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Last update: November 12, 2013.
1

Alaska Earthquake Information Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Alaska Earthquake Information Center contains information on seismology and tsunami research, education and outreach projects, and earthquake preparedness. There are also maps, reports, and a database on recent earthquakes and a map of historical Alaskan earthquakes, active faults, and rupture zones.

2

Alaska Earthquake Information Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Housed at the Geophysical Institute at the University of Alaska Fairbanks, the Alaska Earthquake Information Center reports and provides information on seismic activity in Alaska. While its southern Pacific coast colleague, California, gets a lot more attention when it comes to earthquakes, Alaska experienced a magnitude 6.7 earthquake already this summer and was rocked by a 7.9 in 2002. The site offers links to general information about the center, general earthquake information, research activities at the center, education and outreach materials (including information on seismology education projects), and much more. The site is well populated with materials and should provide a great resources for those interested in North American seismic events.

3

Saint Louis University Earthquake Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Saint Louis University (SLU) Earthquake Center provides recent Midwest earthquake locations, the history of central U.S. earthquakes, a link for reporting an earthquake, historic earthquake and instrument photographs, and explanations of the Modified Mercalli Intensity Scale. There are earthquake information flyers, links to course websites and course notes, a textbook description, computer tools and earthquake catalogs, and recent theses and dissertations. There are also links to seismic systems and networks as well as SLU network reports.

4

National Earthquake Information Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a very extensive site about earthquakes. It is the USGS (United States Geological Survey) National Earthquake Information site. The site provides access to near real time earthquake data from around the world, as well as data for recent earthquakes (last 3 weeks). The site can also be searched for information on specific earthquakes by time or location. There is a General Earthquake Information section with extensive earthquake education materials as well as information on seismicity, earthquake magnitude, preparedness, predictions, and locations.

5

CSEP Earthquake Forecast Testing Center for Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

One major focus of the next Japanese earthquake prediction research plan 2009-2013 are testable earthquake forecast models. For this purpose, the Earthquake Research Institute joined the Collaboratory for the Study of Earthquake Predictability (CSEP) and installed in an international collaboration a prototype testing center for rigorous evaluation of earthquake forecast models. We report on the implementation of this testing center,

H. Tsuruoka; N. Hirata; D. Schorlemmer; F. Euchner; T. H. Jordan

2008-01-01

6

Mid-America Earthquake Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Understanding earthquakes is a complex process, and the Mid-Americ Earthquake Center is one of three national earthquake engineering research centers set up to work on a variety of approaches to a broad set of related scientific concerns. Based at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, the Center consists of a consortium of nine core institutions and is funded by the National Science Foundation. The Center's primary work is within four areas, including information technology and consequence-based risk management frameworks. Recognizing that they serve a broad range of visitors to their website, the Center has established a number of informative introductions on their homepage for the general public, potential industry partners, members of the press, and K-12 educators. While a number of visitors may be interested in their technical reports and software packages, most visitors will want to look over the graduate and undergraduate teaching modules, which will be of great use to educators in the engineering and geophysical sciences and their students. Additionally, the Center's site provides access to a number of informative webcasts, including presentations on seismic performances of bridges.

7

Southern California Earthquake Data Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

To say that there are a few earthquake research centers in Southern California is a bit like saying that Chicago sits on a lake of some size. It's a bit of an obvious remark, but given that there are a number of such projects, it's important to take a look at some of the more compelling ones out there. One such important resource is the Southern California Earthquake Data Center, sponsored by a host of organizations, including the California Institute of Technology and the United States Geological Survey. Visitors to the project site can peruse some of its recent work, which includes a clickable map of the region that features information on recent earthquakes in California and Nevada. Equally compelling is the clickable fault map of Southern California where visitors can learn about the local faults and recent activity along each fault. Another key element of the site is the historical earthquake database, which may be of interest to both the general public and those who are studying this area.

2005-11-03

8

Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC) Home Page  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the home page of the Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC), a consortium of universities and research institutions dedicated to gathering information about earthquakes in Southern California, integrate that knowledge into a comprehensive and predictive understanding of earthquake phenomena, and communicate this understanding to end-users and the general public in order to increase earthquake awareness, reduce economic losses, and save lives. News of recent earthquake research, online resources and educational information is available here.

9

Northern California Earthquake Data Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A project between the University of California Berkeley Seismological Laboratory and the United State Geological Survey, the Northern California Earthquake Data Center (NCEDC) "is a long-term archive and distribution center for seismological and geodetic data for Northern and Central California." Educators and students can examine recent seismograms from the Berkeley Digital Seismic Network. Researchers will benefit from the site's enormous amount of data collections including BARD; a system of 67 constantly operating Global Positioning System receivers in Northern California. By reading the annual reports, educators will also learn about the center's many outreach activities from talks and lab tours to the production of classroom resources for kindergarten through twelfth grade teachers. This site is also reviewed in the October 17, 2003 NSDL Physical Sciences Report.

10

CSEP Earthquake Forecast Testing Center for Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One major focus of the next Japanese earthquake prediction research plan 2009-2013 are testable earthquake forecast models. For this purpose, the Earthquake Research Institute joined the Collaboratory for the Study of Earthquake Predictability (CSEP) and installed in an international collaboration a prototype testing center for rigorous evaluation of earthquake forecast models. We report on the implementation of this testing center, the quality characterization of the earthquake catalog data stream from the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), the definition of a Japanese testing region, and first test results. A first set of three one-year smoothed-seismicity models are fully implemented in the testing center and are under test since 1 September 2008. In the near future, additional models will be introduced and new specialized testing areas will be defined to promote rigorous earthquake prediction research on different topics and regions in Japan.

Tsuruoka, H.; Hirata, N.; Schorlemmer, D.; Euchner, F.; Jordan, T. H.

2008-12-01

11

Northern California Earthquake Data Center (NCEDC)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the home page of the Northern California Earthquake Data Center (NCEDC) which is a joint project of the University of California Berkeley Seismological Laboratory and the U. S. Geological Survey at Menlo Park. The NCEDC is an archive for seismological and geodetic data for Northern and Central California. Accessible through this page are news items, recent earthquake information, links to earthquake catalogs, seismic waveform data sets, and Global Positioning System information. Most data sets are accessible for downloading via ftp.

12

Building the Southern California Earthquake Center  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kei Aki was the founding director of the Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC), a multi-institutional collaboration formed in 1991 as a Science and Technology Center (STC) under the National Science Foundation (NSF) and the U. S. Geological Survey (USGS). Aki and his colleagues articulated a system-level vision for the Center: investigations by disciplinary working groups would be woven together into

T. H. Jordan; T. Henyey; J. K. McRaney

2004-01-01

13

Earthquake Engineering Educational Activities Using the Center Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1986, the National Science Foundation established the National Center for Earthquake Engineering Research to carry out systems integrated studies in earthquake hazard mitigation that would yield results that could not be accomplished by using the individual investigators approach. The success of the national center over 10 years has resulted in an expansion of the center approach in earthquake engineering

George C. Lee; Andrea S. Dargush

14

Earthquake engineering research center annual report, 1991-1992  

SciTech Connect

The Earthquake Engineering Research Center exists to conduct research and develop technical information in all areas pertaining to earthquake engineering, including strong ground motion, response of natural and manmade structures to earthquakes, design of structures to resist earthquakes, development of new systems for earthquake protection, and development of architectural and public policy aspects of earthquake engineering. The purpose of the Center is achieved through three major functions. The first and primary function is academic research that is performed by graduate students, research engineers, and visiting postdoctoral scholars working with the Center's faculty participants. The research is funded by extramural grants awarded to individual faculty participants from private, state, and federal agencies.

Not Available

1992-10-01

15

Seafloor seismometers monitor northern Cascadia earthquakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Mw = 9.0 earthquake of 11 March 2011 at the Japan Trench and its devastating tsunami underscore the importance of understanding seismogenic behavior of subduction faults and realistically estimating the potential size of future earthquakes and tsunamis. For the Cascadia subduction zone (Figure 1a), a critical knowledge gap is the level of microseismicity offshore, especially near the megathrust, needed to better understand the state of the locked zone. In 2010 the first detailed seafloor earthquake monitoring campaign along the northern Cascadia subduction zone recorded nearby earthquakes in the local magnitude (ML) range from possibly around zero to 3.8 (Figures 1b and 1c) and larger earthquakes from outside this region. Preliminary analyses indicate that the network appears to have yielded a fairly complete catalog for events with ML > 1.2. Only a few tens of these events occurred beneath the continental shelf and slope (Figure 1a). The majority of the earthquakes were located along the margin-perpendicular Nootka fault zone. The relatively low seismicity away from the Nootka fault is consistent with a fully locked megathrust. Land-based GPS measurements cannot resolve the question of whether the offshore part of the megathrust seismogenic zone is narrow and fully locked or wider and only partially locked (slowly creeping). If it were only partially locked, the seafloor seismometer data should show many more small earthquakes along the interface than were actually detected.

Scherwath, Martin; Spence, George; Obana, Koichiro; Kodaira, Shuichi; Wang, Kelin; Riedel, Michael; McGuire, Jeff; Collins, John

2011-11-01

16

Multidisciplinary Center for Earthquake Engineering Research  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Founded in 1986, the Multidisciplinary Center for Earthquake Engineering Research (MCEER) is located at the State University of New York at Buffalo. MCEER draws on the expertise of many researchers and industry partners from across the United States, as they are "dedicated to the discovery and development of new knowledge, tools and technologies that equip communities to become more disaster resilient in the face of earthquakes and other extreme events.� The Center receives funding from a wide range of institutions, including the National Science Foundation, the Federal Highway Administration, and the Department of Homeland Security. Along with the usual conference announcements and newsletters that one might expect to find on a homepage of this sort, visitors can also peruse their archive of webcasts, which include such past presentations as "Seismic Analysis of Woodframe Structures" and "Structural Control Technologies". Visitors will not be surprised to find that there are also a number of special reports on Hurricane Katrina that are worth taking a look at here.

17

Earthquakes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Provided by the British Geological Survey, the Earthquakes Web site contains numerous educational topics for kids. Best suited for junior high school students and older, the site contains information on macroseismology (or the observable effects of earthquakes on people, buildings, and nature); seismic hazards; earthquake monitoring; recent and historical earthquakes; and more. Other links on the site include a Questions and Answers page, earthquake references, and additional educational links culminating in an informative and helpful source of online science learning. [JAB

18

USGS Earthquake Hazards Program: Monitoring Networks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The United States Geological Survey (USGS) supports a variety of networks for monitoring earthquakes and crustal deformation. These include the Advanced National Seismic System (ANSS), which provides uniform broadband and strong-motion coverage of the continental U.S.; the National Strong Motion Program (NSMP), which is responsible for recording damaging earthquakes in the United States on the ground and in man-made structures in densely urbanized areas; and the Global Seismic Network (GSN), which includes 100+ stations in more than 80 countries on all continents. There is also an extensive list of links to U.S. regional networks and cooperators, arranged by central, eastern, or western area of the country, and links to other networks and organizations that exchange or support seismic data collection.

19

Twitter earthquake detection: Earthquake monitoring in a social world  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is investigating how the social networking site Twitter, a popular service for sending and receiving short, public text messages, can augment USGS earthquake response products and the delivery of hazard information. Rapid detection and qualitative assessment of shaking events are possible because people begin sending public Twitter messages (tweets) with in tens of seconds after feeling shaking. Here we present and evaluate an earthquake detection procedure that relies solely on Twitter data. A tweet-frequency time series constructed from tweets containing the word "earthquake" clearly shows large peaks correlated with the origin times of widely felt events. To identify possible earthquakes, we use a short-term-average, long-term-average algorithm. When tuned to a moderate sensitivity, the detector finds 48 globally-distributed earthquakes with only two false triggers in five months of data. The number of detections is small compared to the 5,175 earthquakes in the USGS global earthquake catalog for the same five-month time period, and no accurate location or magnitude can be assigned based on tweet data alone. However, Twitter earthquake detections are not without merit. The detections are generally caused by widely felt events that are of more immediate interest than those with no human impact. The detections are also fast; about 75% occur within two minutes of the origin time. This is considerably faster than seismographic detections in poorly instrumented regions of the world. The tweets triggering the detections also provided very short first-impression narratives from people who experienced the shaking.

Earle, Paul S.; Bowden, Daniel C.; Guy, Michelle

2011-01-01

20

Remote sensing hazard monitoring and assessment in Yushu earthquake disaster  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Yushu Earthquake of magnitude 7.1 Richter in 2010 has brought a huge loss of personal lives and properties to China. National Disaster Reduction Center of China implemented the disaster assessment by using remote sensing images and field investigation. Preliminary judgment of disaster scope and damage extent was acquired by change detection. And the building region of hard-hit area Jiegu town was partitioned into 3-level grids in airborne remote sensing images by street, type of use, structure, and about 685 girds were numbered. Hazard assessment expert group were sent to implement field investigation according to each grid. The housing damage scope and extent of loss were defined again integrated field investigation data and local government reported information. Though remote sensing technology has played an important role in huge disaster monitoring and assessment, the automatic capability of disaster information extraction flow, three-dimensional disaster monitoring mode and bidirectional feedback mechanism of products and services should still be further improved.

Wen, Qi; Xu, Feng; Chen, Shirong

2011-11-01

21

Lessons Learned from Creating the Public Earthquake Resource Center at CERI  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Center for Earthquake Research and Information (CERI) at the University of Memphis opened the Public Earthquake Resource Center (PERC) in May 2004. The PERC is an interactive display area that was designed to increase awareness of seismology, Earth Science, earthquake hazards, and earthquake engineering among the general public and K-12 teachers and students. Funding for the PERC is provided

G. L. Patterson; D. Michelle; A. Johnston

2004-01-01

22

Southern California Earthquake Center Geologic Vertical Motion Database  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Southern California Earthquake Center Geologic Vertical Motion Database (VMDB) integrates disparate sources of geologic uplift and subsidence data at 104- to 106-year time scales into a single resource for investigations of crustal deformation in southern California. Over 1800 vertical deformation rate data points in southern California and northern Baja California populate the database. Four mature data sets are now

Nathan A. Niemi; Michael Oskin; Thomas K. Rockwell

2008-01-01

23

Earthquakes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

To understand P and S waves, to observe some videos of earthquakes, and to find out where and when the last earthquake in Utah was. Print out this worksheet for the questions to accompany the following websites. Worksheet Go to The Earth Layers The Earth's Layers and read the information. Answer the following 4 questions on a separate paper. Name the four layers of the Earth in order from the outside to the center of the Earth. What causes ...

Clemons, Mrs.

2010-11-02

24

Real-time earthquake monitoring: Early warning and rapid response  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A panel was established to investigate the subject of real-time earthquake monitoring (RTEM) and suggest recommendations on the feasibility of using a real-time earthquake warning system to mitigate earthquake damage in regions of the United States. The findings of the investigation and the related recommendations are described in this report. A brief review of existing real-time seismic systems is presented with particular emphasis given to the current California seismic networks. Specific applications of a real-time monitoring system are discussed along with issues related to system deployment and technical feasibility. In addition, several non-technical considerations are addressed including cost-benefit analysis, public perceptions, safety, and liability.

25

Recent improvements in earthquake and tsunami monitoring in the Caribbean  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following the catastrophic loss of life from the December 26, 2004, Sumatra-Andaman Islands earthquake and tsunami, the U.S. Government appropriated funds to improve monitoring along a major portion of vulnerable coastal regions in the Caribbean Sea, the Gulf of Mexico, and the Atlantic Ocean. Partners in this project include the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric

L. Gee; D. Green; D. McNamara; P. Whitmore; J. Weaver; P. Huang; H. Benz

2007-01-01

26

Earthquakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regression method has been applied to design multidimensional nonlinear statistical model of seismic energy flow release by local earthquakes using the data of integrated geophysical monitoring in the Transcarpathian seismogenic zone, Ukraine, as input. It has been shown that to obtain adequate model it is necessary to utilize temporal series of geophysical parameters that are not less than 730 days

Taras Verbytskyj; Yurij Verbytskyj

1889-01-01

27

Active Faults in the Los Angeles Metropolitan Region Southern California Earthquake Center Group C  

Microsoft Academic Search

Group C of the Southern California Earthquake Center was charged with an evaluation of earthquake fault sources in the Los Angeles Basin and nearby urbanized areas based on fault geology. The objective was to determine the location of active faults and their slip rates and earthquake recurrence intervals. This includes the location and dip of those faults reaching the surface

James F. Dolan; Eldon M. Gath; Lisa B. Grant; Mark Legg; Scott Lindvall; Karl Mueller; Michael Oskin; Daniel F. Ponti; Charles M. Rubin; Thomas K. Rockwell; Jerome A. Treiman; Chris Walls; Robert S. Yeats

28

Building Capacity for Earthquake Monitoring: Linking Regional Networks with the Global Community  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Installing or upgrading a seismic monitoring network is often among the mitigation efforts after earthquake disasters, and this is happening in response to the events both in Sumatra during December 2004 and in Pakistan during October 2005. These networks can yield improved hazard assessment, more resilient buildings where they are most needed, and emergency relief directed more quickly to the worst hit areas after the next large earthquake. Several commercial organizations are well prepared for the fleeting opportunity to provide the instruments that comprise a seismic network, including sensors, data loggers, telemetry stations, and the computers and software required for the network center. But seismic monitoring requires more than hardware and software, no matter how advanced. A well-trained staff is required to select appropriate and mutually compatible components, install and maintain telemetered stations, manage and archive data, and perform the analyses that actually yield the intended benefits. Monitoring is more effective when network operators cooperate with a larger community through free and open exchange of data, sharing information about working practices, and international collaboration in research. As an academic consortium, a facility operator and a founding member of the International Federation of Digital Seismographic Networks, IRIS has access to a broad range of expertise with the skills that are required to help design, install, and operate a seismic network and earthquake analysis center, and stimulate the core training for the professional teams required to establish and maintain these facilities. But delivering expertise quickly when and where it is unexpectedly in demand requires advance planning and coordination in order to respond to the needs of organizations that are building a seismic network, either with tight time constraints imposed by the budget cycles of aid agencies following a disastrous earthquake, or as part of more informed national programs for hazard assessment and mitigation.

Willemann, R. J.; Lerner-Lam, A.

2006-12-01

29

An academic center's delivery of care after the Haitian earthquake.  

PubMed

The Miller School of Medicine of the University of Miami and Project Medishare, an affiliated not-for-profit organization, provided a large-scale relief effort in Haiti after the earthquake of 12 January 2010. Their experience demonstrates that academic medical centers in proximity to natural disasters can help deliver effective medical care through a coordinated process involving mobilization of their own resources, establishment of focused management teams at home and on the ground with formal organizational oversight, and partnership with governmental and nongovernmental relief agencies. Proximity to the disaster area allows for prompt arrival of medical personnel and equipment. The recruitment and organized deployment of large numbers of local and national volunteers are indispensable parts of this effort. Multidisciplinary teams on short rotations can form the core of the medical response. PMID:20643974

Jaffer, Amir K; Campo, Rafael E; Gaski, Greg; Reyes, Mario; Gebhard, Ralf; Ginzburg, Enrique; Kolber, Michael A; Macdonald, John; Falcone, Steven; Green, Barth A; Barreras-Pagan, Lazara; O'Neill, William W

2010-07-19

30

Earthquake disaster monitoring with ALOS/PALSAR observation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phased array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar(PALSAR) boarded on Advanced Land Observing Satellite(ALOS) provides high resolution (about 10 m pixel spacing) data even in the night and severe weather conditions, which is useful to monitor natural disasters. A terrible earthquake with 6.3 magnitude struke in central Italy at 0332 (local time) on 6th April 2009, there was huge damege to the city of L`aquila, the village of Onna, and around the region of Abruzzo. PALSAR observation was conducted at 2135(local time) on 10 April 2008 around Abruzzo, and we investageted L'aquila amd Onna on 29th and 30th April by getting permission of the region fire authorities (VVF Terni - Vigili Del Fuoco and VVF Roma - Vigili Del Fuoco). This research will present these observation and investigation results and discuss effective algorithm to estimate damage area by a earthquake with ALOS/PALSAR observation.

Kawano, Noriyuki

2010-05-01

31

NCEER (National Center for Earthquake Engineering Research) Bibliography of Earthquake Education Materials. (Second Revision).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Resources for teachers and administrators desiring to start an earthquake education program or teach a more detailed lesson on earthquakes, volcanoes, tsunamis, and plate tectonics are presented. Curricula, software, and supplemental informational materia...

K. E. K. Ross

1989-01-01

32

NCEER (National Center for Earthquake Engineering Research) Bibliography of Earthquake Education Materials.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Resources for teachers and administrators desiring to start an earthquake education program or teach a more detailed lesson on earthquakes, volcanoes, tsunamis, and plate tectonics are presented in the text. Curricula, software, and supplemental informati...

K. E. K. Ross

1989-01-01

33

NCEER (National Center for Earthquake Engineering Research) Interim Bibliography of Earthquake Education Materials.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Resources for teachers and administrators desiring to start an earthquake education program or teach a more detailed lesson on earthquakes, volcanoes, tsunamis, and plate tectonics are presented in this text. Curricula, software, and supplemental informat...

K. E. K. Ross

1989-01-01

34

Earthquakes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of a series of general interest publications on science topics, the booklet provides those interested in earthquakes with an introduction to the subject. Following a section presenting an historical look at the world's major earthquakes, the booklet discusses earthquake-prone geographic areas, the nature and workings of earthquakes, earthquake

Pakiser, Louis C.

35

Earthquakes  

MedlinePLUS

An earthquake happens when two blocks of the earth suddenly slip past one another. Earthquakes strike suddenly, violently, and without warning at any time of the day or night. If an earthquake occurs in a populated area, it may cause ...

36

Earthquakes  

MedlinePLUS

... time. Before During After More Information Before an Earthquake The following are things you can do to ... most of the destruction during earthquakes. During an Earthquake Drop, cover and Hold On. Minimize your movements ...

37

Southern California Earthquake Center Geologic Vertical Motion Database  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Southern California Earthquake Center Geologic Vertical Motion Database (VMDB) integrates disparate sources of geologic uplift and subsidence data at 104- to 106-year time scales into a single resource for investigations of crustal deformation in southern California. Over 1800 vertical deformation rate data points in southern California and northern Baja California populate the database. Four mature data sets are now represented: marine terraces, incised river terraces, thermochronologic ages, and stratigraphic surfaces. An innovative architecture and interface of the VMDB exposes distinct data sets and reference frames, permitting user exploration of this complex data set and allowing user control over the assumptions applied to convert geologic and geochronologic information into absolute uplift rates. Online exploration and download tools are available through all common web browsers, allowing the distribution of vertical motion results as HTML tables, tab-delimited GIS-compatible text files, or via a map interface through the Google Maps web service. The VMDB represents a mature product for research of fault activity and elastic deformation of southern California.

Niemi, Nathan A.; Oskin, Michael; Rockwell, Thomas K.

2008-07-01

38

Earthquakes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|One of a series of general interest publications on science topics, the booklet provides those interested in earthquakes with an introduction to the subject. Following a section presenting an historical look at the world's major earthquakes, the booklet discusses earthquake-prone geographic areas, the nature and workings of earthquakes,

Pakiser, Louis C.

39

Volcano and Earthquake Monitoring Plan for the Yellowstone Volcano Observatory, 2006-2015.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

To provide Yellowstone National Park (YNP) and its surrounding communities with a modern, comprehensive system for volcano and earthquake monitoring, the Yellowstone Volcano Observatory (YVO) has developed a monitoring plan for the period 20062015. Such a...

2006-01-01

40

Implementation of Near Real-Time Methods Using Surface Waves to Determine Earthquake Source Characteristics at the National Earthquake Information Center  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss the implementation of two near real-time methods for determining earthquake source characteristics using long-period surface waves at the US Geological Survey's National Earthquake Information Center (USGS/NEIC). Long-period (60 to 300 s) seismic waveforms are well suited for this purpose because they can be well modeled using simple propagation models and are less sensitive to source complexity than short period (1 s) waves that are commonly used for earthquake monitoring. A prototype system for Surface wave Location and Association in Quasi Real time (SLAQR) that employs very long period (> 60 s) vertical-component surface waves has been implemented in test mode using data from the Global Seismographic Network (GSN). SLAQR continuously back-projects waveform envelopes on a global grid using surface wave dispersion relations. Preliminary results show that this method, as currently in operation at the NEIC, can consistently locate global earthquakes down to a magnitude 5.5. The magnitude determination, which is based on a simple empirical relationship, is generally accurate to within 0.2 magnitude units. More importantly, SLAQR can provide reliable locations and magnitudes for very large earthquakes, such as the 2004/2005 Sumatra events, within 30-40 minutes of their origin time. Furthermore, since the magnitude calculation is based on long period data, magnitudes for slow earthquakes such as some ridge and tsunami earthquakes are not underestimated as commonly occurs in shorter period analysis. Future development will focus on a reliable triggering algorithm for automated event detection and the continuous calculation of moment tensors and earthquake depths from the spectral amplitude and phase measurements already produced by the system. A fully automatic system to determine centroid moment tensors using three component surface waves with periods between 150-300 s is also running at the NEIC. Two versions are currently operational: one in a research/evaluation mode and another fully incorporated into the NEIC Hydra system. New improvements in the area of reliability assessment are currently being tested. Future work will investigate the finite fault information contained in the centroid time and centroid location parameters, how to incorporate a priori knowledge of the fault orientation, and the use of noise characteristics in the automatic selection of channels.

Polet, J.; Thio, H. K.; Earle, P.

2008-12-01

41

Earthquakes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This outline of basic information on earthquakes starts with an explanation of an earthquake, including the forces acting on rock, (tension, compression, and shear) and plastic and elastic deformation of rock. Next, the principle of the seismograph, seismometer, and seismogram along with the three types of seismic waves are discussed. Information is then presented to help the student distinguish between the focus and epicenter of an earthquake, describe the world-wide distribution pattern of earthquake activity, and explain the earthquake magnitude (Richter) scale and the Modified Mercalli scale of earthquake intensity. This site also includes an explanation of how the epicenter of an earthquake can be located. There is a discussion of some past earthquakes along with a description of the effects of earthquake activity.

Gore, Pamela

42

The Pacific Tsunami Warning Center response to the Mw8.1 Samoan earthquake of September 29, 2009  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over 90% of tsunami-related casualties occur within a few hundred km of the causative event, usually an earthquake. The Mw 8.1 (GCMT) Samoan earthquake and tsunami of September 29, 2009, represents a best-case scenario for response and self-evacuation by a population near the epicenter of a tsunamigenic earthquake. The Samoan population felt over 60 seconds of strong ground shaking and saw the first tsunami wave motion as a recession rather than an onshore wave. Their observations coupled with effective public awareness saved many lives. Such phenomena do not precede all dangerous tsunamis, however, and Samoans may not receive these natural warnings for future local tsunamis. For example, a tsunami earthquake (Kanamori, 1972) can generate a destructive tsunami with little or no strong ground motion (cf. Nicaragua 1992 and Java 2006). Furthermore, if the Samoan earthquake had ruptured as a thrust mechanism more typical for the nearby subduction zone, then the first observed tsunami wave would have likely caused inundation, and thus the ocean would not have warned the population. The Pacific Tsunami Warning Center (PTWC) mitigates such hazards by monitoring earthquakes in real time and using semi-automated analysis to rapidly characterize seismic sources for their tsunami-generating potential in order to warn coastlines of any tsunami threats. As part of its mission PTWC also uses a dense local seismic network in order to produce local warnings for the State of Hawaii within 3 minutes of earthquake origin time. In this presentation we detail the analysis and response performed by the PTWC for the Samoan event. We highlight how the current sparse deployment of seismometers in the southwest Pacific Ocean resulted in PTWC issuing a warning 16 minutes after the earthquake's origin time, as compared to what can be done using a denser seismic network. Therefore, we advocate for a denser network of seismometers in the region that will allow the PTWC to halve the time needed to issue tsunami warnings after future earthquakes in the region that may not be as well suited for local response and self-evacuation as this recent event. Currently, there are new and developing seismic networks in Tonga, Fiji and Samoa. These data will be needed to reduce the time lapse between the earthquake and the tsunami warning.

Hirshorn, B. F.; Becker, N.; Weinstein, S.

2009-12-01

43

Developing Performance Measures for the CISN Earthquake Early Warning Testing Center  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seismologists and engineers from the California Integrated Seismic Network (CISN) recently began a three year USGS-funded effort to integrate Earthquake Early Warning (EEW) processing into the CISN real-time earthquake monitoring system. Seismologists and computer scientists from the Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC) are collaborating with CISN and USGS on this project by developing tools and techniques needed to perform independent evaluation of EEW system performance. This effort will build on the current CISN EEW Algorithm Testing Center which is designed to produce comparative performance evaluations for three real-time implementations of CISN EEW algorithms currently in development. The CISN EEW Testing Center (CTC) will implement independent, and collaborative, testing and evaluation of CISN EEW forecasts and CISN EEW system performance. Introduction of independent testing of scientific forecasts can accelerate acceptance of such forecasts. An important goal of the CISN EEW Testing Center is to reduce controversy around forecast results. Retrospective testing, that is forecasting a past event from historical data, is commonly used during forecast development. However, the broader scientific community may not accept retrospective forecast results due to the possibility that the forecasts were biased because the actual values were known when the forecast was made. The CTCs use of prospective testing for CISN EEW forecasts builds confidence in the CTC EEW performance results. The CTC will be designed to assess both the seismological accuracy and the system performance of CISN EEW. CISN EEW algorithms can forecast seismological information such as final magnitude and peak ground motions for an event and the CTC will compare the accuracy of these forecasts against the final observational results for the event. The CTC will also evaluate the CISN EEW system performance and reliability by collecting and summarizing speed of performance, false alarm rate, and missed event rate during CISN EEW system operations. Performance measurements recorded by the current CISN EEW testing system will be used to describe the performance metrics that will be gathered by the CTC during upcoming CISN EEW developments.

Maechling, P. J.; Jordan, T. H.; Liukis, M.; Callaghan, S.

2009-12-01

44

Earthquakes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson on earthquakes is based on naturalist John Muir's experiences with two significant earthquakes, the 1872 earthquake on the east side of the Sierra Nevada Mountains, and the Great San Francisco Earthquake of 1906. Students will learn to explain that earthquakes are sudden motions along breaks in the crust called faults, and list the major geologic events including earthquakes, volcanic eruptions and mountain building, which are the result of crustal plate motions. A downloadable, printable version (PDF) of the lesson plan is available.

45

Earthquakes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students explore the causes of earthquakes and their impact on the geology of an area and on human societies. They begin by looking at the role tectonic plates play in creating the forces that cause earthquakes, to help them understand why earthquakes occur when and where they do. Hands-on activities illustrate how rocks can withstand a certain amount of stress, but that every material has its breaking point. When rocks break underground, an earthquake occurs. In the last section, students explore the impact earthquakes have on humans and look at the efforts scientists are making to better understand and predict these sometimes deadly events.

2006-01-01

46

SOCIOECONOMIC BENEFITS OF USING SPACE TECHNOLOGIES TO MONITOR AND RESPOND TO EARTHQUAKES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earthquakes represent a major hazard for populations around the world, causing frequent loss of life, human suffering and enormous damage to homes, other buildings and infrastructure. The Technology Resources for Earthquake Monitoring and Response (TREMOR) Team of 36 space professionals analysed this problem over the course of the International Space University Summer Session Program and published their recommendations in the

Ian A. Christensen; Lauren E. Fletcher; Jonathan J. Liberda; Jose I. Rojas; Cristina Borrero del Pino

2008-01-01

47

Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC) Communication, Education and Outreach Program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The SCEC Communication, Education, and Outreach Program (CEO) offers student research experiences, web-based education tools, classroom curricula, museum displays, public information brochures, online newsletters, and technical workshops and publications. This year, much progress has been made on the development of the Electronic Encyclopedia of Earthquakes (E3), a collaborative project with CUREE and IRIS. The E3 development system is now fully operational, and 165 entries are in the pipeline. When complete, information and resources for over 500 Earth science and engineering topics will be included, with connections to curricular materials useful for teaching Earth Science, engineering, physics and mathematics. To coordinate activities for the 10-year anniversary of the Northridge Earthquake in 2004 (and beyond), the "Earthquake Country Alliance" is being organized by SCEC CEO to present common messages, to share or promote existing resources, and to develop new activities and products jointly (such as a new version of Putting Down Roots in Earthquake Country). The group includes earthquake science and engineering researchers and practicing professionals, preparedness experts, response and recovery officials, news media representatives, and education specialists. A web portal, http://www.earthquakecountry.info, is being developed established with links to web pages and descriptions of other resources and services that the Alliance members provide. Another ongoing strength of SCEC is the Summer Intern program, which now has a year-round counterpart with students working on IT projects at USC. Since Fall 2002, over 32 students have participated in the program, including 7 students working with scientists throughout SCEC, 17 students involved in the USC "Earthquake Information Technology" intern program, and 7 students involved in CEO projects. These and other activities of the SCEC CEO program will be presented, along with lessons learned during program design and implementation.

Benthien, M. L.

2003-12-01

48

Earthquake Education and Public Information Centers: A Collaboration Between the Earthquake Country Alliance and Free-Choice Learning Institutions in California  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1999 the Southern California Earthquake Center initiated an effort to expand its reach to multiple target audiences through the development of an interpretive trail on the San Andreas fault at Wallace Creek and an earthquake exhibit at Fingerprints Youth Museum in Hemet. These projects and involvement with the San Bernardino County Museum in Redlands beginning in 2007 led to

R. M. Degroot; K. Springer; C. J. Brooks; L. Schuman; D. Dalton; M. L. Benthien

2009-01-01

49

Earthquakes!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A strong earthquake struck Istanbul, Turkey on Monday, only weeks after a major quake in the same area claimed more than 15,500 lives. This site, from The Why Files (see the August 9, 1996 Scout Report), offers background information on the science of earthquakes, with particular emphasis on the recent tectonic activity in Turkey.

50

Earthquake!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Examines the types of damage experienced by California State University at Northridge during the 1994 earthquake and what lessons were learned in handling this emergency are discussed. The problem of loose asbestos is addressed. (GR)|

Hernandez, Hildo

2000-01-01

51

Multi-source SAR remote sensing data for emergency monitoring to Wenchuan Earthquake damage assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) has significant advantages in disaster monitoring that are all weather, independent of illumination imaging capabilities and strong stereoscopic sense. SAR technology played irreplaceable role in rapid response to Wenchuan Earthquake monitoring and damage assessment. With multi-source and multi-temporal high resolution SAR images, we conduct rapid, systematic and seriate observations regarding to town damage and secondary disaster

Yun Shao; Huaze Gong; Shi'Ang Wang; Fengli Zhang; Wei Tian

2009-01-01

52

A hospital as victim and responder: the Sepulveda VA Medical Center and the Northridge earthquake.  

PubMed

Many hospital emergency plans focus on the hospital as a disaster responder, with a fully operational medical facility, able to receive and treat mass casualties from a clearly defined accident scene. However, hospitals need to prepare a response for extreme casualty events such as earthquakes, tornadoes, or hurricanes. This article describes the planning, mitigation, response, and recovery of a major medical--surgical center thrust into a victim responder role following the devastating Northridge earthquake. The subsequent evacuation and care of patients, treatment of casualties, incident command, prior education and training, and recovery issues are addressed. PMID:8842918

Chavez, C W; Binder, B

53

Subionospheric VLF Monitoring for Earthquake-Related Ionospheric Perturbation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analysis of the electric field strength fluctuations in the VLF subionospheric propagation of Omega signal (from Tsushima to Chofu, Tokyo) had been perfomed aiming at looking for correlations with earthquakes. VLF data considered were collected during March-August, 1997. Analyses of VLF data obtained and earthquake catalogue have shown quasi-periodic patterns both in the time series of seismic activity integrated over a large area (500 km around Tokyo) with period 11 days and in the fluctuations of VLF signal with period 8days. We have found anomalous intensification of quasi-periodic oscillations in VLF amplitude with period of a few hours. Correlation analysis reveals maximums in cross-correlation coefficient showing the presence of anomalies in VLF signal preceding earthquakes by 1-5days. Case study has shown a possible precursory or/and accompanying VLF anomalies for nine from eleven seismic events with magnitude greater than 5. Some other events (Tottori earthquake in October 2002 etc.) have also been discussed.

Hayakawa, M.; Shvets, A. V.; Molchanov, O. A.; Miyaki, K.

2003-04-01

54

Effects of a major earthquake on calls to regional poison control centers.  

PubMed

We retrospectively evaluated the effect of the Loma Prieta earthquake on calls to 2 designated regional poison control centers (San Francisco and Santa Clara) in the area. In the immediate 12 hours after the earthquake, there was an initial drop (31%) in call volume, related to telephone system overload and other technical problems. Calls from Bay Area counties outside of San Francisco and Santa Clara decreased more dramatically than those from within the host counties where the poison control centers are located. In the next 2 days, each poison control center then handled a 27% increase in call volume. Requests for information regarding safety of water supplies and other environmental concerns were significantly increased. The number of cases of actual poisoning exposure decreased, particularly poison and drug ingestions in children. Most calls directly related to the earthquake included spills and leaks of hazardous materials and questions about water and food safety. Regional poison control centers play an essential role in the emergency medical response to major disasters and are critically dependent on an operational telephone system. PMID:1595244

Nathan, A R; Olson, K R; Everson, G W; Kearney, T E; Blanc, P D

1992-03-01

55

Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created in 1995, the Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center (GCMRC) was created in order to measure the effects of Glen Canyon Dam operations on natural and physical resources along the Colorado River. As such, the GCMRC's projects also monitor and examine the biological, cultural, and physical resources of the entire Colorado River ecosystem. The materials on their site are divided into five primary sections, including "News & Info", "Research", and "Products". In the "News & Info" area visitors can learn about the endangered species that reside in the area covered by the GCMRC and also take a look at their outreach materials, which include fact sheets, posters, and transcripts from recent symposia. The "Research" area is a bit more technical in nature, containing papers on water flow simulations and elevation data. The site is rounded out by the "Products" area, where visitors can look over new publications and evaluate simulation models.

56

Extending the CISN Earthquake Early Warning (EEW) Web Site into the CISN EEW Testing Center  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As a part of the California Integrated Seismic Network (CISN) earthquake early warning (EEW) algorithm development, funded through USGS NEHRP, we have developed the CISN EEW web site to collect the results of multiple EEW algorithms and to display these results in a comparative manner (www.scec.org/eew). During the last year, the CISN EEW algorithm development group defined a set of EEW algorithm evaluation tests (termed performance summaries). These compare EEW algorithm reports (generated by the real-time or near real-time EEW algorithms) against seismicity data in the ANSS catalog and observed ground motion information available through the SCEC Data Center (SCECDC) and the Northern California Earthquake Data Center (NCEDC). To automatically generate the performance summaries, a software development group at SCEC has integrated elements of the SCEC Collaboratory for the Study of Earthquake Predictability (CSEP) Testing Center into the CISN EEW web site. This has helped establish a CISN EEW Testing Center with capabilities similar to the CSEP Testing Center. After the integration of the CSEP software, the CISN EEW testing center now automatically creates EEW performance summaries and posts them on the CISN EEW web site each day. By leveraging the capabilities of the CSEP Testing Center, the CISN EEW Testing Center has been able to implement several of the testing concepts originally developed on CSEP. These concepts include the following: (a) earthquake, or ground motion, forecasts are reported in standardized data formats, (b) commonly-agreed upon performance evaluation reports are used for all algorithms, (c) observed data is retrieved from 'authorized' data sources and the same observed data is used to evaluate all algorithms, (d) only forecasts and observed data for a specific testing region are considered, and (e) the testing center saves information indicating how results were produced. We present an overview of the CISN EEW Testing Center including the scientific design goals for the system, and a description of the system's current capabilities. We describe the performance summaries specified by the CISN EEW algorithm development group, and how the current CISN EEW Testing Center produces those summaries using the automated testing capabilities from the CSEP software framework.

Zeleznik, M.; Maechling, P. J.; Liukis, M.; Callaghan, S.; Jordan, T. H.

2008-12-01

57

The Pacific Tsunami Warning Center's Response to the Tohoku Earthquake and Tsunami  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The largest Pacific basin earthquake in 47 years, and also the largest magnitude earthquake since the Sumatra 2004 earthquake, struck off of the east coast of the Tohoku region of Honshu, Japan at 5:46 UTC on 11 March 2011. The Tohoku earthquake (Mw 9.0) generated a massive tsunami with runups of up to 40m along the Tohoku coast. The tsunami waves crossed the Pacific Ocean causing significant damage as far away as Hawaii, California, and Chile, thereby becoming the largest, most destructive tsunami in the Pacific Basin since 1960. Triggers on the seismic stations at Erimo, Hokkaido (ERM) and Matsushiro, Honshu (MAJO), alerted Pacific Tsunami Warning Center (PTWC) scientists 90 seconds after the earthquake began. Four minutes after its origin, and about one minute after the earthquake's rupture ended, PTWC issued an observatory message reporting a preliminary magnitude of 7.5. Eight minutes after origin time, the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) issued its first international tsunami message in its capacity as the Northwest Pacific Tsunami Advisory Center. In accordance with international tsunami warning system protocols, PTWC then followed with its first international tsunami warning message using JMA's earthquake parameters, including an Mw of 7.8. Additional Mwp, mantle wave, and W-phase magnitude estimations based on the analysis of later-arriving seismic data at PTWC revealed that the earthquake magnitude reached at least 8.8, and that a destructive tsunami would likely be crossing the Pacific Ocean. The earthquake damaged the nearest coastal sea-level station located 90 km from the epicenter in Ofunato, Japan. The NOAA DART sensor situated 600 km off the coast of Sendai, Japan, at a depth of 5.6 km recorded a tsunami wave amplitude of nearly two meters, making it by far the largest tsunami wave ever recorded by a DART sensor. Thirty minutes later, a coastal sea-level station at Hanasaki, Japan, 600 km from the epicenter, recorded a tsunami wave amplitude of nearly three meters. The evacuation of Hawaii's coastlines commenced at 7:31 UTC. Concurrent with this tsunami event, a widely-felt Mw 4.6 earthquake occurred beneath the island of Hawai`i at 8:58 UTC. PTWC responded within three minutes of origin time with a Tsunami Information Statement stating that the Hawaii earthquake would not generate a tsunami. After issuing 27 international tsunami bulletins to Pacific basin countries, and 16 messages to the State of Hawaii during a period of 25 hours after the event began, PTWC concluded its role during the Tohoku tsunami event with the issuance of the corresponding warning cancellation message at 6:36 UTC on 12 March 2011. During the following weeks, however, the PTWC would continue to respond to dozens of aftershocks related to the earthquake. We will present a complete timeline of PTWC's activities, both domestic and international, during the Tohoku tsunami event. We will also illustrate the immense number of website hits, phone calls, and media requests that flooded PTWC during the course of the event, as well as the growing role social media plays in communicating tsunami hazard information to the public.

Weinstein, S. A.; Becker, N. C.; Shiro, B.; Koyanagi, K. K.; Sardina, V.; Walsh, D.; Wang, D.; McCreery, C. S.; Fryer, G. J.; Cessaro, R. K.; Hirshorn, B. F.; Hsu, V.

2011-12-01

58

Earthquake Education and Public Information Centers: A Collaboration Between the Earthquake Country Alliance and Free-Choice Learning Institutions in California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 1999 the Southern California Earthquake Center initiated an effort to expand its reach to multiple target audiences through the development of an interpretive trail on the San Andreas fault at Wallace Creek and an earthquake exhibit at Fingerprints Youth Museum in Hemet. These projects and involvement with the San Bernardino County Museum in Redlands beginning in 2007 led to the creation of Earthquake Education and Public Information Centers (EPIcenters) in 2008. The impetus for the development of the network was to broaden participation in The Great Southern California ShakeOut. In 2009 it has grown to be more comprehensive in its scope including its evolution into a statewide network. EPIcenters constitute a variety of free-choice learning institutions, representing museums, science centers, libraries, universities, parks, and other places visited by a variety of audiences including families, seniors, and school groups. They share a commitment to demonstrating and encouraging earthquake preparedness. EPIcenters coordinate Earthquake Country Alliance activities in their county or region, lead presentations or organize events in their communities, or in other ways demonstrate leadership in earthquake education and risk reduction. The San Bernardino County Museum (Southern California) and The Tech Museum of Innovation (Northern California) serve as EPIcenter regional coordinating institutions. They interact with over thirty institutional partners who have implemented a variety of activities from displays and talks to earthquake exhibitions. While many activities are focused on the time leading up to and just after the ShakeOut, most EPIcenter members conduct activities year round. Network members at Kidspace Museum in Pasadena and San Diego Natural History Museum have formed EPIcenter focus groups on early childhood education and safety and security. This presentation highlights the development of the EPIcenter network, synergistic activities resulting from this collaboration, and lessons learned from interacting with free-choice learning institutions.

Degroot, R. M.; Springer, K.; Brooks, C. J.; Schuman, L.; Dalton, D.; Benthien, M. L.

2009-12-01

59

Bacteriological monitoring in the Prague Burns Center.  

PubMed

The microbiological aspect of the prevention of nosocomial infections at the Burn Center consists primarily in the surveillance of bacterial flora and its antibiotical resistance. The Prague Burn Center is regularly monitoring the microbial flora. Patients are examined not only by the conventional methods of taking swabs of burned sites, but also by printing method, which allows a semiquantitative assessment of the colonization of burned areas. Simultaneously, investigation of bacterial contamination in the external environment of the department is carried out and the colonization of nursing staff is investigated. In all isolated strains the sensitivity to antibiotics is examined; this is significant from the point of view of current knowledge about therapeutic possibilities and for the antibiotic policy. The typing of bacterial strains makes possible to determine their epidemiological markers, and thus to investigate their spread within the department. The most frequent isolate is S. aureus and the prevalence of MRSA is relatively high. Among gramnegative rods the strains of P. aeruginosa, K. pneumoniae and E. cloacae are most often isolated. Various typing methods revealed endemic spread of particular strains of rarely isolated species (E. agglomerans, S. marcescens, A. baumannii, etc.). PMID:9949545

Vrnkov, J; Bendov, E; Knigov, R; Broz, L

1998-01-01

60

The Northern California Earthquake Data Center: Seismic and Geophysical Data for Northern California and Beyond  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Northern California Earthquake Data Center (NCEDC) is an archive and distribution center for geophysical data for networks in northern and central California. The NCEDC provides timeseries data from seismic, strain, electro-magnetic, a variety of creep, tilt, and environmental sensors, and continuous and campaign GPS data in raw and RINEX formats. The NCEDC has a wide variety of interfaces for data retrieval. Timeseries data are available via a web interface and standard queued request methods such as NetDC (developed in collaboration with the IRIS DMC and other international data centers), BREQ_FAST, and EVT_FAST. Interactive data retrieval methods include STP, developed by the SCEDC, and FISSURES DHI (Data Handling Interface), an object-oriented interface developed by IRIS. The Sandia MATSEIS system is being adapted to use the FISSURES DHI interface to provide an enhanced GUI-based seismic analysis system for MATLAB. Northern California and prototype ANSS worldwide earthquake catalogs are searchable from web interfaces, and supporting phase and amplitude data can be retrieved when available. Future data sets planned for the NCEDC are seismic and strain data from the EarthScope Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) and SAFOD. The NCEDC is a joint project of the UC Berkeley Seismological Laboratory and USGS Menlo Park.

Neuhauser, D.; Klein, F.; Zuzlewski, S.; Gee, L.; Oppenheimer, D.; Romanowicz, B.

2004-12-01

61

Hydroacoustic monitoring of seafloor earthquake and cryogenic sounds in the Bransfield Strait, Antarctica  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To record signals from submarine tectonic activity and ice-generated sound around the Antarctic Peninsula, we have operated an Autonomous Underwater Hydrophone (AUH) array from 2005 to 2007. The objectives of this experiment are to improve detection capability in the study area which is poorly covered by global seismic networks and to reveal characteristics of cryogenic sound which is hard to detect using low-latitude hydrophone array. NEIC has reported ~10-20 earthquakes per year in this region, while the efficiency of sound propagation in the ocean allows detection of greater than two orders of magnitude more earthquakes. A total of 5,160 earthquakes including 12 earthquake swarms are located during the deployment period. A total of 6 earthquake swarms (3,008) occurred in the western part of the Bransfield Strait (WBS), show an epicenter migration of 1-2 km/hr, exhibit a deficiency in high-frequency energy, and occurred near submarine volcanic centers along the back-arc rift axis. Cross-correlation analysis with ocean and solid earth tides indicates the WBS seismicity is modulated by tidal stress, where volcanic earthquake activity reflects variations in tidal forcing than do tectonic earthquakes. On-the-other hand, earthquake swarms from the eastern part of the BS (EBS) show features typical of tectonic earthquakes such as widely distributed epicenters with no clear spatio-temporal pattern and full-spectrum (broadband) signals. These results are consistent with previous crustal models indicating the WBS is undergoing volcanically dominated rifting, whereas rifting in the EBS is tectonically driven. A total of 5,929 ice-generated signals were also derived from the data and are the first detailed observation of various cryogenic phenomena in the region. These cryogenic signals exhibit unusual, tremor-like signals with a high-frequency fundamental (~40 Hz) and 5-6 overtones caused by iceberg resonance, as well as impulsive, short-duration "icequakes" caused by ice break-up and iceberg flow directed along seafloor canyons.

Park, M.; Lee, W.; Dziak, R. P.; Matsumoto, H.; Bohnenstiehl, D. R.; Haxel, J. H.

2008-12-01

62

New approach for earthquake/tsunami monitoring using dense GPS networks  

PubMed Central

In recent times increasing numbers of high-rate GPS stations have been installed around the world and set-up to provide data in real-time. These networks provide a great opportunity to quickly capture surface displacements, which makes them important as potential constituents of earthquake/tsunami monitoring and warning systems. The appropriate GPS real-time data analysis with sufficient accuracy for this purpose is a main focus of the current GPS research. In this paper we propose an augmented point positioning method for GPS based hazard monitoring, which can achieve fast or even instantaneous precise positioning without relying on data of a specific reference station. The proposed method overcomes the limitations of the currently mostly used GPS processing approaches of relative positioning and global precise point positioning. The advantages of the proposed approach are demonstrated by using GPS data, which was recorded during the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake in Japan.

Li, Xingxing; Ge, Maorong; Zhang, Yong; Wang, Rongjiang; Xu, Peiliang; Wickert, Jens; Schuh, Harald

2013-01-01

63

Feasible study on the integration system for the space monitoring of major earthquakes and volcanoes in terrestrial land  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the rapid development of space technology, earth observation technology and sky observatory technology, they have played\\u000a a more and more important part in monitoring and predicting of earthquakes and volcanoes in the terrestrial land. In recent\\u000a years, the related agencies have done the experiments and researches on monitoring and predicting of earthquakes and volcanoes\\u000a in the forewarning period by

Li-qun Bo

2002-01-01

64

Network of seismo-geochemical monitoring observatories for earthquake prediction research in India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Present paper deals with a brief review of the research carried out to develop multi-parametric gas-geochemical monitoring facilities dedicated to earthquake prediction research in India by installing a network of seismo-geochemical monitoring observatories at different regions of the country. In an attempt to detect earthquake precursors, the concentrations of helium, argon, nitrogen, methane, radon-222 (222Rn), polonium-218 (218Po), and polonium-214 (214Po) emanating from hydrothermal systems are monitored continuously and round the clock at these observatories. In this paper, we make a cross correlation study of a number of geochemical anomalies recorded at these observatories. With the data received from each of the above observatories we attempt to make a time series analysis to relate magnitude and epicentral distance locations through statistical methods, empirical formulations that relate the area of influence to earthquake scale. Application of the linear and nonlinear statistical techniques in the recorded geochemical data sets reveal a clear signature of long-range correlation in the data sets.

Chaudhuri, Hirok; Barman, Chiranjib; Iyengar, A. N. Sekar; Ghose, Debasis; Sen, Prasanta; Sinha, Bikash

2013-08-01

65

Illnesses and injuries reported at Disaster Application Centers following the 1994 Northridge Earthquake.  

PubMed

The 1994 Northridge, California, earthquake caused extensive structural damage and disrupted lives for thousands of residents. Local resources treated those initially injured. Many victims were unable or unwilling to reenter their dwellings. Record numbers of victims spent many hours at Disaster Application Centers (DACs) applying for financial assistance and other services. This created a concern for the provision of primary health care services at these centers. Under the Federal Response Plan, registered nurses, nurse practitioners, and physician assistants from the Department of Veterans Affairs treated 17,883 patients at the DACs. This report documents the injuries and illnesses sustained by the public and response workers at the DACs. The findings demonstrate that this care eased the burden on the local health care system. This article illustrates applications for estimating health services needs and demands at similar mass gatherings that might be experienced in response to catastrophic events and in U.S. military operations involving humanitarian relief missions. PMID:8840792

Teeter, D S

1996-09-01

66

Elimination of effects of earthquake in monitoring crustal movement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monitoring crustal movements is important in understanding the earth surface and in developing theories about plate tectonics.\\u000a Plate tectonics describes earth crust which consists of a number of plates moving relative to one another. Global plate models\\u000a suggest that plate movements are constant due to the fact that relative movements of plates were represented by averaged plate\\u000a motion. However, if

C. T. Celik; W. Chen; R. M. Bingley

2007-01-01

67

Recorded earthquake responses from the integrated seismic monitoring network of the Atwood Building, Anchorage, Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An integrated seismic monitoring system with a total of 53 channels of accelerometers is now operating in and at the nearby free-field site of the 20-story steel-framed Atwood Building in highly seismic Anchorage, Alaska. The building has a single-story basement and a reinforced concrete foundation without piles. The monitoring system comprises a 32-channel structural array and a 21-channel site array. Accelerometers are deployed on 10 levels of the building to assess translational, torsional, and rocking motions, interstory drift (displacement) between selected pairs of adjacent floors, and average drift between floors. The site array, located approximately a city block from the building, comprises seven triaxial accelerometers, one at the surface and six in boreholes ranging in depths from 15 to 200 feet (???5-60 meters). The arrays have already recorded low-amplitude shaking responses of the building and the site caused by numerous earthquakes at distances ranging from tens to a couple of hundred kilometers. Data from an earthquake that occurred 186 km away traces the propagation of waves from the deepest borehole to the roof of the building in approximately 0.5 seconds. Fundamental structural frequencies [0.58 Hz (NS) and 0.47 Hz (EW)], low damping percentages (2-4%), mode coupling, and beating effects are identified. The fundamental site frequency at approximately 1.5 Hz is close to the second modal frequencies (1.83 Hz NS and 1.43 EW) of the building, which may cause resonance of the building. Additional earthquakes prove repeatability of these characteristics; however, stronger shaking may alter these conclusions. ?? 2006, Earthquake Engineering Research Institute.

Celebi, M.

2006-01-01

68

The Center for Natural Phenomena Engineering (CNPE), 1990--1991. [Earthquake and other natural phenomena engineering  

SciTech Connect

The Center for Natural Phenomena Engineering (CNPE) was established to provide a natural phenomena (NP) engineering oversight role within Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (MMES). In this oversight role CNPE's goals are to provide coordination and direction of activities related to earthquake and other natural phenomena engineering, including development of hazard definition, development of design criteria, conducting new facility design, development and conducting of testing, performance of analysis and vulnerability studies, development of analysis methodology, and provision of support for preparation of safety analysis reports for the five MMES sites. In conducting these activities it is CNPE's goal to implement the elements of Total Quality Management (TQM) in a cost-effective manner, providing its customers with a quality product. This report describes 1990--1991 activities.

Not Available

1992-07-01

69

Monitoring the mental well-being of caregivers during the Haiti-earthquake.  

PubMed Central

Introduction During disaster relief, personnels safety is very important. Mental well being is a part of this safety issue. There is however a lack of objective mental well being monitoring tools, usable on scene, during disaster relief. This study covers the use of validated tools towards detection of psychological distress and monitoring of mental well being of disaster relief workers, during the Belgian First Aid and Support Team deployment after the Haiti earthquake in 2010. Methodology The study was conducted using a demographic questionnaire combined with validated measuring instruments: Belbin Team Role, Compassion Fatigue and Satisfaction Self-Test for Helpers, DMAT PsySTART, K6+ Self Report. A baseline measurement was performed before departure on mission, and measurements were repeated at day 1 and day 7 of the mission, at the end of mission, and 7 days, 30 days and 90 days post mission. Results 23 out of the 27 team members were included in the study. Using the Compassion Fatigue and Satisfaction Self-Test for Helpers as a monitoring tool, a stable condition was monitored in 7 participants, a dip in 5 participants, an arousal in 10 participants and a double pattern in 1 participant. Conclusions The study proved the ability to monitor mental well being and detect psychological distress, by self administered validated tools, during a real disaster relief mission. However for practical reasons some tools should be adapted to the specific use in the field. This study opens a whole new research area within the mental well being and monitoring field. Citation: Van der Auwera M, Debacker M, Hubloue I. Monitoring the mental well-being of caregivers during the Haiti-earthquake.. PLoS Currents Disasters. 2012 Jul 18

Van der Auwera, Marcel; Debacker, Michel; Hubloue, Ives

2012-01-01

70

Student Research and Accomplishments: 2001-2002, Multidisciplinary Center for Earthquake Engineering Research.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents(Partial): On the Calibration of the Specific Barrier Model to Eastern North America Earthquakes; Assessment of Performance of Bolu Viaduct in the 1999 Duzce Earthquake; Ductile Fiber Reinforced Panels for Seismic Retrofit; MCEER Hospital Demonstr...

D. L. Garcia

2002-01-01

71

Output products of the Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Federal Radiological Emergency Response Plan (FRERP) mandates that the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) establish a Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC) when a major radiological emergency occurs. The Nevada Operations Office (DOE\\/NV) has played a key role in developing the FRMAC concept. This paper explains the center's concept, summarizes the specific tasks of the FRMAC, and describes

Jobst

1989-01-01

72

Wireless sensor network for data-center environmental monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data centers' energy consumption has attracted global attention because of the fast growth of the information technology (IT) industry. Up to 60% of the energy consumed in a data center is used for cooling in wasteful ways as a result of lack of environmental information and overcompensated cooling systems. In this project, a wireless sensor network for data-enter environmental monitoring

Michael G. Rodriguez; Luis E. Ortiz Uriarte; Yi Jia; Kazutomo Yoshii; Robert Ross; Peter H. Beckman

2011-01-01

73

Southern California Earthquake Center/Undergraduate Studies in Earthquake Information Technology (SCEC/UseIT): Towards the Next Generation of Internship  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The SCEC/UseIT internship program is training the next generation of earthquake scientist, with methods that can be adapted to other disciplines. UseIT interns work collaboratively, in multi-disciplinary teams, conducting computer science research that is needed by earthquake scientists. Since 2002, the UseIT program has welcomed 64 students, in some two dozen majors, at all class levels, from schools around the nation. Each summer''s work is posed as a ``Grand Challenge.'' The students then organize themselves into project teams, decide how to proceed, and pool their diverse talents and backgrounds. They have traditional mentors, who provide advice and encouragement, but they also mentor one another, and this has proved to be a powerful relationship. Most begin with fear that their Grand Challenge is impossible, and end with excitement and pride about what they have accomplished. The 22 UseIT interns in summer, 2005, were primarily computer science and engineering majors, with others in geology, mathematics, English, digital media design, physics, history, and cinema. The 2005 Grand Challenge was to "build an earthquake monitoring system" to aid scientists who must visualize rapidly evolving earthquake sequences and convey information to emergency personnel and the public. Most UseIT interns were engaged in software engineering, bringing new datasets and functionality to SCEC-VDO (Virtual Display of Objects), a 3D visualization software that was prototyped by interns last year, using Java3D and an extensible, plug-in architecture based on the Eclipse Integrated Development Environment. Other UseIT interns used SCEC-VDO to make animated movies, and experimented with imagery in order to communicate concepts and events in earthquake science. One movie-making project included the creation of an assessment to test the effectiveness of the movie''s educational message. Finally, one intern created an interactive, multimedia presentation of the UseIT program.

Perry, S.; Benthien, M.; Jordan, T. H.

2005-12-01

74

A Self-Centering Respiration Monitor for Small Animal Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is necessary to monitor the physiological state of small animals being maintained under anesthetic. One parameter that may be observed is the respiratory pattern which is particularly important when using anesthetics known to depress respiratory function. A respiration monitor is described which indicates nasal air flow and which has a self-centering feature to eliminate drift. This feature enables the

Peter Graystone

1971-01-01

75

Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center: Phase I Response  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC) is established in response to a Lead Federal Agency (LFA) or State request when a radiological emergency is anticipated or has occurred. The FRMAC coordinates the off-site monitoring, assessment, and analysis activities during such an emergency. The FRMAC response is divided into three phases. FRMAC Phase 1 is a rapid, initial-response capability

C. Riland; D. R. Bowman; R. Lambert; R. Tighe

1999-01-01

76

Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center Phased Response Operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC) is established in response to the Lead Federal Agency (LFA) or state request when a major radiological emergency is anticipated of has occurred. The FRMAC becomes a coalition of federal off-site monitoring and assessment activities to assist the LFA, state(s), local, and tribal authorities. State, local, and tribal authorities are invited to

C. A. Riland; D. R. Bowman

1999-01-01

77

Environmental Monitoring Program at the Feed Materials Production Center  

Microsoft Academic Search

The environmental monitoring program at the Feed Materials Production Center (FMPC) consists of monitoring and surveillance activities which support facility regulatory compliance. These activities include environmental sampling, data management and analysis, and data reporting to support air compliance, water compliance, and solid waste compliance at the FMPC. The Environmental Compliance subsection of the Environment, Safety and Health Department is responsible

Malone

1988-01-01

78

Near-Real time, High Resolution Reservoir Monitoring and Modeling with Micro-earthquake Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a micro-earthquake recording and automated processing system along with a methodology to provide near-real time, high resolution reservoir monitoring and modeling. An interactive program for testing micro-earthquake network designs helps identify configurations for optimum accuracy and resolution. We select the Northwest Geysers, California geothermal field to showcase the usefulness of the system. The system's inexpensive recorders requires very little time or expertise to install, and the automated processing requires merely placing flash memory chips (or telemetry) into a computer. Together these make the deployment of a large numbers of sensors feasible and thus rapid, high resolution results possible. Data are arranged into input files for tomography for Vp, Vs, Qp and Qs, and their combinations to provide for interpretation in terms of rock properties. Micro-earthquake source parameters include seismic moments, full moment tensor solutions, stress drops, source durations, radiated energy, and hypocentral locations. The methodology for interpretation is to utilize visualization with GUI analysis to cross compare tomography and source property results along with borehole or other independent information and rock physics to identify reservoir properties. The system can potentially provide information heretofore unattainable or affordable to many small companies, organizations, and countries around the world.

Hutchings, L. J.; Jarpe, S.; Boyle, K. L.; Bonner, B. P.; Viegas, G.; Philson, H.; Statz-Boyer, P.; Majer, E.

2011-12-01

79

UNLVs environmentally friendly Science and Engineering Building is monitored for earthquake shaking  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The University of Nevada Las Vegas (UNLV) Science and Engineering Building is at the cutting edge of environmentally friendly design. As the result of a recent effort by the U.S. Geological Surveys National Strong Motion Project in cooperation with UNLV, the building is now also in the forefront of buildings installed with structural monitoring systems to measure response during earthquakes. This is particularly important because this is the first such building in Las Vegas. The seismic instrumentation will provide essential data to better understand the structural performance of buildings, especially in this seismically active region.

Kalkan, Erol; Savage, Woody; Reza, Shahneam; Knight, Eric; Tian, Ying

2013-01-01

80

Modeling and Monitoring for Predictive Simulation of Earthquake Generation in the Japan Region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We can regard earthquakes as releases of tectonically accumulated elastic strain energy through dynamic fault ruptures. Given this, the entire earthquake generation process generally consists of tectonic loading due to relative plate motion, quasi-static rupture nucleation, dynamic rupture propagation and stop, and fault strength recovery. In the 1990s earthquake generation physics has made great progress, and so we can now quantitatively describe the entire earthquake generation process with coupled nonlinear equations, consisting of a slip-response function that relates fault slip to shear stress change, a fault constitutive law that prescribes shear strength change with fault slip and contact time, and relative plate motion as driving forces. Recently, we completed a physics-based simulation system for the entire earthquake generation process in and around Japan, where the four plates of Pacific, North American, Philippine Sea and Eurasian are interacting with each other. The total system consists of three basic simulation models for quasi-static stress accumulation, dynamic rupture propagation and seismic wave propagation, developed on a realistic 3- D structure model. Then, given past slip histories and present stress states, we can now predict next step seismic/aseismic fault-slip motion through computation with the combined simulation system. We show two examples of the combined simulation for the 1968 Tokachi-oki earthquake (Mw=8.2) and the 2003 Tokachi- oki earthquake (Mw=8.1). The first example demonstrates that when the stress state is close to a critical level, dynamic rupture develops into a large earthquake, but when the stress state is much lower than the critical level, started rupture is not accelerated. The second example demonstrates that we can quantitatively evaluate the strong ground motions produced by potential interplate earthquakes through computer simulation, if the realistic plate-interface geometry, fault constitutive parameters and crustal structure are given. Thus, our problem is how to extract useful information to estimate the past slip history and the present stress state from observed seismic and geodetic data. To address this problem we developed two inversion methods using Akaike"fs Bayesian Information Criterion (ABIC), one of which is the method to estimate the spatiotemporal variation of interplate coupling from geodetic data, and another is the method to estimate tectonic stress fields from CMT data of seismic events. From the inversion analysis of GPS data we revealed slip-deficit rate distribution on the North American-Pacific plate interface off northeast Japan, which shows good correlation with the source regions of past large interplate events along the Kuril-Japan trench. From the inversion analysis of CMT data we revealed 3-D tectonic stress fields in and around Japan, which explains complex tectonics in Japan very well. Furthermore, we are now developing another inversion method to estimate 3-D elastic/inelastic strain fields from GPS data. Combining these inversion methods with the computer simulation of tectonic loading, we will be able to monitor the spatiotemporal variation of interplate coupling and seismogenic stress fields in the Japan region.

Matsu'Ura, M.; Noda, A.; Terakawa, T.; Hashimoto, C.; Fukuyama, E.

2008-12-01

81

The Southern California Earthquake Center/Undergraduate Studies in Earthquake Information Technology (SCEC/UseIT) Internship Program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our undergraduate research program, SCEC/UseIT, an NSF Research Experience for Undergraduates site, provides software for earthquake researchers and educators, movies for outreach, and ways to strengthen the technical career pipeline. SCEC/UseIT motivates diverse undergraduates towards science and engineering careers through team-based research in the exciting field of earthquake information technology. UseIT provides the cross-training in computer science/information technology (CS/IT) and geoscience needed to make fundamental progress in earthquake system science. Our high and increasing participation of women and minority students is crucial given the nation"s precipitous enrollment declines in CS/IT undergraduate degree programs, especially among women. UseIT also casts a "wider, farther" recruitment net that targets scholars interested in creative work but not traditionally attracted to summer science internships. Since 2002, SCEC/UseIT has challenged 79 students in three dozen majors from as many schools with difficult, real-world problems that require collaborative, interdisciplinary solutions. Interns design and engineer open-source software, creating increasingly sophisticated visualization tools (see "SCEC-VDO," session IN11), which are employed by SCEC researchers, in new curricula at the University of Southern California, and by outreach specialists who make animated movies for the public and the media. SCEC-VDO would be a valuable tool for research-oriented professional development programs.

Perry, S.; Jordan, T.

2006-12-01

82

Real-Time Seismic Monitoring of Thenewcape Girardeau (mo) Bridge and Recorded Earthquake Response  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper introduces the state of the art, real-time and broad-band seismic monitoring network implemented for the 1206 m [3956 ft] long, cable-stayed Bill Emerson Memorial Bridge in Cape Girardeau (MO), a new Mississippi River crossing, approximately 80 km from the epicentral region of the 1811-1812 New Madrid earthquakes. Design of the bridge accounted for the possibility of a strong earthquake (magnitude 7.5 or greater) during the design life of the bridge. The monitoring network consists of a superstructure and two free-field arrays and comprises a total of 84 channels of accelerometers deployed on the superstructure, pier foundations and free-field in the vicinity of the bridge. The paper also introduces the high quality response data obtained from the network. Such data is aimed to be used by the owner, researchers and engineers to (1) assess the performance of the bridge, (2) check design parameters, including the comparison of dynamic characteristics with actual response, and (3) better design future similar bridges. Preliminary analyses of low-amplitude ambient vibration data and that from a small earthquake reveal specific response characteristics of this new bridge and the free-field in its proximity. There is coherent tower-cabledeck interaction that sometimes results in amplified ambient motions. Also, while the motions at the lowest (tri-axial) downhole accelerometers on both MO and IL sides are practically free-from any feedback from the bridge, the motions at the middle downhole and surface accelerometers are significantly influenced by amplified ambient motions of the bridge.

elebi, Mehmet

83

[Local monitoring center for clozapine (Leponex) treatment].  

PubMed

A local centre for monitoring clozapine therapy has been in operation in the Pharmacy Department at Asgrd Hospital in Troms since 1994. The centre utilizes an electronic reporting system and is available to clozapine-prescribers in the three northernmost countries in Norway: Nordland, Troms and Finnmark. The system fosters early detection of poor compliance with frequent blood tests and for signs of white blood cell suppression. This is a new concept in Norway and one way of assuring the quality of clozapine treatment. The purpose of the centre is to improve patient safety by facilitating early detection of potentially dangerous white blood cell suppression, thereby avoiding fatal consequences. PMID:9531833

Bakken, K; Bratlid, T; Erlandsen, C; Lingjaerde, O; Nome, S

1998-03-10

84

Acoustic emission monitoring of medieval towers considered as sensitive earthquake receptors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many ancient masonry towers are present in Italian territory. In some cases these structures are at risk on account of the intensity of the stresses they are subjected to due to the high level of regional seismicity. In order to preserve this inestimable cultural heritage, a sound safety assessment should take into account the evolution of damage phenomena. In this connection, acoustic emission (AE) monitoring can be highly effective. This study concerns the structural stability of three medieval towers rising in the centre of Alba, a characteristic town in Piedmont (Italy). During the monitoring period a correlation between peaks of AE activity in the masonry of these towers and regional seismicity was found. Earthquakes always affect structural stability. Besides that, the towers behaved as sensitive earthquake receptors. Here a method to correlate bursts of AE activity in a masonry building and regional seismicity is proposed. In particular, this method permits to identify the premonitory signals that precede a catastrophic event on a structure, since, in most cases, these warning signs can be captured well in advance.

Carpinteri, A.; Lacidogna, G.; Niccolini, G.

2007-04-01

85

Long-Span Continuous Self-Potential Measurements Around Earthquake Swarms for Monitoring Crustal Activity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earthquake swarm activity has been continuously observed around the southeastern flank of Ontake stratovolcano since 1976. A large earthquake with the depth about 2 km and a magnitude of 6.8 occurred in 1984 in the southeastern flank of the volcano. Recently, Kimata et al. (2004) revealed uplift ground deformation above the earthquake swarm area by using repeated leveling. Furthermore, MagnetoTelluric (MT) soundings estimated a low resistivity region with the depth about 2km beneath the uplift area (Kasaya et al., 2002). In order to investigate a relationship between tectonic movements and subsurface low resistivity zone, Yoshimura et al. (2007) carried out self-potential (SP) measurements from 2003 to 2005 around the earthquake swarm areas. As the result of SP measurements, a torus-shape positive SP anomaly has been detected at the eastern part of the survey profile. This anomaly is located between recent active clusters of earthquakes and near the ground uplift detected by Kimata et al. (2004). Given that the obtained anomaly delineates the subsurface fluid"fs motion due to thermal or crustal activities, it could be expected that the anomaly varies in association with fluctuation of crustal activities. In February 2007, we established a continuous SP observation network with the aim of monitoring the crustal/hydrothermal activity by reference to the obtained SP distribution. This network consists of 8 Pb- PbCl2 electrodes and uses metallic telephone lines as insulated cables for measuring SP. Voltage differences between electrodes are measured at an interval of 1 sec. This observation technique, called "Network-MT", has been developed to determine large-scale electrical conductivity structure and the spatial distribution of the telluric potentials (Uyeshima, 2007). As a preliminary result of longitudinal data analysis, night time daily median values showed remarkable stepwise SP time variations with relaxation time about 15 days in August 2007. Additionally, several shorter and smaller temporal variations are detected in different epochs. It is unlikely that these SP variations came of artificial noises or trouble of electrodes because multiple pairs of electrodes showed similar types of changes. In this presentation, we will explain the details of our observation network and discuss the obtained SP time variations comparing with seismic/volcanic activities and tectonic movements.

Yoshimura, R.; Oshiman, N.; Yamazaki, K.; Uyeshima, M.; Ogawa, T.

2008-12-01

86

Acute cardiovascular effects of the Wenchuan earthquake: ambulatory blood pressure monitoring of hypertensive patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

An increased incidence of cardiovascular events and sudden death occurs after an earthquake. However, the mechanism underlying this is not clear. Previous studies attributed this phenomenon to earthquake-induced elevation of sympathetic activity. This study investigated the acute cardiovascular effects of the Wenchuan earthquake on hypertensive or suspected hypertensive patients. We studied the role of earthquake-induced changes in blood pressure and

Yucheng Chen; Jing Li; Hong Xian; JiangBo Li; Si Liu; GuanJian Liu; JianNan Lin; Jun Han; Zhi Zeng

2009-01-01

87

Microplate boundaries as obstacles to pre-earthquake strain transfer in Western Turkey: Inferences from continuous geochemical monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Warm and hot spring water chemistry changes as well as soil gas radon release patterns have been monitored in Western Turkey, alongside regional seismicity, providing a multi-disciplinary approach. From January 2009 to May 2011, 33 earthquakes with ML between 4.0 and 6.0 occurred in this seismically very active region; the ML 6.0 earthquake occurred on 19 May 2011 in Simav town of Ktahya Province at a location midway between dense multidisciplinary monitoring networks of Marmara Region (MR) and the Aegean Extensional Province (AEP). We previously reported on noteworthy precursory anomalies prior to several earthquakes (ML ? 4) in the MR and AEP, but no precursory anomaly was detected prior to the ML 6.0 event on 19 May 2011 in Simav, Ktahya Province, midway between dense multidisciplinary monitoring MR and AEP networks. Although these networks operate within the theoretical strain radii of this earthquake (Dobrovolsky et al., 1979), no reliable anomaly were found. Geodetic studies based on GPS data have identified crustal blocks in this region. The epicentral area of the Simav event is located within a block tectonically separated from AEP and MR. Thus, we speculate that pre-earthquake strain accumulation within the Simav block did not effectively transfer to adjacent blocks where the MR and AEP networks are located, thereby providing an explanation for the absence of detectable anomalies. Moreover, prior to some earthquakes quadrant features of geochemical transients have been found; suggesting that soil radon anomalies appear in compressional quadrant(s) of pre-earthquake strain distribution.

?nan, Sedat; Pabucu, Zmer; Kulak, Furkan; Ergintav, Semih; Tatar, Orhan; Altunel, Erhan; Akyz, Serdar; Tan, Onur; Seyis, Cemil; akmak, Rah?an; Saatilar, Ruhi; Eyido?an, Haluk

2012-04-01

88

The academic health center in complex humanitarian emergencies: lessons learned from the 2010 Haiti earthquake.  

PubMed

On January 12, 2010, a 7.0-magnitude earthquake struck Haiti. The event disrupted infrastructure and was marked by extreme morbidity and mortality. The global response to the disaster was rapid and immense, comprising multiple actors-including academic health centers (AHCs)-that provided assistance in the field and from home. The authors retrospectively examine the multidisciplinary approach that the University of Chicago Medicine (UCM) applied to postearthquake Haiti, which included the application of institutional structure and strategy, systematic deployment of teams tailored to evolving needs, and the actual response and recovery. The university mobilized significant human and material resources for deployment within 48 hours and sustained the effort for over four months. In partnership with international and local nongovernmental organizations as well as other AHCs, the UCM operated one of the largest and more efficient acute field hospitals in the country. The UCM's efforts in postearthquake Haiti provide insight into the role AHCs can play, including their strengths and limitations, in complex disasters. AHCs can provide necessary intellectual and material resources as well as technical expertise, but the cost and speed required for responding to an emergency, and ongoing domestic responsibilities, may limit the response of a large university and hospital system. The authors describe the strong institutional backing, the detailed predeployment planning and logistical support UCM provided, the engagement of faculty and staff who had previous experience in complex humanitarian emergencies, and the help of volunteers fluent in the local language which, together, made UCM's mission in postearthquake Haiti successful. PMID:23018336

Babcock, Christine; Theodosis, Christian; Bills, Corey; Kim, Jimin; Kinet, Melodie; Turner, Madeleine; Millis, Michael; Olopade, Olufunmilayo; Olopade, Christopher

2012-11-01

89

Robust satellite techniques for seismically active areas monitoring: a sensitivity analysis on September 7, 1999 Athens's earthquake  

Microsoft Academic Search

Space-time TIR anomalies, observed from months to weeks before the occurrence of earthquakes, have been suggested, by several authors, as pre-seismic signals. A robust approach (RAT) has recently been proposed (and successfully applied in the field of monitoring major natural and environmental risks) which permits a statistically based definition of TIR anomaly even in the presence of highly variable contributions

C. Filizzola; N. Pergola; C. Pietrapertosa; V. Tramutoli

2004-01-01

90

The continuous automatic monitoring network installed in Tuscany (Italy) since late 2002, to study earthquake precursory phenomena  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since late 2002, a continuous automatic monitoring network (CAMN) was designed, built and installed in Tuscany (Italy), in order to investigate and define the geochemical response of the aquifers to the local seismic activity. The purpose of the investigation was to identify eventual earthquake precursors. The CAMN is constituted by two groups of five measurement stations each. A first group

Lisa Pierotti; Roberto Cioni

2010-01-01

91

Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center Analytical Response  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC) is authorized by the Federal Radiological Emergency Response Plan to coordinate all off-site radiological response assistance to state and local government s, in the event of a major radiological emergency in the United States. The FRMAC is established by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, to coordinate all Federal

E. C. Nielsen

2003-01-01

92

Monitoring and control of center pivot systems with microcomputers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A computerized water-energy-management systems (WEMS) can be used by center pivot operators to reduce pumping fuel costs and monitoring expenses. Irrigation costs are lowered primarily because the system used climatic data and plant growth models to derive water schedules that considerably lowers the use of water compared with conventional irrigation practices. A capital budget analysis of a hypothetical, but representative

Donald M. Homan; Melvin D. Skold; Dale F. Heermann

1987-01-01

93

Long-term blood pressure changes induced by the 2009 L'Aquila earthquake: assessment by 24h ambulatory monitoring.  

PubMed

An increased rate of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events has been described during and immediately after earthquakes. In this regard, few data are available on long-term blood pressure control in hypertensive outpatients after an earthquake. We evaluated the long-term effects of the April 2009 L'Aquila earthquake on blood pressure levels, as detected by 24?h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. Before/after (means.d. 6.94.5/14.25.1 months, respectively) the earthquake, the available 24?h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring data for the same patients were extracted from our database. Quake-related daily life discomforts were evaluated through interviews. We enrolled 47 patients (25 female, age 5214 years), divided into three groups according to antihypertensive therapy changes after versus before the earthquake: unchanged therapy (n=24), increased therapy (n=17) and reduced therapy (n=6). Compared with before the quake, in the unchanged therapy group marked increases in 24?h (P=0.004), daytime (P=0.01) and nighttime (P=0.02) systolic blood pressure were observed after the quake. Corresponding changes in 24?h (P=0.005), daytime (P=0.01) and nighttime (P=0.009) diastolic blood pressure were observed. Daily life discomforts were reported more frequently in the unchanged therapy and increased therapy groups than the reduced therapy group (P=0.025 and P=0.018, respectively). In conclusion, this study shows that patients with unchanged therapy display marked blood pressure increments up to more than 1 year after an earthquake, as well as long-term quake-related discomfort. Our data suggest that particular attention to blood pressure levels and adequate therapy modifications should be considered after an earthquake, not only early after the event but also months later. PMID:23595046

Giorgini, Paolo; Striuli, Rinaldo; Petrarca, Marco; Petrazzi, Luisa; Pasqualetti, Paolo; Properzi, Giuliana; Desideri, Giovambattista; Omboni, Stefano; Parati, Gianfranco; Ferri, Claudio

2013-04-18

94

Towards real-time regional earthquake simulation I: real-time moment tensor monitoring (RMT) for regional events in Taiwan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed a real-time moment tensor monitoring system (RMT) which takes advantage of a grid-based moment tensor inversion technique and real-time broad-band seismic recordings to automatically monitor earthquake activities in the vicinity of Taiwan. The centroid moment tensor (CMT) inversion technique and a grid search scheme are applied to obtain the information of earthquake source parameters, including the event origin time, hypocentral location, moment magnitude and focal mechanism. All of these source parameters can be determined simultaneously within 117 s after the occurrence of an earthquake. The monitoring area involves the entire Taiwan Island and the offshore region, which covers the area of 119.3E to 123.0E and 21.0N to 26.0N, with a depth from 6 to 136 km. A 3-D grid system is implemented in the monitoring area with a uniform horizontal interval of 0.1 and a vertical interval of 10 km. The inversion procedure is based on a 1-D Green's function database calculated by the frequency-wavenumber (fk) method. We compare our results with the Central Weather Bureau (CWB) catalogue data for earthquakes occurred between 2010 and 2012. The average differences between event origin time and hypocentral location are less than 2 s and 10 km, respectively. The focal mechanisms determined by RMT are also comparable with the Broadband Array in Taiwan for Seismology (BATS) CMT solutions. These results indicate that the RMT system is realizable and efficient to monitor local seismic activities. In addition, the time needed to obtain all the point source parameters is reduced substantially compared to routine earthquake reports. By connecting RMT with a real-time online earthquake simulation (ROS) system, all the source parameters will be forwarded to the ROS to make the real-time earthquake simulation feasible. The RMT has operated offline (2010-2011) and online (since January 2012 to present) at the Institute of Earth Sciences (IES), Academia Sinica (http://rmt.earth.sinica.edu.tw). The long-term goal of this system is to provide real-time source information for rapid seismic hazard assessment during large earthquakes.

Lee, Shiann-Jong; Liang, Wen-Tzong; Cheng, Hui-Wen; Tu, Feng-Shan; Ma, Kuo-Fong; Tsuruoka, Hiroshi; Kawakatsu, Hitoshi; Huang, Bor-Shouh; Liu, Chun-Chi

2013-10-01

95

Emergency radiological monitoring and analysis: Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center  

Microsoft Academic Search

The US Federal Radiological Emergency Response Plan (FRERP) provides the framework for integrating the various Federal agencies responding to a major radiological emergency. The FRERP authorizes the creation of the Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC), which is established to coordinate all Federal agencies involved in the monitoring and assessment of the off-site radiological conditions in support of the

Thome

1995-01-01

96

Emergency radiological monitoring and analysis United States Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center  

Microsoft Academic Search

The United States Federal Radiological Emergency Response Plan (FRERP) provides the framework for integrating the various Federal agencies responding to a major radiological emergency. Following a major radiological incident the FRERP authorizes the creation of the Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC). The FRMAC is established to coordinate all Federal agencies involved in the monitoring and assessment of the

Thome

1994-01-01

97

Non-intrusive human fatigue monitoring in command centers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An inexpensive, non-intrusive, vision-based, active fatigue monitoring system is presented. The system employs a single consumer webcam that is modified to operate in the near-IR range. An active IR LED system is developed to facilitate the quick localization of the eye pupils. Imaging software tracks the eye features by analyzing intensity areas and their changes in the vicinity of localization. To quantify the level of fatigue the algorithm measures the opening of the eyelid, PERCLOS. The software developed runs on the workstation and is designed to draw limited computational power, so as to not interfere with the user task. To overcome low-frame rate and improve real-time monitoring, a two-phase detection and tacking algorithm is implemented. The results presented show that the system successfully monitors the level of fatigue at a low rate of 8 fps. The system is well suited to monitor users in command centers, flight control centers, airport traffic dispatchers, military operation and command centers, etc., but the work can be extended to wearable devices and other environments.

Alsamman, A.; Ratecki, T.

2011-04-01

98

Student-centered Experiments on Earthquake Occurrence Using the Seismic/Eruption Program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seismic/Eruption is a free Windows program that plots the locations of earthquakes and volcanic eruptions through time on maps of the world or various geographical areas. The hypocenter database can be updated via internet to include the NEIC catalog from 1960 to present. Many teaching activities based on this program (e.g. Braile and Braile, 2001) can help students draw conclusions about the distribution and rate of occurrence of earthquakes. In this activity students, individually or in small groups, select a seismically active region of interest and make their own map. They select a time window, perhaps 20 years. By changing the minimum magnitude setting in Seismic/Eruption and replaying the plots, they observe first-hand that large earthquakes occur less often than smaller earthquakes. The total number of earthquakes plotted is easily read from a counter on the screen. Students compile a table of the number of earthquakes per year with magnitude greater or equal to a certain magnitude, using a range of magnitude thresholds. These are then plotted on semi-log paper in the form of a Gutenberg-Richter plot. Connecting the points on the plot allows students to see a linear trend, and to think about why there may be departures from that linear trend for very small and very large magnitudes. If they assume earthquake occurrence is equally distributed in time, they can predict how often an earthquake of a given magnitude is likely to occur in their chosen region. They can also replay Seismic/Eruption to see whether that assumption is valid. Allowing students to interrogate the most accurate, complete and up-to-date earthquake catalog about a region of their own choosing provides ownership of the experiment. Students may choose an area of a recent newsworthy earthquake (e.g. Sumatra), or their family's ancestral region, or an area they are studying in another class. Students should be encouraged to pose questions and hypotheses about earthquake occurrence, knowing that they have the data and a display tool at hand to answer those questions.

Barker, J. S.; Jones, A. L.; Hubenthal, M.

2005-12-01

99

Development a Heuristic Method to Locate and Allocate the Medical Centers to Minimize the Earthquake Relief Operation Time  

PubMed Central

Background Location-allocation is a combinatorial optimization problem, and is defined as Non deterministic Polynomial Hard (NP) hard optimization. Therefore, solution of such a problem should be shifted from exact to heuristic or Meta heuristic due to the complexity of the problem. Locating medical centers and allocating injuries of an earthquake to them has high importance in earthquake disaster management so that developing a proper method will reduce the time of relief operation and will consequently decrease the number of fatalities. Methods: This paper presents the development of a heuristic method based on two nested genetic algorithms to optimize this location allocation problem by using the abilities of Geographic Information System (GIS). In the proposed method, outer genetic algorithm is applied to the location part of the problem and inner genetic algorithm is used to optimize the resource allocation. Results: The final outcome of implemented method includes the spatial location of new required medical centers. The method also calculates that how many of the injuries at each demanding point should be taken to any of the existing and new medical centers as well. Conclusions: The results of proposed method showed high performance of designed structure to solve a capacitated location-allocation problem that may arise in a disaster situation when injured people has to be taken to medical centers in a reasonable time.

AGHAMOHAMMADI, Hossein; SAADI MESGARI, Mohammad; MOLAEI, Damoon; AGHAMOHAMMADI, Hasan

2013-01-01

100

Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center Monitoring Manual Volume 2, Radiation Monitoring and Sampling  

SciTech Connect

The FRMAC Monitoring and Sampling Manual, Volume 2 provides standard operating procedures (SOPs) for field radiation monitoring and sample collection activities that are performed by the Monitoring group during a FRMAC response to a radiological emergency.

NSTec Aerial Measurement Systems

2012-07-31

101

Earthquake response  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Loma Prieta earthquake in northern California gave geophysicists an unexpected chance to mobilize a team to take portable seismographs to an earthquake region. The magnitude-7.1 earthquake occurred Tuesday, October 17 at 5:04 P.M. Pacific Daylight Time. Less than 48 hours after the main shock, IRIS consortium seismologists from Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory in Palisades, N.Y., were setting up new, portable equipment around San Francisco.The ability to move quickly to the earthquake area was an unanticipated bonus of two National Science Foundation programs: IRIS, the Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology in Arlington, Va., and NCEER, the National Center for Earthquake Engineering Research in Buffalo, N.Y.

Simpson, David; Hough, Susan; Lerner-Lam, Arthur; Phinney, Robert

102

USGS Earthquake Hazards Program: Current Earthquakes Maps  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The US Geological Survey's National Earthquake Information Center (NEIC) provides this Website for current earthquake maps (for a related USGS site of geologic hazards, see the September 18, 1998 Scout Report). Taken from the NEIC's Near-Real Time Earthquake Bulletin, maps of the world, hemispheres, continents, and sub-continents provide location and phase data for the most recent seismic events. More detailed maps and charts can be accessed by clicking on earthquake locations on the larger maps.

103

High-voltage power inverter of the generator Energy2 for electromagnetic soundings and monitoring of the earthquake source zones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development of powerful generators of the alternating current working from an industrial network in a wide spectrum of ULF-ELF\\u000a frequencies range (0.1200 Hz) is a prospective direction of researches in the field of creation of effective means for electromagnetic\\u000a monitoring of earthquakes focuses. The present article is devoted to description of the successive stage of works on creation\\u000a of generator

M. B. Barannik; A. N. Danilin; B. V. Efimov; V. V. Kolobov; P. I. Prokopchuk; V. N. Selivanov; A. N. Shevtsov; Y. A. Kopytenko; A. A. Zhamaletdinov

2010-01-01

104

Postseismic Deformation after the 1964 Great Alaskan Earthquake: Collaborative Research with Goddard Space Flight Center.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this project was to carry out GPS observations on the Kenai Peninsula, southern Alaska, in order to study the postseismic and contemporary deformation following the 1964 Alaska earthquake. All of the research supported in this grant was car...

J. T. Freymueller

1999-01-01

105

A hospital as victim and responder: The Sepulveda VA Medical Center and the Northridge earthquake  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many hospital emergency plans focus on the hospital as a disaster responder, with a fully operational medical facility, able to receive and treat mass casualties from a clearly defined accident scene. However, hospitals need to prepare a response for extreme casualty events such as earthquakes, tornadoes, or hurricanes. This article describes the planning, mitigation, response, and recovery of a major

Crystal Walsh Chavez; Bruce Binder

1996-01-01

106

Student-centered Experiments on Earthquake Occurrence Using the Seismic\\/Eruption Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seismic\\/Eruption is a free Windows program that plots the locations of earthquakes and volcanic eruptions through time on maps of the world or various geographical areas. The hypocenter database can be updated via internet to include the NEIC catalog from 1960 to present. Many teaching activities based on this program (e.g. Braile and Braile, 2001) can help students draw conclusions

J. S. Barker; A. L. Jones; M. Hubenthal

2005-01-01

107

A Trial for Earthquake Prediction by Precise Monitoring of Deep Ground Water Temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

A near future large earthquake is estimated to occur off Miyagi prefecture, northeast Japan within 20 years at a probability of about 80 %. In order to predict this earthquake, we have observed groundwater temperature in a borehole at Sendai city 100 km west of the asperity. This borehole penetrates the fault zone of NE-trending active reverse fault, Nagamachi-Rifu fault

Y. Nasuhara; K. Otsuki; T. Yamauchi

2006-01-01

108

Emergency radiological monitoring and analysis: Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center  

SciTech Connect

The US Federal Radiological Emergency Response Plan (FRERP) provides the framework for integrating the various Federal agencies responding to a major radiological emergency. The FRERP authorizes the creation of the Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC), which is established to coordinate all Federal agencies involved in the monitoring and assessment of the off-site radiological conditions in support of the impacted State(s) and the Lead Federal Agency (LFA). Within the FRMAC, the Monitoring and Analysis Division (M&A) is responsible for coordinating all FRMAC assets involved in conducting a comprehensive program of environmental monitoring, sampling, radioanalysis, and quality assurance. To assure consistency, completeness, and the quality of the data produced, a methodology and procedures manual is being developed. This paper discusses the structure, assets, and operations of the FRMAC M&A and the content and preparation of the manual.

Thome, D.J.

1995-10-01

109

Monitor the microwave thermal emission anomaly around the Yushu earthquake fault zone by using AMSR-E data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earthquake is caused by collision and compression of lithosphere plates. It has been found that during rock failure under lithosphere plate compression, some anomalies of thermal emission at certain frequencies, e.g. 300MHz, 2GHz and 22GHz, might be observed. Satellite-borne AMSR-E (Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-EOS) has dual-polarized 12 channels (6.925, 10.65, 18.7, 23.8, 36.5 and 89GHz), where two channels, 18.7 and 23.8GHz, are close to the sensitive frequency, i.e. 22GHz. In this paper, the brightness temperature (Tb) at the channel 18.7GHz is especially analyzed to see if the emission anomaly is correlated with the earthquake in Yushu area, Qinghai province (32N-34N, 96E-98E), China on April 14, 2010. An anomaly index (RAI, radiation anomaly index) is defined for monitoring the Tb change and RAI during prior- and post-earthquake, and another channels, i.e. 23.8 and 10.6 GHz, as the assistance to exclude the influences most likely from atmospheric water vapor and terrain surface temperature on RAI. The AMSR-E Tb data during 2003-2010 were collected, and RAI of Yushu area indicated plausible anomaly on April 12, 2010, which is the date that two days before the Yushu earthquake. Thus, the analysis of RAI might provide a feasible tool for earthquake forecast from multi-year observations of AMSR-E data.

Chen, Hao; Jin, Yaqiu

2010-09-01

110

Location Calibration Data for CTBT Monitoring at the Prototype International Data Center  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

- Ground-truth information is essential for location calibration of the International Monitoring System network being developed under the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty. The objective of the calibration effort is to improve the accuracy of seismic event locations and to reduce the size of the error ellipse, both in automatic and in human analyst-reviewed bulletins, in order to meet the On-Site Inspection requirement for the size of the inspection area. Several databases were compiled and are maintained at the Prototype International Data Center (PIDC) to support calibration efforts. The Nuclear Explosion Database contains most readily accessible information about all nuclear explosions worldwide. The events in the Calibration Event Bulletin (CEB) carefully selected well located events from the PIDC Reviewed Event Bulletin and relocated using additional arrivals from regional networks requested from various National Data Centers. The Ground-Truth Database contains carefully selected events with known or well estimated location accuracies from the Nuclear Explosion Database, CEB, as well as from bulletins of U.S. National Earthquake Information Center and International Seismic Centre. It also contains data on chemical explosions and quarry blasts when confirmed by local or national authorities. Ground-truth events are subdivided into various ground-truth categories according to their location accuracy. The databases have been used in various calibration studies to derive and test corrections to improve event locations. Several location calibration techniques are briefly described. The validation test for any proposed operational change requires that the results meet the location calibration metrics developed and implemented at the PIDC.

Bondr, I.; Yang, X.; North, R. G.; Romney, C.

111

The Evolution of the Federal Monitoring and Assessment Center  

SciTech Connect

The Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC) is a federal emergency response asset whose assistance may be requested by the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), the Department of Defense (DoD), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and state and local agencies to respond to a nuclear or radiological incident. It is an interagency organization with representation from the Department of Energys National Nuclear Security Administration (DOE/NNSA), the Department of Defense (DoD), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), and other federal agencies. FRMAC, in its present form, was created in 1987 when the radiological support mission was assigned to the DOEs Nevada Operations Office by DOE Headquarters. The FRMAC asset, including its predecessor entities, was created, grew, and evolved to function as a response to radiological incidents. Radiological emergency response exercises showed the need for a coordinated approach to managing federal emergency monitoring and assessment activities. The mission of FRMAC is to coordinate and manage all federal radiological environmental monitoring and assessment activities during a nuclear or radiological incident within the United States in support of state,local, tribal governments, DHS, and the federal coordinating agency. Radiological emergency response professionals with the DOEs national laboratories support the Radiological Assistance Program (RAP), National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC), the Aerial MeasuringSystem (AMS), and the Radiation Emergency Assistance Center/Training Site (REAC/TS). These teams support the FRMAC to provide: ? Atmospheric transport modeling ? Radiation monitoring ? Radiological analysis and data assessments ? Medical advice for radiation injuries In support of field operations, the FRMAC provides geographic information systems, communications, mechanical, electrical, logistics, and administrative support. The size of the FRMAC is tailored to the incident and is comprised of emergency response professionals drawn from across the federal government. State and local emergency response teams may also integrate their operations with FRMAC, but are not required to.

NSTec Aerial Measurement System

2012-07-31

112

Real Earthquakes, Real Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|One teacher took her class on a year long earthquake expedition. The goal was to monitor the occurrences of real earthquakes during the year and mark their locations with push pins on a wall-sized world map in the hallway outside the science room. The purpose of the project was to create a detailed picture of the earthquakes that occurred

Schomburg, Aaron

2003-01-01

113

Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center Monitoring Manual Volume 1, Operations  

SciTech Connect

The Monitoring division is primarily responsible for the coordination and direction of: Aerial measurements to delineate the footprint of radioactive contaminants that have been released into the environment. Monitoring of radiation levels in the environment; Sampling to determine the extent of contaminant deposition in soil, water, air and on vegetation; Preliminary field analyses to quantify soil concentrations or depositions; and Environmental and personal dosimetry for FRMAC field personnel, during a Consequence Management Response Team (CMRT) and Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC) response. Monitoring and sampling techniques used during CM/FRMAC operations are specifically selected for use during radiological emergencies where large numbers of measurements and samples must be acquired, analyzed, and interpreted in the shortest amount of time possible. In addition, techniques and procedures are flexible so that they can be used during a variety of different scenarios; e.g., accidents involving releases from nuclear reactors, contamination by nuclear waste, nuclear weapon accidents, space vehicle reentries, or contamination from a radiological dispersal device. The Monitoring division also provides technicians to support specific Health and Safety Division activities including: The operation of the Hotline; FRMAC facility surveys; Assistance with Health and Safety at Check Points; and Assistance at population assembly areas which require support from the FRMAC. This volume covers deployment activities, initial FRMAC activities, development and implementation of the monitoring and assessment plan, the briefing of field teams, and the transfer of FRMAC to the EPA.

NSTec Aerial Measurement Systems

2012-07-31

114

Development of regional earthquake early warning and structural health monitoring system and real-time ground motion forecasting using front-site waveform data (Invited)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents firstly, the development of an integrated regional earthquake early warning (EEW) system having on-line structural health monitoring (SHM) function, in Miyagi prefecture, Japan. The system makes it possible to provide more accurate, reliable and immediate earthquake information for society by combining the national (JMA\\/NIED) EEW system, based on advanced real-time communication technology. The author has planned to

M. Motosaka

2009-01-01

115

Using RST approach and EOS-MODIS radiances for monitoring seismically active regions: a study on the 6 April 2009 Abruzzo earthquake  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the last few years, Robust Satellite data analysis Techniques (RST) have been proposed and successfully ap- plied for monitoring major natural and environmental risks. Among the various fields of application, RST analysis has been used as a suitable tool for satellite TIR surveys in seis- mically active regions, devoted to detect and monitor thermal anomalies possibly related to earthquake

N. Pergola; C. Aliano; I. Coviello; C. Filizzola; N. Genzano; T. Lacava; M. Lisi; G. Mazzeo; V. Tramutoli

2010-01-01

116

Monitoring of earthquake processes by passive and active EM methods. An observational study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three experiments are carried out from the Institute of Geology, CEA research group to study earthquake process by using different electromagnetic (EM) methods in recent years. Several earthquakes did occur during the observational period and EM anomalies were recorded before the main shocks. Our observation at 20 km away from the epicenter of Zhangbei MS6.2 earthquake of January 10, 1998 shows that the apparent resistivity decreases in the strike direction before and/or during the earthquake. In the same time the resistivity increases in the decline direction. This anomalous variation in apparent resistivity reaches about 20%. The apparent resistivity at the epicentral area decrease in the strike and decline directions before and/or during the earthquake and increase after the shock. The experiments using active low frequency electromagnetic signals were carried out in 1999 and show that the resolution and stability of electric and magnetic spectra are improved. The spectra of electric and magnetic fields and apparent resistivity at the Baodi station began to anomalously change two days before the Qianan MS4.2 earthquake of May 12 with 120 km distant to the station. The anomalous variation of electric and magnetic spectra is about twice as great as normal variation and the apparent resistivity changes is about 20%. The measurements in active seismic area of Yunnan province in the year 2005 indicate that the electric and magnetic spectra anomalously change by one order before the Taoyuan MS3.6 earthquake of September 21 in about 100 km away from the observatories. But the measurements at the sites in Beijing area, 2 000 km away from the epicenter did not show any anomalous behavior. Our observation experience show presence of EM anomalous variations in different frequencies detected near to the epicentral areas of several earthquakes. We are considering that these practical examples and many other reported, suggest that the ground electromagnetic methods could play an important role in the understanding the EM phenomena related to the earthquake process.

Zhao, G.; Yan, Z.; Lifeng, W.; Wang, J.; Tang, J.; Xiao, Q.; Chen, X.; Zhao, J.

2009-12-01

117

Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center Analytical Response  

SciTech Connect

The Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC) is authorized by the Federal Radiological Emergency Response Plan to coordinate all off-site radiological response assistance to state and local government s, in the event of a major radiological emergency in the United States. The FRMAC is established by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, to coordinate all Federal assets involved in conducting a comprehensive program of radiological environmental monitoring, sampling, radioanalysis, quality assurance, and dose assessment. During an emergency response, the initial analytical data is provided by portable field instrumentation. As incident responders scale up their response based on the seriousness of the incident, local analytical assets and mobile laboratories add additional capability and capacity. During the intermediate phase of the response, data quality objectives and measurement quality objectives are more rigorous. These higher objectives will require the use of larger laboratories, with greater capacity and enhanced capabilities. These labs may be geographically distant from the incident, which will increase sample management challenges. This paper addresses emergency radioanalytical capability and capacity and its utilization during FRMAC operations.

E.C. Nielsen

2003-04-01

118

Brief communication "Monitoring ionospheric variations before earthquakes using the vertical and oblique sounding network over China"  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The problem of earthquake prediction has stimulated the research for correlation between seismic activity and ionospheric anomaly. Many observations have shown the existence of anomaly of critical frequency of ionospheric F-region, foF2, before earthquake onset. Ionospheric sounding has been conducted routinely for more than 60 years in China by the China Research Institute of Radiowave Propagation (CRIRP), and deveoloped a very powerful ability to observe the ionosphere. In this paper, we briefly describe the anomalous variation of the foF2 before Ms8.0 Wenchuan earthquake (occurred on 12 May 2008 at 14:28 LT; 31.00 N, 103.40 E), which is a sign of the great interest arising in the seismo-ionospheric investigation of Chinese researchers. Furthermore, we introduce the routine work on seismo-ionospheric anomaly by the ground based high-resolution ionospheric observation (GBHIO) network comprising 5 vertical and 20 oblique sounding stations.

Xu, T.; Wu, J.; Zhao, Z.; Liu, Y.; He, S.; Li, J.; Wu, Z.; Hu, Y.

2011-04-01

119

A robust satellite technique for monitoring seismically active areas: The case of BhujGujarat earthquake  

Microsoft Academic Search

A robust satellite data analysis technique (RAT) has been recently proposed as a suitable tool for satellite TIR surveys in seismically active regions and already successfully tested in different cases of earthquakes (both high and mediumlow magnitudes).In this paper, the efficiency and the potentialities of the RAT technique have been tested even when it is applied to a wide area

N. Genzano; C. Aliano; C. Filizzola; N. Pergola; V. Tramutoli

2007-01-01

120

The 2010 Mw 8.8 Maule megathrust earthquake of Central Chile, monitored by GPS.  

PubMed

Large earthquakes produce crustal deformation that can be quantified by geodetic measurements, allowing for the determination of the slip distribution on the fault. We used data from Global Positioning System (GPS) networks in Central Chile to infer the static deformation and the kinematics of the 2010 moment magnitude (M(w)) 8.8 Maule megathrust earthquake. From elastic modeling, we found a total rupture length of ~500 kilometers where slip (up to 15 meters) concentrated on two main asperities situated on both sides of the epicenter. We found that rupture reached shallow depths, probably extending up to the trench. Resolvable afterslip occurred in regions of low coseismic slip. The low-frequency hypocenter is relocated 40 kilometers southwest of initial estimates. Rupture propagated bilaterally at about 3.1 kilometers per second, with possible but not fully resolved velocity variations. PMID:21527673

Vigny, C; Socquet, A; Peyrat, S; Ruegg, J-C; Mtois, M; Madariaga, R; Morvan, S; Lancieri, M; Lacassin, R; Campos, J; Carrizo, D; Bejar-Pizarro, M; Barrientos, S; Armijo, R; Aranda, C; Valderas-Bermejo, M-C; Ortega, I; Bondoux, F; Baize, S; Lyon-Caen, H; Pavez, A; Vilotte, J P; Bevis, M; Brooks, B; Smalley, R; Parra, H; Baez, J-C; Blanco, M; Cimbaro, S; Kendrick, E

2011-04-28

121

Migration of seismicity and earthquake interactions monitored by GPS in SE Asia triple junction: Sulawesi, Indonesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements made in Sulawesi, Indonesia, from 1992 to 1999 detected coseismic and transient postseismic deformation related to the 1 January 1996, Mw = 7.9 earthquake on the North Sulawesi (Minahassa) trench. These motions are superimposed on the long-term secular motion (40 mm\\/yr) of the left-lateral Palu fault in central Sulawesi and continued for about 1.5-2 years.

Christophe Vigny; Hugo Perfettini; Andrea Walpersdorf; Anne Lemoine; Wim Simons; Danny van Loon; Boudewijn Ambrosius; Colleen Stevens; Rob McCaffrey; Peter Morgan; Yehuda Bock; Cecep Subarya; Parluhutan Manurung; Joenil Kahar; Hasanuddin Z. Abidin; Samad H. Abu

2002-01-01

122

Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. comprehensive earthquake management plan: Emergency Operations Center training manual  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this training is to: describe the responsibilities, resources, and goals of the Emergency Operations Center and be able to evaluate and interpret this information to best direct and allocate emergency, plant, and other resources to protect life and the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant.

Not Available

1990-02-28

123

Improved earthquake monitoring in the central and eastern United States in support of seismic assessments for critical facilities  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Evaluation of seismic monitoring capabilities in the central and eastern United States for critical facilities - including nuclear powerplants - focused on specific improvements to understand better the seismic hazards in the region. The report is not an assessment of seismic safety at nuclear plants. To accomplish the evaluation and to provide suggestions for improvements using funding from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009, the U.S. Geological Survey examined addition of new strong-motion seismic stations in areas of seismic activity and addition of new seismic stations near nuclear power-plant locations, along with integration of data from the Transportable Array of some 400 mobile seismic stations. Some 38 and 68 stations, respectively, were suggested for addition in active seismic zones and near-power-plant locations. Expansion of databases for strong-motion and other earthquake source-characterization data also was evaluated. Recognizing pragmatic limitations of station deployment, augmentation of existing deployments provides improvements in source characterization by quantification of near-source attenuation in regions where larger earthquakes are expected. That augmentation also supports systematic data collection from existing networks. The report further utilizes the application of modeling procedures and processing algorithms, with the additional stations and the improved seismic databases, to leverage the capabilities of existing and expanded seismic arrays.

Leith, William S.; Benz, Harley M.; Herrmann, Robert B.

2011-01-01

124

A Trial for Earthquake Prediction by Precise Monitoring of Deep Ground Water Temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A near future large earthquake is estimated to occur off Miyagi prefecture, northeast Japan within 20 years at a probability of about 80 %. In order to predict this earthquake, we have observed groundwater temperature in a borehole at Sendai city 100 km west of the asperity. This borehole penetrates the fault zone of NE-trending active reverse fault, Nagamachi-Rifu fault zone, at 820m depth. Our concept of the ground water observation is that fault zones are natural amplifier of crustal strain, and hence at 820m depth we set a very precise quartz temperature sensor with the resolution of 0.0002 deg. C. We confirmed our observation system to work normally by both the pumping up tests and the systematic temperature changes at different depths. Since the observation started on June 20 in 2004, we found mysterious intermittent temperature fluctuations of two types; one is of a period of 5-10 days and an amplitude of ca. 0.1 deg. C, and the other is of a period of 11-21 days and an amplitude of ca. 0.2 deg. C. Based on the examination using the product of Grashof number and Prantl number, natural convection of water can be occurred in the borehole. However, since these temperature fluctuations are observed only at the depth around 820 m, thus it is likely that they represent the hydrological natures proper to the Nagamachi-Rifu fault zone. It is noteworthy that the small temperature changes correlatable with earth tide are superposed on the long term and large amplitude fluctuations. The amplitude on the days of the full moon and new moon is ca. 0.001 deg. C. The bottoms of these temperature fluctuations always delay about 6 hours relative to peaks of earth tide. This is interpreted as that water in the borehole is sucked into the fault zone on which tensional normal stress acts on the days of the full moon and new moon. The amplitude of the crustal strain by earth tide was measured at ca. 2?10^-8 strain near our observation site. High frequency temperature noise of ca. 0.0005 deg. C is superposed on the cyclic fluctuation due to the earth tide. Using the earth tide as a reference, the resolution of our observation system is estimated to be higher than 10^-8 strain (0.5kPa). How small earthquakes off Miyagi Pref. can we detect by our observation system? Using a computer simulation code MICAP-G released by Okada (1992) and Naito & Yoshikawa (1999), we calculated the change in crustal strain at our observation site for assumed earthquakes off Miyagi Pref. with various sizes. These simulation results estimated that our system can detect earthquakes larger than about M6. Actually, we detected successfully the preseismic and coseismic temperature signals for the earthquake off Miyagi Pref. on Dec. 2, 2005 (M6.6) which is largest one since our observation started. The temperature began to decrease about 2.5 hours before the main shock, it was minimum (0.003 deg) one hour before the main, and abruptly increased by 0.002 deg. C 10 minutes after the main shock.

Nasuhara, Y.; Otsuki, K.; Yamauchi, T.

2006-12-01

125

Geographical Information System applied to monitor and analyze earthquake induced building damages  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After a disaster like an earthquake it is apparent that a process of documenting and analyzing building damage has to be carried out for launching appropriate remedial measures. The present paper is dedicated to the investigation of a quick assessment and analysis of building damages. The acquisition of data is carried out with the help of a close range photogrammetry, using digital cameras, while the data is stored, managed and analyzed using a Geographical Information System (GIS), namely the ArcView software of ESRI Company. The earthquake damage qualification and the detailed GIS data model are based on international coding schemes and a questionnaire developed at Technical University of Crete. This GIS model contains both spatial and thematic components to manage the different building damage types. The main purpose of the use of ArcView is to automate the damage analysis of a specific building. This automation of the analysis was achieved using the object-oriented programming language Avenue. In the present paper first the GIS data model as proposed here is presented in details. This model is then applied to automatically derive values describing the degree of damage for different types of building structures.

Providakis, K. P.; Contadakis, E. M.

2003-04-01

126

Seismological Discrimination of Earthquakes and Underwater Explosions Using Neural Networks: An Application To Volcanic Monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The seismological discrimination methods are very important for the development of the automatic processing systems, for which the reliability of the event detections is critical. Usually this functionality is carried out by procedures which associate the detected picking into seismic events. These procedures are often based on the consis- tency of arrival time at the different stations with a single source. For a local seismic network with a limited number of stations, such as many networks operating on active volcanoes, these procedures can fail and produce false event detections. Moreover lo- cal artificial sources, such as human made explosions, can generate signals similar to those produced by local earthquakes and can be detected and located as natural events. In these cases additional signals analysis can be performed to reduce the probability of false event detections. This problem can be successfully approached by using meth- ods based on neural networks, if the available dataset is large enough to allow for the correct neural network training. A system as been set up to discriminate between ar- tificial seismic events generated by shots under sea (illegal fisherman explosions) and the rest of the local seismicity occurring in the Campi Flegrei Area (Naples, Italy). The system includes two modules. The first is devoted to the extraction of the seismo- gram signatures and the other one to the classification of the seismic events into two classes, earthquakes and explosions. For the features extraction we use a Linear Pre- diction Coding (LPC) algorithm, which results able to efficiently compress the data and extract robust features for the spectrogram representation. The classification is performed using a supervised neural algorithm based on a Multilayer Neural Network (MLP) architecture. On the test set the classification performance is 92% suggesting that the net has a good ability to generalize among noisy input patterns. This work has been in part supported by NSF-KDi program, Grant No. BCS-9980054.

del Pezzo, E.; Esposito, A.; Giudicepietro, F.; Marinaro, M.; Martini, M.; Scarpetta, S.

127

DRAINAGE DITCH MONITORING OF THE DELTA CONSERVATION DEMONSTRATION CENTER (DCDC), MISSISSIPPI, USA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Since April 2001, drainage ditches from the Delta Conservation Demonstration Center (DCDC) near Greenville, Mississippi, have been routinely monitored during both baseflow and storm events. The DCDC ditches are unique systems, capturing runoff from three major drainage sources: intensive agricultur...

128

Monitoring for Environmental Radioactivity at the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center in 1978.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Safety Department is responsible for monitoring of the environmental radioactivity at the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center. Part 1 of this report (extract from KfK Report 2775) is a summarizing representation of measured results obtained in 1978. The...

M. Winter W. Tachlinski

1979-01-01

129

Products and Services Available from the Southern California Earthquake Data Center (SCEDC) and the Southern California Seismic Network (SCSN)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currently the SCEDC archives continuous and triggered data from nearly 5000 data channels from 425 SCSN recorded stations, processing and archiving an average of 12,000 earthquakes each year. The SCEDC provides public access to these earthquake parametric and waveform data through its website www.data.scec.org and through client applications such as STP and DHI. This poster will describe the most significant

E. Yu; A. Bhaskaran; S. Chen; F. R. Chowdhury; S. Meisenhelter; K. Hutton; D. Given; E. Hauksson; R. W. Clayton

2010-01-01

130

Parkfield, California, earthquake prediction experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five moderate (magnitude 6) earthquakes with similar features have occurred on the Parkfield section of the San Andreas fault in central California since 1857. The next moderate Parkfield earthquake is expected to occur before 1993. The Parkfield prediction experiment is designed to monitor the details of the final stages of the earthquake preparation process; observations and reports of seismicity and

W. H. Bakun; A. G. Lindh

1985-01-01

131

Earthquake Engineering Abstracts (EERC)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The University of California Berkeley's well known Earthquake Engineering Research Center has recently added a searchable-only version of Earthquake Engineering Abstracts, a database that currently contains over 55,000 citations. Users can search by author, title, subject and year. The search engine supports Boolean operators, as well as stem and phrase searching. For authors, phonetic searching is also available. EEA joins EqIIS (Earthquake Image Information System), the giant searchable image base of the Karl V. Steinbrugge Collection of "slides and photographs of historical earthquake damage," as major resources of the EERC.

132

New discoveries in dynamics of an M8 earthquake-phenomena and their implications from the 2003 Tokachi-oki earthquake using a long term monitoring cabled observatory  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the 2003 Tokachi-oki earthquake of M8, seafloor phenomena such as a generation process of tsunami, seafloor uplifts, turbidity current, etc., were observed using a cabled observatory installed on the seafloor. The turbidity current was observed as a benthic storm caused presumably by the mainshock. The seafloor uplifts were observed at the mainshock and continuously after the mainshock. The uplifts

Hitoshi Mikada; Kyohiko Mitsuzawa; Hiroyuki Matsumoto; Tomoki Watanabe; Shigehiko Morita; Riyo Otsuka; Hiroko Sugioka; Toshitaka Baba; Eiichiro Araki; Kiyoshi Suyehiro

2006-01-01

133

GREENHOUSE GAS (GHG) MITIGATION AND MONITORING TECHNOLOGY PERFORMANCE: ACTIVITIES OF THE GHG TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION CENTER  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation and monitoring technology performance activities of the GHG Technology Verification Center. The Center is a public/private partnership between Southern Research Institute and the U.S. EPA's Office of Research and Development. It...

134

Role of the Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC) following a radiological accident  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Federal Radiological Emergency Response Plan (FRERP) calls for the Department of Energy to establish a Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC) immediately following a major radiological accident to coordinate all federal off-site monitoring efforts in support of the State and the Cognizant Federal Agency (CFA) for the facility or material involved in the accident. Some accidents are potentailly

1986-01-01

135

United States Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center; evaluation and assessment methodology, standards, and procedures manual  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the event of a major radiological emergency, the United States (US) Federal Radiological Emergency Response Plan (FRERP) authorizes the creation of the Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC). The FRMAC is established to coordinate the Federal off-site monitoring and assessment activities, and is comprised of representatives from several Federal agencies and Department of Energy (DOE) contractors who provide

K. C. Kerns; J. M. Smith; R. L. Blanchard; Z. G. Burson

1994-01-01

136

Eco-environmental research on the Wenchuan Earthquake area using Disaster Monitoring Constellation (DMC) Beijing1 small satellite images  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces Beijing-1 and its applications in researching the eco-environment after the Wenchuan Earthquake on 12 May 2008. The land use\\/cover types of a study area close to the epicentre of the earthquake, taken before and after the earthquake, were classified using Beijing-1 small satellite multispectral images. Based on the land use\\/cover change, several eco-environmental problems were studied, including

Fei Wu; Bingyang Yu; Ming Yan; Zhiyong Wang

2010-01-01

137

Recent Earthquake Prediction Research in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Japan has experienced many major earthquake disasters in the past. Early in this century research began that was aimed at predicting the occurrence of earthquakes, and in 1965 an earthquake prediction program was started as a national project. In 1978 a program for constant monitoring and assessment was formally inaugurated with the goal of forecasting the major earthquake that is

Kiyoo Mogi

1986-01-01

138

Continued Swift Monitoring of the Galactic Center Flare  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the result of a long Swift observation of the galactic center flaring source (atel #5006, #5008, #5011, #5013, #5014) undertaken last night (2013-04-25; obsid: 00554491001; Exptime: 11.2 ks). Continued elevated X-ray emission consistent with the position of Sgr A* is detected, where a count rate of 0.095+/-0.003 ct/s is measured from a 10" radius region centred on the radio position of Sgr A*.

Reynolds, M. T.; Degenaar, N.; Miller, J. M.; Kennea, J. A.; Wijnands, R.

2013-04-01

139

Advanced Earthquake Monitoring System for U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Buildings: Instrumentation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In collaboration with the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA), the National Strong Motion Project of the U.S. Geological Survey has been installing sophisticated seismic systems that will monitor the structural integrity of 28 VA hospital buildings l...

E. Kalkan H. S. Ulusoy J. P. B. Fletcher K. Banga W. S. Leith

2012-01-01

140

Understanding Earthquakes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource features links to: an earthquake quiz; a rotating globe showing earthquake locations; famous earthquake accounts by Mark Twain, Jack London, Charles Darwin, and John Muir; a Java animation of the gradual buildup of stress that leads to earthquakes; a three-page history of seismology to 1910; and other educational and earthquake websites.

141

Monitoring the turbidity and surface temperature changes and effects of the 17 August 1999 earthquake in the Izmit Gulf, Turkey by the Landsat TM/ETM data.  

PubMed

The temporal turbidity and surface temperature changes and effects of the 17 August 1999 earthquake in the Izmit Gulf, Turkey have been investigated using Landsat TM/ETM data. The gulf is in the Mediterranean-Black Sea transition climatic zone and is partially surrounded by green vegetation cover and degraded and densely urbanized-industrialized areas. Landsat TM/ETM data acquired in 1990-1999 confirms increase in turbidity. Turbidity is always low in the southern part and high in the northern part of the gulf, because the more urbanized and industrialized areas are located in the northern part. The Landsat-7 ETM data acquired in the same year (1999) shows seasonal changes in turbidity. Moreover, the two high turbidity and surface temperature anomalies, one of which is parallel to the 17 August 1999 earthquake surface rupture (east-west) and the other which is in the northwest-southeast direction were mapped from Landsat-5 TM data acquired the day (18.08.1999) following the earthquake in the east end of the gulf. On the basis of turbidity implying the sea bottom movement, it is possible to state that a second rupture in the northwest and southeast direction could have occurred at the sea bottom during the earthquake. The distribution of the seismicity centers and the orientation of the lineaments in the area support this finding. PMID:16160777

Tfeki, Kenan; Akman, A Unal

2005-09-01

142

Real time of earthquakes prone areas by RST analysis of satellite TIR radiances: results of continuous monitoring over Italy and Turkey regions.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Meteorological satellites offering global coverage, continuity of observations and long term time series (starting even 30 years ago) offer a unique possibility not only to learn from the past but also to guarantee continuous monitoring whereas other observation technologies are lacking because too expensive or (like in the case of earthquake precursor studies) or considered useless by decision-makers. Space-time fluctuations of Earth's emitted Thermal Infrared (TIR) radiation have been observed from satellite months to weeks before earthquakes occurrence. The general RST approach has been proposed (since 2001) in order to discriminate normal (i.e. related to the change of natural factor and/or observation conditions) TIR signal fluctuations from anomalous signal transient possibly associated to earthquake occurrence. Since then several earthquakes occurred in Europe, Africa and America have been studied by analyzing decades of satellite observations always using a validation/confutation approach in order to verify the presence/absence of anomalous space-time TIR transients in presence/absence of significant seismic activity. In the framework of PRE-EARTHQUAKES EU-FP7 Project (www.pre-earthquakes.org) , starting from October 2010 (still continuing) RST approach has been applied to MSG/SEVIRI data to generate TIR anomaly maps over Italian peninsula, continuously for all the midnight slots. Since September 2011 the same monitoring activity (still continuing) started for Turkey region. For the first time a similar analysis has been performed in real-time, systematically analyzing TIR anomaly maps in order to identify day by day possible significant (e.g. persistent in the space-time domain) thermal anomalies. During 2011 only in very few cases (1 in Italy in July and 2 in the Turkish region in September and November) the day by day analysis enhanced significant anomalies that in two cases were communicated to the other PRE-EARTHQUAKES partners asking for their attention. In this paper results of such analysis will be presented which seem to confirm results independently achieved (unfortunately without their knowledge) by other authors applying a similar approach to EOS/MODIS data over California region.

Tramutoli, V.; Filizzola, C.; Genzano, N.; Lisi, M.; Paciello, R.; Pergola, N.

2012-04-01

143

Earthquake Monitoring at 9 deg 50'N on the East Pacific Rise: Latest Results and Implications for Integrated Models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ocean bottom seismograph (OBS) data were recorded continuously between October 2003 and January 2007 at the Ridge 2000 Bull's Eye site at 950'N on the East Pacific Rise (EPR) using a 4 x 4 km array of up to 12 instruments with approximately annual turnaround. These data have provided exciting insights into fundamental processes at fast-spreading ridges including volcanism and hydrothermal circulation. They also are providing critical linkages for understanding the geological, chemical and biological data at this site. Results from the first OBS deployment have shown that we are able to monitor microseismicity on a fine enough scale to image the fundamental structure of a hydrothermal circulation cell, and we have identified an on-axis down-flow zone and a hydrothermal cracking front overlying the axial magma chamber (Tolstoy et al., 2008). Our results show that hydrothermal circulation at the EPR is dominantly along-axis with narrowly focused down-flow at small kinks in the axial summit trough (AST). There appear to be two distinct circulation cells within the 949'N-951'N area, and these correlate well with temperature, chemical and biological observations. The rate of seismic events recorded at the array were ~2 orders of magnitude higher than anticipated based on prior results from this area (>320,000 events recorded versus ~4,500 anticipated), and therefore the processing task is considerable. In addition to hand-picking phase arrival times from periods of particular interest, we are also working on improved automatic detection tools to speed up processing of data from the remaining years and the use of waveform cross-correlation to improve event locations. Preliminary results to date suggest that the basic structure imaged in the 2003-2004 earthquake data persists, with seismicity rates continuing to climb leading up to the January 2006 eruption. We will present the most recent earthquake locations and discuss how they fit into results from the 2003-2004 data, as well as the implications for integrated models at this site.

Doermann, L.; Waldhauser, F.; Tolstoy, M.

2008-12-01

144

Surface displacements following the Mw 6.3 L'Aquila earthquake: One year of continuous monitoring via Robotized Total Station  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the results of a continuous monitoring of the surface displacements following the April 6th 2009 L'Aquila earthquake in the area of Paganica village, central Italy. We considered 3-dimensional displacements measured via Robotized Total Station (RTS) installed the April 24th 2009 in the area of Paganica village (ca. 5 km ENE from L'Aquila town), where a water pipeline located within the urban centre was severely damaged. The RTS ran continuously for about one year, with high sampling rates, and measured displacements at selected point targets. The revealed surface displacements are in agreement with the results of a DInSAR time series analysis relevant to satellite SAR data acquired over the same area and time period by the Italian satellite's constellation Cosmo-SkyMed. Moreover, despite the RTS monitored area was spatially limited, our analyses provide detailed feedbacks on fault processes following the L'Aquila earthquake. The aftershocks temporal evolution and the post-seismic displacements measured in the area show very similar exponential decays over time, with estimated cross-correlation coefficients values ranging from 0.86 to 0.97. The results of our time dependent modelling of the RTS measurements suggest that L'Aquila earthquake post-seismic displacements were dominated by the fault afterslip and/or fault creep, while poroelastic and viscoelastic processes had negligible effects.

Manconi, Andrea; Giordan, Daniele; Allasia, Paolo; Baldo, Marco; Lollino, Giorgio

2013-04-01

145

Earthquake Engineering Research at Berkeley, 1992.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Twenty-five papers by faculty participants and research personnel associated with the Earthquake Engineering Research Center of the University of California at Berkeley were presented at the Tenth World Conference on Earthquake Engineering held in Madrid,...

1992-01-01

146

Robust Satellite Techniques (RST) for monitoring Earthquake active regions: the case of Abruzzo April 6th 2009 event. (Invited)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Space-time fluctuations of Earth's emitted Thermal Infrared (TIR) radiation have been observed from satellite months to weeks before earthquakes occurrence. The general RST approach has been proposed in order to discriminate normal (i.e. related to the change of natural factor and\\/or observation conditions) TIR signal fluctuations from anomalous signal transients possibly associated to earthquake occurrence. In this work, the same

N. Pergola; C. Aliano; R. Corrado; N. Genzano; M. Lisi; G. Mazzeo; V. Tramutoli; I. Coviello; C. Filizzola; T. Lacava; R. Paciello

2009-01-01

147

Triggering of volcanic activity by large earthquakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Statistical analysis of temporal relationships between large earthquakes and volcanic eruptions suggests seismic waves may trigger eruptions even over great distances, although the causative mechanism is not well constrained. In this study the relationship between large earthquakes and subtle changes in volcanic activity was investigated in order to gain greater insight into the relationship between dynamic stress and volcanic response. Daily measurements from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), onboard the Aura satellite, provide constraints on volcanic sulfur dioxide (SO2) emission rates as a measure of subtle changes in activity. An SO2 timeseries was produced from OMI data for thirteen persistently active volcanoes. Seismic surface-wave amplitudes were modeled from the source mechanisms of moment magnitude (Mw) ?7 earthquakes, and peak dynamic stress (PDS) was calculated. The SO2 timeseries for each volcano was used to calculate a baseline threshold for comparison with post-earthquake emission. Delay times for an SO2 response following each earthquake at each volcano were analyzed and compared to a random catalog. The delay time analysis was inconclusive. However, an analysis based on the occurrence of large earthquakes showed a response at most volcanoes. Using the PDS calculations as a filtering criterion for the earthquake catalog, the SO2 mass for each volcano was analyzed in 28-day windows centered on the earthquake origin time. If the average SO2 mass after the earthquake was greater than an arbitrary percentage of pre-earthquake mass, we identified the volcano as having a response to the event. This window analysis provided insight on what type of volcanic activity is more susceptible to triggering by dynamic stress. The volcanoes with lava lakes included in this study, Ambrym, Gaua, Villarrica, and Erta Ale, showed a clear response to dynamic stress while the volcanoes with lava domes, Merapi, Semeru, and Bagana showed no response at all. Perhaps dynamic stress triggers release of accumulated gasses or gas nucleation events , which is more likely to produce an observable degassing response in less viscous magmas, or in a magmatic system that facilitates the equilibrium needed to maintain a lava lake.

Avouris, D.; Carn, S. A.; Waite, G. P.

2011-12-01

148

Environmental assessment of the Carlsbad Environmental Monitoring and Research Center Facility  

SciTech Connect

This Environmental Assessment has been prepared to determine if the Carlsbad Environmental Monitoring and Research Center (the Center), or its alternatives would have significant environmental impacts that must be analyzed in an Environmental Impact Statement. DOE`s proposed action is to continue funding the Center. While DOE is not funding construction of the planned Center facility, operation of that facility is dependent upon continued funding. To implement the proposed action, the Center would initially construct a facility of approximately 2,300 square meters (25,000 square feet). The Phase 1 laboratory facilities and parking lot will occupy approximately 1.2 hectares (3 acres) of approximately 8.9 hectares (22 acres) of land which were donated to New Mexico State University (NMSU) for this purpose. The facility would contain laboratories to analyze chemical and radioactive materials typical of potential contaminants that could occur in the environment in the vicinity of the DOE Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site or other locations. The facility also would have bioassay facilities to measure radionuclide levels in the general population and in employees of the WIPP. Operation of the Center would meet the DOE requirement for independent monitoring and assessment of environmental impacts associated with the planned disposal of transuranic waste at the WIPP.

NONE

1995-10-01

149

Ghana's experience in the establishment of a national data center  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The government of Ghana in a bilateral agreement with the Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) has established a National Data Center in Ghana with the aim of monitoring the testing of nuclear explosions. Seismic, hydroacoustic, radionuclide and infrasound methods are used for the monitoring. The data center was commissioned on 3 February, 2010 at the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission. At present Ghana does not have any operational, centralised data (seismic, hydroacoustic, radionuclide and infrasound) acquisition system with the capability of accessing data from other international stations. Hence, the need of setting up the National Data Center which would enable us constantly monitor, manage and coordinate both natural and man-made seismic activities in the country and around the globe, upload data to the International Data Center (IDC) as well as receive and use International Monitoring System (IMS) data and IDC products for treaty verification and compliance. Apart from these, the center also accesses and analyzes seismic waveforms relevant to its needs from the International Data Center; makes data available to its stakeholder institutions for earthquake disaster mitigation; reports on all aspects of disasters related to earthquake to the relevant government agencies that deal with disasters; makes recommendations to the government of Ghana on earthquake safety measures; provides information to assist government institutions to develop appropriate land and building policies. The center in collaboration with stakeholder agencies periodically organises public lectures on earthquake disaster risk mitigation.

Ekua, Amponsah Paulina; Yaw, Serfor-Armah

2012-08-01

150

Earthquake Myths  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site serves to belie several popular myths about earthquakes. Students will learn that most earthquakes do not occur in the early morning and one cannot be swallowed up by an earthquake. In addition, there is no such thing as earthquake weather and California is not falling into the ocean. On the more practical side, students can learn that good building codes do not insure good buildings, it is safer under a table than in a doorway during an earthquake, and most people do not panic during an earthquake.

151

Lecture Demonstrations on Earthquakes for K-12 Teachers and Students  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lecture Demonstrations on Earthquakes for K-12 Teachers and Students Since 1975, the Center for Earthquake Research and Information, (CERI), at The University of Memphis, has strived to satisfy its information transfer directives through diverse education and outreach efforts, providing technical and non-technical earthquake information to the general public, K-16 teachers and students, professional organizations, and state and federal organizations via all forms of written and electronic communication. <> Through these education and outreach efforts, CERI tries to increase earthquake hazard awareness to help limit future losses. <>In the past three years, education programs have reached over 20,000 K-16 students and teachers through in-service training workshops for teachers and earthquake/earth science lecture demonstrations for students. The presentations include an hour-long lecture demonstration featuring graphics and an informal question and answer format. Graphics used include seismic hazard maps, damage photos, plate tectonic maps, layers of the Earth, and more, all adapted for the audience. Throughout this presentation, manipulatives such as a Slinky, Silly Putty, a foam Earth with depth and temperature features, and Popsicle sticks are used to demonstrate seismic waves, the elasticity of the Earth, the Earth's layers and their features, and the brittleness of the crust. Toward the end, a demonstration featuring a portable shake table with a dollhouse mounted on it is used to illustrate earthquake-shaking effects. This presentation is also taken to schools when they are unable to visit CERI. Following this presentation, groups are then taken to the Public Earthquake Resource Center at CERI, a space featuring nine displays, seven of which are interactive. The interactive displays include a shake table and building blocks, a trench with paleoliquefaction features, computers with web access to seismology sites, a liquefaction model, an oscilloscope and attached geophone, a touch-screen monitor, and various manipulatives. CERI is also developing suitcase kits and activities for teachers to borrow and use in their classrooms. The suitcase kits include activities based on state learning standards, such as layers of the Earth and plate tectonics. Items included in the suitcase modules include a shake table and dollhouse, an oscilloscope and geophone, a resonance model, a Slinky, Silly putty, Popsicle sticks, and other items. Almost all of the activities feature a lecture demonstration component. These projects would not be possible without leveraged funding from the Mid-America Earthquake Center (MAEC) and the Center for Earthquake Research and Information, with additional funding from the National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (NEHRP).

Dry, M. D.; Patterson, G. L.

2005-12-01

152

Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center advanced part phase response actions  

SciTech Connect

Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC) response actions are carried out in Advance Party and Main Party phases of deployment. Response activities are initiated by a FRMAC Home Team prior to and during Advance Party deployment, with Home Team support continuing until the FRMAC Main Party is fully deployed. Upon arrival at the incident scene, the Advance Party establishes communications with other federal, state, and local response organizations, Following an Advance Party Meeting with these response organizations, FRMAC begins formulation of an initial monitoring and sampling plan, in coordination with the jurisdictional state and the Lead Federal Agency, and initiates detailed logistical arrangements for Main Party deployment and operations.

Hurley, B.

1997-02-01

153

76 FR 61115 - Migrant and Seasonal Farmworkers (MSFWs) Monitoring Report and One-Stop Career Center Complaint...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Farmworkers (MSFWs) Monitoring Report and One-Stop Career Center Complaint/Referral Record...with revision for ETA Form 8429, One-Stop Career Center Complaint/ Referral Record...delivery to MSFWs. The ETA Form 8429, One-Stop Career Center Complaint/Referral...

2011-10-03

154

Statistical analysis of the induced Basel 2006 earthquake sequence: introducing a probability-based monitoring approach for Enhanced Geothermal Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geothermal energy is becoming an important clean energy source, however, the stimulation of a reservoir for an Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) is associated with seismic risk due to induced seismicity. Seismicity occurring due to the water injection at depth have to be well recorded and monitored. To mitigate the seismic risk of a damaging event, an appropriate alarm system needs to be in place for each individual experiment. In recent experiments, the so-called traffic-light alarm system, based on public response, local magnitude and peak ground velocity, was used. We aim to improve the pre-defined alarm system by introducing a probability-based approach; we retrospectively model the ongoing seismicity in real time with multiple statistical forecast models and then translate the forecast to seismic hazard in terms of probabilities of exceeding a ground motion intensity level. One class of models accounts for the water injection rate, the main parameter that can be controlled by the operators during an experiment. By translating the models into time-varying probabilities of exceeding various intensity levels, we provide tools which are well understood by the decision makers and can be used to determine thresholds non-exceedance during a reservoir stimulation; this, however, remains an entrepreneurial or political decision of the responsible project coordinators. We introduce forecast models based on the data set of an EGS experiment in the city of Basel. Between 2006 December 2 and 8, approximately 11 500 m3 of water was injected into a 5-km-deep well at high pressures. A six-sensor borehole array, was installed by the company Geothermal Explorers Limited (GEL) at depths between 300 and 2700 m around the well to monitor the induced seismicity. The network recorded approximately 11 200 events during the injection phase, more than 3500 of which were located. With the traffic-light system, actions where implemented after an ML 2.7 event, the water injection was reduced and then stopped after another ML 2.5 event. A few hours later, an earthquake with ML 3.4, felt within the city, occurred, which led to bleed-off of the well. A risk study was later issued with the outcome that the experiment could not be resumed. We analyse the statistical features of the sequence and show that the sequence is well modelled with the Omori-Utsu law following the termination of water injection. Based on this model, the sequence will last 31+29/-14 years to reach the background level. We introduce statistical models based on Reasenberg and Jones and Epidemic Type Aftershock Sequence (ETAS) models, commonly used to model aftershock sequences. We compare and test different model setups to simulate the sequences, varying the number of fixed and free parameters. For one class of the ETAS models, we account for the flow rate at the injection borehole. We test the models against the observed data with standard likelihood tests and find the ETAS model accounting for the on flow rate to perform best. Such a model may in future serve as a valuable tool for designing probabilistic alarm systems for EGS experiments.

Bachmann, C. E.; Wiemer, S.; Woessner, J.; Hainzl, S.

2011-08-01

155

Current Regulatory Earthquake Zoning Map of Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preparation of latest version of the regulatory earthquake zoning map of Turkey, which was one of the activities in the National Plan of Turkey for International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction (IDNDR) period (1990-2000), was achieved by Earthquake Research Department at General Directorate of Disaster Affairs in cooperation with Earthquake Engineering Research Center at Middle East Technical University. Different from

Nazan Yilmaz; Murat Nurlu; Bekir Tzel

156

Environmental monitoring and research at the John F. Kennedy Space Center  

SciTech Connect

The Biomedical Operations and Research Office at the NASA John F. Kennedy Space Center has been supporting environmental monitoring and research since the mid-1970s. Program elements include monitoring of baseline conditions to document natural variability in the ecosystem, assessments of operations and construction of new facilities, and ecological research focusing on wildlife habitat associations. Information management is centered around development of a computerized geographic information system that incorporates remote sensing and digital image processing technologies along with traditional relational data base management capabilities. The proactive program is one in which the initiative is to anticipate potential environmental concerns before they occur and, by utilizing in-house expertise, develop impact minimization or mitigation strategies to reduce environmental risk.

Hall, C.R.; Hinkle, C.R.; Knott, W.M.; Summerfield, B.R. (Bionetics Corporation, John F. Kennedy Space Center, Cocoa Beach, FL (United States))

1992-08-01

157

The U. S. Department of Energy's Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC) planning process  

Microsoft Academic Search

On September 2, 1987, the U.S. Department of Energy's Nevada operations office (DOE\\/NV) was tasked by the under secretary to develop a Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC) capability for response to major radiological emergencies. Prior to this time, each DOE region responded to a major radiological accident in their region. The DOE\\/NV's basic role is to coordinate the

H. U. Brown; C. Boardman

1989-01-01

158

Terrestrial and space techniques in earthquake research  

Microsoft Academic Search

A report is given on an international workshop which was held to discuss recent advances in experimental techniques for the monitoring of crustal dynamics in earthquake zones. Experts from countries throughout the world, who are concerned with earthquakes and earthquakes disaster prevention, participated and discussed various terrestrial as well as space techniques presently applied or most likely to become applicable

A. Vogel

1979-01-01

159

Earthquake prediction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earthquake prediction research programmes in a number of countries are reviewed together with achievements in various disciplines involved in earthquake prediction research, i.e., geodetic work, tide gauge observation, continuous observation of crustal movement, seismic activity and seismological method, seismic wave velocity, geotectonic work, geomagnetic and geoelectric work and laboratory work and its application in the field. Present-day development of earthquake

Tsuneji Rikitake

1968-01-01

160

Virtual Earthquake  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive feature shows students how an earthquake epicenter is located and how Richter magnitude is determined. They will use recordings of seismograms from three stations (provided in the activity), learn the difference between the focus and epicenter of an earthquake, and that the magnitude of an earthquake is an estimate of the amount of energy that it has released.

Novak, Gary

161

Endomyocardial biopsy for monitoring heart transplant patients: 11-years-experience at a german heart center  

PubMed Central

Background: Heart transplantation (HTX) has become an established therapy for patients with end-stage heart failure. Endomyocardial biopsy (EMB) still represents the gold standard for routine surveillance of heart transplant rejection. The objective of this article is to report our experience regarding the use of EMB in monitoring heart transplant recipients. Methods: We evaluated retrospectively all patients who underwent orthotopic HTX between 2000 and 2011 at our hospital. From all patients, we created a follow-up, determined the number of EMB events and described the complications associated with this procedure. Results: HTX was performed in 142 cases at our center in the last 11 years (1.3% of the total of 10693 cardiac surgical operations in that period). Further 9 patients visited our department for monitoring after HTX performed at an external center (total: 151). For all patients, a total of 1896 EMB events have been recorded. The majority of biopsies were performed through the right internal jugular vein. The overall complication rate was 1% (n=19). Conclusions: The histological examination of right ventricular EMB still represents the gold standard of care for cardiac allograft rejection monitoring. EMB is an invasive, but safe and dedicated diagnostic procedure. However, the usefulness of recent non-invasive diagnostic approaches as an adjunct tool in monitoring for rejection remains to be further analyzed.

Strecker, Thomas; Rosch, Johannes; Weyand, Michael; Agaimy, Abbas

2013-01-01

162

Efficient testing of earthquake forecasting models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computationally efficient alternatives are proposed to the likelihood-based tests employed by the Collaboratory for the Study\\u000a of Earthquake Predictability for assessing the performance of earthquake likelihood models in the earthquake forecast testing\\u000a centers. For the conditional L-test, which tests the consistency of the earthquake catalogue with a model, an exact test using convolutions of distributions\\u000a is available when the number

David A. Rhoades; Danijel Schorlemmer; Matthew C. Gerstenberger; Annemarie Christophersen; J. Douglas Zechar; Masajiro Imoto

2011-01-01

163

Subionospheric VLF/LF monitoring of ionospheric perturbations for the 2004 Mid-Niigata earthquake and their structure and dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports on the detailed spatial structure and temporal dynamics of the ionospheric perturbations associated with the huge 2004 Mid-Niigata earthquake in Japan. The terminator time method in VLF/LF subionospheric propagation has been used to deduce the presence and dynamics of the seismo-ionospheric perturbations by making full use of our Japanese VLF/LF network observations. It is found that significant shifts were observed in terminator time for some selected paths, a few to several days before the earthquake, and we obtained the anisotropic shape of the inferred ionospheric perturbation likely elongated along the fault lines there. The temporal dynamics of inhomogeneity of the perturbations is suggested on the basis of a comparison of the observed terminator time shift and theoretical full-wave computations (2D FDTD and 3D full-wave scattering).

Yamauchi, Takeshi; Maekawa, Shinko; Horie, Takumi; Hayakawa, Masashi; Soloviev, O.

2007-05-01

164

Understanding Earthquakes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article provides a brief description of the recent earthquakes in Pakistan and Sumatra and continues with an investigation of earthquakes and their causes. Topics include the relationship of earthquakes to plate tectonics and the structure of the Earth, especially faults; factors that contribute to the strength (magnitude) of earthquakes; and the uncertainties of earthquake prediction. There is also an overview of a research project to drill into the San Andreas fault, and a history of the development of the theory of plate tectonics. A bibliography and links to additional information are also provided.

Tenenbaum, David

1999-09-02

165

Seismically active area monitoring by robust TIR satellite techniques: a sensitivity analysis on low magnitude earthquakes in Greece and Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Space-time TIR anomalies, observed from months to weeks before earthquake occurrence, have been suggested by several authors as pre-seismic signals. Up to now, such a claimed connection of TIR emission with seismic activity has been considered with some caution by scientific community mainly for the insufficiency of the validation data-sets and the scarce importance attached by those authors to other

R. Corrado; R. Caputo; C. Filizzola; N. Pergola; C. Pietrapertosa; V. Tramutoli

2005-01-01

166

Earthquake source properties and wave propagation in Eastern North America  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study of intraplate earthquakes is fundamental for the understanding of the physics of faulting, seismic hazard assessment, and nuclear monitoring, but large to moderate well recorded intraplate earthquakes are scarce. I use the best recorded earthquake in Eastern North America (ENA)---the Mw 5.0 20 April 2002, Au Sable Forks, NY, earthquake and its aftershock sequence to investigate wave propagation

Gisela Sofia Magalhaes de Matos Viegas Fernandes

2010-01-01

167

An Evaluation of North Koreas Nuclear Test by Belbasi Nuclear Tests Monitoring Center-KOERI  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bogazici University and Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute (KOERI) is acting as the Turkish National Data Center (NDC) and responsible for the operation of the International Monitoring System (IMS) Primary Seismic Station (PS-43) under Belbasi Nuclear Tests Monitoring Center for the verification of compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) since February 2000. The NDC is responsible for operating two arrays which are part of the IMS, as well as for transmitting data from these stations to the International Data Centre (IDC) in Vienna. The Belbasi array was established in 1951, as a four-element (Benioff 1051) seismic array as part of the United States Atomic Energy Detection System (USAEDS). Turkish General Staff (TGS) and U.S. Air Force Technical Application Center (AFTAC) under the Defense and Economic Cooperation Agreement (DECA) jointly operated this short period array. The station was upgraded and several seismometers were added to array during 1951 and 1994 and the station code was changed from BSRS (Belbasi Seismic Research Station) to BRTR-PS43 later on. PS-43 is composed of two sub-arrays (Ankara and Keskin): the medium-period array with a ~40 km radius located in Ankara and the short-period array with a ~3 km radius located in Keskin. Each array has a broadband element located at the middle of the circular geometry. Short period instruments are installed at depth 30 meters from the surface while medium and broadband instruments are installed at depth 60 meters from surface. On 25 May 2009, The Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea (DPRK) claimed that it had conducted a nuclear test. Corresponding seismic event was recorded by IMS and IDC released first automatic estimation of time (00:54:43 GMT), location (41.2896N and 129.0480E) and the magnitude (4.52 mb) of the event in less than two hours time (USGS: 00:54:43 GMT; 41.306N, 129.029E; 4.7 mb) During our preliminary analysis of the 25th May 2009 DPRK event, we saw a very clear P arrival at 01:05:47 (GMT) at BRTR SP array. The result of the f-k analysis performed in Geotool software, installed at NDC facilities in 2008 and is in full use currently, was also indicating that the arrival belongs to the DPRK event. When comparing our f-k results (calculated at 1-2 Hz) with IDC-REB, however, we have noticed that our calculation and therefore corresponding residuals (calculated with reference to REB residuals) are much better in comparison to REB. The reasons of this ambiguity have been explored and for the first time a comprehensive seismological analysis of a Nuclear Test has been conducted in Turkey. CTBT has an important role for the implementation of the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons and it is a key element for the pursuit of nuclear disarmament. In this study, we would like to reflect the technical and scientific aspects of the 25 May 2009 DPRK event analysis, together with our involvement in CTBT(O) affairs, which we believe it brings new dimensions to Turkey especially in the area of Geophysics.

Necmioglu, O.; Meral Ozel, N.; Semin, K.

2009-12-01

168

Prompt Assessment of Global Earthquakes for Response (PAGER): An Automated System to Estimate Impact Following Significant Earthquakes Worldwide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The US Geological Survey's National Earthquake Information Center (USGS/NEIC) is developing a system to rapidly assess societal impact immediately following significant global earthquakes. NEIC's near realtime earthquake solutions are being monitored to automatically identify quakes that likely caused human suffering or damage to infrastructure, or that will attract significant media attention. Our goal is to help the USGS fulfill its mission to provide critical earthquake-related information to emergency response agencies, government agencies, the scientific community, the media, and the general public. Currently, it takes several hours to days for the media and other organizations to provide an assessment of a damaging earthquake. Our system, known as Prompt Assessment of Global Earthquakes for Response (PAGER), will estimate the severity of damage caused by an earthquake immediately following its location and magnitude estimation (minutes to an hour). PAGER will assess the situation based on estimated and any observed ground motions, total population exposed to varying degrees of shaking, and vulnerability of the affected region. We expect that an automated summary impact statement and associated alarms can be deployed within seconds of computing the ground-motion estimates, well before ground truth damage estimates arrive. The USGS is collaborating with the US Agency for International Development (USAID) to develop a prototype system. The prototype will estimate ground motions using modifications to the methodology developed for ShakeMap, extended to the entire globe. Since strong-motion recordings will rarely be available for global earthquakes in realtime, we will rely on predicted rather than observed ground motions. Site corrections will be approximated using a combination of elevation and topographic slope (see Wald et al. this meeting) and the exposed population will be determined using Oak Ridge National Lab's Landscan2002 global population database. PAGER will be an iterative system with new alarms issued as better estimates of magnitude, location, fault orientation, finite fault effects, and felt reports become available. We will present details of the assessment algorithm and examples from the prototype system.

Earle, P. S.; Wald, D. J.; Lastowka, L. A.; Quitoriano, V.; Donnelly, M. J.

2004-12-01

169

Earthquake prediction, societal implications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

"If I were a brilliant scientist, I would be working on earthquake prediction." This is a statement from a Los Angeles radio talk show I heard just after the Northridge earthquake of January 17, 1994. Five weeks later, at a monthly meeting of the Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC), where more than two hundred scientists and engineers gathered to exchange notes on the earthquake, a distinguished French geologist who works on earthquake faults in China envied me for working now in southern California. This place is like northeastern China 20 years ago, when high seismicity and research activities led to the successful prediction of the Haicheng earthquake of February 4, 1975 with magnitude 7.3. A difficult question still haunting us [Aki, 1989] is whether the Haicheng prediction was founded on the physical reality of precursory phenomena or on the wishful thinking of observers subjected to the political pressure which encouraged precursor reporting. It is, however, true that a successful life-saving prediction like the Haicheng prediction can only be carried out by the coordinated efforts of decision makers and physical scientists.

Aki, Keiiti

1995-07-01

170

Field reconnaissance of the 2007 Niigata-Chuetsu Oki earthquake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of the 2007 Tri-Center Field Mission to Japan, a reconnaissance team comprised of fourteen graduate students and three faculty members from three U.S. earthquake engineering research centers, namely, Multidisciplinary Center for Earthquake Engineering Research (MCEER), Mid-America Earthquake Center (MAE), and Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center (PEER), undertook a reconnaissance visit to the affected area shortly after the 2007 Niigata-Chuetsu Oki earthquake. This mission provided an opportunity to review the nature of the earthquake damage that occurred, as well as to assess the significance of the damage from an educational perspective. This paper reports on the seismological characteristics of the earthquake, preliminary findings of geotechnical and structural damage, and the causes of the observed failures or collapses. In addition, economic and socio-economic considerations and experiences to enhance earthquake resilience are presented.

Apostolakis, Georgios; Qu, Bing; Ecemis, Nurhan; Dogruel, Seda

2007-12-01

171

Earthquake risk assessment for Istanbul metropolitan area  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of earthquakes in urban centers prone to disastrous earthquakes necessitates the analysis of associated risk for\\u000a rational formulation of contingency plans and mitigation strategies. In urban centers, the seismic risk is best quantified\\u000a and portrayed through the preparation of Earthquake Damage and Loss Scenarios. The components of such scenarios are the\\u000a assessment of the hazard, inventories and the

M. Erdik; N. Aydinoglu; Y. Fahjan; K. Sesetyan; M. Demircioglu; B. Siyahi; E. Durukal; C. Ozbey; Y. Biro; H. Akman; O. Yuzugullu

2003-01-01

172

Cost-effective monitoring of ground motion related to earthquakes, landslides, or volcanic activity by joint use of a single-frequency GPS and a MEMS accelerometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

detection and precise estimation of strong ground motion are crucial for rapid assessment and early warning of geohazards such as earthquakes, landslides, and volcanic activity. This challenging task can be accomplished by combining GPS and accelerometer measurements because of their complementary capabilities to resolve broadband ground motion signals. However, for implementing an operational monitoring network of such joint measurement systems, cost-effective techniques need to be developed and rigorously tested. We propose a new approach for joint processing of single-frequency GPS and MEMS (microelectromechanical systems) accelerometer data in real time. To demonstrate the performance of our method, we describe results from outdoor experiments under controlled conditions. For validation, we analyzed dual-frequency GPS data and images recorded by a video camera. The results of the different sensors agree very well, suggesting that real-time broadband information of ground motion can be provided by using single-frequency GPS and MEMS accelerometers.

Tu, R.; Wang, R.; Ge, M.; Walter, T. R.; Ramatschi, M.; Milkereit, C.; Bindi, D.; Dahm, T.

2013-08-01

173

Guide for monitoring effectiveness of utility Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM) programs  

SciTech Connect

Reliability centered maintenance (RCM) programs help utilities optimize preventive maintenance efforts while improving plant safety and economy through increased dependability of plant components. The project team developed this guide and accompanying methodology based on status updates from the Ginna and San Onofre demonstration projects. These updates addressed areas ranging from system selection to the effectiveness of RCM program implementation. In addition, the team incorporated information from a 12-utility survey soliciting opinions on the need for a methodology to monitor RCM cost-effectiveness. An analysis of the 12-utility survey showed that no techniques had been developed to measure RCM program cost-effectiveness. Thus, this guide addresses two key areas: Pros and cons of various monitoring techniques available to assess the overall effectiveness of RCM and a methodology for specifically evaluating the cost-effectiveness of RCM programs. 1 fig.

Midgett, W.D.; Wilson, J.F.; Krochmal, D.F.; Owsenek, L.W. (Advanced Technology Engineering Systems, Inc., Reston, VA (USA))

1991-02-01

174

Monitor the microwave thermal emission anomaly around the Yushu earthquake fault zone by using AMSR-E data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earthquake is caused by collision and compression of lithosphere plates. It has been found that during rock failure under lithosphere plate compression, some anomalies of thermal emission at certain frequencies, e.g. 300MHz, 2GHz and 22GHz, might be observed. Satellite-borne AMSR-E (Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-EOS) has dual-polarized 12 channels (6.925, 10.65, 18.7, 23.8, 36.5 and 89GHz), where two channels, 18.7 and

Hao Chen; Yaqiu Jin

2010-01-01

175

Swift/XRT monitoring observations detect an active X-ray transient near the Galactic center  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on ongoing daily X-ray monitoring observations of the Galactic center with the Swift/XRT (ATel #5006; see link below). In addition to continued activity of the magnetar SGR J1745-29 (ATels #5009,#5016, #5020, #5032, #5037, #5046, #5053; Kennea et al. 2013; Mori et al. 2013), a transient X-ray source located ~1.5 arcmin south-east of Sgr A* has become active. This object is first detected during a ~1.0 ks PC mode observation performed on 2013 July 18, at a net count rate of ~1E-2 counts/s.

Degenaar, N.; Wijnands, R.; Reynolds, M. T.; Miller, J. M.; Kennea, J. A.; Gehrels, N.

2013-07-01

176

Focal Mechanism Analyses for Virginia and Eastern Tennessee Earthquakes (1978-1984).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Focal mechanisms are presented for 11 earthquakes from the Giles County, Virginia, seismic zone and its vicinity and for 12 earthquakes from the Central Virginia seismic zone. These earthquakes (0monitored by local networks between January 1978...

G. A. Bollinger A. G. Teague J. W. Munsey A. C. Johnston

1985-01-01

177

Classification of Global Urban Centers Using ASTER Data: Preliminary Results From the Urban Environmental Monitoring Program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Land cover and land use changes associated with urbanization are important drivers of global ecologic and climatic change. Quantification and monitoring of these changes are part of the primary mission of the ASTER instrument, and comprise the fundamental research objective of the Urban Environmental Monitoring (UEM) Program. The UEM program will acquire day/night, visible through thermal infrared ASTER data twice per year for 100 global urban centers over the duration of the mission (6 years). Data are currently available for a number of these urban centers and allow for initial comparison of global city structure using spatial variance texture analysis of the 15 m/pixel visible to near infrared ASTER bands. Variance texture analysis highlights changes in pixel edge density as recorded by sharp transitions from bright to dark pixels. In human-dominated landscapes these brightness variations correlate well with urbanized vs. natural land cover and are useful for characterizing the geographic extent and internal structure of cities. Variance texture analysis was performed on twelve urban centers (Albuquerque, Baghdad, Baltimore, Chongqing, Istanbul, Johannesburg, Lisbon, Madrid, Phoenix, Puebla, Riyadh, Vancouver) for which cloud-free daytime ASTER data are available. Image transects through each urban center produce texture profiles that correspond to urban density. These profiles can be used to classify cities into centralized (ex. Baltimore), decentralized (ex. Phoenix), or intermediate (ex. Madrid) structural types. Image texture is one of the primary data inputs (with vegetation indices and visible to thermal infrared image spectra) to a knowledge-based land cover classifier currently under development for application to ASTER UEM data as it is acquired. Collaboration with local investigators is sought to both verify the accuracy of the knowledge-based system and to develop more sophisticated classification models.

Stefanov, W. L.; Stefanov, W. L.; Christensen, P. R.

2001-05-01

178

MONITORING ROUTINE MINE SEISMICITY IN THE CONTERMINOUS UNITED STATES  

Microsoft Academic Search

We are applying standard U.S. Geological Survey\\/National Earthquake Information Center (USGS\\/NEIC) earthquake detection and location methodologies to monitor routine mine seismicity in the conterminous U.S. Our principal goal is to develop knowledge of mining seismicity in districts from which teleseismically recorded mining- associated seismic events might occur. This knowledge would provide a basis for understanding future seismic events from these

James W. Dewey; Alena L. Leeds

179

Magma supply and storage in volcanic systems: Shallow crustal emplacement processes and causes of the large axial high along the western Galapagos Spreading Center, and, Relation of earthquakes to tectonic and magmatic features near Lassen Peak, northern California  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magma storage and supply is investigated in two different tectonic environments: the Galapagos Spreading Center (GSC, a plume-influenced mid-ocean ridge, and Lassen Peak, a subduction-related volcano. Along the GSC multi-channel seismic reflection data are used to infer crustal accretion processes and forward modeling is used to investigate causes of the axial high. At Lassen Peak, catalog earthquakes are relocated using

Tanya Marie Blacic

2005-01-01

180

Earthquake Plotting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Do earthquakes tend to happen in certain locations on Earth? Are there predictable patterns to where earthquakes will occur? The Earth is divided into large tectonic plates that move on a ductile layer of material in the mantle (the Asthenosphere). Earthquakes tend to occur along the boundaries where these plates either collide with one another or try to slide one past the other. Today you will plot on a map the location of every earthquake with a magnitude greater than 4.0 within the past week to see if any patterns appear. You will need Dynamic Crust lab #3 (Earthquake Plotting) from your lab books and your Earth Science Reference Tables. Vocabulary: Use the following website to find definitions to the vocabulary terms in the lab. Geology Dictionary Procedures: Go to this site to find a list of \\"Latest Earthquakes Magnitude 2.5 or Greater in the United States ...

Perry, Mr.

2008-11-18

181

Earthquake Plotting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Do earthquakes tend to happen in certain locations on Earth? Are there predictable patterns to where earthquakes will occur? The Earth is divided into large tectonic plates that move on a ductile layer of material in the mantle (the Asthenosphere). Earthquakes tend to occur along the boundaries where these plates either collide with one another or try to slide one past the other. Today you will plot on a map the location of every earthquake with a magnitude greater than 4.0 within the past week to see if any patterns appear. You will need Dynamic Crust lab #3 (Earthquake Plotting) from your lab books and your Earth Science Reference Tables. Vocabulary: Use the following website to find definitions to the vocabulary terms in the lab. Geology Dictionary Procedures: Go to this site to find a list of \\"Latest Earthquakes Magnitude 2.5 or Greater in the United States ...

Science, Vvs E.

2008-12-03

182

Earthquake Plotting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Do earthquakes tend to happen in certain locations on Earth? Are there predictable patterns to where earthquakes will occur? The Earth is divided into large tectonic plates that move on a ductile layer of material in the mantle (the Asthenosphere). Earthquakes tend to occur along the boundaries where these plates either collide with one another or try to slide one past the other. Today you will plot on a map the location of every earthquake with a magnitude greater than 4.0 within the past week to see if any patterns appear. You will need Dynamic Crust lab #3 (Earthquake Plotting) from your lab books and your Earth Science Reference Tables. Vocabulary: Use the following website to find definitions to the vocabulary terms in the lab. Geology Dictionary Procedures: Go to this site to find a list of \\"Latest Earthquakes Magnitude 2.5 or Greater in the United States ...

Kio, Mr.

2008-12-06

183

Earthquake Plotting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity has students gather and plot records of earthquakes. It is designed to be either long or short term, depending on the needs of the instructor. Students will gain practice working with map coordinates while becoming familiar with the frequency of earthquake occurrences, the location and magnitude of earthquakes, and the locations of plate boundaries. In addition, this exercise will illustrate the importance of measurements, data storage, analysis and worldwide scientific collaboration.

Rauch, Arden

184

Upgrading the Digital Electronics of the PEP-II Bunch Current Monitors at the Standord Linear Accelerator Center.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The testing of the upgrade prototype for the bunch current monitors (BCMs) in the PEP-II storage rings at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) is the topic of this paper. Bunch current monitors are used to measure the charge in the electron/posit...

J. Kline

2006-01-01

185

Earthquake Hazards Module  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This learning module from the GeoTech Center provides a link to a zip file including a number of documents on earthquake hazards. The unit "focuses on ArcGIS Explorer, a free software tool that works on Microsoft operating systems. The software facilitates exploration and visualization of a broad range of geoscience datasets. ArcGIS Explorer incorporates a rich content of information for physical geography, geology, plate tectonics, earthquakes, volcanoes, bathymetry, and other subjects." Two lessons are included, each of which requires approximately one to two hours of class time. The activities will give students valuable practice using ArcGIS Explorer.

2013-07-03

186

Hidden earthquakes  

SciTech Connect

Seismologists generally look for earthquakes to happen along visible fault lines, e.g., the San Andreas fault. The authors maintain that another source of dangerous quakes has been overlooked: the release of stress along a fault that is hidden under a fold in the earth's crust. The paper describes the differences between an earthquake which occurs on a visible fault and one which occurs under an anticline and warns that Los Angeles greatest earthquake threat may come from a small quake originating under downtown Los Angeles, rather than a larger earthquake which occurs 50 miles away at the San Andreas fault.

Stein, R.S.; Yeats, R.S.

1989-06-01

187

Izmit Earthquake  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lab allows students to look at variety of data from the North Anatolian fault in Turkey. Specifically, students have the oportunity to: interpret seismograms from the Izmit earthquake in 1999 (while accessing some seismograph station information from IRIS) make and interpret an earthquake focal mechanism solution based on these seismograms locate the earthquake epicenter calculate the moment magnitude of the earthquake using published data showing epicenter locations and displacement measurements intepret historical data from the North Anatolian fault and tectonic-scale plate motion information to see what patterns occur in the regional seismicity.

Titus, Sarah

188

Putting Down Roots in Earthquake Country  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Putting Down Roots in Earthquake Country is an informational Web site provided by the Southern California Earthquake Center. Citizens can learn about the San Andreas fault, other California faults, how to build and maintain an earthquake safe house, how to survive an earthquake, how they are measured and what the magnitude means, common earthquake myths, and much more. As a safety and an educational site, this unique resource does a good job of presenting a lot of information, illustrations, and graphics in an easy-to-follow format that helps explain this powerful and potentially deadly natural occurrence.

189

Plotting Earthquakes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners discover how to plot earthquakes on a map by exploring recent earthquake activity in California and Nevada. Within this activity, learners also practice using latitudinal and longitudinal lines and make predictions. This detailed lesson plan includes key vocabulary words, background information for educators, extension ideas, and resources.

Sciences, California A.

2012-06-26

190

The Terminator Time in subionospheric VLF/LF diurnal variation as recorded by the Romanian VLF/LF radio monitoring system related to earthquake occurrence and volcano erruptions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Romanian VLF/LF monitoring system consisting in a radio receiver and the infrastructure that is necessary to record and transmit the collected data is part of the European international network named INFREP. Information on electromagnetic fields' intensities created by transmitters at a receiving site are indicating the quality of the propagation along the paths between the receivers and transmitters. Studying the ionosphere's influences on the electromagnetic waves' propagation along a certain path is a method to put into evidence possible modifications of its lower structure and composition as earthquakes' precursors. The VLF/LF receiver installed in Romania was put into operation in February 2009 and has already 3 years of testing, functioning and proving its utility in the forecast of some earthquakes or volcanic eruptions. Simultaneously we monitor, in the same site with the VLF/LF receiver, the vertical atmospheric electric field and different other meteorological parameters as: temperature, pressure or rainfall. The global magnetic conditions are emphasized with the help of Daily Geomagnetic Index Kp. At a basic level, the adopted analysis consists in a simple statistical evaluation of the signals by comparing the instantaneous values to the trend of the signal. In this paper we pay attention to the terminator times in subionospheric VLF/LF diurnal variation, which are defined as the times of minimum in amplitude (or phase) around sunrise and sunset. These terminator times are found to shift significantly just around the earthquake. In the case of Kobe earthquake, there were found significant shifts in both morning and evening terminator times and these authors interpreted the shift in terminator time in terms of the lowering of lower ionosphere by using the full-wave mode theory. A LabVIEW application which accesses the VLF/LF receiver through internet was developed. This program opens the receiver's web-page and automatically retrieves the list of data files to synchronize the user-side data with the receiver's data. Missing zipped files are also automatically downloaded. The application appends daily files into monthly and anual files and performs 3D colour-coded maps with graphic representations of VLF and LF signals' intensities versus the minute-of-the-day and the day-of-the-month, facilitating a near real-time observation of VLF and LF electromagnetic waves' propagation. This type of representation, highlights the modification of the terminator time versus the length of the solar-day, improves the user's capability to detect possible propagation anomalies due to ionosphere conditions and allows a quick visual inspection of unexpected behaviors of transmission channels at different frequencies and paths. A very special result, was observed on the recordings made on the propagation path to Iceland (NRK, 37.5kHz). Recordings are made once a minute, for a period of 303 days. Icelandic channel propagation anomalies present in the range of 40-90 days are considered to be precursory phenomena associated with Eyjafjallajokull - Iceland, volcanic eruption occurred in April-May 2010.

Moldovan, I. A.; Moldovan, A. S.; Biagi, P. F.; Ionescu, C.; Schwingenschuh, K.; Boudjada, M. Y.

2012-04-01

191

Automatic Earthquake Shear Stress Measurement Method Developed for Accurate Time- Prediction Analysis of Forthcoming Major Earthquakes Along Shallow Active Faults  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Serata Stressmeter has been developed to measure and monitor earthquake shear stress build-up along shallow active faults. The development work made in the past 25 years has established the Stressmeter as an automatic stress measurement system to study timing of forthcoming major earthquakes in support of the current earthquake prediction studies based on statistical analysis of seismological observations. In early 1982, a series of major Man-made earthquakes (magnitude 4.5-5.0) suddenly occurred in an area over deep underground potash mine in Saskatchewan, Canada. By measuring underground stress condition of the mine, the direct cause of the earthquake was disclosed. The cause was successfully eliminated by controlling the stress condition of the mine. The Japanese government was interested in this development and the Stressmeter was introduced to the Japanese government research program for earthquake stress studies. In Japan the Stressmeter was first utilized for direct measurement of the intrinsic lateral tectonic stress gradient G. The measurement, conducted at the Mt. Fuji Underground Research Center of the Japanese government, disclosed the constant natural gradients of maximum and minimum lateral stresses in an excellent agreement with the theoretical value, i.e., G = 0.25. All the conventional methods of overcoring, hydrofracturing and deformation, which were introduced to compete with the Serata method, failed demonstrating the fundamental difficulties of the conventional methods. The intrinsic lateral stress gradient determined by the Stressmeter for the Japanese government was found to be the same with all the other measurements made by the Stressmeter in Japan. The stress measurement results obtained by the major international stress measurement work in the Hot Dry Rock Projects conducted in USA, England and Germany are found to be in good agreement with the Stressmeter results obtained in Japan. Based on this broad agreement, a solid geomechanical basis to disclose an acting earthquake shear stress S at top of the tectonic plate is established at the depth of 600-800m (Window). This concept is supported by outcome of the Japanese government stress measurement made at the epicenter of the Kobe earthquake of 1995, where S is found to be less than 5 MPa. At the same time S at the earthquake active Ashio mining district was found to be 36 MPa (90 percent of maximum S) at Window. These findings led to formulation of a quantitative method proposed to monitor earthquake triggering potential in and around any growing earthquake stress nucleus along shallow active faults. For future earthquake time prediction, the Stressmeter can be applied first to survey general distribution of earthquake shear stress S along major active faults. A site with its shear stress greater than 30 MPa may be identified as a site of growing stress nucleus. A Stressmeter must be permanently buried at the site to monitor future stress growth toward a possible triggering by mathematical analysis of the stress excursion dynamics. This is made possible by the automatic stress measurement capability of the Stressmeter at a frequency up to 100 times per day. The significance of this approach is a possibility to save lives by time-prediction of a forthcoming major earthquake with accuracy in hours and minutes.

Serata, S.

2006-12-01

192

Earthquake Effects and Experiences  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This portion of the United States Geological Survey's (USGS) frequently-asked-questions feature on earthquakes addresses what individuals might actually experience during an earthquake. Topics include earthquake motion (rolling or shaking), earthquake effects (ground shaking, surface faulting, ground failure, etc.), earthquake magnitude, what an earthquake feels like, and others. There are also links to additional resources on earthquake effects and experiences.

193

Earthquake Effects and Experiences  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This portion of the United States Geological Survey's (USGS) frequently-asked-questions feature on earthquakes addresses what individuals might actually experience during an earthquake. Topics include earthquake motion (rolling or shaking), earthquake effects (ground shaking, surface faulting, ground failure, etc.), earthquake magnitude, what an earthquake feels like, and others. There are also links to additional resources on earthquake effects and experiences.

2010-11-23

194

Earthquake Precursors in Thermal Infrared Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of an agreement between NASA and the Arab Youth Venture Foundation (AYVF), three engineering students from the United Arab Emirates (UAE) participated in a 10-week experiential learning program this summer. This educational program is managed by the NASA Ames Research Center Office of Education and Public Outreach and is administered by the Education Associates Program (EAP). One of the research projects under this program tested the hypothesis that signals emitted by the Earths surface prior to the occurrence of an earthquake, including thermal infrared (TIR) emissions, can be detected through appropriate analysis of data collected by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite sensors. After applying a set of preprocessing algorithms to the satellite data, we analyzed MODIS images showing the TIR emitted by a ground area in the days prior to an eventual earthquake. We used computing tools and software, such as MATLAB and ENVI, to isolate these pre-seismic signals from the background noise. The development of a technique to monitor pre-seismic signals holds promise in finding a method to predict earthquakes.

Alqassim, S. S.; Vanderbilt, V. C.

2010-12-01

195

Activation and implementation of a Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center  

SciTech Connect

The Nevada Operations Office of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE/NV) has been assigned the primary responsibility for responding to a major radiological emergency. The initial response to any radiological emergency, however, will probably be conducted under the DOE regional radiological assistance plan (RAP). If the dimensions of the crisis demand federal assistance, the following sequence of events may be anticipated: (1) DOE regional RAP response, (2) activation of the Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assistance Center (FRMAC) requested, (3) aerial measuring systems and DOE/NV advance party respond, (4) FRMAC activated, (5) FRMAC responds to state(s) and cognizant federal agency (CFA), and (6) management of FRMAC transferred to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The paper discusses activation channels, authorization, notification, deployment, and interfaces.

Doyle, J.F. III

1989-01-01

196

Activity remotely triggered in volcanic and geothermal centers in California and Washington by the 3 November 2002 Mw=7.9 Alaska earthquake  

Microsoft Academic Search

The M=7.9 Alaska earthquake of 3 November 2002 was followed by bursts of remotely triggered earthquakes at several volcanic and geothermal areas across the western United States at epicentral distances of 2,500 to 3,660 km. Husen et al. (this session) describe the triggered response for Yellowstone caldera, Wyoming. Here we highlight the triggered response for the Geysers geothermal field in

D. P. Hill; S. Prejean; D. Oppenheimer; A. M. Pitt; S. D. Malone; K. Richards-Dinger

2002-01-01

197

Deep Earthquakes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Most earthquakes occur in the top 100 miles of the crust of the Earth, but some happen far below that, where the earth is so hot that rocks should simply flow past each other instead of producing the jolts that cause earthquakes. So what causes them? This radio broadcast explains how one geophysicist has performed experiments revealing that rock squeezed under intense pressure contains bits that become soft at different rates. These bits are able to hook up into shear zones that cause the earthquakes. The clip is 2 minutes in length.

198

Earthquake Search  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is designed to provide instruction on how to collect earthquake data from on-line databases. The parameters can be changed so that data for earthquakes occurring at any time or part of the world can be accessed. Following completion of this activity the user will be able to find the epicenter and hypocenter (focus), determine the number of earthquakes in a given area or region, determine magnitude, and make inferences why ground shaking does not always decrease with increasing distance from the epicenter.

Hopson, R.

199

Using graphics and expert system technologies to support satellite monitoring at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center  

Microsoft Academic Search

At NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, fault-isolation expert systems have been developed to support data monitoring and fault detection tasks in satellite control centers. Based on the lessons learned during these efforts in expert system automation, a new domain-specific expert system development tool named the Generic Spacecraft Analysts Assistant (GenSAA), was developed to facilitate the rapid development and reuse of

Peter M. Hughes; Gregory W. Shirah; Edward C. Luczak

1994-01-01

200

Earthquake Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Indicates the importance of the development of students' measurement and estimation skills. Analyzes earthquake data recorded at seismograph stations and explains how to read and modify the graphs. Presents an activity for student evaluation. (YDS)|

Espinoza, Fernando

2000-01-01

201

Earthquake Light.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper focuses on manifestations of earthquake light that appear to be of electromagnetic origin: general atmospheric luminosity; light flashes; and auroral effects. Explanations of near-ground phenomena are offered in terms of acceleration of free el...

W. G. McMillan

1985-01-01

202

Statistical analysis of the induced Basel 2006 earthquake sequence: introducing a probability-based monitoring approach for Enhanced Geothermal Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geothermal energy is becoming an important clean energy source, however, the stimulation of a reservoir for an Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) is associated with seismic risk due to induced seismicity. Seismicity occurring due to the water injection at depth have to be well recorded and monitored. To mitigate the seismic risk of a damaging event, an appropriate alarm system needs

C. E. Bachmann; S. Wiemer; J. Woessner; S. Hainzl

2011-01-01

203

Bibliography of Earthquake Engineering.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This bibliography of earthquake engineering literature is comprised of published articles up to the year 1971. Main topic areas include: (1) earthquakes; (2) ground vibrations; (3) ground; (4) structures; (5) earthquake damage; (6) earthquake resistant st...

K. Kanai

1977-01-01

204

Earthquakes in Arkansas and vicinity 1699-2010  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This map summarizes approximately 300 years of earthquake activity in Arkansas. It is one in a series of similar State earthquake history maps. Work on the Arkansas map was done in collaboration with the Arkansas Geological Survey. The earthquake data plotted on the map are from several sources: the Arkansas Geological Survey, the Center for Earthquake Research and Information, the National Center for Earthquake Engineering Research, and the Mississippi Department of Environmental Quality. In addition to earthquake locations, other materials presented include seismic hazard and isoseismal maps and related text. Earthquakes are a legitimate concern in Arkansas and parts of adjacent states. Arkansas has undergone a number of significant felt earthquakes since 1811. At least two of these events caused property damage: a magnitude 4.7 earthquake in 1931, and a magnitude 4.3 earthquake in 1967. The map shows all historical and instrumentally located earthquakes in Arkansas and vicinity between 1811 and 2010. The largest historic earthquake in the vicinity of the State was an intensity XI event, on December 16, 1811; the first earthquake in the New Madrid sequence. This violent event and the earthquakes that followed caused considerable damage to the then sparsely settled region.

Dart, Richard L.; Ausbrooks, Scott M.

2011-01-01

205

The Effects of Participant-Centered Staff Development on Teacher Monitoring Techniques in the Implementation of the Accelerated Reader Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study stemmed from my desire to maximize the benefits of Accelerated Reader (AR) for students by focusing on teacher implementation. The intervention was participant- centered staff development in AR monitoring techniques. Reading Renaissance training videos were presented prior to the staff development workshop. In the workshop, teachers discussed research supporting Reading Renaissance strategies, reviewed AR reading logs and reports,

Linda W. Davis

206

VERY LARGE ARRAY MONITORING OF 1720 MHz OH MASERS TOWARD THE GALACTIC CENTER  

SciTech Connect

We present the first variability study of the 1720 MHz OH masers located in the Galactic center. Most of these masers are associated with the interaction between the supernova remnant Sgr A East and the interstellar medium, but a few masers are associated with the circumnuclear disk (CND). The monitoring program covered five epochs and a timescale of 20-195 days, during which no masers disappeared and no new masers appeared. All masers have previously been detected in a single-epoch observation about one year prior to the start of the monitoring experiment, implying relatively stable conditions for the 1720 MHz OH masers. No extreme variability was detected. The masers associated with the northeastern interaction region between the supernova remnant and the +50 km s{sup -1} molecular cloud show the highest level of variability. This can be explained with the +50 km s{sup -1} molecular cloud being located behind the supernova remnant and with a region of high OH absorbing column density along the line of sight. Possibly, the supernova remnant provides additional turbulence to the gas in this region, through which the maser emission must travel. The masers in the southern interaction region are located on the outermost edge of Sgr A East, the line of sight of which is not covered by either absorbing OH gas or a supernova remnant, in agreement with the much lower variability level observed. Similarly, the masers associated with the CND show little variability, consistent with those arising through collisions between relatively large clumps of gas in the CND and no significant amount of turbulent gas along the line of sight.

Pihlstroem, Y. M.; Mesler, R. A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of New Mexico, MSC07 4220, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Sjouwerman, L. O., E-mail: ylva@unm.edu [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box 0, Lopezville Road 1001, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States)

2011-10-20

207

Earthquake Waves: The Find the Earthquake Team Challenge  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students work in teams to locate the epicenter of an earthquake using the time travel difference between the primary (P) and the secondary (S) waves. Teams work out that the time difference between the wave arrival times depends upon the distance of the monitoring station from the epicenter. To locate the earthquake they draw circles of the appropriate (scaled) radius from the monitoring stations and locate the epicenter where the three circles intersect. This site contains all of the data required for this activity and instructions for the teacher.

208

77 FR 53225 - National Earthquake Prediction Evaluation Council (NEPEC)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...USGS-GX12GG00995NP00] National Earthquake Prediction Evaluation Council (NEPEC...to Public Law 96-472, the National Earthquake Prediction Evaluation Council (NEPEC...the U.S. Geological Survey National Earthquake Information Center (NEIC), 1711...

2012-08-31

209

Earthquake related stresses at Rangely, Colorado  

Microsoft Academic Search

The investigation of the Rangely oil field has shown that artificially raised reservoir pressure in the neighborhood of a fault could initiate sliding and trigger earthquakes. The pore pressure along the fault at the site and depth where most earthquake foci were located has been monitored. Knowledge of the local stress configuration was needed, however, to confirm the type and

Haimson

1973-01-01

210

Network-based real-time radiation monitoring system in Synchrotron Radiation Research Center.  

PubMed

The real-time radiation monitoring system (RMS) in the Synchrotron Radiation Research Center (SRRC) has been upgraded significantly during the past years. The new framework of the RMS is built on the popular network technology, including Ethernet hardware connections and Web-based software interfaces. It features virtually no distance limitations, flexible and scalable equipment connections, faster response time, remote diagnosis, easy maintenance, as well as many graphic user interface software tools. This paper briefly describes the radiation environment in SRRC and presents the system configuration, basic functions, and some operational results of this real-time RMS. Besides the control of radiation exposures, it has been demonstrated that a variety of valuable information or correlations could be extracted from the measured radiation levels delivered by the RMS, including the changes of operating conditions, beam loss pattern, radiation skyshine, and so on. The real-time RMS can be conveniently accessed either using the dedicated client program or World Wide Web interface. The address of the Web site is http:// www-rms.srrc.gov.tw. PMID:13678290

Sheu, R J; Wang, J P; Chen, C R; Liu, J; Chang, F D; Jiang, S H

2003-10-01

211

Earthquake Location  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This demonstration of earthquake location uses triangulation on a globe. It requires seismograms and travel-time curves (the site explains where to obtain these), string, and a globe. Since P waves travel faster than S waves, the time difference between the arrival of the P wave and the arrival of the S wave depends on the distance the waves traveled from the source (earthquake) to the station (seismograph). Students will measure the time difference between the P and S wave arrival using a seismogram. Then they will use the travel-time curves to find the distance that corresponds to this time difference. Next, students will measure this distance on the globe using the string and locate the earthquake using the distances from three stations.

Barker, Jeffrey

212

Earthquake Machine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a demonstration of the principle of elastic rebound for the cause and recurrence of earthquakes. Under the Elastic Rebound Theory, the continuous motion of plates on Earth causes stress to build up at the boundaries between the plates, where friction keeps the boundaries locked. Stress is continually building up, and earthquakes act to relieve that stress. In the demonstration, the two sides of a fault are represented by sandpaper-covered blocks resting on a sandpaper-covered board. A weight rests on the block to apply a chosen amount of pressure on the sandpaper (defining the frictional strength of the fault). A spring is attached to the block and to a string, on which a constant pull is maintained. This apparatus is used to discover when the stress causes the blocks to move. Conclusions on earthquake recurrence (seismicity) may then be drawn.

Barker, Jeffrey

213

Deep earthquakes  

SciTech Connect

Earthquakes are often recorded at depths as great as 650 kilometers or more. These deep events mark regions where plates of the earth's surface are consumed in the mantle. But the earthquakes themselves present a conundrum: the high pressures and temperatures at such depths should keep rock from fracturing suddenly and generating a tremor. This paper reviews the research on this problem. Almost all deep earthquakes conform to the pattern described by Wadati, namely, they generally occur at the edge of a deep ocean and define an inclined zone extending from near the surface to a depth of 600 kilometers of more, known as the Wadati-Benioff zone. Several scenarios are described that were proposed to explain the fracturing and slipping of rocks at this depth.

Frohlich, C.

1989-01-01

214

Cooperative Monitoring Center Occasional Paper/11: Cooperative Environmental Monitoring in the Coastal Regions of India and Pakistan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The cessation of hostilities between India and Pakistan is an immediate need and of global concern, as these countries have tested nuclear devices, and have the capability to deploy nuclear weapons and long-range ballistic missiles. Cooperative monitoring...

G. Rajen

1999-01-01

215

Integrated System for Earthquake Early Warning and Quick Response Against Strong Motion - In Case of the Tokyo Metro Company  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In July 2005, an earthquake of M6.0 attacked the Tokyo metropolitan area. This earthquake occurred at 35.5N and 140.2E with about 73km in depth, and the maximum JMA intensity was 5+ corresponding to MMI VIII approximately. This earthquake occurred at north-west of Chiba prefecture and caused a traffic disturbance widely in Tokyo metropolitan area. All the train operation had been stopped for a long time after the earthquake, although a severe damage was not caused even in the area of high intensity. The longest down time for the train operation was more than seven hours. After the earthquake, we proposed a new system for early warning and quick response. Tokyo Metro Company accepted our proposal, and we replaced and built the new early warning/quick response system as followed. The system consists of two seismometer networks. One is the early warning system FREQL network with six seismometers to control or stop the train operation immediately after the earthquake occurrence. And the other is the portable digital seismometer AcCo network distributing 33 seismometers in every about three kilometers mesh to grasp more detailed seismic motion on their service area. The information from both FREQL network and AcCo network are gathered to the operation center and displayed on the individual monitoring system. The monitoring system for AcCo can indicate the integrated information from AcCo and FREQL on the subway network image. The AcCo monitoring system is also installed on the control table for each subway line. At the time of the earthquake, the early warning system detects at first the earthquake immediately and then the 33 local seismometers inform the actual earthquake motion of each site independently and rapidly. This system realized quick response and restart of the train operation because the early warning became faster and checking zone after earthquake was optimized. This updated system is expected to realize quicker response during and after. For the large system as the train operation, it is necessary for the control against the earthquake to equip the system not only to issue the early warning but also to support the quick and rational recovery work after the earthquake.

Sato, T.; Saita, J.; Nakamura, Y.

2007-12-01

216

Earthquakes in Mississippi and vicinity 1811-2010  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This map summarizes two centuries of earthquake activity in Mississippi. Work on the Mississippi map was done in collaboration with the Mississippi Department of Environmental Quality, Office of Geology. The earthquake data plotted on the map are from several sources: the Mississippi Department of Environmental Quality, the Center for Earthquake Research and Information, the National Center for Earthquake Engineering Research, and the Arkansas Geological Survey. In addition to earthquake locations, other materials include seismic hazard and isoseismal maps and related text. Earthquakes are a legitimate concern in Mississippi and parts of adjacent States. Mississippi has undergone a number of felt earthquakes since 1811. At least two of these events caused property damage: a magnitude 4.7 earthquake in 1931, and a magnitude 4.3 earthquake in 1967. The map shows all historical and instrumentally located earthquakes in Mississippi and vicinity between 1811 and 2010. The largest historic earthquake in the vicinity of the State was an intensity XI event, on December 16, 1811; the first earthquake in the New Madrid sequence. This violent event and the earthquakes that followed caused considerable damage to the then sparsely settled region.

Dart, Richard L.; Bograd, Michael B. E.

2011-01-01

217

RST (Robust Satellite Techiniques) analysis for monitoring earth emitted radiation at the time of the Hector Mine 16th October 1999 earthquake  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several studies have been performed, in the past years, reporting the appearance of space-time anomalies in TIR satellite imagery, from weeks to days, before severe earthquakes. Different authors, in order to explain the appearance of anomalously high TIR records near the place and the time of earthquake occurrence, attributed their appearance to the increase of green-house gas (such as CO2,

M. Lisi; C. Filizzola; N. Genzano; G. Mazzeo; N. Pergola; V. Tramutoli

2009-01-01

218

Earthquake Quiz!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site contains questions about earthquakes from students just like you! Mr. John Lahr from U.S. Geological Survey answered the questions and the information has been put up for you to read! If you hit the "back" button on this page, you can also play a word-search, a crossword puzzle, and try your hand at scrambled definitions.

Lahr, John

2002-01-01

219

Earthquake Seismology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The elastic waves radiating from earthquakes are of several different types; their paths explore all regions of the earth; and the separate quakes, each one a highly localized wave source for a brief interval of time, occur in nearly all geographic areas....

M. A. Tuve I. S. Sacks L. T. Aldrich J. Frez F. G. Saa

1964-01-01

220

Earthquake Analysis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Earth science students are expected to master the travel-time curves of the seismic waves generated at the focus of an earthquake and recorded at seismograph stations. Commonly, students are required to calculate the distance to the epicenter and the time

Espinoza, Fernando

2000-04-01

221

Engaging Students in Earthquake Science  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Southern California Earthquake Center Communication, Education, and Outreach program (SCEC CEO) has been collaborating with the University of Southern California (USC) Joint Education Project (JEP) and the Education Consortium of Central Los Angeles (ECCLA) to work directly with the teachers and schools in the local community around USC. The community surrounding USC is 57 % Hispanic (US Census, 2000)

I. E. Cooper; M. Benthien

2004-01-01

222

KiMS: Kids' Health Monitoring System at day-care centers using wearable sensors and vocabulary-based acoustic signal processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wearable sensors for healthcare and wireless health monitoring are rapidly becoming ubiquitous. They enable remote, accurate and low-cost health monitoring and can provide personal healthcare with timely detection of health issues. In this paper, we present a novel integrated system for monitoring children at day-care centers in order to facilitate proper care of health issues and overall wellbeing, including early

Abhishek Basak; Seetharam Narasimhan; Swarup Bhunia

2011-01-01

223

Earthquake Impact Scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the advent of the USGS prompt assessment of global earthquakes for response (PAGER) system, which rapidly assesses earthquake impacts, U.S. and international earthquake responders are reconsidering their automatic alert and activation levels and response procedures. To help facilitate rapid and appropriate earthquake response, an Earthquake Impact Scale (EIS) is proposed on the basis of two complementary criteria. On the

D. J. Wald; K. S. Jaiswal; K. D. Marano; D. Bausch

2011-01-01

224

Technical evaluation of the monitoring of electric power to the reactor protection system for the Duane Arnold Energy Center  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the technical evaluation of the monitoring of electric power to the reactor protection system (RPS) at the Duane Arnold Energy Center. The evaluation is to determine if the proposed design modification will protect the RPS from abnormal voltage and frequency conditions which could be supplied from the power supplies and will meet certain requirements set forth by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The proposed design modifications will protect the RPS from sustained abnormal voltage and frequency conditions from the supplying sources.

Selan, J.C.

1982-03-01

225

Stalking the next Parkfield earthquake  

SciTech Connect

The 30-kilometer section of the San Andreas fault midway between San Francisco and Los Angeles is the most well understood and most intensely monitored fault in the world. The geology of the area, its rock mechanics, the study of its past earthquakes, and prediction efforts for the next quake are described.

Kerr, R.A.

1984-01-06

226

Epidemiology of spinal cord injuries in the 2005 Pakistan earthquake  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study design:Prospective observational study.Objectives:To identify the epidemiological features specific to spinal injuries as a result of an earthquake.Settings:Rawalpindi, Pakistan in the months after the 8 October 2005 earthquake.Methods:In the month after the earthquake, the one established rehabilitation center was augmented with two makeshift spinal cord centers. Information on mechanism of injury, mode of evacuation, associated injuries was gathered, and a

M F A Rathore; P Rashid; A W Butt; A A Malik; Z A Gill; A J Haig; MFA Rathore

2007-01-01

227

A National Tracking Center for Monitoring Shipments of HEU, MOX, and Spent Nuclear Fuel: How do we implement?  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear material safeguards specialists and instrument developers at US Department of Energy (USDOE) National Laboratories in the United States, sponsored by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Office of NA-24, have been developing devices to monitor shipments of UF6 cylinders and other radioactive materials , . Tracking devices are being developed that are capable of monitoring shipments of valuable radioactive materials in real time, using the Global Positioning System (GPS). We envision that such devices will be extremely useful, if not essential, for monitoring the shipment of these important cargoes of nuclear material, including highly-enriched uranium (HEU), mixed plutonium/uranium oxide (MOX), spent nuclear fuel, and, potentially, other large radioactive sources. To ensure nuclear material security and safeguards, it is extremely important to track these materials because they contain so-called direct-use material which is material that if diverted and processed could potentially be used to develop clandestine nuclear weapons . Large sources could be used for a dirty bomb also known as a radioactive dispersal device (RDD). For that matter, any interdiction by an adversary regardless of intent demands a rapid response. To make the fullest use of such tracking devices, we propose a National Tracking Center. This paper describes what the attributes of such a center would be and how it could ultimately be the prototype for an International Tracking Center, possibly to be based in Vienna, at the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA).

Mark Schanfein

2009-07-01

228

Deep Defect Centers in Silicon Carbide Monitored with Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrical data obtained from deep level transient spectroscopy investigations on deep defect centers in the 3C, 4H, and 6H SiC polytypes are reviewed. Emphasis is put on intrinsic defect centers observed in as-grown material and subsequent to ion implantation or electron irradiation as well as on defect centers caused by doping with or implantation of transition metals (vanadium, titanium, chromium,

T. Dalibor; G. Pensl; H. Matsunami; T. Kimoto; W. J. Choyke; A. Schner; N. Nordell

1997-01-01

229

Cooperative Monitoring Center Occasional Paper/11: Cooperative Environmental Monitoring in the Coastal Regions of India and Pakistan  

SciTech Connect

The cessation of hostilities between India and Pakistan is an immediate need and of global concern, as these countries have tested nuclear devices, and have the capability to deploy nuclear weapons and long-range ballistic missiles. Cooperative monitoring projects among neighboring countries in South Asia could build regional confidence, and, through gradual improvements in relations, reduce the threat of war and the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. This paper discusses monitoring the trans-border movement of flow and sediment in the Indian and Pakistani coastal areas. Through such a project, India and Pakistan could initiate greater cooperation, and engender movement towards the resolution of the Sir Creek territorial dispute in their coastal region. The Joint Working Groups dialogue being conducted by India and Pakistan provides a mechanism for promoting such a project. The proposed project also falls within a regional framework of cooperation agreed to by several South Asian countries. This framework has been codified in the South Asian Seas Action Plan, developed by Bangladesh, India, Maldives, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. This framework provides a useful starting point for Indian and Pakistani cooperative monitoring in their trans-border coastal area. The project discussed in this paper involves computer modeling, the placement of in situ sensors for remote data acquisition, and the development of joint reports. Preliminary computer modeling studies are presented in the paper. These results illustrate the cross-flow connections between Indian and Pakistani coastal regions and strengthen the argument for cooperation. Technologies and actions similar to those suggested for the coastal project are likely to be applied in future arms control and treaty verification agreements. The project, therefore, serves as a demonstration of cooperative monitoring technologies. The project will also increase people-to-people contacts among Indian and Pakistani policy makers and scientists. In the perceptions of the general public, the project will crystallize the idea that the two countries share ecosystems and natural resources, and have a vested interest in increased collaboration.

Rajen, Gauray

1999-06-01

230

Darwin's earthquake.  

PubMed

Charles Darwin experienced a major earthquake in the Concepcin-Valdivia region of Chile 175 years ago, in February 1835. His observations dramatically illustrated the geologic principles of James Hutton and Charles Lyell which maintained that the surface of the earth was subject to alterations by natural events, such as earthquakes, volcanoes, and the erosive action of wind and water, operating over very long periods of time. Changes in the land created new environments and fostered adaptations in life forms that could lead to the formation of new species. Without the demonstration of the accumulation of multiple crustal events over time in Chile, the biologic implications of the specific species of birds and tortoises found in the Galapagos Islands and the formulation of the concept of natural selection might have remained dormant. PMID:21038753

Lee, Richard V

2010-07-01

231

The Effects of Performance Monitoring on Emotional Labor and Well-Being in Call Centers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was conducted to investigate the relationship between performance monitoring and well-being. It also examined a mechanism, namely emotional labor, that might mediate the relationship between them, assessed the effect of the work context on the relationship between performance monitoring and well-being, and examined the relative effects of performance monitoring and work context on well-being. Three aspects of performance

David Holman; Claire Chissick; Peter Totterdell

2002-01-01

232

CTEPP NC DATA COLLECTED ON FORM 05: CHILD DAY CARE CENTER PRE-MONITORING QUESTIONNAIRE  

EPA Science Inventory

This data set contains data concerning the potential sources of pollutants at the day care center including the chemicals that have been applied in the past at the day care center by staff members or by commercial contractors. The day care teacher was asked questions related to t...

233

CTEPP-OH DATA COLLECTED ON FORM 05: CHILD DAY CARE CENTER PRE-MONITORING QUESTIONNAIRE  

EPA Science Inventory

This data set contains data for CTEPP-OH concerning the potential sources of pollutants at the day care center including the chemicals that have been applied in the past at the day care center by staff members or by commercial contractors. The day care teacher was asked questions...

234

Adapting Community Call Centers for Crisis Support: A Model for Home-Based Care and Monitoring.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the development, testing, and implementation of a model to enable community health call centers, such as poison control centers, nurse advice lines, and other hotlines, to support home-management and shelter-in-place approaches in ce...

A. M. Seroka D. L. Scherger G. M. Bogdan J. Watson M. Johnson

2007-01-01

235

Classification of Global Urban Centers Using ASTER Data: Preliminary Results From the Urban Environmental Monitoring Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Land cover and land use changes associated with urbanization are important drivers of global ecologic and climatic change. Quantification and monitoring of these changes are part of the primary mission of the ASTER instrument, and comprise the fundamental research objective of the Urban Environmental Monitoring (UEM) Program. The UEM program will acquire day\\/night, visible through thermal infrared ASTER data twice

W. L. Stefanov; P. R. Christensen

2001-01-01

236

The World Trade Center Attack: Similarities to the 1988 earthquake in Armenia: time to teach the public life-supporting first aid?  

PubMed Central

On 7 December 1988, a severe earthquake hit in Armenia, a former republic of the Soviet Union (USSR); on 11 September 2001, a manmade attack of similar impact hit New York City. These events share similar implications for the role of the uninjured survivor. With basic training, the uninjured survivors could save lives without tools or resuscitation equipment. This article makes the case for teaching life-supporting first aid to the public in the hope that one day, should another such incident occur, they would be able to preserve injured victims until formal rescue occurs.

Crippen, David

2001-01-01

237

Cooperative Monitoring Center Occasional Paper/4: Missile Control in South Asia and the Role of Cooperative Monitoring Technology  

SciTech Connect

The succession of nuclear tests by India and Pakistan in May 1998 has changed the nature of their missile rivalry, which is only one of numerous manifestations of their relationship as hardened adversaries, deeply sensitive to each other's existing and evolving defense capabilities. The political context surrounding this costly rivalry remains unmediated by arms control measures or by any nascent prospect of detente. As a parallel development, sensible voices in both countries will continue to talk of building mutual confidence through openness to avert accidents, misjudgments, and misinterpretations. To facilitate a future peace process, this paper offers possible suggestions for stabilization that could be applied to India's and Pakistan's missile situation. Appendices include descriptions of existing missile agreements that have contributed to better relations for other countries as well as a list of the cooperative monitoring technologies available to provide information useful in implementing subcontinent missile regimes.

Kamal, N.; Sawhney, P.

1998-10-01

238

Magnetic perturbations before the strong earthquakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The search for the magnetic precursors of earthquakes by the method of synchronous detection is described. The data of the Guam Observatory (13.6N, 144.9E) located in a seismically active region and the USGS/NEIC catalogue of the National Earthquake Information Center of the U.S. Geological Survey for the period from 1991 to 2009 are used. Earthquakes with magnitudes M ? 7 in the range of longitudes from 100 to 170E are analyzed. The intervals of accumulation cover 40 hours before and 40 hours after an earthquake. The preliminary result reveals an enhancement of fluctuations in the Z-component within 12 hours before the earthquake.

Guglielmi, A. V.; Zotov, O. D.

2012-02-01

239

Cooperative Monitoring Center Occasional Paper/7: A Generic Model for Cooperative Border Security  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a generic model for dealing with security problems along borders between countries. It presents descriptions and characteristics of various borders and identifies the threats to border security, while emphasizing cooperative monitoring solutions.

Netzer, Colonel Gideon

1999-03-01

240

Using of Remote Sensing Techniques for Monitoring the Earthquakes Activities Along the Northern Part of the Syrian Rift System (LEFT-LATERAL),SYRIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earthquake mitigation can be achieved with a better knowledge of a region's infra-and substructures. High resolution Remote Sensing data can play a significant role to implement Geological mapping and it is essential to learn about the tectonic setting of a region. It is an effective method to identify active faults from different sources of Remote Sensing and compare the capability

Moutaz Dalati

2008-01-01

241

Assessing the potential of thermal infrared satellite surveys for monitoring seismically active areas: The case of Kocaeli (?zmit) earthquake, August 17, 1999  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spacetime anomalies of Earth's emitted radiation in the thermal infrared spectral range (TIR) measured from satellite months to weeks before the occurrence of earthquakes, have been interpreted, by several authors, as pre-seismic signals. The claimed connection of TIR emission with seismic activity has been considered, up to now, with some caution by the scientific community mainly for the insufficiency of

V. Tramutoli; V. Cuomo; C. Filizzola; N. Pergola; C. Pietrapertosa

2005-01-01

242

Anomalous Schumann resonance observed in China, possibly associated with Honshu, Japan Earthquake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Schumann resonance (hereafter SR) occurs in the cavity between the Earth and the ionosphere, and it is originated by the global lightning activities [1]. Some recent publications showed that anomalous SR phenomena may occur before major earthquakes [2-4]. Considering good prospects for the application of SR in Earthquake monitoring, we have established four observatories in Yunnan province, a region with frequent seismicity in the southwest of China. Our instruments can provide three components of magnetic field in 0-30 Hz, including BNS(North-South component), BEW(East-West component) and BV (Vertical component). The sample frequency is 100 Hz. In this research, we use high quality data recorded at Yongsheng observatory (geographic coordinates: 26.7 N, 100.77E) to analyze SR phenomena to find out anomalous effects possibly related with the Ms9.0 Earthquake (epicenter: 38.297 N, 142.372 E) near the east coast of Honshu, Japan on 11 March 2011. We select the data 15 days before and after the earthquake. SR in BNS and SR in BEWappear different in background characteristics. Frequencies of four SR modes in BNSare generally higher than that in BEW. Amplitude of SR in BNSis strong at around 05:00 LT, 15:00 LT and 23:00 LT of the day, while amplitude of SR in BEW is just intense around 16:00 LT, corresponding to about 08:00 UT. Because American, African and Asian thunderstorm centers play their dominant roles respectively in the intervals of 21:00UT1h, 15:00UT1h and 08:00UT1h [1, 3], we can see that SR in BEWis most sensitive to signals from Asian center and SR in BNS is in good response to three centers. SR in BNS and SR in BEW have presented different features in the aspect of anomalous effects related with earthquakes. BEW component gives us a clear picture of anomalous SR phenomena, which are characterized by increase in amplitude of four SR modes and increase in frequency at first SR mode several days before the earthquake. The amplitude of four SR modes began to increase four days before Honshu earthquake (7th March). And this continued to the day of the earthquake (11th March). Then it fell to the usual intensity after the earthquake (12th March). The frequency at first SR mode in BEW unconventionally exceeded the first mode frequency in BNS with an enhancement of 0.7 Hz on 8th and 9th March. We did not find similar anomalous effects in BNS. The anomalous effects in BEW may be caused by interference between direct path from Asian center to the observatory and disturbed path scattered by the perturbation in the ionosphere over Honshu. More detailed analysis is going on. 1. Nickolaenko A P and Hayakawa M, Resonances in the Earth-ionosphere cavity. 2002: Kluwer Academic Pub. 2. Hayakawa M, Ohta K, Nickolaenko A P, et al. Anomalous effect in Schumann resonance phenomena observed in Japan, possibly associated with the Chi-chi earthquake in Taiwan. Annales geophysicae,2005. pp. 1335-1346. 3. Hayakawa M, Nickolaenko A P, Sekiguchi M, et al., Anomalous ELF phenomena in the Schumann resonance band as observed at Moshiri (Japan) in possible association with an earthquake in Taiwan. Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci, 2008. 8(6): p. 1309-1316. 4. Ohta K, Izutsu J, and Hayakawa M, Anomalous excitation of Schumann resonances and additional anomalous resonances before the 2004 Mid-Niigata prefecture earthquake and the 2007 Noto Hantou Earthquake. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C, 2009. 34(6-7): p. 441-448.

Ouyang, X. Y.; Zhang, X. M.; Shen, X. H.; Miao, Y. Q.

2012-04-01

243

Environmental Technology Verification Program Advanced Monitoring Systems Center: Test/QA Plan for Verification of Ambient Hydrogen Sulfide Analyzers at a Swine Finishing Farm.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program's AMS Center conducts third-party performance testing of commercially available technologies that detect or monitor natural species or contaminants in air, water, and soil. Stakeholder committees of ...

2005-01-01

244

Safety Appraisal of the Program to Control and Monitor Worker Internal Radiation Exposure at the Feed Materials Production Center Fernald, Ohio (with Transmittal Memorandum).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this Appraisal was to determine the safety adequacy of the Feed Materials Production Center (FMPC) radiological protection program as it related to the control and monitoring of worker internal exposure to radioactive materials. The apprais...

1989-01-01

245

Ancient Earthquakes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Over a period of 50 years around 1200 B.C., all the great Bronze Age civilizations came to an end. A number of ideas have been advanced to explain why these civilizations ended almost simultaneously, but no one is quite sure why. This radio broadcast explains how a physicist at Stanford University has come up with a new idea- a series of earthquakes, sweeping over southern Itlay to central Turkey over 50 years, may have caused the destruction of these civilzations. The clip is 2 minutes in length.

246

Nonextensive characteristics of earthquakes magnitude distribution in Javakheti region, Georgia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For last several years nonextensive statistical mechanics is increasingly used to study wide range of complex phenomena exhibiting the scale free nature in different domains. It is assumed that nonextensivity concepts may provide a suitable framework to shed new light on features of spatiotemporal and energetic behavior of seismic processes which presently are not fully understood. In present research we studied cumulative distribution of earthquakes magnitudes in Caucasus from both common and nonextensive statistical mechanics point of views. Data sets of earthquakes magnitudes from 1960 to 1991 have been compiled from data bases of Seismic Monitoring Center at Ilia State University in Georgia. Javakheti Region in Southern Georgia was selected based on its geological structure and high seismic activity; exact time interval was specified because of increased seismic activity in Caucasus for that period. Together with common seismic characteristics such as a andbvalues of Gutenberg-Richter relationship, we evaluated nonextensive characteristics in the framework of earthquakes fragment-asperity interaction model. Namely nonextensive parameter qand energy density value a were calculated. All these characteristics have been assessed for the whole observation period as well as for consecutive 10 year overlapping sliding windows. It was observed that calculated nonextensive characteristics both for whole catalogue and for sliding windows (q=1.6-1.83) are close to the range found earlier for other regions. At the same time we see that bothaandq values vary in the investigated period, for consecutive sliding windows. These changes are statistically significant and obviously are related to the earthquake generation process of Javakheti region. Indeed, it was observed that nonextensivity parameter increases according to local seismic activity, which may point to the increase of functional relationship between above parameters prior and during earthquake generation. At the same time energy density value a, which is assumed to be related with spatial distribution, decreases after strongest event for the considered time period. These results point to increased long range correlations of seismic process in energetic and spatial domains prior and during strongest regional earthquakes. Results of nonextensive analysis are in good accordance with b value analysis. After strongest event b value increases and a decreases that is consistent with a physical meaning of these parameters. Results of our research supports assumption that nonextensive statistics can provide a new promising approach to earthquakes distribution features in different domains.

Chelidze, Tamaz; Matcharashvili, Teimuraz; Jorjiashvili, Nato; Javakhishvili, Zurab

2010-05-01

247

Internet Geography: Earthquakes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site is part of GeoNet Internet Geography, a resource for pre-collegiate British geography students and their instructors. This page focuses on earthquakes and how they occur. Topics covered include the effects of earthquakes, measuring earthquakes, and case studies about specific recent earthquakes.

248

User-centered development and testing of a monitoring system that provides feedback regarding physical functioning to elderly people  

PubMed Central

Purpose To involve elderly people during the development of a mobile interface of a monitoring system that provides feedback to them regarding changes in physical functioning and to test the system in a pilot study. Methods and participants The iterative user-centered development process consisted of the following phases: (1) selection of user representatives; (2) analysis of users and their context; (3) identification of user requirements; (4) development of the interface; and (5) evaluation of the interface in the lab. Subsequently, the monitoring and feedback system was tested in a pilot study by five patients who were recruited via a geriatric outpatient clinic. Participants used a bathroom scale to monitor weight and balance, and a mobile phone to monitor physical activity on a daily basis for six weeks. Personalized feedback was provided via the interface of the mobile phone. Usability was evaluated on a scale from 1 to 7 using a modified version of the Post-Study System Usability Questionnaire (PSSUQ); higher scores indicated better usability. Interviews were conducted to gain insight into the experiences of the participants with the system. Results The developed interface uses colors, emoticons, and written and/or spoken text messages to provide daily feedback regarding (changes in) weight, balance, and physical activity. The participants rated the usability of the monitoring and feedback system with a mean score of 5.2 (standard deviation 0.90) on the modified PSSUQ. The interviews revealed that most participants liked using the system and appreciated that it signaled changes in their physical functioning. However, usability was negatively influenced by a few technical errors. Conclusion Involvement of elderly users during the development process resulted in an interface with good usability. However, the technical functioning of the monitoring system needs to be optimized before it can be used to support elderly people in their self-management.

Vermeulen, Joan; Neyens, Jacques CL; Spreeuwenberg, Marieke D; van Rossum, Erik; Sipers, Walther; Habets, Herbert; Hewson, David J; de Witte, Luc P

2013-01-01

249

EARTHQUAKE TRIGGERING AND SPATIAL-TEMPORAL RELATIONS IN THE VICINITY OF YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA  

SciTech Connect

It is well accepted that the 1992 M 5.6 Little Skull Mountain earthquake, the largest historical event to have occurred within 25 km of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, was triggered by the M 7.2 Landers earthquake that occurred the day before. On the premise that earthquakes can be triggered by applied stresses, we have examined the earthquake catalog from the Southern Great Basin Digital Seismic Network (SGBDSN) for other evidence of triggering by external and internal stresses. This catalog now comprises over 12,000 events, encompassing five years of consistent monitoring, and has a low threshold of completeness, varying from M 0 in the center of the network to M 1 at the fringes. We examined the SGBDSN catalog response to external stresses such as large signals propagating from teleseismic and regional earthquakes, microseismic storms, and earth tides. Results are generally negative. We also examined the interplay of earthquakes within the SGBDSN. The number of ''foreshocks'', as judged by most criteria, is significantly higher than the background seismicity rate. In order to establish this, we first removed aftershocks from the catalog with widely used methodology. The existence of SGBDSN foreshocks is supported by comparing actual statistics to those of a simulated catalog with uniform-distributed locations and Poisson-distributed times of occurrence. The probabilities of a given SGBDSN earthquake being followed by one having a higher magnitude within a short time frame and within a close distance are at least as high as those found with regional catalogs. These catalogs have completeness thresholds two to three units higher in magnitude than the SGBDSN catalog used here. The largest earthquake in the SGBDSN catalog, the M 4.7 event in Frenchman Flat on 01/27/1999, was preceded by a definite foreshock sequence. The largest event within 75 km of Yucca Mountain in historical time, the M 5.7 Scotty's Junction event of 08/01/1999, was also preceded by foreshocks. The monitoring area of the SGBDSN has been in a long period of very low moment release rate since February of 1999. The seismicity catalog to date suggests that the next significant (M > 4) earthquake within the SGBDSN will be preceded by foreshocks.

na

2001-02-08

250

The Ability of the United States Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center to Collect and Disseminate Environmental Measurements during Radiological Emergencies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC) is the United States response organization for radiological emergencies. The FRMAC is structured as an operations center and employs the combined resources of several federal agencies to respond to any disaster resulting in the release of radioactivity. The mission of the FRMAC is to support state and local authorities in the gathering

James Essex Craig Marianno

2007-01-01

251

Drought Monitor by USDA, NOAA, and the National Drought Mitigation Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Drought Monitor provides a weekly overview of where in the United States drought is emerging, lingering, subsiding or forecasted. Responding to the need for accurate, centralized drought information, a resource that summarizes information from numerous drought indices and indicators has been created on a single, easy-to-read color map known as the Drought Monitor. The map combines key indices of rainfall and drought to produce the final drought intensity rating. Since drought often affects various activities differently, the map indicates whether drought is affecting agriculture, fire danger, or water supplies.

252

Biological monitoring of mercury exposure in individuals referred to a toxicological center in Venezuela  

Microsoft Academic Search

People in developing countries are often considered at greater risk of mercury (Hg) poisoning due to a variety of factors including a lack of awareness regarding their occupational risks. Individuals requiring urine mercury (U-Hg) analysis at the Center for Toxicological Investigations of the University of Carabobo (CITUC), between 1998 and 2002 were studied to identify demographic characteristics associated to U-Hg

Maritza Rojas; David Seijas; Olga Agreda; Maritza Rodrguez

2006-01-01

253

CTEPP DATA COLLECTION FORM 05: CHILD DAY CARE CENTER PRE-MONITORING QUESTIONNAIRE  

EPA Science Inventory

This data collection form is used to identify the potential sources of pollutants at the day care center. The day care teacher is asked questions related to the age of their day care building; age and frequency of cleaning carpets or rugs; types of heating and air conditioning de...

254

Earthquake Photo Collections  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collection of earthquake photos, published by the United States Geological Survey (USGS), contains links to photos for specific earthquakes, as well as links to other USGS image collections and non-USGS collections. Highlights include photos from the 1906 San Francisco earthquake, the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake, and the 1994 earthquake in Northridge, California. There is also a link to the USGS photo library (general geologic topics), and links to collections published by universities, museums, other government organizations, and professional organizations.

2011-06-21

255

CTEPP-OH DATA COLLECTED ON FORM 07: CHILD DAY CARE CENTER POST-MONITORING  

EPA Science Inventory

This data set contains data concerning the child?s daily activities and potential exposures to pollutants at their homes for CTEPP-OH. It included questions on chemicals applied and cigarettes smoked at the home over the 48-h monitoring period. It also collected information on th...

256

CTEPP NC DATA COLLECTED ON FORM 07: CHILD DAY CARE CENTER POST-MONITORING  

EPA Science Inventory

This data set contains data concerning the child?s daily activities and potential exposures to pollutants at their homes. It included questions on chemicals applied and cigarettes smoked at the home over the 48-h monitoring period. It also collected information on the child?s han...

257

CTEPP DATA COLLECTION FORM 07: CHILD DAY CARE CENTER POST-MONITORING  

EPA Science Inventory

This data collection form is used to provide information on the child's daily activities and potential exposures to pollutants at their homes. It includes questions on chemicals applied and cigarettes smoked at the home over the 48-hr monitoring period. It also collects informati...

258

Academia Sinica, TW E-science to Assistant Seismic Observations for Earthquake Research, Monitor and Hazard Reduction Surrounding the South China Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Experience from the 1994 giant Sumatra earthquake, seismic and tsunami hazard have been considered as important issues in\\u000a the South China Sea and its surrounding region, and attracted many seismologists interesting. Currently, more than 25 broadband\\u000a seismic instruments are currently operated by Institute of Earth Sciences, Academia Sinica in northern Vietnam to study the\\u000a geodynamic evolution of the Red river

Bor-Shouh Huang; Chun-Chi Liu; Eric Yen; Wen-Tzong Liang; Simon C. Lin; Win-Gee Huang; Shiann-Jong Lee; Hsin-Yen Chen

2010-01-01

259

Magma supply and storage in volcanic systems: Shallow crustal emplacement processes and causes of the large axial high along the western Galapagos Spreading Center, and, Relation of earthquakes to tectonic and magmatic features near Lassen Peak, northern California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magma storage and supply is investigated in two different tectonic environments: the Galapagos Spreading Center (GSC, a plume-influenced mid-ocean ridge, and Lassen Peak, a subduction-related volcano. Along the GSC multi-channel seismic reflection data are used to infer crustal accretion processes and forward modeling is used to investigate causes of the axial high. At Lassen Peak, catalog earthquakes are relocated using the double-difference method and resulting locations are examined. Moving westward away from the hotspot along the GSC the magma lens deepens, layer 2A thickens, and the axial high rapidly disappears near 92.7W. Increasing layer 2A thickness and magma lens depth support the interpretation of layer 2A as the extrusive volcanic layer with thickness controlled by pressure on the magma lens and its ability to push magma to the surface. Off-axis thickening of layer 2A east of 94.0W suggests narrower magma lenses focus diking close to the ridge axis such that lava flowing away from the axis blankets older flows thickening the extrusive crust off-axis. Causes of the GSC axial high are investigated using a model that determines the flexural response of the lithosphere to loads resulting from the thermal and magmatic structure. Results reveal that the large axial high requires either that the crust below the magma lens contains a lot of melt (?35%), or that melt extends into the mantle in a narrow region beneath the axis. Less melt is required for a profile to the west where the axial high is smaller (like the East Pacific Rise). Earthquake relocation at Lassen Peak shows focusing of events into three clusters 4--6 km beneath the south flank of the volcano. These clusters may be related to movement of magmatic and hydrothermal fluids and may mark the top of a region of hot crust overlying a small magma chamber. Just north of Manzanita Creek (14 km northwest of Lassen Peak) is a linear set of earthquakes not corresponding to any mapped faults. A single basaltic vent at the eastern end of this feature indicates magma may have used this weak zone in the crust to make its way to the surface.

Blacic, Tanya Marie

260

Stability Analysis of Bipedal Walking with Control or Monitoring of the Center of Pressure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study is to analyze the stability of two control strategies for a planar biped robot. The unexpected\\u000a rotation of the supporting foot is avoided via the control of the center of pressure or CoP. For the simultaneous control\\u000a of the joints and of the CoP, the system is under-actuated in the sense that the number of

D. Djoudi; C. Chevallereau

261

Cooperative Monitoring Center Occasional Paper/9: De-Alerting Strategic Ballistic Missiles  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a framework for evaluating the technical merits of strategic ballistic missile de-alerting measures, and it uses the framework to evaluate a variety of possible measures for silo-based, land-mobile, and submarine-based missiles. De-alerting measures are defined for the purpose of this paper as reversible actions taken to increase the time or effort required to launch a strategic ballistic missile. The paper does not assess the desirability of pursuing a de-alerting program. Such an assessment is highly context dependent. The paper postulates that if de-alerting is desirable and is used as an arms control mechanism, de-alerting measures should satisfy specific cirteria relating to force security, practicality, effectiveness, significant delay, and verifiability. Silo-launched missiles lend themselves most readily to de-alerting verification, because communications necessary for monitoring do not increase the vulnerabilty of the weapons by a significant amount. Land-mobile missile de-alerting measures would be more challenging to verify, because monitoring measures that disclose the launcher's location would potentially increase their vulnerability. Submarine-launched missile de-alerting measures would be extremely challlenging if not impossible to monitor without increasing the submarine's vulnerability.

Connell, Leonard W.; Edenburn, Michael W.; Fraley, Stanley K.; Trost, Lawrence C.

1999-03-01

262

Post-Sumatra Enhancements at the Pacific Tsunami Warning Center  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Following the tragic Indian Ocean Tsunami of 2004, the Richard Hagemeyer Pacific Tsunami Warning Center (PTWC) has dramatically enhanced its capabilities. With improved communications PTWC now ingests seismic data from almost all broadband stations of the Global Seismographic Network and will soon add many stations from the International Monitoring System. As data sources are increased PTWC's response time to any earthquake declines; for most earthquakes the center now gets out an initial message in about 12 minutes. With 24-hour staffing, that performance is maintained around the clock. Direct measurement of tsunamis has been improved through communications upgrades to coastal tide gauges by NOAA and other collaborators in the Pacific Tsunami Warning System, and by the NOAA deployment of DART instruments throughout the world's oceans. In addition to providing warnings for the Pacific (with the exception of Alaska and the west coasts of the U.S, and Canada, which are the responsibility of the West Coast and Alaska Tsunami Warning Center), PTWC also operates as an interim warning center for the Indian Ocean (a task performed in collaboration with the Japan Meteorological Agency) and the Caribbean. PTWC also operates as a local warning center for the State of Hawaii. In Hawaii, the installation of new seismometers again means a continuous reduction in PTWC's response times. Initial assessments of local earthquakes are routinely accomplished in less than five minutes, and the first message for the Kiholo Bay Earthquake of 2006 was issued in only three minutes. With the development of the Hawaii Integrated Seismographic Network, in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey, the goal is to reduce the time for tsunami warnings to under two minutes for any earthquake in the Hawaiian Islands.

McCreery, C.; Weinstein, S.; Becker, N.; Cessaro, R.; Hirshorn, B.; Fryer, G.; Hsu, V.; Sardina, V.; Koyanagi, S.; Shiro, B.; Wang, D.; Walsh, D.

2007-12-01

263

Deep infrasound radiated by the Sumatra earthquake and tsunami  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infrasound arrays in the Pacific and Indian oceans that are part of the International Monitoring System (IMS) of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) recorded distinct signatures associated with the 26 December 2004 Sumatra earthquake (M\\/9, http:\\/\\/earthquake.usgs.gov\\/) and tsunami. Although the radiation of infrasound from large continental earthquakes is established [e.g., Le Pichon et al., 2003], the results presented

M. Garcs; P. Caron; C. Hetzer; A. Le Pichon; H. Bass; D. Drob; J. Bhattacharyya

2005-01-01

264

Earthquake Magnitude - Linking Earthquake Magnitude and Intensity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Earthquake magnitude is commonly used to represent the size of an earthquake. However, most people want to understand how much impact or damage earthquakes do. These two concepts are linked by shaking. Earthquake magnitude can be measured in a variety of ways, most commonly moment magnitude or Richter magnitude. Shaking is measured in units of acceleration, (often a percentage of g). Damage or intensity can be measured by the modified Mercalli intensity (MMI) scale. In this activity, students will model earthquakes of various magnitudes to determine the amount of shaking that these quakes will cause. They will then convert the shaking to modified Mercalli intensity and generate an isoseismal map for a M8 and M6 earthquake. Uses geophysics to solve problems in other fields Addresses student misconceptions

Baer, Eric

265

Avian Flu / Earthquake Prediction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This radio broadcast includes a discussion of the avian flu spreading though Southeast Asia, Russia and parts of Europe. Topics include whether the outbreak is a pandemic in the making, and what preparations might be made to control the outbreak. The next segment of the broadcast discusses earthquake prediction, in light of the 2005 earthquake in Pakistan. Two seismologists discuss what was learned in the Parkfield project, an experiment in earthquake prediction conducted in California. Other topics include the distribution of large versus small earthquakes; how poor construction magnifies earthquake devastation; and the relationship of plate tectonics to the Pakistan earthquake.

266

Photometric Monitoring of Active Galactic Nuclei in the Center for Automated Space Science: Preliminary Results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we will present preliminary results of our program to photometrically monitor a set of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) known as Blazars. Using CCDs as N-star photometers and a technique known as aperture photometry, we can achieve close to 0.02 magnitude precision with small to midsize telescopes. Blazars are highly luminous and highly variable; studying these variations provides insight into the central engines producing the high luminosities. we report on our reduction and analysis of CCD data obtained at one of our collaborating institutions, the NF Observatory at Western New Mexico University. CCD data obtained at the Western Kentucky University 24 inch telescope will also be discussed.

Culler, Ryan; Deckard, Monica; Guilaran, Fonsie; Watson, Casey; Carini, Michael; Gelderman, Richard; Neely, William

1997-02-01

267

Cooperative Monitoring Center Occasional Paper/8: Cooperative Border Security for Jordan: Assessment and Options  

SciTech Connect

This document is an analysis of options for unilateral and cooperative action to improve the security of Jordan's borders. Sections describe the current political, economic, and social interactions along Jordan's borders. Next, the document discusses border security strategy for cooperation among neighboring countries and the adoption of confidence-building measures. A practical cooperative monitoring system would consist of hardware for early warning, command and control, communications, and transportation. Technical solutions can expand opportunities for the detection and identification of intruders. Sensors (such as seismic, break-wire, pressure-sensing, etc.) can warn border security forces of intrusion and contribute to the identification of the intrusion and help formulate the response. This document describes conceptual options for cooperation, offering three scenarios that relate to three hypothetical levels (low, medium, and high) of cooperation. Potential cooperative efforts under a low cooperation scenario could include information exchanges on military equipment and schedules to prevent misunderstandings and the establishment of protocols for handling emergency situations or unusual circumstances. Measures under a medium cooperation scenario could include establishing joint monitoring groups for better communications, with hot lines and scheduled meetings. The high cooperation scenario describes coordinated responses, joint border patrols, and sharing border intrusion information. Finally, the document lists recommendations for organizational, technical, and operational initiatives that could be applicable to the current situation.

Qojas, M.

1999-03-01

268

Long-term post transplant alloantibody monitoring: a single center experience.  

PubMed

Between 2000 and 2010, 4241 sera from 597 renal transplant (RTx) recipients were monitored for DSA development. The patients were selected in the absence of immunological memory to donor HLA before RTx and were divided into two groups: the historic group, consisting of patients transplanted before December 1996 and the study group, consisting of those transplanted after December 1996. Ninety-two out of 597 (15.4%) patients developed de novo DSA post-RTx, while 196 had third party anti-HLA antibodies. DSA were more frequent in the historic group compared with the study group (P < 0.001). Anti-HLA class-III DSA predominated in both groups (84.6% vs. 69.7%) and were directed preferentially against donor HLA-DQ (65/92,70.6%). Recipients of class II-incompatible grafts developed DSA more frequently than those receiving class II-compatible grafts (P = 0.003). DSA production was not different between pre-sensitized and non-sensitized patients (P = 0.842). DSA class I (HR = 31.78), DSA class II (HR = 20.92), and non-DSA (HR = 5.94) were the only independent predictors for graft failure. In conclusion, this study shows the results of long-term post-transplant alloantibody monitoring, and confirm the strong association of DSA and graft loss. Protocols that remove anti-HLA antibodies from RTx recipients may benefit allograft survival. PMID:22755429

Ntokou, I S; Boletis, J N; Apostolaki, M; Vrani, V; Zavos, G; Kostakis, A; Iniotaki, A

2011-01-01

269

Earthquake Education in Prime Time  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since 2001, the Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC) has collaborated on several video production projects that feature important topics related to earthquake science, engineering, and preparedness. These projects have also fostered many fruitful and sustained partnerships with a variety of organizations that have a stake in hazard education and preparedness. The Seismic Sleuths educational video first appeared in the spring season 2001 on Discovery Channel's Assignment Discovery. Seismic Sleuths is based on a highly successful curriculum package developed jointly by the American Geophysical Union and The Department of Homeland Security Federal Emergency Management Agency. The California Earthquake Authority (CEA) and the Institute for Business and Home Safety supported the video project. Summer Productions, a company with a reputation for quality science programming, produced the Seismic Sleuths program in close partnership with scientists, engineers, and preparedness experts. The program has aired on the National Geographic Channel as recently as Fall 2004. Currently, SCEC is collaborating with Pat Abbott, a geology professor at San Diego State University (SDSU) on the video project Written In Stone: Earthquake Country - Los Angeles. Partners on this project include the California Seismic Safety Commission, SDSU, SCEC, CEA, and the Insurance Information Network of California. This video incorporates live-action demonstrations, vivid animations, and a compelling host (Abbott) to tell the story about earthquakes in the Los Angeles region. The Written in Stone team has also developed a comprehensive educator package that includes the video, maps, lesson plans, and other supporting materials. We will present the process that facilitates the creation of visually effective, factually accurate, and entertaining video programs. We acknowledge the need to have a broad understanding of the literature related to communication, media studies, science education, and hazard response to create a program that is both educational and provides a public service. Seismic Sleuths and Written in Stone are the harbingers of a new genre of earthquake programs that are the antithesis of the 1974 film Earthquake and the 2004 miniseries 10.5. Film producers and those in the earthquake education community are demonstrating that it is possible to tell an exciting story, inspire awareness, and encourage empowerment without sensationalism.

de Groot, R.; Abbott, P.; Benthien, M.

2004-12-01

270

The Seminole Serpent Warrior At Miramar, FL, Shows Settlement Locations Enabled Environmental Monitoring Reminiscent Of the Four-corners Kokopelli-like EMF Phenomena, and Related to Earthquakes, Tornados and Hurricanes.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Certain Native Americans of the past seem to have correctly deduced that significant survival information for their tradition-respecting cultures resided in EMF-based phenomena that they were monitoring. This is based upon their myths and the place or cult-hero names they bequeathed us. The sites we have located in FL have been detectable by us visually, usually by faint blue light, or by the elicitation of pin-like prickings, by somewhat intense nervous-system response, by EMF interactions with aural electrochemical systems that can elicit tinitus, and other ways. In the northeast, Cautantowit served as a harbinger of Indian summer, and appears to be another alter ego of the EMF. The Miami, FL Tequesta site along the river clearly correlates with tornado, earthquake and hurricane locations. Sites like the Mohave Deserts giant man may have had similar significance.

Balam Matagamon, Chan; Pawa Matagamon, Sagamo

2004-03-01

271

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory earthquake safety program  

SciTech Connect

Within three minutes on the morning of January 24, 1980, an earthquake and three aftershocks, with Richter magnitudes of 5.8, 5.1, 4.0, and 4.2, respectively, struck the Livermore Valley. Two days later, a Richter magnitude 5.4 earthquake occurred, which had its epicenter about 4 miles northwest of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Although no one at the Laboratory was seriously injured, these earthquakes caused considerable damage and disruption. Masonry and concrete structures cracked and broke, trailers shifted and fell off their pedestals, office ceilings and overhead lighting fell, and bookcases overturned. We suddenly found ourselves immersed in a site-wide program of repairing earthquake-damaged facilities, and protecting our many employees and the surrounding community from future earthquakes. Over the past four years, LLNL has spent approximately $10 million on its earthquake restoration effort for repairs and upgrades. The discussion in this paper centers upon the earthquake damage that occurred, our clean-up and restoration efforts, the seismic review of LLNL facilities, our site-specific seismic design criteria, computer-floor upgrades, ceiling-system upgrades, unique building seismic upgrades, geologic and seismologic studies, and seismic instrumentation. 9 references, 37 figures, 2 tables.

Freeland, G.E.

1984-08-21

272

Tracking Earthquake Cascades  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In assessing their risk to society, earthquakes are best characterized as cascades that can propagate from the natural environment into the socio-economic (built) environment. Strong earthquakes rarely occur as isolated events; they usually cluster in foreshock-mainshock-aftershock sequences, seismic swarms, and extended sequences of large earthquakes that propagate along major fault systems. These cascades are regulated by stress-mediated interactions among faults driven by tectonic loading. Within these cascades, each large event can itself cause a chain reaction in which the primary effects of faulting and ground shaking induce secondary effects, including tsunami, landslides, liquefaction, and set off destructive processes within the built environment, such as fires and radiation leakage from nuclear plants. Recent earthquakes have demonstrated how the socio-economic effects of large earthquakes can reverberate for many years. To reduce earthquake risk and improve the resiliency of communities to earthquake damage, society depends on five geotechnologies for tracking earthquake cascades: long-term probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA), short-term (operational) earthquake forecasting, earthquake early warning, tsunami warning, and the rapid production of post-event information for response and recovery (see figure). In this presentation, I describe how recent advances in earthquake system science are leading to improvements in this geotechnology pipeline. In particular, I will highlight the role of earthquake simulations in predicting strong ground motions and their secondary effects before and during earthquake cascades

Jordan, T. H.

2011-12-01

273

Problems of global geomechanics, seismology, and earthquake-resistant construction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Theoretical aspects of the formation of the Earth's structure and the development of internal convective processes, which govern the movement of continents and the origin of earthquake centers are addressed. Means of deriving quantitative laws characterizing processes within the terrestrial sphere are proposed. Possibilities of predicting earthquakes and rational consideration of seismic effects during construction in seismically active regions are

S. S. Grigoryan

1992-01-01

274

Earthquake in Campania-Basilicata, Italy, November 23, 1980.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

On November 23, 1980, south-central Italy was struck by a disastrous earthquake that affected the regions of Campania and Basilicata and the provinces of Naples, Salerno, Avellino, and Potenza. The magnitude 6.8 earthquake, which was centered about 100 km...

E. L. Krinitzsky J. L. Stratta L. E. Escalante U. Morelli

1981-01-01

275

Plotting Earthquakes with Near Real-Time Data  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity only requires access to the internet to link to the United States Geological Survey National Earthquake Information Center website and a physiographic chart of the world that has longitude/latitude. Several scientific supply houses sell such physiographic charts. Students plot weekly earthquake data from the NEIC website for several weeks, then work in groups to explain the results.

Slattery, Bill

276

Recurrence of Great Earthquakes: Evidence of Double Periodicity Along the Cascadia Subduction Zone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the recognition that the Cascadia subduction zone in the US Pacific Northwest has produced large magnitude earthquakes in the past seven thousand years there has been considerable discussion centered on the dates and intervals between the earthquakes. Accurate information about the intervals between events improves the estimated date and magnitude of the next great earthquake and increases our ability

C. Jurney

2002-01-01

277

Radioanalytical Data Quality Objectives and Measurement Quality Objectives during a Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center Response  

SciTech Connect

During the early and intermediate phases of a nuclear or radiological incident, the Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC) collects environmental samples that are analyzed by organizations with radioanalytical capability. Resources dedicated to quality assurance (QA) activities must be sufficient to assure that appropriate radioanalytical measurement quality objectives (MQOs) and assessment data quality objectives (DQOs) are met. As the emergency stabilizes, QA activities will evolve commensurate with the need to reach appropriate DQOs. The MQOs represent a compromise between precise analytical determinations and the timeliness necessary for emergency response activities. Minimum detectable concentration (MDC), lower limit of detection, and critical level tests can all serve as measurements reflecting the MQOs. The relationship among protective action guides (PAGs), derived response levels (DRLs), and laboratory detection limits is described. The rationale used to determine the appropriate laboratory detection limit is described.

E. C. Nielsen

2006-01-01

278

Earthquakes Around the World  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Certain parts of the world are more susceptible to earthquake activity and volcanic eruptions than others. In this activity you will use a computer model to investigate the earthquakes and volcanic eruptions that have occurred around the world since 1960.

Consortium, The C.

2011-12-11

279

Helium soil-gas variations associated with recent central California earthquakes: precursor or coincidence  

SciTech Connect

Decreases in the helium concentration of soil-gas have been observed to precede six of eight recent central California earthquakes. Ten monitoring stations were established near Hollister, California and along the San Andreas Fault to permit gas collection. The data showed decreases occurring a few weeks before the earthquakes and concentrations returned to prequake levels either shortly before or after the earthquakes.

Reimer, G.M.

1981-05-01

280

Focal mechanism analyses for Virginia and eastern Tennessee earthquakes (1978-1984)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Focal mechanisms are presented for 11 earthquakes from the Giles County, Virginia, seismic zone and its vicinity and for 12 earthquakes from the Central Virginia seismic zone. These earthquakes (0 less than or equal to M less than or equal to 4) were monitored by local networks between January 1978 and October 1984. In Giles County, the data base consists

G. A. Bollinger; A. G. Teague; J. W. Munsey; A. C. Johnston

1985-01-01

281

Earthquake History of California  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article describes major earthquakes that have occurred in California since the colonial era, beginning with a 1769 earthquake experienced by a Spanish expedition near what is now Los Angeles, and ending with the July 1952 earthquake in Kern County. Each account provides observer's reports of injuries, fatalities, property damage, and ground effects (cracking, subsidence). More recent earthquake accounts include an estimated or measured magnitude.

282

School Safety and Earthquakes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A recent assessment of earthquake risk to Quito, Ecuador, concluded that many of its public schools are vulnerable to collapse during major earthquakes. A subsequent examination of 60 buildings identified 15 high-risk buildings. These schools were retrofitted to meet standards that would prevent injury even during Quito's largest earthquakes. US

Dwelley, Laura; Tucker, Brian; Fernandez, Jeanette

1997-01-01

283

Earthquakes and friction laws  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earthquakes have long been recognized as resulting from a stickslip frictional instability. The development of a full constitutive law for rock friction now shows that the gamut of earthquake phenomenaseismogenesis and seismic coupling, pre- and post-seismic phenomena, and the insensitivity of earthquakes to stress transientsall appear as manifestations of the richness of this friction law.

Christopher H. Scholz

1998-01-01

284

Buildings and Earthquakes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Earthquakes happen when forces in the Earth cause violent shaking of the ground. Earthquakes can be very destructive to buildings and other man-made structures. Design and build various types of buildings, then test your buildings for earthquake resistance using a shake table and a force sensor that measures how hard a force pushes or pulls your building.

Consortium, The C.

2012-05-21

285

Forecasting Earthquakes Using Paleoseismology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online article, from Earth: Inside and Out, takes a look at how paleoseismologists study the sediment around faults to help predict future earthquakes. It covers the role faults play in earthquakes and how sediment evidence is used to reconstruct a site's earthquake history.

286

Earthquake Prediction and Forecasting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Prospects for earthquake prediction and forecasting, and even their definitions, are actively debated. Here, "forecasting" means estimating the future earthquake rate as a function of location, time, and magnitude. Forecasting becomes "prediction" when we identify special conditions that make the immediate probability much higher than usual and high enough to justify exceptional action. Proposed precursors run from aeronomy to zoology, but no identified phenomenon consistently precedes earthquakes. The reported prediction of the 1975 Haicheng, China earthquake is often proclaimed as the most successful, but the success is questionable. An earthquake predicted to occur near Parkfield, California in 19885 years has not happened. Why is prediction so hard? Earthquakes start in a tiny volume deep within an opaque medium; we do not know their boundary conditions, initial conditions, or material properties well; and earthquake precursors, if any, hide amongst unrelated anomalies. Earthquakes cluster in space and time, and following a quake earthquake probability spikes. Aftershocks illustrate this clustering, and later earthquakes may even surpass earlier ones in size. However, the main shock in a cluster usually comes first and causes the most damage. Specific models help reveal the physics and allow intelligent disaster response. Modeling stresses from past earthquakes may improve forecasts, but this approach has not yet been validated prospectively. Reliable prediction of individual quakes is not realistic in the foreseeable future, but probabilistic forecasting provides valuable information for reducing risk. Recent studies are also leading to exciting discoveries about earthquakes.

Jackson, David D.

287

Tomographic approach to investigate the ionospheric disturbance possibly associated with the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, neural network based tomography using GEONET data has been performed to investigate the fine structure possibly associated with the 2011 off the pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake (Mw9.0). Although the possible ionospheric anomalies preceding large earthquakes have been reported by many researchers, a physical mechanism of the anomalies has not been clarified yet. To understand the mechanism, monitoring of three-dimensional distributions of ionospheric electron density is considered to be effective. At first, the Total Electron Content (TEC) anomaly associated with the earthquake using the Global Ionosphere Maps (GIM) published by the Center for Orbit Determination in Europe (CODE) has been investigated. To detect the anomalous TEC changes, the normalized GIM-TEC (GIM-TEC*), which is computed based on 15 days backward running mean of GIM-TEC, have been investigated. As for the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake, the significant enhancements are found in GIM-TEC investigation, 1, 3-4 days prior to the earthquake. Especially, TEC increase of 3 days prior to the earthquake was remarkable. Then the tomography has been performed. As a result, the reconstructed distribution of electron density was enhanced around F-region in comparison with 15 days backward median distribution, the region was found to be located over the epicenter and extended farther southward. The anomalous area estimated by the tomographic approach around F-region is mostly consistent with that estimated by TEC approaches. The tomographic result suggests the electron density enhancement of 3 days prior to the earthquake was mainly occurred in south side of epicenter around F-region. Details will be shown in our presentation.

Hirooka, S.; Hattori, K.; Ichikawa, T.; Takeda, T.

2011-12-01

288

Continuous Glucose Monitoring Accuracy Results Vary between Assessment at Home and Assessment at the Clinical Research Center  

PubMed Central

Background Continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS) accuracy is of critical importance both in delivering therapeutic value and as a component of a closed-loop system. This study aims at assessing the differences between accuracy assessments of CGMS at home and at the clinical research center (CRC). Methods Twelve patients with type 1 diabetes used the Dexcom SEVEN PLUS (DexCom, Inc.) CGMS for 7 days. Patients performed ?6 finger pricks [self-measurement of blood glucose (SMBG)] per day while at home. Reference blood glucose measurements were taken during a 24 h CRC admission (YSI 2300 STAT Plus). Continuous glucose monitoring system data were compared with YSI and SMBG values. Outcome measures included mean absolute relative difference (MARD) and Clarke error grid analysis (CEGA). Results During CRC admission, the MARD of CGMS vs YSI glucose values was 19.2% (n = 509)significantly higher than 16.8% at home (n = 611) (p = .004). In the hypoglycemic range, MARD was 23.9% at CRC (n = 26)not significantly different from 41.6% at home (n = 39) (p = .269). In the hyperglycemic range, CRC MARD at 20.3% (n = 115) was significantly higher than home MARD at 11.2% (n = 118) (p = .001). Clarke error grid analysis showed no significant difference in distribution of data pairs (overall p = .317). Conclusions This study illustrates the importance of the setting used when assessing CGMS accuracy. Continuous glucose monitoring system accuracy at home appeared better than at the CRC. This is probably due to the higher sampling rate of reference measurements, feasible only in the CRC. Testing CGMS accuracy in the CRC provides valuable information over and above home testing.

Luijf, Yoeri M.; Avogaro, Angelo; Benesch, Carsten; Bruttomesso, Daniela; Cobelli, Claudio; Ellmerer, Martin; Heinemann, Lutz; Mader, Julia K.; DeVries, J. Hans

2012-01-01

289

Redefining Earthquakes and the Earthquake Machine  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Earthquake Machine (EML), a mechanical model of stick-slip fault systems, can increase student engagement and facilitate opportunities to participate in the scientific process. This article introduces the EML model and an activity that challenges ninth-grade students' misconceptions about earthquakes. The activity emphasizes the role of

Hubenthal, Michael; Braile, Larry; Taber, John

2008-01-01

290

Predictable earthquakes?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: A world wide network has been continuously monitoring the secular change of the Earth's physical processes as recorded on the Earth like the geomagnetic field, the Earth's rotation, etc. The database, which has been collected by the observatories, gives us a chance to make a study of the temporal behaviour of the Earth's magnetic field and to understand the

D. Martini

2002-01-01

291

Three-dimensional Q structure in Jiashi earthquake region of Xinjiang  

Microsoft Academic Search

3-D S-waveQ structure in Jiashi earthquake region is inverted based on the attenuation of seismic waves recorded from earthquakes in\\u000a this region in 1998 by the Research Center of Exploration Geophysics (RCEG), CSB, and a rough configuration of deep crustal\\u000a faults in the earthquake region is presented. First, amplitude spectra of S-waves are extracted from 450 carefully-chosen\\u000a earthquake records, called

Ji-Chang Fan; Song-Lin Li; Xiao-Ling Lai; Hong-Zhao Deng

2001-01-01

292

Table-Top Earthquakes: Learn How Earthquakes Really Work  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This easily built classroom apparatus is ideal for gaining a better understanding of how earthquakes work and how they are recorded. The apparatus consists of a heavy object that is dragged steadily with an elastic cord. Although pulled with a constant velocity, the heavy object repeatedly slides and then stops. A small vibration sensor, attached to a computer display, graphically monitors this motion, which mimics the intermittent fault slippage that characterizes earthquake fault zones. Slides from a talk given at the Geological Society of America's Cordilleran Section Centennial meeting on June 2, 1999, show how this table-top demonstration can be used to help meet many of the K-12 teaching goals described in Benchmarks for Science Literacy (American Association for the Advancement of Science, 1993).

Lahr, John

1998-07-01

293

Engaging Students in Earthquake Science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Southern California Earthquake Center Communication, Education, and Outreach program (SCEC CEO) has been collaborating with the University of Southern California (USC) Joint Education Project (JEP) and the Education Consortium of Central Los Angeles (ECCLA) to work directly with the teachers and schools in the local community around USC. The community surrounding USC is 57 % Hispanic (US Census, 2000) and 21% African American (US Census, 2000). Through the partnership with ECCLA SCEC has created a three week enrichment intersession program, targeting disadvantaged students at the fourth/fifth grade level, dedicated entirely to earthquakes. SCEC builds partnerships with the intersession teachers, working together to actively engage the students in learning about earthquakes. SCEC provides a support system for the teachers, supplying them with the necessary content background as well as classroom manipulatives. SCEC goes into the classrooms with guest speakers and take the students out of the classroom on two field trips. There are four intersession programs each year. SCEC is also working with USC's Joint Education Project program. The JEP program has been recognized as one of the "oldest and best organized" Service-Learning programs in the country (TIME Magazine and the Princeton Review, 2000). Through this partnership SCEC is providing USC students with the necessary tools to go out to the local schools and teach students of all grade levels about earthquakes. SCEC works with the USC students to design engaging lesson plans that effectively convey content regarding earthquakes. USC students can check out hands-on/interactive materials to use in the classrooms from the SCEC Resource Library. In both these endeavors SCEC has expanded our outreach to the local community. SCEC is reaching over 200 minority children each year through our partnerships, and this number will increase as our programs grow.

Cooper, I. E.; Benthien, M.

2004-12-01

294

Whittier Narrows Earthquake of October 1, 1987. A Reconnaissance Report,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Within hours following the Whittier Narrows earthquake of October 1, 1987, a structural engineer from the Center for Building Technology, National Bureau of Standards surveyed the damage to buildings and other structures. The area investigated covers Los ...

H. S. Lew

1987-01-01

295

Importance of small earthquakes for stress transfers and earthquake triggering  

Microsoft Academic Search

We estimate the relative importance of small and large earthquakes for static stress changes and for earthquake triggering, assuming that earthquakes are triggered by static stress changes and that earthquakes are located on a fractal network of dimension D. This model predicts that both the number of events triggered by an earthquake of magnitude m and the stress change induced

Agns Helmstetter; Yan Y. Kagan; David D. Jackson

2005-01-01

296

Visualizing Earthquakes at Divergent Plate Margins  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This screenshot from the visualization shows both continental rift zones, and ocean spreading centers, both types of divergent plate boundaries. The visualization shows how earthquakes at all types of divergent margins are shallow and have a low-magnitude. Click the image to enlarge or view the MP4 movie (MP4 Video 79.3MB Aug22 11).The purpose of this activity is to introduce students to the distribution and characteristics of earthquakes associated with divergent plate boundaries. Students will learn about how the magnitude and distribution of earthquakes at divergent boundaries are related to processes that occur at these boundaries and to the geometry and position of the two diverging plates. Because the depth of earthquakes can be difficult for students to visualize in 2D representations, this activity allows students to visualize the 3D distribution of earthquakes within Earth's surface, which is essential for understanding how different types of earthquakes occur in different tectonic settings. Locations featured in the visualization include the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, the East Pacific Rise, and the East African Rift Zone. Talking points and questions are included to facilitate using this visualization as part of an interactive lecture. In addition to playing back the visualization, instructors can also download the visualization software and data set and explore it themselves.

Harwood, Cara

297

DEVELOPMENT OF EARTHQUAKE ASSESSMENT METHODOLOGY IN NCREE  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to promote researches in seismic hazard analysis, engineering structural damage assessment, and socio-economic loss estimation in Taiwan, the National Science Council started the HAZ-Taiwan project in 1998. The National Center for Research on Earthquake Engineering also develops the associated application software \\

Chin-Hsun Yeh; Chin-Hsiung Loh; Keh-Chyuan Tsai

298

A Continuation of Base-Line Studies for Environmentally Monitoring Space Transportation Systems at John F. Kennedy Space Center. Volume 2: Chemical Studies of Rainfall and Soil Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The results of a study which was designed to monitor, characterize, and evaluate the chemical composition of precipitation (rain) which fell at the Kennedy Space Center, Florida (KSC) during the period July 1977 to March 1979 are reported. Results which w...

B. C. Madsen

1980-01-01

299

Seismic quiescence precursors to two M7 earthquakes on Sakhalin Island, measured by two methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two large earthquakes occurred during the last decade on Sakhalin Island, the Mw7.6 Neftegorskoe earthquake of 27 May 1995 and the Mw6.8 Uglegorskoe earthquake of 4 August 2000, in the north and south of the island, respectively. Only about five seismograph stations record earthquakes along the 1000 km, mostly strike-slip plate boundary that transects the island from north to south. In spite of that, it was possible to investigate seismicity patterns of the last two to three decades quantitatively. We found that in, and surrounding, their source volumes, both of these main shocks were preceded by periods of pronounced seismic quiescence, which lasted 2.5 0.5 years. The distances to which the production of earthquakes was reduced reached several hundred kilometers. The probability that these periods of anomalously low seismicity occurred by chance is estimated to be about 1% to 2%. These conclusions were reached independently by the application of two methods, which are based on different approaches. The RTL-algorithm measures the level of seismic activity in moving time windows by counting the number of earthquakes, weighted by their size, and inversely weighted by their distance, in time and space from the point of observation. The Z-mapping approach measures the difference of the seismicity rate, within moving time windows, to the background rate by the standard deviate Z. This generates an array of comparisons that cover all of the available time and space, and that can be searched for all anomalous departures from the normal seismicity rate. The RTL-analysis was based on the original catalog with K-classes measuring the earthquake sizes; the Z-mapping was based on the catalog with K transformed into magnitudes. The RTL-analysis started with data from 1980, the Z-mapping technique used the data from 1974 on. In both methods, cylindrical volumes, centered at the respective epicenters, were sampled. The Z-mapping technique additionally investigated the seismicity in about 1000 volumes centered at the nodes of a randomly placed regular grid with node spacing of 20 km. The fact that the two methods yield almost identical results strongly suggests that the observed precursory quiescence anomalies are robust and real. If the seismicity on Sakhalin Island is monitored at a completeness-level an order of magnitude below the present one, then it may be possible to detect future episodes of quiescence in real time.

Wyss, M.; Sobolev, G.; Clippard, J. D.

2004-08-01

300

Investigating Earthquakes through Regional Seismicity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this module, sudents will use online interactive materials to investigate the nature of earthquakes. The module consists of three major sections, "What is an Earthquake?", "The Distribution of Earthquakes", and "Measuring Earthquakes". Each section presents online material for background and interactive learning activities which help them to understand such characteristics of earthquakes as their associated faults, rates of occurrence, magnitudes, and geographic distribution.

Marquis, John; Hafner, Katrin; Hauksson, Egill

301

Incubation of Chile's 1960 Earthquake  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infrequent occurrence of giant events may help explain how the 1960 Chile earthquake attained M 9.5. Although old documents imply that this earthquake followed great earthquakes of 1575, 1737 and 1837, only three earthquakes of the past 1000 years produced geologic records like those for 1960. These earlier earthquakes include the 1575 event but not 1737 or 1837. Because the

B. F. Atwater; M. Cisternas; I. Salgado; G. Machuca; M. Lagos; A. Eipert; M. Shishikura

2003-01-01

302

General Earthquake Models: A Computational-Statistical Physics Approach to the Problem of Earthquakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earthquakes in urban centers are capable of causing enormous damage. Recent events in include the January 26, magnitude 7.9 Gujarat India earthquake, and the February 28, 2001 magnitude 6.8 Seattle, Washington USA event have killed thousands of persons and caused billions of dollars in property losses. The January 16, 1995 Kobe, Japan earthquake was only a magnitude 6.9 event and yet produced an estimated $200 billion loss. Similar scenarios are possible at any time in Los Angeles, San Francisco, Seattle, and other US urban centers along the Pacific plate boundary. Earthquake physics, a form of strongly correlated, leaky threshold dynamics, operates over a wide range of space and time-scales, and the development of forecast/forewarning/predictive models together with data mining technologies represents a significant challenge in statistical physics and computational science. Due to the critical importance of understanding the physics of earthquake fault systems, and the need for developing any kind of forecast or forewarning methodology, both the US and international communities (ACES collaboration) have recently formed teams to focus on the construction of computational simulations of earthquake fault systems that can function as numerical laboratories to investigate the strongly correlated, multiscale space-time behavior of these driven threshold systems. This talk will summarize the present state of research and discuss several important outstanding problems in the areas of statistical physics, data mining, and computational simulations.

Rundle, John; Donnellan, Andrea

2001-06-01

303

Post-earthquake building safety assessments for the Canterbury Earthquakes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This paper explores the post-earthquake building assessment program that was utilized in Christchurch, New Zealand following the Canterbury Sequence of earthquakes beginning with the Magnitude (Mw.) 7.1 Darfield event in September 2010. The aftershocks or triggered events, two of which exceeded Mw 6.0, continued with events in February and June 2011 causing the greatest amount of damage. More than 70,000 building safety assessments were completed following the February event. The timeline and assessment procedures will be discussed including the use of rapid response teams, selection of indicator buildings to monitor damage following aftershocks, risk assessments for demolition of red-tagged buildings, the use of task forces to address management of the heavily damaged downtown area and the process of demolition. Through the post-event safety assessment program that occurred throughout the Canterbury Sequence of earthquakes, many important lessons can be learned that will benefit future response to natural hazards that have potential to damage structures.

Marshall, J.; Barnes, J.; Gould, N.; Jaiswal, K.; Lizundia, B.; Swanson, D.; Turner, F.

2012-01-01

304

The Distribution of Earthquakes: An Earthquake Deficit?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students use online resources to investigate the occurrence of earthquakes in Southern California to decide if there has been a 'deficit', that is, not enough earthquakes in the area in historical time to release the amount of strain energy that plate tectonics is constantly supplying to the crust. In the first two parts, they must determine the appropriate year to begin their study of historic earthquake records (from 1860-1900), and then they must decide if the energy released by past earthquakes has been equivalent to the amount of energy accumulating through the action of plate tectonics over the same number of years. In part three, they perform an analysis of their findings by answering a set of questions. References are included.

Marquis, John

305

Istanbul Earthquake Early Warning and Rapid Response System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of the preparations for the future earthquake in Istanbul a Rapid Response and Early Warning system in the metropolitan area is in operation. For the Early Warning system ten strong motion stations were installed as close as possible to the fault zone. Continuous on-line data from these stations via digital radio modem provide early warning for potentially disastrous earthquakes. Considering the complexity of fault rupture and the short fault distances involved, a simple and robust Early Warning algorithm, based on the exceedance of specified threshold time domain amplitude levels is implemented. The band-pass filtered accelerations and the cumulative absolute velocity (CAV) are compared with specified threshold levels. When any acceleration or CAV (on any channel) in a given station exceeds specific threshold values it is considered a vote. Whenever we have 2 station votes within selectable time interval, after the first vote, the first alarm is declared. In order to specify the appropriate threshold levels a data set of near field strong ground motions records form Turkey and the world has been analyzed. Correlations among these thresholds in terms of the epicenter distance the magnitude of the earthquake have been studied. The encrypted early warning signals will be communicated to the respective end users by UHF systems through a "service provider" company. The users of the early warning signal will be power and gas companies, nuclear research facilities, critical chemical factories, subway system and several high-rise buildings. Depending on the location of the earthquake (initiation of fault rupture) and the recipient facility the alarm time can be as high as about 8s. For the rapid response system one hundred 18 bit-resolution strong motion accelerometers were placed in quasi-free field locations (basement of small buildings) in the populated areas of the city, within an area of approximately 50x30km, to constitute a network that will enable early damage assessment and rapid response information after a damaging earthquake. Early response information is achieved through fast acquisition and analysis of processed data obtained from the network. The stations are routinely interrogated on regular basis by the main data center. After triggered by an earthquake, each station processes the streaming strong motion data to yield the spectral accelerations at specific periods, 12Hz filtered PGA and PGV and will send these parameters in the form of SMS messages at every 20s directly to the main data center through a designated GSM network and through a microwave system. A shake map and damage distribution map (using aggregate building inventories and fragility curves) will be automatically generated using the algorithm developed for this purpose. Loss assessment studies are complemented by a large citywide digital database on the topography, geology, soil conditions, building, infrastructure and lifeline inventory. The shake and damage maps will be conveyed to the governor's and mayor's offices, fire, police and army headquarters within 3 minutes using radio modem and GPRS communication. An additional forty strong motion recorders were placed on important structures in several interconnected clusters to monitor the health of these structures after a damaging earthquake.

Erdik, M. O.; Fahjan, Y.; Ozel, O.; Alcik, H.; Aydin, M.; Gul, M.

2003-12-01

306

Rapid Assessment of Shaking Impact Following Global Earthquakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The US Geological Survey's National Earthquake Information Center (USGS/NEIC) is developing a system to rapidly assess the overall impact of earthquakes around the globe. NEIC's near realtime global-earthquake solutions will be monitored to automatically identify quakes that likely caused human suffering or damage to infrastructure or will attract significant media attention. Our goal is to help the NEIC fulfill its mission to provide critical earthquake-related information to emergency response agencies, government agencies, the scientific community, the media, and the general public. The system will fill the gap between the time the hypocenter and magnitude are determined (minutes to an hour) and the time that onsite information is available through the media and other organizations (typically several hours to days). When complete, the system will provide an assessment of the situation based on estimated and any observed ground motions, total population exposed to varying degrees of shaking, and fragility of the impacted region. We expect that an automatic summary impact statement and associated alarms can be made within seconds of computing the ground-motion estimates, well before onsite damage estimates arrive. Development of the system is proceeding in stages, with each stage adding an increased level of detail and robustness to the impact statements. The initial system will be basic and empirical. It will issue alarms when an earthquake occurs where historical earthquakes of similar magnitude and depth have seriously impacted human life or infrastructure. This basic system will miss some significant events, but it will be relatively easy to implement and it will provide a baseline for further enhancements. Subsequent enhancements will include estimates of ground motion, population exposure, and regional fragility. Ground motion estimates will initially use regionally specific, empirical ground-motion attenuation relations. As details about the source are recovered, the estimated motions will evolve from point-source-based empirical to finite-fault-based empirical and to finite-fault-forward modeled synthetic amplitudes, augmented with empirical predictions. To this end, we are working collaboratively with C. Ji and D. Helmberger (Caltech) to expedite and automate the finite-fault inversion process (see abstract this meeting). Any ground motion observations (strong motions stations or Community Internet Intensities) will be used as constraints. Site amplification will be simple at first. We will use soil classification where known; otherwise, generic site terms will be used. The use of topography as a proxy for site conditions will also be investigated. Worldwide population databases in gridded form (e.g., LandScan developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory) will be used to determine the total population exposed to various levels of shaking. For events not having significant populations at risk (e.g., off-shore or very deep earthquakes), it will be easy to determine when no response is warranted. However, when a large population is exposed to potentially damaging levels of shaking, the fragility of the region will be evaluated to constrain the likely overall impact. Fragility can be addressed in a several ways, but we will initially derive regionalized estimates based on the NEIC database of historical damaging earthquakes. We will later use socioeconomic considerations, as well as a qualitative assessment of construction and engineering practice.

Earle, P. S.; Wald, D. J.; Lastowka, L. A.; Donnelly, M. J.

2003-12-01

307

Monitoring  

DOEpatents

The invention provides apparatus and methods which facilitate movement of an instrument relative to an item or location being monitored and/or the item or location relative to the instrument, whilst successfully excluding extraneous ions from the detection location. Thus, ions generated by emissions from the item or location can successfully be monitored during movement. The technique employs sealing to exclude such ions, for instance, through an electro-field which attracts and discharges the ions prior to their entering the detecting location and/or using a magnetic field configured to repel the ions away from the detecting location.

Orr, Christopher Henry (Calderbridge, GB); Luff, Craig Janson (Calderbridge, GB); Dockray, Thomas (Calderbridge, GB); Macarthur, Duncan Whittemore (Los Alamos, NM)

2004-11-23

308

United States Geological Survey, Earthquake Hazards Program: Earthquake Research  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site describes the research activities of the Earthquake Hazards Program (EHP) of the United States Geological Survey (USGS). The activities include: borehole geophysics and rock mechanics, crustal deformation, earthquake information, earthquake geology and paleoseismology, hazards, seismology and earth structure, and strong motion seismology, site response, and ground motion. Other links include: earthquake activity, earthquake facts and education, earthquake products, hazards and preparedness, regional websites, and seismic networks.

309

Are earthquakes deterministic or chaotic?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the last decade, physicists and applied mathematicians have made substantial headway in understanding the dynamics of complex nonlinear systems. Progress has been possible due to the development of several new tools, including the renormalization group approach, phase portraits, and scaling methods (fractals). At the same time, mathematical geophysicists interested in earthquakes have begun to utilize these same concepts to generate models of faults and fractures.In order to bring these scientific communities together, it was decided to convene the workshop, Physics of Earthquake Faults: Deterministic or Chaotic?, held February 12-15, at the Asilomar conference center near Monterey, Calif. Thirty-six Earth scientists met with 15 physicists and applied mathematicians to discuss how recent advances in nonlinear systems might be applied to better understand earthquakes. Funding was provided by the Geodynamics Branch of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the National Science Foundation, and the Office of Basic Energy Sciences of the U.S. Department of Energy. Organizational and logistical support were provided by the U.S. Geological Survey.

Rundle, John B.; Julian, Bruce R.; Turcotte, Donald L.

310

Earthquake resistant design  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

After having learned about earthquakes in class, through readings and earlier lab assignments, students (in groups of two) are asked to design and construct (using balsa wood, string, paper and glue) a three-story building designed to minimize the effects of shear-wave vibrations that occur during an earthquake. The students are required to research the design concepts on their own and most of the construction work occurs outside of the regular laboratory period. The structures are tested for strength a week before the earthquake occurs - can they support the required load for each floor? On earthquake day, the buildings a tested for a "design earthquake" and then each group is given the opportunity to see how "large" and earthquake their structure can withstand - both in terms of frequency and amplitude variations. In addition to building the structure, each team has to submit a paper reflecting on why they designed and built the structure the way they did.

Malinconico, Lawrence L.

311

Researching Intermountain West Earthquakes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a lesson designed for 7-12th (adaptable for 4-6) grade students. It focuses on earthquakes in the Utah region, but can be adapted to use anywhere. Forty-eight Intermountain West earthquakes that have occurred since 1876 have been researched by Earthquake Education Services (EES). Newspaper articles, individual accounts (diary entries, interviews, letters, etc.), and photographs have been collected. They are a primary data source for scientists and are valuable for anyone interested in learning about earthquakes. These data provide an entertaining, relevant resource for students studying earthquakes. Students select a research question (list provided) and search newspaper articles written about one or more earthquakes for data relevant to the question. Reports could be oral or written. Some of the questions can be reworded to allow students to first develop their own hypothesis, then search for data that supports or disproves the hypothesis.

312

Plate Tectonics: Earthquake Epicenter  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson provides an overview of destructive earthquakes and their connection to tectonic movements of the Earth's crust. It includes a discussion of some especially destructive historic earthquakes, and a brief introduction to contintental drift and the theory of plate tectonics. There is also discussion of basic seismology (types of waves) and measures of the magnitude of an earthquake (the Richter Scale). The lesson inlcudes an activity in which students use an online simulator to locate the epicenter of an earthquake using readings from three different seismograph stations. After they have completed the simulation, they attempt to locate the epicenter of a real earthquake using data from the United States Geological Survey (USGS) earthquake website.

Pratte, John

313

Eye in the Sky: Earthquakes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource presents a general introduction to earthquakes, including sections on the science, the phenomenon, and effects. It includes an animation of how earthquakes form, and footage of the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake near San Francisco.

314

Toward petascale earthquake simulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earthquakes are among the most complex terrestrial phenomena, and modeling of earthquake dynamics is one of the most challenging\\u000a computational problems in science. Computational capabilities have advanced to a state where we can perform wavefield simulations\\u000a for realistic three-dimensional earth models, and gain more insights into the earthquakes that threaten California and many\\u000a areas of the world. The Southern California

Yifeng Cui; Reagan Moore; Kim Olsen; Amit Chourasia; Philip Maechling; Bernard Minster; Steven Day; Yuanfang Hu; Jing Zhu; Thomas Jordan

2009-01-01

315

Earthquakes in Utah  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will gain a better understanding of how earthquakes and volcanoes are formed and how they have contributed to the geology of Utah. This web-based lesson will help guide you through a number of websites that will help you gain a better understanding of earthquakes and volcanoes especially happening in Utah. Follow the instructions for each and enjoy. You will need your headphones on for the videos. Site #1 .Watch video on earthquake ...

Ribera, Mr.

2009-02-25

316

Electric field and ion density anomalies in the mid latitude ionosphere: Possible connection with earthquakes?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The problem of earthquake prediction has stimulated the search for a correlation between seismic activity and ionospherical anomalies. We found observational evidence of possible earthquake effects in the near-equatorial and low latitude ionosphere; these ionospheric anomalies have been proposed by Gousheva et al. [Gousheva, M., Glavcheva, R., Danov, D., Angelov P., Hristov, P., Influence of earthquakes on the electric field disturbances in the ionosphere on board of the Intercosmos-Bulgaria-1300 satellite. Compt. Rend. Acad. Bulg. Sci. 58 (8) 911 916, 2005a; Gousheva, M., Glavcheva, R., Danov, D., Angelov, P., Hristov, P., Kirov, B., Georgieva, K., Observation from the Intercosmos-Bulgaria-1300 satellite of anomalies associated with seismic activity. In: Poster Proceeding of 2nd International Conference on Recent Advances in Space Technologies: Space in the Service of Society, RAST 2005, June 9 11, Istanbul, Turkey, pp. 119 123, 2005b; Gousheva, M., Glavcheva, R., Danov, D., Angelov, P., Hristov, P., Kirov, B., Georgieva, K., Satellite monitoring of anomalous effects in the ionosphere probably related to strong earthquakes. Adv. Space Res. 37 (4), 660 665, 2006]. This paper presents new results from observations of the quasi-static electric field and ion density on board INTERCOSMOS-BULGARIA-1300 satellite in the mid latitude ionosphere above sources of moderate earthquakes. Data from INTERCOSMOS-BULGARIA-1300 satellite and seismic data (World Data Center, Denver, Colorado, USA) for magnetically quiet and medium quiet days are juxtaposed in time-space domain. For satellites orbits in the time period 15.09 01.10.1981 an increase in the horizontal and vertical components of the quasi-static electric field and fluctuations of the ion density are observed over zones of forthcoming seismic events. Some similar post effects are observed too. The emphasis of this paper is put on the anomalies which specify the mid latitude ionosphere. The obtained results contain important information because they confirm our previous results for near-equatorial and low latitude regions.

Gousheva, M. N.; Glavcheva, R. P.; Danov, D. L.; Hristov, P. L.; Kirov, B. B.; Georgieva, K. Y.

2008-07-01

317

Are Earthquake Magnitudes Clustered?  

SciTech Connect

The question of earthquake predictability is a long-standing and important challenge. Recent results [Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 098501 (2007); ibid.100, 038501 (2008)] have suggested that earthquake magnitudes are clustered, thus indicating that they are not independent in contrast to what is typically assumed. Here, we present evidence that the observed magnitude correlations are to a large extent, if not entirely, an artifact due to the incompleteness of earthquake catalogs and the well-known modified Omori law. The latter leads to variations in the frequency-magnitude distribution if the distribution is constrained to those earthquakes that are close in space and time to the directly following event.

Davidsen, Joern; Green, Adam [Complexity Science Group, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4 (Canada)

2011-03-11

318

Learning About Earthquakes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How much do you know about earthquakes? Did you even know that Utah actually has earthquakes and that it has a large fault line that is overdue for a major earthquake? The purpose of this activity is to find the locations of the fault lines in Utah and understand that they are usually earthquake zones. Students will learn how often earthquakes are expected to occur, when Utah is due for another one, and where the next one is expected to occur. This meets the Utah Core Standard 2 for 5th grade science: Students will understand that volcanoes, earthquakes, uplift, weathering, and erosion reshape Earth's surface. Objective 1: Explain the relationship between time and specific geological changes. Objective 2: Explain how volcanoes, earthquakes, and uplift affect Earth's surface. If your friend were moving to Utah from another state, where would you advise them the safest place to buy or build a house would be? Teacher Instruction Put students into groups of 4 or 5 and create a KWL chart about earthquakes. Instruct the groups that they are going to learn about earthquakes in ...

Wallace, Mrs.

2012-02-07

319

Earthquakes and Plate Tectonics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity, from the Real World Learning Objects Resource Library, allows students to use first-hand data analysis to "determine if there is any pattern to earthquake events and speculate on the causes of earthquakes." Intended to be an introductory activity for a unit of study on earthquakes, this 60-minute activity is complete with learning goals, step-by-step classroom procedures, materials, assessment activities, and resources for further information. The "Content Materials" section contains directions for students and graphics to help students understand earthquakes and plate tectonics. This is an excellent resource for geology and earth science instructors that is ready to use for the classroom.

2007-10-04

320

Parkfield, California: Earthquake History  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This report describes the history of seismic activity at Parkfield, California, which is situated on the San Andreas Fault. It points out that moderate-size earthquakes have occurred on the Parkfield section of the San Andreas fault at fairly regular intervals, and that the earthquakes may have been 'characteristic' in the sense that they occurred with some regularity (mean repetition time of about 22 years). This indicates that they may have repeatedly ruptured the same area on the fault. A diagram shows the timing of the earthquakes, and illustrations of the seismic waveforms show the similarities between earthquakes occurring in 1922, 1934, and 1966.

321

Earthquakes Learning Module  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This earthquake unit was designed to be used with a college course in physical geography. From this module, students learn the location of areas in the United States with the greatest potential for earthquake shaking and the hazards presented by earthquakes. They also learn how geological conditions and building construction affect the amount of destruction during an earthquake. Seismographs and the Richter scale are also covered. The module contains a study guide and outline notes, study questions, and a practice quiz. One feature of the module is a web exploration section with links to fifteen outside sites that augment the instruction.

Haberlin, Rita

322

The Predictability of Earthquakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The scientific predictability of earthquakes is a hard unsolved problem in the earth sciences. It is a principal function of science. The prediction of the place, magnitude and time of an individual earthquake, on short to long term scale, with a desired high accuracy is today impossible, although many predictions are made, mostly for large and great shallow earthquakes. Only a few successful scientific predictions with variable accuracy were made. The prediction of the time is the most difficult and in reality not good. An important problem is then if the earthquakes are predictable (Purcaru, 2007). We found that the prediction of an individual earthquake must be based on the existence of stable underlying laws, since scientific observations show that the nature has universally the physical (causal) property and also structures that allow the repeat of events, phenomena and patterns, etc. It is this repeat that gives the ontological basis of the true prediction-laws (causal and phenomenological laws). These laws provide the necessary foundation that earthquakes are predictable. The laws, however, are not sufficient, e.g. due to changes of the initial conditions, etc. that can influence and change the instantiation of these laws. We present some successes, failures, and false alarms for large earthquakes, and an unpredictable earthquake. G. Purcaru, Are the earthquakes predictable?. 6th Congress of Romanian Mathematicians, June 28-July4, Bucharest, p.133, 2007.

Purcaru, G.

2009-04-01

323

OMG Earthquake! Can Twitter improve earthquake response?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is investigating how the social networking site Twitter, a popular service for sending and receiving short, public, text messages, can augment its earthquake response products and the delivery of hazard information. The goal is to gather near real-time, earthquake-related messages (tweets) and provide geo-located earthquake detections and rough maps of the corresponding felt areas. Twitter and other social Internet technologies are providing the general public with anecdotal earthquake hazard information before scientific information has been published from authoritative sources. People local to an event often publish information within seconds via these technologies. In contrast, depending on the location of the earthquake, scientific alerts take between 2 to 20 minutes. Examining the tweets following the March 30, 2009, M4.3 Morgan Hill earthquake shows it is possible (in some cases) to rapidly detect and map the felt area of an earthquake using Twitter responses. Within a minute of the earthquake, the frequency of earthquake tweets rose above the background level of less than 1 per hour to about 150 per minute. Using the tweets submitted in the first minute, a rough map of the felt area can be obtained by plotting the tweet locations. Mapping the tweets from the first six minutes shows observations extending from Monterey to Sacramento, similar to the perceived shaking region mapped by the USGS Did You Feel It system. The tweets submitted after the earthquake also provided (very) short first-impression narratives from people who experienced the shaking. Accurately assessing the potential and robustness of a Twitter-based system is difficult because only tweets spanning the previous seven days can be searched, making a historical study impossible. We have, however, been archiving tweets for several months, and it is clear that significant limitations do exist. The main drawback is the lack of quantitative information such as epicenter, magnitude, and strong-motion recordings. Without quantitative data, prioritization of response measures, including building and infrastructure inspection, are not possible. The main advantage of Twitter is speed, especially in sparsely instrumented areas. A Twitter based system potentially could provide a quick notification that there was a possible event and that seismographically derived information will follow. If you are interested in learning more, follow @USGSted on Twitter.

Earle, P. S.; Guy, M.; Ostrum, C.; Horvath, S.; Buckmaster, R. A.

2009-12-01

324

Oscillating brittle and viscous behavior through the earthquake cycle in the Red River Shear Zone: Monitoring flips between reaction and textural softening and hardening  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microstructures associated with cataclasites and mylonites in the Red River shear zone in the Diancang Shan block, Yunnan Province, China show evidence for both reaction hardening and softening at lower greenschist facies metamorphic conditions. The earliest fault-rocks derived from Triassic porphyritic orthogneiss protoliths are cataclasites. Brittle fractures and crushed grains are cemented by newly precipitated quartz. These cataclasites are subsequently overprinted by mylonitic fabrics. Truncations and embayments of relic feldspars and biotites show that these protolith minerals have been dissolved and incompletely replaced by muscovite, chlorite, and quartz. Both K-feldspar and plagioclase porphyroclasts are truncated by muscovite alone, suggesting locally metasomatic reactions of the form: 3K-feldspar + 2H+ = muscovite + 6SiO2(aq) + 2K+. Such reactions produce muscovite folia and fish, and quartz bands and ribbons. Muscovite and quartz are much weaker than the reactant feldspars and these reactions result in reaction softening. Moreover, the muscovite tends to align in contiguous bands that constitute textural softening. These mineral and textural modifications occurred at constant temperature and drove the transition from brittle to viscous deformation and the shift in deformation mechanism from cataclasis to dissolution-precipitation and reaction creep. These mylonitic rocks so produced are cut by K-feldspar veins that interrupt the mylonitic fabric. The veins add K-feldspar to the assemblage and these structures constitute both reaction and textural hardening. Finally these veins are boudinaged by continued viscous deformation in the mylonitic matrix, thus defining a late ductile strain event. Together these overprinting textures and microstructures demonstrate several oscillations between brittle and viscous deformation, all at lower greenschist facies conditions where only frictional behavior is predicted by experiments. The overlap of the depths of greenschist facies conditions with the base of the crustal seismic zone suggests that the implied oscillations in strain rate may have been related to the earthquake cycle.

Wintsch, Robert P.; Yeh, Meng-Wan

2013-03-01

325

Oscillating brittle and viscous behavior through the earthquake cycle in the Red River Shear Zone: Monitoring flips between reaction and textural softening and hardening  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microstructures associated with cataclasites and mylonites in the Red River shear zone in the Diancang Shan block, Yunnan Province, China show evidence for both reaction hardening and softening at lower greenschist facies metamorphic conditions. The earliest fault-rocks derived from Triassic porphyritic orthogneiss protoliths are cataclasites. Brittle fractures and crushed grains are cemented by newly precipitated quartz. These cataclasites are subsequently overprinted by mylonitic fabrics. Truncations and embayments of relic feldspars and biotites show that these protolith minerals have been dissolved and incompletely replaced by muscovite, chlorite, and quartz. Both K-feldspar and plagioclase porphyroclasts are truncated by muscovite alone, suggesting locally metasomatic reactions of the form: 3K-feldspar + 2H+ = muscovite + 6SiO2(aq) + 2K+. Such reactions produce muscovite folia and fish, and quartz bands and ribbons. Muscovite and quartz are much weaker than the reactant feldspars and these reactions result in reaction softening. Moreover, the muscovite tends to align in contiguous bands that constitute textural softening. These mineral and textural modifications occurred at constant temperature and drove the transition from brittle to viscous deformation and the shift in deformation mechanism from cataclasis to dissolutionprecipitation and reaction creep. These mylonitic rocks so produced are cut by K-feldspar veins that interrupt the mylonitic fabric. The veins add K-feldspar to the assemblage and these structures constitute both reaction and textural hardening. Finally these veins are boudinaged by continued viscous deformation in the mylonitic matrix, thus defining a late ductile strain event. Together these overprinting textures and microstructures demonstrate several oscillations between brittle and viscous deformation, all at lower greenschist facies conditions where only frictional behavior is predicted by experiments. The overlap of the depths of greenschist facies conditions with the base of the crustal seismic zone suggests that the implied oscillations in strain rate may have been related to the earthquake cycle.

Wintsch, Robert P.; Yeh, Meng-Wan

2013-03-01

326

Catalog of Earthquake Hypocenters at Alaskan Volcanoes: January 1 through December 31, 2006.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Between January 1 and December 31, 2006, AVO located 8,666 earthquakes of which 7,783 occurred on or near the 33 volcanoes monitored within Alaska. Monitoring highlights in 2006 include: an eruption of Augustine Volcano, a volcanic-tectonic earthquake swa...

C. Searcy J. A. Power J. P. Dixon S. D. Stihler

2007-01-01

327

Monitoring Some Seattle Landmarks  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have placed instruments in the UW (formerly SafeCo) Tower and on the Alaska Way Viaduct in Seattle to monitor their motions. Monitoring conventionally provides information on site response and real time measurements of shaking during earthquakes. We are also investigating the possibility of monitoring the fundamental modes of the structures as a proxy for structural integrity and, if we

M. Holm; A. A. Delorey; P. Bodin; J. Connolly; J. E. Vidale

2008-01-01

328

Rupture process of the 1964 Prince William Sound, Alaska, earthquake from the combined inversion of seismic, tsunami, and geodetic data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four great earthquakes (1952, 1960, 1964, and 2004) have occurred since seismic monitoring began and only two since the installation of a global seismic network. A reexamination of the 1964 (M 9.2) Prince William Sound (PWS), Alaska, earthquake is timely due to the 2004 Sumatra earthquake because it adds constraints to the potential range of source parameters for these types

Gene Ichinose; Paul Somerville; Hong Kie Thio; Robert Graves; Dan O'Connell

2007-01-01

329

Earthquake-volcano interaction imaged by coda wave interferometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large earthquakes are often assumed to influence the eruptive activity of volcanoes. A major challenge to better understand the causal relationship between these phenomena is to detect and image, in detail, all induced changes, including subtle, non-eruptive responses. We show that coda wave interferometry can be used to image such earthquake-induced responses, as recorded at Yasur volcano (Vanuatu) following a magnitude 7.3 earthquake which occurred 80 km from its summit. We use repeating Long-Period events to show that the earthquake caused a sudden seismic velocity drop, followed by a slow partial recovery process. The spatial distribution of the response amplitude indicates an effect centered on the volcano. Our result demonstrates that, even if no major change in eruptive activity is observed, volcanoes will be affected by the propagation of large amplitude seismic waves through their structure, suggesting that Earthquake-volcano interaction is likely a more common phenomenon than previously believed.

Battaglia, Jean; Mtaxian, Jean-Philippe; Garaebiti, Esline

2012-06-01

330

Children's Beliefs about Earthquakes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Summarizes the results of three related studies whose overall purpose was to determine elementary students' conceptions about earthquakes at two widely separated locations in the United States. Certain topics, such as the cause of earthquakes, seemed to cause difficulty for students. New definitional responses emerged in the studies that took

Ross, Katharyn E. K.; Shuell, Thomas J.

1993-01-01

331

Earthquakes and Plates  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The representation depicts global distribution of earthquakes. A world map shows the location of large earthquakes that occurred from 1975-1995. A slider at the bottom left of the map allows the user to change the map to reveal the location of major plates or to select both views layered on top of one another.

332

Identification of Deep Earthquakes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this project is to identify and apply seismic event discriminants that will reliably separate small crustal earthquakes (magnitudes less than about 4 and depths less than about 40 to 50 km) from small, deep earthquakes (depths between abo...

G. E. Randall H. E. Hartse

2010-01-01

333

Rethinking Earthquake Prediction  

Microsoft Academic Search

We re-examine and summarize what is now possible in predicting earthquakes, what might be accomplished (and hence might be possible in the next few decades) and what types of predictions appear to be inherently impossible based on our understanding of earthquakes as complex phenomena. We take predictions to involve a variety of time scales from seconds to a few decades.

L. R. Sykes; B. E. Shaw; C. H. Scholz

1999-01-01

334

Nisqually, Washington Intraplate Earthquake  

Microsoft Academic Search

On February 28, 2001, the M6.8 Nisqually earthquake shook the Pacific Northwest. This intraplate event occurred within the subducting Juan de Fuca plate along the Cascadia margin. Although the damage was less than observed at most large urban earthquakes, serious damage was found in Olympia, Seattle, and Tacoma. To better serve Oregon public safety needs, DOGAMI and others surveyed the

Y. Wang; R. Hofmeister

2001-01-01

335

Earthquakes for Kids  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These resources include sections on the latest quakes, science project ideas, puzzles and games, online activities, a glossary, and cool earthquake facts. In addition, there is an Ask A Geologist section, and earthquake FAQs. One link leads to a teacher page with grade level topics and educational materials.

2002-12-13

336

Long range correlation in earthquake precursory signals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Research on earthquake prediction has drawn serious attention of the geophysicist, geologist and investigators in different fields of science across the globe for many decades. Researchers around the world are actively working on recording pre-earthquake changes in non-seismic parameters through a variety of methods that include anomalous changes in geochemical parameters of the Earth's crust, geophysical properties of the lithosphere as well as ionosphere etc. Several works also have been done in India to detect earthquake precursor signals using geochemical and geophysical methods. However, very few works have been done so far in India in this field through the application of nonlinear techniques to the recorded geophysical and geochemical precursory signals for earthquakes. The present paper deals with a short review of the early works on geochemical precursors that have been carried out in India as yet. With a view to detect earthquake precursory signals by means of gas-geochemical method we developed a network of seismo-geochemical monitoring observatories in India in hot springs and mud volcano crater. In the last few years we detected several geochemical anomalies and those were observed prior to some major earthquakes that occurred within a radius of 1500 km from the test sites. In the present paper we have applied nonlinear techniques to the long term, real-time and natural data sets of radon-222 and associated gamma originated out of the terrestrial degassing process of the earth. The results reveal a clear signature of the long range correlation present in the geochemical time series. This approach appears to be a potential tool to explore intrinsic information hidden within the earthquake precursory signals.

Chaudhuri, H.; Barman, C.; Iyengar, A. N. S.; Ghose, D.; Sen, P.; Sinha, B.

2013-07-01

337

Tohoku Earthquake: a Surprise?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider three issues related to the 2011 Tohoku mega-earthquake: (1) Why was the magnitude limit for the Tohoku region so badly underestimated, and how can we estimate realistic limits for subduction zones in general? (2) How frequently can such large events occur off Tohoku? (3) Could short-term forecasts have offered effective guidance for emergency preparation? Two methods can be applied to estimate the maximum earthquake size in any region: statistical analysis of available earthquake records, and the moment conservation principle -- how earthquakes release tectonic deformation. We have developed both methods since 1991. For subduction zones, the seismic record is usually insufficient, and failed badly for Tohoku, because the largest earthquakes are so rare. However, the moment conservation principle yields consistent estimates for all subduction zones. Various measurements imply maximum moment magnitudes of the order 9.0--9.7. Comparison of inter-earthquake secular strain accumulation and its release by coseismic slip implies a similar maximum earthquake size estimate. Since 1977 we have developed statistical short- and long-term earthquake forecasts (earthquake rate per unit area, time, and magnitude). Beginning in 1999 we have made such forecasts for the northwest Pacific, including Japan, based on the GCMT catalog. We have posted them on the web and included expected focal mechanisms as well. Long-term forecasts indicate that the average frequency for magnitude 9 earthquakes in the Tohoku area is about 1/400 years. This rate is consistent with that of moderate earthquakes recorded in the GCMT catalog. We have archived several forecasts made before and after the Tohoku earthquake. As expected, the Tohoku mega-earthquake changed the forecasted long-term rate by just a few percent. However, the magnitude 7.5 foreshock increased the short term rate to more than 100 times the long-term rate, and the magnitude 9 event increased it briefly to more than 1000 times the long-term rate. These results could well justify development of an operational earthquake forecasting plan.

Kagan, Y. Y.; Jackson, D. D.

2011-12-01

338

Earthquakes and Fault Lines  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of this activity is for students to find the locations of the fault lines in Utah and understand that fault lines are often earthquake zones. They will learn how often earthquakes are expected to occur, when Utah is due for another one, and where the next one is expected to occur. This meets the Utah Core Standard for fifth grade science: Standard 2: Students will understand that volcanoes, earthquakes, uplift, weathering, and erosion reshape Earth's surface. Objective 1,c: Explain the relationship between time and specific geological changes. Objective 2: Explain how volcanoes, earthquakes, and uplift affect Earth's surface. Situation You are from Montana, and your dad just got a new job in Northern Utah. Your family will have to move there. Your parents have heard that Utah has the potential for major earthquakes, and don?t know where to build your new house. They ...

Bennington, Miss

2010-04-26

339

Mono Lake earthquake of October 23, 1990  

SciTech Connect

On October 23, 1990, a moderate earthquake of local magnitude (M{sub L}) 5.7 shook the Mono Lake area, a region known for its recent volcanic and tectonic activity. The earthquake was centered approximately 5 miles north of Lee Vining and 16 miles southeast of Bridgeport, near Black Point, an isolated flat-topped hill on the north shore of Mono Lake. Shaking from the earthquake was felt at approximately Modified Mercalli Intensity VI in the local area and weakly throughout much of north central California as far west as Sacramento and the San Francisco Bay area. This article summarizes the seismological features of the earthquake and relates the findings made during a surface fault rupture investigation of epicentral area by Division of Mines and Geology (DMG) geologists. To demonstrate how this earthquake fits into the regional tectonic setting, the character of this event is compared to that of other noteworthy seismic events that have occurred over the last 12 years.

McNutt, S.; Bryant, W.; Wilson, R.

1991-02-01

340

Simulating Earthquakes for Science and Society: Earthquake Visualizations Ideal for use in Science Communication and Education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC) has been developing groundbreaking computer modeling capabilities for studying earthquakes. These visualizations were initially shared within the scientific community but have recently gained visibility via television news coverage in Southern California. Computers have opened up a whole new world for scientists working with large data sets, and students can benefit from the same opportunities (Libarkin & Brick, 2002). For example, The Great Southern California ShakeOut was based on a potential magnitude 7.8 earthquake on the southern San Andreas fault. The visualization created for the ShakeOut was a key scientific and communication tool for the earthquake drill. This presentation will also feature SCEC Virtual Display of Objects visualization software developed by SCEC Undergraduate Studies in Earthquake Information Technology interns. According to Gordin and Pea (1995), theoretically visualization should make science accessible, provide means for authentic inquiry, and lay the groundwork to understand and critique scientific issues. This presentation will discuss how the new SCEC visualizations and other earthquake imagery achieve these results, how they fit within the context of major themes and study areas in science communication, and how the efficacy of these tools can be improved.

de Groot, R.

2008-12-01

341

Implications for earthquake risk reduction in the United States from the Kocaeli, Turkey, earthquake of August 17, 1999  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report documents implications for earthquake risk reduction in the U.S. The magnitude 7.4 earthquake caused 17,127 deaths, 43,953 injuries, and displaced more than 250,000 people from their homes. The report warns that similar disasters are possible in the United States where earthquakes of comparable size strike the heart of American urban areas. Another concern described in the report is the delayed emergency response that was caused by the inadequate seismic monitoring system in Turkey, a problem that contrasts sharply with rapid assessment and response to the September Chi-Chi earthquake in Taiwan. Additionally, the experience in Turkey suggests that techniques for forecasting earthquakes may be improving.

Geological Survey (U.S.)

2000-01-01

342

Simulating Earthquakes for Science and Society: New Earthquake Visualizations Ideal for Use in Science Communication  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC) has been developing groundbreaking computer modeling capabilities for studying earthquakes. These visualizations were initially shared within the scientific community but have recently have gained visibility via television news coverage in Southern California. These types of visualizations are becoming pervasive in the teaching and learning of concepts related to earth science. Computers have opened up a whole new world for scientists working with large data sets, and students can benefit from the same opportunities (Libarkin &Brick, 2002). Earthquakes are ideal candidates for visualization products: they cannot be predicted, are completed in a matter of seconds, occur deep in the earth, and the time between events can be on a geologic time scale. For example, the southern part of the San Andreas fault has not seen a major earthquake since about 1690, setting the stage for an earthquake as large as magnitude 7.7 -- the "big one." Since no one has experienced such an earthquake, visualizations can help people understand the scale of such an event. Accordingly, SCEC has developed a revolutionary simulation of this earthquake, with breathtaking visualizations that are now being distributed. According to Gordin and Pea (1995), theoretically visualization should make science accessible, provide means for authentic inquiry, and lay the groundwork to understand and critique scientific issues. This presentation will discuss how the new SCEC visualizations and other earthquake imagery achieve these results, how they fit within the context of major themes and study areas in science communication, and how the efficacy of these tools can be improved.

de Groot, R. M.; Benthien, M. L.

2006-12-01

343

Assessment of the earthquake forecasting approaches (case study: IRAN)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An earthquake is the result of a sudden release of energy in the Earth's crust that creates seismic waves. As well as we can say an earthquake is suddenly shaking in the ground. This is caused when rocks that are beneath the Earth's surface move and break. Scientists attempt to predict the earthquake by means of forecasting and using new technics such as GPS, InSAR, geology, knowledge of past earthquake patterns, gravimetry and etc. Earthquake forecasts declare that a temblor has a certain probability of occurring within a given time. These warnings help to governments, communities, industries and private companies to prepare for large earthquakes and conduct rescue operation and recovery efforts in the aftermath of destructive shocks. In this article we'll assess the forecasting approaches and compare their precision and other factors. Predict time of earthquake occurrence and case study in this paper are the results of this investigation. Since forewarned communities could take steps to evaluate, many of the injuries and deaths that would otherwise occur could be avoided if the government would implement this proposal. We have chosen Iran as the center of this investigation, because Iran is one of the most seismic countries. Key words: earthquake, forecasting, geodesy approaches, IRAN, precise, earth's crust

Hajizadeh, A.; Vaezi, N. F.

2010-05-01

344

Post-earthquake ignition vulnerability assessment of Kkekmece District  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, a Geographic Information System (GIS) based model was developed to calculate the post-earthquake ignition probability of a building, considering damage to the building's interior gas and electrical distribution system and the overturning of appliances. In order to make our model more reliable and realistic, a weighting factor was used to define the possible existence of each appliance or other contents in the given occupancy. A questionnaire was prepared to weigh the relevance of the different components of post-earthquake ignitions using Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP). The questionnaire was evaluated by researchers who were experienced in earthquake engineering and post earthquake fires. The developed model was implemented to HAZTURK (Hazards Turkey) earthquake loss assessment software, as developed by Mid-America Earthquake Center with the help of Istanbul Technical University. The developed post-earthquake ignition tool was applied to Kkekmece, Istanbul in Turkey. The results were evaluated according to structure types, occupancy types, the number of storeys, building codes and specified districts. The evaluated results support the theory that post-earthquake ignition probability is inversely proportional to the number of storeys and the construction year, depending upon the building code.

Yildiz, S. S.; Karaman, H.

2013-05-01

345

[The importance of cardiac bio-marker assay for the stratification and monitoring of AL amyloidosis patients -? single center experience].  

PubMed

Introduction: Cardiac involvement is a dominant prognostic factor in AL amyloidosis patients. A detailed assessment of the presence and degree of cardiac involvement utilizes an array of noninvasive investigation methods, particularly echocardiography and MRI; laboratory parameters include troponins and natriuretic peptides. Cardiac involvement detection aside, cardiac bio-markers are used as a relatively strong stratification and prognostic factor. Objective: The presentation of cardiac bio-markers assay applications in AL amyloidosis patients at an individual treatment center.Patients and methods: The monitored patient set consisted of 22 patients with histologically confirmed AL amyloidosis, of whom 18 met the criteria for cardiac involvement. Levels of cardiac bio-markers troponin T (TnT) and Nterminal probrain natriuretic peptide (NT?ProBNP) were determined in all patients. Risk stratification of the patients utilized the Mayo staging system which is based on both bio-markers assays; Log Rank Test was applied to survival evaluation. Results: Median survival of patients with cardiac involvement stigmata was 10 months vs 60 months survival of patients without signs of cardiac involvement (p = 0.133). Of the 4 patients without cardiac involvement, 1 has shown positive levels of TnT and 2 positive levels of NT?ProBNP. All cardiac involvement patients exhibited abnormal levels of NT?ProBNP (median 4,752 ng/?l; 415.7-?35,000) as well as positive levels of TnT (median 0.0815 ?g/?l; 0.02-?0.986). The application of the Mayo stratification system to the set had determined 2 patients at stage I, 5 patients at stage II and 15 patients at stage III. The median survival of the Mayo I + II group vs the Mayo III group was 60 vs 6 months (p = 0.015), revealing extremely limited survival of stage III patients. Assessment of TnT and NT?ProBNP levels relative to treatment response shows that the degree of decrease in both markers depends on maximum treatment response -? respectively the attainment of a complete hematological remission. Conclusion: The results, although obtained from a limited set of patients, confirm a definitive benefit of the application of cardiac bio-markers assay in the dia-gnostic and therapeutic algorithm of AL amyloidosis patients. The Mayo stratification system utilizing the cardiac indicator values represents a robust tool for risk stratification of AL amyloidosis patients. Key words: AL amyloidosis -? cardiac involvement -? troponin -? natriuretic peptides. PMID:24073949

Pika, T; Lochman, P; Vym?tal, J; Metelka, R; Flodr, P; Mina?k, J; Ltalov, P; Zapletalov, J; Ba?ovsk, J; S?udla, V

2013-01-01

346

Correlating Precursory Declines in Groundwater Radon with Earthquake Magnitude.  

PubMed

Both studies at the Antung hot spring in eastern Taiwan and at the Paihe spring in southern Taiwan confirm that groundwater radon can be a consistent tracer for strain changes in the crust preceding an earthquake when observed in a low-porosity fractured aquifer surrounded by a ductile formation. Recurrent anomalous declines in groundwater radon were observed at the Antung D1 monitoring well in eastern Taiwan prior to the five earthquakes of magnitude (Mw ): 6.8, 6.1, 5.9, 5.4, and 5.0 that occurred on December 10, 2003; April 1, 2006; April 15, 2006; February 17, 2008; and July 12, 2011, respectively. For earthquakes occurring on the longitudinal valley fault in eastern Taiwan, the observed radon minima decrease as the earthquake magnitude increases. The above correlation has been proven to be useful for early warning local large earthquakes. In southern Taiwan, radon anomalous declines prior to the 2010 Mw 6.3 Jiasian, 2012 Mw 5.9 Wutai, and 2012 ML 5.4 Kaohsiung earthquakes were also recorded at the Paihe spring. For earthquakes occurring on different faults in southern Taiwan, the correlation between the observed radon minima and the earthquake magnitude is not yet possible. PMID:23550908

Kuo, T

2013-04-01

347

Earthquakes and emergence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earthquakes and emerging infections may not have a direct cause and effect relationship like tax evasion and jail, but new evidence suggests that there may be a link between the two human health hazards. Various media accounts have cited a massive 1993 earthquake in Maharashtra as a potential catalyst of the recent outbreak of plague in India that has claimed more than 50 lives and alarmed the world. The hypothesis is that the earthquake may have uprooted underground rat populations that carry the fleas infected with the bacterium that causes bubonic plague and can lead to the pneumonic form of the disease that is spread through the air.

348

Earthquakes: San Francisco  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The prediction of earthquakes may be inexact, but it is vital, especially when large cities such as San Francisco or Los Angeles are threatened. The San Andreas Fault and two other faults, the Heyward and Calaveras faults, all have the potential to deliver a massive earthquake to the San Francisco Bay area. In this video segment, a seismologist explains the historical pattern of seismic activity in the Bay area, and how this information may be used to predict the location and timing of San Francisco's next big earthquake. The segment is three minutes twenty-eight seconds in length. A background essay and discussion questions are included.

349

The November 14, 2001 west of Kunlun Mountain Pass earthquake: An earthquake with unsaturated surface wave magnitude  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an overview of the magnitude determination of the November 14, 2001 west of Kunlun Mountain Pass (KMP)\\u000a earthquake at the juncture of Xinjiang and Qinghai, northwestern China. Comparisons are made among surface wave magnitudes\\u000a determined by China National Digital Seismograph Network (CNDSN), National Earthquake Information Center (NEIC) of US Geological\\u000a Survey (USGS) and moment magnitudes determined by

Rui-Feng Liu; Yun-Tai Chen; Xiao Ren; Jian-Min Hou; Li-Ye Zou

2005-01-01

350

Physician beliefs regarding the usefulness of self-monitoring of blood pressure in an academic family practice center  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patient self-monitoring of blood pressure (SMBP) may result in improved identification and control of hypertension. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) and SMBP, compared to office-based blood pressure measurements, seem to correlate better with the presence of left ventricular hypertrophy and other target organ damage resulting from hypertension. For currently unknown reasons, SMBP is infrequently recommended by primary care providers (PCPs).

C. Cheng; J. S. Studdiford; J. J. Diamond; S. Sen; C. V. Chambers; L. Trapani; R. L. Perkel

2000-01-01

351

A National Tracking Center for Monitoring Shipments of HEU, MOX, and Spent Nuclear Fuel: How do we implement?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nuclear material safeguards specialists and instrument developers at US Department of Energy (USDOE) National Laboratories in the United States, sponsored by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Office of NA-24, have been developing devices to monitor shipments of UF6 cylinders and other radioactive materials , . Tracking devices are being developed that are capable of monitoring shipments of valuable radioactive

Mark Schanfein

2009-01-01

352

Cooperative Monitoring Center Occasional Paper/13: Cooperative monitoring for confidence building: A case study of the Sino-Indian border areas  

SciTech Connect

This occasional paper identifies applicable cooperative monitoring techniques and develops models for possible application in the context of the border between China and India. The 1993 and 1996 Sino-Indian agreements on maintaining peace and tranquility along the Line of Actual Control (LAC) and establishing certain confidence building measures (CBMs), including force reductions and limitation on military exercises along their common border, are used to examine the application of technically based cooperative monitoring in both strengthening the existing terms of the agreements and also enhancing trust. The paper also aims to further the understanding of how and under what conditions technology-based tools can assist in implementing existing agreements on arms control and confidence building. The authors explore how cooperative monitoring techniques can facilitate effective implementation of arms control agreements and CBMS between states and contribute to greater security and stability in bilateral, regional, and global contexts.

SIDHU,WAHEGURU PAL SINGH; YUAN,JING-DONG; BIRINGER,KENT L.

1999-08-01

353

Are earthquake magnitudes clustered?  

PubMed

The question of earthquake predictability is a long-standing and important challenge. Recent results [Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 098501 (2007); Phys. Rev. Lett.100, 038501 (2008)] have suggested that earthquake magnitudes are clustered, thus indicating that they are not independent in contrast to what is typically assumed. Here, we present evidence that the observed magnitude correlations are to a large extent, if not entirely, an artifact due to the incompleteness of earthquake catalogs and the well-known modified Omori law. The latter leads to variations in the frequency-magnitude distribution if the distribution is constrained to those earthquakes that are close in space and time to the directly following event. PMID:21469840

Davidsen, Jrn; Green, Adam

2011-03-10

354

1964 Alaska Earthquake  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video adapted from the Valdez Museum & Historical Archive, explores what happened during the Great Alaska Earthquake of 1964 through original footage, first-person accounts, and animations illustrating plate tectonics.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2009-02-25

355

Nonlinear processes in earthquakes  

SciTech Connect

This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Three-dimensional, elastic-wave-propagation calculations were performed to define the effects of near-source geologic structure on the degree to which seismic signals produced by earthquakes resemble {open_quotes}non-double-couple{close_quotes} sources. Signals from sources embedded in a subducting slab showed significant phase and amplitude differences compared with a {open_quotes}no-slab{close_quotes} case. Modifications to the LANL elastic-wave propagation code enabled improved simulations of path effects on earthquake and explosion signals. These simulations demonstrate that near-source, shallow, low-velocity basins can introduce earthquake-like features into explosion signatures through conversion of compressive (P-wave) energy to shear (S- and R-wave) modes. Earthquake sources simulated to date do not show significant modifications.

Jones, E.M. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Frohlich, C. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Institute of Geophysics

1998-12-31

356

To capture an earthquake  

SciTech Connect

An earthquake model based on the theory of plate tectonics is presented. It is assumed that the plates behave elastically in response to slow, steady motions and the strains concentrate within the boundary zone between the plates. When the accumulated stresses exceed the bearing capacity of the rocks, the rocks break, producing an earthquake and releasing the accumulated stresses. As the steady movement of the plates continues, strain begins to reaccumulate. The cycle of strain accumulation and release is modeled using the motion of a block, pulled across a rough surface by a spring. A model earthquake can be predicted by taking into account a precursory event or the peak spring force prior to slip as measured in previous cycles. The model can be applied to faults, e.g., the San Andreas fault, if the past earthquake history of the fault and the rate of strain accumulation are known.

Ellsworth, W.L. (USGS, Menlo Park, CA (USA))

1990-11-01

357

Cooperative Monitoring Center Occasional Paper\\/13: Cooperative monitoring for confidence building: A case study of the Sino-Indian border areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

This occasional paper identifies applicable cooperative monitoring techniques and develops models for possible application in the context of the border between China and India. The 1993 and 1996 Sino-Indian agreements on maintaining peace and tranquility along the Line of Actual Control (LAC) and establishing certain confidence building measures (CBMs), including force reductions and limitation on military exercises along their common

WAHEGURU PAL SINGH SIDHU; JING-DONG YUAN; KENT L. BIRINGER

1999-01-01

358

Modeling of Atmospheric and Ionospheric Disturbances Excited by a Large Earthquake - In the case of the 2008 Iwate-Miyagi Nairiku Earthquake -  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evidences of the 2008 Iwate-Miyagi Nairiku Earthquake, of which moment magnitude is 6.9 and focal depth is only 6km or less, were recorded in non-seismic observations such as atmospheric and electromagnetic observations. A CTBT infrasound monitoring station at Isumi, Japan at an epicentral distance of 417km recorded air pressure variations excited by this earthquake. Clear two large wave packets having amplitudes of several pascals appeared in 1 minute and 20 minutes after the origin time. The earlier arriving packet was the Rayleigh wave coming together with the ground motion whereas the later one was the acoustic waves that had propagated in the atmosphere directly from the rupture zone. On the other hand, an electromagnetic observation using the HF-Doppler radar, which monitors ionospheric activities at the same epicentral distance with the Isumi observatory, recorded the Rayleigh wave traveling in the ionosphere at an altitude of 250km. A normal mode summation technique synthesizes these observational evidences based on a given realistic source mechanism in a one-dimensional joint model that consists of the solid Earth and the atmosphere extending from the center of the Earth to the altitude of 1000 km. The obtained synthetic waveforms successfully account for the observed ones in the period range >30 seconds assuming a focal depth of 3-4km, which is shallower than the previously proposed models. Since the amplitude of such seismoacoustic wave is significantly sensitive to the focal depth, a joint analysis with seismograms could give strong constraints on seismic mechanisms especially in the cases of shallow earthquakes.

Nagao, H.; Kobayashi, N.; Fukao, Y.; Tomizawa, I.; Higuchi, T.

2012-04-01

359

Post-traumatic stress disorder in children and adolescents of the Armenian earthquake  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of the Armenian earthquake of 1988 on children and adolescents screened through the National Mental Health Research\\u000a Center in Spitak, Armenia, is discussed. The earthquake caused close to 20,000 deaths, almost two-thirds of which were children\\u000a and adolescents. Clinical data which address advances in understanding the diagnostic indicators and resulting psychopathology\\u000a in victims of the Armenian earthquake are

Thomas W. Miller; Robert F. Kraus; Adel Semyonova Tatevosyan; Peter Kamenchenko

1993-01-01

360

e-Science on Earthquake Disaster Mitigation by EUAsiaGrid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although earthquake is not predictable at this moment, with the aid of accurate seismic wave propagation analysis, we could simulate the potential hazards at all distances from possible fault sources by understanding the source rupture process during large earthquakes. With the integration of strong ground-motion sensor network, earthquake data center and seismic wave propagation analysis over gLite e-Science Infrastructure, we

Eric Yen; Simon Lin; Hsin-Yen Chen; Li Chao; Bor-Shoh Huang; Wen-Tzong Liang

2010-01-01

361

Seismicity Associated with the Sumatra-Andaman Islands Earthquake of 26 December 2004  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. Geological Survey\\/National Earthquake Information Center (USGS\\/NEIC) had computed origins for 5000 earthquakes in the Sumatra-Andaman Islands region in the first 36 weeks after the Sumatra-Andaman Islands mainshock of 26 December 2004. The cataloging of earthquakes of mb (USGS) 5.1 and larger is essentially complete for the time period except for the first half-day following the 26 December mainshock,

James W. Dewey; George Choy; Bruce Presgrave; Stuart Sipkin; Arthur C. Tarr; Harley Benz; Paul Earle; David Wald

2007-01-01

362

A GIS-based potential analysis of the landslides induced by the Chi-Chi earthquake  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Chi-Chi earthquake struck central Taiwan in 1999, triggering many landslides over a broad area. A large amount of information was obtained from the field reconnaissance conducted by National Center for Research on Earthquake Engineering [NCREE, 2000. Investigation Report of the Geotechnical Hazard Caused by Chi-Chi Earthquake, Taiwan] and other follow-up investigations. The objective of this research was to analyze

Meei-Ling Lin; Chi-Che Tung

2004-01-01

363

Optimization and Scalability of an Large-scale Earthquake Simulation Application  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2004, the Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC) initiated a major large-scale earthquake simulation, called TeraShake. The TeraShake propagated seismic waves across a domain of 600 km by 300 km by 80 km at 200 meter resolution and 1.8 billion grid points, some of the largest and most detailed earthquake simulations of the southern San Andres fault. The TeraShake 1

Y. Cui; K. B. Olsen; Y. Hu; S. Day; L. A. Dalguer; B. Minster; R. Moore; J. Zhu; P. Maechling; T. Jordan

2006-01-01

364

Earthquakes: The Prehistoric Record  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Geologic features altered by earthquakes provide striking evidence of the power of seismic events. This video segment explores the research of Dr. Kerry Sieh, a geologist at the California Institute of Technology, who is dating sediment layers broken and offset by earthquakes in the past to determine the rate at which strain is accumulating towards the next event. The segment is three minutes nineteen seconds in length. A background essay and discussion questions are included.

2011-05-13

365

Commensurability of earthquake occurrence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The commensurability brought by TitiusBode law is objective distributing law of the matter in a space region.The expanding commensurable theory reveals the time law of the occurrence of events in a specified space region.The studied results show that the earthquakes basically all occur at the commensurable point of its time axis, respectively.The commensurability can provide a scientific basis for the prediction of earthquakes.

Hu, Hui; Han, Yanben; Su, Youjin; Wang, Rui

2013-07-01

366

Tectonics, Earthquakes, Volcanoes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students do background reading on plate tectonics and associated geologic hazards. In the first part of this exercise, students use on-line courseware from California State University, Los Angeles (Virtual Earthquake) to investigate seismograph records and use these records to determine earthquake epicenters and magnitudes. In the second part, they complete a crossword puzzle designed to help them master new vocabulary related to plate tectonics.

Holmgren, Camille

367

Connecting Earthquakes and Violins  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Violins, earthquakes, and the "singing rod" demonstration all have something in common--stick-slip frictional motion. This article begins with a typical classroom experiment used to understand the transition between sticking and slipping, proceeds to a mechanical earthquake model that is truly "stick-slip" as scientists describe it, and progresses to acoustic examples of the same phenomenon in action. Other interesting cases involving frictional effects are described.

Ringlein, James

2005-11-01

368

Earthquake Probability Mapping  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This mapping tool allows users to generate Earthquake Probability Maps (EPMs) for a region within 50 kilometers of a location specified by latitude and longitude or by ZIP code. The maps are color-coded; higher earthquake probabilities are indicated by orange and red colors, while lower probabilities are indicated by green or blue. Fault traces are marked in white; rivers are in blue. The maps are also produced in downloadable, printable format (PDF).

2010-12-27

369

Predicting Earthquake Effects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Advances in the earth sciences and information technology have lead to dramatic improvements in our ability to respond to, as well as anticipate and mitigate, earthquake effects in our communities. The development of Geographic Information System (GIS) based tools such as ShakeMap and HAZUS have ushered in a new era of risk and emergency management. Real-time maps of strong ground motion, coupled with engineering-based descriptions of building and infrastructure inventory and vulnerability enable more accurate determinations of the location and severity of earthquake damage and the socio-economic consequences for emergency managers and officials following significant earthquakes. The ability to map the distribution and growth of seismic risk in the United States has long-term benefits for public policy as well. Long-term forecasts of seismic risk based on varying mitigation strategies can provide guidance for developing national and local earthquake policy. The successful performance of the Trans-Alaska pipeline during the 2002 Denali earthquake illustrates the dependence of performance-based engineering on the ability to predict earthquake effects (e.g., levels of strong ground motion, amounts of fault displacement or ground deformation). Being able to reduce the uncertainty in predicting these parameters has significant economic consequences and enables decision makers to more efficiently prioritize risk management strategies.

Nishenko, S.

2005-12-01

370

Cooperative Monitoring Center Occasional Paper/16: The Potential of Technology for the Control of Small Weapons: Applications in Developing Countries.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

For improving the control of small arms, technology provides many possibilities. Present and future technical means are described in several areas. With the help of sensors deployed on the ground or on board aircraft, larger areas can be monitored. Using ...

J. Altmann

2000-01-01

371

Google Mapplets for Earthquakes and Volcanic Activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The USGS Earthquake and Volcano Hazards Programs monitor, assess, and issue warnings of natural hazards. Users can access our hazards information through our web pages, RSS feeds, and now through USGS Mapplets. Mapplets allow third party data layers to be added on top of Google Maps (http:\\/\\/maps.google.com - My Maps tab). Mapplets are created by parsing a GeoRSS feed, which

S. A. Haefner; D. Y. Venezky

2007-01-01

372

Helium soil-gas variations associated with recent central California earthquakes: precursor or coincidence?  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Decreases in the helium concentration of soil-gas have been observed to precede six of eight recent central California earthquakes. Ten monitoring stations were established near Hollister, California and along the San Andreas Fault to permit gas collection. The data showed decreases occurring a few weeks before the earthquakes and concentratiosn returned to prequake levels either shortly before or after the earthquakes.-Author

Reimer, G. M.

1981-01-01

373

Quantitative Earthquake Prediction on Global and Regional Scales  

SciTech Connect

The Earth is a hierarchy of volumes of different size. Driven by planetary convection these volumes are involved into joint and relative movement. The movement is controlled by a wide variety of processes on and around the fractal mesh of boundary zones, and does produce earthquakes. This hierarchy of movable volumes composes a large non-linear dynamical system. Prediction of such a system in a sense of extrapolation of trajectory into the future is futile. However, upon coarse-graining the integral empirical regularities emerge opening possibilities of prediction in a sense of the commonly accepted consensus definition worked out in 1976 by the US National Research Council. Implications of the understanding hierarchical nature of lithosphere and its dynamics based on systematic monitoring and evidence of its unified space-energy similarity at different scales help avoiding basic errors in earthquake prediction claims. They suggest rules and recipes of adequate earthquake prediction classification, comparison and optimization. The approach has already led to the design of reproducible intermediate-term middle-range earthquake prediction technique. Its real-time testing aimed at prediction of the largest earthquakes worldwide has proved beyond any reasonable doubt the effectiveness of practical earthquake forecasting. In the first approximation, the accuracy is about 1-5 years and 5-10 times the anticipated source dimension. Further analysis allows reducing spatial uncertainty down to 1-3 source dimensions, although at a cost of additional failures-to-predict. Despite of limited accuracy a considerable damage could be prevented by timely knowledgeable use of the existing predictions and earthquake prediction strategies. The December 26, 2004 Indian Ocean Disaster seems to be the first indication that the methodology, designed for prediction of M8.0+ earthquakes can be rescaled for prediction of both smaller magnitude earthquakes (e.g., down to M5.5+ in Italy) and for mega-earthquakes of M9.0+. The monitoring at regional scales may require application of a recently proposed scheme for the spatial stabilization of the intermediate-term middle-range predictions. The scheme guarantees a more objective and reliable diagnosis of times of increased probability and is less restrictive to input seismic data. It makes feasible reestablishment of seismic monitoring aimed at prediction of large magnitude earthquakes in Caucasus and Central Asia, which to our regret, has been discontinued in 1991. The first results of the monitoring (1986-1990) were encouraging, at least for M6.5+.

Kossobokov, Vladimir G. [International Institute of Earthquake Prediction Theory and Mathematical Geophysics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Warshavskoye sh. 79-2, Moscow, 117556 (Russian Federation); Institute de Physique du Globe de Paris, 4 Place Jussieu, Paris, 75252 (France)

2006-03-23

374

Was the 1899 Menderes Valley Earthquake a double earthquake? Historical and paleosismological constraints  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

September 20, 1899 Menderes Valley Earthquake is the last destroying event in the Byk Menderes Graben, Western Turkey, just proceeding the installation of the earliest seismograms in the world. The previous geological studies revealed that this seismic event of estimated Mw = 6.5-6.7 caused a surface rupture of 50 km between Ayd?n and Kuyucak in the center of the graben. Based on the extremely different positioning of microseismic epicenter of this event in various historical documents, we re-evaluated the 1899 earthquake with a rather multidisciplinary perspective. Quantitative earthquake data including fatalities, damage and various types of aids were gathered from daily journals and special commission reports of the time. These data are corrected with the population statistics and georeferenced. For exact determination of the position of the surface rupture, we benefited the verbal description in historical documents and witnesses of elder local people. Furthermore, morphological and palaeoseismological investigations were realized in the eastern part of the graben where surface deformations were made mention in historical documents. Different ground shake-related indicators conformably revealed two distinct geographically-separated damage zone, one at Yenipazar and the other at Ortak?, in the middle and east of the graben respectively. Trench studies in the west of the Ortak? village indicated evidences of a seismic event, presumably the 1899 earthquake, with 180 cm vertical displacement. Bimodal distribution damage unrelated to basement lithology and building types, and the incoherence between the total surface rupture length and the observed vertical offset and earthquake intensity lead us to conclude that the 1899 Menderes Valley Earthquake was an earthquake doublet occurred in two neighboring segments in very close temporal proximity.

Ocako?lu, Faruk; A?kal?n, Sanem; Gne?, Gnver; zkes, Sevilay; Dirik, Kadir; zsay?n, Erman

2013-05-01

375

Commonly used earthquake source models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several important earthquake source models that have been extensively used in seismological research and earthquake prediction are presented and discussed. A new fault source model is used to explain the earthquake focal mechanism solution and tectonic stress field, which play a crucial role in earthquake initiation and preparation. The elastodynamic-dislocation theory is demonstrated which provides the theoretical background of most earthquake source models. Important earthquake source models reviewed here include the double-force-couple point-source model, the circular-shear dislocation model, the finite moving-source model, the Brune model, and the spherical explosive source model.

Liu, Wenlong; Liu, Yucheng

2012-11-01

376

System of Earthquakes Alert (SEA) on the territory of Bulgaria developed as a result of DACEA project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The prevention of the natural disasters and the performing management of reactions to crisis are common problems for many countries. The Romania-Bulgaria border region is significantly affected by earthquakes occurred in both territories: on the one-hand, Vrancea seismic source, with intermediate-depth events and on the other hand, crustal seismicity recorded in the northern part of Bulgaria (Shabla, Dulovo, Gorna Orjahovitza). The general objective of DACEA (2010-2013) project is to develop an system of earthquake alert in order to prevent the natural disasters caused by earthquakes in the cross-border area, taking into account the nuclear power plants and other chemical plants located along the Danube on the territories of Romania and Bulgaria. An integrated warning system is designed and implemented in the cross-border area. A seismic detection network is put in operation in order to warn the bodies in charge with emergency situations management in case of seismic danger. The main purpose of this network is: monitoring of the four seismogenic areas relevant for the cross-border area, in order to detect dangerous earthquakes sending the seismic warning signals within several seconds to the local public authorities in the cross-border area On the territory of Bulgaria the seismic network belonging to SEA is consists of: 8 seismic stations equipped with Basalt digitizer, accelerometer Epi-sensor and BB seismometer KS2000. 8 seismic stations equipped with Basalt digitizer, accelerometer Epi-sensor, warning and visual monitoring equipment. The stations are spanned allover the North Bulgaria. The sites were thoroughly examined and the most important requirement was the low level of noise or vibrations. SEA centers were established both in Sofia (in National Institute of Geophysics, Geodesy and Geography - NIGGG) and Bucharest (in National Institute of Research and Development for Earth Physics). Both centers are equipped with servers for data analyses and storage. Specialized software for elaboration of scenarios of seismic hazard is designed and implemented. The reaction of buildings, roads, bridges, land etc. to earthquakes is graphically shown on the monitor. The high risk areas are highlighted in order for the emergency units to be prepared for intervention. This software is designed on the base of a comprehensive relational data base of historical and contemporary seismicity in the cross-border region. The output shake maps and scenarios are to be used by the emergency intervention units, local public authorities and for general public awareness.

Solakov, Dimcho; Dimitrova, Liliya; Simeonova, Stela; Aleksandrova, Irena; Stoyanov, Stoyan; Metodiev, Metodi

2013-04-01

377

Prospective Tests of Southern California Earthquake Forecasts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are testing earthquake forecast models prospectively using likelihood ratios. Several investigators have developed such models as part of the Southern California Earthquake Center's project called Regional Earthquake Likelihood Models (RELM). Various models are based on fault geometry and slip rates, seismicity, geodetic strain, and stress interactions. Here we describe the testing procedure and present preliminary results. Forecasts are expressed as the yearly rate of earthquakes within pre-specified bins of longitude, latitude, magnitude, and focal mechanism parameters. We test models against each other in pairs, which requires that both forecasts in a pair be defined over the same set of bins. For this reason we specify a standard "menu" of bins and ground rules to guide forecasters in using common descriptions. One menu category includes five-year forecasts of magnitude 5.0 and larger. Contributors will be requested to submit forecasts in the form of a vector of yearly earthquake rates on a 0.1 degree grid at the beginning of the test. Focal mechanism forecasts, when available, are also archived and used in the tests. Interim progress will be evaluated yearly, but final conclusions would be made on the basis of cumulative five-year performance. The second category includes forecasts of earthquakes above magnitude 4.0 on a 0.1 degree grid, evaluated and renewed daily. Final evaluation would be based on cumulative performance over five years. Other types of forecasts with different magnitude, space, and time sampling are welcome and will be tested against other models with shared characteristics. Tests are based on the log likelihood scores derived from the probability that future earthquakes would occur where they do if a given forecast were true [Kagan and Jackson, J. Geophys. Res.,100, 3,943-3,959, 1995]. For each pair of forecasts, we compute alpha, the probability that the first would be wrongly rejected in favor of the second, and beta, the probability that the second would be wrongly rejected in favor of the first. Computing alpha and beta requires knowing the theoretical distribution of likelihood scores under each hypothesis, which we estimate by simulations. In this scheme, each forecast is given equal status; there is no "null hypothesis" which would be accepted by default. Forecasts and test results will be archived and posted on the RELM web site. Major problems under discussion include how to treat aftershocks, which clearly violate the variable-rate Poissonian hypotheses that we employ, and how to deal with the temporal variations in catalog completeness that follow large earthquakes.

Jackson, D. D.; Schorlemmer, D.; Gerstenberger, M.; Kagan, Y. Y.; Helmstetter, A.; Wiemer, S.; Field, N.

2004-12-01

378

Earthquake safety program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

Within three minutes on the morning of January 24, 1980, an earthquake and three aftershocks, with Richter magnitudes of 5.8, 5.1, 4.0, and 4.2., respectively, struck the Livermore Valley. Two days later, a Richter magnitude 5.4 earthquake occurred, which had its epicenter about 4 miles northwest of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Although no one at the Lab was seriously injured, these earthquakes caused considerable damage and disruption. Masonry and concrete structures cracked and broke, trailers shifted and fell off their pedestals, office ceilings and overhead lighting fell, and bookcases overturned. We suddenly found ourselves immersed in a site-wide program of repairing earthquake-damaged facilities, and protecting our many employees and the surrounding community from future earthquakes. Over the past five years, LLNL has spent approximately $10 million on its earthquake restoration effort for repairs and upgrades. The discussion in this paper centers upon the earthquake damage that occurred, our clean-up and restoration efforts, the seismic review of LLNL facilities, our site-specific seismic design criteria, computer-floor upgrades, ceiling-system upgrades, unique building seismic upgrades, geologic and seismologic studies, and seismic instrumentation. 10 refs.

Freeland, G.E.

1985-08-01

379

Nisqually, Washington Intraplate Earthquake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On February 28, 2001, the M6.8 Nisqually earthquake shook the Pacific Northwest. This intraplate event occurred within the subducting Juan de Fuca plate along the Cascadia margin. Although the damage was less than observed at most large urban earthquakes, serious damage was found in Olympia, Seattle, and Tacoma. To better serve Oregon public safety needs, DOGAMI and others surveyed the Puget Sound damage to expand our technical understanding of seismic ground response, building and lifeline behavior, and secondary hazards (landslides and liquefaction). Damage was observed in structures and areas that, for the most part, would be predicted to be vulnerable. These included: old buildings (URMs), old lifelines (4th Ave bridge in Olympia), areas with poor soil conditions (Harbor Island, Seattle; Sunset Lake, Tumwater), and steep slopes (Salmon Beach; Burien). Damage types included: structural, nonstructural, contents, lifelines, landslides, liquefaction, lateral spreading, sand boils, and settlement. In several notable places, seismic-induced ground failures significantly increased the damage. Estimated costs developed from HAZUS evaluations ranged from \\2 billion to \\3.9 billion. Historic intraplate earthquakes in the Puget Sound region, including the 1949 M7.1, 1965 M6.5, and 1999 M5.9, were not accompanied by significant aftershock events or associated with earthquake sequences. However, a recent El Salvador earthquake sequence suggests there may be particular cases of increased seismicity following large intraplate events, with implications for post-earthquake response and mitigation. The January 13, 2001 M7.6 El Salvador intraplate earthquake was followed by a M6.6 crustal event February 13, 2001 and a M5.4 intraplate event February 28, 2001.

Wang, Y.; Hofmeister, R.

2001-05-01

380

Nevada Earthquake Response GPS Network (NEARNET)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology (NBMG), a statewide agency at the University of Nevada, has accepted the responsibility of responding to a Nevada earthquake by operating a Nevada post-earthquake technical information clearinghouse [ State of Nevada Standard Multi-Hazard Mitigation Plan, Oct 2004]. The NSMHM Plan identifies the need to be prepared to rapidly study a major event within the first few days after an earthquake. In preparation for a rapid earthquake response, the Nevada Geodetic Laboratory at NBMG has designed and has begun to implement a statewide 400-station GPS geodetic network with spatial resolution of approximately 20 km: (1) to provide existing, pre-earthquake geodetic control such that co-seismic displacements can be measured with 1 mm precision within days following any large earthquake that might affect anywhere in Nevada, (2) to monitor post-seismic deformation related to transient processes and stress transfer between active faults from days to years following large earthquakes, (3) to produce high resolution strain-rate maps toward improving neotectonic models of the Great Basin and seismic hazard assessment. From January 2004 - September 2005, 110 GPS control points have been installed and measured precisely in western Nevada and eastern California, spanning the Walker Lane and Central Nevada Seismic Belt (CNSB), where crustal strain rates are highest. Approximately 10 new control points are being added and measured every month, with approximately 30 days of continuous data collected at each point to establish epoch coordinates. NBMG now has approximately 50 GPS receivers deployed in NEARNET at any given time. A 60-station core of the NEARNET network (known as "MAGNET") spans the northern Walker Lane and CNSB at the latitude of Reno and is occupied approximately 50% of the time so that strain rates can be more rapidly resolved in this region. Aspects of the design, operation, and analysis of the NEARNET network are proving to mitigate problems that often plague GPS campaigns, and enhance the precision of coordinate time series. Preliminary crustal strain-rate maps are already becoming available using sites that have now been in operation for only just over one year. In addition to providing Nevada with an earthquake response capability, NEARNET serves multiple purposes, and is jointly funded by the State of Nevada and the Department of Energy's Geothermal Program and Yucca Mountain Project.

Blewitt, G.; Hammond, W. C.; Kreemer, C.; Plag, H.

2005-12-01

381

Subducted Seamount Imaged in the Rupture Zone of the 1946 Nankaido Earthquake  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Nankai Trough is a vigorous subduction zone where large earthquakes have been recorded since the seventh century, with a recurrence time of 100 to 200 years. The 1946 Nankaido earthquake was unusual, with a rupture zone estimated from long-period geodetic data that was more than twice as large as that derived from shorter period seismic data. In the center

Shuichi Kodaira; Narumi Takahashi; Ayako Nakanishi; Seiichi Miura; Yoshiyuki Kaneda

2000-01-01

382

Seismic Capacity Evaluation of Reinforced-Concrete School Buildings Damaged by the 2001 Geiyo Earthquake  

Microsoft Academic Search

After the 1995 Hyogoken-Nanbu earthquake, the seismic capacity evaluation of public buildings become prevalent in Japan. Since school buildings are used as local evacuation centers, after disastrous earthquakes the reification of their seismic capacity verification is a pressing need. However, due to the lack of supportive funds many school buildings still remain unchanged. In order to check the seismic capacity

Nanae MURAOKA; Tadamachi YAMASHITA; Masashi MATSUOKA; Fumio YAMAZAKI; Koichi MINAMI

383

Decade Plan (2010-2020) for the Study on Earthquake Predictability: Challenges and Opportunities in China (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the beginning of 2009, the Department for Earthquake Monitoring and Prediction of China Earthquake Administration (CEA) has been organizing the planning for the study on earthquake predictability for the period 2010-2020. Invited by the organizers of this session, this presentation briefly introduces the planning works, the strategies for the planning, and the research priorities proposed in the plan. Lessons and experiences of the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake play an important role in such planning. In China, earthquake forecast/prediction is used in a broader sense, from seismic hazard analysis considering very long time scales, to long-term earthquake forecast with decade time scales, further to intermediate-term forecast mainly with annual time scale, and to short and imminent-term earthquake prediction - the earthquake prediction traditionally understood, and at last to the estimation of the type of earthquake sequence and the probability of strong aftershocks. Study on earthquake predictability in China also has a broader sense, from seismo-tectonics to the physics of earthquakes. Making full use of the present knowledge of earthquake predictability to serve the reduction of earthquake disasters is one of the methodologies of Chinese seismological agency. The concept monitoring and modeling for prediction plays an important role in considering the objectives of the planned R&D activities. Since recent years there has been a fast development of observation facilities in China. How to make full use of the observational data produced by these facilities is one of the key issues for the next decade. Chinese continent has different units of seismo-tectonics, with different characteristics of seismicity and different needs from the society for the reduction of earthquake disasters. Deployment of technologies to deal with this tectonic and seismic diversity is another key-issue in the planning. Continental China, where the public has motivations to support earthquake predictability studies, provides newly developed techniques, for example, active monitoring technique, with a good testing place.

Wu, Z.; Liu, G.; Ma, H.; Jiang, C.; Zhou, L.; Shao, Z.; Wu, Y.; Yan, R.; Yan, W.; Li, Y.; Peng, H.

2009-12-01

384

Google Mapplets for Earthquakes and Volcanic Activity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The USGS Earthquake and Volcano Hazards Programs monitor, assess, and issue warnings of natural hazards. Users can access our hazards information through our web pages, RSS feeds, and now through USGS Mapplets. Mapplets allow third party data layers to be added on top of Google Maps (http://maps.google.com - My Maps tab). Mapplets are created by parsing a GeoRSS feed, which involves searching through an XML file for location data and plotting the associated information on a map. The new Mapplets allow users to view both real-time earthquakes and current volcanic activity on the same map for the first time. In addition, the USGS Mapplets have been added to Google's extensive collection of Mapplets, allowing users to add the types of information they want to see on their own customized maps. The Earthquake Mapplet plots the past week of earthquakes around the world, showing the location, time and magnitude. The Volcano Mapplet displays the latest U.S. volcano updates, including the current level of both ground-based and aviation hazards. Join us to discuss how Mapplets are made and how they can be used to create your own customized map.

Haefner, S. A.; Venezky, D. Y.

2007-12-01

385

Methods for Analyzing the El Mayor-Cucapah Earthquake Rupture using LIDAR datasets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The high-resolution terrestrial LiDAR scans of northern Mexico obtained after the April 2010, Mw7.2 El Mayor-Cucapah earthquake (post-earthquake data), along with aerial LiDAR scans of the same area from before the earthquake (pre-earthquake data), make possible an accurate examination of the shifts in the region due to the event. We present methods for analyzing the various shifts throughout the area. We make two assumptions: (1) at a local level, excluding the area around the fault line, the features have minimal deformation, and (2) any feature was translated no more than five meters, with an optional change in orientation of no more than 15 degrees. We have developed an effective technique, where we iterate though all the points of the pre-earthquake data, using for each point a disc with a radius of 10 meters centered around each sample point, and define a feature based on all the points in this disc. Since the resolution of the pre-earthquake data is less than that of the post-earthquake data, it makes sense to define the features using pre-earthquake points. In the post-earthquake data set, we attempt to find the same feature by searching a ten-by-ten square meter grid centered at the same point as the feature from the pre-earthquake data set. Once a match has been determined, we draw a translation vector from the original position of the feature in the pre-earthquake data to the translated position of the feature in the post-earthquake data. As we draw one vector for each feature, we create a translation vector field that shows the movement caused by the earthquake.

Banesh, D.; Oskin, M. E.; Wang, X.; Hamann, B.

2011-12-01

386

Earthquakes and Earthquake Engineering. LC Science Tracer Bullet.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|An earthquake is a shaking of the ground resulting from a disturbance in the earth's interior. Seismology is the (1) study of earthquakes; (2) origin, propagation, and energy of seismic phenomena; (3) prediction of these phenomena; and (4) investigation of the structure of the earth. Earthquake engineering or engineering seismology includes the

Buydos, John F., Comp.

387

Business Activity Monitoring: Real-Time Group Goals and Feedback Using an Overhead Scoreboard in a Distribution Center  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Companies operating large industrial settings often find delivering timely and accurate feedback to employees to be one of the toughest challenges they face in implementing performance management programs. In this report, an overhead scoreboard at a retailer's distribution center informed teams of order selectors as to how many tasks were

Goomas, David T.; Smith, Stuart M.; Ludwig, Timothy D.

2011-01-01

388

Earthquake Education Environment (E3)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Earthquake Education Environment (E3) supports high-quality K-12 and undergraduate education by providing up-to-date earthquake information, authoritative technical sources, and educational resources for the classroom.

2007-07-16

389

Distribution of similar earthquakes in aftershocks of inland earthquakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Frictional properties control the slip behavior on a fault surface such as seismic slip and aseismic slip. Asperity, as a seismic slip area, is characterized by a strong coupling in the interseismic period and large coseismic slip. On the other hand, steady slip or afterslip occurs in an aseismic slip area around the asperity. If an afterslip area includes small asperities, a repeating rupture of single asperity can generate similar earthquakes due to the stress accumulation caused by the afterslip. We here investigate a detail distribution of similar earthquakes in the aftershocks of the 2007 Noto Hanto earthquake (Mjma 6.9) and the 2000 Western Tottori earthquake (Mjma 7.3), inland large earthquakes in Japan. We use the data obtained by the group for the aftershock observations of the 2007 Noto Hanto Earthquake and by the group for the aftershock observations of the 2000 Western Tottori earthquake. First, we select pairs of aftershocks whose cross correlation coefficients in 10 s time window of band-pass filtered waveforms of 1~4 Hz are greater than 0.95 at more than 5 stations and divide those into groups by a link of the cross correlation coefficients. Second, we reexamine the arrival times of P and S waves and the maximum amplitude for earthquakes of each group and apply the double-difference method (Waldhouser and Ellsworth, 2000) to relocate them. As a result of the analysis, we find 24 groups of similar earthquakes in the aftershocks on the source fault of the 2007 Noto Hanto Earthquake and 86 groups of similar earthquakes in the aftershocks on the source fault of the 2000 Western Tottori Earthquake. Most of them are distributed around or outside the asperity of the main shock. Geodetic studies reported that postseismic deformation was detected for the both earthquakes (Sagiya et al., 2002; Hashimoto et al., 2008). The source area of similar earthquakes seems to correspond to the afterslip area. These features suggest that the similar earthquakes observed here are caused by the stress accumulation due to aseismic slip outside asperity. We consider that a spatial complementary distribution between similar earthquakes in aftershocks and asperity is a characteristic of inland earthquakes. Acknowledgements: We thank the group for the aftershock observations of the 2007 Noto Hanto Earthquake, ERI, Univ. of Tokyo, DPRI, Kyoto Univ., JMA, and NIED for providing the waveform data of aftershocks of the 2007 Noto Hanto Earthquake. We thank the group for the dense aftershock observations of the 2000 Western Tottori Earthquake for providing the waveform data of aftershocks of the 2000 Western Tottori Earthquake. We are grateful to Takashi Iwata, Haruko Sekiguchi, Haruo Horikawa and Manabu Hashimoto for providing their result.

Hayashi, M.; Hiramatsu, Y.; Aftershock Observations Of 2007 Noto Hanto, G.

2010-12-01

390

Use of GIS for Earthquakes in Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present geoprocessing techniques to monitor and analyse earthquakes in Brazil. We constructed a georeferenced database called SIGSIBRA using PostgreSQL + PostGIS softwares, and fed by information from the SISBRA earthquake catalog, IBGE geographical data and CPRM geological data. The SISBRA catalog was built from the book "Sismicidade Brasileira" (Berrocal et al, 1984), updated with the Brazilian seismic bulletins from the Brazilian Geophysical Journal up to 1995, and especially with the data from seismographic monitoring activities of the University of Braslia-SIS/UnB, the Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte-UFRN, the University of Sao Paulo-USP and the Institute for Technological Research (IPT). Earthquakes occur in Brazil with moderate to low magnitudes. Besides natural earthquakes, seismic activity triggered by water dams must also be monitored. With the growing number and size of Brazilian dams (because of the many rivers, favorable topography and "clean" energy) concern with reservoir triggered seismicity is expected to increase. Approval for the construction of a hydropower plant requires seismic hazard assesmment prepared by an interdisciplinary team, with a large contribution of geoprocessing specialists. Therefore, it is important to study the characteristics of this seismicity, so that these professionals can avoid or mitigate potential environmental and social harm to communities on the margins of large dams. Thus the SIGSIBRA system can generate spatial analysis of its events, such as intensity estimation of "Kernel" points distribution; spatial statistics; spatial autocorrelation (Morans I) and correlations with geological structures, making it possible to characterize important aspects of the Brazilian seismicity. Finally, we show the statistical analysis of the database through the program ZMAP and estimate the intraplate seismogenic zones in Brazil.

Franca, G. S.; Algarte, K. T.; Assumpcao, M.; Barbosa, J. R.; Roig, H. L.; Pascual, M. F.; Vasconcelos, A. E.; Ferreira, J. M.; Ribotta, L. C.; do Nascimento, A. F.; Pavao, C. G.

2011-12-01

391

Detection of crustal deformation from the Landers earthquake sequence using continuous geodetic measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first measurements are reported for a major earthquake by a continuously operating GPS network, the permanent GPS Genetic ARRY (PGGA) in southern California. The Landers and Big Bear earthquakes of June 28, 1992 were monitored by daily observations. Ten weeks of measurements indicate significant coseismic motion at all PGGA sites, significant postseismic motion at one site for two weeks

Yehuda Bock; Duncan C. Agnew; Peng Fang; Joachim F. Genrich; Bradford H. Hager; Thomas A. Herring; Robert W. King; Shawn Larsen; J.-B. Minster; Keith Stark; Shimon Wdowinski; Frank K. Wyatt

1993-01-01

392

Note on an Aftershock Study, South Central Illinois Earthquake of November 9, 1968.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In an effort to monitor aftershock activity following the southern Illinois earthquake of November 9, 1968, a network of ten high gain seismic stations was established in the vicinity of the epicenter of the earthquake. The network began recording on the ...

W. Stauder A. M. Pitt

1970-01-01

393

Activity of meropenem as serine carbapenemases evolve in US Medical Centers: monitoring report from the MYSTIC Program (2006)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Meropenem Yearly Susceptibility Test Information Collection (MYSTIC) Surveillance Program was designed to monitor the antimicrobial potency and spectrum of meropenem, and selected broad-spectrum comparison agents against pathogens from hospitalized patients. In the 2006 (year 8 of the study) United States sample, a total of 2841 isolates (94.7% compliance) including 641 Escherichia coli, 619 Klebsiella spp., 606 Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 456

Paul R. Rhomberg; Lalitagauri M. Deshpande; Jeffrey T. Kirby; Ronald N. Jones

2007-01-01

394

AMBIENT AIR MONITORING AT GROUND ZERO AND LOWER MANHATTAN FOLLOWING THE COLLAPSE OF THE WORLD TRADE CENTER  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. EPA National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) collaborated with EPA's Regional offices to establish a monitoring network to characterize ambient air concentrations of particulate matter (PM) and air toxics in lower Manhattan following the collapse of the World Trade...

395

Real-time neural network earthquake profile predictor  

DOEpatents

A neural network has been developed that uses first-arrival energy to predict the characteristics of impending earthquake seismograph signals. The propagation of ground motion energy through the earth is a highly nonlinear function. This is due to different forms of ground motion as well as to changes in the elastic properties of the media throughout the propagation path. The neural network is trained using seismogram data from earthquakes. Presented with a previously unseen earthquake, the neural network produces a profile of the complete earthquake signal using data from the first seconds of the signal. This offers a significant advance in the real-time monitoring, warning, and subsequent hazard minimization of catastrophic ground motion. 17 figs.

Leach, R.R.; Dowla, F.U.

1996-02-06

396

Real-time neural network earthquake profile predictor  

DOEpatents

A neural network has been developed that uses first-arrival energy to predict the characteristics of impending earthquake seismograph signals. The propagation of ground motion energy through the earth is a highly nonlinear function. This is due to different forms of ground motion as well as to changes in the elastic properties of the media throughout the propagation path. The neural network is trained using seismogram data from earthquakes. Presented with a previously unseen earthquake, the neural network produces a profile of the complete earthquake signal using data from the first seconds of the signal. This offers a significant advance in the real-time monitoring, warning, and subsequent hazard minimization of catastrophic ground motion.

Leach, Richard R. (Castro Valley, CA); Dowla, Farid U. (Castro Valley, CA)

1996-01-01

397

Deep infrasound radiated by the Sumatra earthquake and tsunami  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Infrasound arrays in the Pacific and Indian oceans that are part of the International Monitoring System (IMS) of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) recorded distinct signatures associated with the 26 December 2004 Sumatra earthquake (M/9, http://earthquake.usgs.gov/) and tsunami. Although the radiation of infrasound from large continental earthquakes is established [e.g., Le Pichon et al., 2003], the results presented in the present article indicate that islands undergoing significant surface displacements from submarine earthquakes can produce infrasound.Far more intriguing is the possibility that the initiation and propagation of a tsunami may produce low-frequency sound near the source as well as along coastlines and basins. Since distant sound effectively propagates at 300 m/s and tsunamis propagate at 200 m/s, precursory sound could potentially be used as a discriminant for tsunami genesis.

Garcs, M.; Caron, P.; Hetzer, C.; Le Pichon, A.; Bass, H.; Drob, D.; Bhattacharyya, J.

398

Introduction to Earthquake Seismology Methods  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this exercise students will consider various aspects of earthquake seismology methods that include p-wave amplitude, location of an earthquake epicenter, determining the time of occurrence of an earthquake and the relationships between type of plate boundary and earthquake focal depth. Students will be exposed to several types of graphing program and spreadsheets to analyze and illustrate the results. They will also use seismicity maps and the WWW to reinforce the concepts presented both in the lab and in lecture.

Rueger, Bruce

399

Evaluation of the effects of ground shaking and static volumetric strain change on earthquake-related groundwater level changes in Taiwan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Between 2001 and 2005, the Disaster Prevention Research Center of National Cheng-Kung University established a groundwater observation network consisting of 16 wells. Most of these were located along active faults for research on earthquake-related groundwater changes. They were selected mainly from among the 550 groundwater observation wells of the Water Resources Agency (WRA), which monitors and manages groundwater resources in Taiwan. The groundwater level was observed at a resolution of 0.2 mm at the wells. The depths of the well screens ranged between 80 and 252 m. Groundwater level data at six of the 16 wells were analyzed between 2003 and 2006 in an evaluation of such data for use in detecting earthquake-related groundwater level changes. The strain sensitivities of the groundwater level at these six wells ranged between 0.1 and 0.5 mm/10-9, indicating that an analysis of groundwater level data at these six wells can detect volumetric strain changes on the order of 10-9. Coseismic and/or postseismic groundwater level changes associated with 17 earthquakes in and around Taiwan whose magnitudes were ?6 were also analyzed. Our analysis shows that ground shaking seems the main reason for earthquake-related changes but that the acceleration of ground shaking cannot always explain the observed groundwater level changes.

Lai, W.-C.; Hsu, K.-C.; Shieh, C.-L.; Lee, Y.-P.; Chung, K.-C.; Koizumi, N.; Matsumoto, N.

2010-04-01

400

Real-time Tsunami Warning Operations at the NOAA West Coast/Alaska Tsunami Warning Center  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The West Coast/Alaska Tsunami Warning Center (WCATWC) in Palmer, Alaska and the Pacific Tsunami Warning Center (PTWC) in Ewa Beach, Hawaii, provide tsunami warning services for a large portion of the world's coasts. The WCATWC has primary responsibility for providing tsunami detection, warnings, and forecasts to Canada, Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands, and all U.S. States except Hawaii. WCATWC also acts as back-up for the PTWC, requiring the center to constantly monitor global tsunami activities by rapidly detecting and evaluating earthquakes for their tsunamigenic potential. The Centers' goals are to issue initial messages as quickly as possible to alert those near the source to potential danger (assuming there is any), and to follow that with a reasonable forecast of impact level. With these goals in mind, a Watchstander's initial action is based entirely on estimates of tsunami potential from the earthquake's source parameters. The course of action for the first message is determined primarily by the earthquake's magnitude, location, tsunami history, tsunami travel time, estimated threat based on pre-computed models, and pre-set criteria. Supplemental messages, if necessary, are based on wave observations and forecasts generated from hydrodynamic models (which are calibrated with near real-time observations). In April 2006, the WCATWC increased staff level so that the Center can be staffed 24/7 with two watchstanders. Since then, the Center's response time for events within the primary area-of-responsibility has decreased to less than 5 minutes. In order to illustrate the WCATWC's real time tsunami warning operational environment, tsunami warning operation timelines for several tsunamigenic earthquakes - including the September 12 southern Sumatra 8.4 and the January 13 Kuril Island 8.1 earthquakes - are provided. The timelines highlight the key parameters and observations that guide tsunami warning operations chronicling the event through: 1) initial alarm, 2) earthquake analysis, 3) dissemination of information, 4) sea level observation/forecasting model calibration, and 5) supplemental message dissemination. The timelines demonstrate processing and dissemination capabilities.

Whitmore, P.; Huang, P.; Crowley, H.; Ferris, J.; Hale, D.; Knight, W.; Medbery, A.; Nyland, D.; Preller, C.; Turner, B.; Urban, G.

2007-12-01

401

The New Madrid Compendium: A Comprehensive Source of References for the 1811-1812 Earthquakes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"The New Madrid earthquakes of 1811-1812 were one of the most dramatic natural disasters to strike the North American continent." At this website, the Center for Earthquake Research and Information (ERI) supplies numerous archived eyewitness accounts to these earthquakes. Visitors can search through reports about these earthquakes from three databases. Researchers can find countless references of documents and maps. The website lists items still wanted by ERI to complete this project as well. This site is also reviewed in the January 7, 2005_NSDL Physical Sciences Report_.

402

Spatial-temporal structure of the migration of earthquakes and seismic belts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spatial-temporal distribution of earthquakes has been investigated on the assumption that the seismic processes can be divided into a series of migration cycles, in each of which earthquakes arise on a front moving at a constant velocity from certain points on the earth surfaces, i.e., divergence centers of the migration cycle. In the present work, the migration-cycle hypothesis is evaluated by a computer analysis of a data base of 531 earthquakes. It is hypothesized that earthquakes are fed by an energy transported by some wave process, characterized by energy exchange with the surrounding medium.

Andronov, I. V.; Zhadin, V. V.; Potashnikov, I. A.

1989-06-01

403

TEC enhancement immediately before M9 mega-thrust earthquakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earthquakes are often preceded by electromagnetic precursors, e.g. electric currents in the ground and propagation anomalies of radio waves. By monitoring the differences of the L1 and L2 carrier phases from GPS satellites, we can infer ionospheric Total Electron Content (TEC). Here I report that positive anomalies of ionospheric TEC appeared immediately before the 2011 Tohoku-Oki (Mw9.0), 2010 Chile (Maule) (Mw8.8), 2007 Bengkulu (Mw8.6), and 2004 Sumatra-Andaman (Mw9.2) earthquakes. Coseismic vertical movements of the surface excite acoustic and internal gravity waves, causing coseismic ionospheric disturbances (CID), and GPS-TEC data showed that they occurred about ten minutes after these earthquakes. In addition to them, positive TEC anomalies were found to start 60-40 minutes before these earthquakes above the focal regions, and to last until the onsets of CID. In the Tohoku-Oki case, the anomaly was reached about one tenth of the background TEC immediately before the earthquake. TEC enhancements often occur irrespective of earthquakes, for example, sudden increase of TEC due to solar flares and large-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances (LSTID) propagating from the auroral oval to mid-latitude regions. These disturbances can be distinguished by carefully observing their spatial extents and movements. Geomagnetic activities were relatively high in the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman and 2011 Tohoku-Oki events, but were low in the 2007 Bengkulu and 2010 Chile events. For the Tohoku-Oki and the Bengkulu earthquakes, we analyzed the TEC time series of the same satellite and receiver pair over 120 days before and after the earthquakes, and confirmed that the precursory anomalies of the earthquakes were the largest in these periods. We also investigated three M8 class earthquakes, the 1994 Hokkaido-Toho-Oki (Mw8.3), 2006 Kuril (Mw8.2), and the 2003 Tokachi-Oki (Mw8.0) earthquakes. However, only weak precursory TEC anomalies were seen in the 1994 event, and not in the 2003 event. Only M9 class earthquakes are considered to be immediately preceded by such positive TEC anomalies. Because the raw GPS data files are available on the web, one can easily reproduce the results reported here and apply the method to other (including future) earthquakes. The physical mechanism of the preseismic TEC anomalies is not clear, but concentration of positive electric charges on the ground is a possibility.

Heki, Kosuke

2012-07-01

404

Slow earthquakes triggered by typhoons.  

PubMed

The first reports on a slow earthquake were for an event in the Izu peninsula, Japan, on an intraplate, seismically active fault. Since then, many slow earthquakes have been detected. It has been suggested that the slow events may trigger ordinary earthquakes (in a context supported by numerical modelling), but their broader significance in terms of earthquake occurrence remains unclear. Triggering of earthquakes has received much attention: strain diffusion from large regional earthquakes has been shown to influence large earthquake activity, and earthquakes may be triggered during the passage of teleseismic waves, a phenomenon now recognized as being common. Here we show that, in eastern Taiwan, slow earthquakes can be triggered by typhoons. We model the largest of these earthquakes as repeated episodes of slow slip on a reverse fault just under land and dipping to the west; the characteristics of all events are sufficiently similar that they can be modelled with minor variations of the model parameters. Lower pressure results in a very small unclamping of the fault that must be close to the failure condition for the typhoon to act as a trigger. This area experiences very high compressional deformation but has a paucity of large earthquakes; repeating slow events may be segmenting the stressed area and thus inhibiting large earthquakes, which require a long, continuous seismic rupture. PMID:19516339

Liu, ChiChing; Linde, Alan T; Sacks, I Selwyn

2009-06-11

405

Hydrological signatures of earthquake strain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The character of the hydrological changes that follow major earthquakes has been investigated and found to be dependent on the style of faulting. The most significant response is found to accompany major normal fault earthquakes. Increases in spring and river discharges peak a few days after the earthquake, and typically, excesss flow is sustained for a period of 6-12 months.

Robert Muir-Wood; Geoffrey C. P. King

1993-01-01

406

Assessing truck driver exposure at the World Trade Center disaster site: personal and area monitoring for particulate matter and volatile organic compounds during October 2001 and April 2002.  

PubMed

The destruction of the World Trade Center (WTC) in New York City on September 11, 2001, created a 16-acre debris field composed of pulverized and burning material significantly impacting air quality. Site cleanup began almost immediately. Cleanup workers were potentially exposed to airborne contaminants, including particulate matter, volatile organic compounds, and asbestos, at elevated concentrations. This article presents the results of the exposure assessment of one important group of WTC workers, truck drivers, as well as area monitoring that was conducted directly on site during October 2001 and April 2002. In cooperation with a local labor union, 54 drivers (October) and 15 drivers (April) were recruited on site to wear two monitors during their 12-hour work shifts. In addition, drivers were administered a questionnaire asking for information ranging from "first day at the site" to respirator use. Area monitoring was conducted at four perimeter locations during October and three perimeter locations during April. During both months, monitoring was also conducted at one location in the middle of the rubble. Contaminants monitored for included total dust (TD), PM10, PM2.5, and volatile organic compounds. Particle samples were analyzed for mass, as well as elemental and organic carbon content. During October, the median personal exposure to TD was 346 microg/m3. The maximum area concentration, 1742 microg/m3, was found in middle of the debris. The maximum TD concentration found at the perimeter was 392 microg/m3 implying a strong concentration gradient from the middle of debris outward. PM2.5/PM10 ratios ranged from 23% to 100% suggesting significant fire activity during some of the sampled shifts. During April, the median personal exposure to TD was 144 microg/m3, and the highest area concentration, 195 microg/m3, was found at the perimeter. During both months, volatile organic compounds concentrations were low. PMID:15764541

Geyh, Alison S; Chillrud, Steven; Williams, D'Ann L; Herbstman, Julie; Symons, J Morel; Rees, Katherine; Ross, James; Kim, Sung Roul; Lim, Ho-Jin; Turpin, Barbara; Breysse, Patrick

2005-03-01

407

Sand boils without earthquakes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Sedimentary deformation caused by liquefaction has become a popular means for inferring prehistoric strong earthquakes. This report describes a new mechanism for generating such features in the absence of earthquakes. Sand boils and a 180-m-long sand dike formed in Fremont Valley, California, when sediment-laden surface runoff was intercepted along the upslope part of a 500-m-long preexisting ground crack, flowed subhorizonally in the crack, and then flowed upward in the downslope part of the crack where it discharged as sand boils on the land surface. If the sand boils and their feeder dike were stratigraphically preserved, they could be misinterpreted as evidence for earthquake-induced liquefaction. -Authors

Holzer, T. L.; Clark, M. M.

1993-01-01

408

TRENDS IN NUCLEAR EXPLOSION MONITORING  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nuclear explosion monitoring is as important today as it was at the dawn of the atomic age. Over the past several decades the scientific understanding and technological sophistication that underpin monitoring have advanced tremendously. We still face challenges, however, because the United States (U.S.) needs to monitor a growing range of events, from earthquakes to mining explosions that can cause

Dale N. Anderson; Raymond J. Willemann; Harry S. Miley; C. L. Edwards; Preston B. Herrington; J. Mark Harris; Joseph C. Wehlburg; David B. Harris; John J. Zucca; Leslie A. Casey

409

Forecasters of earthquakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the first time Soviet scientists have set up a bioseismological proving ground which will stage a systematic extensive experiment of using birds, ants, mountain rodents including marmots, which can dig holes in the Earth's interior to a depth of 50 meters, for the purpose of earthquake forecasting. Biologists have accumulated extensive experimental data on the impact of various electromagnetic fields, including fields of weak intensity, on living organisms. As far as mammals are concerned, electromagnetic waves with frequencies close to the brain's biorhythms have the strongest effect. How these observations can be used to forecast earthquakes is discussed.

Maximova, Lyudmila

1987-07-01

410

THE GEOLOGIC RISK IN THE LAKE KIVU BASIN AREA PRODUCTED BY EARTHQUAKES. Case of the February 3th 2008 earthquake. By: L.M.Bagalwa(1), F.Lukaya(1), M.Burume(2), J.Moeyerson(3) (1): Goma Volcano Observatory, D.R.Congo (2): Naturals Sciences Research Center  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The eastern Democratic Republic of Congo is prone to earthquakes of magnitude greater than or equal to 4 on the Richter scale. The western edge of Lake Kivu, the most populated part of the region is no exception to the solicitation of these earthquakes. Since 1997, the western basin of Lake Kivu is experiencing intense seismicity, several earthquakes of great intensity, magnitude greater than or equal to 4 develop major destructive phenomena. These include the 1997 earthquake (M = 4.7) 2000 (M = 4.6 and 5.4), 2002 (M = 4.9, 5.2, 6.1 and 24 October 2002 M = 6.2) of February 3rd 2008 (M = 6). Earthquakes of Kalehe on October 24th 2002 and Birava, February 3rd 2008 have resulted deformations of soil, human and material damage. This latest natural disaster ever known in the south-western basin of Lake Kivu has attracted our scientific curiosity we go there to inquire into its causes and consequences in this region. The basin of Lake Kivu is affected by transform faults emerging (MUKONKI & CHOROWICZ, 1980, quoted by K.S.KAVOTHA & ali, 1990) that delimit the Rift were intersecting at the level of Lake Kivu. We Consider the seismicity, volcanism and uplift of the basin of Lake Kivu as a sign of fracturing under way to delimit a plate tectonics formed (Wong and Von Herzen, 1974, quoted by KSKAVOTHA et al, 1990). The physiography of Lake Kivu is dominated by the fault which borders the western shore and one which intersects the island of Idjwi. The telemetry data of Goma Volcano Observatory added to those of the seismographic station of Lwiro have always revealed a pattern of epicenters clearer in Lake Kivu. In correlation with the faults of the region, earthquakes affect mainly the western edge of Lake Kivu and the island of Idjwi with increasing density from north to south (K.S.KAVOTHA et al, 1990). The great earthquake of Lake Kivu basin on February 03rd 2008, of magnitude 6 on the Richter scale occurred at 07 hours 34 minutes 12 seconds GMT, about 20 km north of Bukavu, 80km south-west of Goma, between 02,314S and 028,896E, at a depth of 10km epicentral surface. Three major aftershocks followed to this great earthquake and were recorded at the seismographic station of Lwiro and the Goma Volcano Observatory: 1. The first after shock at 10 hours 56minutes 10seconds AM GMT, of magnitude 5.0, located at 20km depth and oriented on the north-east of Bukavu and 80km depth on the west of Butare in Rwanda between 02.456 S and 029.039 E. 2. The second after shock at 11 hours 07 minutes AM GMT, of magnitude 4.7, located at 25km depth on the north-east of Bukavu and 75 km depth on the south-west of Goma, between 02.307S and 028.997E. 3. The third after shock at 11hours 37minutes 49secondes AM GMT, of magnitude 4.5, located at 40km depth on the west of Butare in Rwanda and 55km depth on the east of Bukavu between 02.525S and 029.363E (Lukaya N'yombo Fr,11 February 2008). Other after shocks not indicated in this text was shacked the western of Lake Kivu basin. This great earthquake and its first two aftershocks were located in the south western of Lake Kivu basin, in Ishungu and Birava region in territory of Kabare. The damage is observed on a radius of approximately 20 km. This earthquake has reactivated the faults along the western shore of the Lake Kivu, but also those of the Fomulac-Kakondo-Ishungu-Birava axis. Those in Bukavu town, the South and North direction have not escaped at this reactivation. The movement of these faults has caused deformations in the surface soil and buildings erected on these flaws have suffered cracks and destruction. We will present damages of this natural risk in our poster presentation.

Bagalwa Rukeza, Montfort

2010-05-01

411

Did the September 2010 (Darfield) earthquake trigger the February 2011 (Christchurch) event?  

PubMed

We have investigated the possible cause-and-effect relationship due to stress transfer between two earthquakes that occurred near Christchurch, New Zealand, in September 2010 and in February 2011. The Mw 7.1 Darfield (Canterbury) event took place along a previously unrecognized fault. The Mw 6.3 Christchurch earthquake, generated by a thrust fault, occurred approximately five months later, 6?km south-east of Christchurch's city center. We have first measured the surface displacement field to retrieve the geometries of the two seismic sources and the slip distribution. In order to assess whether the first earthquake increased the likelihood of occurrence of a second earthquake, we compute the Coulomb Failure Function (CFF). We find that the maximum CFF increase over the second fault plane is reached exactly around the hypocenter of the second earthquake. In this respect, we may conclude that the Darfield earthquake contributed to promote the rupture of the Christchurch fault. PMID:22355616

Stramondo, Salvatore; Kyriakopoulos, Christodoulos; Bignami, Christian; Chini, Marco; Melini, Daniele; Moro, Marco; Picchiani, Matteo; Saroli, Michele; Boschi, Enzo

2011-09-22

412

Earthquake prediction comes of age  

SciTech Connect

In the last decade, scientists have begun to estimate the long-term probability of major earthquakes along the San Andreas fault. In 1985, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) issued the first official U.S. government earthquake prediction, based on research along a heavily instrumented 25-kilometer section of the fault in sparsely populated central California. Known as the Parkfield segment, this section of the Sand Andreas had experienced its last big earthquake, a magnitude 6, in 1966. Estimated probabilities of major quakes along the entire San Andreas by a working group of California earthquake experts, using new geologic data and careful analysis of past earthquakes, are reported.

Lindth, A. (Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (USA). Office of Earthquakes, Volcanoes, and Engineering)

1990-02-01

413

The 2004 Parkfield, CA Earthquake: A Teachable Moment for Exploring Earthquake Processes, Probability, and Earthquake Prediction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The occurrence of the 2004 Parkfield earthquake provided a unique "teachable moment" for students in our science course for teacher education majors. The course uses seismology as a medium for teaching a wide variety of science topics appropriate for future teachers. The 2004 Parkfield earthquake occurred just 15 minutes after our students completed a lab on earthquake processes and earthquake prediction. That lab included a discussion of the Parkfield Earthquake Prediction Experiment as a motivation for the exercises they were working on that day. Furthermore, this earthquake was recorded on an AS1 seismograph right in their lab, just minutes after the students left. About an hour after we recorded the earthquake, the students were able to see their own seismogram of the event in the lecture part of the course, which provided an excellent teachable moment for a lecture/discussion on how the occurrence of the 2004 Parkfield earthquake might affect seismologists' ideas about earthquake prediction. The specific lab exercise that the students were working on just before we recorded this earthquake was a "sliding block" experiment that simulates earthquakes in the classroom. The experimental apparatus includes a flat board on top of which are blocks of wood attached to a bungee cord and a string wrapped around a hand crank. Plate motion is modeled by slowly turning the crank, and earthquakes are modeled as events in which the block slips ("blockquakes"). We scaled the earthquake data and the blockquake data (using how much the string moved as a proxy for time) so that we could compare blockquakes and earthquakes. This provided an opportunity to use interevent-time histograms to teach about earthquake processes, probability, and earthquake prediction, and to compare earthquake sequences with blockquake sequences. We were able to show the students, using data obtained directly from their own lab, how global earthquake data fit a Poisson exponential distribution better than do the blockquake and Parkfield data. This provided opportunities for discussing the difference between Poisson and normal distributions, how those differences affect our estimation of future earthquake probabilities, the importance of both the mean and the standard deviation in predicting future behavior from a sequence of events, and how conditional probability is used to help seismologists predict future earthquakes given a known or theoretical distribution of past earthquakes.

Kafka, A.; Barnett, M.; Ebel, J.; Bellegarde, H.; Campbell, L.

2004-12-01

414

Specific suites of earthquakes occurring at shallow and intermediate depths - a signature of major lithospheric deformation episodes in Vrancea seismic zone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the southeast Carpathians bend, in Vrancea seismic zone, strong and very strong earthquakes (Mw ? 6) frequently occur at intermediate (subcrustal) depths (70-160 km), in a highly confined (30 x 60 km) epicentral area. Investigations addressing regularities in those earthquakes recurrence periods have so far been concerned just with the actual subcrustal seismogenic volume: possibly existing relationships with the shallower (h < 60 km) and less strong (Mw < 5) crustal earthquakes which were recorded in an adjacent, broader area, have not been considered. A Na-K-Mg geothermometer anomaly, which we managed to monitor for more than 1 year prior to the occurrence of a strong intermediate-depth Vrancea earthquake, provided a first suggestion that such a major shock could be somehow related also to smaller magnitude crustal events. The present search for coherence patterns has taken into account main seismic events recorded since 1975 till now in three distinct domains: (i) in the very domain of intermediate-depth seismicity (all the events with Mw ? 6.0); (ii) in a previously outlined crustal lineament of seismic sensitivity, extending between the cities Marasesti and Galati (all the events with Mw ? 3.3); (iii) in another previously outlined crustal lineament of seismic sensitivity, designated as "Vrancioaia region" (events with Mw ? 2.6). The two indicated lineaments of crustal seismicity converge, to delineate an obtuse angle which closely bounds the narrow epicentral domain of the subcrustal earthquakes. Over the indicated time-period, the considered seismic events series developed as a succession of 4 distinct "episodes", each episode displaying a highly similar evolution pattern: it started with one of the main crustal events (2.6?Mw?4.5) recorded in Vrancioaia region; there followed, 9-23 months afterwards, one or two strong (6.0?Mw?7.4), intermediate-depth earthquakes; finally, 5-42 months after the intermediate-depth earthquakes, there was recorded one of the main crustal events (3.3?Mw?4.4) of the Marasesti-Galati lineament. The above-indicated time-lags provided obvious evidence that the considered crustal earthquakes were neither foreshocks, nor aftershocks of the strong intermediate-depth events. Instead, each succession of "Vrancioaia crustal - strong subcrustal - Marasesti-Galati crustal" events appeared to define a major lithospheric deformation episode. In the case of the last recorded episode ("centered" on the strong subcrustal earthquake of 27 October 2004), corroborating evidence that some kind of long-range lithospheric deformation indeed took place has been provided by Na-K-Mg geothermometry anomalies recorded at a deep-origin groundwater discharge (Slanic Moldova): while the corresponding "forerunning" crustal earthquake of Vrancioaia region had occurred on 10 February 2003, the hydrogeochemically anomalous behavior has been continuously manifest from April 2003 until October 2004. The previously-discussed results revealed that some kind of long-range interdependence seemed to exist between various phenomena (subcrustal and crustal seismicity, groundwater chemistry fluctuations) that occurred in a broad region associated to the Vrancea "nest" of strong earthquakes. Integrated monitoring of the indicated phenomena might further provide precursor signatures of impending catastrophic Vrancea earthquakes. At the same time, there can be assessed possible influences that major lithospheric deformation episodes, related to Vrancea zone, might exert on the seismicity of apparently remote areas (that of the major city of Galati, for instance).

Chitea, F.; Mitrofan, H.; Marin, C.; Anghelache, M. A.; Tudorache, A.

2009-04-01

415

2003-2004 Campaign GPS Geodetic Monitoring of Surface Deformation Proximal to Volcanic Centers, Commonwealth of Dominica, Lesser Antilles.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Commonwealth of Dominica, located midway along the Lesser Antilles island arc, is home to several (at least eight) potentially active volcanic centers. Spurred by recent seismic crises on the island - in the south from 1998-2000 and in the north in 2003 - twelve GPS monuments were installed in two field campaigns in 2001 and 2003. All twelve sites, along with five of six newly installed sites, were occupied continuously for ~2.5 or more UTC days in 2004 using Ashtech Z-12 dual-frequency, code-phase receivers and choke ring antenna to assess the highly complex and possibly interconnected volcanic systems of Dominica. We examine data from the 2003-2004 epochs because of the highly variable, shallow seismicity preceding this period. This way one can potentially isolate the changes that occurred without the data from previous observations influencing the results. Although only two epochs have been included, data quality and reliability can be established from sites distant from volcanic centers, as such sites show consistent velocities from all three epochs of observation over the 2001-2004 period. Between 2003 and 2004, multiple sites show velocities that are inconsistent with a simple tectonic interpretation of elastic strain accumulation along the plate interface. Sites located in the vicinity of the volcanic centers in the south central part of the island are moving faster than the 3 epoch 2001-2004 average of the velocities, which is approximately 7mm/year. The four sites at which greater movement has been noted have velocities ranging from approximately 10 to 27 mm/year. We note that the largest surface deformation signal is seen in the south during the same period when the shallow seismicity was at a maximum in the north of the island. While the spatial distribution of sites remains sparse and the velocities relatively imprecise, the preliminary results may indicate shallow magmatic emplacement, geothermal fluctuations, or structural instability in that part of the island.

Davidson, R. T.; Turner, H. L.; Blessing, B. C.; Parra, J.; Fitzgibbon, K.; Jansma, P.; Mattioli, G.

2004-12-01

416

Seafloor earthquake measurement system, SEMS IV  

SciTech Connect

Staff of the Telemetry Technology Development Department (2664) have, in support of the U.S. Interior Department Mineral Management Services (MMS), developed and deployed the Seafloor Earthquake Measurement System IV (SEMS IV). The result of this development project is a series of three fully operational seafloor seismic monitor systems located at offshore platforms: Eureka, Grace, and Irene. The instrument probes are embedded from three to seven feet into the seafloor and hardwired to seismic data recorders installed top side at the offshore platforms. The probes and underwater cables were designed to survive the seafloor environment with an operation life of five years. The units have been operational for two years and have produced recordings of several minor earthquakes in that time. Sandia Labs will transfer operation of SEMS IV to MMS contractors in the coming months. 29 figs., 25 tabs.

Platzbecker, M.R.; Ehasz, J.P.; Franco, R.J.

1997-07-01

417

An information infrastructure for earthquake science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC), in collaboration with the San Diego Supercomputer Center, the USC Information Sciences Institute,IRIS, and the USGS, has received a large five-year grant from the NSF's ITR Program and its Geosciences Directorate to build a new information infrastructure for earthquake science. In many respects, the SCEC/ITR Project presents a microcosm of the IT efforts now being organized across the geoscience community, including the EarthScope initiative. The purpose of this presentation is to discuss the experience gained by the project thus far and lay out the challenges that lie ahead; our hope is to encourage cross-discipline collaboration in future IT advancements. Project goals have been formulated in terms of four "computational pathways" related to seismic hazard analysis (SHA). For example, Pathway 1 involves the construction of an open-source, object-oriented, and web-enabled framework for SHA computations that can incorporate a variety of earthquake forecast models, intensity-measure relationships, and site-response models, while Pathway 2 aims to utilize the predictive power of wavefield simulation in modeling time-dependent ground motion for scenario earthquakes and constructing intensity-measure relationships. The overall goal is to create a SCEC "community modeling environment" or collaboratory that will comprise the curated (on-line, documented, maintained) resources needed by researchers to develop and use these four computational pathways. Current activities include (1) the development and verification of the computational modules, (2) the standardization of data structures and interfaces needed for syntactic interoperability, (3) the development of knowledge representation and management tools, (4) the construction SCEC computational and data grid testbeds, and (5) the creation of user interfaces for knowledge-acquisition, code execution, and visualization. I will emphasize the increasing role of standardized object classes, controlled vocabularies, and ontologies in guiding our code development toward the goal of semantic interoperability.

Jordan, T. H.; Scec/Itr Collaboration

2003-04-01

418

WGCEP Historical California Earthquake Catalog  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This appendix provides an earthquake catalog for California and the surrounding area. Our goal is to provide a listing for all known M > 5.5 earthquakes that occurred from 1850-1932 and all known M > 4.0 earthquakes that occurred from 1932-2006 within the region of 31.0 to 43.0 degrees North and -126.0 to -114.0 degrees West. Some pre-1932 earthquakes 4 5, before the Northern California network was online. Some earthquakes from 1900-1932, and particularly from 1910-1932 are also based on instrumental readings, but the quality of the instrumental record and the resulting analysis are much less precise than for later listings. A partial exception is for some of the largest earthquakes, such as the San Francisco earthquake of April 18, 1906, for which global teleseismic records (Wald et al. 1993) and geodetic measurements (Thatcher et al. 1906) have been used to help determine magnitudes.

Felzer, Karen R.; Cao, Tianqing

2008-01-01

419

Further Application of Magnetotelluric Sounding in the Probe of Earthquake Precursor.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

On the basis of the magnetotelluric sounding (MTS) theoretical analysis and the numerical test of the measured data, some problems on the enhancement of the effect of monitoring earthquake precursors by measurement of deep electrical variations by MTS are...

C. Lin X. Liu Y. Wu

1993-01-01

420

The VAN earthquake predictions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assessment of the proposed VAN method for predicting earthquakes in Greece remains inconclusive. Authors who have attempted to evaluate the method have had to make their own subjective decisions about some features of the hypothesis, and to propose their own algorithms for testing against a null hypothesis. Different treatments of the inhomogeneity in space and time have lead to widely

D. A. Rhoades; F. F. Evison

1996-01-01

421

Fractal dynamics of earthquakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many objects in nature, from mountain landscapes to electrical breakdown and turbulence, have a self-similar fractal spatial structure. It seems obvious that to understand the origin of self-similar structures, one must understand the nature of the dynamical processes that created them: temporal and spatial properties must necessarily be completely interwoven. This is particularly true for earthquakes, which have a variety of fractal aspects. The distribution of energy released during earthquakes is given by the Gutenberg-Richter power law. The distribution of epicenters appears to be fractal with dimension D (approx) 1-1.3. The number of after shocks decay as a function of time according to the Omori power law. There have been several attempts to explain the Gutenberg-Richter law by starting from a fractal distribution of faults or stresses. But this is a hen-and-egg approach: to explain the Gutenberg-Richter law, one assumes the existence of another power-law--the fractal distribution. The authors present results of a simple stick slip model of earthquakes, which evolves to a self-organized critical state. Emphasis is on demonstrating that empirical power laws for earthquakes indicate that the Earth's crust is at the critical state, with no typical time, space, or energy scale. Of course the model is tremendously oversimplified; however in analogy with equilibrium phenomena they do not expect criticality to depend on details of the model (universality).

Bak, P.; Chen, K.

1995-03-01

422

Earthquakes and Geology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students investigate the relationship between intensity of ground motion and type of rock or alluvium, as seen in the 1994 Northridge, California earthquake. They will examine a map of Mercalli intensity, a cross-section showing geologic structures and rock types, and a map of surficial geology, and answer questions pertaining to amplification of ground motion and S-wave velocities.

Ozsvath, David

423

Earthquakes Within Continents  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page offers an model for explaining earthquakes that occur within continents, namely, the New Madrid seismic zone. The model, known as the Booby Trap, is an example of a complex system. A link to a video depicting the model is also provided.

Stein, Seth

424

Earthquakes and Geology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students investigate the relationship between intensity of ground motion and type of rock or alluvium, as seen in the 1994 Northridge, California earthquake. They will examine a map of Mercalli intensity, a cross-section showing geologic structures and rock types, and a map of surficial geology, and answer questions pertaining to amplification of ground motion and S-wave velocities.

Ozsvath, David

2011-09-06

425

Earthquake in North Britain  

Microsoft Academic Search

IT may be of interest to you to note that on Wednesday, February 16, at about 1.35 p.m., a sharp shock of earthquake was felt here. Houses were shaken, dishes rattled and tumbled, and much alarm was created, though no damage was done. At the time mentioned there was a loud report, as if of a heavy shot fired underground:

James M'cubbin

1898-01-01

426

Earthquake Slip Classroom Exercise  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students explore the 'stick-slip' mechanism of earthquake generation. They will learn about the concepts of stick-slip sliding, static friction, energy conversion, and the elastic properties of materials. Students work together to develop and test a hypothesis, make measurements, graph and write a short report on the results.

427

An Earthquake Invention  

Microsoft Academic Search

WHILE on a visit to the Melbourne Observatory I saw NATURE of July 2 containing two letters from Prof. Piazzi Smyth, intended to expose a piratical attempt on the part of a ``B.A. man'' to adopt an idea of Mr. David Stevenson with regard to the construction of houses to withstand earthquake motion. The publication of the first of these

John Milne

1885-01-01

428

Infrasound from earthquakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infrasonic signals have been observed from 31 earthquakes by arrays of microphones operated by the Los Alamos National Laboratory between 1983 and 2003. The properties of the signals are presented. Signal amplitudes corrected for propagation and distance show a relation with seismic magnitude. The variance in the relation is understood primarily in terms of the uncertainties or errors in the

J. Paul Mutschlecner; Rodney W. Whitaker

2005-01-01

429

Earthquakes and Plate Tectonics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article describes the theory of plate tectonics and its relation to earthquakes and seismic zones. Materials include an overview of plate tectonics, a description of Earth's crustal plates and their motions, and descriptions of the four types of seismic zones.

430

Infrasonic observation of earthquakes  

SciTech Connect

Infrasound signals generated by earthquakes have been detected at arrays operated by the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Three modes of propagation are possible and all have been observed by the authors. The observations suggest that regions remote from the epicenters are excited and may serve as secondary source regions. A relation is found between the normalized peak amplitudes and the seismic magnitudes.

Mutschlecner, J.P.; Whitaker, R.W.

1998-12-31

431

Charles Darwin's earthquake reports  

Microsoft Academic Search

As it is the 200th anniversary of Darwin's birth, 2009 has also been marked as 170 years since the publication of his book Journal of Researches. During the voyage Darwin landed at Valdivia and Concepcion, Chile, just before, during, and after a great earthquake, which demolished hundreds of buildings, killing and injuring many people. Land was waved, lifted, and cracked,

Shamil Galiev

2010-01-01

432

Cooperative Monitoring Center Occasional Paper/16: The Potential of Technology for the Control of Small Weapons: Applications in Developing Countries  

SciTech Connect

For improving the control of small arms, technology provides many possibilities. Present and future technical means are described in several areas. With the help of sensors deployed on the ground or on board aircraft, larger areas can be monitored. Using tags, seals, and locks, important objects and installations can be safeguarded better. With modern data processing and communication systems, more information can be available, and it can be more speedily processed. Together with navigation and transport equipment, action can be taken faster and at greater range. Particular considerations are presented for cargo control at roads, seaports, and airports, for monitoring designated lines, and for the control of legal arms. By starting at a modest level, costs can be kept low, which would aid developing countries. From the menu of technologies available, systems need to be designed for the intended application and with an understanding of the local conditions. It is recommended that states start with short-term steps, such as acquiring more and better radio transceivers, vehicles, small aircraft, and personal computers. For the medium term, states should begin with experiments and field testing of technologies such as tags, sensors, and digital communication equipment.

ALTMANN, JURGEN

2000-07-01

433

The impact of earthquakes on Chile's international tourism demand  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the impacts of three earthquakes on international tourist arrivals in Chile. The shocks under analysis occurred on 21 April 2007, 14 November 2007 and 27 February 2010, in the north, south and center of Chile, respectively. The impacts are measured as the difference between the predicted and the effectively observed volume of visitor arrivals after the quakes

Csar Andrs Mendoza; Juan Gabriel Brida; Nicols Garrido