate the birth outcomes as a consequence of a major earthquake occurred in Wenchuan, China on May 12, 2008. Totally 13,003 of neonates were recorded, with 6638 and 6365 for pre- and post- earthquake, respectively. Significant low birthweight, high ratio of low birthweight, and low Apgar scores of post-earthquake group were observed. In contrast, the sex ratio at birth, birth length and length of gestation did not show statistical differences. The overall ratio of birth-defect in the post-earthquake (1.18%) is statistically high than that of pre-earthquake (0.99%), especially for those in the first trimester on earthquake day (1.47%). The birth-defect spectrum was dramatically altered after earthquake, with the markedly increased occurrences of ear malformations. The ratio of preterm birth post-earthquake (7.41%) is significant increased than that of pre-earthquake (5.63%). For the birth outcomes of twins, significant differences of the ratio of twins, birth weight, ratio of low birthweight and birth-defect rate were observed after earthquake. Conclusion A hospital-based study of birth outcomes impacted by the Wenchuan earthquake shows that the earthquake was associated with significant effects on birth outcomes, indicating it is a major monitor for long-term pregnant outcomes.

Tan, Cong E.; Li, Hong Jun; Zhang, Xian Geng; Zhang, Hui; Han, Pei Yu; An, Qu; Ding, Wei Jun; Wang, Mi Qu

2009-01-01

391

New development of super-dense seismic monitoring and damage assessment system for city gas networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

To cope with earthquake-related secondary disasters, city gas utilities in Japan have promoted several countermeasures in the last two decades. Tokyo Gas Company introduced an earthquake monitoring and rapid damage assessment system, SIGNAL, with 331 SI-sensors in 1994, as well as installing automated shutoff valves and intelligent meters. After the 1995 Kobe earthquake, the earthquake monitoring system is further being

F. Yamazaki; Y. Shimizu; W. Nakayama; K. Koganemaru; E. Ishida; R. Isoyama

392

Selected Natural Attenuation Monitoring Data, Operable Unit 1, Naval Undersea Warfare Center, Division Keyport, Washington, 2007 and 2008  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Previous investigations indicate that natural attenuation and biodegradation of chlorinated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are substantial in groundwater beneath the 9-acre former landfill at Operable Unit 1 (OU 1), Naval Undersea Warfare Center, Division Keyport, Washington. Phytoremediation combined with on-going natural attenuation processes was the preferred remedy selected by the Navy, as specified in the Record of Decision for the site. The Navy planted two hybrid poplar plantations on the landfill in spring 1999 to remove and to control the migration of chlorinated VOCs in shallow groundwater. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has continued to monitor groundwater geochemistry to ensure that conditions remain favorable for contaminant biodegradation as specified in the Record of Decision. In this report are groundwater geochemical and selected VOC data collected at OU 1 by the USGS during June 18-21, 2007, and June 16-18, 2008, in support of long-term monitoring for natural attenuation. For 2007 and 2008, strongly reducing conditions (sulfate reduction and methanogenesis) most favorable for reductive dechlorination of VOCs were inferred for 9 of 16 upper-aquifer wells and piezometers in the northern and southern phytoremediation plantations. Predominant redox conditions in groundwater from the intermediate aquifer just downgradient from the landfill remained mildly reducing and somewhat favorable for reductive dechlorination of VOCs. Dissolved hydrogen (H2) concentrations measured in the upper aquifer during 2007 and 2008 generally have been lower than H2 concentrations measured before 2002. However, widespread and relatively high methane and sulfide concentrations indicate that the lower H2 concentrations measured do not support a trend from strongly to mildly reducing redox conditions because no widespread changes in groundwater redox conditions were identified that should result in less favorable conditions for the reductive dechlorination of the chlorinated VOCs. For the upper aquifer beneath the northern phytoremediation plantation, chlorinated VOC concentrations in 2007 and 2008 at most piezometers were similar to or slightly less than chlorinated VOC concentrations measured in previous years. The only chlorinated VOC positively detected at piezometers P1-1 and P1-5 was cis-1,2-dichloroethene (cis-DCE); most chlorinated VOC concentrations at piezometer P1-3 were at the lowest levels since monitoring began in 1999. Most VOC concentrations at piezometer P1-4 were similar to VOC concentrations measured in previous years except that vinyl chloride (VC) concentrations inexplicably increased from 280 micrograms per liter (ug/L) in June 2007 to 750 ug/L in June 2008. In 2008, measurement of the sum of concentrations of ethane and ethene, reductive dechlorination byproducts, was at the highest level at most northern plantation wells and piezometers, which is evidence of reductive dechlorination of chlorinated VOCs. For the upper aquifer beneath the southern phytoremediation plantation, chlorinated VOC concentrations in 2007 and 2008 at the piezometers were most often extremely high and they continued to vary considerable over space and between years. At piezometer P1-6, the total chlorinated VOC concentration increased from 380 ug/L in 2007 to more than 20,000 ug/L in 2008. At piezometer P1-7 in 2008, the concentrations of trichloroethene, cis-DCE, and VC were the highest to date, but total chlorinated VOC concentrations at piezometers P1-8, P1-9, and P1-10 in 2008 were relatively low compared to historical levels. The magnitude and persistence of chlorinated VOC concentrations indicate that non-aqueous phase liquid chloroethenes likely are beneath the southern plantation, and the temporal variability in concentrations likely is a result of variations in precipitation and groundwater levels interacting with the non-aqueous phase liquid. The reductive dechlorination byproducts ethane and ethene were detected at

Dinicola, R. S.; Huffman, R. L.

2009-01-01

393

Research on the Relation between Anomalous Infrasonic waves and several Earthquakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is well known that earthquakes can generate infrasound signals often detected by infrasound monitoring system. Some of the observations suggest that infrasound with a typical frequency of a few Hz can be generated by vibrating ground surface and propagate at distances of a few thousands kilometers from an earthquake epicenter. In order to receive the anomalous infrasonic waves before earthquakes, we have built three infrasonic monitoring stations in Beijing. And atmospheric pressure is parallel observing at the same time. At first, two infrasonic monitoring equipment was putted in the same station. The data was observed from them has a very good correlation, this means that the performance of the instruments is good. After half a year, three instruments were putted in different stations. Large amounts of data have been acquired and lots of anomalous information has been found before earthquakes, such as Lushan 7.0 earthquake, Okhotsk 8.0 earthquake and Nantou 6.7 earthquake. The anomalous data before three earthquakes is about 7-8days before each earthquake. Moreover, the co-seismic infrasonic waves have been received, which is the similar to seismic wave, so we can know where the earthquake happened through co-seismic infrasonic waves. Using this method, we can inference where the next earthquake will be happened according to the anomalous information. we developed an infrasound generation model for a so-called slow earthquake to show that such kind of earthquake can generate long-period acoustic-gravity waves often observed several days prior to the strong earthquakes. With this model the atmospheric pressure perturbations generated by slow earthquake were calculated, and the occurrence of low frequencies and high amplitudes in the observed signal was explained. A consistency between the results of simulation and observation data indicates that slow earthquake may be a possible source of atmospheric pressure oscillations observed prior to strong earthquakes.

Zhang, B.

2013-12-01

394

Radon: Clue to earthquake magnitude  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radon's flow within the earth's crust could offer seismologists clues about the magnitude of an impending earthquake, according to a model proposed by Robert L. Fleischer, a General Electric Company physicist, at the AGU Fall Meeting last month. His work suggests that an extensive network of radon monitoring stations would be useful for early warning of potential damage areas of the pending tremors.Small amounts of radon, a gas released by the decay of uranium, tends to move slowly within the earth's crust where rocks are relatively porous. Velocities of a few inches an hour are typical. Shifting stresses in the earth's crust that precede an earthquake can speed up or slow down radon's movements.

Richman, Barbara T.

395

Predicting catastrophic earthquakes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource provides an abstract. This article discusses a method based on the magnitude-frequency distribution of previous earthquakes in a region. It is used to examine the probability of a small earthquake growing into a catastrophic one. When a small earthquake is detected in a region where a catastrophic one is expected, early warning systems can be modified to determine the probability that this earthquake will grow in magnitude. It was found that if the observed earthquake magnitude reaches 6.5, the estimated probability that the final magnitude will reach 7.5 is between 25 and 41 percent.

Al., Iwata E.; Agu

396

The Depth of Earthquakes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This map of world seismicity illustrates earthquake data for the years 1991 through 1996. It is intended to provide a sense of the depth distribution of earthquakes. Plate boundaries are shown, along with diffuse regions of seismicity, such as in central Asia, and earthquake locations are color-coded to indicate the depths at which they occurred. In addition to the map, selected cross-sections of subduction zones in South America, Tonga, Japan, and the Aleutian Islands are provided. They feature a map showing the orientation of the cross-section and graphs illustrating distribution of earthquake depth versus longitude and number of earthquakes.

2011-05-05

397

East coast earthquake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shaking from a 23 August magnitude 5.8 earthquake that occurred in the Central Virginia Seismic Zone 135 kilometers southwest of Washington, D. C., was recorded all the way from Georgia to New England, according to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The earthquake caused property damage near the epicenter and also damage to a number of other structures including the Washington Monument and Washington National Cathedral. There was no damage to the AGU headquarters building in downtown Washington, according to building engineer Matthew Boyd. The strongest earthquake ever recorded in Virginia was a magnitude 5.9 quake in 1897. For more information, see http://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/.

Showstack, Randy

2011-08-01

398

The Depth of Earthquakes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This map of world seismicity illustrates earthquake data for the years 1991 through 1996. It is intended to provide a sense of the depth distribution of earthquakes. Plate boundaries are shown, along with diffuse regions of seismicity, such as in central Asia, and earthquake locations are color-coded to indicate the depths at which they occurred. In addition to the map, selected cross-sections of subduction zones in South America, Tonga, Japan, and the Aleutian Islands are provided. They feature a map showing the orientation of the cross-section and graphs illustrating distribution of earthquake depth versus longitude and number of earthquakes.

399

Commensurability of earthquake occurrence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During recent years huge earthquakes frequently occurred and caused surprise attack on many places of the globe. Frequent exceptional strong disasters of earthquakes remind that we must strengthen our research on cause of formation, mechanism, prediction and forecast of earthquakes, and achieve the goal of advancing the development of Earth science and mitigation of seismic disasters. The commensurability of earthquake occurrences has been studied by means of the commensurability revealed by the Titius-Bode law in the paper. The studied results show that the earthquakes basically all occur at the commensurable point of its time axis, respectively. It also shows that occurrence of the earthquakes is not accidental, showing certain patterns and inevitability, and the commensurable value is different for earthquakes occurring in different areas.

Hu, Hui; Han, Yanben; Su, Youjin; Wang, Rui

2013-07-01

400

Development of a Telecare System Based on ZigBee Mesh Network for Monitoring Blood Pressure of Patients with Hemodialysis in Health Care Centers  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Taiwan, the number of the patients needing dialysis increases rapidly in recent years. Because there is risk in every hemodialysis\\u000a session, monitoring physiological status, such as blood pressure measurement every 30 min to 1 h is needed during about 4 h\\u000a hemodialysis process. Therefore, an assisted measurement on blood pressure is needful in dialysis care centers. Telecare system\\u000a (TCS) is regarded as

Yi-Chun Du; You-Yun Lee; Yun-Yuan Lu; Chia-Hung Lin; Ming-Jei Wu; Chung-Lin Chen; Tainsong Chen

401

Seismic Monitoring for the United Arab Emirates  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is potential for earthquakes in the United Arab Emirates and in the Zagros mountains to cause structural damage and pose a threat to safety of people. Damaging effects from earthquakes can be mitigated by knowledge of the location and size of earthquakes, effects on construction, and monitoring these effects over time. Although a general idea of seismicity in the

A Rodgers; K Nakanishi

2005-01-01

402

Selected Natural Attenuation Monitoring Data, Operable Unit 1, Naval Undersea Warfare Center, Division Keyport, Washington, June 2006  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Previous investigations have shown that natural attenuation and biodegradation of chlorinated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are substantial in shallow ground water beneath the 9-acre former landfill at Operable Unit 1 (OU 1), Naval Undersea Warfare Center, Division Keyport, Washington. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has continued to monitor ground-water geochemistry to assure that conditions remain favorable for contaminant biodegradation. This report presents ground-water geochemical and selected VOC data collected at OU 1 by the USGS during June 12-14, 2006, in support of long-term monitoring for natural attenuation. For June 2006, the strongly reducing conditions (sulfate reduction and methanogenesis) most favorable for reductive dechlorination of VOCs were inferred for 5 of 15 upper-aquifer sites in the northern and southern phytoremediation plantations. Predominant redox conditions in ground water from the intermediate aquifer just downgradient from the landfill remained mildly reducing and somewhat favorable for reductive dechlorination. Since about 2003, measured dissolved hydrogen concentrations in the upper aquifer generally have been lower than those previously measured, although methane and sulfide have continued to be detected throughout the upper aquifer beneath the landfill. Overall, no widespread changes in ground-water redox conditions were measured that should result in either more or less efficient biodegradation of chlorinated VOCs. For the northern plantation in 2006, chlorinated VOC concentrations at piezometers P1-3 and P1-4 were lower than previously measured, and trichloroethene (TCE), cis-1,2-dichloroethene (cis-DCE), or vinyl chloride (VC) were not detected at piezometers P1-1 and P1-5. The steady decrease in contaminant concentrations and the continued detection of the reductive dechlorination end-products ethene and ethane have been consistent throughout the upper aquifer beneath the northern plantation. For the southern plantation in 2006, changes in chlorinated VOC concentrations at the piezometers were highly variable. At piezometer P1-9, the 2006 total chlorinated VOC concentration as well as the concentrations of cis-DCE and VC were measured at their highest levels to date; contaminant concentrations substantially decreased at piezometer P1-9 between June 2004 and June 2005. The reasons for the 2004-05 decrease in concentrations or the 2005-06 increase in concentrations are unknown. At piezometer P1-1